Vaadinin kirja
Vaadin 7 - kolmas laitos
Vaadinin kirja: Vaadin 7 - kolmas laitos
Vaadin Oy
Marko Grönroos
Vaadin 7 - 3. laitos Edition
Vaadin-sovelluskehys 7.2.0
Published: 2016-11-18
Tekijänoikeudet © 2000-2014 Vaadin Oy
Tiivistelmä
Vaadin on palvelinpuolen AJAX-websovelluskehys, joka mahdollistaa korkealaatuisten web-käyttöliittymien
kehittämisen Java-kieltä käyttäen. Se tarjoaa kokoelman valmiita käyttöliittymäkomponentteja ja siistin
kehyksen
omien
komponenttien
rakentamiseen.
Vaadin
keskittyy
helppokäyttöisyyteen,
uudelleenkäytettävyyteen, laajennettavuuteen ja suurten yrityssovellusten vaatimusten täyttämiseen.
Kaikki oikeudet pidätetään.Teos on lisensoitu Creative Commons -lisenssin CC-BY-ND versio 2.0. alaisuudessa.
Sisällys
Johdanto ......................................................................................................................... xv
Part I. Johdanto ............................................................................................................... 21
Chapter 1. Johdanto ..............................................................................................
1.1. Yleistä ......................................................................................................
1.2. Example Application Walkthrough ..............................................................
1.3. Support for the Eclipse IDE .......................................................................
1.4. Goals and Philosophy ...............................................................................
1.5. Background ..............................................................................................
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Chapter 2. Getting Started with Vaadin ..................................................................
2.1. Overview ..................................................................................................
2.2. Setting up the Development Environment ...................................................
2.2.1. Installing Java SDK ........................................................................
2.2.2. Installing Eclipse IDE ......................................................................
2.2.3. Installing Apache Tomcat ................................................................
2.2.4. Firefox and Firebug ........................................................................
2.3. Overview of Vaadin Libraries .....................................................................
2.4. Installing Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse .............................................................
2.4.1. Installing the IvyDE Plugin ..............................................................
2.4.2. Installing the Vaadin Plugin .............................................................
2.4.3. Updating the Plugins ......................................................................
2.4.4. Updating the Vaadin Libraries .........................................................
2.5. Creating and Running a Project with Eclipse ...............................................
2.5.1. Creating the Project .......................................................................
2.5.2. Exploring the Project ......................................................................
2.5.3. Coding Tips for Eclipse ...................................................................
2.5.4. Setting Up and Starting the Web Server ..........................................
2.5.5. Running and Debugging .................................................................
2.6. Using Vaadin with Maven ...........................................................................
2.6.1. Working from Command-Line ..........................................................
2.6.2. Compiling and Running the Application ...........................................
2.6.3. Using Add-ons and Custom Widget Sets .........................................
2.7. Creating a Project with NetBeans IDE ........................................................
2.7.1. Maven Project from a Vaadin Archetype ...........................................
2.8. Creating a Project with IntelliJ IDEA ...........................................................
2.8.1. Configuring an Application Server ...................................................
2.8.2. Creating a Vaadin Web Application Project .......................................
2.8.3. Creating a Maven Project ...............................................................
2.9. Vaadin Installation Package .......................................................................
2.9.1. Package Contents ..........................................................................
2.9.2. Installing the Libraries ....................................................................
2.10. Using Vaadin with Scala ..........................................................................
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Chapter 3. Architecture .........................................................................................
3.1. Overview ..................................................................................................
3.2. Technological Background .........................................................................
3.2.1. HTML and JavaScript .....................................................................
3.2.2. Styling with CSS and Sass .............................................................
3.2.3. AJAX .............................................................................................
3.2.4. Google Web Toolkit ........................................................................
3.2.5. Java Servlets .................................................................................
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3.3. Client-Side Engine .................................................................................... 68
3.4. Events and Listeners ................................................................................. 69
Part II. Server-Side Framework ........................................................................................ 71
Chapter 4. Writing a Server-Side Web Application ................................................. 73
4.1. Overview .................................................................................................. 73
4.2. Building the UI .......................................................................................... 76
4.2.1. Application Architecture .................................................................. 77
4.2.2. Compositing Components ............................................................... 78
4.2.3. View Navigation ............................................................................. 79
4.2.4. Accessing UI, Page, Session, and Service ....................................... 79
4.3. Handling Events with Listeners .................................................................. 80
4.3.1. Implementing a Listener in a Regular Class ..................................... 80
4.3.2. Differentiating Between Event Sources ............................................ 80
4.3.3. The Easy Way: Using Anonymous Classes ...................................... 81
4.4. Images and Other Resources .................................................................... 82
4.4.1. Resource Interfaces and Classes .................................................... 82
4.4.2. File Resources ............................................................................... 82
4.4.3. Class Loader Resources ................................................................ 83
4.4.4. Theme Resources .......................................................................... 83
4.4.5. Stream Resources ......................................................................... 84
4.5. Handling Errors ......................................................................................... 86
4.5.1. Error Indicator and Message ........................................................... 86
4.5.2. Customizing System Messages ...................................................... 86
4.5.3. Handling Uncaught Exceptions ...................................................... 87
4.6. Notifications .............................................................................................. 88
4.6.1. Notification Type ............................................................................. 89
4.6.2. Customizing Notifications ............................................................... 90
4.6.3. Styling with CSS ............................................................................ 90
4.7. Application Lifecycle .................................................................................. 91
4.7.1. Deployment ................................................................................... 91
4.7.2. Vaadin Servlet, Portlet, and Service ................................................ 92
4.7.3. User Session ................................................................................. 93
4.7.4. Loading a UI .................................................................................. 94
4.7.5. UI Expiration .................................................................................. 95
4.7.6. Session Expiration ......................................................................... 95
4.7.7. Closing a Session .......................................................................... 95
4.8. Deploying an Application ........................................................................... 96
4.8.1. Creating Deployable WAR in Eclipse ............................................... 96
4.8.2. Web Application Contents ............................................................... 96
4.8.3. Web Servlet Class .......................................................................... 97
4.8.4. Using a web.xml Deployment Descriptor ........................................ 97
4.8.5. Servlet Mapping with URL Patterns ................................................. 99
4.8.6. Other Servlet Configuration Parameters ......................................... 100
4.8.7. Deployment Configuration ............................................................. 102
Chapter 5. User Interface Components ...............................................................
5.1. Overview ................................................................................................
5.2. Interfaces and Abstractions ......................................................................
5.2.1. Component Interface ...................................................................
5.2.2. AbstractComponent ...................................................................
5.3. Common Component Features ................................................................
5.3.1. Caption ........................................................................................
5.3.2. Description and Tooltips ................................................................
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5.3.3. Enabled .......................................................................................
5.3.4. Icon .............................................................................................
5.3.5. Locale .........................................................................................
5.3.6. Read-Only ...................................................................................
5.3.7. Style Name ..................................................................................
5.3.8. Visible .........................................................................................
5.3.9. Sizing Components ......................................................................
5.3.10. Managing Input Focus ................................................................
5.4. Field Components ...................................................................................
5.4.1. Field Interface .............................................................................
5.4.2. Data Binding and Conversions ......................................................
5.4.3. Handling Field Value Changes ......................................................
5.4.4. Field Buffering ..............................................................................
5.4.5. Field Validation .............................................................................
5.5. Component Extensions ...........................................................................
5.6. Label .....................................................................................................
5.6.1. Content Mode ..............................................................................
5.6.2. Spacing with a Label ....................................................................
5.6.3. CSS Style Rules ..........................................................................
5.7. Link .......................................................................................................
5.8. TextField ...............................................................................................
5.8.1. Data Binding ................................................................................
5.8.2. String Length ...............................................................................
5.8.3. Handling Null Values ....................................................................
5.8.4. Text Change Events ......................................................................
5.8.5. CSS Style Rules ..........................................................................
5.9. TextArea ................................................................................................
5.10. PasswordField .....................................................................................
5.11. RichTextArea .......................................................................................
5.12. Date and Time Input with DateField .......................................................
5.12.1. PopupDateField ........................................................................
5.12.2. InlineDateField .........................................................................
5.12.3. Time Resolution .........................................................................
5.12.4. DateField Locale ........................................................................
5.13. Button .................................................................................................
5.14. CheckBox ............................................................................................
5.15. Selection Components ..........................................................................
5.15.1. Binding Selection Components to Data ........................................
5.15.2. ComboBox ...............................................................................
5.15.3. ListSelect .................................................................................
5.15.4. Native Selection Component NativeSelect ..................................
5.15.5. Radio Button and Check Box Groups with OptionGroup ..............
5.15.6. Twin Column Selection with TwinColSelect .................................
5.15.7. Allowing Adding New Items .........................................................
5.15.8. Multiple Selection .......................................................................
5.15.9. Other Common Features ............................................................
5.16. Table ....................................................................................................
5.16.1. Selecting Items in a Table ...........................................................
5.16.2. Table Features ...........................................................................
5.16.3. Editing the Values in a Table ........................................................
5.16.4. Column Headers and Footers ......................................................
5.16.5. Generated Table Columns ...........................................................
5.16.6. Formatting Table Columns ...........................................................
5.16.7. CSS Style Rules .........................................................................
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5.17. Tree ..................................................................................................... 176
5.18. MenuBar .............................................................................................. 177
5.19. Embedded Resources ........................................................................... 180
5.19.1. Embedded Image ...................................................................... 181
5.19.2. Adobe Flash Graphics ................................................................ 182
5.19.3. BrowserFrame .......................................................................... 182
5.19.4. Generic Embedded Objects ....................................................... 182
5.20. Upload ................................................................................................. 183
5.21. ProgressBar ........................................................................................ 185
5.22. Slider ................................................................................................... 188
5.23. Calendar .............................................................................................. 190
5.23.1. Date Range and View Mode ........................................................ 191
5.23.2. Calendar Events ......................................................................... 191
5.23.3. Getting Events from a Container .................................................. 193
5.23.4. Implementing an Event Provider .................................................. 195
5.23.5. Styling a Calendar ...................................................................... 198
5.23.6. Visible Hours and Days ............................................................... 199
5.23.7. Drag and Drop ........................................................................... 199
5.23.8. Using the Context Menu .............................................................. 201
5.23.9. Localization and Formatting ........................................................ 201
5.23.10. Customizing the Calendar ......................................................... 202
5.23.11. Backward and Forward Navigation ............................................. 203
5.23.12. Date Click Handling .................................................................. 203
5.23.13. Handling Week Clicks ............................................................... 204
5.23.14. Handling Event Clicks ............................................................... 204
5.23.15. Event Dragging ........................................................................ 204
5.23.16. Handling Drag Selection ........................................................... 205
5.23.17. Resizing Events ........................................................................ 206
5.24. Component Composition with CustomComponent ................................. 207
5.25. Composite Fields with CustomField ...................................................... 208
Chapter 6. Managing Layout ................................................................................ 209
6.1. Overview ................................................................................................ 210
6.2. UI, Window, and Panel Content ................................................................ 212
6.3. VerticalLayout and HorizontalLayout ..................................................... 212
6.3.1. Spacing in Ordered Layouts .......................................................... 213
6.3.2. Sizing Contained Components ...................................................... 214
6.4. GridLayout ............................................................................................ 217
6.4.1. Sizing Grid Cells .......................................................................... 219
6.5. FormLayout ........................................................................................... 221
6.6. Panel ..................................................................................................... 223
6.6.1. Scrolling the Panel Content ........................................................... 223
6.7. Sub-Windows ......................................................................................... 225
6.7.1. Opening and Closing Sub-Windows .............................................. 225
6.7.2. Window Positioning ...................................................................... 227
6.7.3. Scrolling Sub-Window Content ...................................................... 227
6.7.4. Modal Sub-Windows ..................................................................... 227
6.8. HorizontalSplitPanel and VerticalSplitPanel .......................................... 228
6.9. TabSheet ............................................................................................... 230
6.9.1. Adding Tabs ................................................................................. 231
6.9.2. Tab Objects .................................................................................. 231
6.9.3. Tab Change Events ...................................................................... 232
6.9.4. Enabling and Handling Closing Tabs .............................................. 233
6.10. Accordion ............................................................................................ 234
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6.11. AbsoluteLayout ...................................................................................
6.12. CssLayout ...........................................................................................
6.12.1. CSS Injection .............................................................................
6.12.2. Browser Compatibility .................................................................
6.13. Layout Formatting .................................................................................
6.13.1. Layout Size ................................................................................
6.13.2. Expanding Components ..............................................................
6.13.3. Layout Cell Alignment .................................................................
6.13.4. Layout Cell Spacing ....................................................................
6.13.5. Layout Margins ...........................................................................
6.14. Custom Layouts ....................................................................................
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Chapter 7. Visual User Interface Design with Eclipse ..........................................
7.1. Overview ................................................................................................
7.2. Creating a New Composite ......................................................................
7.3. Using The Visual Editor ...........................................................................
7.3.1. Adding New Components .............................................................
7.3.2. Setting Component Properties ......................................................
7.3.3. Editing an AbsoluteLayout ..........................................................
7.4. Structure of a Visually Editable Component ..............................................
7.4.1. Sub-Component References .........................................................
7.4.2. Sub-Component Builders ..............................................................
7.4.3. The Constructor ...........................................................................
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Chapter 8. Themes ...............................................................................................
8.1. Overview ................................................................................................
8.2. Introduction to Cascading Style Sheets ....................................................
8.2.1. Applying CSS to HTML .................................................................
8.2.2. Basic CSS Rules ..........................................................................
8.2.3. Matching by Element Class ...........................................................
8.2.4. Matching by Descendant Relationship ...........................................
8.2.5. Importance of Cascading ..............................................................
8.2.6. Style Class Hierarchy of a Vaadin UI ..............................................
8.2.7. Notes on Compatibility ..................................................................
8.3. Syntactically Awesome Stylesheets (Sass) ...............................................
8.3.1. Sass Overview .............................................................................
8.3.2. Sass Basics with Vaadin ...............................................................
8.3.3. Compiling Sass Themes ...............................................................
8.4. Creating and Using Themes ....................................................................
8.4.1. Sass Themes ...............................................................................
8.4.2. Plain Old CSS Themes .................................................................
8.4.3. Styling Standard Components .......................................................
8.4.4. Built-in Themes ............................................................................
8.4.5. Add-on Themes ...........................................................................
8.5. Creating a Theme in Eclipse ....................................................................
8.6. Valo Theme ............................................................................................
8.6.1. Basic Use ....................................................................................
8.6.2. Common Settings .........................................................................
8.6.3. Valo Fonts ....................................................................................
8.6.4. Component Styles ........................................................................
8.6.5. Theme Optimization .....................................................................
8.7. Custom Fonts .........................................................................................
8.7.1. Loading Fonts ..............................................................................
8.7.2. Using Custom Fonts .....................................................................
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8.8. Responsive Themes ................................................................................ 285
Chapter 9. Binding Components to Data .............................................................
9.1. Overview ................................................................................................
9.2. Properties ..............................................................................................
9.2.1. Property Viewers and Editors ........................................................
9.2.2. ObjectProperty Implementation ...................................................
9.2.3. Converting Between Property Type and Representation ..................
9.2.4. Implementing the Property Interface .............................................
9.3. Holding properties in Items ......................................................................
9.3.1. The PropertysetItem Implementation ...........................................
9.3.2. Wrapping a Bean in a BeanItem ...................................................
9.4. Creating Forms by Binding Fields to Items ................................................
9.4.1. Simple Binding .............................................................................
9.4.2. Using a FieldFactory to Build and Bind Fields ...........................
9.4.3. Binding Member Fields .................................................................
9.4.4. Buffering Forms ...........................................................................
9.4.5. Binding Fields to a Bean ...............................................................
9.4.6. Bean Validation ............................................................................
9.5. Collecting Items in Containers ..................................................................
9.5.1. Basic Use of Containers ...............................................................
9.5.2. Container Subinterfaces ...............................................................
9.5.3. IndexedContainer .......................................................................
9.5.4. BeanContainer ...........................................................................
9.5.5. BeanItemContainer ....................................................................
9.5.6. Iterating Over a Container .............................................................
9.5.7. Filterable Containers ...................................................................
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Chapter 10. Vaadin SQLContainer .......................................................................
10.1. Architecture ..........................................................................................
10.2. Getting Started with SQLContainer ........................................................
10.2.1. Creating a connection pool ..........................................................
10.2.2. Creating the TableQuery Query Delegate ....................................
10.2.3. Creating the Container ................................................................
10.3. Filtering and Sorting ..............................................................................
10.3.1. Filtering .....................................................................................
10.3.2. Sorting ......................................................................................
10.4. Editing ..................................................................................................
10.4.1. Adding items ..............................................................................
10.4.2. Fetching generated row keys .......................................................
10.4.3. Version column requirement ........................................................
10.4.4. Auto-commit mode .....................................................................
10.4.5. Modified state ............................................................................
10.5. Caching, Paging and Refreshing ............................................................
10.5.1. Container Size ...........................................................................
10.5.2. Page Length and Cache Size ......................................................
10.5.3. Refreshing the Container ............................................................
10.5.4. Cache Flush Notification Mechanism ...........................................
10.6. Referencing Another SQLContainer ......................................................
10.7. Using FreeformQuery and FreeformStatementDelegate .......................
10.8. Non-implemented methods of Vaadin container interfaces .......................
10.9. Known Issues and Limitations ................................................................
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Chapter 11. Advanced Web Application Topics .................................................... 329
11.1. Handling Browser Windows ................................................................... 330
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11.1.1. Opening Popup Windows ............................................................
11.2. Embedding UIs in Web Pages ................................................................
11.2.1. Embedding Inside a div Element ................................................
11.2.2. Embedding Inside an iframe Element ........................................
11.2.3. Cross-Site Embedding with the Vaadin XS Add-on .......................
11.3. Debug Mode and Window ......................................................................
11.3.1. Enabling the Debug Mode ...........................................................
11.3.2. Opening the Debug Window ........................................................
11.3.3. Debug Message Log ..................................................................
11.3.4. General Information ....................................................................
11.3.5. Inspecting Component Hierarchy .................................................
11.3.6. Communication Log ....................................................................
11.3.7. Debug Modes ............................................................................
11.4. Request Handlers .................................................................................
11.5. Shortcut Keys .......................................................................................
11.5.1. Shortcut Keys for Default Buttons ................................................
11.5.2. Field Focus Shortcuts .................................................................
11.5.3. Generic Shortcut Actions ............................................................
11.5.4. Supported Key Codes and Modifier Keys .....................................
11.6. Printing .................................................................................................
11.6.1. Printing the Browser Window .......................................................
11.6.2. Opening a Print Window .............................................................
11.6.3. Printing PDF ..............................................................................
11.7. Google App Engine Integration ..............................................................
11.8. Common Security Issues .......................................................................
11.8.1. Sanitizing User Input to Prevent Cross-Site Scripting ....................
11.9. Navigating in an Application ...................................................................
11.9.1. Setting Up for Navigation ............................................................
11.9.2. Implementing a View ..................................................................
11.9.3. Handling URI Fragment Path .......................................................
11.10. Advanced Application Architectures ......................................................
11.10.1. Layered Architectures ...............................................................
11.10.2. Model-View-Presenter Pattern ...................................................
11.11. Managing URI Fragments ....................................................................
11.11.1. Setting the URI Fragment ..........................................................
11.11.2. Reading the URI Fragment ........................................................
11.11.3. Listening for URI Fragment Changes .........................................
11.11.4. Supporting Web Crawling ..........................................................
11.12. Drag and Drop ....................................................................................
11.12.1. Handling Drops ........................................................................
11.12.2. Dropping Items On a Tree .........................................................
11.12.3. Dropping Items On a Table .......................................................
11.12.4. Accepting Drops .......................................................................
11.12.5. Dragging Components ..............................................................
11.12.6. Dropping on a Component ........................................................
11.12.7. Dragging Files from Outside the Browser ...................................
11.13. Logging ..............................................................................................
11.14. JavaScript Interaction ..........................................................................
11.14.1. Calling JavaScript .....................................................................
11.14.2. Handling JavaScript Function Callbacks .....................................
11.15. Accessing Session-Global Data ...........................................................
11.15.1. Passing References Around ......................................................
11.15.2. Overriding attach() ...............................................................
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11.15.3. ThreadLocal Pattern .................................................................
11.16. Server Push ........................................................................................
11.16.1. Installing the Push Support .......................................................
11.16.2. Enabling Push for a UI ..............................................................
11.16.3. Accessing UI from Another Thread ............................................
11.16.4. Broadcasting to Other Users .....................................................
11.17. Font Icons ...........................................................................................
11.17.1. Loading Icon Fonts ...................................................................
11.17.2. Basic Use ................................................................................
11.17.3. Using Font icons in HTML .........................................................
11.17.4. Using Font Icons in Other Text ...................................................
11.17.5. Custom Font Icons ...................................................................
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Chapter 12. Portal Integration ..............................................................................
12.1. Overview ..............................................................................................
12.2. Creating a Portlet Project in Eclipse ........................................................
12.3. Portlet UI ..............................................................................................
12.4. Deploying to a Portal .............................................................................
12.4.1. Portlet Deployment Descriptor .....................................................
12.4.2. Liferay Portlet Descriptor .............................................................
12.4.3. Liferay Display Descriptor ...........................................................
12.4.4. Liferay Plugin Package Properties ...............................................
12.4.5. Using a Single Widget Set ...........................................................
12.4.6. Building the WAR Package ..........................................................
12.4.7. Deploying the WAR Package .......................................................
12.5. Installing Vaadin in Liferay ......................................................................
12.5.1. Removing the Bundled Installation ...............................................
12.5.2. Installing Vaadin .........................................................................
12.6. Handling Portlet Requests .....................................................................
12.7. Handling Portlet Mode Changes .............................................................
12.8. Non-Vaadin Portlet Modes .....................................................................
12.9. Vaadin IPC for Liferay ............................................................................
12.9.1. Installing the Add-on ...................................................................
12.9.2. Basic Communication .................................................................
12.9.3. Considerations ...........................................................................
12.9.4. Communication Through Session Attributes .................................
12.9.5. Serializing and Encoding Data ....................................................
12.9.6. Communicating with Non-Vaadin Portlets .....................................
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Part III. Asiakaspuolen sovelluskehys .............................................................................. 415
Chapter 13. Client-Side Vaadin Development ....................................................... 417
13.1. Overview .............................................................................................. 417
13.2. Installing the Client-Side Development Environment ................................ 418
13.3. Client-Side Module Descriptor ................................................................ 418
13.3.1. Specifying a Stylesheet ............................................................... 419
13.3.2. Limiting Compilation Targets ........................................................ 419
13.4. Compiling a Client-Side Module ............................................................. 419
13.4.1. Vaadin Compiler Overview .......................................................... 419
13.4.2. Compiling in Eclipse ................................................................... 420
13.4.3. Compiling with Ant ...................................................................... 420
13.4.4. Compiling with Maven ................................................................. 420
13.5. Creating a Custom Widget ..................................................................... 420
13.5.1. A Basic Widget ........................................................................... 420
13.5.2. Using the Widget ........................................................................ 421
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13.6. Debugging Client-Side Code .................................................................. 422
13.6.1. Launching Development Mode .................................................... 422
13.6.2. Launching SuperDevMode .......................................................... 422
Chapter 14. Client-Side Applications ...................................................................
14.1. Overview ..............................................................................................
14.2. Client-Side Module Entry-Point ..............................................................
14.2.1. Module Descriptor ......................................................................
14.3. Compiling and Running a Client-Side Application ....................................
14.4. Loading a Client-Side Application ...........................................................
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Chapter 15. Client-Side Widgets ..........................................................................
15.1. Overview ..............................................................................................
15.2. GWT Widgets .......................................................................................
15.3. Vaadin Widgets .....................................................................................
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Chapter 16. Integrating with the Server-Side .......................................................
16.1. Overview ..............................................................................................
16.2. Starting It Simple With Eclipse ...............................................................
16.2.1. Creating a Widget .......................................................................
16.2.2. Compiling the Widget Set ............................................................
16.3. Creating a Server-Side Component ........................................................
16.3.1. Basic Server-Side Component ....................................................
16.4. Integrating the Two Sides with a Connector .............................................
16.4.1. A Basic Connector ......................................................................
16.4.2. Communication with the Server-Side ...........................................
16.5. Shared State ........................................................................................
16.5.1. Accessing Shared State on Server-Side ......................................
16.5.2. Handing Shared State in a Connector ..........................................
16.5.3. Handling Property State Changes with @OnStateChange ...........
16.5.4. Delegating State Properties to Widget .........................................
16.5.5. Referring to Components in Shared State ....................................
16.5.6. Sharing Resources .....................................................................
16.6. RPC Calls Between Client- and Server-Side ...........................................
16.6.1. RPC Calls to the Server-Side ......................................................
16.7. Component and UI Extensions ...............................................................
16.7.1. Server-Side Extension API ..........................................................
16.7.2. Extension Connectors .................................................................
16.8. Styling a Widget ....................................................................................
16.8.1. Determining the CSS Class .........................................................
16.8.2. Default Stylesheet ......................................................................
16.9. Component Containers ..........................................................................
16.10. Advanced Client-Side Topics ................................................................
16.10.1. Client-Side Processing Phases ..................................................
16.11. Creating Add-ons ................................................................................
16.11.1. Exporting Add-on in Eclipse ......................................................
16.11.2. Building Add-on with Ant ...........................................................
16.12. Migrating from Vaadin 6 .......................................................................
16.12.1. Quick (and Dirty) Migration ........................................................
16.13. Integrating JavaScript Components and Extensions ...............................
16.13.1. Example JavaScript Library .......................................................
16.13.2. A Server-Side API for a JavaScript Component ..........................
16.13.3. Defining a JavaScript Connector ................................................
16.13.4. RPC from JavaScript to Server-Side ..........................................
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Part IV. Vaadin Add-ons ................................................................................................. 463
x
Chapter 17. Using Vaadin Add-ons ......................................................................
17.1. Overview ..............................................................................................
17.2. Downloading Add-ons from Vaadin Directory ...........................................
17.2.1. Compiling Widget Sets with an Ant Script .....................................
17.3. Installing Add-ons in Eclipse with Ivy ......................................................
17.4. Using Add-ons in a Maven Project ..........................................................
17.4.1. Adding a Dependency ................................................................
17.4.2. Compiling the Project Widget Set ................................................
17.4.3. Enabling Widget Set Compilation .................................................
17.5. Troubleshooting .....................................................................................
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Chapter 18. Vaadin Charts ...................................................................................
18.1. Overview ..............................................................................................
18.2. Installing Vaadin Charts .........................................................................
18.3. Basic Use .............................................................................................
18.3.1. Displaying Multiple Series ...........................................................
18.3.2. Mixed Type Charts ......................................................................
18.3.3. Chart Themes ............................................................................
18.4. Chart Types ..........................................................................................
18.4.1. Line and Spline Charts ...............................................................
18.4.2. Area Charts ...............................................................................
18.4.3. Column and Bar Charts ..............................................................
18.4.4. Error Bars ..................................................................................
18.4.5. Box Plot Charts ..........................................................................
18.4.6. Scatter Charts ............................................................................
18.4.7. Bubble Charts ............................................................................
18.4.8. Pie Charts .................................................................................
18.4.9. Gauges .....................................................................................
18.4.10. Area and Column Range Charts ................................................
18.4.11. Polar, Wind Rose, and Spiderweb Charts ...................................
18.4.12. Funnel Charts ..........................................................................
18.4.13. Waterfall Charts ........................................................................
18.5. Chart Configuration ...............................................................................
18.5.1. Plot Options ...............................................................................
18.5.2. Axes ..........................................................................................
18.5.3. Legend ......................................................................................
18.6. Chart Data ............................................................................................
18.6.1. List Series ..................................................................................
18.6.2. Generic Data Series ...................................................................
18.6.3. Range Series .............................................................................
18.6.4. Container Data Series ................................................................
18.7. Advanced Uses .....................................................................................
18.7.1. Server-Side Rendering and Exporting ..........................................
18.8. Timeline ................................................................................................
18.8.1. Graph types ...............................................................................
18.8.2. Interaction Elements ...................................................................
18.8.3. Event Markers ............................................................................
18.8.4. Efficiency ...................................................................................
18.8.5. Data Source Requirements .........................................................
18.8.6. Events and Listeners ..................................................................
18.8.7. Configurability ............................................................................
18.8.8. Localization ................................................................................
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Vaadinin kirja
18.8.9. Timeline Tutorial ......................................................................... 511
Chapter 19. Vaadin JPAContainer ........................................................................
19.1. Overview ..............................................................................................
19.2. Installing ...............................................................................................
19.2.1. Downloading the Package ...........................................................
19.2.2. Installation Package Content .......................................................
19.2.3. Downloading with Maven ............................................................
19.2.4. Including Libraries in Your Project ................................................
19.2.5. Persistence Configuration ...........................................................
19.2.6. Troubleshooting ..........................................................................
19.3. Defining a Domain Model .......................................................................
19.3.1. Persistence Metadata .................................................................
19.4. Basic Use of JPAContainer ....................................................................
19.4.1. Creating JPAContainer with JPAContainerFactory .....................
19.4.2. Creating and Accessing Entities ..................................................
19.4.3. Nested Properties ......................................................................
19.4.4. Hierarchical Container ................................................................
19.5. Entity Providers .....................................................................................
19.5.1. Built-In Entity Providers ...............................................................
19.5.2. Using JNDI Entity Providers in JEE6 Environment ........................
19.5.3. Entity Providers as Enterprise Beans ...........................................
19.6. Filtering JPAContainer ..........................................................................
19.7. Querying with the Criteria API ................................................................
19.7.1. Filtering the Query ......................................................................
19.7.2. Compatibility ..............................................................................
19.8. Automatic Form Generation ...................................................................
19.8.1. Configuring the Field Factory ......................................................
19.8.2. Using the Field Factory ...............................................................
19.8.3. Master-Detail Editor ....................................................................
19.9. Using JPAContainer with Hibernate ........................................................
19.9.1. Lazy loading ..............................................................................
19.9.2. The EntityManager-Per-Request pattern ......................................
19.9.3. Joins in Hibernate vs EclipseLink ................................................
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Chapter 20. Mobile Applications with TouchKit ...................................................
20.1. Overview ..............................................................................................
20.2. Considerations Regarding Mobile Browsing ............................................
20.2.1. Mobile Human Interface ..............................................................
20.2.2. Bandwidth and Performance .......................................................
20.2.3. Mobile Features .........................................................................
20.2.4. Compatibility ..............................................................................
20.3. Installing Vaadin TouchKit ......................................................................
20.3.1. Installing as Ivy Dependency .......................................................
20.3.2. Installing the Zip Package ...........................................................
20.3.3. Defining the Maven Dependency .................................................
20.4. Importing the Vornitologist Demo ............................................................
20.5. Creating a New TouchKit Project ............................................................
20.5.1. Using the Maven Archetype ........................................................
20.5.2. Starting from a New Eclipse Project .............................................
20.6. Elements of a TouchKit Application .........................................................
20.6.1. The Servlet Class .......................................................................
20.6.2. Defining Servlet and UI with web.xml Deployment Descriptor ......
20.6.3. TouchKit Settings ........................................................................
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20.6.4. The UI ....................................................................................... 555
20.6.5. Mobile Widget Set ...................................................................... 556
20.6.6. Mobile Theme ............................................................................ 556
20.7. Mobile User Interface Components ......................................................... 558
20.7.1. NavigationView ......................................................................... 559
20.7.2. Toolbar ..................................................................................... 560
20.7.3. NavigationManager .................................................................. 560
20.7.4. NavigationButton ..................................................................... 562
20.7.5. Popover .................................................................................... 564
20.7.6. SwipeView ................................................................................ 567
20.7.7. Switch ...................................................................................... 568
20.7.8. VerticalComponentGroup ......................................................... 569
20.7.9. HorizontalButtonGroup ............................................................ 570
20.7.10. TabBarView ............................................................................. 571
20.7.11. EmailField ............................................................................... 572
20.7.12. NumberField ........................................................................... 572
20.7.13. UrlField ................................................................................... 573
20.8. Advanced Mobile Features .................................................................... 573
20.8.1. Providing a Fallback UI ............................................................... 573
20.8.2. Geolocation ............................................................................... 574
20.8.3. Storing Data in the Local Storage ................................................ 576
20.8.4. Uploading Content ...................................................................... 577
20.9. Offline Mode ......................................................................................... 580
20.9.1. Enabling the Cache Manifest ....................................................... 581
20.9.2. Enabling Offline Mode ................................................................ 581
20.9.3. The Offline User Interface ........................................................... 581
20.9.4. Sending Data to Server ............................................................... 581
20.9.5. The Offline Theme ...................................................................... 582
20.10. Building an Optimized Widget Set ......................................................... 582
20.10.1. Generating the Widget Map ....................................................... 582
20.10.2. Defining the Widget Loading Style ............................................. 583
20.10.3. Applying the Custom Widget Map Generator .............................. 583
20.10.4. Deployment .............................................................................. 584
20.11. Testing and Debugging on Mobile Devices ............................................ 584
20.11.1. Debugging ............................................................................... 584
Chapter 21. Vaadin TestBench ............................................................................. 585
21.1. Overview .............................................................................................. 585
21.2. Installing Vaadin TestBench .................................................................... 588
21.2.1. Test Development Setup ............................................................. 588
21.2.2. A Distributed Testing Environment ............................................... 589
21.2.3. Installation Package Contents ..................................................... 590
21.2.4. Example Contents ...................................................................... 591
21.2.5. Installing Browser Drivers ........................................................... 592
21.2.6. Test Node Configuration .............................................................. 592
21.3. Preparing an Application for Testing ........................................................ 593
21.4. Developing JUnit Tests .......................................................................... 594
21.4.1. Basic Test Case Structure ........................................................... 594
21.4.2. Running JUnit Tests in Eclipse ..................................................... 596
21.5. Creating a Test Case ............................................................................. 597
21.5.1. Test Setup .................................................................................. 597
21.5.2. Basic Test Case Structure ........................................................... 598
21.5.3. Creating and Closing a Web Driver .............................................. 599
21.6. Querying Elements ................................................................................ 600
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Vaadinin kirja
21.6.1. Generating Queries with Debug Window ......................................
21.6.2. Querying Elements by Component Type ($) .................................
21.6.3. Non-Recursive Component Queries ($$) .....................................
21.6.4. Element Classes ........................................................................
21.6.5. ElementQuery Objects ..............................................................
21.6.6. Query Terminators ......................................................................
21.7. Element Selectors .................................................................................
21.7.1. Selector Robustness ..................................................................
21.7.2. Finding by ID ..............................................................................
21.7.3. Finding by Vaadin Selector ..........................................................
21.7.4. Finding by CSS Class .................................................................
21.8. Special Test Features ............................................................................
21.8.1. Waiting for Vaadin .......................................................................
21.8.2. Testing Tooltips ...........................................................................
21.8.3. Scrolling ....................................................................................
21.8.4. Testing Notifications ....................................................................
21.8.5. Testing Context Menus ................................................................
21.8.6. Profiling Test Execution Time .......................................................
21.9. Creating Maintainable Tests ...................................................................
21.9.1. The Page Object Pattern .............................................................
21.10. Taking and Comparing Screenshots .....................................................
21.10.1. Screenshot Parameters ............................................................
21.10.2. Taking Screenshots on Failure ...................................................
21.10.3. Taking Screenshots for Comparison ...........................................
21.10.4. Practices for Handling Screenshots ...........................................
21.10.5. Known Compatibility Problems ..................................................
21.11. Running Tests .....................................................................................
21.11.1. Running Tests with Ant ..............................................................
21.11.2. Running Tests with Maven .........................................................
21.12. Running Tests in a Distributed Environment ..........................................
21.12.1. Running Tests Remotely ...........................................................
21.12.2. Starting the Hub .......................................................................
21.12.3. Node Service Configuration ......................................................
21.12.4. Starting a Grid Node .................................................................
21.12.5. Mobile Testing ..........................................................................
21.13. Headless Testing .................................................................................
21.13.1. Basic Setup for Running Headless Tests ....................................
21.13.2. Running Headless Tests in a Distributed Environment .................
21.14. Known Issues .....................................................................................
21.14.1. Testing the LoginForm ...............................................................
21.14.2. Running Firefox Tests on Mac OS X ...........................................
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A. Songs of Vaadin ...................................................................................................... 625
Indeksi .......................................................................................................................... 629
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Johdanto
Tämä kirja antaa perustiedot Vaadin-sovelluskehyksen käytöstä ja kattaa tärkeimmät aiheet joita
voi kohdata ohjelmistokehityksen aikana. Erillinen API-dokumentaatio antaa tarkemman kuvauksen
yksittäisistä luokista, rajapinnoista ja metodeista.
Tämä laitos kattaa toukokuussa 2014 julkaistun Vaadin 7.2:n. Julkaisu sisältää tuen
kirjasinkuvakkeille ja mukautuville asetteluille. Asiakaspuolella tilamuutosten käsittely on
helpottunut @OnStateChange-annotaatioiden avulla. Laitos sisältää myös Vaadin 7.3:ssa tulevan
Valo-teeman alustavan käyttöohjeen.
Sovelluskehyksen lisäksi tämä laitos sisältää tulevien TestBench 4 ja TouchKit 4 -lisäosien
käyttöohjeet. Lisäosia käsittelevät luvut perustuvat lisäosien ennakkojulkaisuversioihin, joten
lopulliset julkaisuversiot voivat sisältää muutoksia joita ei ole kirjassa.
Tämän kirjan kirjoittaminen on jatkuva prosessi, josta syystä se ei aina kata nopeasti kehittyvän
Vaadinin uusimpia päivityksiä. Kirjasta on saatavissa online-versio Vaadinin verkkosivulla
osoitteessa http://vaadin.com/book. Osoitteesta on löydettävissä myös PDF- ja EPUBversiot kirjasta. Nämä online-versiot ovat helpommin etsittävissä kuin painettu kirja.Tälläisenäänkin
jo paksusta painetusta kirjasta on sivurajoitusten vuoksi jätetty pois joitain syvempiä teknisiä
aiheita, kuten koodiesimerkkejä, jotka ovat käyttökelpoisempia verkkoversiossa, josta niitä on
helppo kopioida.
Monista Vaadin 7:n ominaisuuksista on saatavilla miniohjeita Vaadin-wikissä osoitteessa
https://vaadin.com/wiki/-/wiki/Main/Vaadin+7.
1. Kenelle tämä kirja on tarkoitettu?
Tämä kirja on tarkoitettu ohjelmistokehittäjille jotka käyttävät tai suunnittelevat käyttävänsä
Vaadinta web-sovellusten kehittämiseen.
Kirjassa oletetaan, että lukijalla on jonkin verran kokemusta Java-ohjelmoinnista, mutta jos ei,
on Vaadin-ohjelmointi vähintään yhtä helppo tapa opetella Javaa kuin mikä tahansa muu
käyttöliittymäkirjasto. AJAX-osaamista ei tarvita, sillä se on piilotettu kehittäjältä varsin pitkälle.
You may have used some desktop-oriented user interface frameworks for Java, such as AWT,
Swing, or SWT. Or a library such as Qt for C++. Such knowledge is useful for understanding the
scope of Vaadin, the event-driven programming model, and other common concepts of UI
frameworks, but not necessary.
If you do not have a web graphics designer at hand, knowing the basics of HTML and CSS can
help so that you can develop presentation themes for your application. A brief introduction to
CSS is provided. Knowledge of Google Web Toolkit (GWT) may be useful if you develop or
integrate new client-side components.
2. Kirjan rakenne
Vaadinin kirja tarjoaa johdannon siitä mitä Vaadin on ja kuinka sitä käytetään web-sovellusten
kehittämisessä.
Osa I: Johdanto
Book of Vaadin
xv
Johdanto
Luku 1, Johdanto
Tämä luku antaa johdannon Vaadinin tukemaan sovellusarkkitehtuuriin ja
sovelluskehyksen taustalla olevaan tuoteideologiaan, sekä kertoo Vaadinin
historiallisesta taustasta.
Luku 2, Getting Started with Vaadin
Tämä luku antaa käytännön ohjeita Vaadinin asennuksesta ja ohjeellisesta
työkaluvalikoimasta, sisältäen Eclipsen Vaadin-lisäosan, kuinka suorittaa ja jäljittaa
esimerkkisovelluksia ja kuinka luoda oma sovellusprojekti Eclipse IDE:n avulla.
Luku 3, Architecture
Tämä luku antaa johdannon Vaadinin arkkitehtuurista ja sen tärkeimmistä teknologioista,
kuten AJAX:sta, GWT:stä ja tapahtumalähtöisestä ohjelmoinnista.
Osa II: Palvelinpuolen sovelluskehys
Luku 4, Writing a Server-Side Web Application
Tämä luku antaa Vaadin-sovellusten luomista koskevia käytännön ohjeita, kuten
ikkunankäsittelyä, sovelluken elinkiertoa, latausta sovelluspalvelimeen ja tapahtumien,
virheiden ja resurssien käsittelyä.
Luku 5, User Interface Components
Tämä luku antaa peruskäyttöohjeet Vaadinin käyttöliittymäkomponenttien käytöstä,
sekä niiden tärkeimmistä ominaisuuksista.Teksti antaa esimerkkejä kunkin komponentin
käytöstä.
Luku 6, Managing Layout
This chapter describes the layout components, which are used for managing the layout
of the user interface, just like in any desktop application frameworks.
Luku 7, Visual User Interface Design with Eclipse
This chapter gives instructions for using the visual editor for Eclipse, which is included
in the Vaadin Plugin for the Eclipse IDE.
Luku 8, Themes
This chapter gives an introduction to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and explains how
you can use them to build custom visual themes for your application.
Luku 9, Binding Components to Data
This chapter gives an overview of the built-in data model of Vaadin, consisting of
properties, items, and containers.
Luku 10, Vaadin SQLContainer
This chapter gives documentation for the SQLContainer, which allows binding Vaadin
components to SQL queries.
Luku 11, Advanced Web Application Topics
This chapter provides many special topics that are commonly needed in applications,
such as opening new browser windows, embedding applications in regular web pages,
low-level management of resources, shortcut keys, debugging, etc.
Luku 12, Portal Integration
This chapter describes the development of Vaadin applications as portlets which you
can deploy to any portal supporting Java Portlet API 2.0 (JSR-286). The chapter also
describes the special support for Liferay and the Control Panel, IPC, and WSRP addons.
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Johdanto
Part III: Client-Side Framework
Luku 13, Client-Side Vaadin Development
This chapter gives an introduction to creating and developing client-side applications
and widgets, including installation, compilation, and debugging.
Luku 14, Client-Side Applications
This chapter describes how to develop client-side applications and how to integrate
them with a back-end service.
Luku 15, Client-Side Widgets
This chapter describes the built-in widgets (client-side components) available for clientside development. The built-in widgets include Google Web Toolkit widgets as well as
Vaadin widgets.
Luku 16, Integrating with the Server-Side
This chapter describes how to integrate client-side widgets with their server-side
counterparts for the purpose of creating new server-side components. The chapter
also covers integrating JavaScript components.
Part IV: Vaadin Add-ons
Luku 17, Using Vaadin Add-ons
This chapter gives instructions for downloading and installing add-on components from
the Vaadin Directory.
Luku 18, Vaadin Charts
This chapter documents the use of the Vaadin Charts add-on component for interactive
charting with many diagram types. The add-on includes the Chart and Timeline
components.
Luku 19, Vaadin JPAContainer
This chapter gives documentation of the JPAContainer add-on, which allows binding
Vaadin components directly to relational and other databases using Java Persistence
API (JPA).
Luku 20, Mobile Applications with TouchKit
This chapter gives examples and reference documentation for using the Vaadin
TouchKit add-on for developing mobile applications.
Luku 21, Vaadin TestBench
This chapter gives the complete documentation of using the Vaadin TestBench tool
for recording and executing user interface regression tests of Vaadin applications.
Liite A, Songs of Vaadin
Mythological background of the name Vaadin.
3. Supplementary Material
The Vaadin websites offer plenty of material that can help you understand what Vaadin is, what
you can do with it, and how you can do it.
Supplementary Material
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Johdanto
Demo Applications
The most important demo application for Vaadin is the Sampler, which demonstrates
the use of all basic components and features. You can run it on-line at
http://demo.vaadin.com/ or download it as a WAR from the Vaadin download page.
Most of the code examples in this book and many others can be found online at
http://demo.vaadin.com/book-examples-vaadin7/book/.
Cheat Sheet
The two-page cheat sheet illustrates the basic relationship hierarchy of the user
interface and data binding classes and interfaces. You can download it at
http://vaadin.com/book.
Refcard
The six-page DZone Refcard gives an overview to application development with Vaadin.
It includes a diagram of the user interface and data binding classes and interfaces.
You can find more information about it at https://vaadin.com/refcard.
Address Book Tutorial
The Address Book is a sample application accompanied with a tutorial that gives
detailed step-by-step instructions for creating a real-life web application with Vaadin.
You can find the tutorial from the product website.
Developer's Website
Vaadin Developer's Site at http://dev.vaadin.com/ provides various online resources,
such as the ticket system, a development wiki, source repositories, activity timeline,
development milestones, and so on.
The wiki provides instructions for developers, especially for those who wish to checkout and compile Vaadin itself from the source repository. The technical articles deal
with integration of Vaadin applications with various systems, such as JSP, Maven,
Spring, Hibernate, and portals. The wiki also provides answers to Frequently Asked
Questions.
Online Documentation
You can read this book online at http://vaadin.com/book. Lots of additional material,
including technical HOWTOs, answers to Frequently Asked Questions and other
documentation is also available on Vaadin web-site.
4. Support
Stuck with a problem? No need to lose your hair over it, the Vaadin Framework developer
community and the Vaadin company offer support to all of your needs.
Community Support Forum
You can find the user and developer community forum at http://vaadin.com/forum.
Please use the forum to discuss any problems you might encounter, wishes for features,
and so on. The answer to your problems may already lie in the forum archives, so
searching the discussions is always the best way to begin.
Report Bugs
If you have found a possible bug in Vaadin, the demo applications, or the
documentation, please report it by filing a ticket at the Vaadin developer's site at
http://dev.vaadin.com/. You may want to check the existing tickets before filing a new
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Johdanto
one. You can make a ticket to make a request for a new feature as well, or to suggest
modifications to an existing feature.
Commercial Support
Vaadin offers full commercial support and training services for the Vaadin Framework
and related products. Read more about the commercial products at
http://vaadin.com/pro for details.
5. About the Author
Marko Grönroos is a professional writer and software developer working at Vaadin Ltd in Turku,
Finland. He has been involved in web application development since 1994 and has worked on
several application development frameworks in C, C++, and Java. He has been active in many
open source software projects and holds an M.Sc. degree in Computer Science from the University
of Turku.
6. Acknowledgements
Much of the book is the result of close work within the development team at Vaadin Ltd. Joonas
Lehtinen, CEO of Vaadin Ltd, wrote the first outline of the book, which became the basis for the
first two chapters. Since then, Marko Grönroos has become the primary author and editor. The
development team has contributed several passages, answered numerous technical questions,
reviewed the manual, and made many corrections.
The contributors are (in rough chronological order):
Joonas Lehtinen
Jani Laakso
Marko Grönroos
Jouni Koivuviita
Matti Tahvonen
Artur Signell
Marc Englund
Henri Sara
Jonatan Kronqvist
Mikael Grankvist (TestBench)
Teppo Kurki (SQLContainer)
Tomi Virtanen (Calendar)
Risto Yrjänä (Calendar)
John Ahlroos (Timeline)
Petter Holmström (JPAContainer)
Leif Åstrand
7. About Vaadin Ltd
Vaadin Ltd is a Finnish software company specializing in the design and development of Rich
Internet Applications. The company offers planning, implementation, and support services for
the software projects of its customers, as well as sub-contract software development. Vaadin
Framework, previously known as IT Mill Toolkit, is the flagship open source product of the
company, for which it provides commercial development and support services.
About the Author
xix
xx
Osa I. Johdanto
Tämä osa sisältää kolme lukua, jotka esittävät Vaadinin taustalla olevat perusajatukset ja sen kaksi
ohjelmistokehitysmallia: palvelinpuolen ja asiakaspuolen, kuvaavat sen asennuksen ja antavat yleiskatsauksen
sen arkkitehtuurista.
luku 1
Johdanto
1.1. Yleistä ...................................................................................................... 23
1.2. Example Application Walkthrough ........................................................... 25
1.3. Support for the Eclipse IDE ..................................................................... 26
1.4. Goals and Philosophy .............................................................................. 26
1.5. Background .............................................................................................. 27
Tässä luvussa annetaan lyhyt johdanto ohjelmistokehityksestä Vaadinilla. Pyrimme myös
esittämään Vaadinin suunnittelun taustalla olevaa filosofiaa sekä sen historiaa.
1.1. Yleistä
Vaadin-sovelluskehyksen ytimenä on Java-kirjasto, joka on suunniteltu korkeatasoisten webpohjaisten käyttöliittymien kehittämiseen mahdollisimman helposti. Vaadinin palvelinlähtöisen
ohjelmointimallin ydinajatuksena on, että kehittäjä voi unohtaa webin ja kehittää käyttöliittymiä
paljolti kuten kehittäisi Java-työpöytäohjelmia tavanomaisilla työkaluilla, kuten AWT:llä, Swingillä
tai SWT:llä. Mutta helpommin.
Vaikka perinteinen web-kehitys on kiva tapa käyttää aikaa uusien web-teknologioiden oppimiseen,
haluat todennäköisemmin olla tuottava ja keskittyä sovelluslogiikkaan. Vaadinin palvelinlähtöinen
ohjelmointimalli huolehtii käyttöliittymän käsittelystä selaimessa ja käyttää AJAX-viestintää
selaimen ja palvelimen välillä. Vaadinin lähestymistavan ansiosta kehittäjän ei tarvitse opetella
web-teknologioita, kuten HTML- tai JavaScript-kieliä.
Book of Vaadin
23
Johdanto
Kuva 1.1. Vaadinin yleisarkkitehtuuri
Kuva 1.1, ”Vaadinin yleisarkkitehtuuri” esittää Vaadinilla tehtyjen sovellusten perusarkkitehtuurin.
Vaadin käsittää palvelinpuolen sovelluskehyksen ja asiakaspuolen koneen jota suoritetaan
selaimessa JavaScript.-ohjelmana, joka piirtää käyttöliittymän ja välittää käyttäjän syötteen
palvelimelle. Sovellusta suoritetaan Java Servlet -istuntona Java-sovelluspalvelimessa.
Koska asiakaspuolen kone suoritetaan JavaScript-ohjelmana selaimessa, eivät Vaadinilla kehitetyt
sovellukset tarvitse selainlisäosaa toimiakseen. Tämä on etu verrattaessa Vaadinia
sovelluskehyksiin, jotka perustuvat Flash-lisäosaan, Java-sovelmiin tai muihin lisäosiin. Vaadin
tukeutuu GWT:n tarjoamaan tukeen laajalle selainvalikoimalle, jolloin kehittäjän ei tarvitse huolehtia
selaintuesta.
Koska HTML, JavaScript ja muut selainteknologiat ovat paljolti näkymättömiä sovelluslogiikalle,
voi web-selainta ajatella vain ohutpäätteenä. Ohutpäätteen tarkoituksena on näyttää käyttöliittymä
ja lähettää käyttäjän syöte palvelimelle matalalla tasolla. Käyttöliittymän ohjauslogiikka, kuten
myös sovelluslogiikka, suoritetaan Java-pohjaisella sovelluspalvelimella. Jos tätä verrataan
tavanomaiseen asiakas-palvelin-arkkitehtuuriin, sisältäisi asiakassovellus paljon sovelluskohtaista
logiikkaa ja viestintää palvelinpuolen kanssa. Käyttöliittymäkerroksen poistaminen
sovellusarkkitehtuurista tekee Vaadinin lähestymistavasta tehokkaan.
Vaadin toteuttaa palvelinlähtöisen kehitysmallin käyttämällä AJAX-tekniikkaa (Asynchronous
JavaScript and XML, ks. Kohta 3.2.3, ”AJAX”), mikä mahdollistaa rikkaiden internet-sovellusten
(RIA) luomisen, siten että ne ovat yhtä vuorovaikutteisia kuin työpöytäsovellukset.
Palvelinpuolen Java-sovelluskehityksen lisäksi, voidaan Vaadinilla kehittää asiakaspuolen
komponentteja tai jopa puhtaita asiakaspuolen sovelluksia, joita suoritetaan vain selaimessa.
Vaadinin asiakaspuolen sovelluskehys sisältää GWT:n (Google Web Toolkit), joka sisältää
kääntäjän Javasta JavaScriptiksi, jota suoritetaan selaimessa. Tämän ratkaisun myötä Vaadin
on puhdasta Javaa molemmilla puolilla.
Vaadin käyttää asiakaspuolen konetta palvelinpuolen sovelluksen käyttöliittymän piirtämiseen
selaimessa. Kaikki asiakas-palvelin-viestintä on piilotettua kannen alle. Vaadin on suunniteltu
laajennettavaksi ja voit käyttää kolmannen osapuolen tarjoamia komponentteja helposti, Vaadinin
tarjoaman komponenttivalikoiman lisäksi. Vaadin Directory tarjoaa satojen lisäosien valikoiman.
Vaadin Framework defines a clear separation between the
structure of the user interface and its appearance and allows
you to develop them separately. Our approach to this is
themes, which control the appearance by CSS and (optional)
HTML page templates. As Vaadin provides excellent default
themes, you do not usually need to make much customization,
but you can if you need to. For more about themes, see Luku 8,
Themes.
We hope that this is enough about the basic architecture and
features of Vaadin for now. You can read more about it later
24
Yleistä
Johdanto
in Luku 3, Architecture, or jump straight to more practical things in Luku 4, Writing a Server-Side
Web Application.
1.2. Example Application Walkthrough
Let us follow the long tradition of first saying "Hello World!" when learning a new programming
framework. First, using the primary server-side API.
import com.vaadin.server.VaadinRequest;
import com.vaadin.ui.Label;
import com.vaadin.ui.UI;
@Title("Hello Window")
public class HelloWorld extends UI {
@Override
protected void init(VaadinRequest request) {
// Create the content root layout for the UI
VerticalLayout content = new VerticalLayout();
setContent(content);
// Display the greeting
content.addComponent(new Label("Hello World!"));
}
}
A Vaadin application has one or more UIs that extend the com.vaadin.ui.UI class. A UI is a part
of the web page in which the Vaadin application runs. An application can have multiple UIs in
the same page, especially in portals, or in different windows or tabs. A UI is associated with a
user session, and a session is created for each user who uses the application. In the context of
our Hello World UI, it is sufficient to know that the underlying session is created when the user
first accesses the application by opening the page, and the init() method is invoked at that
time.
In the above example, the page title, which is shown in the caption of the browser window or tab,
is defined with an annotation. The example uses a layout component as the root content of the
UI, as that is the case with most Vaadin applications, which normally have more than one
component. It then creates a new Label user interface component, which displays simple text,
and sets the text to "Hello World!". The label is added to the layout.
The result of the Hello World application, when it is opened in a browser, is shown in Kuva 1.2,
”Hello World Application”.
Kuva 1.2. Hello World Application
Example Application Walkthrough
25
Johdanto
To run the program, you can just package it as a web application WAR package and deploy it to
a server, as explained in Kohta 4.8, ”Deploying an Application”.
Developing a pure client-side application, you could write a Hello World just as easily, and also
in Java:
public class HelloWorld implements EntryPoint {
@Override
public void onModuleLoad() {
RootPanel.get().add(new Label("Hello, world!"));
}
}
We do not set the title here, because it is usually defined in the HTML page in which the code is
executed. The application would be compiled into JavaScript with the Vaadin Client Compiler (or
GWT Compiler). It is more typical, however, to write client-side widgets, which you can then use
from a server-side Vaadin application. For more information regarding client-side development,
see Luku 13, Client-Side Vaadin Development.
1.3. Support for the Eclipse IDE
While Vaadin is not bound to any specific IDE, and you can in fact easily use it without any IDE
altogether, we provide special support for the Eclipse IDE, which has become the most used
environment for Java development. The support is provided in the Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse,
which helps you in:
• Creating new Vaadin projects
• Creating custom themes
• Creating custom widgets
• Creating composite components with a visual editor
• Easily upgrading to a newer version of the Vaadin library
Using the Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse is the recommended way of installing Vaadin for development.
Downloading the installation package that contains the JARs or defining Vaadin as a Maven
dependency is also possible.
Installing and updating the Eclipse plugin is covered in Kohta 2.4, ”Installing Vaadin Plugin for
Eclipse” and the creation of a new Vaadin project using the plugin in Kohta 2.5.1, ”Creating the
Project”. See Kohta 8.5, ”Creating a Theme in Eclipse”, Kohta 16.2, ”Starting It Simple With
Eclipse”, and Luku 7, Visual User Interface Design with Eclipse for instructions on using the
different features of the plugin.
1.4. Goals and Philosophy
Simply put, Vaadin's ambition is to be the best possible tool when it comes to creating web user
interfaces for business applications. It is easy to adopt, as it is designed to support both entrylevel and advanced programmers, as well as usability experts and graphic designers.
When designing Vaadin, we have followed the philosophy inscribed in the following rules.
26
Support for the Eclipse IDE
Johdanto
1.4.1. Right tool for the right purpose
Because our goals are high, the focus must be clear. Vaadin is designed for creating web
applications. It is not designed for creating websites or advertisement demos. You may find, for
example, JSP/JSF or Flash more suitable for such purposes.
1.4.2. Simplicity and maintainability
We have chosen to emphasize robustness, simplicity, and maintainability. This involves following
the well-established best practices in user interface frameworks and ensuring that our
implementation represents an ideal solution for its purpose without clutter or bloat.
1.4.3. XML is not designed for programming
The Web is inherently document-centered and very much bound to the declarative presentation
of user interfaces. The Vaadin framework frees the programmer from these limitations. It is far
more natural to create user interfaces by programming them than by defining them in declarative
templates, which are not flexible enough for complex and dynamic user interaction.
1.4.4. Tools should not limit your work
There should not be any limits on what you can do with the framework: if for some reason the
user interface components do not support what you need to achieve, it must be easy to add new
ones to your application. When you need to create new components, the role of the framework
is critical: it makes it easy to create re-usable components that are easy to maintain.
1.5. Background
The Vaadin Framework was not written overnight. After working with web user interfaces since
the beginning of the Web, a group of developers got together in 2000 to form IT Mill. The team
had a desire to develop a new programming paradigm that would support the creation of real
user interfaces for real applications using a real programming language.
The library was originally called Millstone Library. The first version was used in a large production
application that IT Mill designed and implemented for an international pharmaceutical company.
IT Mill made the application already in the year 2001 and it is still in use. Since then, the company
has produced dozens of large business applications with the library and it has proven its ability
to solve hard problems easily.
The next generation of the library, IT Mill Toolkit Release 4, was released in 2006. It introduced
an entirely new AJAX-based presentation engine. This allowed the development of AJAX
applications without the need to worry about communications between the client and the server.
1.5.1. Release 5 Into the Open
IT Mill Toolkit 5, released initially at the end of 2007, took a significant step further into AJAX.
The client-side rendering of the user interface was completely rewritten using GWT, the Google
Web Toolkit.
IT Mill Toolkit 5 introduced many significant improvements both in the server-side API and in the
functionality. Rewriting the Client-Side Engine with GWT allowed the use of Java both on the
client and the server-side. The transition from JavaScript to GWT made the development and
integration of custom components and customization of existing components much easier than
Right tool for the right purpose
27
Johdanto
before, and it also allows easy integration of existing GWT components. The adoption of GWT
on the client-side did not, by itself, cause any changes in the server-side API, because GWT is
a browser technology that is hidden well behind the API. Also theming was completely revised
in IT Mill Toolkit 5.
The Release 5 was published under the Apache License 2, an unrestrictive open source license,
to create faster expansion of the user base and to make the formation of a developer community
possible.
1.5.2. Birth of Vaadin Release 6
IT Mill Toolkit was renamed as Vaadin Framework, or Vaadin in short, in spring 2009. Later IT
Mill, the company, was also renamed as Vaadin Ltd. Vaadin means an adult female semidomesticated mountain reindeer in Finnish.
With Vaadin 6, the number of developers using the framework exploded. Together with the
release, the Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse was released, helping the creation of Vaadin projects. The
introduction of Vaadin Directory in early 2010 gave it a further boost, as the number of available
components multiplied almost overnight. Many of the originally experimental components have
since then matured and are now used by thousands of developers. In 2013, we are seeing
tremendous growth in the ecosystem around Vaadin. The size of the user community, at least if
measured by forum activity, has already gone past the competing server-side frameworks and
even GWT.
1.5.3. The Major Revision with Vaadin 7
Vaadin 7 is a major revision that changes the Vaadin API much more than Vaadin 6 did. It is
certainly more web-oriented than Vaadin 6 was. We are doing everything we can to help Vaadin
rise high in the web universe. Some of this work is easy and almost routine - fixing bugs and
implementing features. But going higher also requires standing firmer. That was one of the aims
of Vaadin 7 - redesigning the product so that the new architecture enables Vaadin to reach over
many long-standing challenges. Many of the changes required breaking API compatibility with
Vaadin 6, especially in the client-side, but they are made with a strong desire to avoid carrying
unnecessary legacy burden far into the future. Vaadin 7 includes a compatibility layer for making
adoption of Vaadin 7 in existing applications easier.
Inclusion of the Google Web Toolkit in Vaadin 7 is a significant development, as it means that
we now provide support for GWT as well. When Google opened the GWT development in summer
2012, Vaadin (the company) joined the new GWT steering committee. As a member of the
committee, Vaadin can work towards the success of GWT as a foundation of the Java web
development community.
28
Birth of Vaadin Release 6
luku 2
Getting Started
with Vaadin
2.1. Overview .................................................................................................. 29
2.2. Setting up the Development Environment ............................................... 30
2.3. Overview of Vaadin Libraries ................................................................... 34
2.4. Installing Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse .......................................................... 35
2.5. Creating and Running a Project with Eclipse .......................................... 39
2.6. Using Vaadin with Maven ......................................................................... 47
2.7. Creating a Project with NetBeans IDE ..................................................... 49
2.8. Creating a Project with IntelliJ IDEA ........................................................ 50
2.9. Vaadin Installation Package ..................................................................... 59
2.10. Using Vaadin with Scala ........................................................................ 60
This chapter gives practical instructions for installing the recommended toolchain, the Vaadin
libraries and its dependencies, and creating a new Vaadin project.
2.1. Overview
You can develop Vaadin applications in essentially any development environment that has the
Java SDK and a Java Servlet container. Vaadin has special support for the Eclipse IDE, but
community support exists also for the NetBeans IDE and IntelliJ IDEA, and you can use it with
any Java IDE or no IDE at all.
Book of Vaadin
29
Getting Started with Vaadin
Managing Vaadin and other Java libraries can get tedious to do manually, so using a build system
that manages dependencies automatically is adviced. Vaadin is distributed in the Maven central
repository, and can be used with any build or dependency management system that can access
Maven repository, such as Ivy or Gradle, in addition to Maven.
Vaadin has a multitude of installation options for different IDEs, dependency managers, and you
can also install it from an installation package:
• With the Eclipse IDE, use the Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse, as described in Kohta 2.4,
”Installing Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse”
• With the Vaadin plugin for NetBeans IDE (Kohta 2.7, ”Creating a Project with NetBeans
IDE”) or IntelliJ IDEA
• With Maven, Ivy, Gradle, or other Maven-compatible dependency manager, under
Eclipse, NetBeans, IDEA, or using command-line, as described in Kohta 2.6, ”Using
Vaadin with Maven”
• From installation package without dependency management, as described in Kohta 2.9,
”Vaadin Installation Package”
2.2. Setting up the Development Environment
This section guides you step-by-step in setting up a reference development environment. Vaadin
supports a wide variety of tools, so you can use any IDE for writing the code, almost any Java
web server for deploying the application, most web browsers for using it, and any operating
system platform supported by Java.
In this example, we use the following toolchain:
• Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X
• Sun Java 2 Standard Edition 6.0 (JDK 1.6 or newer is required)
• Eclipse IDE for Java EE Developers
• Apache Tomcat 7.0 (Core) or newer
• Mozilla Firefox browser
• Firebug debug tool (optional)
• Vaadin Framework
The above reference toolchain is a good choice of tools, but you can use almost any tools you
are comfortable with.
If you intend to use server push, you need to use a Java EE 7 compatible server with WebSocket
support, such as Glassfish, TomEE, etc.
30
Setting up the Development Environment
Getting Started with Vaadin
Kuva 2.1. Development Toolchain and Process
Kuva 2.1, ”Development Toolchain and Process” illustrates the development toolchain. You
develop your application as an Eclipse project. The project must include, in addition to your source
code, the Vaadin libraries. It can also include project-specific themes.
You need to compile and deploy a project to a web container before you can use it. You can
deploy a project through the Web Tools Platform (WTP) for Eclipse (included in the Eclipse EE
package), which allows automatic deployment of web applications from Eclipse. You can also
deploy a project manually, by creating a web application archive (WAR) and deploying it to the
web container.
2.2.1. Installing Java SDK
Java SDK is required by Vaadin and also by the Eclipse IDE. Vaadin is compatible with Java 1.6
and later editions. Java EE 7 is required for proper server push support with WebSockets.
Windows
1. D o w n l o a d
Sun
Java
2
Standard
Edition
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/index.html
7.0
from
2. Install the Java SDK by running the installer. The default options are fine.
Linux / UNIX
Most Linux systems either have JDK preinstalled or allow installing it through a package
management system. Notice however that they have OpenJDK as the default Java implementation.
While it is known to have worked with Vaadin and possibly also with the development toolchain,
we do not especially support it.
Installing Java SDK
31
Getting Started with Vaadin
Regarding OS X, notice that JDK 1.6 or newer is included in OS X 10.6 and newer.
Otherwise:
1. D o w n l o a d
Sun
Java
2
Standard
Edition
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/
6.0
from
2. Decompress it under a suitable base directory, such as /opt. For example, for Java
SDK, enter (either as root or with sudo in Linux):
# cd /opt
# sh (path-to-installation-package)/jdk-7u1-linux-i586.bin
and follow the instructions in the installer.
3. Set up the JAVA_HOME environment variable to point to the Java installation directory.
Also, include the $JAVA_HOME/bin in the PATH. How you do that varies by the UNIX
variant. For example, in Linux and using the Bash shell, you would add lines such as
the following to the .bashrc or .profile script in your home directory:
export JAVA_HOME=/opt/jdk1.7.0_01
export PATH=$PATH:$HOME/bin:$JAVA_HOME/bin
You could also make the setting system-wide in a file such as /etc/bash.bashrc,
/etc/profile, or an equivalent file. If you install Apache Ant or Maven, you may also
want to set up those in the path.
Settings done in a bashrc file require that you open a new shell window. Settings done
in a profile file require that you log in into the system. You can, of course, also give
the commands in the current shell.
2.2.2. Installing Eclipse IDE
Windows
1. Download
the
Eclipse
IDE
http://www.eclipse.org/downloads/
for
Java
EE
Developers
from
2. Decompress the Eclipse IDE package to a suitable directory. You are free to select any
directory and to use any ZIP decompressor, but in this example we decompress the
ZIP file by just double-clicking it and selecting "Extract all files" task from Windows
compressed folder task. In our installation example, we use C:\dev as the target
directory.
Eclipse is now installed in C:\dev\eclipse and can be started from there (by double clicking
eclipse.exe).
Linux / OS X / UNIX
We recommend that you install Eclipse manually in Linux and other UNIX variants as follows.
1. Download Eclipse IDE for Java EE Developers from http://www.eclipse.org/downloads/
2. Decompress the Eclipse package into a suitable base directory. It is important to make
sure that there is no old Eclipse installation in the target directory. Installing a new version
on top of an old one probably renders Eclipse unusable.
32
Installing Eclipse IDE
Getting Started with Vaadin
3. Eclipse should normally be installed as a regular user, as this makes installation of
plugins easier. Eclipse also stores some user settings in the installation directory. To
install the package, enter:
$ tar zxf (path-to-installation-package)/eclipse-jee-ganymede-SR2-linuxgtk.tar.gz
This will extract the package to a subdirectory with the name eclipse.
4. You may wish to add the Eclipse installation directory and the bin subdirectory in the
installation directory of Java SDK to your system or user PATH.
An alternative to the above procedure would be to use an Eclipse version available through the
package management system of your operating system. It is, however, not recommended,
because you will need write access to the Eclipse installation directory to install Eclipse plugins,
and you may face incompatibility issues with Eclipse plugins installed by the package management
of the operating system.
2.2.3. Installing Apache Tomcat
Apache Tomcat is a lightweight Java web server suitable for both development and production.
There are many ways to install it, but here we simply decompress the installation package.
Apache Tomcat should be installed with user permissions. During development, you will be
running Eclipse or some other IDE with user permissions, but deploying web applications to a
Tomcat server that is installed system-wide requires administrator or root permissions.
1. Download the installation package:
Apache Tomcat 7.0 (Core Binary Distribution) from http://tomcat.apache.org/
2. Decompress Apache Tomcat package to a suitable target directory, such as C:\dev
(Windows) or /opt (Linux or Mac OS X). The Apache Tomcat home directory will be
C:\dev\apache-tomcat-7.0.x or /opt/apache-tomcat-7.0.x, respectively.
2.2.4. Firefox and Firebug
Vaadin supports many web browsers and you can use any of them for development. If you plan
to create a custom theme, customized layouts, or create new components, we recommend that
you use either Firefox together with Firebug or Google Chrome, which has built-in developer
tools similar to Firebug.
Using Firebug with Vaadin
After installing Firefox, use it to open http://www.getfirebug.com/. Follow the instructions on the
site to install the latest stable version of Firebug available for the browser. You may need to allow
Firefox to install the plugin by clicking the yellow warning bar at the top of the browser window.
After Firebug is installed, it can be enabled at any time from the Firefox toolbar. Kuva 2.2, ”Firebug
Debugger for Firefox” shows Firebug in action.
Installing Apache Tomcat
33
Getting Started with Vaadin
Kuva 2.2. Firebug Debugger for Firefox
The most important feature in Firebug is inspecting HTML elements. Right-click on an element
and select Inspect Element with Firebug to inspect it. In addition to HTML tree, it also shows
the CSS rules matching the element, which you can use for building themes. You can even edit
the CSS styles live, to experiment with styling.
2.3. Overview of Vaadin Libraries
Vaadin comes as a set of library JARs, of which some are optional or alternative ones, depending
on whether you are developing server-side or client-side applications, whether you use add-on
components, or use CSS or Sass themes.
vaadin-server-7.x.x.jar
The main library for developing server-side Vaadin applications, as described in Luku 4,
Writing a Server-Side Web Application. It requires the vaadin-shared and the
vaadin-themes libraries. You can use the prebuilt vaadin-client-compiled for
server-side development, unless you need add-on components or custom widgets.
vaadin-shared-7.x.x.jar
A shared library for server-side and client-side development. It is always needed.
vaadin-client-7.x.x.jar
The client-side Vaadin framework, including the basic GWT API and Vaadin-specific
widgets and other additions. It is required when using the vaadin-client-compiler
to compile client-side modules. It is not needed if you just use the server-side framework
with the precompiled Client-Side Engine. You should not deploy it with a web
application.
34
Overview of Vaadin Libraries
Getting Started with Vaadin
vaadin-client-compiler-7.x.x.jar
The Vaadin Client Compiler is a Java-to-JavaScript compiler that allows building clientside modules, such as the Client-Side Engine (widget set) required for server-side
applications. The compiler is needed, for example, for compiling add-on components
to the application widget set, as described in Luku 17, Using Vaadin Add-ons. For
detailed information regarding the compiler, see Kohta 13.4, ”Compiling a Client-Side
Module”. Note that you should not deploy this library with a web application.
vaadin-client-compiled-7.x.x.jar
A precompiled Vaadin Client-Side Engine (widget set) that includes all the basic builtin widgets in Vaadin. This library is not needed if you compile the application widget
set with the Vaadin Client Compiler.
vaadin-themes-7.x.x.jar
Vaadin built-in themes both as SCSS source files and precompiled CSS files. The
library is required both for basic use with CSS themes and for compiling custom Sass
themes.
vaadin-theme-compiler7.x.x.jar
The Vaadin Theme Compiler compiles SASS themes to CSS, as described in Kohta 8.3,
”Syntactically Awesome Stylesheets (Sass)”. It requires the vaadin-themes7.x.x.jar library, which contains the SCSS sources for the built-in themes. The
library needs to be included in deployment in development mode to allow on-the-fly
compilation of themes, but it is not needed in production deployment, when the themes
are compiled before deployment.
Some of the libraries depend on each other as well as on the dependency libraries provided in
the lib folder of the installation package, especially the lib/vaadin-shared-deps.jar.
The different ways to install the libraries are described in the subsequent sections.
Note that the vaadin-client-compiler and vaadin-client JARs should not be deployed
with the web application by including them in WEB-INF/lib. Some other libraries, such as
vaadin-theme-compiler, are not needed in production deployment.
2.4. Installing Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse
If you are using the Eclipse IDE, using the Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse helps greatly. Notice that
you can also create Vaadin projects as Maven projects in Eclipse.
The plugin includes:
• Wizards for creating new Vaadin-based projects, themes, and client-side widgets and
widget sets.
• A visual editor for creating composite user interface components in a WYSIWYG fashion.
With full round-trip support from source code to visual model and back, the editor
integrates seamlessly with your development process.
2.4.1. Installing the IvyDE Plugin
The Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse requires the Apache IvyDE plugin, which needs to be installed
manually in Eclipse before the Vaadin plugin.
1. Select Help Install New Software....
Installing Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse
35
Getting Started with Vaadin
2. Add the IvyDE update site by clicking the Add... button.
Enter a name such as "Apache Ivy Update Site" and the URL of the update site:
http://www.apache.org/dist/ant/ivyde/updatesite
Then click OK. The Vaadin site should now appear in the Available Software window.
3. Select the new "Apache Ivy Update Site" from the Work with list.
4. Select the Apache Ivy, Apache Ivy Ant Tasks, and Apache IvyDE plugins.
The Apache IvyDE Resolve Visualizer is optional, and would require additional
dependency plugins to be installed.
Then, click Next.
5. Review the installation details and click Next.
6. Accept or unaccept the license. Finally, click Finish.
7. Eclipse may warn about unsigned content. If you feel safe, click OK.
8. After the plugin is installed, Eclipse will ask to restart itself. You can proceed to install
the Vaadin plugin before the restart, as described in the following section, so you can
answer Apply Changes Now.
2.4.2. Installing the Vaadin Plugin
You can install the plugin as follows:
36
Installing the Vaadin Plugin
Getting Started with Vaadin
1. Select Help Install New Software....
2. Add the Vaadin plugin update site by clicking Add... button.
Enter a name such as "Vaadin Update Site" and the URL of the update site:
http://vaadin.com/eclipse. If you want or need to use the latest unstable plugin,
which is usually more compatible with development and beta releases of Vaadin, you
can use http://vaadin.com/eclipse/experimental and give it a distinctive
name such as "Vaadin Experimental Site". Then click OK. The Vaadin site should now
appear in the Available Software window.
3. Currently, if using the stable plugin, the Group items by category should be enabled.
If using the experimental plugin, it should be disabled. This may change in future.
4. Select all the Vaadin plugins in the tree.
Then, click Next.
5. Review the installation details and click Next.
6. Accept or unaccept the license. Finally, click Finish.
7. After the plugin is installed, Eclipse will ask to restart itself. Click Restart.
Installing the Vaadin Plugin
37
Getting Started with Vaadin
If you use the visual editor, Eclipse must have the internal browser enabled. Most operating
system distributions include a suitable browser engine, but if not, you may need to install one as
described in Luku 7, Visual User Interface Design with Eclipse.
More installation instructions for the Eclipse plugin can be found at http://vaadin.com/eclipse.
2.4.3. Updating the Plugins
If you have automatic updates enabled in Eclipse (see Window Preferences Install/Update
Automatic Updates), the Vaadin plugin will be updated automatically along with other plugins.
Otherwise, you can update the Vaadin plugin manually as follows:
1. Select Help Check for Updates. Eclipse will contact the update sites of the installed
software.
2. After the updates are installed, Eclipse will ask to restart itself. Click Restart.
Notice that updating the Vaadin plugin updates only the plugin and not the Vaadin libraries, which
are project specific. See below for instructions for updating the libraries.
2.4.4. Updating the Vaadin Libraries
Updating the Vaadin plugin does not update Vaadin libraries. The libraries are project specific,
as a different version might be required for different projects, so you have to update them
separately for each project.
1. Open the ivy.xml in an editor Eclipse.
2. Edit the entity definition at the beginning of the file to set the Vaadin version.
<!ENTITY vaadin.version "7.0.1">
You can specify either a fixed version number, as shown in the above example, or a
dynamic revision tag such as latest.release. You can find more information about
the dependency declarations in Ivy documentation.
3. Right-click the project and select Ivy Resolve.
Updating the libraries can take several minutes.You can see the progress in the Eclipse
status bar. You can get more details about the progress by clicking the indicator.
4. If you have compiled the widget set for your project, recompile it by clicking the Compile
Vaadin widgets button in Eclipse toolbar.
5. Stop the integrated Tomcat (or other server) in Eclipse, clear its caches by right-clicking
the server and selecting Clean as well as Clean Tomcat Work Directory, and restart
it.
If you experience problems after updating the libraries, you can try clearing the Ivy resolution
caches by right-clicking the project and selecting Ivy Clean all caches. Then, do the Ivy Resolve and other tasks again.
38
Updating the Plugins
Getting Started with Vaadin
2.5. Creating and Running a Project with Eclipse
This section gives instructions for creating a new Eclipse project using the Vaadin Plugin. The
task will include the following steps:
1. Create a new project
2. Write the source code
3. Configure and start Tomcat (or some other web server)
4. Open a web browser to use the web application
We also show how you can debug the application in the debug mode in Eclipse.
This walkthrough assumes that you have already installed the Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse and set
up your development environment, as instructed in Kohta 2.2, ”Setting up the Development
Environment”.
2.5.1. Creating the Project
Let us create the first application project with the tools installed in the previous section. First,
launch Eclipse and follow the following steps:
1. Start creating a new project by selecting from the menu File New Project....
2. In the New Project window that opens, select Web Vaadin 7 Project and click Next.
If you choose to go the Vaadin 6 way, please use the latest Vaadin 6 version of this
book for further instructions.
Creating and Running a Project with Eclipse
39
Getting Started with Vaadin
3. In the Vaadin Project step, you need to set the basic web project settings. You need
to give at least the project name and the runtime; the default values should be good for
the other settings.
Project name
Give the project a name. The name should be a valid identifier usable cross-platform
as a filename and inside a URL, so using only lower-case alphanumerics,
underscore, and minus sign is recommended.
Use default location
Define the directory under which the project is created. The default is under your
workspace folder, and you should normally leave it as it is. You may need to set
the directory, for example, if you are creating an Eclipse project on top of a versioncontrolled source tree.
Target runtime
Define the application server to use for deploying the application. The server that
you have installed, for example Apache Tomcat, should be selected automatically.
If not, click New to configure a new server under Eclipse.
Configuration
Select the configuration to use; you should normally use the default configuration
for the application server. If you need to modify the project facets, click Modify. The
recommended Servlet 3.0 configuration uses the @WebServlet deployment, while
Servlet 2.4 uses the old web.xml deployment.
40
Creating the Project
Getting Started with Vaadin
Deployment configuration
This setting defines the environment to which the application will be deployed, to
generate the appropriate project directory layout and configuration files. The choises
are:
• Servlet (default)
• Google App Engine Servlet
• Generic Portlet (Portlet 2.0)
The further steps in the New Project Wizard depend on the selected deployment
configuration; the steps listed in this section are for the default servlet configuration.
See Kohta 11.7, ”Google App Engine Integration” and Luku 12, Portal Integration
for instructions regarding the use of Vaadin in the alternative environments.
Vaadin version
Select the Vaadin version to use. The drop-down list shows, by default, the latest
available version of Vaadin. The selection includes nightly SNAPSHOT builds, if you
want to keep up with the absolutely latest unstable versions.
You can change the version later in the ivy.xml.
You can click Finish here to use the defaults for the rest of the settings, or click Next.
4. The settings in the Web Module step define the basic web application (WAR) deployment
settings and the structure of the web application project. All the settings are pre-filled,
and you should normally accept them as they are.
Context Root
The context root (of the application) identifies the application in the URL used for
accessing it. For example, if the project has a myproject context and a single UI
at the context root, the URL would be http://example.com/myproject. The
wizard will suggest the project name given in the first step as the context name.
You can change the context root later in the Eclipse project properties.
Content Directory
The directory containing all the content to be included in the web application (WAR)
that is deployed to the web server. The directory is relative to the root directory of
the project.
You can just accept the defaults and click Next.
Creating the Project
41
Getting Started with Vaadin
5. The Vaadin project step page has various Vaadin-specific application settings. If you
are trying out Vaadin for the first time, you should not need to change anything. You
can set most of the settings afterwards, except the creation of the portlet configuration.
Create project template
Make the wizard create an UI class stub.
Application Name
A name for the application UI, shown in the title bar of the browser window.
Base package name
The name of the Java package under which the UI class of the application is to be
placed.
Application/UI class name
The name of the UI class for the application, in which the user interface is developed.
Portlet version
When a portlet version is selected (only Portlet 2.0 is supported), the wizard will
create the files needed for running the application in a portal. See Luku 12, Portal
Integration for more information on portlets.
Finally, click Finish to create the project.
2.5.2. Exploring the Project
After the New Project wizard exists, it has done all the work for us: an UI class skeleton has
been written to src directory and the WebContent/WEB-INF/web.xml contains a deployment
descriptor. The project hierarchy shown in the Project Explorer is shown in Kuva 2.3, ”A New
Vaadin Project”.
The Vaadin libraries and other dependencies are managed by Ivy. Notice that the libraries are
not stored under the project folder, even though they are listed in the Java Resources Libraries
ivy.xml virtual folder.
42
Exploring the Project
Getting Started with Vaadin
Kuva 2.3. A New Vaadin Project
The UI Class
The UI class created by the plugin contains the following code:
package com.example.myproject;
import com.vaadin.ui.UI;
...
@SuppressWarnings("serial")
@Theme("myproject")
public class MyprojectUI extends UI {
@WebServlet(value = "/*", asyncSupported = true)
@VaadinServletConfiguration(
productionMode = false,
ui = MyprojectUI.class)
public static class Servlet extends VaadinServlet {
}
@Override
protected void init(VaadinRequest request) {
final VerticalLayout layout = new VerticalLayout();
layout.setMargin(true);
setContent(layout);
Button button = new Button("Click Me");
button.addClickListener(new Button.ClickListener() {
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
layout.addComponent(
new Label("Thank you for clicking"));
}
});
layout.addComponent(button);
}
}
Exploring the Project
43
Getting Started with Vaadin
In a Servlet 3.0 project, the deployment is configured with servlet class and a @WebServlet
annotation. The stub includes the servlet class as a static inner class. You may want to refactor
it to a separate normal class.
In a Servlet 2.3 project, you would have a web.xml deployment descriptor.
For a more detailed treatment of the deployment, see Kohta 4.8.4, ”Using a web.xml Deployment
Descriptor”.
2.5.3. Coding Tips for Eclipse
One of the most useful features in Eclipse is code completion. Pressing Ctrl+Space in the editor
will display a popup list of possible class name and method name completions, as shown in
Kuva 2.4, ”Java Code Completion in Eclipse”, depending on the context of the cursor position.
Kuva 2.4. Java Code Completion in Eclipse
To add an import statement for a class, such as Button, simply press Ctrl+Shift+O or click
the red error indicator on the left side of the editor window. If the class is available in multiple
packages, a list of the alternatives is displayed, as shown in Kuva 2.5, ”Importing Classes
Automatically”. For server-side development, you should normally use the classes under the
com.vaadin.ui or com.vaadin.server packages. You can not use client-side classes (under
com.vaadin.client) or GWT classes for server-side development.
Kuva 2.5. Importing Classes Automatically
44
Coding Tips for Eclipse
Getting Started with Vaadin
2.5.4. Setting Up and Starting the Web Server
Eclipse IDE for Java EE Developers has the Web Standard Tools package installed, which
supports control of various web servers and automatic deployment of web content to the server
when changes are made to a project.
Make sure that Tomcat was installed with user permissions. Configuration of the web server in
Eclipse will fail if the user does not have write permissions to the configuration and deployment
directories under the Tomcat installation directory.
Follow the following steps.
1. Switch to the Servers tab in the lower panel in Eclipse. List of servers should be empty
after Eclipse is installed. Right-click on the empty area in the panel and select New Server.
2. Select Apache Tomcat v7.0 Server and set Server's host name as localhost,
which should be the default. If you have only one Tomcat installed, Server runtime has
only one choice. Click Next.
3. Add your project to the server by selecting it on the left and clicking Add to add it to the
configured projects on the right. Click Finish.
Setting Up and Starting the Web Server
45
Getting Started with Vaadin
4. The server and the project are now installed in Eclipse and are shown in the Servers
tab. To start the server, right-click on the server and select Debug. To start the server
in non-debug mode, select Start.
5. The server starts and the WebContent directory of the project is published to the server
on http://localhost:8080/myproject/.
2.5.5. Running and Debugging
Starting your application is as easy as selecting myproject from the Project Explorer and then
Run Debug As Debug on Server. Eclipse then opens the application in built-in web browser.
Kuva 2.6. Running a Vaadin Application
You can insert break points in the Java code by double-clicking on the left margin bar of the
source code window. For example, if you insert a breakpoint in the buttonClick() method
and click the What is the time? button, Eclipse will ask to switch to the Debug perspective.
Debug perspective will show where the execution stopped at the breakpoint. You can examine
and change the state of the application. To continue execution, select Resume from Run menu.
46
Running and Debugging
Getting Started with Vaadin
Kuva 2.7. Debugging a Vaadin Application
Above, we described how to debug a server-side application. Debugging client-side applications
and widgets is described in Kohta 13.6, ”Debugging Client-Side Code”.
2.6. Using Vaadin with Maven
Maven is a commonly used build and dependency management system. The Vaadin core library
and all Vaadin add-ons are available through Maven. You can use a Maven with a front-end from
Eclipse or NetBeans, or by using the command-line as described in this section.
In addition to regular Maven, you can use any Maven-compatible build or dependency management
system, such as Ivy or Gradle. For Gradle, see the Gradle Vaadin Plugin. Vaadin Plugin for
Eclipse uses Ivy for resolving dependencies in Vaadin projects, and it should provide you with
the basic Ivy configuration.
2.6.1. Working from Command-Line
You can create a new Maven project with the following command (given in one line):
$ mvn archetype:generate
-DarchetypeGroupId=com.vaadin
-DarchetypeArtifactId=vaadin-archetype-application
-DarchetypeVersion=7.x.x
-DgroupId=your.company
-DartifactId=project-name
-Dversion=1.0
-Dpackaging=war
The parameters are as follows:
archetypeGroupId
The group ID of the archetype is com.vaadin for Vaadin archetypes.
Using Vaadin with Maven
47
Getting Started with Vaadin
archetypeArtifactId
The archetype ID. Vaadin 7 currently supports vaadin-archetype-application
archetype for server-side applications and vaadin-archetype-widget for clientside widget development projects.
archetypeVersion
Version of the archetype to use. This should be LATEST for normal Vaadin releases.
For prerelease versions it should be the exact version number, such as 7.0.0.beta3.
groupId
A Maven group ID for your project. It is used for the Java package name and should
normally be your domain name reversed, such as com.example.myproject. The
group ID is also used for the Java source package name of your project, so it should
be Java compatible - only alphanumerics and an underscore.
artifactId
Identifier of the artifact, that is, your project. The identifier may contain alphanumerics,
minus, and underscore.
version
Initial version number of your application. The number must obey the Maven version
numbering format.
packaging
How will the project be packaged. It is normally war.
Creating a project can take a while as Maven fetches all the dependencies. The created project
structure is shown in Kuva 2.8, ”A New Vaadin Project with Maven”.
Kuva 2.8. A New Vaadin Project with Maven
2.6.2. Compiling and Running the Application
Before the application can be deployed, it must be compiled and packaged as a WAR package.
You can do this with the package goal as follows:
$ mvn package
The location of the resulting WAR package should be displayed in the command output. You can
then deploy it to your favorite application server.
48
Compiling and Running the Application
Getting Started with Vaadin
The easiest way to run Vaadin applications with Maven is to use the light-weight Jetty web server.
After compiling the package, all you need to do is type:
$ mvn jetty:run
The special goal starts the Jetty server in port 8080 and deploys the application. You can then
open it in a web browser at http://localhost:8080/project-name.
2.6.3. Using Add-ons and Custom Widget Sets
If you use Vaadin add-ons that include a widget set or make your custom widgets, you need to
enable widget set compilation in the POM. The required configuration is described in Kohta 17.4,
”Using Add-ons in a Maven Project”.
2.7. Creating a Project with NetBeans IDE
The easiest way to develop Vaadin application with the NetBeans IDE is to use the Vaadin Plugin
for NetBeans. It allows you to create new Vaadin projects easily and provides many features for
working
on
a
project.
Yo u
can
download
the
plugin
at
http://plugins.netbeans.org/plugin/50531/vaadin-plug-in-for-netbeans.The download page contains
a link to a plugin features overview in NetBeans Wiki.
Without the plugin, you can most easily create a Vaadin project as a Maven project using a Vaadin
archetype. You can also create a Vaadin project as a regular web application project, but it
requires many manual steps to install all the Vaadin libraries, create the UI class, configure the
servlet, create theme, and so on.
2.7.1. Maven Project from a Vaadin Archetype
Creating a Maven project with a Vaadin archetype creates an application skeleton with a UI class
and project theme, defines the web.xml deployment descriptor, and also retrieves the latest
Vaadin library automatically.
1. Select File New Project.
2. Select Maven Project from Archetype and click Next.
3. Find vaadin-archetype-application, select it, and click Next.
4. In the Name and Location step, enter Project Name, which is recommended to be
only lower-case alphabetics, as it is used also as a suggestion for the Java package
name of the project. Modify the other parameters for your project and click Finish.
Using Add-ons and Custom Widget Sets
49
Getting Started with Vaadin
Kuva 2.9. Adding a New Maven Project in NetBeans
Creating the project can take a while as Maven loads all the needed dependencies. Once created,
you can run it by right-clicking on the project in the Projects view and selecting Run. In the Select
deployment server window that opens, select Glassfish or Apache Tomcat, and click OK. If
all goes well, NetBeans starts the server in port 8080 and, depending on your system configuration,
launches the default browser to display the web application. If not, you can open it manually, for
example, at http://localhost:8080/myproject. The project name is used by default as
the context path of the application.
2.8. Creating a Project with IntelliJ IDEA
The Ultimate Edition of IntelliJ IDEA includes support for creating Vaadin applications and running
or debugging them in an integrated application server. With the Community Edition, you can
create a Vaadin application most easily with a Maven archetype and deploy it to a server with a
Maven run/debug configuration.
For more information, see the article "Creating a simple Web application and deploying it to
Tomcat" in the IntelliJ IDEA Encyclopedia wiki.
2.8.1. Configuring an Application Server
To run the application during development in the Ultimate Edition of IntelliJ IDEA, you first need
to install and configure an application server that is integrated with the IDE. The edition includes
integration with many commonly used application servers.
In the following, we configure Apache Tomcat:
1. Download and extract Tomcat installation package to a local directory, as instructed in
Kohta 2.2.3, ”Installing Apache Tomcat”.
2. Select Configure Settings.
3. Select IDE Settings Application Servers.
4. Select + Tomcat Server to add a Tomcat server, or any of the other supported servers.
A WebSocket-enabled server, such as Glassfish or TomEE, is required for server push.
5. In the Tomcat Server dialog, specify the home directory for the server.
50
Creating a Project with IntelliJ IDEA
Getting Started with Vaadin
Click OK.
6. Review the application server settings page to check that it is OK.
Then, click OK.
2.8.2. Creating a Vaadin Web Application Project
In the welcome page, do the following:
1. Download and exctract the Vaadin installation package to a local folder, as instructed
in Kohta 2.9, ”Vaadin Installation Package”.
2. Select New Project
3. In the New Project window, select Java
Creating a Vaadin Web Application Project
51
Getting Started with Vaadin
4. Enter a Project name and Project location, and select the Java SDK to be used for
the project. Vaadin requires at least Java 6. If you have not configured a Java SDK
previously, you can configure it here.
Click Next.
5. Select Web Application Vaadin to add Vaadin technology to the project.
52
Creating a Vaadin Web Application Project
Getting Started with Vaadin
6. Select Vaadin Version and Distribution installation path. You probably also want an
application stub, so select Create sample application and give a name for the generated
UI class.
Do not click Finish yet.
7. Select Application Server in the same window. Set it as an integrated server that you
have configured in IntelliJ IDEA, as described previously in Kohta 2.8.1, ”Configuring
an Application Server”.
Creating a Vaadin Web Application Project
53
Getting Started with Vaadin
8. Click Finish.
The project is created with the UI class stub and a web.xml deployment descriptor.
54
Creating a Vaadin Web Application Project
Getting Started with Vaadin
The wizard does not currently create a servlet class automatically, and uses Servlet 2.4 compatible
deployment with a web.xml deployment descriptor.
Deploying the Project
To deploy the application to the integrated web server, right-click the index.jsp file in the project
and select Run 'index.jsp'. This starts the integrated server, if it was not already running, and
launches the default browser with the application page.
2.8.3. Creating a Maven Project
You can choose to create a Maven project in IntelliJ IDEA. This is the recommended way when
using the Community Edition. You will not have the application server integration, but can deploy
the application to an application server using a run/debug configuration.
1. Select New Project
2. In the New Project window, select Maven
3. Enter a project name, location, and the Java SDK to be used for the project. Vaadin
requires at least Java 6. Click Next.
4. Give a Maven GroupID, ArtifactID, and a Version for the project, or use the defaults.
Creating a Maven Project
55
Getting Started with Vaadin
5. Check Create from archetype
6. If the Vaadin archetype is not in the list, click Add archetype, enter GroupId
com.vaadin, ArtifactId vaadin-archetype-application, and Version LATEST
(or a specific version number).
Click OK in the dialog.
7. Select the com.vaadin:vaadin-archetype-application.
56
Creating a Maven Project
Getting Started with Vaadin
Click Next.
8. Review the general Maven settings and settings for the new project. You may need to
override the settings, especially if you are creating a Maven project for the first time.
Click Finish.
Creating a Maven Project
57
Getting Started with Vaadin
Creating the Maven project takes some time as Maven fetches the dependencies. Once done,
the project is created and the Maven POM is opened in the editor.
Compiling the Project
To compile a Vaadin application using Maven, you can define a run/debug configuration to execute
a goal such as package to build the deployable WAR package. It will also compile the widget
set and theme, if necessary. See Kohta 2.6.2, ”Compiling and Running the Application” for more
details.
Compilation is included in the following instructions for deploying the application.
Deploying to a Server
There exists Maven plugins for deploying to various application servers. For example, to deploy
to Apache Tomcat, you can to configure the tomcat-maven-plugin and then execute the
tomcat:deploy goal. See the documentation of the plugin that you use for more details. If no
Maven plugin exists for a particular server, you can always use some lower-level method to
deploy the application, such as running an Ant task.
In the following, we create a run/debug configuration to build, deploy, and launch a Vaadin Maven
application on the light-weight Jetty web server.
1. Select Run Edit Configurations.
58
Creating a Maven Project
Getting Started with Vaadin
2. Select + Maven to create a new Maven run/debug configuration.
3. Enter a Name for the run configuration. For the Command line, enter "package
jetty:run to first compile and package the project, and then launch Jetty to run it.
Click OK.
4. Select the run configuration in the toolbar and click the Run button beside it.
Compiling the project takes some time on the first time, as it compiles the widget set and theme.
Once the run console pane informs that Jetty Server has been started, you can open the browser
at the default URL http://localhost:8080/.
2.9. Vaadin Installation Package
While the recommended way to install Vaadin is to use the Eclipse plugin, one of the other IDE
plugins, or a dependency management system, such as Maven, Vaadin is also available as a
ZIP distribution package.
You can download the newest Vaadin installation package from the download page at
http://vaadin.com/download/. Please use a ZIP decompression utility available in your operating
system to extract the files from the ZIP package.
2.9.1. Package Contents
README.TXT
This Readme file gives simple instructions for installing Vaadin in your project.
release-notes.html
The Release Notes contain information about the new features in the particular release,
give upgrade instructions, describe compatibility, etc. Please open the HTML file with
a web browser.
license.html
Apache License version 2.0. Please open the HTML file with a web browser.
lib folder
All dependency libraries required by Vaadin are contained within the lib folder.
Vaadin Installation Package
59
Getting Started with Vaadin
*.jar
Vaadin libraries, as described in Kohta 2.3, ”Overview of Vaadin Libraries”.
2.9.2. Installing the Libraries
You can install the Vaadin ZIP package in a few simple steps:
1. Copy the JAR files at the package root folder to the WEB-APP/lib web library folder
in the project. Some of the libraries are optional, as explained in Kohta 2.3, ”Overview
of Vaadin Libraries”.
2. Also copy the dependency JAR files at the lib folder to the WEB-APP/lib web library
folder in the project.
The location of the WEB-APP/lib folder depends on the project organization, which depends
on the development environment.
• In Eclipse Dynamic Web Application projects: WebContent/WEB-INF/lib.
• In Maven projects: src/main/webapp/WEB-INF/lib.
2.10. Using Vaadin with Scala
You can use Vaadin with any JVM compatible language, such as Scala or Groovy. There are,
however, some caveats related to libraries and project set-up. In the following, we give instructions
for creating a Scala UI in Eclipse, with the Scala IDE for Eclipse and the Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse.
1. Install the Scala IDE for Eclipse, either from an Eclipse update site or as a bundled
Eclipse distribution.
2. Open an existing Vaadin Java project or create a new one as outlined in Kohta 2.5,
”Creating and Running a Project with Eclipse”. You can delete the UI class created by
the wizard.
3. Switch to the Scala perspective by clicking the perspective in the upper-right corner of
the Eclipse window.
4. Right-click on the project folder in Project Explorer and select Configure Add Scala
Nature.
5. The web application needs scala-library.jar in its class path. If using Scala IDE,
you can copy it from somewhere under your Eclipse installation to the class path of the
web application, that is, either to the WebContent/WEB-INF/lib folder in the project
or to the library path of the application server. If copying outside Eclipse to a project,
refresh the project by selecting it and pressing F5.
You could also get it with an Ivy or Maven dependency, just make sure that the version
is same as what the Scala IDE uses.
You should now be able to create a Scala UI class, such as the following:
@Theme("mytheme")
class MyScalaUI extends UI {
override def init(request: VaadinRequest) = {
val content: VerticalLayout = new VerticalLayout
setContent(content)
60
Installing the Libraries
Getting Started with Vaadin
val label: Label = new Label("Hello, world!")
content addComponent label
// Handle user interaction
content addComponent new Button("Click Me!",
new ClickListener {
override def buttonClick(event: ClickEvent) =
Notification.show("The time is " + new Date)
})
}
}
Eclipse and Scala IDE should be able to import the Vaadin classes automatically when you press
Ctrl+Shift+O.
You need to define the Scala UI class either in a servlet class (in Servlet 3.0 project) or in a
web.xml deployment descriptor, just like described in Kohta 2.5.2, ”Exploring the Project” for
Java UIs.
The Scaladin add-on enables a more Scala-like API for Vaadin. A Vaadin 7 compatible version
is under development.
Using Vaadin with Scala
61
62
luku 3
Architecture
3.1. Overview .................................................................................................. 63
3.2. Technological Background ....................................................................... 66
3.3. Client-Side Engine ................................................................................... 68
3.4. Events and Listeners ............................................................................... 69
In Luku 1, Johdanto, we gave a short introduction to the general architecture of Vaadin. This
chapter looks deeper into the architecture at a more technical level.
3.1. Overview
Vaadin provides two development models for web applications: for the client-side (the browser)
and for the server-side. The server-driven development model is the more powerful one, allowing
application development solely on the server-side, by utilizing an AJAX-based Vaadin Client-Side
Engine that renders the user interface in the browser. The client-side model allows developing
widgets and applications in Java, which are compiled to JavaScript and executed in the browser.
The two models can share their UI widgets, themes, and back-end code and services, and can
be mixed together easily.
Kuva 3.1, ”Vaadin Runtime Architecture” gives a basic illustration of the client-side and serverside communications, in a running situation where the page with the client-side code (engine or
application) has been initially loaded in the browser.
Vaadin Framework consists of a server-side API, a client-side API, a horde of user interface
components/widgets on the both sides, themes for controlling the appearance, and a data model
that allows binding the server-side components directly to data. For client-side development, it
includes the Vaadin Compiler, which allows compiling Java to JavaScript.
Book of Vaadin
63
Architecture
Kuva 3.1. Vaadin Runtime Architecture
A server-side Vaadin application runs as a servlet in a Java web server, serving HTTP requests.
The VaadinServlet is normally used as the servlet class. The servlet receives client requests
and inteprets them as events for a particular user session. Events are associated with user
interface components and delivered to the event listeners defined in the application. If the UI
logic makes changes to the server-side user interface components, the servlet renders them in
the web browser by generating a response. The client-side engine running in the browser receives
the responses and uses them to make any necessary changes to the page in the browser.
The major parts of the server-driven development architecture and their function are as follows:
User Interface
Vaadin applications provide a user interface for the user to interface with the business
logic and data of the application. At technical level, the UI is realized as a UI class that
extends com.vaadin.ui.UI. Its main task is to create the initial user interface out of UI
components and set up event listeners to handle user input. The UI can then be loaded
in the browser using an URL, or can be embedded to any HTML page. For detailed
information about implementing a UI, see Luku 4, Writing a Server-Side Web
Application.
Please note that the term "UI" is used throughout this book to refer both to the general
UI concept as well as the technical UI class concept.
User Interface Components/Widgets
The user interface of a Vaadin application consists of components that are created
and laid out by the application. Each server-side component has a client-side
counterpart, a "widget", by which it is rendered in the browser and with which the user
interacts. The client-side widgets can also be used by client-side applications. The
server-side components relay these events to the application logic. Field components
that have a value, which the user can view or edit, can be bound to a data source (see
below). For a more detailed description of the UI component architecture, see Luku 5,
User Interface Components.
64
Overview
Architecture
Client-Side Engine
The Client-Side Engine of Vaadin manages the rendering of ther UI in the web browser
by employing various client-side widgets, counterparts of the server-side components.
It communicates user interaction to the server-side, and then again renders the changes
in the UI.The communications are made using asynchronous HTTP or HTTPS requests.
See Kohta 3.3, ”Client-Side Engine”.
Vaadin Servlet
Server-side Vaadin applications work on top of the Java Servlet API (see Kohta 3.2.5,
”Java Servlets”). The Vaadin servlet, or more exactly the VaadinServlet class, receives
requests from different clients, determines which user session they belong to by tracking
the sessions with cookies, and delegates the requests to their corresponding sessions.
You can customize the Vaadin servlet by extending it.
Themes
Vaadin makes a separation between the appearance and component structure of the
user interface. While the UI logic is handled as Java code, the presentation is defined
in themes as CSS or Sass. Vaadin provides a number of default themes. User themes
can, in addition to style sheets, include HTML templates that define custom layouts
and other resources, such as images. Themes are discussed in detail in Luku 8,
Themes.
Events
Interaction with user interface components creates events, which are first processed
on the client-side by the widgets, then passed all the way through the HTTP server,
Vaadin servlet, and the user interface components to the event listeners defined in
the application. See Kohta 3.4, ”Events and Listeners”.
Server Push
In addition to the event-driven programming model, Vaadin supports server push,
where the UI changes are pushed directly from the server to the client without a client
request or an event. This makes it possible to update UIs immediately from other
threads and other UIs, without having to wait for a request. See Kohta 11.16, ”Server
Push”.
Data Binding
In addition to the user interface model, Vaadin provides a data model for binding data
presented in field components, such as text fields, check boxes and selection
components, to a data source. Using the data model, the user interface components
can update the application data directly, often without the need for any control code.
All the field components in Vaadin use this data model internally, but any of them can
be bound to a separate data source as well. For example, you can bind a table
component to an SQL query response. For a complete overview of the Vaadin Data
Model, please refer to Luku 9, Binding Components to Data.
Client-Side Applications
In addition to server-side web applications, Vaadin supports client-side application
modules, which run in the browser. Client-side modules can use the same widgets,
themes, and back-end services as server-side Vaadin applications. They are useful
when you have a need for highly responsive UI logic, such as for games or for serving
a large number of clients with possibly stateless server-side code, and for various
other purposes, such as offering an off-line mode for server-side applications. Please
see Luku 14, Client-Side Applications for further details.
Overview
65
Architecture
Back-end
Vaadin is meant for building user interfaces, and it is recommended that other
application layers should be kept separate from the UI. The business logic can run in
the same servlet as the UI code, usually separated at least by a Java API, possibly
as EJBs, or distributed to a remote back-end service. The data storage is usually
distributed to a database management system, and is typically accessed through a
persistence solution, such as JPA.
3.2. Technological Background
This section provides an introduction to the various technologies and designs, which Vaadin is
based on. This knowledge is not necessary for using Vaadin, but provides some background if
you need to make low-level extensions to Vaadin.
3.2.1. HTML and JavaScript
The World Wide Web, with all its websites and most of the web applications, is based on the use
of the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). HTML defines the structure and formatting of web
pages, and allows inclusion of graphics and other resources. It is based on a hierarchy of elements
marked with start and end tags, such as <div> ... </div>. Vaadin specifically uses XHTML,
which is syntactically stricter than regular HTML. Vaadin uses HTML version 5, although
conservatively, to the extent supported by the major browsers, and their currently most widely
used versions.
JavaScript, on the other hand, is a programming language for embedding programs in HTML
pages. JavaScript programs can manipulate a HTML page through the Document Object Model
(DOM) of the page. They can also handle user interaction events. The Client-Side Engine of
Vaadin and its client-side widgets do exactly this, although it is actually programmed in Java,
which is compiled to JavaScript with the Vaadin Client Compiler.
Vaadin largely hides the use of HTML, allowing you to concentrate on the UI component structure
and logic. In server-side development, the UI is developed in Java using UI components and
rendered by the client-side engine as HTML, but it is possible to use HTML templates for defining
the layout, as well as HTML formatting in many text elements. Also when developing client-side
widgets and UIs, the built-in widgets in the framework hide most of HTML DOM manipulation.
3.2.2. Styling with CSS and Sass
While HTML defines the content and structure of a web page, Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) is
a language for defining the visual style, such as colors, text sizes, and margins. CSS is based
on a set of rules that are matched with the HTML structure by the browser. The properties defined
in the rules determine the visual appearance of the matching HTML elements.
Sass, or Syntactically Awesome Stylesheets, is an extension of the CSS language, which allows
the use of variables, nesting, and many other syntactic features that make the use of CSS easier
and clearer. Sass has two alternative formats, SCSS, which is a superset of the syntax of CSS3,
and an older indented syntax, which is more concise.
Vaadin handles styling with themes defined with CSS or Sass, and associated images and other
resources. Vaadin themes are specifically written in SCSS. In development mode, Sass files are
compiled automatically to CSS. For production use, you compile the Sass files to CSS with the
included compiler. The use of themes is documented in detail in Luku 8, Themes, which also
gives an introduction to CSS and Sass.
66
Technological Background
Architecture
3.2.3. AJAX
AJAX, short for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML, is a technique for developing web applications
with responsive user interaction, similar to traditional desktop applications. Conventional web
applications, be they JavaScript-enabled or not, can get new page content from the server only
by loading an entire new page. AJAX-enabled pages, on the other hand, handle the user interaction
in JavaScript, send a request to the server asynchronously (without reloading the page), receive
updated content in the response, and modify the page accordingly. This way, only small parts of
the page data need to be loaded. This goal is archieved by the use of a certain set of technologies:
XHTML, CSS, DOM, JavaScript, and the XMLHttpRequest API in JavaScript. XML is just one
way to serialize data between the client and the server, and in Vaadin it is serialized with the
more efficient JSON.
The asynchronous requests used in AJAX are made possible by the XMLHttpRequest class in
JavaScript. The API feature is available in all major browsers and is under way to become a W3C
standard.
The communication of complex data between the browser and the server requires some sort of
serialization (or marshalling) of data objects. The Vaadin servlet and the client-side engine handle
the serialization of shared state objects from the server-side components to the client-side widgets,
as well as serialization of RPC calls between the widgets and the server-side components.
3.2.4. Google Web Toolkit
The client-side framework of Vaadin is based on the Google Web Toolkit (GWT). Its purpose is
to make it possible to develop web user interfaces that run in the browser easily with Java instead
of JavaScript. Client-side modules are developed with Java and compiled into JavaScript with
the Vaadin Compiler, which is an extension of the GWT Compiler. The client-side framework also
hides much of the HTML DOM manipulation and enables handling browser events in Java.
GWT is essentially a client-side technology, normally used to develop user interface logic in the
web browser. Pure client-side modules still need to communicate with a server using RPC calls
and by serializing any data. The server-driven development mode in Vaadin effectively hides all
the client-server communications and allows handling user interaction logic in a server-side
application. This makes the architecture of an AJAX-based web application much simpler.
Nevertheless, Vaadin also allows developing pure client-side applications, as described in Luku 14,
Client-Side Applications.
See Kohta 3.3, ”Client-Side Engine” for a description of how the client-side framework based on
GWT is used in the Client-Side Engine of Vaadin. Luku 13, Client-Side Vaadin Development
provides information about the client-side development, and Luku 16, Integrating with the ServerSide about the integration of client-side widgets with the server-side components.
3.2.5. Java Servlets
A Java Servlet is a class that is executed in a Java web server (a Servlet container) to extend
the capabilities of the server. In practice, it is normally a part of a web application, which can
contain HTML pages to provide static content, and JavaServer Pages (JSP) and Java Servlets
to provide dynamic content. This is illustrated in Kuva 3.2, ”Java Web Applications and Servlets”.
Web applications are usually packaged and deployed to a server as WAR (Web application
ARchive) files, which are Java JAR packages, which in turn are ZIP compressed packages. The
web application is defined in a WEB-INF/web.xml deployment descriptor, which defines the
servlet classes and also the mappings from request URL paths to the servlets. This is described
AJAX
67
Architecture
Kuva 3.2. Java Web Applications and Servlets
in more detail in Kohta 4.8.4, ”Using a web.xml Deployment Descriptor”. The class path for the
servlets and their dependencies includes the WEB-INF/classes and WEB-INF/lib folders.
The WEB-INF is a special hidden folder that can not be accessed by its URL path.
The servlets are Java classes that handle HTTP requests passed to them by the server through
the Java Servlet API. They can generate HTML or other content as a response. JSP pages, on
the other hand, are HTML pages, which allow including Java source code embedded in the pages.
They are actually translated to Java source files by the container and then compiled to servlets.
The UIs of server-side Vaadin applications run as servlets. They are wrapped inside a
VaadinServlet servlet class, which handles session tracking and other tasks. On the initial
request, it returns an HTML loader page and then mostly JSON responses to synchronize the
widgets and their server-side counterparts. It also serves various resources, such as themes.
The server-side UIs are implemented as classes extending the UI class, as described in Luku 4,
Writing a Server-Side Web Application. The class is given as a parameter to the Vaadin Servlet
in the web.xml deployment descriptor.
The Vaadin Client-Side Engine as well as client-side Vaadin applications are loaded to the browser
as static JavaScript files. The client-side engine, or widget set in technical terms, needs to be
located under the VAADIN/widgetsets path in the web application. The precompiled default
widget set is served from the vaadin-client-compiled JAR by the Vaadin Servlet.
3.3. Client-Side Engine
The user interface of a server-side Vaadin application is rendered in the browser by the Vaadin
Client-Side Engine. It is loaded in the browser when the page with the Vaadin UI is opened. The
server-side UI components are rendered using widgets (as they are called in Google Web Toolkit)
on the client-side. The client-side engine is illustrated in Kuva 3.3, ”Vaadin Client-Side Engine”.
68
Client-Side Engine
Architecture
Kuva 3.3. Vaadin Client-Side Engine
The client-side framework includes two kinds of built-in widgets: GWT widgets and Vaadin-specific
widgets. The two widget collections have significant overlap, where the Vaadin widgets provide
a bit different features than the GWT widgets. In addition, many add-on widgets and their serverside counterparts exist, and you can easily download and install them, as described in Luku 17,
Using Vaadin Add-ons. You can also develop your own widgets, as described in Luku 13, ClientSide Vaadin Development.
The rendering with widgets, as well as the communication to the server-side, is handled in the
ApplicationConnection. Connecting the widgets with their server-side counterparts is done in
connectors, and there is one for each widget that has a server-side counterpart. The framework
handles serialization of component state transparently, and includes an RPC mechanism between
the two sides. Integration of widgets with their server-side counterpart components is described
in Luku 16, Integrating with the Server-Side.
3.4. Events and Listeners
Vaadin offers an event-driven programming model for handling user interaction. When a user
does something in the user interface, such as clicks a button or selects an item, the application
needs to know about it. Many Java-based user interface frameworks follow the Event-Listener
pattern (also known as the Observer design pattern) to communicate user input to the application
logic. So does Vaadin. The design pattern involves two kinds of elements: an object that generates
("fires" or "emits") events and a number of listeners that listen for the events. When such an event
occurs, the object sends a notification about it to all the listeners. In a typical case, there is only
one listener.
Events can serve many kinds of purposes. In Vaadin, the usual purpose of events is handling
user interaction in a user interface. Session management can require special events, such as
time-out, in which case the event would actually be the lack of user interaction. Time-out is a
special case of timed or scheduled events, where an event occurs at a specific date and time or
when a set time has passed.
Events and Listeners
69
Architecture
To receive events of a particular type, an application must register a listener object with the event
source. The listeners are registered in the components with an add*Listener() method (with
a method name specific to the listener).
Most components that have related events define their own event class and the corresponding
listener class. For example, the Button has Button.ClickEvent events, which can be listened
to through the Button.ClickListener interface.
In the following, we handle button clicks with a listener implemented as an anonymous class:
final Button button = new Button("Push it!");
button.addClickListener(new Button.ClickListener() {
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
button.setCaption("You pushed it!");
}
});
Kuva 3.4, ”Class Diagram of a Button Click Listener” illustrates the case where an applicationspecific class inherits the Button.ClickListener interface to be able to listen for button click
events. The application must instantiate the listener class and register it with
addClickListener(). It can be an anonymous class, such as the one above. When an event
occurs, an event object is instantiated, in this case a Button.ClickEvent. The event object knows
the related UI component, in this case the Button.
Kuva 3.4. Class Diagram of a Button Click Listener
In the ancient times of C programming, callback functions filled largely the same need as listeners
do now. In object-oriented languages, we usually only have classes and methods, not functions,
so the application has to give a class interface instead of a callback function pointer to the
framework.
Kohta 4.3, ”Handling Events with Listeners” goes into details of handling events in practice.
70
Events and Listeners
Osa II. Server-Side Framework
Of the two sides of Vaadin, the server-side code runs in a Java web server as a servlet, or a portlet in a
portal. It offers a server-side API with dozens of user interface components for developing user interfaces,
and employs a client-side engine to render them in the browser. User interaction is communicated
transparently to the server-side application. The user interface can be styled with themes, and bound to
data through the Vaadin Data Model.
luku 4
Writing a
Server-Side Web
Application
4.1. Overview .................................................................................................. 73
4.2. Building the UI ......................................................................................... 76
4.3. Handling Events with Listeners ................................................................ 80
4.4. Images and Other Resources .................................................................. 82
4.5. Handling Errors ........................................................................................ 86
4.6. Notifications ............................................................................................. 88
4.7. Application Lifecycle ................................................................................ 91
4.8. Deploying an Application ......................................................................... 96
This chapter provides the fundamentals of server-side web application development with Vaadin,
concentrating on the basic elements of an application from a practical point-of-view.
4.1. Overview
A server-side Vaadin application runs as a Java Servlet in a servlet container. The Java Servlet
API is, however, hidden behind the framework.The user interface of the application is implemented
as a UI class, which needs to create and manage the user interface components that make up
Book of Vaadin
73
Writing a Server-Side Web Application
the user interface. User input is handled with event listeners, although it is also possible to bind
the user interface components directly to data. The visual style of the application is defined in
themes as CSS and SCSS files. Icons, other images, and downloadable files are handled as
resources, which can be external or served by the application server or the application itself.
Kuva 4.1. Server-Side Application Architecture
Kuva 4.1, ”Server-Side Application Architecture” illustrates the basic architecture of an application
made with the Vaadin Framework, with all the major elements, which are introduced below and
discussed in detail in this chapter.
First of all, a Vaadin application must have one or more UI classes that extend the abstract
com.vaadin.ui.UI class and implement the init() method. A custom theme can be defined as
an annotation for the UI.
@Theme("hellotheme")
public class HelloWorld extends UI {
protected void init(VaadinRequest request) {
... initialization code goes here ...
}
}
A UI is a viewport to a Vaadin application running in a web page. A web page can actually have
multiple such UIs within it. Such situation is typical especially with portlets in a portal. An application
can run in multiple browser windows, each having a distinct UI instance. The UIs of an application
can be the same UI class or different.
74
Overview
Writing a Server-Side Web Application
Vaadin framework handles servlet requests internally and associates the requests with user
sessions and a UI state. Because of this, you can develop Vaadin applications much like you
would develop desktop applications.
The most important task in the initialization is the creation of the initial user interface. This, and
the deployment of a UI as a Java Servlet in the Servlet container, as described in Kohta 4.8,
”Deploying an Application”, are the minimal requirements for an application.
Below is a short overview of the other basic elements of an application besides UI:
UI
A UI represents an HTML fragment in which a Vaadin application runs in a web page.
It typically fills the entire page, but can also be just a part of a page. You normally
develop a Vaadin application by extending the UI class and adding content to it. A UI
is essentially a viewport connected to a user session of an application, and you can
have many such views, especially in a multi-window application. Normally, when the
user opens a new page with the URL of the Vaadin UI, a new UI (and the associated
Page object) is automatically created for it. All of them share the same user session.
The current UI object can be accessed globally with UI.getCurrent(). The static
method returns the thread-local UI instance for the currently processed request (see
Kohta 11.15.3, ”ThreadLocal Pattern”).
Page
A UI is associated with a Page object that represents the web page as well as the
browser window in which the UI runs.
The Page object for the currently processed request can be accessed globally from a
Vaadin application with Page.getCurrent(). This is equivalent to calling
UI.getCurrent().getPage().
Vaadin Session
A VaadinSession object represents a user session with one or more UIs open in the
application. A session starts when a user first opens a UI of a Vaadin application, and
closes when the session expires in the server or when it is closed explicitly.
User Interface Components
The user interface consists of components that are created by the application. They
are laid out hierarchically using special layout components, with a content root layout
at the top of the hierarchy. User interaction with the components causes events related
to the component, which the application can handle. Field components are intended
for inputting values and can be directly bound to data using the Vaadin Data Model.
You can make your own user interface components through either inheritance or
composition. For a thorough reference of user interface components, see Luku 5, User
Interface Components, for layout components, see Luku 6, Managing Layout, and for
compositing components, see Kohta 5.24, ”Component Composition with
CustomComponent”.
Events and Listeners
Vaadin follows an event-driven programming paradigm, in which events, and listeners
that handle the events, are the basis of handling user interaction in an application
(although also server push is possible as described in Kohta 11.16, ”Server Push”).
Kohta 3.4, ”Events and Listeners” gave an introduction to events and listeners from
an architectural point-of-view, while Kohta 4.3, ”Handling Events with Listeners” later
in this chapter takes a more practical view.
Overview
75
Writing a Server-Side Web Application
Resources
A user interface can display images or have links to web pages or downloadable
documents. These are handled as resources, which can be external or provided by
the web server or the application itself. Kohta 4.4, ”Images and Other Resources” gives
a practical overview of the different types of resources.
Themes
The presentation and logic of the user interface are separated. While the UI logic is
handled as Java code, the presentation is defined in themes as CSS or SCSS. Vaadin
includes some built-in themes. User-defined themes can, in addition to style sheets,
include HTML templates that define custom layouts and other theme resources, such
as images. Themes are discussed in detail in Luku 8, Themes, custom layouts in
Kohta 6.14, ”Custom Layouts”, and theme resources in Kohta 4.4.4, ”Theme
Resources”.
Data Binding
Field components are essentially views to data, represented in the Vaadin Data Model.
Using the data model, the components can get their values from and update user input
to the data model directly, without the need for any control code. A field component is
always bound to a property and a group of fields to an item that holds the properties.
Items can be collected in a container, which can act as a data source for some
components such as tables or lists. While all the components have a default data
model, they can be bound to a user-defined data source. For example, you can bind
a Table component to an SQL query response. For a complete overview of data binding
in Vaadin, please refer to Luku 9, Binding Components to Data.
4.2. Building the UI
Vaadin user interfaces are built hierarchically from components, so that the leaf components are
contained within layout components and other component containers. Building the hierarchy
starts from the top (or bottom - whichever way you like to think about it), from the UI class of the
application. You normally set a layout component as the content of the UI and fill it with other
components.
public class MyHierarchicalUI extends UI {
@Override
protected void init(VaadinRequest request) {
// The root of the component hierarchy
VerticalLayout content = new VerticalLayout();
content.setSizeFull(); // Use entire window
setContent(content);
// Attach to the UI
// Add some component
content.addComponent(new Label("Hello!"));
// Layout inside layout
HorizontalLayout hor = new HorizontalLayout();
hor.setSizeFull(); // Use all available space
// Couple of horizontally laid out components
Tree tree = new Tree("My Tree",
TreeExample.createTreeContent());
hor.addComponent(tree);
Table table = new Table("My Table",
TableExample.generateContent());
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Building the UI
Writing a Server-Side Web Application
table.setSizeFull();
hor.addComponent(table);
hor.setExpandRatio(table, 1); // Expand to fill
content.addComponent(hor);
content.setExpandRatio(hor, 1); // Expand to fill
}
}
The component hierarchy could be illustrated with a tree as follows:
UI
`-- VerticalLayout
|-- Label
`-- HorizontalLayout
|-- Tree
`-- Table
The result is shown in Kuva 4.2, ”Simple Hierarchical UI”.
Kuva 4.2. Simple Hierarchical UI
The built-in components are described in Luku 5, User Interface Components and the layout
components in Luku 6, Managing Layout.
The example application described above just is, it does not do anything. User interaction is
handled with event listeners, as described a bit later in Kohta 4.3, ”Handling Events with Listeners”.
4.2.1. Application Architecture
Once your application grows beyond a dozen or so lines, which is usually quite soon, you need
to start considering the application architecture more closely. You are free to use any objectoriented techniques available in Java to organize your code in methods, classes, packages, and
libraries. An architecture defines how these modules communicate together and what sort of
dependencies they have between them. It also defines the scope of the application. The scope
of this book, however, only gives a possibility to mention some of the most common architectural
patterns in Vaadin applications.
The subsequent sections describe some basic application patterns. For more information about
common architectures, see Kohta 11.10, ”Advanced Application Architectures”, which discusses
layered architectures, the Model-View-Presenter (MVP) pattern, and so forth. The Kohta 11.15,
”Accessing Session-Global Data” discusses the problem of passing essentially global references
around, a common problem which is also visited in Kohta 4.2.4, ”Accessing UI, Page, Session,
and Service”.
Application Architecture
77
Writing a Server-Side Web Application
4.2.2. Compositing Components
User interfaces typically contain many user interface components in a layout hierarchy. Vaadin
provides many layout components for laying contained components vertically, horizontally, in a
grid, and in many other ways.You can extend layout components to create composite components.
class MyView extends VerticalLayout {
TextField entry
= new TextField("Enter this");
Label
display = new Label("See this");
Button
click
= new Button("Click This");
public MyView() {
addComponent(entry);
addComponent(display);
addComponent(click);
// Configure it a bit
setSizeFull();
addStyleName("myview");
}
}
// Use it
Layout myview = new MyView();
This composition pattern is especially supported for creating forms, as described in Kohta 9.4.3,
”Binding Member Fields”.
While extending layouts is an easy way to make component composition, it is a good practice to
encapsulate implementation details, such as the exact layout component used. Otherwise, the
users of such a composite could begin to rely on such implementation details, which would make
changes harder. For this purpose, Vaadin has a special CustomComponent wrapper, which
hides the content representation.
class MyView extends CustomComponent {
TextField entry
= new TextField("Enter this");
Label
display = new Label("See this");
Button
click
= new Button("Click This");
public MyView() {
Layout layout = new VerticalLayout();
layout.addComponent(entry);
layout.addComponent(display);
layout.addComponent(click);
setCompositionRoot(layout);
setSizeFull();
}
}
// Use it
MyView myview = new MyView();
For a more detailed description of the CustomComponent, see Kohta 5.24, ”Component
Composition with CustomComponent”. The Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse also includes a visual
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editor for composite components, as described in Luku 7, Visual User Interface Design with
Eclipse.
4.2.3. View Navigation
While the most simple applications have just a single view (or screen), perhaps most have many.
Even in a single view, you often want to have sub-views, for example to display different content.
Kuva 4.3, ”Navigation Between Views” illustrates a typical navigation between different top-level
views of an application, and a main view with sub-views.
Kuva 4.3. Navigation Between Views
The Navigator described in Kohta 11.9, ”Navigating in an Application” is a view manager that
provides a flexible way to navigate between views and sub-views, while managing the URI
fragment in the page URL to allow bookmarking, linking, and going back in browser history.
Often Vaadin application views are part of something bigger. In such cases, you may need to
integrate the Vaadin applications with the other website. You can use the embedding techniques
described in Kohta 11.2, ”Embedding UIs in Web Pages”.
4.2.4. Accessing UI, Page, Session, and Service
You can get the UI and the page to which a component is attached to with getUI() and
getPage().
However, the values are null until the component is attached to the UI, and typically, when you
need it in constructors, it is not. It is therefore preferable to access the current UI, page, session,
and service objects from anywhere in the application using the static getCurrent() methods
in the respective UI, Page, VaadinSession, and VaadinService classes.
// Set the default locale of the UI
UI.getCurrent().setLocale(new Locale("en"));
// Set the page title (window or tab caption)
Page.getCurrent().setTitle("My Page");
// Set a session attribute
VaadinSession.getCurrent().setAttribute("myattrib", "hello");
View Navigation
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// Access the HTTP service parameters
File baseDir = VaadinService.getCurrent().getBaseDirectory();
You can get the page and the session also from a UI with getPage() and getSession() and
the service from VaadinSession with getService().
The static methods use the built-in ThreadLocal support in the classes. The pattern is described
in Kohta 11.15.3, ”ThreadLocal Pattern”.
4.3. Handling Events with Listeners
Let us put into practice what we learned of event handling in Kohta 3.4, ”Events and Listeners”.
You can implement listener interfaces in a regular class, but it brings the problem with
differentiating between different event sources. Using anonymous class for listeners is
recommended in most cases.
4.3.1. Implementing a Listener in a Regular Class
The following example follows a typical pattern where you have a Button component and a
listener that handles user interaction (clicks) communicated to the application as events. Here
we define a class that listens to click events.
public class MyComposite extends CustomComponent
implements Button.ClickListener {
Button button; // Defined here for access
public MyComposite() {
Layout layout = new HorizontalLayout();
// Just a single component in this composition
button = new Button("Do not push this");
button.addClickListener(this);
layout.addComponent(button);
setCompositionRoot(layout);
}
// The listener method implementation
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
button.setCaption("Do not push this again");
}
}
4.3.2. Differentiating Between Event Sources
If an application receives events of the same type from multiple sources, such as multiple buttons,
it has to be able to distinguish between the sources. If using a regular class listener, distinguishing
between the components can be done by comparing the source of the event with each of the
components. The method for identifying the source depends on the event type.
public class TheButtons extends CustomComponent
implements Button.ClickListener {
Button onebutton;
Button toobutton;
public TheButtons() {
onebutton = new Button("Button One", this);
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toobutton = new Button("A Button Too", this);
// Put them in some layout
Layout root = new HorizontalLayout();
root.addComponent(onebutton);
root.addComponent(toobutton);
setCompositionRoot(root);
}
@Override
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
// Differentiate targets by event source
if (event.getButton() == onebutton)
onebutton.setCaption ("Pushed one");
else if (event.getButton() == toobutton)
toobutton.setCaption ("Pushed too");
}
}
Other techniques exist for separating between event sources, such as using object properties,
names, or captions to separate between them. Using captions or any other visible text is generally
discouraged, as it may create problems for internationalization. Using other symbolic strings can
also be dangerous, because the syntax of such strings is checked only at runtime.
4.3.3. The Easy Way: Using Anonymous Classes
By far the easiest and the most common way to handle events is to use anonymous local classes.
It encapsulates the handling of events to where the component is defined and does not require
cumbering the managing class with interface implementations. The following example defines
an anonymous class that inherits the Button.ClickListener interface.
// Have a component that fires click events
final Button button = new Button("Click Me!");
// Handle the events with an anonymous class
button.addClickListener(new Button.ClickListener() {
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
button.setCaption("You made me click!");
}
});
Local objects referenced from within an anonymous class, such as the Button object in the above
example, must be declared final.
Most components allow passing a listener to the constructor, thereby losing a line or two. However,
notice that if accessing the component that is constructed from an anonymous class, you must
use a reference that is declared before the constructor is executed, for example as a member
variable in the outer class. If it is declared in the same expression where the constructor is called,
it doesn't yet exist. In such cases, you need to get a reference to the component from the event
object.
final Button button = new Button("Click It!",
new Button.ClickListener() {
@Override
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
event.getButton().setCaption("Done!");
}
});
The Easy Way: Using Anonymous Classes
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4.4. Images and Other Resources
Web applications can display various resources, such as images, other embedded content, or
downloadable files, that the browser has to load from the server. Image resources are typically
displayed with the Image component or as component icons. Flash animations can be displayed
with Flash, embedded browser frames with BrowserFrame, and other content with the Embedded
component, as described in Kohta 5.19, ”Embedded Resources”. Downloadable files are usually
provided by clicking a Link.
There are several ways to how such resources can be provided by the web server. Static resources
can be provided without having to ask for them from the application. For dynamic resources, the
user application must be able to create them dynamically. The resource request interfaces in
Vaadin allow applications to both refer to static resources as well as dynamically create them.
The dynamic creation includes the StreamResource class and the RequestHandler described
in Kohta 11.4, ”Request Handlers”.
Vaadin also provides low-level facilities for retrieving the URI and other parameters of a HTTP
request. We will first look into how applications can provide various kinds of resources and then
look into low-level interfaces for handling URIs and parameters to provide resources and
functionalities.
Notice that using request handlers to create "pages" is not normally meaningful in Vaadin or in
AJAX applications generally. Please see Kohta 3.2.3, ”AJAX” for a detailed explanation.
4.4.1. Resource Interfaces and Classes
The resource classes in Vaadin are grouped under two interfaces: a generic Resource interface
and a more specific ConnectorResource interface for resources provided by the servlet.
Kuva 4.4. Resource Interface and Class Diagram
4.4.2. File Resources
File resources are files stored anywhere in the file system. As such, they can not be retrieved by
a regular URL from the server, but need to be requested through the Vaadin servlet. The use of
file resources is typically necessary for persistent user data that is not packaged in the web
application, which would not be persistent over redeployments.
A file object that can be accessed as a file resource is defined with the standard java.io.File
class. You can create the file either with an absolute or relative path, but the base path of the
relative path depends on the installation of the web server. For example, with Apache Tomcat,
the default current directory would be the installation path of Tomcat.
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In the following example, we provide an image resource from a file stored in the web application.
Notice that the image is stored under the WEB-INF folder, which is a special folder that is never
accessible using an URL, unlike the other folders of a web application. This is a security solution
- another would be to store the resource elsewhere in the file system.
// Find the application directory
String basepath = VaadinService.getCurrent()
.getBaseDirectory().getAbsolutePath();
// Image as a file resource
FileResource resource = new FileResource(new File(basepath +
"/WEB-INF/images/image.png"));
// Show the image in the application
Image image = new Image("Image from file", resource);
// Let the user view the file in browser or download it
Link link = new Link("Link to the image file", resource);
The result, as well as the folder structure where the file is stored under a regular Eclipse Vaadin
project, is shown in Kuva 4.5, ”File Resource”.
Kuva 4.5. File Resource
4.4.3. Class Loader Resources
The ClassResource allows resources to be loaded from the class path using Java Class Loader.
Normally, the relevant class path entry is the WEB-INF/classes folder under the web application,
where the Java compilation should compile the Java classes and copy other files from the source
tree.
The one-line example below loads an image resource from the application package and displays
it in an Image component.
layout.addComponent(new Image(null,
new ClassResource("smiley.jpg")));
4.4.4. Theme Resources
Theme resources of ThemeResource class are files, typically images, included in a theme. A
theme is located with the path VAADIN/themes/themename in a web application. The name
of a theme resource is given as the parameter for the constructor, with a path relative to the
theme folder.
// A theme resource in the current theme ("mytheme")
// Located in: VAADIN/themes/mytheme/img/themeimage.png
ThemeResource resource = new ThemeResource("img/themeimage.png");
// Use the resource
Image image = new Image("My Theme Image", resource);
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The result is shown in Kuva 4.6, ”Theme Resources”, also illustrating the folder structure for the
theme resource file in an Eclipse project.
Kuva 4.6. Theme Resources
To use theme resources, you must set the theme for the UI. See Luku 8, Themes for more
information regarding themes.
4.4.5. Stream Resources
Stream resources allow creating dynamic resource content. Charts are typical examples of
dynamic images. To define a stream resource, you need to implement the
StreamResource.StreamSource interface and its getStream() method. The method needs
to return an InputStream from which the stream can be read.
The following example demonstrates the creation of a simple image in PNG image format.
import java.awt.image.*;
public class MyImageSource
implements StreamResource.StreamSource {
ByteArrayOutputStream imagebuffer = null;
int reloads = 0;
/* We need to implement this method that returns
* the resource as a stream. */
public InputStream getStream () {
/* Create an image and draw something on it. */
BufferedImage image = new BufferedImage (200, 200,
BufferedImage.TYPE_INT_RGB);
Graphics drawable = image.getGraphics();
drawable.setColor(Color.lightGray);
drawable.fillRect(0,0,200,200);
drawable.setColor(Color.yellow);
drawable.fillOval(25,25,150,150);
drawable.setColor(Color.blue);
drawable.drawRect(0,0,199,199);
drawable.setColor(Color.black);
drawable.drawString("Reloads="+reloads, 75, 100);
reloads++;
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try {
/* Write the image to a buffer. */
imagebuffer = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
ImageIO.write(image, "png", imagebuffer);
/* Return a stream from the buffer. */
return new ByteArrayInputStream(
imagebuffer.toByteArray());
} catch (IOException e) {
return null;
}
}
}
The content of the generated image is dynamic, as it updates the reloads counter with every call.
The ImageIO.write() method writes the image to an output stream, while we had to return an
input stream, so we stored the image contents to a temporary buffer.
Below we display the image with the Image component.
// Create an instance of our stream source.
StreamResource.StreamSource imagesource = new MyImageSource ();
// Create a resource that uses the stream source and give it a name.
// The constructor will automatically register the resource in
// the application.
StreamResource resource =
new StreamResource(imagesource, "myimage.png");
// Create an image component that gets its contents
// from the resource.
layout.addComponent(new Image("Image title", resource));
The resulting image is shown in Kuva 4.7, ”A Stream Resource”.
Kuva 4.7. A Stream Resource
Another way to create dynamic content is a request handler, described in Kohta 11.4, ”Request
Handlers”.
Stream Resources
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4.5. Handling Errors
4.5.1. Error Indicator and Message
All components have a built-in error indicator that is turned on if validating the component fails,
and can be set explicitly with setComponentError(). Usually, the error indicator is placed
right of the component caption. The error indicator is part of the component caption, so its
placement is usually managed by the layout in which the component is contained, but some
components handle it themselves. Hovering the mouse pointer over the field displays the error
message.
textfield.setComponentError(new UserError("Bad value"));
button.setComponentError(new UserError("Bad click"));
The result is shown in Kuva 4.8, ”Error Indicator Active”.
Kuva 4.8. Error Indicator Active
4.5.2. Customizing System Messages
System messages are notifications that indicate a major invalid state in an application that usually
requires restarting the application. Session timeout is perhaps the most typical such state.
System messages are strings managed in the SystemMessages class.
sessionExpired
Application servlet session expired. A session expires if no server requests are made
during the session timeout period. The session timeout can be configured with the
session-timeout parameter in web.xml, as described in Kohta 4.8.4, ”Using a
web.xml Deployment Descriptor”.
communicationError
An unspecified communication problem between the Vaadin Client-Side Engine and
the application server. The server may be unavailable or there is some other problem.
authenticationError
This error occurs if 401 (Unauthorized) response to a request is received from the
server.
internalError
A serious internal problem, possibly indicating a bug in Vaadin Client-Side Engine or
in some custom client-side code.
outOfSync
The client-side state is invalid with respect to server-side state.
cookiesDisabled
Informs the user that cookies are disabled in the browser and the application does not
work without them.
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Each message has four properties: a short caption, the actual message, a URL to which to redirect
after displaying the message, and property indicating whether the notification is enabled.
Additional details may be written (in English) to the debug console window described in Kohta 11.3,
”Debug Mode and Window”.
You can override the default system messages by setting the SystemMessagesProvider in
the VaadinService.You need to implement the getSystemMessages() method, which should
return a SystemMessages object. The easiest way to customize the messages is to use a
CustomizedSystemMessages object.
You can set the system message provider in the servletInitialized() method of a custom
servlet class, for example as follows:
getService().setSystemMessagesProvider(
new SystemMessagesProvider() {
@Override
public SystemMessages getSystemMessages(
SystemMessagesInfo systemMessagesInfo) {
CustomizedSystemMessages messages =
new CustomizedSystemMessages();
messages.setCommunicationErrorCaption("Comm Err");
messages.setCommunicationErrorMessage("This is bad.");
messages.setCommunicationErrorNotificationEnabled(true);
messages.setCommunicationErrorURL("http://vaadin.com/");
return messages;
}
});
See Kohta 4.7.2, ”Vaadin Servlet, Portlet, and Service” for information about customizing Vaadin
servlets.
4.5.3. Handling Uncaught Exceptions
Handling events can result in exceptions either in the application logic or in the framework itself,
but some of them may not be caught properly by the application. Any such exceptions are
eventually caught by the framework. It delegates the exceptions to the DefaultErrorHandler,
which displays the error as a component error, that is, with a small red "!" -sign (depending on
the theme). If the user hovers the mouse pointer over it, the entire backtrace of the exception is
shown in a large tooltip box, as illustrated in Kuva 4.9, ”Uncaught Exception in Component Error
Indicator”.
Kuva 4.9. Uncaught Exception in Component Error Indicator
Handling Uncaught Exceptions
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You can customize the default error handling by implementing a custom ErrorHandler and
enabling it with setErrorHandler() in any of the components in the component hierarchy,
including the UI, or in the VaadinSession object. You can either implement the ErrorHandler
or extend the DefaultErrorHandler. In the following example, we modify the behavior of the
default handler.
// Here's some code that produces an uncaught exception
final VerticalLayout layout = new VerticalLayout();
final Button button = new Button("Click Me!",
new Button.ClickListener() {
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
((String)null).length(); // Null-pointer exception
}
});
layout.addComponent(button);
// Configure the error handler for the UI
UI.getCurrent().setErrorHandler(new DefaultErrorHandler() {
@Override
public void error(com.vaadin.server.ErrorEvent event) {
// Find the final cause
String cause = "<b>The click failed because:</b><br/>";
for (Throwable t = event.getThrowable(); t != null;
t = t.getCause())
if (t.getCause() == null) // We're at final cause
cause += t.getClass().getName() + "<br/>";
// Display the error message in a custom fashion
layout.addComponent(new Label(cause, ContentMode.HTML));
// Do the default error handling (optional)
doDefault(event);
}
});
The above example also demonstrates how to dig up the final cause from the cause stack.
When extending DefaultErrorHandler, you can call doDefault() as was done above to run
the default error handling, such as set the component error for the component where the exception
was thrown. See the source code of the implementation for more details. You can call
findAbstractComponent(event) to find the component that caused the error. If the error
is not associated with a component, it returns null.
4.6. Notifications
Notifications are error or information boxes that appear briefly, typically at the center of the screen.
A notification box has a caption and an optional description and icon. The box stays on the screen
either for a preset time or until the user clicks it. The notification type defines the default
appearance and behaviour of a notification.
There are two ways to create a notification. The easiest is to use a static shorthand
Notification.show() method, which takes the caption of the notification as a parameter,
and an optional description and notification type, and displays it in the current page.
Notification.show("This is the caption",
"This is the description",
Notification.Type.WARNING_MESSAGE);
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Kuva 4.10. Notification
For more control, you can create a Notification object. Different constructors exist for taking just
the caption, and optionally the description, notification type, and whether HTML is allowed or not.
Notifications are shown in a Page, typically the current page.
new Notification("This is a warning",
"<br/>This is the <i>last</i> warning",
Notification.TYPE_WARNING_MESSAGE, true)
.show(Page.getCurrent());
The caption and description are by default written on the same line. If you want to have a line
break between them, use the XHTML line break markup "<br/>" if HTML is enabled, or "\n" if
not. HTML is disabled by default, but can be enabled with setHtmlContentAllowed(true).
When enabled, you can use any XHTML markup in the caption and description of a notification.
If it is in any way possible to get the notification content from user input, you should either disallow
HTML or sanitize the content carefully, as noted in Kohta 11.8.1, ”Sanitizing User Input to Prevent
Cross-Site Scripting”.
Kuva 4.11. Notification with HTML Formatting
4.6.1. Notification Type
The notification type defines the overall default style and behaviour of a notification. If no
notification type is given, the "humanized" type is used as the default. The notification types,
listed below, are defined in the Notification.Type class.
TYPE_HUMANIZED_MESSAGE
A user-friendly message that does not annoy too much: it does not require confirmation
by clicking and disappears quickly. It is centered and has a neutral gray color.
TYPE_WARNING_MESSAGE
Warnings are messages of medium importance. They are displayed with colors that
are neither neutral nor too distractive. A warning is displayed for 1.5 seconds, but the
Notification Type
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user can click the message box to dismiss it. The user can continue to interact with
the application while the warning is displayed.
TYPE_ERROR_MESSAGE
Error messages are notifications that require the highest user attention, with alert
colors, and they require the user to click the message to dismiss it. The error message
box does not itself include an instruction to click the message, although the close box
in the upper right corner indicates it visually. Unlike with other notifications, the user
can not interact with the application while the error message is displayed.
TYPE_TRAY_NOTIFICATION
Tray notifications are displayed in the "system tray" area, that is, in the lower-right
corner of the browser view. As they do not usually obscure any user interface, they
are displayed longer than humanized or warning messages, 3 seconds by default. The
user can continue to interact with the application normally while the tray notification is
displayed.
4.6.2. Customizing Notifications
All of the features of specific notification types can be controlled with the Notification properties.
Once configured, you need to show it in the current page.
// Notification with default settings for a warning
Notification notif = new Notification(
"Warning",
"<br/>Area of reindeer husbandry",
Notification.TYPE_WARNING_MESSAGE);
// Customize it
notif.setDelayMsec(20000);
notif.setPosition(Position.BOTTOM_RIGHT);
notif.setStyleName("mystyle");
notif.setIcon(new ThemeResource("img/reindeer.png"));
// Show it in the page
notif.show(Page.getCurrent());
The setPosition() method allows setting the positioning of the notification. The position can
be specified by any of the constants defined in the Position enum.
The setDelayMSec() allows setting the time for how long the notification is displayed in
milliseconds. Parameter value -1 means that the message is displayed until the user clicks the
message box. It also prevents interaction with other parts of the application window, which is the
default behaviour for error notifications. It does not, however, add a close box that the error
notification has.
4.6.3. Styling with CSS
.v-Notification {}
.popupContent {}
.gwt-HTML {}
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h1 {}
p {}
The notification box is a floating div element under the body element of the page. It has an
overall v-Notification style. The content is wrapped inside an element with popupContent
style. The caption is enclosed within an h1 element and the description in a p element.
To customize it, add a style for the Notification object with setStyleName("mystyle"), and
make the settings in the theme, for example as follows:
.v-Notification.mystyle {
background: #FFFF00;
border: 10px solid #C00000;
color: black;
}
The result is shown, with the icon set earlier in the customization example, in Kuva 4.12, ”A Styled
Notification”.
Kuva 4.12. A Styled Notification
4.7. Application Lifecycle
In this section, we look into more technical details of application deployment, user sessions, and
UI instance lifecycle. These details are not generally needed for writing Vaadin applications, but
may be useful for understanding how they actually work and, especially, in what circumstances
their execution ends.
4.7.1. Deployment
Before a Vaadin application can be used, it has to be deployed to a Java web server, as described
in Kohta 4.8, ”Deploying an Application”. Deploying reads the servlet classes annotated with the
@WebServlet annotation (Servlet 3.0) or the web.xml deployment descriptor (Servlet 2.4) in
the application to register servlets for specific URL paths and loads the classes. Deployment
does not yet normally run any code in the application, although static blocks in classes are
executed when they are loaded.
Undeploying and Redeploying
Applications are undeployed when the server shuts down, during redeployment, and when they
are explicitly undeployed. Undeploying a server-side Vaadin application ends its execution, all
application classes are unloaded, and the heap space allocated by the application is freed for
garbage-collection.
If any user sessions are open at this point, the client-side state of the UIs is left hanging and an
Out of Sync error is displayed on the next server request.
Application Lifecycle
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Redeployment and Serialization
Some servers, such as Tomcat, support hot deployment, where the classes are reloaded while
preserving the memory state of the application. This is done by serializing the application state
and then deserializing it after the classes are reloaded. This is, in fact, done with the basic Eclipse
setup with Tomcat and if a UI is marked as @PreserveOnRefresh, you may actually need to
give the ?restartApplication URL parameter to force it to restart when you reload the page.
Tools such as JRebel go even further by reloading the code in place without need for serialization.
The server can also serialize the application state when shutting down and restarting, thereby
preserving sessions over restarts.
Serialization requires that the applications are serializable, that is, all classes implement the
Serializable interface. All Vaadin classes do. If you extend them or implement interfaces,
you can provide an optional serialization key, which is automatically generated by Eclipse if you
use it. Serialization is also used for clustering and cloud computing, such as with Google App
Engine, as described in Kohta 11.7, ”Google App Engine Integration”.
4.7.2. Vaadin Servlet, Portlet, and Service
The VaadinServlet, or VaadinPortlet in a portal, receives all server requests mapped to it by
its URL, as defined in the deployment configuration, and associates them with sessions. The
sessions further associate the requests with particular UIs.
When servicing requests, the Vaadin servlet or portlet handles all tasks common to both servlets
and portlets in a VaadinService. It manages sessions, gives access to the deployment
configuration information, handles system messages, and does various other tasks. Any further
servlet or portlet specific tasks are handled in the corresponding VaadinServletService or
VaadinPortletService.The service acts as the primary low-level customization layer for processing
requests.
Customizing Vaadin Servlet
Many common configuration tasks need to be done in the servlet class, which you already have
if you are using the @WebServlet annotation for Servlet 3.0 to deploy the application. You can
handle most customization by overriding the servletInitialized() method, where the
VaadinService object is available with getService() (it would not be available in a constructor).
You should always call super.servletInitialized() in the beginning.
public class MyServlet extends VaadinServlet {
@Override
protected void servletInitialized()
throws ServletException {
super.servletInitialized();
...
}
}
To add custom functionality around request handling, you can override the service() method.
To use the custom servlet class in a Servlet 2.4 project, you need to define it in the web.xml
deployment descriptor instead of the regular VaadinServlet class, as described in Kohta 4.8.4,
”Using a web.xml Deployment Descriptor”.
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Customizing Vaadin Portlet
To Be Done
Customizing Vaadin Service
To customize VaadinService, you first need to extend the VaadinServlet or -Portlet class and
override the createServletService() to create a custom service object.
4.7.3. User Session
A user session begins when a user first makes a request to a Vaadin servlet or portlet by opening
the URL for a particular UI. All server requests belonging to a particular UI class are processed
by the VaadinServlet or VaadinPortlet class. When a new client connects, it creates a new user
session, represented by an instance of VaadinSession. Sessions are tracked using cookies
stored in the browser.
You can obtain the VaadinSession of a UI with getSession() or globally with
VaadinSession.getCurrent(). It also provides access to the lower-level session objects,
HttpSession and PortletSession, through a WrappedSession. You can also access the
deployment configuration through VaadinSession, as described in Kohta 4.8.7, ”Deployment
Configuration”.
A session ends after the last UI instance expires or is closed, as described later.
Handling Session Initialization and Destruction
You can handle session initialization and destruction by implementing a SessionInitListener
or SessionDestroyListener, respectively, to the VaadinService. You can do that best by
extending VaadinServlet and overriding the servletInitialized() method, as outlined in
Kohta 4.7.2, ”Vaadin Servlet, Portlet, and Service”.
public class MyServlet extends VaadinServlet
implements SessionInitListener, SessionDestroyListener {
@Override
protected void servletInitialized() throws ServletException {
super.servletInitialized();
getService().addSessionInitListener(this);
getService().addSessionDestroyListener(this);
}
@Override
public void sessionInit(SessionInitEvent event)
throws ServiceException {
// Do session start stuff here
}
@Override
public void sessionDestroy(SessionDestroyEvent event) {
// Do session end stuff here
}
}
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If using Servlet 2.4, you need to configure the custom servlet class in the servlet-class
parameter in the web.xml descriptor instead of the VaadinServlet, as described in Kohta 4.8.4,
”Using a web.xml Deployment Descriptor”.
4.7.4. Loading a UI
When a browser first accesses a URL mapped to the servlet of a particular UI class, the Vaadin
servlet generates a loader page. The page loads the client-side engine (widget set), which in turn
loads the UI in a separate request to the Vaadin servlet.
A UI instance is created when the client-side engine makes its first request. The servlet creates
the UIs using a UIProvider registered in the VaadinSession instance. A session has at least a
DefaultUIProvider for managing UIs opened by the user. If the application lets the user open
popup windows with a BrowserWindowOpener, each of them has a dedicated special UI provider.
Once a new UI is created, its init() method is called. The method gets the request as a
VaadinRequest.
Customizing the Loader Page
The HTML content of the loader page is generated as an HTML DOM object, which can be
customized by implementing a BootstrapListener that modifies the DOM object. To do so,
you need to extend the VaadinServlet and add a SessionInitListener to the service object,
as outlined in Kohta 4.7.3, ”User Session”. You can then add the bootstrap listener to a session
with addBootstrapListener() when the session is initialized.
Loading the widget set is handled in the loader page with functions defined in a separate
vaadinBootstrap.js script.
You can also use entirely custom loader code, such as in a static HTML page, as described in
Kohta 11.2, ”Embedding UIs in Web Pages”.
Custom UI Providers
You can create UI objects dynamically according to their request parameters, such as the URL
path, by defining a custom UIProvider. You need to add custom UI providers to the session
object which calls them. The providers are chained so that they are requested starting from the
one added last, until one returns a UI (otherwise they return null). You can add a UI provider to
a session most conveniently by implementing a custom servlet and adding the UI provider to
sessions in a SessionInitListener.
You can find an example of custom UI providers in Kohta 20.8.1, ”Providing a Fallback UI”.
Preserving UI on Refresh
Reloading a page in the browser normally spawns a new UI instance and the old UI is left hanging,
until cleaned up after a while. This can be undesired as it resets the UI state for the user. To
preserve the UI, you can use the @PreserveOnRefresh annotation for the UI class. You can
also use a UIProvider with a custom implementation of isUiPreserved().
@PreserveOnRefresh
public class MyUI extends UI {
Adding the ?restartApplication parameter in the URL tells the Vaadin servlet to create a
new UI instance when loading the page, thereby overriding the @PreserveOnRefresh. This is
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often necessary when developing such a UI in Eclipse, when you need to restart it after
redeploying, because Eclipse likes to persist the application state between redeployments. If you
also include a URI fragment, the parameter should be given before the fragment.
4.7.5. UI Expiration
UI instances are cleaned up if no communication is received from them after some time. If no
other server requests are made, the client-side sends keep-alive heartbeat requests. A UI is kept
alive for as long as requests or heartbeats are received from it. It expires if three consecutive
heartbeats are missed.
The heartbeats occur at an interval of 5 minutes, which can be changed with the
heartbeatInterval parameter of the servlet. You can configure the parameter in
@VaadinServletConfiguration or in web.xml as described in Kohta 4.8.6, ”Other Servlet
Configuration Parameters”.
When the UI cleanup happens, a DetachEvent is sent to all DetachListeners added to the UI.
When the UI is detached from the session, detach() is called for it.
4.7.6. Session Expiration
A session is kept alive by server requests caused by user interaction with the application as well
as the heartbeat monitoring of the UIs. Once all UIs have expired, the session still remains. It is
cleaned up from the server when the session timeout configured in the web application expires.
If there are active UIs in an application, their heartbeat keeps the session alive indefinitely. You
may want to have the sessions timeout if the user is inactive long enough, which is the original
purpose of the session timeout setting. If the closeIdleSessions parameter of the servlet is
set to true in the web.xml, as described in Kohta 4.8.4, ”Using a web.xml Deployment
Descriptor”, the session and all of its UIs are closed when the timeout specified by the sessiontimeout parameter of the servlet expires after the last non-heartbeat request. Once the session
is gone, the browser will show an Out Of Sync error on the next server request. To avoid the ugly
message, you may want to set a redirect URL for the UIs, as described in Kohta 4.5.2,
”Customizing System Messages”.
The related configuration parameters are described in Kohta 4.8.6, ”Other Servlet Configuration
Parameters”.
You can handle session expiration on the server-side with a SessionDestroyListener, as
described in Kohta 4.7.3, ”User Session”.
4.7.7. Closing a Session
You can call the close() method in the VaadinSession to shut down the session and clean
up any of the resources allocated for it.The session is closed immediately and any objects related
to it are not available after calling the method. The UI that is still visible in the browser has no
session to communicate with, but will still receive the response from the final request.You typically
want to redirect the user to another URL at this point, using the setLocation() method in
Page.
In the following example, we display a logout button, which closes the user session.
Button logout = new Button("Logout");
logout.addClickListener(new Button.ClickListener() {
@Override
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public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
// Redirect from the page
getUI().getPage().setLocation(
"/myapp/logoutpage.html");
// Close the VaadinSession
getSession().close();
}
});
4.8. Deploying an Application
Vaadin applications are deployed as Java web applications, which can contain a number of
servlets, each of which can be a Vaadin application or some other servlet, and static resources
such as HTML files. Such a web application is normally packaged as a WAR (Web application
ARchive) file, which can be deployed to a Java application server (or a servlet container to be
exact). A WAR file, which has the .war extension, is a subtype of JAR (Java ARchive), and like
a regular JAR, is a ZIP-compressed file with a special content structure.
For a detailed tutorial on how web applications are packaged, please refer to any Java book that
discusses Java Servlets.
In the Java Servlet parlance, a "web application" means a collection of Java servlets or portlets,
JSP and static HTML pages, and various other resources that form an application. Such a Java
web application is typically packaged as a WAR package for deployment. Server-side Vaadin
UIs run as servlets within such a Java web application. There exists also other kinds of web
applications. To avoid confusion with the general meaning of "web application", we often refer
to Java web applications with the slight misnomer "WAR" in this book.
4.8.1. Creating Deployable WAR in Eclipse
To deploy an application to a web server, you need to create a WAR package. Here we give the
instructions for Eclipse.
1. Select File Export and then Web WAR File. Or, right-click the project in the Project
Explorer and select Web WAR File.
2. Select the Web project to export. Enter Destination file name (.war).
3. Make any other settings in the dialog, and click Finish.
4.8.2. Web Application Contents
The following files are required in a web application in order to run it.
Web Application Organization
WEB-INF/web.xml (optional with Servlet 3.0)
This is the web application descriptor that defines how the application is organized,
that is, what servlets and such it has.You can refer to any Java book about the contents
of this file. It is not needed if you define the Vaadin servlet with the @WebServlet
annotation in Servlet API 3.0.
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WEB-INF/lib/*.jar
These are the Vaadin libraries and their dependencies. They can be found in the
installation package or as loaded by a dependency management system such as
Maven or Ivy.
Your UI classes
You must include your UI classes either in a JAR file in WEB-INF/lib or as classes
in WEB-INF/classes
Your own theme files (OPTIONAL)
If your application uses a special theme (look and feel), you must include it in
VAADIN/themes/themename directory.
Widget sets (OPTIONAL)
If your application uses a project-specific widget set, it must be compiled in the
VAADIN/widgetset/ directory.
4.8.3. Web Servlet Class
When using the Servlet 3.0 API, you normally declare the Vaadin servlet classes with the
@WebServlet annotation. The Vaadin UI associated with the servlet and other Vaadin-specific
parameters are declared with a separate @VaadinServletConfiguration annotation.
@WebServlet(value = "/*",
asyncSupported = true)
@VaadinServletConfiguration(
productionMode = false,
ui = MyProjectUI.class)
public class MyProjectServlet extends VaadinServlet {
}
The Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse creates the servlet class as a static inner class of the UI class.
Normally, you may want to have it as a separate regular class.
The value parameter is the URL pattern for mapping request URLs to the servlet, as described
in Kohta 4.8.5, ”Servlet Mapping with URL Patterns”. The ui parameter is the UI class. Production
mode is disabled by default, which enabled on-the-fly theme compilation, debug window, and
other such development features. See the subsequent sections for details on the different servlet
and Vaadin configuration parameters.
You can also use a web.xml deployment descriptor in Servlet 3.0 projects.
4.8.4. Using a web.xml Deployment Descriptor
A deployment descriptor is an XML file with the name web.xml in the WEB-INF sub-directory of
a web application. It is a standard component in Java EE describing how a web application should
be deployed. The descriptor is not required with Servlet API 3.0, where you can also define
servlets with the @WebServlet annotation as decribed earlier, as web fragments, or
programmatically.You can use both a web.xml and WebServlet in the same application. Settings
in the web.xml override the ones given in annotations.
The following example shows the basic contents of a deployment descriptor for a Servlet 2.4
application. You simply specify the UI class with the UI parameter for the
com.vaadin.server.VaadinServlet. The servlet is then mapped to a URL path in a standard way
for Java Servlets.
Web Servlet Class
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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<web-app
id="WebApp_ID" version="2.4"
xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/j2ee"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/j2ee
http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/j2ee/web-app_2_4.xsd">
<servlet>
<servlet-name>myservlet</servlet-name>
<servlet-class>
com.vaadin.server.VaadinServlet
</servlet-class>
<init-param>
<param-name>UI</param-name>
<param-value>com.ex.myprj.MyUI</param-value>
</init-param>
<!-- If not using the default widget set-->
<init-param>
<param-name>widgetset</param-name>
<param-value>com.ex.myprj.MyWidgetSet</param-value>
</init-param>
</servlet>
<servlet-mapping>
<servlet-name>myservlet</servlet-name>
<url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
</servlet-mapping>
</web-app>
The descriptor defines a servlet with the name myservlet. The servlet class,
com.vaadin.server.VaadinServlet, is provided by Vaadin framework and is normally the same
for all Vaadin projects. For some purposes, you may need to use a custom servlet class that
extends the VaadinServlet. The class name must include the full package path.
Servlet API Version
The descriptor example given above was for Servlet 2.4. For a later version, such as Servlet 3.0,
you should use:
<web-app
id="WebApp_ID" version="3.0"
xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/j2ee"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee
http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_3_0.xsd">
Servlet 3.0 support is useful for at least server push.
Widget Set
If the UI uses add-on components or custom widgets, it needs a custom widget set, which can
be specified with the widgetset parameter for the servlet. Alternatively, you can defined it with
the @WidgetSet annotation for the UI class. The parameter is a class name with the same path
but without the .gwt.xml extension as the widget set definition file. If the parameter is not given,
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the com.vaadin.DefaultWidgetSet is used, which contains all the widgets for the built-in Vaadin
components.
Unless using the default widget set (which is included in the vaadin-client-compiled JAR),
the widget set must be compiled, as described in Luku 17, Using Vaadin Add-ons or Kohta 13.4,
”Compiling a Client-Side Module”, and properly deployed with the application.
4.8.5. Servlet Mapping with URL Patterns
The servlet needs to be mapped to an URL path, which requests it is to handle.
With @WebServlet annotation for the servlet class:
@WebServlet(value = "/*", asyncSupported = true)
In a web.xml:
<servlet-mapping>
<servlet-name>myservlet</servlet-name>
<url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
</servlet-mapping>
The URL pattern is defined in the above examples as /*. This matches any URL under the project
context. We defined above the project context as myproject so the URL for the page of the UI
will be http://localhost:8080/myproject/.
Mapping Sub-Paths
If an application has multiple UIs or servlets, they have to be given different paths in the URL,
matched by a different URL pattern. Also, you may need to have statically served content under
some path. Having an URL pattern /myui/* would match a URL such as
http://localhost:8080/myproject/myui/. Notice that the slash and the asterisk must
be included at the end of the pattern. In such case, you also need to map URLs with /VAADIN/*
to a servlet (unless you are serving it statically as noted below).
With a @WebServlet annotation for a servlet class, you can define multiple mappings as a list
enclosed in curly braces as follows:
@WebServlet(value = {"/myui/*", "/VAADIN/*"},
asyncSupported = true)
In a web.xml:
...
<servlet-mapping>
<servlet-name>myservlet</servlet-name>
<url-pattern>/myui/*</url-pattern>
</servlet-mapping>
<servlet-mapping>
<servlet-name>myservlet</servlet-name>
<url-pattern>/VAADIN/*</url-pattern>
</servlet-mapping>
If you have multiple servlets, you should specify only one /VAADIN/* mapping. It does not matter
which servlet you map the pattern to, as long as it is a Vaadin servlet.
Servlet Mapping with URL Patterns
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You do not have to provide the above /VAADIN/* mapping if you serve both the widget sets
and (custom and default) themes statically in the /VAADIN directory in the web application. The
mapping simply allows serving them dynamically from the Vaadin JAR. Serving them statically
is recommended for production environments as it is faster. If you serve the content from within
the same web application, you may not have the root pattern /* for the Vaadin servlet, as then
all the requests would be mapped to the servlet.
4.8.6. Other Servlet Configuration Parameters
The servlet class or deployment descriptor can have many parameters and options that control
the execution of a servlet. You can find complete documentation of the basic servlet parameters
in the appropriate Java Servlet Specification. @VaadinServletConfiguration accepts a number
of special parameters, as described below.
In a web.xml, you can set most parameters either as a <context-param> for the entire web
application, in which case they apply to all Vaadin servlets, or as an <init-param> for an
individual servlet. If both are defined, servlet parameters override context parameters.
Production Mode
By default, Vaadin applications run in debug mode (or development mode), which should be used
during development. This enables various debugging features. For production use, you should
have the productionMode=true setting in the @VaadinServletConfiguration, or in web.xml:
<context-param>
<param-name>productionMode</param-name>
<param-value>true</param-value>
<description>Vaadin production mode</description>
</context-param>
The parameter and the debug and production modes are described in more detail in Kohta 11.3,
”Debug Mode and Window”.
Custom UI Provider
Vaadin normally uses the DefaultUIProvider for creating UI class instances. If you need to use
a custom UI provider, you can define its class with the UIProvider parameter. The provider is
registered in the VaadinSession.
In a web.xml:
<servlet>
...
<init-param>
<param-name>UIProvider</param-name>
<param-value>com.ex.my.MyUIProvider</param-value>
</init-param>
The parameter is logically associated with a particular servlet, but can be defined in the context
as well.
UI Heartbeat
Vaadin follows UIs using a heartbeat, as explained in Kohta 4.7.5, ”UI Expiration”. If the user
closes the browser window of a Vaadin application or navigates to another page, the Client-Side
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Engine running in the page stops sending heartbeat to the server, and the server eventually
cleans up the UI instance.
The interval of the heartbeat requests can be specified in seconds with the heartbeatInterval
parameter either as a context parameter for the entire web application or an init parameter for
the individual servlet. The default value is 300 seconds (5 minutes).
In a web.xml:
<context-param>
<param-name>heartbeatInterval</param-name>
<param-value>300</param-value>
</context-param>
Session Timeout After User Inactivity
In normal servlet operation, the session timeout defines the allowed time of inactivity after which
the server should clean up the session. The inactivity is measured from the last server request.
Different servlet containers use varying defaults for timeouts, such as 30 minutes for Apache
Tomcat. You can set the timeout under <web-app> with:
In a web.xml:
<session-config>
<session-timeout>30</session-timeout>
</session-config>
The session timeout should be longer than the heartbeat interval or otherwise sessions are closed
before the heartbeat can keep them alive. As the session expiration leaves the UIs in a state
where they assume that the session still exists, this would cause an Out Of Sync error notification
in the browser.
However, having a shorter heartbeat interval than the session timeout, which is the normal case,
prevents the sessions from expiring. If the closeIdleSessions parameter for the servlet is
enabled (disabled by default), Vaadin closes the UIs and the session after the time specified in
the session-timeout parameter expires after the last non-heartbeat request.
In a web.xml:
<servlet>
...
<init-param>
<param-name>closeIdleSessions</param-name>
<param-value>true</param-value>
</init-param>
Push Mode
You can enable server push, as described in Kohta 11.16, ”Server Push”, for a UI either with a
@Push annotation for the UI or in the descriptor. The push mode is defined with a pushmode
parameter. The automatic mode pushes changes to the browser automatically after access()
finishes. With manual mode, you need to do the push explicitly with push(). If you use a Servlet
3.0 compatible server, you also want to enable asynchronous processing with the asyncsupported parameter.
In a web.xml:
Other Servlet Configuration Parameters
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<servlet>
...
<init-param>
<param-name>pushmode</param-name>
<param-value>automatic</param-value>
</init-param>
<async-supported>true</async-supported>
Cross-Site Request Forgery Prevention
Vaadin uses a protection mechanism to prevent malicious cross-site request forgery (XSRF or
CSRF), also called one-click attacks or session riding, which is a security exploit for executing
unauthorized commands in a web server. This protection is normally enabled. However, it prevents
some forms of testing of Vaadin applications, such as with JMeter. In such cases, you can disable
the protection by setting the disable-xsrf-protection parameter to true.
In a web.xml:
<context-param>
<param-name>disable-xsrf-protection</param-name>
<param-value>true</param-value>
</context-param>
4.8.7. Deployment Configuration
The Vaadin-specific parameters defined in the deployment configuration are available from the
DeploymentConfiguration object managed by the VaadinSession.
DeploymentConfiguration conf =
getSession().getConfiguration();
// Heartbeat interval in seconds
int heartbeatInterval = conf.getHeartbeatInterval();
Parameters defined in the Java Servlet definition, such as the session timeout, are available from
the low-level HttpSession or PortletSession object, which are wrapped in a WrappedSession
in Vaadin. You can access the low-level session wrapper with getSession() of the
VaadinSession.
WrappedSession session = getSession().getSession();
int sessionTimeout = session.getMaxInactiveInterval();
You can also access other HttpSession and PortletSession session properties through the
interface, such as set and read session attributes that are shared by all servlets belonging to a
particular servlet or portlet session.
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luku 5
User Interface
Components
5.1. Overview ................................................................................................ 104
5.2. Interfaces and Abstractions ................................................................... 105
5.3. Common Component Features ............................................................. 107
5.4. Field Components ................................................................................. 118
5.5. Component Extensions ......................................................................... 124
5.6. Label ..................................................................................................... 124
5.7. Link ....................................................................................................... 127
5.8. TextField ............................................................................................... 129
5.9. TextArea ............................................................................................... 134
5.10. PasswordField .................................................................................... 135
5.11. RichTextArea ...................................................................................... 135
5.12. Date and Time Input with DateField .................................................... 137
5.13. Button ................................................................................................. 142
5.14. CheckBox ........................................................................................... 143
5.15. Selection Components ........................................................................ 144
5.16. Table .................................................................................................... 157
5.17. Tree ..................................................................................................... 176
5.18. MenuBar ............................................................................................. 177
5.19. Embedded Resources ......................................................................... 180
5.20. Upload ................................................................................................ 183
Book of Vaadin
103
User Interface Components
5.21. ProgressBar ....................................................................................... 185
5.22. Slider ................................................................................................... 188
5.23. Calendar ............................................................................................. 190
5.24. Component Composition with CustomComponent ........................... 207
5.25. Composite Fields with CustomField ................................................... 208
This chapter provides an overview and a detailed description of all non-layout components in
Vaadin.
Because of pressing release schedules to get this edition to your hands, some topics still require
revision for Vaadin 7, especially the data binding of the Table component. Please consult the
web version once it is updated, or the next print edition.
5.1. Overview
Vaadin provides a comprehensive set of user interface components and allows you to define
custom components. Kuva 5.1, ”User Interface Component Class Hierarchy” illustrates the
inheritance hierarchy of the UI component classes and interfaces. Interfaces are displayed in
gray, abstract classes in orange, and regular classes in blue. An annotated version of the diagram
is featured in the Vaadin Cheat Sheet.
At the top of the interface hierarchy, we have the Component interface. At the top of the class
hierarchy, we have the AbstractComponent class. It is inherited by two other abstract classes:
AbstractField, inherited further by field components, and AbstractComponentContainer,
inherited by various container and layout components. Components that are not bound to a
content data model, such as labels and links, inherit AbstractComponent directly.
The layout of the various components in a window is controlled, logically, by layout components,
just like in conventional Java UI toolkits for desktop applications. In addition, with the
CustomLayout component, you can write a custom layout as an XHTML template that includes
the locations of any contained components. Looking at the inheritance diagram, we can see that
layout components inherit the AbstractComponentContainer and the Layout interface. Layout
components are described in detail in Luku 6, Managing Layout.
Looking at it from the perspective of an object hierarchy, we would have a Window object, which
contains a hierachy of layout components, which again contain other layout components, field
components, and other visible components.
You can browse the built-in UI components of Vaadin library in the Sampler application of the
Vaadin Demo. The Sampler shows a description, JavaDoc documentation, and a code samples
for each of the components.
In addition to the built-in components, many components are available as add-ons, either from
the Vaadin Directory or from independent sources. Both commercial and free components exist.
The installation of add-ons is described in Luku 17, Using Vaadin Add-ons.
Vaadin Cheat Sheet and Refcard
Kuva 5.1, ”User Interface Component Class Hierarchy” is included in the Vaadin
Cheat Sheet that illustrates the basic relationship hierarchy of the user interface
components and data binding classes and interfaces. You can download it at
http://vaadin.com/book.
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Kuva 5.1. User Interface Component Class Hierarchy
The diagram is also included in the six-page DZone Refcard, which you can find at
https://vaadin.com/refcard.
5.2. Interfaces and Abstractions
Vaadin user interface components are built on a skeleton of interfaces and abstract classes that
define and implement the features common to all components and the basic logic how the
component states are serialized between the server and the client.
This section gives details on the basic component interfaces and abstractions. The layout and
other component container abstractions are described in Luku 6, Managing Layout. The interfaces
that define the Vaadin data model are described in Luku 9, Binding Components to Data.
All components also implement the Paintable interface, which is used for serializing ("painting")
the components to the client, and the reverse VariableOwner interface, which is needed for
deserializing component state or user interaction from the client.
Interfaces and Abstractions
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Kuva 5.2. Component Interfaces and Abstractions
In addition to the interfaces defined within the Vaadin framework, all components implement the
java.io.Serializable interface to allow serialization. Serialization is needed in many clustering
and cloud computing solutions.
5.2.1. Component Interface
The Component interface is paired with the AbstractComponent class, which implements all
the methods defined in the interface.
Component Tree Management
Components are laid out in the user interface hierarchically. The layout is managed by layout
components, or more generally components that implement the ComponentContainer interface.
Such a container is the parent of the contained components.
The getParent() method allows retrieving the parent component of a component. While there
is a setParent(), you rarely need it as you usually add components with the addComponent()
method of the ComponentContainer interface, which automatically sets the parent.
A component does not know its parent when the component is still being created, so you can not
refer to the parent in the constructor with getParent().
Attaching a component to an UI triggers a call to its attach() method. Correspondingly, removing
a component from a container triggers calling the detach() method. If the parent of an added
component is already connected to the UI, the attach() is called immediately from
setParent().
public class AttachExample extends CustomComponent {
public AttachExample() {
}
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@Override
public void attach() {
super.attach(); // Must call.
// Now we know who ultimately owns us.
ClassResource r = new ClassResource("smiley.jpg");
Image image = new Image("Image:", r);
setCompositionRoot(image);
}
}
The attachment logic is implemented in AbstractComponent, as described in Kohta 5.2.2,
”AbstractComponent”.
5.2.2. AbstractComponent
AbstractComponent is the base class for all user interface components. It is the (only)
implementation of the Component interface, implementing all the methods defined in the interface.
AbstractComponent has a single abstract method, getTag(), which returns the serialization
identifier of a particular component class. It needs to be implemented when (and only when)
creating entirely new components. AbstractComponent manages much of the serialization of
component states between the client and the server. Creation of new components and serialization
is described in Luku 16, Integrating with the Server-Side.
5.3. Common Component Features
The component base classes and interfaces provide a large number of features. Let us look at
some of the most commonly needed features. Features not documented here can be found from
the Java API Reference.
The interface defines a number of properties, which you can retrieve or manipulate with the
corresponding setters and getters.
5.3.1. Caption
A caption is an explanatory textual label accompanying a user interface component, usually
shown above, left of, or inside the component. The contents of a caption are automatically quoted,
so no raw XHTML can be rendered in a caption.
The caption text can usually be given as the first parameter of a constructor of a component or
with setCaption().
// New text field with caption "Name"
TextField name = new TextField("Name");
layout.addComponent(name);
The caption of a component is, by default, managed and displayed by the layout component or
component container inside which the component is placed. For example, the VerticalLayout
component shows the captions left-aligned above the contained components, while the
FormLayout component shows the captions on the left side of the vertically laid components,
with the captions and their associated components left-aligned in their own columns. The
CustomComponent does not manage the caption of its composition root, so if the root component
has a caption, it will not be rendered.
AbstractComponent
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Kuva 5.3. Caption Management by VerticalLayout and FormLayout
components.
Some components, such as Button and Panel, manage the caption themselves and display it
inside the component.
Icon (see Kohta 5.3.4, ”Icon”) is closely related to caption and is usually displayed horizontally
before or after it, depending on the component and the containing layout. Also the required
indicator in field components is usually shown before or after the caption.
An alternative way to implement a caption is to use another component as the caption, typically
a Label, a TextField, or a Panel. A Label, for example, allows highlighting a shortcut key with
XHTML markup or to bind the caption to a data source. The Panel provides an easy way to add
both a caption and a border around a component.
CSS Style Rules
.v-caption {}
.v-captiontext {}
.v-caption-clearelem {}
.v-required-field-indicator {}
A caption is be rendered inside an HTML element that has the v-caption CSS style class. The
containing layout may enclose a caption inside other caption-related elements.
Some layouts put the caption text in a v-captiontext element. A v-caption-clearelem
is used in some layouts to clear a CSS float property in captions. An optional required indicator
in field components is contained in a separate element with v-required-field-indicator
style.
5.3.2. Description and Tooltips
All components (that inherit AbstractComponent) have a description separate from their caption.
The description is usually shown as a tooltip that appears when the mouse pointer hovers over
the component for a short time.
You can set the description with setDescription() and retrieve with getDescription().
Button button = new Button("A Button");
button.setDescription("This is the tooltip");
The tooltip is shown in Kuva 5.4, ”Component Description as a Tooltip”.
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Kuva 5.4. Component Description as a Tooltip
A description is rendered as a tooltip in most components.
When a component error has been set with setComponentError(), the error is usually also
displayed in the tooltip, below the description. Components that are in error state will also display
the error indicator. See Kohta 4.5.1, ”Error Indicator and Message”.
The description is actually not plain text, but you can use XHTML tags to format it. Such a rich
text description can contain any HTML elements, including images.
button.setDescription(
"<h2><img src=\"../VAADIN/themes/sampler/icons/comment_yellow.gif\"/>"+
"A richtext tooltip</h2>"+
"<ul>"+
" <li>Use rich formatting with XHTML</li>"+
" <li>Include images from themes</li>"+
" <li>etc.</li>"+
"</ul>");
The result is shown in Kuva 5.5, ”A Rich Text Tooltip”.
Kuva 5.5. A Rich Text Tooltip
Notice that the setter and getter are defined for all fields in the Field interface, not for all
components in the Component interface.
5.3.3. Enabled
The enabled property controls whether the user can actually use the component. A disabled
component is visible, but grayed to indicate the disabled state.
Components are always enabled by default. You can disable a component with
setEnabled(false).
Button enabled = new Button("Enabled");
enabled.setEnabled(true); // The default
layout.addComponent(enabled);
Button disabled = new Button("Disabled");
disabled.setEnabled(false);
layout.addComponent(disabled);
Kuva 5.6, ”An Enabled and Disabled Button” shows the enabled and disabled buttons.
Enabled
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User Interface Components
Kuva 5.6. An Enabled and Disabled Button
A disabled component is automatically put in read-only state. No client interaction with such a
component is sent to the server and, as an important security feature, the server-side components
do not receive state updates from the client in the read-only state. This feature exists in all builtin components in Vaadin and is automatically handled for all Field components for the field
property value. For custom widgets, you need to make sure that the read-only state is checked
on the server-side for all safety-critical variables.
CSS Style Rules
Disabled components have the v-disabled CSS style in addition to the component-specific
style. To match a component with both the styles, you have to join the style class names with a
dot as done in the example below.
.v-textfield.v-disabled {
border: dotted;
}
This would make the border of all disabled text fields dotted.
TextField disabled = new TextField("Disabled");
disabled.setValue("Read-only value");
disabled.setEnabled(false);
layout.addComponent(disabled);
The result is illustrated in Kuva 5.7, ”Styling Disabled Components”.
Kuva 5.7. Styling Disabled Components
In Valo theme, the opacity of disabled components is specified with the $v-disabled-opacity
parameter, as described in Kohta 8.6.2, ”Common Settings”.
5.3.4. Icon
An icon is an explanatory graphical label accompanying a user interface component, usually
shown above, left of, or inside the component. Icon is closely related to caption (see Kohta 5.3.1,
”Caption”) and is usually displayed horizontally before or after it, depending on the component
and the containing layout.
The icon of a component can be set with the setIcon() method. The image is provided as a
resource, perhaps most typically a ThemeResource.
// Component with an icon from a custom theme
TextField name = new TextField("Name");
name.setIcon(new ThemeResource("icons/user.png"));
layout.addComponent(name);
// Component with an icon from another theme ('runo')
Button ok = new Button("OK");
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ok.setIcon(new ThemeResource("../runo/icons/16/ok.png"));
layout.addComponent(ok);
The icon of a component is, by default, managed and displayed by the layout component or
component container in which the component is placed. For example, the VerticalLayout
component shows the icons left-aligned above the contained components, while the FormLayout
component shows the icons on the left side of the vertically laid components, with the icons and
their associated components left-aligned in their own columns. The CustomComponent does
not manage the icon of its composition root, so if the root component has an icon, it will not be
rendered.
Kuva 5.8. Displaying an Icon from a Theme Resource.
Some components, such as Button and Panel, manage the icon themselves and display it inside
the component.
In addition to image resources, you can use font icons, which are icons included in special fonts,
but which are handled as special resources. See Kohta 11.17, ”Font Icons” for more details.
CSS Style Rules
An icon will be rendered inside an HTML element that has the v-icon CSS style class. The
containing layout may enclose an icon and a caption inside elements related to the caption, such
as v-caption.
5.3.5. Locale
The locale property defines the country and language used in a component. You can use the
locale information in conjunction with an internationalization scheme to acquire localized resources.
Some components, such as DateField, use the locale for component localization.
You can set the locale of a component (or the application) with setLocale() as follows:
// Component for which the locale is meaningful
InlineDateField date = new InlineDateField("Datum");
// German language specified with ISO 639-1 language
// code and ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code.
date.setLocale(new Locale("de", "DE"));
date.setResolution(Resolution.DAY);
layout.addComponent(date);
The resulting date field is shown in Kuva 5.9, ”Set Locale for InlineDateField”.
Locale
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User Interface Components
Kuva 5.9. Set Locale for InlineDateField
Getting the Locale
You can get the locale of a component with getLocale(). If the locale is undefined for a
component, that is, not explicitly set, the locale of the parent component is used. If none of the
parent components have a locale set, the locale of the UI is used, and if that is not set, the default
system locale is set, as given by Locale.getDefault().
The getLocale() returns null if the component is not yet attached to the UI, which is usually
the case in most constructors, so it is a bit awkward to use it for internationalization. You can get
the locale in attach(), as shown in the following example:
Button cancel = new Button() {
@Override
public void attach() {
super.attach();
ResourceBundle bundle = ResourceBundle.getBundle(
MyAppCaptions.class.getName(), getLocale());
setCaption(bundle.getString(MyAppCaptions.CancelKey));
}
};
layout.addComponent(cancel);
However, it is normally a better practice to use the locale of the current UI to get the localized
resource right when the component is created.
// Captions are stored in MyAppCaptions resource bundle
// and the UI object is known in this context.
ResourceBundle bundle =
ResourceBundle.getBundle(MyAppCaptions.class.getName(),
UI.getCurrent().getLocale());
// Get a localized resource from the bundle
Button cancel =
new Button(bundle.getString(MyAppCaptions.CancelKey));
layout.addComponent(cancel);
Selecting a Locale
A common task in many applications is selecting a locale. This is done in the following example
with a ComboBox, which gets the available locales in Java.
// The locale in which we want to have the language
// selection list
Locale displayLocale = Locale.ENGLISH;
// All known locales
final Locale[] locales = Locale.getAvailableLocales();
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// Allow selecting a language. We are in a constructor of a
// CustomComponent, so preselecting the current
// language of the application can not be done before
// this (and the selection) component are attached to
// the application.
final ComboBox select = new ComboBox("Select a language") {
@Override
public void attach() {
super.attach();
setValue(getLocale());
}
};
for (int i=0; i<locales.length; i++) {
select.addItem(locales[i]);
select.setItemCaption(locales[i],
locales[i].getDisplayName(displayLocale));
// Automatically select the current locale
if (locales[i].equals(getLocale()))
select.setValue(locales[i]);
}
layout.addComponent(select);
// Locale code of the selected locale
final Label localeCode = new Label("");
layout.addComponent(localeCode);
// A date field which language the selection will change
final InlineDateField date =
new InlineDateField("Calendar in the selected language");
date.setResolution(Resolution.DAY);
layout.addComponent(date);
// Handle language selection
select.addValueChangeListener(new Property.ValueChangeListener() {
public void valueChange(ValueChangeEvent event) {
Locale locale = (Locale) select.getValue();
date.setLocale(locale);
localeCode.setValue("Locale code: " +
locale.getLanguage() + "_" +
locale.getCountry());
}
});
select.setImmediate(true);
The user interface is shown in Kuva 5.10, ”Selecting a Locale”.
Locale
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User Interface Components
Kuva 5.10. Selecting a Locale
5.3.6. Read-Only
The property defines whether the value of a component can be changed. The property is mainly
applicable to Field components, as they have a value that can be edited by the user.
TextField readwrite = new TextField("Read-Write");
readwrite.setValue("You can change this");
readwrite.setReadOnly(false); // The default
layout.addComponent(readwrite);
TextField readonly = new TextField("Read-Only");
readonly.setValue("You can't touch this!");
readonly.setReadOnly(true);
layout.addComponent(readonly);
The resulting read-only text field is shown in Kuva 5.11, ”A Read-Only Component.”.
Kuva 5.11. A Read-Only Component.
Setting a layout or some other component container as read-only does not usually make the
contained components read-only recursively. This is different from, for example, the disabled
state, which is usually applied recursively.
Notice that the value of a selection component is the selection, not its items. A read-only selection
component doesn't therefore allow its selection to be changed, but other changes are possible.
For example, if you have a read-only Table in editable mode, its contained fields and the underlying
data model can still be edited, and the user could sort it or reorder the columns.
Client-side state modifications will not be communicated to the server-side and, more importantly,
server-side field components will not accept changes to the value of a read-only Field component.
The latter is an important security feature, because a malicious user can not fabricate state
changes in a read-only field. This is handled at the level of AbstractField in setValue(), so
you can not change the value programmatically either. Calling setValue() on a read-only field
results in Property.ReadOnlyException.
Also notice that while the read-only status applies automatically to the property value of a field,
it does not apply to other component variables. A read-only component can accept some other
variable changes from the client-side and some of such changes could be acceptable, such as
change in the scroll bar position of a Table. Custom widgets should check the read-only state
for variables bound to business data.
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CSS Style Rules
Setting a normally editable component to read-only state can change its appearance to disallow
editing the value. In addition to CSS styling, also the HTML structure can change. For example,
TextField loses the edit box and appears much like a Label.
A read-only component will have the v-readonly style. The following CSS rule would make
the text in all read-only TextField components appear in italic.
.v-textfield.v-readonly {
font-style: italic;
}
5.3.7. Style Name
The style name property defines one or more custom CSS style class names for the component.
The getStyleName() returns the current style names as a space-separated list. The
setStyleName() replaces all the styles with the given style name or a space-separated list of
style names. You can also add and remove individual style names with addStylename() and
removeStyleName(). A style name must be a valid CSS style name.
Label label = new Label("This text has a lot of style");
label.addStyleName("mystyle");
layout.addComponent(label);
The style name will appear in the component's HTML element in two forms: literally as given and
prefixed with the component-specific style name. For example, if you add a style name mystyle
to a Button, the component would get both mystyle and v-button-mystyle styles. Neither
form may conflict with built-in style names of Vaadin. For example, focus style would conflict
with a built-in style of the same name, and an content style for a Panel component would
conflict with the built-in v-panel-content style.
The following CSS rule would apply the style to any component that has the mystyle style.
.mystyle {
font-family:
font-style:
font-size:
font-weight:
line-height:
}
fantasy;
italic;
25px;
bolder;
30px;
The resulting styled component is shown in Kuva 5.12, ”Component with a Custom Style”
Kuva 5.12. Component with a Custom Style
5.3.8. Visible
Components can be hidden by setting the visible property to false. Also the caption, icon and
any other component features are made hidden. Hidden components are not just invisible, but
their content is not communicated to the browser at all. That is, they are not made invisible
cosmetically with only CSS rules. This feature is important for security if you have components
that contain security-critical information that must only be shown in specific application states.
Style Name
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User Interface Components
TextField invisible = new TextField("No-see-um");
invisible.setValue("You can't see this!");
invisible.setVisible(false);
layout.addComponent(invisible);
The resulting invisible component is shown in Kuva 5.13, ”An Invisible Component.”.
Kuva 5.13. An Invisible Component.
Beware that invisible beings can leave footprints. The containing layout cell that holds the invisible
component will not go away, but will show in the layout as extra empty space. Also expand ratios
work just like if the component was visible - it is the layout cell that expands, not the component.
If you need to make a component only cosmetically invisible, you should use a custom theme to
set it display: none style. This is mainly useful for some special components that have effects
even when made invisible in CSS. If the hidden component has undefined size and is enclosed
in a layout that also has undefined size, the containing layout will collapse when the component
disappears. If you want to have the component keep its size, you have to make it invisible by
setting all its font and other attributes to be transparent. In such cases, the invisible content of
the component can be made visible easily in the browser.
A component made invisible with the visible property has no particular CSS style class to indicate
that it is hidden. The element does exist though, but has display: none style, which overrides
any CSS styling.
5.3.9. Sizing Components
Vaadin components are sizeable; not in the sense that they were fairly large or that the number
of the components and their features are sizeable, but in the sense that you can make them fairly
large on the screen if you like, or small or whatever size.
The Sizeable interface, shared by all components, provides a number of manipulation methods
and constants for setting the height and width of a component in absolute or relative units, or for
leaving the size undefined.
The size of a component can be set with setWidth() and setHeight() methods.The methods
take the size as a floating-point value. You need to give the unit of the measure as the second
parameter for the above methods. The available units are listed in Taulu 5.1, ”Size Units” below.
mycomponent.setWidth(100, Sizeable.UNITS_PERCENTAGE);
mycomponent.setWidth(400, Sizeable.UNITS_PIXELS);
Alternatively, you can speficy the size as a string. The format of such a string must follow the
HTML/CSS standards for specifying measures.
mycomponent.setWidth("100%");
mycomponent.setHeight("400px");
The "100%" percentage value makes the component take all available size in the particular
direction (see the description of Sizeable.UNITS_PERCENTAGE in the table below). You can
also use the shorthand method setSizeFull() to set the size to 100% in both directions.
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The size can be undefined in either or both dimensions, which means that the component will
take the minimum necessary space. Most components have undefined size by default, but some
layouts have full size in horizontal direction. You can set the height or width as undefined with
Sizeable.SIZE_UNDEFINED parameter for setWidth() and setHeight().
You always need to keep in mind that a layout with undefined size may not contain components
with defined relative size, such as "full size". See Kohta 6.13.1, ”Layout Size” for details.
The Taulu 5.1, ”Size Units” lists the available units and their codes defined in the Sizeable
interface.
Taulu 5.1. Size Units
UNITS_PIXELS
px
The pixel is the basic hardware-specific measure of one
physical display pixel.
UNITS_POINTS
pt
The point is a typographical unit, which is usually defined as
1/72 inches or about 0.35 mm. However, on displays the size
can vary significantly depending on display metrics.
UNITS_PICAS
pc
The pica is a typographical unit, defined as 12 points, or 1/7
inches or about 4.233 mm. On displays, the size can vary
depending on display metrics.
UNITS_EM
em
A unit relative to the used font, the width of the upper-case "M"
letter.
UNITS_EX
ex
A unit relative to the used font, the height of the lower-case "x"
letter.
UNITS_MM
mm
A physical length unit, millimeters on the surface of a display
device. However, the actual size depends on the display, its
metrics in the operating system, and the browser.
UNITS_CM
cm
A physical length unit, centimeters on the surface of a display
device. However, the actual size depends on the display, its
metrics in the operating system, and the browser.
UNITS_INCH
in
A physical length unit, inches on the surface of a display device.
However, the actual size depends on the display, its metrics
in the operating system, and the browser.
UNITS_PERCENTAGE
%
A relative percentage of the available size. For example, for
the top-level layout 100% would be the full width or height of
the browser window. The percentage value must be between
0 and 100.
If a component inside HorizontalLayout or VerticalLayout has full size in the namesake direction
of the layout, the component will expand to take all available space not needed by the other
components. See Kohta 6.13.1, ”Layout Size” for details.
5.3.10. Managing Input Focus
When the user clicks on a component, the component gets the input focus, which is indicated by
highlighting according to style definitions. If the component allows inputting text, the focus and
insertion point are indicated by a cursor. Pressing the Tab key moves the focus to the component
next in the focus order.
Focusing is supported by all Field components and also by Upload.
Managing Input Focus
117
User Interface Components
The focus order or tab index of a component is defined as a positive integer value, which you
can set with setTabIndex() and get with getTabIndex(). The tab index is managed in the
context of the page in which the components are contained. The focus order can therefore jump
between two any lower-level component containers, such as sub-windows or panels.
The default focus order is determined by the natural hierarchical order of components in the order
in which they were added under their parents. The default tab index is 0 (zero).
Giving a negative integer as the tab index removes the component from the focus order entirely.
CSS Style Rules
The component having the focus will have an additional style class with the -focus suffix. For
example, a TextField, which normally has the v-textfield style, would additionally have the
v-textfield-focus style.
For example, the following would make a text field blue when it has focus.
.v-textfield-focus {
background: lightblue;
}
5.4. Field Components
Fields are components that have a value that the user can change through the user interface.
Kuva 5.14, ”Field Components” illustrates the inheritance relationships and the important interfaces
and base classes.
Field components are built upon the framework defined in the Field interface and the
AbstractField base class. AbstractField is the base class for all field components. In addition
to the component features inherited from AbstractComponent, it implements a number of
features defined in Property, Buffered, Validatable, and Component.Focusable interfaces.
The description of the field interfaces and base classes is broken down in the following sections.
5.4.1. Field Interface
The Field interface inherits the Component superinterface and also the Property interface to
have a value for the field. AbstractField is the only class implementing the Field interface directly.
The relationships are illustrated in Kuva 5.15, ”Field Interface Inheritance Diagram”.
118
Field Components
User Interface Components
Kuva 5.14. Field Components
Field Interface
119
User Interface Components
Kuva 5.15. Field Interface Inheritance Diagram
You can set the field value with the setValue() and read with the getValue() method defined
in the Property interface. The actual value type depends on the component.
The Field interface defines a number of attributes, which you can retrieve or manipulate with the
corresponding setters and getters.
description
All fields have a description. Notice that while this attribute is defined in the Field
component, it is implemented in AbstractField, which does not directly implement
Field, but only through the AbstractField class.
required
When enabled, a required indicator (usually the asterisk * character) is displayed on
the left, above, or right the field, depending on the containing layout and whether the
field has a caption. If such fields are validated but are empty and the requiredError
property (see below) is set, an error indicator is shown and the component error is set
to the text defined with the error property. Without validation, the required indicator is
merely a visual guide.
requiredError
Defines the error message to show when a value is required, but none is entered. The
error message is set as the component error for the field and is usually displayed in a
tooltip when the mouse pointer hovers over the error indicator.
5.4.2. Data Binding and Conversions
Fields are strongly coupled with the Vaadin data model. The field value is handled as a Property
of the field component, as documented in Kohta 9.2, ”Properties”. Selection fields allow
management of the selectable items through the Container interface.
Fields are editors for some particular type. For example, TextField allows editing String values.
When bound to a data source, the property type of the data model can be something different,
say an Integer. Converters are used for converting the values between the representation and
the model. They are described in Kohta 9.2.3, ”Converting Between Property Type and
Representation”.
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User Interface Components
5.4.3. Handling Field Value Changes
Field inherits Property.ValueChangeListener to allow listening for field value changes and
Property.Editor to allow editing values.
When the value of a field changes, a Property.ValueChangeEvent is triggered for the field. You
should not implement the valueChange() method in a class inheriting AbstractField, as it is
already implemented in AbstractField. You should instead implement the method explicitly by
adding the implementing object as a listener.
5.4.4. Field Buffering
Field components implement the Buffered and BufferedValidatable interfaces. When
buffering is enabled for a field with setBuffered(true), the value is not written to the property
data source before the commit() method is called for the field. Calling commit() also runs
validators added to the field, and if any fail (and the invalidCommitted is disabled), the value
is not written.
form.addComponent(new Button("Commit",
new Button.ClickListener() {
@Override
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
try {
editor.commit();
} catch (InvalidValueException e) {
Notification.show(e.getMessage());
}
}
}));
Calling discard() reads the value from the property date source to the current input.
If the fields are bound in a FieldGroup that has buffering enabled, calling commit() for the
group runs validation on all fields in the group, and if successful, all the field values are written
to the item data source. See Kohta 9.4.4, ”Buffering Forms”.
5.4.5. Field Validation
The input for a field component can be syntactically or semantically invalid. Fields implement the
Validatable interface, which allows checking validity of the input with validators that implement
the Validator interface. You can add validators to fields with addValidator().
TextField field = new TextField("Name");
field.addValidator(new StringLengthValidator(
"The name must be 1-10 letters (was {0})",
1, 10, true));
layout.addComponent(field);
Failed validation is indicated with the error indicator of the field, described in Kohta 4.5.1, ”Error
Indicator and Message”, unless disabled with setValidationVisible(false). Hovering
mouse on the field displays the error message given as a parameter for the validator. If validated
explicitly with validate(), as described later, the InvalidValueException is thrown if the
validation fails, also carrying the error message. The value {0} in the error message string is
replaced with the invalid input value.
Handling Field Value Changes
121
User Interface Components
Validators validate the property type of the field after a possible conversion, not the presentation
type. For example, an IntegerRangeValidator requires that the value type of the property data
source is Integer.
Built-in Validators
Vaadin includes the following built-in validators. The property value type is indicated.
BeanValidator
Validates a bean property according to annotations defined in the Bean Validation API
1.0 (JSR-303). This validator is usually not used explicitly, but they are created implicitly
when binding fields in a BeanFieldGroup. Using bean validation requires an
implementation library of the API. See Kohta 9.4.6, ”Bean Validation” for details.
CompositeValidator
Combines validators using logical AND and OR operators.
DateRangeValidator: Date
Checks that the date value is within the range at or between two given dates/times.
DoubleRangeValidator: Double
Checks that the double value is at or between two given values.
EmailValidator: String
Checks that the string value is a syntactically valid email address. The validated syntax
is close to the RFC 822 standard regarding email addresses.
IntegerRangeValidator: Integer
Checks that the integer value is at or between two given values.
NullValidator
Checks that the value is or is not a null value.
RegexpValidator: String
Checks that the value matches with the given regular expression.
StringLengthValidator: String
Checks that the length of the input string is at or between two given lengths.
Please see the API documentation for more details.
Automatic Validation
The validators are normally, when validationVisible is true for the field, executed implicitly
on the next server request if the input has changed. If the field is in immediate mode, it (and any
other fields with changed value) are validated immediately when the focus leaves the field.
TextField field = new TextField("Name");
field.addValidator(new StringLengthValidator(
"The name must be 1-10 letters (was {0})",
1, 10, true));
field.setImmediate(true);
layout.addComponent(field);
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Field Validation
User Interface Components
Explicit Validation
The validators are executed when the validate() or commit() methods are called for the
field.
// A field with automatic validation disabled
final TextField field = new TextField("Name");
layout.addComponent(field);
// Define validation as usual
field.addValidator(new StringLengthValidator(
"The name must be 1-10 letters (was {0})",
1, 10, true));
// Run validation explicitly
Button validate = new Button("Validate");
validate.addClickListener(new ClickListener() {
@Override
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
field.setValidationVisible(false);
try {
field.validate();
} catch (InvalidValueException e) {
Notification.show(e.getMessage());
field.setValidationVisible(true);
}
}
});
layout.addComponent(validate);
Implementing a Custom Validator
You can create custom validators by implementing the Validator interface and implementing
its validate() method. If the validation fails, the method should throw either
InvalidValueException or EmptyValueException.
class MyValidator implements Validator {
@Override
public void validate(Object value)
throws InvalidValueException {
if (!(value instanceof String &&
((String)value).equals("hello")))
throw new InvalidValueException("You're impolite");
}
}
final TextField field = new TextField("Say hello");
field.addValidator(new MyValidator());
field.setImmediate(true);
layout.addComponent(field);
Validation in Field Groups
If the field is bound to a FieldGroup, described in Kohta 9.4, ”Creating Forms by Binding Fields
to Items”, calling commit() for the group runs the validation for all the fields in the group, and
if successful, writes the input values to the data source.
Field Validation
123
User Interface Components
5.5. Component Extensions
Components and UIs can have extensions which are attached to the component dynamically.
Especially, many add-ons are extensions.
How a component is extended depends on the extension. Typically, they have an extend()
method that takes the component to be extended as the parameter.
TextField tf = new TextField("Hello");
layout.addComponent(tf);
// Add a simple extension
new CapsLockWarning().extend(tf);
// Add an extension that requires some parameters
CSValidator validator = new CSValidator();
validator.setRegExp("[0-9]*");
validator.setErrorMessage("Must be a number");
validator.extend(tf);
Development of custom extensions is described in Kohta 16.7, ”Component and UI Extensions”.
5.6. Label
Label is a text component that displays non-editable text. In addition to regular text, you can also
display preformatted text and HTML, depending on the content mode of the label.
// A container that is 100% wide by default
VerticalLayout layout = new VerticalLayout();
Label label = new Label("Labeling can be dangerous");
layout.addComponent(label);
The text will wrap around and continue on the next line if it exceeds the width of the Label. The
default width is 100%, so the containing layout must also have a defined width. Some layout
components have undefined width by default, such as HorizontalLayout, so you need to pay
special care with them.
// A container with a defined width. The default content layout
// of Panel is VerticalLayout, which has 100% default width.
Panel panel = new Panel("Panel Containing a Label");
panel.setWidth("300px");
panel.addComponent(
new Label("This is a Label inside a Panel. There is " +
"enough text in the label to make the text " +
"wrap when it exceeds the width of the panel."));
As the size of the Panel in the above example is fixed and the width of Label is the default 100%,
the text in the Label will wrap to fit the panel, as shown in Kuva 5.16, ”The Label Component”.
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Kuva 5.16. The Label Component
Setting Label to undefined width will cause it to not wrap at the end of the line, as the width of
the content defines the width. If placed inside a layout with defined width, the Label will overflow
the layout horizontally and, normally, be truncated.
Even though Label is text and often used as a caption, it also has a caption, just like any other
component. As with other components, the caption is managed by the containing layout.
5.6.1. Content Mode
The contents of a label are formatted depending on the content mode. By default, the text is
assumed to be plain text and any contained XML-specific characters will be quoted appropriately
to allow rendering the contents of a label in HTML in a web browser. The content mode can be
set in the constructor or with setContentMode(), and can have the values defined in the
ContentMode enumeration type in com.vaadin.shared.ui.label package:
TEXT
The default content mode where the label contains only plain text. All characters are
allowed, including the special <, >, and & characters in XML or HTML, which are quoted
properly in HTML while rendering the component. This is the default mode.
PREFORMATTED
Content mode where the label contains preformatted text. It will be, by default, rendered
with a fixed-width typewriter font. Preformatted text can contain line breaks, written in
Java with the \n escape sequence for a newline character (ASCII 0x0a), or tabulator
characters written with \t (ASCII 0x08).
HTML
Content mode where the label contains (X)HTML. The content will be enclosed in a
DIV
element
having
the
namespace
"http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd".
Please note the following security and validity warnings regarding the HTML content
mode.
Cross-Site Scripting Warning
Having Label in HTML content mode allows pure HTML content. If the content comes
from user input, you should always carefully sanitize it to prevent cross-site scripting
(XSS) attacks. Please see Kohta 11.8.1, ”Sanitizing User Input to Prevent Cross-Site
Scripting”.
Content Mode
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User Interface Components
Also, the validity of the HTML content is not checked when rendering the component
and any errors can result in an error in the browser. If the content comes from an
uncertain source, you should always validate it before displaying it in the component.
The following example demonstrates the use of Label in different modes.
GridLayout labelgrid = new GridLayout (2,1);
labelgrid.addComponent (new Label ("PREFORMATTED"));
labelgrid.addComponent (
new Label ("This is a preformatted label.\n"+
"The newline character \\n breaks the line.",
Label.ContentMode.PREFORMATTED));
labelgrid.addComponent (new Label ("TEXT"));
labelgrid.addComponent (
new Label ("This is a label in (plain) text mode",
Label.ContentMode.TEXT));
labelgrid.addComponent (new Label ("HTML"));
labelgrid.addComponent (
new Label ("<i
>This</i
> is an <b
>HTML</b
> formatted label",
Label.ContentMode.HTML));
layout.addComponent(labelgrid);
The rendering will look as follows:
Kuva 5.17. Label Modes Rendered on Screen
5.6.2. Spacing with a Label
You can use a Label to create vertical or horizontal space in a layout. If you need a empty "line"
in a vertical layout, having just a label with empty text is not enough, as it will collapse to zero
height. The same goes for a label with only whitespace as the label text. You need to use a nonbreaking space character, either &nbsp; or &#160;:
layout.addComponent(new Label("&nbsp;", Label.ContentMode.XHTML));
Using the Label.ContentMode.PREFORMATTED mode has the same effect; preformatted
spaces do not collapse in a vertical layout. In a HorizontalLayout, the width of a space character
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User Interface Components
may be unpredictable if the label font is proportional, so you can use the preformatted mode to
add em-width wide spaces.
If you want a gap that has adjustable width or height, you can use an empty label if you specify
a height or width for it. For example, to create vertical space in a VerticalLayout:
Label gap = new Label();
gap.setHeight("1em");
verticalLayout.addComponent(gap);
You can make a flexible expanding spacer by having a relatively sized empty label with 100%
height or width and setting the label as expanding in the layout.
// A wide component bar
HorizontalLayout horizontal = new HorizontalLayout();
horizontal.setWidth("100%");
// Have a component before the gap (a collapsing cell)
Button button1 = new Button("I'm on the left");
horizontal.addComponent(button1);
// An expanding gap spacer
Label expandingGap = new Label();
expandingGap.setWidth("100%");
horizontal.addComponent(expandingGap);
horizontal.setExpandRatio(expandingGap, 1.0f);
// A component after the gap (a collapsing cell)
Button button2 = new Button("I'm on the right");
horizontal.addComponent(button2);
5.6.3. CSS Style Rules
The Label component has a v-label overall style.
The Reindeer theme includes a number of predefined styles for typical formatting cases. These
include "h1" (Reindeer.LABEL_H1) and "h2" (Reindeer.LABEL_H2) heading styles and
"light" (Reindeer.LABEL_SMALL) style.
5.7. Link
The Link component allows making hyperlinks. References to locations are represented as
resource objects, explained in Kohta 4.4, ”Images and Other Resources”. The Link is a regular
HTML hyperlink, that is, an <a href> anchor element that is handled natively by the browser.
Unlike when clicking a Button, clicking a Link does not cause an event on the server-side.
Links to an arbitrary URL can be made by using an ExternalResource as follows:
// Textual link
Link link = new Link("Click Me!",
new ExternalResource("http://vaadin.com/"));
You can use setIcon() to make image links as follows:
// Image link
Link iconic = new Link(null,
new ExternalResource("http://vaadin.com/"));
iconic.setIcon(new ThemeResource("img/nicubunu_Chain.png"));
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127
User Interface Components
// Image + caption
Link combo = new Link("To appease both literal and visual",
new ExternalResource("http://vaadin.com/"));
combo.setIcon(new ThemeResource("img/nicubunu_Chain.png"));
The resulting links are shown in Kuva 5.18, ”Link Example”.You could add a "display: block"
style for the icon element to place the caption below it.
Kuva 5.18. Link Example
With the simple constructor used in the above example, the resource is opened in the current
window. Using the constructor that takes the target window as a parameter, or by setting the
target window with setTargetName(), you can open the resource in another window, such as
a popup browser window/tab. As the target name is an HTML target string managed by the
browser, the target can be any window, including windows not managed by the application itself.
You can use the special underscored target names, such as _blank to open the link to a new
browser window or tab.
// Hyperlink to a given URL
Link link = new Link("Take me a away to a faraway land",
new ExternalResource("http://vaadin.com/"));
// Open the URL in a new window/tab
link.setTargetName("_blank");
// Indicate visually that it opens in a new window/tab
link.setIcon(new ThemeResource("icons/external-link.png"));
link.addStyleName("icon-after-caption");
Normally, the link icon is before the caption. You can have it right of the caption by reversing the
text direction in the containing element.
/* Position icon right of the link caption. */
.icon-after-caption {
direction: rtl;
}
/* Add some padding around the icon. */
.icon-after-caption .v-icon {
padding: 0 3px;
}
The resulting link is shown in Kuva 5.19, ”Link That Opens a New Window”.
Kuva 5.19. Link That Opens a New Window
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Link
User Interface Components
With the _blank target, a normal new browser window is opened. If you wish to open it in a
popup window (or tab), you need to give a size for the window with setTargetWidth() and
setTargetHeight(). You can control the window border style with setTargetBorder(),
which takes any of the defined border styles TARGET_BORDER_DEFAULT,
TARGET_BORDER_MINIMAL, and TARGET_BORDER_NONE. The exact result depends on the
browser.
// Open the URL in a popup
link.setTargetName("_blank");
link.setTargetBorder(Link.TARGET_BORDER_NONE);
link.setTargetHeight(300);
link.setTargetWidth(400);
In addition to the Link component, Vaadin allows alternative ways to make hyperlinks. The Button
component has a Reindeer.BUTTON_LINK style name that makes it look like a hyperlink, while
handling clicks in a server-side click listener instead of in the browser. Also, you can make
hyperlinks (or any other HTML) in a Label in XHTML content mode.
5.7.1. CSS Style Rules
.v-link { }
a { }
.v-icon {}
span {}
The overall style for the Link component is v-link. The root element contains the <a href>
hyperlink anchor. Inside the anchor are the icon, with v-icon style, and the caption in a text
span.
Hyperlink anchors have a number of pseudo-classes that are active at different times. An unvisited
link has a:link class and a visited link a:visited. When the mouse pointer hovers over the
link, it will have a:hover, and when the mouse button is being pressed over the link, the
a:active class. When combining the pseudo-classes in a selector, please notice that a:hover
must come after an a:link and a:visited, and a:active after the a:hover.
5.8. TextField
TextField is one of the most commonly used user interface components. It is a Field component
that allows entering textual values using keyboard.
The following example creates a simple text field:
// Create a text field
TextField tf = new TextField("A Field");
// Put some initial content in it
tf.setValue("Stuff in the field");
See the result in Kuva 5.20, ”TextField Example”.
Kuva 5.20. TextField Example
CSS Style Rules
129
User Interface Components
Value changes are handled with a Property.ValueChangeListener, as in most other fields. The
value can be acquired with getValue() directly from the text field, as is done in the example
below, or from the property reference of the event.
// Handle changes in the value
tf.addValueChangeListener(new Property.ValueChangeListener() {
private static final long serialVersionUID = -6549081726526133772L;
public void valueChange(ValueChangeEvent event) {
// Assuming that the value type is a String
String value = (String) event.getProperty().getValue();
// Do something with the value
Notification.show("Value is: " + value);
}
});
// Fire value changes immediately when the field loses focus
tf.setImmediate(true);
Much of the API of TextField is defined in AbstractTextField, which allows different kinds of
text input fields, such as rich text editors, which do not share all the features of the single-line
text fields.
Kuva 5.21. Text Field Class Relationships
5.8.1. Data Binding
TextField edits String values, but you can bind it to any property type that has a proper converter,
as described in Kohta 9.2.3, ”Converting Between Property Type and Representation”.
// Have an initial data model. As Double is unmodificable and
// doesn't support assignment from String, the object is
// reconstructed in the wrapper when the value is changed.
Double trouble = 42.0;
// Wrap it in a property data source
final ObjectProperty<Double> property =
new ObjectProperty<Double>(trouble);
// Create a text field bound to it
// (StringToDoubleConverter is used automatically)
TextField tf = new TextField("The Answer", property);
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Data Binding
User Interface Components
tf.setImmediate(true);
// Show that the value is really written back to the
// data source when edited by user.
Label feedback = new Label(property);
feedback.setCaption("The Value");
When you put a Table in editable mode or create fields with a FieldGroup, the
DefaultFieldFactory creates a TextField for almost every property type by default. You often
need to make a custom factory to customize the creation and to set the field tooltip, validation,
formatting, and so on.
See Luku 9, Binding Components to Data for more details on data binding, field factories for
Table in Kohta 5.16.3, ”Editing the Values in a Table”, and Kohta 9.4, ”Creating Forms by Binding
Fields to Items” regarding forms.
5.8.2. String Length
The setMaxLength() method sets the maximum length of the input string so that the browser
prevents the user from entering a longer one. As a security feature, the input value is automatically
truncated on the server-side, as the maximum length setting could be bypassed on the clientside. The maximum length property is defined at AbstractTextField level.
Notice that the maximum length setting does not affect the width of the field. You can set the
width with setWidth(), as with other components. Using em widths is recommended to better
approximate the proper width in relation to the size of the used font. There is no standard way
in HTML for setting the width exactly to a number of letters (in a monospaced font). You can trick
your way around this restriction by putting the text field in an undefined-width VerticalLayout
together with an undefined-width Label that contains a sample text, and setting the width of the
text field as 100%. The layout will get its width from the label, and the text field will use that.
5.8.3. Handling Null Values
As with any field, the value of a TextField can be set as null. This occurs most commonly when
you create a new field without setting a value for it or bind the field value to a data source that
allows null values. In such case, you might want to show a special value that stands for the null
value. You can set the null representation with the setNullRepresentation() method. Most
typically, you use an empty string for the null representation, unless you want to differentiate from
a string that is explicitly empty. The default null representation is "null", which essentially warns
that you may have forgotten to initialize your data objects properly.
The setNullSettingAllowed() controls whether the user can actually input a null value by
using the null value representation. If the setting is false, which is the default, inputting the null
value representation string sets the value as the literal value of the string, not null. This default
assumption is a safeguard for data sources that may not allow null values.
// Create a text field without setting its value
TextField tf = new TextField("Field Energy (J)");
tf.setNullRepresentation("-- null-point energy --");
// The null value is actually the default
tf.setValue(null);
// Allow user to input the null value by
// its representation
tf.setNullSettingAllowed(true);
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131
User Interface Components
// Feedback to see the value
Label value = new Label(tf);
value.setCaption("Current Value:");
The Label, which is bound to the value of the TextField, displays a null value as empty. The
resulting user interface is shown in Kuva 5.22, ”Null Value Representation”.
Kuva 5.22. Null Value Representation
5.8.4. Text Change Events
Often you want to receive a change event immediately when the text field value changes. The
immediate mode is not literally immediate, as the changes are transmitted only after the field
loses focus. In the other extreme, using keyboard events for every keypress would make typing
unbearably slow and also processing the keypresses is too complicated for most purposes. Text
change events are transmitted asynchronously soon after typing and do not block typing while
an event is being processed.
Text change events are received with a TextChangeListener, as is done in the following example
that demonstrates how to create a text length counter:
// Text field with maximum length
final TextField tf = new TextField("My Eventful Field");
tf.setValue("Initial content");
tf.setMaxLength(20);
// Counter for input length
final Label counter = new Label();
counter.setValue(tf.getValue().length() +
" of " + tf.getMaxLength());
// Display the current length interactively in the counter
tf.addTextChangeListener(new TextChangeListener() {
public void textChange(TextChangeEvent event) {
int len = event.getText().length();
counter.setValue(len + " of " + tf.getMaxLength());
}
});
// The lazy mode is actually the default
tf.setTextChangeEventMode(TextChangeEventMode.LAZY);
The result is shown in Kuva 5.23, ”Text Change Events”.
Kuva 5.23. Text Change Events
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Text Change Events
User Interface Components
The text change event mode defines how quickly the changes are transmitted to the server and
cause a server-side event. Lazier change events allow sending larger changes in one event if
the user is typing fast, thereby reducing server requests.
You can set the text change event mode of a TextField with setTextChangeEventMode().
The allowed modes are defined in TextChangeEventMode enum and are as follows:
TextChangeEventMode.LAZY (default)
An event is triggered when there is a pause in editing the text. The length of the pause
can be modified with setInputEventTimeout(). As with the TIMEOUT mode, a
text change event is forced before a possible ValueChangeEvent, even if the user
did not keep a pause while entering the text.
This is the default mode.
TextChangeEventMode.TIMEOUT
A text change in the user interface causes the event to be communicated to the
application after a timeout period. If more changes are made during this period, the
event sent to the server-side includes the changes made up to the last change. The
length of the timeout can be set with setInputEventTimeout().
If a ValueChangeEvent would occur before the timeout period, a TextChangeEvent
is triggered before it, on the condition that the text content has changed since the
previous TextChangeEvent.
TextChangeEventMode.EAGER
An event is triggered immediately for every change in the text content, typically caused
by a key press. The requests are separate and are processed sequentially one after
another. Change events are nevertheless communicated asynchronously to the server,
so further input can be typed while event requests are being processed.
5.8.5. CSS Style Rules
.v-textfield { }
The HTML structure of TextField is extremely simple, consisting only of an element with the
v-textfield style.
For example, the following custom style uses dashed border:
.v-textfield-dashing {
border:
thin dashed;
background: white; /* Has shading image by default */
}
The result is shown in Kuva 5.24, ”Styling TextField with CSS”.
Kuva 5.24. Styling TextField with CSS
The style name for TextField is also used in several components that contain a text input field,
even if the text input is not an actual TextField. This ensures that the style of different text input
boxes is similar.
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133
User Interface Components
5.9. TextArea
TextArea is a multi-line version of the TextField component described in Kohta 5.8, ”TextField”.
The following example creates a simple text area:
// Create the area
TextArea area = new TextArea("Big Area");
// Put some content in it
area.setValue("A row\n"+
"Another row\n"+
"Yet another row");
The result is shown in Kuva 5.25, ”TextArea Example”.
Kuva 5.25. TextArea Example
You can set the number of visible rows with setRows() or use the regular setHeight() to
define the height in other units. If the actual number of rows exceeds the number, a vertical
scrollbar will appear. Setting the height with setRows() leaves space for a horizontal scrollbar,
so the actual number of visible rows may be one higher if the scrollbar is not visible.
You can set the width with the regular setWidth() method. Setting the size with the em unit,
which is relative to the used font size, is recommended.
5.9.1. Word Wrap
The setWordwrap() sets whether long lines are wrapped (true - default) when the line length
reaches the width of the writing area. If the word wrap is disabled (false), a vertical scrollbar
will appear instead. The word wrap is only a visual feature and wrapping a long line does not
insert line break characters in the field value; shortening a wrapped line will undo the wrapping.
TextArea area1 = new TextArea("Wrapping");
area1.setWordwrap(true); // The default
area1.setValue("A quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog");
TextArea area2 = new TextArea("Nonwrapping");
area2.setWordwrap(false);
area2.setValue("Victor jagt zw&ouml;lf Boxk&auml;mpfer quer "+
"&uuml;ber den Sylter Deich");
The result is shown in Kuva 5.26, ”Word Wrap in TextArea”.
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Kuva 5.26. Word Wrap in TextArea
5.9.2. CSS Style Rules
.v-textarea { }
The HTML structure of TextArea is extremely simple, consisting only of an element with
v-textarea style.
5.10. PasswordField
The PasswordField is a variant of TextField that hides the typed input from visual inspection.
PasswordField tf = new PasswordField("Keep it secret");
The result is shown in Kuva 5.27, ”PasswordField”.
Kuva 5.27. PasswordField
You should note that the PasswordField hides the input only from "over the shoulder" visual
observation. Unless the server connection is encrypted with a secure connection, such as HTTPS,
the input is transmitted in clear text and may be intercepted by anyone with low-level access to
the network. Also phishing attacks that intercept the input in the browser may be possible by
exploiting JavaScript execution security holes in the browser.
5.10.1. CSS Style Rules
.v-textfield { }
The PasswordField does not have its own CSS style name but uses the same v-textfield
style as the regular TextField. See Kohta 5.8.5, ”CSS Style Rules” for information on styling it.
5.11. RichTextArea
The RichTextArea field allows entering or editing formatted text. The toolbar provides all basic
editing functionalities. The text content of RichTextArea is represented in HTML format.
RichTextArea inherits TextField and does not add any API functionality over it. You can add
new functionality by extending the client-side components VRichTextArea and VRichTextToolbar.
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135
User Interface Components
As with TextField, the textual content of the rich text area is the Property of the field and can
be set with setValue() and read with getValue().
// Create a rich text area
final RichTextArea rtarea = new RichTextArea();
rtarea.setCaption("My Rich Text Area");
// Set initial content as HTML
rtarea.setValue("<h1
>Hello</h1
>\n" +
"<p
>This rich text area contains some text.</p
>");
Kuva 5.28. Rich Text Area Component
Above, we used context-specific tags such as <h1> in the initial HTML content. The rich text
area component does not allow creating such tags, only formatting tags, but it does preserve
them unless the user edits them away. Any non-visible whitespace such as the new line character
(\n) are removed from the content. For example, the value set above will be as follows when
read from the field with getValue():
<h1>Hello</h1> <p>This rich text area contains some text.</p>
The rich text area is one of the few components in Vaadin that contain textual labels. The selection
boxes in the toolbar are in English and currently can not be localized in any other way than by
inheriting or reimplementing the client-side VRichTextToolbar widget. The buttons can be
localized simply with CSS by downloading a copy of the toolbar background image, editing it,
and replacing the default toolbar. The toolbar is a single image file from which the individual
button icons are picked, so the order of the icons is different from the rendered. The image file
depends on the client-side implementation of the toolbar.
.v-richtextarea-richtextexample .gwt-ToggleButton
.gwt-Image {
background-image: url(img/richtextarea-toolbar-fi.png)
!important;
}
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Kuva 5.29. Regular English and a Localized Rich Text Area Toolbar
5.11.1. Cross-Site Scripting with RichTextArea
The user input from a RichTextArea is transmitted as XHTML from the browser to server-side
and is not sanitized. As the entire purpose of the RichTextArea component is to allow input of
formatted text, you can not sanitize it just by removing all HTML tags. Also many attributes, such
as style, should pass through the sanitization.
See Kohta 11.8.1, ”Sanitizing User Input to Prevent Cross-Site Scripting” for more details on
Cross-Site scripting vulnerabilities and sanitization of user input.
5.11.2. CSS Style Rules
.v-richtextarea { }
.v-richtextarea .gwt-RichTextToolbar { }
.v-richtextarea .gwt-RichTextArea { }
The rich text area consists of two main parts: the toolbar with overall style .gwtRichTextToolbar and the editor area with style .gwt-RichTextArea. The editor area
obviously contains all the elements and their styles that the HTML content contains. The toolbar
contains buttons and drop-down list boxes with the following respective style names:
.gwt-ToggleButton { }
.gwt-ListBox { }
5.12. Date and Time Input with DateField
The DateField component provides the means to display and input date and time. The field
comes in two variations: PopupDateField, with a numeric input box and a popup calendar view,
and InlineDateField, with the calendar view always visible. The DateField base class defaults
to the popup variation.
The example below illustrates the use of the DateField baseclass, which is equivalent to the
PopupDateField. We set the initial time of the date field to current time by using the default
constructor of the java.util.Date class.
// Create a DateField with the default style
DateField date = new DateField();
// Set the date and time to present
date.setValue(new Date());
The result is shown in Kuva 5.30, ”DateField (PopupDateField) for Selecting Date and Time”.
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User Interface Components
Kuva 5.30. DateField (PopupDateField) for Selecting Date and Time
5.12.1. PopupDateField
The PopupDateField provides date input using a text box for the date and time. As the DateField
defaults to this component, the use is exactly the same as described earlier. Clicking the handle
right of the date opens a popup view for selecting the year, month, and day, as well as time. Also
the Down key opens the popup. Once opened, the user can navigate the calendar using the
cursor keys.
The date and time selected from the popup are displayed in the text box according to the default
date and time format of the current locale, or as specified with setDateFormat(). The same
format definitions are used for parsing user input.
Date and Time Format
The date and time are normally displayed according to the default format for the current locale
(see Kohta 5.3.5, ”Locale”). You can specify a custom format with setDateFormat(). It takes
a format string that follows the format of the SimpleDateFormat in Java.
// Display only year, month, and day in ISO format
date.setDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd");
The result is shown in Kuva 5.31, ”Custom Date Format for PopupDateField”.
Kuva 5.31. Custom Date Format for PopupDateField
The same format specification is also used for parsing user-input date and time, as described
later.
Handling Malformed User Input
A user can easily input a malformed or otherwise invalid date or time. DateField has two validation
layers: first on the client-side and then on the server-side.
The validity of the entered date is first validated on the client-side, immediately when the input
box loses focus. If the date format is invalid, the v-datefield-parseerror style is set. Whether
this causes a visible indication of a problem depends on the theme. The built-in reindeer theme
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PopupDateField
User Interface Components
does not shown any indication by default, making server-side handling of the problem more
convenient.
.mydate.v-datefield-parseerror .v-textfield {
background: pink;
}
The setLenient(true) setting enables relaxed interpretation of dates, so that invalid dates,
such as February 30th or March 0th, are wrapped to the next or previous month, for example.
The server-side validation phase occurs when the date value is sent to the server. If the date
field is set in immediate state, it occurs immediately after the field loses focus. Once this is done
and if the status is still invalid, an error indicator is displayed beside the component. Hovering
the mouse pointer over the indicator shows the error message.
You can handle the errors by overriding the handleUnparsableDateString() method. The
method gets the user input as a string parameter and can provide a custom parsing mechanism,
as shown in the following example.
// Create a date field with a custom parsing and a
// custom error message for invalid format
PopupDateField date = new PopupDateField("My Date") {
@Override
protected Date handleUnparsableDateString(String dateString)
throws Property.ConversionException {
// Try custom parsing
String fields[] = dateString.split("/");
if (fields.length >= 3) {
try {
int year = Integer.parseInt(fields[0]);
int month = Integer.parseInt(fields[1])-1;
int day
= Integer.parseInt(fields[2]);
GregorianCalendar c =
new GregorianCalendar(year, month, day);
return c.getTime();
} catch (NumberFormatException e) {
throw new Property.
ConversionException("Not a number");
}
}
// Bad date
throw new Property.
ConversionException("Your date needs two slashes");
}
};
// Display only year, month, and day in slash-delimited format
date.setDateFormat("yyyy/MM/dd");
// Don't be too tight about the validity of dates
// on the client-side
date.setLenient(true);
The handler method must either return a parsed Date object or throw a ConversionException.
Returning null will set the field value to null and clear the input box.
PopupDateField
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Customizing the Error Message
In addition to customized parsing, overriding the handler method for unparseable input is useful
for internationalization and other customization of the error message. You can also use it for
another way for reporting the errors, as is done in the example below:
// Create a date field with a custom error message for invalid format
PopupDateField date = new PopupDateField("My Date") {
@Override
protected Date handleUnparsableDateString(String dateString)
throws Property.ConversionException {
// Have a notification for the error
Notification.show(
"Your date needs two slashes",
Notification.TYPE_WARNING_MESSAGE);
// A failure must always also throw an exception
throw new Property.ConversionException("Bad date");
}
};
If the input is invalid, you should always throw the exception; returning a null value would make
the input field empty, which is probably undesired.
Input Prompt
Like other fields that have a text box, PopupDateField allows an input prompt that is visible until
the user has input a value. You can set the prompt with setInputPrompt.
PopupDateField date = new PopupDateField();
// Set the prompt
date.setInputPrompt("Select a date");
// Set width explicitly to accommodate the prompt
date.setWidth("10em");
The date field doesn't automatically scale to accommodate the prompt, so you need to set it
explicitly with setWidth().
The input prompt is not available in the DateField superclass.
CSS Style Rules
.v-datefield, v-datefield-popupcalendar {}
.v-textfield, v-datefield-textfield {}
.v-datefield-button {}
The top-level element of DateField and all its variants have v-datefield style. The base class
and the PopupDateField also have the v-datefield-popupcalendar style.
In addition, the top-level element has a style that indicates the resolution, with v-datefieldbasename and an extension, which is one of full, day, month, or year. The -full style is
enabled when the resolution is smaller than a day. These styles are used mainly for controlling
the appearance of the popup calendar.
The text box has v-textfield and v-datefield-textfield styles, and the calendar button
v-datefield-button.
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Once opened, the calendar popup has the following styles at the top level:
.v-datefield-popup {}
.v-popupcontent {}
.v-datefield-calendarpanel {}
The top-level element of the floating popup calendar has .v-datefield-popup style. Observe
that the popup frame is outside the HTML structure of the component, hence it is not enclosed
in the v-datefield element and does not include any custom styles. The content in the
v-datefield-calendarpanel is the same as in InlineDateField, as described in Kohta 5.12.2,
”InlineDateField”.
5.12.2. InlineDateField
The InlineDateField provides a date picker component with a month view. The user can navigate
months and years by clicking the appropriate arrows. Unlike with the popup variant, the month
view is always visible in the inline field.
// Create a DateField with the default style
InlineDateField date = new InlineDateField();
// Set the date and time to present
date.setValue(new java.util.Date());
The result is shown in Kuva 5.32, ”Example of the InlineDateField”.
Kuva 5.32. Example of the InlineDateField
The user can also navigate the calendar using the cursor keys.
CSS Style Rules
.v-datefield {}
.v-datefield-calendarpanel {}
.v-datefield-calendarpanel-header {}
.v-datefield-calendarpanel-prevyear {}
.v-datefield-calendarpanel-prevmonth {}
.v-datefield-calendarpanel-month {}
.v-datefield-calendarpanel-nextmonth {}
.v-datefield-calendarpanel-nextyear {}
.v-datefield-calendarpanel-body {}
.v-datefield-calendarpanel-weekdays,
.v-datefield-calendarpanel-weeknumbers {}
.v-first {}
.v-last {}
.v-datefield-calendarpanel-weeknumber {}
.v-datefield-calendarpanel-day {}
InlineDateField
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.v-datefield-calendarpanel-time {}
.v-datefield-time {}
.v-select {}
.v-label {}
The top-level element has the v-datefield style. In addition, the top-level element has a style
name that indicates the resolution of the calendar, with v-datefield- basename and an
extension, which is one of full, day, month, or year. The -full style is enabled when the
resolution is smaller than a day.
The v-datefield-calendarpanel-weeknumbers and v-datefield-calendarpanelweeknumber styles are enabled when the week numbers are enabled. The former controls the
appearance of the weekday header and the latter the actual week numbers.
The other style names should be self-explanatory. For weekdays, the v-first and v-last
styles allow making rounded endings for the weekday bar.
5.12.3. Time Resolution
The DateField displays dates by default. It can also display the time in hours and minutes, or
just the month or year. The visibility of the input components is controlled by time resolution,
which can be set with setResolution() method. The method takes as its parameters the
lowest visible component, typically DateField.Resolution.DAY for just dates and
DateField.Resolution.MIN for dates with time in hours and minutes. Please see the API
Reference for the complete list of resolution parameters.
5.12.4. DateField Locale
The date and time are displayed according to the locale of the user, as reported by the browser.
You can set a custom locale with the setLocale() method of AbstractComponent, as described
in Kohta 5.3.5, ”Locale”. Only Gregorian calendar is supported.
5.13. Button
The Button component is normally used for initiating some action, such as finalizing input in
forms. When the user clicks a button, a Button.ClickEvent is fired, which can be handled with
a Button.ClickListener in the buttonClick() method.
You can handle button clicks with an anonymous class as follows:
Button button = new Button("Do not press this button");
button.addClickListener(new Button.ClickListener() {
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
Notification.show("Do not press this button again");
}
});
The result is shown in Kuva 5.33, ”An Example of a Button”. The listener can also be given in
the constructor, which is often perhaps simpler.
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Kuva 5.33. An Example of a Button
If you handle several buttons in the same listener, you can differentiate between them either by
comparing the Button object reference returned by the getButton() method of
Button.ClickEvent to a kept reference. For a detailed description of these patterns together with
some examples, please see Kohta 3.4, ”Events and Listeners”.
5.13.1. CSS Style Rules
.v-button { }
.v-button-wrap { }
.v-button-caption { }
A button has an overall v-button style. The caption has v-button-caption style. There is
also an intermediate wrap element, which may help in styling in some cases.
Some built-in themes contain a small style, which you can enable by adding
Reindeer.BUTTON_SMALL, etc.The BaseTheme also has a BUTTON_LINK style, which makes
the button look like a hyperlink.
5.14. CheckBox
CheckBox is a two-state selection component that can be either checked or unchecked. The
caption of the check box will be placed right of the actual check box. Vaadin provides two ways
to create check boxes: individual check boxes with the CheckBox component described in this
section and check box groups with the OptionGroup component in multiple selection mode, as
described in Kohta 5.15.5, ”Radio Button and Check Box Groups with OptionGroup”.
Clicking on a check box will change its state. The state is a Boolean property that you can set
with the setValue() method and obtain with the getValue() method of the Property interface.
Changing the value of a check box will cause a ValueChangeEvent, which can be handled by
a ValueChangeListener.
// A check box with default state (not checked, false).
final CheckBox checkbox1 = new CheckBox("My CheckBox");
main.addComponent(checkbox1);
// Another check box with explicitly set checked state.
final CheckBox checkbox2 = new CheckBox("Checked CheckBox");
checkbox2.setValue(true);
main.addComponent(checkbox2);
// Make some application logic. We use anonymous listener
// classes here. The above references were defined as final
// to allow accessing them from inside anonymous classes.
checkbox1.addValueChangeListener(new ValueChangeListener() {
public void valueChange(ValueChangeEvent event) {
// Copy the value to the other checkbox.
checkbox2.setValue(checkbox1.getValue());
}
});
checkbox2.addValueChangeListener(new ValueChangeListener() {
CSS Style Rules
143
User Interface Components
public void valueChange(ValueChangeEvent event) {
// Copy the value to the other checkbox.
checkbox1.setValue(checkbox2.getValue());
}
});
Kuva 5.34. An Example of a Check Box
For an example on the use of check boxes in a table, see Kohta 5.16, ”Table”.
5.14.1. CSS Style Rules
.v-checkbox { }
.v-checkbox > input { }
.v-checkbox > label { }
The top-level element of a CheckBox has the v-checkbox style. It contains two sub-elements:
the actual check box input element and the label element. If you want to have the label on
the left, you can change the positions with "direction: rtl" for the top element.
5.15. Selection Components
Vaadin offers many alternative ways for selecting one or more items. The core library includes
the following selection components, all based on the AbstractSelect class:
ComboBox
A drop-down list with a text box, where the user can type text to find matching items.
The component also provides an input prompt and the user can enter new items.
ListSelect
A vertical list box for selecting items in either single or multiple selection mode.
NativeSelect
Provides selection using the native selection component of the browser, typically a
drop-down list for single selection and a multi-line list in multiselect mode. This uses
the <select> element in HTML.
OptionGroup
Shows the items as a vertically arranged group of radio buttons in the single selection
mode and of check boxes in multiple selection mode.
TwinColSelect
Shows two list boxes side by side where the user can select items from a list of available
items and move them to a list of selected items using control buttons.
In addition, the Tree, Table, and TreeTable components allow special forms of selection. They
also inherit the AbstractSelect.
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CSS Style Rules
User Interface Components
5.15.1. Binding Selection Components to Data
The selection components are strongly coupled with the Vaadin Data Model.The selectable items
in all selection components are objects that implement the Item interface and are contained in
a Container. The current selection is bound to the Property interface.
Even though the data model is used, the selection components allow simple use in the most
common cases. Each selection component is bound to a default container type, which supports
management of items without need to implement a container.
See Luku 9, Binding Components to Data for a detailed description of the data model, its interfaces,
and built-in implementations.
Adding New Items
New items are added with the addItem() method defined in the Container interface.
// Create a selection component
ComboBox select = new ComboBox("My ComboBox");
// Add items with given item IDs
select.addItem("Mercury");
select.addItem("Venus");
select.addItem("Earth");
The addItem() method creates an empty Item, which is identified by its item identifier (IID)
object, given as the parameter. This item ID is by default used also as the caption of the item,
as described in more detail later.
We emphasize that addItem() is a factory method that takes an item ID, not the actual item as
the parameter - the item is returned by the method. The item is of a type that is specific to the
container and has itself little relevance for most selection components, as the properties of an
item may not be used in any way (except in Table), only the item ID.
The item identifier is typically a string, in which case it can be used as the caption, but can be
any object type. We could as well have given integers for the item identifiers and set the captions
explicitly with setItemCaption(). You could also add an item with the parameterless
addItem(), which returns an automatically generated item ID.
// Create a selection component
ComboBox select = new ComboBox("My Select");
// Add an item with a generated ID
Object itemId = select.addItem();
select.setItemCaption(itemId, "The Sun");
// Select the item
select.setValue(itemId);
Some container types may support passing the actual data object to the add method. For example,
you can add items to a BeanItemContainer with addBean(). Such implementations can use a
separate item ID object, or the data object itself as the item ID, as is done in addBean(). In the
latter case you can not depend on the default way of acquiring the item caption; see the description
of the different caption modes later.
The following section describes the different options for determining the item captions.
Binding Selection Components to Data
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User Interface Components
Item Captions
The displayed captions of items in a selection component can be set explicitly with
setItemCaption() or determined from the item IDs or item properties. The caption
determination is defined with the caption mode, any of the modes in the
AbstractSelect.ItemCaptionMode enum, which you can set with setItemCaptionMode().
The default mode is EXPLICIT_DEFAULTS_ID, which uses the item identifiers for the captions,
unless given explicitly.
In addition to a caption, an item can have an icon. The icon is set with setItemIcon().
Caption Modes for Selection Components
ITEM_CAPTION_MODE_EXPLICIT_DEFAULTS_ID
This is the default caption mode and its flexibility allows using it in most cases. By
default, the item identifier will be used as the caption. The identifier object does not
necessarily have to be a string; the caption is retrieved with toString() method. If
the caption is specified explicitly with setItemCaption(), it overrides the item
identifier.
// Create a selection component
ComboBox select = new ComboBox("Moons of Mars");
select.setItemCaptionMode(ItemCaptionMode.EXPLICIT_DEFAULTS_ID);
// Use the item ID also as the caption of this item
select.addItem(new Integer(1));
// Set item caption for this item explicitly
select.addItem(2); // same as "new Integer(2)"
select.setItemCaption(2, "Deimos");
ITEM_CAPTION_MODE_EXPLICIT
Captions must be explicitly specified with setItemCaption(). If they are not, the
caption will be empty. Such items with empty captions will nevertheless be displayed
in the selection component as empty items. If they have an icon, they will be visible.
ITEM_CAPTION_MODE_ICON_ONLY
Only icons are shown, captions are hidden.
ITEM_CAPTION_MODE_ID
String representation of the item identifier object is used as caption. This is useful
when the identifier is a string, and also when the identifier is an complex object that
has a string representation. For example:
ComboBox select = new ComboBox("Inner Planets");
select.setItemCaptionMode(ItemCaptionMode.ID);
// A class that implements toString()
class PlanetId extends Object implements Serializable {
private static final long serialVersionUID = -7452707902301121901L;
String planetName;
PlanetId (String name) {
planetName = name;
}
public String toString () {
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User Interface Components
return "The Planet " + planetName;
}
}
// Use such objects as item identifiers
String planets[] = {"Mercury", "Venus", "Earth", "Mars"};
for (int i=0; i<planets.length; i++)
select.addItem(new PlanetId(planets[i]));
ITEM_CAPTION_MODE_INDEX
Index number of item is used as caption. This caption mode is applicable only to data
sources that implement the Container.Indexed interface. If the interface is not available,
the component will throw a ClassCastException. The AbstractSelect itself does not
implement this interface, so the mode is not usable without a separate data source.
An IndexedContainer, for example, would work.
ITEM_CAPTION_MODE_ITEM
String representation of item, acquired with toString(), is used as the caption. This
is applicable mainly when using a custom Item class, which also requires using a
custom Container that is used as a data source for the selection component.
ITEM_CAPTION_MODE_PROPERTY
Item captions are read from the String representation of the property with the identifier
specified with setItemCaptionPropertyId(). This is useful, for example, when
you have a container that you use as the data source for the selection component,
and you want to use a specific property for caption.
In the example below, we bind a selection component to a bean container and use a
property of the bean as the caption.
/* A bean with a "name" property. */
public class Planet implements Serializable {
String name;
public Planet(String name) {
this.name = name;
}
public void setName(String name) {
this.name = name;
}
public String getName() {
return name;
}
}
void propertyModeExample(VerticalLayout layout) {
// Have a bean container to put the beans in
BeanItemContainer<Planet> container =
new BeanItemContainer<Planet>(Planet.class);
// Put some example data in it
container.addItem(new Planet(1,
container.addItem(new Planet(2,
container.addItem(new Planet(3,
container.addItem(new Planet(4,
"Mercury"));
"Venus"));
"Earth"));
"Mars"));
Binding Selection Components to Data
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User Interface Components
// Create a selection component bound to the container
ComboBox select = new ComboBox("Planets", container);
// Set the caption mode to read the caption directly
// from the 'name' property of the bean
select.setItemCaptionMode(ItemCaptionMode.PROPERTY);
select.setItemCaptionPropertyId("name");
...
Getting and Setting Selection
A selection component provides the current selection as the property of the component (with the
Property interface). The property value is an item identifier object that identifies the selected
item. You can get the identifier with getValue() of the Property interface.
You can select an item with the corresponding setValue() method. In multiselect mode, the
property will be an unmodifiable set of item identifiers. If no item is selected, the property will be
null in single selection mode or an empty collection in multiselect mode.
The ComboBox and NativeSelect will show empty selection when no actual item is selected.
This is the null selection item identifier. You can set an alternative ID with
setNullSelectionItemId(). Setting the alternative null ID is merely a visual text; the
getValue() will still return null value if no item is selected, or an empty set in multiselect
mode.
The item identifier of the currently selected item will be set as the property of the selection
component. You can access it with the getValue() method of the Property interface of the
component. Also, when handling selection changes with a Property.ValueChangeListener, the
ValueChangeEvent will have the selected item as the property of the event, accessible with the
getProperty() method.
Kuva 5.35. Selected Item
5.15.2. ComboBox
The ComboBox component allows selecting an item from a drop-down list. The component also
has a text field area, which allows entering search text by which the items shown in the dropdown list are filtered.
148
ComboBox
User Interface Components
Kuva 5.36. The ComboBox Component
Filtered Selection
ComboBox allows filtering the items available for selection in the drop-down list by the text
entered in the input box. Pressing Enter will complete the item in the input box. Pressing Upand Down-arrows can be used for selecting an item from the drop-down list. The drop-down list
is paged and clicking on the scroll buttons will change to the next or previous page. The list
selection can also be done with the arrow keys on the keyboard. The shown items are loaded
from the server as needed, so the number of items held in the component can be quite large.
The filtering is done according to the the filtering mode defined in the FilteringMode enum. They
are as follows:
CONTAINS
Matches any item that contains the string given in the text field part of the component.
STARTSWITH
Matches only items that begin with the given string.
OFF (default)
Filtering is by default off.
ComboBox combobox = new ComboBox("Enter containing substring");
// Set the filtering mode
combobox.setFilteringMode(FilteringMode.CONTAINS);
// Fill the component with some items
final String[] planets = new String[] {
"Mercury", "Venus", "Earth", "Mars",
"Jupiter", "Saturn", "Uranus", "Neptune" };
for (int i = 0; i < planets.length; i++)
for (int j = 0; j < planets.length; j++) {
combobox.addItem(planets[j] + " to " + planets[i]);
The above example uses the containment filter that matches to all items containing the input
string. As shown in Kuva 5.37, ”Filtered Selection” below, when we type some text in the input
area, the drop-down list will show all the matching items.
ComboBox
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User Interface Components
Kuva 5.37. Filtered Selection
CSS Style Rules
.v-filterselect { }
.v-filterselect-input { }
.v-filterselect-button { }
.v-filterselect-suggestpopup { }
.v-filterselect-prefpage-off { }
.v-filterselect-suggestmenu { }
.v-filterselect-status { }
.v-select { }
.v-select-select { }
In its default state, only the input field of the ComboBox component is visible. The entire
component is enclosed in v-filterselect style (a legacy remnant), the input field has
v-filterselect-input style and the button in the right end that opens and closes the dropdown result list has v-filterselect-button style.
The drop-down result list has an overall v-filterselect-suggestpopup style. It contains
the list of suggestions with v-filterselect-suggestmenu style and a status bar in the bottom
with v-filterselect-status style. The list of suggestions is padded with an area with
v-filterselect-prefpage-off style above and below the list.
5.15.3. ListSelect
The ListSelect component is list box that shows the selectable items in a vertical list. If the
number of items exceeds the height of the component, a scrollbar is shown. The component
allows both single and multiple selection modes, which you can set with setMultiSelect().
It is visually identical in both modes.
// Create the selection component
ListSelect select = new ListSelect("My Selection");
// Add some items
select.addItem("Mercury");
select.addItem("Venus");
select.addItem("Earth");
...
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User Interface Components
select.setNullSelectionAllowed(false);
// Show 5 items and a scrollbar if there are more
select.setRows(5);
The number of visible items is set with setRows().
Kuva 5.38. The ListSelect Component
CSS Style Rules
.v-select {}
.v-select-select {}
option {}
The component has an overall v-select style. The native select element has v-selectselect style.
5.15.4. Native Selection Component NativeSelect
NativeSelect is a drop-down selection component implemented with the native selection input
of web browsers, using the HTML <select> element.
// Create the selection component
final NativeSelect select = new NativeSelect("Native Selection");
// Add some items
select.addItem("Mercury");
select.addItem("Venus");
...
// Set the width in "columns" as in TextField
select.setColumns(10);
select.setNullSelectionAllowed(false);
The setColumns() allows setting the width of the list as "columns", which is a measure that
depends on the browser.
Native Selection Component NativeSelect
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Kuva 5.39. The NativeSelect Component
Multiple selection mode is not allowed; you should use the ListSelect component instead.
CSS Style Rules
.v-select {}
.v-select-select {}
The component has a v-select overall style. The native select element has v-selectselect style.
5.15.5. Radio Button and Check Box Groups with OptionGroup
The OptionGroup class provides selection from alternatives using a group of radio buttons in
single selection mode. In multiple selection mode, the items show up as check boxes.
OptionGroup optiongroup = new OptionGroup("My Option Group");
// Use the multiple selection mode.
myselect.setMultiSelect(true);
Kuva 5.40, ”Option Button Group in Single and Multiple Selection Mode” shows the OptionGroup
in both single and multiple selection mode.
Kuva 5.40. Option Button Group in Single and Multiple Selection Mode
You can create check boxes individually using the CheckBox class, as described in Kohta 5.14,
”CheckBox”. The advantages of the OptionGroup component are that as it maintains the
individual check box objects, you can get an array of the currently selected items easily, and that
you can easily change the appearance of a single component.
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User Interface Components
Disabling Items
You can disable individual items in an OptionGroup with setItemEnabled(). The user can
not select or deselect disabled items in multi-select mode, but in single-select mode the use can
change the selection from a disabled to an enabled item. The selections can be changed
programmatically regardless of whether an item is enabled or disabled. You can find out whether
an item is enabled with isItemEnabled().
The setItemEnabled() identifies the item to be disabled by its item ID.
// Have an option group
OptionGroup group = new OptionGroup("My Disabled Group");
group.addItem("One");
group.addItem("Two");
group.addItem("Three");
// Disable one item
group.setItemEnabled("Two", false);
The item IDs are also used for the captions in this example. The result is shown in Kuva 5.41,
”OptionGroup with a Disabled Item”.
Kuva 5.41. OptionGroup with a Disabled Item
Setting an item as disabled turns on the v-disabled style for it.
CSS Style Rules
.v-select-optiongroup {}
.v-select-option.v-checkbox {}
.v-select-option.v-radiobutton {}
The v-select-optiongroup is the overall style for the component. Each check box will have
the v-checkbox style, borrowed from the CheckBox component, and each radio button the
v-radiobutton style. Both the radio buttons and check boxes will also have the v-selectoption style that allows styling regardless of the option type. Disabled items have additionally
the v-disabled style.
The options are normally laid out vertically. You can use horizontal layout by setting display:
inline-block for the options. The nowrap setting for the overall element prevents wrapping
if there is not enough horizontal space in the layout, or if the horizontal width is undefined.
/* Lay the options horizontally */
.v-select-optiongroup-horizontal .v-select-option {
display: inline-block;
}
/* Avoid wrapping if the layout is too tight */
.v-select-optiongroup-horizontal {
white-space: nowrap;
}
Radio Button and Check Box Groups with OptionGroup
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/* Some extra spacing is needed */
.v-select-optiongroup-horizontal
.v-select-option.v-radiobutton {
padding-right: 10px;
}
Use of the above rules requires setting a custom horizontal style name for the component.
The result is shown in Kuva 5.42, ”Horizontal OptionGroup”.
Kuva 5.42. Horizontal OptionGroup
5.15.6. Twin Column Selection with TwinColSelect
The TwinColSelect field provides a multiple selection component that shows two lists side by
side, with the left column containing unselected items and the right column the selected items.
The user can select items from the list on the left and click on the ">>" button to move them to
the list on the right. Items can be deselected by selecting them in the right list and clicking on the
"<<" button.
TwinColSelect is always in multi-select mode, so its property value is always a collection of the
item IDs of the selected items, that is, the items in the right column.
The selection columns can have their own captions, separate from the overall component caption,
which is managed by the containing layout. You can set the column captions with
setLeftColumnCaption() and setRightColumnCaption().
final TwinColSelect select =
new TwinColSelect("Select Targets to Destroy");
// Set the column captions (optional)
select.setLeftColumnCaption("These are left");
select.setRightColumnCaption("These are done for");
// Put some data in the select
String planets[] = {"Mercury", "Venus", "Earth", "Mars",
"Jupiter", "Saturn", "Uranus", "Neptune"};
for (int pl=0; pl<planets.length; pl++)
select.addItem(planets[pl]);
// Set the number of visible items
select.setRows(planets.length);
The resulting component is shown in Kuva 5.43, ”Twin Column Selection”.
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Twin Column Selection with TwinColSelect
User Interface Components
Kuva 5.43. Twin Column Selection
The setRows() method sets the height of the component by the number of visible items in the
selection boxes. Setting the height with setHeight() to a defined value overrides the rows
setting.
CSS Style Rules
.v-select-twincol {}
.v-select-twincol-options-caption {}
.v-select-twincol-selections-caption {}
.v-select-twincol-options {}
.v-select-twincol-buttons {}
.v-button {}
.v-button-wrap {}
.v-button-caption {}
.v-select-twincol-deco {}
.v-select-twincol-selections {}
The TwinColSelect component has an overall v-select-twincol style. If set, the left and
right column captions have v-select-twincol-options-caption and v-select-twincoloptions-caption style names, respectively. The left box, which displays the unselected items,
has v-select-twincol-options-caption style and the right box, which displays the selected
items, has v-select-twincol-options-selections style. Between them is the button
area, which has overall v-select-twincol-buttons style; the actual buttons reuse the styles
for the Button component. Between the buttons is a divider element with v-select-twincoldeco style.
5.15.7. Allowing Adding New Items
Selection components can allow the user to add new items. Currently, only ComboBox allows
it, when the user types in a value and presses Enter. You need to enable the mode with
setNewItemsAllowed(true). Setting the component also in immediate mode may be
necessary, as otherwise the item would not be added immediately when the user interacts with
the component, but after some other component causes a server request.
myselect.setNewItemsAllowed(true);
myselect.setImmediate(true);
The user interface for adding new items depends on the selection component. The regular
ComboBox component allows you to simply type the new item in the combo box and hit Enter
to add it.
Adding new items in not possible if the selection component is read-only or is bound to a Container
that does not allow adding new items, and an attempt may result in an exception.
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Handling New Items
Adding new items is handled by a NewItemHandler, which gets the item caption string as
parameter for the addNewItem() method.The default implementation, DefaultNewItemHandler,
checks for read-only state, adds the item using the entered caption as the item ID, and if the
selection component gets the captions from a property, copies the caption to that property. It also
selects the item. The default implementation may not be suitable for all container types, in which
case you need to define a custom handler. For example, a BeanItemContainer expects the
items to have the bean object itself as the ID, not a string.
// Have a bean container to put the beans in
final BeanItemContainer<Planet> container =
new BeanItemContainer<Planet>(Planet.class);
// Put some example data in it
container.addItem(new Planet(1,
container.addItem(new Planet(2,
container.addItem(new Planet(3,
container.addItem(new Planet(4,
"Mercury"));
"Venus"));
"Earth"));
"Mars"));
final ComboBox select =
new ComboBox("Select or Add a Planet", container);
select.setNullSelectionAllowed(false);
// Use the name property for item captions
select.setItemCaptionPropertyId("name");
// Allow adding new items
select.setNewItemsAllowed(true);
select.setImmediate(true);
// Custom handling for new items
select.setNewItemHandler(new NewItemHandler() {
@Override
public void addNewItem(String newItemCaption) {
// Create a new bean - can't set all properties
Planet newPlanet = new Planet(0, newItemCaption);
container.addBean(newPlanet);
// Remember to set the selection to the new item
select.select(newPlanet);
Notification.show("Added new planet called " +
newItemCaption);
}
});
5.15.8. Multiple Selection
Some selection components, such as OptionGroup and ListSelect support a multiple selection
mode, which you can enable with setMultiSelect(). For TwinColSelect, which is especially
intended for multiple selection, it is enabled by default.
myselect.setMultiSelect(true);
As in single selection mode, the property value of the component indicates the selection. In
multiple selection mode, however, the property value is a Collection of the item IDs of the currently
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selected items.You can get and set the property with the getValue() and setValue() methods
as usual.
A change in the selection will trigger a ValueChangeEvent, which you can handle with a
Propery.ValueChangeListener. As usual, you should use setImmediate(true) to trigger
the event immediately when the user changes the selection. The following example shows how
to handle selection changes with a listener.
// A selection component with some items
ListSelect select = new ListSelect("My Selection");
for (String planet: new String[]{"Mercury", "Venus",
"Earth", "Mars", "Jupiter", "Saturn", "Uranus",
"Neptune"})
select.addItem(planet);
// Multiple selection mode
select.setMultiSelect(true);
// Feedback on value changes
select.addValueChangeListener(
new Property.ValueChangeListener() {
public void valueChange(ValueChangeEvent event) {
// Some feedback
layout.addComponent(new Label("Selected: " +
event.getProperty().getValue().toString()));
}
});
select.setImmediate(true);
5.15.9. Other Common Features
Item Icons
You can set an icon for each item with setItemIcon(), or define an item property that provides
the icon resource with setItemIconPropertyId(), in a fashion similar to captions. Notice,
however, that icons are not supported in NativeSelect, TwinColSelect, and some other selection
components and modes.This is because HTML does not support images inside the native select
elements. Icons are also not really visually applicable.
5.16. Table
Because of pressing release schedules to get this edition to your hands, we were unable to
completely update this section. The description of the Table component should be mostly up-todate, but some data binding related topics still require significant revision. Please consult the
web version once it is updated, or the next print edition.
The Table component is intended for presenting tabular data organized in rows and columns.
The Table is one of the most versatile components in Vaadin. Table cells can include text or
arbitrary UI components. You can easily implement editing of the table data, for example clicking
on a cell could change it to a text field for editing.
The data contained in a Table is managed using the Data Model of Vaadin (see Luku 9, Binding
Components to Data), through the Container interface of the Table. This makes it possible to
bind a table directly to a data source, such as a database query. Only the visible part of the table
is loaded into the browser and moving the visible window with the scrollbar loads content from
the server. While the data is being loaded, a tooltip will be displayed that shows the current range
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and total number of items in the table. The rows of the table are items in the container and the
columns are properties. Each table row (item) is identified with an item identifier (IID), and each
column (property) with a property identifier (PID).
When creating a table, you first need to define columns with addContainerProperty(). This
method comes in two flavors. The simpler one takes the property ID of the column and uses it
also as the caption of the column. The more complex one allows differing PID and header for the
column. This may make, for example, internationalization of table headers easier, because if a
PID is internationalized, the internationalization has to be used everywhere where the PID is
used. The complex form of the method also allows defining an icon for the column from a resource.
The "default value" parameter is used when new properties (columns) are added to the table, to
fill in the missing values. (This default has no meaning in the usual case, such as below, where
we add items after defining the properties.)
/* Create the table with a caption. */
Table table = new Table("This is my Table");
/* Define the names and data types of columns.
* The "default value" parameter is meaningless here. */
table.addContainerProperty("First Name", String.class, null);
table.addContainerProperty("Last Name", String.class, null);
table.addContainerProperty("Year",
Integer.class, null);
/* Add a few items in the table. */
table.addItem(new Object[] {
"Nicolaus","Copernicus",new Integer(1473)},
table.addItem(new Object[] {
"Tycho",
"Brahe",
new Integer(1546)},
table.addItem(new Object[] {
"Giordano","Bruno",
new Integer(1548)},
table.addItem(new Object[] {
"Galileo", "Galilei",
new Integer(1564)},
table.addItem(new Object[] {
"Johannes","Kepler",
new Integer(1571)},
table.addItem(new Object[] {
"Isaac",
"Newton",
new Integer(1643)},
new Integer(1));
new Integer(2));
new Integer(3));
new Integer(4));
new Integer(5));
new Integer(6));
In this example, we used an increasing Integer object as the Item Identifier, given as the second
parameter to addItem(). The actual rows are given simply as object arrays, in the same order
in which the properties were added. The objects must be of the correct class, as defined in the
addContainerProperty() calls.
Kuva 5.44. Basic Table Example
Scalability of the Table is largely dictated by the container. The default IndexedContainer is
relatively heavy and can cause scalability problems, for example, when updating the values. Use
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of an optimized application-specific container is recommended. Table does not have a limit for
the number of items and is just as fast with hundreds of thousands of items as with just a few.
With the current implementation of scrolling, there is a limit of around 500 000 rows, depending
on the browser and the pixel height of rows.
5.16.1. Selecting Items in a Table
The Table allows selecting one or more items by clicking them with the mouse. When the user
selects an item, the IID of the item will be set as the property of the table and a ValueChangeEvent
is triggered. To enable selection, you need to set the table selectable. You will also need to set
it as immediate in most cases, as we do below, because without it, the change in the property
will not be communicated immediately to the server.
The following example shows how to enable the selection of items in a Table and how to handle
ValueChangeEvent events that are caused by changes in selection. You need to handle the
event with the valueChange() method of the Property.ValueChangeListener interface.
// Allow selecting items from the table.
table.setSelectable(true);
// Send changes in selection immediately to server.
table.setImmediate(true);
// Shows feedback from selection.
final Label current = new Label("Selected: -");
// Handle selection change.
table.addValueChangeListener(new Property.ValueChangeListener() {
public void valueChange(ValueChangeEvent event) {
current.setValue("Selected: " + table.getValue());
}
});
Kuva 5.45. Table Selection Example
If the user clicks on an already selected item, the selection will deselected and the table property
will have null value. You can disable this behaviour by setting
setNullSelectionAllowed(false) for the table.
The selection is the value of the table's property, so you can get it with getValue(). You can
get it also from a reference to the table itself. In single selection mode, the value is the item
identifier of the selected item or null if no item is selected. In multiple selection mode (see
below), the value is a Set of item identifiers. Notice that the set is unmodifiable, so you can not
simply change it to change the selection.
Selecting Items in a Table
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User Interface Components
Multiple Selection Mode
A table can also be in multiselect mode, where a user can select multiple items by clicking them
with left mouse button while holding the Ctrl key (or Meta key) pressed. If Ctrl is not held, clicking
an item will select it and other selected items are deselected. The user can select a range by
selecting an item, holding the Shift key pressed, and clicking another item, in which case all the
items between the two are also selected. Multiple ranges can be selected by first selecting a
range, then selecting an item while holding Ctrl, and then selecting another item with both Ctrl
and Shift pressed.
The multiselect mode is enabled with the setMultiSelect() method of the AbstractSelect
superclass of Table. Setting table in multiselect mode does not implicitly set it as selectable, so
it must be set separately.
The setMultiSelectMode() property affects the control of multiple selection:
MultiSelectMode.DEFAULT is the default behaviour, which requires holding the Ctrl (or Meta)
key pressed while selecting items, while in MultiSelectMode.SIMPLE holding the Ctrl key is
not needed. In the simple mode, items can only be deselected by clicking them.
5.16.2. Table Features
Page Length and Scrollbar
The default style for Table provides a table with a scrollbar. The scrollbar is located at the right
side of the table and becomes visible when the number of items in the table exceeds the page
length, that is, the number of visible items.You can set the page length with setPageLength().
Setting the page length to zero makes all the rows in a table visible, no matter how many rows
there are. Notice that this also effectively disables buffering, as all the entire table is loaded to
the browser at once. Using such tables to generate reports does not scale up very well, as there
is some inevitable overhead in rendering a table with Ajax. For very large reports, generating
HTML directly is a more scalable solution.
Resizing Columns
You can set the width of a column programmatically from the server-side with
setColumnWidth(). The column is identified by the property ID and the width is given in pixels.
The user can resize table columns by dragging the resize handle between two columns. Resizing
a table column causes a ColumnResizeEvent, which you can handle with a
Table.ColumnResizeListener. The table must be set in immediate mode if you want to receive
the resize events immediately, which is typical.
table.addColumnResizeListener(new Table.ColumnResizeListener(){
public void columnResize(ColumnResizeEvent event) {
// Get the new width of the resized column
int width = event.getCurrentWidth();
// Get the property ID of the resized column
String column = (String) event.getPropertyId();
// Do something with the information
table.setColumnFooter(column, String.valueOf(width) + "px");
}
});
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// Must be immediate to send the resize events immediately
table.setImmediate(true);
See Kuva 5.46, ”Resizing Columns” for a result after the columns of a table has been resized.
Kuva 5.46. Resizing Columns
Reordering Columns
If setColumnReorderingAllowed(true) is set, the user can reorder table columns by
dragging them with the mouse from the column header,
Collapsing Columns
When setColumnCollapsingAllowed(true) is set, the right side of the table header shows
a drop-down list that allows selecting which columns are shown. Collapsing columns is different
than hiding columns with setVisibleColumns(), which hides the columns completely so that
they can not be made visible (uncollapsed) from the user interface.
You can collapse columns programmatically with setColumnCollapsed(). Collapsing must
be enabled before collapsing columns with the method or it will throw an IllegalAccessException.
// Allow the user to collapse and uncollapse columns
table.setColumnCollapsingAllowed(true);
// Collapse this column programmatically
try {
table.setColumnCollapsed("born", true);
} catch (IllegalAccessException e) {
// Can't occur - collapsing was allowed above
System.err.println("Something horrible occurred");
}
// Give enough width for the table to accommodate the
// initially collapsed column later
table.setWidth("250px");
See Kuva 5.47, ”Collapsing Columns”.
Kuva 5.47. Collapsing Columns
If the table has undefined width, it minimizes its width to fit the width of the visible columns. If
some columns are initially collapsed, the width of the table may not be enough to accomodate
Table Features
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them later, which will result in an ugly horizontal scrollbar. You should consider giving the table
enough width to accomodate columns uncollapsed by the user.
Components Inside a Table
The cells of a Table can contain any user interface components, not just strings. If the rows are
higher than the row height defined in the default theme, you have to define the proper row height
in a custom theme.
When handling events for components inside a Table, such as for the Button in the example
below, you usually need to know the item the component belongs to. Components do not
themselves know about the table or the specific item in which a component is contained.Therefore,
the handling method must use some other means for finding out the Item ID of the item. There
are a few possibilities. Usually the easiest way is to use the setData() method to attach an
arbitrary object to a component. You can subclass the component and include the identity
information there. You can also simply search the entire table for the item with the component,
although that solution may not be so scalable.
The example below includes table rows with a Label in XHTML formatting mode, a multiline
TextField, a CheckBox, and a Button that shows as a link.
// Create a table and add a style to allow setting the row height in theme.
final Table table = new Table();
table.addStyleName("components-inside");
/* Define the names and data types of columns.
* The "default value" parameter is meaningless here. */
table.addContainerProperty("Sum",
Label.class,
table.addContainerProperty("Is Transferred", CheckBox.class,
table.addContainerProperty("Comments",
TextField.class,
table.addContainerProperty("Details",
Button.class,
null);
null);
null);
null);
/* Add a few items in the table. */
for (int i=0; i<100; i++) {
// Create the fields for the current table row
Label sumField = new Label(String.format(
"Sum is <b>$%04.2f</b><br/><i>(VAT incl.)</i>",
new Object[] {new Double(Math.random()*1000)}),
Label.CONTENT_XHTML);
CheckBox transferredField = new CheckBox("is transferred");
// Multiline text field. This required modifying the
// height of the table row.
TextField commentsField = new TextField();
commentsField.setRows(3);
// The Table item identifier for the row.
Integer itemId = new Integer(i);
// Create a button and handle its click. A Button does not
// know the item it is contained in, so we have to store the
// item ID as user-defined data.
Button detailsField = new Button("show details");
detailsField.setData(itemId);
detailsField.addClickListener(new Button.ClickListener() {
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
// Get the item identifier from the user-defined data.
Integer iid = (Integer)event.getButton().getData();
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Notification.show("Link " +
iid.intValue() + " clicked.");
}
});
detailsField.addStyleName("link");
// Create the table row.
table.addItem(new Object[] {sumField, transferredField,
commentsField, detailsField},
itemId);
}
// Show just three rows because they are so high.
table.setPageLength(3);
The row height has to be set higher than the default with a style rule such as the following:
/* Table rows contain three-row TextField components. */
.v-table-components-inside .v-table-cell-content {
height: 54px;
}
The table will look as shown in Kuva 5.48, ”Components in a Table”.
Kuva 5.48. Components in a Table
Iterating Over a Table
As the items in a Table are not indexed, iterating over the items has to be done using an iterator.
The getItemIds() method of the Container interface of Table returns a Collection of item
identifiers over which you can iterate using an Iterator. For an example about iterating over a
Table, please see Kohta 9.5, ”Collecting Items in Containers”. Notice that you may not modify
the Table during iteration, that is, add or remove items. Changing the data is allowed.
Filtering Table Contents
A table can be filtered if its container data source implements the Filterable interface, as the
default IndexedContainer does. See Kohta 9.5.7, ”Filterable Containers”.
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5.16.3. Editing the Values in a Table
Normally, a Table simply displays the items and their fields as text. If you want to allow the user
to edit the values, you can either put them inside components as we did above, or you can simply
call setEditable(true) and the cells are automatically turned into editable fields.
Let us begin with a regular table with a some columns with usual Java types, namely a Date,
Boolean, and a String.
// Create a table. It is by default not editable.
final Table table = new Table();
// Define the names and data types of columns.
table.addContainerProperty("Date",
Date.class, null);
table.addContainerProperty("Work",
Boolean.class, null);
table.addContainerProperty("Comments", String.class, null);
// Add a few items in the table.
for (int i=0; i<100; i++) {
Calendar calendar = new GregorianCalendar(2008,0,1);
calendar.add(Calendar.DAY_OF_YEAR, i);
// Create the table row.
table.addItem(new Object[] {calendar.getTime(),
new Boolean(false),
""},
new Integer(i)); // Item identifier
}
table.setPageLength(8);
layout.addComponent(table);
You could put the table in editable mode right away if you need to. We'll continue the example
by adding a mechanism to switch the Table from and to the editable mode.
final CheckBox switchEditable = new CheckBox("Editable");
switchEditable.addValueChangeListener(
new Property.ValueChangeListener() {
public void valueChange(ValueChangeEvent event) {
table.setEditable(((Boolean)event.getProperty()
.getValue()).booleanValue());
}
});
switchEditable.setImmediate(true);
layout.addComponent(switchEditable);
Now, when you check to checkbox, the components in the table turn into editable fields, as shown
in Kuva 5.49, ”A Table in Normal and Editable Mode”.
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Kuva 5.49. A Table in Normal and Editable Mode
Field Factories
The field components that allow editing the values of particular types in a table are defined in a
field factory that implements the TableFieldFactory interface. The default implementation is
DefaultFieldFactory, which offers the following crude mappings:
Taulu 5.2. Type to Field Mappings in DefaultFieldFactory
Property Type
Mapped to Field Class
Date
A DateField.
Boolean
A CheckBox.
Item
A Form (deprecated in Vaadin 7). The fields of
the form are automatically created from the
item's properties using a FormFieldFactory.
The normal use for this property type is inside
a Form and is less useful inside a Table.
other
A TextField.The text field manages conversions
from the basic types, if possible.
Field factories are covered with more detail in Kohta 9.4, ”Creating Forms by Binding Fields to
Items”. You could just implement the TableFieldFactory interface, but we recommend that you
extend the DefaultFieldFactory according to your needs. In the default implementation, the
mappings are defined in the createFieldByPropertyType() method (you might want to
look at the source code) both for tables and forms.
Navigation in Editable Mode
In the editable mode, the editor fields can have focus. Pressing Tab moves the focus to next
column or, at the last column, to the first column of the next item. Respectively, pressing Shift+Tab
moves the focus backward. If the focus is in the last column of the last visible item, the pressing
Tab moves the focus outside the table. Moving backward from the first column of the first item
moves the focus to the table itself. Some updates to the table, such as changing the headers or
footers or regenerating a column, can move the focus from an editor component to the table
itself.
The default behaviour may be undesirable in many cases. For example, the focus also goes
through any read-only editor fields and can move out of the table inappropriately.You can provide
better navigation is to use event handler for shortcut keys such as Tab, Arrow Up, Arrow Down,
and Enter.
Editing the Values in a Table
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// Keyboard navigation
class KbdHandler implements Handler {
Action tab_next = new ShortcutAction("Tab",
ShortcutAction.KeyCode.TAB, null);
Action tab_prev = new ShortcutAction("Shift+Tab",
ShortcutAction.KeyCode.TAB,
new int[] {ShortcutAction.ModifierKey.SHIFT});
Action cur_down = new ShortcutAction("Down",
ShortcutAction.KeyCode.ARROW_DOWN, null);
Action cur_up
= new ShortcutAction("Up",
ShortcutAction.KeyCode.ARROW_UP,
null);
Action enter
= new ShortcutAction("Enter",
ShortcutAction.KeyCode.ENTER,
null);
public Action[] getActions(Object target, Object sender) {
return new Action[] {tab_next, tab_prev, cur_down,
cur_up, enter};
}
public void handleAction(Action action, Object sender,
Object target) {
if (target instanceof TextField) {
// Move according to keypress
int itemid = (Integer) ((TextField) target).getData();
if (action == tab_next || action == cur_down)
itemid++;
else if (action == tab_prev || action == cur_up)
itemid--;
// On enter, just stay where you were. If we did
// not catch the enter action, the focus would be
// moved to wrong place.
if (itemid >= 0 && itemid < table.size()) {
TextField newTF = valueFields.get(itemid);
if (newTF != null)
newTF.focus();
}
}
}
}
// Panel that handles keyboard navigation
Panel navigator = new Panel();
navigator.addStyleName(Reindeer.PANEL_LIGHT);
navigator.addComponent(table);
navigator.addActionHandler(new KbdHandler());
The main issue in implementing keyboard navigation in an editable table is that the editor fields
do not know the table they are in. To find the parent table, you can either look up in the component
container hierarchy or simply store a reference to the table with setData() in the field component.
The other issue is that you can not acquire a reference to an editor field from the Table component.
One solution is to use some external collection, such as a HashMap, to map item IDs to the
editor fields.
// Can't access the editable components from the table so
// must store the information
final HashMap<Integer,TextField> valueFields =
new HashMap<Integer,TextField>();
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The map has to be filled in a TableFieldFactory, such as in the following. You also need to set
the reference to the table there and you can also set the initial focus there.
table.setTableFieldFactory(new TableFieldFactory () {
public Field createField(Container container, Object itemId,
Object propertyId, Component uiContext) {
TextField field = new TextField((String) propertyId);
// User can only edit the numeric column
if ("Source of Fear".equals(propertyId))
field.setReadOnly(true);
else { // The numeric column
// The field needs to know the item it is in
field.setData(itemId);
// Remember the field
valueFields.put((Integer) itemId, field);
// Focus the first editable value
if (((Integer)itemId) == 0)
field.focus();
}
return field;
}
});
The issues are complicated by the fact that the editor fields are not generated for the entire table,
but only for a cache window that includes the visible items and some items above and below it.
For example, if the beginning of a big scrollable table is visible, the editor component for the last
item does not exist. This issue is relevant mostly if you want to have wrap-around navigation that
jumps from the last to first item and vice versa.
5.16.4. Column Headers and Footers
Table supports both column headers and footers; the headers are enabled by default.
Headers
The table header displays the column headers at the top of the table. You can use the column
headers to reorder or resize the columns, as described earlier. By default, the header of a column
is the property ID of the column, unless given explicitly with setColumnHeader().
// Define the properties
table.addContainerProperty("lastname", String.class, null);
table.addContainerProperty("born", Integer.class, null);
table.addContainerProperty("died", Integer.class, null);
// Set nicer header names
table.setColumnHeader("lastname", "Name");
table.setColumnHeader("born", "Born");
table.setColumnHeader("died", "Died");
The text of the column headers and the visibility of the header depends on the column header
mode. The header is visible by default, but you can disable it with
setColumnHeaderMode(Table.COLUMN_HEADER_MODE_HIDDEN).
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Footers
The table footer can be useful for displaying sums or averages of values in a column, and so on.
The footer is not visible by default; you can enable it with setFooterVisible(true). Unlike
in the header, the column headers are empty by default. You can set their value with
setColumnFooter(). The columns are identified by their property ID.
The following example shows how to calculate average of the values in a column:
// Have a table with a numeric column
Table table = new Table("Custom Table Footer");
table.addContainerProperty("Name", String.class, null);
table.addContainerProperty("Died At Age", Integer.class, null);
// Insert some data
Object people[][] = {{"Galileo", 77},
{"Monnier", 83},
{"Vaisala", 79},
{"Oterma",
86}};
for (int i=0; i<people.length; i++)
table.addItem(people[i], new Integer(i));
// Calculate the average of the numeric column
double avgAge = 0;
for (int i=0; i<people.length; i++)
avgAge += (Integer) people[i][1];
avgAge /= people.length;
// Set the footers
table.setFooterVisible(true);
table.setColumnFooter("Name", "Average");
table.setColumnFooter("Died At Age", String.valueOf(avgAge));
// Adjust the table height a bit
table.setPageLength(table.size());
The resulting table is shown in Kuva 5.50, ”A Table with a Footer”.
Kuva 5.50. A Table with a Footer
Handling Mouse Clicks on Headers and Footers
Normally, when the user clicks a column header, the table will be sorted by the column, assuming
that the data source is Sortable and sorting is not disabled. In some cases, you might want some
other functionality when the user clicks the column header, such as selecting the column in some
way.
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Clicks in the header cause a HeaderClickEvent, which you can handle with a
Table.HeaderClickListener. Click events on the table header (and footer) are, like button clicks,
sent immediately to server, so there is no need to set setImmediate().
// Handle the header clicks
table.addHeaderClickListener(new Table.HeaderClickListener() {
public void headerClick(HeaderClickEvent event) {
String column = (String) event.getPropertyId();
Notification.show("Clicked " + column +
"with " + event.getButtonName());
}
});
// Disable the default sorting behavior
table.setSortDisabled(true);
Setting a click handler does not automatically disable the sorting behavior of the header; you
need to disable it explicitly with setSortDisabled(true). Header click events are not sent
when the user clicks the column resize handlers to drag them.
The HeaderClickEvent object provides the identity of the clicked column with getPropertyId().
The getButton() reports the mouse button with which the click was made: BUTTON_LEFT,
BUTTON_RIGHT, or BUTTON_MIDDLE. The getButtonName() a human-readable button name
in English: "left", "right", or "middle". The isShiftKey(), isCtrlKey(), etc., methods
indicate if the Shift, Ctrl, Alt or other modifier keys were pressed during the click.
Clicks in the footer cause a FooterClickEvent, which you can handle with a
Table.FooterClickListener. Footers do not have any default click behavior, like the sorting in
the header. Otherwise, handling clicks in the footer is equivalent to handling clicks in the header.
5.16.5. Generated Table Columns
You might want to have a column that has values calculated from other columns. Or you might
want to format table columns in some way, for example if you have columns that display currencies.
The ColumnGenerator interface allows defining custom generators for such columns.
You add new generated columns to a Table with addGeneratedColumn(). It takes the column
identifier as its parameters. Usually you want to have a more user-friendly and possibly
internationalized column header. You can set the header and a possible icon by calling
addContainerProperty() before adding the generated column.
// Define table columns.
table.addContainerProperty(
"date",
Date.class,
table.addContainerProperty(
"quantity", Double.class,
table.addContainerProperty(
"price",
Double.class,
table.addContainerProperty(
"total",
Double.class,
null, "Date",
null, null);
null, "Quantity (l)", null, null);
null, "Price (e/l)",
null, null);
null, "Total (e)",
null, null);
// Define the generated columns and their generators.
table.addGeneratedColumn("date",
new DateColumnGenerator());
table.addGeneratedColumn("quantity",
new ValueColumnGenerator("%.2f l"));
table.addGeneratedColumn("price",
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new PriceColumnGenerator());
table.addGeneratedColumn("total",
new ValueColumnGenerator("%.2f e"));
Notice that the addGeneratedColumn() always places the generated columns as the last
column, even if you defined some other order previously. You will have to set the proper order
with setVisibleColumns().
table.setVisibleColumns(new Object[] {"date", "quantity", "price", "total"});
The generators are objects that implement the Table.ColumnGenerator interface and its
generateCell() method.The method gets the identity of the item and column as its parameters,
in addition to the table object. It has to return a component object.
The following example defines a generator for formatting Double valued fields according to a
format string (as in java.util.Formatter).
/** Formats the value in a column containing Double objects. */
class ValueColumnGenerator implements Table.ColumnGenerator {
String format; /* Format string for the Double values. */
/**
* Creates double value column formatter with the given
* format string.
*/
public ValueColumnGenerator(String format) {
this.format = format;
}
/**
* Generates the cell containing the Double value.
* The column is irrelevant in this use case.
*/
public Component generateCell(Table source, Object itemId,
Object columnId) {
// Get the object stored in the cell as a property
Property prop =
source.getItem(itemId).getItemProperty(columnId);
if (prop.getType().equals(Double.class)) {
Label label = new Label(String.format(format,
new Object[] { (Double) prop.getValue() }));
// Set styles for the column: one indicating that it's
// a value and a more specific one with the column
// name in it. This assumes that the column name
// is proper for CSS.
label.addStyleName("column-type-value");
label.addStyleName("column-" + (String) columnId);
return label;
}
return null;
}
}
The generator is called for all the visible (or more accurately cached) items in a table. If the user
scrolls the table to another position in the table, the columns of the new visible rows are generated
dynamically. The columns in the visible (cached) rows are also generated always when an item
has a value change. It is therefore usually safe to calculate the value of generated cells from the
values of different rows (items).
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When you set a table as editable, regular fields will change to editing fields. When the user
changes the values in the fields, the generated columns will be updated automatically. Putting a
table with generated columns in editable mode has a few quirks. The editable mode of Table
does not affect generated columns. You have two alternatives: either you generate the editing
fields in the generator or, in case of formatter generators, remove the generator in the editable
mode. The example below uses the latter approach.
// Have a check box that allows the user
// to make the quantity and total columns editable.
final CheckBox editable = new CheckBox(
"Edit the input values - calculated columns are regenerated");
editable.setImmediate(true);
editable.addClickListener(new ClickListener() {
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
table.setEditable(editable.booleanValue());
// The columns may not be generated when we want to
// have them editable.
if (editable.booleanValue()) {
table.removeGeneratedColumn("quantity");
table.removeGeneratedColumn("total");
} else { // Not editable
// Show the formatted values.
table.addGeneratedColumn("quantity",
new ValueColumnGenerator("%.2f l"));
table.addGeneratedColumn("total",
new ValueColumnGenerator("%.2f e"));
}
// The visible columns are affected by removal
// and addition of generated columns so we have
// to redefine them.
table.setVisibleColumns(new Object[] {"date", "quantity",
"price", "total", "consumption", "dailycost"});
}
});
You will also have to set the editing fields in immediate mode to have the update occur
immediately when an edit field loses the focus. You can set the fields in immediate mode with
the a custom TableFieldFactory, such as the one given below, that just extends the default
implementation to set the mode:
public class ImmediateFieldFactory extends DefaultFieldFactory {
public Field createField(Container container,
Object itemId,
Object propertyId,
Component uiContext) {
// Let the DefaultFieldFactory create the fields...
Field field = super.createField(container, itemId,
propertyId, uiContext);
// ...and just set them as immediate.
((AbstractField)field).setImmediate(true);
return field;
}
}
...
table.setTableFieldFactory(new ImmediateFieldFactory());
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If you generate the editing fields with the column generator, you avoid having to use such a field
factory, but of course have to generate the fields for both normal and editable modes.
Kuva 5.51, ”Table with Generated Columns in Normal and Editable Mode” shows a table with
columns calculated (blue) and simply formatted (black) with column generators.
Kuva 5.51. Table with Generated Columns in Normal and Editable Mode
5.16.6. Formatting Table Columns
The displayed values of properties shown in a table are normally formatted using the toString()
method of each property. Customizing the format of a column can be done in several ways:
• Using ColumnGenerator to generate a second column that is formatted. The original
column needs to be set invisible. See Kohta 5.16.5, ”Generated Table Columns”.
• Using a PropertyFormatter as a proxy between the table and the data property. This
also normally requires using an mediate container in the table.
• Overriding the default formatPropertyValue() in Table.
As using a PropertyFormatter is generally much more awkward than overriding the
formatPropertyValue(), its use is not described here.
You can override formatPropertyValue() as is done in the following example:
// Create a table that overrides the default
// property (column) format
final Table table = new Table("Formatted Table") {
@Override
protected String formatPropertyValue(Object rowId,
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Object colId, Property property) {
// Format by property type
if (property.getType() == Date.class) {
SimpleDateFormat df =
new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss");
return df.format((Date)property.getValue());
}
return super.formatPropertyValue(rowId, colId, property);
}
};
// The table has some columns
table.addContainerProperty("Time", Date.class, null);
... Fill the table with data ...
You can also distinguish between columns by the colId parameter, which is the property ID of
the column. DecimalFormat is useful for formatting decimal values.
... in formatPropertyValue() ...
} else if ("Value".equals(pid)) {
// Format a decimal value for a specific locale
DecimalFormat df = new DecimalFormat("#.00",
new DecimalFormatSymbols(locale));
return df.format((Double) property.getValue());
}
...
table.addContainerProperty("Value", Double.class, null);
A table with the formatted date and decimal value columns is shown in Kuva 5.52, ”Formatted
Table Columns”.
Kuva 5.52. Formatted Table Columns
You can use CSS for further styling of table rows, columns, and individual cells by using a
CellStyleGenerator. It is described in Kohta 5.16.7, ”CSS Style Rules”.
5.16.7. CSS Style Rules
Styling the overall style of a Table can be done with the following CSS rules.
.v-table {}
.v-table-header-wrap {}
.v-table-header {}
.v-table-header-cell {}
.v-table-resizer {} /* Column resizer handle. */
.v-table-caption-container {}
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.v-table-body {}
.v-table-row-spacer {}
.v-table-table {}
.v-table-row {}
.v-table-cell-content {}
Notice that some of the widths and heights in a table are calculated dynamically and can not be
set in CSS.
Setting Individual Cell Styles
The Table.CellStyleGenerator interface allows you to set the CSS style for each individual cell
in a table. You need to implement the getStyle(), which gets the row (item) and column
(property) identifiers as parameters and can return a style name for the cell. The returned style
name will be concatenated to prefix "v-table-cell-content-".
The getStyle() is called also for each row, so that the propertyId parameter is null. This
allows setting a row style.
Alternatively, you can use a Table.ColumnGenerator (see Kohta 5.16.5, ”Generated Table
Columns”) to generate the actual UI components of the cells and add style names to them.
Table table = new Table("Table with Cell Styles");
table.addStyleName("checkerboard");
// Add some columns in the table. In this example, the property
// IDs of the container are integers so we can determine the
// column number easily.
table.addContainerProperty("0", String.class, null, "", null, null);
for (int i=0; i<8; i++)
table.addContainerProperty(""+(i+1), String.class, null,
String.valueOf((char) (65+i)), null, null);
// Add some items in the table.
table.addItem(new Object[]{
"1", "R", "N", "B", "Q", "K", "B", "N", "R"}, new
table.addItem(new Object[]{
"2", "P", "P", "P", "P", "P", "P", "P", "P"}, new
for (int i=2; i<6; i++)
table.addItem(new Object[]{String.valueOf(i+1),
"", "", "", "", "", "", "", ""}, new
table.addItem(new Object[]{
"7", "P", "P", "P", "P", "P", "P", "P", "P"}, new
table.addItem(new Object[]{
"8", "R", "N", "B", "Q", "K", "B", "N", "R"}, new
table.setPageLength(8);
Integer(0));
Integer(1));
Integer(i));
Integer(6));
Integer(7));
// Set cell style generator
table.setCellStyleGenerator(new Table.CellStyleGenerator() {
public String getStyle(Object itemId, Object propertyId) {
// Row style setting, not relevant in this example.
if (propertyId == null)
return "green"; // Will not actually be visible
int row = ((Integer)itemId).intValue();
int col = Integer.parseInt((String)propertyId);
// The first column.
if (col == 0)
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return "rowheader";
// Other cells.
if ((row+col)%2 == 0)
return "black";
else
return "white";
}
});
You can then style the cells, for example, as follows:
/* Center the text in header. */
.v-table-header-cell {
text-align: center;
}
/* Basic style for all cells. */
.v-table-checkerboard .v-table-cell-content {
text-align: center;
vertical-align: middle;
padding-top: 12px;
width: 20px;
height: 28px;
}
/* Style specifically for the row header cells. */
.v-table-cell-content-rowheader {
background: #E7EDF3
url(../default/table/img/header-bg.png) repeat-x scroll 0 0;
}
/* Style specifically for the "white" cells. */
.v-table-cell-content-white {
background: white;
color: black;
}
/* Style specifically for the "black" cells. */
.v-table-cell-content-black {
background: black;
color: white;
}
The table will look as shown in Kuva 5.53, ”Cell Style Generator for a Table”.
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Kuva 5.53. Cell Style Generator for a Table
5.17. Tree
The Tree component allows a natural way to represent data that has hierarchical relationships,
such as filesystems or message threads. The Tree component in Vaadin works much like the
tree components of most modern desktop user interface toolkits, for example in directory browsing.
The typical use of the Tree component is for displaying a hierachical menu, like a menu on the
left side of the screen, as in Kuva 5.54, ”A Tree Component as a Menu”, or for displaying
filesystems or other hierarchical datasets. The menu style makes the appearance of the tree
more suitable for this purpose.
final Object[][] planets = new Object[][]{
new Object[]{"Mercury"},
new Object[]{"Venus"},
new Object[]{"Earth", "The Moon"},
new Object[]{"Mars", "Phobos", "Deimos"},
new Object[]{"Jupiter", "Io", "Europa", "Ganymedes",
"Callisto"},
new Object[]{"Saturn", "Titan", "Tethys", "Dione",
"Rhea", "Iapetus"},
new Object[]{"Uranus", "Miranda", "Ariel", "Umbriel",
"Titania", "Oberon"},
new Object[]{"Neptune", "Triton", "Proteus", "Nereid",
"Larissa"}};
Tree tree = new Tree("The Planets and Major Moons");
/* Add planets as root items in the tree. */
for (int i=0; i<planets.length; i++) {
String planet = (String) (planets[i][0]);
tree.addItem(planet);
if (planets[i].length == 1) {
// The planet has no moons so make it a leaf.
tree.setChildrenAllowed(planet, false);
} else {
// Add children (moons) under the planets.
for (int j=1; j<planets[i].length; j++) {
String moon = (String) planets[i][j];
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// Add the item as a regular item.
tree.addItem(moon);
// Set it to be a child.
tree.setParent(moon, planet);
// Make the moons look like leaves.
tree.setChildrenAllowed(moon, false);
}
// Expand the subtree.
tree.expandItemsRecursively(planet);
}
}
main.addComponent(tree);
Kuva 5.54, ”A Tree Component as a Menu” below shows the tree from the code example in a
practical situation.
You can read or set the currently selected item by the value property of the Tree component,
that is, with getValue() and setValue(). When the user clicks an item on a tree, the tree will
receive an ValueChangeEvent, which you can catch with a ValueChangeListener. To receive
the event immediately after the click, you need to set the tree as setImmediate(true).
The Tree component uses Container data sources much like the Table component, with the
addition that it also utilizes hierarchy information maintained by a HierarchicalContainer. The
contained items can be of any item type supported by the container. The default container and
its addItem() assume that the items are strings and the string value is used as the item ID.
5.18. MenuBar
The MenuBar component allows creating horizontal dropdown menus, much like the main menu
in desktop applications.
Kuva 5.55. Menu Bar
5.18.1. Creating a Menu
The actual menu bar component is first created as follows:
MenuBar menubar = new MenuBar();
main.addComponent(menubar);
MenuBar
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Kuva 5.54. A Tree Component as a Menu
You insert the top-level menu items to the MenuBar object with the addItem() method. It takes
a string label, an icon resource, and a command as its parameters. The icon and command are
not required and can be null. The addItem() method returns a MenuBar.MenuItem object,
which you can use to add sub-menu items. The MenuItem has an identical addItem() method.
For example (the command is explained later):
// A top-level menu item that opens a submenu
MenuItem drinks = barmenu.addItem("Beverages", null, null);
// Submenu item with a sub-submenu
MenuItem hots = drinks.addItem("Hot", null, null);
hots.addItem("Tea",
new ThemeResource("icons/tea-16px.png"),
mycommand);
hots.addItem("Coffee",
new ThemeResource("icons/coffee-16px.png"), mycommand);
// Another submenu item with a sub-submenu
MenuItem colds = drinks.addItem("Cold", null, null);
colds.addItem("Milk",
null, mycommand);
colds.addItem("Weissbier", null, mycommand);
// Another top-level item
MenuItem snacks = barmenu.addItem("Snacks", null, null);
snacks.addItem("Weisswurst", null, mycommand);
snacks.addItem("Bratwurst", null, mycommand);
snacks.addItem("Currywurst", null, mycommand);
// Yet another top-level item
MenuItem servs = barmenu.addItem("Services", null, null);
servs.addItem("Car Service", null, mycommand);
5.18.2. Handling Menu Selection
Menu selection is handled by executing a command when the user selects an item from the
menu. A command is a call-back class that implements the MenuBar.Command interface.
// A feedback component
final Label selection = new Label("-");
main.addComponent(selection);
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// Define a common menu command for all the menu items.
MenuBar.Command mycommand = new MenuBar.Command() {
public void menuSelected(MenuItem selectedItem) {
selection.setValue("Ordered a " +
selectedItem.getText() +
" from menu.");
}
};
5.18.3. Menu Items
Menu items have properties such as a caption, icon, enabled, visible, and description (tooltip).
The meaning of these is the same as for components.
Submenus are created by adding sub-items to an item with addItem() or addItemBefore().
The command property is a MenuBar.Command that is called when the particular menu item
is selected. The menuSelected() callback gets the clicked menu item as its parameter.
Menus can have separators, which are defined before or after
addSeparatorBefore() or addSeparator() on the item, respectively.
an
item
with
MenuItem drinks = barmenu.addItem("Beverages", null, null);
...
// A sub-menu item after a separator
drinks.addSeparator();
drinks.addItem("Quit Drinking", null, null);
Enabling checkable on an menu item with setCheckable() allows the user to switch between
checked and unchecked state by clicking on the item. You can set the checked state with
setChecked(). Note that if such an item has a command, the checked state is not flipped
automatically, but you need to do it explicitly.
Menu items have various other properties as well, see the API documentation for more details.
5.18.4. CSS Style Rules
.v-menubar { }
.v-menubar-submenu { }
.v-menubar-menuitem { }
.v-menubar-menuitem-caption { }
.v-menubar-menuitem-selected { }
.v-menubar-submenu-indicator { }
The menu bar has the overall style name .v-menubar. Each menu item has .v-menubarmenuitem style normally and additionally .v-menubar-selected when the item is selected,
that is, when the mouse pointer hovers over it. The item caption is inside a v-menubarmenuitem-caption. In the top-level menu bar, the items are directly under the component
element.
Submenus are floating v-menubar-submenu elements outside the menu bar element.Therefore,
you should not try to match on the component element for the submenu popups. In submenus,
any further submenu levels are indicated with a v-menubar-submenu-indicator.
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1. Styling Menu Items
You can set the CSS style name for the menu items with setStyleName(), just like for
components. The style name will be prepended with v-menubar-menuitem-. As MenuBar
does not indicate the previous selection in any way, you can do that by highlighting the previously
selected item. However, beware that the selected style for menu items, that is, v-menubarmenuitem-selected, is reserved for mouse-hover indication.
MenuBar barmenu = new MenuBar();
barmenu.addStyleName("mybarmenu");
layout.addComponent(barmenu);
// A feedback component
final Label selection = new Label("-");
layout.addComponent(selection);
// Define a common menu command for all the menu items
MenuBar.Command mycommand = new MenuBar.Command() {
MenuItem previous = null;
public void menuSelected(MenuItem selectedItem) {
selection.setValue("Ordered a " +
selectedItem.getText() +
" from menu.");
if (previous != null)
previous.setStyleName(null);
selectedItem.setStyleName("highlight");
previous = selectedItem;
}
};
// Put some items in the menu
barmenu.addItem("Beverages", null, mycommand);
barmenu.addItem("Snacks", null, mycommand);
barmenu.addItem("Services", null, mycommand);
You could then style the highlighting in CSS as follows:
.mybarmenu .v-menubar-menuitem-highlight {
background: #000040; /* Dark blue */
}
5.19. Embedded Resources
You can embed images in Vaadin UIs with the Image component, Adobe Flash graphics with
Flash, and other web content with BrowserFrame.There is also a generic Embedded component
for embedding other object types.The embedded content is referenced as resources, as described
in Kohta 4.4, ”Images and Other Resources”.
The following example displays an image as a class resource loaded with the class loader:
Image image = new Image("Yes, logo:",
new ClassResource("vaadin-logo.png"));
main.addComponent(image);
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The caption can be given as null to disable it. An empty string displays an empty caption which
takes a bit space. The caption is managed by the containing layout.
You can set an altenative text for an embedded resource with setAlternateText(), which
can be shown if images are disabled in the browser for some reason. The text can be used for
accessibility purposes, such as for text-to-speech generation.
5.19.1. Embedded Image
The Image component allows embedding an image resource in a Vaadin UI.
// Serve the image from the theme
Resource res = new ThemeResource("img/myimage.png");
// Display the image without caption
Image image = new Image(null, res);
layout.addComponent(image);
The Image component has by default undefined size in both directions, so it will automatically
fit the size of the embedded image. If you want scrolling with scroll bars, you can put the image
inside a Panel that has a defined size to enable scrolling, as described in Kohta 6.6.1, ”Scrolling
the Panel Content”. You can also put it inside some other component container and set the
overflow: auto CSS property for the container element in a theme to enable automatic
scrollbars.
Generating and Reloading Images
You can also generate the image content dynamically using a StreamResource, as described
in Kohta 4.4.5, ”Stream Resources”, or with a RequestHandler.
If the image changes, the browser needs to reload it. Simply updating the stream resource is not
enough. Because of how caching is handled in some browsers, you can cause a reload easiest
by renaming the filename of the resource with a unique name, such as one including a timestamp.
You should set cache time to zero with setCacheTime() for the resource object when you
create it.
// Create the stream resource with some initial filename
StreamResource imageResource =
new StreamResource(imageSource, "initial-filename.png");
// Instruct browser not to cache the image
imageResource.setCacheTime(0);
// Display the image
Image image = new Image(null, imageResource);
When refreshing, you also need to call markAsDirty() for the Image object.
// This needs to be done, but is not sufficient
image.markAsDirty();
// Generate a filename with a timestamp
SimpleDateFormat df = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyyMMddHHmmssSSS");
String filename = "myfilename-" + df.format(new Date()) + ".png";
// Replace the filename in the resource
imageResource.setFilename(makeImageFilename());
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5.19.2. Adobe Flash Graphics
The Flash component allows embedding Adobe Flash animations in Vaadin UIs.
Flash flash = new Flash(null,
new ThemeResource("img/vaadin_spin.swf"));
layout.addComponent(flash);
You can set Flash parameters with setParameter(), which takes a parameter's name and
value as strings. You can also set the codeBase, archive, and standBy attributes for the
Flash object element in HTML.
5.19.3. BrowserFrame
The BrowserFrame allows embedding web content inside an HTML <iframe> element. You
can refer to an external URL with ExternalResource.
As the BrowserFrame has undefined size by default, it is critical that you define a meaningful
size for it, either fixed or relative.
BrowserFrame browser = new BrowserFrame("Browser",
new ExternalResource("http://demo.vaadin.com/sampler/"));
browser.setWidth("600px");
browser.setHeight("400px");
layout.addComponent(browser);
Notice that web pages can prevent embedding them in an <iframe>.
5.19.4. Generic Embedded Objects
The generic Embedded component allows embedding all sorts of objects, such as SVG graphics,
Java applets, and PDF documents, in addition to the images, Flash graphics, and browser frames
which you can embed with the specialized components.
For example, to display a Flash animation:
// A resource reference to some object
Resource res = new ThemeResource("img/vaadin_spin.swf");
// Display the object
Embedded object = new Embedded("My Object", res);
layout.addComponent(object);
Or an SVG image:
// A resource reference to some object
Resource res = new ThemeResource("img/reindeer.svg");
// Display the object
Embedded object = new Embedded("My SVG", res);
object.setMimeType("image/svg+xml"); // Unnecessary
layout.addComponent(object);
The MIME type of the objects is usually detected automatically from the filename extension with
the FileTypeResolver utility in Vaadin. If not, you can set it explicitly with setMimeType(), as
was done in the example above (where it was actually unnecessary).
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Some embeddable object types may require special support in the browser. You should make
sure that there is a proper fallback mechanism if the browser does not support the embedded
type.
5.20. Upload
The Upload component allows a user to upload files to the server. It displays a file name entry
box, a file selection button, and an upload submit button. The user can either write the filename
in the text area or click the Browse button to select a file. After the file is selected, the user sends
the file by clicking the upload submit button.
Uploading requires a receiver that implements Upload.Receiver to provide an output stream
to which the upload is written by the server.
Upload upload = new Upload("Upload it here", receiver);
Kuva 5.56. Upload Component
You can set the text of the upload button with setButtonCaption(). Note that it is difficult to
change the caption or look of the Browse button. This is a security feature of web browsers. The
language of the Browse button is determined by the browser, so if you wish to have the language
of the Upload component consistent, you will have to use the same language in your application.
upload.setButtonCaption("Upload Now");
You can also hide the upload button with .v-upload .v-button {display: none} in
theme, have custom logic for starting the upload, and call startUpload() to start it. If the
upload component has setImmediate(true) enabled, uploading starts immediately after
choosing the file.
5.20.1. Receiving Upload Data
The uploaded files are typically stored as files in a file system, in a database, or as temporary
objects in memory. The upload component writes the received data to an java.io.OutputStream
so you have plenty of freedom in how you can process the upload content.
To use the Upload component, you need to implement the Upload.Receiver interface. The
receiveUpload() method of the receiver is called when the user clicks the submit button. The
method must return an OutputStream. To do this, it typically creates a file or a memory buffer
to which the stream is written. The method gets the file name and MIME type of the file, as
reported by the browser.
While uploading, the upload progress can be monitored with an Upload.ProgressListener.
The updateProgress() method gets the number of read bytes and the content length as
parameters. The content length is reported by the browser, is not reliable, and may be -1 if
unknown. It is therefore recommended to follow the upload progress and check the allowed size
in a progress listener. Upload can be terminated by calling interruptUpload() on the upload
component. You may want to use a ProgressBar to visualize the progress, and in indeterminate
mode if the content length is not known.
Upload
183
User Interface Components
When an upload is finished, successfully or unsuccessfully, the Upload component will emit the
Upload.FinishedEvent event, which you can handle with an Upload.FinishedListener added
to the upload component. The event object will include the file name, MIME type, and final length
of the file. More specific Upload.FailedEvent and Upload.SucceededEvent events will be called
in the cases where the upload failed or succeeded, respectively.
The following example uploads images to /tmp/uploads directory in (UNIX) filesystem (the
directory must exist or the upload fails). The component displays the uploaded image in an Image
component.
// Show uploaded file in this placeholder
final Embedded image = new Embedded("Uploaded Image");
image.setVisible(false);
// Implement both receiver that saves upload in a file and
// listener for successful upload
class ImageUploader implements Receiver, SucceededListener {
public File file;
public OutputStream receiveUpload(String filename,
String mimeType) {
// Create upload stream
FileOutputStream fos = null; // Stream to write to
try {
// Open the file for writing.
file = new File("/tmp/uploads/" + filename);
fos = new FileOutputStream(file);
} catch (final java.io.FileNotFoundException e) {
new Notification("Could not open file<br/>",
e.getMessage(),
Notification.Type.ERROR_MESSAGE)
.show(Page.getCurrent());
return null;
}
return fos; // Return the output stream to write to
}
public void uploadSucceeded(SucceededEvent event) {
// Show the uploaded file in the image viewer
image.setVisible(true);
image.setSource(new FileResource(file));
}
};
ImageUploader receiver = new ImageUploader();
// Create the upload with a caption and set receiver later
Upload upload = new Upload("Upload Image Here", receiver);
upload.setButtonCaption("Start Upload");
upload.addSucceededListener(receiver);
// Put the components in a panel
Panel panel = new Panel("Cool Image Storage");
Layout panelContent = new VerticalLayout();
panelContent.addComponents(upload, image);
panel.setContent(panelContent);
Note that the example does not check the type of the uploaded files in any way, which will cause
an error if the content is anything else but an image. The program also assumes that the MIME
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type of the file is resolved correctly based on the file name extension. After uploading an image,
the component will look as shown in Kuva 5.57, ”Image Upload Example”.
Kuva 5.57. Image Upload Example
5.20.2. CSS Style Rules
.v-upload { }
.gwt-FileUpload { }
.v-button { }
.v-button-wrap { }
.v-button-caption { }
The Upload component has an overall v-upload style.The upload button has the same structure
and style as a regular Button component.
5.21. ProgressBar
The ProgressBar component allows displaying the progress of a task graphically. The progress
is specified as a floating-point value between 0.0 and 1.0.
Kuva 5.58. The Progress Bar Component
CSS Style Rules
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User Interface Components
To display upload progress with the Upload component, you can update the progress bar in a
ProgressListener.
When the position of a progress bar is done in a background thread, the change is not shown in
the browser immediately. You need to use either polling or server push to update the browser.
You can enable polling with setPollInterval() in the current UI instance. See Kohta 11.16,
”Server Push” for instructions about using server push. Whichever method you use to update the
UI, it is important to lock the user session by modifying the progress bar value inside access()
call, as illustrated in the following example and described in Kohta 11.16.3, ”Accessing UI from
Another Thread”.
final ProgressBar bar = new ProgressBar(0.0f);
layout.addComponent(bar);
layout.addComponent(new Button("Increase",
new ClickListener() {
@Override
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
float current = bar.getValue();
if (current < 1.0f)
bar.setValue(current + 0.10f);
}
}));
5.21.1. Indeterminate Mode
In the indeterminate mode, a non-progressive indicator is displayed continuously. The
indeterminate indicator is a circular wheel in the built-in themes. The progress value has no
meaning in the indeterminate mode.
ProgressBar bar = new ProgressBar();
bar.setIndeterminate(true);
Kuva 5.59. Indeterminate Progress Bar
5.21.2. Doing Heavy Computation
The progress indicator is often used to display the progress of a heavy server-side computation
task, often running in a background thread. The UI, including the progress bar, can be updated
either with polling or by using server push. When doing so, you must ensure thread-safety, most
easily by updating the UI inside a UI.access() call in a Runnable, as described in
Kohta 11.16.3, ”Accessing UI from Another Thread”.
In the following example, we create a thread in the server to do some "heavy work" and use
polling to update the UI. All the thread needs to do is to set the value of the progress bar with
setValue() and the current progress is displayed automatically when the browser polls the
server.
HorizontalLayout barbar = new HorizontalLayout();
layout.addComponent(barbar);
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Indeterminate Mode
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// Create the indicator, disabled until progress is started
final ProgressBar progress = new ProgressBar(new Float(0.0));
progress.setEnabled(false);
barbar.addComponent(progress);
final Label status = new Label("not running");
barbar.addComponent(status);
// A button to start progress
final Button button = new Button("Click to start");
layout.addComponent(button);
// A thread to do some work
class WorkThread extends Thread {
// Volatile because read in another thread in access()
volatile double current = 0.0;
@Override
public void run() {
// Count up until 1.0 is reached
while (current < 1.0) {
current += 0.01;
// Do some "heavy work"
try {
sleep(50); // Sleep for 50 milliseconds
} catch (InterruptedException e) {}
// Update the UI thread-safely
UI.getCurrent().access(new Runnable() {
@Override
public void run() {
progress.setValue(new Float(current));
if (current < 1.0)
status.setValue("" +
((int)(current*100)) + "% done");
else
status.setValue("all done");
}
});
}
// Show the "all done" for a while
try {
sleep(2000); // Sleep for 2 seconds
} catch (InterruptedException e) {}
// Update the UI thread-safely
UI.getCurrent().access(new Runnable() {
@Override
public void run() {
// Restore the state to initial
progress.setValue(new Float(0.0));
progress.setEnabled(false);
// Stop polling
UI.getCurrent().setPollInterval(-1);
button.setEnabled(true);
status.setValue("not running");
Doing Heavy Computation
187
User Interface Components
}
});
}
}
// Clicking the button creates and runs a work thread
button.addClickListener(new Button.ClickListener() {
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
final WorkThread thread = new WorkThread();
thread.start();
// Enable polling and set frequency to 0.5 seconds
UI.getCurrent().setPollInterval(500);
// Disable the button until the work is done
progress.setEnabled(true);
button.setEnabled(false);
status.setValue("running...");
}
});
The example is illustrated in Kuva 5.60, ”Doing Heavy Work”.
Kuva 5.60. Doing Heavy Work
5.21.3. CSS Style Rules
.v-progressbar, v-progressbar-indeterminate {}
.v-progressbar-wrapper {}
.v-progressbar-indicator {}
The progress bar has a v-progressbar base style. The animation is the background of the
element with v-progressbar-wrapper style, by default an animated GIF image. The progress
is an element with v-progressbar-indicator style inside the wrapper, and therefore displayed
on top of it. When the progress element grows, it covers more and more of the animated
background.
In the indeterminate mode, the top element also has the v-progressbar-indeterminate
style. The built-in themes simply display the animated GIF in the top element and have the inner
elements disabled.
5.22. Slider
The Slider is a vertical or horizontal bar that allows setting a numeric value within a defined range
by dragging a bar handle with the mouse. The value is shown when dragging the handle.
Slider has a number of different constructors that take a combination of the caption, minimum
and maximum value, resolution, and the orientation of the slider.
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CSS Style Rules
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// Create a vertical slider
final Slider vertslider = new Slider(1, 100);
vertslider.setOrientation(SliderOrientation.VERTICAL);
Slider Properties
min
Minimum value of the slider range. The default is 0.0.
max
Maximum value of the slider range. The default is 100.0.
resolution
The number of digits after the decimal point. The default is 0.
orientation
The orientation can be either horizontal (SliderOrientation.HORIZONTAL) or
vertical (SliderOrientation.VERTICAL). The default is horizontal.
As the Slider is a field component, you can handle value changes with a ValueChangeListener.
The value of the Slider field is a Double object.
// Shows the value of the vertical slider
final Label vertvalue = new Label();
vertvalue.setSizeUndefined();
// Handle changes in slider value.
vertslider.addValueChangeListener(
new Property.ValueChangeListener() {
public void valueChange(ValueChangeEvent event) {
double value = (Double) vertslider.getValue();
// Use the value
box.setHeight((float) value, Sizeable.UNITS_PERCENTAGE);
vertvalue.setValue(String.valueOf(value));
}
});
// The slider has to be immediate to send the changes
// immediately after the user drags the handle.
vertslider.setImmediate(true);
You can set the value with the setValue() method defined in Slider that takes the value as a
native double value. The setter can throw a ValueOutOfBoundsException, which you must
handle.
// Set the initial value. This has to be set after the
// listener is added if we want the listener to handle
// also this value change.
try {
vertslider.setValue(50.0);
} catch (ValueOutOfBoundsException e) {
}
Alternatively, you can use the regular setValue(Object), which does not do bounds checking.
Kuva 5.61, ”The Slider Component” shows both vertical (from the code examples) and horizontal
sliders that control the size of a box. The slider values are displayed also in separate labels.
Slider
189
User Interface Components
Kuva 5.61. The Slider Component
5.22.1. CSS Style Rules
.v-slider {}
.v-slider-base {}
.v-slider-handle {}
The enclosing style for the Slider is v-slider. The slider bar has style v-slider-base. Even
though the handle is higher (for horizontal slider) or wider (for vertical slider) than the bar, the
handle element is nevertheless contained within the slider bar element. The appearance of the
handle comes from a background image defined in the background CSS property.
5.23. Calendar
The Calendar component allows organizing and displaying calendar events. The main features
of the calendar include:
• Monthly, weekly, and daily views
• Two types of events: all-day events and events with a time range
• Add events directly, from a Container, or with an event provider
• Control the range of the visible dates
• Selecting and editing date or time range by dragging
• Drag and drop events to calendar
• Support for localization and timezones
User interaction with the calendar elements, such as date and week captions as well as events,
is handled with event listeners. Also date/time range selections, event dragging, and event resizing
can be listened by the server. The weekly view has navigation buttons to navigate forward and
backward in time. These actions are also listened by the server. Custom navigation can be
implemented using event handlers, as described in Kohta 5.23.10, ”Customizing the Calendar”.
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CSS Style Rules
User Interface Components
The data source of a calendar can be practically anything, as its events are queried dynamically
by the component. You can bind the calendar to a Vaadin container, or to any other data source
by implementing an event provider.
The Calendar has undefined size by default and you usually want to give it a fixed or relative
size, for example as follows.
Calendar cal = new Calendar("My Calendar");
cal.setWidth("600px");
cal.setHeight("300px");
After creating the calendar, you need to set a time range for it, which also controls the view mode,
and set up the data source for calendar events.
5.23.1. Date Range and View Mode
The Vaadin Calendar has two types of views that are shown depending on the date range of the
calendar. The weekly view displays a week by default. It can show anything between one to
seven days a week, and is also used as a single-day view. The view mode is determined from
the date range of the calendar, defined by a start and an end date. Calendar will be shown in a
monthly view when the date range is over than one week (seven days) long. The date range is
always calculated in an accuracy of one millisecond.
The monthly view, shown in Kuva 5.62, ”Monthly view with All-Day and Normal Events”, can
easily be used to control all types of events, but it is best suited for events that last for one or
more days. You can drag the events to move them. In the figure, you can see two longer events
that are highlighted with a blue and green background color. Other markings are shorter day
events that last less than a 24 hours. These events can not be moved by dragging in the monthly
view.
In Kuva 5.63, ”Weekly View”, you can see four normal day events and also all-day events at the
top of the time line grid.
In the following, we set the calendar to show only one day, which is the current day.
cal.setStartDate(new Date());
cal.setEndDate(new Date());
Notice that although the range we set above is actually zero time long, the calendar still renders
the time from 00:00 to 23:59. This is normal, as the Vaadin Calendar is guaranteed to render at
least the date range provided, but may expand it. This behaviour is important to notice when we
implement our own event providers.
5.23.2. Calendar Events
All occurrences in a calendar are represented as events. You have three ways to manage the
calendar events:
• Add events directly to the Calendar object using the addEvent()
• Use a Container as a data source
• Use the event provider mechanism
You can add events with addEvent() and remove them with the removeEvent(). These
methods will use the underlying event provider to write the modifications to the data source.
Date Range and View Mode
191
User Interface Components
Kuva 5.62. Monthly view with All-Day and Normal Events
Kuva 5.63. Weekly View
Event Interfaces and Providers
Events are handled though the CalendarEvent interface. The concrete class of the event
depends on the specific CalendarEventProvider used in the calendar.
By default, Calendar uses a BasicEventProvider to provide events, which uses BasicEvent
instances.
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Calendar Events
User Interface Components
Calendar does not depend on any particular data source implementation. Events are queried by
the Calendar from the provider that just has to implement the CalendarEventProvider
interface. It is up to the event provider that Calendar gets the correct events.
You can bind any Vaadin Container to a calendar, in which case a ContainerEventProvider is
used transparently. The container must be ordered by start date and time of the events. See
Kohta 9.5, ”Collecting Items in Containers” for basic information about containers.
Event Types
A calendar event requires a start time and an end time. These are the only mandatory properties.
In addition, an event can also be set as an all-day event by setting the all-day property of the
event. You can also set the description of an event, which is displayed as a tooltip in the user
interface.
If the all-day field of the event is true, then the event is always rendered as an all-day event.
In the monthly view, this means that no start time is displayed in the user interface and the event
has an colored background. In the weekly view, all-day events are displayed in the upper part of
the screen, and rendered similarly to the monthly view. In addition, when the time range of an
event is 24 hours or longer, it is rendered as an all-day event in the monthly view.
When the time range of an event is equal or less than 24 hours, with the accuracy of one
millisecond, the event is considered as a normal day event. Normal event has a start and end
times that may be on different days.
Basic Events
The easiest way to add and manage events in a calendar is to use the basic event management
API. Calendar uses by default a BasicEventProvider, which keeps the events in memory in an
internal reprensetation.
For example, the following adds a two-hour event starting from the current time. The standard
Java GregorianCalendar provides various ways to manipulate date and time.
// Add a two-hour event
GregorianCalendar start = new GregorianCalendar();
GregorianCalendar end
= new GregorianCalendar();
end.add(java.util.Calendar.HOUR, 2);
calendar.addEvent(new BasicEvent("Calendar study",
"Learning how to use Vaadin Calendar",
start.getTime(), end.getTime()));
This adds a new event that lasts for 3 hours. As the BasicEventProvider and BasicEvent implement
some optional event interfaces provided by the calendar package, there is no need to refresh
the calendar. Just create events, set their properties and add them to the Event Provider.
5.23.3. Getting Events from a Container
You can use any Vaadin Container that implements the Indexed interface as the data source
for calendar events. The Calendar will listen to change events from the container as well as write
changes to the container. You can attach a container to a Calendar with
setContainerDataSource().
In the following example, we bind a BeanItemContainer that contains built-in BasicEvent events
to a calendar.
Getting Events from a Container
193
User Interface Components
// Create the calendar
Calendar calendar = new Calendar("Bound Calendar");
// Use a container of built-in BasicEvents
final BeanItemContainer<BasicEvent> container =
new BeanItemContainer<BasicEvent>(BasicEvent.class);
// Create a meeting in the container
container.addBean(new BasicEvent("The Event", "Single Event",
new GregorianCalendar(2012,1,14,12,00).getTime(),
new GregorianCalendar(2012,1,14,14,00).getTime()));
// The container must be ordered by the start time. You
// have to sort the BIC every time after you have added
// or modified events.
container.sort(new Object[]{"start"}, new boolean[]{true});
calendar.setContainerDataSource(container, "caption",
"description", "start", "end", "styleName");
The container must either use the default property IDs for event data, as defined in the
CalendarEvent interface, or provide them as parameters for the setContainerDataSource()
method, as we did in the example above.
Keeping the Container Ordered
The events in the container must be kept ordered by their start date/time. Failing to do so may
and will result in the events not showing in the calendar properly.
Ordering depends on the container. With some containers, such as BeanItemContainer, you
have to sort the container explicitly every time after you have added or modified events, usually
with the sort() method, as we did in the example above. Some container, such as
JPAContainer, keep the in container automatically order if you provide a sorting rule.
For example, you could order a JPAContainer by the following rule, assuming that the start
date/time is held in the startDate property:
// The container must be ordered by start date. For JPAContainer
// we can just set up sorting once and it will stay ordered.
container.sort(new String[]{"startDate"}, new boolean[]{true});
Delegation of Event Management
Setting a container as the calendar data source with setContainerDataSource() automatically
switches to ContainerEventProvider. You can manipulate the event data through the API in
Calendar and the user can move and resize event through the user interface. The event provider
delegates all such calendar operations to the container.
If you add events through the Calendar API, notice that you may be unable to create events of
the type held in the container or adding them requires some container-specific operations. In
such case, you may need to customize the addEvent() method.
For example, JPAContainer requires adding new items with addEntity(). You could first add
the entity to the container or entity manager directly and then pass it to the addEvent(). That
does not, however, work if the entity class does not implement CalendarEvent. This is actually
the case always if the property names differ from the ones defined in the interface. You could
handle creating the underlying entity objects in the addEvent() as follows:
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// Create a JPAContainer
final JPAContainer<MyCalendarEvent> container =
JPAContainerFactory.make(MyCalendarEvent.class,
"book-examples");
// Customize the event provider for adding events
// as entities
ContainerEventProvider cep =
new ContainerEventProvider(container) {
@Override
public void addEvent(CalendarEvent event) {
MyCalendarEvent entity = new MyCalendarEvent(
event.getCaption(), event.getDescription(),
event.getStart(), event.getEnd(),
event.getStyleName());
container.addEntity(entity);
}
}
// Set the container as the data source
calendar.setEventProvider(cep);
// Now we can add events to the database through the calendar
BasicEvent event = new BasicEvent("The Event", "Single Event",
new GregorianCalendar(2012,1,15,12,00).getTime(),
new GregorianCalendar(2012,1,15,14,00).getTime());
calendar.addEvent(event);
5.23.4. Implementing an Event Provider
If the two simple ways of storing and managing events for a calendar are not enough, you may
need to implement a custom event provider. It is the most flexible way of providing events. You
need to attach the event provider to the Calendar using the setEventProvider() method.
Event queries are done by asking the event provider for all the events between two given dates.
The range of these dates is guaranteed to be at least as long as the start and end dates set for
the component. The component can, however, ask for a longer range to ensure correct rendering.
In particular, all start dates are expanded to the start of the day, and all end dates are expanded
to the end of the day.
Custom Events
An event provider could use the built-in BasicEvent, but it is usually more proper to define a
custom event type that is bound directly to the data source. Custom events may be useful for
some other purposes as well, such as when you need to add extra information to an event or
customize how it is acquired.
Custom events must implement the CalendarEvent interface or extend an existing event class.
The built-in BasicEvent class should serve as a good example of implementing simple events.
It keeps the data in member variables.
public class BasicEvent
implements CalendarEventEditor, EventChangeNotifier {
...
public String getCaption() {
return caption;
}
Implementing an Event Provider
195
User Interface Components
public String getDescription() {
return description;
}
public Date getEnd() {
return end;
}
public Date getStart() {
return start;
}
public String getStyleName() {
return styleName;
}
public boolean isAllDay() {
return isAllDay;
}
public void setCaption(String caption) {
this.caption = caption;
fireEventChange();
}
public void setDescription(String description) {
this.description = description;
fireEventChange();
}
public void setEnd(Date end) {
this.end = end;
fireEventChange();
}
public void setStart(Date start) {
this.start = start;
fireEventChange();
}
public void setStyleName(String styleName) {
this.styleName = styleName;
fireEventChange();
}
public void setAllDay(boolean isAllDay) {
this.isAllDay = isAllDay;
fireEventChange();
}
public void addEventChangeListener(
EventChangeListener listener) {
...
}
public void removeListener(EventChangeListener listener) {
...
}
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Implementing an Event Provider
User Interface Components
protected void fireEventChange() {...}
}
You may have noticed that there was some additional code in the BasicEvent that was not in
the CalendarEvent interface. Namely BasicEvent also implements two additional interfaces:
CalendarEditor
This interface defines setters for all the fields, and is required for some of the default
handlers to work.
EventChangeNotifier
This interface adds the possibility to listen for changes in the event, and enables the
Calendar to render the changes immediately.
The start time and end time are mandatory, but caption, description, and style name are not. The
style name is used as a part of the CSS class name for the HTML DOM element of the event.
In addition to the basic event interfaces, you can enhance the functionality of your event and
event provider classes by using the EventChange and EventSetChange events. They let the
Calendar component to know about changes in events and update itself accordingly. The
BasicEvent and BasicEventProvider examples given earlier include a simple implementation
of these interfaces.
Implementing the Event Provider
An event provider needs to implement the CalendarEventProvider interface. It has only one
method to be implemented. Whenever the calendar is painted, getEvents(Date, Date)
method is called and it must return a list of events between the given start and end time.
The following example implementation returns only one example event. The event starts from
the current time and is five hours long.
public class MyEventProvider implements CalendarEventProvider{
public List<Event> getEvents(Date startDate, Date endDate){
List<Event> events = new ArrayList<Event>();
GregorianCalendar cal = new GregorianCalendar();
cal.setTime(new Date());
Date start = cal.getTime();
cal.add(GregorianCalendar.HOUR, 5);
Date end = cal.getTime();
BasicEvent event = new BasicEvent();
event.setCaption("My Event");
event.setDescription("My Event Description");
event.setStart(start);
event.setEnd(end);
events.add(event);
return events;
}
}
It is important to notice that the Calendar may query for dates beyond the range defined by start
date and end date. Particularly, it may expand the date range to make sure the user interface is
rendered correctly.
Implementing an Event Provider
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5.23.5. Styling a Calendar
Configuring the appearance of the Vaadin Calendar component is one of the basic tasks. At the
least, you need to consider its sizing in your user interface. You also quite probably want to use
some color or colors for events.
Sizing
The Calendar supports component sizing as usual for defined (fixed or relative) sizes. When
using an undefined size for the calendar, all the sizes come from CSS. In addition, when the
height is undefined, a scrollbar is displayed in the weekly view to better fit the cells to the user
interface.
Below is a list of style rules that define the size of a Calendar with undefined size (these are the
defaults):
.v-calendar-month-sizedheight .v-calendar-month-day {
height: 100px;
}
.v-calendar-month-sizedwidth .v-calendar-month-day {
width: 100px;
}
.v-calendar-header-month-Hsized .v-calendar-header-day {
width: 101px;
}
/* for IE */
.v-ie6 .v-calendar-header-month-Hsized .v-calendar-header-day {
width: 104px;
}
/* for others */
.v-calendar-header-month-Hsized td:first-child {
padding-left: 21px;
}
.v-calendar-header-day-Hsized {
width: 200px;
}
.v-calendar-week-numbers-Vsized .v-calendar-week-number {
height: 100px;
line-height: 100px;
}
.v-calendar-week-wrapper-Vsized {
height: 400px;
overflow-x: hidden !important;
}
.v-calendar-times-Vsized .v-calendar-time {
height: 38px;
}
.v-calendar-times-Hsized .v-calendar-time {
width: 42px;
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}
.v-calendar-day-times-Vsized .v-slot,.v-calendar-day-times-Vsized .v-slot-even
{
height: 18px;
}
.v-calendar-day-times-Hsized, .v-calendar-day-times-Hsized .v-slot,.v-calendarday-times-Hsized .v-slot-even {
width: 200px;
}
Event Style
Events can be styled with CSS by setting them a style name suffix. The suffix is retrieved with
the getStyleName() method in CalendarEvent. If you use BasicEvent events, you can set
the suffix with setStyleName().
BasicEvent event = new BasicEvent("Wednesday Wonder", ... );
event.setStyleName("mycolor");
calendar.addEvent(event);
Suffix mycolor would create v-calendar-event-mycolor class for regular events and
v-calendar-event-mycolor-add-day for all-day events. You could style the events with
the following rules:
.v-calendar
.v-calendar
.v-calendar
.v-calendar
.v-calendar-event-mycolor {}
.v-calendar-event-mycolor-all-day {}
.v-calendar-event-mycolor .v-calendar-event-caption {}
.v-calendar-event-mycolor .v-calendar-event-content {}
5.23.6. Visible Hours and Days
As we saw in Kohta 5.23.1, ”Date Range and View Mode”, you can set the range of dates that
are shown by the Calendar. But what if you wanted to show the entire month but hide the
weekends? Or show only hours from 8 to 16 in the weekly view? The setVisibleDays() and
setVisibleHours() methods allow you to do that.
calendar.setVisibleDays(1,5);
// Monday to Friday
calendar.setVisibleHours(0,15); // Midnight until 4 pm
After the above settings, only weekdays from Monday to Friday would be shown. And when the
calendar is in the weekly view, only the time range from 00:00 to 16:00 would be shown.
Note that the excluded times are never shown so you should take care when setting the date
range. If the date range contains only dates / times that are excluded, nothing will be displayed.
Also note that even if a date is not rendered because these settings, the event provider may still
be queried for events for that date.
5.23.7. Drag and Drop
Vaadin Calendar can act as a drop target for drag and drop, described in Kohta 11.12, ”Drag and
Drop”. With the functionality, the user could drag events, for example, from a table to a calendar.
To support dropping, a Calendar must have a drop handler. When the drop handler is set, the
days in the monthly view and the time slots in the weekly view can receive drops. Other locations,
such as day names in the weekly view, can not currently receive drops.
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Calendar uses its own implementation of TargetDetails: CalendarTargetdetails. It holds
information about the the drop location, which in the context of Calendar means the date and
time. The drop target location can be retrieved via the getDropTime() method. If the drop is
done in the monthly view, the returned date does not have exact time information. If the drop
happened in the weekly view, the returned date also contains the start time of the slot.
Below is a short example of creating a drop handler and using the drop information to create a
new event:
private Calendar createDDCalendar() {
Calendar calendar = new Calendar();
calendar.setDropHandler(new DropHandler() {
public void drop(DragAndDropEvent event) {
CalendarTargetDetails details =
(CalendarTargetDetails) event.getTargetDetails();
TableTransferable transferable =
(TableTransferable) event.getTransferable();
createEvent(details, transferable);
removeTableRow(transferable);
}
public AcceptCriterion getAcceptCriterion() {
return AcceptAll.get();
}
});
return calendar;
}
protected void createEvent(CalendarTargetDetails details,
TableTransferable transferable) {
Date dropTime = details.getDropTime();
java.util.Calendar timeCalendar = details.getTargetCalendar()
.getInternalCalendar();
timeCalendar.setTime(dropTime);
timeCalendar.add(java.util.Calendar.MINUTE, 120);
Date endTime = timeCalendar.getTime();
Item draggedItem = transferable.getSourceComponent().
getItem(transferable.getItemId());
String eventType = (String)draggedItem.
getItemProperty("type").getValue();
String eventDescription = "Attending: "
+ getParticipantString(
(String[]) draggedItem.
getItemProperty("participants").getValue());
BasicEvent newEvent = new BasicEvent();
newEvent.setAllDay(!details.hasDropTime());
newEvent.setCaption(eventType);
newEvent.setDescription(eventDescription);
newEvent.setStart(dropTime);
newEvent.setEnd(endTime);
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BasicEventProvider ep = (BasicEventProvider) details
.getTargetCalendar().getEventProvider();
ep.addEvent(newEvent);
}
5.23.8. Using the Context Menu
Vaadin Calendar allows the use of context menu (mouse right-click) to manage events. As in
other context menus in Vaadin, the menu items are handled in Vaadin as actions by an action
handler. To enable a context menu, you have to implement a Vaadin Action.Handler and
add it to the calendar with addActionHandler().
An action handler must implement two methods: getActions() and handleAction(). The
getActions() is called for each day displayed in the calendar view. It should return a list of
allowed actions for that day, that is, the items of the context menu. The target parameter is the
context of the click - a CalendarDateRange that spans over the day.The sender is the Calendar
object.
The handleActions() receives the target context in the target. If the context menu was
opened on an event, the target is the Event object, otherwise it is a CalendarDateRange.
5.23.9. Localization and Formatting
Setting the Locale and Time Zone
Month and weekday names are shown in the language of the locale setting of the Calendar. The
translations are acquired from the standard Java locale data. By default, Calendar uses the
system default locale for its internal calendar, but you can change it with setLocale(Locale
locale). Setting the locale will update also other location specific date and time settings, such
as the first day of the week, time zone, and time format. However, time zone and time format can
be overridden by settings in the Calendar.
For example, the following would set the language to US English:
cal.setLocale(Locale.US);
The locale defines the default time zone. You can change it with the setTimeZone() method,
which takes a java.util.TimeZone object as its parameter. Setting timezone to null will reset
timezone to the locale default.
For example, the following would set the Finnish time zone, which is EET
cal.setTimeZone(TimeZone.getTimeZone("Europe/Helsinki"));
Time and Date Caption Format
The time may be shown either in 24 or 12 hour format. The default format is defined by the locale,
but you can change it with the setTimeFormat() method. Giving a null setting will reset the
time format to the locale default.
cal.setTimeFormat(TimeFormat.Format12H);
You can change the format of the date captions in the week view with the
setWeeklyCaptionFormat(String dateFormatPattern) method.The date format pattern
should follow the format of the standard Java java.text.SimpleDateFormat class.
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User Interface Components
For example:
cal.setWeeklyCaptionFormat("dd-MM-yyyy");
5.23.10. Customizing the Calendar
In this section, we give a tutorial for how to make various basic customizations of the Vaadin
Calendar. The event provider and styling was described earlier, so now we concentrate on other
features of the Calendar API.
Overview of Handlers
Most of the handlers related to calendar events have sensible default handlers. These are found
in the com.vaadin.ui.handler package. The default handlers and their functionalities are described
below.
• BasicBackwardHandler. Handles clicking the back-button of the weekly view so that
the viewed month is changed to the previous one.
• BasicForwardHandler. Handles clicking the forward-button of the weekly view so that
the viewed month is changed to the next one.
• BasicWeekClickHandler. Handles clicking the week numbers int the monthly view so
that the viewable date range is changed to the clicked week.
• BasicDateClickHandler. Handles clicking the dates on both the monthly view and the
weekly view. Changes the viewable date range so that only the clicked day is visible.
• BasicEventMoveHandler. Handles moving the events in both monthly view and the
weekly view. Events can be moved and their start and end dates are changed correctly,
but only if the event implements CalendarEventEditor (implemented by BasicEvent).
• BasicEventResizeHandler. Handles resizing the events in the weekly view. Events can
be resized and their start and end dates are changed correctly, but only if the event
implements CalendarEventEditor (implemented by the BasicEvent).
All of these handlers are automatically set when creating a new Calendar. If you wish to disable
some of the default functionality, you can simply set the corresponding handler to null. This will
prevent the functionality from ever appearing on the user interface. For example, if you set the
EventMoveHandler to null, the user will be unable to move events in the browser.
Creating a Calendar
Let us first create a new Calendar instance. Here we use our own event provider, the
MyEventProvider described in ”Implementing the Event Provider”.
Calendar cal = new Calendar(new MyEventProvider());
This initializes the Calendar. To customize the viewable date range, we must set a start and end
date to it.
There is only one visible event in the timeline, starting from the current time. That is what our
event provider passes to the client.
It would be nice to also be able to control the navigation forward and backward. The default
navigation is provided by the default handlers, but perhaps we want to restrict the users so they
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User Interface Components
can only navigate dates in the current year. Maybe we also want to pose some other restrictions
to the clicking week numbers and dates.
These restrictions and other custom logic can be defined with custom handlers. You can find the
handlers in the com.vaadin.addon.calendar.ui.handler package and they can be easily extended.
Note that if you don not want to extend the default handlers, you are free to implement your own.
The interfaces are described in CalendarComponentEvents.
5.23.11. Backward and Forward Navigation
Vaadin Calendar has only limited built-in navigation support. The weekly view has navigation
buttons in the top left and top right corners.
You can handle backward and forward navigation with a BackwardListener and
ForwardListener.
cal.setHandler(new BasicBackwardHandler() {
protected void setDates(BackwardEvent event,
Date start, Date end) {
java.util.Calendar calendar = event.getComponent()
.getInternalCalendar();
if (isThisYear(calendar, end)
&& isThisYear(calendar, start)) {
super.setDates(event, start, end);
}
}});
The forward navigation handler can be implemented in the same way. The example handler
restricts the dates to the current year.
5.23.12. Date Click Handling
By default, clicking a date either in month or week view switches to single-day view. The date
click event is handled by a DateClickHandler.
The following example handles click events so that when the user clicks the date header in the
weekly view, it will switch to single-day view, and in the single-day view switch back to the weekly
view.
cal.setHandler(new BasicDateClickHandler() {
public void dateClick(DateClickEvent event) {
Calendar cal = event.getComponent();
long currentCalDateRange = cal.getEndDate().getTime()
- cal.getStartDate().getTime();
if (currentCalDateRange < VCalendar.DAYINMILLIS) {
// Change the date range to the current week
cal.setStartDate(cal.getFirstDateForWeek(event.getDate()));
cal.setEndDate(cal.getLastDateForWeek(event.getDate()));
} else {
// Default behaviour, change date range to one day
super.dateClick(event);
}
}
});
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User Interface Components
5.23.13. Handling Week Clicks
The monthly view displays week numbers for each week row on the left side of the date grid. The
week number are clickable and you can handle the click events by setting a WeekClickHandler
for the Calendar object. The default handler changes the date range to be the clicked week.
In the following example, we add a week click handler that changes the date range of the calendar
to one week only if the start and end dates of the week are in the current month.
cal.setHandler(new BasicWeekClickHandler() {
protected void setDates(WeekClick event,
Date start, Date end) {
java.util.Calendar calendar = event.getComponent()
.getInternalCalendar();
if (isThisMonth(calendar, start)
&& isThisMonth(calendar, end)) {
super.setDates(event, start, end);
}
}
});
5.23.14. Handling Event Clicks
The calendar events in all views are are clickable. There is no default handler. Just like the date
and week click handlers, event click handling is enabled by setting an EventClickHandler
for the Calendar object.
You can get hold of the clicked event by the getCalendarEvent() method in the EventClick
object passed to the handler, as shown in the following example.
cal.setHandler(new EventClickHandler() {
public void eventClick(EventClick event) {
BasicEvent e = (BasicEvent) event.getCalendarEvent();
// Do something with it
new Notification("Event clicked: " + e.getCaption(),
e.getDescription()).show(Page.getCurrent());
}
});
5.23.15. Event Dragging
The user can drag an event to change its position in time. The default handler sets the start and
end time of the event accordingly. You can do many things with a custom move handler, such
as restrict moving events.
In the following example, we add a EventMoveHandler to a Calendar. The event handler
updates the new position to the datasource, but only if the new dates are in the current month.
This requires making some changes to the event provider class.
cal.setHandler(new BasicEventMoveHandler() {
private java.util.Calendar javaCalendar;
public void eventMove(MoveEvent event) {
javaCalendar = event.getComponent().getInternalCalendar();
super.eventMove(event);
}
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User Interface Components
protected void setDates(CalendarEventEditor event,
Date start, Date end) {
if (isThisMonth(javaCalendar, start)
&& isThisMonth(javaCalendar, end)) {
super.setDates(event, start, end);
}
}
});
For the above example to work, the example event provider presented earlier needs to be changed
slightly so that it doesn't always create a new event when getEvents() is called.
public static class MyEventProvider
implements CalendarEventProvider {
private List<CalendarEvent> events =
new ArrayList<CalendarEvent>();
public MyEventProvider() {
events = new ArrayList<CalendarEvent>();
GregorianCalendar cal = new GregorianCalendar();
cal.setTime(new Date());
Date start = cal.getTime();
cal.add(GregorianCalendar.HOUR, 5);
Date end = cal.getTime();
BasicEvent event = new BasicEvent();
event.setCaption("My Event");
event.setDescription("My Event Description");
event.setStart(start);
event.setEnd(end);
events.add(event);
}
public void addEvent(CalendarEvent BasicEvent) {
events.add(BasicEvent);
}
public List<CalendarEvent> getEvents(Date startDate,
Date endDate) {
return events;
}
}
After these changes, the user can move events around as earlier, but dropping an event, the
start and end dates are checked by the server. Note that as the server-side must move the event
in order for it to render to the place it was dropped. The server can also reject moves by not doing
anything when the event is received.
5.23.16. Handling Drag Selection
Drag selection works both in the monthly and weekly views. To listen for drag selection, you can
add a RangeSelectListener to the Calendar. There is no default handler for range select.
In the code example below, we create an new event when any date range is selected. Drag
selection opens a window where the user is asked for a caption for the new event. After confirming,
the new event is be passed to the event provider and calendar is updated. Note that as our
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205
User Interface Components
example event provider and event classes do not implement the event change interface, we must
refresh the Calendar manually after changing the events.
cal.setHandler(new RangeSelectHandler() {
public void rangeSelect(RangeSelectEvent event) {
BasicEvent calendarEvent = new BasicEvent();
calendarEvent.setStart(event.getStart());
calendarEvent.setEnd(event.getEnd());
// Create popup window and add a form in it.
VerticalLayout layout = new VerticalLayout();
layout.setMargin(true);
layout.setSpacing(true);
final Window w = new Window(null, layout);
...
// Wrap the calendar event to a BeanItem
// and pass it to the form
final BeanItem<CalendarEvent> item =
new BeanItem<CalendarEvent>(myEvent);
final Form form = new Form();
form.setItemDataSource(item);
...
layout.addComponent(form);
HorizontalLayout buttons = new HorizontalLayout();
buttons.setSpacing(true);
buttons.addComponent(new Button("OK", new ClickListener() {
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
form.commit();
// Update event provider's data source
provider.addEvent(item.getBean());
UI.getCurrent().removeWindow(w);
}
}));
...
}
});
5.23.17. Resizing Events
The user can resize an event by dragging from both ends to change its start or end time. This
offers a convenient way to change event times without the need to type anything. The default
resize handler sets the start and end time of the event according to the resize.
In the example below, we set a custom handler for resize events. The handler prevents any event
to be resized over 12 hours in length. Note that this does not prevent the user from resizing an
event over 12 hours in the client. The resize will just be corrected by the server.
cal.setHandler(new BasicEventResizeHandler() {
private static final long twelveHoursInMs = 12*60*60*1000;
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Resizing Events
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protected void setDates(CalendarEventEditor event,
Date start, Date end) {
long eventLength = end.getTime() - start.getTime();
if (eventLength <= twelveHoursInMs) {
super.setDates(event, start, end);
}
}
});
5.24. Component Composition with CustomComponent
The ease of making new user interface components is one of the core features of Vaadin. Typically,
you simply combine existing built-in components to produce composite components. In many
applications, such composite components make up the majority of the user interface.
To create a composite component, you need to inherit the CustomComponent and call the
setCompositionRoot() in the constructor to set the composition root component. The root
component is typically a layout component that contains multiple components.
For example:
class MyComposite extends CustomComponent {
public MyComposite(String message) {
// A layout structure used for composition
Panel panel = new Panel("My Custom Component");
panel.setContent(new VerticalLayout());
// Compose from multiple components
Label label = new Label(message);
label.setSizeUndefined(); // Shrink
panel.addComponent(label);
panel.addComponent(new Button("Ok"));
// Set the size as undefined at all levels
panel.getContent().setSizeUndefined();
panel.setSizeUndefined();
setSizeUndefined();
// The composition root MUST be set
setCompositionRoot(panel);
}
}
Take note of the sizing when trying to make a customcomponent that shrinks to fit the contained
components. You have to set the size as undefined at all levels; the sizing of the composite
component and the composition root are separate.
You can use the component as follows:
MyComposite mycomposite = new MyComposite("Hello");
The rendered component is shown in Kuva 5.64, ”A Custom Composite Component”.
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User Interface Components
Kuva 5.64. A Custom Composite Component
You can also inherit any other components, such as layouts, to attain similar composition. Even
further, you can create entirely new low-level components, by integrating pure client-side
components or by extending the client-side functionality of built-in components. Development of
new components is covered in Luku 16, Integrating with the Server-Side.
5.25. Composite Fields with CustomField
The CustomField is a way to create composite components like with CustomComponent,
except that it implements the Field interface and inherit AbstractField, described in Kohta 5.4,
”Field Components”. A field allows editing a property value in the Vaadin data model, and can
be bound to data with field groups, as described in Kohta 9.4, ”Creating Forms by Binding Fields
to Items”. The field values are buffered and can be validated with validators.
A composite field class must implement the getType() and initContent() methods. The
latter should return the content composite of the field. It is typically a layout component, but can
be any component.
It is also possible to override validate(), setInternalValue(), commit(),
setPropertyDataSource, isEmpty() and other methods to implement different functionalities
in the field. Methods overriding setInternalValue() should call the superclass method.
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luku 6
Managing Layout
6.1. Overview ................................................................................................ 210
6.2. UI, Window, and Panel Content ............................................................. 212
6.3. VerticalLayout and HorizontalLayout ................................................. 212
6.4. GridLayout ............................................................................................ 217
6.5. FormLayout .......................................................................................... 221
6.6. Panel ..................................................................................................... 223
6.7. Sub-Windows ........................................................................................ 225
6.8. HorizontalSplitPanel and VerticalSplitPanel ...................................... 228
6.9. TabSheet ............................................................................................... 230
6.10. Accordion ........................................................................................... 234
6.11. AbsoluteLayout .................................................................................. 235
6.12. CssLayout .......................................................................................... 238
6.13. Layout Formatting ................................................................................ 240
6.14. Custom Layouts ................................................................................... 245
Ever since the ancient xeroxians invented graphical user interfaces, programmers have wanted
to make GUI programming ever easier for themselves. Solutions started simple. When GUIs
appeared on PC desktops, practically all screens were of the VGA type and fixed into 640x480
size. Mac or X Window System on UNIX were not much different. Everyone was so happy with
such awesome graphics resolutions that they never thought that an application would have to
work on a radically different screen size. At worst, screens could only grow, they thought, giving
more space for more windows. In the 80s, the idea of having a computer screen in your pocket
was simply not realistic. Hence, the GUI APIs allowed placing UI components using screen
coordinates. Visual Basic and some other systems provided an easy way for the designer to drag
and drop components on a fixed-sized window. One would have thought that at least translators
would have complained about the awkwardness of such a solution, but apparently they were not,
Book of Vaadin
209
Managing Layout
as non-engineers, heard or at least cared about. At best, engineers could throw at them a resource
editor that would allow them to resize the UI components by hand. Such was the spirit back then.
After the web was born, layout design was doomed to change for ever. At first, layout didn't matter
much, as everyone was happy with plain headings, paragraphs, and a few hyperlinks here and
there. Designers of HTML wanted the pages to run on any screen size. The screen size was
actually not pixels but rows and columns of characters, as the baby web was really just hypertext,
not graphics. That was soon to be changed. The first GUI-based browser, NCSA Mosaic, launched
a revolution that culminated in Netscape Navigator. Suddenly, people who had previously been
doing advertisement brochures started writing HTML. This meant that layout design had to be
easy not just for programmers, but also allow the graphics designer to do his or her job without
having to know a thing about programming. The W3C committee designing web standards came
up with the CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) specification, which allowed trivial separation of
appearance from content. Later versions of HTML followed, XHTML appeared, as did countless
other standards.
Page description and markup languages are a wonderful solution for static presentations, such
as books and most web pages. Real applications, however, need to have more control. They
need to be able to change the state of user interface components and even their layout on the
run. This creates a need to separate the presentation from content on exactly the right level.
Thanks to the attack of graphics designers, desktop applications were, when it comes to
appearance, far behind web design. Sun Microsystems had come in 1995 with a new programming
language, Java, for writing cross-platform desktop applications. Java's original graphical user
interface toolkit, AWT (Abstract Windowing Toolkit), was designed to work on multiple operating
systems as well as embedded in web browsers. One of the special aspects of AWT was the
layout manager, which allowed user interface components to be flexible, growing and shrinking
as needed. This made it possible for the user to resize the windows of an application flexibly and
also served the needs of localization, as text strings were not limited to some fixed size in pixels.
It became even possible to resize the pixel size of fonts, and the rest of the layout adapted to the
new size.
Layout management of Vaadin is a direct successor of the web-based concept for separation of
content and appearance and of the Java AWT solution for binding the layout and user interface
components into objects in programs. Vaadin layout components allow you to position your UI
components on the screen in a hierarchical fashion, much like in conventional Java UI toolkits
such as AWT, Swing, or SWT. In addition, you can approach the layout from the direction of the
web with the CustomLayout component, which you can use to write your layout as a template
in XHTML that provides locations of any contained components. The AbsoluteLayout allows
the old-style pixel-position based layouting, but it also supports percentual values, which makes
it usable for scalable layouts. It is also useful as an area on which the user can position items
with drag and drop.
The moral of the story is that, because Vaadin is intended for web applications, appearance is
of high importance. The solutions have to be the best of both worlds and satisfy artists of both
kind: code and graphics. On the API side, the layout is controlled by UI components, particularly
the layout components. On the visual side, it is controlled by themes. Themes can contain any
HTML, Sass, CSS, and JavaScript that you or your web artists create to make people feel good
about your software.
6.1. Overview
The user interface components in Vaadin can roughly be divided in two groups: components that
the user can interact with and layout components for placing the other components to specific
210
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Managing Layout
places in the user interface. The layout components are identical in their purpose to layout
managers in regular desktop frameworks for Java and you can use plain Java to accomplish
sophisticated component layouting.
You start by creating a content layout for the UI and then add other layout components
hierarchically, and finally the interaction components as the leaves of the component tree.
// Set the root layout for the UI
VerticalLayout content = new VerticalLayout();
setContent(content);
// Add the topmost component.
content.addComponent(new Label("The Ultimate Cat Finder"));
// Add a horizontal layout for the bottom part.
HorizontalLayout bottom = new HorizontalLayout();
content.addComponent(bottom);
bottom.addComponent(new Tree("Major Planets and Their Moons"));
bottom.addComponent(new Panel());
...
You will usually need to tune the layout components a bit by setting sizes, expansion ratios,
alignments, spacings, and so on. The general settings are described in Kohta 6.13, ”Layout
Formatting”.
Layouts are coupled with themes that specify various layout features, such as backgrounds,
borders, text alignment, and so on. Definition and use of themes is described in Luku 8, Themes
You can see a finished version of the above example in Kuva 6.1, ”Layout Example”.
Kuva 6.1. Layout Example
The alternative for using layout components is to use the special CustomLayout that allows
using HTML templates. This way, you can let the web page designers take responsibility of
component layouting using their own set of tools. What you lose is the ability to manage the
layout dynamically.
Overview
211
Managing Layout
The Visual Editor
While you can always program the layout by hand, the Vaadin plugin for the Eclipse
IDE includes a visual (WYSIWYG) editor that you can use to create user interfaces
visually. The editor generates the code that creates the user interface and is useful
for rapid application development and prototyping. It is especially helpful when you
are still learning the framework, as the generated code, which is designed to be as
reusable as possible, also works as an example of how you create user interfaces
with Vaadin. You can find more about the editor in Luku 7, Visual User Interface
Design with Eclipse.
6.2. UI, Window, and Panel Content
The UI, Window, and its superclass Panel all have a single content component, which you need
to set with setContent(). The content is usually a layout component, although any component
is allowed.
Panel panel = new Panel("This is a Panel");
VerticalLayout panelContent = new VerticalLayout();
panelContent.addComponent(new Label("Hello!"));
panel.setContent(panelContent);
// Set the panel as the content of the UI
setContent(panel);
The size of the content is the default size of the particular layout component, for example, a
VerticalLayout has 100% width and undefined height by default (this coincides with the defaults
for Panel and Label). If such a layout with undefined height grows higher than the browser
window, it will flow out of the view and scrollbars will appear. In many applications, you want to
use the full area of the browser view. Setting the components contained inside the content layout
to full size is not enough, and would actually lead to an invalid state if the height of the content
layout is undefined.
// First set the root content for the UI
VerticalLayout content = new VerticalLayout();
setContent(content);
// Set the content size to full width and height
content.setSizeFull();
// Add a title area on top of the screen. This takes
// just the vertical space it needs.
content.addComponent(new Label("My Application"));
// Add a menu-view area that takes rest of vertical space
HorizontalLayout menuview = new HorizontalLayout();
menuview.setSizeFull();
content.addComponent(menuview);
See Kohta 6.13.1, ”Layout Size” for more information about setting layout sizes.
6.3. VerticalLayout and HorizontalLayout
VerticalLayout and HorizontalLayout are ordered layouts for laying components out either
vertically or horizontally, respectively. They both extend from AbstractOrderedLayout, together
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with the FormLayout. These are the two most important layout components in Vaadin, and
typically you have a VerticalLayout as the root content component of the UI.
VerticalLayout has 100% default width and undefined height, so it fills the containing layout (or
UI) horizontally, and fits its content vertically. HorizontalLayout has undefined size in both
dimensions.
Typical use of the layouts goes as follows:
VerticalLayout vertical = new VerticalLayout ();
vertical.addComponent(new TextField("Name"));
vertical.addComponent(new TextField("Street address"));
vertical.addComponent(new TextField("Postal code"));
layout.addComponent(vertical);
The component captions are placed above the component, so the layout will look as follows:
Using HorizontalLayout gives the following layout:
6.3.1. Spacing in Ordered Layouts
The ordered layouts can have spacing between the horizontal or vertical cells. The spacing can
be enabled with setSpacing(true).
The spacing as a default height or width, which can be customized in CSS. You need to set the
height or width for spacing elements with v-spacing style.You also need to specify an enclosing
rule element in a CSS selector, such as v-verticallayout for a VerticalLayout or
v-horizontallayout for a HorizontalLayout. You can also use v-vertical and
v-horizontal for all vertically or horizontally ordered layouts, such as FormLayout.
For example, the following sets the amount of spacing for all VerticalLayouts, as well as
FormLayout, in the UI:
.v-vertical > .v-spacing {
height: 30px;
}
Or for HorizontalLayout:
.v-horizontal > .v-spacing {
width: 50px;
}
Spacing in Ordered Layouts
213
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6.3.2. Sizing Contained Components
The components contained within an ordered layout can be laid out in a number of different ways
depending on how you specify their height or width in the primary direction of the layout component.
Kuva 6.2. Component Widths in HorizontalLayout
Kuva 6.2, ”Component Widths in HorizontalLayout” above gives a summary of the sizing options
for a HorizontalLayout. The figure is broken down in the following subsections.
Layout with Undefined Size
If a VerticalLayout has undefined height or HorizontalLayout undefined width, the layout will
shrink to fit the contained components so that there is no extra space between them.
HorizontalLayout fittingLayout = new HorizontalLayout();
fittingLayout.setWidth(Sizeable.SIZE_UNDEFINED, 0); // Default
fittingLayout.addComponent(new Button("Small"));
fittingLayout.addComponent(new Button("Medium-sized"));
fittingLayout.addComponent(new Button("Quite a big component"));
parentLayout.addComponent(fittingLayout);
The both layouts actually have undefined height by default and HorizontalLayout has also
undefined width, while VerticalLayout has 100% relative width.
If such a vertical layout with undefined height continues below the bottom of a window (a Window
object), the window will pop up a vertical scroll bar on the right side of the window area. This way,
you get a "web page". The same applies to Panel.
A layout that contains components with percentual size must have a defined
size!
If a layout has undefined size and a contained component has, say, 100% size, the
component would fill the space given by the layout, while the layout would shrink to
fit the space taken by the component, which would be a paradox. This requirement
holds for height and width separately. The debug window allows detecting such
invalid cases; see Kohta 11.3.5, ”Inspecting Component Hierarchy”.
An exception to the above rule is a case where you have a layout with undefined size that contains
a component with a fixed or undefined size together with one or more components with relative
size. In this case, the contained component with fixed (or undefined) size in a sense defines the
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size of the containing layout, removing the paradox. That size is then used for the relatively sized
components.
The technique can be used to define the width of a VerticalLayout or the height of a
HorizontalLayout.
// Vertical layout would normally have 100% width
VerticalLayout vertical = new VerticalLayout();
// Shrink to fit the width of contained components
vertical.setWidth(Sizeable.SIZE_UNDEFINED, 0);
// Label has normally 100% width, but we set it as
// undefined so that it will take only the needed space
Label label =
new Label("\u2190 The VerticalLayout shrinks to fit "+
"the width of this Label \u2192");
label.setWidth(Sizeable.SIZE_UNDEFINED, 0);
vertical.addComponent(label);
// Button has undefined width by default
Button butt = new Button("\u2190 This Button takes 100% "+
"of the width \u2192");
butt.setWidth("100%");
vertical.addComponent(butt);
Kuva 6.3. Defining the Size with a Component
Layout with Defined Size
If you set a HorizontalLayout to a defined size horizontally or a VerticalLayout vertically, and
there is space left over from the contained components, the extra space is distributed equally
between the component cells. The components are aligned within these cells according to their
alignment setting, top left by default, as in the example below.
fixedLayout.setWidth("400px");
Using percentual sizes for components contained in a layout requires answering the question,
"Percentage of what?" There is no sensible default answer for this question in the current
implementation of the layouts, so in practice, you may not define "100%" size alone.
Expanding Components
Often, you want to have one component that takes all the available space left over from other
components.You need to set its size as 100% and set it as expanding with setExpandRatio().
The second parameter for the method is an expansion ratio, which is relevant if there are more
than one expanding component, but its value is irrelevant for a single expanding component.
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HorizontalLayout layout = new HorizontalLayout();
layout.setWidth("400px");
// These buttons take the minimum size.
layout.addComponent(new Button("Small"));
layout.addComponent(new Button("Medium-sized"));
// This button will expand.
Button expandButton = new Button("Expanding component");
// Use 100% of the expansion cell's width.
expandButton.setWidth("100%");
// The component must be added to layout before setting the ratio.
layout.addComponent(expandButton);
// Set the component's cell to expand.
layout.setExpandRatio(expandButton, 1.0f);
parentLayout.addComponent(layout);
Notice that you must call setExpandRatio() after addComponent(), because the layout can
not operate on an component that it doesn't (yet) include.
Expand Ratios
If you specify an expand ratio for multiple components, they will all try to use the available space
according to the ratio.
HorizontalLayout layout = new HorizontalLayout();
layout.setWidth("400px");
// Create three equally expanding components.
String[] captions = { "Small", "Medium-sized",
"Quite a big component" };
for (int i = 1; i <= 3; i++) {
Button button = new Button(captions[i-1]);
button.setWidth("100%");
layout.addComponent(button);
// Have uniform 1:1:1 expand ratio.
layout.setExpandRatio(button, 1.0f);
}
As the example used the same ratio for all components, the ones with more content may have
the content cut. Below, we use differing ratios:
// Expand ratios for the components are 1:2:3.
layout.setExpandRatio(button, i * 1.0f);
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If the size of the expanding components is defined as a percentage (typically "100%"), the ratio
is calculated from the overall space available for the relatively sized components. For example,
if you have a 100 pixels wide layout with two cells with 1.0 and 4.0 respective expansion ratios,
and both the components in the layout are set as setWidth("100%"), the cells will have
respective widths of 20 and 80 pixels, regardless of the minimum size of the components.
However, if the size of the contained components is undefined or fixed, the expansion ratio is of
the excess available space. In this case, it is the excess space that expands, not the components.
for (int i = 1; i <= 3; i++) {
// Button with undefined size.
Button button = new Button(captions[i - 1]);
layout4.addComponent(button);
// Expand ratios are 1:2:3.
layout4.setExpandRatio(button, i * 1.0f);
}
It is not meaningful to combine expanding components with percentually defined size and
components with fixed or undefined size. Such combination can lead to a very unexpected size
for the percentually sized components.
Percentage of Cells
A percentual size of a component defines the size of the component within its cell. Usually, you
use "100%", but a smaller percentage or a fixed size (smaller than the cell size) will leave an
empty space in the cell and align the component within the cell according to its alignment setting,
top left by default.
HorizontalLayout layout50 = new HorizontalLayout();
layout50.setWidth("400px");
String[] captions1 = { "Small 50%", "Medium 50%",
"Quite a big 50%" };
for (int i = 1; i <= 3; i++) {
Button button = new Button(captions1[i-1]);
button.setWidth("50%");
layout50.addComponent(button);
// Expand ratios for the components are 1:2:3.
layout50.setExpandRatio(button, i * 1.0f);
}
parentLayout.addComponent(layout50);
6.4. GridLayout
GridLayout container lays components out on a grid, defined by the number of columns and
rows. The columns and rows of the grid serve as coordinates that are used for laying out
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components on the grid. Each component can use multiple cells from the grid, defined as an
area (x1,y1,x2,y2), although they typically take up only a single grid cell.
The grid layout maintains a cursor for adding components in left-to-right, top-to-bottom order. If
the cursor goes past the bottom-right corner, it will automatically extend the grid downwards by
adding a new row.
The following example demonstrates the use of GridLayout. The addComponent takes a
component and optional coordinates. The coordinates can be given for a single cell or for an
area in x,y (column,row) order. The coordinate values have a base value of 0. If coordinates are
not given, the cursor will be used.
// Create a 4 by 4 grid layout.
GridLayout grid = new GridLayout(4, 4);
grid.addStyleName("example-gridlayout");
// Fill out the first row using the cursor.
grid.addComponent(new Button("R/C 1"));
for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
grid.addComponent(new Button("Col " + (grid.getCursorX() + 1)));
}
// Fill out the first column using coordinates.
for (int i = 1; i < 4; i++) {
grid.addComponent(new Button("Row " + i), 0, i);
}
// Add some components of various shapes.
grid.addComponent(new Button("3x1 button"), 1, 1, 3, 1);
grid.addComponent(new Label("1x2 cell"), 1, 2, 1, 3);
InlineDateField date = new InlineDateField("A 2x2 date field");
date.setResolution(DateField.RESOLUTION_DAY);
grid.addComponent(date, 2, 2, 3, 3);
The resulting layout will look as follows. The borders have been made visible to illustrate the
layout cells.
Kuva 6.4. The Grid Layout Component
A component to be placed on the grid must not overlap with existing components. A conflict
causes throwing a GridLayout.OverlapsException.
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6.4.1. Sizing Grid Cells
You can define the size of both a grid layout and its components in either fixed or percentual
units, or leave the size undefined altogether, as described in Kohta 5.3.9, ”Sizing Components”.
Kohta 6.13.1, ”Layout Size” gives an introduction to sizing of layouts.
The size of the GridLayout component is undefined by default, so it will shrink to fit the size of
the components placed inside it. In most cases, especially if you set a defined size for the layout
but do not set the contained components to full size, there will be some unused space. The
position of the non-full components within the grid cells will be determined by their alignment.
See Kohta 6.13.3, ”Layout Cell Alignment” for details on how to align the components inside the
cells.
The components contained within a GridLayout layout can be laid out in a number of different
ways depending on how you specify their height or width. The layout options are similar to
HorizontalLayout and VerticalLayout, as described in Kohta 6.3, ”VerticalLayout and
HorizontalLayout”.
A layout that contains components with percentual size must have a defined
size!
If a layout has undefined size and a contained component has, say, 100% size, the
component would fill the space given by the layout, while the layout would shrink to
fit the space taken by the component, which is a paradox. This requirement holds
for height and width separately.The debug mode allows detecting such invalid cases;
see Kohta 11.3.1, ”Enabling the Debug Mode”.
Often, you want to have one or more rows or columns that take all the available space left over
from non-expanding rows or columns. You need to set the rows or columns as expanding with
setRowExpandRatio() and setColumnExpandRatio(). The first parameter for these
methods is the index of the row or column to set as expanding. The second parameter for the
methods is an expansion ratio, which is relevant if there are more than one expanding row or
column, but its value is irrelevant if there is only one. With multiple expanding rows or columns,
the ratio parameter sets the relative portion how much a specific row/column will take in relation
with the other expanding rows/columns.
GridLayout grid = new GridLayout(3,2);
// Layout containing relatively sized components must have
// a defined size, here is fixed size.
grid.setWidth("600px");
grid.setHeight("200px");
// Add some content
String labels [] = {
"Shrinking column<br/>Shrinking row",
"Expanding column (1:)<br/>Shrinking row",
"Expanding column (5:)<br/>Shrinking row",
"Shrinking column<br/>Expanding row",
"Expanding column (1:)<br/>Expanding row",
"Expanding column (5:)<br/>Expanding row"
};
for (int i=0; i<labels.length; i++) {
Label label = new Label(labels[i], Label.CONTENT_XHTML);
label.setWidth(null); // Set width as undefined
grid.addComponent(label);
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}
// Set different expansion ratios for the two columns
grid.setColumnExpandRatio(1, 1);
grid.setColumnExpandRatio(2, 5);
// Set the bottom row to expand
grid.setRowExpandRatio(1, 1);
// Align and size the labels.
for (int col=0; col<grid.getColumns(); col++) {
for (int row=0; row<grid.getRows(); row++) {
Component c = grid.getComponent(col, row);
grid.setComponentAlignment(c, Alignment.TOP_CENTER);
// Make the labels high to illustrate the empty
// horizontal space.
if (col != 0 || row != 0)
c.setHeight("100%");
}
}
Kuva 6.5. Expanding Rows and Columns in GridLayout
If the size of the contained components is undefined or fixed, the expansion ratio is of the excess
space, as in Kuva 6.5, ”Expanding Rows and Columns in GridLayout” (excess horizontal space
is shown in white). However, if the size of the all the contained components in the expanding
rows or columns is defined as a percentage, the ratio is calculated from the overall space available
for the percentually sized components. For example, if we had a 100 pixels wide grid layout with
two columns with 1.0 and 4.0 respective expansion ratios, and all the components in the grid
were set as setWidth("100%"), the columns would have respective widths of 20 and 80 pixels,
regardless of the minimum size of their contained components.
6.4.1. CSS Style Rules
.v-gridlayout {}
.v-gridlayout-margin {}
The v-gridlayout is the root element of the GridLayout component. The v-gridlayout-margin is a
simple element inside it that allows setting a padding between the outer element and the cells.
For styling the individual grid cells, you should style the components inserted in the cells. The
implementation structure of the grid can change, so depending on it, as is done in the example
below, is not generally recommended. Normally, if you want to have, for example, a different
color for a certain cell, just make set the component inside it setSizeFull(), and add a style
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name for it. Sometimes you may need to use a layout component between a cell and its actual
component just for styling.
The following example shows how to make the grid borders visible, as in Kuva 6.5, ”Expanding
Rows and Columns in GridLayout”.
.v-gridlayout-gridexpandratio {
background: blue; /* Creates a "border" around the grid. */
margin:
10px; /* Empty space around the layout. */
}
/* Add padding through which the background color shows. */
.v-gridlayout-gridexpandratio .v-gridlayout-margin {
padding: 2px;
}
/* Add cell borders and make the cell backgrounds white.
* Warning: This depends heavily on the HTML structure. */
.v-gridlayout-gridexpandratio > div > div > div {
padding:
2px;
/* Layout background will show through. */
background: white; /* The cells will be colored white. */
}
/* Components inside the layout are a safe way to style cells. */
.v-gridlayout-gridexpandratio .v-label {
text-align: left;
background: #ffffc0; /* Pale yellow */
}
You should beware of margin, padding, and border settings in CSS as they can mess up the
layout. The dimensions of layouts are calculated in the Client-Side Engine of Vaadin and some
settings can interfere with these calculations. For more information, on margins and spacing, see
Kohta 6.13.4, ”Layout Cell Spacing” and Kohta 6.13.5, ”Layout Margins”
6.5. FormLayout
FormLayout lays the components and their captions out in two columns, with optional indicators
for required fields and errors that can be shown for each field. The field captions can have an
icon in addition to the text. FormLayout is an ordered layout and much like VerticalLayout. For
description of margins, spacing, and other features in ordered layouts, see Kohta 6.3,
”VerticalLayout and HorizontalLayout”.
The following example shows typical use of FormLayout in a form:
// A FormLayout used outside the context of a Form
FormLayout fl = new FormLayout();
// Make the FormLayout shrink to its contents
fl.setSizeUndefined();
TextField tf = new TextField("A Field");
fl.addComponent(tf);
// Mark the first field as required
tf.setRequired(true);
tf.setRequiredError("The Field may not be empty.");
TextField tf2 = new TextField("Another Field");
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fl.addComponent(tf2);
// Set the second field straing to error state with a message.
tf2.setComponentError(
new UserError("This is the error indicator of a Field."));
The resulting layout will look as follows. The error message shows in a tooptip when you hover
the mouse pointer over the error indicator.
Kuva 6.6. A FormLayout Layout for Forms
6.5.1. CSS Style Rules
.v-formlayout {}
.v-formlayout .v-caption {}
/* Columns in a field row. */
.v-formlayout-contentcell {} /* Field content. */
.v-formlayout-captioncell {} /* Field caption. */
.v-formlayout-errorcell {}
/* Field error indicator. */
/* Overall style of field rows. */
.v-formlayout-row {}
.v-formlayout-firstrow {}
.v-formlayout-lastrow {}
/* Required field indicator. */
.v-formlayout .v-required-field-indicator {}
.v-formlayout-captioncell .v-caption
.v-required-field-indicator {}
/* Error indicator. */
.v-formlayout-cell .v-errorindicator {}
.v-formlayout-error-indicator .v-errorindicator {}
The top-level element of FormLayout has the v-formlayout style. The layout is tabular with
three columns: the caption column, the error indicator column, and the field column. These can
be styled with v-formlayout-captioncell, v-formlayout-errorcell, and
v-formlayout-contentcell, respectively. While the error indicator is shown as a dedicated
column, the indicator for required fields is currently shown as a part of the caption column.
For information on setting margins and spacing, see also Kohta 6.3.1, ”Spacing in Ordered
Layouts” and Kohta 6.13.5, ”Layout Margins”.
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6.6. Panel
Panel is a single-component container with a frame around the content. It has an optional caption
and an icon which are handled by the panel itself, not its containing layout. The panel itself does
not manage the caption of its contained component. You need to set the content with
setContent().
Panel has 100% width and undefined height by default. This corresponds with the default sizing
of VerticalLayout, which is perhaps most commonly used as the content of a Panel. If the width
or height of a panel is undefined, the content must have a corresponding undefined or fixed size
in the same direction to avoid a sizing paradox.
Panel panel = new Panel("Astronomy Panel");
panel.addStyleName("mypanelexample");
panel.setSizeUndefined(); // Shrink to fit content
layout.addComponent(panel);
// Create the content
FormLayout content = new FormLayout();
content.addStyleName("mypanelcontent");
content.addComponent(new TextField("Participant"));
content.addComponent(new TextField("Organization"));
content.setSizeUndefined(); // Shrink to fit
content.setMargin(true);
panel.setContent(content);
The resulting layout is shown in Kuva 6.7, ”A Panel”.
Kuva 6.7. A Panel
6.6.1. Scrolling the Panel Content
Normally, if a panel has undefined size in a direction, as it has by default vertically, it will fit the
size of the content and grow as the content grows. However, if it has a fixed or percentual size
and its content becomes too big to fit in the content area, a scroll bar will appear for the particular
direction. Scroll bars in a Panel are handled natively by the browser with the overflow: auto
property in CSS.
In the following example, we have a 300 pixels wide and very high Image component as the
panel content.
// Display an image stored in theme
Image image = new Image(null,
new ThemeResource("img/Ripley_Scroll-300px.jpg"));
// To enable scrollbars, the size of the panel content
// must not be relative to the panel size
image.setSizeUndefined(); // Actually the default
Panel
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// The panel will give it scrollbars.
Panel panel = new Panel("Scroll");
panel.setWidth("300px");
panel.setHeight("300px");
panel.setContent(image);
layout.addComponent(panel);
The result is shown in Kuva 6.8, ”Panel with Scroll Bars”. Notice that also the horizontal scrollbar
has appeared even though the panel has the same width as the content (300 pixels) - the 300px
width for the panel includes the panel border and vertical scrollbar.
Kuva 6.8. Panel with Scroll Bars
Programmatic Scrolling
Panel implements the Scrollable interface to allow programmatic scrolling. You can set the
scroll position in pixels with setScrollTop() and setScrollLeft(). You can also get the
scroll position set previously, but scrolling the panel in the browser does not update the scroll
position to the server-side.
6.6.1. CSS Style Rules
.v-panel {}
.v-panel-caption {}
.v-panel-nocaption {}
.v-panel-content {}
.v-panel-deco {}
The entire panel has v-panel style. A panel consists of three parts: the caption, content, and
bottom decorations (shadow).These can be styled with v-panel-caption, v-panel-content,
and v-panel-deco, respectively. If the panel has no caption, the caption element will have the
style v-panel-nocaption.
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The built-in light style in the Reindeer and Runo themes has no borders or border decorations
for the Panel. You can use the Reindeer.PANEL_LIGHT and Runo.PANEL_LIGHT constants
to add the style to a panel. Other themes may also provide the light and other styles for Panel
as well.
6.7. Sub-Windows
Sub-windows are floating panels within a native browser window. Unlike native browser windows,
sub-windows are managed by the client-side runtime of Vaadin using HTML features. Vaadin
allows opening, closing, resizing, maximizing and restoring sub-windows, as well as scrolling the
window content.
Kuva 6.9. A Sub-Window
Sub-windows are typically used for Dialog Windows and Multiple Document Interface applications.
Sub-windows are by default not modal; you can set them modal as described in Kohta 6.7.4,
”Modal Sub-Windows”.
6.7.1. Opening and Closing Sub-Windows
You can open a new sub-window by creating a new Window object and adding it to the UI with
addWindow(), typically in some event listener. A sub-window needs a content component, which
is typically a layout.
In the following, we display a sub-window immediately when a UI opens:
public static class SubWindowUI extends UI {
@Override
protected void init(VaadinRequest request) {
// Some other UI content
setContent(new Label("Here's my UI"));
// Create a sub-window and set the content
Window subWindow = new Window("Sub-window");
VerticalLayout subContent = new VerticalLayout();
subContent.setMargin(true);
subWindow.setContent(subContent);
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// Put some components in it
subContent.addComponent(new Label("Meatball sub"));
subContent.addComponent(new Button("Awlright"));
// Center it in the browser window
subWindow.center();
// Open it in the UI
addWindow(subWindow);
}
}
The result was shown in Kuva 6.9, ”A Sub-Window”. Sub-windows by default have undefined
size in both dimensions, so they will shrink to fit the content.
The user can close a sub-window by clicking the close button in the upper-right corner of the
window. The button is controlled by the closable property, so you can disable it with
setClosable(false).
You close a sub-window also programmatically by calling the close() for the sub-window,
typically in a click listener for an OK or Cancel button. You can also call removeWindow() for
the current UI.
Sub-Window Management
Usually, you would extend the Window class for your specific sub-window as follows:
// Define a sub-window by inheritance
class MySub extends Window {
public MySub() {
super("Subs on Sale"); // Set window caption
center();
// Some basic content for the window
VerticalLayout content = new VerticalLayout();
content.addComponent(new Label("Just say it's OK!"));
content.setMargin(true);
setContent(content);
// Disable the close button
setClosable(false);
// Trivial logic for closing the sub-window
Button ok = new Button("OK");
ok.addClickListener(new ClickListener() {
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
close(); // Close the sub-window
}
});
content.addComponent(ok);
}
}
You could open the window as follows:
// Some UI logic to open the sub-window
final Button open = new Button("Open Sub-Window");
open.addClickListener(new ClickListener() {
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public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
MySub sub = new MySub();
// Add it to the root component
UI.getCurrent().addWindow(sub);
}
});
6.7.2. Window Positioning
When created, a sub-window will have an undefined default size and position. You can specify
the size of a window with setHeight() and setWidth() methods. You can set the position
of the window with setPositionX() and setPositionY() methods.
// Create a new sub-window
mywindow = new Window("My Dialog");
// Set window size.
mywindow.setHeight("200px");
mywindow.setWidth("400px");
// Set window position.
mywindow.setPositionX(200);
mywindow.setPositionY(50);
UI.getCurrent().addWindow(mywindow);
6.7.3. Scrolling Sub-Window Content
If a sub-window has a fixed or percentual size and its content becomes too big to fit in the content
area, a scroll bar will appear for the particular direction. On the other hand, if the sub-window
has undefined size in the direction, it will fit the size of the content and never get a scroll bar.
Scroll bars in sub-windows are handled with regular HTML features, namely overflow: auto
property in CSS.
As Window extends Panel, windows are also Scrollable. Note that the interface defines
programmatic scrolling, not scrolling by the user. Please see Kohta 6.6, ”Panel”.
6.7.4. Modal Sub-Windows
A modal window is a sub-window that prevents interaction with the other UI. Dialog windows, as
illustrated in Kuva 6.10, ”Modal Sub-Window”, are typical cases of modal windows. The advantage
of modal windows is limiting the scope of user interaction to a sub-task, so changes in application
state are more limited. The disadvantage of modal windows is that they can restrict workflow too
much.
You can make a sub-window modal with setModal(true).
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Kuva 6.10. Modal Sub-Window
Depending on the theme, the parent window may be grayed when the modal window is open.
Security Warning
Modality of child windows is purely a client-side feature and can be circumvented
with client-side attack code. You should not trust in the modality of child windows in
security-critical situations such as login windows.
6.8. HorizontalSplitPanel and VerticalSplitPanel
HorizontalSplitPanel and VerticalSplitPanel are a two-component containers that divide the
available space into two areas to accomodate the two components. HorizontalSplitPanel makes
the split horizontally with a vertical splitter bar, and VerticalSplitPanel vertically with a horizontal
splitter bar. The user can drag the bar to adjust its position.
You can set the two components with the setFirstComponent()
setSecondComponent() methods, or with the regular addComponent() method.
// Have a panel to put stuff in
Panel panel = new Panel("Split Panels Inside This Panel");
// Have a horizontal split panel as its content
HorizontalSplitPanel hsplit = new HorizontalSplitPanel();
panel.setContent(hsplit);
// Put a component in the left panel
Tree tree = new Tree("Menu", TreeExample.createTreeContent());
hsplit.setFirstComponent(tree);
// Put a vertical split panel in the right panel
VerticalSplitPanel vsplit = new VerticalSplitPanel();
hsplit.setSecondComponent(vsplit);
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and
Managing Layout
// Put other components in the right panel
vsplit.addComponent(new Label("Here's the upper panel"));
vsplit.addComponent(new Label("Here's the lower panel"));
The result is shown in Kuva 6.11, ”HorizontalSplitPanel and VerticalSplitPanel”. Observe that
the tree is cut horizontally as it can not fit in the layout. If its height exceeds the height of the
panel, a vertical scroll bar will appear automatically. If horizontal scroll bar is necessary, you
could put the content in a Panel, which can have scroll bars in both directions.
Kuva 6.11. HorizontalSplitPanel and VerticalSplitPanel
You can set the split position with setSplitPosition(). It accepts any units defined in the
Sizeable interface, with percentual size relative to the size of the component.
// Have a horizontal split panel
HorizontalSplitPanel hsplit = new HorizontalSplitPanel();
hsplit.setFirstComponent(new Label("75% wide panel"));
hsplit.setSecondComponent(new Label("25% wide panel"));
// Set the position of the splitter as percentage
hsplit.setSplitPosition(75, Sizeable.UNITS_PERCENTAGE);
Another version of the setSplitPosition() method allows leaving out the unit, using the
same unit as previously. The method also has versions take take a boolean parameter, reverse,
which allows defining the size of the right or bottom panel instead of the left or top panel.
The split bar allows the user to adjust the split position by dragging the bar with mouse. To lock
the split bar, use setLocked(true). When locked, the move handle in the middle of the bar is
disabled.
// Lock the splitter
hsplit.setLocked(true);
Setting the split position programmatically and locking the split bar is illustrated in Kuva 6.12, ”A
Layout With Nested SplitPanels”.
HorizontalSplitPanel and VerticalSplitPanel
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Kuva 6.12. A Layout With Nested SplitPanels
Notice that the size of a split panel must not be undefined in the split direction.
6.8.1. CSS Style Rules
/* For a horizontal SplitPanel. */
.v-splitpanel-horizontal {}
.v-splitpanel-hsplitter {}
.v-splitpanel-hsplitter-locked {}
/* For a vertical SplitPanel. */
.v-splitpanel-vertical {}
.v-splitpanel-vsplitter {}
.v-splitpanel-vsplitter-locked {}
/* The two container panels. */
.v-splitpanel-first-container {} /* Top or left panel. */
.v-splitpanel-second-container {} /* Bottom or right panel. */
The entire split panel has the style v-splitpanel-horizontal or v-splitpanel-vertical,
depending on the panel direction. The split bar or splitter between the two content panels has
either the ...-splitter or ...-splitter-locked style, depending on whether its position
is locked or not.
6.9. TabSheet
The TabSheet is a multicomponent container that allows switching between the components
with "tabs". The tabs are organized as a tab bar at the top of the tab sheet. Clicking on a tab
opens its contained component in the main display area of the layout. If there are more tabs than
fit in the tab bar, navigation buttons will appear.
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Kuva 6.13. A Simple TabSheet Layout
6.9.1. Adding Tabs
You add new tabs to a tab sheet with the addTab() method. The simple version of the method
takes as its parameter the root component of the tab.You can use the root component to retrieve
its corresponding Tab object. Typically, you put a layout component as the root component.
You can also give the caption and the icon as parameters for the addTab() method. The following
example demonstrates the creation of a simple tab sheet, where each tab shows a different Label
component. The tabs have an icon, which are (in this example) loaded as Java class loader
resources from the application.
TabSheet tabsheet = new TabSheet();
layout.addComponent(tabsheet);
// Create the first tab
VerticalLayout tab1 = new VerticalLayout();
tab1.addComponent(new Embedded(null,
new ThemeResource("img/planets/Mercury.jpg")));
tabsheet.addTab(tab1, "Mercury",
new ThemeResource("img/planets/Mercury_symbol.png"));
// This tab gets its caption from the component caption
VerticalLayout tab2 = new VerticalLayout();
tab2.addComponent(new Embedded(null,
new ThemeResource("img/planets/Venus.jpg")));
tab2.setCaption("Venus");
tabsheet.addTab(tab2).setIcon(
new ThemeResource("img/planets/Venus_symbol.png"));
...
6.9.2. Tab Objects
Each tab in a tab sheet is represented as a Tab object, which manages the tab caption, icon,
and attributes such as hidden and visible. You can set the caption with setCaption() and the
icon with setIcon(). If the component added with addTab() has a caption or icon, it is used
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as the default for the Tab object. However, changing the attributes of the root component later
does not affect the tab, but you must make the setting through the Tab object. The addTab()
returns the new Tab object, so you can easily set an attribute using the reference.
// Set an attribute using the returned reference
tabsheet.addTab(myTab).setCaption("My Tab");
Disabling and Hiding Tabs
A tab can be disabled by setting setEnabled(false) for the Tab object, thereby disallowing
selecting it.
A tab can be made invisible by setting setVisible(false) for the Tab object.The hideTabs()
method allows hiding the tab bar entirely. This can be useful in tabbed document interfaces (TDI)
when there is only one tab.
Kuva 6.14. A TabSheet with Hidden and Disabled Tabs
6.9.3. Tab Change Events
Clicking on a tab selects it. This fires a TabSheet.SelectedTabChangeEvent, which you can
handle by implementing the TabSheet.SelectedTabChangeListener interface. You can access
the tabsheet of the event with getTabSheet(), and find the new selected tab with
getSelectedTab().
You can programmatically select a tab with setSelectedTab(), which also fires the
SelectedTabChangeEvent (beware of recursive events). Reselecting the currently selected tab
does not fire the event.
Notice that when the first tab is added, it is selected and the change event is fired, so if you want
to catch that, you need to add your listener before adding any tabs.
Creating Tab Content Dynamically
In the following example, we create the tabs as empty content layouts, and add the tab content
dynamically when a tab is selected:
TabSheet tabsheet = new TabSheet();
// Create tab content dynamically when tab is selected
tabsheet.addSelectedTabChangeListener(
new TabSheet.SelectedTabChangeListener() {
public void selectedTabChange(SelectedTabChangeEvent event) {
// Find the tabsheet
TabSheet tabsheet = event.getTabSheet();
// Find the tab (here we know it's a layout)
Layout tab = (Layout) tabsheet.getSelectedTab();
// Get the tab caption from the tab object
String caption = tabsheet.getTab(tab).getCaption();
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// Fill the tab content
tab.removeAllComponents();
tab.addComponent(new Image(null,
new ThemeResource("img/planets/"+caption+".jpg")));
}
});
// Have some tabs
String[] tabs = {"Mercury", "Venus", "Earth", "Mars"};
for (String caption: tabs)
tabsheet.addTab(new VerticalLayout(), caption,
new ThemeResource("img/planets/"+caption+"_symbol.png"));
6.9.4. Enabling and Handling Closing Tabs
You can enable a close button for individual tabs with the closable property in the TabSheet.Tab
objects.
// Enable closing the tab
tabsheet.getTab(tabComponent).setClosable(true);
Kuva 6.15. TabSheet with Closable Tabs
Handling Tab Close Events
You can handle closing tabs by implementing a custom TabSheet.CloseHandler. The default
implementation simply calls removeTab() for the tab to be closed, but you can prevent the close
by not calling it. This allows, for example, opening a dialog window to confirm the close.
tabsheet.setCloseHandler(new CloseHandler() {
@Override
public void onTabClose(TabSheet tabsheet,
Component tabContent) {
Tab tab = tabsheet.getTab(tabContent);
Notification.show("Closing " + tab.getCaption());
// We need to close it explicitly in the handler
tabsheet.removeTab(tab);
}
});
6.9.1. CSS Style Rules
.v-tabsheet {}
.v-tabsheet-tabs {}
.v-tabsheet-content {}
.v-tabsheet-deco {}
.v-tabsheet-tabcontainer {}
.v-tabsheet-tabsheetpanel {}
Enabling and Handling Closing Tabs
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Managing Layout
.v-tabsheet-hidetabs {}
.v-tabsheet-scroller {}
.v-tabsheet-scrollerPrev {}
.v-tabsheet-scrollerNext {}
.v-tabsheet-scrollerPrev-disabled{}
.v-tabsheet-scrollerNext-disabled{}
.v-tabsheet-tabitem {}
.v-tabsheet-tabitem-selected {}
.v-tabsheet-tabitemcell {}
.v-tabsheet-tabitemcell-first {}
.v-tabsheet-tabs td {}
.v-tabsheet-spacertd {}
The entire tabsheet has the v-tabsheet style. A tabsheet consists of three main parts: the tabs
on the top, the main content pane, and decorations around the tabsheet.
The tabs area at the top can be styled with v-tabsheet-tabs, v-tabsheet-tabcontainer
and v-tabsheet-tabitem*.
The style v-tabsheet-spacertd is used for any empty space after the tabs. If the tabsheet
has too little space to show all tabs, scroller buttons enable browsing the full tab list. These use
the styles v-tabsheet-scroller*.
The content area where the tab contents are shown can be styled with v-tabsheet-content,
and the surrounding decoration with v-tabsheet-deco.
6.10. Accordion
Accordion is a multicomponent container similar to TabSheet, except that the "tabs" are arranged
vertically. Clicking on a tab opens its contained component in the space between the tab and the
next one. You can use an Accordion identically to a TabSheet, which it actually inherits. See
Kohta 6.9, ”TabSheet” for more information.
The following example shows how you can create a simple accordion. As the Accordion is rather
naked alone, we put it inside a Panel that acts as its caption and provides it a border.
// Create the Accordion.
Accordion accordion = new Accordion();
// Have it take all space available in the layout.
accordion.setSizeFull();
// Some components to put in the Accordion.
Label l1 = new Label("There are no previously saved actions.");
Label l2 = new Label("There are no saved notes.");
Label l3 = new Label("There are currently no issues.");
// Add the components as tabs in the Accordion.
accordion.addTab(l1, "Saved actions", null);
accordion.addTab(l2, "Notes", null);
accordion.addTab(l3, "Issues", null);
// A container for the Accordion.
Panel panel = new Panel("Tasks");
panel.setWidth("300px");
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panel.setHeight("300px");
panel.setContent(accordion);
// Trim its layout to allow the Accordion take all space.
panel.getLayout().setSizeFull();
panel.getLayout().setMargin(false);
Kuva 6.16, ”An Accordion” shows what the example would look like with the default theme.
Kuva 6.16. An Accordion
6.10.1. CSS Style Rules
.v-accordion {}
.v-accordion-item {}
.v-accordion-item-open {}
.v-accordion-item-first {}
.v-accordion-item-caption {}
.v-accordion-item-caption .v-caption {}
.v-accordion-item-content {}
The top-level element of Accordion has the v-accordion style. An Accordion consists of a
sequence of item elements, each of which has a caption element (the tab) and a content area
element.
The selected item (tab) has also the v-accordion-open style. The content area is not shown
for the closed items.
6.11. AbsoluteLayout
AbsoluteLayout allows placing components in arbitrary positions in the layout area. The positions
are specified in the addComponent() method with horizontal and vertical coordinates relative
to an edge of the layout area. The positions can include a third depth dimension, the z-index,
which specifies which components are displayed in front and which behind other components.
The positions are specified by a CSS absolute position string, using the left, right, top,
bottom, and z-index properties known from CSS. In the following example, we have a 300 by
150 pixels large layout and position a text field 50 pixels from both the left and the top edge:
CSS Style Rules
235
Managing Layout
// A 400x250 pixels size layout
AbsoluteLayout layout = new AbsoluteLayout();
layout.setWidth("400px");
layout.setHeight("250px");
// A component with coordinates for its top-left corner
TextField text = new TextField("Somewhere someplace");
layout.addComponent(text, "left: 50px; top: 50px;");
The left and top specify the distance from the left and top edge, respectively. The right and
bottom specify the distances from the right and top edge.
// At the top-left corner
Button button = new Button( "left: 0px; top: 0px;");
layout.addComponent(button, "left: 0px; top: 0px;");
// At the bottom-right corner
Button buttCorner = new Button( "right: 0px; bottom: 0px;");
layout.addComponent(buttCorner, "right: 0px; bottom: 0px;");
// Relative to the bottom-right corner
Button buttBrRelative = new Button( "right: 50px; bottom: 50px;");
layout.addComponent(buttBrRelative, "right: 50px; bottom: 50px;");
// On the bottom, relative to the left side
Button buttBottom = new Button( "left: 50px; bottom: 0px;");
layout.addComponent(buttBottom, "left: 50px; bottom: 0px;");
// On the right side, up from the bottom
Button buttRight = new Button( "right: 0px; bottom: 100px;");
layout.addComponent(buttRight, "right: 0px; bottom: 100px;");
The result of the above code examples is shown in Kuva 6.17, ”Components Positioned Relative
to Various Edges”.
Kuva 6.17. Components Positioned Relative to Various Edges
In the above examples, we had components of undefined size and specified the positions of
components by a single pair of coordinates. The other possibility is to specify an area and let the
component fill the area by specifying a proportinal size for the component, such as "100%".
Normally, you use setSizeFull() to take the entire area given by the layout.
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AbsoluteLayout
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// Specify an area that a component should fill
Panel panel = new Panel("A Panel filling an area");
panel.setSizeFull(); // Fill the entire given area
layout.addComponent(panel, "left: 25px; right: 50px; "+
"top: 100px; bottom: 50px;");
The result is shown in Kuva 6.18, ”Component Filling an Area Specified by Coordinates”
Kuva 6.18. Component Filling an Area Specified by Coordinates
You can also use proportional coordinates to specify the coordinates:
// A panel that takes 30% to 90% horizontally and
// 20% to 80% vertically
Panel panel = new Panel("A Panel");
panel.setSizeFull(); // Fill the specified area
layout.addComponent(panel, "left: 30%; right: 10%;" +
"top: 20%; bottom: 20%;");
The result is shown in Kuva 6.19, ”Specifying an Area by Proportional Coordinates”
Kuva 6.19. Specifying an Area by Proportional Coordinates
Drag and drop is very useful for moving the components contained in an AbsoluteLayout. Check
out the example in Kohta 11.12.6, ”Dropping on a Component”.
AbsoluteLayout
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Managing Layout
6.11.1. Styling with CSS
.v-absolutelayout {}
.v-absolutelayout-wrapper {}
The AbsoluteLayout component has v-absolutelayout root style. Each component in the
layout is contained within an element that has the v-absolutelayout-wrapper.The component
captions are outside the wrapper elements, in a separate element with the usual v-caption
style.
6.12. CssLayout
CssLayout allows strong control over styling of the components contained inside the layout. The
components are contained in a simple DOM structure consisting of <div> elements. By default,
the contained components are laid out horizontally and wrap naturally when they reach the width
of the layout, but you can control this and most other behaviour with CSS. You can also inject
custom CSS for each contained component. As CssLayout has a very simple DOM structure
and no dynamic rendering logic, relying purely on the built-in rendering logic of the browsers, it
is the fastest of the layout components.
The basic use of CssLayout is just like with any other layout component:
CssLayout layout = new CssLayout();
// Component with a layout-managed caption and icon
TextField tf = new TextField("A TextField");
tf.setIcon(new ThemeResource("icons/user.png"));
layout.addComponent(tf);
// Labels are 100% wide by default so must unset width
Label label = new Label("A Label");
label.setWidth(Sizeable.SIZE_UNDEFINED, 0);
layout.addComponent(label);
layout.addComponent(new Button("A Button"));
The result is shown in Kuva 6.20, ”Basic Use of CssLayout”. Notice that the default spacing and
alignment of the layout is quite crude and CSS styling is nearly always needed.
Kuva 6.20. Basic Use of CssLayout
The display attribute of CssLayout is inline-block by default, so the components are laid
out horizontally following another. CssLayout has 100% width by default. If the components
reach the width of the layout, they are wrapped to the next "line" just as text would be. If you add
a component with 100% width, it will take an entire line by wrapping before and after the
component.
6.12.1. CSS Injection
Overriding the getCss() method allows injecting custom CSS for each component. The CSS
returned by the method is inserted in the style attribute of the <div> element of the component,
so it will override any style definitions made in CSS files.
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CssLayout layout = new CssLayout() {
@Override
protected String getCss(Component c) {
if (c instanceof Label) {
// Color the boxes with random colors
int rgb = (int) (Math.random()*(1<<24));
return "background: #" + Integer.toHexString(rgb);
}
return null;
}
};
layout.setWidth("400px"); // Causes to wrap the contents
// Add boxes of various sizes
for (int i=0; i<40; i++) {
Label box = new Label("&nbsp;", Label.CONTENT_XHTML);
box.addStyleName("flowbox");
box.setWidth((float) Math.random()*50,
Sizeable.UNITS_PIXELS);
box.setHeight((float) Math.random()*50,
Sizeable.UNITS_PIXELS);
layout.addComponent(box);
}
The style name added to the components allows making common styling in a CSS file:
.v-label-flowbox {
border: thin black solid;
}
Kuva 6.21, ”Use of getCss() and line wrap” shows the rendered result.
Kuva 6.21. Use of getCss() and line wrap
6.12.2. Browser Compatibility
The stregth of the CssLayout is also its weakness. Much of the logic behind the other layout
components is there to give nice default behaviour and to handle the differences in different
browsers. Some browsers, no need to say which, are notoriously incompatible with the CSS
standards, so they require a lot of custom CSS. You may need to make use of the browserspecific style classes in the root element of the application. Some features in the other layouts
are not even solvable in pure CSS, at least in all browsers.
Browser Compatibility
239
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6.12.1. Styling with CSS
.v-csslayout {}
.v-csslayout-margin {}
.v-csslayout-container {}
The CssLayout component has v-csslayout root style. The margin element with
v-csslayout-margin style is always enabled. The components are contained in an element
with v-csslayout-container style.
For example, we could style the basic CssLayout example shown earlier as follows:
/* Have the caption right of the text box, bottom-aligned */
.csslayoutexample .mylayout .v-csslayout-container {
direction: rtl;
line-height: 24px;
vertical-align: bottom;
}
/* Have some space before and after the caption */
.csslayoutexample .mylayout .v-csslayout-container .v-caption {
padding-left: 3px;
padding-right: 10px;
}
The example would now be rendered as shown in Kuva 6.22, ”Styling CssLayout”.
Kuva 6.22. Styling CssLayout
Captions and icons that are managed by the layout are contained in an element with v-caption
style. These caption elements are contained flat at the same level as the actual component
elements. This may cause problems with wrapping in inline-block mode, as wrapping can
occur between the caption and its corresponding component element just as well as between
components. Such use case is therefore not feasible.
6.13. Layout Formatting
While the formatting of layouts is mainly done with style sheets, just as with other components,
style sheets are not ideal or even possible to use in some situations. For example, CSS does
not allow defining the spacing of table cells, which is done with the cellspacing attribute in
HTML.
Moreover, as many layout sizes are calculated dynamically in the Client-Side Engine of Vaadin,
some CSS settings can fail altogether.
6.13.1. Layout Size
The size of a layout component can be specified with the setWidth() and setHeight()
methods defined in the Sizeable interface, just like for any component. It can also be undefined,
in which case the layout shrinks to fit the component(s) inside it. Kohta 5.3.9, ”Sizing Components”
gives details on the interface.
240
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Managing Layout
Kuva 6.23. HorizontalLayout with Undefined vs Defined size
Many layout components take 100% width by default, while they have the height undefined.
The sizes of components inside a layout can also be defined as a percentage of the space
available in the layout, for example with setWidth("100%"); or with the (most commonly used
method) setFullSize() that sets 100% size in both directions. If you use a percentage in a
HorizontalLayout, VerticalLayout, or GridLayout, you will also have to set the component as
expanding, as noted below.
Varoitus
A layout that contains components with percentual size must have a defined size!
If a layout has undefined size and a contained component has, say, 100% size, the
component will try to fill the space given by the layout, while the layout will shrink to
fit the space taken by the component, which is a paradox. This requirement holds
for height and width separately.The debug mode allows detecting such invalid cases;
see Kohta 11.3.5, ”Inspecting Component Hierarchy”.
For example:
// This takes 100% width but has undefined height.
VerticalLayout layout = new VerticalLayout();
// A button that takes all the space available in the layout.
Button button = new Button("100%x100% button");
button.setSizeFull();
layout.addComponent(button);
// We must set the layout to a defined height vertically, in
// this case 100% of its parent layout, which also must
// not have undefined size.
layout.setHeight("100%");
If you have a layout with undefined height, such as VerticalLayout, in a UI, Window, or Panel,
and put enough content in it so that it extends outside the bottom of the view area, scrollbars will
appear. If you want your application to use all the browser view, nothing more or less, you should
use setFullSize() for the root layout.
// Create the UI content
VerticalLayout content = new VerticalLayout();
// Use entire view area
content.setSizeFull();
setContent(content);
6.13.2. Expanding Components
If you set a HorizontalLayout to a defined size horizontally or a VerticalLayout vertically, and
there is space left over from the contained components, the extra space is distributed equally
Expanding Components
241
Managing Layout
between the component cells. The components are aligned within these cells, according to their
alignment setting, top left by default, as in the example below.
Often, you don't want such empty space, but want one or more components to take all the leftover
space. You need to set such a component to 100% size and use setExpandRatio(). If there
is just one such expanding component in the layout, the ratio parameter is irrelevant.
If you set multiple components as expanding, the expand ratio dictates how large proportion of
the available space (overall or excess depending on whether the components are sized as a
percentage or not) each component takes. In the example below, the buttons have 1:2:3 ratio
for the expansion.
GridLayout has corresponding method for both of its directions, setRowExpandRatio() and
setColumnExpandRatio().
Expansion is dealt in detail in the documentation of the layout components that support it. See
Kohta 6.3, ”VerticalLayout and HorizontalLayout” and Kohta 6.4, ”GridLayout” for details on
components with relative sizes.
6.13.3. Layout Cell Alignment
You can set the alignment of the component inside a specific layout cell with the
setComponentAlignment() method. The method takes as its parameters the component
contained in the cell to be formatted, and the horizontal and vertical alignment.
Kuva 6.24, ”Cell Alignments” illustrates the alignment of components within a GridLayout.
Kuva 6.24. Cell Alignments
The easiest way to set alignments is to use the constants defined in the Alignment class. Let
us look how the buttons in the top row of the above GridLayout are aligned with constants:
// Create a grid layout
final GridLayout grid = new GridLayout(3, 3);
grid.setWidth(400, Sizeable.UNITS_PIXELS);
grid.setHeight(200, Sizeable.UNITS_PIXELS);
Button topleft = new Button("Top Left");
grid.addComponent(topleft, 0, 0);
grid.setComponentAlignment(topleft, Alignment.TOP_LEFT);
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Button topcenter = new Button("Top Center");
grid.addComponent(topcenter, 1, 0);
grid.setComponentAlignment(topcenter, Alignment.TOP_CENTER);
Button topright = new Button("Top Right");
grid.addComponent(topright, 2, 0);
grid.setComponentAlignment(topright, Alignment.TOP_RIGHT);
...
The following table lists all the Alignment constants by their respective locations:
Taulu 6.1. Alignment Constants
TOP_LEFT
TOP_CENTER
TOP_RIGHT
MIDDLE_LEFT
MIDDLE_CENTER
MIDDLE_RIGHT
BOTTOM_LEFT
BOTTOM_CENTER
BOTTOM_RIGHT
Another way to specify the alignments is to create an Alignment object and specify the horizontal
and vertical alignment with separate constants. You can specify either of the directions, in which
case the other alignment direction is not modified, or both with a bitmask operation between the
two directions.
Button middleleft = new Button("Middle Left");
grid.addComponent(middleleft, 0, 1);
grid.setComponentAlignment(middleleft,
new Alignment(Bits.ALIGNMENT_VERTICAL_CENTER |
Bits.ALIGNMENT_LEFT));
Button middlecenter = new Button("Middle Center");
grid.addComponent(middlecenter, 1, 1);
grid.setComponentAlignment(middlecenter,
new Alignment(Bits.ALIGNMENT_VERTICAL_CENTER |
Bits.ALIGNMENT_HORIZONTAL_CENTER));
Button middleright = new Button("Middle Right");
grid.addComponent(middleright, 2, 1);
grid.setComponentAlignment(middleright,
new Alignment(Bits.ALIGNMENT_VERTICAL_CENTER |
Bits.ALIGNMENT_RIGHT));
Obviously, you may combine only one vertical bitmask with one horizontal bitmask, though you
may leave either one out. The following table lists the available alignment bitmask constants:
Taulu 6.2. Alignment Bitmasks
Horizontal
Bits.ALIGNMENT_LEFT
Bits.ALIGNMENT_HORIZONTAL_CENTER
Bits.ALIGNMENT_RIGHT
Vertical
Bits.ALIGNMENT_TOP
Bits.ALIGNMENT_VERTICAL_CENTER
Bits.ALIGNMENT_BOTTOM
Layout Cell Alignment
243
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You can determine the current alignment of a component with getComponentAlignment(),
which returns an Alignment object. The class provides a number of getter methods for decoding
the alignment, which you can also get as a bitmask value.
Size of Aligned Components
You can only align a component that is smaller than its containing cell in the direction of alignment.
If a component has 100% width, as many components have by default, horizontal alignment does
not have any effect. For example, Label is 100% wide by default and can not therefore be
horizontally aligned as such. The problem can be hard to notice, as the text inside a Label is leftaligned.
You usually need to set either a fixed size, undefined size, or less than a 100% relative size for
the component to be aligned - a size that is smaller than the containing layout has.
For example, assuming that a Label has short content that is less wide than the containing
VerticalLayout, you could center it as follows:
VerticalLayout layout = new VerticalLayout(); // 100% default width
Label label = new Label("Hello"); // 100% default width
label.setSizeUndefined();
layout.addComponent(label);
layout.setComponentAlignment(label, Alignment.MIDDLE_CENTER);
If you set the size as undefined and the component itself contains components, make sure that
the contained components also have either undefined or fixed size. For example, if you set the
size of a Form as undefined, its containing layout FormLayout has 100% default width, which
you also need to set as undefined. But then, any components inside the FormLayout must have
either undefined or fixed size.
6.13.4. Layout Cell Spacing
The VerticalLayout, HorizontalLayout, and GridLayout layouts offer a setSpacing() method
to enable spacing between the cells of the layout.
For example:
VerticalLayout layout = new VerticalLayout();
layout.setSpacing(true);
layout.addComponent(new Button("Component 1"));
layout.addComponent(new Button("Component 2"));
layout.addComponent(new Button("Component 3"));
The effect of spacing in VerticalLayout and HorizontalLayout is illustrated in Kuva 6.25, ”Layout
Spacings”.
Kuva 6.25. Layout Spacings
244
Layout Cell Spacing
Managing Layout
The exact amount of spacing is defined in CSS. If the default is not suitable, you can customize
it in a custom theme. Spacing is implemented in a bit different ways in different layouts. In the
ordered layouts, it is done with spacer elements, while in the GridLayout it has special handling.
Please see the sections on the individual components for more details.
6.13.5. Layout Margins
Most layout components do not have any margin around them by default. The ordered layouts,
as well as GridLayout, support enabling a margin with setMargin(). This enables CSS classes
for each margin in the HTML element of the layout component. To customize the default margins,
you can define each margin with the padding property in CSS.
You may want to have a custom CSS class for the layout component to enable specific
customization of the margins, as is done in the following with the mymargins class:
.mymargins.v-margin-left
.mymargins.v-margin-right
.mymargins.v-margin-top
.mymargins.v-margin-bottom
{padding-left:
{padding-right:
{padding-top:
{padding-bottom:
10px;}
20px;}
40px;}
80px;}
You can enable only specific margins by passing a MarginInfo to the setMargin(). The margins
are specified in clockwise order for top, right, bottom, and left margin. The following would enable
the left and right margins:
layout.setMargin(new MarginInfo(false, true, false, true));
The resulting margins are shown in Kuva 6.26, ”Layout Margins” below. The two ways produce
identical margins.
Kuva 6.26. Layout Margins
6.14. Custom Layouts
While it is possible to create almost any typical layout with the standard layout components, it is
sometimes best to separate the layout completely from code. With the CustomLayout component,
you can write your layout as a template in XHTML that provides locations of any contained
components. The layout template is included in a theme. This separation allows the layout to be
designed separately from code, for example using WYSIWYG web designer tools such as Adobe
Dreamweaver.
Layout Margins
245
Managing Layout
A template is a HTML file located under layouts folder under a theme folder under the
WebContent/VAADIN/themes/
fo l d e r,
for
example,
WebContent/VAADIN/themes/themename/layouts/mylayout.html. (Notice that the
root path WebContent/VAADIN/themes/ for themes is fixed.) A template can also be provided
dynamically from an InputStream, as explained below. A template includes <div> elements
with a location attribute that defines the location identifier. All custom layout HTML-files must
be saved using UTF-8 character encoding.
<table width="100%" height="100%">
<tr height="100%">
<td>
<table align="center">
<tr>
<td align="right">User&nbsp;name:</td>
<td><div location="username"></div></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="right">Password:</td>
<td><div location="password"></div></td>
</tr>
</table>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td align="right" colspan="2">
<div location="okbutton"></div>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
The client-side engine of Vaadin will replace contents of the location elements with the
components. The components are bound to the location elements by the location identifier given
to addComponent(), as shown in the example below.
// Have a Panel where to put the custom layout.
Panel panel = new Panel("Login");
panel.setSizeUndefined();
main.addComponent(panel);
// Create custom layout from "layoutname.html" template.
CustomLayout custom = new CustomLayout("layoutname");
custom.addStyleName("customlayoutexample");
// Use it as the layout of the Panel.
panel.setContent(custom);
// Create a few components and bind them to the location tags
// in the custom layout.
TextField username = new TextField();
custom.addComponent(username, "username");
TextField password = new TextField();
custom.addComponent(password, "password");
Button ok = new Button("Login");
custom.addComponent(ok, "okbutton");
The resulting layout is shown below in Kuva 6.27, ”Example of a Custom Layout Component”.
246
Custom Layouts
Managing Layout
Kuva 6.27. Example of a Custom Layout Component
You can use addComponent() also to replace an existing component in the location given in
the second parameter.
In addition to a static template file, you can provide a template dynamically with the CustomLayout
constructor that accepts an InputStream as the template source. For example:
new CustomLayout(new ByteArrayInputStream("<b>Template</b>".getBytes()));
or
new CustomLayout(new FileInputStream(file));
Custom Layouts
247
248
luku 7
Visual User
Interface Design
with Eclipse
7.1. Overview ................................................................................................ 249
7.2. Creating a New Composite .................................................................... 251
7.3. Using The Visual Editor ......................................................................... 253
7.4. Structure of a Visually Editable Component .......................................... 258
This chapter provides instructions for developing the graphical user interface of Vaadin components
with the Vaadin Plugin for the Eclipse IDE.
7.1. Overview
The visual editor feature in the Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse allows you to design the user interface
of an entire application or of specific composite components. The plugin generates the actual
Java code, which is designed to be reusable, so you can design the basic layout of the user
interface with the visual editor and build the user interaction logic on top of the generated code.
You can use inheritance and composition to modify the components further.
The editor works with classes that extend the CustomComponent class, which is the basic
technique in Vaadin for creating composite components. Component composition is described
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Visual User Interface Design with Eclipse
in Kohta 5.24, ”Component Composition with CustomComponent”. Any CustomComponent
will not do for the visual editor; you need to create a new one as instructed below.
7.1.1. Using a Composite Component
You can use a composite component just as you would use any Vaadin component. However,
the composite as well as its root layout, which is an AbsoluteLayout, are full size (100% wide
and high) by default. A component with full size (expand-to-fit layout) may not normally be inside
a layout with undefined size (shrink-to-fit content). For example, if you put a composite in a
VerticalLayout, which has undefined height by default, you have to set the layout explicitly to
have a defined height, either fixed or full (100%) height.
public class MyUI extends UI {
@Override
protected void init(VaadinRequest request) {
// Create the content root layout for the UI
VerticalLayout content = new VerticalLayout();
setContent(content);
// Needed because the composites are full size
content.setSizeFull();
MyComposite myComposite = new MyComposite();
content.addComponent(myComposite);
}
}
You could also set the size of the root layout of the composite to a fixed height (in component
properties in the visual editor). The important thing to notice is that an AbsoluteLayout may
never have undefined size.
7.1.2. Installing the Visual Editor
The visual editor is currently included in the Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse. For its installation, see
Kohta 2.4, ”Installing Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse”.
The editor runs in an internal browser in Eclipse. The actual browser engine used depends on
the operating system. Using the internal browser must be enabled in Window Preferences General Web Browsers.
In Ubuntu 12.04 and some other versions, no embedded browser engine is installed in the system
by default. You can use at least Firefox XULRunner and WebKit. You can install WebKit as
follows:
$ sudo apt-get install libwebkitgtk-1.0-0
Then, restart Eclipse and check that the internal browser is enabled.
250
Using a Composite Component
Visual User Interface Design with Eclipse
7.2. Creating a New Composite
If the Vaadin Plugin is installed in Eclipse, you can create a new composite component as follows.
1. Select File New Other... in the main menu or right-click the Project Explorer and
select New Other... to open the New window.
2. In the first, Select a wizard step, select Vaadin Vaadin Composite and click Next.
3. The Source folder is the root source directory where the new component will be created.
This is by default the default source directory of your project.
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251
Visual User Interface Design with Eclipse
Enter the Java Package under which the new component class should be created or
select it by clicking the Browse button. Also enter the class Name of the new component.
Finally, click Finish to create the component.
A newly created composite component is opened in the Design window, as shown in Kuva 7.1,
”New Composite Component”.
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Creating a New Composite
Visual User Interface Design with Eclipse
Kuva 7.1. New Composite Component
You can observe that a component that you can edit with the visual editor has two tabs at the
bottom of the view: Source and Design. These tabs allow switching between the source view
and the visual design view.
If you later open the source file for editing, the Source and Design tabs should appear below
the source editor. If they do not, right-click the file in the Project Explorer and select Open With.
7.3. Using The Visual Editor
The visual editor view consists of, on the left side, an editing area that displays the current layout
and, on the right side, a control panel that contains a component list for selecting new components
to add, the current component tree, and a component property panel.
7.3.1. Adding New Components
Adding new components to the user interface is done as follows by dragging them from the
component list to either the editing area or to the component tree. If you drag the components
to the tree,
1. Select which components are shown in the component list by entering a search string
or by expanding the filters and selecting only the desired component categories.
Using The Visual Editor
253
Visual User Interface Design with Eclipse
2. Drag a component from the component list to either:
a. Editing area, where you can easily move and resize the component. Dragging a
component onto a layout component will add it in it and you can also position
components within a layout by dragging them.
b. Component tree. Remember that you can only add components under a layout
component or other component container.
3. Edit the component properties
a. In the editing area, you can move and resize the components, and set their alignment
in the containing layout.
b. In the property panel, you can set the component name, size, position and other
properties.
Kuva 7.2. Adding a New Component Node
You can delete a component by right-clicking it in the component tree and selecting Remove.
The context menu also allows copying and pasting components.
A composite component created by the plugin must have a AbsoluteLayout as its root layout.
While it is suitable for the visual editor, absolute layouts are rarely used otherwise in Vaadin
applications. If you want to use another root layout, you can add another layout inside the
mainLayout and set that as the root with setCompositionRoot() in the source view. It will
be used as the root when the component is actually used in an application.
7.3.2. Setting Component Properties
The property setting sub-panel of the control panel allows setting component properties. The
panel has two tabs: Layout and Properties, where the latter defines the various basic properties.
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Setting Component Properties
Visual User Interface Design with Eclipse
Basic Properties
The top section of the property panel, shown in Kuva 7.3, ”Basic Component Properties”, allows
setting basic component properties. The panel also includes properties such as field properties
for field components.
Kuva 7.3. Basic Component Properties
The properties are as follows:
Name
The name of the component, which is used for the reference to the component, so it
must obey Java notation for variable names.
Style Name
A space-separated list of CSS style class names for the component. See Luku 8,
Themes for information on component styles in themes.
Caption
The caption of a component is usually displayed above the component. Some
components, such as Button, display the caption inside the component. For Label
text, you should set the value of the label instead of the caption, which should be left
empty.
Description (tooltip)
The description is usually displayed as a tooltip when the mouse pointer hovers over
the component for a while. Some components, such as Form have their own way of
displaying the description.
Setting Component Properties
255
Visual User Interface Design with Eclipse
Icon
The icon of a component is usually displayed above the component, left of the caption.
Some components, such as Button, display the icon inside the component.
Formatting type
Some components allow different formatting types, such as Label, which allow
formatting either as Text, XHTML, Preformatted, and Raw.
Value
The component value. The value type and how it is displayed by the component varies
between different component types and each value type has its own editor. The editor
opens by clicking on the ... button.
Most of the basic component properties are defined in the Component interface; see Kohta 5.2.1,
”Component Interface” for further details.
Layout Properties
The size of a component is determined by its width and height, which you can give in the two
edit boxes in the control panel. You can use any unit specifiers for components, as described in
Kohta 5.3.9, ”Sizing Components”. Emptying a size box will make the size "automatic", which
means setting the size as undefined. In the generated code, the undefined value will be expressed
as "-1px".
Setting width of "100px" and auto (undefined or empty) height would result in the following
generated settings for a button:
// myButton
myButton = new Button();
...
myButton.setHeight("-1px");
myButton.setWidth("100px");
...
Kuva 7.4, ”Layout Properties” shows the control panel area for the size and position.
Kuva 7.4. Layout Properties
The generated code for the example would be:
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Setting Component Properties
Visual User Interface Design with Eclipse
// myButton
myButton = new Button();
myButton.setWidth("-1px");
myButton.setHeight("-1px");
myButton.setImmediate(true);
myButton.setCaption("My Button");
mainLayout.addComponent(myButton,
"top:243.0px;left:152.0px;");
The position is given as a CSS position in the second parameter for addComponent(). The
values "-1px" for width and height will make the button to be sized automatically to the minimum
size required by the caption.
When editing the position of a component inside an AbsoluteLayout, the editor will display
vertical and horizontal guides, which you can use to set the position of the component. See
Kohta 7.3.3, ”Editing an AbsoluteLayout” for more information about editing absolute layouts.
The ZIndex setting controls the "Z coordinate" of the components, that is, which component will
overlay which when they overlap. Value -1 means automatic, in which case the components
added to the layout later will be on top.
7.3.3. Editing an AbsoluteLayout
The visual editor has interactive support for the AbsoluteLayout component that allows positioning
components exactly at specified coordinates.You can position the components using guides that
control the position attributes, shown in the control panel on the right. The position values are
measured in pixels from the corresponding edge; the vertical and horizontal rulers show the
distances from the top and left edge.
Kuva 7.5, ”Positioning with AbsoluteLayout” shows three components, a Label, a Table, and
a Button, inside an AbsoluteLayout.
Kuva 7.5. Positioning with AbsoluteLayout
Editing an AbsoluteLayout
257
Visual User Interface Design with Eclipse
Position attributes that are empty are automatic and can be either zero (at the edge) or dynamic
to make it shrink to fit the size of the component, depending on the component. Guides are shown
also for the automatic position attributes and move automatically; in Kuva 7.5, ”Positioning with
AbsoluteLayout” the right and bottom edges of the Button are automatic.
Moving an automatic guide manually makes the guide and the corresponding the position attribute
non-automatic. To make a manually set attribute automatic, empty it in the control panel. Kuva 7.6,
”Manually positioned Label” shows a Label component with all the four edges set manually.
Notice that if an automatic position is 0, the guide is at the edge of the ruler.
Kuva 7.6. Manually positioned Label
7.4. Structure of a Visually Editable Component
A component created by the wizard and later managed by the visual editor has a very specific
structure that allows you to insert your user interface logic in the component while keeping a
minimal amount of code off-limits. You need to know what you can edit yourself and what exactly
is managed by the editor. The managed member variables and methods are marked with the
AutoGenerated annotation, as you can see later.
A visually editable component consists of:
• Member variables containing sub-component references
• Sub-component builder methods
• The constructor
The structure of a composite component is hierarchical, a nested hierarchy of layout components
containing other layout components as well as regular components. The root layout of the
component tree, or the composition root of the CustomComponent, is named mainLayout.
See Kohta 5.24, ”Component Composition with CustomComponent” for a detailed description
of the structure of custom (composite) components.
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Structure of a Visually Editable Component
Visual User Interface Design with Eclipse
7.4.1. Sub-Component References
The CustomComponent class will include a reference to each contained component as a member
variable. The most important of these is the mainLayout reference to the composition root
layout. Such automatically generated member variables are marked with the @AutoGenerated
annotation. They are managed by the editor, so you should not edit them manually, unless you
know what you are doing.
A composite component with an AbsoluteLayout as the composition root, containing a Button
and a Table would have the references as follows:
public class MyComponent extends CustomComponent {
@AutoGenerated
private AbsoluteLayout mainLayout;
@AutoGenerated
private Button myButton;
@AutoGenerated
private Table myTable;
...
The names of the member variables are defined in the component properties panel of the visual
editor, in the Component name field, as described in ”Basic Properties”. While you can change
the name of any other components, the name of the root layout is always mainLayout. It is fixed
because the editor does not make changes to the constructor, as noted in Kohta 7.4.3, ”The
Constructor”. You can, however, change the type of the root layout, which is an AbsoluteLayout
by default.
Certain typically static components, such as the Label label component, will not have a reference
as a member variable. See the description of the builder methods below for details.
7.4.2. Sub-Component Builders
Every managed layout component will have a builder method that creates the layout and all its
contained components. The builder puts references to the created components in their
corresponding member variables, and it also returns a reference to the created layout component.
Below is an example of an initial main layout:
@AutoGenerated
private AbsoluteLayout buildMainLayout() {
// common part: create layout
mainLayout = new AbsoluteLayout();
// top-level component properties
setHeight("100.0%");
setWidth("100.0%");
return mainLayout;
}
Notice that while the builder methods return a reference to the created component, they also
write the reference directly to the member variable. The returned reference might not be used
by the generated code at all (in the constructor or in the builder methods), but you can use it for
your purposes.
Sub-Component References
259
Visual User Interface Design with Eclipse
The builder of the main layout is called in the constructor, as explained in Kohta 7.4.3, ”The
Constructor”. When you have a layout with nested layout components, the builders of each layout
will call the appropriate builder methods of their contained layouts to create their contents.
7.4.3. The Constructor
When you create a new composite component using the wizard, it will create a constructor for
the component and fill its basic content.
public MyComponent() {
buildMainLayout();
setCompositionRoot(mainLayout);
// TODO add user code here
}
The most important thing to do in the constructor is to set the composition root of the
CustomComponent with the setCompositionRoot() (see Kohta 5.24, ”Component
Composition with CustomComponent” for more details on the composition root). The generated
constructor first builds the root layout of the composite component with buildMainLayout()
and then uses the mainLayout reference.
The editor will not change the constructor afterwards, so you can safely change it as you want.
The editor does not allow changing the member variable holding a reference to the root layout,
so it is always named mainLayout.
260
The Constructor
luku 8
Themes
8.1. Overview ................................................................................................ 261
8.2. Introduction to Cascading Style Sheets ................................................. 263
8.3. Syntactically Awesome Stylesheets (Sass) ........................................... 270
8.4. Creating and Using Themes .................................................................. 275
8.5. Creating a Theme in Eclipse .................................................................. 279
8.6. Valo Theme ............................................................................................ 280
8.7. Custom Fonts ........................................................................................ 285
8.8. Responsive Themes .............................................................................. 285
This chapter provides details about using and creating themes that control the visual look of web
applications. Themes are created using Sass, which is an extension of CSS (Cascading Style
Sheets), or with plain CSS. We provide an introduction to CSS, especially concerning the styling
of HTML by element classes.
8.1. Overview
Vaadin separates the appearance of the user interface from its logic using themes. Themes can
include Sass or CSS style sheets, custom HTML layouts, and any necessary graphics. Theme
resources can also be accessed from application code as ThemeResource objects.
Custom themes are placed under the VAADIN/themes/ folder of the web application (under
WebContent in Eclipse or src/main/webapp in Maven projects). This location is fixed -- the
VAADIN folder contains static resources that are served by the Vaadin servlet. The servlet
augments the files stored in the folder by resources found from corresponding VAADIN folders
contained in JARs in the class path. For example, the built-in themes are stored in the vaadinthemes.jar.
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Themes
Kuva 8.1, ”Contents of a Theme” illustrates the contents of a theme.
Kuva 8.1. Contents of a Theme
The name of a theme folder defines the name of the theme. The name is used in the @Theme
annotation that sets the theme. A theme must contain either a styles.scss for Sass themes,
or styles.css stylesheet for plain CSS themes, but other contents have free naming. We
recommend that you have the actual theme content in a SCSS file named after the theme, such
as mytheme.scss, to make the names more unique.
We also suggest a convention for naming the folders as img for images, layouts for custom
layouts, and css for additional stylesheets.
Custom themes need to extend a base theme, as described in Kohta 8.4, ”Creating and Using
Themes”. Copying and modifying an existing theme is also possible, but it is not recommended,
as it may need more work to maintain if the modifications are small.
You use a theme by specifying it with the @Theme annotation for the UI class of the application
as follows:
@Theme("mytheme")
public class MyUI extends UI {
@Override
protected void init(VaadinRequest request) {
...
}
}
A theme can contain alternate styles for user interface components, which can be changed as
needed.
In addition to style sheets, a theme can contain HTML templates for custom layouts used with
CustomLayout. See Kohta 6.14, ”Custom Layouts” for details.
262
Overview
Themes
Resources provided in a theme can also be accessed using the ThemeResource class, as
described in Kohta 4.4.4, ”Theme Resources”. This allows displaying theme resources in
component icons, in the Image component, and other such uses.
8.2. Introduction to Cascading Style Sheets
Cascading Style Sheets or CSS is the basic technique to separate the appearance of a web page
from the content represented in HTML. In this section, we give an introduction to CSS and look
how they are relevant to software development with Vaadin.
8.2.1. CSS Information Sources
As we can only give a short intruction in this book, we encourage you to refer to the rich literature
on CSS and the many resources available in the web. You can find the authoratitative
specifications of CSS standards from the W3C websiteand other literature, references, and
tutorials from the Open Directory Project page on CSS, as well as from other sources.
8.2.1. Applying CSS to HTML
Let us consider the following HTML document that contains various markup elements for formatting
text. Vaadin UIs work in essentially similar documents, even though they use somewhat different
elements to draw the user interface.
<html>
<head>
<title>My Page</title>
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"
href="mystylesheet.css"/>
</head>
<body>
<p>This is a paragraph</p>
<p>This is another paragraph</p>
<table>
<tr>
<td>This is a table cell</td>
<td>This is another table cell</td>
</tr>
</table>
</body>
</html>
The HTML elements that will be styled later by matching CSS rules are emphasized above.
The <link> element in the HTML header defines the used CSS stylesheet. The definition is
automatically generated by Vaadin in the HTML page that loads the UI of the application. A
stylesheet can also be embedded in the HTML document itself, as is done when optimizing their
loading in Vaadin TouchKit, for example.
8.2.2. Basic CSS Rules
A stylesheet contains a set of rules that can match the HTML elements in the page. Each rule
consists of one or more selectors, separated with commas, and a declaration block enclosed in
curly braces. A declaration block contains a list of property statements. Each property has a label
and a value, separated with a colon. A property statement ends with a semicolon.
Introduction to Cascading Style Sheets
263
Themes
Let us look at an example that matches certain elements in the simple HTML document given in
the previous section:
p, td {
color: blue;
}
td {
background: yellow;
font-weight: bold;
}
The p and td are element type selectors that match with <p> and <td> elements in HTML,
respectively. The first rule matches with both elements, while the second matches only with <td>
elements. Let us assume that you have saved the above style sheet with the name
mystylesheet.css and consider the following HTML file located in the same folder.
Kuva 8.2. Simple Styling by Element Type
Style Inheritance in CSS
CSS has inheritance where contained elements inherit the properties of their parent elements.
For example, let us change the above example and define it instead as follows:
table {
color: blue;
background: yellow;
}
All elements contained in the <table> element would have the same properties. For example,
the text in the contained <td> elements would be in blue color.
HTML Element Types
HTML has a number of element types, each of which accepts a specific set of properties. The
<div> elements are generic elements that can be used to create almost any layout and formatting
that can be created with a specific HTML element type. Vaadin uses <div> elements extensively
to draw the UI, especially in layout components.
Matching elements by their type as shown above is, however, rarely if ever used in style sheets
for Vaadin applications. We used it above, because it is the normal way in regular HTML
documents that use the various HTML elements for formatting text, but it is not applicable in
Vaadin UIs that consist mostly of <div> elements. Instead, you need to match by element class,
as described next.
8.2.3. Matching by Element Class
Matching HTML elements by the class attribute is the most common form of matching in Vaadin
stylesheets. It is also possible to match with the identifier of a unique HTML element.
264
Matching by Element Class
Themes
The class of an HTML element is defined with the class attribute as follows:
<html>
<body>
<p class="normal">This is the first paragraph</p>
<p class="another">This is the second paragraph</p>
<table>
<tr>
<td class="normal">This is a table cell</td>
<td class="another">This is another table cell</td>
</tr>
</table>
</body>
</html>
The class attributes of HTML elements can be matched in CSS rules with a selector notation
where the class name is written after a period following the element name. This gives us full
control of matching elements by their type and class.
p.normal
p.another
td.normal
td.another
{color: red;}
{color: blue;}
{background: pink;}
{background: yellow;}
The page would look as shown below:
Kuva 8.3. Matching HTML Element Type and Class
We can also match solely by the class by using the universal selector * for the element name,
for example *.normal. The universal selector can also be left out altogether so that we use just
the class name following the period, for example .normal.
.normal {
color: red;
}
.another {
blackground: yellow;
}
In this case, the rule will match with all elements of the same class regardless of the element
type. The result is shown in Kuva 8.4, ”Matching Only HTML Element Class”. This example
illustrates a technique to make style sheets compatible regardless of the exact HTML element
used in drawing a component.
Matching by Element Class
265
Themes
Kuva 8.4. Matching Only HTML Element Class
To ensure future compatibility, we recommend that you use only matching based on the classes
and do not match for specific HTML element types in CSS rules, because Vaadin may change
the exact HTML implementation how components are drawn in the future. For example, Vaadin
earlier used <div> element to draw Button components, but later it was changed to use the
special-purpose <button> element in HTML. Because of using the v-button style class in the
CSS rules for the button, styling it has changed only very little.
8.2.4. Matching by Descendant Relationship
CSS allows matching HTML by their containment relationship. For example, consider the following
HTML fragment:
<body>
<p class="mytext">Here is some text inside a
paragraph element</p>
<table class="mytable">
<tr>
<td class="mytext">Here is text inside
a table and inside a td element.</td>
</tr>
</table>
</body>
Matching by the class name .mytext alone would match both the <p> and <td> elements. If
we want to match only the table cell, we could use the following selector:
.mytable .mytext {color: blue;}
To match, a class listed in a rule does not have to be an immediate descendant of the previous
class, but just a descendant. For example, the selector ".v-panel .v-button" would match
all elements with class .v-button somewhere inside an element with class .v-panel.
8.2.5. Importance of Cascading
CSS or Cascading Stylesheets are, as the name implies, about cascading stylesheets, which
means applying the stylesheet rules according to their origin, importance, scope, specifity, and
order.
For exact rules for cascading in CSS, see the section Cascading in the CSS specification.
Importance
Declarations in CSS rules can be made override declarations with otherwise higher priority by
annotating them as !important. For example, an inline style setting made in the style attribute
of an HTML element has a higher specificity than any rule in a CSS stylesheet.
<div class="v-button" style="height: 20px;">...
You can override the higher specificity with the !important annotation as follows:
266
Matching by Descendant Relationship
Themes
.v-button {height: 30px !important;}
Specificity
A rule that specifies an element with selectors more closely overrides ones that specify it less
specifically. With respect to the element class selectors most commonly used in Vaadin themes,
the specificity is determined by the number of class selectors in the selector.
.v-button {}
.v-verticallayout .v-button {}
.v-app .v-verticallayout .v-button {}
In the above example, the last rule would have the highest specificity and would match.
As noted earlier, style declarations given in the style attribute of a HTML element have higher
specificity than declarations in a CSS rule, except if the !important annotation is given.
See the CSS3 selectors module specification for details regarding how the specificity is computed.
Order
CSS rules given later have higher priority than ones given earlier. For example, in the following,
the latter rule overrides the former and the color will be black:
.v-button {color: white}
.v-button {color: black}
As specificity has a higher cascading priority than order, you could make the first rule have higher
priority by adding specificity as follows:
.v-app .v-button {color: white}
.v-button {color: black}
The order is important to notice in certain cases, because Vaadin does not guarantee the order
in which CSS stylesheets are loaded in the browser, which can in fact be random and result in
very unexpected behavior. This is not relevant for Sass stylesheets, which are compiled to a
single stylesheet. For plain CSS stylesheets, such as add-on or TouchKit stylesheets, the order
can be relevant.
8.2.6. Style Class Hierarchy of a Vaadin UI
Let us give a real case in a Vaadin UI by considering a simple Vaadin UI with a label and a button
inside a vertical layout:
// UI has v-ui style class
@Theme("mytheme")
public class HelloWorld extends UI {
@Override
protected void init(VaadinRequest request) {
// VerticalLayout has v-verticallayout style
VerticalLayout content = new VerticalLayout();
setContent(content);
// Label has v-label style
content.addComponent(new Label("Hello World!"));
// Button has v-button style
content.addComponent(new Button("Push Me!",
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267
Themes
new Button.ClickListener() {
@Override
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
Notification.show("Pushed!");
}
}));
}
}
The UI will look by default as shown in Kuva 8.5, ”An Unthemed Vaadin UI”. By using a HTML
inspector such as Firebug, you can view the HTML tree and the element classes and applied
styles for each element.
Kuva 8.5. An Unthemed Vaadin UI
268
Style Class Hierarchy of a Vaadin UI
Themes
Now, let us look at the HTML element class structure of the UI, as we can see it in the HTML
inspector:
<body class="v-generated-body v-ff v-ff20 v-ff200 v-gecko v-lin"
scroll="auto">
<div id="bookexamplesvaadin7helloworld-447164942"
class="v-app mytheme">
<div class="v-ui v-scrollable"
tabindex="1" style="height: 100%; width: 100%;">
<div class="v-loading-indicator first"
style="position: absolute; display: none;"></div>
<div class="v-verticallayout v-layout v-vertical
v-widget v-has-width"
style="width: 100%;">
<div class="v-slot">
<div class="v-label v-widget v-has-width"
style="width: 100%;">Hello World!</div>
</div>
<div class="v-slot">
<div class="v-button v-widget"
tabindex="0" role="button">
<span class="v-button-wrap">
<span class="v-button-caption">Push Me!</span>
</span>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
...
<body>
Now, consider the following theme where we set the colors and margins of various elements.
The theme is actually a Sass theme.
@import "../reindeer/reindeer.scss";
@mixin mytheme {
@include reindeer;
/* White background for the entire UI */
.v-ui {
background: white;
}
/* All labels have white text on black background */
.v-label {
background: black;
color: white;
font-size: 24pt;
line-height: 24pt;
padding: 5px;
}
/* All buttons have blue caption and some margin */
.v-button {
margin: 10px;
/* A nested selector to increase specificity */
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.v-button-caption {
color: blue;
}
}
}
The look has changed as shown in Kuva 8.6, ”Themed Vaadin UI”.
Kuva 8.6. Themed Vaadin UI
An element can have multiple classes separated with a space. With multiple classes, a CSS rule
matches an element if any of the classes match. This feature is used in many Vaadin components
to allow matching based on the state of the component. For example, when the mouse is over
a Link component, over class is added to the component. Most of such styling is a feature of
Google Web Toolkit.
8.2.7. Notes on Compatibility
CSS is a standard continuously under development. It was first proposed in 1994.The specification
of CSS is maintained by the CSS Working Group of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
Versioned with backward-compatible "levels", CSS Level 1 was published in 1996, Level 2 in
1998, and the ongoing development of CSS Level 3 started in 1998. CSS3 is divided into a
number of separate modules, each developed and progressing separately, and many of the
modules are already Level 4.
While the support for CSS has been universal in all graphical web browsers since at least 1995,
the support has been very incomplete at times and there still exists an unfortunate number of
incompatibilities between browsers. While we have tried to take these incompatibilities into account
in the built-in themes in Vaadin, you need to consider them while developing your own themes.
Compatibility issues are detailed in various CSS handbooks.
8.3. Syntactically Awesome Stylesheets (Sass)
Vaadin uses Sass for stylesheets. Sass is an extension of CSS3 that adds nested rules, variables,
mixins, selector inheritance, and other features to CSS. Sass supports two formats for stylesheet:
Vaadin themes are written in SCSS (.scss), which is a superset of CSS3, but Sass also allows
a more concise indented format (.sass).
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Sass can be used in two basic ways in Vaadin applications, either by compiling SCSS files to
CSS or by doing the compilation on the fly. The latter way is possible if the development mode
is enabled for the Vaadin servlet, as described in Kohta 4.8.6, ”Other Servlet Configuration
Parameters”.
8.3.1. Sass Overview
Variables
Sass allows defining variables that can be used in the rules.
$textcolor: blue;
.v-button-caption {
color: $textcolor;
}
The above rule would be compiled to CSS as:
.v-button-caption {
color: blue;
}
Also mixins can have variables as parameters, as explained later.
Nesting
Sass supports nested rules, which are compiled into inside-selectors. For example:
.v-app {
background: yellow;
.mybutton {
font-style: italic;
.v-button-caption {
color: blue;
}
}
}
is compiled as:
.v-app {
background: yellow;
}
.v-app .mybutton {
font-style: italic;
}
.v-app .mybutton .v-button-caption {
color: blue;
}
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Themes
Mixins
Mixins are rules that can be included in other rules. You define a mixin rule by prefixing it with
the @mixin keyword and the name of the mixin. You can then use @include to apply it to
another rule. You can also pass parameters to it, which are handled as local variables in the
mixin.
For example:
@mixin mymixin {
background: yellow;
}
@mixin othermixin($param) {
margin: $param;
}
.v-button-caption {
@include mymixin;
@include othermixin(10px);
}
The above SCSS would translated to the following CSS:
.v-button-caption {
background: yellow;
margin: 10px;
}
You can also have nested rules in a mixin, which makes them especially powerful. Mixing in rules
is used when extending Vaadin themes, as described in Kohta 8.4.1, ”Sass Themes”.
Vaadin themes are defined as mixins to allow for certain uses, such as different themes for
different portlets in a portal.
8.3.2. Sass Basics with Vaadin
We are not going to give in-depth documentation of Sass and refer you to its excellent
documentation at http://sass-lang.com/. In the following, we give just basic introduction to using
it with Vaadin.
You can create a new Sass-based theme with the Eclipse plugin, as described in Kohta 8.5,
”Creating a Theme in Eclipse”.
8.3.3. Compiling Sass Themes
Compiling On the Fly
The easiest way to use Sass themes is to let the Vaadin servlet compile them on the run. In this
case, the SCSS source files are placed in the theme folder. Compilation is done each time the
styles.css is requested from the server.
The on-the-fly compilation takes a bit time, so it is only available when the Vaadin servlet is in
the development mode, as described in Kohta 4.8.6, ”Other Servlet Configuration Parameters”.
Also, it requires the theme compiler and all its dependencies to be in the class path of the servlet.
For production, you should compile the theme to CSS, as described next.
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Compiling in Eclipse
If using Eclipse and the Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse, its project wizard creates a Sass theme. It
includes Compile Theme command in the toolbar to compile the project theme to CSS. Another
command compiles also the widget set.
Kuva 8.7. Compiling Sass Theme
The WebContent/VAADIN/mytheme/styles.scss and any Sass sources included by it are
compiled to styles.css.
Compiling with Maven
To compile the themes with Maven, you need to include the built-in themes as a dependency:
...
<dependencies>
...
<dependency>
<groupId>com.vaadin</groupId>
<artifactId>vaadin-themes</artifactId>
<version>${vaadin.version}</version>
</dependency>
</dependencies>
...
This is automatically included at least in the vaadin-archetype-application archetype for
Vaadin applications. The actual theme compilation is most conveniently done by the Vaadin
Maven Plugin with update-theme and compile-theme goals.
...
<plugin>
<groupId>com.vaadin</groupId>
<artifactId>vaadin-maven-plugin</artifactId>
...
<executions>
<execution>
...
<goals>
<goal>clean</goal>
<goal>resources</goal>
<goal>update-theme</goal>
<goal>update-widgetset</goal>
<goal>compile-theme</goal>
<goal>compile</goal>
</goals>
</execution>
</executions>
Compiling Sass Themes
273
Themes
Once these are in place, the theme is compiled as part of relevant lifecycle phases, such as
package.
mvn package
You can also compile just the theme with the compile-theme goal:
mvn vaadin:compile-theme
Compiling in Command-line
Sass style sheets can be compiled to CSS, with the styles.css of a custom theme as the
compilation target. When compiled before deployment, the source files do not need to be in the
theme folder.
java -cp '../../../WEB-INF/lib/*' com.vaadin.sass.SassCompiler styles.scss
styles.css
The -cp parameter should point to the class path where the Vaadin JARs are located. In the
above example, they are assumed to be locate in the WEB-INF/lib folder of the web application.
If you have loaded the Vaadin libraries using Ivy, as is the case with projects created with the
Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse, the Vaadin libraries are stored in Ivy's local repository. Its folder
hierarchy is somewhat scattered, so we recommend that you retrieve the libraries to a single
folder. We recommend using an Ant script as is described next.
Compiling with Ant
With Apache Ant, you can easily resolve the dependencies with Ivy and compile the theme with
the Theme Compiler included in Vaadin as follows. This build step can be conveniently included
in a WAR build script.
Start with the following configuration:
<project xmlns:ivy="antlib:org.apache.ivy.ant"
name="My Project" basedir="../"
default="package-war">
<target name="configure">
<!-- Where project source files are located -->
<property name="src-location" value="src" />
... other project build definitions ...
<!-- Name of the theme -->
<property name="theme" value="book-examples"/>
<!-- Compilation result directory -->
<property name="result" value="build/result"/>
</target>
<!-- Initialize build -->
<target name="init" depends="configure">
<!-- Construct and check classpath -->
<path id="compile.classpath">
<!-- Source code to be compiled -->
<pathelement path="${src-location}" />
<!-- Vaadin libraries and dependencies -->
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Compiling Sass Themes
Themes
<fileset dir="${result}/lib">
<include name="*.jar"/>
</fileset>
</path>
<mkdir dir="${result}"/>
</target>
You should first resolve all Vaadin libraries to a single directory, which you can use for deployment,
but also for theme compilation.
<target name="resolve" depends="init">
<ivy:retrieve
pattern="${result}/lib/[module]-[type]-[artifact]-[revision].[ext]"/>
</target>
Then, you can compile the theme as follows:
<!-- Compile theme -->
<target name="compile-theme"
depends="init, resolve">
<delete dir="${result}/VAADIN/themes/${theme}"/>
<mkdir dir="${result}/VAADIN/themes/${theme}"/>
<java classname="com.vaadin.sass.SassCompiler"
fork="true">
<classpath>
<path refid="compile.classpath"/>
</classpath>
<arg value="WebContent/VAADIN/themes/${theme}/styles.scss"/>
<arg value="${result}/VAADIN/themes/${theme}/styles.css"/>
</java>
<!-- Copy theme resources -->
<copy todir="${result}/VAADIN/themes/${theme}">
<fileset dir="WebContent/VAADIN/themes/${theme}">
<exclude name="**/*.scss"/>
</fileset>
</copy>
</target>
</project>
8.4. Creating and Using Themes
Custom themes are placed in the VAADIN/themes folder of the web application, in an Eclipse
project under the WebContent folder or src/main/webapp in Maven projects, as was illustrated
in Kuva 8.1, ”Contents of a Theme”. This location is fixed. You need to have a theme folder for
each theme you use in your application, although applications rarely need more than a single
theme.
8.4.1. Sass Themes
You can use Sass themes in Vaadin in two ways, either by compiling them to CSS by yourself
or by letting the Vaadin servlet compile them for you on-the-fly when the theme CSS is requested
by the browser, as described in Kohta 8.3.3, ”Compiling Sass Themes”.
Creating and Using Themes
275
Themes
To define a Sass theme with the name mytheme, you must place a file with name styles.scss
in the theme folder VAADIN/themes/mytheme. If no styles.css exists in the folder, the Sass
file is compiled on-the-fly when the theme is requested by a browser.
We recommend that you organize the theme in at least two SCSS files so that you import the
actual theme from a Sass file that is named more uniquely than the styles.scss, to make it
distinquishable in the editor. This organization is how the Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse creates a
new theme.
If you use Vaadin add-ons that contain themes, Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse and Maven automatically
add them to the addons.scss file.
Theme SCSS
We recommend that the rules in a theme should be prefixed with a selector for the theme name.
You can do the prefixing in Sass by enclosing the rules in a nested rule with a selector for the
theme name.
Themes are defined as Sass mixins, so after you import the mixin definitions, you can @include
them in the theme rule as follows:
@import "addons.scss";
@import "mytheme.scss";
.mytheme {
@include addons;
@include mytheme;
}
However, this is mainly necessary if you use the UI in portlets, each of which can have its own
theme, or in the special circumstance that the theme has rules that use empty parent selector &
to refer to the theme name.
Otherwise, you can safely leave the nested theme selector out as follows:
@import "addons.scss";
@import "mytheme.scss";
@include addons;
@include mytheme;
The actual theme should be defined as follows, as a mixin that includes the base theme.
@import "../reindeer/reindeer.scss";
@mixin mytheme {
@include reindeer;
/* An actual theme rule */
.v-button {
color: blue;
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}
}
8.4.2. Plain Old CSS Themes
In addition to Sass themes, you can create plain old CSS themes. CSS theme are more restricted
than Sass styles - an application can only have one CSS theme while you can have multiple
Sass themes.
A CSS theme is defined in a styles.css file in the VAADIN/themes/mytheme folder. You
need to import the legacy-styles.css of the built-in theme as follows:
@import "../reindeer/legacy-styles.css";
.v-app {
background: yellow;
}
8.4.3. Styling Standard Components
Each user interface component in Vaadin has a CSS style class that you can use to control the
appearance of the component. Many components have additional sub-elements that also allow
styling. You can add context-specific stylenames with addStyleName(). Notice that
getStyleName() returns only the custom stylenames, not the built-in stylenames for the
component.
Please see the section on each component for a description of its styles. Most of the stylenames
are determined in the client-side widget of each component. The easiest way to find out the styles
of the elements is to use a HTML inspector such as FireBug.
Some client-side components or component styles can be shared by different server-side
components. For example, v-textfield style is used for all text input boxes in components,
in addition to TextField.
8.4.4. Built-in Themes
Vaadin currently includes the following built-in themes:
• valo, the primary theme in Vaadin 7.3 (upcoming)
• reindeer, the primary theme in Vaadin 6 and 7
• chameleon, an easily customizable theme
• runo, the default theme in IT Mill Toolkit 5
• liferay, for Liferay portlets
In addition, there is the base theme, which should not be used directly, but is extended by the
other built-in themes, except valo.
The built-in themes are provided in the respective VAADIN/themes/<theme>/styles.scss
stylesheets in the vaadin-themes JAR. Also the precompiled CSS files are included, in case
you want to use the themes directly.
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277
Themes
Various constants related to the built-in themes are defined in the theme classes in
com.vaadin.ui.themes package. These are mostly special style names for specific components.
@Theme("runo")
public class MyUI extends UI {
@Override
protected void init(VaadinRequest request) {
...
Panel panel = new Panel("Regular Panel in the Runo Theme");
panel.addComponent(new Button("Regular Runo Button"));
// A button with the "small" style
Button smallButton = new Button("Small Runo Button");
smallButton.addStyleName(Runo.BUTTON_SMALL);
Panel lightPanel = new Panel("Light Panel");
lightPanel.addStyleName(Runo.PANEL_LIGHT);
lightPanel.addComponent(
new Label("With addStyleName(\"light\")"));
...
The example with the Runo theme is shown in Kuva 8.8, ”Runo Theme”.
Kuva 8.8. Runo Theme
The built-in themes come with a custom icon font, FontAwesome, which is used for icons in the
theme, and which you can use as font icons, as described in Kohta 11.17, ”Font Icons”.
Serving Built-In Themes Statically
The built-in themes included in the Vaadin library JAR are served dynamically from
the JAR by the servlet. Serving themes and widget sets statically by the web server
is more efficient. To do so, you need to extract the VAADIN/ directories from the
JAR to the web content directory (WebContent in Eclipse or src/main/webapp
in Maven projects).
$ cd WebContent
$ unzip path-to/vaadin-server-7.x.x.jar 'VAADIN/*'
$ unzip path-to/vaadin-themes-7.x.x.jar 'VAADIN/*'
$ unzip path-to/vaadin-client-compiled-7.x.x.jar 'VAADIN/*'
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Built-in Themes
Themes
You can also serve static content from a front-end caching server, which reduces
the load of the application server. In portals, you install the themes globally in the
portal as described in Kohta 12.5.2, ”Installing Vaadin”.
Just make sure to update the static content when you upgrade to a newer version
of Vaadin.
Creation of a default theme for custom GWT widgets is described in Kohta 16.8, ”Styling a Widget”.
8.4.5. Add-on Themes
You can find more themes as add-ons from the Vaadin Directory. In addition, many component
add-ons contain a theme for the components they provide.
The add-on themes need to be included in the project theme. Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse and
Maven automatically include them in the addons.scss file in the project theme folder. It should
be included by the project theme.
8.5. Creating a Theme in Eclipse
The Eclipse plugin automatically creates a theme stub for new Vaadin projects. It also includes
a wizard for creating new custom themes. Do the following steps to create a new theme.
1. Select File New Other... in the main menu or right-click the Project Explorer and
select New Other.... A window will open.
2. In the Select a wizard step, select the Vaadin Vaadin Theme wizard.
Click Next to proceed to the next step.
3. In the Create a new Vaadin theme step, you have the following settings:
Project (mandatory)
The project in which the theme should be created.
Theme name (mandatory)
The theme name is used as the name of the theme folder and in a CSS tag (prefixed
with "v-theme-"), so it must be a proper identifier. Only latin alphanumerics,
underscore, and minus sign are allowed.
Modify application classes to use theme (optional)
The setting allows the wizard to write a code statement that enables the theme in
the constructor of the selected application (UI) class(es). If you need to control the
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279
Themes
theme with dynamic logic, you can leave the setting unchecked or change the
generated line later.
Click Finish to create the theme.
The wizard creates the theme folder under the WebContent/VAADIN/themes folder and the
actual style sheet as mytheme.scss and styles.scss files, as illustrated in Kuva 8.9, ”Newly
Created Theme”.
Kuva 8.9. Newly Created Theme
The created theme extends a built-in base theme with an @import statement. See the explanation
of theme inheritance in Kohta 8.4, ”Creating and Using Themes”. Notice that the reindeer
theme is not located in the widgetsets folder, but in the Vaadin JAR. See Kohta 8.4.4, ”Builtin Themes” for information for serving the built-in themes.
If you selected a UI class or classes in the Modify application classes to use theme in the
theme wizard, the wizard will add the @Theme annotation to the UI class.
If you later rename the theme in Eclipse, notice that changing the name of the folder will not
automatically change the @Theme annotation. You need to change such references to theme
names in the calls manually.
8.6. Valo Theme
Valo is the new built-in theme in Vaadin 7.3. It is included in prerelease versions. At least
7.3.0.alpha1 still requires using the standard Sass compiler (version 3.2) on command-line,
instead of the Vaadin Sass compiler.
Valo is the word for light in Finnish. For mere geographical reasons, Finland is obsessed with
light, with long winters without much sunlight but plenty of whiteness and long summer days
bathed in light. Light is one of the cornerstones of visual arts, perhaps the most important one.
A visual design begins from the use of light in an array of shades together with a color theory, to
create a unique color scheme that illustrates a unique idea. Valo incorporates the use of light in
its theoretical logic. It creates lines, borders, highlights, and shadows adaptively according to a
background color, always with contrasts pleasant to human visual perception. A color theory is
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Themes
used to determine auxiliary colors that blend gently with the background. The static art is
complemented with responsive animations.
8.6.1. Basic Use
Valo is used just like other themes. Its optional parameters must be given before the @import
statement.
// Modify the base color of the theme
$v-app-background-color: hsl(200, 50%, 50%);
// Import valo after setting the parameters
@import "../valo/valo";
.mythemename {
@include valo;
// Your theme's rules go here
}
If you need to override mixins or function definitions in the valo theme, you must do that after the
import statement, but before including the valo mixin.
8.6.2. Common Settings
In the following, we describe the optional parameters that control the visual appearance of the
Valo theme. In addition to the ones given here, component styles have their own parameters,
listed in the sections describing the components in the other chapters.
General Settings
$v-app-loading-text (default: "")
A static text that is shown while the client-side engine is being loaded and started.
$v-line-height (default: 1.55)
Base line height for all widgets.
$v-app-background-color (default: hsl(210, 0%, 98%))
The background color in any way allowed in CSS: hexadesimal color code, RGB/A
value, HSL/A value, or a color name. If the color is dark (has low luminance), a light
foreground (text) color that gives high contrast with the background is automatically
used.
Font Settings
$v-font-size (default: 16px)
Base font size. It should be specified in pixels.
$v-font-weight (default: 300)
Font weight for normal fonts. It should be defined with a numeric value instead of
symbolic.
$v-font-color (default: computed)
Foreground text color. The default is computed from the background color so that it
gives a high contrast with the background.
Basic Use
281
Themes
$v-font-family (default: "Open Sans", sans-serif)
Font family and fallback fonts. The default font Open Sans is a web font included in
the Valo theme. Other used Valo fonts must be specified in the list to enable them.
See Kohta 8.6.3, ”Valo Fonts”.
$v-caption-font-size (default: round($v-font-size * 0.9))
Font size for component captions. The value should be a pixel value.
$v-caption-font-weight (default: max(400, $v-font-weight))
Font weight for captions. It should be defined with a numeric value instead of symbolic.
Layout Settings
$v-unit-size (default: round(2.3 * $v-font-size))
Unit size for various measures. The value must be specified in pixels, with a suitable
range of 18-50.
$v-layout-margin-top, $v-layout-margin-right, $v-layout-margin-bottom,
$v-layout-margin-left (default: $v-unit-size)
Layout margin sizes when the margin is enabled with setMargin(), as described in
Kohta 6.13.5, ”Layout Margins”.
$v-layout-spacing-vertical and $v-layout-spacing-horizontal (default:
round($v-unit-size/3))
Amount of vertical or horizontal space when spacing is enabled for a layout with
setSpacing(), as described in Kohta 6.13.4, ”Layout Cell Spacing”.
Component Features
The following settings apply to various graphical features of some components.
$v-border-width (default: 1px)
Border thickness for components that have one. The measure must be specified in
pixels.
$v-border-radius (default: 4px)
Corner radius for components that have a border. The measure must be specified in
pixels.
$v-gradient-style (default: v-linear)
Name of the color gradient style for components that have a gradient.
$v-gradient-depth (default: 8%)
Gradient depth.
$v-bevel-style (default: inset 0 1px 0 v-hilite, inset 0 -1px 0 v-shade)
CSS shadow style to create bevels in some components.The value is a list of a highlight
and shade insets.
$v-bevel-depth (default: 25%)
The "depth" of a bevel shadow in a component. The actual amount of highlight and
shade is computed from the depth.
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Common Settings
Themes
$v-focus-style (default: 0 0 0 2px v-focus-color)
Shadow specification for the field focus indicator: horizontal shadow position in pixels,
vertical shadow position in pixels, blur distance in pixels, spread distance in pixels,
and the color. The value v-focus-color is substituted with the value of $v-focuscolor.
$v-focus-color (default: null)
Color for the field focus indicator. null value defaults to a high-contrast color computed
from the background color.
$v-animations-enabled (default: true)
Specifies whether various CSS animations are used.
$v-hover-styles-enabled (default: true)
Specifies whether various :hover styles are used.
$v-disabled-opacity (default: 0.7)
Opacity of disabled components, which are described in Kohta 5.3.3, ”Enabled”.
$v-selection-color (default: null)
Color of selection indicator in selection and various other components. The null value
defaults to a high-contrast color computed from the background and foreground colors.
$v-default-field-width (default: $v-unit-size * 5)
Default width of certain field components, unless overridden with setWidth().
$v-error-indicator-color (default: #ed473b)
Color of the component error indicator.
Theme Compilation and Optimization
$v-relative-paths (default: false)
This flags specifies whether relative URL paths are relative to the currently parsed
SCSS file or to the compilation root file, so that paths are correct for different resources.
Vaadin theme compiler parses URL paths differently from the regular Sass compiler
(Vaadin modifies relative URL paths). Use false for Ruby compiler and true for
Vaadin compiler.
$v-included-components (default: component list)
Theme optimization parameter to specify the included component themes, as described
in Kohta 8.6.5, ”Theme Optimization”.
$v-valo-include-common-stylenames (default: true)
Theme optimization parameter that specifies whether the common component
stylenames, described in Kohta 8.6.4, ”Component Styles”, should be included in the
theme.
8.6.3. Valo Fonts
Valo includes the following custom fonts:
• Open Sans
• Source Sans Pro
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Themes
• Roboto
• Lato
• Lora
The used fonts must be specified with the $v-font-family parameter for Valo, in a fallback
order. A font family is used in decreasing order of preference, in case a font with higher preference
is not available in the browser.You can specify any font families and generic families that browsers
may support. In addition to the primary font family, you can use also others in your application.
To enable using the fonts included in Valo, you need to list them in the variable.
$v-font-family: 'Open Sans', sans-serif, 'Source Sans Pro';
Above, we specify Open Sans as the preferred primary font, with any sans-serif font that the
browser supports as a fallback. In addition, we include the Source Sans Pro as an auxiliary font
that we can use in custom rules as follows:
.v-label pre {
font-family: 'Source Sans Pro', monospace;
}
This would specify using the font in any Label component with the PREFORMATTED content mode.
8.6.4. Component Styles
Many components have component-specific styles, such as "small", "large", "light", etc.
You can specify the component styles with addStyleName(). The styles are documented in
the component sections elsewhere in the book.
Component styles are optional, but enabled by default. They can be disabled with the $v-valoinclude-common-stylenames parameter, as described in Kohta 8.6.2, ”Common Settings”.
The following variables control some common component styles:
$v-scaling-factor--small (default: 0.8)
A scaling multiplier for "small" component styles.
$v-scaling-factor--large (default: 1.2)
A scaling multiplier for "large" component styles.
8.6.5. Theme Optimization
Valo theme allows optimizing the size of the compiled theme CSS by including the rules for only
the components actually used in the application. The included component styles can be specified
in the $v-included-components variable, which by default includes all components. The
variable should include a comma-separated list of component names in lower-case letters.
For example, if your UI contains just VerticalLayout, TextField, and Button components, you
could define the variable as follows:
$v-included-components:
verticallayout,
textfield,
button;
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8.7. Custom Fonts
In addition to using the built-in fonts of the browser and the web fonts included in the Vaadin
themes, you can use custom web fonts.
8.7.1. Loading Fonts
You can load web fonts with the font mixin as follows:
@include font(MyFontFamily,
'../../mytheme/fonts/myfontfamily');
The statement must be given in the styles.scss file outside the .mytheme {} block.
The first parameter is the name of the font family, which is used to identify the font. If the font
family name contains spaces, you need to use single or double quotes around the name.
The second parameter is the base name of the font files without an extension, including a relative
path. Notice that the path is relative to the base theme, where the mixin is defined, not the used
theme. We recommend placing custom font files under a fonts folder in a theme.
Not all browsers support any single font file format, so the base name is appended with .ttf,
.eot, .woff, or .svg suffix for the font file suitable for a user's browser.
8.7.2. Using Custom Fonts
After loaded, you can use a custom font, or actually font family, by its name in CSS and otherwise.
.mystyle {
font-family: MyFontFamily;
}
Again, if the font family name contains spaces, you need to use single or double quotes around
the name.
8.8. Responsive Themes
The Responsive component extension enables size range conditions in CSS selectors, allowing
conditional CSS rules that respond to size changes in the browser window on the client-side.
See the Vaadin Blog article on Responsive design for some additional information.
You can use the Responsive extension to extend either a component, typically a layout, or the
entire UI. You specify the extended component in the constructor.
// Have some component with an appropriate style name
Label c = new Label("Here be text");
c.addStyleName("myresponsive");
content.addComponent(c);
// Enable Responsive CSS selectors for the component
new Responsive(c);
You can now use width-range and height-range conditions in CSS selectors as follows:
/* Basic settings for all sizes */
.myresponsive {
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Themes
padding: 5px;
line-height: 36pt;
}
/* Small size */
.myresponsive[width-range~="0-300px"] {
background: orange;
font-size: 16pt;
}
/* Medium size */
.myresponsive[width-range~="301px-600px"] {
background: azure;
font-size: 24pt;
}
/* Anything bigger */
.myresponsive[width-range~="601px-"] {
background: palegreen;
font-size: 36pt;
}
You can have overlapping size ranges, in which case all the selectors matching the current size
are enabled.
8.8.1. Flexible Wrapping
You can use the CssLayout to have automatic wrap-around when the components in the layout
would go off right side of the layout. Components that wrap must, however, have either undefined
or fixed width, and thereby can not utilize the full area of the screen. With the Responsive
extension, you can have more flexible wrap-around that gives the component tiles maximum
width.
In the following, we have a text and image box, which are laid out horizontally with 50-50 sizing
if the screen is wide enough, but wrap to a vertical layout if the screen is narrow.
CssLayout layout = new CssLayout();
layout.setWidth("100%");
layout.addStyleName("flexwrap");
content.addComponent(layout);
// Enable Responsive CSS selectors for the layout
new Responsive(layout);
Label title = new Label("Space is big, really big");
title.addStyleName("title");
layout.addComponent(title);
Label description = new Label("This is a " +
"long description of the image shown " +
"on the right or below, depending on the " +
"screen width. The text here could continue long.");
description.addStyleName("itembox");
description.setSizeUndefined();
layout.addComponent(description);
Image image = new Image(null,
new ThemeResource("img/planets/Earth.jpg"));
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image.addStyleName("itembox");
layout.addComponent(image);
The SCSS could be as follows:
/* Various general settings */
.flexwrap {
background: black;
color: white;
.title {
font-weight: bold;
font-size: 20px;
line-height: 30px;
padding: 5px;
}
.itembox {
white-space: normal;
vertical-align: top;
}
.itembox.v-label {padding: 5px}
}
.flexwrap[width-range~="0-499px"] {
.itembox {width: 100%}
}
.flexwrap[width-range~="500px-"] {
.itembox {width: 50%}
}
The layout in the wide mode is shown in Kuva 8.10, ”Flexible Wrapping”.
Kuva 8.10. Flexible Wrapping
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Themes
You could also play with the display: block vs display: inline-block properties.
Notice that, while the Responsive extension makes it possible to do various CSS trickery with
component sizes, the normal rules for component and layout sizes apply, as described in
Kohta 6.13.1, ”Layout Size” and elsewhere, and you should always check the size behaviour of
the components. In the above example, we set the label to have undefined width, which disables
word wrap, so we had to re-enable it.
8.8.2. Toggling the Display Property
The display property allows especially powerful ways to offer radically different UIs for different
screen sizes by enabling and disabling UI elements as needed. For example, you could disable
some parts of the UI when the space gets too small, but bring forth navigation buttons that, when
clicked, add component styles to switch to the hidden parts.
In the following, we simply show alternative components based on screen width:
CssLayout layout = new CssLayout();
layout.setWidth("100%");
layout.addStyleName("toggledisplay");
content.addComponent(layout);
// Enable Responsive CSS selectors for the layout
new Responsive(layout);
Label enoughspace =
new Label("This space is big, mindbogglingly big");
enoughspace.addStyleName("enoughspace");
layout.addComponent(enoughspace);
Label notenoughspace = new Label("Quite small space");
notenoughspace.addStyleName("notenoughspace");
layout.addComponent(notenoughspace);
The SCSS could be as follows:
/* Common settings */
.toggledisplay {
.enoughspace, .notenoughspace {
color: white;
padding: 5px;
}
.notenoughspace { /* Really small */
background: red;
font-weight: normal;
font-size: 10px;
line-height: 15px;
}
.enoughspace { /* Really big */
background: darkgreen;
font-weight: bold;
font-size: 20px;
line-height: 30px;
}
}
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/* Quite little space */
.toggledisplay[width-range~="0-499px"] {
.enoughspace
{display: none}
}
/* Plenty of space */
.toggledisplay[width-range~="500px-"] {
.notenoughspace {display: none}
}
8.8.3. Responsive Demos
You can find a simple responsive demo at demo.vaadin.com/responsive. It demonstrates the
flexible wrapping technique described in ”Flexible Wrapping”.
The Book Examples demo provides the examples given in this chapter, as well as some others.
The Parking demo for TouchKit, mentioned in Luku 20, Mobile Applications with TouchKit, uses
a responsive theme to adapt to mobile devices with different screen sizes and when the screen
orientation changes.
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289
290
luku 9
Binding
Components to
Data
9.1. Overview ................................................................................................ 291
9.2. Properties .............................................................................................. 293
9.3. Holding properties in Items .................................................................... 299
9.4. Creating Forms by Binding Fields to Items ............................................ 302
9.5. Collecting Items in Containers ............................................................... 307
This chapter describes the Vaadin Data Model and shows how you can use it to bind components
directly to data sources, such as database queries.
9.1. Overview
The Vaadin Data Model is one of the core concepts of the library. To allow the view (user interface
components) to access the data model of an application directly, we have introduced a standard
data interface.
The model allows binding user interface components directly to the data that they display and
possibly allow to edit. There are three nested levels of hierarchy in the data model: property,
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Binding Components to Data
item, and container. Using a spreadsheet application as an analogy, these would correspond to
a cell, a row, and a table, respectively.
Kuva 9.1. Vaadin Data Model
The Data Model is realized as a set of interfaces in the com.vaadin.data package. The package
contains the Property, Item, and Container interfaces, along with a number of more specialized
interfaces and classes.
Notice that the Data Model does not define data representation, but only interfaces. This leaves
the representation fully to the implementation of the containers. The representation can be almost
anything, such as a plain old Java object (POJO) structure, a filesystem, or a database query.
The Data Model is used heavily in the core user interface components of Vaadin, especially the
field components, that is, components that implement the Field interface or more typically extend
AbstractField, which defines many common features. A key feature of all the built-in field
components is that they can either maintain their data by themselves or be bound to an external
data source. The value of a field is always available through the Property interface. As more
than one component can be bound to the same data source, it is easy to implement various
viewer-editor patterns.
The relationships of the various interfaces are shown in Kuva 9.2, ”Interface Relationships in
Vaadin Data Model”; the value change event and listener interfaces are shown only for the
Property interface, while the notifier interfaces are omitted altogether.
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Kuva 9.2. Interface Relationships in Vaadin Data Model
The Data Model has many important and useful features, such as support for change notification.
Especially containers have many helper interfaces, including ones that allow indexing, ordering,
sorting, and filtering the data. Also Field components provide a number of features involving the
data model, such as buffering, validation, and lazy loading.
Vaadin provides a number of built-in implementations of the data model interfaces. The built-in
implementations are used as the default data models in many field components.
In addition to the built-in implementations, many data model implementations, such as containers,
are available as add-ons, either from the Vaadin Directory or from independent sources. Both
commercial and free implementations exist. The JPAContainer, described in Luku 19, Vaadin
JPAContainer, is the most often used conmmercial container add-on. The installation of add-ons
is described in Luku 17, Using Vaadin Add-ons. Notice that unlike with most regular add-on
components, you do not need to compile a widget set for add-ons that include just data model
implementations.
9.2. Properties
The Property interface is the base of the Vaadin Data Model. It provides a standardized API
for a single data value object that can be read (get) and written (set). A property is always typed,
but can optionally support data type conversions. The type of a property can be any Java class.
Optionally, properties can provide value change events for following their changes.
You can set the value of a property with setValue() and read with getValue().
In the following, we set and read the property value from a TextField component, which
implements the Property interface to allow accessing the field value.
final TextField tf = new TextField("Name");
Properties
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Binding Components to Data
// Set the value
tf.setValue("The text field value");
// When the field value is edited by the user
tf.addValueChangeListener(
new Property.ValueChangeListener() {
public void valueChange(ValueChangeEvent event) {
// Do something with the new value
layout.addComponent(new Label(tf.getValue()));
}
});
Changes in the property value usually fire a ValueChangeEvent, which can be handled with a
ValueChangeListener.The event object provides reference to the property with getProperty().
Note that its getValue() method returns the value with Object type, so you need to cast it to
the proper type.
Properties are in themselves unnamed.They are collected in items, which associate the properties
with names: the Property Identifiers or PIDs. Items can be further contained in containers and
are identified with Item Identifiers or IIDs. In the spreadsheet analogy, Property Identifiers would
correspond to column names and Item Identifiers to row names. The identifiers can be arbitrary
objects, but must implement the equals(Object) and hashCode() methods so that they can
be used in any standard Java Collection.
The Property interface can be utilized either by implementing the interface or by using some of
the built-in property implementations. Vaadin includes a Property interface implementation for
arbitrary function pairs and bean properties, with the MethodProperty class, and for simple
object properties, with the ObjectProperty class, as described later.
In addition to the simple components, selection components provide their current selection as
the property value. In single selection mode, the property is a single item identifier, while in
multiple selection mode it is a set of item identifiers. See the documentation of the selection
components for further details.
Components that can be bound to a property have an internal default data source object, typically
a ObjectProperty, which is described later. As all such components are viewers or editors, also
described later, so you can rebind a component to any data source with
setPropertyDataSource().
9.2.1. Property Viewers and Editors
The most important function of the Property as well as of the other data model interfaces is to
connect classes implementing the interface directly to editor and viewer classes. This means
connecting a data source (model) to a user interface component (views) to allow editing or viewing
the data model.
A property can be bound to a component implementing the Viewer interface with
setPropertyDataSource().
// Have a data model
ObjectProperty property =
new ObjectProperty("Hello", String.class);
// Have a component that implements Viewer
Label viewer = new Label();
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Binding Components to Data
// Bind it to the data
viewer.setPropertyDataSource(property);
You can use the same method in the Editor interface to bind a component that allows editing a
particular property type to a property.
// Have a data model
ObjectProperty property =
new ObjectProperty("Hello", String.class);
// Have a component that implements Viewer
TextField editor = new TextField("Edit Greeting");
// Bind it to the data
editor.setPropertyDataSource(property);
As all field components implement the Property interface, you can bind any component
implementing the Viewer interface to any field, assuming that the viewer is able the view the
object type of the field. Continuing from the above example, we can bind a Label to the TextField
value:
Label viewer = new Label();
viewer.setPropertyDataSource(editor);
// The value shown in the viewer is updated immediately
// after editing the value in the editor (once it
// loses the focus)
editor.setImmediate(true);
If a field has validators, as described in Kohta 5.4.5, ”Field Validation”, the validators are executed
before writing the value to the property data source, or by calling the validate() or commit()
for the field.
9.2.2. ObjectProperty Implementation
The ObjectProperty class is a simple implementation of the Property interface that allows storing
an arbitrary Java object.
// Have a component that implements Viewer interface
final TextField tf = new TextField("Name");
// Have a data model with some data
String myObject = "Hello";
// Wrap it in an ObjectProperty
ObjectProperty property =
new ObjectProperty(myObject, String.class);
// Bind the property to the component
tf.setPropertyDataSource(property);
9.2.3. Converting Between Property Type and Representation
Fields allow editing a certain type, such as a String or Date. The bound property, on the other
hand, could have some entirely different type. Conversion between a representation edited by
the field and the model defined in the property is handler with a converter that implements the
Converter interface.
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Binding Components to Data
Most common type conversions, such as between string and integer, are handled by the default
converters. They are created in a converter factory global in the application.
Basic Use of Converters
The setConverter(Converter) method sets the converter for a field. The method is defined
in AbstractField.
// Have an integer property
final ObjectProperty<Integer> property =
new ObjectProperty<Integer>(42);
// Create a TextField, which edits Strings
final TextField tf = new TextField("Name");
// Use a converter between String and Integer
tf.setConverter(new StringToIntegerConverter());
// And bind the field
tf.setPropertyDataSource(property);
The built-in converters are the following:
Taulu 9.1. Built-in Converters
Converter
Representation
Model
StringToIntegerConverter
String
Integer
StringToDoubleConverter
String
Double
StringToNumberConverter
String
Number
StringToBooleanConverter
String
Boolean
StringToDateConverter
String
Date
DateToLongConverter
Date
Long
In addition, there is a ReverseConverter that takes a converter as a parameter and reverses
the conversion direction.
If a converter already exists for a type, the setConverter(Class) retrieves the converter for
the given type from the converter factory, and then sets it for the field. This method is used
implicitly when binding field to a property data source.
Implementing a Converter
A conversion always occurs between a representation type, edited by the field component, and
a model type, that is, the type of the property data source. Converters implement the Converter
interface defined in the com.vaadin.data.util.converter package.
For example, let us assume that we have a simple Complex type for storing complex values.
public class ComplexConverter
implements Converter<String, Complex> {
@Override
public Complex convertToModel(String value, Locale locale)
throws ConversionException {
String parts[] =
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Converting Between Property Type and Representation
Binding Components to Data
value.replaceAll("[\\(\\)]", "").split(",");
if (parts.length != 2)
throw new ConversionException(
"Unable to parse String to Complex");
return new Complex(Double.parseDouble(parts[0]),
Double.parseDouble(parts[1]));
}
@Override
public String convertToPresentation(Complex value,
Locale locale)
throws ConversionException {
return "("+value.getReal()+","+value.getImag()+")";
}
@Override
public Class<Complex> getModelType() {
return Complex.class;
}
@Override
public Class<String> getPresentationType() {
return String.class;
}
}
The conversion methods get the locale for the conversion as a parameter.
Converter Factory
If a field does not directly allow editing a property type, a default converter is attempted to create
using an application-global converter factory. If you define your own converters that you wish to
include in the converter factory, you need to implement one yourself. While you could implement
the ConverterFactory interface, it is usually easier to just extend DefaultConverterFactory.
class MyConverterFactory extends DefaultConverterFactory {
@Override
public <PRESENTATION, MODEL> Converter<PRESENTATION, MODEL>
createConverter(Class<PRESENTATION> presentationType,
Class<MODEL> modelType) {
// Handle one particular type conversion
if (String.class == presentationType &&
Complex.class == modelType)
return (Converter<PRESENTATION, MODEL>)
new ComplexConverter();
// Default to the supertype
return super.createConverter(presentationType,
modelType);
}
}
// Use the factory globally in the application
Application.getCurrentApplication().setConverterFactory(
new MyConverterFactory());
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9.2.4. Implementing the Property Interface
Implementation of the Property interface requires defining setters and getters for the value and
the read-only mode. Only a getter is needed for the property type, as the type is often fixed in
property implementations.
The following example shows a simple implementation of the Property interface:
class MyProperty implements Property {
Integer data
= 0;
boolean readOnly = false;
// Return the data type of the model
public Class<?> getType() {
return Integer.class;
}
public Object getValue() {
return data;
}
// Override the default implementation in Object
@Override
public String toString() {
return Integer.toHexString(data);
}
public boolean isReadOnly() {
return readOnly;
}
public void setReadOnly(boolean newStatus) {
readOnly = newStatus;
}
public void setValue(Object newValue)
throws ReadOnlyException, ConversionException {
if (readOnly)
throw new ReadOnlyException();
// Already the same type as the internal representation
if (newValue instanceof Integer)
data = (Integer) newValue;
// Conversion from a string is required
else if (newValue instanceof String)
try {
data = Integer.parseInt((String) newValue, 16);
} catch (NumberFormatException e) {
throw new ConversionException();
}
else
// Don't know how to convert any other types
throw new ConversionException();
// Reverse decode the hexadecimal value
}
}
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// Instantiate the property and set its data
MyProperty property = new MyProperty();
property.setValue(42);
// Bind it to a component
final TextField tf = new TextField("Name", property);
The components get the displayed value by the toString() method, so it is necessary to
override it. To allow editing the value, value returned in the toString() must be in a format
that is accepted by the setValue() method, unless the property is read-only. The toString()
can perform any type conversion necessary to make the internal type a string, and the
setValue() must be able to make a reverse conversion.
The implementation example does not notify about changes in the property value or in the readonly mode. You should normally also implement at least the Property.ValueChangeNotifier
and Property.ReadOnlyStatusChangeNotifier. See the ObjectProperty class for an example
of the implementation.
9.3. Holding properties in Items
The Item interface provides access to a set of named properties. Each property is identified by
a property identifier (PID) and a reference to such a property can be queried from an Item with
getItemProperty() using the identifier.
Examples on the use of items include rows in a Table, with the properties corresponding to table
columns, nodes in a Tree, and the the data bound to a Form, with item's properties bound to
individual form fields.
Items are generally equivalent to objects in the object-oriented model, but with the exception that
they are configurable and provide an event handling mechanism. The simplest way to utilize Item
interface is to use existing implementations. Provided utility classes include a configurable property
set (PropertysetItem) and a bean-to-item adapter (BeanItem). Also, a Form implements the
interface and can therefore be used directly as an item.
In addition to being used indirectly by many user interface components, items provide the basic
data model underlying the Form component. In simple cases, forms can even be generated
automatically from items. The properties of the item correspond to the fields of the form.
The Item interface defines inner interfaces for maintaining the item property set and listening
changes made to it. PropertySetChangeEvent events can be emitted by a class implementing
the PropertySetChangeNotifier interface. They can be received through the
PropertySetChangeListener interface.
9.3.1. The PropertysetItem Implementation
The PropertysetItem is a generic implementation of the Item interface that allows storing
properties. The properties are added with addItemProperty(), which takes a name and the
property as parameters.
The following example demonstrates a typical case of collecting ObjectProperty properties in
an item:
PropertysetItem item = new PropertysetItem();
item.addItemProperty("name", new ObjectProperty("Zaphod"));
item.addItemProperty("age", new ObjectProperty(42));
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// Bind it to a component
Form form = new Form();
form.setItemDataSource(item);
9.3.2. Wrapping a Bean in a BeanItem
The BeanItem implementation of the Item interface is a wrapper for Java Bean objects. In fact,
only the setters and getters are required while serialization and other bean features are not, so
you can wrap almost any POJOs with minimal requirements.
// Here is a bean (or more exactly a POJO)
class Person {
String name;
int
age;
public String getName() {
return name;
}
public void setName(String name) {
this.name = name;
}
public Integer getAge() {
return age;
}
public void setAge(Integer age) {
this.age = age.intValue();
}
}
// Create an instance of the bean
Person bean = new Person();
// Wrap it in a BeanItem
BeanItem<Person> item = new BeanItem<Person>(bean);
// Bind it to a component
Form form = new Form();
form.setItemDataSource(item);
You can use the getBean() method to get a reference to the underlying bean.
Nested Beans
You may often have composite classes where one class "has a" another class. For example,
consider the following Planet class which "has a" discoverer:
// Here is a bean with two nested beans
public class Planet implements Serializable {
String name;
Person discoverer;
public Planet(String name, Person discoverer) {
this.name = name;
this.discoverer = discoverer;
}
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... getters and setters ...
}
...
// Create an instance of the bean
Planet planet = new Planet("Uranus",
new Person("William Herschel", 1738));
When shown in a Form, for example, you would want to list the properties of the nested bean
along the properties of the composite bean. You can do that by binding the properties of the
nested bean individually with a MethodProperty or NestedMethodProperty.You should usually
hide the nested bean from binding as a property by listing only the bound properties in the
constructor.
// Wrap it in a BeanItem and hide the nested bean property
BeanItem<Planet> item = new BeanItem<Planet>(planet,
new String[]{"name"});
// Bind the nested properties.
// Use NestedMethodProperty to bind using dot notation.
item.addItemProperty("discoverername",
new NestedMethodProperty(planet, "discoverer.name"));
// The other way is to use regular MethodProperty.
item.addItemProperty("discovererborn",
new MethodProperty<Person>(planet.getDiscoverer(),
"born"));
The difference is that NestedMethodProperty does not access the nested bean immediately
but only when accessing the property values, while when using MethodProperty the nested
bean is accessed when creating the method property. The difference is only significant if the
nested bean can be null or be changed later.
You can use such a bean item for example in a Form as follows:
// Bind it to a component
Form form = new Form();
form.setItemDataSource(item);
// Nicer captions
form.getField("discoverername").setCaption("Discoverer");
form.getField("discovererborn").setCaption("Born");
Kuva 9.3. A Form with Nested Bean Properties
The BeanContainer and BeanItemContainer allow easy definition of nested bean properties
with addNestedContainerProperty(), as described in ”Nested Properties”.
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9.4. Creating Forms by Binding Fields to Items
Because of pressing release schedules to get this edition to your hands, we were unable to
completely update this chapter. Some form handling is still under work, especially form validation.
Most applications in existence have forms of some sort. Forms contain fields, which you want to
bind to a data source, an item in the Vaadin data model. FieldGroup provides an easy way to
bind fields to the properties of an item. You can use it by first creating a layout with some fields,
and then call it to bind the fields to the data source. You can also let the FieldGroup create the
fields using a field factory. It can also handle commits. Notice that FieldGroup is not a user
interface component, so you can not add it to a layout.
9.4.1. Simple Binding
Let us start with a data model that has an item with a couple of properties. The item could be any
item type, as described earlier.
// Have an item
PropertysetItem item = new PropertysetItem();
item.addItemProperty("name", new ObjectProperty<String>("Zaphod"));
item.addItemProperty("age", new ObjectProperty<Integer>(42));
Next, you would design a form for editing the data. The FormLayout (Kohta 6.5, ”FormLayout”
is ideal for forms, but you could use any other layout as well.
// Have some layout and create the fields
FormLayout form = new FormLayout();
TextField nameField = new TextField("Name");
form.addComponent(nameField);
TextField ageField = new TextField("Age");
form.addComponent(ageField);
Then, we can bind the fields to the data as follows:
// Now create the binder and bind the fields
FieldGroup binder = new FieldGroup(item);
binder.bind(nameField, "name");
binder.bind(ageField, "age");
The above way of binding is not different from simply calling setPropertyDataSource() for
the fields. It does, however, register the fields in the field group, which for example enables
buffering or validation of the fields using the field group, as described in Kohta 9.4.4, ”Buffering
Forms”.
Next, we consider more practical uses for a FieldGroup.
9.4.2. Using a FieldFactory to Build and Bind Fields
Using the buildAndBind() methods, FieldGroup can create fields for you using a
FieldGroupFieldFactory, but you still have to add them to the correct position in your layout.
// Have some layout
FormLayout form = new FormLayout();
// Now create a binder that can also create the fields
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// using the default field factory
FieldGroup binder = new FieldGroup(item);
form.addComponent(binder.buildAndBind("Name", "name"));
form.addComponent(binder.buildAndBind("Age", "age"));
9.4.3. Binding Member Fields
The bindMemberFields() method in FieldGroup uses reflection to bind the properties of an
item to field components that are member variables of a class. Hence, if you implement a form
as a class with the fields stored as member variables, you can use this method to bind them
super-easy.
The item properties are mapped to the members by the property ID and the name of the member
variable. If you want to map a property with a different ID to a member, you can use the
@PropertyId annotation for the member, with the property ID as the parameter.
For example:
// Have an item
PropertysetItem item = new PropertysetItem();
item.addItemProperty("name", new ObjectProperty<String>("Zaphod"));
item.addItemProperty("age", new ObjectProperty<Integer>(42));
// Define a form as a class that extends some layout
class MyForm extends FormLayout {
// Member that will bind to the "name" property
TextField name = new TextField("Name");
// Member that will bind to the "age" property
@PropertyId("age")
TextField ageField = new TextField("Age");
public MyForm() {
// Customize the layout a bit
setSpacing(true);
// Add the fields
addComponent(name);
addComponent(ageField);
}
}
// Create one
MyForm form = new MyForm();
// Now create a binder that can also creates the fields
// using the default field factory
FieldGroup binder = new FieldGroup(item);
binder.bindMemberFields(form);
// And the form can be used in an higher-level layout
layout.addComponent(form);
Encapsulating in CustomComponent
Using a CustomComponent can be better for hiding the implementation details than extending
a layout. Also, the use of the FieldGroup can be encapsulated in the form class.
Binding Member Fields
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Consider the following as an alternative for the form implementation presented earlier:
// A form component that allows editing an item
class MyForm extends CustomComponent {
// Member that will bind to the "name" property
TextField name = new TextField("Name");
// Member that will bind to the "age" property
@PropertyId("age")
TextField ageField = new TextField("Age");
public MyForm(Item item) {
FormLayout layout = new FormLayout();
layout.addComponent(name);
layout.addComponent(ageField);
// Now use a binder to bind the members
FieldGroup binder = new FieldGroup(item);
binder.bindMemberFields(this);
setCompositionRoot(layout);
}
}
// And the form can be used as a component
layout.addComponent(new MyForm(item));
9.4.4. Buffering Forms
Just like for individual fields, as described in Kohta 5.4.4, ”Field Buffering”, a FieldGroup can
handle buffering the form content so that it is written to the item data source only when commit()
is called for the group. It runs validation for all fields in the group and writes their values to the
item data source only if all fields pass the validation. Edits can be discarded, so that the field
values are reloaded from the data source, by calling discard(). Buffering is enabled by default,
but can be disabled by calling setBuffered(false) for the FieldGroup.
// Have an item of some sort
final PropertysetItem item = new PropertysetItem();
item.addItemProperty("name", new ObjectProperty<String>("Q"));
item.addItemProperty("age", new ObjectProperty<Integer>(42));
// Have some layout and create the fields
Panel form = new Panel("Buffered Form");
form.setContent(new FormLayout());
// Build and bind the fields using the default field factory
final FieldGroup binder = new FieldGroup(item);
form.addComponent(binder.buildAndBind("Name", "name"));
form.addComponent(binder.buildAndBind("Age", "age"));
// Enable buffering (actually enabled by default)
binder.setBuffered(true);
// A button to commit the buffer
form.addComponent(new Button("OK", new ClickListener() {
@Override
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
try {
binder.commit();
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Notification.show("Thanks!");
} catch (CommitException e) {
Notification.show("You fail!");
}
}
}));
// A button to discard the buffer
form.addComponent(new Button("Discard", new ClickListener() {
@Override
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
binder.discard();
Notification.show("Discarded!");
}
}));
9.4.5. Binding Fields to a Bean
The BeanFieldGroup makes it easier to bind fields to a bean. It also handles binding to nested
beans properties. The build a field bound to a nested bean property, identify the property with
dot notation. For example, if a Person bean has a address property with an Address type,
which in turn has a street property, you could build a field bound to the property with
buildAndBind("Street", "address.street").
The input to fields bound to a bean can be validated using the Java Bean Validation API, as
described in Kohta 9.4.6, ”Bean Validation”. The BeanFieldGroup automatically adds a
BeanValidator to every field if a bean validation implementation is included in the classpath.
9.4.6. Bean Validation
Vaadin allows using the Java Bean Validation API 1.0 (JSR-303) for validating input from fields
bound to bean properties before the values are committed to the bean. The validation is done
based on annotations on the bean properties, which are used for creating the actual validators
automatically. See Kohta 5.4.5, ”Field Validation” for general information about validation.
Using bean validation requires an implementation of the Bean Validation API, such as Hibernate
Validator (hibernate-validator-4.2.0.Final.jar or later) or Apache Bean Validation.
The implementation JAR must be included in the project classpath when using the bean validation,
or otherwise an internal error is thrown.
Bean validation is especially useful when persisting entity beans with the Vaadin JPAContainer,
described in Luku 19, Vaadin JPAContainer.
Annotations
The validation constraints are defined as annotations. For example, consider the following bean:
// Here is a bean
public class Person implements Serializable {
@NotNull
@javax.validation.constraints.Size(min=2, max=10)
String name;
@Min(1)
@Max(130)
int age;
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// ... setters and getters ...
}
For a complete list of allowed constraints for different data types, please see the Bean Validation
API documentation.
Validating the Beans
Validating a bean is done with a BeanValidator, which you initialize with the name of the bean
property it should validate and add it the the editor field.
In the following example, we validate a single unbuffered field:
Person bean = new Person("Mung bean", 100);
BeanItem<Person> item = new BeanItem<Person> (bean);
// Create an editor bound to a bean field
TextField firstName = new TextField("First Name",
item.getItemProperty("name"));
// Add the bean validator
firstName.addValidator(new BeanValidator(Person.class, "name"));
firstName.setImmediate(true);
layout.addComponent(firstName);
In this case, the validation is done immediately after focus leaves the field. You could do the
same for the other field as well.
Bean validators are automatically created when using a BeanFieldGroup.
// Have a bean
Person bean = new Person("Mung bean", 100);
// Form for editing the bean
final BeanFieldGroup<Person> binder =
new BeanFieldGroup<Person>(Person.class);
binder.setItemDataSource(bean);
layout.addComponent(binder.buildAndBind("Name", "name"));
layout.addComponent(binder.buildAndBind("Age", "age"));
// Buffer the form content
binder.setBuffered(true);
layout.addComponent(new Button("OK", new ClickListener() {
@Override
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
try {
binder.commit();
} catch (CommitException e) {
}
}
}));
Locale Setting for Bean Validation
The validation error messages are defined in the bean validation implementation, in a
ValidationMessages.properties file. The message is shown in the language specified
with the locale setting for the form. The default language is English, but for example Hibernate
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Validator contains translations of the messages for a number of languages. If other languages
are needed, you need to provide a translation of the properties file.
9.5. Collecting Items in Containers
The Container interface is the highest containment level of the Vaadin data model, for containing
items (rows) which in turn contain properties (columns). Containers can therefore represent
tabular data, which can be viewed in a Table or some other selection component, as well as
hierarchical data.
The items contained in a container are identified by an item identifier or IID, and the properties
by a property identifier or PID.
9.5.1. Basic Use of Containers
The basic use of containers involves creating one, adding items to it, and binding it as a container
data source of a component.
Default Containers and Delegation
Before saying anything about creation of containers, it should be noted that all components that
can be bound to a container data source are by default bound to a default container. For example,
Table is bound to a IndexedContainer, Tree to a HierarchicalContainer, and so forth.
All of the user interface components using containers also implement the relevant container
interfaces themselves, so that the access to the underlying data source is delegated through the
component.
// Create a table with one column
Table table = new Table("My Table");
table.addContainerProperty("col1", String.class, null);
// Access items and properties through the component
table.addItem("row1"); // Create item by explicit ID
Item item1 = table.getItem("row1");
Property property1 = item1.getItemProperty("col1");
property1.setValue("some given value");
// Equivant access through the container
Container container = table.getContainerDataSource();
container.addItem("row2");
Item item2 = container.getItem("row2");
Property property2 = item2.getItemProperty("col1");
property2.setValue("another given value");
Creating and Binding a Container
A container is created and bound to a component as follows:
// Create a container
Container container = new IndexedContainer();
// Define the properties (columns) if required by container
container.addContainerProperty("name", String.class, "none");
container.addContainerProperty("volume", Double.class, 0.0);
... add items ...
Collecting Items in Containers
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Binding Components to Data
// Bind it to a component
Table table = new Table("My Table");
table.setContainerDataSource(container);
Most components also allow passing the container in the constructor. Creation depends on the
container type. For some containers, such as the IndexedContainer, you need to define the
contained properties (columns) as was done above, while some others determine them otherwise.
The definition of a property with addContainerProperty() requires a unique property ID,
type, and a default value. You can also give null.
Vaadin has a several built-in in-memory container implementations, such as IndexedContainer
and BeanItemContainer, which are easy to use for setting up nonpersistent data storages. For
persistent data, either the built-in SQLContainer or the JPAContainer add-on container can be
used.
Adding Items and Accessing Properties
Items can be added to a container with the addItem() method. The parameterless version of
the method automatically generates the item ID.
// Create an item
Object itemId = container.addItem();
Properties can be requested from container by first requesting an item with getItem() and then
getting the properties from the item with getItemProperty().
// Get the item object
Item item = container.getItem(itemId);
// Access a property in the item
Property<String> nameProperty =
item.getItemProperty("name");
// Do something with the property
nameProperty.setValue("box");
You can also get a property
getContainerProperty().
directly
by
the
item
and
property
ids
with
container.getContainerProperty(itemId, "volume").setValue(5.0);
Adding Items by Given ID
Some containers, such as IndexedContainer and HierarchicalContainer, allow adding items
by a given ID, which can be any Object.
Item item = container.addItem("agivenid");
item.getItemProperty("name").setValue("barrel");
Item.getItemProperty("volume").setValue(119.2);
Notice that the actual item is not given as a parameter to the method, only its ID, as the interface
assumes that the container itself creates all the items it contains. Some container implementations
can provide methods to add externally created items, and they can even assume that the item
ID object is also the item itself. Lazy containers might not create the item immediately, but lazily
when it is accessed by its ID.
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Basic Use of Containers
Binding Components to Data
9.5.2. Container Subinterfaces
The Container interface contains inner interfaces that container implementations can implement
to fulfill different features required by components that present container data.
Container.Filterable
Filterable containers allow filtering the contained items by filters, as described in
Kohta 9.5.7, ”Filterable Containers”.
Container.Hierarchical
Hierarchical containers allow representing hierarchical relationships between items
and are required by the Tree and TreeTable components. The HierarchicalContainer
is a built-in in-memory container for hierarchical data, and is used as the default
container for the tree components. The FilesystemContainer provides access to
browsing the content of a file system. Also JPAContainer is hierarchical, as described
in Kohta 19.4.4, ”Hierarchical Container”.
Container.Indexed
An indexed container allows accessing items by an index number, not just their item
ID. This feature is required by some components, especially Table, which needs to
provide lazy access to large containers. The IndexedContainer is a basic in-memory
implementation, as described in Kohta 9.5.3, ”IndexedContainer”.
Container.Ordered
An ordered container allows traversing the items in successive order in either direction.
Most built-in containers are ordered.
Container.SimpleFilterable
This interface enables filtering a container by string matching with
addContainerFilter(). The filtering is done by either searching the given string
anywhere in a property value, or as its prefix.
Container.Sortable
A sortable container is required by some components that allow sorting the content,
such as Table, where the user can click a column header to sort the table by the
column. Some other components, such as Calendar, may require that the content is
sorted to be able to display it properly. Depending on the implementation, sorting can
be done only when the sort() method is called, or the container is automatically kept
in order according to the last call of the method.
See the API documentation for a detailed description of the interfaces.
9.5.3. IndexedContainer
The IndexedContainer is an in-memory container that implements the Indexed interface to
allow referencing the items by an index. IndexedContainer is used as the default container in
most selection components in Vaadin.
The properties need to be defined with addContainerProperty(), which takes the property
ID, type, and a default value. This must be done before any items are added to the container.
// Create the container
IndexedContainer container = new IndexedContainer();
// Define the properties (columns)
Container Subinterfaces
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Binding Components to Data
container.addContainerProperty("name", String.class, "noname");
container.addContainerProperty("volume", Double.class, -1.0d);
// Add some items
Object content[][] = {{"jar", 2.0}, {"bottle", 0.75},
{"can", 1.5}};
for (Object[] row: content) {
Item newItem = container.getItem(container.addItem());
newItem.getItemProperty("name").setValue(row[0]);
newItem.getItemProperty("volume").setValue(row[1]);
}
New items are added with addItem(), which returns the item ID of the new item, or by giving
the item ID as a parameter as was described earlier. Note that the Table component, which has
IndexedContainer as its default container, has a conveniency addItem() method that allows
adding items as object vectors containing the property values.
The container implements the Container.Indexed feature to allow accessing the item IDs by
their index number, with getIdByIndex(), etc. The feature is required mainly for internal
purposes of some components, such as Table, which uses it to enable lazy transmission of table
data to the client-side.
9.5.4. BeanContainer
The BeanContainer is an in-memory container for JavaBean objects. Each contained bean is
wrapped inside a BeanItem wrapper. The item properties are determined automatically by
inspecting the getter and setter methods of the class. This requires that the bean class has public
visibility, local classes for example are not allowed. Only beans of the same type can be added
to the container.
The generic has two parameters: a bean type and an item identifier type. The item identifiers can
be obtained by defining a custom resolver, using a specific item property for the IDs, or by giving
item IDs explicitly. As such, it is more general than the BeanItemContainer, which uses the bean
object itself as the item identifier, making the use usually simpler. Managing the item IDs makes
BeanContainer more complex to use, but it is necessary in some cases where the equals()
or hashCode() methods have been reimplemented in the bean.
// Here is a JavaBean
public class Bean implements Serializable {
String name;
double energy; // Energy content in kJ/100g
public Bean(String name, double energy) {
this.name
= name;
this.energy = energy;
}
public String getName() {
return name;
}
public void setName(String name) {
this.name = name;
}
public double getEnergy() {
return energy;
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}
public void setEnergy(double energy) {
this.energy = energy;
}
}
void basic(VerticalLayout layout) {
// Create a container for such beans with
// strings as item IDs.
BeanContainer<String, Bean> beans =
new BeanContainer<String, Bean>(Bean.class);
// Use the name property as the item ID of the bean
beans.setBeanIdProperty("name");
// Add some beans
beans.addBean(new
beans.addBean(new
beans.addBean(new
beans.addBean(new
beans.addBean(new
to it
Bean("Mung bean",
Bean("Chickpea",
Bean("Lentil",
Bean("Common bean",
Bean("Soybean",
1452.0));
686.0));
1477.0));
129.0));
1866.0));
// Bind a table to it
Table table = new Table("Beans of All Sorts", beans);
layout.addComponent(table);
}
To use explicit item IDs, use the methods addItem(Object,
Object),
addItemAfter(Object, Object, Object), and addItemAt(int, Object, Object).
It is not possible to add additional properties to the container, except properties in a nested bean.
Nested Properties
If you have a nested bean with a 1:1 relationship inside a bean type contained in a BeanContainer
or BeanItemContainer, you can add its properties to the container by specifying them with
addNestedContainerProperty(). The feature is defined at the level of
AbstractBeanContainer.
As with a top-level bean in a bean container, also a nested bean must have public visibility or
otherwise an access exception is thrown. Intermediary getters returning a nested bean must
always return a non-null value.
For example, assume that we have the following two beans with the first one nested inside the
second one.
/** Bean to be nested */
public class EqCoord implements Serializable {
double rightAscension; /* In angle hours */
double declination;
/* In degrees
*/
... constructor and setters and getters for the properties ...
}
/** Bean containing a nested bean */
public class Star implements Serializable {
String name;
BeanContainer
311
Binding Components to Data
EqCoord equatorial; /* Nested bean */
... constructor and setters and getters for the properties ...
}
After creating the container, you can declare the nested properties by specifying their property
identifiers with the addNestedContainerProperty() in dot notation.
// Create a container for beans
final BeanItemContainer<Star> stars =
new BeanItemContainer<Star>(Star.class);
// Declare the nested properties to be used in the container
stars.addNestedContainerProperty("equatorial.rightAscension");
stars.addNestedContainerProperty("equatorial.declination");
// Add some items
stars.addBean(new Star("Sirius", new EqCoord(6.75, 16.71611)));
stars.addBean(new Star("Polaris", new EqCoord(2.52, 89.26417)));
If you bind such a container to a Table, you probably also need to set the column headers. Notice
that the entire nested bean itself is still a property in the container and would be displayed in its
own column. The toString() method is used for obtaining the displayed value, which is by
default an object reference. You normally do not want this, so you can hide the column with
setVisibleColumns().
// Put them in a table
Table table = new Table("Stars", stars);
table.setColumnHeader("equatorial.rightAscension", "RA");
table.setColumnHeader("equatorial.declination",
"Decl");
table.setPageLength(table.size());
// Have to set explicitly to hide the "equatorial" property
table.setVisibleColumns(new Object[]{"name",
"equatorial.rightAscension", "equatorial.declination"});
The resulting table is shown in Kuva 9.4, ”Table Bound to a BeanContainer with Nested
Properties”.
Kuva 9.4. Table Bound to a BeanContainer with Nested Properties
The bean binding in AbstractBeanContainer normally uses the MethodProperty implementation
of the Property interface to access the bean properties using the setter and getter methods. For
nested properties, the NestedMethodProperty implementation is used.
Defining a Bean ID Resolver
If a bean ID resolver is set using setBeanIdResolver() or setBeanIdProperty(), the
methods addBean(), addBeanAfter(), addBeanAt() and addAll() can be used to add
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Binding Components to Data
items to the container. If one of these methods is called, the resolver is used to generate an
identifier for the item (must not return null).
Note that explicit item identifiers can also be used when a resolver has been set by calling the
addItem*() methods - the resolver is only used when adding beans using the addBean*()
or addAll(Collection) methods.
9.5.5. BeanItemContainer
BeanItemContainer is a container for JavaBean objects where each bean is wrapped inside a
BeanItem wrapper. The item properties are determined automatically by inspecting the getter
and setter methods of the class. This requires that the bean class has public visibility, local classes
for example are not allowed. Only beans of the same type can be added to the container.
BeanItemContainer is a specialized version of the BeanContainer described in Kohta 9.5.4,
”BeanContainer”. It uses the bean itself as the item identifier, which makes it a bit easier to use
than BeanContainer in many cases.The latter is, however, needed if the bean has reimplemented
the equals() or hashCode() methods.
Let us revisit the example given in Kohta 9.5.4, ”BeanContainer” using the BeanItemContainer.
// Create a container for the beans
BeanItemContainer<Bean> beans =
new BeanItemContainer<Bean>(Bean.class);
// Add some beans
beans.addBean(new
beans.addBean(new
beans.addBean(new
beans.addBean(new
beans.addBean(new
to it
Bean("Mung bean",
Bean("Chickpea",
Bean("Lentil",
Bean("Common bean",
Bean("Soybean",
1452.0));
686.0));
1477.0));
129.0));
1866.0));
// Bind a table to it
Table table = new Table("Beans of All Sorts", beans);
It is not possible to add additional properties to a BeanItemContainer, except properties in a
nested bean, as described in Kohta 9.5.4, ”BeanContainer”.
9.5.6. Iterating Over a Container
As the items in a Container are not necessarily indexed, iterating over the items has to be done
using an Iterator. The getItemIds() method of Container returns a Collection of item
identifiers over which you can iterate. The following example demonstrates a typical case where
you iterate over the values of check boxes in a column of a Table component. The context of the
example is the example used in Kohta 5.16, ”Table”.
// Collect the results of the iteration into this string.
String items = "";
// Iterate over the item identifiers of the table.
for (Iterator i = table.getItemIds().iterator(); i.hasNext();) {
// Get the current item identifier, which is an integer.
int iid = (Integer) i.next();
// Now get the actual item from the table.
Item item = table.getItem(iid);
BeanItemContainer
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Binding Components to Data
// And now we can get to the actual checkbox object.
Button button = (Button)
(item.getItemProperty("ismember").getValue());
// If the checkbox is selected.
if ((Boolean)button.getValue() == true) {
// Do something with the selected item; collect the
// first names in a string.
items += item.getItemProperty("First Name")
.getValue() + " ";
}
}
// Do something with the results; display the selected items.
layout.addComponent (new Label("Selected items: " + items));
Notice that the getItemIds() returns an unmodifiable collection, so the Container may not be
modified during iteration. You can not, for example, remove items from the Container during
iteration. The modification includes modification in another thread. If the Container is modified
during iteration, a ConcurrentModificationException is thrown and the iterator may be left in
an undefined state.
9.5.7. Filterable Containers
Containers that implement the Container.Filterable interface can be filtered. For example, the
built-in IndexedContainer and the bean item containers implement it. Filtering is typically used
for filtering the content of a Table.
Filters implement the Filter interface and you add them to a filterable container with the
addContainerFilter() method. Container items that pass the filter condition are kept and
shown in the filterable component.
Filter filter = new SimpleStringFilter("name",
"Douglas", true, false);
table.addContainerFilter(filter);
If multiple filters are added to a container, they are evaluated using the logical AND operator so
that only items that are passed by all the filters are kept.
Atomic and Composite Filters
Filters can be classified as atomic and composite. Atomic filters, such as SimpleStringFilter,
define a single condition, usually for a specific container property. Composite filters make filtering
decisions based on the result of one or more other filters. The built-in composite filters implement
the logical operators AND, OR, or NOT.
For example, the following composite filter would filter out items where the name property contains
the name "Douglas" somewhere and where the age property has value less than 42. The
properties must have String and Integer types, respectively.
filter = new Or(new SimpleStringFilter("name",
"Douglas", true, false),
new Compare.Less("age", 42));
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Built-In Filter Types
The built-in filter types are the following:
SimpleStringFilter
Passes items where the specified property, that must be of String type, contains the
given filterString as a substring. If ignoreCase is true, the search is case
insensitive. If the onlyMatchPrefix is true, the substring may only be in the
beginning of the string, otherwise it may be elsewhere as well.
IsNull
Passes items where the specified property has null value. For in-memory filtering, a
simple == check is performed. For other containers, the comparison implementation
is container dependent, but should correspond to the in-memory null check.
Equal, Greater, Less, GreaterOrEqual, and LessOrEqual
The comparison filter implementations compare the specified property value to the
given constant and pass items for which the comparison result is true. The comparison
operators are included in the abstract Compare class.
For the Equal filter, the equals() method for the property is used in built-in in-memory
containers. In other types of containers, the comparison is container dependent and
may use, for example, database comparison operations.
For the other filters, the property value type must implement the Comparable interface
to work with the built-in in-memory containers. Again for the other types of containers,
the comparison is container dependent.
And and Or
These logical operator filters are composite filters that combine multiple other filters.
Not
The logical unary operator filter negates which items are passed by the filter given as
the parameter.
Implementing Custom Filters
A custom filter needs to implement the Container.Filter interface.
A filter can use a single or multiple properties for the filtering logic. The properties used by the
filter must be returned with the appliesToProperty() method. If the filter applies to a userdefined property or properties, it is customary to give the properties as the first argument for the
constructor of the filter.
class MyCustomFilter implements Container.Filter {
protected String propertyId;
protected String regex;
public MyCustomFilter(String propertyId, String regex) {
this.propertyId = propertyId;
this.regex
= regex;
}
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Binding Components to Data
/** Tells if this filter works on the given property. */
@Override
public boolean appliesToProperty(Object propertyId) {
return propertyId != null &&
propertyId.equals(this.propertyId);
}
The actual filtering logic is done in the passesFilter() method, which simply returns true if
the item should pass the filter and false if it should be filtered out.
/** Apply the filter on an item to check if it passes. */
@Override
public boolean passesFilter(Object itemId, Item item)
throws UnsupportedOperationException {
// Acquire the relevant property from the item object
Property p = item.getItemProperty(propertyId);
// Should always check validity
if (p == null || !p.getType().equals(String.class))
return false;
String value = (String) p.getValue();
// The actual filter logic
return value.matches(regex);
}
}
You can use such a custom filter just like any other:
c.addContainerFilter(
new MyCustomFilter("Name", (String) tf.getValue()));
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luku 10
Vaadin
SQLContainer
10.1. Architecture ......................................................................................... 318
10.2. Getting Started with SQLContainer ..................................................... 318
10.3. Filtering and Sorting ............................................................................ 319
10.4. Editing .................................................................................................. 320
10.5. Caching, Paging and Refreshing ......................................................... 322
10.6. Referencing Another SQLContainer ................................................... 324
10.7. Using FreeformQuery and FreeformStatementDelegate ................. 325
10.8. Non-implemented methods of Vaadin container interfaces ................. 326
10.9. Known Issues and Limitations ............................................................. 326
Vaadin SQLContainer is a container implementation that allows easy and customizable access
to data stored in various SQL-speaking databases.
SQLContainer supports two types of database access. Using TableQuery, the pre-made query
generators will enable fetching, updating, and inserting data directly from the container into a
database table - automatically, whereas FreeformQuery allows the developer to use their own,
probably more complex query for fetching data and their own optional implementations for writing,
filtering and sorting support - item and property handling as well as lazy loading will still be handled
automatically.
In addition to the customizable database connection options, SQLContainer also extends the
Vaadin Container interface to implement more advanced and more database-oriented filtering
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rules. Finally, the add-on also offers connection pool implementations for JDBC connection
pooling and JEE connection pooling, as well as integrated transaction support; auto-commit mode
is also provided.
The purpose of this section is to briefly explain the architecture and some of the inner workings
of SQLContainer. It will also give the readers some examples on how to use SQLContainer in
their own applications. The requirements, limitations and further development ideas are also
discussed.
SQLContainer is available from the Vaadin Directory under the same unrestrictive Apache License
2.0 as the Vaadin Framework itself.
10.1. Architecture
The architecture of SQLContainer is relatively simple. SQLContainer is the class implementing
the Vaadin Container interfaces and providing access to most of the functionality of this add-on.
The standard Vaadin Property and Item interfaces have been implementd as the ColumnProperty
and RowItem classes. Item IDs are represented by RowId and TemporaryRowId classes. The
RowId class is built based on the primary key columns of the connected database table or query
result.
In the connection package, the JDBCConnectionPool interface defines the requirements for a
connection pool implementation. Two implementations of this interface are provided:
SimpleJDBCConnectionPool provides a simple yet very usable implementation to pool and
access JDBC connections. J2EEConnectionPool provides means to access J2EE DataSources.
The query package contains the QueryDelegate interface, which defines everything the
SQLContainer needs to enable reading and writing data to and from a database. As discussed
earlier, two implementations of this interface are provided: TableQuery for automatic read-write
support for a database table, and FreeformQuery for customizing the query, sorting, filtering
and writing; this is done by implementing relevant methods of the FreeformStatementDelegate
interface.
The query package also contains Filter and OrderBy classes which have been written to provide
an alternative to the standard Vaadin container filtering and make sorting non-String properties
a bit more user friendly.
Finally, the generator package contains a SQLGenerator interface, which defines the kind of
queries that are required by the TableQuery class. The provided implementations include support
for HSQLDB, MySQL, PostgreSQL (DefaultSQLGenerator), Oracle (OracleGenerator) and
Microsoft SQL Server (MSSQLGenerator). A new or modified implementations may be provided
to gain compatibility with older versions or other database servers.
For further details, please refer to the SQLContainer API documentation.
10.2. Getting Started with SQLContainer
Getting development going with the SQLContainer is easy and quite straight-forward.The purpose
of this section is to describe how to create the required resources and how to fetch data from
and write data to a database table attached to the container.
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10.2.1. Creating a connection pool
First, we need to create a connection pool to allow the SQLContainer to connect to a database.
Here we will use the SimpleJDBCConnectionPool, which is a basic implementation of connection
pooling with JDBC data sources. In the following code, we create a connection pool that uses
the HSQLDB driver together with an in-memory database. The initial amount of connections is
2 and the maximum amount is set at 5. Note that the database driver, connection url, username,
and password parameters will vary depending on the database you are using.
JDBCConnectionPool pool = new SimpleJDBCConnectionPool(
"org.hsqldb.jdbc.JDBCDriver",
"jdbc:hsqldb:mem:sqlcontainer", "SA", "", 2, 5);
10.2.2. Creating the TableQuery Query Delegate
After the connection pool is created, we'll need a query delegate for the SQLContainer. The
simplest way to create one is by using the built-in TableQuery class. The TableQuery delegate
provides access to a defined database table and supports reading and writing data out-of-thebox. The primary key(s) of the table may be anything that the database engine supports, and are
found automatically by querying the database when a new TableQuery is instantiated. We create
the TableQuery with the following statement:
TableQuery tq = new TableQuery("tablename", connectionPool);
In order to allow writes from several user sessions concurrently, we must set a version column
to the TableQuery as well. The version column is an integer- or timestamp-typed column which
will either be incremented or set to the current time on each modification of the row. TableQuery
assumes that the database will take care of updating the version column; it just makes sure the
column value is correct before updating a row. If another user has changed the row and the
version number in the database does not match the version number in memory, an
OptimisticLockException is thrown and you can recover by refreshing the container and allow
the user to merge the data. The following code will set the version column:
tq.setVersionColumn("OPTLOCK");
10.2.3. Creating the Container
Finally, we may create the container itself. This is as simple as stating:
SQLContainer container = new SQLContainer(tq);
After this statement, the SQLContainer is connected to the table tablename and is ready to use
for example as a data source for a Vaadin Table or a Vaadin Form.
10.3. Filtering and Sorting
Filtering and sorting the items contained in an SQLContainer is, by design, always performed in
the database. In practice this means that whenever the filtering or sorting rules are modified, at
least some amount of database communication will take place (the minimum is to fetch the
updated row count using the new filtering/sorting rules).
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10.3.1. Filtering
Filtering is performed using the filtering API in Vaadin, which allows for very complex filtering to
be easily applied. More information about the filtering API can be found in Kohta 9.5.7, ”Filterable
Containers”.
In addition to the filters provided by Vaadin, SQLContainer also implements the Like filter as well
as the Between filter. Both of these map to the equally named WHERE-operators in SQL. The
filters can also be applied on items that reside in memory, for example, new items that have not
yet been stored in the database or rows that have been loaded and updated, but not yet stored.
The following is an example of the types of complex filtering that are possible with the new filtering
API. We want to find all people named Paul Johnson that are either younger than 18 years or
older than 65 years and all Johnsons whose first name starts with the letter "A":
mySQLContainer.addContainerFilter(
new Or(new And(new Equal("NAME", "Paul"),
new Or(new Less("AGE", 18),
new Greater("AGE", 65))),
new Like("NAME", "A%")));
mySQLContainer.addContainerFilter(
new Equal("LASTNAME", "Johnson"));
This will produce the following WHERE clause:
WHERE (("NAME" = "Paul" AND ("AGE" < 18 OR "AGE" > 65)) OR "NAME" LIKE "A%")
AND "LASTNAME" = "Johnson"
10.3.2. Sorting
Sorting can be performed using standard Vaadin, that is, using the sort method from the
Container.Sortable interface. The propertyId parameter refers to column names.
public void sort(Object[] propertyId, boolean[] ascending)
In addition to the standard method, it is also possible to directly add an OrderBy to the container
via the addOrderBy() method. This enables the developer to insert sorters one by one without
providing the whole array of them at once.
All sorting rules can be cleared by calling the sort method with null or an empty array as the first
argument.
10.4. Editing
Editing the items (RowItems) of SQLContainer can be done similarly to editing the items of any
Vaadin container. ColumnProperties of a RowItem will automatically notify SQLContainer to
make sure that changes to the items are recorded and will be applied to the database immediately
or on commit, depending on the state of the auto-commit mode.
10.4.1. Adding items
Adding items to an SQLContainer object can only be done via the addItem() method. This
method will create a new Item based on the connected database table column properties. The
new item will either be buffered by the container or committed to the database through the query
delegate depending on whether the auto commit mode (see the next section) has been enabled.
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When an item is added to the container it is impossible to precisely know what the primary keys
of the row will be, or will the row insertion succeed at all. This is why the SQLContainer will assign
an instance of TemporaryRowId as a RowId for the new item. We will later describe how to
fetch the actual key after the row insertion has succeeded.
If auto-commit mode is enabled in the SQLContainer, the addItem() methot will return the
final RowId of the new item.
10.4.2. Fetching generated row keys
Since it is a common need to fetch the generated key of a row right after insertion, a listener/notifier
has been added into the QueryDelegate interface. Currently only the TableQuery class
implements the RowIdChangeNotifier interface, and thus can notify interested objects of changed
row IDs. The events fill be fired after commit() in TableQuery has finished; this method is called
by SQLContainer when necessary.
To receive updates on the row IDs, you might use the following code (assuming container is an
instance of SQLContainer). Note that these events are not fired if auto commit mode is enabled.
app.getDbHelp().getCityContainer().addListener(
new QueryDelegate.RowIdChangeListener() {
public void rowIdChange(RowIdChangeEvent event) {
System.err.println("Old ID: " + event.getOldRowId());
System.err.println("New ID: " + event.getNewRowId());
}
});
10.4.3. Version column requirement
If you are using the TableQuery class as the query delegate to the SQLContainer and need to
enable write support, there is an enforced requirement of specifying a version column name to
the TableQuery instance. The column name can be set to the TableQuery using the following
statement:
tq.setVersionColumn("OPTLOCK");
The version column is preferrably an integer or timestamp typed column in the table that is
attached to the TableQuery. This column will be used for optimistic locking; before a row
modification the TableQuery will check before that the version column value is the same as it
was when the data was read into the container. This should ensure that no one has modified the
row inbetween the current user's reads and writes.
Note! TableQuery assumes that the database will take care of updating the version column by
either using an actual VERSION column (if supported by the database in question) or by a trigger
or a similar mechanism.
If you are certain that you do not need optimistic locking, but do want to enable write support,
you may point the version column to, for example, a primary key column of the table.
10.4.4. Auto-commit mode
SQLContainer is by default in transaction mode, which means that actions that edit, add or
remove items are recorded internally by the container. These actions can be either committed
to the database by calling commit() or discarded by calling rollback().
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The container can also be set to auto-commit mode. When this mode is enabled, all changes will
be committed to the database immediately. To enable or disable the auto-commit mode, call the
following method:
public void setAutoCommit(boolean autoCommitEnabled)
It is recommended to leave the auto-commit mode disabled, as it ensures that the changes can
be rolled back if any problems are noticed within the container items. Using the auto-commit
mode will also lead to failure in item addition if the database table contains non-nullable columns.
10.4.5. Modified state
When used in the transaction mode it may be useful to determine whether the contents of the
SQLContainer have been modified or not. For this purpose the container provides an
isModified() method, which will tell the state of the container to the developer. This method
will return true if any items have been added to or removed from the container, as well as if any
value of an existing item has been modified.
Additionally, each RowItem and each ColumnProperty have isModified() methods to allow
for a more detailed view over the modification status. Do note that the modification statuses of
RowItem and ColumnProperty objects only depend on whether or not the actual Property
values have been modified. That is, they do not reflect situations where the whole RowItem has
been marked for removal or has just been added to the container.
10.5. Caching, Paging and Refreshing
To decrease the amount of queries made to the database, SQLContainer uses internal caching
for database contents.The caching is implemented with a size-limited LinkedHashMap containing
a mapping from RowIds to RowItems. Typically developers do not need to modify caching
options, although some fine-tuning can be done if required.
10.5.1. Container Size
The SQLContainer keeps continuously checking the amount of rows in the connected database
table in order to detect external addition or removal of rows. By default, the table row count is
assumed to remain valid for 10 seconds. This value can be altered from code; with
setSizeValidMilliSeconds() in SQLContainer.
If the size validity time has expired, the row count will be automatically updated on:
• A call to getItemIds() method
• A call to size() method
• Some calls to indexOfId(Object itemId) method
• A call to firstItemId() method
• When the container is fetching a set of rows to the item cache (lazy loading)
10.5.2. Page Length and Cache Size
The page length of the SQLContainer dictates the amount of rows fetched from the database
in one query. The default value is 100, and it can be modified with the setPageLength()
method. To avoid constant queries it is recommended to set the page length value to at least 5
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times the amount of rows displayed in a Vaadin Table; obviously, this is also dependent on the
cache ratio set for the Table component.
The size of the internal item cache of the SQLContainer is calculated by multiplying the page
lenght with the cache ratio set for the container. The cache ratio can only be set from the code,
and the default value for it is 2. Hence with the default page length of 100 the internal cache size
becomes 200 items. This should be enough even for larger Tables while ensuring that no huge
amounts of memory will be used on the cache.
10.5.3. Refreshing the Container
Normally, the SQLContainer will handle refreshing automatically when required. However, there
may be situations where an implicit refresh is needed, for example, to make sure that the version
column is up-to-date prior to opening the item for editing in a form. For this purpose a refresh()
method is provided. This method simply clears all caches, resets the current item fetching offset
and sets the container size dirty. Any item-related call after this will inevitably result into row count
and item cache update.
Note that a call to the refresh method will not affect or reset the following properties of the
container:
• The QueryDelegate of the container
• Auto-commit mode
• Page length
• Filters
• Sorting
10.5.4. Cache Flush Notification Mechanism
Cache usage with databases in multiuser applications always results in some kind of a compromise
between the amount of queries we want to execute on the database and the amount of memory
we want to use on caching the data; and most importantly, risking the cached data becoming
stale.
SQLContainer provides an experimental remedy to this problem by implementing a simple cache
flush notification mechanism. Due to its nature these notifications are disabled by default but can
be easily enabled for a container instance by calling enableCacheFlushNotifications()
at any time during the lifetime of the container.
The notification mechanism functions by storing a weak reference to all registered containers in
a static list structure. To minimize the risk of memory leaks and to avoid unlimited growing of the
reference list, dead weak references are collected to a reference queue and removed from the
list every time a SQLContainer is added to the notification reference list or a container calls the
notification method.
When a SQLContainer has its cache notifications set enabled, it will call the static
notifyOfCacheFlush() method giving itself as a parameter. This method will compare the
notifier-container to all the others present in the reference list. To fire a cache flush event, the
target container must have the same type of QueryDelegate (either TableQuery or
FreeformQuery) and the table name or query string must match with the container that fired the
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notification. If a match is found the refresh() method of the matching container is called,
resulting in cache flushing in the target container.
Note: Standard Vaadin issues apply; even if the SQLContainer is refreshed on the server side,
the changes will not be reflected to the UI until a server round-trip is performed, or unless a push
mechanism is used.
10.6. Referencing Another SQLContainer
When developing a database-connected application, there is usually a need to retrieve data
related to one table from one or more other tables. In most cases, this relation is achieved with
a foreign key reference, where a column of the first table contains a primary key or candidate
key of a row in another table.
SQLContainer offers limited support for this kind of referencing relation, although all referencing
is currently done on the Java side so no constraints need to be made in the database. A new
reference can be created by calling the following method:
public void addReference(SQLContainer refdCont,
String refingCol, String refdCol);
This method should be called on the source container of the reference. The target container
should be given as the first parameter. The refingCol is the name of the 'foreign key' column
in the source container, and the refdCol is the name of the referenced key column in the target
container.
Note: For any SQLContainer, all the referenced target containers must be different. You can not
reference the same container from the same source twice.
Handling the referenced item can be done through the three provided set/get methods, and the
reference can be completely removed with the removeReference() method. Signatures of
these methods are listed below:
public boolean setReferencedItem(Object itemId,
Object refdItemId, SQLContainer refdCont)
public Object getReferencedItemId(Object itemId,
SQLContainer refdCont)
public Item getReferencedItem(Object itemId,
SQLContainer refdCont)
public boolean removeReference(SQLContainer refdCont)
The setter method should be given three parameters: itemId is the ID of the referencing item
(from the source container), refdItemId is the referenced itemID (from the target container)
and refdCont is a reference to the target container that identifies the reference. This method
returns true if the setting of the referenced item was successful. After setting the referenced item
you must normally call commit() on the source container to persist the changes to the database.
The getReferencedItemId() method will return the item ID of the referenced item. As
parameters this method needs the item ID of the referencing item and a reference to the target
container as an identifier. SQLContainer also provides a convenience method
getReferencedItem(), which directly returns the referenced item from the target container.
Finally, the referencing can be removed from the source container by calling the
removeReference() method with the target container as parameter. Note that this does not
actually change anything in the database; it merely removes the logical relation that exists only
on the Java-side.
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10.7. Using FreeformQuery and FreeformStatementDelegate
In most cases, the provided TableQuery will be enough to allow a developer to gain effortless
access to an SQL data source. However there may arise situations when a more complex query
with, for example, join expressions is needed. Or perhaps you need to redefine how the writing
or filtering should be done. The FreeformQuery query delegate is provided for this exact purpose.
Out of the box the FreeformQuery supports read-only access to a database, but it can be
extended to allow writing also.
10.7.1. Getting started
Getting started with the FreeformQuery may be done as shown in the following. The connection
pool initialization is similar to the TableQuery example so it is omitted here. Note that the name(s)
of the primary key column(s) must be provided to the FreeformQuery manually. This is required
because depending on the query the result set may or may not contain data about primary key
columns. In this example, there is one primary key column with a name 'ID'.
FreeformQuery query = new FreeformQuery(
"SELECT * FROM SAMPLE", pool, "ID");
SQLContainer container = new SQLContainer(query);
10.7.2. Limitations
While this looks just as easy as with the TableQuery, do note that there are some important
caveats here. Using FreeformQuery like this (without providing FreeformQueryDelegate or
FreeformStatementDelegate implementation) it can only be used as a read-only window to the
resultset of the query. Additionally filtering, sorting and lazy loading features will not be supported,
and the row count will be fetched in quite an inefficient manner. Bearing these limitations in mind,
it becomes quite obvious that the developer is in reality meant to implement the
FreeformQueryDelegate or FreeformStatementDelegate interface.
The FreeformStatementDelegate interface is an extension of the FreeformQueryDelegate
interface, which returns StatementHelper objects instead of pure query Strings. This enables
the developer to use prepared statetemens instead of regular statements. It is highly recommended
to use the FreeformStatementDelegate in all implementations. From this chapter onwards, we
will only refer to the FreeformStatementDelegate in cases where FreeformQueryDelegate
could also be applied.
10.7.3. Creating your own FreeformStatementDelegate
To create your own delegate for FreeformQuery you must implement some or all of the methods
from the FreeformStatementDelegate interface, depending on which ones your use case
requires. The interface contains eight methods which are shown below. For more detailed
requirements, see the JavaDoc documentation of the interface.
// Read-only queries
public StatementHelper getCountStatement()
public StatementHelper getQueryStatement(int offset, int limit)
public StatementHelper getContainsRowQueryStatement(Object... keys)
// Filtering and sorting
public void setFilters(List<Filter> filters)
public void setFilters(List<Filter> filters,
FilteringMode filteringMode)
public void setOrderBy(List<OrderBy> orderBys)
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// Write support
public int storeRow(Connection conn, RowItem row)
public boolean removeRow(Connection conn, RowItem row)
A simple demo implementation of this interface can be found in the SQLContainer package, more
specifically in the class com.vaadin.addon.sqlcontainer.demo.DemoFreeformQueryDelegate.
10.8. Non-implemented methods of Vaadin container interfaces
Due to the database connection inherent to the SQLContainer, some of the methods from the
container interfaces of Vaadin can not (or would not make sense to) be implemented. These
methods are listed below, and they will throw an UnsupportedOperationException on invocation.
public boolean addContainerProperty(Object propertyId,
Class<?> type,
Object defaultValue)
public boolean removeContainerProperty(Object propertyId)
public Item addItem(Object itemId)
public Object addItemAt(int index)
public Item addItemAt(int index, Object newItemId)
public Object addItemAfter(Object previousItemId)
public Item addItemAfter(Object previousItemId, Object newItemId)
Additionally, the following methods of the Item interface are not supported in the RowItem class:
public boolean addItemProperty(Object id, Property property)
public boolean removeItemProperty(Object id)
10.8.1. About the getItemIds() method
To properly implement the Vaadin Container interface, a getItemIds() method has been
implented in the SQLContainer. By definition, this method returns a collection of all the item IDs
present in the container. What this means in the SQLContainer case is that the container has
to query the database for the primary key columns of all the rows present in the connected
database table.
It is obvious that this could potentially lead to fetching tens or even hundreds of thousands of
rows in an effort to satisfy the method caller. This will effectively kill the lazy loading properties
of SQLContainer and therefore the following warning is expressed here:
Varoitus
It is highly recommended not to call the getitemIds() method, unless it is known
that in the use case in question the item ID set will always be of reasonable size.
10.9. Known Issues and Limitations
At this point, there are still some known issues and limitations affecting the use of SQLContainer
in certain situations. The known issues and brief explanations are listed below:
• Some SQL data types do not have write support when using TableQuery:
• All binary types
• All custom types
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• CLOB (if not converted automatically to a String by the JDBC driver in use)
• See com.vaadin.addon.sqlcontainer.query.generator.StatementHelper for details.
• When using Oracle or MS SQL database, the column name "rownum" can not be used
as a column name in a table connected to SQLContainer.
This limitation exists because the databases in question do not support limit/offset clauses
required for paging. Instead, a generated column named 'rownum' is used to implement
paging support.
The permanent limitations are listed below. These can not or most probably will not be fixed in
future versions of SQLContainer.
• The getItemIds() method is very inefficient - avoid calling it unless absolutely required!
• When using FreeformQuery without providing a FreeformStatementDelegate, the row
count query is very inefficient - avoid using FreeformQuery without implementing at
least the count query properly.
• When using FreeformQuery without providing a FreeformStatementDelegate, writing,
sorting and filtering will not be supported.
• When using Oracle database most or all of the numeric types are converted to
java.math.BigDecimal by the Oracle JDBC Driver.
This is a feature of how Oracle DB and the Oracle JDBC Driver handles data types.
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luku 11
Advanced Web
Application Topics
11.1. Handling Browser Windows ................................................................. 330
11.2. Embedding UIs in Web Pages ............................................................. 332
11.3. Debug Mode and Window .................................................................... 340
11.4. Request Handlers ................................................................................ 345
11.5. Shortcut Keys ...................................................................................... 346
11.6. Printing ................................................................................................ 350
11.7. Google App Engine Integration ........................................................... 352
11.8. Common Security Issues ..................................................................... 353
11.9. Navigating in an Application ................................................................ 354
11.10. Advanced Application Architectures .................................................. 358
11.11. Managing URI Fragments .................................................................. 363
11.12. Drag and Drop ................................................................................... 365
11.13. Logging .............................................................................................. 374
11.14. JavaScript Interaction ........................................................................ 375
11.15. Accessing Session-Global Data ........................................................ 377
11.16. Server Push ....................................................................................... 380
11.17. Font Icons .......................................................................................... 385
This chapter covers various features and topics often needed in applications.
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11.1. Handling Browser Windows
The UI of a Vaadin application runs in a web page displayed in a browser window or tab. An
application can be used from multiple UIs in different windows or tabs, either opened by the user
using an URL or by the Vaadin application.
In addition to native browser windows, Vaadin has a Window component, which is a floating
panel or sub-window inside a page, as described in Kohta 6.7, ”Sub-Windows”.
• Native popup windows. An application can open popup windows for sub-tasks.
• Page-based browsing. The application can allow the user to open certain content to
different windows. For example, in a messaging application, it can be useful to open
different messages to different windows so that the user can browse through them while
writing a new message.
• Bookmarking. Bookmarks in the web browser can provide an entry-point to some content
provided by an application.
• Embedding UIs. UIs can be embedded in web pages, thus making it possible to provide
different views to an application from different pages or even from the same page, while
keeping the same session. See Kohta 11.2, ”Embedding UIs in Web Pages”.
Use of multiple windows in an application may require defining and providing different UIs for the
different windows. The UIs of an application share the same user session, that is, the
VaadinSession object, as described in Kohta 4.7.3, ”User Session”. Each UI is identified by a
URL that is used to access it, which makes it possible to bookmark application UIs. UI instances
can even be created dynamically based on the URLs or other request parameters, such as
browser information, as described in Kohta 4.7.4, ”Loading a UI”.
Because of the special nature of AJAX applications, use of multiple windows uses require some
caveats.
11.1.1. Opening Popup Windows
Popup windows are native browser windows or tabs opened by user interaction with an existing
window. Due to browser security reasons, it is made incovenient for a web page to open popup
windows using JavaScript commands. At the least, the browser will ask for a permission to open
the popup, if it is possible at all. This limitation can be circumvented by letting the browser open
the new window or tab directly by its URL when the user clicks some target. This is realized in
Vaadin with the BrowserWindowOpener component extension, which causes the browser to
open a window or tab when the component is clicked.
The Popup Window UI
A popup Window displays an UI. The UI of a popup window is defined just like a main UI in a
Vaadin application, and it can have a theme, title, and so forth.
For example:
@Theme("book-examples")
public static class MyPopupUI extends UI {
@Override
protected void init(VaadinRequest request) {
getPage().setTitle("Popup Window");
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// Have some content for it
VerticalLayout content = new VerticalLayout();
Label label =
new Label("I just popped up to say hi!");
label.setSizeUndefined();
content.addComponent(label);
content.setComponentAlignment(label,
Alignment.MIDDLE_CENTER);
content.setSizeFull();
setContent(content);
}
}
Popping It Up
A popup window is opened using the BrowserWindowOpener extension, which you can attach
to any component. The constructor of the extension takes the class object of the UI class to be
opened as a parameter.
You can configure the features of the popup window with setFeatures(). It takes as its
parameter a comma-separated list of window features, as defined in the HTML specification.
status=0|1
Whether the status bar at the bottom of the window should be enabled.
scrollbars
Enables scrollbars in the window if the document area is bigger than the view area of
the window.
resizable
Allows the user to resize the browser window (no effect for tabs).
menubar
Enables the browser menu bar.
location
Enables the location bar.
toolbar
Enables the browser toolbar.
height=value
Specifies the height of the window in pixels.
width=value
Specifies the width of the window in pixels.
For example:
// Create an opener extension
BrowserWindowOpener opener =
new BrowserWindowOpener(MyPopupUI.class);
opener.setFeatures("height=200,width=300,resizable");
// Attach it to a button
Button button = new Button("Pop It Up");
opener.extend(button);
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The resulting popup window, which appears when the button is clicked, is shown in Kuva 11.1,
”A Popup Window”.
Kuva 11.1. A Popup Window
Popup Window Name (Target)
The target name is one of the default HTML target names (_new, _blank, _top, etc.) or a custom
target name. How the window is exactly opened depends on the browser. Browsers that support
tabbed browsing can open the window in another tab, depending on the browser settings.
URL and Session
The URL path for a popup window UI is by default determined from the UI class name, by prefixig
it with "popup/". For example, for the example UI giver earlier, the URL would be /bookexamples/book/popup/MyPopupUI.
11.2. Embedding UIs in Web Pages
Many web sites are not all Vaadin, but Vaadin UIs are used only for specific functionalities. In
practice, many web applications are a mixture of dynamic web pages, such as JSP, and Vaadin
UIs embedded in such pages.
Embedding Vaadin UIs in web pages is easy and there are several different ways to embed them.
One is to have a <div> placeholder for the UI and load the Vaadin Client-Side Engine with some
simple JavaScript code. Another method is even easier, which is to simply use the <iframe>
element. Both of these methods have advantages and disadvantages. One disadvantage of the
<iframe> method is that the size of the <iframe> element is not flexible according to the
content while the <div> method allows such flexibility. The following sections look closer into
these two embedding methods. Additionally, the Vaadin XS add-on allows embedding Vaadin
UIs in websites running in another server.
11.2.1. Embedding Inside a div Element
You can embed one or more Vaadin UIs inside a web page with a method that is equivalent to
loading the initial page content from the Vaadin servlet in a non-embedded UI. Normally, the
VaadinServlet generates an initial page that contains the correct parameters for the specific UI.
You can easily configure it to load multiple Vaadin UIs in the same page. They can have different
widget sets and different themes.
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Embedding an UI requires the following basic tasks:
• Set up the page header
• Include a GWT history frame in the page
• Call the vaadinBootstrap.js file
• Define the <div> element for the UI
• Configure and initialize the UI
Notice that you can view the loader page for the UI easily by opening the UI in a web browser
and viewing the HTML source code of the page. You could just copy and paste the embedding
code from the page, but some modifications and additional settings are required, mainly related
to the URLs that have to be made relative to the page instead of the servlet URL.
The DIV embedding API is about to change soon after printing this book edition. A tutorial that
describes the feature should be made available at the Vaadin website.
The Head Matter
The HTML page in which the Vaadin UI is embedded should be a valid XHTML document, as
defined in the document type. The content of the head element is largely up to you. The character
encoding must be UTF-8. Some meta declarations are necessary for compatibility. You can also
set the page favicon in the head element.
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type"
content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" />
<meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible"
content="IE=9;chrome=1" />
<title>This is my Embedding Page</title>
<!-- Set up the favicon from the Vaadin theme -->
<link rel="shortcut icon" type="image/vnd.microsoft.icon"
href="/VAADIN/themes/reindeer/favicon.ico" />
<link rel="icon" type="image/vnd.microsoft.icon"
href="/VAADIN/themes/reindeer/favicon.ico" />
</head>
The Body Matter
The page content must include some Vaadin-related definitions before you can embed Vaadin
UIs in it.
The vaadinBootstrap.js script makes definitions for starting up the UI. It must be called
before initializing the UI. The source path must be relative to the path of the embedding page.
<body>
<script type="text/javascript"
src="./VAADIN/vaadinBootstrap.js"></script>
The bootstrap script is served by the Vaadin servlet from inside the vaadin-server JAR.
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Vaadin, or more precisely GWT, requires an invisible history frame, which is used for tracking
the page or fragment history in the browser.
<iframe tabindex="-1" id="__gwt_historyFrame"
style="position: absolute; width: 0; height: 0;
border: 0; overflow: hidden"
src="javascript:false"></iframe>
UI Placeholder Element
A Vaadin UI is embedded in a placeholder <div> element. It should have the following features:
• The <div> element must have an id attribute, which must be a unique ID in the page,
normally something that identifies the servlet of the UI uniquely.
• It must have at least the v-app style class.
• it should have a nested <div> element with v-app-loading style class. This is a
placeholder for the loading indicator that is displayed while the UI is being loaded.
• It should also contain a <noscript> element that is shown if the browser does not
support JavaScript or it has been disabled. The content of the element should instruct
the use to enable JavaScript in the browser.
The placeholder element can include style settings, typically a width and height. If the sizes are
not defined, the UI will have an undefined size in the particular dimension, which must be in
accordance with the sizing of the UI components.
For example:
<div style="width: 300px; border: 2px solid green;"
id="helloworldui" class="v-app">
<div class="v-app-loading"></div>
<noscript>You have to enable javascript in your browser to
use an application built with Vaadin.</noscript>
</div>
Initializing the UI
The UI is loaded by calling the initApplication() method for the vaadin object defined in
the bootstrap script. Before calling it, you should check that the bootstrap script was loaded
properly.
<script type="text/javascript">//<![CDATA[
if (!window.vaadin)
alert("Failed to load the bootstrap JavaScript:"+
"VAADIN/vaadinBootstrap.js");
The initApplication() takes two parameters. The first parameter is the UI identifier, exactly
as given as the id attribute of the placeholder element. The second parameter is an associative
map that contains parameters for the UI.
The map must contain the following items:
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browserDetailsUrl
This should be the URL path (relative to the embedding page) to the Vaadin servlet
of the UI. It is used by the bootstrap to communicate browser details. A trailing slash
may be needed in some cases.
Notice that this parameter is not included in the loader page generated by the servlet,
because in that case, it can default to the current URL.
serviceUrl
This is used for server requests after initial loading and should be same as for
browserDetailsUrl.The two parameters are redundant and either may be removed
in future.
widgetset
This should be the exact class name of the widget set for the UI, that is, without the
.gwt.xml file name extension. If the UI has no custom widget set, you can use the
com.vaadin.DefaultWidgetSet.
theme
Name of the theme, such as one of the built-in themes (reindeer, runo, or
chameleon) or a custom theme. It must exist under the VAADIN/themes folder.
versionInfo
This parameter is itself an associative map that can contain two parameters:
vaadinVersion contains the version number of the Vaadin version used by the
application. The applicationVersion parameter contains the version of the
particular application. The contained parameters are optional, but the versionInfo
parameter itself is not.
vaadinDir
Relative path to the VAADIN directory. It is relative to the URL of the embedding page.
heartbeatInterval
The hearbeatInterval parameter defines the frequency of the keep-alive hearbeat
for the UI in seconds, as described in Kohta 4.7.5, ”UI Expiration”.
debug
The parameter defines whether the debug window, as described in Kohta 11.3, ”Debug
Mode and Window”, is enabled.
standalone
This parameter should be false when embedding. The parameter defines whether
the UI is rendered on its own in the browser window or in some context. A standalone
UI may do things that might interfere with other parts of the page, such as change the
page title and request focus when it is loaded. When embedding, the UI is not
standalone.
authErrMsg, comErrMsg, and sessExpMsg
These three parameters define the client-side error messages for authentication error,
communication error, and session expiration, respectively. The parameters are
associative maps themselves and must contain two key-value pairs: message, which
should contain the error text in HTML, and caption, which should be the error caption.
For example:
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vaadin.initApplication("helloworldui", {
"browserDetailsUrl": "helloworld/",
"serviceUrl": "helloworld/",
"widgetset": "com.example.MyWidgetSet",
"theme": "mytheme",
"versionInfo": {"vaadinVersion": "7.0.0"},
"vaadinDir": "VAADIN/",
"heartbeatInterval": 300,
"debug": true,
"standalone": false,
"authErrMsg": {
"message": "Take note of any unsaved data, "+
"and <u>click here<\/u> to continue.",
"caption": "Authentication problem"
},
"comErrMsg": {
"message": "Take note of any unsaved data, "+
"and <u>click here<\/u> to continue.",
"caption": "Communication problem"
},
"sessExpMsg": {
"message": "Take note of any unsaved data, "+
"and <u>click here<\/u> to continue.",
"caption": "Session Expired"
}
});//]]>
</script>
Notice that many of the parameters are normally deployment parameters, specified in the
deployment descriptor, as described in Kohta 4.8.6, ”Other Servlet Configuration Parameters”.
Summary of Div Embedding
Below is a complete example of embedding an UI in a <div> element.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
"http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type"
content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" />
<meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible"
content="IE=9;chrome=1" />
<title>Embedding a Vaadin Application in HTML Page</title>
<!-- Set up the favicon from the Vaadin theme -->
<link rel="shortcut icon" type="image/vnd.microsoft.icon"
href="/VAADIN/themes/reindeer/favicon.ico" />
<link rel="icon" type="image/vnd.microsoft.icon"
href="/VAADIN/themes/reindeer/favicon.ico" />
</head>
<body>
<!-- Loads the Vaadin widget set, etc. -->
<script type="text/javascript"
src="VAADIN/vaadinBootstrap.js"></script>
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<!-- GWT requires an invisible history frame. It is
-->
<!-- needed for page/fragment history in the browser. -->
<iframe tabindex="-1" id="__gwt_historyFrame"
style="position: absolute; width: 0; height: 0;
border: 0; overflow: hidden"
src="javascript:false"></iframe>
<h1>Embedding a Vaadin UI</h1>
<p>This is a static web page that contains an embedded Vaadin
application. It's here:</p>
<!-- So here comes the div element in which the Vaadin -->
<!-- application is embedded.
-->
<div style="width: 300px; border: 2px solid green;"
id="helloworld" class="v-app">
<!-- Optional placeholder for the loading indicator -->
<div class=" v-app-loading"></div>
<!-- Alternative fallback text -->
<noscript>You have to enable javascript in your browser to
use an application built with Vaadin.</noscript>
</div>
<script type="text/javascript">//<![CDATA[
if (!window.vaadin)
alert("Failed to load the bootstrap JavaScript: "+
"VAADIN/vaadinBootstrap.js");
/* The UI Configuration */
vaadin.initApplication("helloworld", {
"browserDetailsUrl": "helloworld/",
"serviceUrl": "helloworld/",
"widgetset": "com.example.MyWidgetSet",
"theme": "mytheme",
"versionInfo": {"vaadinVersion": "7.0.0"},
"vaadinDir": "VAADIN/",
"heartbeatInterval": 300,
"debug": true,
"standalone": false,
"authErrMsg": {
"message": "Take note of any unsaved data, "+
"and <u>click here<\/u> to continue.",
"caption": "Authentication problem"
},
"comErrMsg": {
"message": "Take note of any unsaved data, "+
"and <u>click here<\/u> to continue.",
"caption": "Communication problem"
},
"sessExpMsg": {
"message": "Take note of any unsaved data, "+
"and <u>click here<\/u> to continue.",
"caption": "Session Expired"
}
});//]] >
</script>
<p>Please view the page source to see how embedding works.</p>
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</body>
</html>
11.2.2. Embedding Inside an iframe Element
Embedding a Vaadin UI inside an <iframe> element is even easier than the method described
above, as it does not require definition of any Vaadin specific definitions.
You can embed an UI with an element such as the following:
<iframe src="/myapp/myui"></iframe>
The <iframe> elements have several downsides for embedding. One is that their size of is not
flexible depending on the content of the frame, but the content must be flexible to accommodate
in the frame. You can set the size of an <iframe> element with height and width attributes.
Other issues arise from themeing and communication with the frame content and the rest of the
page.
Below is a complete example of using the <iframe> to embed two applications in a web page.
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
"http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" >
<head>
<title>Embedding in IFrame</title>
</head>
<body style="background: #d0ffd0;">
<h1>This is a HTML page</h1>
<p>Below are two Vaadin applications embedded inside
a table:</p>
<table align="center" border="3">
<tr>
<th>The Calculator</th>
<th>The Color Picker</th>
</tr>
<tr valign="top">
<td>
<iframe src="/vaadin-examples/Calc" height="200"
width="150" frameborder="0"></iframe>
</td>
<td>
<iframe src="/vaadin-examples/colorpicker"
height="330" width="400"
frameborder="0"></iframe>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</body>
</html>
The page will look as shown in Kuva 11.2, ”Vaadin Applications Embedded Inside IFrames”
below.
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Kuva 11.2. Vaadin Applications Embedded Inside IFrames
You can embed almost anything in an iframe, which essentially acts as a browser window.
However, this creates various problems. The iframe must have a fixed size, inheritance of CSS
from the embedding page is not possible, and neither is interaction with JavaScript, which makes
mashups impossible, and so on. Even bookmarking with URI fragments will not work.
Note also that websites can forbid iframe embedding by specifying an X-Frame-Options:
SAMEORIGIN header in the HTTP response.
11.2.3. Cross-Site Embedding with the Vaadin XS Add-on
The XS add-on is not yet available for Vaadin 7.
In the previous sections, we described the two basic methods for embedding Vaadin applications:
in a <div> element and in an <iframe>. One problem with div embedding is that it does not
work between different Internet domains, which is a problem if you want to have your website
running in one server and your Vaadin application in another. The security model in browsers
effectively prevents such cross-site embedding of Ajax applications by enforcing the same origin
policy for XmlHttpRequest calls, even if the server is running in the same domain but different
port. While iframe is more permissive, allowing embedding almost anything in anywhere, it has
many disadvantanges, as described earlier.
The Vaadin XS (Cross-Site) add-on works around the limitation in div embedding by using JSONPstyle communication instead of the standard XmlHttpRequests.
Embedding is done simply with:
<script src="http://demo.vaadin.com/xsembed/getEmbedJs"
type="text/javascript"></script>
Cross-Site Embedding with the Vaadin XS Add-on
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This includes an automatically generated embedding script in the page, thereby making embedding
effortless.
This assumes that the main layout of the application has undefined height. If the height is 100%,
you have to wrap it inside an element with a defined height. For example:
<div style="height: 500px;">
<script src="http://demo.vaadin.com/xsembed/getEmbedJs"
type="text/javascript"></script>
</div>
It is possible to restrict where the application can be embedded by using a whitelist. The add-on
also encrypts the client-server communication, which is more important for embedded applications
than usual.
You can get the Vaadin XS add-on from Vaadin Directory. It is provided as a Zip package.
Download and extract the installation package to a local folder. Instructions for installation and
further information is given in the README.html file in the package.
Some restrictions apply. You can have only one embedded application in one page. Also, some
third-party libraries may interfere with the communication. Other notes are given in the README.
11.3. Debug Mode and Window
Vaadin applications can be run in two modes: debug mode and production mode. The debug
mode, which is on by default, enables a number of built-in debug features for Vaadin developers:
• Debug Window
• Display debug information in the Debug Window and server console
• On-the-fly compilation of Sass themes
11.3.1. Enabling the Debug Mode
The debug mode is enabled and production mode disabled by default in the UI templates created
with the Eclipse plugin or the Maven archetypes. The debug mode can be enabled by giving a
productionMode=false parameter to the Vaadin servlet configuration:
@VaadinServletConfiguration(
productionMode = false,
ui = MyprojectUI.class)
Or with a context parameter in the web.xml deployment descriptor:
<context-param>
<description>Vaadin production mode</description>
<param-name>productionMode</param-name>
<param-value>false</param-value>
</context-param>
Enabling the production mode disables the debug features, thereby preventing users from easily
inspecting the inner workings of the application from the browser.
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11.3.2. Opening the Debug Window
Running an application in the debug mode enables the client-side Debug Window in the browser.
You can open the Debug Window by adding "?debug" parameter to the URL of the UI, for
example, http://localhost:8080/myapp/?debug. The Debug Window has buttons for
controlling the debugging features and a scrollable log of debug messages.
Kuva 11.3. Debug Window
The functionalities are described in detail in the subsequent sections. You can move the window
by dragging it from the title bar and resize it from the corners. The Minimize button minimizes
the debug window in the corner of the browser window, and the Close button closes it.
If you use the Firebug plugin for Firefox or the Developer Tools console in Chrome, the log
messages will also be printed to the Firebug console. In such a case, you may want to enable
client-side debugging without showing the Debug Window with "?debug=quiet" in the URL. In
the quiet debug mode, log messages will only be printed to the console of the browser debugger.
11.3.3. Debug Message Log
The debug message log displays client-side debug messages, with time counter in milliseconds.
The control buttons allow you to clear the log, reset the timer, and lock scrolling.
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Kuva 11.4. Debug Message Log
Logging to Debug Window
You can take advantage of the debug mode when developing client-side components, by using
the standard Java Logger to write messages to the log. The messages will be written to the
debug window and Firebug console. No messages are written if the debug window is not open
or if the application is running in production mode.
11.3.4. General Information
The General information about the application(s) tab displays various information about the
UI, such as version numbers of the client and servlet engine, and the theme. If they do not match,
you may need to compile the widget set or theme.
Kuva 11.5. General Information
11.3.5. Inspecting Component Hierarchy
The Component Hierarchy tab has several sub-modes that allow debugging the component
tree in various ways.
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Connector Hierarchy Tree
The Show the connector hierarchy tree button displays the client-side connector hierarchy.
As explained in Luku 16, Integrating with the Server-Side, client-side widgets are managed by
connectors that handle communication with the server-side component counterparts.The connector
hierarchy therefore corresponds with the server-side component tree, but the client-side widget
tree and HTML DOM tree have more complexity.
Kuva 11.6. Connector Hierarchy Tree
Clicking on a connector highlights the widget in the UI.
Inspecting a Component
The Select a component in the page to inspect it button lets you select a component in the
UI by clicking it and display its client-side properties.
To view the HTML structure and CSS styles in more detail, you can use Firebug in Firefox, or
the Developer Tools in Chrome, as described in Kohta 2.2.4, ”Firefox and Firebug”. Firefox also
has a built-in feature for inspecting HTML and CSS.
Analyzing Layout Problems
The Check layouts for potential problems button analyzes the currently visible UI and makes
a report of possible layout related problems. All detected layout problems are displayed in the
log and also printed to the console.
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Kuva 11.7. Debug Window Showing the Result of Layout Analysis.
Clicking on a reported problem highlights the component with the problem in the UI.
The most common layout problem is caused by placing a component that has a relative size
inside a container (layout) that has undefined size in the particular direction (height or width). For
example, adding a Button with 100% width inside a VerticalLayout with undefined width. In
such a case, the error would look as shown in Kuva 11.7, ”Debug Window Showing the Result
of Layout Analysis.”.
CustomLayout components can not be analyzed in the same way as other layouts. For custom
layouts, the button analyzes all contained relative-sized components and checks if any relative
dimension is calculated to zero so that the component will be invisible. The error log will display
a warning for each of these invisible components. It would not be meaningful to emphasize the
component itself as it is not visible, so when you select such an error, the parent layout of the
component is emphasized if possible.
Displaying Used Connectors
The last button, Show used connectors and how to optimize widget set, displays a list of all
currently visible connectors. It also generates a connector bundle loader factory, which you can
use to optimize the widget set so that it only contains the widgets actually used in the UI. Note,
however, that it only lists the connectors visible in the current UI state, and you usually have more
connectors than that.
11.3.6. Communication Log
The Communication tab displays all server requests.You can unfold the requests to view defails,
such as the connectors involved. Clicking on a connector highlights the corresponding element
in the UI.
You can use Firebug or Developer Tools in Firefox or Chrome, respectively, to get more detailed
information about the requests and responses.
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11.3.7. Debug Modes
The Menu tab in the window opens a sub-menu to select between basic debug mode, GWT
development mode, as described in Kohta 13.6.1, ”Launching Development Mode”, and
SuperDevMode, as described in Kohta 13.6.2, ”Launching SuperDevMode”.
11.4. Request Handlers
Request handlers are useful for catching request parameters or generating dynamic content,
such as HTML, images, PDF, or other content. You can provide HTTP content easily also with
stream resources, as described in Kohta 4.4.5, ”Stream Resources”. The stream resources,
however, are only usable from within a Vaadin application, such as in an Image component.
Request handlers allow responding to HTTP requests made with the application URL, including
GET or POST parameters. You could also use a separate servlet to generate dynamic content,
but a request handler is associated with the Vaadin session and it can easily access all the
session data.
To handle requests, you need to implement the RequestHandler interface. The
handleRequest() method gets the session, request, and response objects as parameters.
If the handler writes a response, it must return true. This stops running other possible request
handlers. Otherwise, it should return false so that another handler could return a response.
Eventually, if no other handler writes a response, a UI will be created and initialized.
In the following example, we catch requests for a sub-path in the URL for the servlet and write
a plain text response. The servlet path consists of the context path and the servlet (sub-)path.
Any additional path is passed to the request handler in the pathInfo of the request. For example,
if the full path is /myapp/myui/rhexample, the path info will be /rhexample. Also, request
parameters are available.
VaadinSession.getCurrent().addRequestHandler(
new RequestHandler() {
@Override
public boolean handleRequest(VaadinSession session,
VaadinRequest request,
VaadinResponse response)
throws IOException {
if ("/rhexample".equals(request.getPathInfo())) {
response.setContentType("text/plain");
response.getWriter().append(
"Here's some dynamically generated content.\n"+
"Time: " + (new Date()).toString());
return true; // We wrote a response
} else
return false; // No response was written
}
});
// Find out the base bath for the servlet
String servletPath = VaadinServlet.getCurrent()
.getServletContext().getContextPath() + VaadinServletService
.getCurrentServletRequest().getServletPath();
// Display the page in a popup window
Link open = new Link("Click to Show the Page",
new ExternalResource(servletPath + "/rhexample"),
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"_blank", 500, 350, BorderStyle.DEFAULT);
layout.addComponent(open);
11.5. Shortcut Keys
Vaadin provides simple ways for defining shortcut keys for field components and a default button,
and a lower-level generic shortcut key binding API based on actions.
11.5.1. Shortcut Keys for Default Buttons
You can add or set a click shortcut to a button to set it as "default" button; pressing the defined
key, typically Enter, in any component in the window causes a click event for the button.
You can define a click shortcut with the setClickShortcut() shorthand method:
// Have an OK button and set it as the default button
Button ok = new Button("OK");
ok.setClickShortcut(KeyCode.ENTER);
ok.addStyleName(Reindeer.BUTTON_DEFAULT);
The BUTTON_DEFAULT style name highlights a button to show the default button status; usually
with a bolder font than usual, depending on the theme. The result can be seen in Kuva 11.8,
”Default Button with Click Shortcut”.
Kuva 11.8. Default Button with Click Shortcut
11.5.2. Field Focus Shortcuts
You can define a shortcut key that sets the focus to a field component (any component that
inherits AbstractField) by adding a FocusShortcut as a shortcut listener to the field. .
The constructor of the FocusShortcut takes the field component as its first parameter, followed
by the key code, and an optional list of modifier keys, as listed in Kohta 11.5.4, ”Supported Key
Codes and Modifier Keys”.
// A field with Alt+N bound to it
TextField name = new TextField("Name (Alt+N)");
name.addShortcutListener(
new AbstractField.FocusShortcut(name, KeyCode.N,
ModifierKey.ALT));
layout.addComponent(name);
You can also specify the shortcut by a shorthand notation, where the shortcut key is indicated
with an ampersand (&).
// A field with Alt+A bound to it, using shorthand notation
TextField address = new TextField("Address (Alt+A)");
address.addShortcutListener(
new AbstractField.FocusShortcut(address, "&Address"));
This is especially useful for internationalization, so that you can determine the shortcut key from
the localized string.
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11.5.3. Generic Shortcut Actions
Shortcut keys can be defined as actions using the ShortcutAction class. It extends the generic
Action class that is used for example in Tree and Table for context menus. Currently, the only
classes that accept ShortcutActions are Window and Panel.
To handle key presses, you need to define an action handler by implementing the Handler
interface. The interface has two methods that you need to implement: getActions() and
handleAction().
The getActions() method must return an array of Action objects for the component, specified
with the second parameter for the method, the sender of an action. For a keyboard shortcut,
you use a ShortcutAction. The implementation of the method could be following:
// Have the unmodified Enter key cause an event
Action action_ok = new ShortcutAction("Default key",
ShortcutAction.KeyCode.ENTER, null);
// Have the C key modified with Alt cause an event
Action action_cancel = new ShortcutAction("Alt+C",
ShortcutAction.KeyCode.C,
new int[] { ShortcutAction.ModifierKey.ALT });
Action[] actions = new Action[] {action_cancel, action_ok};
public Action[] getActions(Object target, Object sender) {
if (sender == myPanel)
return actions;
return null;
}
The returned Action array may be static or you can create it dynamically for different senders
according to your needs.
The constructor of ShortcutAction takes a symbolic caption for the action; this is largely irrelevant
for shortcut actions in their current implementation, but might be used later if implementors use
them both in menus and as shortcut actions. The second parameter is the key code and the third
a list of modifier keys, which are listed in Kohta 11.5.4, ”Supported Key Codes and Modifier Keys”.
The following example demonstrates the definition of a default button for a user interface, as well
as a normal shortcut key, Alt+C for clicking the Cancel button.
public class DefaultButtonExample extends CustomComponent
implements Handler {
// Define and create user interface components
Panel panel = new Panel("Login");
FormLayout formlayout = new FormLayout();
TextField username = new TextField("Username");
TextField password = new TextField("Password");
HorizontalLayout buttons = new HorizontalLayout();
// Create buttons and define their listener methods.
Button ok = new Button("OK", this, "okHandler");
Button cancel = new Button("Cancel", this, "cancelHandler");
// Have the unmodified Enter key cause an event
Action action_ok = new ShortcutAction("Default key",
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ShortcutAction.KeyCode.ENTER, null);
// Have the C key modified with Alt cause an event
Action action_cancel = new ShortcutAction("Alt+C",
ShortcutAction.KeyCode.C,
new int[] { ShortcutAction.ModifierKey.ALT });
public DefaultButtonExample() {
// Set up the user interface
setCompositionRoot(panel);
panel.addComponent(formlayout);
formlayout.addComponent(username);
formlayout.addComponent(password);
formlayout.addComponent(buttons);
buttons.addComponent(ok);
buttons.addComponent(cancel);
// Set focus to username
username.focus();
// Set this object as the action handler
panel.addActionHandler(this);
}
/**
* Retrieve actions for a specific component. This method
* will be called for each object that has a handler; in
* this example just for login panel. The returned action
* list might as well be static list.
*/
public Action[] getActions(Object target, Object sender) {
System.out.println("getActions()");
return new Action[] { action_ok, action_cancel };
}
/**
* Handle actions received from keyboard. This simply directs
* the actions to the same listener methods that are called
* with ButtonClick events.
*/
public void handleAction(Action action, Object sender,
Object target) {
if (action == action_ok) {
okHandler();
}
if (action == action_cancel) {
cancelHandler();
}
}
public void okHandler() {
// Do something: report the click
formlayout.addComponent(new Label("OK clicked. "
+ "User=" + username.getValue() + ", password="
+ password.getValue()));
}
public void cancelHandler() {
// Do something: report the click
formlayout.addComponent(new Label("Cancel clicked. User="
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+ username.getValue() + ", password="
+ password.getValue()));
}
}
Notice that the keyboard actions can currently be attached only to Panels and Windows. This
can cause problems if you have components that require a certain key. For example, multi-line
TextField requires the Enter key. There is currently no way to filter the shortcut actions out while
the focus is inside some specific component, so you need to avoid such conflicts.
11.5.4. Supported Key Codes and Modifier Keys
The shortcut key definitions require a key code to identify the pressed key and modifier keys,
such as Shift, Alt, or Ctrl, to specify a key combination.
The key codes are defined in the ShortcutAction.KeyCode interface and are:
Keys A to Z
Normal letter keys
F1 to F12
Function keys
BACKSPACE, DELETE, ENTER, ESCAPE, INSERT, TAB
Control keys
NUM0 to NUM9
Number pad keys
ARROW_DOWN, ARROW_UP, ARROW_LEFT, ARROW_RIGHT
Arrow keys
HOME, END, PAGE_UP, PAGE_DOWN
Other movement keys
Modifier keys are defined in ShortcutAction.ModifierKey and are:
ModifierKey.ALT
Alt key
ModifierKey.CTRL
Ctrl key
ModifierKey.SHIFT
Shift key
All constructors and methods accepting modifier keys take them as a variable argument list
following the key code, separated with commas. For example, the following defines a Ctrl+Shift+N
key combination for a shortcut.
TextField name = new TextField("Name (Ctrl+Shift+N)");
name.addShortcutListener(
new AbstractField.FocusShortcut(name, KeyCode.N,
ModifierKey.CTRL,
ModifierKey.SHIFT));
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Supported Key Combinations
The actual possible key combinations vary greatly between browsers, as most browsers have a
number of built-in shortcut keys, which can not be used in web applications. For example, Mozilla
Firefox allows binding almost any key combination, while Opera does not even allow binding Alt
shortcuts. Other browsers are generally in between these two. Also, the operating system can
reserve some key combinations and some computer manufacturers define their own system key
combinations.
11.6. Printing
Vaadin does not have any special support for printing. There are two basic ways to print - in a
printer controlled by the application server or by the user from the web browser. Printing in the
application server is largely independent of the UI, you just have to take care that printing
commands do not block server requests, possibly by running the print commands in another
thread.
For client-side printing, most browsers support printing the web page. You can either print the
current or a special print page that you open. The page can be styled for printing with special
CSS rules, and you can hide unwanted elements.You can also print other than Vaadin UI content,
such as HTML or PDF.
11.6.1. Printing the Browser Window
Vaadin does not have special support for launching the printing in browser, but you can easily
use the JavaScript print() method that opens the print window of the browser.
Button print = new Button("Print This Page");
print.addClickListener(new Button.ClickListener() {
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
// Print the current page
JavaScript.getCurrent().execute("print();");
}
});
The button in the above example would print the current page, including the button itself. You
can hide such elements in CSS, as well as otherwise style the page for printing. Style definitions
for printing are defined inside a @media print {} block in CSS.
11.6.2. Opening a Print Window
You can open a browser window with a special UI for print content and automatically launch
printing the content.
public static class PrintUI extends UI {
@Override
protected void init(VaadinRequest request) {
// Have some content to print
setContent(new Label(
"<h1
>Here's some dynamic content</h1
>\n" +
"<p
>This is to be printed.</p
>",
ContentMode.HTML));
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// Print automatically when the window opens
JavaScript.getCurrent().execute(
"setTimeout(function() {" +
" print(); self.close();}, 0);");
}
}
...
// Create an opener extension
BrowserWindowOpener opener =
new BrowserWindowOpener(PrintUI.class);
opener.setFeatures("height=200,width=400,resizable");
// A button to open the printer-friendly page.
Button print = new Button("Click to Print");
opener.extend(print);
How the browser opens the window, as an actual (popup) window or just a tab, depends on the
browser. After printing, we automatically close the window with another JavaScript call, as there
is no close() method in Window.
11.6.3. Printing PDF
To print content as PDF, you need to provide the downloadable content as a static or a dynamic
resource, such as a StreamResource.
You can let the user open the resource using a Link component, or some other component with
a PopupWindowOpener extension. When such a link or opener is clicked, the browser opens
the PDF in the browser, in an external viewer (such as Adobe Reader), or lets the user save the
document.
It is crucial to notice that clicking a Link or a PopupWindowOpener is a client-side operation.
If you get the content of the dynamic PDF from the same UI state, you can not have the link or
opener enabled, as then clicking it would not get the current UI content. Instead, you have to
create the resource object before the link or opener are clicked. This usually requires a two-step
operation, or having the print operation available in another view.
// A user interface for a (trivial) data model from which
// the PDF is generated.
final TextField name = new TextField("Name");
name.setValue("Slartibartfast");
// This has to be clicked first to create the stream resource
final Button ok = new Button("OK");
// This actually opens the stream resource
final Button print = new Button("Open PDF");
print.setEnabled(false);
ok.addClickListener(new ClickListener() {
@Override
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
// Create the PDF source and pass the data model to it
StreamSource source =
new MyPdfSource((String) name.getValue());
// Create the stream resource and give it a file name
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String filename = "pdf_printing_example.pdf";
StreamResource resource =
new StreamResource(source, filename);
// These settings are not usually necessary. MIME type
// is detected automatically from the file name, but
// setting it explicitly may be necessary if the file
// suffix is not ".pdf".
resource.setMIMEType("application/pdf");
resource.getStream().setParameter(
"Content-Disposition",
"attachment; filename="+filename);
// Extend the print button with an opener
// for the PDF resource
BrowserWindowOpener opener =
new BrowserWindowOpener(resource);
opener.extend(print);
name.setEnabled(false);
ok.setEnabled(false);
print.setEnabled(true);
}
});
layout.addComponent(name);
layout.addComponent(ok);
layout.addComponent(print);
11.7. Google App Engine Integration
This section is not yet fully updated to Vaadin 7.
Vaadin includes support to run Vaadin applications in the Google App Engine (GAE). The most
essential requirement for GAE is the ability to serialize the application state. Vaadin applications
are serializable through the java.io.Serializable interface.
To run as a GAE application, an application must use GAEVaadinServlet instead of
VaadinServlet, and of course implement the java.io.Serializable interface for all persistent
classes. You also need to enable session support in appengine-web.xml with:
<sessions-enabled>true</sessions-enabled>
The Vaadin Project wizard can create the configuration files needed for GAE deployment. See
Kohta 2.5.1, ”Creating the Project”. When the Google App Engine deployment configuration is
selected, the wizard will create the project structure following the GAE Servlet convention instead
of the regular Servlet convention. The main differences are:
• Source directory: src/main/java
• Output directory: war/WEB-INF/classes
• Content directory: war
11.7.1. Rules and Limitations
Running Vaadin applications in Google App Engine has the following rules and limitations:
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• Avoid using the session for storage, usual App Engine limitations apply (no
synchronization, that is, it is unreliable).
• Vaadin uses memcache for mutex, the key is of the form _vmutex<sessionid>.
• The Vaadin WebApplicationContext class is serialized separately into memcache and
datastore; the memcache key is _vac<sessionid> and the datastore entity kind is
_vac with identifiers of the type _vac<sessionid>.
• Do not update the application state when serving an ConnectorResource (such as
ClassResource.getStream()).
• Avoid (or be very careful when) updating application state in a TransactionListener it is called even when the application is not locked and won't be serialized (such as with
ConnectorResource), and changes can therefore be lost (it should be safe to update
things that can be safely discarded later, that is, valid only for the current request).
• The application remains locked during uploads - a progress bar is not possible.
11.8. Common Security Issues
11.8.1. Sanitizing User Input to Prevent Cross-Site Scripting
You can put raw XHTML content in many components, such as the Label and CustomLayout,
as well as in tooltips and notifications. In such cases, you should make sure that if the content
has any possibility to come from user input, you must make sure that the content is safe before
displaying it. Otherwise, a malicious user can easily make a cross-site scripting attack by injecting
offensive JavaScript code in such components. See other sources for more information about
cross-site scripting.
Offensive code can easily be injected with <script> markup or in tag attributes as events, such
as onLoad. Cross-site scripting vulnerabilities are browser dependent, depending on the situations
in which different browsers execute scripting markup.
Therefore, if the content created by one user is shown to other users, the content must be
sanitized. There is no generic way to sanitize user input, as different applications can allow
different kinds of input. Pruning (X)HTML tags out is somewhat simple, but some applications
may need to allow (X)HTML content. It is therefore the responsibility of the application to sanitize
the input.
Character encoding can make sanitization more difficult, as offensive tags can be encoded so
that they are not recognized by a sanitizer. This can be done, for example, with HTML character
entities and with variable-width encodings such as UTF-8 or various CJK encodings, by abusing
multiple representations of a character. Most trivially, you could input < and > with &lt; and
&gt;, respectively. The input could also be malformed and the sanitizer must be able to interpret
it exactly as the browser would, and different browsers can interpret malformed HTML and
variable-width character encodings differently.
Notice that the problem applies also to user input from a RichTextArea is transmitted as XHTML
from the browser to server-side and is not sanitized. As the entire purpose of the RichTextArea
component is to allow input of formatted text, you can not just remove all HTML tags. Also many
attributes, such as style, should pass through the sanitization.
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11.9. Navigating in an Application
Plain Vaadin applications do not have normal web page navigation as they usually run on a single
page, as all Ajax applications do. Quite commonly, however, applications have different views
between which the user should be able to navigate. The Navigator in Vaadin can be used for
most cases of navigation. Views managed by the navigator automatically get a distinct URI
fragment, which can be used to be able to bookmark the views and their states and to go back
and forward in the browser history.
11.9.1. Setting Up for Navigation
The Navigator class manages a collection of views that implement the View interface. The views
can be either registered beforehand or acquired from a view provider. When registering, the views
must have a name identifier and be added to a navigator with addView(). You can register new
views at any point. Once registered, you can navigate to them with navigateTo().
Navigator manages navigation in a component container, which can be either a
ComponentContainer (most layouts) or a SingleComponentContainer (UI, Panel, or
Window). The component container is managed through a ViewDisplay. Two view displays
are defined: ComponentContainerViewDisplay and SingleComponentContainerViewDisplay,
for the respective component container types. Normally, you can let the navigator create the view
display internally, as we do in the example below, but you can also create it yourself to customize
it.
Let us consider the following UI with two views: start and main. Here, we define their names with
enums to be typesafe. We manage the navigation with the UI class itself, which is a
SingleComponentContainer.
public class NavigatorUI extends UI {
Navigator navigator;
protected static final String MAINVIEW = "main";
@Override
protected void init(VaadinRequest request) {
getPage().setTitle("Navigation Example");
// Create a navigator to control the views
navigator = new Navigator(this, this);
// Create and register the views
navigator.addView("", new StartView());
navigator.addView(MAINVIEW, new MainView());
}
}
The Navigator automatically sets the URI fragment of the application URL. It also registers a
URIFragmentChangedListener in the page (see Kohta 11.11, ”Managing URI Fragments”)
to show the view identified by the URI fragment if entered or navigated to in the browser. This
also enables browser navigation history in the application.
View Providers
You can create new views dynamically using a view provider that implements the ViewProvider
interface. A provider is registered in Navigator with addProvider().
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The ClassBasedViewProvider is a view provider that can dynamically create new instances
of a specified view class based on the view name.
The StaticViewProvider returns an existing view instance based on the view name. The
addView() in Navigator is actually just a shorthand for creating a static view provider for each
registered view.
View Change Listeners
You can handle view changes also by implementing a ViewChangeListener and adding it to
a Navigator. When a view change occurs, a listener receives a ViewChangeEvent object, which
has references to the old and the activated view, the name of the activated view, as well as the
fragment parameters.
11.9.2. Implementing a View
Views can be any objects that implement the View interface. When the navigateTo() is called
for the navigator, or the application is opened with the URI fragment associated with the view,
the navigator switches to the view and calls its enter() method.
To continue with the example, consider the following simple start view that just lets the user to
navigate to the main view. It only pops up a notification when the user navigates to it and displays
the navigation button.
/** A start view for navigating to the main view */
public class StartView extends VerticalLayout implements View {
public StartView() {
setSizeFull();
Button button = new Button("Go to Main View",
new Button.ClickListener() {
@Override
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
navigator.navigateTo(MAINVIEW);
}
});
addComponent(button);
setComponentAlignment(button, Alignment.MIDDLE_CENTER);
}
@Override
public void enter(ViewChangeEvent event) {
Notification.show("Welcome to the Animal Farm");
}
}
You can initialize the view content in the constructor, as was done in the example above, or in
the enter() method. The advantage with the latter method is that the view is attached to the
view container as well as to the UI at that time, which is not the case in the constructor.
11.9.3. Handling URI Fragment Path
URI fragment part of a URL is the part after a hash # character. Is used for within-UI URLs,
because it is the only part of the URL that can be changed with JavaScript from within a page
without reloading the page. The URLs with URI fragments can be used for hyperlinking and
bookmarking, as well as browser history, just like any other URLs. In addition, an exclamation
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mark #! after the hash marks that the page is a stateful AJAX page, which can be crawled by
search engines. Crawling requires that the application also responds to special URLs to get the
searchable content. URI fragments are managed by Page, which provides a low-level API.
URI fragments can be used with Navigator in two ways: for navigating to a view and to a state
within a view. The URI fragment accepted by navigateTo() can have the view name at the
root, followed by fragment parameters after a slash ("/"). These parameters are passed to the
enter() method in the View.
In the following example, we implement within-view navigation.
/** Main view with a menu */
public class MainView extends VerticalLayout implements View {
Panel panel;
// Menu navigation button listener
class ButtonListener implements Button.ClickListener {
String menuitem;
public ButtonListener(String menuitem) {
this.menuitem = menuitem;
}
@Override
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
// Navigate to a specific state
navigator.navigateTo(MAINVIEW + "/" + menuitem);
}
}
public MainView() {
setSizeFull();
// Layout with menu on left and view area on right
HorizontalLayout hLayout = new HorizontalLayout();
hLayout.setSizeFull();
// Have a menu on the left side of the screen
Panel menu = new Panel("List of Equals");
menu.setHeight("100%");
menu.setWidth(null);
VerticalLayout menuContent = new VerticalLayout();
menuContent.addComponent(new Button("Pig",
new ButtonListener("pig")));
menuContent.addComponent(new Button("Cat",
new ButtonListener("cat")));
menuContent.addComponent(new Button("Dog",
new ButtonListener("dog")));
menuContent.addComponent(new Button("Reindeer",
new ButtonListener("reindeer")));
menuContent.addComponent(new Button("Penguin",
new ButtonListener("penguin")));
menuContent.addComponent(new Button("Sheep",
new ButtonListener("sheep")));
menuContent.setWidth(null);
menuContent.setMargin(true);
menu.setContent(menuContent);
hLayout.addComponent(menu);
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// A panel that contains a content area on right
panel = new Panel("An Equal");
panel.setSizeFull();
hLayout.addComponent(panel);
hLayout.setExpandRatio(panel, 1.0f);
addComponent(hLayout);
setExpandRatio(hLayout, 1.0f);
// Allow going back to the start
Button logout = new Button("Logout",
new Button.ClickListener() {
@Override
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
navigator.navigateTo("");
}
});
addComponent(logout);
}
@Override
public void enter(ViewChangeEvent event) {
VerticalLayout panelContent = new VerticalLayout();
panelContent.setSizeFull();
panelContent.setMargin(true);
panel.setContent(panelContent); // Also clears
if (event.getParameters() == null
|| event.getParameters().isEmpty()) {
panelContent.addComponent(
new Label("Nothing to see here, " +
"just pass along."));
return;
}
// Display the fragment parameters
Label watching = new Label(
"You are currently watching a " +
event.getParameters());
watching.setSizeUndefined();
panelContent.addComponent(watching);
panelContent.setComponentAlignment(watching,
Alignment.MIDDLE_CENTER);
// Some other content
Embedded pic = new Embedded(null,
new ThemeResource("img/" + event.getParameters() +
"-128px.png"));
panelContent.addComponent(pic);
panelContent.setExpandRatio(pic, 1.0f);
panelContent.setComponentAlignment(pic,
Alignment.MIDDLE_CENTER);
Label back = new Label("And the " +
event.getParameters() + " is watching you");
back.setSizeUndefined();
panelContent.addComponent(back);
panelContent.setComponentAlignment(back,
Alignment.MIDDLE_CENTER);
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}
}
The main view is shown in Kuva 11.9, ”Navigator Main View”. At this point, the URL would be
http://localhost:8080/myapp#!main/reindeer.
Kuva 11.9. Navigator Main View
11.10. Advanced Application Architectures
In this section, we continue from the basic application architectures described in Kohta 4.2,
”Building the UI” and discuss some of the more advanced patterns that are often used in Vaadin
applications.
11.10.1. Layered Architectures
Layered architectures, where each layer has a clearly distinct responsibility, are probably the
most common architectures. Typically, applications follow at least a three-layer architecture:
• User interface (or presentation) layer
• Domain layer
• Data store layer
Such an architecture starts from a domain model, which defines the data model and the "business
logic" of the application, typically as POJOs. A user interface is built on top of the domain model,
in our context with the Vaadin Framework. The Vaadin user interface could be bound directly to
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the data model through the Vaadin Data Model, described in Luku 9, Binding Components to
Data. Beneath the domain model lies a data store, such as a relational database. The
dependencies between the layers are restricted so that a higher layer may depend on a lower
one, but never the other way around.
Kuva 11.10. Three-Layer Architecture
An application layer (or service layer) is often distinguished from the domain layer, offering the
domain logic as a service, which can be used by the user interface layer, as well as for other
uses. In Java EE development, Enterprise JavaBeans (EJBs) are typically used for building this
layer.
An infrastructure layer (or data access layer) is often distinguished from the data store layer, with
a purpose to abstract the data store. For example, it could involve a persistence solution such
as JPA and an EJB container. This layer becomes relevant with Vaadin when binding Vaadin
components to data with the JPAContainer, as described in Luku 19, Vaadin JPAContainer.
11.10.2. Model-View-Presenter Pattern
The Model-View-Presenter (MVP) pattern is one of the most common patterns in developing
large applications with Vaadin. It is similar to the older Model-View-Controller (MVC) pattern,
which is not as meaningful in Vaadin development. Instead of an implementation-aware controller,
there is an implementation-agnostic presenter that operates the view through an interface. The
view does not interact directly with the model. This isolates the view implementation better than
in MVC and allows easier unit testing of the presenter and model.
Kuva 11.11. Model-View-Presenter Pattern
Kuva 11.11, ”Model-View-Presenter Pattern” illustrates the MVP pattern with a simple calculator.
The domain model is realized in the Calculator class, which includes a data model and some
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model logic operations. The CalculatorViewImpl is a Vaadin implementation of the view, defined
in the CalculatorView interface. The CalculatorPresenter handles the user interface logic.
User interaction events received in the view are translated into implementation-independent
events for the presenter to handle (the view implementation could also just call the presenter).
Let us first look how the model and view are bound together by the presenter in the following
example:
// Create the model and the Vaadin view implementation
CalculatorModel
model = new CalculatorModel();
CalculatorViewImpl view = new CalculatorViewImpl();
// The presenter binds the model and view together
new CalculatorPresenter(model, view);
// The view implementation is a Vaadin component
layout.addComponent(view);
You could add the view anywhere in a Vaadin application, as it is a composite component.
The Model
Our business model is quite simple, with one value and a number of operations for manipulating
it.
/** The model **/
class CalculatorModel {
private double value = 0.0;
public void clear() {
value = 0.0;
}
public void add(double arg) {
value += arg;
}
public void multiply(double arg) {
value *= arg;
}
public void divide(double arg) {
if (arg != 0.0)
value /= arg;
}
public double getValue() {
return value;
}
public void setValue(double value) {
this.value = value;
}
}
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The View
The purpose of the view in MVP is to display data and receive user interaction. It relays the user
interaction to the presenter in an fashion that is independent of the view implementation, that is,
no Vaadin events. It is defined as a UI framework interface that can have multiple implementations.
interface CalculatorView {
public void setDisplay(double value);
interface CalculatorViewListener {
void buttonClick(char operation);
}
public void addListener(CalculatorViewListener listener);
}
The are design alternatives for the view. It could receive the listener in its constructor, or it could
just know the presenter. Here, we forward button clicks as an implementation-independent event.
As we are using Vaadin, we make a Vaadin implementation of the interface as follows:
class CalculatorViewImpl extends CustomComponent
implements CalculatorView, ClickListener {
private Label display = new Label("0.0");
public CalculatorViewImpl() {
GridLayout layout = new GridLayout(4, 5);
// Create a result label that spans over all
// the 4 columns in the first row
layout.addComponent(display, 0, 0, 3, 0);
// The operations for the calculator in the order
// they appear on the screen (left to right, top
// to bottom)
String[] operations = new String[] {
"7", "8", "9", "/", "4", "5", "6",
"*", "1", "2", "3", "-", "0", "=", "C", "+" };
// Add buttons and have them send click events
// to this class
for (String caption: operations)
layout.addComponent(new Button(caption, this));
setCompositionRoot(layout);
}
public void setDisplay(double value) {
display.setValue(Double.toString(value));
}
/* Only the presenter registers one listener... */
List<CalculatorViewListener> listeners =
new ArrayList<CalculatorViewListener>();
public void addListener(CalculatorViewListener listener) {
listeners.add(listener);
}
/** Relay button clicks to the presenter with an
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* implementation-independent event */
@Override
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
for (CalculatorViewListener listener: listeners)
listener.buttonClick(event.getButton()
.getCaption().charAt(0));
}
}
The Presenter
The presenter in MVP is a middle-man that handles all user interaction logic, but in an
implementation-independent way, so that it doesn't actually know anything about Vaadin. It shows
data in the view and receives user interaction back from it.
class CalculatorPresenter
implements CalculatorView.CalculatorViewListener {
CalculatorModel model;
CalculatorView view;
private double current = 0.0;
private char
lastOperationRequested = 'C';
public CalculatorPresenter(CalculatorModel model,
CalculatorView view) {
this.model = model;
this.view = view;
view.setDisplay(current);
view.addListener(this);
}
@Override
public void buttonClick(char operation) {
// Handle digit input
if ('0' <= operation && operation <= '9') {
current = current * 10
+ Double.parseDouble("" + operation);
view.setDisplay(current);
return;
}
// Execute the previously input operation
switch (lastOperationRequested) {
case '+':
model.add(current);
break;
case '-':
model.add(-current);
break;
case '/':
model.divide(current);
break;
case '*':
model.multiply(current);
break;
case 'C':
model.setValue(current);
break;
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} // '=' is implicit
lastOperationRequested = operation;
current = 0.0;
if (operation == 'C')
model.clear();
view.setDisplay(model.getValue());
}
}
In the above example, we held some state information in the presenter. Alternatively, we could
have had an intermediate controller between the presenter and the model to handle the low-level
button logic.
11.11. Managing URI Fragments
A major issue in AJAX applications is that as they run in a single web page, bookmarking the
application URL (or more generally the URI) can only bookmark the application, not an application
state. This is a problem for many applications, such as product catalogs and discussion forums,
in which it would be good to provide links to specific products or messages. Consequently, as
browsers remember the browsing history by URI, the history and the Back button do not normally
work. The solution is to use the fragment identifier part of the URI, which is separated from the
primary part (address + path + optional query parameters) of the URI with the hash (#) character.
For example:
http://example.com/path#myfragment
The exact syntax of the fragment identifier part is defined in RFC 3986 (Internet standard STD
66) that defines the URI syntax. A fragment may only contain the regular URI path characters
(see the standard) and additionally the slash and the question mark.
Vaadin offers two ways to enable the use of URI fragments: the high-level Navigator utility
described in Kohta 11.9, ”Navigating in an Application” and the low-level API described here.
11.11.1. Setting the URI Fragment
You can set the current fragment identifier with the setUriFragment() method in the Page
object.
Page.getCurrent().setUriFragment("mars");
Setting the URI fragment causes an UriFragmentChangeEvent, which is processed in the
same server request. As with UI rendering, the URI fragment is changed in the browser after the
currently processed server request returns the response.
Prefixing the fragment identifier with an exclamation mark enables the web crawler support
described in Kohta 11.11.4, ”Supporting Web Crawling”.
11.11.2. Reading the URI Fragment
The current URI fragment can be acquired with the getUriFragment() method from the current
Page object. The fragment is known when the init() method of the UI is called.
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// Read initial URI fragment to create UI content
String fragment = getPage().getUriFragment();
enter(fragment);
To enable reusing the same code when the URI fragment is changed, as described next, it is
usually best to build the relevant part of the UI in a separate method. In the above example, we
called an enter() method, in a way that is similar to handling view changes with Navigator.
11.11.3. Listening for URI Fragment Changes
After the UI has been initialized, changes in the URI fragment can be handled with a
UriFragmentChangeListener. The listeners are called when the URI fragment changes, but
not when the UI is initialized, where the current fragment is available from the page object as
described earlier.
For example, we could define the listener as follows in the init() method of a UI class:
public class MyUI extends UI {
@Override
protected void init(VaadinRequest request) {
getPage().addUriFragmentChangedListener(
new UriFragmentChangedListener() {
public void uriFragmentChanged(
UriFragmentChangedEvent source) {
enter(source.getUriFragment());
}
});
// Read the initial URI fragment
enter(getPage().getUriFragment());
}
void enter(String fragment) {
... initialize the UI ...
}
}
Kuva 11.12, ”Application State Management with URI Fragment Utility” shows an application that
allows specifying the menu selection with a URI fragment and correspondingly sets the fragment
when the user selects a menu item.
Kuva 11.12. Application State Management with URI Fragment Utility
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11.11.4. Supporting Web Crawling
Stateful AJAX applications can not normally be crawled by a search engine, as they run in a
single page and a crawler can not navigate the states even if URI fragments are enabled. The
Google search engine and crawler support a convention where the fragment identifiers are
prefixed with exclamation mark, such as #!myfragment. The servlet needs to have a separate
searchable content page accessible with the same URL, but with a _escaped_fragment_
parameter.
For
example,
for
/myapp/myui#!myfragment
it
would
be
/myapp/myui?_escaped_fragment_=myfragment.
You can provide the crawl content by overriding the service() method in a custom servlet
class. For regular requests, you should call the super implementation in the VaadinServlet class.
public class MyCustomServlet extends VaadinServlet
@Override
protected void service(HttpServletRequest request,
HttpServletResponse response)
throws ServletException, IOException {
String fragment = request
.getParameter("_escaped_fragment_");
if (fragment != null) {
response.setContentType("text/html");
Writer writer = response.getWriter();
writer.append("<html><body>"+
"<p>Here is some crawlable "+
"content about " + fragment + "</p>");
// A list of all crawlable pages
String items[] = {"mercury", "venus",
"earth", "mars"};
writer.append("<p>Index of all content:</p><ul>");
for (String item: items) {
String url = request.getContextPath() +
request.getServletPath() +
request.getPathInfo() + "#!" + item;
writer.append("<li><a href='" + url + "'>" +
item + "</a></li>");
}
writer.append("</ul></body>");
} else
super.service(request, response);
}
}
The crawlable content does not need to be human readable. It can provide an index of links to
other application states, as we did in the example above. The links should use the "#!" notation,
but can not be relative to avoid having the _escaped_fragment_ parameter.
You need to use the custom servlet class in the web.xml deployment descriptor instead of the
normal VaadinServlet class, as described in Kohta 4.8.4, ”Using a web.xml Deployment
Descriptor”.
11.12. Drag and Drop
Dragging an object from one location to another by grabbing it with mouse, holding the mouse
button pressed, and then releasing the button to "drop" it to the other location is a common way
to move, copy, or associate objects. For example, most operating systems allow dragging and
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dropping files between folders or dragging a document on a program to open it. In Vaadin, it is
possible to drag and drop components and parts of certain components.
Dragged objects, or transferables, are essentially data objects. You can drag and drop rows in
Table and nodes in Tree components, either within or between the components. You can also
drag entire components by wrapping them inside DragAndDropWrapper.
Dragging starts from a drag source, which defines the transferable. Transferables implement the
Transferable interfaces. For trees and tables, which are bound to Container data sources, a
node or row transferable is a reference to an Item in the Vaadin Data Model. Dragged components
are referenced with a WrapperTransferable. Starting dragging does not require any client-server
communication, you only need to enable dragging. All drag and drop logic occurs in two operations:
determining (accepting) where dropping is allowed and actually dropping. Drops can be done on
a drop target, which implements the DropTarget interface. Three components implement the
interface: Tree, Table, and DragAndDropWrapper. These accept and drop operations need to
be provided in a drop handler. Essentially all you need to do to enable drag and drop is to enable
dragging in the drag source and implement the getAcceptCriterion() and drop() methods
in the DropHandler interface.
The client-server architecture of Vaadin causes special requirements for the drag and drop
functionality. The logic for determining where a dragged object can be dropped, that is, accepting
a drop, should normally be done on the client-side, in the browser. Server communications are
too slow to have much of such logic on the server-side. The drag and drop feature therefore
offers a number of ways to avoid the server communications to ensure a good user experience.
11.12.1. Handling Drops
Most of the user-defined drag and drop logic occurs in a drop handler, which is provided by
implementing the drop() method in the DropHandler interface. A closely related definition is
the drop accept criterion, which is defined in the getAcceptCriterion() method in the same
interface. It is described in Kohta 11.12.4, ”Accepting Drops” later.
The drop() method gets a DragAndDropEvent as its parameters. The event object provides
references to two important object: Transferable and TargetDetails.
A Transferable contains a reference to the object (component or data item) that is being dragged.
A tree or table item is represented as a TreeTransferable or TableTransferable object, which
carries the item identifier of the dragged tree or table item. These special transferables, which
are bound to some data in a container, are DataBoundTransferable. Dragged components are
represented as WrapperTransferable objects, as the components are wrapped in a
DragAndDropWrapper.
The TargetDetails object provides information about the exact location where the transferable
object is being dropped. The exact class of the details object depends on the drop target and
you need to cast it to the proper subclass to get more detailed information. If the target is selection
component, essentially a tree or a table, the AbstractSelectTargetDetails object tells the item
on which the drop is being made. For trees, the TreeTargetDetails gives some more details. For
wrapped components, the information is provided in a WrapperDropDetails object. In addition
to the target item or component, the details objects provide a drop location. For selection
components, the location can be obtained with the getDropLocation() and for wrapped
components with verticalDropLocation() and horizontalDropLocation(). The
locations are specified as either VerticalDropLocation or HorizontalDropLocation objects.
The drop location objects specify whether the transferable is being dropped above, below, or
directly on (at the middle of) a component or item.
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Dropping on a Tree, Table, and a wrapped component is explained further in the following
sections.
11.12.2. Dropping Items On a Tree
You can drag items from, to, or within a Tree. Making tree a drag source requires simply setting
the drag mode with setDragMode(). Tree currently supports only one drag mode,
TreeDragMode.NODE, which allows dragging single tree nodes. While dragging, the dragged
node is referenced with a TreeTransferable object, which is a DataBoundTransferable. The
tree node is identified by the item ID of the container item.
When a transferable is dropped on a tree, the drop location is stored in a TreeTargetDetails
object, which identifies the target location by item ID of the tree node on which the drop is made.
You can get the item ID with getItemIdOver() method in AbstractSelectTargetDetails, which
the TreeTargetDetails inherits. A drop can occur directly on or above or below a node; the exact
location is a VerticalDropLocation, which you can get with the getDropLocation() method.
In the example below, we have a Tree and we allow reordering the tree items by drag and drop.
final Tree tree = new Tree("Inventory");
tree.setContainerDataSource(TreeExample.createTreeContent());
layout.addComponent(tree);
// Expand all items
for (Iterator<?> it = tree.rootItemIds().iterator(); it.hasNext();)
tree.expandItemsRecursively(it.next());
// Set the tree in drag source mode
tree.setDragMode(TreeDragMode.NODE);
// Allow the tree to receive drag drops and handle them
tree.setDropHandler(new DropHandler() {
public AcceptCriterion getAcceptCriterion() {
return AcceptAll.get();
}
public void drop(DragAndDropEvent event) {
// Wrapper for the object that is dragged
Transferable t = event.getTransferable();
// Make sure the drag source is the same tree
if (t.getSourceComponent() != tree)
return;
TreeTargetDetails target = (TreeTargetDetails)
event.getTargetDetails();
// Get ids of the dragged item and the target item
Object sourceItemId = t.getData("itemId");
Object targetItemId = target.getItemIdOver();
// On which side of the target the item was dropped
VerticalDropLocation location = target.getDropLocation();
HierarchicalContainer container = (HierarchicalContainer)
tree.getContainerDataSource();
// Drop right on an item -> make it a child
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if (location == VerticalDropLocation.MIDDLE)
tree.setParent(sourceItemId, targetItemId);
// Drop at the top of a subtree -> make it previous
else if (location == VerticalDropLocation.TOP) {
Object parentId = container.getParent(targetItemId);
container.setParent(sourceItemId, parentId);
container.moveAfterSibling(sourceItemId, targetItemId);
container.moveAfterSibling(targetItemId, sourceItemId);
}
// Drop below another item -> make it next
else if (location == VerticalDropLocation.BOTTOM) {
Object parentId = container.getParent(targetItemId);
container.setParent(sourceItemId, parentId);
container.moveAfterSibling(sourceItemId, targetItemId);
}
}
});
Accept Criteria for Trees
Tree defines some specialized accept criteria for trees.
TargetInSubtree (client-side)
Accepts if the target item is in the specified sub-tree. The sub-tree is specified by the
item ID of the root of the sub-tree in the constructor. The second constructor includes
a depth parameter, which specifies how deep from the given root node are drops
accepted. Value -1 means infinite, that is, the entire sub-tree, and is therefore the
same as the simpler constructor.
TargetItemAllowsChildren (client-side)
Accepts a drop if the tree has setChildrenAllowed() enabled for the target item.
The criterion does not require parameters, so the class is a singleton and can be
acquired with Tree.TargetItemAllowsChildren.get(). For example, the
following composite criterion accepts drops only on nodes that allow children, but
between all nodes:
return new Or (Tree.TargetItemAllowsChildren.get(), new
Not(VerticalLocationIs.MIDDLE));
TreeDropCriterion (server-side)
Accepts drops on only some items, which as specified by a set of item IDs. You must
extend the abstract class and implement the getAllowedItemIds() to return the
set. While the criterion is server-side, it is lazy-loading, so that the list of accepted
target nodes is loaded only once from the server for each drag operation. See
Kohta 11.12.4, ”Accepting Drops” for an example.
In addition, the accept criteria defined in AbstractSelect are available for a Tree, as listed in
Kohta 11.12.4, ”Accepting Drops”.
11.12.3. Dropping Items On a Table
You can drag items from, to, or within a Table. Making table a drag source requires simply setting
the drag mode with setDragMode(). Table supports dragging both single rows, with
TableDragMode.ROW, and multiple rows, with TableDragMode.MULTIROW. While dragging,
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the dragged node or nodes are referenced with a TreeTransferable object, which is a
DataBoundTransferable. Tree nodes are identified by the item IDs of the container items.
When a transferable is dropped on a table, the drop location is stored in a
AbstractSelectTargetDetails object, which identifies the target row by its item ID. You can get
the item ID with getItemIdOver() method. A drop can occur directly on or above or below a
row; the exact location is a VerticalDropLocation, which you can get with the
getDropLocation() method from the details object.
Accept Criteria for Tables
Table defines one specialized accept criterion for tables.
TableDropCriterion (server-side)
Accepts drops only on (or above or below) items that are specified by a set of item
IDs. You must extend the abstract class and implement the getAllowedItemIds()
to return the set. While the criterion is server-side, it is lazy-loading, so that the list of
accepted target items is loaded only once from the server for each drag operation.
11.12.4. Accepting Drops
You can not drop the objects you are dragging around just anywhere. Before a drop is possible,
the specific drop location on which the mouse hovers must be accepted. Hovering a dragged
object over an accepted location displays an accept indicator, which allows the user to position
the drop properly. As such checks have to be done all the time when the mouse pointer moves
around the drop targets, it is not feasible to send the accept requests to the server-side, so drops
on a target are normally accepted by a client-side accept criterion.
A drop handler must define the criterion on the objects which it accepts to be dropped on the
target.The criterion needs to be provided in the getAcceptCriterion() method of the DropHandler
interface. A criterion is represented in an AcceptCriterion object, which can be a composite of
multiple criteria that are evaluated using logical operations. There are two basic types of criteria:
client-side and server-side criteria. The various built-in criteria allow accepting drops based on
the identity of the source and target components, and on the data flavor of the dragged objects.
To allow dropping any transferable objects, you can return a universal accept criterion, which
you can get with AcceptAll.get().
tree.setDropHandler(new DropHandler() {
public AcceptCriterion getAcceptCriterion() {
return AcceptAll.get();
}
...
Client-Side Criteria
The client-side criteria, which inherit the ClientSideCriterion, are verified on the client-side, so
server requests are not needed for verifying whether each component on which the mouse pointer
hovers would accept a certain object.
The following client-side criteria are define in com.vaadin.event.dd.acceptcriterion:
AcceptAll
Accepts all transferables and targets.
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And
Performs the logical AND operation on two or more client-side criteria; accepts the
transferable if all the given sub-criteria accept it.
ContainsDataFlavour
The transferable must contain the defined data flavour.
Not
Performs the logical NOT operation on a client-side criterion; accepts the transferable
if and only if the sub-criterion does not accept it.
Or
Performs the logical OR operation on two or more client-side criteria; accepts the
transferable if any of the given sub-criteria accepts it.
SourceIs
Accepts all transferables from any of the given source components
SourceIsTarget
Accepts the transferable only if the source component is the same as the target. This
criterion is useful for ensuring that items are dragged only within a tree or a table, and
not from outside it.
TargetDetailIs
Accepts any transferable if the target detail, such as the item of a tree node or table
row, is of the given data flavor and has the given value.
In addition, target components such as Tree and Table define some component-specific clientside accept criteria. See Kohta 11.12.2, ”Dropping Items On a Tree” for more details.
AbstractSelect defines the following criteria for all selection components, including Tree and
Table.
AcceptItem
Accepts only specific items from a specific selection component. The selection
component, which must inherit AbstractSelect, is given as the first parameter for the
constructor. It is followed by a list of allowed item identifiers in the drag source.
AcceptItem.ALL
Accepts all transferables as long as they are items.
TargetItemIs
Accepts all drops on the specified target items. The constructor requires the target
component (AbstractSelect) followed by a list of allowed item identifiers.
VerticalLocationIs.MIDDLE, TOP, and BOTTOM
The three static criteria accepts drops on, above, or below an item. For example, you
could accept drops only in between items with the following:
public AcceptCriterion getAcceptCriterion() {
return new Not(VerticalLocationIs.MIDDLE);
}
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Server-Side Criteria
The server-side criteria are verified on the server-side with the accept() method of the
ServerSideCriterion class. This allows fully programmable logic for accepting drops, but the
negative side is that it causes a very large amount of server requests. A request is made for
every target position on which the pointer hovers. This problem is eased in many cases by the
component-specific lazy loading criteria TableDropCriterion and TreeDropCriterion. They do
the server visit once for each drag and drop operation and return all accepted rows or nodes for
current Transferable at once.
The accept() method gets the drag event as a parameter so it can perform its logic much like
in drop().
public AcceptCriterion getAcceptCriterion() {
// Server-side accept criterion that allows drops on any other
// location except on nodes that may not have children
ServerSideCriterion criterion = new ServerSideCriterion() {
public boolean accept(DragAndDropEvent dragEvent) {
TreeTargetDetails target = (TreeTargetDetails)
dragEvent.getTargetDetails();
// The tree item on which the load hovers
Object targetItemId = target.getItemIdOver();
// On which side of the target the item is hovered
VerticalDropLocation location = target.getDropLocation();
if (location == VerticalDropLocation.MIDDLE)
if (! tree.areChildrenAllowed(targetItemId))
return false; // Not accepted
return true; // Accept everything else
}
};
return criterion;
}
The server-side criteria base class ServerSideCriterion provides a generic accept() method.
The more specific TableDropCriterion and TreeDropCriterion are conveniency extensions that
allow definiting allowed drop targets as a set of items. They also provide some optimization by
lazy loading, which reduces server communications significantly.
public AcceptCriterion getAcceptCriterion() {
// Server-side accept criterion that allows drops on any
// other tree node except on node that may not have children
TreeDropCriterion criterion = new TreeDropCriterion() {
@Override
protected Set<Object> getAllowedItemIds(
DragAndDropEvent dragEvent, Tree tree) {
HashSet<Object> allowed = new HashSet<Object>();
for (Iterator<Object> i =
tree.getItemIds().iterator(); i.hasNext();) {
Object itemId = i.next();
if (tree.hasChildren(itemId))
allowed.add(itemId);
}
return allowed;
}
};
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return criterion;
}
Accept Indicators
When a dragged object hovers on a drop target, an accept indicator is displayed to show whether
or not the location is accepted. For MIDDLE location, the indicator is a box around the target (tree
node, table row, or component). For vertical drop locations, the accepted locations are shown
as horizontal lines, and for horizontal drop locations as vertical lines.
For DragAndDropWrapper drop targets, you can disable the accept indicators or drag hints with
the no-vertical-drag-hints, no-horizontal-drag-hints, and no-box-drag-hints
styles. You need to add the styles to the layout that contains the wrapper, not to the wrapper
itself.
// Have a wrapper
DragAndDropWrapper wrapper = new DragAndDropWrapper(c);
layout.addComponent(wrapper);
// Disable the hints
layout.addStyleName("no-vertical-drag-hints");
layout.addStyleName("no-horizontal-drag-hints");
layout.addStyleName("no-box-drag-hints");
11.12.5. Dragging Components
Dragging a component requires wrapping the source component within a DragAndDropWrapper.
You can then allow dragging by putting the wrapper (and the component) in drag mode with
setDragStartMode(). The method supports two drag modes: DragStartMode.WRAPPER
and DragStartMode.COMPONENT, which defines whether the entire wrapper is shown as the
drag image while dragging or just the wrapped component.
// Have a component to drag
final Button button = new Button("An Absolute Button");
// Put the component in a D&D wrapper and allow dragging it
final DragAndDropWrapper buttonWrap = new DragAndDropWrapper(button);
buttonWrap.setDragStartMode(DragStartMode.COMPONENT);
// Set the wrapper to wrap tightly around the component
buttonWrap.setSizeUndefined();
// Add the wrapper, not the component, to the layout
layout.addComponent(buttonWrap, "left: 50px; top: 50px;");
The default height of DragAndDropWrapper is undefined, but the default width is 100%. If you
want to ensure that the wrapper fits tightly around the wrapped component, you should call
setSizeUndefined() for the wrapper. Doing so, you should make sure that the wrapped
component does not have a relative size, which would cause a paradox.
Dragged components are referenced in the WrapperTransferable. You can get the reference
to the dragged component with getDraggedComponent(). The method will return null if the
transferable is not a component. Also HTML 5 drags (see later) are held in wrapper transferables.
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11.12.6. Dropping on a Component
Drops on a component are enabled by wrapping the component in a DragAndDropWrapper.
The wrapper is an ordinary component; the constructor takes the wrapped component as a
parameter. You just need to define the DropHandler for the wrapper with setDropHandler().
In the following example, we allow moving components in an absolute layout. Details on the drop
handler are given later.
// A layout that allows moving its contained components
// by dragging and dropping them
final AbsoluteLayout absLayout = new AbsoluteLayout();
absLayout.setWidth("100%");
absLayout.setHeight("400px");
... put some (wrapped) components in the layout ...
// Wrap the layout to allow handling drops
DragAndDropWrapper layoutWrapper =
new DragAndDropWrapper(absLayout);
// Handle moving components within the AbsoluteLayout
layoutWrapper.setDropHandler(new DropHandler() {
public AcceptCriterion getAcceptCriterion() {
return AcceptAll.get();
}
public void drop(DragAndDropEvent event) {
...
}
});
Target Details for Wrapped Components
The drop handler receives the drop target details in a WrapperTargetDetails object, which
implements the TargetDetails interface.
public void drop(DragAndDropEvent event) {
WrapperTransferable t =
(WrapperTransferable) event.getTransferable();
WrapperTargetDetails details =
(WrapperTargetDetails) event.getTargetDetails();
The wrapper target details include a MouseEventDetails object, which you can get with
getMouseEvent(). You can use it to get the mouse coordinates for the position where the
mouse button was released and the drag ended. Similarly, you can find out the drag start position
from the transferable object (if it is a WrapperTransferable) with getMouseDownEvent().
// Calculate the drag coordinate difference
int xChange = details.getMouseEvent().getClientX()
- t.getMouseDownEvent().getClientX();
int yChange = details.getMouseEvent().getClientY()
- t.getMouseDownEvent().getClientY();
// Move the component in the absolute layout
ComponentPosition pos =
absLayout.getPosition(t.getSourceComponent());
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pos.setLeftValue(pos.getLeftValue() + xChange);
pos.setTopValue(pos.getTopValue() + yChange);
You can get the absolute x and y coordinates of the target wrapper with getAbsoluteLeft()
and getAbsoluteTop(), which allows you to translate the absolute mouse coordinates to
coordinates relative to the wrapper. Notice that the coordinates are really the position of the
wrapper, not the wrapped component; the wrapper reserves some space for the accept indicators.
The verticalDropLocation() and horizontalDropLocation() return the more detailed
drop location in the target.
11.12.7. Dragging Files from Outside the Browser
The DragAndDropWrapper allows dragging files from outside the browser and dropping them
on a component wrapped in the wrapper. Dropped files are automatically uploaded to the
application and can be acquired from the wrapper with getFiles(). The files are represented
as Html5File objects as defined in the inner class.You can define an upload Receiver to receive
the content of a file to an OutputStream.
Dragging and dropping files to browser is supported in HTML 5 and requires a compatible browser,
such as Mozilla Firefox 3.6 or newer.
11.13. Logging
You can do logging in Vaadin application using the standard java.util.logging facilities. Configuring
logging is as easy as putting a file named logging.properties in the default package of your
Vaadin application (src in an Eclipse project or src/main/java or src/main/resources in
a Maven project). This file is read by the Logger class when a new instance of it is initialize.
11.13.1. Logging in Apache Tomcat
For logging Vaadin applications deployed in Apache Tomcat, you do not need to do anything
special to log to the same place as Tomcat itself. If you need to write the Vaadin application
related messages elsewhere, just add a custom logging.properties file to the default package
of your Vaadin application.
If you would like to pipe the log messages through another logging solution, see ”Piping to Log4j
using SLF4J” below.
11.13.2. Logging in Liferay
Liferay mutes logging through java.util.logging by default. In order to enable logging, you need
to add a logging.properties file of your own to the default package of your Vaadin application.
This file should define at least one destination where to save the log messages.
You can also log through SLF4J, which is used in and bundled with Liferay. Follow the instructions
in ”Piping to Log4j using SLF4J”.
11.13.3. Piping to Log4j using SLF4J
Piping output from java.util.logging to Log4j is easy with SLF4J (http://slf4j.org/). The basic way
to go about this is to add the SLF4J JAR file as well as the jul-to-slf4j.jar file, which
implements the bridge from java.util.logging, to SLF4J. You will also need to add a third logging
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implementation JAR file, that is, slf4j-log4j12-x.x.x.jar, to log the actual messages
using Log4j. For more info on this, please visit the SLF4J site.
In order to get the java.util.logging to SLF4J bridge installed, you need to add the following snippet
of code to your UI class at the very top:
static {
SLF4JBridgeHandler.install();
}
This will make sure that the bridge handler is installed and working before Vaadin starts to process
any logging calls.
Please note!
This can seriously impact on the cost of disabled logging statements (60-fold increase)
and a measurable impact on enabled log statements (20% overall increase). However,
Vaadin doesn't log very much, so the effect on performance will be negligible.
11.13.4. Using Logger
You can do logging with a simple pattern where you register a static logger instance in each class
that needs logging, and use this logger wherever logging is needed in the class. For example:
public class MyClass {
private final static Logger logger =
Logger.getLogger(MyClass.class.getName());
public void myMethod() {
try {
// do something that might fail
} catch (Exception e) {
logger.log(Level.SEVERE, "FAILED CATASTROPHICALLY!", e);
}
}
}
Having a static logger instance for each class needing logging saves a bit of memory and time
compared to having a logger for every logging class instance. However, it could cause the
application to leak PermGen memory with some application servers when redeploying the
application. The problem is that the Logger may maintain hard references to its instances. As
the Logger class is loaded with a classloader shared between different web applications,
references to classes loaded with a per-application classloader would prevent garbage-collecting
the classes after redeploying, hence leaking memory. As the size of the PermGen memory where
class object are stored is fixed, the leakage will lead to a server crash after many redeployments.
The issue depends on the way how the server manages classloaders, on the hardness of the
back-references, and may also be different between Java 6 and 7. So, if you experience PermGen
issues, or want to play it on the safe side, you should consider using non-static Logger instances.
11.14. JavaScript Interaction
Vaadin supports two-direction JavaScript calls from and to the server-side. This allows interfacing
with JavaScript code without writing client-side integration code.
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11.14.1. Calling JavaScript
You can make JavaScript calls from the server-side with the execute() method in the JavaScript
class.You can get a JavaScript instance from the current Page object with getJavaScript().
// Execute JavaScript in the currently processed page
Page.getCurrent().getJavaScript().execute("alert('Hello')");
The JavaScript class itself has a static shorthand method getCurrent() to get the instance
for the currently processed page.
// Shorthand
JavaScript.getCurrent().execute("alert('Hello')");
The JavaScript is executed after the server request that is currently processed returns. If multiple
JavaScript calls are made during the processing of the request, they are all executed sequentially
after the request is done. Hence, the JavaScript execution does not pause the execution of the
server-side application and you can not return values from the JavaScript.
11.14.2. Handling JavaScript Function Callbacks
You can make calls with JavaScript from the client-side to the server-side. This requires that you
register JavaScript call-back methods from the server-side. You need to implement and register
a JavaScriptFunction with addFunction() in the current JavaScript object. A function requires
a name, with an optional package path, which are given to the addFunction(). You only need
to implement the call() method to handle calls from the client-side JavaScript.
JavaScript.getCurrent().addFunction("com.example.foo.myfunc",
new JavaScriptFunction() {
@Override
public void call(JSONArray arguments) throws JSONException {
Notification.show("Received call");
}
});
Link link = new Link("Send Message", new ExternalResource(
"javascript:com.example.foo.myfunc()"));
Parameters passed to the JavaScript method on the client-side are provided in a JSONArray
passed to the call() method. The parameter values can be acquired with the get() method
by the index of the parameter, or any of the type-casting getters. The getter must match the type
of the passed parameter, or a JSONException is thrown.
JavaScript.getCurrent().addFunction("com.example.foo.myfunc",
new JavaScriptFunction() {
@Override
public void call(JSONArray arguments) throws JSONException {
try {
String message = arguments.getString(0);
int
value
= arguments.getInt(1);
Notification.show("Message: " + message +
", value: " + value);
} catch (JSONException e) {
Notification.show("Error: " + e.getMessage());
}
}
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});
Link link = new Link("Send Message", new ExternalResource(
"javascript:com.example.foo.myfunc(prompt('Message'), 42)"));
The function callback mechanism is the same as the RPC mechanism used with JavaScript
component integration, as described in Kohta 16.13.4, ”RPC from JavaScript to Server-Side”.
11.15. Accessing Session-Global Data
This section is mostly up-to-date with Vaadin 7, but has some information which still needs to be
updated.
Applications typically need to access some objects from practically all user interface code, such
as a user object, a business data model, or a database connection. This data is typically initialized
and managed in the UI class of the application, or in the session or servlet.
For example, you could hold it in the UI class as follows:
class MyUI extends UI {
UserData userData;
public void init() {
userData = new UserData();
}
public UserData getUserData() {
return userData;
}
}
Vaadin offers two ways to access the UI object: with getUI() method from any component and
the global UI.getCurrent() method.
The getUI() works as follows:
data = ((MyUI)component.getUI()).getUserData();
This does not, however work in many cases, because it requires that the components are attached
to the UI. That is not the case most of the time when the UI is still being built, such as in
constructors.
class MyComponent extends CustomComponent {
public MyComponent() {
// This fails with NullPointerException
Label label = new Label("Country: " +
getApplication().getLocale().getCountry());
setCompositionRoot(label);
}
}
The global access methods for the currently served servlet, session, and UI allow an easy way
to access the data:
data = ((MyUI) UI.getCurrent()).getUserData();
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11.15.1. The Problem
The basic problem in accessing session-global data is that the getUI() method works only after
the component has been attached to the application. Before that, it returns null. This is the case
in constructors of components, such as a CustomComponent:
Using a static variable or a singleton implemented with such to give a global access to user
session data is not possible, because static variables are global in the entire web application,
not just the user session. This can be handy for communicating data between the concurrent
sessions, but creates a problem within a session.
The data would be shared by all users and be reinitialized every time a new user opens the
application.
11.15.2. Overview of Solutions
To get the application object or any other global data, you have the following solutions:
• Pass a reference to the global data as a parameter
• Initialize components in attach() method
• Initialize components in the enter() method of the navigation view (if using navigation)
• Store a reference to global data using the ThreadLocal Pattern
Each solution is described in the following sections.
11.15.1. Passing References Around
You can pass references to objects as parameters. This is the normal way in object-oriented
programming.
class MyApplication extends Application {
UserData userData;
public void init() {
Window mainWindow = new Window("My Window");
setMainWindow(mainWindow);
userData = new UserData();
mainWindow.addComponent(new MyComponent(this));
}
public UserData getUserData() {
return userData;
}
}
class MyComponent extends CustomComponent {
public MyComponent(MyApplication app) {
Label label = new Label("Name: " +
app.getUserData().getName());
setCompositionRoot(label);
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}
}
If you need the reference in other methods, you either have to pass it again as a parameter or
store it in a member variable.
The problem with this solution is that practically all constructors in the application need to get a
reference to the application object, and passing it further around in the classes is another hard
task.
11.15.2. Overriding attach()
The attach() method is called when the component is attached to the application component
through containment hierarchy. The getApplication() method always works.
class MyComponent extends CustomComponent {
public MyComponent() {
// Must set a dummy root in constructor
setCompositionRoot(new Label(""));
}
@Override
public void attach() {
Label label = new Label("Name: " +
((MyApplication)component.getApplication())
.getUserData().getName());
setCompositionRoot(label);
}
}
While this solution works, it is slightly messy. You may need to do some initialization in the
constructor, but any construction requiring the global data must be done in the attach() method.
Especially, CustomComponent requires that the setCompositionRoot() method is called
in the constructor. If you can't create the actual composition root component in the constructor,
you need to use a temporary dummy root, as is done in the example above.
Using getApplication() also needs casting if you want to use methods defined in your
application class.
11.15.3. ThreadLocal Pattern
Vaadin uses the ThreadLocal pattern for allowing global access to the UI, and Page objects of
the currently processed server request with a static getCurrent() method in all the respective
classes. This section explains why the pattern is used in Vaadin and how it works. You may also
need to reimplement the pattern for some purpose.
The ThreadLocal pattern gives a solution to the global access problem by solving two sub-problems
of static variables.
As the first problem, assume that the servlet container processes requests for many users
(sessions) sequentially. If a static variable is set in a request belonging one user, it could be read
or re-set by the next incoming request belonging to another user. This can be solved by setting
the global reference at the beginning of each HTTP request to point to data of the current user,
as illustrated in Figure 11.13.
Overriding attach()
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Advanced Web Application Topics
Kuva 11.13. Switching a static (or ThreadLocal) reference during sequential
processing of requests
The second problem is that servlet containers typically do thread pooling with multiple worker
threads that process requests. Therefore, setting a static reference would change it in all threads
running concurrently, possibly just when another thread is processing a request for another user.
The solution is to store the reference in a thread-local variable instead of a static. You can do so
by using the ThreadLocal class in Java for the switch reference.
Kuva 11.14. Switching ThreadLocal references during concurrent processing
of requests
11.16. Server Push
When you need to update a UI from another UI, possibly of another user, or from a background
thread running in the server, you usually want to have the update show immediately, not when
the browser happens to make the next server request. For this purpose, you can use server push
that sends the data to the browser immediately. Push is based on a client-server connection,
usually a WebSocket connection, that the client establishes and the server can then use to send
updates to the client.
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The server-client communication is done by default with a WebSocket connection if the browser
and the server support it. If not, Vaadin will fall back to a method supported by the browser.
Vaadin Push uses a custom build of the Atmosphere framework for client-server communication.
11.16.1. Installing the Push Support
The server push support in Vaadin requires the separate Vaadin Push library. It is included in
the installation package as vaadin-push.jar.
Retrieving with Ivy
With Ivy, you can get it with the following declaration in the ivy.xml:
<dependency org="com.vaadin" name="vaadin-push"
rev="&vaadin.version;" conf="default->default"/>
In some servers, you may need to exlude a sl4j dependency as follows:
<dependency org="com.vaadin" name="vaadin-push"
rev="&vaadin.version;" conf="default->default">
<exclude org="org.slf4j" name="slf4j-api"/>
</dependency>
Pay note that the Atmosphere library is a bundle, so if you retrieve the libraries with Ant, for
example, you need to retrieve type="jar,bundle".
Retrieving with Maven
In Maven, you can get the push library with the following dependency in the POM:
<dependency>
<groupId>com.vaadin</groupId>
<artifactId>vaadin-push</artifactId>
<version>${vaadin.version}</version>
</dependency>
11.16.2. Enabling Push for a UI
To enable server push, you need to define the push mode either in the deployment descriptor or
with the @Push annotation for the UI.
Push Modes
You can use server push in two modes: automatic and manual. The automatic mode pushes
changes to the browser automatically after access() finishes. With the manual mode, you can do
the push explicitly with push(), which allows more flexibility.
The @Push annotation
You can enable server push for a UI with the @Push annotation as follows. It defaults to automatic
mode (PushMode.AUTOMATIC).
@Push
public class PushyUI extends UI {
To enable manual mode, you need to give the PushMode.MANUAL parameter as follows:
Installing the Push Support
381
Advanced Web Application Topics
@Push(PushMode.MANUAL)
public class PushyUI extends UI {
Servlet Configuration
You can enable the server push and define the push mode also in the servlet configuration with
the pushmode parameter for the servlet in the web.xml deployment descriptor. If you use a
Servlet 3.0 compatible server, you also want to enable asynchronous processing with the asyncsupported parameter. Note the use of Servlet 3.0 schema in the deployment descriptor.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<web-app
id="WebApp_ID" version="3.0"
xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/j2ee"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee
http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_3_0.xsd">
<servlet>
<servlet-name>Pushy UI</servlet-name>
<servlet-class>
com.vaadin.server.VaadinServlet</servlet-class>
<init-param>
<param-name>UI</param-name>
<param-value>com.example.my.PushyUI</param-value>
</init-param>
<!-- Enable server push -->
<init-param>
<param-name>pushmode</param-name>
<param-value>automatic</param-value>
</init-param>
<async-supported>true</async-supported>
</servlet>
</web-app>
11.16.3. Accessing UI from Another Thread
Making changes to a UI object from another thread and pushing them to the browser requires
locking the user session when accessing the UI. Otherwise, the UI update done from another
thread could conflict with a regular event-driven update and cause either data corruption or
deadlocks. Because of this, you may only access an UI using the access() method, which locks
the session to prevent conflicts. It takes a Runnable which it executes as its parameter.
For example:
ui.access(new Runnable() {
@Override
public void run() {
series.add(new DataSeriesItem(x, y));
}
});
If the push mode is manual, you need to push the pending UI changes to the browser explicitly
with the push() method.
ui.access(new Runnable() {
@Override
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Advanced Web Application Topics
public void run() {
series.add(new DataSeriesItem(x, y));
ui.push();
}
});
Below is a complete example of a case where we make UI changes from another thread.
public class PushyUI extends UI {
Chart chart = new Chart(ChartType.AREASPLINE);
DataSeries series = new DataSeries();
@Override
protected void init(VaadinRequest request) {
chart.setSizeFull();
setContent(chart);
// Prepare the data display
Configuration conf = chart.getConfiguration();
conf.setTitle("Hot New Data");
conf.setSeries(series);
// Start the data feed thread
new FeederThread().start();
}
class FeederThread extends Thread {
int count = 0;
@Override
public void run() {
try {
// Update the data for a while
while (count < 100) {
Thread.sleep(1000);
access(new Runnable() {
@Override
public void run() {
double y = Math.random();
series.add(
new DataSeriesItem(count++, y),
true, count > 10);
}
});
}
// Inform that we have stopped running
access(new Runnable() {
@Override
public void run() {
setContent(new Label("Done!"));
}
});
} catch (InterruptedException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}
}
}
}
Accessing UI from Another Thread
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When sharing data between UIs or user sessions, you need to consider the message-passing
mechanism more carefully, as explained next.
11.16.4. Broadcasting to Other Users
Broadcasting messages to be pushed to UIs in other user sessions requires having some sort
of message-passing mechanism that sends the messages to all UIs that register as recipients.
As processing server requests for different UIs is done concurrently in different threads of the
application server, locking the threads properly is very important to avoid deadlock situations.
The Broadcaster
The standard pattern for sending messages to other users is to use a broadcaster singleton that
registers the UIs and broadcasts messages to them safely. To avoid deadlocks, it is recommended
that the messages should be sent through a message queue in a separate thread. Using a Java
ExecutorService running in a single thread is usually the easiest and safest way.
public class Broadcaster implements Serializable {
static ExecutorService executorService =
Executors.newSingleThreadExecutor();
public interface BroadcastListener {
void receiveBroadcast(String message);
}
private static LinkedList<BroadcastListener> listeners =
new LinkedList<BroadcastListener>();
public static synchronized void register(
BroadcastListener listener) {
listeners.add(listener);
}
public static synchronized void unregister(
BroadcastListener listener) {
listeners.remove(listener);
}
public static synchronized void broadcast(
final String message) {
for (final BroadcastListener listener: listeners)
executorService.execute(new Runnable() {
@Override
public void run() {
listener.receiveBroadcast(message);
}
});
}
}
Receiving Broadcasts
The receivers need to implement the receiver interface and register to the broadcaster to receive
the broadcasts. A listener should be unregistered when the UI expires. When updating the UI in
a receiver, it should be done safely as described earlier, by executing the update through the
access() method of the UI.
384
Broadcasting to Other Users
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@Push
public class PushAroundUI extends UI
implements Broadcaster.BroadcastListener {
VerticalLayout messages = new VerticalLayout();
@Override
protected void init(VaadinRequest request) {
... build the UI ...
// Register to receive broadcasts
Broadcaster.register(this);
}
// Must also unregister when the UI expires
@Override
public void detach() {
Broadcaster.unregister(this);
super.detach();
}
@Override
public void receiveBroadcast(final String message) {
// Must lock the session to execute logic safely
access(new Runnable() {
@Override
public void run() {
// Show it somehow
messages.addComponent(new Label(message));
}
});
}
}
Sending Broadcasts
To send broadcasts with a broadcaster singleton, such as the one described above, you would
only need to call the broadcast() method as follows.
final TextField input = new TextField();
sendBar.addComponent(input);
Button send = new Button("Send");
send.addClickListener(new ClickListener() {
@Override
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
// Broadcast the message
Broadcaster.broadcast(input.getValue());
input.setValue("");
}
});
11.17. Font Icons
Font icons are icons included in a font. Fonts have many advantages over bitmap images.
Browsers are usually faster in rendering fonts than loading image files. Web fonts are vector
Font Icons
385
Advanced Web Application Topics
graphics, so they are scalable. As font icons are text characters, you can define their color in
CSS by the regular foreground color property.
11.17.1. Loading Icon Fonts
Vaadin currently comes with one custom icon font: FontAwesome. It is automatically enabled in
the Valo theme. For other themes, you need to include it with the following line in your project
theme, after importing the base theme:
@include fonticons;
If you use other icon fonts, as described in Kohta 11.17.5, ”Custom Font Icons”, and the font is
not loaded by a base theme, you need to load it with a font mixin in Sass, as described in
Kohta 8.7.1, ”Loading Fonts”.
11.17.2. Basic Use
Font icons are resources of type FontIcon, which implements the Resource interface. You can
use these special resources for component icons and such, but not as embedded images, for
example.
Each icon has a Unicode codepoint, by which you can use it. Vaadin includes an awesome icon
font, FontAwesome, which comes with an enumeration of all the icons included in the font.
Most typically, you set a component icon as follows:
TextField name = new TextField("Name");
name.setIcon(FontAwesome.USER);
layout.addComponent(name);
// Button allows specifying icon resource in constructor
Button ok = new Button("OK", FontAwesome.CHECK);
layout.addComponent(ok);
The result is illustrated in Kuva 11.15, ”Basic Use of Font Icons”, with the color styling described
next.
Kuva 11.15. Basic Use of Font Icons
386
Loading Icon Fonts
Advanced Web Application Topics
Styling the Icons
As font icons are regular text, you can specify their color with the color attribute in CSS to
specify the foreground text color. All HTML elements that display icons in Vaadin have the v-icon
style name.
.v-icon {
color: blue;
}
If you use the font icon resources in other ways, such as in an Image component, the style name
will be different.
11.17.3. Using Font icons in HTML
You can use font icons in HTML code, such as in a Label, by generating the HTML to display
the icon with the getHtml() method.
Label label = new Label("I " +
FontAwesome.HEART.getHtml() + " Vaadin",
ContentMode.HTML);
label.addStyleName("redicon");
layout.addComponent(label);
The HTML code has the v-icon style, which you can modify in CSS:
.redicon .v-icon {
color: red;
}
The result is illustrated in Kuva 11.16, ”Using Font Icons in Label”, with the color styling described
next.
Kuva 11.16. Using Font Icons in Label
You could have set the font color in the label's HTML code as well, or for all icons in the UI.
You can easily use font icons in HTML code in other ways as well. You just need to use the
correct font family and then use the hex-formatted Unicode codepoint for the icon. See for example
the implementation of the getHtml() method in FontAwesome:
@Override
public String getHtml() {
return "<span class=\"v-icon\" style=\"font-family: " +
getFontFamily() + ";\">&#x" +
Integer.toHexString(codepoint) + ";</span>";
}
Using Font icons in HTML
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11.17.4. Using Font Icons in Other Text
You can include a font icon in any text by its Unicode codepoint, which you can get with the
getCodePoint() method. In such case, however, you need to use the same font for other text
in the same string as well. The FontAwesome provided in Vaadin includes a basic character set.
TextField amount = new TextField("Amount (in " +
new String(Character.toChars(
FontAwesome.BTC.getCodepoint())) +
")");
amount.addStyleName("awesomecaption");
layout.addComponent(amount);
You need to set the font family in CSS.
.v-caption-awesomecaption .v-captiontext {
font-family: FontAwesome;
}
11.17.5. Custom Font Icons
You can easily use glyphs in existing fonts as icons, or create your own.
Creating New Icon Fonts With IcoMoon
You are free to use any of the many ways to create icons and embed them into fonts. Here, we
give basic instructions for using the IcoMoon service, where you can pick icons from a large
library of well-designed icons.
Font Awesome is included in IcoMoon's selection of icon libraries. Note that the codepoints of
the icons are not fixed, so the FontAwesome enum is not compatible with such custom icon
fonts.
After you have selected the icons that you want in your font, you can download them in a ZIP
package. The package contains the icons in multiple formats, including WOFF, TTF, EOT, and
SVG. Not all browsers support any one of them, so all are needed to support all the common
browsers. Extract the fonts folder from the package to under your theme.
See Kohta 8.7.1, ”Loading Fonts” for instructions for loading a custom font.
Implementing FontIcon
You can define a font icon for any font available in the browser by implementing the FontIcon
interface. The normal pattern for implementing it is to implement an enumeration for all the
symbols available in the font. See the implementation of FontAwesome for more details.
You need a FontIcon API for the icons. In the following, we define a font icon using a normal
sans-serif font built-in in the browser.
// Font icon definition with a single symbol
public enum MyFontIcon implements FontIcon {
EURO(0x20AC);
private int codepoint;
MyFontIcon(int codepoint) {
this.codepoint = codepoint;
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}
@Override
public String getMIMEType() {
throw new UnsupportedOperationException(
FontIcon.class.getSimpleName()
+ " should not be used where a MIME type is needed.");
}
@Override
public String getFontFamily() {
return "sans-serif";
}
@Override
public int getCodepoint() {
return codepoint;
}
@Override
public String getHtml() {
return "<span class=\"v-icon\" style=\"font-family: " +
getFontFamily() + ";\">&#x" +
Integer.toHexString(codepoint) + ";</span>";
}
}
Then you can use it as usual:
TextField name = new TextField("Amount");
name.setIcon(MyFontIcon.EURO);
layout.addComponent(name);
You could make the implementation a class as well, instead of an enumeration, to allow other
ways to specify the icons.
Custom Font Icons
389
390
luku 12
Portal Integration
12.1. Overview .............................................................................................. 391
12.2. Creating a Portlet Project in Eclipse .................................................... 392
12.3. Portlet UI .............................................................................................. 394
12.4. Deploying to a Portal ........................................................................... 395
12.5. Installing Vaadin in Liferay ................................................................... 400
12.6. Handling Portlet Requests ................................................................... 401
12.7. Handling Portlet Mode Changes .......................................................... 402
12.8. Non-Vaadin Portlet Modes ................................................................... 404
12.9. Vaadin IPC for Liferay .......................................................................... 407
12.1. Overview
Vaadin supports running UIs as portlets in a portal, as defined in the JSR-286 (Java Portlet API
2.0) standard. The portlet UI is defined just as a regular UI, but deploying to a portal is somewhat
different from deployment of regular web applications, requiring special portlet descriptors, etc.
Creating the portlet project with the Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse, as described in Kohta 12.2, ”Creating
a Portlet Project in Eclipse”, automatically generates the necessary descriptors.
In addition to providing user interface through the Vaadin UI, portlets can integrate with the portal
to switch between portlet modes and process special portal requests, such as actions and events.
While providing generic support for all portals implementing the standard, Vaadin especially
supports the Liferay portal and the needed portal-specific configuration in this chapter is given
for Liferay. Vaadin also has a special Liferay IPC add-on to enable communication between
portlets.
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12.2. Creating a Portlet Project in Eclipse
The Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse has a wizard for easy creation of portlet projects. It essentially
creates all the necessary descriptor files so that you do not need to create them manually, as
described later.
Creating a portlet project is almost identical to the creation of a regular Vaadin servlet application
project. For a full treatment of the New Project Wizard and the possible options, please see
Kohta 2.5.1, ”Creating the Project”.
1. Start creating a new project by selecting from the menu File New Project...
2. In the New Project window that opens, select Web Vaadin 7 Project and click Next.
3. In the Vaadin Project step, you need to set the basic web project settings. You need
to give at least the project name, the runtime, select Generic Portlet for the Deployment
configuration; the default values should be good for the other settings.
You can click Finish here to use the defaults for the rest of the settings, or click Next.
4. The settings in the Web Module step define the basic servlet-related settings and the
structure of the web application project. All the settings are pre-filled, and you should
normally accept them as they are and click Next.
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Creating a Portlet Project in Eclipse
Portal Integration
5. The Vaadin project step page has various Vaadin-specific application settings. These
are largely the same as for regular applications. Setting them here is easiest - later
some of the changes require changes in several different files. The Create portlet
template option should be automatically selected. You can give another portlet title of
you want. You can change most of the settings afterward.
Create project template
Creates a UI class and all the needed portlet deployment descriptors.
Application name
The application name is used in the title of the browser window, which is usually
invisible in portlets, and as an identifier, either as is or with a suffix, in various
deployment descriptors.
Base package name
Java package for the UI class.
Application class name
Name of the UI class. The default is derived from the project name.
Theme name
Name of the custom portlet theme to use.
Portlet version
Same as in the project settings.
Portlet title
The portlet title, defined in portlet.xml, can be used as the display name of the
portlet (at least in Liferay). The default value is the project name. The title is also
used as a short description in liferay-plugin-package.properties.
Vaadin version
Same as in the project settings.
Creating a Portlet Project in Eclipse
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Portal Integration
Finally, click Finish to create the project.
6. Eclipse may ask you to switch to J2EE perspective. A Dynamic Web Project uses an
external web server and the J2EE perspective provides tools to control the server and
manage application deployment. Click Yes.
12.3. Portlet UI
A portlet UI is just like in a regular Vaadin application, a class that extends com.vaadin.ui.UI.
@Theme("liferay")
public class MyportletUI extends UI {
@Override
protected void init(VaadinRequest request) {
VerticalLayout layout = new VerticalLayout();
setContent(layout);
...
}
}
You need to define the portlet theme with the @Theme annotation as usual. The theme for the
UI must match a theme installed in the portal. You can use any of the built-in themes in Vaadin.
For Liferay theme compatibility, there is a special liferay theme. If you use a custom theme,
you need to compile it to CSS with the theme compiler and install it in the portal under the
VAADIN/themes context to be served statically.
If you want to develop the UI also in a regular application server as a servlet, you can provide a
servlet class annotated with @WebServlet (Servlet 3.0) or a deployment descriptor (Servlet 2.4)
to deploy it as a servlet. The project wizard generates the servlet automatically as a static inner
class, as described in Kohta 2.5.2, ”Exploring the Project”.
In addition to the UI class, you need the portlet descriptor files, Vaadin libraries, and other files
as described later. Kuva 12.1, ”Portlet Project Structure in Eclipse” shows the complete project
structure under Eclipse.
Installed as a portlet in Liferay from the Add Application menu, the application will show as
illustrated in Kuva 12.2, ”Hello World Portlet”.
Kuva 12.2. Hello World Portlet
394
Portlet UI
Portal Integration
Kuva 12.1. Portlet Project Structure in Eclipse
12.4. Deploying to a Portal
To deploy a portlet WAR in a portal, you need to provide a portlet.xml descriptor specified
in the Java Portlet API 2.0 standard (JSR-286). In addition, you may need to include possible
portal vendor specific deployment descriptors. The ones required by Liferay are described below.
Deploying a Vaadin UI as a portlet is essentially just as easy as deploying a regular application
to an application server. You do not need to make any changes to the UI itself, but only the
following:
• Application packaged as a WAR
• WEB-INF/portlet.xml descriptor
• WEB-INF/liferay-portlet.xml descriptor for Liferay
• WEB-INF/liferay-display.xml descriptor for Liferay
• WEB-INF/liferay-plugin-package.properties for Liferay
• Widget set installed to portal (optional)
• Themes installed to portal (optional)
• Vaadin libraries installed to portal (optional)
• Portal configuration settings (optional)
The Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse creates these files for you, when you create a portlet project as
described in Kohta 12.2, ”Creating a Portlet Project in Eclipse”.
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Installing the widget set and themes to the portal is required for running two or more Vaadin
portlets simultaneously in a single portal page. As this situation occurs quite easily, we recommend
installing them in any case. Instructions for Liferay are given in Kohta 12.5, ”Installing Vaadin in
Liferay” and the procedure is similar for other portals.
In addition to the Vaadin libraries, you will need to have the portlet.jar in your project
classpath. However, notice that you must not put the portlet.jar in the same WEB-INF/lib
directory as the Vaadin JAR or otherwise include it in the WAR to be deployed, because it would
create a conflict with the internal portlet library of the portal. The conflict would cause errors such
as
"ClassCastException:
...VaadinPortlet
cannot
be
cast
to
javax.portlet.Portlet".
12.4.1. Portlet Deployment Descriptor
The portlet WAR must include a portlet descriptor located at WEB-INF/portlet.xml. A portlet
definition includes the portlet name, mapping to a servlet, modes supported by the portlet, and
other configuration. Below is an example of a simple portlet definition in portlet.xml descriptor.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?>
<portlet-app
xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/portlet/portlet-app_2_0.xsd"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
version="2.0"
xsi:schemaLocation=
"http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/portlet/portlet-app_2_0.xsd
http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/portlet/portlet-app_2_0.xsd">
<portlet>
<portlet-name>Portlet Example portlet</portlet-name>
<display-name>Vaadin Portlet Example</display-name>
<!-- Map portlet to a servlet. -->
<portlet-class>
com.vaadin.server.VaadinPortlet
</portlet-class>
<init-param>
<name>UI</name>
<!-- The application class with package name. -->
<value>com.example.myportlet.MyportletUI</value>
</init-param>
<!-- Supported portlet modes and content types. -->
<supports>
<mime-type>text/html</mime-type>
<portlet-mode>view</portlet-mode>
<portlet-mode>edit</portlet-mode>
<portlet-mode>help</portlet-mode>
</supports>
<!-- Not always required but Liferay requires these. -->
<portlet-info>
<title>Vaadin Portlet Example</title>
<short-title>Portlet Example</short-title>
</portlet-info>
</portlet>
</portlet-app>
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Listing supported portlet modes in portlet.xml enables the corresponding portlet controls in
the portal user interface that allow changing the mode, as described later.
12.4.2. Liferay Portlet Descriptor
Liferay requires a special liferay-portlet.xml descriptor file that defines Liferay-specific
parameters. Especially, Vaadin portlets must be defined as "instanceable", but not "ajaxable".
Below is an example descriptor for the earlier portlet example:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE liferay-portlet-app PUBLIC
"-//Liferay//DTD Portlet Application 4.3.0//EN"
"http://www.liferay.com/dtd/liferay-portlet-app_4_3_0.dtd">
<liferay-portlet-app>
<portlet>
<!-- Matches definition in portlet.xml.
-->
<!-- Note: Must not be the same as servlet name. -->
<portlet-name>Portlet Example portlet</portlet-name>
<instanceable>true</instanceable>
<ajaxable>false</ajaxable>
</portlet>
</liferay-portlet-app>
See Liferay documentation for further details on the liferay-portlet.xml deployment
descriptor.
12.4.3. Liferay Display Descriptor
The WEB-INF/liferay-display.xml file defines the portlet category under which portlets
are located in the Add Application window in Liferay. Without this definition, portlets will be
organized under the "Undefined" category.
The following display configuration, which is included in the demo WAR, puts the Vaadin portlets
under the "Vaadin" category, as shown in Kuva 12.3, ”Portlet Categories in Add Application
Window”.
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE display PUBLIC
"-//Liferay//DTD Display 4.0.0//EN"
"http://www.liferay.com/dtd/liferay-display_4_0_0.dtd">
<display>
<category name="Vaadin">
<portlet id="Portlet Example portlet" />
</category>
</display>
Liferay Portlet Descriptor
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Portal Integration
Kuva 12.3. Portlet Categories in Add Application Window
See Liferay documentation for further details on how to configure the categories in the liferaydisplay.xml deployment descriptor.
12.4.4. Liferay Plugin Package Properties
The liferay-plugin-package.properties file defines a number of settings for the portlet,
most importantly the Vaadin JAR to be used.
name=Portlet Example portlet
short-description=myportlet
module-group-id=Vaadin
module-incremental-version=1
#change-log=
#page-uri=
#author=
license=Proprietary
portal-dependency-jars=\
vaadin.jar
name
The plugin name must match the portlet name.
short-description
A short description of the plugin. This is by default the project name.
module-group-id
The application group, same as the category id defined in liferay-display.xml.
license
The plugin license type; "proprietary" by default.
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portal-dependency-jars
The JAR libraries on which this portlet depends. This should have value vaadin.jar,
unless you need to use a specific version. The JAR must be installed in the portal, for
example, in Liferay bundled with Tomcat to tomcat-x.x.x/webapps/ROOT/WEBINF/lib/vaadin.jar.
12.4.5. Using a Single Widget Set
If you have just one Vaadin application that you ever need to run in your portal, you can just
deploy the WAR as described above and that's it. However, if you have multiple applications,
especially ones that use different custom widget sets, you run into problems, because a portal
window can load only a single Vaadin widget set at a time. You can solve this problem by
combining all the different widget sets in your different applications into a single widget set using
inheritance or composition.
For example, if using the default widget set for portlets, you should have the following for all
portlets so that they will all use the same widget set:
<portlet>
...
<!-- Use the portal default widget set for all portal demos. -->
<init-param>
<name>widgetset</name>
<value>com.vaadin.portal.PortalDefaultWidgetSet</value>
</init-param>
...
The PortalDefaultWidgetSet extends SamplerWidgetSet, which extends the DefaultWidgetSet.
The DefaultWidgetSet is therefore essentially a subset of PortalDefaultWidgetSet, which
contains also the widgets required by the Sampler demo. Other applications that would otherwise
require only the regular DefaultWidgetSet, and do not define their own widgets, can just as well
use the larger set, making them compatible with the demos. The PortalDefaultWidgetSet will
also be the default Vaadin widgetset bundled in Liferay 5.3 and later.
If your portlets are contained in multiple WARs, which can happen quite typically, you need to
install the widget set and theme portal-wide so that all the portlets can use them. See Kohta 12.5,
”Installing Vaadin in Liferay” on configuring the widget sets in the portal itself.
12.4.6. Building the WAR Package
To deploy the portlet, you need to build a WAR package. For production deployment, you probably
want to either use Maven or an Ant script to build the package. In Eclipse, you can right-click on
the project and select Export WAR. Choose a name for the package and a target. If you have
installed Vaadin in the portal as described in Kohta 12.5, ”Installing Vaadin in Liferay”, you should
exclude all the Vaadin libraries, as well as widget set and themes from the WAR.
12.4.7. Deploying the WAR Package
How you actually deploy a WAR package depends on the portal. In Liferay, you simply drop it to
the deploy subdirectory under the Liferay installation directory. The deployment depends on
the application server under which Liferay runs; for example, if you use Liferay bundled with
Tomcat, you will find the extracted package in the webapps directory under the Tomcat installation
directory included in Liferay.
Using a Single Widget Set
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12.5. Installing Vaadin in Liferay
Loading widget sets, themes, and the Vaadin JAR from a portlet is possible as long as you have
a single portlet, but causes a problem if you have multiple portlets. To solve this, Vaadin portlets
need to use a globally installed widget set, theme, and Vaadin libraries.
Liferay 6.2, which is the latest Liferay version at the time of publication of this book, comes bundled
with an older Vaadin 6 version. If you want to use Vaadin 7, you need to remove the bundled
version and install the newer one manually as described in this chapter.
In these instructions, we assume that you use Liferay bundled with Apache Tomcat, although
you can use almost any other application server with Liferay just as well. The Tomcat installation
is included in the Liferay installation package, under the tomcat-x.x.x directory.
12.5.1. Removing the Bundled Installation
Before installing a new Vaadin version, you need to remove the version bundled with Liferay.
You need to remove the Vaadin library JAR from the library directory of the portal and the VAADIN
directory from under the root context. For example, with Liferay bundled with Tomcat, they are
usually located as follows:
• tomcat-x.x.x/webapps/ROOT/html/VAADIN
• tomcat-x.x.x/webapps/ROOT/WEB-INF/lib/vaadin.jar
12.5.2. Installing Vaadin
1. Get the Vaadin installation package from the Vaadin download page
2. Extract the following Vaadin JARs from the installation package: vaadin-server.jar
and vaadin-shared.jar, as well as the vaadin-shared-deps.jar and jsoup.jar
dependencies from the lib folder
3. Rename the JAR files as they were listed above, without the version number
4. Put the libraries in tomcat-x.x.x/webapps/ROOT/WEB-INF/lib/
5. Extract the VAADIN folders from vaadin-server.jar, vaadin-themes.jar, and
vaadin-client-compiled.jar and copy their contents to tomcatx.x.x/webapps/ROOT/html/VAADIN.
$ cd tomcat-x.x.x/webapps/ROOT/html
$ unzip path-to/vaadin-server-7.1.0.jar 'VAADIN/*'
$ unzip path-to/vaadin-themes-7.1.0.jar 'VAADIN/*'
$ unzip path-to/vaadin-client-compiled-7.1.0.jar 'VAADIN/*'
You need to define the widget set, the theme, and the JAR in the portal-ext.properties
configuration file for Liferay, as described earlier. The file should normally be placed in the Liferay
installation directory. See Liferay documentation for details on the configuration file.
Below is an example of a portal-ext.properties file:
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# Path under which the VAADIN directory is located.
# (/html is the default so it is not needed.)
# vaadin.resources.path=/html
# Portal-wide widget set
vaadin.widgetset=com.vaadin.portal.gwt.PortalDefaultWidgetSet
# Theme to use
vaadin.theme=liferay
The allowed parameters are:
vaadin.resources.path
Specifies the resource root path under the portal context. This is /html by default. Its
actual location depends on the portal and the application server; in Liferay with Tomcat
it would be located at webapps/ROOT/html under the Tomcat installation directory.
vaadin.widgetset
The widget set class to use. Give the full path to the class name in the dot notation. If
the parameter is not given, the default widget set is used.
vaadin.theme
Name of the theme to use. If the parameter is not given, the default theme is used,
which is reindeer in Vaadin 6.
You will need to restart Liferay after creating or modifying the portal-ext.properties file.
12.6. Handling Portlet Requests
This section is not yet updated for Vaadin 7.
Portals such as Liferay are not AJAX applications, but reload the page every time a user interaction
requires data from the server. They consider a Vaadin UI to be a regular web application that
works by HTTP requests. All the AJAX communications required by the Vaadin UI are done by
the Vaadin Client-Side Engine (the widget set) past the portal, so that the portal is unaware of
the communications.
The only way a portal can interact with a UI is to load it with a HTTP request; reloading does not
reset the UI. The Portlet 2.0 API supports four types of requests: render, action, resource, and
event requests. Requests can be caused by user interaction with the portal controls or by clicking
action URLs displayed by the portlet. You can handle portlet requests by implementing the
PortletListener interface and the handler methods for each of the request types. You can use
the request object passed to the handler to access certain portal data, such as user information,
the portlet mode, etc.
The PortletListener interface is defined in the PortletApplicationContext2 for Portlet 2.0 API.
You can get the portlet application context with getContext() method of the application class.
You need to have the portlet.jar in your class path during development. However, you must
not deploy the portlet.jar with the portlet, because it would create a conflict with the internal
portlet library of the portal. You should put it in a directory that is not deployed with the portlet,
for example, if you are using Eclipse, under the lib directory under the project root, and not
under WebContent/WEB-INF/lib, for example.
You can also define portal actions that you can handle in the handleActionRequest() method
of the interface.
Handling Portlet Requests
401
Portal Integration
You add your portlet request listener to the application context of your application, which is a
PortletApplicationContext when (and only when) the application is being run as a portlet.
// Check that we are running as a portlet.
if (getContext() instanceof PortletApplicationContext2) {
PortletApplicationContext2 ctx =
(PortletApplicationContext2) getContext();
// Add a custom listener to handle action and
// render requests.
ctx.addPortletListener(this, new MyPortletListener());
} else {
Notification.show("Not initialized via Portal!",
Notification.TYPE_ERROR_MESSAGE);
}
The handler methods receive references to request and response objects, which are defined in
the Java Servlet API. Please refer to the Servlet API documentation for further details.
The PortletDemo application included in the demo WAR package includes examples of processing
mode and portlet window state changes in a portlet request listener.
12.7. Handling Portlet Mode Changes
This section is not yet updated for Vaadin 7. Requires fixing Ticket #12274.
Portals support three portlet modes defined in the Portlet API: view, edit, and help modes. The
view mode is the default and the portal can have buttons to switch the portlet to the other modes.
In addition to the three predefined modes, the Portlet API standards allow custom portlet modes,
although portals may support custom modes to a varying degree.
You need to define which portlet modes are enabled in the portlet.xml deployment descriptor
as follows.
<!-- Supported portlet modes and content types. -->
<supports>
<mime-type>text/html</mime-type>
<portlet-mode>view</portlet-mode>
<portlet-mode>edit</portlet-mode>
<portlet-mode>help</portlet-mode>
</supports>
Changes in the portlet mode are received as resource requests, which you can handle with a
handleResourceRequest(), defined in the PortletListener interface. The current portlet
mode can be acquired with getPortletMode() from the request object.
The following complete example (for Portlet 2.0) shows how to handle the three built-modes in
a portlet application.
// Use Portlet 2.0 API
import com.vaadin.terminal.gwt.server.PortletApplicationContext2;
import com.vaadin.terminal.gwt.server.PortletApplicationContext2.PortletListener;
public class PortletModeExample extends Application
implements PortletListener {
Window
mainWindow;
ObjectProperty data; // Data to view and edit
VerticalLayout viewContent
= new VerticalLayout();
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Handling Portlet Mode Changes
Portal Integration
VerticalLayout editContent
VerticalLayout helpContent
= new VerticalLayout();
= new VerticalLayout();
@Override
public void init() {
mainWindow = new Window("Myportlet Application");
setMainWindow(mainWindow);
// Data model
data = new ObjectProperty("<h1>Heading</h1>"+
"<p>Some example content</p>");
// Prepare views for the three modes (view, edit, help)
// Prepare View mode content
Label viewText = new Label(data, Label.CONTENT_XHTML);
viewContent.addComponent(viewText);
// Prepare Edit mode content
RichTextArea editText = new RichTextArea();
editText.setCaption("Edit the value:");
editText.setPropertyDataSource(data);
editContent.addComponent(editText);
// Prepare Help mode content
Label helpText = new Label("<h1>Help</h1>" +
"<p>This helps you!</p>",
Label.CONTENT_XHTML);
helpContent.addComponent(helpText);
// Start in the view mode
mainWindow.setContent(viewContent);
// Check that we are running as a portlet.
if (getContext() instanceof PortletApplicationContext2) {
PortletApplicationContext2 ctx =
(PortletApplicationContext2) getContext();
// Add a custom listener to handle action and
// render requests.
ctx.addPortletListener(this, this);
} else {
Notification.show("Not running in portal",
Notification.TYPE_ERROR_MESSAGE);
}
}
// Dummy implementations for the irrelevant request types
public void handleActionRequest(ActionRequest request,
ActionResponse response,
Window window) {
}
public void handleRenderRequest(RenderRequest request,
RenderResponse response,
Window window) {
}
public void handleEventRequest(EventRequest request,
EventResponse response,
Window window) {
}
Handling Portlet Mode Changes
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Portal Integration
public void handleResourceRequest(ResourceRequest request,
ResourceResponse response,
Window window) {
// Switch the view according to the portlet mode
if (request.getPortletMode() == PortletMode.EDIT)
window.setContent(editContent);
else if (request.getPortletMode() == PortletMode.VIEW)
window.setContent(viewContent);
else if (request.getPortletMode() == PortletMode.HELP)
window.setContent(helpContent);
}
}
Kuva 12.4, ”Portlet Modes in Action” shows the resulting portlet in the three modes: view, edit,
and help. In Liferay, the edit mode is shown in the popup menu as a Preferences item.
Kuva 12.4. Portlet Modes in Action
12.8. Non-Vaadin Portlet Modes
This section is not yet updated for Vaadin 7. Requires fixing Ticket #12274.
404
Non-Vaadin Portlet Modes
Portal Integration
In some cases, it can be useful to implement certain modes of a portlet as pure HTML or JSP
pages instead of running the full Vaadin application user interface in them. Common reasons for
this are static pages (for example, a simple help mode), integrating legacy content to a portlet
(for example, a JSP configuration interface), and providing an ultra-lightweight initial view for a
portlet (for users behind slow connections).
Fully static modes that do not require the Vaadin server side application to be running can be
implemented by subclassing the portlet class VaadinPortlet. The subclass can either create the
HTML content directly or dispatch the request to, for example, a HTML or JSP page via the portal.
When using this approach, any Vaadin portlet and portlet request listeners are not called.
Customizing the content for the standard modes (view, edit, and help) can be performed by
overriding the methods doView, doEdit and doHelp, respectively. Custom modes can be
handled by implementing similar methods with the @javax.portlet.RenderMode(name =
"mymode") annotation.
You need to define which portlet modes are enabled in the portlet.xml deployment descriptor
as described in Kohta 12.7, ”Handling Portlet Mode Changes”. Also, the portlet class in
portlet.xml should point to the customized subclass of VaadinPortlet.
The following example (for Portlet 2.0) shows how to create a static help page for the portlet.
portlet.xml:
<!-- Supported portlet modes and content types. -->
<supports>
<mime-type>text/html</mime-type>
<portlet-mode>view</portlet-mode>
<portlet-mode>help</portlet-mode>
</supports>
HtmlHelpPortlet.java::
// Use Portlet 2.0 API
import com.vaadin.server.VaadinPortlet;
public class HtmlHelpPortlet extends VaadinPortlet {
// Override the help mode, let the Vaadin
// application handle the view mode
@Override
protected void doHelp(RenderRequest request,
RenderResponse response)
throws PortletException, IOException {
// Bypass the Vaadin application entirely
response.setContentType("text/html");
response.getWriter().println(
"This is the help text as plain HTML.");
//
//
//
//
//
Alternatively, you could use the dispatcher for,
for example, JSP help pages as follows:
PortletRequestDispatcher dispatcher = getPortletContext()
.getRequestDispatcher("/html/myhelp.jsp");
dispatcher.include(request, response);
}
}
To produce pure HTML portlet content from a running Vaadin application instead of statically
outside an application, the writeAjaxPage() method VaadinPortlet should be overridden.
Non-Vaadin Portlet Modes
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Portal Integration
This approach allows using the application state in HTML content generation, and all relevant
Vaadin portlet request and portlet listeners are called around the portlet content generation.
However, the client side engine (widgetset) is not loaded by the browser, which can shorten the
initial page display time.
<portlet-class>com.vaadin.demo.portlet.HtmlModePortlet</portlet-class>
<supports>
<mime-type>text/html</mime-type>
<portlet-mode>view</portlet-mode>
<portlet-mode>help</portlet-mode>
</supports>
public class CountUI extends UI {
private int count = 0;
public void init() {
Window w = new Window("Portlet mode example");
w.addComponent(new Label("This is the Vaadin app."));
w.addComponent(new Label("Try opening the help mode."));
setMainWindow(w);
}
public int incrementCount() {
return ++count;
}
}
// Use Portlet 2.0 API
public class HtmlModePortlet extends AbstractVaadinPortlet {
@Override
protected void writeAjaxPage(RenderRequest request,
RenderResponse response, Window window,
UI app)
throws PortletException, IOException {
if (PortletMode.HELP.equals(request.getPortletMode())) {
CountApplication capp = (CountApplication) app;
response.setContentType("text/html");
response.getWriter().println(
"This is the HTML help, shown "
+ capp.incrementCount() + " times so far.");
} else {
super.writeAjaxPage(request, response, window, app);
}
}
@Override
protected Class<? extends Application> getApplicationClass(){
return CountApplication.class;
}
}
The user can freely move between Vaadin and non-Vaadin portlet modes with the user interface
provided by the portal (for standard modes) or the portlet (for example, action links). Once the
server side application has been started, it continues to run as long as the session is alive. If
necessary, specific portlet mode transitions can be disallowed in portlet.xml.
In the case of Portlet 1.0, both a portlet and a servlet are involved. A render request is received
by ApplicationPortlet when the portlet mode is changed, and serving pure HTML in some modes
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can be achieved by overriding the method render and handling the modes of interest separately
while calling super.render() for other modes. As always, when extending the portlet, the
reference to the portlet class in portlet.xml needs to be updated.
To serve HTML-only content in the Portlet 1.0 case after starting the server side application and
calling the relevant listeners, the servlet class ApplicationServlet should be subclassed instead
of the portlet. The method writeAjaxPage can be overridden to produce custom HTML content
for certain modes. However, it should be noted that some HTML content (for example, loading
the portal-wide Vaadin theme) is created by the portlet and not the servlet.
12.9. Vaadin IPC for Liferay
This section is not yet updated for Vaadin 7.
Portlets rarely live alone. A page can contain multiple portlets and when the user interacts with
one portlet, you may need to have the other portlets react to the change immediately. This is not
normally possible with Vaadin portlets, as Vaadin applications need to get an Ajax request from
the client-side to change their user interface. On the other hand, the regular inter-portlet
communication (IPC) mechanism in Portlet 2.0 Specification requires a complete page reload,
but that is not appropriate with Vaadin or in general Ajax applications, which do not require a
page reload. One solution is to communicate between the portlets on the server-side and then
use a server-push mechanism to update the client-side.
The Vaadin IPC for Liferay Add-on takes another approach by communicating between the
portlets through the client-side. Events (messages) are sent through the LiferayIPC component
and the client-side widget relays them to the other portlets, as illustrated in Kuva 12.5, ”Vaadin
IPC for Liferay Architecture”.
Kuva 12.5. Vaadin IPC for Liferay Architecture
Vaadin IPC for Liferay
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Vaadin IPC for Liferay uses the Liferay JavaScript event API for client-side inter-portlet
communication, so you can communicate just as easily with other Liferay portlets.
Notice that you can use this communication only between portlets on the same page.
Kuva 12.6, ”Vaadin IPC Add-on Demo with Two Portlets” shows Vaadin IPC for Liferay in action.
Entering a new item in one portlet is updated interactively in the other.
Kuva 12.6. Vaadin IPC Add-on Demo with Two Portlets
12.9.1. Installing the Add-on
The Vaadin IPC for Liferay add-on is available from the Vaadin Directory as well as from a Maven
repository, as described in Luku 17, Using Vaadin Add-ons.
The contents of the installation package are as follows:
vaadin-ipc-for-liferay-x.x.x.jar
The add-on JAR in the installation package must be installed in the WEB-INF/lib
directory under the root context. The location depends on the server - for example in
Liferay running in Tomcat it is located under the webapps/ROOT folder of the server.
doc
The documentation folder includes a README.TXT file that describes the contents of
the installation package briefly, and licensing.txt and license-asl-2.0.txt,
which describe the licensing under the Apache License 2.0. Under the doc/api folder
is included the complete JavaDoc API documentation for the add-on.
vaadin-ipc-for-liferay-x.x.x-demo.war
A WAR containing demo portlets. After installing the add-on library and compiling the
widget set, as described below, you can deploy the WAR to Liferay and add the two
demo portlets to a page, as shown in Kuva 12.6, ”Vaadin IPC Add-on Demo with Two
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Installing the Add-on
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Po r t l e t s ” .
The
source
of
the
demo
dev.vaadin.com/svn/addons/IPCforLiferay/trunk/.
is
available
at
The add-on contains a widget set, which you must compile into the Vaadin widget set installed
in the portal.
12.9.2. Basic Communication
LiferayIPC is an invisible user interface component that can be used to send messages between
two or more Vaadin portlets. You add it to an application layout as you would any regular user
interface component.
LiferayIPC liferayipc = new LiferayIPC();
layout.addComponent(liferayipc);
You should be careful not to remove the invisible component from the portlet later if you modify
the layout of the portlet.
The component can be used both for sending and receiving messages, as described next.
Sending Events
You can send an event (a message) with the sendEvent() method, which takes an event ID
and the message data as parameters. The event is broadcast to all listening portlets. The event
ID is a string that can be used to identify the recipient of an event or the event type.
liferayipc.sendEvent("hello", "This is Data");
If you need to send more complex data, you need to format or serialize it to a string representation
as described in Kohta 12.9.5, ”Serializing and Encoding Data”.
Receiving Events
A portlet wishing to receive events (messages) from other portlets needs to register a listener in
the component with addListener(). The listener receives the messages in a LiferayIPCEvent
object. Filtering events by the ID is built in into the listener handler, you give the listened event
ID as the first parameter for the addListener(). The actual message data is held in the data
property, which you can read with getData().
liferayipc.addListener("hello", new LiferayIPCEventListener() {
public void eventReceived(LiferayIPCEvent event) {
// Do something with the message data
String data = event.getData();
Notification.show("Received hello: " + data);
}
});
A listener added to a LiferayIPC can be removed with removeListener().
12.9.3. Considerations
Both security and efficiency should be considered with inter-portlet communications when using
the Vaadin IPC for Liferay.
Basic Communication
409
Portal Integration
Browser Security
As the message data is passed through the client-side (browser), any code running in the browser
has access to the data. You should be careful not to expose any security-critical data in clientside messaging. Also, malicious code running in the browser could alter or fake messages.
Sanitization can help with the latter problem and encryption to solve the both issues. You can
also share the sensitive data through session attributes or a database and use the client-side
IPC only to notify that the data is available.
Efficiency
Sending data through the browser requires loading and sending it in HTTP requests. The data
is held in the memory space of the browser, and handling large data in the client-side JavaScript
code can take time. Noticeably large message data can therefore reduce the responsiveness of
the application and could, in extreme cases, go over browser limits for memory consumption or
JavaScript execution time.
12.9.4. Communication Through Session Attributes
In many cases, such as when considering security or efficiency, it is better to pass the bulk data
on the server-side and use the client-side IPC only for notifying the other portlet(s) that the data
is available. Session attributes are a conveninent way of sharing data on the server-side. You
can also share objects through them, not just strings.
The session variables have a scope, which should be APPLICATION_SCOPE. The "application"
refers to the scope of the Java web application (WAR) that contains the portlets.
If the communicating portlets are in the same Java web application (WAR), no special configuration
is needed. You can also communicate between portlets in different WARs, in which case you
need to disable the private-session-attributes parameter in liferay-portlet.xml
by setting it to false. Please see Liferay documentation for more information regarding the
configuration.
You can also share Java objects between the portlets in the same WAR, not just strings. If the
portlets are in different WARs, they normally have different class loaders, which could cause
incompatibilities, so you can only communicate with strings and any object data needs to be
serialized.
Session attributes are accessible through the PortletSession object, which you can access
through the portlet context from the Vaadin Application class.
Person person = new Person(firstname, lastname, age);
...
PortletSession session =
((PortletApplicationContext2)getContext()).
getPortletSession();
// Share the object
String key = "IPCDEMO_person";
session.setAttribute(key, person,
PortletSession.APPLICATION_SCOPE);
// Notify that it's available
liferayipc.sendEvent("ipc_demodata_available", key);
410
Communication Through Session Attributes
Portal Integration
You can then receive the attribute in a LiferayIPCEventListener as follows:
public void eventReceived(LiferayIPCEvent event) {
String key = event.getData();
PortletSession session =
((PortletApplicationContext2)getContext()).
getPortletSession();
// Get the object reference
Person person = (Person) session.getAttribute(key);
// We can now use the object in our application
BeanItem<Person> item = new BeanItem<Person> (person);
form.setItemDataSource(item);
}
Notice that changes to a shared object bound to a user interface component are not updated
automatically if it is changed in another portlet. The issue is the same as with double-binding in
general.
12.9.5. Serializing and Encoding Data
The IPC events support transmitting only plain strings, so if you have object or other non-string
data, you need to format or serialize it to a string representation. For example, the demo application
formats the trivial data model as a semicolon-separated list as follows:
private void sendPersonViaClient(String firstName,
String lastName, int age) {
liferayIPC_1.sendEvent("newPerson", firstName + ";" +
lastName + ";" + age);
}
You can use standard Java serialization for any classes that implement the Serializable
interface. The transmitted data may not include any control characters, so you also need to
encode the string, for example by using Base64 encoding.
// Some serializable object
MyBean mybean = new MyBean();
...
// Serialize
ByteArrayOutputStream baostr = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
ObjectOutputStream oostr;
try {
oostr = new ObjectOutputStream(baostr);
oostr.writeObject(mybean); // Serialize the object
oostr.close();
} catch (IOException e) {
Notification.show("IO PAN!"); // Complain
}
// Encode
BASE64Encoder encoder = new BASE64Encoder();
String encoded = encoder.encode(baostr.toByteArray());
// Send the IPC event to other portlet(s)
liferayipc.sendEvent("mybeanforyou", encoded);
Serializing and Encoding Data
411
Portal Integration
You can then deserialize such a message at the receiving end as follows:
public void eventReceived(LiferayIPCEvent event) {
String encoded = event.getData();
// Decode and deserialize it
BASE64Decoder decoder = new BASE64Decoder();
try {
byte[] data = decoder.decodeBuffer(encoded);
ObjectInputStream ois =
new ObjectInputStream(
new ByteArrayInputStream(data));
// The deserialized bean
MyBean deserialized = (MyBean) ois.readObject();
ois.close();
... do something with the bean ...
} catch (IOException e) {
e.printStackTrace(); // Handle somehow
} catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
e.printStackTrace(); // Handle somehow
}
}
12.9.6. Communicating with Non-Vaadin Portlets
You can use the Vaadin IPC for Liferay to communicate also between a Vaadin application and
other portlets, such as JSP portlets. The add-on passes the events as regular Liferay JavaScript
events. The demo WAR includes two JSP portlets that demonstrate the communication.
When sending events from non-Vaadin portlet, fire the event using the JavaScript
Liferay.fire() method with an event ID and message. For example, in JSP you could have:
<%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.com/portlet_2_0"
prefix="portlet" %>
<portlet:defineObjects />
<script>
function send_message() {
Liferay.fire('hello', "Hello, I'm here!");
}
</script>
<input type="button" value="Send message"
onclick="send_message()" />
You can receive events using a Liferay JavaScript event handler. You define the handler with
the on() method in the Liferay object. It takes the event ID and a callback function as its
parameters. Again in JSP you could have:
<%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.com/portlet_2_0"
prefix="portlet" %>
<portlet:defineObjects />
<script>
Liferay.on('hello', function(event, data) {
alert("Hello: " + data);
412
Communicating with Non-Vaadin Portlets
Portal Integration
});
</script>
Communicating with Non-Vaadin Portlets
413
414
Osa III. Asiakaspuolen sovelluskehys
Of the two sides of Vaadin, the client-side code runs as JavaScript in the web browser. You can create pure
client-side applications and widgets in Java, which you compile to JavaScript that runs in the browser. You
can integrate the client-side widgets with server-side components using connectors, and hence enable using
them in pure server-side applications.
luku 13
Client-Side Vaadin
Development
13.1. Overview .............................................................................................. 417
13.2. Installing the Client-Side Development Environment ........................... 418
13.3. Client-Side Module Descriptor ............................................................. 418
13.4. Compiling a Client-Side Module .......................................................... 419
13.5. Creating a Custom Widget ................................................................... 420
13.6. Debugging Client-Side Code ............................................................... 422
This chapter gives an overview of the Vaadin client-side framework, its architecture, and
development tools.
13.1. Overview
As noted in the introduction, Vaadin supports two development models: server-side and clientside. Client-side Vaadin code is executed in the web browser as JavaScript code. The code is
written in Java, like all Vaadin code, and then compiled to JavaScript with the Vaadin Client
Compiler. You can develop client-side widgets and integrate them with server-side counterpart
components to allow using them in server-side Vaadin applications. That is how the components
in the server-side framework and in most add-ons are done. Alternatively, you can create pure
client-side GWT applications, which you can simply load in the browser from an HTML page and
use even without server-side connectivity.
The client-side framework is based on the Google Web Toolkit (GWT), with added features and
bug fixes. Vaadin is compatible with GWT to the extent of the basic GWT feature set. Vaadin Ltd
Book of Vaadin
417
Client-Side Vaadin Development
is a member of the GWT Steering Committee, working on the future direction of GWT together
with Google and other supporters of GWT.
Widgets and Components
Google Web Toolkit uses the term widget for user interface components. In this book,
we use the term widget to refer to client-side components, while using the term
component in a general sense and also in the special sense for server-side
components.
The main idea in server-side Vaadin development is to render the server-side components in the
browser with the Client-Side Engine. The engine is essentially a set of widgets paired with
connectors that serialize their state and events with the server-side counterpart components.
The client-side engine is technically called a widget set, to describe the fact that it mostly consists
of widgets and that widget sets can be combined, as described later.
13.2. Installing the Client-Side Development Environment
The installation of the client-side development libraries is described in Luku 2, Getting Started
with Vaadin. You especially need the vaadin-client library, which contains the client-side
Java API, and vaadin-client-compiler, which contains the Vaadin Client Compiler for
compiling Java to JavaScript.
13.3. Client-Side Module Descriptor
Client-side Vaadin modules, such as the Vaadin Client-Side Engine (widget set) or pure clientside applications, that are to be compiled to JavaScript, are defined in a module descriptor
(.gwt.xml) file.
When defining a widget set to build the Vaadin client-side engine, the only necessary task is to
inherit a base widget set. If you are developing a regular widget set, you should normally inherit
the DefaultWidgetSet.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE module PUBLIC
"-//Google Inc.//DTD Google Web Toolkit 1.7.0//EN"
"http://google-web-toolkit.googlecode.com/svn/tags/1.7.0/distrosource/core/src/gwt-module.dtd">
<module>
<!-- Inherit the default widget set -->
<inherits name="com.vaadin.DefaultWidgetSet" />
</module>
If you are developing a pure client-side application, you should instead inherit com.vaadin.Vaadin,
as described in Luku 14, Client-Side Applications. In that case, the module descriptor also needs
an entry-point.
If you are using the Eclipse IDE, the New Vaadin Widget wizard will automatically create the
GWT module descriptor. See Kohta 16.2.1, ”Creating a Widget” for detailed instructions.
418
Installing the Client-Side Development Environment
Client-Side Vaadin Development
13.3.1. Specifying a Stylesheet
A client-side module can include CSS stylesheets. When the module is compiled, these stylesheets
are copied to the output target. In the module descriptor, define a stylesheet element.
For example, if you are developing a custom widget and want to have a default stylesheet for it,
you could define it as follows:
<stylesheet src="mywidget/styles.css"/>
The specified path is relative to the public folder under the folder of the module descriptor.
13.3.2. Limiting Compilation Targets
Compiling widget sets takes considerable time. You can reduce the compilation time significantly
by compiling the widget sets only for your browser, which is useful during development. You can
do this by setting the user.agent property in the module descriptor.
<set-property name="user.agent" value="gecko1_8"/>
The value attribute should match your browser. The browsers supported by GWT depend on
the GWT version, below is a list of browser identifiers supported by GWT.
Taulu 13.1. GWT User Agents
Identifier
Name
ie6
Internet Explorer 6
ie8
Internet Explorer 8
gecko1_8
Mozilla Firefox 1.5 and later
safari
Apple Safari and other Webkit-based browsers including Google Chrome
opera
Opera
ie9
Internet Explorer 9
For more information about the GWT Module XML Format, please see Google Web Toolkit
Developer Guide.
13.4. Compiling a Client-Side Module
A client-side module, either a widget set or a pure client-side module, needs to be compiled to
JavaScript using the Vaadin Client Compiler. During development, the Development Mode makes
the compilation automatically when you reload the page, provided that the module has been
initially compiled once with the compiler.
As most Vaadin add-ons include widgets, widget set compilation is usually needed when using
add-ons. In that case, the widget sets from different add-ons are compiled into a project widget
set, as described in Luku 17, Using Vaadin Add-ons.
13.4.1. Vaadin Compiler Overview
The Vaadin Client Compiler compiles Java to JavaScript. It is provided as the vaadin-clientcompiler JAR, which you can execute with the -jar parameter for the Java runtime. It requires
the vaadin-client JAR, which contains the Vaadin client-side framework.
Specifying a Stylesheet
419
Client-Side Vaadin Development
The compiler compiles a client module, which can be either a pure client-side module or a Vaadin
widget set, that is, the Vaadin Client-Side Engine that includes the widgets used in the application.
The client module is defined with a module descriptor, which was described in Kohta 13.3, ”ClientSide Module Descriptor”.
The compiler writes the compilation result to a target folder that will include the compiled JavaScript
with any static resources included in the module.
13.4.2. Compiling in Eclipse
When the Vaadin Plugin is installed in Eclipse, you can simply click the Compile Vaadin widgets
button in the toolbar. It will compile the widget set it finds from the project. If the project has
multiple widget sets, such as one for custom widgets and another one for the project, you need
to select the module descriptor of the widget set to compile before clicking the button.
The compilation with Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse currently requires that the module descriptor has
suffix Widgetset.gwt.xml, although you can use it to compile also other client-side modules
than widget sets. The result is written under WebContent/VAADIN/widgetsets folder.
13.4.3. Compiling with Ant
You can find a script template for compiling widget sets with Ant and Ivy at the Vaadin download
page. You can copy the build script to your project and, once configured, run it with Ant.
13.4.4. Compiling with Maven
You can compile the widget set with the vaadin:compile goal as follows:
$ mvn vaadin:compile
13.5. Creating a Custom Widget
Creating a new Vaadin component usually begins from making a client-side widget, which is later
integrated with a server-side counterpart to enable server-side development. In addition, you can
also choose to make pure client-side widgets, a possibility which we also describe later in this
section.
13.5.1. A Basic Widget
All widgets extend the Widget class or some of its subclasses. You can extend any core GWT
or supplementary Vaadin widgets. Perhaps typically, an abstraction such as Composite. The
basic GWT widget component hierarchy is illustrated in Kuva 13.1, ”GWT Widget Base Class
Hierarchy”. Please see the GWT API documentation for a complete description of the widget
classes.
420
Compiling in Eclipse
Client-Side Vaadin Development
Kuva 13.1. GWT Widget Base Class Hierarchy
For example, we could extend the Label widget to display some custom text.
package com.example.myapp.client;
import com.google.gwt.user.client.ui.Label;
public class MyWidget extends Label {
public static final String CLASSNAME = "mywidget";
public MyWidget() {
setStyleName(CLASSNAME);
setText("This is MyWidget");
}
}
The above example is largely what the Eclipse plugin generates as a widget stub. It is a good
practice to set a distinctive style class for the widget, to allow styling it with CSS.
The client-side source code must be contained in a client package under the package of the
descriptor file, which is covered later.
13.5.2. Using the Widget
You can use a custom widget just like you would use any widget, possibly integrating it with a
server-side component, or in pure client-side modules such as the following:
public class MyEntryPoint implements EntryPoint {
@Override
public void onModuleLoad() {
// Use the custom widget
final MyWidget mywidget = new MyWidget();
RootPanel.get().add(mywidget);
}
}
Using the Widget
421
Client-Side Vaadin Development
13.6. Debugging Client-Side Code
Vaadin includes two application execution modes for debugging client-side code.The Development
Mode compiles the client-side module when you load the page and runs it in the browser, using
a browser plugin to communicate with the debugger. The "SuperDevMode" allows debugging
the code right in the browser, without even need to install a plugin.
13.6.1. Launching Development Mode
The Development Mode launches the application in the browser, compiles the client-side module
(or widget set) when the page is loaded, and allows debugging the client-side code in Eclipse.
You can launch the Development Mode by running the com.google.gwt.dev.DevMode class.
It requires some parameters, as described later.
The Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse can create a launch configuration for the Development Mode. In
the Vaadin section of project properties, click the Create development mode launch button.
This creates a new launch configuration in the project. You can edit the launch configuration in
Run Run Configurations.
-noserver -war WebContent/VAADIN/widgetsets
com.example.myproject.widgetset.MyWidgetSet -startupUrl
http://localhost:8080/myproject -bindAddress 127.0.0.1
The parameters are as follows:
-noserver
Normally, the Development Mode launches its own Jetty server for hosting the content.
If you are developing the application under an IDE that deploys it to a server, such as
Eclipse, you can disable the Development Mode server with this option.
-war
Specifies path to the location where the JavaScript is to be compiled. When developing
a pure client-side module, this could be the WebContent (in Eclipse) or some other
folder under it. When compiling widget sets, it must be
WebContent/VAADIN/widgetsets.
-startupUrl
Specifies the address of the loader page for the application. For server-side Vaadin
applications, this should be the path to the Vaadin application servlet, as defined in
the deployment. For pure client-side widgets, it should be the page where the application
is included.
-bindAddress
This is the IP address of the host in which the Development Mode runs. For debugging
on the development workstation, it can be just 127.0.0.1. Setting it as the proper IP
address of the host enables remote debugging.
13.6.2. Launching SuperDevMode
The SuperDevMode is much like the regular Development Mode, except that it does not require
a browser plugin. Compilation from Java to JavaScript is done incrementally, reducing the
compilation time significantly. It also allows debugging JavaScript and even Java right in the
browser (currently only supported in Chrome).
You can enable SuperDevMode as follows:
422
Debugging Client-Side Code
Client-Side Vaadin Development
1. You need to set a redirect property in the .gwt.xml module descriptor as follows:
<set-configuration-property name="devModeRedirectEnabled" value="true"
/>
In addition, you need the xsiframe linker. It is included in the
com.vaadin.DefaultWidgetSet as well as in the com.vaadin.Vaadin module. Otherwise,
you need to include it with:
<add-linker name="xsiframe" />
2. Compile the module (that is, the widget set), for example by clicking the button in Eclipse.
3. If you are using Eclipse, create a launch configuration for the SuperDevMode by clicking
the Create SuperDevMode launch in the Vaadin section of the project properties.
a. The main class to execute should be com.google.gwt.dev.codeserver.CodeServer.
b. The application takes the fully-qualified class name of the module (or widget set) as
parameter, for example, com.example.myproject.widgetset.MyprojectWidgetset.
c. Add project sources to the class path of the launch if they are not in the project class
path.
The above configuration only needs to be done once to enable the SuperDevMode. After that,
you can launch the mode as follows:
1. Run the SuperDevMode Code Server with the launch configuration that you created
above. This perfoms the initial compilation of your module or widget set.
2. Launch the servlet container for your application, for example, Tomcat.
3. Open your browser with the application URL and add ?superdevmode parameter to
the URL (see the notice below if you are not extending DefaultWidgetSet). This
recompiles the code, after which the page is reloaded with the SuperDevMode. You
can also use the ?debug parameter and then click the SDev button in the debug console.
If you make changes to the client-side code and refresh the page in the browser, the client-side
is recompiled and you see the results immediately.
The Step 3 above assumes that you extend DefaultWidgetSet in your module. If that is not the
case, you need to add the following at the start of the onModuleLoad() method of the module:
if (SuperDevMode.enableBasedOnParameter()) { return; }
Alternatively, you can use the bookmarklets provided by the code server. Go to
http://localhost:9876/ and drag the bookmarklets "Dev Mode On" and "Dev Mode Off"
to the bookmarks bar
Debugging Java Code in Chrome
Chrome supports source maps, which allow debugging Java source code from which the
JavaScript was compiled.
Open the Chrome Inspector by right-clicking and selecting Inspect Element. Click the settings
icon in the lower corner of the window and check the Scripts Enable source maps option.
Launching SuperDevMode
423
Client-Side Vaadin Development
Refresh the page with the Inspector open, and you will see Java code instead of JavaScript in
the scripts tab.
424
Launching SuperDevMode
luku 14
Client-Side
Applications
14.1. Overview .............................................................................................. 425
14.2. Client-Side Module Entry-Point ............................................................ 427
14.3. Compiling and Running a Client-Side Application ............................... 428
14.4. Loading a Client-Side Application ........................................................ 428
This chapter describes how to develop client-side Vaadin applications.
Currently, we only give a brief introduction to the topic. Please refer to the GWT documentation
for a more complete treatment of the many GWT features.
14.1. Overview
Vaadin allows developing client-side modules that run in the browser. Client-side modules can
use all the GWT widgets and some Vaadin-specific widgets, as well as the same themes as
server-side Vaadin applications. Client-side applications run in the browser, even with no further
server communications. When paired with a server-side service to gain access to data storage
and server-side business logic, client-side applications can be considered "fat clients", in
comparison to the "thin client" approach of the server-side Vaadin applications. The services can
use the same back-end services as server-side Vaadin applications. Fat clients are useful for a
range of purposes when you have a need for highly responsive UI logic, such as for games or
for serving a huge number of clients with possibly stateless server-side code.
Book of Vaadin
425
Client-Side Applications
Kuva 14.1. Client-Side Application Architecture
A client-side application is defined as a module, which has an entry-point class. Its
onModuleLoad() method is executed when the JavaScript of the compiled module is loaded
in the browser.
Consider the following client-side application:
public class HelloWorld implements EntryPoint {
@Override
public void onModuleLoad() {
RootPanel.get().add(new Label("Hello, world!"));
}
}
The user interface of a client-side application is built under a HTML root element, which can be
accessed by RootPanel.get().The purpose and use of the entry-point is documented in more
detail in Kohta 14.2, ”Client-Side Module Entry-Point”. The user interface is built from widgets
hierarchically, just like with server-side Vaadin UIs. The built-in widgets and their relationships
are catalogued in Luku 15, Client-Side Widgets. You can also use many of the widgets in Vaadin
add-ons that have them, or make your own.
A client-side module is defined in a module descriptor, as described in Kohta 13.3, ”Client-Side
Module Descriptor”. A module is compiled from Java to JavaScript using the Vaadin Compiler,
of which use was described in Kohta 13.4, ”Compiling a Client-Side Module”. The Kohta 14.3,
”Compiling and Running a Client-Side Application” in this chapter gives further information about
compiling client-side applications. The resulting JavaScript can be loaded to any web page, as
described in Kohta 14.4, ”Loading a Client-Side Application”.
The client-side user interface can be built declaratively using the included UI Binder.
The servlet for processing RPC calls from the client-side can be generated automatically using
the included compiler.
426
Overview
Client-Side Applications
Even with regular server-side Vaadin applications, it may be useful to provide an off-line mode
if the connection is closed. An off-line mode can persist data in a local store in the browser,
thereby avoiding the need for server-side storage, and transmit the data to the server when the
connection is again available. Such a pattern is commonly used with Vaadin TouchKit.
14.2. Client-Side Module Entry-Point
A client-side application requires an entry-point where the execution starts, much like the init()
method in server-side Vaadin UIs.
Consider the following application:
package com.example.myapp.client;
import
import
import
import
import
com.google.gwt.core.client.EntryPoint;
com.google.gwt.event.dom.client.ClickEvent;
com.google.gwt.event.dom.client.ClickHandler;
com.google.gwt.user.client.ui.RootPanel;
com.vaadin.ui.VButton;
public class MyEntryPoint implements EntryPoint {
@Override
public void onModuleLoad() {
// Create a button widget
Button button = new Button();
button.setText("Click me!");
button.addClickHandler(new ClickHandler() {
@Override
public void onClick(ClickEvent event) {
mywidget.setText("Hello, world!");
}
});
RootPanel.get().add(button);
}
}
Before compiling, the entry-point needs to be defined in a module descriptor, as described in the
next section.
14.2.1. Module Descriptor
The entry-point of a client-side application is defined, along with any other configuration, in a
client-side module descriptor, described in Kohta 13.3, ”Client-Side Module Descriptor”. The
descriptor is an XML file with suffix .gwt.xml.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE module PUBLIC
"-//Google Inc.//DTD Google Web Toolkit 1.7.0//EN"
"http://google-web-toolkit.googlecode.com/svn/tags/1.7.0/distrosource/core/src/gwt-module.dtd">
<module>
<!-- Builtin Vaadin and GWT widgets -->
<inherits name="com.vaadin.Vaadin" />
<!-- The entry-point for the client-side application -->
<entry-point class="com.example.myapp.client.MyEntryPoint"/>
</module>
Client-Side Module Entry-Point
427
Client-Side Applications
You might rather want to inherit the com.google.gwt.user.User to get just the basic GWT widgets,
and not the Vaadin-specific widgets and classes, most of which are unusable in pure client-side
applications.
You can put static resources, such as images or CSS stylesheets, in a public folder (not a Java
package) under the folder of the descriptor file. When the module is compiled, the resources are
copied to the output folder. Normally in pure client-side application development, it is easier to
load them in the HTML host file or in a ClientBundle (see GWT documentation), but these
methods are not compatible with server-side component integration, if you use the resources for
that purpose as well.
14.3. Compiling and Running a Client-Side Application
Compilation of client-side modules other than widget sets with the Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse has
recent changes and limitations at the time of writing of this edition and the information given here
may not be accurate.
The application needs to be compiled into JavaScript to run it in a browser. For deployment, and
also initially for the first time when running the Development Mode, you need to do the compilation
with the Vaadin Client Compiler, as described in Kohta 13.4, ”Compiling a Client-Side Module”.
During development, it is easiest to compile with the Development Mode, which also allows
debugging when you run it in debug mode in an IDE. To launch it, you need to execute the
com.google.clientside.dev.DevMode class in the Vaadin JAR with the parameters such as the
following:
-noserver -war WebContent/clientside com.example.myapp.MyModule
-startupUrl http://localhost:8080/myproject/loaderpage.html
-bindAddress 127.0.0.1
See Kohta 13.6.1, ”Launching Development Mode” for a description of the parameters. The
startupUrl should be the URL of the host page described in Kohta 14.4, ”Loading a ClientSide Application”.
In Eclipse, you can create a launch configuration to do the task, for example by creating it in the
Vaadin section of project preferences and then modifying it appropriately.
The parameter for the -war should be a path to a deployment folder that contains the compiled
client-side module, in Eclipse under WebContent.
14.4. Loading a Client-Side Application
You can load the JavaScript code of a client-side application in an HTML host page by including
it with a <script> tag, for example as follows:
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type"
content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" />
<title>Embedding a Vaadin Application in HTML Page</title>
<!-- Load the Vaadin style sheet -->
<link rel="stylesheet"
type="text/css"
href="/myproject/VAADIN/themes/reindeer/legacy-styles.css"/>
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Compiling and Running a Client-Side Application
Client-Side Applications
</head>
<body>
<h1>A Pure Client-Side Application</h1>
<script type="text/javascript" language="javascript"
src="clientside/com.example.myapp.MyModule/
com.example.myapp.MyModule.nocache.js">
</script>
</body>
</html>
The JavaScript module is loaded in a <script> element. The src parameter should be a relative
link from the host page to the compiled JavaScript module.
If the application uses any supplementary Vaadin widgets, and not just core GWT widgets, you
need to include the Vaadin theme as was done in the example. The exact path to the style file
depends on your project structure - the example is given for a regular Vaadin application where
themes are contained in the VAADIN folder in the WAR.
In addition to CSS and scripts, you can load any other resources needed by the client-side
application in the host page.
Loading a Client-Side Application
429
430
luku 15
Client-Side
Widgets
15.1. Overview .............................................................................................. 431
15.2. GWT Widgets ...................................................................................... 432
15.3. Vaadin Widgets .................................................................................... 432
This chapter gives basic documentation on the use of the Vaadin client-side framework for the
purposes of creating client-side applications and writing your own widgets.
Currently, we only give a brief introduction to the topic in this chapter. Please refer to the GWT
documentation for a more complete treatment of the GWT widgets.
15.1. Overview
The Vaadin client-side API is based on the Google Web Toolkit. It involves widgets for representing
the user interface as Java objects, which are rendered as a HTML DOM in the browser. Events
caused by user interaction with the page are delegated to event handlers, where you can
implement your UI logic.
In general, the client-side widgets come in two categories - basic GWT widgets and Vaadinspecific widgets. The library includes connectors for integrating the Vaadin-specific widgets with
the server-side components, thereby enabling the server-side development model of Vaadin.
The integration is described in Luku 16, Integrating with the Server-Side.
The layout of the client-side UI is managed with panel widgets, which correspond in their function
with layout components in the Vaadin server-side API.
Book of Vaadin
431
Client-Side Widgets
In addition to the rendering API, the client-side API includes facilities for making HTTP requests,
logging, accessibility, internationalization, and testing.
For
information
about
the
basic
GWT
https://developers.google.com/web-toolkit/overview.
framework,
please
refer
to
15.2. GWT Widgets
GWT widgets are user interface elements that are rendered as HTML. Rendering is done either
by manipulating the HTML Document Object Model (DOM) through the lower-level DOM API, or
simply by injecting the HTML with setInnerHTML(). The layout of the user interface is managed
using special panel widgets.
For information about the basic GWT widgets, please refer to the GWT Developer's Guide at
https://developers.google.com/web-toolkit/doc/latest/DevGuideUi.
15.3. Vaadin Widgets
Vaadin comes with a number of Vaadin-specific widgets in addition to the GWT widgets, some
of which you can use in pure client-side applications. The Vaadin widgets have somewhat different
feature set from the GWT widgets and are foremost intended for integration with the server-side
components, but some may prove useful for client-side applications as well.
public class MyEntryPoint implements EntryPoint {
@Override
public void onModuleLoad() {
// Add a Vaadin button
VButton button = new VButton();
button.setText("Click me!");
button.addClickHandler(new ClickHandler() {
@Override
public void onClick(ClickEvent event) {
mywidget.setText("Clicked!");
}
});
RootPanel.get().add(button);
}
}
432
GWT Widgets
luku 16
Integrating with
the Server-Side
16.1. Overview .............................................................................................. 434
16.2. Starting It Simple With Eclipse ............................................................ 437
16.3. Creating a Server-Side Component .................................................... 440
16.4. Integrating the Two Sides with a Connector ......................................... 441
16.5. Shared State ........................................................................................ 442
16.6. RPC Calls Between Client- and Server-Side ....................................... 446
16.7. Component and UI Extensions ............................................................ 447
16.8. Styling a Widget ................................................................................... 449
16.9. Component Containers ........................................................................ 450
16.10. Advanced Client-Side Topics ............................................................. 450
16.11. Creating Add-ons ............................................................................... 451
16.12. Migrating from Vaadin 6 ..................................................................... 457
16.13. Integrating JavaScript Components and Extensions ......................... 457
This chapter describes how you can integrate client-side widgets or JavaScript components with
a server-side component. The client-side implementations of all standard server-side components
in Vaadin use the same client-side interfaces and patterns.
Book of Vaadin
433
Integrating with the Server-Side
16.1. Overview
Vaadin components consist of two parts: a server-side and a client-side component. The latter
are also called widgets in Google Web Toolkit (GWT) parlance. A Vaadin application uses the
API of the server-side component, which is rendered as a client-side widget in the browser. As
on the server-side, the client-side widgets form a hierarchy of layout widgets and regular widgets
as the leaves.
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Integrating with the Server-Side
Kuva 16.1. Integration of Client-Side Widgets
The communication between a client-side widget and a server-side component is managed with
a connector that handles syncronizing the widget state and events to and from the server-side.
Overview
435
Integrating with the Server-Side
When rendering the user interface, a client-side connector and a widget are created for each
server-side component.The mapping from a component to a connector is defined in the connector
class with a @Connect annotation, and the widget is created by the connector class.
The state of a server-side component is synchronized automatically to the client-side widget
using a shared state object. A shared state object implements the ComponentState interface
and it is used both in the server-side and the client-side component. On the client-side, a connector
always has access to its state instance, as well to the state of its parent component state and
the states of its children.
The state sharing assumes that state is defined with standard Java types, such as primitive and
boxed primitive types, String, arrays, and certain collections (List, Set, and Map) of the supported
types. Also the Vaadin Connector and some special internal types can be shared.
In addition to state, both server- and client-side can make remote procedure calls (RPC) to the
other side. RPC is used foremost for event notifications. For example, when a client-side connector
of a button receives a click, it sends the event to the server-side using RPC.
16.1.1. Project Structure
Widget set compilation, as described in Kohta 13.3, ”Client-Side Module Descriptor”, requires
using a special project structure, where the client-side classes are located under a client
package under the package of the module descriptor. Any static resources, such as stylesheets
and images, should be located under a public folder (not Java package). The source for the
server-side component may be located anywhere, except not in the client-side package.
The basic project structure is illustrated in Kuva 16.2, ”Basic Widget Integration Project Structure”.
436
Project Structure
Integrating with the Server-Side
Kuva 16.2. Basic Widget Integration Project Structure
The Eclipse wizard, described in Kohta 16.2, ”Starting It Simple With Eclipse”, creates a widget
integration skeleton with the above structure.
16.1.2. Integrating JavaScript Components
In addition to the GWT widget integration, Vaadin offers a simplified way to integrate pure
JavaScript components. The JavaScript connector code is published from the server-side. As
the JavaScript integration does not involve GWT programming, no widget set compilation is
needed.
16.2. Starting It Simple With Eclipse
Let us first take the easy way and create a simple component with Eclipse. While you can develop
new widgets with any IDE or even without, you may find Eclipse and the Vaadin Plugin for it
useful, as it automates all the basic routines of widget development, most importantly the creation
of new widgets.
Integrating JavaScript Components
437
Integrating with the Server-Side
16.2.1. Creating a Widget
1. Right-click the project in the Project Explorer and select New Other....
2. In the wizard selection, select Vaadin Vaadin Widget and click Next.
3. In the New Component Wizard, make the following settings.
Source folder
The root folder of the entire source tree. The default value is the default source tree
of your project, and you should normally leave it unchanged unless you have a
different project structure.
Package
The parent package under which the new server-side component should be created.
If the project does not already have a widget set, one is created under this package
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Creating a Widget
Integrating with the Server-Side
in the widgetset subpackage. The subpackage will contain the .gwt.xml descriptor
that defines the widget set and the new widget stub under the widgetset.client
subpackage.
Name
The class name of the new server-side component. The name of the client-side
widget stub will be the same but with "-Widget" suffix, for example,
MyComponentWidget. You can rename the classes afterwards.
Superclass
The superclass of the server-side component. It is AbstractComponent by default,
but com.vaadin.ui.AbstractField or com.vaadin.ui.AbstractSelect are other
commonly used superclasses. If you are extending an existing component, you
should select it as the superclass. You can easily change the superclass later.
Template
Select which template to use. The default is Full fledged, which creates the serverside component, the client-side widget, the connector, a shared state object, and
an RPC object. The Connector only leaves the shared state and RPC objects out.
Finally, click Finish to create the new component.
The wizard will:
• Create a server-side component stub in the base package
• If the project does not already have a widget set, the wizard creates a GWT module
descriptor file (.gwt.xml) in the base package and modifies the servlet class or the
web.xml deployment descriptor to specify the widget set class name parameter for the
application
• Create a client-side widget stub (along with the connector and shared state and RPC
stubs) in the client.componentname package under the base package
The structure of the server-side component and the client-side widget, and the serialization of
component state between them, is explained in the subsequent sections of this chapter.
To compile the widget set, click the Compile widget set button in the Eclipse toolbar. See
Kohta 16.2.2, ”Compiling the Widget Set” for details. After the compilation finishes, you should
be able to run your application as before, but using the new widget set. The compilation result is
written under the WebContent/VAADIN/widgetsets folder. When you need to recompile the
widget set in Eclipse, see Kohta 16.2.2, ”Compiling the Widget Set”. For detailed information on
compiling widget sets, see Kohta 13.4, ”Compiling a Client-Side Module”.
The following setting is inserted in the web.xml deployment descriptor to enable the widget set:
<init-param>
<description>Application widgetset</description>
<param-name>widgetset</param-name>
<paramvalue>com.example.myproject.widgetset.MyprojectApplicationWidgetset</paramvalue>
</init-param>
Creating a Widget
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You can refactor the package structure if you find need for it, but GWT compiler requires that the
client-side code must always be stored under a package named "client" or a package defined
with a source element in the widget set descriptor.
16.2.2. Compiling the Widget Set
After you edit a widget, you need to compile the widget set. The Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse
automatically suggests to compile the widget set in various situations, such as when you save a
client-side source file. If this gets annoying, you can disable the automatic recompilation in the
Vaadin category in project settings, by selecting the Suspend automatic widgetset builds
option.
You can compile the widget set manually by clicking the Compile widgetset button in the Eclipse
toolbar, shown in Kuva 16.3, ”The Compile Widgetset Button in Eclipse Toolbar”, while the
project is open and selected. If the project has multiple widget set definition files, you need to
select the one to compile in the Project Explorer.
Kuva 16.3. The Compile Widgetset Button in Eclipse Toolbar
The compilation progress is shown in the Console panel in Eclipse, illustrated in Kuva 16.4,
”Compiling a Widget Set”. You should note especially the list of widget sets found in the class
path.
The compilation output is written under the WebContent/VAADIN/widgetsets folder, in a
widget set specific folder.
You can speed up the compilation significantly by compiling the widget set only for your browser
during development. The generated .gwt.xml descriptor stub includes a disabled element that
specifies the target browser. See Kohta 13.3.2, ”Limiting Compilation Targets” for more details
on setting the user-agent property.
For more information on compiling widget sets, see Kohta 13.4, ”Compiling a Client-Side Module”.
Should you compile a widget set outside Eclipse, you need to refresh the project by selecting it
in Project Explorer and pressing F5.
16.3. Creating a Server-Side Component
Typical server-side Vaadin applications use server-side components that are rendered on the
client-side using their counterpart widgets. A server-side component must manage state
synchronization between the widget on the client-side, in addition to any server-side logic.
16.3.1. Basic Server-Side Component
The component state is usually managed by a shared state, described later in Kohta 16.5, ”Shared
State”.
public class MyComponent extends AbstractComponent {
public MyComponent() {
getState().setText("This is MyComponent");
}
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Compiling the Widget Set
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Kuva 16.4. Compiling a Widget Set
@Override
protected MyComponentState getState() {
return (MyComponentState) super.getState();
}
}
16.4. Integrating the Two Sides with a Connector
A client-side widget is integrated with a server-side component with a connector. A connector is
a client-side class that communicates changes to the widget state and events to the server-side.
A connector normally gets the state of the server-side component by the shared state, described
later in Kohta 16.5, ”Shared State”.
16.4.1. A Basic Connector
The basic tasks of a connector is to hook up to the widget and handle events from user interaction
and changes received from the server. A connector also has a number of routine infrastructure
methods which need to be implemented.
@Connect(MyComponent.class)
public class MyComponentConnector
extends AbstractComponentConnector {
@Override
public MyComponentWidget getWidget() {
return (MyComponentWidget) super.getWidget();
}
@Override
public MyComponentState getState() {
return (MyComponentState) super.getState();
}
@Override
public void onStateChanged(StateChangeEvent stateChangeEvent)
Integrating the Two Sides with a Connector
441
Integrating with the Server-Side
{
super.onStateChanged(stateChangeEvent);
// Do something useful
final String text = getState().text;
getWidget().setText(text);
}
}
Here, we handled state change with the crude onStateChanged() method that is called when
any of the state properties is changed. A finer and simpler handling is achieved by using the
@OnStateChange annotation on a handler method for each property, or by @DelegateToWidget
on a shared state property, as described later in Kohta 16.5, ”Shared State”.
16.4.2. Communication with the Server-Side
The main task of a connector is to communicate user interaction with the widget to the serverside and receive state changes from the server-side and relay them to the widget.
Server-to-client communication is normally done using a shared state, as described in Kohta 16.5,
”Shared State”, as well as RPC calls. The serialization of the state data is handled completely
transparently. Once the client-side engine receives the changes from the server, it reacts to them
by creating and notifying connectors that in turn manage widgets. This is described in
Kohta 16.10.1, ”Client-Side Processing Phases” in more detail.
For client-to-server communication, a connector can make remote procedure calls (RPC) to the
server-side. Also, the server-side component can make RPC calls to the connector. For a thorough
description of the RPC mechanism, refer to Kohta 16.6, ”RPC Calls Between Client- and ServerSide”.
16.5. Shared State
The basic communication from a server-side component to its the client-side widget counterpart
is handled using a shared state. The shared state is serialized transparently. It should be
considered read-only on the client-side, as it is not serialized back to the server-side.
A shared state object simply needs to extend the ComponentState. The member variables
should normally be declared as public.
public class MyComponentState extends ComponentState {
public String text;
}
A shared state should never contain any logic. If the members have private visibility for some
reason, you can also use public setters and getters, in which case the property must not be public.
16.5.1. Accessing Shared State on Server-Side
A server-side component can access the shared state with the getState() method. It is required
that you override the base implementation with one that returns the shared state object cast to
the proper type, as follows:
@Override
public MyComponentState getState() {
return (MyComponentState) super.getState();
}
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Communication with the Server-Side
Integrating with the Server-Side
You can then use the getState() to access the shared state object with the proper type.
public MyComponent() {
getState().setText("This is the initial state");
....
}
16.5.2. Handing Shared State in a Connector
A connector can access a shared state with the getState() method. The access should be
read-only. It is required that you override the base implementation with one that returns the proper
shared state type, as follows:
@Override
public MyComponentState getState() {
return (MyComponentState) super.getState();
}
State changes made on the server-side are communicated transparently to the client-side. When
a state change occurs, the onStateChanged() method in the connector is called. You should
should always call the superclass method before anything else to handle changes to common
component properties.
@Override
public void onStateChanged(StateChangeEvent stateChangeEvent) {
super.onStateChanged(stateChangeEvent);
// Copy the state properties to the widget properties
final String text = getState().getText();
getWidget().setText(text);
}
The crude onStateChanged() method is called when any of the state properties is changed,
allowing you to have even complex logic in how you manipulate the widget according to the state
changes. In most cases, however, you can handle the property changes more easily and also
more efficiently by using instead the @OnStateChange annotation on the handler methods for
each property, as described next in Kohta 16.5.3, ”Handling Property State Changes with
@OnStateChange”, or by delegating the property value directly to the widget, as described in
Kohta 16.5.4, ”Delegating State Properties to Widget”.
The processing phases of state changes are described in more detail in Kohta 16.10.1, ”ClientSide Processing Phases”.
16.5.3. Handling Property State Changes with @OnStateChange
The @OnStateChange annotation can be used to mark a connector method that handles state
change on a particular property, given as parameter for the annotation. In addition to higher
clarity, this avoids handling all property changes if a state change occurs in only one or some of
them. However, if a state change can occur in multiple properties, you can only use this technique
if the properties do not have interaction that prevents handling them separately in arbitrary order.
We can replace the onStateChange() method in the earlier connector example with the
following:
@OnStateChange("text")
void updateText() {
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Integrating with the Server-Side
getWidget().setText(getState().text);
}
If the shared state property and the widget property have same name and do not require any
type conversion, as is the case in the above example, you could simplify this even further by
using the @DelegateToWidget annotation for the shared state property, as described in
Kohta 16.5.4, ”Delegating State Properties to Widget”.
16.5.4. Delegating State Properties to Widget
The @DelegateToWidget annotation for a shared state property defines automatic delegation
of the property value to the corresponding widget property of the same name and type, by calling
the respective setter for the property in the widget.
public class MyComponentState extends AbstractComponentState {
@DelegateToWidget
public String text;
}
This is equivalent to handling the state change in the connector, as done in the example in
Kohta 16.5.3, ”Handling Property State Changes with @OnStateChange”.
If you want to delegate a shared state property to a widget property of another name, you can
give the property name as a string parameter for the annotation.
public class MyComponentState extends AbstractComponentState {
@DelegateToWidget("description")
public String text;
}
16.5.5. Referring to Components in Shared State
While you can pass any regular Java objects through a shared state, referring to another
component requires special handling because on the server-side you can only refer to a serverside component, while on the client-side you only have widgets. References to components can
be made by referring to their connectors (all server-side components implement the Connector
interface).
public class MyComponentState extends ComponentState {
public Connector otherComponent;
}
You could then access the component on the server-side as follows:
public class MyComponent {
public void MyComponent(Component otherComponent) {
getState().otherComponent = otherComponent;
}
public Component getOtherComponent() {
return (Component)getState().otherComponent;
}
// And the cast method
@Override
public MyComponentState getState() {
return (MyComponentState) super.getState();
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}
}
On the client-side, you should cast it in a similar fashion to a ComponentConnector, or possibly
to the specific connector type if it is known.
16.5.6. Sharing Resources
Resources, which commonly are references to icons or other images, are another case of objects
that require special handling. A Resource object exists only on the server-side and on the clientside you have an URL to the resource. You need to use the setResource() and
getResource() on the server-side to access a resource, which is serialized to the client-side
separately.
Let us begin with the server-side API:
public class MyComponent extends AbstractComponent {
...
public void setMyIcon(Resource myIcon) {
setResource("myIcon", myIcon);
}
public Resource getMyIcon() {
return getResource("myIcon");
}
}
On the client-side, you can then get the URL of the resource with getResourceUrl().
@Override
public void onStateChanged(StateChangeEvent stateChangeEvent) {
super.onStateChanged(stateChangeEvent);
...
// Get the resource URL for the icon
getWidget().setMyIcon(getResourceUrl("myIcon"));
}
The widget could then use the URL, for example, as follows:
public class MyWidget extends Label {
...
Element imgElement = null;
public void setMyIcon(String url) {
if (imgElement == null) {
imgElement = DOM.createImg();
getElement().appendChild(imgElement);
}
DOM.setElementAttribute(imgElement, "src", url);
}
}
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16.6. RPC Calls Between Client- and Server-Side
Vaadin supports making Remote Procedure Calls (RPC) between a server-side component and
its client-side widget counterpart. RPC calls are normally used for communicating stateless
events, such as button clicks or other user interaction, in contrast to changing the shared state.
Either party can make an RPC call to the other side. When a client-side widget makes a call, a
server request is made. Calls made from the server-side to the client-side are communicated in
the response of the server request during which the call was made.
If you use Eclipse and enable the "Full-Fledged" widget in the New Vaadin Widget wizard, it
automatically creates a component with an RPC stub.
16.6.1. RPC Calls to the Server-Side
RPC calls from the client-side to the server-side are made through an RPC interface that extends
the ServerRpc interface. A server RPC interface simply defines any methods that can be called
through the interface.
For example:
public interface MyComponentServerRpc extends ServerRpc {
public void clicked(String buttonName);
}
The above example defines a single clicks() RPC call, which takes a MouseEventDetails
object as the parameter.
You can pass the most common standard Java types, such as primitive and boxed primitive
types, String, and arrays and some collections (List, Set, and Map) of the supported types. Also
the Vaadin Connector and some special internal types can be passed.
An RPC method must return void - the widget set compiler should complain if it doesn't.
Making a Call
Before making a call, you need to instantiate the server RPC object with RpcProxy.create().
After that, you can make calls through the server RPC interface that you defined, for example as
follows:
@Connect(MyComponent.class)
public class MyComponentConnector
extends AbstractComponentConnector {
public MyComponentConnector() {
getWidget().addClickHandler(new ClickHandler() {
public void onClick(ClickEvent event) {
final MouseEventDetails mouseDetails =
MouseEventDetailsBuilder
.buildMouseEventDetails(
event.getNativeEvent(),
getWidget().getElement());
MyComponentServerRpc rpc =
getRpcProxy(MyComponentServerRpc.class);
// Make the call
rpc.clicked(mouseDetails.getButtonName());
}
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});
}
}
Handling a Call
RPC calls are handled in a server-side implementation of the server RPC interface. The call and
its parameters are serialized and passed to the server in an RPC request transparently.
public class MyComponent extends AbstractComponent {
private MyComponentServerRpc rpc =
new MyComponentServerRpc() {
private int clickCount = 0;
public void clicked(String buttonName) {
Notification.show("Clicked " + buttonName);
}
};
public MyComponent() {
...
registerRpc(rpc);
}
}
16.7. Component and UI Extensions
Adding features to existing components by extending them by inheritance creates a problem
when you want to combine such features. For example, one add-on could add spell-check to a
TextField, while another could add client-side validation. Combining such add-on features would
be difficult if not impossible. You might also want to add a feature to several or even to all
components, but extending all of them by inheritance is not really an option. Vaadin includes a
component plug-in mechanism for these purposes. Such plug-ins are simply called extensions.
Also a UI can be extended in a similar fashion. In fact, some Vaadin features such as the
JavaScript execution are UI extensions.
Implementing an extension requires defining a server-side extension class and a client-side
connector. An extension can have a shared state with the connector and use RPC, just like a
component could.
16.7.1. Server-Side Extension API
The server-side API for an extension consists of class that extends (in the Java sense) the
AbstractExtension class. It typically has an extend() method, a constructor, or a static helper
method that takes the extended component or UI as a parameter and passes it to super.extend().
For example, let us have a trivial example with an extension that takes no special parameters,
and illustrates the three alternative APIs:
public class CapsLockWarning extends AbstractExtension {
// You could pass it in the constructor
public CapsLockWarning(PasswordField field) {
super.extend(field);
}
// Or in an extend() method
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public void extend(PasswordField field) {
super.extend(field);
}
// Or with a static helper
public static addTo(PasswordField field) {
new CapsLockWarning().extend(field);
}
}
The extension could then be added to a component as follows:
PasswordField password = new PasswordField("Give it");
// Use the constructor
new CapsLockWarning(password);
// ... or with the extend() method
new CapsLockWarning().extend(password);
// ... or with the static helper
CapsLockWarning.addTo(password);
layout.addComponent(password);
Adding a feature in such a "reverse" way is a bit unusual in the Vaadin API, but allows type safety
for extensions, as the method can limit the target type to which the extension can be applied,
and whether it is a regular component or a UI.
16.7.2. Extension Connectors
An extension does not have a corresponding widget on the client-side, but only an extension
connector that extends the AbstractExtensionConnector class. The server-side extension class
is specified with a @Connect annotation, just like in component connectors.
An extension connector needs to implement the extend() method, which allows hooking to the
extended component. The normal extension mechanism is to modify the extended component
as needed and add event handlers to it to handle user interaction. An extension connector can
share a state with the server-side extension as well as make RPC calls, just like with components.
In the following example, we implement a "Caps Lock warning" extension. It listens for changes
in Caps Lock state and displays a floating warning element over the extended component if the
Caps Lock is on.
@Connect(CapsLockWarning.class)
public class CapsLockWarningConnector
extends AbstractExtensionConnector {
@Override
protected void extend(ServerConnector target) {
// Get the extended widget
final Widget pw =
((ComponentConnector) target).getWidget();
// Preparations for the added feature
final VOverlay warning = new VOverlay();
warning.setOwner(pw);
warning.add(new HTML("Caps Lock is enabled!"));
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Integrating with the Server-Side
// Add an event handler
pw.addDomHandler(new KeyPressHandler() {
public void onKeyPress(KeyPressEvent event) {
if (isEnabled() && isCapsLockOn(event)) {
warning.showRelativeTo(passwordWidget);
} else {
warning.hide();
}
}
}, KeyPressEvent.getType());
}
private boolean isCapsLockOn(KeyPressEvent e) {
return e.isShiftKeyDown() ^
Character.isUpperCase(e.getCharCode());
}
}
The extend() method gets the connector of the extended component as the parameter, in the
above example a PasswordFieldConnector. It can access the widget with the getWidget().
An extension connector needs to be included in a widget set. The class must therefore be defined
under the client package of a widget set, just like with component connectors.
16.8. Styling a Widget
To make your widget look stylish, you need to style it. There are two basic ways to define CSS
styles for a component: in the widget sources and in a theme. A default style should be defined
in the widget sources, and different themes can then modify the style.
16.8.1. Determining the CSS Class
The CSS class of a widget element is normally defined in the widget class and set with
setStyleName(). A widget should set the styles for its sub-elements as it desires.
For example, you could style a composite widget with an overall style and with separate styles
for the sub-widgets as follows:
public class MyPickerWidget extends ComplexPanel {
public static final String CLASSNAME = "mypicker";
private final TextBox textBox = new TextBox();
private final PushButton button = new PushButton("...");
public MyPickerWidget() {
setElement(Document.get().createDivElement());
setStylePrimaryName(CLASSNAME);
textBox.setStylePrimaryName(CLASSNAME + "-field");
button.setStylePrimaryName(CLASSNAME + "-button");
add(textBox, getElement());
add(button, getElement());
button.addClickHandler(new ClickHandler() {
public void onClick(ClickEvent event) {
Window.alert("Calendar picker not yet supported!");
Styling a Widget
449
Integrating with the Server-Side
}
});
}
}
In addition, all Vaadin components get the v-widget class. If it extends an existing Vaadin or
GWT widget, it will inherit CSS classes from that as well.
16.8.2. Default Stylesheet
A client-side module, which is normally a widget set, can include stylesheets. They must be
placed under the public folder under the folder of the widget set, a described in Kohta 13.3.1,
”Specifying a Stylesheet”.
For example, you could style the widget described above as follows:
.mypicker {
white-space: nowrap;
}
.mypicker-button {
display: inline-block;
border: 1px solid black;
padding: 3px;
width: 15px;
text-align: center;
}
Notice that some size settings may require more complex handling and calculating the sizes
dynamically.
16.9. Component Containers
Component containers, such as layout components, are a special group of components that
require some consideration. In addition to handling state, they need to manage communicating
the hierarchy of their contained components to the other side.
The
easiest
way
to
implement
a
component
container
is
extend
the
AbstractComponentContainer, which handles the synchronization of the container server-side
components to the client-side.
16.10. Advanced Client-Side Topics
In the following, we mention some topics that you may encounter when integrating widgets.
16.10.1. Client-Side Processing Phases
Vaadin's client-side engine reacts to changes from the server in a number of phases, the order
of which can be relevant for a connector. The processing occurs in the handleUIDLMessage()
method in ApplicationConnection, but the logic can be quite overwhelming, so we describe the
phases in the following summary.
1. Any dependencies defined by using @JavaScript or @StyleSheet on the server-side
class are loaded. Processing does not continue until the browser confirms that they
have been loaded.
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Integrating with the Server-Side
2. New connectors are instantiated and init() is run for each Connector.
3. State objects are updated, but no state change event is fired yet.
4. The connector hierarchy is updated, but no hierarchy change event is fired yet.
setParent() and setChildren() are run in this phase.
5. Hierarchy change events are fired. This means that all state objects and the entire
hierarchy are already up to date when this happens. The DOM hierarchy should in theory
be up to date after all hierarchy events have been handled, although there are some
built-in components that for various reasons do not always live up to this promise.
6. Captions are updated, causing updateCaption() to be invoked on layouts as needed.
7. @DelegateToWidget is handled for all changed state objects using the annotation.
8. State change events are fired for all changed state objects.
9. updateFromUIDL() is called for legacy connectors.
10. All RPC methods received from the server are invoked.
11. Connectors that are no longer included in the hierarchy are unregistered. This calls
onUnregister() on the Connector.
12. The layout phase starts, first checking the sizes and positions of all elements, and then
notifying any ElementResizeListeners, as well as calling the appropriate layout
method for the connectors that implement either SimpleManagedLayout or
DirectionalManagedLayout interface.
16.11. Creating Add-ons
Add-ons are the most convenient way to reuse Vaadin code, either commercially or free. Vaadin
Directory serves as the store for the add-ons. You can distribute add-ons both as JAR libraries
and Zip packages.
Creating a typical add-on package involves the following tasks:
• Compile server-side classes
• Compile JavaDoc (optional)
• Build the JAR
• Include Vaadin add-on manifest
• Include the compiled server-side classes
• Include the compiled JavaDoc (optional)
• Include sources of client-side classes for widget set compilation (optional)
• Include any JavaScript dependency libraries (optional)
• Exclude any test or demo code in the project
Creating Add-ons
451
Integrating with the Server-Side
The exact contents depend on the add-on type. Component add-ons often include a widget set,
but not always, such as JavaScript components or pure server-side components. You can also
have data container and theme add-ons, as well as various tools.
It is common to distribute the JavaDoc in a separate JAR, but you can also include it in the same
JAR.
16.11.1. Exporting Add-on in Eclipse
If you use the Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse for your add-on project, you can simply export the addon from Eclipse.
1. Select the project and then File Export from the menu
2. In the export wizard that opens, select Vaadin Vaadin Add-on Package, and click
Next
3. In the Select the resources to export panel, select the content that should be included
in the add-on package. In general, you should include sources in src folder (at least
for the client-side package), compiled server-side classes, themes in
WebContent/VAADIN/themes. These are all included automatically. You probably
want to leave out any demo or example code.
If you are submitting the add-on to Vaadin Directory, the Implementation title should
be exactly the name of the add-on in Directory. The name may contain spaces and most
other letters. Notice that it is not possible to change the name later.
The Implementation version is the version of your add-on. Typically experimental or
beta releases start from 0.1.0, and stable releases from 1.0.0.
The Widgetsets field should list the widget sets included in the add-on, separated by
commas. The widget sets should be listed by their class name, that is, without the
.gwt.xml extension.
The JAR file is the file name of the exported JAR file. It should normally include the
version number of the add-on. You should follow the Maven format for the name, such
as myaddon-1.0.0.jar.
Finally, click Finish.
16.11.2. Building Add-on with Ant
Building an add-on with Ant is similar to building Vaadin applications. Vaadin libraries and other
dependencies are retrieved and included in the classpath using Apache Ivy.
In the following, we assume the same structure as in the Eclipse project example. Let us put the
build script in the build folder under the project. We begin the Ant script as follows:
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<project xmlns:ivy="antlib:org.apache.ivy.ant"
name="My Own add-on"
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Exporting Add-on in Eclipse
Integrating with the Server-Side
Kuva 16.5. Exporting a Vaadin Add-on
basedir=".."
default="package-jar">
The namespace declaration is all you need to do to enable Ivy in Ant 1.6 and later. For earlier
Ant versions, please see the Ivy documentation.
Building Add-on with Ant
453
Integrating with the Server-Side
Configuration and Initialization
In the example script, we organize most settings in a configure target and then initialize the
build in init target.
<target name="configure">
<!-- Where project source files are located -->
<property name="src-location" value="src" />
<!-- Name of the widget set. -->
<property name="widgetset"
value="com.example.myaddon.widgetset.MyAddonWidgetset"/>
<!-- Addon version -->
<property name="version" value="0.1.0"/>
<!-- Compilation result directory -->
<property name="result-dir" value="build/result"/>
<!-- The target name of the built add-on JAR -->
<property name="target-jar"
value="${result-dir}/myaddon-${version}.jar"/>
</target>
<target name="init" depends="configure">
<!-- Construct and check classpath -->
<path id="compile.classpath">
<pathelement path="build/classes" />
<pathelement path="${src-location}" />
<fileset dir="${result-dir}/lib">
<include name="*.jar"/>
</fileset>
</path>
<mkdir dir="${result-dir}"/>
</target>
You will need to make some configuration also in the package-jar target in addition to the
configure target.
Compiling the Server-Side
Compiling the add-on requires the Vaadin libraries and any dependencies. We use Apache Ivy
for resolving the dependencies and retrieving the library JARs.
<!-- Retrieve dependencies with Ivy -->
<target name="resolve" depends="init">
<ivy:retrieve
pattern="${result-dir}/lib/[artifact].[ext]"/>
</target>
The pattern attribute for the <retrieve> task specifies where the dependencies are stored,
in the above case in the build/result/lib directory.
Compiling the server-side classes is then straight-forward:
454
Building Add-on with Ant
Integrating with the Server-Side
<!-- Compile server-side -->
<target name="compile-server-side"
depends="init, resolve">
<delete dir="${result-dir}/classes"/>
<mkdir dir="${result-dir}/classes"/>
<javac srcdir="${src-location}"
destdir="${result-dir}/classes">
<classpath>
<path refid="compile.classpath"/>
</classpath>
</javac>
</target>
Compiling the JavaDoc
You may want to include API documentation for the add-on in the same or in a different JAR file.
You can do it as follows, using the configuration we defined earlier. You may want to exclude the
client-side classes and any test and demo classes from the JavaDoc, as is done in this example,
if they are in the same source tree.
<!-- Compile JavaDoc -->
<target name="compile-javadoc" depends="init">
<delete dir="${result-dir}/javadoc"/>
<mkdir dir="${result-dir}/javadoc"/>
<javadoc destdir="${result-dir}/javadoc">
<sourcefiles>
<fileset dir="${src-location}" id="src">
<include name="**/*.java"/>
<!-- Excluded stuff from the package -->
<exclude name="**/client/**/*"/>
<exclude name="**/demo/**/*"/>
<exclude name="**/MyDemoUI.java"/>
</fileset>
</sourcefiles>
<classpath>
<path refid="compile.classpath"/>
</classpath>
</javadoc>
</target>
Packaging the JAR
An add-on JAR typically includes the following:
• Vaadin add-on manifest
• The compiled server-side classes
• The compiled JavaDoc (optional)
• Sources of client-side classes (optional)
• Any JavaScript dependency libraries (optional)
Building Add-on with Ant
455
Integrating with the Server-Side
Let us begin crafting the target. The JAR requires the compiled server-side classes and the
optional API documentation.
<!-- Build the JAR -->
<target name="package-jar"
depends="compile-server-side, compile-javadoc">
<jar jarfile="${target-jar}" compress="true">
First, you need to include a manifest that defines basic information about the add-on. The
implementation title must be the exact title of the add-on, as shown in the Vaadin Directory title.
The vendor is you. The manifest also includes the license title and file reference for the add-on.
<!-- Manifest required by Vaadin Directory -->
<manifest>
<attribute name="Vaadin-Package-Version"
value="1" />
<attribute name="Vaadin-Widgetsets"
value="${widgetset}" />
<attribute name="Implementation-Title"
value="My Own Addon" />
<attribute name="Implementation-Version"
value="${version}" />
<attribute name="Implementation-Vendor"
value="Me Myself" />
<attribute name="Vaadin-License-Title"
value="Apache2" />
<attribute name="Vaadin-License-File"
value="http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0" />
</manifest>
The rest of the package-jar target goes as follows. As was done in the JavaDoc compilation,
you also need to exclude any test or demo code in the project here. You need to modify at least
the emphasized parts for your project.
<!-- Include built server-side classes -->
<fileset dir="build/result/classes">
<patternset>
<include name="com/example/myaddon/**/*"/>
<exclude name="**/client/**/*"/>
<exclude name="**/demo/**/*"/>
<exclude name="**/test/**/*"/>
<exclude name="**/MyDemoUI*"/>
</patternset>
</fileset>
<!-- Include widget set sources -->
<fileset dir="src">
<patternset>
<include name="com/exaple/myaddon/**/*"/>
</patternset>
</fileset>
<!-- Include JavaDoc in the JAR -->
<fileset dir="${result-dir}/javadoc"
includes="**/*"/>
</jar>
</target>
You should now be ready to run the build script with Ant.
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Building Add-on with Ant
Integrating with the Server-Side
16.12. Migrating from Vaadin 6
The client-side architecture was redesigned almost entirely in Vaadin 7. In Vaadin 6, state
synchronization was done explicitly by serializing and deserializing the state on the server- and
client-side. In Vaadin 7, the serialization is handled automatically by the framework using state
objects.
In Vaadin 6, a server-side component serialized its state to the client-side using the Paintable
interface in the client-side and deserialized the state through the VariableOwner interface. In
Vaadin 7, these are done through the ClientConnector interface.
On the client-side, a widget deserialized its state through the Paintable interface and sent
state changes through the ApplicationConnection object. In Vaadin 7, these are replaced
with the ServerConnector.
In addition to state synchronization, Vaadin 7 has an RPC mechanism that can be used for
communicating events. They are especially useful for events that are not associated with a state
change, such as a button click.
The framework ensures that the connector hierarchy and states are up-to-date when listeners
are called.
16.12.1. Quick (and Dirty) Migration
Vaadin 7 has a compatibility layer that allows quick conversion of a widget.
1. Create a connector class, such as MyConnector, that extends LegacyConnector.
Implement the getWidget() method.
2. Move the @ClientWidget(MyWidget.class) from the server-side component, say
MyComponent,
to
the
MyConnector
class
and
make
it
@Connect(MyComponent.class).
3. Have the server-side component implement the LegacyComponent interface to enable
compatibility handling.
4. Remove any calls to super.paintContent()
5. Update any imports on the client-side
16.13. Integrating JavaScript Components and Extensions
Vaadin allows simplified integration of pure JavaScript components, as well as component and
UI extensions. The JavaScript connector code is published from the server-side. As the JavaScript
integration does not involve GWT programming, no widget set compilation is needed.
16.13.1. Example JavaScript Library
There are many kinds of component libraries for JavaScript. In the following, we present a simple
library that provides one object-oriented JavaScript component. We use this example later to
show how to integrate it with a server-side Vaadin component.
The example library includes a single MyComponent component, defined in mylibrary.js.
Migrating from Vaadin 6
457
Integrating with the Server-Side
// Define the namespace
var mylibrary = mylibrary || {};
mylibrary.MyComponent = function (element) {
element.innerHTML =
"<div class='caption'>Hello, world!</div>" +
"<div class='textinput'>Enter a value: " +
"<input type='text' name='value'/>" +
"<input type='button' value='Click'/>" +
"</div>";
// Style it
element.style.border = "thin solid red";
element.style.display = "inline-block";
// Getter and setter for the value property
this.getValue = function () {
return element.
getElementsByTagName("input")[0].value;
};
this.setValue = function (value) {
element.getElementsByTagName("input")[0].value =
value;
};
// Default implementation of the click handler
this.click = function () {
alert("Error: Must implement click() method");
};
// Set up button click
var button = element.getElementsByTagName("input")[1];
var self = this; // Can't use this inside the function
button.onclick = function () {
self.click();
};
};
When used in an HTML page, the library would be included with the following definition:
<script type="text/javascript"
src="mylibrary.js"></script>
You could then use it anywhere in the HTML document as follows:
<!-- Placeholder for the component -->
<div id="foo"></div>
<!-- Create the component and bind it to the placeholder -->
<script type="text/javascript">
window.foo = new mylibrary.MyComponent(
document.getElementById("foo"));
window.foo.click = function () {
alert("Value is " + this.getValue());
}
</script>
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Example JavaScript Library
Integrating with the Server-Side
Kuva 16.6. A JavaScript Component Example
You could interact with the component with JavaScript for example as follows:
<a href="javascript:foo.setValue('New value')">Click here</a>
16.13.2. A Server-Side API for a JavaScript Component
To begin integrating such a JavaScript component, you would need to sketch a bit how it would
be used from a server-side Vaadin application. The component should support writing the value
as well as listening for changes to it.
final MyComponent mycomponent = new MyComponent();
// Set the value from server-side
mycomponent.setValue("Server-side value");
// Process a value input by the user from the client-side
mycomponent.addValueChangeListener(
new MyComponent.ValueChangeListener() {
@Override
public void valueChange() {
Notification.show("Value: " + mycomponent.getValue());
}
});
layout.addComponent(mycomponent);
Basic Server-Side Component
A JavaScript component extends the AbstractJavaScriptComponent, which handles the shared
state and RPC for the component.
package com.vaadin.book.examples.client.js;
@JavaScript({"mylibrary.js", "mycomponent-connector.js"})
public class MyComponent extends AbstractJavaScriptComponent {
public interface ValueChangeListener extends Serializable {
void valueChange();
}
ArrayList<ValueChangeListener> listeners =
new ArrayList<ValueChangeListener>();
public void addValueChangeListener(
ValueChangeListener listener) {
listeners.add(listener);
}
public void setValue(String value) {
getState().value = value;
}
public String getValue() {
return getState().value;
}
A Server-Side API for a JavaScript Component
459
Integrating with the Server-Side
@Override
protected MyComponentState getState() {
return (MyComponentState) super.getState();
}
}
Notice later when creating the JavaScript connector that its name must match the package name
of this server-side class.
The shared state of the component is as follows:
public class MyComponentState extends JavaScriptComponentState {
public String value;
}
If the member variables are private, you need to have public setters and getters for them, which
you can use in the component.
16.13.3. Defining a JavaScript Connector
A JavaScript connector is a function that initializes the JavaScript component and handles
communication between the server-side and the JavaScript code.
A connector is defined as a connector initializer function that is added to the window object. The
name of the function must match the server-side class name, with the full package path. Instead
of the Java dot notation for the package name, underscores need to be used as separators.
The Vaadin client-side framework adds a number of methods to the connector function. The
this.getElement() method returns the HTML DOM element of the component. The
this.getState() returns a shared state object with the current state as synchronized from
the server-side.
window.com_vaadin_book_examples_client_js_MyComponent =
function() {
// Create the component
var mycomponent =
new mylibrary.MyComponent(this.getElement());
// Handle changes from the server-side
this.onStateChange = function() {
mycomponent.setValue(this.getState().value);
};
// Pass user interaction to the server-side
var self = this;
mycomponent.click = function() {
self.onClick(mycomponent.getValue());
};
};
In the above example, we pass user interaction using the JavaScript RPC mechanism, as
described in the next section.
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Defining a JavaScript Connector
Integrating with the Server-Side
16.13.4. RPC from JavaScript to Server-Side
User interaction with the JavaScript component has to be passed to the server-side using an
RPC (Remote Procedure Call) mechanism. The JavaScript RPC mechanism is almost equal to
regular client-side widgets, as described in Kohta 16.6, ”RPC Calls Between Client- and ServerSide”.
Handling RPC Calls on the Server-Side
Let us begin with the RPC function registration on the server-side. RPC calls are handled on the
server-side in function handlers that implement the JavaScriptFunction interface. A serverside function handler is registered with the addFunction() method in
AbstractJavaScriptComponent. The server-side registration actually defines a JavaScript
method that is available in the client-side connector object.
Continuing from the server-side MyComponent example we defined earlier, we add a constructor
to it that registers the function.
public MyComponent() {
addFunction("onClick", new JavaScriptFunction() {
@Override
public void call(JSONArray arguments)
throws JSONException {
getState().setValue(arguments.getString(0));
for (ValueChangeListener listener: listeners)
listener.valueChange();
}
});
}
Making an RPC Call from JavaScript
An RPC call is made simply by calling the RPC method in the connector. In the constructor
function of the JavaScript connector, you could write as follows (the complete connector code
was given earlier):
window.com_vaadin_book_examples_gwt_js_MyComponent =
function() {
...
var connector = this;
mycomponent.click = function() {
connector.onClick(mycomponent.getValue());
};
};
Here, the mycomponent.click is a function in the example JavaScript library, as described in
Kohta 16.13.1, ”Example JavaScript Library”. The onClick() is the method we defined on the
server-side. We pass a simple string parameter in the call.
You can pass anything that is valid in JSON notation in the parameters.
RPC from JavaScript to Server-Side
461
462
Osa IV. Vaadin Add-ons
The Vaadin core library is just the beginning. Vaadin is designed to be highly extendable with third-party
components, themes, data binding implementations, and tools. The add-ons are an important part of the
Vaadin ecosystem, supporting also different business models for different needs.
luku 17
Using Vaadin
Add-ons
17.1. Overview .............................................................................................. 465
17.2. Downloading Add-ons from Vaadin Directory ...................................... 466
17.3. Installing Add-ons in Eclipse with Ivy ................................................... 466
17.4. Using Add-ons in a Maven Project ...................................................... 468
17.5. Troubleshooting .................................................................................... 471
This chapter describes the installation of add-on components, themes, containers, and other
tools from the Vaadin Directory and the use of commercial add-ons offered by Vaadin.
17.1. Overview
In addition to the components, layouts, themes, and data sources built in into the core Vaadin
library, many others are available as add-ons. Vaadin Directory provides a rich collection of addons for Vaadin, and you may find others from independent sources. Add-ons are also one way
to share your own components between projects.
Installation of add-ons from Vaadin Directory is simple, just adding an Ivy or Maven dependency,
or downloading the JAR package and and dropping it in the web library folder of the project. Most
add-ons include a widget set, which you need to compile, but it's usually just a click of a button
or a single command.
Book of Vaadin
465
Using Vaadin Add-ons
After trying out an add-on, you can give some feedback to the author of the add-on by rating the
add-on with one to five stars and optionally leaving a comment. Most add-ons also have a
discussion forum thread for user feedback and questions.
Add-ons available from Vaadin Directory are distributed under different licenses, of which some
are commercial. While the add-ons can be downloaded directly, you should note their license
and other terms and conditions. Many are offered under a dual licensing agreement so that they
can be used in open source projects for free, and many have a trial period for closed-source
development.
17.2. Downloading Add-ons from Vaadin Directory
If you are not using a Maven-compatible dependency manager or want to manage for your libraries
manually, you can download add-on packages from the details page of an add-on in Vaadin
Directory.
1. Select the version; some add-ons have several versions available. The latest is shown
by default, but you can choose another the version to download from the dropdown
menu in the header of the details page.
2. Click Download Now and save the JAR or Zip file on your computer.
3. If the add-on is packaged in a Zip package, unzip the package and follow any instructions
provided inside the package. Typically, you just need to copy a JAR file to your web
project under the WEB-INF/lib directory.
Note that some add-ons may require other libraries.You can resolve such dependencies
manually, but we recommend using a dependency manager such as Ivy or Maven in
your project.
4. Update and recompile your project. In Eclipse, select the project and press F5.
5. You may need to compile the client-side implementations of the add-on components,
that is, a widget set. This is the case for majority of add-ons, except for pure server-side,
theme, or data binding add-ons. Compiling the widget set depends on the build
environment. See Kohta 17.2.1, ”Compiling Widget Sets with an Ant Script”, or later in
this chapter for instructions for compiling the widget set with Eclipse and Maven.
6. Update the project in your development web server and possibly restart the server.
17.2.1. Compiling Widget Sets with an Ant Script
If you need to compile the widget set with an Ant script, you can find a script template package
at the Vaadin download page. You can copy the files in the package to your project and, once
configured, use it by running Ant in the directory.
If you are using an IDE such as Eclipse, always remember to refresh the project to synchronize
it with the filesystem after compiling the widget set outside the IDE.
17.3. Installing Add-ons in Eclipse with Ivy
The Vaadin Plugin for Eclipse uses Apache Ivy to resolve dependencies. The dependencies
should be listed in the ivy.xml file in the project root. The Vaadin Directory allows dowloading
add-ons from a Maven repository, which can be accessed also by Ivy.
466
Downloading Add-ons from Vaadin Directory
Using Vaadin Add-ons
You can also use Ivy to resolve dependencies in an Ant script.
1. Open the add-on page in Vaadin Directory.
2. Select the version. The latest is shown by default, but you can choose another the
version from the dropdown menu in the header of the add-on details page.
3. Click the Maven/Ivy to display the Ivy dependency declaration, as illustrated in Figure
17.1. If the add-on is available with multiple licenses, you will be prompted to select a
license for the dependency.
Kuva 17.1. Ivy Dependency Declaration
4. Open the ivysettings.xml in your Eclipse project either in the XML or Ivy Editor
(either double-click the file or right-click it and select Open With Ivy Editor).
Check that the settings file has the <ibiblio> entry given in the Directory page. It
should be, if the file was created by the Vaadin project wizard in Eclipse. If not, copy it
there.
<chain name="default">
...
<ibiblio name="vaadin-addons"
usepoms="true"
m2compatible="true"
root="http://maven.vaadin.com/vaadin-addons"/>
...
</chain>
If you get Vaadin addons from another repository, such as the local repository if you
have compiled them yourself, you need to define a resolver for the repository in the
settings file.
Installing Add-ons in Eclipse with Ivy
467
Using Vaadin Add-ons
5. Open the ivy.xml in your Eclipse project and copy the Ivy dependency to inside the
dependencies element. It should be as follows:
<dependencies>
...
<dependency org="com.vaadin.addon"
name="vaadin-charts"
rev="1.0.0"/>
</dependencies>
You can specify either a fixed version number or a dynamic revision tag, such as
latest.release. You can find more information about the dependency declarations
in Ivy documentation.
If
the
ivy.xml
does
not
h ave
a
<configurations
defaultconfmapping="default->default"> defined, you also need to have
conf="default->default" in the dependency to resolve transient dependencies
correctly.
IvyIDE immediately resolves the dependencies when you save the file.
6. Compile the add-on widget set by clicking the Compile Vaadin widgets button in the
toolbar.
Kuva 17.2. Compiling Widget Set in Eclipse
If you experience problems with Ivy, first check all the dependency parameters. IvyDE can
sometimes cause unexpected problems.You can clear the Ivy dependency cache by right-clicking
the project and selecting Ivy Clean all caches. To refresh Ivy configuration, select Ivy Refresh.
To try resolving again Ivy, select Ivy Resolve.
17.4. Using Add-ons in a Maven Project
To use add-ons in a Maven project, you simply have to add them as dependencies in the project
POM. Most add-ons include a widget set, which are compiled to the project widget set.
Creating, compiling, and packaging a Vaadin project with Maven was described in Kohta 2.6,
”Using Vaadin with Maven”.
17.4.1. Adding a Dependency
Vaadin Directory provides a Maven repository for all the add-ons in the Directory.
1. Open the add-on page in Vaadin Directory.
2. Select the version. The latest is shown by default, but you can choose another the
version from the dropdown menu in the header of the add-on details page.
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3. Click the Maven/Ivy to display the Maven dependency declaration, as illustrated in
Figure 17.3. If the add-on is available with multiple licenses, you will be prompted to
select a license for the dependency.
Kuva 17.3. Maven POM Definitions
4. Copy the dependency declaration to the pom.xml file in your project, under the
dependencies element.
...
<dependencies>
...
<dependency>
<groupId>com.vaadin.addon</groupId>
<artifactId>vaadin-charts</artifactId>
<version>1.0.0</version>
</dependency>
</dependencies>
You can use an exact version number, as is done in the example above, or LATEST to
always use the latest version of the add-on.
The POM excerpt given in Directory includes also a repository definition, but if you have
used the vaadin-archetype-application to create your project, it already includes
the definition.
5. Compile the widget set as described in the following section.
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17.4.2. Compiling the Project Widget Set
If you have used the vaadin-archetype-application to create the project, the pom.xml
includes all necessary declarations to compile the widget set. The widget set compilation occurs
in standard Maven build phase, such as with package or install goal.
$ mvn package
Then, just deploy the WAR to your application server.
Recompiling the Widget Set
The Vaadin plugin for Maven tries to avoid recompiling the widget set unless necessary, which
sometimes means that it is not compiled even when it should. Running the clean goal usually
helps, but causes a full recompilation. You can compile the widget set manually by running the
vaadin:compile goal.
$ mvn vaadin:compile
Note that this does not update the project widget set by searching new widget sets from the class
path. It must be updated if you add or remove add-ons, for example. You can do that by running
the vaadin:update-widgetset goal in the project directory.
$ mvn vaadin:update-widgetset
...
[INFO] auto discovered modules [your.company.gwt.ProjectNameWidgetSet]
[INFO] Updating widgetset your.company.gwt.ProjectNameWidgetSet
[ERROR] 27.10.2011 19:22:34
com.vaadin.terminal.gwt.widgetsetutils.ClassPathExplorer getAvailableWidgetSets
[ERROR] INFO: Widgetsets found from classpath:
...
Do not mind the "ERROR" labels, they are just an issue with the Vaadin Plugin for Maven.
After running the update, you need to run the vaadin:compile goal to actually compile the
widget set.
17.4.3. Enabling Widget Set Compilation
If you are not using a POM created with the proper Vaadin archetype, you may need to enable
widget set compilation manually. The simplest way to do that is to copy the definitions from a
POM created with the archetype. Specifically, you need to copy the plugin definitions. You also
need the Vaadin dependencies.
You need to create an empty widget set definition file, which the widget set compilation will
populate with widget sets found from the class path. Create a
src/main/java/com/example/AppWidgetSet.gwt.xml file (in the project package) with
an empty <module> element as follows:
<module>
</module>
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Enabling the Widget Set in the UI
If you have previously used the default widget set in the project, you need to enable the project
widget set in the web.xml deployment descriptor. Edit the src/main/webapp/WEBINF/web.xml file and add or modify the widgetset parameter for the servlet as follows.
<servlet>
...
<init-param>
<description>Widget Set to Use</description>
<param-name>widgetset</param-name>
<param-value>com.example.AppWidgetSet</param-value>
</init-param>
</servlet>
The parameter is the class name of the widget set, that is, without the .gwt.xml extension and
with the Java dot notation for class names that include the package name.
17.5. Troubleshooting
If you experience problems with using add-ons, you can try the following:
• Check the .gwt.xml descriptor file under the the project root package. For example,
if the project root package is com.example.myproject, the widget set definition file
is typically at com/example/project/AppWidgetset.gwt.xml. The location is not
fixed and it can be elsewhere, as long as references to it match. See Kohta 13.3, ”ClientSide Module Descriptor” for details on the contents of the client-side module descriptor,
which is used to define a widget set.
• Check the WEB-INF/web.xml deployment descriptor and see that the servlet for your
UI has a widget set parameter, such as the following:
<init-param>
<description>UI widgetset</description>
<param-name>widgetset</param-name>
<param-value>com.example.project.AppWidgetSet</param-value>
</init-param>
Check that the widget set class corresponds with the .gwt.xml file in the source tree.
• See the VAADIN/widgetsets directory and check that the widget set appears there.
You can remove it and recompile the widget set to see that the compilation works properly.
• Use the Net tab in Firebug to check that the widget set (and theme) is loaded properly.
• Use the ?debug parameter for the application to open the debug window and check if
there is any version conflict between the widget set and the Vaadin library, or the themes.
See Kohta 11.3, ”Debug Mode and Window” for details.
• Refresh and recompile the project. In Eclipse, select the project and press F5, stop the
server, clean the server temporary directories, and restart it.
• Check the Error Log view in Eclipse (or in the IDE you use).
Troubleshooting
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luku 18
Vaadin Charts
18.1. Overview .............................................................................................. 473
18.2. Installing Vaadin Charts ....................................................................... 475
18.3. Basic Use ............................................................................................ 476
18.4. Chart Types ......................................................................................... 479
18.5. Chart Configuration ............................................................................. 497
18.6. Chart Data ........................................................................................... 499
18.7. Advanced Uses .................................................................................... 503
18.8. Timeline ............................................................................................... 504
This chapter provides the documentation of Vaadin Charts version 1.0. Some changes may apply
to the final version.
18.1. Overview
Vaadin Charts is a feature-rich interactive charting library for Vaadin. It provides a Chart and a
Timeline component. The Chart can visualize one- and two-dimensional numeric data in many
available chart types. The charts allow flexible configuration of all the chart elements as well as
the visual style. The library includes a number of built-in visual themes, which you can extend
further. The basic functionalities allow the user to interact with the chart elements in various ways,
and you can define custom interaction with click events.The Timeline is a specialized component
for visualizing time series, and is described in Kohta 18.8, ”Timeline”.
The data displayed in a chart can be one- or two dimensional tabular data, or scatter data with
free X and Y values. Data displayed in range charts has minimum and maximum values instead
of singular values.
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Kuva 18.1. Vaadin Charts with Bar, Column, Area, and Pie Charts
This chapter covers the basic use of Vaadin Charts and the chart configuration. For detailed
documentation of the configuration parameters and classes, please refer to the JavaDoc API
documentation of the library.
In the following basic example, which we study further in Kohta 18.3, ”Basic Use”, we demonstrate
how to display one-dimensional data in a column graph and customize the X and Y axis labels
and titles.
Chart chart = new Chart(ChartType.BAR);
chart.setWidth("400px");
chart.setHeight("300px");
// Modify the default configuration a bit
Configuration conf = chart.getConfiguration();
conf.setTitle("Planets");
conf.setSubTitle("The bigger they are the harder they pull");
conf.getLegend().setEnabled(false); // Disable legend
// The data
ListSeries series = new ListSeries("Diameter");
series.setData(4900, 12100, 12800,
6800, 143000, 125000,
51100, 49500);
conf.addSeries(series);
// Set the category labels on the axis correspondingly
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XAxis xaxis = new XAxis();
xaxis.setCategories("Mercury", "Venus",
"Earth",
"Mars",
"Jupiter", "Saturn",
"Uranus", "Neptune");
xaxis.setTitle("Planet");
conf.addxAxis(xaxis);
// Set the Y axis title
YAxis yaxis = new YAxis();
yaxis.setTitle("Diameter");
yaxis.getLabels().setFormatter(
"function() {return Math.floor(this.value/1000) + \'Mm\';}");
yaxis.getLabels().setStep(2);
conf.addyAxis(yaxis);
layout.addComponent(chart);
The resulting chart is shown in Kuva 18.2, ”Basic Chart Example”.
Kuva 18.2. Basic Chart Example
Vaadin Charts is based on Highcharts JS, a charting library written in JavaScript.
18.1.1. Licensing
Vaadin Charts is a commercial product licensed under the CVAL License (Commercial Vaadin
Add-On License). A license needs to be purchased for all use, including web deployments as
well as intranet use. Using Vaadin Charts does not require purchasing a separate Highcharts JS
license.
The commercial licenses can be purchased from the Vaadin Directory, where you can also find
the license details and download the Vaadin Charts.
18.2. Installing Vaadin Charts
Vaadin Charts is available for both Vaadin 7 and Vaadin 6. It can be installed from an installation
package, which you can download from the Vaadin Directory, or as a Maven or Ivy dependency.
For detailed instructions, please see Luku 17, Using Vaadin Add-ons.
Once you have installed the library in your project, you need to compile the widget set.
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18.3. Basic Use
The Chart is a regular Vaadin component, which you can add to a layout. You can give the chart
type in the constructor or set it later in the chart model. A chart has a height of 400 pixels and
takes full width by default, which settings you may often need to customize.
Chart chart = new Chart(ChartType.COLUMN);
chart.setWidth("400px"); // 100% by default
chart.setHeight("300px"); // 400px by default
The chart types are described in Kohta 18.4, ”Chart Types”.
18.3.1. Configuration
After creating a chart, you need to configure it further. At the least, you need to specify the data
series to be displayed in the configuration.
Most methods available in the Chart object handle its basic Vaadin component properties. All
the chart-specific properties are in a separate Configuration object, which you can access with
the getConfiguration() method.
Configuration conf = chart.getConfiguration();
conf.setTitle("Reindeer Kills by Predators");
conf.setSubTitle("Kills Grouped by Counties");
The configuration properties are described in more detail in Kohta 18.5, ”Chart Configuration”.
18.3.2. Plot Options
Many chart settings can be configured in the plot options of the chart or data series. Some of the
options are chart type specific, as described later for each chart type, while many are shared.
For example, for line charts, you could disable the point markers as follows:
// Disable markers from lines
PlotOptionsLine plotOptions = new PlotOptionsLine();
plotOptions.setMarker(new Marker(false));
conf.setPlotOptions(plotOptions);
You can set the plot options for the entire chart or for each data series separately, allowing also
mixed-type charts, as described in Kohta 18.3.2, ”Mixed Type Charts”.
The shared plot options are described in Kohta 18.5.1, ”Plot Options”.
18.3.3. Chart Data
The data displayed in a chart is stored in the chart configuration as a list of Series objects. A
new data series is added in a chart with the addSeries() method.
ListSeries series = new ListSeries("Diameter");
series.setData(4900, 12100, 12800,
6800, 143000, 125000,
51100, 49500);
conf.addSeries(series);
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The data can be specified with a number of different series types DataSeries, ListSeries,
AreaListSeries, and RangeSeries. The data configuration is described in more detail in
Kohta 18.6, ”Chart Data”.
18.3.4. Axis Configuration
One of the most common tasks for charts is customizing its axes. At the least, you usually want
to set the axis titles. Usually you also want to specify labels for data values in the axes.
When an axis is categorical rather than numeric, you can define category labels for the items.
They must be in the same order and the same number as you have values in your data series.
XAxis xaxis = new XAxis();
xaxis.setCategories("Mercury", "Venus",
"Earth",
"Mars",
"Jupiter", "Saturn",
"Uranus", "Neptune");
xaxis.setTitle("Planet");
conf.addxAxis(xaxis);
Formatting of numeric labels can be done with JavaScript expressions, for example as follows:
// Set the Y axis title
YAxis yaxis = new YAxis();
yaxis.setTitle("Diameter");
yaxis.getLabels().setFormatter(
"function() {return Math.floor(this.value/1000) + \'Mm\';}");
yaxis.getLabels().setStep(2);
conf.addyAxis(yaxis);
18.3.1. Displaying Multiple Series
The simplest data, which we saw in the examples earlier in this chapter, is one-dimensional and
can be represented with a single data series. Most chart types support multiple data series, which
are used for representing two-dimensional data. For example, in line charts, you can have multiple
lines and in column charts the columns for different series are grouped by category. Different
chart types can offer alternative display modes, such as stacked columns. The legend displays
the symbols for each series.
// The data
// Source: V. Maijala, H. Norberg, J. Kumpula, M. Nieminen
// Calf production and mortality in the Finnish
// reindeer herding area. 2002.
String predators[] = {"Bear", "Wolf", "Wolverine", "Lynx"};
int kills[][] = {
// Location:
{8,
0, 7, 0}, // Muddusjarvi
{30, 1, 30, 2}, // Ivalo
{37, 0, 22, 2}, // Oraniemi
{13, 23, 4, 1}, // Salla
{3, 10, 9, 0}, // Alakitka
};
// Create a data series for each numeric column in the table
for (int predator = 0; predator < 4; predator++) {
ListSeries series = new ListSeries();
series.setName(predators[predator]);
// The rows of the table
for (int location = 0; location < kills.length; location++)
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Vaadin Charts
series.addData(kills[location][predator]);
conf.addSeries(series);
}
The result for both regular and stacked column chart is shown in Kuva 18.3, ”Multiple Series in
a Chart”. Stacking is enabled with setStacking() in PlotOptionsColumn.
Kuva 18.3. Multiple Series in a Chart
18.3.2. Mixed Type Charts
Each data series has a PlotOptions object, just like the entire chart has, which allows using
different settings for each series. This includes the chart type, so you can mix series with different
chart types in the same chart.
The chart type of a series is determined by the type of the plot options. For example, to get a line
chart, you need to use PlotOptionsLine.
// A data series as column graph
DataSeries series1 = new DataSeries();
PlotOptionsColumn options1 = new PlotOptionsColumn();
options1.setFillColor(SolidColor.BLUE);
series1.setPlotOptions(options1);
series1.setData(4900, 12100, 12800,
6800, 143000, 125000,
51100, 49500);
conf.addSeries(series1);
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// A data series as line graph
ListSeries series2 = new ListSeries("Diameter");
PlotOptionsLine options2 = new PlotOptionsLine();
options2.setLineColor(SolidColor.RED);
series2.setPlotOptions(options2);
series2.setData(4900, 12100, 12800,
6800, 143000, 125000,
51100, 49500);
conf.addSeries(series2);
18.3.3. Chart Themes
The visual style and essentially any other chart configuration can be defined in a theme. All charts
shown in a UI may have only one theme, which can be set with setTheme() in the ChartOptions.
In Vaadin 7, the ChartOptions is a UI extension that is created and referenced by calling the
get() as follows:
// Set Charts theme for the current UI
ChartOptions.get().setTheme(new SkiesTheme());
In Vaadin 6, it is an invisible component that you need to create and add to the window. There
may be only one such component in the window and it must be before any Chart component.
ChartOptions options = new ChartOptions();
options.setTheme(new SkiesTheme());
content.addComponent(options);
The VaadinTheme is the default chart theme in Vaadin Charts. Other available themes are
GrayTheme, GridTheme, and SkiesTheme. The default theme in Highcharts can be set with
the HighChartsDefaultTheme.
A theme is a Vaadin Charts configuration that is used as a template for the configuration when
rendering the chart.
18.4. Chart Types
Vaadin Charts comes with over a dozen different chart types.You normally specify the chart type
in the constructor of the Chart object. The available chart types are defined in the ChartType
enum. You can later read or set the chart type with the chartType property of the chart model,
which you can get with getConfiguration().getChart().
Each chart type has its specific plot options and support its specific collection of chart features.
They also have specific requirements for the data series.
The basic chart types and their variants are covered in the following subsections.
18.4.1. Line and Spline Charts
Line charts connect the series of data points with lines. In the basic line charts the lines are
straight, while in spline charts the lines are smooth polynomial interpolations between the data
points.
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Taulu 18.1. Line Chart Subtypes
ChartType
Plot Options Class
LINE
PlotOptionsLine
SPLINE
PlotOptionsSpline
Plot Options
The color property in the line plot options defines the line color, lineWidth the line width, and
dashStyle the dash pattern for the lines.
See Kohta 18.4.6, ”Scatter Charts” for plot options regarding markers and other data point
properties. The markers can also be configured for each data point.
18.4.2. Area Charts
Area charts are like line charts, except that the area between the line and the Y axis is painted
with a transparent color. In addition to the base type, chart type combinations for spline
interpolation and ranges are supported.
Taulu 18.2. Area Chart Subtypes
ChartType
Plot Options Class
AREA
PlotOptionsArea
AREASPLINE
PlotOptionsAreaSpline
AREARANGE
PlotOptionsAreaRange
AREASPLINERANGE
PlotOptionsAreaSplineRange
In area range charts, the area between a lower and upper value is painted with a transparent
color. The data series must specify the minimum and maximum values for the Y coordinates,
defined either with RangeSeries, as described in Kohta 18.6.3, ”Range Series”, or with
DataSeries, described in Kohta 18.6.2, ”Generic Data Series”.
Plot Options
Area charts support stacking, so that multiple series are piled on top of each other. You enable
stacking from the plot options with setStacking(). The Stacking.NORMAL stacking mode
does a normal summative stacking, while the Stacking.PERCENT handles them as proportions.
The fill color for the area is defined with the fillColor property and its transparency with
fillOpacity (the opposite of transparency) with a value between 0.0 and 1.0.
The color property in the line plot options defines the line color, lineWidth the line width, and
dashStyle the dash pattern for the lines.
See Kohta 18.4.6, ”Scatter Charts” for plot options regarding markers and other data point
properties. The markers can also be configured for each data point.
18.4.3. Column and Bar Charts
Column and bar charts illustrate values as vertical or horizontal bars, respectively. The two chart
types are essentially equivalent, just as if the orientation of the axes was inverted.
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Multiple data series, that is, two-dimensional data, are shown with thinner bars or columns grouped
by their category, as described in Kohta 18.3.1, ”Displaying Multiple Series”. Enabling stacking
with setStacking() in plot options stacks the columns or bars of different series on top of each
other.
You can also have COLUMNRANGE charts that illustrate a range between a lower and an upper
value, as described in Kohta 18.4.10, ”Area and Column Range Charts”. They require the use
of RangeSeries for defining the lower and upper values.
Taulu 18.3. Column and Bar Chart Subtypes
ChartType
Plot Options Class
COLUMN
PlotOptionsColumn
COLUMNRANGE
PlotOptionsColumnRange
BAR
PlotOptionsBar
See the API documentation for details regarding the plot options.
18.4.4. Error Bars
An error bars visualize errors, or high and low values, in statistical data. They typically represent
high and low values in data or a multitude of standard deviation, a percentile, or a quantile. The
high and low values are represented as horizontal lines, or "whiskers", connected by a vertical
stem.
While error bars technically are a chart type (ChartType.ERRORBAR), you normally use them
together with some primary chart type, such as a scatter or column chart.
Kuva 18.4. Error Bars in a Scatter Chart
To display the error bars for data points, you need to have a separate data series for the low and
high values. The data series needs to use the PlotOptionsErrorBar plot options type.
// Create a chart of some primary type
Chart chart = new Chart(ChartType.SCATTER);
chart.setWidth("600px");
chart.setHeight("400px");
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// Modify the default configuration a bit
Configuration conf = chart.getConfiguration();
conf.setTitle("Average Temperatures in Turku");
conf.getLegend().setEnabled(false);
// The primary data series
ListSeries averages = new ListSeries(
-6, -6.5, -4, 3, 9, 14, 17, 16, 11, 6, 2, -2.5);
// Error bar data series with low and high values
DataSeries errors = new DataSeries();
errors.add(new DataSeriesItem(0, -9, -3));
errors.add(new DataSeriesItem(1, -10, -3));
errors.add(new DataSeriesItem(2, -8, 1));
...
// Configure the stem and whiskers in error bars
PlotOptionsErrorBar barOptions = new PlotOptionsErrorBar();
barOptions.setStemColor(SolidColor.GREY);
barOptions.setStemWidth(2);
barOptions.setStemDashStyle(DashStyle.DASH);
barOptions.setWhiskerColor(SolidColor.BROWN);
barOptions.setWhiskerLength(80); // 80% of category width
barOptions.setWhiskerWidth(2); // Pixels
errors.setPlotOptions(barOptions);
// The errors should be drawn lower
conf.addSeries(errors);
conf.addSeries(averages);
Note that you should add the error bar series first, to have it rendered lower in the chart.
Plot Options
Plot options for error bar charts have type PlotOptionsErrorBar. It has the following chart-specific
plot option properties:
whiskerColor, whiskerWidth, and whiskerLength
The color, width (vertical thickness), and length of the horizontal "whiskers" that indicate
high and low values.
stemColor, stemWidth, and stemDashStyle
The color, width (thickness), and line style of the vertical "stems" that connect the
whiskers. In box plot charts, which also have stems, they extend from the quadrintile
box.
18.4.5. Box Plot Charts
Box plot charts display the distribution of statistical variables. A data point has a median,
represented with a horizontal line, upper and lower quartiles, represented by a box, and a low
and high value, represented with T-shaped "whiskers". The exact semantics of the box symbols
are up to you.
Box plot chart is closely related to the error bar chart described in Kohta 18.4.4, ”Error Bars”,
sharing the box and whisker elements.
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Kuva 18.5. Box Plot Chart
The chart type for box plot charts is ChartType.BOXPLOT. You normally have just one data
series, so it is meaningful to disable the legend.
Chart chart = new Chart(ChartType.BOXPLOT);
chart.setWidth("400px");
chart.setHeight("300px");
// Modify the default configuration a bit
Configuration conf = chart.getConfiguration();
conf.setTitle("Orienteering Split Times");
conf.getLegend().setEnabled(false);
Plot Options
The plot options for box plots have type PlotOptionsBoxPlot, which extends the slightly more
generic PlotOptionsErrorBar. They have the following plot option properties:
medianColor, medianWidth
Color and width (vertical thickness) of the horizontal median indicator line.
For example:
// Set median line color and thickness
PlotOptionsBoxPlot plotOptions = new PlotOptionsBoxPlot();
plotOptions.setMedianColor(SolidColor.BLUE);
plotOptions.setMedianWidth(3);
conf.setPlotOptions(plotOptions);
Data Model
As the data points in box plots have five different values instead of the usual one, they require
using a special BoxPlotItem. You can give the different values with the setters, or all at once in
the constructor.
// Orienteering control point times for runners
double data[][] = orienteeringdata();
DataSeries series = new DataSeries();
for (double cpointtimes[]: data) {
StatAnalysis analysis = new StatAnalysis(cpointtimes);
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series.add(new BoxPlotItem(analysis.low(),
analysis.firstQuartile(),
analysis.median(),
analysis.thirdQuartile(),
analysis.high()));
}
conf.setSeries(series);
If the "low" and "high" attributes represent an even smaller quantile, or a larger multiple of standard
deviation, you can have outliers. You can plot them with a separate data series, with
18.4.6. Scatter Charts
Scatter charts display a set of unconnected data points. The name refers to freely given X and
Y coordinates, so the DataSeries or ContainerSeries are usually the most meaningful data
series types for scatter charts.
Kuva 18.6. Scatter Chart
The chart type of a scatter chart is ChartType.SCATTER. Its options can be configured in a
PlotOptionsScatter object, although it does not have any chart-type specific options.
Chart chart = new Chart(ChartType.SCATTER);
chart.setWidth("500px");
chart.setHeight("500px");
// Modify the default configuration a bit
Configuration conf = chart.getConfiguration();
conf.setTitle("Random Sphere");
conf.getLegend().setEnabled(false); // Disable legend
PlotOptionsScatter options = new PlotOptionsScatter();
// ... Give overall plot options here ...
conf.setPlotOptions(options);
DataSeries series = new DataSeries();
for (int i=0; i<300; i++) {
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double
double
double
double
double
lng
lat
x
y
z
=
=
=
=
=
Math.random() *
Math.random() *
Math.cos(lat) *
Math.sin(lat);
Math.cos(lng) *
2 * Math.PI;
Math.PI - Math.PI/2;
Math.sin(lng);
Math.cos(lat);
DataSeriesItem point = new DataSeriesItem(x,y);
Marker marker = new Marker();
// Make settings as described later
point.setMarker(marker);
series.add(point);
}
conf.addSeries(series);
The result was shown in Kuva 18.6, ”Scatter Chart”.
Data Point Markers
Scatter charts and other charts that display data points, such as line and spline charts, visualize
the points with markers.The markers can be configured with the Marker property objects available
from the plot options of the relevant chart types, as well as at the level of each data point, in the
DataSeriesItem. You need to create the marker and apply it with the setMarker() method in
the plot options or the data series item.
For example, to set the marker for an individual data point:
DataSeriesItem point = new DataSeriesItem(x,y);
Marker marker = new Marker();
// ... Make any settings ...
point.setMarker(marker);
series.add(point);
Marker Shape Properties
A marker has a lineColor and a fillColor, which are set using a Color object. Both solid
colors and gradients are supported.You can use a SolidColor to specify a solid fill color by RGB
values or choose from a selection of predefined colors in the class.
// Set line width and color
marker.setLineWidth(1); // Normally zero width
marker.setLineColor(SolidColor.BLACK);
// Set RGB fill color
int level = (int) Math.round((1-z)*127);
marker.setFillColor(
new SolidColor(255-level, 0, level));
point.setMarker(marker);
series.add(point);
You can also use a color gradient with GradientColor. Both linear and radial gradients are
supported, with multiple color stops.
Marker size is determined by the radius parameter, which is given in pixels. The actual visual
radius includes also the line width.
marker.setRadius((z+1)*5);
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Marker Symbols
Markers are visualized either with a shape or an image symbol. You can choose the shape from
a number of built-in shapes defined in the MarkerSymbolEnum enum (CIRCLE, SQUARE,
DIAMOND, TRIANGLE, or TRIANGLE_DOWN). These shapes are drawn with a line and fill, which
you can set as described above.
marker.setSymbol(MarkerSymbolEnum.DIAMOND);
You can also use any image accessible by a URL by using a MarkerSymbolUrl symbol. If the
image is deployed with your application, such as in a theme folder, you can determine its URL
as follows:
String url = VaadinServlet.getCurrent().getServletContext()
.getContextPath() + "/VAADIN/themes/mytheme/img/smiley.png";
marker.setSymbol(new MarkerSymbolUrl(url));
The line, radius, and color properties are not applicable to image symbols.
18.4.7. Bubble Charts
Bubble charts are a special type of scatter charts for representing three-dimensional data points
with different point sizes. We demonstrated the same possibility with scatter charts in Kohta 18.4.6,
”Scatter Charts”, but the bubble charts make it easier to define the size of a point by its third (Z)
dimension, instead of the radius property. The bubble size is scaled automatically, just like for
other dimensions. The default point style is also more bubbly.
Kuva 18.7. Bubble Chart
The chart type of a bubble chart is ChartType.BUBBLE. Its options can be configured in a
PlotOptionsBubble object, which has a single chart-specific property, displayNegative,
which controls whether bubbles with negative values are displayed at all. More typically, you
want to configure the bubble marker. The bubble tooltip is configured in the basic configuration.
The Z coordinate value is available in the formatter JavaScript with this.point.z reference.
The bubble radius is scaled linearly between a minimum and maximum radius. If you would rather
scale by the area of the bubble, you can approximate that by taking square root of the Z values.
In the following example, we overlay a bubble chart over a world map background. We customize
the bubbles to be more round with spherical color gradient. Note that square root is taken of the
Z coordinate to
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// Create a bubble chart
Chart chart = new Chart(ChartType.BUBBLE);
chart.setWidth("640px"); chart.setHeight("350px");
// Modify the default configuration a bit
Configuration conf = chart.getConfiguration();
conf.setTitle("Champagne Consumption by Country");
conf.getLegend().setEnabled(false); // Disable legend
conf.getTooltip().setFormatter("this.point.name + ': ' + " +
"Math.round(100*(this.point.z * this.point.z))/100.0 + " +
"' M bottles'");
// World map as background
String url = VaadinServlet.getCurrent().getServletContext()
.getContextPath() + "/VAADIN/themes/mytheme/img/map.png";
conf.getChart().setPlotBackgroundImage(url);
// Show more bubbly bubbles with spherical color gradient
PlotOptionsBubble plotOptions = new PlotOptionsBubble();
Marker marker = new Marker();
GradientColor color = GradientColor.createRadial(0.4, 0.3, 0.7);
color.addColorStop(0.0, new SolidColor(255, 255, 255, 0.5));
color.addColorStop(1.0, new SolidColor(170, 70, 67, 0.5));
marker.setFillColor(color);
plotOptions.setMarker(marker);
conf.setPlotOptions(plotOptions);
// Source: CIVC - Les expeditions de vins de Champagne en 2011
DataSeries series = new DataSeries("Countries");
Object data[][] = {
{"France",
181.6},
{"United Kingdom", 34.53},
{"United States",
19.37},
...
};
for (Object[] country: data) {
String name = (String) country[0];
double amount = (Double) country[1];
Coordinate pos = getCountryCoordinates(name);
DataSeriesItem3d item = new DataSeriesItem3d();
item.setX(pos.longitude * Math.cos(pos.latitude/2.0 *
(Math.PI/160)));
item.setY(pos.latitude * 1.2);
item.setZ(Math.sqrt(amount));
item.setName(name);
series.add(item);
}
conf.addSeries(series);
// Set the category labels on the axis correspondingly
XAxis xaxis = new XAxis();
xaxis.setExtremes(-180, 180);
...
conf.addxAxis(xaxis);
// Set the Y axis title
YAxis yaxis = new YAxis();
yaxis.setExtremes(-90, 90);
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...
conf.addyAxis(yaxis);
18.4.8. Pie Charts
A pie chart illustrates data values as sectors of size proportionate to the sum of all values. The
pie chart is enabled with ChartType.PIE and you can make type-specific settings in the
PlotOptionsPie object as described later.
Chart chart = new Chart(ChartType.PIE);
Configuration conf = chart.getConfiguration();
...
A ready pie chart is shown in Kuva 18.8, ”Pie Chart”.
Kuva 18.8. Pie Chart
Plot Options
The chart-specific options of a pie chart are configured with a PlotOptionsPie.
PlotOptionsPie options = new PlotOptionsPie();
options.setInnerSize(0); // Non-0 results in a donut
options.setSize("75%"); // Default
options.setCenter("50%", "50%"); // Default
conf.setPlotOptions(options);
innerSize
A pie with inner size greater than zero is a "donut". The inner size can be expressed
either as number of pixels or as a relative percentage of the chart area with a string
(such as "60%") See the section later on donuts.
size
The size of the pie can be expressed either as number of pixels or as a relative
percentage of the chart area with a string (such as "80%"). The default size is 75%,
to leave space for the labels.
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center
The X and Y coordinates of the center of the pie can be expressed either as numbers
of pixels or as a relative percentage of the chart sizes with a string. The default is
"50%", "50%".
Data Model
The labels for the pie sectors are determined from the labels of the data points. The DataSeries
or ContainerSeries, which allow labeling the data points, should be used for pie charts.
DataSeries series = new DataSeries();
series.add(new DataSeriesItem("Mercury", 4900));
series.add(new DataSeriesItem("Venus", 12100));
...
conf.addSeries(series);
If a data point, as defined as a DataSeriesItem in a DataSeries, has the sliced property enabled,
it is shown as slightly cut away from the pie.
// Slice one sector out
DataSeriesItem earth = new DataSeriesItem("Earth", 12800);
earth.setSliced(true);
series.add(earth);
Donut Charts
Setting the innerSize of the plot options of a pie chart to a larger than zero value results in an
empty hole at the center of the pie.
PlotOptionsPie options = new PlotOptionsPie();
options.setInnerSize("60%");
conf.setPlotOptions(options);
As you can set the plot options also for each data series, you can put two pie charts on top of
each other, with a smaller one fitted in the "hole" of the donut. This way, you can make pie charts
with more details on the outer rim, as done in the example below:
// The inner pie
DataSeries innerSeries = new DataSeries();
innerSeries.setName("Browsers");
PlotOptionsPie innerOptions = new PlotOptionsPie();
innerPieOptions.setSize("60%");
innerSeries.setPlotOptions(innerPieOptions);
...
DataSeries outerSeries = new DataSeries();
outerSeries.setName("Versions");
PlotOptionsPie outerOptions = new PlotOptionsPie();
outerOptions.setInnerSize("60%");
outerSeries.setPlotOptions(outerSeriesOptions);
...
The result is illustrated in Kuva 18.9, ”Overlaid Pie and Donut Chart”.
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Kuva 18.9. Overlaid Pie and Donut Chart
18.4.9. Gauges
A gauge is an one-dimensional chart with a circular Y-axis, where a rotating pointer points to a
value on the axis. A gauge can, in fact, have multiple Y-axes to display multiple scales.
Let us consider the following gauge:
Chart chart = new Chart(ChartType.GAUGE);
chart.setWidth("400px");
chart.setHeight("400px");
After the settings done in the subsequent sections, it will show as in Kuva 18.10, ”A Gauge”.
Kuva 18.10. A Gauge
Gauge Configuration
The start and end angles of the gauge can be configured in the Pane object of the chart
configuration. The angles can be given as -360 to 360 degrees, with 0 at the top of the circle.
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Configuration conf = chart.getConfiguration();
conf.setTitle("Speedometer");
conf.getPane().setStartAngle(-135);
conf.getPane().setEndAngle(135);
Axis Configuration
A gauge has only an Y-axis. You need to provide both a minimum and maximum value for it.
YAxis yaxis = new YAxis();
yaxis.setTitle("km/h");
// The limits are mandatory
yaxis.setMin(0);
yaxis.setMax(100);
// Other configuration
yaxis.getLabels().setStep(1);
yaxis.setTickInterval(10);
yaxis.setPlotBands(new PlotBand[]{
new PlotBand(0, 60, SolidColor.GREEN),
new PlotBand(60, 80, SolidColor.YELLOW),
new PlotBand(80, 100, SolidColor.RED)});
conf.addyAxis(yaxis);
You can do all kinds of other configuration to the axis - please see the API documentation for all
the available parameters.
Setting and Updating Gauge Data
A gauge only displays a single value, which you can define as a data series of length one, such
as as follows:
ListSeries series = new ListSeries("Speed", 80);
conf.addSeries(series);
Gauges are especially meaningful for displaying changing values. You can use the
updatePoint() method in the data series to update the single value.
final TextField tf = new TextField("Enter a new value");
layout.addComponent(tf);
Button update = new Button("Update", new ClickListener() {
@Override
public void buttonClick(ClickEvent event) {
Integer newValue = new Integer((String)tf.getValue());
series.updatePoint(0, newValue);
}
});
layout.addComponent(update);
18.4.10. Area and Column Range Charts
Ranged charts display an area or column between a minimum and maximum value, instead of
a singular data point. They require the use of RangeSeries, as described in Kohta 18.6.3, ”Range
Series”. An area range is created with AREARANGE chart type, and a column range with
COLUMNRANGE chart type.
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Consider the following example:
Chart chart = new Chart(ChartType.AREARANGE);
chart.setWidth("400px");
chart.setHeight("300px");
// Modify the default configuration a bit
Configuration conf = chart.getConfiguration();
conf.setTitle("Extreme Temperature Range in Finland");
...
// Create the range series
// Source: http://ilmatieteenlaitos.fi/lampotilaennatyksia
RangeSeries series = new RangeSeries("Temperature Extremes",
new Double[]{-51.5,10.9},
new Double[]{-49.0,11.8},
...
new Double[]{-47.0,10.8});//
conf.addSeries(series);
The resulting chart, as well as the same chart with a column range, is shown in Kuva 18.11, ”Area
and Column Range Chart”.
Kuva 18.11. Area and Column Range Chart
18.4.11. Polar, Wind Rose, and Spiderweb Charts
Most chart types having two axes can be displayed in polar coordinates, where the X axis is
curved on a circle and Y axis from the center of the circle to its rim. Polar chart is not a chart type
in itself, but can be enabled for most chart types with setPolar(true) in the chart model
parameters. Therefore all chart type specific features are usable with polar charts.
Vaadin Charts allows many sorts of typical polar chart types, such as wind rose, a polar column
graph, or spiderweb, a polar chart with categorical data and a more polygonal visual style.
// Create a chart of some type
Chart char = new Chart(ChartType.LINE);
// Enable the polar projection
Configuration conf = chart.getConfiguration();
conf.getChart().setPolar(true);
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You need to define the sector of the polar projection with a Pane object in the configuration. The
sector is defined as degrees from the north direction. You also need to define the value range
for the X axis with setMin() and setMax().
// Define the sector of the polar projection
Pane pane = new Pane(0, 360); // Full circle
conf.addPane(pane);
// Define the X axis and set its value range
XAxis axis = new XAxis();
axis.setMin(0);
axis.setMax(360);
The polar and spiderweb charts are illustrated in Kuva 18.12, ”Wind Rose and Spiderweb Charts”.
Kuva 18.12. Wind Rose and Spiderweb Charts
Spiderweb Charts
A spiderweb chart is a commonly used visual style of a polar chart with a polygonal shape rather
than a circle. The data and the X axis should be categorical to make the polygonal interpolation
meaningful. The sector is assumed to be full circle, so no angles for the pane need to be specified.
Note the style settings done in the axis in the example below:
Chart chart = new Chart(ChartType.LINE);
...
// Modify the default configuration a bit
Configuration conf = chart.getConfiguration();
conf.getChart().setPolar(true);
...
// Create the range series
// Source: http://ilmatieteenlaitos.fi/lampotilaennatyksia
ListSeries series = new ListSeries("Temperature Extremes",
10.9, 11.8, 17.5, 25.5, 31.0, 33.8,
37.2, 33.8, 28.8, 19.4, 14.1, 10.8);
conf.addSeries(series);
// Set the category labels on the X axis correspondingly
XAxis xaxis = new XAxis();
xaxis.setCategories("Jan", "Feb", "Mar",
"Apr", "May", "Jun", "Jul", "Aug", "Sep",
"Oct", "Nov", "Dec");
xaxis.setTickmarkPlacement(TickmarkPlacement.ON);
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xaxis.setLineWidth(0);
conf.addxAxis(xaxis);
// Configure the Y axis
YAxis yaxis = new YAxis();
yaxis.setGridLineInterpolation("polygon"); // Webby look
yaxis.setMin(0);
yaxis.setTickInterval(10);
yaxis.getLabels().setStep(1);
conf.addyAxis(yaxis);
18.4.12. Funnel Charts
Funnel charts are typically used to visualize stages in a sales processes, and for other purposes
to visualize subsets of diminishing size. A funnel chart has layers much like a stacked column,
but has a funnel shape. The top of the funnel has width of the drawing area of the chart, and
dinimishes in size down to a neck, and then continues as a column to the bottom.
Kuva 18.13. Funnel Charts
Funnel charts have chart type FUNNEL.
The labels of the funnel blocks are by default placed on the right side of the blocks, together with
a connector. You can configure their style in the plot options, as is done in the following example.
Chart chart = new Chart(ChartType.FUNNEL);
chart.setWidth("500px");
chart.setHeight("350px");
// Modify the default configuration a bit
Configuration conf = chart.getConfiguration();
conf.setTitle("Monster Utilization");
conf.getLegend().setEnabled(false);
// Give more room for the labels
conf.getChart().setSpacingRight(120);
// Configure the funnel neck shape
PlotOptionsFunnel options = new PlotOptionsFunnel();
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options.setNeckHeightPercentage(20);
options.setNeckWidthPercentage(20);
// Style the data labels
Labels dataLabels = new Labels();
dataLabels.setFormat("<b>{point.name}</b> ({point.y:,.0f})");
dataLabels.setSoftConnector(false);
dataLabels.setColor(SolidColor.BLACK);
options.setDataLabels(dataLabels);
conf.setPlotOptions(options);
// Create the range series
DataSeries series = new DataSeries();
series.add(new DataSeriesItem("Monsters Met", 340));
series.add(new DataSeriesItem("Engaged", 235));
series.add(new DataSeriesItem("Killed", 187));
series.add(new DataSeriesItem("Tinned", 70));
series.add(new DataSeriesItem("Eaten", 55));
conf.addSeries(series);
Plot Options
The chart-specific options of a funnel chart are configured with a PlotOptionsFunnel. It extends
the generic AbstractLinePlotOptions and has the following chart type specific properties:
neckHeight or neckHeightPercentage
Height of the neck part of the funnel either as pixels or as percentage of the entire
funnel height.
neckWidth or neckWidthPercentage
Width of the neck part of the funnel either as pixels or as percentage of the top of the
funnel.
18.4.13. Waterfall Charts
Waterfall charts are used for visualizing level changes from an initial level to a final level through
a number of changes in the level. The changes are given as delta values, and you can have a
number of intermediate totals, which are calculated automatically.
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Kuva 18.14. Waterfall Charts
Waterfall charts have chart type WATERFALL. For example:
Chart chart = new Chart(ChartType.WATERFALL);
chart.setWidth("500px");
chart.setHeight("350px");
// Modify the default configuration a bit
Configuration conf = chart.getConfiguration();
conf.setTitle("Changes in Reindeer Population in 2011");
conf.getLegend().setEnabled(false);
// Configure X axis
XAxis xaxis = new XAxis();
xaxis.setCategories("Start", "Predators", "Slaughter",
"Reproduction", "End");
conf.addxAxis(xaxis);
// Configure Y axis
YAxis yaxis = new YAxis();
yaxis.setTitle("Population (thousands)");
conf.addyAxis(yaxis);
...
The example continues in the following subsections.
Plot Options
Waterfall charts have plot options type PlotOptionsWaterfall, which extends the more general
options defined in PlotOptionsColumn. It has the following chart type specific properties:
upColor
Color for the positive values. For negative values, the negativeColor defined in
PlotOptionsColumn is used.
In the following, we define the colors, as well as the style and placement of the labels for the
columns:
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// Define the colors
final Color balanceColor = SolidColor.BLACK;
final Color positiveColor = SolidColor.BLUE;
final Color negativeColor = SolidColor.RED;
// Configure the colors
PlotOptionsWaterfall options = new PlotOptionsWaterfall();
options.setUpColor(positiveColor);
options.setNegativeColor(negativeColor);
// Configure the labels
Labels labels = new Labels(true);
labels.setVerticalAlign(VerticalAlign.TOP);
labels.setY(-20);
labels.setFormatter("Math.floor(this.y/1000) + 'k'");
Style style = new Style();
style.setColor(SolidColor.BLACK);
style.setFontWeight(FontWeight.BOLD);
labels.setStyle(style);
options.setDataLabels(labels);
options.setPointPadding(0);
conf.setPlotOptions(options);
Data Series
The data series for waterfall charts consists of changes (deltas) starting from an initial value and
one or more cumulative sums. There should be at least a final sum, and optionally intermediate
sums. The sums are represented as WaterFallSum data items, and no value is needed for them
as they are calculated automatically. For intermediate sums, you should set the intermediate
property to true.
// The data
DataSeries series = new DataSeries();
// The beginning balance
DataSeriesItem start = new DataSeriesItem("Start", 306503);
start.setColor(balanceColor);
series.add(start);
// Deltas
series.add(new DataSeriesItem("Predators", -3330));
series.add(new DataSeriesItem("Slaughter", -103332));
series.add(new DataSeriesItem("Reproduction", +104052));
WaterFallSum end = new WaterFallSum("End");
end.setColor(balanceColor);
end.setIntermediate(false); // Not intermediate (default)
series.add(end);
conf.addSeries(series);
18.5. Chart Configuration
All the chart content configuration of charts is defined in a chart model in a Configuration object.
You can access the model with the getConfiguration() method.
The configuration properties in the Configuration class are summarized in the following:
Chart Configuration
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• credits: Credits (text, position, href, enabled)
• labels: HTMLLabels (html, style)
• lang: Lang (decimalPoint, thousandsSep, loading)
• legend: Legend (see Kohta 18.5.3, ”Legend”)
• pane: Pane
• plotoptions: PlotOptions (see Kohta 18.5.1, ”Plot Options”
• series: Series
• subTitle: SubTitle
• title: Title
• tooltip: Tooltip
• xAxis: XAxis (see Kohta 18.5.2, ”Axes”
• yAxis: YAxis (see Kohta 18.5.2, ”Axes”
For data configuration, see Kohta 18.6, ”Chart Data”.
18.5.1. Plot Options
The plot options can be set in the configuration of the entire chart or for each data series
separately. Some of the plot options are chart type specific, defined in type-specific options
classes, which all extend AbstractPlotOptions.
You need to create the plot options object and set them either for the entire chart or for a data
series with setPlotOptions().
For example, the following enables stacking in column charts:
PlotOptionsColumn plotOptions = new PlotOptionsColumn();
plotOptions.setStacking(Stacking.NORMAL);
conf.setPlotOptions(plotOptions);
See the API documentation of each chart type and its plot options class for more information
about the chart-specific options, and the AbstractPlotOptions for the shared plot options.
18.5.2. Axes
Many chart types have two axes, X and Y, which are represented by XAxis and YAxis classes.
The X axis is usually horizontal, representing the iteration over the data series, and Y vertical,
representing the values in the data series. Some chart types invert the axes and they can be
explicitly inverted with getChart().setInverted() in the chart configuration. An axis has a
caption and tick marks at intervals indicating either numeric values or symbolic categories. Some
chart types, such as gauge, have only Y-axis, which is circular in the gauge, and some such as
a pie chart have none.
Axis objects are created and added to the configuration object with addxAxis() and
addyAxis().
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XAxis xaxis = new XAxis();
xaxis.setTitle("Axis title");
conf.addxAxis(xaxis);
A chart can have more than one Y-axis, usually when different series displayed in a graph have
different units or scales. The association of a data series with an axis is done in the data series
object with setyAxis().
For a complete reference of the many configuration parameters for the axes, please refer to the
JavaDoc API documentation of Vaadin Charts.
Categories
The X axis displays, in most chart types, tick marks and labels at some numeric interval by default.
If the items in a data series have a symbolic meaning rather than numeric, you can associate
categories with the data items. The category label is displayed between two axis tick marks and
aligned with the data point. In certain charts, such as column chart, where the corresponding
values in different data series are grouped under the same category. You can set the category
labels with setCategories(), which takes the categories as (an ellipsis) parameter list, or as
an iterable. The list should match the items in the data series.
XAxis xaxis = new XAxis();
xaxis.setCategories("Mercury", "Venus", "Earth",
"Mars", "Jupiter", "Saturn",
"Uranus", "Neptune");
Labels
The axes display, in most chart types, tick marks and labels at some numeric interval by default.
The format and style of labels in an axis is defined in a Labels object, which you can get with
getLabels() from the axis.
For a complete reference of the many configuration parameters for the labels, please refer to the
JavaDoc API documentation of Vaadin Charts.
Axis Range
The axis range is normally set automatically to fit the data, but can also be set explicitly. The
extremes property in the axis configuration defines the minimum and maximum values of the
axis range. You can set them either individually with setMin() and setMax(), or together with
setExtremes(). Changing the extremes programmatically requires redrawing the chart with
drawChart().
18.5.3. Legend
The legend is a box that describes the data series shown in the chart. It is enabled by default
and is automatically populated with the names of the data series as defined in the series objects,
and the corresponding color symbol of the series.
18.6. Chart Data
Chart data is stored in data series model, which contains visual representation information about
the data points in addition to their values. There are a number of different types of series DataSeries, ListSeries, AreaListSeries, and RangeSeries.
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18.6.1. List Series
The ListSeries is essentially a helper type that makes the handling of simple sequential data
easier than with DataSeries. The data points are assumed to be at a constant interval on the X
axis, starting from the value specified with the pointStart property (default is 0) at intervals
specified with the pointInterval property (default is 1.0). The two properties are defined in
the PlotOptions for the series.
The Y axis values are given in a List<Number>, or with ellipsis or an array.
ListSeries series = new ListSeries(
"Total Reindeer Population",
181091, 201485, 188105, ...);
series.getPlotOptions().setPointStart(1959);
conf.addSeries(series);
You can also add them one by one with the addData() method, which is typical when converting
from some other representation.
// Original representation
int data[][] = reindeerData();
// Create a list series with X values starting from 1959
ListSeries series = new ListSeries("Reindeer Population");
series.getPlotOptions().setPointStart(1959);
// Add the data points
for (int row[]: data)
series.addData(data[1]);
conf.addSeries(series);
If the chart has multiple Y axes, you can specify the axis for the series by its index number with
setyAxis().
18.6.2. Generic Data Series
The DataSeries can represent a sequence of data points at an interval as well as scatter data.
Data points are represented with the DataSeriesItem class, which has x and y properties for
representing the data value. Each item can be given a category name.
DataSeries series = new DataSeries();
series.setName("Total Reindeer Population");
series.add(new DataSeriesItem(1959, 181091));
series.add(new DataSeriesItem(1960, 201485));
series.add(new DataSeriesItem(1961, 188105));
series.add(new DataSeriesItem(1962, 177206));
// Modify the color of one point
series.get(1960, 201485)
.getMarker().setFillColor(SolidColor.RED);
conf.addSeries(series);
Data points are associated with some visual representation parameters: marker style, selected
state, legend index, and dial style (for gauges). Most of them can be configured at the level of
individual data series items, the series, or in the overall plot options for the chart. The configuration
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options are described in Kohta 18.5, ”Chart Configuration”. Some parameters, such as the sliced
option for pie charts is only meaningful to configure at item level.
Adding and Removing Data Items
New DataSeriesItem items are added to a series with the add() method. The basic method
takes just the data item, but the other method takes also two boolean parameters. If the
updateChart parameter is false, the chart is not updated immediately. This is useful if you
are adding many points in the same request.
The shift parameter, when true, causes removal of the first data point in the series in an
optimized manner, thereby allowing an animated chart that moves to left as new points are added.
This is most meaningful with data with even intervals.
You can remove data points with the remove() method in the series. Removal is generally not
animated, unless a data point is added in the same change, as is caused by the shift parameter
for the add().
Updating Data Items
If you update the properties of a DataSeriesItem object, you need to call update() method for
the series with the item as the parameter. Changing the coordinates of a data point in this way
causes animation of the change.
Range Data
Range charts expect the Y values to be specified as minimum-maximum value pairs. The
DataSeriesItem provides setLow() and setHigh() methods to set the minimum and maximum
values of a data point, as well as a number of constructors that accept the values.
RangeSeries series =
new RangeSeries("Temperature Extremes");
// Give low-high values in constructor
series2.add(new DataSeriesItem(0, -51.5, 10.9));
series2.add(new DataSeriesItem(1, -49.0, 11.8));
// Set low-high values with setters
DataSeriesItem point2 = new DataSeriesItem();
point2.setX(2);
point2.setLow(-44.3);
point2.setHigh(17.5);
series2.add(point2);
The RangeSeries offers a slightly simplified way of adding ranged data points, as described in
Kohta 18.6.3, ”Range Series”.
18.6.3. Range Series
The RangeSeries is a helper class that extends DataSeries to allow specifying interval data a
bit easier, with a list of minimum-maximum value ranges in the Y axis. You can use the series in
range charts, as described in Kohta 18.4.10, ”Area and Column Range Charts”.
For X axis, the coordinates are generated at fixed intervals starting from the value specified with
the pointStart property (default is 0) at intervals specified with the pointInterval property
(default is 1.0).
Range Series
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Vaadin Charts
Setting the Data
The data in a RangeSeries is given as an array of minimum-maximum value pairs for the Y value
axis. The pairs are also represented as arrays. You can pass the data using t