Volleyball WILLIAMSBURG MIDDLE SCHOOL PHYSICAL EDUCATION FIT FOR LIFE The History of Volleyball William Morgan invented the game of Volleyball in 1895 at the YMCA in Holyoke, Mass. Volleyball was first called “Mintonette”. In 1964, Volleyball was introduced to the Olympic games in Tokyo. In 1984, the United States Men's and Women's teams won medals for the first time. Men’s won gold, Women won silver. Today there are 24 million Americans who play Volleyball. There are over 800 million people worldwide who play Volleyball at least once a week. The object of the game is for each team to send the ball over the net and get it to land on their opponents court. RULES OF THE GAME The ball is put into play by the right back-row player who serves the ball by hitting it over the net to the opponent's court. A team is allowed to hit the ball three times (in addition to the block contact) to return it to the opponent's court. A player is not allowed to hit the ball twice consecutively, except when attempting a block. The rally continues until the ball touches the ground/floor, goes "out" or a team fails to return it to the opponent's court or commits a fault. A player "lifts" or "carries" the ball (the ball remains in contact with the player's body for too long). It is called a “Carry”. A player touches the net with any part of his or her body or clothing while making a play on the ball It is called a “Net”. (Side out) When serving, a player steps on the court or the end line before making contact with the ball. This is also called a foot fault. EVERYONE ON THE TEAM MUST “SERVE” IF THE BALL HITS THE LINE THEN IT’S “IN” SERVER MUST SAY SCORE FOR EVERYONE TO HEAR (8 serving 3) ROLL THE BALL UNDER THE NET IF THE BALL HITS THE POLE, WALL, BLEACHERS, OR CEILING THEN IT’S “OUT” IF BOTH TEAMS DISAGREE ON A CALL THEN DO IT OVER Court layouts Player Positions: Left Front Center Front Right Front Left back Center back Right Back 60 feet long by 30 feet wide. Net height; Women’s 7’4”, Men’s 8’0” Scoring RALLY POINT SCORING The team winning a rally scores a point. When the receiving team wins a rally, it gains a point and the right to serve, and its players rotate one position clockwise. The best of three or best of five games will win matches. Games played to 25, win by two. Final game is played to 15. Rally point scoring is what High Schools play. AT WMS WE PLAY FIRST TO 25 WINS OR WHOEVER IS WINNING WHEN THE TIME IS UP Volleyball Skills Serving Passing Setting Spiking/Hitting Blocking ALWAYS BE IN THE READY POSITION “ATHLETIC STANCE” Serving UNDERHAND SERVE ☺ Stand facing the net with the foot opposite the hitting hand forward. ☺ The ball is held at waist level. ☺ The player leans forward as they swing their arm foreword and contact the ball. ☺ The hand holding the ball is dropped just before the contact. ☺ The player hits underneath the ball with the heel of the hand. ☺ The hitting arm follows through in the direction of the target. OVERHAND SERVE ARM TOSS ☺ With firm wrist, toss the ball 18 inches and in line with the hitting shoulder. HAND UP AND BACK BEFORE THE TOSS ☺ Elbow and hand are at shoulder height or above throughout the entire serving motion. SHIFT ☺ Shift weight to lead foot, or step forward, as you make contact with the ball. SWING TO TARGET ☺ Wrist firm throughout serve. ☺ Contact with heel of hand through middle back of ball. ☺ The contact should sound like a "thud", not a "slap" sound. ☺ Hand follows ball to target. ☺ Finish with hand alongside or within body line. Hand placement Passing Start in ready position with feet slightly wider than shoulder width. Upper body should be bent forward and the arms out ready. Move quickly to get behind the ball. Maintain low body position. Contact the ball on the forearms just above the wrists. Direct the ball by tilting arms toward target. (Turtle) Follow path of ball to its target . Setting Start in the ready position facing the target. Form a triangle with thumbs and pointer fingers (hands should not be touching) Place hands directly in front of the face close to the forehead. On contact, set by extending the arms and legs. Common Mistakes Contacting the ball with the palms of the hands. Facing where the ball is coming from. Spiking/Hitting Upper Body Common Mistakes One foot jump Ball hit with fist instead of open hand "Tennis serve" arm action; one arm is swung forward and the other is swung behind "Shot-put" arm action Pull the hitting arm back with the elbow and hand at shoulder height or higher. The hand should be open and relaxed, with the palm facing away from the ear. The elbow should swing forward and raise above the head. Arm and hand swing over the top as the heal of the hand contacts the ball. Snap through the ball. Contact point is slightly in front of and as high as possible above the hitting shoulder. APPROACH Right - Left finish. (for right handers) Left - Right finish. (for left handers) Three step or four step approach (both o.k.) Important to make the step a long and explosive one. JUMP Jump up (vertically) to meet ball. Contact the ball at the peak of your jump with a straight arm. Jump straight up and straight down. Do not touch the net. Blocking Arms extended and wrist locked and angled toward opponents floor. Keep your shoulders square to the net. When you move along the net to block, plant so that you jump straight up and down. Land in the same place from where you jump. Vocabulary ACE - A serve that is not passable and results immediately in a point. ASSIST - Passing or setting the ball to a teammate who attacks the ball for a kill. This stat is normally only logged for high school, college, and National/Olympic team play. ATTACK - The offensive action of hitting the ball. The attempt by one team to terminate the play by hitting the ball to the floor on the opponent's side. ATTACK BLOCK - Receiving players' aggressive attempt to block a spiked ball before it crosses the net. ATTACKER - Also "hitter" or "spiker." A player who attempts to hit a ball offensively with the purpose of terminating play in his or her team's favor. BLOCK - A defensive play by one or more players meant to deflect a spiked ball back to the hitter’s court. It may be a combination of one, two or three players jumping in front of the opposing spiker and contacting the spiked ball with the hands. BUMP – a common term for forearm passing. BALL HANDLING ERROR - Any time the official calls a double hit, a thrown ball or a lift (except on a serve reception or attack). For our purposes, this category also includes any blocking errors (when an official calls a blocker for a violation such as going into the net, centerline violation, reaching over the net, etc.). BUMP PASS - The use of joined forearms to pass or set a ball in an underhand manner. CENTER LINE - The boundary that runs directly under the net and divides the court into two equal halves. DEEP SET - Set to be hit away from the net to confuse or disrupt the timing of the blockers. DIG - Passing a spiked or rapidly hit ball. Slang for the art of passing an attacked ball close to the floor. DINK - A legal push of the ball around or over blockers. DOUBLE BLOCK - Two players working in unison to deflect an attacked ball at the net back to the hitter’s side. DOUBLE HIT - Successive hits or contacts by the same player. (Illegal) Vocabulary FLOATER - A serve which does not spin or rotate and therefore moves in an erratic path. This is similar to a "knuckle ball" pitch in baseball. FOREARM PASS - Join your arms from the elbows to the wrists and strike the ball with the fleshy part of your forearms in an underhand motion. FOUL - A violation of the rules. HELD BALL - A ball that comes to rest during contact resulting in a foul. HIT - To jump and strike the ball with an overhand, forceful shot. HITTER - Also "spiker" or "attacker" JUMP SERVE - A serve that is started by the server tossing the ball into the air and jumping into and hitting the ball in its downward motion. JOUST – When 2 opposing players are simultaneously attempting to play a ball above the net. KILL - An attack that results in an immediate point or side out. LET SERVE - A serve that contacts the net. If the ball dribbles over, it's playable just like any other ball that contacts the net on the way over. If the ball fails to clear the net, it will become dead when it either hits the serving team's court, or is contacted by a player on the serving team. MINTONETTE - The original name of the game of volleyball, created by William Morgan. OVERHAND PASS - A pass executed with both hands open, controlled by the fingers and thumbs, played just above the forehead. OVERHAND SERVE - Serving the ball and striking it with the hand above the shoulder. PANCAKE - A one-handed defensive technique where the hand is extended and the palm is slid along the floor as the player dives or extension rolls, and timed so that the ball bounces off the back of the hand. PASS – see "Forearm Pass" QUICK – a player approaching the setter for a quick inside hit Vocabulary READY POSITION - The flexed, yet comfortable, posture a player assumes before moving to contact the ball. ATHLETIC POSITION ROLL - a certain way to pass a ball in which the digger, or passer lays out an arm, passes the ball, and rolls over the shoulder (over the shoulder roll) or back (barrel roll) after passing the ball. This is a quick way to return to action after the play. ROTATION - The clockwise movement of players around the court and through the serving position following a side out. SERVE - One of the six basic skills; used to put the ball into play. It is the only skill controlled exclusively by one player. SERVER - The player who puts the ball into play. SERVICE ERROR - An unsuccessful serve in which one or more of the following occurs: 1) the ball hits the net or fails to clear the net, 2) the ball lands out of bounds, or 3) the server commits a foot fault. SERVICE WINNER - A point the serving team scores when this player has served the ball. The point can be an immediate (in the case of an ace) or delayed (a kill or opponent attack error after a long rally). Therefore, the sum of the team's service winners equals their score. SET - The tactical skill in which a ball is directed to a point where a player can spike it into the opponent's court. SETTER – the player who has the 2nd of 3 contacts of the ball who "sets" the ball with an "Overhand Pass" for a teammate to hit. The setter normally runs the offense. SIDE OUT - Occurs when the receiving team successfully puts the ball away against the serving team, or when the serving team commits an unforced error, and the receiving team thus gains the right to serve. SPIKE - Also hit or attack. A ball contacted with force by a player on the offensive team who intends to terminate the ball on the opponent's floor or off the opponent's blocker. STUFF - A ball that is deflected back to the attacking team's floor by the opponent's blockers. A slang term for "block." UNDERHAND SERVE – a serve in which the ball is given a slight under-hand toss from about waist high and then struck with the opposite closed fist in an "underhand pitching" motion. WEAK SIDE – When a right-handed player is hitting from right-front position or when a left-handed player is hitting from the leftfront position.