Bilingual Electrical-Fires- 10-11 - rdso

CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
1
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(For Official Use Only)
Hkkjr ljdkj GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
jsy ea=ky; MINISTRY OF RAILWAYS
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Handbook on Electrical FiresCauses & Prevention
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Target Group: For General Awareness to All
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CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
ekpZ 2011
March 2011
egkjktiqj, Xokfy;j & 474 005
Maharajpur, GWALIOR - 474 005
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
March 2011
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
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fo/kqr vfXu&dkj.k ,oa jksdFkke
Handbook on Electrical FiresCauses & Prevention
xq.koRrk uhfr
jsyksa esa ;k=h vkSj eky ;krk;kr dh c<+rh ek¡x dks iwjk
djus ds fy, xq.koRrk Áca/k Á.kkyh esa vuqla/kku]
fMtkbuksa vkSj ekudksa esa mRd`"Vrk rFkk lr~r lq/kkjksa ds
ek/;e ls lkafof/kd vkSj fu;ked vis{kkvksa dks iwjk djrs
gq, lqjf{kr] vk/kqfud vkSj fdQk;rh jsy ÁkS|ksfxdh dk
fodkl djuk A
QUALITY POLICY
“To develop safe, modern and cost
effective Railway Technology complying
with Statutory and Regulatory
requirements, through excellence in
Research, Designs and Standards and
Continual improvements in Quality
Management System to cater to growing
demand of passenger and freight traffic on
the railways”.
March 2011
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
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dSeVsd] Xokfy;j
fnukad % 31]
31] ekpZ] 2011
2011
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
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March 2011
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
4
FOREWORD
Fires can be devastating if not controlled in time. On Indian Railways also a lot of
damages take place due to fires. Therefore, it becomes imperative that all required steps are
taken to prevent and control fires. This is possible when Railway men are acquainted with
causes of fires, types of fires, types of fire extinguishing equipments and materials and kind
of equipments to be used for different kind of fires etc.
CAMTECH has made efforts in this direction by incorporating above information in
this handbook.
It is expected that this handbook will be very useful in disseminating knowledge on
various aspects of fires.
CAMTECH, Gwalior
Date : 31st March 2011
March 2011
S.C. Singhal
Executive Director
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
5
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cukus esa gekjh lgk;rk dh A
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dSeVsd] Xokfy;j
fnukad 18]
18] ekpZ] 2011
2011
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
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March 2011
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
6
PREFACE
The majority of fires are preventable if the proper precautions are taken and the
installations are periodically checked from the point of view of fire risk. It is the duty of
everyone to ensure that their premises, offices, installations etc. are well protected against
the fire risk and well equipped with fire fighting equipment. At the same time we have to
ensure that staff is well trained for fighting the early stage fires.
This handbook on “Electrical fires- causes and preventions” has been prepared by
CAMTECH with the objective to create general awareness about the fire and fire fighting
aids. This handbook includes brief description of classification of fires, their causes,
different type of fire extinguishers, their installation requirement and selection with their
operation etc.
This handbook also includes fire safety measures for electrical wiring, protection
scheme in passenger coaches and other relevant information alongwith important guidelines
for what to do and what not to do.
It is clarified that this handbook does not supersede any existing provisions laid
down by RDSO or Railway Board/ Zonal Railways. The handbook is for guidance only and
it is not a statutory document.
I am sincerely thankful to all field personnel who helped us in preparing this
handbook.
Technological upgradation and learning is a continuous process. Hence feel free to
write us for any addition/ modification in this handbook. We shall highly appreciate your
contribution in this direction.
CAMTECH, Gwalior
Date: 18th March 2011
March 2011
Peeyoosh Gupta
Jt.Director Electrical
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
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3-1 D;k djsa
3-2 D;k u djsa
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
i`"B laiii
v
vii
xi
01
01
01
03
04
05
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13
13
14
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15
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18
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CONTENTS
Ch.No.
Description
Page No.
Foreword
Preface
Contents
Correction Slip
1.
2.
INTRODUCTION
01
1.1
WHAT IS FIRE
01
1.2
CLASSIFICATION OF FIRES
01
1.3
TYPES OF FIRE EXTINGUISHER LABELS
03
1.4
DIFFERENT TYPES OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
04
1.5
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS ABOUT FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
05
1.6
INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
11
1.7
METHODS OF EXTINGUISHING FIRE
12
CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF ELECTRICAL FIRE
13
2.1
CAUSES OF ELECTRICAL FIRE
13
2.2
COMMON CAUSES OF FIRE IN PASSENGER COACHES
14
2.3
FIRE SAFETY MEASURES OF ELECTRICAL WIRING
14
2.4
POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENT & PROTECTION SCHEME
FOR PASSENGER COACHES
15
SPECIAL FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR HIGH RISE
BUILDINGS
17
2.6
ACTION ON SEEING FIRES
17
2.7
OPERATION OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
18
2.8
GENERAL OPERATIONAL PRECAUTIONS
18
2.9
CORRECTLY USE A FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
19
2.10
EXTINGUISHER QUICK GUIDE
20
2.11
INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY
21
2.12
INVESTIGATION OF FIRE – ELECTRICAL POINT OF VIEW
22
2.5
3.
iv
vi
viii
xii
DO’S AND DON’TS
23
3.1
DO’s
23
3.2
DON’Ts
24
March 2011
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
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26
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29
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Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
30
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Ch.No.
Description
Page No.
ANNEXURE ‘A’
25
INDIAN STANDARDS ON FIRE EXTINGUISHERS, GAS
CARTRIDGES, REFILLS AND EXTGUISHING CHEMICALS
ANNEXURE ‘B’
26
TRIAL REPORT OF WATER MIST BASED FIRE
EXTINGUISHERS
ANNEXURE ‘C’
29
REGISTER OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
REFERENCES
March 2011
31
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
11
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Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
fVIi.kh
March 2011
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
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ISSUE OF CORRECTION SLIPS
The correction slips to be issued in future for this handbook will be numbered as follows :
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0/C.S. # XX date--------Where “XX” is the serial number of the concerned correction slip (starting from 01
onwards).
CORRECTION SLIPS ISSUED
Sr. No.
March 2011
Date of issue
Page no. and Item
no. modified
Remarks
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
1
v/;k; 1
CHAPTER 1
ÁLrkouk
INTRODUCTION
1.1
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WHAT IS FIRE
Fire is a chemical chain reaction between (a) fuel combustible materials (b) heat,
ignition temperature and (c) air, oxygen. The presence of Oxygen, combustible substances
and heat together causes fire which will be accompanied with smoke and heat. The smoke
may not be present sometime, but the heat will be present
always.
AIR
In other words, it may be stated that three things (Blanketing)
are essential for fire which can be represented by the three
arms of a triangle, viz. Heat, combustible substance and
the supporter of combustion or oxygen. A fire can not take
place in absence of any one of these three factors.
The fire, as an effect, its control and elimination
can be categorized in three parts:
FUEL
(Starvation)
HEAT(Cooling)
a.
The originating point of the fire.
b.
Need of immediate curbing the further propagation of fire by using fire
retardant materials and components.
c.
Use of fire fighting arrangement, in case the fire has taken place.
Electrical fires may be caused due to short circuit, over heating, over loading, use of
non-standard appliances, use of defective appliances, poor maintenance, illegal tapping of
electric wires, improper electrical wiring, carelessness and ignorance etc.. It can lead to
serious fires and fatal accidents, if proper precautions are not followed.
1.2
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CLASSIFICATION OF FIRES
Under British Standard EN-2 (Classification of fires), fires have been divided into
broad classifications for extinguishing purpose. This will assist in selecting the most
effecting fire extinguishing agent to be used, on the most appropriate type of fire and
burning material.
A
CLASS A:
All solid materials, usually organic origin nature (contains
compounds of carbon) and generally produce glowing
embers – i.e. wood, textiles, curtains, furniture and plastics.
Wood/ Furnishings etc.
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
March 2011
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CLASS B:
B
All flammable liquids and solids, which can also be subdivided into:
Flammable liquids
and solids
•
Non-miscible with water (i.e. petrol, oils, solvents,
paints & waxes)
•
Polar liquid fires (Hydrophilic/Miscible) with water (e.g.
alcohol, methanol, acetone, propanol, & ethanol etc.)sometimes known as Polar Liquids)
Note : Hydrophilic = having an affinity with water
Miscible = capable of being mixed.
CLASS C:
C
Class ‘C’ fires involve Natural Mains Gas, Liquid Petroleum
Gases (e.g. LPG – Butane & Propane etc.) and Medical or
Industrial gases.
Fires involving gases
CLASS D:
D
Fires involving
metals
Class ‘D’ fires involving metals or powdered metals etc.
(where water is generally ineffective and/ or dangerous).
Specialist Dry Powders are produced for certain class ‘D’
fires (i.e. M28), particularly those involving alkali metals
such as Sodium & Potassium. These Dry powders extinguish
metal fires by fusing the powder to form a crust, which
excludes oxygen from the surface of the molten metal. A
specific agent is added to prevent the powder from sinking
into the surface of the molten metals.
ELECTRICAL:
E
Electrical
Electrical fires are not considered to constitute a fire class on
their own, as electricity is a source of ignition that will feed
the fire until removed. When the electrical supply has been
isolated, the fire can be treated (generally) as ‘Class A’ for
extinguishing purposes. However, you should always isolate
the supply before fighting the fire; if this is not possible then
a non-electrical conducting extinguishing agent is to be used
regardless of the power status, on all occasions.
Warning Note:
Some electrical equipment such as capacitors can store
dangerous voltages even if their power supply has been
isolated. Always use extinguishers containing non-electrical
equipment such as Carbon Dioxide (CO2) or dry powder.
March 2011
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
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3
CLASS F:
New class specifically dealing with high temperature
(≥360°C) cooking oils used in large industrial catering
kitchens, restaurants and take away establishments etc.
Cooking oil fires, because of their high auto-ignition
temperatures, are difficult to extinguish.
F
High Temperature
Cooking oils
Conventional extinguishers are not effective for cooking oil
fires, as they do not cool sufficiently or may even cause
flash back, thereby putting the operator at risk. These
extinguishers contain a specially formulated wet chemical
which, when applied to the burning liquid, cools and
emulsifies the oil, extinguishing the flame, sealing the
surface and preventing re-ignition.
1.3
vfXu’kked ysfcyksa dk izdkj TYPES OF FIRE EXTINGUISHER LABELS
1.3.1
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Class A Extinguishers
These are water expelling type extinguishers which can be used
for putting out fires involving solid combustible materials of organic
nature, such as wood, paper, rubber, plastic etc. where the cooling effect
of water is essential. The numerical rating for this class of fire
extinguisher refers to the amount of water the fire extinguisher holds
and the amount of fire it will extinguish.
1.3.2
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Class B Extinguishers
These are foam, dry powder, vaporizing liquid and carbon
dioxide
type extinguishers which can be used for putting out fires
involving flammable liquids or liquefiable solids such as grease,
gasoline, oil, etc. where a blanketing effect is essential. The numerical
rating for this class of fire extinguisher states the approximate number of
square feet of a flammable liquid fire that a non-expert person can
expect to extinguish.
1.3.3
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Class C Extinguishers
These are dry powder, vaporizing liquid and carbon dioxide type
extinguishers which can be used for putting out fires involving
flammable gases, under pressure including liquefied gases where it is
necessary to inhibit the burning gas at fast rate with an inert gas, powder
or vaporizing liquid. These are also suitable for use on electrically
energized fires. This class of fire extinguishers does not have a numerical
rating. The presence of the letter “C” indicates that the extinguishing agent is nonconductive.
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
March 2011
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
4
1.3.4
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Class D Extinguishers
These extinguishers with special dry powder can be used for
putting out fires involving flammable metals such as magnesium,
aluminium, zinc, sodium, potassium etc. and are often specific for the
type of metal in question. There is no picture designator for Class D
extinguishers. These extinguishers generally have no rating.
Note- Where energised electrical equipment is involved in a fire, non conductivity of the
extinguishing media is of utmost importance and only extinguishers expelling dry
powder, carbon dioxide (without metal horn) or vaporizing liquids should be used.
Once the electrical equipment is de-energised, extinguishers suitable for the class of
fire risk involved can be used safely.
1.4
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1.4.1
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kDlkbZM izdkj dk vf
vWkDlkbZ
vfXu’kked Water CO2 Type Fire Extinguisher
DIFFERENT TYPES OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
This extinguisher is suitable for A Class of fire such as wood, paper, furnishings,
cloth, textile and stationery etc. It is very easy to operate. These are available in various
capacities.
1.4.2
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vfXu’kked
CO2 (Carbon Di-Oxide) type Fire Extinguisher
The quick and efficient flame knock down property of CO2 gas makes it ideal for
tackling fire involving flammable liquid for example oils, paints, varnish, solvents and even
industrial gases also. Inert CO2 gas rapidly starves the fire of oxygen, extinguishing it within
a short time.
1.4.3
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vfXu’kked
Mechanical Foam (AFFF) Type Fire Extinguisher
This extinguisher is suitable for A Class & B Class of fire such as wood, paper,
furnishings, cloth, textile, oil, kerosene, paints, petrol, stationery etc. It is maintenance free
& very easy to operate. These are available in various capacities.
1.4.4
’kq"d jlk;fud ikoMj vfXu’kked Dry Chemical Powder (DCP) Extinguisher
These extinguishers are suitable for ‘B’ and ‘C’ class fires such as inflammable
liquids, gaseous fires like L.P.G. and acetylene, and electrical fires. These are available in
various capacities.
1.4.5
Dyhu ,stsaV vfXu’kked Clean Agent Fire Extinguishers
Clean agent fire extinguisher is also known as HFC Blend A, It is a blend of Hydro
Fluoro carbon & organic detoxification essence P 26. It is suitable for A, B, C class and
electrical fires. It uses Non-Corrosive, Odourless, colourless and non residual clean agent.
These are available in various capacities
March 2011
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
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1.4.6
vkXk cq>kus
kus ds fy;s ckfYV;k¡
5
Fire Buckets
A fire sand bucket or fire bucket is a steel bucket filled with sand which is used to
put out fires. Typically, fire buckets are painted bright red and have the word 'Fire'
stenciled on them in white lettering. They are placed in prominent positions in rooms or
corridors.
They are a basic, low-technology method of fighting small fires. The main
advantages of fire buckets are that they are cheap, reliable and easy to use. The fire buckets
are usually made round bottom so that they cannot be used for other purposes. Fire buckets
are hung on fire bucket stands.
1.5
vfXu’kkedksa ds ckjs esa lkekU; funsZ’k GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS ABOUT FIRE
EXTINGUISHERS (As per IS 2190:1992, third revision)
These instructions are for first aid fire fighting appliances and are very valuable if
used efficiently in the early stages of the fire.
1.5.1
•
The most important feature is their immediate availability so that each extinguisher
can be used by one or two persons.
•
The occupants should have knowledge to operate them.
•
These should be operated by the person having knowledge to operate them.
•
It is recommended that extinguishers installed in any one building or single occupancy
shall be similar in shape / appearance and should have same method of operation, as
far as possible. This will simplify the training of the large number of employee in the
effective and efficient use of extinguishers.
•
These should be provided both for protecting building structure as well as occupancy
hazard contained therein.
•
The number and size of fire extinguishers required for any particular premises shall be
determined by the appropriate authority taking all consideration.
LFkku dk pquko
Selection of Location
•
When selecting locations for fire extinguishers, due consideration should be given to
the nature of risk to be covered.
•
The extinguishers should be placed in conspicuous positions and shall be readily
accessible for immediate use in all parts of the occupancy.
•
It should always be borne in mind while selecting locations that fire extinguishers are
intended only for the use on incipient fires and they will be of little value if the fire is
not extinguished or brought under control, in the early stage.
•
Generally, fire extinguishers should be placed as near as possible to exits or stair lands
without hindering the escape routes. Wherever possible, advantage should be taken of
normal routes of escapes by placing these in positions where these shall readily be
seen by persons following the natural impulse to get out of danger.
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
March 2011
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6
•
The extinguishers should be available for immediate use at all times. Extinguishers
should be sited in such a way that it is not necessary to travel more than 15 meters
from the site of the fire to reach the extinguishers. Similar positions on each floor are
advisable.
•
Extinguishers provided to deal with special risks should be sited near to risk area
concerned but not so near as to inaccessible in case of fire. If the special risk is
contained in a confined space, it is generally advisable to position the extinguisher
outside that space.
•
Wall mounted fire extinguishers should be placed on the supporting wall or in
wooden, metal or plastic cabinets in such a way that their bottom is 1000 mm above
ground level. When installed in the open, fire extinguishers should be placed on
masonry platforms or in wooden/ metal/ plastic cabinets in such a way that their
bottom is 1000mm above ground level.
•
It may be necessary to construct suitable shades or covers to protect the extinguishers
in the open from excessive heat and cold as well as from corrosive environment.
Where such shades or covers are provided to house the extinguishers in the open,
these should be designed so that the removal of the extinguishers is not hampered in
emergency.
•
While selecting the location for higher capacity/ wheeled/ trolley mounted
extinguishers, consideration should be given to the mobility of the extinguishers
within the area in which it will be used and, if indoors, the size of the doorways and
passages which should allow easy movement of the extinguisher.
•
When installed in a building, the extinguisher should not be placed in a position where
it is likely to gain heat from the surrounding equipment or process.
•
A framed plane showing the location of fire extinguishers, means of access and other
useful information should be displayed at suitable places, it should be available near
to the entrance to the premises preferably at the security gate or the reception office.
March 2011
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
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1.5.2
7
vfXu’kkedksa dks yXkkus dh vuq’kalk Recommendations for Installation of Fire Extinguishers
Occupancies classified according to IS 1641: 1989 are given below together with
nature of fire hazard and type of fire risk along with typical examples. The classifications,
groupings, etc., given below are only for general guidance for installation of fire
extinguishers, and not for other purposes.
LH
OH
HH
SH
-
Low Hazard
Ordinary Hazard
High Hazard
Special Hazard
Class of
Type of
Occupancy Occupancy
Group A
Group B
Residential
buildings
Educational
buildings
Nature of
Occupancy
Class of
Fire Risk
Typical Examples
LH
Class A
Lodging houses, private dwellings,
dormitories, apartment houses, flats,
hotels, etc.
LH
Class C
Small kitchens having LPG connection,
electrical heaters, etc.
OH
Class A
Multistoried
buildings,
multi-risk
buildings, five star hotels, etc.
LH
Class A
Tutorials, vocational training institutes,
evening colleges, commercial institutes.
OH
Class A
Schools, colleges, etc.
Group C
Institutional
buildings
OH
Class A
Hospitals, sanatoria, homes for aged,
orphanage, jails, etc.
Group D
Assembly
buildings
D-1
HH
Class A
Theatres, assembly halls, exhibitions
halls, museums, restaurants, places of
worship, club rooms, dance halls etc.
having seating capacity of over 1000
persons.
D-2
OH
Class A
Theatres, assembly halls, exhibitions
halls, museums, restaurants, places of
worship, club rooms, dance halls etc.
having seating capacity less than 100
persons.
D-3
OH
Class A
Theatres, assembly halls, exhibitions
halls, museums, restaurants, places of
worship, club rooms, dance halls etc. but
having accommodation for more than
300 persons, but less than 1000
persons, with no permanent seating
arrangement.
D-4
D-5
LH
Class A
Theatres, assembly halls, exhibitions
halls, museums, restaurants, places of
worship, club rooms, dance halls etc. but
having accommodation less than 300
and those not covered under D-1 to D-3.
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
March 2011
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8
Class of
Type of
Occupancy Occupancy
Class of
Fire Risk
Typical Examples
SH
Class A
Offices, banks, record rooms, archives,
libraries, data processing centre, etc.
E-2
OH
Class B
Laboratories, research establishments,
test houses, etc.
E-3
SH
Class A
Computer installations.
Group F
Mercantile
buildings
OH
Class A
Shops, stores, markets, departmental
stores, underground shopping centers,
etc.
Group G
Industrial
buildings
LH
Class A
Small industrial units.
OH
Class A
Corrugated carton manufacturing units,
paper cane units, packing case
manufacturing units, cotton waste
manufacturing units.
HH
Class A
Large number yards, saw mills, godowns
and
warehouses
storing
combustible materials, cold storages,
freight depots, etc.
LH
Class B
Demonstration chemical plants, small
chemical processing plants, pilots
plants, etc.
OH
Class B
Workshops, painting shops, large
kitchens, industrial canteens, generator
rooms, heat treatment shops, tread
rubber manufacturing units, petrol
bunks, tubes & flaps units, etc.
HH
Class B
Petroleum processing units, chemical
plants, industrial alcohol plants, effluent
treatment plants, etc.
LH
Class C
OH
Class C
HH
Class C
Fertilizer plants, petrochemical plants,
LPG bottling plants, etc.
HH
Class D
All processes involving use of
combustible
highly
flammable
materials, reactive metals & alloys,
including their storage.
Group E
Business
buildings
Nature of
Occupancy
E-1
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Class of
Type of
Occupancy Occupancy
Group H
Group I
1.5.3
Storage
buildings
Hazardous
9
Nature of
Occupancy
Class of
Fire Risk
Typical Examples
OH
Class B
Flammable liquid stores, storage in
drums and cans in open, paints and
varnishes go-down.
HH
Class B
Tank farms, chemical and petroleum
bulk storage depots, large service
stations, truck and marine terminals,
underground LDO/ Furnace oil storage
yards etc.
OH
Class C
LPG distribution go-downs/ offices,
distribution storage go-downs/ offices of
D,N,H, Argon and other industrial
gases.
IH
Class C
Storage and handling of gas cylinders in
bulk, gas plant, gas holders, (Horton)
spheres, etc.
--
--
Buildings used for storage, handling,
manufacture and processing of highly
combustible explosive materials. (Risks
involved in terms of class of fire and
intensity of fire has to be assessed on
case to case basis and statutory
authorities
to
be
consulted,
environmental factors and mutual aid
facilities to be taken into account before
deciding on the fire extinguisher
requirements.)
midj.kksa dk vuq’akflr iSekuk Recommended Scale of Equipment to be Installed
oxZ v
Class A
LH Occupancy
One 9-L water expelling extinguisher for every 600m2 of floor
area or part thereof with minimum of two extinguishers per
compartment or floor of the building. The extinguishers should
be so located as to be available within 25m radius.
OH Occupancy
Two 9-L water expelling extinguishers for every 600m2 with
minimum of 4 extinguishers per compartment/ floor. The
extinguishers should be so located as to be available within
25m radius.
HH Occupancy
Provision as per OH occupancy; in addition one 50-L soda acid
chemical engine for every 100m2of floor area or part thereof.
Special hazard
One 4.5 kg capacity carbon dioxide or one 2.5 kg capacity
Halon/1211 extinguisher for every 100m2 of floor area or part
thereof with minimum of two extinguishers so located as to be
available within 10m radius.
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
March 2011
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10
oxZ c
Class B
LH Occupancy
One 9-L foam extinguisher, chemical for every 600m2 of floor
area or part thereof with minimum of two extinguishers per
compartment or floor. The extinguishers should be so located as
to be available within 25m radius.
OH Occupancy
Two 9-L foam extinguishers, chemical/ mechanical type, or 5 kg
capacity dry powder extinguisher (or one of each type) for every
600m2 area with minimum of four extinguishers per
compartment. Extinguishers should be available within 15m
radius.
HH Occupancy
Provisions as per OH, and in addition one 50-L foam type
chemical engine for every 100m2 or part thereof, one 150-L foam
chemical engine for every 300m2 of floor area or part thereof.
oxZ l
Class C
LH Occupancy
One 2kg dry powder or 2.5 kg halon 1211 extinguisher for every
20m2 of floor area or part thereof, extinguisher should be
available within a radius of 15m.
OH Occupancy
One 10kg dry powder extinguisher or 6.8kg carbon dioxide
extinguisher or 2.5kg Halon 1211 extinguisher for 100m2 of floor
area or part thereof, with minimum of one extinguishers of the
same type for every compartment; extinguisher should be
available within a radius of 15m.
HH Occupancy
Dry powder extinguisher of 10kg or 6.8kg CO2 extinguishers, or
5kg Halon 1211 extinguishers for every 100m2 of floor area or
part thereof, subject to a minimum of two extinguishers of same
type per room or compartment. Extinguishers should be available
within a radius of 10m.
oxZ n
Class D
HH Occupancy
One 10kg dry powder extinguisher with special dry powder for
metal fires for every 100m2 of floor area or part thereof with
minimum of two extinguishers per compartment/ room.
Extinguishers should be available within a radius of 10m.
NOTES
1.
The recommendations are minimum for a specific area. In case, the area is more
than specified, high capacity extinguishers may be used based on these minimum
requirements, that is proportionately higher capacity can be used.
2.
In case of dry powder/ CO2 / Halon types, equivalent lower capacities may also be
used.
March 2011
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1.6
11
vfXu’kkedksa dk fujh{k.k ,oa vuqj{k.k
INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
A well-planned and approved maintenance schedule is essential to ensure that an
extinguisher:
a.
Will operate properly between the time intervals stipulated in the maintenance
programme for periodical inspection/ maintenance.
b.
Will not constitute a potential hazard to persons in its vicinity or to those who
operate or recharge the extinguishers.
During inspection/ maintenance of extinguishers the general safety precautions
should be observed.
For more details about Inspection and Maintenance of First-Aid Fire Extinguishers,
please refer various IS pertaining to Fire Extinguishers (See Annexure ‘A’)
However maintenance of Dry Powder Type Gas Cartridge Fire Extinguisher is given
below for guidance:
1.6.1
'kq"d ikoMj Ádkj dk xSl dkV
dkVªsZt vfXu'kked
Dry Powder Type Gas Cartridge Fire Extinguisher (IS 2171, IS 10658, IS 11833)
All dry powder extinguishers should be inspected and maintained in accordance with
the following. The dry powder extinguishers should be opened in a dry room and for a
minimum possible time to avoid effect to atmospheric moisture on powder.
a. Dry powder extinguisher, where discharge control is fitted on the nozzle, should be
operated before opening the extinguisher to ensure that there is no pressure in the
extinguisher.
b. Weigh the extinguisher to check the correct mass of powder filled in it which should
be marked on the body of extinguisher and record book when it was first put into
service.
c. Open the extinguisher and remove gas cartridge and see that sealing disc is intact.
Weigh and compare its mass with full mass of cartridge marked on it. In case, loss of
mass is more than 10 percent, it should be replaced by new cartridge.
d. Check the operating mechanism, discharge control for free movement and closing.
Examine nozzle, hose, vent holes, piercing mechanism of cap cartridge holder, grease
and wipe clean.
e. Remove the inner shell (if any) and clean port holes.
f.
Empty the dry powder in a dry container and examine for caking, lumps and foreign
matter, in which case replace it with new dry powder charge.
g. Examine the extinguisher body internally for any damage or corrosion and replace
corroded or damaged extinguisher.
h. Clean the extinguisher using dry air.
i.
Return the original charge to the extinguisher and fit the cartridge and other fittings.
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
March 2011
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12
j.
In case of higher capacity dry powder fire extinguisher as per IS 10658, remove the
carbon dioxide cylinder and check the weight marked on the cylinder to ensure that
the size conforms to that stipulated in the specification. On weighing, if the loss of
mass is more than 10 percent it should be sent for recharging. Also examine the wheel
carriage and discharge hose assembly with control nozzle for free flow and test it with
dry air.
k. In case of dry powder extinguisher for metal fires as per IS 11833, in addition to item
‘j’ above, examine the applicator pipe and the discharge shower head for freedom
from clogging and clean it with dry air. Sample of the dry powder for metal fire may
be tested on a small fire of magnesium turning or chips to ensure that the powder is
suitable for metallic fire risks.
l.
1.7
The safety valves and pressure gauges fitted on higher capacity extinguishers should
be calibrated once in 3 years and recorded in the register.
vkx cq>kus dk rjhdk
METHODS OF EXTINGUISHING FIRE
The method of extinguishing fire is to cut one, two or all elements of triangle as
warranted by the situation. The methods are as given below:
1.7.1
LVkjos’ku fof/k
Starvation Method
Segregation of fire and removing un-burnt records, furniture, fuels, and other
combustible substances away from the fire. Switching off fuel, power supply etc.
1.7.2
CysadsfVax@<duk fof/k
Blanketing/ Smothering Method
It means cutting off supply of Oxygen, access of fresh air into fire, using sand, foam
etc., to cover fire.
1.7.3
BaMh djuk
Cooling Method
It means reducing the degree of temperature or heat by throwing water.
March 2011
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13
v/;k; 2
CHAPTER 2
fo|qr ls vkx yxus ds dkj.k ,oa jksdFkke
CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF ELECTRICAL FIRE
2.1
fo|q
fo|qr ls vkx yxus ds dkj.k
vksojyksfMax
CAUSES OF ELECTRICAL FIRE
Overloading:
It is the common practice that most of the people connect additional load to the
installation, without checking whether existing installation is capable of withstanding
the additional load or not. Undersize cables may initially with stand additional load, but
gradually due to overheating of cables, the insulation gets deteriorated and fails leading
to fire.
vLFkk;h fo|qr la;kstu
Temporary electrical connections
Many times temporary electrical connections are made. These are basically planned on
short term basis. The quality of work involved in it is normally of sub-standard nature.
Temporary electrical connections give rise to faults such as loose connections,
insufficient or naked points, unstable supports, inadequate insulation etc. All these
shortcomings give rise to overheating, insulation failure, spark-over and ultimately
damage due to fire.
[kjkc lEid
lEidZ ,oa <hys
<hys la;kstu
Bad contacts and loose connections
Contact surfaces contain microscopic air gaps, dirt etc. which result in higher contact
resistance, subsequent rise in temperature and continuous dissipation of heat. After
continuous use, erosion in switch contacts increases so much, that even a small change
in the load causes sparking at contacts. This may result in the rise of the temperature of
the surroundings. In electrical circuits loose connections also cause resistive heating.
The insulation of cables, wooden material, terminal boards, all constitute combustible
materials. Under such circumstances when temperature of the surrounding air is high, a
small spark is sufficient to ignite and cause a fire.
In addition to above following are also some common causes for electrical fires:
•
Short circuits at joints and terminations due to bare wires loosening out of the terminals
or the wires fraying out and touching other terminals.
•
Arcing at improper joints, loose connections and terminations resulting in high
temperature build-up.
•
Earth faults in wires with deteriorated insulation.
•
Short circuit due to mechanical damage to insulation.
•
Heat from other sources.
•
Sub-standard installation processes.
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March 2011
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14
2.2
;k=h dkspksa esa vkx yxus ds lkekU; dkj.k
COMMON CAUSES OF FIRE IN PASSENGER COACHES
(i)
Carrying stoves, sigris, gas cylinders, kerosene oil, petrol, fire works etc. in passenger
compartment.
(ii)
Making fire/using fire near paper, wood, petrol or such inflammable articles.
(ii)
Lighted match sticks, cigarette ends carelessly thrown.
(iii) Using naked light during authority token delivery, to the driver, shunting of
inflammable loads, sealing of inflammable wagons.
(iv) Use of open fire, smoking near gas/petrol tank.
(v)
Non-removal of garbage from pantry car/coaches.
Every one should take all possible precautions to keep away from doing the
above mistakes so that possibility of breakage out of fire can be minimized.
2.3
fo|qr ok;fjax esa vfXulqj{kk mik;
FIRE SAFETY MEASURES FOR ELECTRICAL WIRING
Following safe practices in respect of electrical wiring would help to reduce fire
incidents:
2.3.1
2.3.2
pquko
Selection
1.
Prefer copper wiring/ cables.
2.
Use only ISI marked wiring/ cables and related accessories.
3.
Don’t use 1 sq mm. cable at all in the household.
4.
Use 10 sq mm. cable for main connection between the electricity supply meter and the
main switch on the distribution board in the house/ flat and 6 mm. cable for
connection between distribution board and sub-distribution board in each room.
5.
Use 4 sq mm. cable for supplies to geysers, heaters and air-conditioners and such
heavy loads and 2.5 sq mm. cable for supplies to TV, kitchen appliances, refrigerator,
washing machine, dish washer and electric iron.
laLFkkiu
LFkkiu
Installation
1.
Don’t install electrical power circuits and communication circuits in the same conduit/
casing.
2.
Ensure that the wiring for high power consuming devices like air conditioners,
geysers, etc. run separately.
3.
Seal cable passes and other openings effectively, using suitable fire protection method
such as fire stops and fire breaks.
4.
Take extra safety precautions such as reliable termination, use of continuous wires
without joints.
5.
Derate the current rating of the wires to ensure that the temperature remains safely
within the prescribed limits when a number of wires are laid together in casing or
conduit. Avoid temporary wiring and connections.
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2.3.3
2.3.4
2.4
15
6.
Install a master control switch outside office occupancies to enable switching off
power after office hours.
7.
Have a spare galvanized steel wire in the conduit for pulling a cable in future for
additional circuiting or for replacing a defective cable.
8.
Don’t use flexible conduits for general wiring.
j{kkRed vOk;o
Protective Accessories
1.
Don’t increase the fuse capacity for preventing or eliminating frequent fuse blow-up.
Prefer HRC (High Rupturing Capacity) fuses.
2.
Use MCBs (Miniature Circuit Breakers) for protecting higher capacity loads like
geysers, air-conditioners, etc.
3.
Use separate MCB distribution boards for circuit supplying to devices/ appliances
which can be switched off with the master switch and for other circuits which are not
to be switched off by the master switch.
4.
Use RCCBs (Residual Current - Operated circuit Breakers). Don’t depend on fuses,
MCBs, etc. for protection against leakage current.
Iyx ,oa lkWdsV
Plug and Socket
1.
Use 3-pin (or wherever so made by 2-pin) plugs to make connections to the socket.
Never insert loose wires.
2.
Provide 3-pin plug for all electrical appliances and ensure that earthing is connected
to the pin meant for earthing.
3.
Don’t use 3-pin plug with earthing terminal missing or sawed-off.
4.
Ensure that plug and socket fit each other smoothly and provide adequate contact for
carrying rated full load current.
5.
Don’t try to force a 2-pin plug in a 3-pin socket.
6.
Avoid connecting multiple appliances or circuits to a single socket.
;k=h dkspksa dh ikWoj lIykbZ ,oa j{kk O;oLFkk
POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENT
& PROTECTION SCHEME FOR PASSENGER COACHES
•
110 V DC two wire insulated system with each wire placed in a separate conduit to
prevent any short circuit.
•
Adoption of 110 V DC system in place of 24 V DC system has improved the fault
discrimination and effectiveness of protection systems.
•
In 110 V system, fault current is 10 times more than the load current hence the faults
are promptly cleared (24 V system had very narrow discrimination between fault and
load current)
•
110 V DC system has reduced the load current to approx. 1/5th as compared to 24 V
DC system and so the overheating at various junction points.
•
All the circuits are protected by suitable sizes of fuses.
•
It does not cause shock to any person due to floating system.
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March 2011
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16
•
Use of over voltage protection has been introduced to prevent any damage to the
equipments.
•
Insulation scheme for alternators has been upgraded.
•
Cables from alternator to RRU have been changed to copper from aluminium, along
with fire retardant Dough moulding compound cleats.
•
Use of epoxy moulded terminal board has been introduced for alternators to prevent
shorting of terminals.
•
Fire retardant PPCP containers are being introduced for battery.
•
Supply scheme has multi level protection system in the event of short circuit & more
than two earth faults.
POWER SUPPLY SCHEME GENERAL PASSENGER COACHES
15 A
15 A
6A
6A
6A
6A
6A
6A
32 A
32 A
15 A
35 A
•
Fuse distribution boards and rotary switch boards are made of fire retardant fiber glass
(FRPSMC).
•
Cables in the superstructure are laid in insulated PVC conduits.
•
Cables in the under frame are laid in metallic conduits.
•
Cables with fire retardant insulating material are used.
•
Sparkless BLDC fans with inbuilt overload protection have been developed and
provided.
•
Electronic regulators with improved voltage and current regulation and inbuilt over
voltage protections have been developed and provided.
•
The sizes of cables have been standardized.
•
The type and sizes of fuses for various circuits have been standardized.
•
Code of practice for prevention of fire had been issued for railways for
implementation.
Checking of earth fault on positive and negative circuits are being done after every
Trip.
•
March 2011
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2.5
17
vfr mPp bekjrksa esesa fof’k"V vfXu lqj{kk vko’;drk
SPECIAL FIRE SAFETY REQUIRMENTS FOR HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS
1.
Employ special insulating material such as FRLS (Fire Retardant Low Smoke) for
wiring/ cabling meant for fire alarm systems, emergency lighting, computer
installations and such equipment whose uninterrupted performance in fire situations
is essential.
2.
Provide separate circuits for fire fighting pumps, lifts, stair-cases and corridor lighting
and blowers for pressurizing system, directly from the main switchgear panel. Use
separate conduits for such circuits.
3.
Label clearly the master switches controlling essential services.
4.
Lay electrical distribution cables/ wiring in a separate duct. Seal the duct at every
floor with non-combustible materials having the same fire resistance as that of the
duct.
5.
Don’t lay water mains, telephone lines, inter-com lines, gas pipes and any other
services line in the duct meant for electrical cables.
6.
Use separate metal conduits for medium and low voltage wiring meant for lighting or
other services, above false ceiling.
7.
Use brass or copper for bonding and earthing.
situations.
8.
Provide suitable circuit breakers at the appropriate points.
9.
Check integrity of insulation at regular intervals.
10.
Conduct insulation resistance test at least once in a year and when ay addition or
alteration is carried out in the installation.
Use non-rusting bolts in damp
Ensure that all electrical wiring and repair jobs including additions, alterations,
repairs to the existing installations are carried out by licensed contractors as per the Indian
Electricity Rules, 1956.
2.6
vkx fn[kkbZ nsus ij dk;Zokgh
ACTION ON SEEING FIRE
1.
‘Cry fire’ thus giving an alarm to all. Panic should not be created as it is more
dangerous than fire.
2.
If electricity is involved, switch off the electric supply.
3.
Inform concerned officials on phone and call fire services if necessary.
4.
Use available fire fighting equipment to extinguish fire.
5.
User should have knowledge of operating extinguishers. Water type extinguishers
should not be used unless electric supply is cut off.
6.
Doors and windows should be closed and nearby combustible material like cloth,
papers etc. should be evicted safely without panic.
7.
Use staircases instead of lifts to go away from fire locations.
8.
Boards indicating emergency exits should be displayed at appropriated places with
proper illumination in a building or out side area where public gather for function etc.
9.
Emergency exits should be within 30 meters from any place.
10.
When fire service personnel arrive, the job should be left to them without causing
hindrance.
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18
2.7
vfXu’kked dks pykuk
2.7.1
lksMk vEy
OPERATION OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
Soda Acid (9L)
The extinguishers should be taken within 7m of fire. After taking out the safety cup,
the extinguisher should be held and plunger struck against a hard surface. Now the acid
bottle will get broken and acid on mixing with solution will evolve carbon dioxide gas. The
gas pressure will expel water when cylinder kept inverted. The expelled water should be
directed to the base of the fire. Upright type, as having discharge tube inside from nozzle
mouth to bottom, should not be used in inverted position.
2.7.2
Qkse Ádkj dk
Foam type (9L)
The knob should be pulled up, turned clockwise and pin seated on the groove. The
will keep the port of inner container open and when the cylinder kept inverter the two
solutions mix together forming foam. The evolved CO2 gas will expel the foam. The foam
has to be directed on to the fire without force to cover as a blanket covering the fire. This
prevents entry of Oxygen thereby extinguishing fire. For effectively formation of foam the
cylinder may be alternatively kept shaking upright and inverted quickly 2 to 3 times.
2.7.3
'kq"d jlk;fud ikoMj
Dry Chemical Powder (DCP)
Remove the safety clip and strike the plunger, the pin in the plunger will puncture
the seal of the CO2 cartridge and gas coming with pressure will stir the powder and expel
the powder. The powder coming out thro’ the hose should be directed on to the fire as to
cover the fire as a blanket and extinguish the fire.
2.7.4
dkcZu MkbZ vkWDlkbM flys.Mj
Carbon dioxide Cylinder
The extinguisher should be taken very close to the fire. After opening the cylinder
valve, the gas coming thro’s the hose and come may be directed on to the fire. The gas
coming out thro’ the come will expand and cover the fire as a shroud and extinguish the fire.
2.8
pykrs le; lkekU; lko/kkfu;k¡
GENERAL OPERATIONAL PRECAUTIONS
1.
The lids of all extinguishers should be checked for tightness. If two or more threads
are exposed out that cylinder should not be used. The high pressure developed in the
cylinder could be with-stood only if the lid is completely on to the body. Otherwise
the lid would come out as a blast and cause serous injury to the operator.
2.
All extinguishers should be used in the direction of wind.
3.
Nozzle or hose the contents will not come out while using. Then there is any block in
the cylinder. Unscrewed very slowly. When the holes come up, the pressurized gases
will come out through these holes. Only after the gas completely goes out the lid can
be fully opened. On no account we should think that there is no pressure inside the
cylinder, if contents do not out during usage.
Whenever newly filled, the gas cartridge and CO2 cylinder should be checked
for its correct weight.
March 2011
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
2.9
19
vfXu’kked dks Á;ksx djus dk lgh rjhdk
CORRECTLY USE A FIRE EXTINGUISHER
There are four important steps you must know to correctly use a fire extinguisher.
The PASS method can help you to easily remember those steps.
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
March 2011
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
20
2.10
'kh?kz vfXu’kked xkbM
Old
Colour
BS 5408
New
Colour
BS EN3
EXTINGUISHER QUICK GUIDE
Class A
Paper or Wood
etc.
Note : Multi-purpose
foams may be used
Class B
Flammable
Liquids
Class C
Flammable Gas
Fires
Class D
Metal Fires
Electrical fires
Do Not Use
Do Not Use
Do Not Use
Do Not Use
Do Not Use
Note : Specialist
Foams required for
industrial alcohol.
Secondary
Primary
Note : Specialist
DP required for
Solvents & Esters.
Note : Specialist
Dry powders may
be required
Primary
General Note : May be used in
conjunction with other extinguishing
agents/ or fire extinguishing techniques.
SPECIALIST HOT COOKING OIL FIRES ONLY
Specifically for dealing with high temperature (360°C+)
cooking oils used in large industrial size catering
kitchens, restaurants and takeaway establishments with
deep fat frying facilities.
March 2011
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
2.11
bUÝkjs
bUÝkjsM FkeksZxzkQh
21
INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY
Power supply systems contain many sub-systems: switchgear, transformers, panels,
receptacles, motor controls and lighting. Common to all of these components are
connections, insulation and over current protection. Failures of these fundamental
mechanisms are at the root of many electrical fires and are the target of many electrical
maintenance procedures. Infrared Thermography may be one of the batter tool for avoiding
failures and fire cases on account of electricity.
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
March 2011
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
22
2.12
vkx ds dkj.kksa dh tk¡p & fo|qrh; –f"V ls
INVESTIGATION OF FIRE – ELECTRICAL POINT OF VIEW
1.
Open a file or folder to maintain the details of investigation.
2.
collect the details of each failure for study/ investigation such as
•
Make of the equipment/ component failed first.
•
Date, time, place of failure.
•
Date of installation, previous maintenance schedule & repairs.
•
Name of operator.
•
Try to identify cause and effect.
•
Keep note about the observation, with photographs.
•
Make list of probable causes.
•
Examine similar component in other equipment in service.
•
Study the following documents carefully.
- Operating & maintenance manuals.
- Manufacturing drawings.
- Failure reports & photographs, if any of previous incidence.
March 2011
•
Keep an open mind until all the data are collected.
•
Discuss the failure with other field personnel.
•
Interrogate the person who first detected the fire to localize the starting point.
•
Check the condition of MCB & fuse boards, whether these are operated or not.
•
Check and locate the point of wiring portion where molten or congealed shows
sign of arcing.
•
The observation shall be made as early as possible after the fire has been
extinguished.
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
23
v/;k; 3
CHAPTER 3
D;k djsa ,oa D;k u djsa
DO’s AND DON’Ts
3.1
D;k djsa
DO’S
Use ISI marked or Quality Control certified electrical material and appliances.
Use Earth Leakage Circuit Breakers (ELCBs) to avoid accidents from earth leakage
current.
Use good quality fuses, miniature circuit breakers and earth leakage circuit breakers of
correct ratings.
Use one socket for one appliance.
Switch off the electric supply of fire affected areas.
Use dry chemical powder type extinguishers on electric fires.
Fuses and switches should be mounted on metallic cubicles for greater safety against
fire.
Replace broken plugs and switches immediately.
Keep the electrical wires away from hot and wet surfaces.
Switch off appliances after use and remove plugs from the socket.
Switch off the Main switch when leaving the premises, home for a long duration.
Use electrical wires, cables and materials of proper capacity and insulation.
The relevant Code of practice for prevention of fire should be followed.
Ensure easy access to put off the supply.
Use switches which clearly indicate “ON” & “OFF”.
Crimping should be done with the proper size/ type of cable lug & terminal or ferrule
with the use of proper crimping tool.
Keep the electrical switch room neat, clean and ventilated.
Use insulated wire for neutral and independent wire for earthing.
Check sockets/plugs/wirings thoroughly if any over heating marks are seen.
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
March 2011
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
24
3.2
D;k u djsa
DON’Ts
Don’t use substandard fixtures, appliances.
Never have temporary or naked joints on wiring.
Don’t lay wires under carpets, mats or doorways. They get crushed, resulting in short
circuiting.
Don’t allow appliances cords to swing.
Don’t place bare wire ends in a socket, use a three pin plug top.
Do not remove plugs by pulling the wires.
Do not smoke in electrical zone.
Do not connect fuse in the neutral circuits.
Do not replace fuse unless fault is detected.
Do not plug in lamp or appliance with the switch ON.
Do not overload any electrical circuit.
Do not use water to extinguish electric fires.
Do not construct any house or structure below the overhead electric lines and maintain
the specified horizontal distance from the lines.
Do not use wires and cables with joints.
Do not dry clothes like tea towels etc. over the electrical heater, cooking pan etc.
Do not leave ovens in “ON” condition after use.
Do not sit too close to the heater to keep warm. You could easily set light to your
clothes or your chair, particularly if you fall asleep.
March 2011
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
25
Ifjf’k"V ^v
^v*
vfXu’kkedksa] xSl dkVZªst]
t] fjfQYl ,oa vfXu’kked jlk;uksa ij Hkkjrh; ekud
Annexure ‘A’
INDIAN STANDARDS ON FIRE EXTINGUISHERS, GAS CARTRIDGES, REFILLS AND
EXTGUISHING CHEMICALS
IS No.-Year
Title
933:1989
Portable chemical foam fire extinguisher (fourth revision)
934:1989
Portable fire extinguisher, water type (soda acid) (fourth revision)
940: 1989
Portable fire extinguisher, water type (gas cartridge) (third revision)
1641:1988
Code of practice for fire safety of building (general) : General principles of
fire grading and classification (first revision)
2171: 1985
Portable fire extinguisher, dry powder (cartridge type) (third revision)
2546: 1974
Galvanized mild steel fire buckets (first revision)
2878:1986
Fire extinguisher, carbon dioxide type (portable and trolley mounted) (second
revision)
4308 : 1982
Dry powder for firefighting (first revision)
4861 : 1984
Dry powder for fighting fires in burning metals (first revision)
4862 (Pt-I) : 1986
Portable fire extinguishers for aircraft: part I Halon 1211 type (first revision)
4947 : 1985
Gas cartridges for use in fire extinguishers
5490 (Pt- I) : 1977 Refills for Portable fire extinguishers and chemical fire engines: Part I for
soda acid portable fire extinguishers. (first revision)
5490 (Part-2) :
1977
Refills for Portable fire extinguishers and chemical fire engines: Part 2 for
foam type portable fire extinguishers. (first revision)
5490 (Part-3) :
1979
Refills for Portable fire extinguishers and chemical fire engines: Part 3 for
soda acid chemical fire engines, 50 litre capacity . (first revision)
5490 (Part-4) :
1979
Refills for Portable fire extinguishers and chemical fire engines: Part 4 for
foam chemical fire engines. (first revision)
5506 : 1979
50-L capacity chemical fire engines, soda acid types (first revision)
5507 : 1979
50-L capacity chemical fire engines, foam type (first revision)
6234 : 1986
Portable fire extinguishers, water type (stored pressure) (first revision)
7673 : 1975
Glossary of terms for firefighting equipment.
8149 : 1976
Functional requirements for twin CO2 fire extinguishers (trolley mounted)
10204 : 1982
Portable fire extinguishers, mechanical foam type.
10474 : 1983
150-litre capacity chemical fire engine, foam type.
10658: 1983
Higher capacity dry powder fire extinguishers (trolley mounted)
11070 : 1984
Bromo-chloro-diflouro-methane (Halon-1211) for firefighting.
11108:1984
Portable fire extinguisher, (Halon-1211) type
11833:1986
Dry powder fire extinguisher for metal fires.
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
March 2011
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
26
Ifjf’k"V ^c*
Annexure ‘B’
ikuh vk/kkfjr vfXu’kkedksa dh Vªk;y fjiksZV
TRIAL REPORT OF WATER MIST BASED FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
A trial report on water mist based fire extinguishers was issued by TI Directorate/
RDSO/ Lucknow vide repot no.T I/REPORT /00078 (03/2009) March 2009, which is
reproduced below for guidance:
1.0
lkekU;
General
Water mist type of fire extinguishers have been developed as a substitute to halon
type fire extinguishers as they are non-toxic, has no ozone depletion potential, does not
contribute to global warming, and has no concern about its atmospheric life. It creates no
risk to the occupants or damage to surrounding equipment. Water mist is electrically nonconductive, and is very well suited to stop fires in their very early stages of development.
The unique misting nozzle not only provides the safety from electrical shock but also greatly
enhances the cooling and soaking characteristics of the agent.
The equipment creates narrow distribution ultra fine water mist, foam or CAFS
(Compressed Air Foam) using specialty nozzles. The droplets create an enlarged surface
area (almost 50 times) as compared to conventional water tender. This results in rapid
cooling due to extensive heat absorption and the resultant steam generated expands almost
1600 times in volume thus inerting the atmosphere around the fire. The combined effect of
cooling and blanketing, results in rapid extinguishing.
2.0
midj.kksa dk fooj.k
2.1
fuekZrk
Description of Equipment
Following Equipment were used for trial purpose
Manufacturer
M/s. Aska Equipments Ltd.
Aska House, "Gargashraya" ,
193, Deepali, Deepali Chowk,
Outer Ring Road, Pitampura,
New Delhi - 110 034 (India)
2.2
fuEufyf[kr fof’k"Vrkvks
fof’k"Vrkvksa okys vfXu’kked
Fire Extinguishers having following specification
Type
Capacity of the system (+0 -5%)
Weight of fully charged system
Operating pressure including the gun
Diameter (±10%)
Height (±10%)
Capacity of air cylinder (bar)
Flow rate (±10%)
Minimum functional time with continuous jet (±10%)
Lancing Distance
EN3 Rating using water & AFFF
• A CLASS
• B CLASS
• Live Electrical Fire
March 2011
Portable
10L
26 kg
34 bar
200 mm
640 mm
2L/3L x 300
26L / minute
23 sec
14-16 meter
Trolley Mounted
50L
108 kg
34 bar
420 mm
720mm
6L x 300
35 L/minute
80 sec
15-16 meter
A21
8233
1000 volts
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
2.3
vU; midj.k
•
•
•
•
3.0
27
Other Equipment
Breathing apparatus
Fire Jackets
Helmets
Gloves
Vªk;y dk fooj.k
Details of Trials
Officials present:
Shri
”
”
”
”
”
”
”
”
”
”
Site:
R.N.Lal
R.K. Mehta
A.K.Gupta
B. Gupta
S. Swaroop
Rajesh Mohan
Sumit Bhatnagar
Prafful Chandra
K. K. Rawat
K. K. Matoo
H. A. Garg
Liquid based Fire
Live Electrical Fire
Coach Fire
Sr. EDSE
Sr. EDTI
ED/PS&EMU
ED/Admin
EDSE
Dir/Tl
Dir/Tl
Dir/PS&EMU
DD/Carriage
Firm's rep
Firm's rep
Testing Dte/RDSO
Testing Dte/RDSO
Coach 2 tier GS at RDSO
Date: 20th March 2009
3.1
rjy vk/kkfjr vkx
3.2
pkyw fctyh dh vkx
Live electrical Fire: Electrical fire was created using solid fire
having 230 volts naked live wire passing through it, the fire was extinguished using portable
fire extinguishers.
3.3
dksp esa vkx
4.0
voyksdu
4.1
[kqys LFkku dh vkx Open space fire: In case of fire in open spaces like liquid and
electrical fire the equipment was found to be suitable for the purpose. The time taken was
approx 20-25 second. However, it needs lots of open space for the operator to move around
the fire so as to direct the foam at the base of fire from all possible angles. It was also
observed that the fire could not be extinguished completely if the operator does not move
and operate from one location, thus it is considered ineffective for confined spaces.
4.2
dksp esa vkx
Liquid Based Fire: To test the liquid fire, a pit of 3 meters diameter
was prepared having 1/3rd of water, 140 litres of diesel and 25 litres of petrol. The fire was
ignited and extinguished using the portable apparatus in 20-25 seconds
Coach fire: Fire was created in two cabins of general Second Class coach,
using diesel and petrol sprayed on berths and windows. The fire was extinguished using
portable fire extinguishers and trolley mounted extinguishers.
Observations
Coach fire: The fire was controlled using both portable and trolley mounted
equipment and the portable type is inadequate for the types of fire encountered in
Railway application. Also there was heavy emission of toxic fumes and use of breathing
apparatus was found to be necessary.
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
March 2011
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
28
The operator was fully protected against fire by use of firefighting suite, Air breather
apparatus, helmets & gloves due to emission of very heavy smoke & toxic gases which were
observed within no time of start of fire. Further, 10 litres capacity equipment handling is
difficult due to its high weight.
vU; vko’;drk;sa
4.3
Other requirements: It is observed that fire extinguishing training is
required to combat large fire especially in confined spaces. The breathing apparatus & fire
proof clothing is required.
5.0
vuq’kalk,sa
Recommendations
Based on above observations, the application of this equipment can be classified in
two areas:
6.0
A.
[kqys LFkku
B.
lhfer LFkku
Open spaces: These include substations, workshops and other office
installations where there is adequate distance to combat the fire, portable equipment as
well as trolley mounted equipment can be provided. Since the staff is generally
nominated, they can be adequately trained to handle this equipment. Only precaution is
required to be taken is that these equipment are not suitable for electrical fire
exceeding 1000 volts, they can be used in substation application for dead equipment
only.
Confined spaces: These include on board requirement in pantry car,
power car & tower wagons. Since the portable equipment is inadequate for the purpose,
it is recommended to provide 50 lts apparatus duly affixed to a locker having adequate
hose length to cater for power cars and pantry only along with fire fighting suite and
breathing apparatus due to safety considerations & other limitations brought out above.
The equipment is having high pressure cylinders at 300 bars hence not recommended
passenger compartments/locomotives.
fu"d"kZ
Conclusion
A fire is made up of three principal constituents: flammable material(s), heat and
oxygen. The use of water mist eliminates two of the three factors i.e. heat and oxygen. The
result is that the fire is extinguished much faster compared to standard sprinklers/jets. The
equipment is tested on 35kV and declared safe for live electrical fires up to 1000 v.
Railway application can be summarized as under
Workshops/TSS/Offices
Power car/ Pantry/ Tower Wagon
March 2011
10 & 50 liters (as required)
50 liters (one each) with accessories
(Air breather, suite, helmet & gloves)
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
29
Ifjf’k"V *l
*l* Annexure ‘C’
vfXu’kked jftLVj
REGISTER OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
Record of fire extinguishers installed in premises, its inspection, maintenance and operational
history shall be maintained as per the format below:
S.
Type Capacity Year of Make Location
No.
manufacturing
Monthly Annual
Pressure Date
of Refilled Due forRemarks
inspection inspection tested on discharge on
refitting
dates
dates
NOTES:
1.
In remark column fill details of date of operation as per annual maintenance date, date of
rejection and disposal with details of observations and date of caliberation of safety valves
and pressure gauges in case of high capacity extinguishers.
2.
Each extingisher should be allotted one full page and the particulars of a permanent nature
like Sl no. , Type, Capacity, Year of manufacture, Make and Location can be transfferred to
the top portion of the register.
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
March 2011
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
30
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bjdSeVsd Xokfy;j esa fnukad 11 Qjojh 2011 dks vk;ksftr lsehukj esa izfrfuf/k;ksa }kjk
fn;s x;s lq>koA
March 2011
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
31
REFERENCES
1.
IS 2190 : 1992 (Third Revision) Titled “Selection, Installation and Maintenance of First-Aid
Fire Extinguishers – Code of Practice” Issued by Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
2.
Book on “Electrical Fires and Failures” written by Shri A.A. Hattangadi and published by
Tata McGraw-Hill Education Private Limited, New Delhi.
3.
Leaflet on “Electrical Fire Precaution” issued by Directorate General, Civil Defence (Fire
Section), Ministry of Home Affairs, R.K. Puram, New Delhi.
4.
UCL Fire Technical Note no.024 issued by Fire Officer, States and Facilities, Gower Street,
London downloaded from internet.
5.
“Trial Report on Water Mist Based Fire Extinguishers” issued by TI Directorate/ RDSO/
Lucknow vide repot no.T I/REPORT /00078 (03/2009) March 2009.
6.
Literature collected from various Railways/ Electric Training Centres/ STCs etc..
7.
Comments and suggestions received during seminar held on 11.02.2011 at CAMTECH,
Gwalior.
**********
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
March 2011
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
32
gekjk mn~ns’;
vuqj{k.k izkS|ksfxdh vkSj dk;Ziz.kkyh dk mUu;u
djuk rFkk mRikndrk vkSj jsyos dh ifjlEifRr
,oa tu’kfDr ds fu"iknu esa lq/kkj djuk ftlls
vUrfoZ"k;ksa esa fo’oluh;rk] miyC/krk] mi;ksfxrk
vkSj n{krk izkIr dh tk ldsA
;fn vki bl lanHkZ esa dksbZ fopkj vkSj fo’ks"k lq>ko nsuk pkgrs
gksa rks d`Ik;k gesa bl irs ij fy[ksaA
lEidZ lw=
%
funs’kd ( fo|qr )
Ik=kpkj dk irk
%
Hkkjrh; jsy
mPp vuqj{k.k izkS|ksfxdh dsUnz]
egkjktiqj] Xokfy;j e- izfiudksM 474 005
Qksu
%
0751&2470803
0751&2470740
QSDl
%
0751&2470841
bZ&esy
:
direlcamtech@gmail.com
March 2011
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
33
OUR OBJECTIVE
To upgrade maintenance technologies and
methodologies and achieve improvement in
productivity, performance of all Railway
assets and manpower which inter-alia would
cover reliability, availability, utilisation and
efficiency.
If you have any suggestion and any specific
Comment please write to us.
Contact person
:
Jt. Director (Elect.)
Postal Address
:
Indian Railways
Centre for Advanced
Maintenance Technology,
Maharajpur, Gwalior.
Pin code – 474 005
Phone
:
0751 – 2470740
0751 – 2470803
Fax
:
0751 – 2470841
Email
:
direlcamtech@gmail.com
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
March 2011
CAMTECH/E/10-11/El-Fires/1.0
34
INDIAN RAILWAYS
Centre for Advanced Maintenance TECHnology, Maharajpur, Gwalior, M.P. 474 005
March 2011
Handbook on Electrical Fires-Causes and Prevention
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