UN Regulation No 129
Increasing the safety of children in
For policymakers and concerned citizens
Illustration credit: www.autostradafacendo.it - SIAS/Italy
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) is one of the five
United Nations regional commissions, administered by the Economic and Social
Council (ECOSOC). It was established in 1947 with the mandate to help rebuild postwar Europe, develop economic activity and strengthen economic relations among
European countries, and between Europe and the rest of the world. During the cold
war, UNECE served as a unique forum for economic dialogue and cooperation
between East and West. Despite the complexity of this period, significant
achievements were made, with consensus reached on numerous harmonization and
standardization agreements.
In the post-cold-war era, UNECE acquired not only many new Member States, but
also new functions. Since the early 1990s the organization has focused on analyzing
the transition process, using its harmonization experience to facilitate the
integration of Central and Eastern European countries into the global markets.
UNECE is the forum where the countries of Western, Central and Eastern Europe,
Central Asia and North America – 56 countries in all – come together to forge the
tools of their economic cooperation. That cooperation concerns economics,
statistics, environment, transport, trade, sustainable energy, timber housing and
land management. UNECE offers a regional framework for the elaboration and
harmonization of conventions, norms and standards. The experts of UNECE provide
technical assistance to the countries of South-East Europe and the Commonwealth
of Independent States. This assistance takes the form of advisory services, training
seminars and workshops where countries can share their experiences and best
Transport in UNECE
The UNECE Sustainable Transport Division is the secretariat of the Inland
Transport Committee (ITC) and the ECOSOC Committee of Experts on the Transport of
Dangerous Goods and on the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling
of Chemicals. The ITC and its 17 working parties, as well as the ECOSOC Committee and
its sub-committees are intergovernmental decision-making bodies that work to improve
the daily lives of people and businesses around the world, in measurable ways and with
concrete actions, to enhance traffic safety, environmental performance, energy
efficiency and the competitiveness of the transport sector.
The ECOSOC Committee was set up in 1953 by the Secretary-General of the United
Nations at the request of the Economic and Social Council to elaborate
recommendations on the transport of dangerous goods. Its mandate was extended to
the global (multi-sectoral) harmonization of systems of classification and labelling of
chemicals in 1999. It is composed of experts from countries which possess the relevant
expertise and experience in the international trade and transport of dangerous goods
and chemicals. Its membership is restricted in order to reflect a proper geographical
balance between all regions of the world and to ensure adequate participation of
developing countries. Although the Committee is a subsidiary body of ECOSOC, the
Secretary-General decided in 1963 that the secretariat services would be provided by the
UNECE Transport Division.
ITC is a unique intergovernmental forum that was set up in 1947 to support the
reconstruction of transport connections in post-war Europe. Over the years, it has
specialized in facilitating the harmonized and sustainable development of inland modes
of transport. The main results of this persevering and ongoing work are reflected, among
other things, (i) in 58 United Nations conventions and many more technical regulations,
which are updated on a regular basis and provide an international legal framework for
the sustainable development of national and international road, rail, inland water and
intermodal transport, including the transport of dangerous goods, as well as the
construction and inspection of road motor vehicles; (ii) in the Trans-European Northsouth Motorway, Trans-European Railway and the Euro-Asia Transport Links projects,
that facilitate multi-country coordination of transport infrastructure investment
programmes; (iii) in the TIR system, which is a global customs transit facilitation solution;
(iv) in the tool called For Future Inland Transport Systems (ForFITS), which can assist
national and local governments to monitor carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions coming from
inland transport modes and to select and design climate change mitigation policies,
based on their impact and adapted to local conditions; (v) in transport statistics –
methods and data – that are internationally agreed on; (vi) in studies and reports that
help transport policy development by addressing timely issues, based on cutting-edge
research and analysis. ITC also devotes special attention to Intelligent Transport Services
(ITS), sustainable urban mobility and city logistics, as well as to increasing the resilience
of transport networks and services in response to climate change adaptation and
security challenges.
The Sustainable Transport Division and the UNECE Environment Division also co-service
the Transport Health and Environment Pan-European Programme (THE PEP), in
collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO).
Finally, as of 2015, the UNECE Sustainable Transport Division will be providing the
secretariat services for the Secretary General’s Special Envoy for Road Safety, Mr. Jean
Inland Transport Committee (ITC) – Centre of United Nations Transport Conventions
The realization of the brochure was supported by: (i) the German Federal Ministry of
Transport and Digital Infrastructure and the Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt)
who contributed main parts of the brochure, (ii) the European Association for the Coordination of Consumer Representation in Standardisation (ANEC) and (iii) the European
Association of Automotive Suppliers (CLEPA).
To reduce the risk of severe injuries in the case
of accidents, it is important that babies and
toddlers are transported against the driving
direction for as long as possible. Compared to older children and adults, they have
weaker neck muscles carrying a relatively large and heavy head. A premature change
into a forward-facing child restraint system (CRS) increases the risk of severe injury to
the cervical spine in case of accidents.
A rearward facing CRS is too small if the child’s head is on the same height of the upper
edge of the shell, is above the edge or if the child has exceeded the weight approved for
the group. The use of a rearward facing CRS on a vehicle seat with activated passenger
airbag is prohibited by law due to the danger it holds.
It is suggested that the vehicle manual is consulted in order to determine whether a CRS
may be placed on the passenger seat and how the airbag can be deactivated, if
The new UN Regulation No. 129, also known as “i-Size regulation”, has been developed
in order to better address issues such as the one described above. It has been developed
by the Working Party on Passive Safety (GRSP), a subsidiary body of the World Forum for
Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations of the United Nations Economic Commission for
Europe, with the aim of enhancing child safety in Europe. The development of the
technical contents of the UN Regulation has been dealt with by an Informal Working
Group of GRSP, led by France, gathering experts from ministries of transport, research
institutions, technical services, consumer testing and industry.
After the adoption of the new UN Regulation No. 129 (i-Size) by UNECE/WP 29, annexed
to the 1958 Agreement in November 2012, and coming into force on 9 July 2013,
Contracting Parties of the 1958 Agreement and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
addressed journalists, professionals, manufacturers of CRSs and consumers/parents to
provide more information.
The main aim of the new regulation is to
create a “plug and play” universal ISOFIX
The i-size UN Regulation
CRS that matches a corresponding seating
position in the vehicle. CRS that are
produced based on the new “i-Size” Regulation provide the following major
improvements for the transport of children in cars:
The Regulation provides for the rear-facing position of children up to a
minimum of 15 months, instead of 9 months in the current regulation. This
will offer better protection for the developing head and neck of babies and
toddlers by requiring children to be transported rearward facing until 15
months of age.
The introduction of a side impact test procedure which will lead to a better
protection of the child’s head especially for younger children. Until today,
there was no dynamic test requirement for lateral impacts.
New generation dummies which more closely represent the actual
behaviour of real children.
Fewer installation options with ISOFIX only, which results in a lower risk of
the seat being incorrectly fitted in the car. A simplified guide to choosing the
right seat for the child, by using the height of the child as the only guideline.
Better compatibility between the car and the CRS: “i-size” CRS will fit in any
“i-size” ready seating position in a car (a vehicle fitting list will no longer be
required). Both the CRS and the seating position can be recognised by the “iSize” logo.
The 6 pillars of UN Regulation No. 129 (i-Size)
It is a new international safety
regulation on devices capable of
accommodating a child occupant
(popularly known as child seats).
The phases, including the current state, of the “i-Size” UN Regulation are:
Phase 1 (i-Size): Integral harness ISOFIX (CRS for younger children, ISOFIX
attached) - Finalised and adopted by WP 29 in November 2012, came into
force on 9 July 2013.
Phase 2: Non-integral CRS (booster seats [and booster cushions]) (CRS for
older children) - Under development.
Phase 3: Belted integral harness CRS - is still an open cogitation and under
Since the new “i-Size” does not permit forward - facing transport before 15
months, if parents buy the new “i-size” seat as of summer 2013, they will use
it until their child is at least 15 months old in rearward facing position.
The scale of children safety in road traffic
European Union: Children in the age range 0-15 killed in road crashesi.
Germany, 2013: 4,464 children were killed under the age of 15 or severely injured (KSI)
in road traffic in Germany, 1,228 of these in cars. Of the 58 children killed in road traffic,
25 were killed in a car (43 percent)ii.
Russian Federation, 2012: in road accidents 22,016 children (under 16 years of age) were
injured and 940 were killed. Of those, 9,813 were injured as passengers and 515 were
killed as passengers.
United States, 2013: there were a total of 939 traffic fatalities of children 13 and
younger. Of the 939 child fatalities, 640 were passenger vehicle occupants, 207 were
pedestrians and 35 were pedal-cyclists.
Uruguay, 2014: 60 children (0-19 years old) were killed in road crashes and 5,951
were injured. From these fatalities 7 were pedestrians, and 8 were motor cycle
Australia, 2014: The road crash fatalities were 65 in the age group 0-16 years. Out of
the 65 victims, 17 were pedestrians, 41 were passengers, and 2 were pedal cyclists.
Japan, 2013: children under the age of 15 killed in traffic accidents: 94; car
passengers: 24; motorcycle passengers: 1; cyclists: 22; pedestrians: 47.
India, 2013: The age group (0-14 years) accounted for the share of 7.1 per cent of
total road accident fatalities in India. There were a total number of 5760 fatalities.
South Africa, 2010-2011: 17.5% of the total traffic fealties were for the children
aged 19 and younger.
The Sultanate of Oman, 2012: 122 children (age 0-15) lost their lives in road
accidents and 1510 were injured.
Evolution of child fatalities in the EU
EU: Council Directive 91/671/EEC
related to the compulsory use of safety
belts and child-restraint systems in
vehicles, as amended by Directive
2014/37/EC, whereby children less than
135 cm or 150 cm in height (this depends on the country) occupying M 1, N1, N2 and N3
vehicles shall be restrained by an integral or non-integral child-restraint system, suitable
for the child's physical features. Where a child-restraint system is used, it shall be
approved to the standards of UN Regulation No. 44/03 or UN Regulation No. 129 or any
subsequent adaptation thereto. EU Member States are allowed to decide the height limit
of 135 cm or 150 cm, so this differs from country to country, and they can apply some
other exceptions to the general rules, for example for children travelling in taxis.
What is the legal situation
in the world?
Germany: All children younger than 12 years, who are shorter than 150 cm, must be
transported in an appropriate CRS, approved in accordance with the UN Regulations Nos.
44/03 or 129 or any amendments to these UN Regulations.
Japan: CRSs must be used for child vehicle passengers under the age of 6.
Russian Federation: Children under 12 years old and shorter than 150 cm must be
carried in a child restraint device, in conformity with UN Regulation No. 44 series 04.
According to the prevailing national legislation of the Russian Federation iv, the transport
of children is allowed with the condition of ensuring their safety by taking into account
features from the design of the vehicle.
The transport of children up to 12 years old in vehicles equipped with seat belts should
be carried out with the use of child restraints corresponding to the weight and growth of
the child, or other means allowing to restrain the child by means of the seat belts
provided with the vehicle design. Placing children in the front seat is only allowed with
the use of child restraintsv. It is forbidden to transport children under 12 years old in the
back seat of a motorcycle."
United States: In the U.S., state laws specify how children are to be transported in
motor vehicles. Typically, children under a certain age are required to be restrained in a
FMVSS No. 213, “Child restraint system” compliant CRS or booster seat. The age which
the child is required to be restrained in a CRS or booster seat varies by State and it
typically ranges from 4 to 8 years old. Most states require children that are no longer
required to be transported in a CRS or booster seat, to use a seat belt. Some states
require children under a certain age, which varies by state, to be restrained in the rear
Uruguay: The use of child restraint seats is mandatory according to the National Traffic
and Road Safety Law (number 19,601) and its decree (number 81/014) for implementing
the Law.
Use and misuse of child restraint systems
Use of child restraint systems (2013):
European Union: Example of Germany.
The figures of the German Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt) from 2013 show a
use of CRS in vehicles in built-up areas at 82 per cent. When looking at children up to an
age of five years, this figure is 90 per cent vii.
Japan: The survey from April 2013 of the National Police Agency/JAF, showed that CRS
use in Japan is at approximately 60% of respondentsviii.
Russian Federation: According to the survey of the All-Russian Public Opinion Research
Center (April 2013), only 51% of respondents use child restraints when transporting
United States: According to the National Child Restraint Use Special Study (NCRUSS) - a
national survey conducted by NHTSA in 2011- observing the use of CRSs and booster
seats for child passengers (ages 0-8 years) in 4,167 vehicles, 94 percent of children were
restrained in a CRS or booster seats, 4 percent were restrained in a seat belt, and 2
percent were unrestrainedix.
Misuse of child restraint systems (CRS not correctly fitted) (2013):
European Union: example of Germany.
Studies on misuse, however, showed that only 35 per cent of these children are secured
correctly in the CRS. Incorrect use of the CRS can drastically reduce the protective
United States: According to the NCRUSS, the overall CRS and booster seat misuse was 46
percent. The misuse rate was 61 percent for forward-facing CRSs, 49 percent for rearfacing infant CRSs, 44 percent for rear-facing convertible CRSs (CRSs that can be used
rear facing and forward facing), 24 percent for backless booster seats, and 16 percent for
high back booster seats.
How to overcome this unsatisfactory situation?
A step towards the reduction of misuse is the introduction of the ISOFIX anchorages.
ISOFIX is a rigid connection of the CRS and the car via two standardized attachment
points. This system facilitates the installation of child seats into the car and reduces
potential misuse. In addition, the ISOFIX protective system could have a further
anchoring point in the vehicle to prevent the CRS from rotating. In this case, a support
leg or a top tether can be used.
Child restraint systems according to UN Regulation No. 44
CRSs approved according to UN Regulation No. 44 are divided into five mass groups:
Group 0
up to 10 kg
Group 0+
up to 13 kg
Group 1
9 to 18 kg
Group 2
15 to 25 kg
Group 3
22 to 36 kg
The CRSs of the groups 0 and 0+ must be rearward facing (or lateral as a carry-cot). The
groups 0, 0+ and 1 have an integral harness system or (only for group 1) an impact shield,
which holds back the child. In the groups 2 and 3, the child is restrained by the safety
belt of the vehicle. ISOFIX for the connection of CRSs to the vehicle is approved for
groups 0 to 1.
A CRS approved according to UN Regulation No. 44 has a relevant marking. The marking
shows the version of the Regulation under which the system was approved (also part of
the test number, see the first two digits). Furthermore, it must be indicated for which
body weight of the child the CRS is suitable for, the suitability with regard to the vehicle,
the country in which the seat was approved as well as the seat manufacturer.
CRSs can be approved universally, i.e. they are suitable for almost all vehicle seats which
are approved in accordance with UN Regulations Nos. 14 and 16 (vehicle manual). Semiuniversal approved CRSs use (safety) equipment which cannot be used on all vehicle
seats. Vehicle-specific CRSs are approved specifically for each vehicle model. For semiuniversal and vehicle-specific CRSs, the usability for each seat must be checked by means
of the vehicle type list associated with the CRS.
Child restraint systems according to UN Regulation No. 129
Since 09 July 2013, CRSs can be approved in accordance with the new UN Regulation
No. 129 for CRSs. The UN Regulation No. 129 simplifies the use of CRSs to minimize
the risk of misuse. The so-called "i-Size" systems are being introduced. An "i-Size"
CRS is a universal ISOFIX system which is attached in the vehicle using the ISOFIX
anchorage points. All "i-Size" CRSs can be used on any vehicle seats suitable for "iSize", which are approved according to UN Regulations Nos. 14 and 16. Either a top
tether or a support leg can be used as the third anchoring point. Both systems can be
used universally on "i-Size" seats. "i-Size" CRSs and vehicle seats with "i-Size"
approval are marked with the new symbol.
The CRSs are categorized based on size. This means, that
the appropriate CRS is chosen according to the body size
of the child. The manufacturer determines the sizes
approved for the relevant systems and indicates this on
the CRS. The inner dimensions of the CRS are checked
within the framework of the approval according to UN
Regulation No. 129, ensuring usability across the entire
designated size range. In addition to the size range, a
maximum weight is indicated, up to which the CRS can be used. This way, it is
ensured that all safety-relevant components, also vehicle components, are
dimensioned for the total weight of the child and CRS.
Children under the age of 15 months must be transported facing rearwards or lateral in
seats that are approved according to UN Regulation No. 129. This takes into account the
special required protection of the head and neck of babies and toddlers and a too soon
change to forward-facing systems is restricted. In addition, the passive safety was
improved in UN Regulation No. 129. A dynamic test for side impact is now required for
the approval of CRSs.
In addition to the approval as an "i-Size" universal ISOFIX CRS, the UN Regulation No. 129
also offers the option of a vehicle-specific approval. Here, the usability for each seat
must be checked by means of the vehicle type list associated with the CRS, or vehicle
handbook. This approval is specifically required for CRSs that do not fit in the prescribed
space for universal CRSs, for example, larger rearward facing systems.
A CRS approved according to UN Regulation No. 129 has a respective marking. In
addition to the "i-Size" symbol, universal ISOFIX CRSs have a marking attached on the
CRS, which must contain at least the following information:
Usability of child restraint systems
CRSs can be approved according to UN Regulation No. 44 or UN Regulation
No. 129.
Phase 1 of the UN Regulation No. 129, which has come into force by now,
only applies to the integral ISOFIX CRSs, meaning those equipped with its
own harness system or an impact shield for restraining the child. CRSs which
are installed with vehicle safety belts or where the child is restrained by
means of the vehicle safety belts are currently not included in the UN
Regulation No. 129.
"i-Size" CRSs can always be used on "i-Size" vehicle seats.
To use an "i-Size" CRS on an ISOFIX vehicle seat, information from the vehicle
manufacturer is required.
If necessary, the current vehicle list of the CRS must be considered, as is the
case for semi-universal CRSs, according to UN Regulation No. 44. The vehicle
list contains the vehicle makes in which the CRS can be used and specifies
which ISOFIX vehicle seats the CRS can be used on.
ISOFIX CRSs may be used, in accordance with the information in the vehicle
manual, on seats that are marked with "i-Size". For CRS with semi-universal
or vehicle-specific approval, the current vehicle list of the CRS must be
Entry into force of UN Regulation No. 129
On 9 July 2013 the new UN Regulation No. 129 (i-Size) entered into force. Since this date,
50 countries worldwide, including all EU countries, Japan, Russian Federation and South
Africa, have transposed this new regulation into their national legislations. The complete
list of countries applying UN Regulation No. 129 can be consulted on document
ECE/TRANS/WP.29/343/Rev.23, showing the status of the 1958 UN Agreement and
countries applying the annexed UN Regulations (amongst other UN Regulation No. 129).
The document is available here:
The content of the UN Regulations No. 129 (i-Size) is freely available at the
Frequently asked questions on the UN Regulation on
child restraint systems
1) What is “i-Size”?
Since 9 July 2013, CRSs can be approved in accordance with the new UN Regulation No.
129 for CRSs. The new UN Regulation simplifies the application of CRSs, in order to
minimise the risk of danger due to incorrect use. So-called universal ISOFIX systems
(named: "i-Size") are being introduced. All "i-Size" CRSs can be used on any vehicle seats
suitable for "i-Size". "i-Size" CRSs with support legs can also be used universally on all "iSize" seats.
"i-Size" CRS and vehicle seats approved for "i-Size" are
marked with the new symbol.
In addition to the simplified use of the CRSs, the passive
safety has also been improved. Furthermore, a new sizebased categorisation of the CRSs was performed, which
simplifies the choice of an appropriate CRS.
2) What is the difference between the UN Regulation No. 44 and the new UN
Regulation No. 129?
CRS are no longer categorised by weight groups, as is the case under UN Regulation No.
44. The weight group categorisation partially overlapped and experience showed that
this resulted in CRSs being changed to the next group too early. This information is
displayed by the manufacturer on the seat of the vehicle.
When using CRSs according to the new regulation, children under the age of 15 months
must in future be transported in rearward facing systems. This is also to prevent a too
early change to forward-facing systems and in particular, to increase the protection of
the head and neck.
In addition UN Regulation No. 129 requires a dynamic test for side impact. Under UN
Regulation No. 44, the side impact is not tested.
No. 44
No. 129
Overview of the main differences between UN Regulation No. 129 and UN Regulation
No. 44
3) Are child restraint systems that conform to the new regulation, safer?
ECRSs in accordance with UN Regulation No. 129 are laterally tested, where the UN
Regulation No. 44 are not.
4) How do I recognize a CRS that is approved according to UN Regulation No. 129?
See full explanation in Paragraph VII.
5) Is a double "E" marking of a seat according to UN Regulation Nos. 44 and 129
A double marking is not allowed. A CRS must be approved either in accordance with UN
Regulations Nos. 44 or 129 and be marked respectively.
6) In future, are child restraint systems manufacturers bound to the “i-Size” regulation
of UN Regulation No. 129?
This depends on the manufacturer’s strategy. It is assumed that vehicle-specific seats will
come onto the market also in future, as not every vehicle seat is suitable for "i-Size" and
therefore, no "i-Size" marking can be used.
7) Can i-Size child restraint systems only be used on “i-Size” vehicle seats?
If, in the future, the vehicle is equipped with "i-Size" seats, then the CRS is suitable for
use on the "i-Size" seats in the vehicle. Generally, CRSs marked with the "i-Size" symbol
may only be used on vehicle seats if these are also marked with the "i-Size" symbol.
8) Can an ISOFIX child restraint system be used on an "i-Size" seat?
ISOFIX CRSs may be used, in accordance with the information in the vehicle manual, on
seats that are marked with "i-Size". For semi-universal seats please adhere to the
manufacturer’s vehicle type list.
9) What must I take into account when purchasing the correct "i-Size" CRS?
Manufacturers indicate, in centimetres, the child height range on the CRS for which the
seat is suitable. In addition, the maximum weight for use of the seat is also indicated
there. In a vehicle with "i-Size" seats, any type of "i-Size" CRS can be used. If the CRS
manufacturer has approved the use of the "i-Size" seat for certain vehicle seats with
ISOFIX marking, then the CRS can be used like an approved system under UN Regulation
No. 44, i.e. according to the specifications in the vehicle manual.
10) Why are child restraint systems categorized by size and weight?
CRSs are categorized by height of the child to make it easier for parents to choose the
correct CRS. Parents often prefer to know the height of the child than the weight. A
review of the inner dimensions and the belt adjustment options in the new UN
Regulation No. 129 ensures that the product can be used for the specified size range. The
maximum weight of the child, up to which the CRS can be used, ensures that all safetyrelevant components, including vehicle safety-relevant components are dimensioned
according to the total weight of the child and CRS. The categorization also reduces the
number of too early changes to a new system.
11) Why do children under the age of 15 months have to be transported rearward
When using CRSs according to the new regulation, in the future, children under the age
of 15 months must be transported in rearward facing or side-facing systems.
Special protection for the head and the neck of toddlers is required due to the
combination of weak muscles in the neck and the proportion between the head and
body size. For this reason, the new regulation establishes an age limitfor children to be
transported at least rearward facing or side-facing.
12) When did the new Regulation come into force and when will the "i-Size" seats be
available in vehicles?
The new UN Regulation No .129 for CRSs came into force on 09 July 2013. Since mid2013, vehicle manufacturers can also approve vehicle seats as "i-Size" seat positions. The
first vehicles with seats marked as "i-Size" already came onto the market in 2014.
13) Is it possible to mark different seats with ISOFIX and "i-Size" in one vehicle?
Yes, this is up to the vehicle manufacturer.
14) Is a vehicle-specific approval for child restraint systems still possible?
Yes, particularly in smaller vehicles where it is not always possible to offer the "i-Size".
15) Can I continue using child restraint systems that are approved according to UN
Regulation No. 44/03 or 04?
The previous CRS regulation (UN Regulation No. 44) remains in force and CRSs approved
in accordance with UN Regulation No. 44 (series of amendments 03 and subsequent
amendments) may still be used. Purchasing and using new CRSs in accordance with UN
Regulation No. 44 is permitted.
16) In the future, will both regulations (UN Regulations Nos. 44 and 129) valid in
Both regulations are currently valid in parallel. At the moment, UN Regulation No. 129
only includes integral ISOFIX CRSs, meaning those which are equipped with their own
harness systems or an impact shield for restraining the child. Following a transition
phase, in which the UN Regulation No. 44 will be revised, ISOFIX CRSs will only be
approved in accordance with the new UN Regulation No. 129. CRSs that are fixed with
vehicle safety belts or where the restraint of the child takes place with the vehicle safety
belts are not yet included in the UN Regulation No. 129. Requirements for these nonintegral CRSs, where the child is restrained by the vehicle safety belt, are currently being
developed by the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) for the new regulation.
The procedure for CRSs with integral restraint systems, which are not fixed by ISOFIX, but
with the vehicle seatbelt, will be determined at a later point in time.
17) Is there a uniform communication strategy with regard to the approval of child
restraint systems in accordance with UN Regulations Nos. 44 and 129? How are
insecurities among consumers being avoided with different instructions in the relevant
In addition, the communication strategy is set by the individual manufacturers. The
operating instructions also provide information for consumers. Clear information should
be available in the relevant vehicle and CRS manuals. This of course requires
communication between car manufacturers and child sear manufacturers.
EU: Each individual Member State decides on the methods for providing the necessary
United States: Does not apply as only the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No.
213, ”Child restraint systems”, compliant systems can be sold and used in the United
Russian Federation: The use and installation of child restraints is allowed only in strict
accordance with the operating manual for the vehicle and the operating instructions for
the child restraint.
18) Are "i-Size" child restraint systems available for all age groups?
Currently, only CRSs with integral belt systems can be approved on the basis of UN
Regulation No. 129. The use of "i-Size" CRSs is restricted by prescribed maximum
dimensions and compliance with the total weight of the child and the CRS. The approval
as a "Specific Vehicle ISOFIX" seat allows exceeding the maximum dimensions e.g. for
large rearward facing CRSs, whereby the requirements for passive safety of the UN
Regulation No. 129 remain binding. The requirements for CRSs without own integral
harness system for older children are currently being reworked within the framework of
the UN Regulation No. 129.
19) Are the new child restraint systems permitted for use worldwide?
EU: Yes according to Council Directive 91/671/EEC of 16 December 1991.
Japan: Yes, CRSs according to the UN Regulation No. 44 and the new UN Regulation No.
129 are permitted.
United States: All CRSs sold in the United States must be compliant to FMVSS No. 213.
UN Regulation No. 44 and/or No. 129 compliant CRSs that are not compliant to FMVSS
No. 213 are not permitted for sale and use in the United States.
Russian Federation: Currently, in accordance with the Technical Regulations of the
Customs Union (TR CU 018/2011) child restraints must meet the requirements of the UN
Regulations №44-04.
"Child Restraint System" (CRS) means a device capable of accommodating a child
occupant in a sitting or supine position. It is so designed as to diminish the risk of injury
to the wearer, in the event of a collision or of abrupt deceleration of the vehicle, by
limiting the mobility of the child’s body. It is popularly known as vehicle child seat.
"World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29)" was established on 6
June 1952 as the Working Party on the Construction of Vehicles, a subsidiary body of the
Inland Transport Committee (ITC) of the United Nations Economic Commission for
Europe (UNECE). In March 2000, WP.29 became the "World Forum for Harmonization of
Vehicle Regulations (WP.29)". The objective of the WP.29 is to initiate and pursue
actions aimed at the worldwide harmonization or development of technical regulations
for vehicles. Providing uniform conditions for periodical technical inspections and
strengthening economic relations worldwide, these regulations are aimed at:
- improving vehicle safety;
- protecting the environment;
- promoting energy efficiency and
- increasing anti-theft performance.
"Working Party on Passive Safety (GRSP)" Subsidiary body
of the World Forum, which is responsible for the
up-date of the existing requirements with
regard of passive safety, and among
others, those of Regulations No. 44 and
129 (see also the reports and working documents at the
homepage address:
"UN 1958 Agreement" concerning the Adoption of Uniform Technical Prescriptions for
Wheeled Vehicles, Equipment and Parts which can be Fitted and/or be Used on Wheeled
Vehicles and the Conditions for Reciprocal Recognition of Approvals Granted on the Basis
of these Prescriptions; the Agreement counts 53 Contracting Parties (UN Countries)
world wide and 134 annexed UN Regulations. Whenever a company designs a prototype
of an automotive component, accessory or vehicle they must prove that it meets the
performance requirements of the 1958 Agreement’s Regulations. Once that is done, the
manufacturer can follow the motto "certified once, sold everywhere." That company
engraves the E on their parts, and a car maker in any country can buy it with the
confidence that it meets the Regulations. Companies can trade across borders and to
different regions without a costly re-verification process which would be passed on to
the consumer. UN Regulations, can be consulted on-line at or downloaded free of charge
from the following website: http://www.unece.org/trans/main/welcwp29.html
"i-Size" (Integral Universal ISOFIX Child Restraint Systems) is a category of Child Restraint
System for use in all i-Size seating position of a vehicle, as defined and approved
according to Regulation Nos. 14 (Safety-belt anchorages) and 16 (Safety-belts).
"Integral" is a class of Child Restraint System, meaning that the child is restrained only by
components which comprise the Child Restraint System (e.g. strap harness, shield, etc.),
and not by means connected directly to the vehicle (e.g; seat belt).
"ISOFIX" is a system that provides a method of connecting a Child Restraint System to a
vehicle. It is based on two vehicle anchorages and two corresponding attachments on
the Child Restraint System in conjunction with a means to limit the pitch rotation of the
Child Restraint System. All three vehicle anchorages are to be approved according to UN
Regulation No. 14.
"ISOFIX Universal" is an ISOFIX comprising either a top-tether or a support-leg, to limit
the pitch rotation of the Child Restraint System, attached to, or supported by, the
corresponding vehicle.
"ISOFIX anchorage system" means a system made up of two ISOFIX low anchorages
fulfilling the requirements of UN Regulation No. 14 which is designed for attaching an
ISOFIX Child Restraint System in conjunction with an anti-rotation device.
"ISOFIX low anchorage" means one 6 mm diameter rigid round horizontal bar, extending
from vehicle or seat structure to accept and restrain an ISOFIX Child Restraint System
with ISOFIX attachments.
"Support-leg" means an anti–rotation device permanently attached to a Child Restraint
System creating a load path between the Child Restraint System and the vehicle
structure. A support-leg shall be adjustable in length (Z direction) and may be
additionally adjustable in other directions.
"UN Regulation No. 44" lists technical testing provisions to ensure the high safety
performance of components used for child restraints. These provisions regulate factors
such as flammability, the tensile strength of materials, straps, fixing points and markings
and most importantly provide specifications for the positioning of the child’s body in the
car seat. This is essential for preventing the child’s head from coming into contact with
the car’s interior during a crash.
"ECE/TRANS/WP.29/343/Rev.xx" currently updated by UNECE/WP.29 secretariat at its
at Revision 3, is the complete status of the 1958 Agreement provides full information
concerning list of Contracting Parties applying a Regulation and its amendments, listing
the titles of all 134 UNECE Regulations, amongst other UN Regulations Nos. 44 and 129,
as well as the date of entering into force of each amendment adopted, the Contracting
Parties (C.P.) to the Agreement and for each individual Regulations a list of C.P. applying
that Regulation, giving the addresses of their Administrative Departments that grant
the approvals and the Technical Services that carry out the testing and issue the test
reports. It's available free of charge at the following website:
Source: German Federal Statistical Office
National Road Safety Unit of Uruguay(UNASEV)
Government Decree of 14.12.2005 N767
Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of 10.05.2010 N316
For more specific information on State laws in the U.S. regarding child seat use, see the following
Source: BASt; Forschung kompakt 11/14
2013 survey by the National Police Agency of Japan/JAF
Link to NCRUSS report: http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/812142.pdf
Source: BASt; Report M178; 2006
Information Services
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
Palais de Nations
CH – 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland
+41(0)22 917 44 44
+41(0)22 917 05 05
Download PDF