Polarizing/Dispersion Microscope ECLIPSE LV100-UDM

Polarizing/Dispersion Microscope ECLIPSE LV100-UDM-POL/DS
The LV100-UDM-POL/DS comes equipped with accessories for dispersion
staining microscopy that aid in the identification of asbestos.
Qualitative asbestos analysis
Asbestos is a natural silicate mineral found in rocks. The properties of asbestos, such as its refractive indices, birefringence,
retardation, extinction angle, pleochroism and sign of elongation, can be measured with a polarizing microscope. These optical
properties, characteristic to all types of material, help in the identification of asbestos.
Nikon developed the LV100-UDM-POL/DS by equipping its high-performance polarizing microscope ECLIPSE LV100 POL with
accessories that enable dispersion staining observations up to 400x.
The optical properties below can be determined by a polarizing microscope.
Birefringence
Birefringence magnitude and retardation (optical path difference)
A birefringent crystalline material—such as asbestos—observed under crossed polars alternates four times between light and dark when rotated 360 °. This change is
due to the alternation between extinction position and diagonal position.
In contrast, a single-refractive noncrystalline material, such as rock wool, remains dark when rotated.
The relation between birefringence and retardation is expressed as the formula
below. Birefringence (n2– n1) can be obtained by measuring retardation (R) and
specimen thickness (d).
Mixture of rock wool and chrysotile (40x objective)
Plain polarized light
Crossed polars, diagonal position
Crossed polars, extinction position
Amosite (40x objective)
1
2
R = d (n2– n1)
Retardation can be measured with the following method.
1. Under crossed polars, rotate the stage until the fiber appears dark to
determine the extinction position.
2. Rotate the stage 45 ° from the extinction position to the diagonal position
1. Make sure that the interference color of the fiber turns the lower order
color (yellow) when a test plate (530-nm sensitive tint plate) is inserted 2.
If it turns the higher order color (blue), rotate the stage a further 90 ° so that
it turns yellow and the fiber is at the subtractive diagonal position.
Rock wool (10x objective)
Plain polarized light
3
3. Insert a green filter (IF546/12) into the light path. Remove the test plate and
insert a Sénarmont compensator in its place. Rotate the analyzer until the
fiber is at its darkest 3 and read the rotation angle (θ).
Crossed polars
4. Find retardation (R) using the formula below.
R = λ x θ / 180 (λ: 546 nm, the wavelength used)
Pleochroism
Extinction angle
Align the direction of elongation, or cleavage face, of a fiber with either the
north-south or east-west crosshairs—vibration direction of the analyzer or
polarizer—within the eyepiece. Under crossed polars, rotate the stage until the
fiber appears dark (extinction). The rotation angle from the first position to the
extinction position is the extinction angle.
Amosite
Plain polarized light, cleavage face aligned
with the crosshair
Crossed polars, extinction angle measured
Specimen colors exhibited by absorption of light with different vibration directions are compared, when either the X' or Z' vibration direction of a fiber is aligned with
the vibration direction of the polarizer (horizontal) and when the specimen is rotated 90 °. This is observed with a plain polarized light (analyzer removed from the
optical path).
Sign of elongation
Amosite
Crocidolite
Chrysotile
//: Parallel to vibration direction of polarizer
//: Parallel to vibration direction of polarizer
//: Parallel to vibration direction of polarizer
⊥: Orthogonal to vibration direction of
⊥: Orthogonal to vibration direction of
⊥: Orthogonal to vibration direction of
Align a fiber’s long axis (direction of elongation) northwest to southeast so that the fiber is at a diagonal position of 45 ° to the vibration direction of the polarizer.
Under crossed polars, insert a 530-nm sensitive tint plate in the optical path and observe the color changes of the fiber.
When the interference color turns yellow or orange, the fiber is at the subtractive diagonal position. This means the direction of the elongation is parallel to the Z'
vibration direction (slow axis) and therefore the fiber has a positive sign of elongation. When the interference color turns blue, the fiber is at the additive diagonal
position. The direction of elongation is parallel to the X' vibration direction (fast axis), meaning the fiber has a negative sign of elongation.
Amosite
Positive: Subtractive diagonal position
Crocidolite
Negative: Additive diagonal position
Chrysotile
Positive: Subtractive diagonal position
polarizer
polarizer
polarizer
(40x objective)
Dispersion colors
(40x objective)
Refractive index (with plain polarized light)
The refractive index of a specimen can be obtained with the Becke line test
(liquid immersion method).
The difference between the refractive indices of the immersion liquid and the
specimen is determined by observing the Becke line, which is a bright line
visible along a specimen outline. Move down the stage and focus on the upper
part of the specimen and the Becke line moves toward the medium—liquid or
specimen—with the higher index 1. Focus on the lower part of a specimen by
moving up the stage and the Becke line moves toward a medium with the
lower index 2. The Becke line disappears when the refractive indices of the
liquid and the specimen are equal.
By finding the liquid in which the Becke line disappears in reference liquids
with given refractive indices, an approximate refractive index of the specimen
can be obtained.
Chrysotile and amosite (refraction index of the liquid n D = 1.605, 40x objective)
2
1
Rotate the condenser turret to select a phase ring (Ph1 or Ph2) for phase contrast observation and switch to a dispersion staining objective (40x) to observe
characteristic dispersion colors of each asbestos type corresponding to the refraction index of the immersion liquid.
Chrysotile
nD = 1.550, red-violet to blue
Amosite
nD = 1.680, pink
Crocidolite
nD = 1.680, orange to red ocher
Ideal for image recording of asbestos
The 5.0-megapixel DS-Fi1-L2 digital camera for microscopes is easy to use. The
camera control unit has a built-in high-definition 8.4-in. LCD monitor and allows
observation and recording without a PC. The large monitor and high frame rate of
the camera boost operability. A 100-µm diameter concentric circle similar to an
eyepiece graticule can be displayed for measurement. Two modes (red/blue) that
allow imaging of asbestos with optimum color balance are available.
Combination example: DS-Fi1-L2 configured with ECLIPSE LV100-UDM-POL/DS
Specifications
Main body
Optical system
CFI60 infinity
Illumination
New illuminator (brighter than 100 W)
12 V-50 W halogen lamp (new LV-HL50W model); 12 V-50 W DC transformer built-in; Precentered lamphouse with rear mirror;
Diascopic/episcopic illumination changeover switch; Fly-eye lens built-in; ND8, NCB11 filters detachable
Focusing
Coaxial coarse/fine focus knob; Focus stroke: 30 mm; Coarse: 14 mm per rotation; Fine: 0.1 mm per rotation;
Minimum reading: in 1 µm increments (left: coarse/fine, right: fine focus knob)
Eyepiece
10x; F.O.V. 22; CM type with crosshair and micrometer scale, Eyepiece graticule for asbestos
Eyepiece tube
P-TT Trinocular Tube for polarizing microscopy; With crosshair adjustment ring
Polarizing intermediate tube
Analyzer detachable; Orthoscopic/Conoscopic observations switchable; With plate/compensator slot;
Focusing and centering Bertrand lens
Analyzer
360 ° rotary dial; Minimum reading angle 0.1 °
Nosepiece
Reversed centering quintuple nosepiece (detachable); With DIN compensator slot
Stage
High-precision circular graduated stage for polarizing microscope; Rotatable 360 ° horizontally;
Can be fixed at a specific position; Graduated in 1 ° increments (0.1 ° readings with sub scale); 45 ° click stops
Attachable mechanical stage; Vernier 0.1 mm
Condenser
Dedicated swing-out type P Achromat (NA 0.9)
LV-CUD Universal Condenser Dry (for 10x, 40x phase contrast illumination)
Polarizer
C-SP simple polarizer; one-touch swing-out type
Objectives
Polarizing: CFI P Achromat 4x, 10x, 20x, 40x
Dispersion: CFI Achromat 10xD, CFI Plan Fluor 40xDS
Compensators
P-CL 1/4 λ & tint plate, quartz-wedge compensator or Sénarmont compensator can be inserted into polarizing intermediate tube slot
Measuring filter
IF546/12 retardation filter ( ø 45 mm)
Power consumption
1.2 A /75 W
Specifications and equipment are subject to change without any notice or obligation on the part of the manufacturer. November 2009 ©2009 NIKON CORPORATION
WARNING
TO ENSURE CORRECT USAGE, READ THE CORRESPONDING
MANUALS CAREFULLY BEFORE USING YOUR EQUIPMENT.
* Monitor images are simulated.
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