Exam Ref 70-743 Upgrading Your Skills

Exam Ref 70-743 Upgrading Your Skills
Exam Ref 70-743
Upgrading Your Skills
to MCSA: Windows
Server 2016
Charles Pluta
Exam Ref 70-743 Upgrading Your Skills to MCSA: Windows Server 2016
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ISBN-13: 978-0-7356-9743-0
ISBN-10: 0-7356-9743-4
Library of Congress Control Number: 2016959957
First Printing December 2016
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Contents at a glance
Introduction
Preparing for the exam
CHAPTER 1
xix
xxiii
Install Windows Servers in host and compute
environments
1
CHAPTER 2
Implement storage solutions
29
CHAPTER 3
Implement Hyper-V
51
CHAPTER 4
Implement Windows Containers
93
CHAPTER 5
Implement high availability
113
CHAPTER 6
Implement DNS
163
CHAPTER 7
Implement IP Address Management
183
CHAPTER 8
Implement network connectivity and
remote access solutions
CHAPTER 9
Implement an advanced network infrastructure
CHAPTER 10
Install and configure Active Directory Domain
Services
CHAPTER 11
209
227
243
Implement identity federation and access solutions
273
Index
293
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Contents
Introduction
xix
Organization of this book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx
Microsoft certifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx
Free ebooks from Microsoft Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxi
Microsoft Virtual Academy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxi
Quick access to online references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxi
Errata, updates, & book support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxii
We want to hear from you . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxii
Stay in touch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxii
Preparing for the exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxiii
Chapter 1
Install Windows Servers in host and
compute environments
1
Skill 1.1: Install, upgrade, and migrate servers and workloads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Determine Windows Server 2016 installation requirements
3
Determine appropriate Windows Server 2016 editions
per workload
4
Install Windows Server 2016
4
Install Windows Server 2016 features and roles
5
Install and configure Windows Server Core
7
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v
Manage Windows Server Core installations using Windows
PowerShell, command line, and remote management capabilities 8
Implement Windows PowerShell Desired State Configuration
to install and maintain integrity of installed environments
9
Perform upgrades and migrations of servers and core
workloads from Windows Server 2008 and Windows
Server 2012 to Windows Server 2016
10
Determine the appropriate activation model for server
installation, such as Automatic Virtual Machine Activation,
Key Management Service, and Active Directory-based Activation
11
Skill 1.2: Install and configure Nano Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Determine appropriate usage scenarios and
requirements for Nano Server
15
Install Nano Server
15
Implement roles and features on Nano Server
17
Manage and configure Nano Server
19
Skill 1.3: Create, manage, and maintain images for deployment . . . . . . . . 20
Plan for Windows Server virtualization
21
Plan for Linux and FreeBSD deployments
22
Assess virtualization workloads using the Microsoft
Assessment and Planning Toolkit, determine considerations
for deploying workloads into virtualized environments
24
Manage and maintain Windows Server Core, Nano
Server images, and VHDs using Windows PowerShell,
update images with patches, hotfixes, and drivers
and install roles and features in offline images
25
Chapter summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Thought Experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Thought Experiment Answer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
vi
Contents
Chapter 2
Implement storage solutions
29
Skill 2.1: Implement server storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Configure storage pools
30
Implement simple, mirror, and parity storage layout
options for disks or enclosures
32
Expand storage pools
35
Configure tiered storage
35
Configure iSCSI target and initiator
36
New-IscsiVirtualDisk –Path “C:\temp\test.vhdx” -Size 10GB
Configure iSNS
39
Configure Datacenter Bridging
40
Configure Multi-Path IO (MPIO)
41
Determine usage scenarios for Storage Replica
42
Implement Storage Replica for server-to-server,
cluster-to-cluster, and stretch cluster scenarios
44
Skill 2.2: Implement data deduplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Implement and configure deduplication
45
Determine appropriate usage scenarios for deduplication
45
Monitor deduplication
47
Implement a backup and restore solution with deduplication
48
Chapter summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Thought Experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Thought Experiment Answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Contents
vii
Chapter 3
Implement Hyper-V
51
Skill 3.1: Install and configure Hyper-V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Determine hardware and compatibility requirements
for installing Hyper-V
52
Install Hyper-V
52
Install management tools
52
Upgrade from existing versions of Hyper-V
54
Delegate virtual machine management
55
Perform remote management of Hyper-V hosts
58
Configure virtual machines using Windows PowerShell Direct
59
Implement nested virtualization
60
Skill 3.2: Configure virtual machine settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
viii
Contents
Add or remove memory in running a VM
62
Configure dynamic memory
63
Configure Non-Uniform Memory Access support
63
Configure smart paging
64
Configure Resource Metering
65
Manage Integration Services
67
Create and configure Generation 1 and 2 VMs and
determine appropriate usage scenarios
68
Implement enhanced session mode
68
Create Linux and FreeBSD VMs, install and configure
Linux Integration Services, and install and configure
FreeBSD Integration Services
69
Implement Secure Boot for Windows and Linux environments
70
Move and convert VMs from previous versions of
Hyper-V to Windows Server 2016 Hyper-V
70
Export and import VMs
71
Implement Discrete Device Assignment (DDA)
72
Skill 3.3: Configure Hyper-V storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Create VHDs and VHDX files using Hyper-V Manager
73
Create shared VHDX files
75
Configure differencing disks
76
Configure pass-through disks
77
Resize a virtual hard disk
77
Manage checkpoints
79
Implement production checkpoints
79
Implement a virtual Fibre Channel adapter
80
Configure storage Quality of Service (QoS)
82
Skill 3.4: Configure Hyper-V networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Add and remove virtual network interface cards,
configuring network adapters, configuring virtual
machine queue, and configuring bandwidth management
83
Configure Hyper-V virtual switches and configure
network isolation
84
Optimize network performance
85
Configure MAC addresses
86
Configure NIC teaming in VMs
88
Enable Remote Direct Memory Access on network
adapters bound to a Hyper-V virtual switch using
Switch Embedded Teaming
89
Chapter summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Thought Experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Thought Experiment Answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Contents
ix
Chapter 4
Implement Windows Containers
93
Skill 4.1: Deploy Windows Containers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Determine installation requirements and
appropriate scenarios for Windows Containers
94
Install and configure containers
94
Install Docker on Windows Server and Nano Server
95
Configure Docker daemon start-up options
96
Install a base operating system
97
Tag an image
98
Uninstall an operating system image
98
Create Windows Server containers
99
Create Hyper-V containers
99
Skill 4.2: Manage Windows Containers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Manage Windows or Linux containers using the
Docker daemon
101
Manage Windows or Linux containers using
Windows PowerShell
102
Manage container networking
103
Manage container data volumes
106
Manage resource control
106
Create new container images using Dockerfile
107
Manage container images using Docker Hub
repository for public and private scenarios
107
Manage container images using Microsoft Azure
109
Chapter summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Thought Experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Thought Experiment Answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
x
Contents
Chapter 5
Implement high availability
113
Skill 5.1: Implement high availability and disaster
recovery options in Hyper-V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Implement Hyper-V replica
114
Implement Live Migration
115
Implement shared nothing Live Migration
120
Configure CredSSP or Kerberos authentication
protocol for Live Migration
121
Implement storage migration
123
Skill 5.2: Implement failover clustering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Implement workgroup, single, and multi-domain clusters
127
Configure quorum and configure cloud witness
130
Configure cluster networking
134
Restore single node or cluster configuration
136
Configure cluster storage and implement a Clustered Storage
Spaces solution using Shared SAS storage enclosures
136
Implement Cluster-Aware Updating
138
Implement Cluster Operating System Rolling Upgrade
140
Configure and optimize clustered shared volumes (CSVs)
141
Configure clusters without network names
142
Implement Scale-Out File Server (SoFS)
142
Determine different scenarios for the use of SoFS
vs. clustered File Server
143
Determine usage scenarios for implementing
guest clustering
143
Implement Storage Replica
143
Implement VM resiliency
145
Implement shared VHDX as a storage solution for
guest clusters
146
Contents
xi
Skill 5.3: Implement Storage Spaces Direct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Determine scenario requirements for implementing
Storage Spaces Direct
148
Enable Storage Spaces Direct using Windows PowerShell
148
Implement a disaggregated Storage Spaces Direct
scenario in a cluster
149
Implement a hyper-converged Storage Spaces Direct
scenario in a cluster
150
Skill 5.4: Manage failover clustering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Configure role-specific settings, including
continuously available shares
152
Configure VM monitoring
153
Configure failover and preference settings
154
Implement stretch and site-aware failover clusters
157
Enable and configure node fairness
157
Skill 5.5: Manage VM movement in clustered nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Perform live migration
158
Perform quick migration
158
Perform storage migration
158
Import, export, and copy VMs
159
Configure VM network health protection
159
Configure drain on shutdown
160
Chapter summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Thought Experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Thought Experiment Answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
xii
Contents
Chapter 6
Implement DNS
163
Implement and configure DNS servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Determine DNS installation requirements
164
Determine supported DNS deployment
scenarios on Nano Server
165
Install DNS
165
Configure forwarders
165
Configure root hints
168
Configure delegation
169
Implement DNS policies
171
Configure Domain Name System Security Extensions
172
Configure DNS socket pool
173
Configure cache locking
173
Enable Response Rate Limiting (RRL)
173
Configure DNS-based Authentication of Named Entities
174
Configure DNS logging
175
Configure delegated administration
175
Configure recursion settings
177
Implement DNS performance tuning
179
Configure global settings using Windows PowerShell
179
Chapter summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Thought Experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Thought Experiment Answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Contents
xiii
Chapter 7
Implement IP Address Management
183
Skill 7.1: Install and configure IPAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Provision IPAM manually or by using Group Policy
184
Configure server discovery
191
Create and manage IP blocks and ranges
193
Monitor utilization of IP address space
195
Migrate existing workloads to IPAM
198
Configure IPAM database storage using SQL Server
198
Determine scenarios for using IPAM with System
Center Virtual Machine Manager for physical and
virtual IP address space management
199
Manage DHCP server properties using IPAM
200
Configure DHCP scopes and options
201
Configure DHCP policies and failover
202
Manage DNS server properties using IPAM
202
Manage DNS zones and records
203
Manage DNS and DHCP servers in multiple
Active Directory forests
204
Delegate administration for DNS and DHCP
using Role-Based Access Control (RBAC)
204
Chapter summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Thought Experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Thought Experiment Answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Chapter 8
Implement network connectivity
and remote access solutions
209
Implement Virtual Private Network and DirectAccess solutions . . . . . . . 209
xiv
Contents
Implement remote access and site-to-site
VPN solutions using Remote Access Gateway
210
Configure different VPN protocol options
215
Configure authentication options
216
Configure VPN reconnect
217
Create and configure connection profiles
217
Determine when to use remote access VPN
and site-to-site VPN and configure appropriate protocols
217
Install and configure DirectAccess
218
Implement server requirements
222
Implement client configuration
223
Troubleshoot DirectAccess
223
Chapter summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Thought Experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Thought Experiment Answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Chapter 9
Implement an advanced network infrastructure
227
Skill 9.1: Implement high performance network solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Implement NIC Teaming or the Switch Embedded
Teaming solution and identify when to use each
228
Enable and configure Receive Side Scaling and enable
and configure virtual Receive Side Scaling on a
Virtual Machine Queue capable network adapter
229
Enable and configure network Quality of Service
with Data Center Bridging
231
Enable and configure SMB Direct on Remote Direct
Memory Access enabled network adapters
231
Enable and configure SMB Multichannel
232
Enable and configure Virtual Machine Multi-Queue
233
Enable and configure Single-Root I/O Virtualization
on a supported network adapter
233
Skill 9.2: Determine scenarios and requirements for
implementing Software Defined Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Determine deployment scenarios and network
requirements for deploying SDN
235
Determine requirements and scenarios for implementing
Hyper-V Network Virtualization using Network
Virtualization Generic Route Encapsulation encapsulation
or Virtual Extensible LAN encapsulation
236
Contents
xv
Determine scenarios for implementation of Software
Load Balancer for North-South and East-West load balancing
237
Determine implementation scenarios for various types
of Windows Server Gateways, including L3, GRE, and
S2S, and their uses
239
Determine requirements and scenarios for distributed
firewall policies and network security groups
239
Chapter summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Thought Experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Thought Experiment Answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Chapter 10 Install and configure Active Directory
Domain Services
243
Skill 10.1: Install and configure domain controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Install a new forest
244
Add or remove a domain controller from a domain
248
Upgrade a domain controller
250
Install AD DS on a Server Core installation
251
Install a domain controller from Install from Media
253
Resolve DNS SRV record registration issues
257
Configure a global catalog server
258
Transfer and seize operations master roles
260
Install and configure a read-only domain controller
263
Configure domain controller cloning
267
Chapter summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
Thought experiment: Upgrading the forest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
Thought experiment answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
xvi
Contents
Chapter 11 Implement identity federation and access solutions
273
Skill 11.1: Install and configure Active Directory Federation Services . . . 274
Upgrade and migrate previous AD FS workloads
to Windows Server 2016
275
Implement claims-based authentication, including
Relying Party Trusts
275
Configure authentication policies
278
Configure multi-factor authentication
280
Implement and configure device registration
282
Integrate AD FS with Windows Hello for Business
283
Configure for use with Microsoft Azure and Office 365
283
Configure AD FS to enable authentication of users
stored in LDAP directories
284
Skill 11.2: Implement Web Application Proxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Install and configure WAP
285
Implement WAP in pass-through mode
286
Implement and integrate WAP as AD FS proxy
287
Configure AD FS requirements
288
Publish web apps via WAP
289
Publish Remote Desktop Gateway applications
290
Configure HTTP to HTTPS redirects
290
Configure internal and external Fully Qualified
Domain Names (FQDNs)
290
Chapter summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Thought Experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Thought Experiment Answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Index
293
What do you think of this book? We want to hear from you!
Microsoft is interested in hearing your feedback so we can continually improve our
books and learning resources for you. To participate in a brief online survey, please visit:
https://aka.ms/tellpress
Contents
xvii
This page intentionally left blank
Introduction
W
ith each release of Windows Server, more and more features are added or modified
that makes knowing the product inside and out more and more difficult. The 70-743
exam “Upgrading your skills to Windows Server 2016” is for administrators that have previously achieved the MCSA certification for Windows Server 2008, or Windows Server 2012, and
plan to achieve the latest certification offering.
Understanding that the exam is geared specifically towards administrators with existing
knowledge, this Exam Ref book assumes you remember and know the knowledge that is necessary to pass the previous versions of the exam. Therefore, we focus solely on the skills that
are measured in the 70-743 exam, sometimes skipping the basics of the skill. A lot of these
skills build on the knowledge you’ve retained from Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server
2012. However, some of the skills are brand new to Windows Server 2016, and are expected
to be highlighted on the exam.
The goal of this book is to act as a reference to give you the tools and knowledge that you
need to succeed in passing the exam. While we cover every skill that the exam measures and
focus on real-world examples of how to use the technologies that are listed, there is no way
of guaranteeing that you will pass the exam simply by using this book. As you are well aware
as an existing MCSA credential holder, nothing is better than getting hands-on experience
with each of the roles and features in Windows Server 2016 before taking the exam. It is recommended that you use the information in this book, combined with a hands-on approach
of trying each role or feature discussed by using both graphical and Windows PowerShell (or
command-line) tools. This will ensure that you have the best opportunity to succeed when
taking the exam.
This book covers every major topic area found on the exam, but it does not cover every
exam question. Only the Microsoft exam team has access to the exam questions, and
Microsoft regularly adds new questions to the exam, making it impossible to cover specific
questions. You should consider this book a supplement to your relevant real-world experience and other study materials. If you encounter a topic in this book that you do not feel
completely comfortable with, use the “Need more review?” links you’ll find in the text to find
more information and take the time to research and study the topic. Great information is
available on MSDN, TechNet, MVA, and in blogs and forums.
Introduction xix
Organization of this book
This book is organized by the “Skills measured” list published for the exam. The “Skills measured” list is available for each exam on the Microsoft Learning website: https://aka.ms/examlist.
Each chapter in this book corresponds to a major topic area in the list, and the technical tasks in
each topic area determine a chapter’s organization. If an exam covers six major topic areas, for
example, the book will contain six chapters.
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and develop, or implement and support, solutions with Microsoft products and technologies
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Acknowledgments
Charles Pluta I would like to thank my wife Jen for her love and support throughout all
of my projects. I would also like to thank Greg Baker for giving me the opportunity to
succeed from the beginning of my career. I would also like to thank Brian Svidergol, Elias
Mereb, and Mike Corkery, who have provided their continued friendship and technical
expertise throughout the years. Finally, I would like to thank Trina, Troy, and all of the
editors and reviewers behind the scenes that dedicated their time to making this book
happen.
xx Introduction
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Introduction xxi
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Important: How to use this book to study for the exam
Certification exams validate your on-the-job experience and product knowledge. To gauge
your readiness to take an exam, use this Exam Ref to help you check your understanding of
the skills tested by the exam. Determine the topics you know well and the areas in which you
need more experience. To help you refresh your skills in specific areas, we have also provided
“Need more review?” pointers, which direct you to more in-depth information outside the
book.
The Exam Ref is not a substitute for hands-on experience. This book is not designed to
teach you new skills.
We recommend that you round out your exam preparation by using a combination of
available study materials and courses. Learn more about available classroom training at
https://www.microsoft.com/learning. Microsoft Official Practice Tests are available for many
exams at https://aka.ms/practicetests. You can also find free online courses and live events
from Microsoft Virtual Academy at https://www.microsoftvirtualacademy.com.
This book is organized by the “Skills measured” list published for the exam. The
“Skills measured” list for each exam is available on the Microsoft Learning website:
https://aka.ms/examlist.
Note that this Exam Ref is based on this publicly available information and the author’s
experience. To safeguard the integrity of the exam, authors do not have access to the exam
questions.
Introduction xxiii
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CHAPTER 1
Install Windows Servers in host
and compute environments
I
n this chapter we discuss the requirements for installing, upgrading, and migrating servers
to Windows Server 2016. We’ll also cover Nano Server, the new version of Windows Server.
Finally, we will discuss how to create, manage, and maintain images that can be used for
Windows Server deployments.
Windows Server 2016 introduces several new features
compared to Windows Server 2012. These features include:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Nano Server Offers a new installation type that
does not provide a graphical or command prompt
experience and must be managed remotely.
Containers Isolates applications from the operating system. Each container is isolated, but runs on the
base operating system. You can further isolate a container by running it as a virtual machine with Hyper-V.
I M P O R TA N T
Have you read
page xxiii?
It contains valuable
information regarding
the skills you need to
pass the exam.
Docker Provides a method of managing containers, and is supported for Windows Server 2016 and Hyper-V.
Rolling upgrades Enables you to add Windows Server 2016 nodes to an existing
Windows Server 2012 R2 failover cluster and continue to operate the cluster until all
nodes have been upgraded.
Hyper-V memory enhancements Enables you to dynamically add or remove
virtual memory and networking adapters from running virtual machines (VM).
Nested virtualization
within a VM.
Provides a method of running a nested Hyper-V installation
Shielded virtual machines Shields using a virtual machine that provides protection for the data that is stored on the VM.
PowerShell Direct Enables you to run PowerShell on a VM without additional
security policies, network, or firewall settings.
Windows Defender Enables by default that Windows Server 2016 installations and
anti-malware patterns are automatically kept up-to-date.
Storage Spaces Direct Enables you to build a highly-available storage set with
direct attached storage by using Server Message Block version 3.0 (SMB 3.0).
1
Storage Replica
redundancy.
■
Enables you to replicate volumes at the block level for additional
Microsoft Passport Enables you to use two-factor authentication by using an enrolled device with Windows Hello or a PIN.
■
Remote Desktop Services Allows an Azure Structured Query Language (SQL) database to be used, creating a highly available environment with the Remote Desktop
Connection Broker.
■
Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) Enables AD DS improvements to support privileged access management, Azure AD Join, and Microsoft Passport.
■
Skills in this chapter:
■
Install, upgrade, and migrate servers and workloads
■
Install and configure Nano Server
■
Create, manage, and maintain images for deployment
Skill 1.1: Install, upgrade, and migrate servers and workloads
Windows Server 2016 offers similar editions and installation options compared to Windows
Server 2008 and 2012. In this section, we discuss the installation requirements for the base
installation of Windows Server, and outline how Windows Server 2016 differs from previous
versions. We discuss the differences in the installation process, server roles, and features.
This section covers how to:
■
Determine Windows Server 2016 installation requirements
■
Determine appropriate Windows Server 2016 editions per workload
■
Install Windows Server 2016
■
Install Windows Server 2016 features and roles
■
Install and configure Windows Server Core
■
■
■
■
2
CHAPTER 1
Manage Windows Server Core installations using Windows PowerShell,
command line, and remote management capabilities
Implement Windows PowerShell Desired State Configuration to install and
maintain integrity of installed environments
Perform upgrades and migrations of servers and core workloads from Windows
Server 2008 and Windows Server 2012 to Windows Server 2016
Determine the appropriate activation model for server installation, such as
Automatic Virtual Machine Activation, Key Management Service, and
Active Directory-based Activation
Install Windows Servers in host and compute environments
Determine Windows Server 2016 installation requirements
A set of minimum requirements have been published by Microsoft in order to define the bare
essentials that are needed to install Windows Server 2016. These are simply minimums, meaning that you may encounter an error during or after installation if your computer doesn’t
meet them. The minimum requirements are:
■
1.4 GHz 64-bit processor
■
512 MB RAM (Error Correcting Code, or ECC type)
■
32 GB disk space
Note that if installing Windows Server 2016 as a virtual machine, it might initially fail with
only 512 MB of RAM. A workaround is to initially assign 800 MB, and then reduce it to 512
MB after installation. 32 GB of storage space is also a bare minimum, and should only be used
for Server Core installations. A server with a Graphic User Interface (GUI) installation uses
approximately 4 GB of additional space. Additionally, be aware that network installations and
servers with more than 16 GB of RAM need additional disk space.
EXAM TIP
If you need to install the Server Core option, be aware that no GUI components are installed—you can’t enable a GUI from Server Manager. If you need a full GUI on the server,
use the Server with Desktop Experience option.
If you plan to use BitLocker Drive Encryption, then the physical server hardware must also
have a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) chip that is version 2.0 or newer. The TPM chip must
have an Endorsement Key certificate that is pre-provisioned or can be obtained by the device
during the boot process.
NEED MORE REVIEW? LEARN MORE ABOUT TPM CHIPS
For more information regarding TPM chips and TPM Key Attestation, visit https://technet.
microsoft.com/windows-server-docs/identity/ad-ds/manage/component-updates/tpm-keyattestation.
While some previous versions of Windows Server have listed a recommended set of system
requirements, Windows Server 2016 has no such list. The recommended hardware varies
significantly between the different editions that can be deployed, as well as the server roles or
applications that can be installed. Instead of relying on a recommended number of requirements, perform test deployments in the scenario that you need to obtain a good baseline for
your environment.
Skill 1.1: Install, upgrade, and migrate servers and workloads
CHAPTER 1
3
Determine appropriate Windows Server 2016 editions per
workload
Microsoft offers several versions of Windows Server 2016. Selecting the appropriate version
for your environment depends on the size or functionality that you expect to receive from the
server. Table 1-1 lists the Windows Server 2016 editions that are available.
TABLE 1-1 Comparing Windows Server 2016 Editions
Edition
Description
License model
Client access license
Windows Server 2016
Datacenter
Highly virtualized environments
Per core
Windows Server
Windows Server 2016
Standard
Physical or minimally virtualized environments
Per core
Windows Server
Windows Server 2016
Essentials
Small businesses
Per processor
N/A
Windows Server 2016
MultiPoint Premium Server
Academic volume licensing
Per processor
Windows Server and Remote
Desktop Services
Windows Storage Server
2016
OEM channel
Per processor
N/A
Microsoft Hyper-V Server
2016
Free hypervisor
N/A
N/A
Another installation option of Windows Server is Nano Server, which is discussed later in
this chapter in “Skill 1.2: Install and configure Nano Server.”
Install Windows Server 2016
Although there are a few different editions of Windows Server 2016, the installation process
is fairly similar in each of them. Manually installing Windows Server is as simple as completing the GUI wizard and selecting the options. The most important aspect of the installation
process is selecting the type of installation that you prefer:
■
Server Core (Default)
■
Server with Desktop Experience
In previous versions of Windows Server, you can use Server Manager or Windows
PowerShell to adjust whether the server has a GUI. With Windows Server 2016, once the
installation type has been selected, it cannot be changed. Figure 1-1 shows the available
options when manually installing Windows Server 2016.
4
CHAPTER 1
Install Windows Servers in host and compute environments
FIGURE 1-1 Windows Setup
Install Windows Server 2016 features and roles
Windows Server 2016 introduces two new server roles that can be installed:
■
■
Device Health Attestation Works with TPM chips and Mobile Device Management
(MDM) to assess mobile device health. DHA enables organizations to raise the security
of their mobile devices and monitor mobile device health.
MultiPoint Services Originally designed for classroom and lab environments, MultiPoint (previously called Windows MultiPoint Server 2012) enables multiple users to
share one computer while still receiving individual desktops. Unlike Remote Desktop
Services, MultiPoint does not create a separate Remote Desktop Broker or Gateway.
NEED MORE REVIEW?
For more information regarding DHA with Windows 10, visit https://technet.microsoft.com/
en-us/library/mt750346.aspx
en-us/library/mt750346.aspx.
Skill 1.1: Install, upgrade, and migrate servers and workloads
CHAPTER 1
5
The following features have been removed as of Windows Server 2016:
■
Ink and Handwriting Services
■
User Interfaces and Infrastructure
Three new features have been added to Windows Server 2016:
■
■
■
Setup and Boot Event Collection Enables you to collect and log the setup and boot
events from other computers on the network.
VM Shielding Tools for Fabric Management Provides shielding tools for the Fabric
Management server on a network. For the upgrade exam, Fabric Management is not
specifically called out in the skills measured.
Windows Defender Features
for the server.
Comes pre-installed and provides malware protection
Remember that in addition to using Server Manager, you can also install server roles and
features by using the Install-WindowsFeature cmdlet. To obtain the list of available features
that can be installed, use the Get-WindowsFeature cmdlet. For example, to see the available
server roles and features that relate to Active Directory, run the following command:
Get-WindowsFeature -Name AD* | FT Name
Windows returns a list of server roles and features similar to the following:
Name
---AD-CertificateADCS-Cert-Authority
ADCS-Enroll-Web-Pol
ADCS-Enroll-Web-Svc
ADCS-Web-Enrollment
ADCS-Device-Enrollment
ADCS-Online-Cert
AD-Domain-Services
ADFS-Federation
ADLDS
ADRMS
ADRMS-Server
ADRMS-Identity
6
CHAPTER 1
Install Windows Servers in host and compute environments
Install and configure Windows Server Core
Performing a default installation by using the GUI to install Windows Server creates a Server
Core installation. The default settings for installing Windows Server do not include the Desktop Experience features. Figure 1-2 shows the initial logon screen after performing a Server
Core installation.
FIGURE 1-2 Server Core log on screen
As Figure 1-2 shows, there is no graphical element to the installation. Unlike some previous versions, you cannot switch from a Server Core installation to an installation with a GUI.
The Desktop Experience installation option must be selected during installation to add these
specific features.
After changing the password or logging in for the first time, you are simply presented with
a blank command prompt. To make any configuration changes locally on the server, run the
sconfig.cmd command from the command prompt. Figure 1-3 shows the available configuration options by running sconfig.
FIGURE 1-3 sconfig.cmd
Skill 1.1: Install, upgrade, and migrate servers and workloads
CHAPTER 1
7
Most any task that you can complete from Server Manager can also be completed by
running sconfig. Note that sconfig is not restricted just to Server Core, it can also be used to
configure a full server installation with the Desktop Experience.
NOTE MORE ON SCONFIG
After options 10 and 11, the improve product opt-in and Windows Activation have been
configured, they are removed from the sconfig menu.
Manage Windows Server Core installations using Windows
PowerShell, command line, and remote management
capabilities
Remote Management is enabled by default in a Server Core installation. There are a few different options for managing a Server Core installation remotely:
■
Server Manager
■
Windows PowerShell
■
Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT)
■
Remote Desktop
■
Group Policy (Not supported on Nano Server)
Server Manager can be used from a Windows Server that has the Desktop Experience
features installed. Simply add the Server Core installation to Server Manager to manage it
remotely. To use Windows PowerShell, simply specify the server in the command as you typically would a server with a desktop. As of this writing, a specific version of RSAT for Windows
Server 2016 has not been released. However, the RSAT tools for Windows 10 can remotely
manage a Windows Server 2016 installation. Ensure that you make the appropriate firewall
exceptions for remote management to operate as expected. The following built-in exceptions
need to be enabled:
8
■
COM+ Network Access (DCOM-In)
■
Remote Event Log Management (NP-In)
■
Remote Event Log Management (RPC)
■
Remote Event Log Management (RPC-EPMAP)
CHAPTER 1
Install Windows Servers in host and compute environments
Implement Windows PowerShell Desired State
Configuration to install and maintain integrity of installed
environments
Desired State Configuration (DSC) extends Windows PowerShell and enables you to deploy
and configure a server based on a template or baseline. Using DSC you are able to automate
the configuration of several settings, including:
■
Server roles and features
■
Registry settings
■
Files and directories
■
Processes and services
■
Groups and user accounts
■
Environment variables
■
PowerShell scripts
In addition to performing the initial configuration, you can also use DSC to identify servers that no longer conform to the desired state. DSC has built-in resources to enable you to
determine the actual configuration of a server, and implement changes if necessary. There are
three primary components of DSC:
■
■
■
Local Configuration Manager (LCM) The LCM runs on every server (or target node)
being managed. The LCM configures the target node based on the DSC. The LCM also
performs other actions for the target node, including the refresh method, determining
how frequently to perform refreshes, and making partial configurations.
Resources Used to implement the changing states of a configuration change. Resources are part of the PowerShell modules, and can be written to mimic a file, process,
server, or even a VM.
Configuration Defined as the scripts that comprise and configure the resources.
When running the configuration, DSC and the resources perform the configuration and
ensure that the target node is configured as defined.
When building a DSC Script, there are a few components of the syntax to be aware of. The
Script is composed of:
■
■
GetScript This block of code should return the current state of the node being
tested. The value must be a String that is returned as the result.
TestScript This block of code determines if the node that is being tested needs to be
modified based on the returned configuration. If any configuration is found to be out
of date, then it is remedied by the SetScript block.
■
SetScript
■
Credential
■
This block of code modifies the node to the desired configuration.
The credentials that are needed for the script, if any are required.
DependsOn This indicates that another resource must be running before the script
can be run and configured.
Skill 1.1: Install, upgrade, and migrate servers and workloads
CHAPTER 1
9
The following is an example of the syntax for DSC:
Script [string] #ResourceName
{
GetScript = [string]
SetScript = [string]
TestScript = [string]
[ Credential = [PSCredential] ]
[ DependsOn = [string[]] ]
}
NEED MORE REVIEW? LEARNING MORE ABOUT DSC
For more information and a demonstration on DSC, visit https://mva.microsoft.com/en-US/
training-courses/getting-started-with-powershell-desired-state-configuration-dsc--8672.
Perform upgrades and migrations of servers and core
workloads from Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server
2012 to Windows Server 2016
Performing an OS upgrade to Windows Server 2016 is not too different from upgrading previous versions of Windows Server. A new feature for upgrading failover clusters is the Cluster
OS Rolling Upgrade, which is discussed in detail in Chapter 5. Table 1-2 shows the supported
upgrade paths to Windows Server 2016.
TABLE 1-2 Supported upgrade paths
10
Original operating system and edition
Upgrade edition
Windows Server 2008 R2 Standard or Windows
Server 2008 R2 Enterprise
Windows Server 2016 Standard or Windows Server
2016 Datacenter
Windows Server 2008 R2 Datacenter
Windows Server 2016 Datacenter
Windows Web Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2016 Standard
Windows Server 2008 R2 Datacenter with SP1
Windows Server 2016 Datacenter
Windows Server 2008 R2 Enterprise with SP1
Windows Server 2016 Standard or Windows Server
2016 Datacenter
Windows Server 2008 R2 Standard with SP1
Windows Server 2016 Standard or Windows Server
2016 Datacenter
Windows Web Server 2008 R2 with SP1
Windows Server 2016 Standard
Windows Server 2012 Datacenter or Windows Server
2012 R2 Datacenter
Windows Server 2016 Datacenter
Windows Server 2012 Standard or Windows Server
2012 R2 Standard
Windows Server 2016 Standard or Windows Server
2016 Datacenter
CHAPTER 1
Install Windows Servers in host and compute environments
In addition to upgrades, you can also use the Server Migration Tools feature in Windows
Server 2016 if you need to move away from a 32-bit operating system. The operating systems
that you can migrate from are:
■
Windows Server 2003
■
Windows Server 2003 R2
■
Windows Server 2008
■
Windows Server 2008 R2
■
Windows Server 2012
■
Windows Server 2012 R2
Determine the appropriate activation model for server
installation, such as Automatic Virtual Machine Activation,
Key Management Service, and Active Directory-based
Activation
As the name of the skill implies, there are three alternate methods of Windows activation
besides simply activating each server individually. They are as follows:
■
Automatic Virtual Machine Activation (AVMA)
■
Key Management Service (KMS)
■
Active Directory-based Activation
Automatic Virtual Machine Activation
AVMA was added with Windows Server 2012 R2, and enables you to activate a virtual
machine (VM) by using the underlying virtualization host. This provides a method for
activation, even if the VM is in an offline environment. AVMA binds the activation process
to the virtualization host, providing real-time reporting and tracking of the license state
for each virtual machine. The reporting and tracking data can be generated from the
virtualization server.
EXAM TIP
To use AVMA, the virtualization host must be running the Datacenter edition of Windows
Server 2016, and it must be activated. The virtual machines can be running multiple editions of either Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows Server 2016.
By using AVMA, there are no additional product keys or licenses to keep track of. The VM
is activated, and remains so regardless of VM migration across hosts or regions. Service providers who build multi-tenant environments do not have to share product keys with tenants,
or even access the tenant’s virtual machine to activate it. The activation process is transparent
to the VM and does not require any input from within the VM.
Skill 1.1: Install, upgrade, and migrate servers and workloads
CHAPTER 1
11
To use AVMA, you must configure the virtualization host with an AVMA key using the
slmgr tool and the /ipk switch. For example: slmgr /ipk <key>.
The AVMA activation for a VM is only valid for seven days. As the time period gets closer
to expiration, the VM communicates with the virtualization host again to activate and reset
the time period. To determine if a VM has been activated by AVMA, or to see the latest status,
run the slgmgr.vbs /dlv command. Figure 1-4 shows the results of the command.
FIGURE 1-4 AVMA results
Note that in Figure 1-4, the description field includes the string VIRTUAL_MACHINE_
ACTIVATION. This indicates that the virtual machine is activated using AVMA.
If you plan to automate the install of a virtualization host, you can also specify the AVMA
key in the Unattended Setup file. Once configured, the registry on the virtualization server
provides the following tracking and reporting information for the guest operating system:
12
■
Fully qualified domain name
■
Operating system and service packs installed
■
Processor architecture
■
IPv4 and IPv6 network addresses
■
RDP addresses
CHAPTER 1
Install Windows Servers in host and compute environments
Key Management Service
To use Key Management Service (KMS) to activate servers on the network, you must first have
a server that is running the Volume Activation Services server role. During the server role
installation, you can specify whether you want to use KMS or Active Directory-based Activation. When you select KMS, you are prompted to enter the KMS host key, which activates the
Microsoft products that contact the server for activation.
After installing and configuring the server role, you can verify that activation is being performed by using KMS clients, which can be servers or computers.
NOTE KMS THRESHOLDS
KMS requires a minimum threshold of 25 servers or computers before it can process the
activation requests.
Similar to AVMA, you can use the slmgr.vbs script to provide a KMS key for the clients. For
example: slmgr.vbs /ipk <KMSKey>.
After providing the key to the client, you can force an activation attempt by running the
slmgr.vbs /ato command. KMS provides an easy method for virtual and physical machines
on a network to activate through a central location. A KMS is especially useful if you plan to
activate computers that are not on the same domain as the KMS host.
Active Directory-based activation
With AD-based activation, an activation object is created and stored in the schema of the
domain. Then, when any non-activated server or computer that has a volume license key
defined joins the domain, they access the activation object and areautomatically activated. As
long as the device is a member of the domain, it remains activated.
There are three basic steps to using AD-based activation:
1. Install the Volume Activation Services server role.
2. Add a KMS host key to the server.
3. Use a KMS client key on target computers and ensure that they activate.
AD-based activation is extremely useful if all of the computers that you plan to activate are
also members of the domain. There is no need for both AD-based activation and KMS hosts
in this scenario.
Figure 1-5 shows the activation scenarios when using either Key Management Service or
AD-based activation.
Skill 1.1: Install, upgrade, and migrate servers and workloads
CHAPTER 1
13
FIGURE 1-5 Activation scenarios
Skill 1.2: Install and configure Nano Server
Nano Server is a new edition of Windows Server that is designed to be lightweight while
providing the same services as a full installation. In this section, we discuss the requirements
and scenarios in which you can use Nano Server. We also discuss how to install Nano Server,
as well as the supported roles and features for Nano Service. Then we explain how to manage
and configure a Nano Server installation.
This section covers how to:
14
■
Determine appropriate usage scenarios and requirements for Nano Server
■
Install Nano Server
■
Implement roles and features on Nano Server
■
Manage and configure Nano Server
CHAPTER 1
Install Windows Servers in host and compute environments
Determine appropriate usage scenarios and requirements
for Nano Server
Nano Server is a new installation option for the Windows Server family. Usage of Nano Server
can include multiple scenarios:
■
Hyper-V hosts
■
Storage hosts for Scale-Out File Servers
■
DNS servers
■
IIS servers
■
Cloud application servers
Nano Server is supported as both a virtual machine and as a physical host. As of this
writing, there are no specific hardware requirements for installing Nano Server. The smallest Nano Server configuration is approximately 450 MB with minimal packages and features
selected. A VHD with IIS and OEM drivers is more than 500 MB.
Install Nano Server
To install Nano Server, you must first use the Nano Server Image Generator to create the
Nano Server image that you use for installation. The image generator is located in the
NanoServer folder of the Windows Server 2016 installation media. The steps in creating a
Nano Server image are:
1.
Copy the NanoServer folder from the installation media to your computer.
2.
Using PowerShell, change directories to the copied folder and import the
NanoServerImageGenerator module.
3.
Run the New-NanoServerImage cmdlet to create the installation file.
Importing the PowerShell module is a relatively simple task, but can be troublesome if you
use the PowerShell shortcuts. Ensure that you remove the trailing backslash when using tab
shortcuts to complete the module name. Figure 1-6 displays successfully importing the image
generator PowerShell module.
Skill 1.2: Install and configure Nano Server
CHAPTER 1
15
FIGURE 1-6 Importing the Nano Server Image Generator
The New-NanoServerImage cmdlet has several parameters that are configured when running. For example:
■
■
■
■
■
■
Edition Specifies the edition type of the installation, and can be either Standard or
Datacenter.
DeploymentType Specifies whether Nano Server runs as a virtual machine guest, or
as a physical host. The accepted values are Guest or Host.
MediaPath Specifies the location of the installation media for Windows Server 2016.
This can be a mounted ISO location, or a copied location.
BasePath This is the directory to which the packages and Windows image are
copied.
TargetPath This is the path, filename, and extension where the Nano Server VHD,
VHDX, or WIM file is created.
ComputerName
pleted.
This is the hostname of the Nano Server after installation has com-
For example, to create a Standard Nano Server virtual machine named NanoSvr1 that is
located in the current folder, run the following command:
New-NanoServerImage -Edition Standard -DeploymentType Guest -MediaPath D:\ -BasePath .\
-TargetPath .\NanoSvr1\NanoSvr.vhdx -ComputerName NanoSvr1
You can optionally include the AdministratorPassword parameter during the command,
but the password would be plaintext. Omitting the parameter causes PowerShell to prompt
16
CHAPTER 1
Install Windows Servers in host and compute environments
you for the Administrator account password. Figure 1-7 shows running the command successfully, specifying the password separately.
FIGURE 1-7 New-NanoServerImage
Once you have created the image type that you’d like to use, you can mount that image
through Hyper-V, or install it on a physical server. For physical servers, it is recommended that
you also include the OEMDrivers parameter. After the Nano Server image has been generated, this process is not any different than a normal VM or installation.
Implement roles and features on Nano Server
The roles and features for Nano Server can be specified during the image creation to include
these packages within the image. The packages that are built into the base server image can
be included with Nano Server. Simply specify the parameter during the image creation. Some
of the parameters that can be specified include:
■
Storage
■
Compute
This includes the Hyper-V server role.
■
Defender
This includes Windows Defender, with a default signature file.
■
Clustering
This includes the file server role and other storage components.
This includes the Failover Clustering server role.
After a Nano Server has been installed, you can manage the server roles and features by
using the PackageManagement provider. To install the provider, run the Install-PackageProvider NanoServerPackage command. You can then import the provider by running the
Import-PackageProvider NanoServerPackage command.
Skill 1.2: Install and configure Nano Server
CHAPTER 1
17
After you have the package provider installed, you can use the following PowerShell cmdlets to find and add packages to Nano Server:
■
Find-nanoServerPackage
■
Save-NanoServerPackage
■
Install-NanoServerPackage
The InstallNanoServerPackage cmdlet can be used to install packages regardless of whether the Nano Server installation is online or offline. Table 1-3 describes the roles and features
that can be installed with Nano Server.
TABLE 1-3 Nano Server Roles and Features
Server role or feature
Option to install
HyperV role
Compute
Failover clustering
Clustering
Drivers for a variety of network adapters and storage
controllers (this is the same set of drivers included in
a Server Core installation of Windows Server 2016)
OEMDrivers
File Server role and other storage components
Storage
Windows Defender, including a default signature file
Defender
DNS Server role
Packages Microsoft-NanoServer-DNS-Package
Desired State Configuration
Packages Microsoft-NanoServer-DSC-Package
IIS
Packages Microsoft-NanoServer-IIS-Package
Host support for Windows Containers
Containers
System Center Virtual Machine Manager agent
Packages Microsoft-Windows-Server-SCVMMPackage
Packages Microsoft-Windows-Server-SCVMMCompute-Package
Network Performance Diagnostics Service (NPDS)
Packages Microsoft-NanoServer-NPDS-Package
Data Center Bridging
Packages Microsoft-NanoServer-DCB-Package
Boot and run from a RAM disk
Packages Microsoft-NanoServer-Guest-Package
Deploy on a virtual machine
Packages Microsoft-NanoServer-Host-Package
Secure Startup
Packages Microsoft-NanoServer-SecureStartupPackage
Shielded Virtual Machine
Packages Microsoft-NanoServer-ShieldedVMPackage
NEED MORE REVIEW? NANO SERVER PARAMETERS
For more information on Nano Server and all of the installation parameters, visit
https://aka.ms/nanoserver
https://aka.ms/nanoserver.
18
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Install Windows Servers in host and compute environments
Manage and configure Nano Server
After installing and signing into Nano Server, there are limited options for configuring the
server directly form the console. The available information from the console includes:
■
Computer name
■
Workgroup or domain
■
Operating system version
■
Local data, time, and time zone
■
Network configuration
Figure 1-8 displays the local console of a Nano Server installation.
FIGURE 1-8 Nano Server Recovery Console
The basic networking information for the Nano Server machine can be configured through
the Networking screen of the Recovery Console. You can configure the desired network
adapter from the screen, and then configure the desired network settings. Both IPv4 and IPv6
can be configured from the recovery console. Figure 1-9 displays the networking configuration of a Nano Server through the Recovery Console.
Skill 1.2: Install and configure Nano Server
CHAPTER 1
19
FIGURE 1-9 Nano Server Network Adapter Settings
The firewall settings must be configured to enable remote management. Remote Management Firewall Settings can be found in the Inbound Firewall Rules screen of the Recovery
Console. For additional security, you can also configure outbound firewall rules.
The WinRM screen of the recovery console enables you to reset the firewall and remote
management settings for the server back to default. This is useful if you can no longer access
the server remotely, but are unaware of any network changes that might be preventing you
from connecting.
Skill 1.3: Create, manage, and maintain images for
deployment
You can use images to standardize deployments across physical or virtual machines. In this
section, we discuss planning for Windows Server virtualization, as well as best practices for
Linux and FreeBSD VM deployments. We also explain how to use the Microsoft Assessment
and Planning Toolkit to assess an existing environment for upgrading or migrating to a
Windows Server 2016 environment. Then we explore other considerations for virtualization,
20
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Install Windows Servers in host and compute environments
including using and updating deployment images. Finally, we explain how to maintain VHDs
for Windows Server Core and Nano Server by using Windows PowerShell.
This section covers how to:
■
Plan for Windows Server virtualization
■
Plan for Linux and FreeBSD deployments
■
■
■
Assess virtualization workloads using the Microsoft Assessment and
Planning Toolkit and determine considerations for deploying
workloads into virtualized environments
Update images with patches, hotfixes, and drivers and Install roles
and features in offline images
Manage and maintain Windows Server Core, Nano Server images,
and VHDs using Windows PowerShell
Plan for Windows Server virtualization
When planning virtualization for Windows Server, there are a few steps that you need to be
aware of. Figure 1-10 illustrates nine high-level steps to plan for server virtualization.
FIGURE 1-10 Planning for server virtualization
Skill 1.3: Create, manage, and maintain images for deployment
CHAPTER 1
21
■
Determine the scope
Determine what part of the infrastructure will be virtualized.
■
Create workload list
Identify the resources that are needed based on the workload.
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Plan backup and fault tolerance Select the approach that will be used to back up
the virtualized environment after deployment.
Analyze workload requirements Identify the requirements for the virtualization
solution.
Design host hardware Identify the hardware requirements for the underlying hardware.
Map workload to hosts
alization hosts.
Determine how workloads are placed on each of the virtu-
Design backup and fault tolerance Determine the most appropriate approach for
performing the backup from the previous planning.
Design storage infrastructure
ronment.
Design the storage backend for the virtualized envi-
Design network infrastructure Design the network connectivity for the virtualized
environment.
NEED MORE REVIEW? WINDOWS SERVER 2016 VIRTUALIZATION
For a deep dive on virtualization with Windows Server 2016, visit https://mva.microsoft.
com/en-us/training-courses/windows-server-2016-virtualization-deep-dive-14094.
Plan for Linux and FreeBSD deployments
Linux and FreeBSD operating systems have been supported on Hyper-V platforms since Windows Server 2008 R2. The current supported operating system list includes:
■
CentOS
■
Red Had Enterprise Linux
■
Debian
■
Oracle Linux
■
SUSE
■
Ubuntu
■
FreeBSD
When using FreeBSD on Hyper-V, there are a few best practices to be aware of to optimize
functionality and performance, including:
■
22
CHAPTER 1
Enable Common Address Redundancy Protocol (CARP) When using FreeBSD
10.2, CARP enables multiple hosts on a network to share the same IP address and
Install Windows Servers in host and compute environments
Virtual Host ID for high availability. If a host or VM fails, then another active VM can
transparently take over the services that were being provided.
■
■
■
Add UUIDs For all devices that are listed in fstab, ensure that the appropriate UUIDs
are configured. When Hyper-V storage integration services are installed on a VM,
some devices’ UUIDs might change, and the entry in fstab will no longer be valid.
Disable Fast IDE drivers The Fast IDE driver conflicts with the Hyper-V IDE driver,
and can result in the virtual CD-ROM being unavailable. Disabling Fast IDE enables the
use of the virtual CD-ROM.
Create GEOM labels When using FreeBSD 8.x, device nodes are created as discovered during the startup. Device labels can change during this process, which might
result in disk mount errors. By creating permanent labels for each IDE partition, you
avoid mounting errors.
There are also best practices for using Linux on Hyper-V, including:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Tuning file systems Some Linux file systems use additional disk space, even if the
file system is mostly empty. You can reduce the amount of extra space consumption by
using a 1 MB block size, and formatting the virtual disk as ext4.
Extend boot timeout Using the Grub boot menu on a Generation 2 virtual machine
might cause the countdown timer to end quickly. The default timeout value is set to 5,
but is recommended to be set to 100000 for Generation 2 virtual machines.
PXE Boot Generation 2 VMs do not have a PIT timer, and network connections to
a PXE TFTP server can be terminated early, preventing the network bootloader from
starting. A legacy grub bootloader can be specified to mitigate the timeout issue.
Static MAC addresses Linux virtual machines that are being used in a failover cluster
should have static MAC addresses defined. In some versions of Linux, the network
configuration details can be lost after a failover. To ensure that all services perform as
expected, define a static MAC address.
Network adapters It is recommended that you use the Hyper-V specific network
adapters, and not a legacy network adapter. Legacy network adapters might display
random values for parameters in ifconfig.
I/O Scheduler For optimized disk I/O performance, use the NOOP I/O scheduled for
Linux VMs. This can be changed in the bootloader configuration parameters.
NUMA For Linux VMs that have more than 7 virtual processors or 30 GB of RAM, it is
recommended that you disable NUMA in the bootloader configuration.
Skill 1.3: Create, manage, and maintain images for deployment
CHAPTER 1
23
Assess virtualization workloads using the Microsoft
Assessment and Planning Toolkit, determine considerations
for deploying workloads into virtualized environments
One tool that is available to assess and plan for a migration—whether it is physical or virtual—is the Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit. MAP is classified as a solution
accelerator that takes an inventory of your organization’s existing infrastructure. Based on
the discovered information, MAP provides an assessment and report that you can use for
upgrades, migrations, and virtualization workloads. MAP is available for several Microsoft
products:
■
Windows Server 2016
■
Windows Server 2012 R2
■
Windows 10
■
Windows 8.1
■
SQL Server 2014
■
Hyper-V
Some of the general tasks that you can use MAP to perform include:
■
■
■
■
Inventory Discover devices on the network and generate a detailed report of the
servers that can run Windows Server 2016.
Reporting Generate a report or proposal using the Windows Server 2016 Readiness
Assessment. The proposal generates an Executive Overview, Assessment Rules, Next
Steps, and a summary of overall readiness for Windows Server 2016.
Performance metrics Use MAP to capture the performance of the current infrastructure to ensure that the workloads are acceptable for Windows Server 2016.
Utilization Estimate server utilization before and after virtualization of workloads.
You can also determine which physical hosts are specifically suited to become a VM.
Figure 1-11 shows the MAP Toolkit on the server virtualization overview screen.
24
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Install Windows Servers in host and compute environments
FIGURE 1-11 MAP Toolkit
NEED MORE REVIEW? FINDING MORE ON MAP
For more information on MAP, visit https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/solutionaccelerators/dd537566.
Manage and maintain Windows Server Core, Nano Server
images, and VHDs using Windows PowerShell, update
images with patches, hotfixes, and drivers and install roles
and features in offline images
For the purposes of this reference book, we combine the topics of managing, updating, and
maintaining images and including roles and features for offline images. The process of using
the Deployment Image Services and Management (DISM) platform to manage online and offline images has not significantly changed with Windows Server 2016.
DISM is available both as a command-line utility, and as a PowerShell module. The PowerShell module is built-in to Windows Server, while the command-line utility is a part of the
Windows Assessment and Deployment Kit (Windows ADK).
NEED MORE REVIEW? WINDOWS POWERSHELL AND DISM
For more information on using DISM with Windows PowerShell, visit https://technet.
microsoft.com/en-us/library/dn376474.aspx.
Skill 1.3: Create, manage, and maintain images for deployment
CHAPTER 1
25
Chapter summary
One of the main features of Windows Server 2016 is the ability to deploy a server without a
GUI, as Nano Server. Nano Server provides most of the core server roles and features that a
full graphical installation offers, with a much smaller footprint and less attack surface. In this
chapter, we discussed:
■
■
Available editions for Windows Server 2016, that include Standard, Datacenter and
Nano Server
Installation options for Windows Server 2016, including the default Server Core or with
the Desktop Experience
■
Server Core installation and remote management options
■
The three primary activation models, including AVMA, KMS, and AD-based activation
■
How to generate and use a Nano Server image
■
Adding server roles and features to a Nano Server image
■
Using DISM to maintain online and offline images
Thought Experiment
You are a consultant for a small healthcare provider, which has two offices and about 75 employees. You plan to deploy two new servers to support the following roles:
■
Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS)
■
DNS
■
DHCP
■
Internet Information Services (IIS)
You need to minimize the amount of resources that the servers consume. Which version,
edition, and activation method of Windows Server 2016 would you choose?
26
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Install Windows Servers in host and compute environments
Thought Experiment Answer
Based on the scenario that is provided, we can deploy one server with a GUI that has the
management tools installed, as well as the graphical server roles that are necessary. For the
second server, you can use Nano Server to minimize the number of server resources that are
needed. Any service or application that the customer has that cannot run on the Nano Server
could be installed on the full installation.
There is no additional information in the scenario that would require using the Datacenter
edition of Windows Server 2016. However, based on the number of employees, KMS or ADbased activation could be a valid activation type for the server, as well as any future deployment plans. The scenario does not say that the customer is running Hyper-V, so AVMA is not
an option. The deciding factor would be if the customer needs to activate computers that are
not members of the domain. If so, they should use KMS over AD-based activation.
Thought Experiment Answer
CHAPTER 1
27
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CHAPTER 2
Implement storage solutions
S
torage solutions are a primary aspect of using Windows Server in a production environment. In this chapter, we explain some basic storage options and how to implement
these storage options in Windows Server 2016. Then we cover data deduplication, which is a
feature of Windows Server that enables you to oversubscribe the capacity of a given storage
device by not writing duplicated data.
Skills in this chapter:
■
Implement server storage
■
Implement data deduplication
Skill 2.1: Implement server storage
Windows Server 2016 offers editions and installation options similar to Windows Server
2008 and 2012. In this section, we explain the installation requirements for the base installation of Windows Server, as well as outline the differences between the editions. We cover
the differences in installation process, server roles, and features compared to previous versions of Windows Server.
This section covers how to:
■
■
Configure storage pools
Implement simple, mirror, and parity storage layout options for disks
or enclosures
■
Expand storage pools
■
Configure Tiered Storage
■
Configure iSCSI target and initiator
■
Configure iSNS
■
Configure Datacenter Bridging
■
Configure Multi-Path IO
■
Determine usage scenarios for Storage Replica
■
Implement Storage Replica for server-to-server, cluster-to-cluster,
and stretch cluster scenarios
29
Configure storage pools
Storage pools enable you to group physical disks together for more a efficient use of capacity
and, in some cases, to increase performance. You can create a storage pool with either Server
Manager, or Windows PowerShell. The steps through Server Manager are fairly simple:
1.
From Server Manager, navigate to File and Storage Services, and then click Storage
Pools.
2.
Click Tasks, and then click New Storage Pool.
3.
Click Next to bypass the Before You Begin page.
4.
On the Storage Pool Name page, shown in Figure 2-1, enter a name for the pool.
Ensure that the group of disks that are available to the server are selected.
FIGURE 2-1 New Storage Pool Wizard, Storage Pool Name
5.
30
CHAPTER 2
On the Physical Disk page, select the individual disks that make up the pool. Figure
2-2 shows three disks available. Select what you need to allocate to the pool, and then
click Next.
Implement storage solutions
FIGURE 2-2 New Storage Pool Wizard, Physical Disks
6.
After selecting the disks, you’ll be prompted to review the information on the Confirmation page. Click Create to confirm the details of the storage pool. The summary is
shown in Figure 2-3.
FIGURE 2-3 New Storage Pool Wizard, Confirmation
Skill 2.1: Implement server storage
CHAPTER 2
31
Using PowerShell to create the storage pool is slightly more complicated, only because you
need to identify the physical disks that are available for the pool. First, to identify those disks,
run the following command:
Get-PhysicalDisk -CanPool $True
This returns the available disks to pool. To make the disks easier to pass to the
NewStoragePool cmdlet, set the disks to a variable. Then you can create a pool by using
the following commands:
$Disks = Get-PhysicalDisk -CanPool $True
New-StoragePool -FriendlyName "Pool1" -StorageSubSystemFriendlyName "SubSystemName"
-PhysicalDisks $Disks
The results of the commands are shown in Figure 2-4.
FIGURE 2-4 Creating a storage pool with PowerShell
Implement simple, mirror, and parity storage layout
options for disks or enclosures
After a storage pool has been configured, you need to create a virtual disk that uses the pool.
Virtual disks enable you to create resilient storage by using the disks in the storage pool.
There are three types of resiliency layouts:
■
■
■
32
CHAPTER 2
Simple Data is striped across the physical disks, enabling you to maximize capacity
and throughput. However, a single disk failure causes the pool to be unavailable.
Mirror Data is striped across physical disks, creating two or three copies of the same
data. This increases the reliability of the data, ensuring that you can withstand a single
(or multiple) disk failures without losing access to the data or the pool. However, storage capacity is diminished because the additional physical drives are being used for
redundancy instead of capacity.
■
To protect against a single disk failure, use at least two physical disks in the pool.
■
To protect against two disk failures, use at least five disks in the pool.
Parity Data and a parity bit is striped access the physical disks, increasing both reliability and storage capacity. Storage capacity is not maximized because of the parity
data that must also be written, but protects against disk failures.
Implement storage solutions
■
To protect against a single disk failure, use at least three disks.
■
To protect against two disk failures, use at least seven disks.
Figure 2-5 shows selecting the storage layout from the New Virtual Disk Wizard.
FIGURE 2-5 New Virtual Disk Wizard, Storage Layout
The virtual disk also enables you to select the provisioning type:
■
■
Thin Volumes on the virtual disk only uses space as data is being written, up to the
maximum size of the volume.
Fixed The volume allocates space from the storage pool immediately, regardless of
any actual data written. This ensures that you do not oversubscribe capacity from the
pool.
Creating a virtual disk using PowerShell is also straightforward. The New-VirtualDisk cmdlet is used to create the virtual disk. For example, to create a thinly-provisioned disk named
vDIsk2 using parity that is 50 GB, run the following command.
New-VirtualDisk -StoragePoolFriendlyName Pool1 -FriendlyName vDisk2
-ResiliencySettingName Parity -Size 50GB -ProvisioningType Thin
An alternate step to creating a virtual disk is to create a volume. In addition to the settings
that you can configure for a virtual disk, a volume is what is actually presented to the server
and used by the operating system, accessed by a drive letter. To create a volume in the GUI,
Skill 2.1: Implement server storage
CHAPTER 2
33
use the New Volume Wizard from within Server Manager. You will be asked to specify the following information during the wizard:
■
■
■
■
Virtual disk
This is the virtual disk that was previously created.
Volume size This can vary in size, up to the maximum size of the virtual disk. If you
presented 50 GB to the virtual disk, you could create two 25 GB volumes.
Drive letter or folder You can assign a drive letter to the volume. Alternatively, you
can mount the volume to a specific folder. For instance, the volume could be mounted
in a specific user directory to give users dedicated storage space.
File System settings These are the typical settings when creating a volume from a
physical disk. The file system type, either the resilient filesystem (ReFS) or NTFS. You
can also configure the allocation unit size and the volume label at the same time.
To create a volume using similar settings to the virtual disk earlier, run the following command:
New-Volume -StoragePoolFriendlyName Pool1 -Size 25GB -AccessPath F: -FriendlyName
Volume1 -ResiliencySettingName Parity -FileSystem NTFS -ProvisioningType Thin
In addition to using physical disks, you can also use external storage enclosures with a
storage pool. When creating a virtual disk, you can enable enclosure awareness, which increases redundancy depending on the number of enclosures and the resiliency level that you
select. This allows you to lose an entire enclosure without losing access to the storage pool.
Table 2-1 shows the supported resiliency levels with enclosure awareness.
TABLE 2-1 Enclosure awareness resiliency
Resiliency type
Three enclosures
Four enclosures
Simple
Not supported
Not supported
Two-way mirror
1 enclosure or 1 disk per pool
1 enclosure or 1 disk per pool
Three-way mirror
1 enclosure and 1 disk, or 2 disks
1 enclosure and 1 disk, or 2 disks
Single parity
Not supported
Not supported
Dual parity
Not supported
1 enclosure and 1 disk, or 2 disks
NEED MORE REVIEW?
WINDOWS SERVER STORAGE POOLS
For more information on storage pool with Windows Server, visit https://technet.microsoft.
com/en-us/library/hh831739(v=ws.11).aspx
com/en-us/library/hh831739(v=ws.11).aspx.
34
CHAPTER 2
Implement storage solutions
Expand storage pools
Expanding a storage pool with additional physical disks is a simple task. From Server Manager,
select the storage pool that you intend to expand, right-click and select Add Physical Disk.
Figure 2-6 depicts selecting the physical disk that you want to add to the storage pool. Simply
place a checkmark next to the disk, and then click OK.
FIGURE 2-6 Add Physical Disk
Similar to creating a storage pool, adding a disk by using PowerShell requires you to first
identify the disk to add. To identify and add the available disks to a storage pool, run the following commands:
$Disks = Get-PhysicalDisk -CanPool $True
Add-PhysicalDisk -StoragePoolFriendlyName Pool1 -PhysicalDisks $Disks
Configure tiered storage
Storage tiers can be enabled on a virtual disk if you have both hard-drive disks (HDD) and
solid-state disks (SSD) in the storage pool. Storage tiering automatically moves the most
frequently-accessed data to the faster storage type—the SSDs. Data that is not accessed
frequently is stored on the spinning HDDs.
Configuring storage tiering is a checkbox during the virtual disk creation. If you do not
have a mixture of drive types, then the checkbox is not available during the wizard. If you are
using PowerShell, you can specify the StorageTiers and StorageTierSizes parameters as part of
the New-VirtualDisk cmdlet.
EXAM TIP
Storage tiers are not supported with thin provisioning. When using storage tiers, you must
specify fixed disk sizes.
Skill 2.1: Implement server storage
CHAPTER 2
35
Configure iSCSI target and initiator
Configuring an iSCSI target or initiator hasn’t changed much since Windows Server 2012 R2.
And configuring an iSCSI target server enables you to network boot computers from a single
boot image that has been provided to the network from a central location. You can use iSCSI
targets with Windows Server 2016 to boot hundreds of computers from a single operating
system image.
Installing the iSCSI Target Server server role can be performed from both Server Manager
and PowerShell. iSCSI Target Server is a part of the File and Storage Services storage role.
Installing the server role also installs the management features that are used to configure the
server role. After installing the role, you can configure iSCSI virtual disks.
1.
To create a new iSCSI virtual disk, launch the wizard from Server Manager. The first
screen of the wizard configures where to store the virtual disk. Ensure that the server
is selected, select the volume or path of the storage, then click Next. Figure 2-7 shows
the C: volume selected for Adatum-DC1.
FIGURE 2-7 iSCSI virtual disk location
2.
36
CHAPTER 2
On the iSCSI Virtual Disk Size page, enter a size for the virtual disk. You can also configure whether the disk is fixed, dynamically expanding, or differencing. As shown in
Implement storage solutions
Figure 2-8, the default disk type is set to Dynamically Expanding. Click Next to continue the wizard.
FIGURE 2-8 iSCSI virtual disk size
3.
On the iSCSI Target page, select either an existing target or a new target, and then
click Next.
4.
On the Target Name And Access page, enter a name for the target and then click Next.
5.
On the Access Servers page, click Add to specify the iSCSI initiators that access the new
virtual disk. Figure 2-9 shows adding the iSCSI initiator.
Skill 2.1: Implement server storage
CHAPTER 2
37
FIGURE 2-9 iSCSI virtual disk size
6.
On the Enable Authentication page, select whether you want to Enable CHAP or Enable
Reverse CHAP for authentication. These are optional protocols to authenticate the initiator connections or target. Figure 2-10 shows the available options to configure CHAP
and Reverse CHAP.
FIGURE 2-10 iSCSI authentication method
38
CHAPTER 2
Implement storage solutions
7.
Click Create to create the virtual disk using the settings that you specified during the
wizard.
As with other virtual disks, you can also create an iSCSI virtual disk by using PowerShell
with the New-IscsiVirtualDisk cmdlet. For example, to create a 10GB disk, run the following
command:
New-IscsiVirtualDisk –Path “C:\temp\test.vhdx” -Size 10GB
Configure iSNS
The Internet Storage Name Service (iSNS) is a protocol, which can be added to a Windows
Server installation, and used to communicate between iSNS servers and clients. iSNS clients
are computers, or initiators, that search for storage devices, or targets, on a network. iSNS
provides automated discovery, management, and configuration of iSCSI and Fibre Channel
devices on a network. Figure 2-11 shows the iSNS Server properties page.
FIGURE 2-11 iSNS Server Properties
By default, when you create an iSNS Server, there are no iSCSI targets listed even if they
have been configured already. To ensure that the configured iSCSI targets also appear in
the iSNS Server, the iSNS Server must be added to the iSCSI Initiator properties, as shown in
Figure 2-12.
Skill 2.1: Implement server storage
CHAPTER 2
39
FIGURE 2-12 iSCSI Initiator Properties
In the iSNS properties, you can then see the connected devices, and whether they are an
initiator or target. iSNS does not have any specific PowerShell cmdlets, but can be configured
from the command-line by using the isnscli.exe utility.
Configure Datacenter Bridging
Datacenter Bridging (DCB) enhances the Ethernet connectivity between servers on a network.
DCB requires DCB-capable network adapters on servers that are providing DCB, as well as
DCB-capable network switches that the servers connect to. DCB can be installed by using the
InstallWindowsFeature cmdlet:
Install-WindowsFeature "data-center-bridging"
After installing the DCB feature, you can manage DCB on a server by importing three different PowerShell modules:
Import-Module netqos
Import-Module dcbqos
Import-Module netadapter
40
CHAPTER 2
Implement storage solutions
NEED MORE REVIEW?
DCB CONNECTIVITY
For more information on how DCB enhances connectivity, visit https://technet.microsoft.
com/en-us/library/hh849179(v=ws.11).aspx.
Configure Multi-Path IO (MPIO)
MPIO is another feature of Windows Server that can be installed from Server Manager or by
using the Install-WindowsFeature cmdlet. There are four components that can be managed
after installing MPIO:
■
■
■
■
MPIO Devices These are the devices that are presented to the server and managed
by MPIO. In some cases, a device can be presented, but not specifically added to MPIO.
You can manually add additional devices to ensure that they are managed by the
service.
Discover Multi-Paths This enables you to run an algorithm that checks all of the
attached devices to the server and ensure that they represent the same Logical Unit
Number (LUN) through multiple paths.
DSM Install This enables you to install DSMs that might be provided by the storage vendor that is being used. Many storage systems are compliant with the Microsoft
DSM, but provide their own DSM to work with their architecture.
Configuration Snapshot This enables you to save the MPIO configuration to a text
file. The text file includes DSM information, the number of paths, and the current path
state.
In addition to being managed through the MPIO GUI, you can also use mpclaim to perform
many of the configuration activities.
NEED MORE REVIEW?
CONFIGURE WITH MPCLAIM
For more information on mpclaim, visit https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/
ee619743(v=ws.10).aspx
ee619743(v=ws.10).aspx.
MPIO is also supported on Nano Server, but with some differences:
■
Only the Microsoft DSM is supported
■
The load-balancing policy cannot be modified
■
Default: Active/Active Round Robin
■
SAS HDD: LeastBlocks
■
ALUA: RoundRobin with Subset
■
Path states are picked up from the target storage system
■
Storage devices are claimed by bus type. For example, Fibre channel, iSCSI, or SAS
Skill 2.1: Implement server storage
CHAPTER 2
41
To enable MPIO for Nano Server, run the following command:
Enable-WindowsOptionalFeature -Online -FeatureName MultiPathIO
When MPIO is installed on a Nano Server, the disks that are presented are listed as duplicates, with a single disk being available through each path. MPIO must be configured to claim
and manage the disks to ensure that only one path is used. A script has been provided by
Microsoft to claim and manage the disks, and can be found at: https://technet.microsoft.com/
en-us/windows-server-docs/compute/nano-server/mpio-on-nano-server.
Determine usage scenarios for Storage Replica
Storage Replica is a new function available with Windows Server 2016 that provides disasterrecovery capabilities. Storage Replica enables you to efficiently use many datacenters by
stretching or replicating clusters. If one datacenter goes offline, the workload can be moved
to another. Some scenarios where Store Replica can be used include:
■
Stretch Cluster Enables the configuration of computers and storage as part of a
single cluster. In this scenario, some nodes share one set of asymmetric storage, and
other nodes share another set, then replicate the data with site awareness. The storage
for this scenario can be JBOD, SAN, or iSCSI-attached disks. A stretch cluster can be
managed by using Windows PowerShell and the Failover Cluster Manager tool, and
can be configured for automated failover. Figure 2-13 illustrates using Storage Replica
in a Stretch Cluster.
FIGURE 2-13 Stretch Cluster
■
42
CHAPTER 2
Cluster-to-Cluster Enables replication between two completely separate clusters,
where one cluster copies the data to another cluster. This scenario can also use Storage
Spaces on JBOD, SAN, or iSCSI-attached disks as the backend storage. A cluster-to-
Implement storage solutions
cluster storage replica can be managed by using PowerShell, but failover must occur
manually. Figure 2-14 illustrates using a cluster-to-cluster storage replica.
FIGURE 2-14 Cluster-to-cluster storage replica
■
Server-to-server This enables replication between standalone servers with Storage
Spaces on JBOD, SAN, or iSCSI-attached disks. Individual servers can also be managed
by PowerShell, and failover must be managed manually. Figure 2-15 illustrates a serverto-server storage replica.
FIGURE 2-15 Server-to-server storage replica
NEED MORE REVIEW?
ACCESS THE STORAGE REPLICA
For an in-depth look at Storage Replica, visit https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/windowsserver-docs/storage/storage-replica/storage-replica-overview
server-docs/storage/storage-replica/storage-replica-overview.
Skill 2.1: Implement server storage
CHAPTER 2
43
Implement Storage Replica for server-to-server, cluster-tocluster, and stretch cluster scenarios
Storage Replica is only available in the Datacenter edition of Windows Server 2016. To install
the feature, use the Add Roles and Features Wizard in Server Manager, or run the following
command:
Install-WindogetwsFeature -Name Storage-Replica -IncludeManagementTools
There are 20 different PowerShell options in the Storage Replica module, including:
TestSRTopology This verifies that the topology meets the requirements for a
Storage Replica.
■
NewSRPartnership This configures the Storage Replica using the information that
you provide. A source and destination name, volume, and replication group must be
specified.
■
NewSRGroup This can optionally be used on one server in each location in combination with NewSRPartnership to configure the replication in stages.
■
NEED MORE REVIEW?
STORAGE REPLICA
For walkthroughs on configuring storage replica in a stretch cluster, between clusters, or
between servers, visit https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-server-docs/storage/
storage-replica/storage-replica-windows-server-2016.
Skill 2.2: Implement data deduplication
Data deduplication enables you to oversubscribe the capacity of a given storage
device by not writing the same data twice. For example, if you store multiple documents
that contain a majority of the same information, only the difference in data is written
to the disk.
This section covers how to:
44
CHAPTER 2
■
Implement and configure deduplication
■
Determine appropriate usage scenarios for deduplication
■
Monitor deduplication
■
Implement a backup and restore solution with deduplication
Implement storage solutions
Implement and configure deduplication
Data deduplication is another server role that can be installed through the Add Roles and
Features Wizard, or by using the Install-WindowsFeature cmdlet. The Data Deduplication
server role also requires the File Server server role to be installed. Once installed, deduplication can be enabled on specific volumes by running the Enable-DedupVolume cmdlet. For example, to enable deduplication on the E drive, and begin an optimization job on that volume,
run these commands:
Import-Module Deduplication
Enable-DedupVolume E: -UsageType Default -DataAccess
Start-DedupJob E: -Optimization
The DataAccess parameter indicates that data access will be enabled as part of the
deduplicated volume. There are three possible options for the UsageType parameter when
enabling deduplication:
■
Default This indicates a general purpose volume as the expected workload for the
underlying disk.
■
Hyper-V
■
Backup
This indicates that the volume stores VHDs for a Hyper-V server.
This indicates that the volume is optimized for virtualized backup servers.
There are four types of deduplication jobs that run periodically, or can be run manually:
■
■
Optimization This manually starts the process of optimizing the volume for deduplication, and ensures that duplicated data does not consume additional storage.
GarbageCollection Garbage collection ensures that deleted or modified data is
removed from the reference table.
■
Scrubbing
■
Unoptimization
This starts the data integrity scrubbing on the deduplicated volume.
This removes the deduplication on a specific volume.
Determine appropriate usage scenarios for deduplication
Typical scenarios for deduplication are file shares that have user documents, software
deployment images, or VHD files. These scenarios often generate a large savings of
storage space by using deduplication. Table 2-2 shows some common deduplication
scenarios.
Skill 2.2: Implement data deduplication
CHAPTER 2
45
TABLE 2-2 Deduplication scenarios
Scenario
Content
Typical savings
User documents
Documents and photos
30-50 percent
Deployment shares
Software binaries and images
70-80 percent
Virtualization libraries
VHDs
80-95 percent
General file share
All of the above
50-60 percent
After you have installed the data deduplication feature, you can also use the Deduplication
Savings Evaluation Tool. The following output is an example of the ddpeval.exe tool:
Data Deduplication Savings Evaluation Tool
Copyright 2011-2012 Microsoft Corporation.
All Rights Reserved.
Evaluated folder: E:
Processed files: 128
Processed files size: 120.03MB
Optimized files size: 40.02MB
Space savings: 80.01MB
Space savings percent: 66
Optimized files size (no compression): 11.47MB
Space savings (no compression): 571.53KB
Space savings percent (no compression): 40
Files with duplication: 20
Files excluded by policy: 20
Files excluded by error: 0
Based on the percentage returned by the tool, you can decide whether to implement data
deduplication in the environment. With Windows Server 2016, data deduplication introduces
the following changes:
■
46
CHAPTER 2
Increased volume sizes NTFS volumes up to 64 TB can have deduplication enabled.
This has been enhanced by increasing the number of threads working in parallel for
individual volumes.
Implement storage solutions
■
■
Increased file sizes
storage volume.
Individual files up to 1 TB can efficiently be deduplicated on a
Nano Server support Deduplication is fully supported on volumes that are presented to a Nano Server installation.
Monitor deduplication
The built-in deduplication jobs support weekly scheduling for optimization, garbage
collection, and scrubbing. Additionally, jobs can be configured by using the Windows
Task Scheduler. Remember that the garbage collector reclaims space by removing data
that is no longer being used. The default weekly schedule can be viewed by running the
Get-DedupSchedule cmdlet.
Get-DedupSchedule
The following output is returned:
Enabled
Type
StartTime
Days
Name
-------
----
---------
----
----
True
GarbageCollection
WeeklyGarbageCollection
2:45 AM
Saturday
True
3:45 AM
Saturday
True
Optimization
BackgroundOptimization
Scrubbing
WeeklyScrubbing
The Get-DedupStatus cmdlet can be used to see the overall status of a server.
Get-DedupStatus
The following output is returned:
FreeSpace
SavedSpace
OptimizedFiles
InPolicyFiles
Volume
--------------
----------
--------------
-------------
------
140.26 GB
265.94 GB
36124
36125
E:
76.26 GB
42.19 GB
43017
43017
F:
To force a refresh of the deduplication service and require it to rescan the available volumes, use the Update-DedupStatus cmdlet.
Skill 2.2: Implement data deduplication
CHAPTER 2
47
Implement a backup and restore solution with
deduplication
Backup applications that work at the block level should work as expected, as the file system
presents the full data to the application. Therefore, the destination media for the backup
must be expecting the full data set, as if it was not deduplicated. For example, if a 1 TB volume has 700 GB of raw data that has been deduplicated down to 400 GB, the backup media
must be capable of storing 700 GB of data.
Windows Server Backup can back up an optimized volume and retain the deduplicated
data without the need for the additional capacity.
NEED MORE REVIEW?
BACKUPS WITH DEDUPLICATION
For more information on performing backups with deduplication, visit https://technet.
microsoft.com/en-us/library/hh831600(v=ws.11).aspx
microsoft.com/en-us/library/hh831600(v=ws.11).aspx.
Chapter summary
48
■
Managing storage pools for attached storage
■
Using simple, mirror, and parity virtual disks for storage pools
■
How to expand storage pools with additional disks
■
Configuring tiered storage with HDDs and SSDs
■
Configuring iSCSI targets and initiators
■
Using iSNS with iSCSI initiators
■
Configuring DCB for enhanced SMB functionality
■
Using MPIO to optimize multiple paths to attached storage
■
Stretched cluster, cluster to cluster, and server to server storage replicas
■
Using PowerShell to manage storage replicas
■
Installing and configuring data deduplication
■
Identifying the best scenarios for using data deduplication
■
Monitoring deduplication with PowerShell
CHAPTER 2
Implement storage solutions
Thought Experiment
A company has two datacenters in two different geographic regions. Servers have direct-attached disks that are configured as JBOD. Each direct-attached storage system has a mixture
of HDDs and SSDs. The JBOD storage must maximize the storage capacity presented to the
server. Servers in each datacenter are members of a failover cluster. The failover cluster is
limited to a single datacenter. A group of servers used for marketing contain a file share with
marketing documents and photos. Another group of servers use local storage for Hyper-V
VHDs.
Using this information, answer the following questions:
1.
What type of storage pool should the JBOD storage systems use?
2.
Would tiered storage increase the performance of the JBOD array?
3.
Which storage replica scenario works best for this company?
4.
Would the Marketing servers benefit from using data deduplication?
5.
Would the Hyper-V servers benefit from using data deduplication?
Thought Experiment Answers
1.
The JBOD storage system should use a parity pool to maximize the amount of storage
that is presented to the server.
2.
Yes, tiered storage would ensure that data that is frequently accessed is stored on the
SSDs, while data that is not accessed frequently is stored on the HDDs.
3.
Because the failover clusters are limited to a single datacenter, a cluster to cluster storage replica scenario is the best fit for this environment. A stretch cluster is not feasible
because they are not members of the same cluster. This also eliminates individual
server to server storage replicas.
4.
Yes, documents and photos are a viable storage type for data deduplication.
5.
Yes, Hyper-V machines with VHDs are a viable storage type for data deduplication.
Thought Experiment Answers
CHAPTER 2
49
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CHAPTER 3
Implement Hyper-V
I
n this chapter, we explore almost all of the settings that can be configured within the
Hyper-V role. First we explain how to install or add the role to a server. Then we cover
individual virtual machine (VM) settings, including the generation and versions. We also
go through configuring the different storage options for Hyper-V, for both individual and
shared virtual disks. Finally, we configure the networking capabilities of Hyper-V.
Skills in this chapter:
■
Install and configure Hyper-V
■
Configure virtual machine settings
■
Configure Hyper-V storage
■
Configure Hyper-V networking
Skill 3.1: Install and configure Hyper-V
In this section, we cover the requirements and processes for adding the Hyper-V role. We
also detail how to install the management tools, and use those tools to manage local and
remote Hyper-V hosts. We also highlight is the configuration versions of VMs, and how
those versions unlock specific features within Hyper-V. and, finally, we explain two new features in Hyper-V, Windows PowerShell Direct, and nested virtualization.
This section covers how to:
■
Determine hardware and compatibility requirements for installing Hyper-V
■
Install Hyper-V
■
Install management tools
■
Upgrade from existing versions of Hyper-V
■
Delegate virtual machine management
■
Perform remote management of Hyper-V hosts
■
Configure virtual machines using Windows PowerShell Direct
■
Implement nested virtualization
51
Determine hardware and compatibility requirements for
installing Hyper-V
In addition to the system requirements that we discussed in Chapter 1 for Windows Server
2016, the Hyper-V role also has additional hardware requirements. Hyper-V requires a 64-bit
processor that uses second-level address translation (SLAT). The virtualization components of
Hyper-V will not be installed if the processor does not support SLAT. Note that this is strictly
for the virtualization components. The Hyper-V Manager, PowerShell cmdlets, and management tools can be used without SLAT.
You should also ensure that the Hyper-V host has enough memory to support both the
Hyper-V OS itself, as well as the virtual machines. As a minimal configuration with the host OS
and one VM, you should plan for at least 4 GB of RAM.
Windows Server 2016 also introduces Shielded virtual machines. These VMs rely on virtualization-based security. The Hyper-V host must support UEFI 2.3.1c or later. This is for secure,
measured boot. To support optional features, the Hyper-V host should also have a TPM v2.0,
and IOMMU so that the host can provide direct memory access protection.
Install Hyper-V
The process for installing Hyper-V has not changed much since Windows Server 2008 and
Windows Server 2012. Hyper-V is a server role that can be installed by using the Add Roles
and Features Wizard from Server Manager, or by using Windows PowerShell:
Install-WindowsFeature –Name Hyper-V -ComputerName Server1 -IncludeManagementTools
-Restart
Install management tools
If you only need to install the management tools, this can also be performed by using the
Add Roles and Features Wizard from Server Manager, or by using Windows PowerShell. However, there are a few different options when installing only the management tools.
When using Server Manager, the option for installing the management tools is actually
part of the Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT), not Hyper-V. Expanding RSAT shows
management tools that can be installed, including tools for Hyper-V.
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FIGURE 3-1 Add Roles and Features Wizard
Figure 3-1 shows the two components of installing Hyper-V, which are:
■
■
Hyper-V GUI Management Tools This is the Hyper-V Manager and Virtual Machine
Connect to manage and view virtual machines.
Hyper-V Module for Windows PowerShell
can be used to manage Hyper-V.
These are the PowerShell cmdlets that
When using PowerShell to install the management features, there are a few different options:
■
■
■
■
Microsoft-Hyper-V-All
tools.
This installs Hyper-V itself as well as all of the management
Microsoft-Hyper-V-Tools-All This installs all of the management tools, including
the manager, Virtual Machine Connect, and PowerShell module.
Microsoft-Hyper-V-Management-Clients
Virtual Machine Connect.
This installs only the GUI manager and
Microsoft-Hyper-V-Management-PowerShell
module for Hyper-V.
This installs only the PowerShell
To use PowerShell to install the management tools, use the following command:
Enable-WindowsOptionalFeature -Feature 'Microsoft-Hyper-V-Tools-All' -Online
Skill 3.1: Install and configure Hyper-V
CHAPTER 3
53
Upgrade from existing versions of Hyper-V
This could mean upgrading the operating system, or upgrading the virtual machine version
in Hyper-V. Upgrading the operating system is a separate task that doesn’t specifically involve
Hyper-V. The only consideration from a Hyper-V perspective is the VMs. You have the option
of shutting them down temporarily while the upgrade is performed, or migrating them to a
different host.
Certain operating systems only support specific versions of virtual machines. Table 3-1 lists
the supported VM versions for each operating system.
TABLE 3-1 Supported VM versions
Hyper-V host operating system
Supported VM version number
Windows 8.1
5.0
Windows Server 2012 R2
5.0
Windows 10 builds earlier than 10565
5.0, 6.2
Windows 10 build 10565 and later
5.0, 6.2, 7.0, 7.1, 8.0
Windows Server 2016
5.0, 6.2, 7.0, 7.1, 8.0
Each configuration represents the VM configuration file, saved state, and snapshots that
are associated with the VM on the host. By using a newer virtual machine configuration, you
also ensure that the virtual machine supports the latest features. Table 3-2 shows features that
are only supported in specific VM configuration versions.
TABLE 3-2 Version-specific features
54
Feature
Minimum VM version
Hot Add/Remove memory
6.2
Secure Boot for Linux VMs
6.2
Production Checkpoints
6.2
PowerShell Direct
6.2
Virtual Machine Grouping
6.2
Virtual Trusted Platform Module (vTPM)
7.0
Virtual machine multi-queues (VMMQ)
7.1
Nested virtualization
8.0
CHAPTER 3
Implement Hyper-V
Delegate virtual machine management
The most simple and effective method of enabling others to manage Hyper-V and virtual
machines is to add them to the Hyper-V Administrators local security group for each of the
Hyper-V hosts to which you plan to delegate management. However, this might not be the
most secure method because doing so gives the new administrators permissions to change
virtual switch and host settings in addition to VMs.
To delegate access to individual VMs, you need to modify the Hyper-V Authorization
Manager store. This enables you to create task and role definitions to which you can delegate
access. The general steps to modifying the Hyper-V services authorization include:
1.
Launch a Microsoft Management Console (MMC) session, and add the Authorization
Manager to the console, as shown in Figure 3-2.
FIGURE 3-2 Add or Remove Snap-ins
2.
Right-click the Authorization Manager, and then click Open Authorization Store.
3.
In the Open Authorization Store window, ensure that XML File is selected. Click Browse.
Navigate to %systemroot%\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\Hyper-V\ and select
InitialStore.xml, as shown in Figure 3-3. Click OK.
Skill 3.1: Install and configure Hyper-V
CHAPTER 3
55
FIGURE 3-3 Open Authorization Store
4.
Expand Authorization Manager, Initial Store, Hyper-V services, Role Assignments. Note
that by default, the only role assignment is an Administrator, as shown in Figure 3-4.
FIGURE 3-4 Authorization Manager Role Assignments
56
5.
Expand Definitions, and then right-click Task Definitions. Click New Task Definition.
6.
Name the task definition “VM Managers.” In the notification prompt, click OK. In the
Add Definition screen, click the Operations tab.
7.
Select operations that you would want the VM Managers role to do. In this example,
select all operations that are associated with a virtual machine, as shown in Figure 3-5,
and then click OK twice.
CHAPTER 3
Implement Hyper-V
FIGURE 3-5 Add Definition
8.
Now that you have created a group of tasks, you can create the role that can use these
tasks. Right-click Role Definitions, and then click New Role Definition.
9.
Name the Role Definition, such as VM Managers Role, and then click Add. Click the
Tasks tab, select VM Managers, and then click OK. There are now be two role definitions, as shown in Figure 3-6.
FIGURE 3-6 Authorization Manager Role Definitions
Skill 3.1: Install and configure Hyper-V
CHAPTER 3
57
10. Next, you can create the Role Assignment, which is what user accounts are linked to
for the permissions. Right-click Role Assignments, and then click New Role Assignment.
Select the VM Managers Role, and then click OK.
11. Right-click the new role assignment, select Assign Users and Groups, and then click
From Windows and Active Directory. Select a user that you plan to delegate the permissions to, and then click OK. Figure 3-7 shows the final configuration, with the user
Admin on a host named Host01 that can manage the tasks assigned as part of the VM
Managers Role.
FIGURE 3-7 Authorization Manager Role Assignments
Perform remote management of Hyper-V hosts
Performing remote management within the same domain simply requires the permissions or
delegation discussed in the previous section. However, managing a Hyper-V server that is in a
workgroup is slightly more complicated.
First, the Hyper-V server must have PowerShell remoting enabled. This is easily accomplished by running the Enable-PSRemoting cmdlet. Note that the network provided on the
server must be set to Private. Otherwise, you also need to specify the -SkipNetworkProfileCheck parameter.
The second task on the Hyper-V host is to enable the WSMan credential role as a server. To
do this, run the following command:
Enable-WSManCredSSP -Role Server
The more complicated steps occur on the computer from which you plan to manage the
Hyper-V. First, you must trust the Hyper-V server from the remote client. If the Hyper-V host
is named Host01, run the following command:
Set-Item "WSMan:\localhost\Client\TrustedHosts" -Value "Host01"
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Then on the remote client, you must also enable the WSMan credential role as a client, and
specify the server to manage remotely. For example:
Enable-WSManCredSSP -Role Client -DelegateComputer "Host01"
Finally, you should also configure the local policy (or a Group Policy if you plan to have
multiple remote management points) to allow credentials to be passed. This setting is located
at Computer Configuration\Administrative Templates\System\Credentials Delegation. The
specific setting is named “Allow delegating fresh credentials with NTML-only server authentication.” Enable this setting, and add wsman\Host01 as a server in the list. You should now be
able to remotely manage the Hyper-V server that is in a workgroup.
EXAM TIP
For each of the client settings, TrustedHosts, Delegate Computer, and wsman, you can use
a wildcard mask (*) as a substitute for specifying multiple Hyper-V hosts.
Beginning with Windows 10 and Windows Server 2016, you also have the option to specify
different credentials to manage the Hyper-V host from Hyper-V Manager. Note that the
above steps must still be taken if the remote host is in a workgroup. Figure 2-8 shows connecting to a host with different credentials.
FIGURE 3-8 Select Computer
Configure virtual machines using Windows PowerShell
Direct
The name of this skill is slightly misleading, as you don’t really configure PowerShell Direct.
PowerShell Direct is a new feature which allows you to connect to a VM through PowerShell.
From that connection, you can run commands as if you were running them locally. You can
perform a connection by using either of the following commands:
Enter-PSSession -VMName VMName
Invoke-Command -VMName -VMName -ScriptBlock { Commands }
Skill 3.1: Install and configure Hyper-V
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59
When making the connection, you are prompted to enter the credentials for the virtual
machine, as shown in Figure 3-9.
FIGURE 3-9 Windows PowerShell credential request
Using EnterPSSession allows you to interactively manage the virtual machine. You can continue to run commands within the virtual machine until you explicitly exit the session. With
InvokeCommand, you are limited to only what is within the ScriptBlock parameter. Once the
command is over, you are returned to the local PowerShell session.
In addition to the VMName, you can also use the VMId or the VMGUID to connect to a
specific VM. To enter a PowerShell direct session, you must be logged onto the host as a
Hyper-V administrator. The VM must be running locally and already booted to the OS.
Implement nested virtualization
Nested virtualization is a new feature that enables you to run Hyper-V inside of a virtual
machine that is already running on Hyper-V. This is useful if you plan to use containers, use
Hyper-V in a lab environment, or are testing multi-machine scenarios without additional
hardware.
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The first step to configuring nested virtualization is to ensure that the virtual machine can
see the virtualization extensions from the host. This is accomplished from PowerShell by running the following command:
Set-VMProcessor -VMName VM1 -ExposeVirtualizationExtensions $True
When using nested virtualization, you want to ensure that dynamic memory is turned off
for the VM. This can also be configured from PowerShell by running the following command:
Set-VMMemory -VMName VM1 -DynamicMemoryEnabled $False
Nested virtual switches present a challenge. There are two options to configure the networking in this scenario:
■
■
MAC address spoofing
switches.
This allows the packets to be routed through two virtual
Network Address Translation This creates a separate network internally for the
virtual host. This is the more likely option, especially in a public cloud environment.
MAC address spoofing is a simple configuration. You can enable spoofing on the VM
adapter by running the following command:
Get-VMNetworkAdapter -VMName VM1 | Set-VMNetworkAdapter -MacAddressSpoofing On
Network Address Translation (NAT) requires a virtual NAT switch to be configured on the
virtual Hyper-V host. As part of the NAT configuration, you need to specify the IP address
range to use for the translation service.
Note that virtual machines that are being used with nested virtualization no longer support these features:
■
Runtime memory resize
■
Dynamic memory
■
Checkpoints
■
Live migration
NEED MORE REVIEW?
NESTED VIRTUALIZATION
For more information on nested virtualization, visit https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/virtualization/hyperv_on_windows/user_guide/nesting.
Skill 3.1: Install and configure Hyper-V
CHAPTER 3
61
Skill 3.2: Configure virtual machine settings
In this section, we go through the individual VM settings and options that can be configured.
When studying for the exam, you should focus primarily on understanding how these options
are configured, and the PowerShell cmdlets to configure them.
This section covers how to:
■
Add or remove memory in running a VM
■
Configure dynamic memory
■
Configure Non-Uniform Memory Access support
■
Configure smart paging
■
Configure Resource Metering
■
Manage Integration Services
■
■
■
■
■
Create and configure generation 1 and 2 VMs and determine
appropriate usage scenarios
Implement enhanced session mode
Create Linux and FreeBSD VMs, Install and configure Linux Integration
Services (LIS), and Install and configure FreeBSD Integration Services
Implement Secure Boot for Windows and Linux environments
Move and convert VMs from previous versions of Hyper-V to
Windows Server 2016 Hyper-V
■
Export and import VMs
■
Implement Discrete Device Assignment
Add or remove memory in running a VM
Adding or removing memory—or more accurately, increasing or decreasing the amount of
memory that is assigned to a VM—is an easy task. The memory setting in the GUI of the VM
settings can be configured even if the VM is running. However, you cannot enable Dynamic
Memory if the VM is already running and was not already enabled. To configure VM memory
by using PowerShell, use the Set-VMMemory cmdlet. For example, to configure a VM to use 4
GB of memory, run the following command:
Set-VMMemory -VMName 743-02 -StartupBytes 4GB
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Implement Hyper-V
Configure dynamic memory
Dynamic memory enables a VM to scale up with additional memory automatically based on
the needs of the VM operating system. To enable dynamic memory, the VM must be powered off. Dynamic Memory can be enabled in the GUI by simply placing a checkmark next to
the option, and then configuring the Minimum RAM and Maximum RAM. The Startup RAM
is the amount of memory assigned to the VM when it is first powered on. Dynamic Memory
is also configured by using the Set-VMMemory cmdlet. For example, to enable Dynamic
Memory with an initial value and minimum of 4 GB, and a maximum of 8 GB, run the following command:
Set-VMMemory -VMName 743-02 -StartupBytes 4GB -DynamicMemoryEnabled $True -MinimumBytes
4GB -MaximumBytes 8GB
Configure Non-Uniform Memory Access support
Windows Server 2012 introduced support for virtual NUMA with Hyper-V, ensuring that VMs
with large amounts of memory performed as expected. The NUMA topology can be configured in a few ways:
■
■
■
■
Maximum processors per virtual NUMA node The maximum number of virtual
processors that belong to the same VM, between 1 and 32.
Maximum memory per virtual NUMA Node
that can be allocated to a VM, up to 256 GB.
The maximum amounts of memory
Maximum virtual NUMA nodes per socket The maximum number of VMs that are
allowed on a single socket, between 1 and 64.
NUMA Spanning Allows individual NUMA VMs to access non-local memory, and is
enabled by default.
Figure 3-10 shows the default NUMA configuration for a Hyper-V VM.
Skill 3.2: Configure virtual machine settings
CHAPTER 3
63
FIGURE 3-10 NUMA Configuration
NEED MORE REVIEW?
NUMA DETAILS
For more information on NUMA, visit https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/
jj614459.aspx.
Configure smart paging
Windows Server 2012 introduced Smart Paging, which enhances virtual machine restarts. If a
VM has low memory at startup, Hyper-V needs additional memory to start the VM. However,
if the host is running several VMs, additional memory might not be available for the VM.
Smart Paging is used to provide additional memory to a VM during startup if necessary.
To configure smart paging, simply specify the location where smart paging files should be
stored. Figure 3-11 shows the dedicated GUI tab that smart paging is configured from.
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FIGURE 3-11 Smart Paging File Location
Additionally, smart paging can be configured from PowerShell with the Set-VM cmdlet. To
set the smart paging file location to E:\VMs\743\03\Paging, run the following command:
Set-VM -VMName 743-03 -SmartPagingFilePath "E:\VMs\743\03\Paging"
Configure Resource Metering
Resource Metering is a built-in function that enables you to monitor the performance of a
VM, including:
■
Average CPU usage
■
Average memory usage
■
Minimum memory usage
■
Maximum memory usage
■
Maximum amount of allocated disk space
■
Total inbound network traffic
■
Total outbound network traffic
Skill 3.2: Configure virtual machine settings
CHAPTER 3
65
Resource Metering is not enabled for a VM by default. To enable, run the
EnableVMResourceMetering cmdlet. For example, to enable it on a VM named 743-01,
run the following command:
Enable-VMResourceMetering -VMName 743-01
Once Resource Metering has been enabled, you can view the data by running the
MeasureVM cmdlet. The following example is for a VM named 743-01.
Measure-VM -VMName 743-01 | FL
And the output:
VMId
: 85c4c297-9553-41ed-80c5-553b275faf49
VMName
: 743-01
CimSession
: CimSession: .
ComputerName
: HOST01
AverageProcessorUsage
: 9
AverageMemoryUsage
: 2048
MaximumMemoryUsage
: 2048
MinimumMemoryUsage
: 2048
TotalDiskAllocation
: 130048
AggregatedAverageNormalizedIOPS : 2
66
AggregatedAverageLatency
: 240
AggregatedDiskDataRead
: 0
AggregatedDiskDataWritten
: 2
AggregatedNormalizedIOCount
: 301
AvgCPU
: 9
AvgRAM
: 2048
MinRAM
: 2048
MaxRAM
: 2048
TotalDisk
: 130048
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Implement Hyper-V
Manage Integration Services
With Windows Server 2016, the method of providing integration services has changed. The
vmguest.iso file is no longer included with Hyper-V because integration services are provided
through Windows Update. The enables you to centralize the management of integration
services along with Windows Updates. This is also useful in scenarios where different groups
or organizations manage individual VMs. By using Windows Update, the owner of the VM can
determine when to upgrade the integration services for their VM.
The available integration services are:
■
Guest Service Interface
■
Heartbeat
■
Key-Value Pair Exchange
■
Shutdown
■
Time Synchronization
■
VSS
You can obtain the current integration services configuration of a VM by running the GetVMIntegrationService cmdlet. For example:
Get-VMIntegrationService -VMName 743-01
By default, all integration services except for Guest Service Interface are enabled. To enable a specific service, run the Enable-VMIntegrationService cmdlet. For example:
Enable-VMIntegrationService -VMName 743-01 -Name "Guest Service Interface"
You can also manage integration services from within the VM itself. To view the list of
services from within the VM, run the Get-Service cmdlet. For example:
Get-Service -Name VM*
The Get-Service cmdlet returns the same list of integration services, but with their service
names:
■
vmicguestinterface
■
vmicheartbeat
■
vmickvpexchange
■
vmicrdv
■
vmishutdown
■
vmictimesync
■
vmiccvmsession
■
vmicvss
From within the VM, you can run Start-Service or Stop-Service to manage the integration
services.
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Create and configure Generation 1 and 2 VMs and
determine appropriate usage scenarios
When creating a VM, you have the option of creating a Generation 1 or a Generation 2 VM.
As a whole, Generation 1 VM is more flexible for most scenarios. However, depending on your
situation, a Generation 2 VM might be necessary.
A Generation 1 VM is required if the guest operating system is 32-bit, or if you plan on
moving the VM to Azure at any point. However, if you’re using Azure Site Recovery, a Generation 2 VM automatically converts to a Generation 1 VM when migrated.
A Generation 2 VM provides additional performance and security enhancements:
■
PXE support with native Hyper-V adapters
■
Faster boot time
■
Minimized hardware emulation for devices
■
UEFI disk partitions
■
Secure Boot ready
You can attempt to convert a Generation 1 VM to Generation 2 by using a Microsoft-built
script. However, this script is not supported or guaranteed to reconfigure the VM.
NEED MORE REVIEW?
VM CONVERSION UTILITY
The VM conversion utility can be downloaded at: https://code.msdn.microsoft.com/ConvertVMGeneration.
Note that when creating disks for use with VMs, Generation 1 VMs use the VHD file extension, while Generation 2 use the VHDX file extension. When installing Nano Server, a key
difference is that a VHD is based on a Master Boot Record (MBR), while a Generation 2 VHDX
uses GUID Partition Tables (GPT).
Implement enhanced session mode
An enhanced session in Hyper-V enables you to use local resources to connect to a VM. This
can include passing flash drives to the virtual machine. Plus, the contents of the clipboard
provide the ability to copy and paste files through the connection session.
The local resources can be configured similar to the options that are available through Remote Desktop. Figure 3-12 shows the local resources that can be configured when connecting
to a VM with an enhanced session.
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FIGURE 3-12 Enhanced session settings
Create Linux and FreeBSD VMs, install and configure Linux
Integration Services, and install and configure FreeBSD
Integration Services
For the purpose of this exam, we combined the Linux and FreeBSD topics into one. Hyper-V
supports both emulated and specific devices for VMs that run Linux and FreeBSD. When using
emulated devices, no additional software is necessary. These emulated devices do not offer
high performance or much management compared to specific devices. However, specific
devices require additional drivers that are necessary for the devices to work as expected in
the VM.
The device drivers for these components are part of the Linux Integration Services and
FreeBSD Integration Services. However, only certain versions of each distribution are supported with LIS and BIS. Do not expect to have to memorize the individual versions that are
necessary to use Linux or FreeBSD with Hyper-V.
NEED MORE REVIEW?
LIS AND BIS
For more information on supported distributions for LIS and BIS, visit https://technet.
microsoft.com/en-us/windows-server-docs/compute/hyper-v/supported-linux-and-freebsdvirtual-machines-for-hyper-v-on-windows.
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69
Implement Secure Boot for Windows and Linux
environments
With Windows Server 2016, both Windows and Linux operating systems that are running in a
Generation 2 VM can use Secure Boot. Before booting with secure boot, you must configure
the Microsoft UEFI Certificate Authority. To configure the VM, run the following command:
Set-VMFirmware 743-01 -SecureBootTemplate MicrosoftUEFICertificateAuthority
Similar to the integration services, you should not memorize specific versions of operating systems that are supported with Secure Boot. However, you should be aware of the Linux
distributions that are supported with secure boot:
■
Ubuntu
■
SUSE Linux Enterprise
■
Red Hat Enterprise
■
CentOS
Move and convert VMs from previous versions of Hyper-V
to Windows Server 2016 Hyper-V
Moving a VM from one host to another can be accomplished a few different ways:
■
■
■
Online migration Requires that a Hyper-V cluster be created so that a clustered VM
can move from one host to another. The two physical servers should have the same
processor to avoid corruption.
Storage migration and import With this option, you can power off the VM to perform a storage migration. This ensures that all data associated with that VM is moved
from the existing platform to the new platform.
Export and import This option enables you to export the data from the disk, and
then import the data back into Hyper-V as a different VM.
An online migration can be performed to move a running VM from one host to another.
With Windows Server 2016, the hosts do not have to be members of a failover cluster. Simply
add both Hyper-V hosts to the Hyper-V Manager console, and use the Move wizard, or the
Move-VM cmdlet. For example:
Move-VM 743-01 Host02 -IncludeStorage -DestinationStoragePath D:\743-01
An offline method of migration would be to power down the VM and move all of the associated files with the VM, and then import the VM on the new Hyper-V host. We expand on
this in the next section.
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Once a VM has been migrated from a previous version of Hyper-V, it can be upgraded to
the latest version that is available, 8.0. Figure 4-13 shows a portion of the Hyper-V manager,
particularly the Upgrade Configuration Version option.
FIGURE 3-13 Hyper-V Management Settings
After the VM has been upgraded, it cannot be downgraded to a previous version of VM.
Export and import VMs
Beginning with Windows Server 2012, performing an export of a VM is not required for it to
be imported. The function still exists from the console and PowerShell, and can be an easy
way to prepare the VM to be moved, especially if the files are scattered in multiple directories. The files in the export are organized in the following folders:
■
■
Snapshots If the VM has any checkpoints, an .XML file for each checkpoint exists
with the checkpoint GUID as the name.
Virtual Hard Disks
files.
The base VHDX disk and any associated checkpoint AVDHX disk
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71
■
Virtual Machines If the machine is off during the export, only the .XML configuration file is present. If the VM is in a saved state, a subfolder with the VM GUID also
exists with a .BIN and .VSV saved state file.
You can also export a VM by using the Export-VM cmdlet. For example:
Export-VM -VMName 743-01 -Path F:\Export
When importing a VM through the Import Virtual Machine wizard, you are presented with
three options:
■
■
■
Register This uses the existing VM ID and registers it in-place. You should choose
this option if you already copied the VM files to the desired location.
Restore This uses the original VM ID and copies the files from their current location
to the default location that is configured for that specific Hyper-V host.
Copy This creates a new VM ID and copies the files from their current location to the
default location that is configured for that specific Hyper-V host.
When importing a VM, you can also use the Import-VM cmdlet. For example:
Import-VM -Path "F:\Export\743-01\Virtual Machines\Filename.xml" -Register
Note that when importing a VM by using PowerShell, to essentially restore a VM, you must
use the Copy and GenerateNewId parameters. Restore is not a specific parameter for the
cmdlet.
Implement Discrete Device Assignment (DDA)
Windows Server 2016 introduces DDA, a new feature that provides VMs with direct access to PCI Express devices. This is similar to SR-IOV, which was introduced with Windows
Server 2012. DDA bypasses the virtualization components and gives VM direct access to
the PCIe hardware. There are no DDA configuration options through Hyper-V Manager.
As of this writing, managing DDA can only be performed by using the following Powershell cmdlets:
■
Get-VMAssignableDevice
■
Add-VMAssignableDevice
■
Remove-VMAssignableDevice
To add a device to a VM, you must first disable the device for the Hyper-V host. Then using the InstanceId of the device, you can add the device to a specific VM. For example, to add
a PCIe non-volatile RAM device to a VM, run this command:
Add-VMAssignableDevice -LocationPath "PCIROOT(40)#PCI(0200)#PCI(0000)" -VMName 743-01
NEED MORE REVIEW?
DDA DETAILS
The virtualization team has a blog with several dedicated posts on DDA: https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/virtualization/2015/11/.
net.microsoft.com/virtualization/2015/11/
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Skill 3.3: Configure Hyper-V storage
This section covers the details of configuring storage for Hyper-V hosts and virtual machines.
Similar to other sections, you should focus on the concepts of how the storage components
interact with a host and its VMs, as well as how to complete these actions by using Windows
PowerShell.
This section covers how to:
■
Create VHDs and VHDX files using Hyper-V Manager
■
Create shared VHDX files
■
Configure differencing disks
■
Modify virtual hard disks
■
Configure pass-through disks
■
Resize a virtual hard disk
■
Manage checkpoints
■
Implement production checkpoints
■
Implement a virtual Fibre Channel adapter
■
Configure storage Quality of Service
Create VHDs and VHDX files using Hyper-V Manager
Creating a disk, whether it is a VHD or VHDX, from Hyper-V Manager is as simple as using the
New Virtual Hard Disk Wizard. The steps are:
1.
From Hyper-V Manager, Click New, and then click Hard Disk.
2.
In the New Virtual Hard Disk Wizard, click Next.
3.
The first configuration option is the Choose Disk Format screen where you choose
from VHD or VHDX. Another option is VHD Set, which is for shared disks that we cover
in the next section. Select VHD or VHDX and click Next.
4.
The next configuration is the Choose Disk Type screen, where you select from Fixed
Size, Dynamically Expanding, or Differencing. Select Dynamically Expanding and click
Next.
■
■
Fixed size This provides the best performance because the full size of the disk is
allocated at the time of provisioning. As data changes within the disk, the actual
disk size remains the same on the host.
Dynamically expanding This is a thinly-provisioned disk that only allocates data
as the VM needs it. This ensures that you can obtain the most capacity from the
host storage, but should be used cautiously.
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■
Differencing A differencing disk uses a parent-child relationship type. In this
case, the parent disk contains read-only data that does not change. All changes are
written to a different disk—the differencing disk.
5.
On the Specify Name and Location screen, provide a filename for the disk, as well as
the directory in which you would like to store the disk. This does not specifically have
to be with a VM, and can be anywhere that the Hyper-V host has access to. Click Next
to continue.
6.
Finally, the Configure Disk screen allows you to select from three options, as shown in
Figure 3-14. Select Create a New Blank Virtual Hard Disk, and enter 100 in the Size box.
Click Finish.
■
■
■
Create A New Blank Virtual Hard Disk
attach to a VM.
This is simply a blank disk that you can
Copy The Contents Of The Specified Physical Disk Any physical disk that is
presented to the Hyper-V host can be copied to the virtual disk. After the copy is
complete, they are two separate sets of data. Any changes that a VM makes to the
virtual disk is independent of the physical storage.
Copy The Contents Of The Specified Virtual Hard Disk This enables you to
select an existing VHD or VHDX and copy the contents of the existing disk to the
new disk.
FIGURE 3-14 Configure New Virtual Hard Disk Wizard
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Create shared VHDX files
Beginning with Windows Server 2012, a shared VHD can be used to connect a single VHD to
multiple VMs. This shared VHD can act as shared storage for cluster configurations without
the need for SAN equipment.
A shared VHD is simply a VHD that is being accessed by multiple VMs. After creating a new
disk, you can add the drive to a VM with the ShareVirtualDisk parameter. For example:
Add-VMHardDiskDrive -VMName 743-01 -Path "\\Host01\Disks\Disk1.vhdx" -ShareVirtualDisk
Using a UNC path ensures that even if you move the VM to a different host, it can still access the storage. If you are using Hyper-V Manager, a shared drive can be created by adding
a drive from the controller. Figure 3-15 shows the option to add a shared drive to a VM.
FIGURE 3-15 SCSI Controller Settings for a VM
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Configure differencing disks
As we mentioned earlier in this chapter, a differencing disk uses a parent-child relationship
type. In this case, the parent disk contains read-only data that does not change. A differencing disk is created using the same methods as a typical VHD, through the wizard or the
New-VHD cmdlet, using the Differencing and ParentPath parameters. There are two primary
methods of using differencing disks:
■
Many child objects to one parent In this scenario, a single parent disk is used and
many child disks are formed off of this parent. This is useful in lab environments where
all VMs share the same image. Only one base VHD is necessary, and then each VM has
a differencing disk in the lab for individual changes on that VM. Figure 3-16 illustrates
this scenario.
FIGURE 3-16 Many child objects
■
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A chain of child and parent disks In this scenario, disks build on the parent disk.
This scenario is useful for patching multiple systems that use differencing disks. The
base disk can be the installation of the operating system, and each child disk can represent a service pack or anniversary update. Figure 3-17 illustrates this scenario.
Implement Hyper-V
FIGURE 3-17 Chain of disks
Configure pass-through disks
A pass-through disk enables you to present a physical disk on the Hyper-V host and present it
directly to a VM. Before presenting a disk to a VM, it must be initialized as either MBR or GPT,
but set to offline. Figure 3-18 shows adding an offline physical disk to a VM.
FIGURE 3-18 Adding physical hard disk to a VM
Resize a virtual hard disk
You can resize an existing virtual disk by using the Edit Virtual Hard Disk Wizard, or by using
the Resize-VHD cmdlet. Figure 3-19 shows the options to edit a VHD.
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FIGURE 3-19 Editing a VHD
The available options for editing a VHD are:
■
■
■
Compact This optimizes the capacity of a VHD and reduces the overall footprint on
the Hyper-V host storage.
Convert This enables you to change the disk type to other types discussed earlier in
the chapter.
Expand
This simply increases the capacity of the VHD.
When using PowerShell to manage VHDs, there is a separate PowerShell cmdlet to perform each of these actions:
■
78
Optimize-VHD
wizard.
Optimizing a VHD provides the same actions as Compact in the
■
Convert-VHD This enables you to change the disk type of the VHD.
■
Resize-VHD This allows you to resize the VHD.
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Implement Hyper-V
Manage checkpoints
Checkpoints enable you to capture point-in-time snapshots of a VM. This gives you an easy
method of quickly restoring to a known working configuration, making them useful before
installing or updating an application. When a checkpoint is created, the original VHD becomes read-only, and all changes are captured in an AVHD file. Conversely, when a checkpoint is deleted, the contents of the AVHD are merged with the original disk, which becomes
the primary writable file.
Standard checkpoints take a snapshot of both the disk and the memory state at the time
that the checkpoint is taken. By default, in Windows Server 2016, snapshots are taken with
Production checkpoints. We cover production checkpoints in the next section. The setting for
production or standard is configured at the VM level, so you use the Set-VM cmdlet to make
this change. For example:
Set-VM -Name 743-01 -CheckpointType Standard
Implement production checkpoints
Windows Server 2016 introduces production checkpoints, with uses the Volume
Shadow Copy Service on Windows guests or File System Freeze on Linux guests. This
enables you to take a consistent snapshot of a VM without the running memory. If
taking a production checkpoint fails, by default the host attempts to create a standard
checkpoint. You can configure the type of checkpoint a VM uses by using the Set-VM
cmdlet. For example:
Set-VM -Name 743-01 -CheckpointType Production
To set the VM to only use production checkpoints, without the ability to fall back to a standard checkpoint, replace the Production option with ProductionOnly. Checkpoints can also be
configured from Hyper-V Manager by editing the settings of a VM. Figure 3-20 displays the
checkpoint management of a VM.
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FIGURE 3-20 Virtual Machine Checkpoint Settings
Implement a virtual Fibre Channel adapter
A virtual Fibre Channel (FC) adapter can be used with a virtual SAN to provide direct SAN access to a virtual machine. This enables you to present LUNs from a SAN to a VM by using the
virtual World Wide Name (WWN) that is assigned to the adapter. A FC adapter can be added
from the settings screen of an individual VM. Figure 3-21 shows the new FC Adapter screen.
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FIGURE 3-21 Virtual Machine Fibre Channel Adapter Settings
Adding a FC adapter can also be accomplished by using PowerShell with the
Add-VMFiberChannelHba cmdlet. For example:
Add-VMFibreChannelHba -VMName 743-01 -SanName vSAN1 -GenerateWwn
If you need to specify the WWNs that the VM uses the adapter, replace the GenerateWwn
option with the following:
■
WorldWideNodeNameSetA
■
WorldWideNodeNameSetB
■
WorldWidePortNameSetA
■
WorldWidePortNameSetB
For example, run the following command to create a FC adapter using these WWNs:
Add-VMFibreChannelHba -VMName 743-Nano -SanName vSAN1 -WorldWideNodeNameSetA
C003FF0000FFFF00 -WorldWidePortNameSetA C003FF73FD70000C -WorldWideNodeNameSetB
C003FF0000FFFF00 -WorldWidePortNameSetB C003FF73FD70000D
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Configure storage Quality of Service (QoS)
Windows Server 2012 introduced the ability to set QoS policies for storage on virtual machines. Windows Server 2016 builds on this functionality and for Scale-Out File Services, and
allows you to assign them to one or more VM disks. The storage performance is then readjusted to meet the policies that have been defined. Storage QoS can primarily be used to
achieve the following goals:
Mitigate noisy neighbor issues This ensures that a single VM does not use all of the
available storage resources and limit other VMs.
■
Monitor end-to-end storage performance As soon as a virtual machine is started,
the performance of the VM is monitored. The details of all running VMs can be viewed
from a single location.
■
Manage I/O per workload The QoS policies that you define ensure that the minimums and maximums meets the application workload for the environment. This helps
ensure that performance is consistent, even in different environments.
■
Skill 3.4: Configure Hyper-V networking
This section will examine the ways in which we use Hyper-V, including how to configure MAC
addresses and NIC teaming to configuring virtual machine queues and bandwidth management.
This section covers how to:
■
■
Configure Hyper-V virtual switches
■
Optimize network performance
■
Configure MAC addresses
■
Configure network isolation
■
Configure NIC teaming in VMs
■
Configure virtual machine queue
■
■
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Add and remove virtual network interface cards and configuring
network adapters
Enable Remote Direct Memory Access on network adapters bound
to a Hyper-V virtual switch using Switch Embedded Teaming
Configure bandwidth management
Implement Hyper-V
Add and remove virtual network interface cards,
configuring network adapters, configuring virtual machine
queue, and configuring bandwidth management
A virtual network adapter can be added by a similar method to a drive or Fibre Channel
adapter from within Hyper-V Manager. Simply edit the settings of the VM, and select the
option to add the network adapter. For Generation 1 VMs, you have the option of creating a
standard network adapter, or a legacy network adapter. A standard adapter offers better performance, and a legacy adapter enables PXE boot. Figure 3-22 shows the options after adding
a new network adapter.
FIGURE 3-22 Virtual Machine Network Adapter Settings
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Adding a network adapter can also be accomplished by using PowerShell with the
Add-VMNetworkAdapter cmdlet. For example:
Add-VMNetworkAdapter -VMName 743-01 -SwitchName Switch01
After adding a network adapter to a VM, you can configure the VLAN identification, if
necessary, for that adapter. Referring back to Figure 3-22, a synthetic network adapter also
supports a few additional features:
■
■
■
Bandwidth management You can configure the minimum and maximum bandwidth targets for the network adapter.
Virtual machine queue (VMQ) If supported by the corresponding physical adapter,
VMQ can be enabled on the virtual adapter.
IPsec task offloading If supported by the corresponding physical adapter, IPsec
tasks can be offloaded to hardware.
A legacy network adapter does not support these features, and can only be configured
with a particular VLAN. Regardless of the adapter type, you can manage the adapter with
PowerShell by using the Set-VMNetworkAdapter cmdlet.
Configure Hyper-V virtual switches and configure
network isolation
For the purpose of preparing for the exam, we’ve combined configuring virtual switches
and network isolation. Hyper-V virtual switches enable connection from the VM to the
Hyper-V, depending on the connection type of the switch. Network isolation can be
configured on a VM based on the network adapter and switch settings. There are three
options to choose from when creating a virtual switch:
■
■
■
External network This connects the virtual switch to the selected physical network
adapter of the Hyper-V host. This physical adapter can be dedicated to the VMs that
are running, or it can be shared with the host operating system.
Internal network This connects the VM only to the Hyper-V host and other VMs
that have a network adapter connected to this switch. The VM does not have access to
the physical adapter on the host.
Private network This simply provides a connection to the VM, although it cannot
communicate with the host or with other VMs on the same switch on other Hyper-V
hosts.
Figure 3-23 shows the configuration options for a virtual switch from the Virtual Switch
Manager.
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FIGURE 3-23 Virtual Switch Manager
Virtual switches can be added from PowerShell by using the New-VMSwitch cmdlet. For
example, to create a new internal virtual switch, run the following command:
New-VMSwitch -Name Internal1 -SwitchType Internal
Optimize network performance
Optimizing network performance can be achieved from both a Hyper-V host perspective, as
well as an individual VM perspective. When preparing for the exam, some performance options to be aware of include:
Skill 3.4: Configure Hyper-V networking
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85
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Synthetic network adapter The Hyper-V-specific network adapter is optimized to
reduce the CPU usage of the Hyper-V host and increase network performance for the
VM. When monitoring performance, a performance counter is available under \HyperV Virtual Network Adapter (*)\*.
Offload hardware You can configure offloading to reduce the CPU usage of the
Hyper-V host. Hyper-V supports LargeSend Offload and TCP checksum offload if the
capabilities have been enabled in the drivers for the physical network adapter.
Network switch topology Similar to designing an appropriate topology for physical environments, in large virtual environments the network switch configuration can
also become the source of a bottleneck. You can use NIC teaming on multiple physical
adapters to enhance the network performance of VMs.
VLAN performance The synthetic Hyper-V network adapter supports VLAN
tagging. If the physical network adapter supports the NDIS_ENCAPSULATION_
IEEE_802_3_P_AND_Q_IN_OOB, then the Hyper-V host can also use hardware offloading to increase the network performance for VMs.
Dynamic VMQ Dynamic virtual machine queue (VMQ) enables you to automatically
scale the number of processors used for a VMQ, based on the volume of the network
traffic.
MAC spoofing By default, VMs are configured to protect against duplicate MAC addresses. If you need the VM to be able to configure its own MAC address, MAC address
spoofing must be enabled on the VM.
Virtual Receive Side Scaling (vRSS) Enables the processing for ingress VM network
traffic to be shared across multiple processors on the host and virtual machine. vRSS
enables the host to dynamically balance the processing of inbound network traffic.
NEED MORE REVIEW?
PERFORMANCE TUNING
For more information on performance tuning, visit https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/hardware/dn567656(v=vs.85).aspx
brary/windows/hardware/dn567656(v=vs.85).aspx.
Configure MAC addresses
By default, the network adapter in a VM uses a dynamic MAC address that is assigned from
the pool of MAC addresses on the Hyper-V host. The pool of MAC addresses can be configured from the Virtual Switch Manager, as shown in Figure 3-24.
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FIGURE 3-24 Virtual Switch Manager- MAC Address Range
Although is it managed from the Virtual Switch Manager, it is configured from PowerShell
by using the Set-VMHost cmdlet. For example:
Set-VMHost -MacAddressMinimum 00155DA7E700 -MacAddressMaximum 00155DA7E7FF
Configuring the MAC address on an individual network adapter is accomplished from the
settings of the VM, as shown in Figure 3-25.
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FIGURE 3-25 VM Settings – Advanced Features
The MAC address settings for a virtual network adapter can be configured with PowerShell
by using the Set-VMNetworkAdapter cmdlet. For example, to assign a static MAC address, run
the following command:
Set-VMNetworkAdapter -VMName 743-01 -StaticMacAddress 00155DA7E73B
Configure NIC teaming in VMs
If you present multiple network adapters to a VM, you can configure them to be teamed
within the VM. However, you must also enable the network adapter to be a member of the
team from the Hyper-V host. Figure 3-26 shows the Advanced Features of a network adapter,
where NIC teaming can be enabled.
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FIGURE 3-26 Advanced Features of a Virtual Network Adapter
Enabling NIC teaming for a virtual network adapter can also be performed through PowerShell by using the Set-VMNetworkAdapter cmdlet. Note that although the AllowTeaming
parameter expects a Boolean value, the valid options are On and Off, not $True or $False. For
example:
Set-VMNetworkAdapter -VMName 743-01 -AllowTeaming On
Enable Remote Direct Memory Access on network adapters
bound to a Hyper-V virtual switch using Switch Embedded
Teaming
In previous versions of Windows Server and Hyper-V, you could not configure RDMA with
network adapters that were part of a NIC team or a virtual switch. With Windows Server 2016,
you can now enable RMDA on both network adapters that are part of a virtual switch, with
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or without Switch Embedded Teaming (SET). The first step in configuring RDMA with SET is to
enable Data Center Bridging. Then, you can create a virtual switch with an RDMA vNIC and
SET. For example:
New-VMSwitch -Name SETvSwitch -NetAdapterName "SLOT 2","SLOT 3" -EnableEmbeddedTeaming
$True
After creating the vswitch, you can add the network adapters to the VM, and enable
RDMA. For example:
Add-VMNetworkAdapter -SwitchName SETswitch -Name SMB_1 -managementOS
Add-VMNetworkAdapter -SwitchName SETswitch -Name SMB_2 -managementOS
Enable-NetAdapterRDMA "vEthernet (SMB_1)","vEthernet (SMB_2)"
NEED MORE REVIEW?
RDMA WITH SET
For more information on RDMA with SET, visit https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/
mt403349.aspx
mt403349.aspx.
Chapter summary
90
■
The requirements and how to install Hyper-V
■
Upgrading from previous versions of Hyper-V
■
Management tools and remote management for Hyper-V
■
Configuration versions and generation types of individual virtual machines
■
Using nested virtualization with Hyper-V
■
How to manage memory for a virtual machine
■
Configuring dynamic memory, NUMA, and smart paging
■
Using resource metering and integration services
■
Using Linux on Hyper-V
■
Moving, converting, importing, and exporting VMs
■
Creating and managing VHD and VHDX disk files
■
Configuring differencing, fixed, and dynamically expanding disks
■
Managing standard and production checkpoints
■
Adding and managing virtual network adapters
■
Optimizing network performance
CHAPTER 3
Implement Hyper-V
Thought Experiment
A company is planning to create two servers that run Hyper-V in a workgroup. The servers
must consume only the minimum resources that are required, and must be managed remotely. One of the Hyper-V servers must host a VM that must also use the Hyper-V role.
After deploying the hosts, the company plans to deploy both Windows and Linux guest
operating systems. Both operating systems must include the drivers for hardware that is being passed to the VM.
The disks on the VMs must be thinly provisioned to maximize the capacity that is available
on the hosts. Checkpoints that use VSS must be used to capture consistent snapshots.
Using this information, answer the following questions.
1.
How should the company install Hyper-V?
2.
How should the management roles be configured?
3.
Name a Linux operating system that the company can use.
4.
What type of disks must the VMs use?
5.
What type of checkpoints must the VMs use?
Thought Experiment Answers
1.
Based on this scenario, Hyper-V should be installed on a Nano Server. This consumes
the absolute minimum amount of resources for the environment.
2.
Because the hosts are in a workgroup, the WSMAN-trusted hosts must be configured
for remote management.
3.
Red Hat, CentOS, Ubuntu, or SUSE
4.
The disks must be dynamically expanding to be thinly provisioned.
5.
Only Production checkpoint types use VSS for consistent snapshots.
Thought Experiment Answers
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CHAPTER 4
Implement Windows
Containers
I
n this chapter we cover how to use containers to host virtualized images on a server.
Containers are supported on both Windows Server and Hyper-V, however, the way they
act and respond are slightly different. Containers can be isolated to ensure they operate
independently of any other container or host that they are running on. In the first section
of this chapter, we cover the basic process to deploy containers and go through the basic
management aspects for containers.
Skills in this chapter:
■
Deploy Windows Containers
■
Manage Windows Containers
Skill 4.1: Deploy Windows Containers
In this section we outline the basics for deploying containers on either Windows Server,
Nano Server, or Hyper-V. We also detail how to change the Docker daemon configuration
for startup, and detail specifics for images, such as tagging.
This section covers how to:
■
■
■
Determine installation requirements and appropriate scenarios for Windows
Containers
Install and configure Windows Server container host in physical or virtualized
environments
Install and configure Windows Server container host to Windows Server
Core or Nano Server in a physical or virtualized environment
■
Install Docker on Windows Server and Nano Server
■
Configure Docker daemon start-up options
■
Install a base operating system
■
Tag an image
■
Uninstall an operating system image
■
Create Windows Server containers
■
Create Hyper-V containers
93
Determine installation requirements and appropriate
scenarios for Windows Containers
Windows Containers is a new feature that is only available on Windows Server 2016, Nano
Server, and Windows 10 Professional and Enterprise Anniversary Update editions. If you plan
on using Hyper-V containers, then the Hyper-V role must also be installed on the computer or
server. To use Windows Containers, the operating system must be installed as the C drive. If you
plan to only use Hyper-V containers, then the operating system can be installed on any drive.
From a physical aspect, Windows Containers with Hyper-V requires nested virtualization.
Nested virtualization has the following requirements:
■
At least 4 GB of RAM for the Hyper-V host
■
A processes that uses Intel VT-x
Also, the container host VM must have at least two virtual processors and dynamic
memory must be disabled. As of this writing, Windows Server 2016 offers two container images: Server Core and Nano Server. If the host operating system is a Nano Server, then only
the Nano Server image is available.
Install and configure containers
For the purpose of preparing for the exam, we’ve combined two of the listed skills:
■
■
Install and configure Windows Server container host in physical or virtualized
environments
Install and configure Windows Server container host to Windows Server Core or Nano
Server in a physical or virtualized environment
For either host’s operating system, whether it is physical or virtual, containers is listed as a
Windows Feature. For servers with a GUI, it can be installed from the Add Roles and Features
wizard. Containers can also be installed by using Windows PowerShell by using the InstallWindowsFeature cmdlet. For example:
Figure 4-1 shows installing the Containers feature by using the Install-WindowsFeature
cmdlet.
FIGURE 4-1 Install-WindowsFeature
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Install-WindowsFeature Containers
If you’re using Nano Server, you must first install the Nano Server Package, and then install
the Container Feature. For example:
Install-PackageProvider NanoServerPacakage
Install-NanoServerPackage -Name Microsoft-NanoServer-Containers-Package
Install Docker on Windows Server and Nano Server
To manage containers on either Windows Server 2016 or Nano Server, you must also install
the Docker service. Most all Docker installation and configuration options have both a PowerShell cmdlet or a Docker command line option. To install Docker on Windows Server 2016, it
must be downloaded from the Docker website. You can do this manually, or by using PowerShell. For example:
Figure 4-2 shows downloading and configuring the environment for the docker service
to run.
FIGURE 4-2 Obtaining docker
Invoke-WebRequest "https://aka.ms/tp5/b/dockerd" -OutFile "$env:TEMP\docker-1.12.0.zip"
-UseBasicParsing
Expand-Archive -Path "$env:TEMP\docker-1.12.0.zip" -DestinationPath $env:ProgramFiles
[Environment]::SetEnvironmentVariable("Path", $env:Path + ";C:\Program Files\Docker",
[EnvironmentVariableTarget]::Machine)
& $env:ProgramFiles\docker\dockerd.exe --register-service
Start-Service Docker
docker tag windowsservercore:10.0.14300.1000 windowsservercore:latest
NOTE
The Invoke-WebRequest command in this example specifically uses Technical Preview 5,
which was available at the time of writing. Locate the latest version that is available by using the Docker website before using this command in a lab environment.
Skill 4.1: Deploy Windows Containers
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95
After the installation is complete, run the docker info command. A portion of the output
is shown in Figure 4-3.
FIGURE 4-3 Docker info
The above example is broken down like this:
1.
First, the Docker engine and client is downloaded from the Docker website.
2.
Then, the code extracts the compressed folder into the Program Files directory.
3.
The path is set as a system variable, and the service is created and started.
4.
Finally, the Docker image must be tagged with the version “latest.”
For installing Docker on Nano Server, the same overall process must be followed. However,
Nano Server does not currently support the Invoke-WebRequest cmdlet. Therefore, you must
manually download the Docker files and copy them to the Nano Server operating system.
From there you can set the environment variable, create the service, and then start the service. For Nano Server, you must also enable the FPS-SMB-In-TCP firewall rule. For example:
Set-NetFirewallRule -Name FPS-SMB-In-TCP -Enabled True
Configure Docker daemon start-up options
Docker is configured by using a daemon.json file, which is located in the installation path of
the directory. When using Docker on Windows Server 2016, only a subset of the configuration
options is available. When creating the JSON file, only the necessary configuration changes
need to be included in the file. For example, to configure the Docker Engine to accept connections on port 2375, add the following to the daemon.json file:
{
"hosts": ["tcp://0.0.0.0:2375"]
}
You can also configure Docker by using the sc config command. When using sc config,
you are modifying the Docker Engine configuration flags directly on the Docker service. For
example:
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Figure 4-4 shows running the sc command to modify the docker service.
FIGURE 4-4 Service configuration
sc config docker binpath= "\"C:\Program Files\docker\dockerd.exe\" --run-service -H
tcp://0.0.0.0:2375"
NEED MORE REVIEW?
DOCKER DAEMON
For more information on configuring the Docker daemon, visit https://msdn.microsoft.com/
en-us/virtualization/windowscontainers/docker/configure_docker_daemon.
Install a base operating system
Before you can deploy a container, you must download a base operating system image.
The procedure is the same whether you plan to manage Server Core or Nano Server
base images. Obtaining the image is accomplished by running two PowerShell cmdlets:
Install-PackageProvider, and Install-ContainerImage. For example:
Install-PackageProvider ContainerImage -Force
Install ContainerImage -Name WindowsServerCore
This process might take a few minutes because it downloads the Server Core container image. After installing the image, you need to restart the Docker service. For example:
Restart-Service Docker
You can also use the docker command to download the base image. For example:
docker pull microsoft/windowsservercore
After downloading the images, you can also view the downloaded images with the docker
command. For example:
docker images
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97
Figure 4-5 shows the results of downloading the images and how they are displayed after
being downloaded.
FIGURE 4-5 Obtaining images
Tag an image
When you download an image into the repository, you must also assign a tag to the image.
Tagging an image enables you to set a version on the image, which is useful if you plan to
have multiple versions. Microsoft suggests after downloading an image, to tag it at the “latest.” For example:
docker tag windowsservercore:10.0.14300.1000 windowsservercore:latest
The Docker tag can contain upper and lowercase characters, digits, underscores, periods,
and dashes. However, the tag cannot start with a period or dash, and can be up to 128 characters.
NEED MORE REVIEW?
DOCKER TAG
For more information on using the Docker tag, visit https://docs.docker.com/engine/reference/commandline/tag/.
ence/commandline/tag/
Uninstall an operating system image
As we have mentioned, most actions when using Docker can be completed by using PowerShell or the Docker daemon. To uninstall a container image from the repository, use the
Uninstall-ContainerOSImage cmdlet. For example:
Uninstall-ContainerOSImage -FullName CN=Microsoft_NanoServer_10.0.14304.1003
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Create Windows Server containers
You can deploy a container by using the Docker daemon. One of the first tasks you might
need to do is view a list of the available container images. For example, the following command returns a list of available Microsoft images:
docker search Microsoft
A portion of the output is included for reference:
NAME
DESCRIPTION
microsoft/aspnet
ASP.NET is an open source server-side Web ...
microsoft/dotnet
Official images for working with .NET Core...
mono
Mono is an open source implementation of M...
microsoft/azure-cli
Docker image for Microsoft Azure Command L...
microsoft/iis
Internet Information Services (IIS) instal...
Therefore, if you want to use the ASP.NET image, use the Docker daemon to pull the image:
docker pull microsoft/aspnet
Create Hyper-V containers
Windows Server containers and Hyper-V containers are created and managed, and are functionally identical. Both types of containers also use the same container images. The difference
between a Windows Server container and a Hyper-V container is the level of isolation that is
present to the host, or other containers on that host. The first difference is that when creating
the container, specify the --isolation=hyperv parameter.
docker run -it --isolation=hyperv nanoserver cmd
To demonstrate the isolation of a Hyper-V container, assume that a Windows Server container has been deployed. You start a running ping on the container.
docker run -d windowsservercore ping localhost -t
If you use the docker daemon, you can view the task thread that is running the ping.
docker top windowservercore
4369 ping
In this example, the process ID within the container is 4369. Within the container, you can
also view the thread.
get-process -Name ping
Skill 4.1: Deploy Windows Containers
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99
The following output is returned:
Handles
NPM(K)
PM(K)
WS(K) VM(M)
CPU(s)
Id
SI ProcessName
-------
------
-----
----- -----
------
--
-- -----------
67
5
820
3836 ...71
0.03
4369
3 PING
If you follow the same process when using a Hyper-V container, you receive a different
end result. You can create and view the process from the host, using the Docker daemon.
docker run -d --isolation=hyperv nanoserver ping -t localhost
docker top nanoserver
2371 ping
However, the difference is when trying to view the process on the container host.
Get-process -Name ping
Get-Process : Cannot find a process with the name "ping". Verify the process name and
call the cmdlet again.
At line:1 char:1
+ Get-Process -Name ping
+ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+ CategoryInfo
ProcessCommandException
: ObjectNotFound: (ping:String) [Get-Process],
+ FullyQualifiedErrorId : NoProcessFoundForGivenName,Microsoft.PowerShell.Commands.
GetProcessCommand
The difference is in the process name. By using a Hyper-V container, the process is run by
the vmwp process. The vmwp process is the virtual machine process on the host, and is protecting the process from the host operating system.
Get-Process -Name vmwp
100
Handles
NPM(K)
PM(K)
WS(K) VM(M)
CPU(s)
Id
SI ProcessName
-------
------
-----
----- -----
------
--
-- -----------
1737
15
39452
19620 ...61
5.55
2376
CHAPTER 4
Implement Windows Containers
0 vmwp
Skill 4.2: Manage Windows Containers
In this section, we outline how to manage containers after they have been deployed. This
includes using the Docker daemon to manage images, as well as using Windows PowerShell.
We also cover configuring port mapping and networking options for use with Windows
Containers.
This section covers how to:
■
Manage Windows or Linux containers using the Docker daemon
■
Manage Windows or Linux containers using Windows PowerShell
■
Manage container networking
■
Manage container data volumes
■
Manage Resource Control
■
Create new container images using Dockerfile
■
■
Manage container images using DockerHub repository for public and private scenarios
Manage container images using Microsoft Azure
Manage Windows or Linux containers using the Docker
daemon
After you have downloaded the image type that you plan to use, you can use the daemon to
identify the images that have been downloaded.
docker images
The following output is returned:
REPOSITORY
TAG
IMAGE ID
CREATED
SIZE
microsoft/aspnet
latest
accd044753c1
11 days ago
7.907 GB
You can also deploy a container by using the Docker daemon.
docker run -d -p 80:80 microsoft/iis ping -t localhost
Creating a new image can be performed by using the Docker daemon with the commit
parameter.
docker commit 475059caef8f windowsservercoreiis
Skill 4.2: Manage Windows Containers
CHAPTER 4 101
Removing an image is performed by using the Docker daemon with the rmi parameter.
However, if any other container depends on the image that you are trying to remove, the
command fails. The rmi parameter accepts either the image name or the ID of the image.
docker rmi windowsservercoreiis
To view the list of dependencies with Docker, use the history parameter.
docker history windowsservercoreiis
The following output is returned:
IMAGE
CREATED
CREATED BY
SIZE
2236b49aaaef
3 minutes ago
cmd
171.2 MB
6801d964fda5
2 weeks ago
COMMENT
0 B
Manage Windows or Linux containers using Windows
PowerShell
As of this writing, the PowerShell for Docker module is in development. The team writing the
module has adopted the Microsoft Open Source Code of Conduct, and welcomes contributions to the project in the form of bugs, suggestions, proposals, and pull requests through
the Github repository. The project is available on Github here: https://github.com/Microsoft/
Docker-PowerShell/.
The PowerShell module for Docker is simply an alternative to the Docker daemon. You can
use the module as a replacement for, or in conjunction with, the Docker daemon. The PowerShell module can target any operating system that is running the Docker engine on both
Windows and Linux.
To compile the project, you need to obtain the .NET Core SDK, and the .NET SDKs for versions 4.5 and 4.6. The Docker endpoint that you are planning to connect to must support the
API version 1.24.
The latest release version of Docker can also be downloaded from GitHub here: https://
github.com/Microsoft/Docker-PowerShell/releases. Download and extract the compressed
folder, and then use the Import-Module cmdlet, pointing to the extracted folder. This makes
the Docker cmdlets available on the computer.
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Manage container networking
Container networks are similar to virtual networks through Hyper-V. Each container has a
virtual network adapter that is connected to a virtual switch. To force isolation between containers that are running on the same host, compartments are created for each container. A
Windows Server host uses Host vNICs to attach to the virtual, while Hyper-V containers use a
synthetic VM NIC to attach to the virtual switch.
Containers support four different networking modes:
■
■
■
■
Network Address Translation (NAT) Each container receives an IP address from a
private address pool. Port forwarding or mapping can be configured to transmit data
from the host to the container.
Transparent Each container endpoint has a direct connection to the physical
network that the host is using. The IP address range that is being used on the physical network can be used on the container either as a static address or dynamically
assigned.
L2 Bridge Each container endpoint is in the same subnet as the host that is running
it. The container IP address is assigned statically from the same prefix as the host. All
container endpoints on the host use the same MAC address.
L2 Tunnel
This mode should only be used in a Microsoft Cloud Stack.
By default, the Docker engine creates an NAT network when the Docker service runs
for the first time. The default network that is used is 172.16.0.0/12. You can customize the
network prefix used by modifying the daemon.json configuration file. The endpoints in the
container are attached to this network and assigned an IP address from the private network.
Table 4-1 outlines connections for a single-host environment.
TABLE 4-1 Single host connection types
Single host
Container to container
Container to external
NAT
Connects using Hyper-V Virtual
Switch
Routed through WinNAT with address
translation
Transparent
Connects using Hyper-V Virtual
Switch
Direct access to physical network
L2 Bridge
Connects through Hyper-V Virtual
Switch
Access to physical network by using MAC
address translation
Additionally, Table 4-2 outlines the connections for a multi-host environment.
Skill 4.2: Manage Windows Containers
CHAPTER 4 103
TABLE 4-2 Multi-host connection types
Multi-host
container to Container
Container to external
NAT
References external container
host IP and port, routed through
WinNAT with translations
References external container
host IP and port, routed through
WinNAT with translations
Transparent
Directly references container IP
endpoint
Direct access to physical network
L2 Bridge
Directly references container IP
endpoint
Access to physical network by using MAC address translation
NAT networks
By default, when an endpoint is created, it connects to the NAT network. To specify the network that a container should attach to, use the --network parameter.
docker run -it --network=NatNetwork <image>
To access any applications that run within a container, you need to map the ports from the
host to the endpoint.
docker run -it -p 80:80 <image>
docker run -it -p 8082:80 windowsservercore cmd
The first command creates a port map between TCP port 80 on the host to TCP port 80 of
the container endpoint. The second command uses port 8082 on the host, and forwards it to
port 80 of the endpoint.
EXAM TIP
Port mapping must either be configured when the endpoint is created, or when the endpoint is in a STOPPED state. You cannot modify container port mapping while the endpoint
is running.
Transparent networks
To use a transparent network, you must first create the network.
docker network create -d transparent TransparentNetwork
If the container host is virtualized, and you need to use DHCP for the IP address assignment, then you must also use MAC address spoofing on the VM network adapter. Without
MAC address spoofing, the Hyper-V host blocks the network traffic from the containers in the
VM with identical MAC addresses.
Get-VMNetworkAdapter -VMName ContainerHost | Set-VMNetworkAdapter -MacAddressSpoofing On
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L2 Bridge networks
To use a L2 Bridge network, you must create a container network that uses the driver named
l2bridge. The subnet and gateway for the network must also be specified when creating the
object.
docker network create -d l2bridge --subnet=10.10.0.0/16 --gateway=10.10.0.1
BridgeNetwork
EXAM TIP
When using an L2 Bridge network type, only static IP addresses are supported.
Options for all network types
You can use the Docker daemon to list the available networks.
docker network ls
The following output is returned:
NETWORK ID
NAME
DRIVER
SCOPE
0a297065f06a
nat
nat
local
d42516aa0250
none
null
local
To remove a network, use the network rm parameter.
docker network rm "nat"
Figure 4-6 displays the networks on a docker host.
FIGURE 4-6 Listing networks
Skill 4.2: Manage Windows Containers
CHAPTER 4 105
Manage container data volumes
Data volumes are storage locations that are visible to both the container host and the
container endpoint. The data that is in the volume can be shared between the two systems,
as well as with other containers on the same host. Creating a new volume is part of the run
parameter with the Docker daemon.
docker run -it -v c:\volume1 windowsservercore cmd
By default, new data volumes are created in C:\ProgramData\Docker\Volumes on the container host. In the command, the C:\Volume1 indicates that the volume is be accessible within
the container endpoint at that path.
After you have created a volume, to mount it to a different container, specify the source
and destination paths using the same parameters:
docker run -it -v c:\source:c:\destination windowsservercore cmd
You can also pass-through a single file from the container host to the endpoint. The syntax
is basically the same as specifying an existing volume.
docker run -it -v c:\container-share\config.ini windowsservercore cmd
Similarly, you can also mount a full drive from the container host to the endpoint. Note
that when mounting a full drive, a backslash is not included with the drive letter.
docker run -it -v d: windowsservercore cmd
Finally, data volumes can be inherited from other endpoints using the --volumes-from
switch in the run parameter. This is useful if the applications in multiple containers are sharing
the same data.
docker run -it --volumes-from Volume1 windowsservercore cmd
Manage resource control
Docker includes the ability to manage the CPU, disk IO, network, and memory consumption
that an endpoint consumes. This ensures that you are able to manage the container host
resources efficiently, as well as ensuring that you maximize the performance of all services
running on a host.
By default, the CPU is divided equally among all endpoints running on a container host. To
change the share that an endpoint has, use the --cpu-shares switch with the run parameter.
The --cpushares parameter accepts a value between 1 and 10000. The default weight of all
endpoints is 5,000.
docker run -it --cpu-shares 2 --name dockerdemo windowsservercore cmd
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NEED MORE REVIEW?
CPU RESOURCES
For more information on managing CPU resources for an endpoint, visit https://docs.
docker.com/engine/reference/run/#cpu-share-constraint.
Create new container images using Dockerfile
You can use Docker to automatically build images by reading the instructions that are placed
in a Dockerfile. A Dockerfile is a text document that lists the commands that you would use
in the CLI to create an image manually. After creating the Dockerfile, use the build parameter
with the Docker daemon to automatically create the image.
docker build -f C:\Dockerfile .
The Docker daemon commits each line of the file one by one before outputting the image
ID of for the endpoint that you have created.
NEED MORE REVIEW?
DOCKERFILE DETAILS
For more information on Dockerfile, visit https://docs.docker.com/engine/reference/builder/.
Manage container images using Docker Hub repository for
public and private scenarios
The Docker Hub is a repository that contains pre-built images. These images can be
downloaded onto a host and used in a development or production environment. These
images can also be used as a base for Windows container applications. To retrieve a list
of the available images in the Docker Hub, use the search parameter with the Docker
daemon:
docker search *
The following output is returned:
NAME
OFFICIAL
DESCRIPTION
STARS
microsoft/sample-django
[OK]
Django installed in a Windows Server Core ...
1
microsoft/dotnet35
[OK]
.NET 3.5 Runtime installed in a Windows Se...
1
microsoft/sample-golang
Go Programming
AUTOMATED
[OK]
…
Skill 4.2: Manage Windows Containers
CHAPTER 4 107
Downloading an image from the Docker Hub is the same as retrieving a base image. Use
the pull parameter with the Docker daemon:
docker pull microsoft/aspnet
The following output is returned:
Using default tag: latest
latest: Pulling from microsoft/aspnet
f9e8a4cc8f6c: Pull complete
b71a5b8be5a2: Download complete
After downloading the image, it is available when viewing the images through the Docker
daemon.
docker images
The following output is returned:
REPOSITORY
SIZE
TAG
IMAGE ID
CREATED
VIRTUAL
microsoft/aspnet
latest
b3842ee505e5
5 hours ago
101.7 MB
To upload an image to the Docker Hub, use the push parameter with the Docker daemon.
First, you must login with your Docker ID to access the Hub.
docker login
The following output is returned:
Login with your Docker ID to push and pull images from Docker Hub. If you don't have a
Docker ID, head over to https://hub.docker.com to create one.
Username: username
Password:
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Login Succeeded
docker push username/containername
The push refers to a repository [docker.io/username/containername]
4341be770beb: Pushed
fed398573696: Pushed
latest: digest: sha256:ae3a2971628c04d5df32c3bbbfc87c477bb814d5e73e2787900da13228676c4f
size: 2410
Manage container images using Microsoft Azure
You can use Docker on Microsoft Azure a few different ways:
■
Deploy container hosts using the Docker Machine Azure driver
■
Use the Docker VM Extension on Azure VMs
■
Use the Docker VM Extension with Docker Compose
■
Deploy a Docker Swarm cluster on Azure Container Services
The Azure Docker VM Extension installs and configures the Docker daemon, client, and
Docker Compose on a Linux VM in Azure. This enables you to define and deploy container
applications using Docker Compose and Docker Machine.
Combine the extension with the Azure Resource Manager, and you can create and deploy
templates for almost all aspects of your Azure environment.
NEED MORE REVIEW?
DOCKER VM EXTENSION
For more information on the Docker VM Extension, visit https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/
documentation/articles/virtual-machines-linux-dockerextension/.
documentation/articles/virtual-machines-linux-dockerextension/
Skill 4.2: Manage Windows Containers
CHAPTER 4 109
Chapter summary
■
The basics of using containers to run virtualized images.
■
How to install Docker on Windows Server and Nano Server
■
How to configure the start-up options for the Docker daemon
■
Performing a base operating system install
■
Tagging an image for use with containers
■
Creating containers for both Windows Server and Hyper-V
■
Managing containers using the Docker daemon and Windows PowerShell
■
Creating NAT, Transparent, and L2 Bridge networks for containers
■
Creating and managing data volumes for use by multiple container endpoints
■
Managing container host resources using Resource Control
■
Automating the build process for an image using Dockerfile
■
Using the Azure VM Extension with Docker
Thought Experiment
A company is testing containers and images in their development environment. They have
installed the Docker engine on a Windows Server host, and deployed a base image connected to the default network. The company would like the images to connect directly to the
physical network. They also plan to automate the creation of future images and store them in
the Docker Hub.
Using this information, answer the following questions:
110
1.
What should be modified to configure the Docker daemon startup options?
2.
Which network is the image that has been deployed connected to?
3.
What type of network must the company create to achieve the goal?
4.
What type of file does the Dockerfile need to be?
5.
Which Docker daemon command is used to store images in the Docker Hub repository?
CHAPTER 4
Implement Windows Containers
Thought Experiment Answers
1.
The JSON configuration file should be created or modified to change the startup options of the Docker daemon.
2.
By default, images connect to a default NAT network.
3.
A transparent network must be created to enable the images to connect directly to the
physical network.
4.
The Dockerfile script is a plain-text file that contains the actions to create an image.
5.
The docker push command uploads the specified image to the Docker Hub after
logging into the service.
Thought Experiment Answers
CHAPTER 4 111
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CHAPTER 5
Implement high availability
T
his chapter covers a major component of the upgrade exam. In addition to several skills
being covered, there are many new features that have been introduced or enhanced
that we discuss in this chapter. These features include:
■
Cluster Operating System Rolling Upgrade
■
Storage Replica
■
Cloud witness
■
Virtual machine resiliency
■
Site-aware clusters
■
Workgroup and multi-domain clusters
■
Virtual machine node fairness
■
Virtual machine start order
In addition to these topics, we also cover other details of high availability using Hyper-V,
failover clustering, and Storage Spaces Direct.
Skills in this chapter:
■
Implement high availability and disaster recovery options in Hyper-V
■
Implement failover clustering
■
Implement Storage Spaces Direct
■
Manage failover clustering
■
Manage VM movement in clustered nodes
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recovery options in Hyper-V
This section explains the basic high availability and disaster recovery options that are available
in Hyper-V. These options do not require any additional management components or failover
clusters. Hyper-V has built-in redundancy and failover options.
This section covers how to:
■
Implement Hyper-V replica
■
Implement Live Migration
■
Implement shared-nothing Live Migration
■
Configure CredSSP or Kerberos authentication protocol for Live Migration
■
Implement storage migration
Implement Hyper-V replica
A Hyper-V replica enables you to replicate virtual machines on one Hyper-V host to another
host, either in the same physical location or a different location. The replication data can also
be encrypted by using certificates. The certificate that is used can be local, self-signed, or
supplied by a Certification Authority (CA).
Windows Server 2012 R2 introduced extended replication which enables you to replicate
a virtual machine to multiple sites. For example, you can replicate the VM to a secondary
failover as well as an extended third site. There are a few additional considerations to be
aware of when using an extended replica:
■
You cannot use application-consistent replication.
■
You can failover to the third site if necessary.
■
You can run a test failover to either site without disruption.
A failover with Hyper-V replica is not an automatic process. There are three different types of
failover that you can perform:
■
■
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Test failover You can test whether the replicated VM can start in the second or third
site. This process creates a duplicate VM during the testing process that is started. The
VM in the production environment is not affected. When you complete the failover
process, the duplicate VM is deleted.
Planned failover This method enables you to failover during a planned maintenance
or downtime for specific sites. To perform a planned failover, the source VM must first
be powered off. The failover process replication still occurs, but from the secondary
Implement high availability
site to the original primary. This ensures that both sites still maintain synchronized
data.
■
Unplanned failover When an unexpected outage occurs you can perform an unplanned failover. This type of failover should only be used if the source VM fails and
must be started in a secondary site. If recovery history is used, you can also recover to
a previous snapshot.
Configuring a Hyper-V replica is a multi-step process that requires planning from networking, storage, and server management aspects. The general steps to successfully implementing
a Hyper-V replica include:
1.
Set up the Hyper-V servers This includes the primary source server and at least
one replication destination. Additional components that could need to be configured
include networking and storage.
2.
Set up the replication Enable both Hyper-V servers to be members of the replica.
This ensures that replication can occur both from the primary to the secondary, and
from the secondary to the primary in the event of a failover.
3.
Test the deployment Conduct a test failover after all VM settings have been configured. This ensures that the communication and replication is ready for production. As
part of the test, ensure that the duplicate VM is created on the replica.
4.
Run a planned failover Run a planned failover to complete the process of moving
the active VM from the primary to the secondary replica. This might be necessary during planned maintenance or downtime events. A planned failover can also be performed to ensure that an unplanned failover is successful.
5.
Respond to an unplanned failover Unplanned failovers do not automatically transfer a VM if the primary VM is unavailable. You must manually failover the VM to the
secondary replica.
6.
Set up extended replication Configuring an extended replica provides another
level of failover by using a third replica site. You can use the third site simply as another
replica location, or move workloads to specific servers in the event of a planned or
unplanned failover.
NEED MORE REVIEW?
For details and instructions for each step of the process of deploying a Hyper-V replica,
visit https://technet.microsoft.com/library/jj134207.aspx.
https://technet.microsoft.com/library/jj134207.aspx
Implement Live Migration
Live Migration is the ability to move VMs or VM storage without a failover cluster. Moving a
VM or its storage can be performed from the Hyper-V Manager or from Windows PowerShell.
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To perform a live migration, first enable it from the settings of the Hyper-V host. To enable
live migrations, the machine must be a domain member. Live migration is not available in a
Hyper-V workgroup. Figure 5-1 shows the settings from the Hyper-V Manager.
FIGURE 5-1 Live Migration settings
The first step to perform the migration using Hyper-V Manager is to right-click the VM
you plan to migrate, and click Move. The Move Wizard is displayed, as shown in Figure 5-2.
The first option is whether to move the virtual machine, or move the storage of the virtual
machine. In this section, we move the virtual machine.
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FIGURE 5-2 Move Wizard choose move type
You are then prompted to specify the destination for the move. This can be any other
Hyper-V host that you have permission to administer. Figure 5-3 shows specifying the destination host.
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FIGURE 5-3 Move Wizard specify destination
You are then prompted for additional details of the migration type. The available options
during a VM migration are shown in Figure 5-4:
■
■
■
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Move The Virtual Machine’s Data To A Single Location This option moves all VM
files, including disks, snapshots, and configuration information to a single specified
location.
Move The Virtual Machine’s Data By Selecting Where To Move The Items This
option presents additional options for moving the storage of the VM, which we discuss
in a later section.
Move Only The Virtual Machine This option moves only the running configuration
of the VM, but not the storage. The storage of the VM must be shared between the
source and destination Hyper-V hosts.
Implement high availability
FIGURE 5-4 Move Wizard choose move options
If you select to move only the virtual machine, then no additional options are displayed
and you complete the wizard. If you plan to move all of the VM files to a single location, one
additional screen is displayed, prompting you for the destination directory to store the VM
and its files. Figure 5-5 shows specifying the destination directory.
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FIGURE 5-5 Move Wizard virtual machine
You can also move a VM by using Windows PowerShell and using the Move-VM cmdlet.
For example, to move a VM named VM1 to a Hyper-V server named Host2, run the following
command:
Move-VM "VM1" Host2
You must also configure a network to be used by the live migration service, which is accomplished by using the Set-VMHost cmdlet. For example:
Set-VMHost –UseAnyNetworkForMigration $true
Implement shared nothing Live Migration
A “shared nothing” migration is simply the ability to migrate a VM across hosts that do
not share common features, and are not in a failover cluster. By default, a migration using
the Move wizard as discussed completes, even if the Hyper-V hosts do not share the same
storage.
One additional component to migrating VMs is processor compatibility. If you need to
migrate a VM between Hyper-V hosts that do not share the same physical features, you can
limit some VM features to ensure that a migration can occur. For example, if you need to
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move from an Intel-based Hyper-V server to an AMD-based host, you should enable processor
compatibility before completing the migration. These settings are per-VM within the Processor
tree, as shown in Figure 5-6.
FIGURE 5-6 Processor compatibility
Configure CredSSP or Kerberos authentication protocol for
Live Migration
With Windows Server 2016, the Hyper-V Manager communicates with the hosts by using the
WS-MAN protocol. This enables using Credential Security Support Provider (CredSSP), Kerberos, or HTML authentication. CredSSP is now the default method of authentication for live
migrations, and does not require constrained delegation to be enabled in Active Directory.
Figure 5-7 shows the advanced features of configuring Live Migration, including CredSSP.
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FIGURE 5-7 Live Migration advanced settings
Enabling Kerberos can also be performed from PowerShell by using the Set-VMHost cmdlet. For example:
Set-VMHost –VirtualMachineMigrationAuthenticationType Kerberos
You can also enhance the performance of a live migration by configuring additional options. These include:
■
■
■
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TCP/IP With this option, the memory of the VM is transferred during the migration
by using the available network over a typical TCP/IP connection.
Compression With this option, the memory of the VM is first compressed before being sent to the destination by using a TCP/IP connection.
SMB With this option, the memory of the VM is copied to the destination by using
a SMB connection. If both the source and destination network adapters use Remote
Direct Memory Access (RDMA), then SMB Direct is used for the copy.
Implement high availability
If you plan to use Kerberos as the authentication protocol, then you must also configure
constrained delegation within Active Directory for each Hyper-V host. Constrained delegation
is enabled by modifying the computer object properties for the host in Active Directory. For
each host in the environment, add two services that refer to the other Hyper-V hosts in the
environment: cifs and Microsoft Virtual System Migration Service.
For example, if you had four Hyper-V hosts named Host1 – Host4, then the delegation
settings on Host1 must contain each service for Host2, Host3, and Host4. Figure 5-8 shows
adding these two services on the Host02 computer object, specifying Host01 for each service.
FIGURE 5-8 Host02 Delegation properties
Implement storage migration
Performing a migration from Hyper-V manager is as simple as right-clicking a VM, and then
selecting Move. The Move Wizard is displayed, walking you through the available options to
move the VM or VM storage, based on what is available. Figure 5-9 shows the second screen
of the Move Wizard.
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FIGURE 5-9 Move Wizard move type selection
When moving the storage of a virtual machine, there are a few different options in the
wizard, as shown in Figure 5-10.
■
■
■
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Move All Of The Virtual Machine’s Data To A Single Location This option moves
all VM data, regardless of its current location, to a single destination.
Move the Virtual Machine’s Data to Different Locations This option enables you
to first select which items you plan to move, and then specify the destination for each
item. Items include the VHD files, configuration files, checkpoints, and smart paging
files.
Move Only the Virtual Machine’s Virtual Hard Disks
move only the VHDs that are being used with the VM.
Implement high availability
This option enables you to
FIGURE 5-10 Move Wizard choose move options
Depending on the option you select, the wizard is automatically prompt for additional
information. For example, choosing Move the virtual machine’s data to different locations
adds a new page in the wizard for each configuration item. Figure 5-5 shows an example of
specifying the destination for the VM.
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FIGURE 5-11 Move Wizard virtual machine
Moving a VM’s storage can also be accomplished by using the Move-VM cmdlet. For
example, to move a VM named VM1 to Host02 in the E:\VMs directory run the following
command.
Move-VM "VM1" Host02 –IncludeStorage –DestinationStoragePath E:\VMs
Skill 5.2: Implement failover clustering
In this section, we discuss several skills that are involved or need to be considered when
creating a failover cluster. This includes the type of cluster to implement, cluster details such
as quorum, networking, or storage. We also cover cluster management features including
cluster-aware updating and cluster operating system rolling upgrade. Finally, we discuss
features that can be used to augment failover clusters, such as CSVs, Storage Replica, and
virtualized clusters.
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This section covers how to:
■
Implement Workgroup, Single, and Multi-Domain clusters
■
Configure quorum and Implement Cloud Witness
■
Configure cluster networking
■
Restore single node or cluster configuration
■
Configure cluster storage
■
Implement Cluster-Aware Updating
■
Implement Cluster Operating System Rolling Upgrade
■
Configure and optimize Clustered Shared Volumes
■
Configure clusters without network names
■
Implement Scale-Out File Server
■
Determine different scenarios for the use of SoFS versus the Clustered File Server
■
Determine usage scenarios for implementing guest clustering
■
Implement a Clustered Storage Spaces solution using Shared SAS storage
enclosures
■
Implement Storage Replica
■
Implement VM resiliency
■
Implement shared VHDX as a storage solution for guest clusters
Implement workgroup, single, and multi-domain clusters
In previous versions of Windows Server, the nodes within a cluster had to be in the same
domain. With Windows Server 2016, cluster nodes can span different domains, or be
members of a workgroup. The traditional method of having all clusters nodes in the same
domain is a single-domain cluster. For the purposes of this section, we focus primarily on
workgroup and multi-domain clusters.
There are a few prerequisites for implementing workgroup or multi-domain clusters:
■
A local user account must be created on all nodes.
■
The user account must have the same name and password on each node.
■
The user account must be a member of the local Administrators group.
■
■
■
The LocalAccountTokenFilterPolicy registry key at HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\System must be created and set to 1.
When the cluster is created, it must be created as an Active Directory-Detached Cluster.
The administrative access point must be set to DNS.
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The first step to creating a failover cluster of any type is to install the Failover Cluster
feature. This can be accomplished from Server Manager using the Add Roles and Features
Wizard, or by using the Install-WindowsFeature cmdlet.
After you have installed the Failover Cluster feature, you can create a cluster from PowerShell or by using the Failover Cluster Manager. The first step is to select the servers that
you are including in the cluster. The Failover Cluster Manager ensures that the server has
the Failover Cluster feature installed, and verify the settings on the server. Adding a server is
shown in Figure 5-12.
FIGURE 5-12 Create Cluster Wizard select servers
The next step, performing validation, is optional. Validation ensures that the servers you
are configuring as part of a failover cluster meet the supported requirements. If you select
Yes, then a separate wizard launches above the Create Cluster Wizard and must be completed
before returning. The validation warning is shown in Figure 5-13.
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FIGURE 5-13 Create Cluster Wizard validation warning
Next, set a name for the cluster that is less than 15 characters. This is the name that is used
when administering the cluster, as shown in Figure 5-14.
FIGURE 5-14 Create Cluster Wizard administration access point
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Finally, the confirmation screen details the settings for the cluster. Notice in Figure 5-15
that the cluster registration is set to DNS only. This indicates that the cluster is not a member
of Active Directory domain, and is a workgroup cluster.
FIGURE 5-15 Create Cluster Wizard confirmation
Configure quorum and configure cloud witness
The latest recommendation from Microsoft is to always configure a quorum witness, regardless of how many nodes in the cluster exist. By using Dynamic Quorum, the cluster automatically manages the vote that the quorum witnesses. There are three types of quorum available
when configuring a failover cluster:
■
■
■
Disk Witness This was previously known as Node and Disk Majority. Disk witness
monitors a storage volume to use to decide quorum.
File Share Witness This was previously known as Node and File Share Majority. File
share witness monitors a UNC path file share to decide quorum. The file share must
not be used by the cluster.
Cloud Witness This is new for Windows Server 2016. Cloud witness uses Azure blob
storage to decide quorum. This section focuses primarily on using a cloud witness.
With a cloud witness, a blob file is created in the blob storage. There is very little cost
associated with using a cloud witness, as the blob file is only updated when the state of the
cluster changes. Figure 5-16 shows a diagram of a common multi-site failover cluster that uses
a cloud witness.
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FIGURE 5-16 Multi-site failover cluster with cloud witness
The four general steps to using a cloud witness for quorum are:
1.
Create an Azure storage account using locally-redundant replication It is
important to select locally redundant, so that there is consistency for the cluster
management.
2.
Copy the storage access keys associated with the storage account By default,
each storage account generates two access keys that can be used to access the storage
account. The key is necessary to connect to Azure from the on-premises cluster.
3.
Copy the blob URL There are three URLs associated with the storage account: blobs,
tables, and queues. A cloud witness uses blob storage, so this is the URL that is used to
connect to. Note that the URL can vary by country or region, so be sure to document
the URL for any storage account that you create.
4.
Complete the quorum configuration on the cluster by using the wizard, or
PowerShell The Configure Cluster Quorum Wizard walks you through the steps
to creating a cloud witness. You can also configure the cluster quorum by using the
Set-ClusterQuorum cmdlet.
The Configure Cluster Quorum Wizard can be launched from the More Actions menu of
the Failover Cluster Manager. To add a quorum witness, choose the Select the Quorum Witness option in the wizard, as shown in Figure 5-17.
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FIGURE 5-17 Configure Cluster Quorum Wizard select quorum configuration option
Next, you are able to select the type of quorum witness to configure, as shown in Figure
5-18. Again, focus on creating a cloud witness.
FIGURE 5-18 Configure Cluster Quorum Wizard select quorum witness
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The wizard prompts you for the name of the storage account that the blob container was
created in, one of the access keys for the storage account, and the endpoint URL for the container. The configured details are shown in Figure 5-19.
FIGURE 5-19 Configure Cluster Quorum Wizard configure quorum witness
The configuration details that are needed are all to be found in the Azure portal where the
storage account is configured. Figure 5-20 displays a portion of the Azure portal that contains
the storage account name and access key for the container. The service endpoint is populated
by default, and does not need to be changed.
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FIGURE 5-20 Storage account in Azure portal
In the above example, the storage account name is infxxxstorage1. The access key is the
string that begins with the numbers 74. To configure the quorum witness by using PowerShell,
use the Set-ClusterQuorum cmdlet. For example, using the same information, run the following command.
Set-ClusterQuorum –CloudWitness –AccountName infxxxstorage1 -AccessKey 74dxzkTUdxWAUbwuH
m4gPoVW5XgOeG+6ivP3lthzbVPicp/NEK6ivjGdA1J0oVcUuNRfLtaeYQ6WHZSwzq3/9Q==
Figure 5-21 shows the successful result of running the command.
FIGURE 5-21 Set-ClusterQuorum command
Configure cluster networking
After configuring the cluster and adding the nodes, the Failover Cluster Manager automatically detects the networks that are available on the nodes. Figure 5-22 shows the default
configuration after adding two hosts to the cluster, with each host having access to the same
two networks.
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FIGURE 5-22 Failover Cluster Manager Networks
Each network can be configured to either allow or prevent cluster network communications. This communication is for cluster operations, and does not include any client traffic. For
client connectivity, a network must specifically be granted as client use. Figure 5-23 shows the
properties of a cluster network, with both options enabled.
FIGURE 5-23 Cluster Network Properties
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Restore single node or cluster configuration
Performing a restore on a single node in a cluster, or entire cluster configuration, is no different than performing a backup and restore of any service or component on a Windows Server.
Combining a failover cluster and Windows Backup scenario for an item on the exam seems
unlikely; but you can prepare by understanding the default backup options within Windows
Server 2016.
Configure cluster storage and implement a Clustered
Storage Spaces solution using Shared SAS storage
enclosures
There are three different types of storage that can be configured with failover clustering:
■
■
■
Disks Disks that are shared between nodes can be added to a Cluster Shared Volume
or assigned to a specific failover cluster role.
Pools Groups of disks that are combined logically to create a single volume. Clustered pools use the underlying Storage Spaces technology to create a virtual disk using
the group of physical disks on the node.
Enclosures
Direct-attached disk chassis that contain multiple physical disks.
You should validate the configuration of the cluster before attempting to configure storage. This ensures that the cluster is configured and can support clustered storage across all
nodes. As an example, we create a storage pool for the cluster. From the Failover Cluster
Manager on the Pools screen, click the New Storage Pool. Figure 5-24 shows the New Storage
Pool Wizard.
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FIGURE 5-24 New Storage Pool Wizard storage pool name
Then, you are prompted to select the disks to use for the storage pool. You need at least
three disks to create a storage pool for use with failover clustering. Figure 5-25 shows the
available disks for the storage pool.
FIGURE 5-25 New Storage Pool Wizard physical disks
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Implement Cluster-Aware Updating
Cluster-Aware Updating (CAU) was introduced in Windows Server 2012 to reduce the effort
and difficulty of performing software updates on cluster nodes. CAU has not been updated
significantly for Windows Server 2016. To use CAU, the cluster must be joined to an Active
Directory domain. CAU is not available on workgroup clusters.
Performing Windows Updates typically requires a system reboot after performing the
update. CAU helps to automate the process of performing the updates for all nodes that are
in a cluster. Figure 5-26 shows the CAU tool for a cluster named WGCluster1. Neither node in
the cluster has been updated.
FIGURE 5-26 Cluster-Aware Updating
You cannot apply updates without enabling the CAU self-updating role. To enable the role,
configure the self-updating options from the CAU screen. Figure 5-27 shows the first configuration screen of the self-updating options wizard.
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FIGURE 5-27 Self-Updating Options cluster role
After selecting the option to enable the role, you can configure the schedule to perform
the self-updating process. Then you can configure advanced options for the cluster. The
advanced options enable you to configure time boundaries, retry limits, and pre and post
update scripts that must also be run when updating. Figure 5-28 shows a portion of the advanced options that are available.
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FIGURE 5-28 Self-Updating Options advanced options
By default, only important updates are installed based on the CAU tool. An additional
option is to also include the recommended updates on the cluster. After applying the selfupdating options, the cluster can be updated by using CAU.
Implement Cluster Operating System Rolling Upgrade
Cluster Operating System Rolling Upgrade is a new feature in failover clustering for Windows
Server 2016. If a Windows Server 2012 R2 failover cluster is running the Hyper-V or Scale-Out
File Server roles, you can add Windows Server 2016 nodes without taking the failover cluster
offline.
For each node in the cluster, follow the process to upgrade the operating system in the
correct phase. This ensures that the cluster does not require downtime to complete the upgrade. The overall steps to perform the upgrade include:
140
1.
Pause the node and drain all virtual machines, if necessary.
2.
Ensure that all virtual machines are migrated to another node in the cluster.
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3.
Suspend and evict the node from the cluster.
4.
Install Windows Server 2016 on the node and add it to the cluster.
5.
Repeat steps 1-4 for each node in the cluster.
6.
After all nodes have been upgraded, run the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet.
Until the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet is run, the process can be suspended
or reversed. You can also add Windows Server 2012 R2 hosts until the functional level has
been updated. To retrieve the current functional level, run the Get-Cluster cmdlet.
Get-Cluster | Select ClusterFunctionalLevel
If the ClusterFunctionalLevel value is set to 8, then the cluster is at Windows Server 2012
R2. If the value is 9, then the cluster is at Windows Server 2016. It is also recommended that
you disable Cluster-Aware Updating before attempting to perform za Rolling Operating
System Upgrade. While the name implies upgrading the operating system, a best practice is
to perform a clean installation of the operating system. An in-place upgrade is not recommended for cluster nodes.
Configure and optimize clustered shared volumes (CSVs)
CSVs were introduced in Windows Server 2008 R2 and have become a widely used featured
of failover clusters. CSVs can be clustered VHDs for Hyper-V VMs, or scale-out file shares using the Scale-Out File Server (SoFS) clustered role. NTFS and Resilient File System (ReFS) can
be used for VMs, however, ReFS is not supported with SoFS.
CSVs can be created from a cluster-available disks in the nodes of the cluster. You can
either use the wizard in the Failover Cluster Manager, or by using Windows PowerShell. To
retrieve a list of disks that can be used in a cluster, run the Get-ClusterAvailableDisk cmdlet.
To add the disks, run the Add-ClusterDisk cmdlet. You can combine these two into a single
command:
Get-ClusterAvailableDisk | Add-ClusterDisk
After you have added the available disks, create a CSV by using the Add-ClusterSharedVolume cmdlet.
Add-ClusterSharedVolume -Name "CSV1"
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Configure clusters without network names
A failover cluster without a network name is simply an Active Directory-detached cluster.
However, this is different than a workgroup cluster, where the nodes are not joined to a
domain. For an Active Directory-detached cluster, the nodes must be joined to a domain.
As with a workgroup cluster, the administrative access point is also DNS. Without Active
Directory, the failover cluster uses NTLM as the authentication method, and not Kerberos.
You can create an Active Directory-detached cluster by using the New-Cluster Windows
cmdlet, not the Failover Cluster Manager. For example:
New-Cluster Cluster1 -Node Server1,Server2 -StaticAddress 10.0.0.10 -NoStorage
-AdministrativeAccessPoint Dns
Implement Scale-Out File Server (SoFS)
SoFS is a subset of the File Server role when configuring a failover cluster. SoFS requires that
CSVs be configured for storage. SoFS is useful for high-performance applications that need
access to data across any node. Figure 5-29 shows adding the SoFS role to a failover cluster.
FIGURE 5-29 High Availability Wizard
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Determine different scenarios for the use of SoFS vs.
clustered File Server
SoFS is not designed for use in a general purpose file share environment. SoFS is designed
for applications that keep files open for long periods of time, and require additional
resources to process and change those files. SoFS distributes client connections across all
nodes in the cluster to enhance performance, and can increase complexity and troubleshooting for general file shares. Additionally, SoFS only use CSVs as storage, and cannot
use individual disks. SoFS is not compatible with other file share technologies, including
deduplication, DFS, and BranchCache.
Determine usage scenarios for implementing guest
clustering
With advances in pass-through technologies in Hyper-V, guest clustering isn’t as complex with Windows Server 2016. A guest cluster is a failover cluster that is created using
VMs instead of physical hosts. However, Hyper-V offers virtual SAN connectivity, so clustering storage and networking using VMs can be performed the same as if using physical
hosts.
Implement Storage Replica
As discussed in Chapter 2, Storage Replica can be used for block-level replication between servers or clusters for disaster recovery. You can also use Storage Replica to stretch
a failover cluster between sites. You can use synchronous replication to enable crashconsistent volumes, or use asynchronous replication for longer distance or lower latency
connections.
With failover clusters, Storage Replica can be used to replicate data from one cluster
to another, or stretch a cluster across different sites. With cluster to cluster replication,
you grant Storage Replica access on the cluster name instead of individual nodes. For
example:
Grant-SRAccess -ComputerName SR-SRV01 -Cluster SR-SRVCLUSB
Figure 5-30 shows a cluster to cluster Storage Replica.
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FIGURE 5-30 Cluster to cluster Storage Replica
NEED MORE REVIEW?
For details and instructions for using cluster to cluster Storage Replica, visit https://technet.
microsoft.com/en-us/windows-server-docs/storage/storage-replica/cluster-to-cluster-storage-replication.
You can also use Storage Replica in a stretch cluster. A stretch cluster is a single failover
cluster that is spanned across multiple sites. However, with Storage Replica, the sites use
different physical storage for each site. Storage Replica ensures that the data is mirrored
between sites.
NEED MORE REVIEW?
For details and instructions for using a stretch cluster with Storage Replica, visit https://
technet.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-server-docs/storage/storage-replica/stretch-clusterreplication-using-shared-storage.
Figure 5-31 shows a stretch cluster used with Storage Replica.
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FIGURE 5-31 Cluster to cluster Storage Replica
Implement VM resiliency
Windows Server 2016 includes increased resiliency with Hyper-V failover clusters. There are
two primary resiliency enhancements:
■
■
Compute resiliency There are additional options that can be configured for Hyper-V
VMs that help to reduce intra-cluster communication.
Storage resiliency
VMs are more resilient to transient storage failures.
New options for compute resiliency include:
■
Resiliency level
■
Resiliency period Defines how long VMs can run when they are isolated.
Defines how failures are handled.
You can also configure quarantines for nodes that are deemed unhealthy. These nodes
cannot join a cluster, and prevents nodes from affecting other nodes in the cluster.
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If a VM experiences a storage failure to the underlying storage, the VM pauses. When
paused, the VM retains the application context for any existing I/O. When the storage recovers and is presented again to the VM, the VM recovers and returns to a running state.
NEED MORE REVIEW?
For more information on VM resiliency with failover clusters, visit https://blogs.msdn.
microsoft.com/clustering/2015/06/03/virtual-machine-compute-resiliency-in-windowsserver-2016/.
server-2016/
Implement shared VHDX as a storage solution for guest
clusters
Another method of configuring storage for virtualized clusters is to use VHDX sharing. Windows Server 2012 R2 introduced the ability to enable sharing on a virtual disk. Figure 5-32
shows the ability to create a shared drive from the settings of a VM.
FIGURE 5-32 Creating a shared drive
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In Windows Server 2012, sharing was an advanced option of a VHDX file. In Windows
Server 2016, a shared drive uses a VHDS file format, and can be shared among virtual machines. VHDS file can only be fixed or dynamically expanding, and cannot be a differencing
disk. Figure 5-33 shows creating a VHD Set by using the New Virtual Hard Disk Wizard.
FIGURE 5-33 Creating a shared drive
The shared storage can be added to multiple virtual machines, enabling you to create a
virtualized cluster without exposing any underlying storage.
Skill 5.2: Implement failover clustering
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Skill 5.3: Implement Storage Spaces Direct
This section covers how to:
■
Determine scenario requirements for implementing Storage Spaces Direct
■
Enable Storage Spaces direct using Windows PowerShell
■
Implement a disaggregated Storage Spaces Direct scenario in a cluster
■
Implement a hyper-converged Storage Spaces Direct scenario in a cluster
Determine scenario requirements for implementing
Storage Spaces Direct
Storage Spaces Direct expands on the existing Storage Spaces technology of using local
storage for high availability and scalability. Storage Spaces Direct does not require any shared
SAS or Fibre Channel environment. The network connectivity between the servers are used
with SMB 3.0 and SMB Direct (Remote Direct Memory Access) to efficiently connect to and
use storage. Storage Spaces Direct can be used with Scale-Out File Server, Cluster Shared
Volumes, and Failover Clustering.
There are two supported scenarios in which Storage Spaces Direct can be used:
■
■
Disaggregated deployment The commuting cluster is separate from the Storage
Spaces Direct servers that host the storage. Virtual Machines storage is configured on a
Scale-out File Server, and is accessed by using SMB 3.0.
Hyper-converged deployment The compute and storage components are stored
and use the same cluster. The VM storage is configured as local storage using the Cluster Shared Volumes, and a Scale-Out File Server is not necessary.
Enable Storage Spaces Direct using Windows PowerShell
The disks that you plan to use with Storage Spaces Direct must not have any partitions or
data already existing on them. If any partitions or data already exist, the data is not included
with Storage Spaces Direct. Enabling Storage Spaces Direct is accomplished by running a
single command:
Enable-ClusterStorageSpacesDirect -CimSession Cluster1
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By running the command, Storage Spaces Direct automatically performs a few tasks:
1.
Create a storage pool using the available disks.
2.
Configure a cache, if necessary. This is only used if there is more than one media type
available.
3.
Create two tiers. The first tier is named Capacity. The second tier is named Performance. The tiers are configured with a mix of device types and resiliency.
Other PowerShell cmdlets that can be used with Storage Spaces Direct include:
■
■
■
■
Test-Cluster
This tests the suitability of a configuration.
Enable-ClusterS2D Configures a cluster for the Storage Spaces Direct using local
SATA or NVMe devices.
Optimize-StoragePool
age changes.
Rebalances the storage optimization if the underlying stor-
Debug-StorageSubsystem
Displays any faults that can affect the storage.
Implement a disaggregated Storage Spaces Direct scenario
in a cluster
As discussed in the earlier section, “Determine scenario requirements for implementing Storage Spaces Direct,” a disaggregated scenario is simply a separation of the storage environment from the computing environment. In this scenario, you would configure the Hyper-V
Failover Cluster as usual. Then configure the Storage Spaces environment on a separate
cluster of servers. Figure 5-34 illustrates this separation of roles.
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FIGURE 5-34 Disaggregated Storage Spaces Direct deployment
Implement a hyper-converged Storage Spaces Direct
scenario in a cluster
As discussed in the earlier section, “Determine scenario requirements for implementing Storage Spaces Direct,” a hyper-converged scenario is the combination of the computing and
storage environment into the same cluster of servers. This deployment type eliminates the
need for a Scale-Out File Server. Figure 5-35 shows a hyper-converged deployment scenario.
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FIGURE 5-35 Hyper-converged Storage Spaces Direct deployment
NEED MORE REVIEW?
For a step-by-step of using a hyper-converged deployment of Storage Spaces Direct, visit
https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-server-docs/storage/storage-spaces/hyperconverged-solution-using-storage-spaces-direct.
Skill 5.3: Implement Storage Spaces Direct
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Skill 5.4: Manage failover clustering
In this section, we discuss some of the basics to monitor and manage a failover cluster after
it has been created. This includes configuring roles on the cluster and monitoring VMs that
run in the cluster. Then, we cover how to configure failover, preference, and startup settings
for services and roles in the cluster. Finally, we discuss site-aware failover clusters, and how to
configure preferred clusters and groups for clusters.
This section covers how to:
■
Configure role-specific settings, including continuously available shares
■
Configure VM monitoring
■
Configure failover and preference settings
■
Implement stretch and site-aware failover clusters
■
Enable and configure node fairness
Configure role-specific settings, including continuously
available shares
There are several roles that can be configured by using Failover Cluster:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
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DFS Namespace Server Provides an alias that can be used to access a DFS
namespace. The DFS Namespaces role must be installed on the nodes in the cluster.
DHCP Server Enables the DHCP service to failover between nodes in a cluster.
Distributed Transaction Coordinator
perform transactions.
Supports distribution of applications that
File Server Provides a central location where files can be accessed through the
failover cluster.
Generic application Provides high availability for applications that are not typically
designed to run in a cluster.
Generic script
Host.
Provides high availability for a script that runs in the Windows Script
Generic service Provides high availability for a service that is not typically designed
to run in a cluster.
Hyper-V Replica Broker
Hyper-V.
Implement high availability
Enables the failover cluster to participate in replication with
■
■
■
iSCSI Target Server
Provides SCSI storage over TCP/IP in the failover cluster.
iSNS Server An Internet Storage Name Service server that provides discovery of
iSCSI Targets.
Message Queuing Enables distributed applications running at different times to
communicate across networks.
■
Other server
■
Virtual Machine
■
WINS server
Provides a client access point and storage only.
Enables VMs that are running on a physical host.
Enables users to access resources by using NetBIOS names.
You can combine file servers running in a failover cluster with the SMB 3 protocol to
provide continuously available file shares to an environment. SMB 3 provides several benefits,
including:
■
■
■
SMB Transparent Failover Enables a file share to be continuously available with
SMB 3 clients. When a failover occurs, the SMB 3 client refreshes the connection to
another node in the cluster.
SMB Scale-out
Enables additional bandwidth to be used by multiple cluster nodes.
SMB Multichannel Uses multiple network interfaces to increase the performance of
the SMB connection.
Configure VM monitoring
VMs that are configured in a failover cluster can have the VM itself as well as applications
in the VM monitored by the Hyper-V host. The guest VM and the Hyper-V host must either
belong to the same domain, or have a trust relationship configured between domains. The
pre-defined Virtual Machine Monitoring rules must also be enabled on the VM. Figure 5-36
shows the rules that must be enabled. These rules include:
■
Virtual Machine Monitoring (DCOM-In)
■
Virtual Machine Monitoring (Echo Request – ICMPv4-In)
■
Virtual Machine Monitoring (Echo Request – ICMPv6-In)
■
Virtual Machine Monitoring (NB-Session-In)
■
Virtual Machine Monitoring (RPC)
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FIGURE 5-36 Windows Firewall Inbound Rules
After you have modified the firewall, you can configure monitoring for the VM from the
Failover Cluster Manager. Right-click a VM, and in the More Actions menu, click Configure
Monitoring. You are prompted with a list of services that exist on the VM.
After selecting the service to monitor, you can also configure recovery settings for the
service. By default, the first two times a service fails, the failover cluster attempts to restart
the service. If the service fails to start, then a failover would be performed. Therefore, if you
need to immediately failover (rather than try to wait for the service to restart), you need to
change the first recovery action to Take No Action. This ensures that the VM failovers, as the
monitored service is considered down.
Configure failover and preference settings
You can modify the properties of a role to assign settings for a role, as shown in Figure 5-37.
■
■
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Preferred owners The ordered list of nodes that attempt to handle client requests
or moves.
Start-up priority In the event of a failure, you can assign Low, Medium, High, or No
Auto Start for a role. If No Auto Start is configured, the role is failed over after all other
roles, but is not automatically started. By default, all roles have a Medium priority.
Implement high availability
FIGURE 5-37 Role general properties
You can also control the number of times that the failover cluster service tries to
restart or failover a role. These settings can be configured from the Failover tab, as
shown in Figure 5-38.
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FIGURE 5-38 Role failover properties
Windows Server 2016 also introduces the ability to control the start order of VMs. VMs
can be grouped into tiers, which can be used to define dependencies for starting order. This
ensures that more important virtual machines are started before others. For example, you can
configure all domain controllers to start first.
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Implement stretch and site-aware failover clusters
We discussed using a stretch cluster earlier in the “Storage Replica” section. However, using
a site-aware failover is new to Windows Server 2016. A site-aware failover cluster builds on a
stretch cluster, where nodes in the same cluster are not in the same physical site. Site-awareness gives the cluster the ability to better control failovers, placement, heartbeats between
nodes, and quorum.
A new configuration option is to control the cross-site heartbeat. These thresholds can be
configured by modifying new cluster properties:
■
■
■
CrossSiteDelay This property is set to 1,000 by default, and defines the amount of
time in milliseconds that a heartbeat is sent to nodes across sites.
CrossSiteThreshold This property is set to 20 by default, and defines the number of
heartbeats that can be missed before the interface is considered to be down.
PreferredSite The site that is assigned to a role for placement. The nodes of the site
must first be assigned to the site before it can be set to preferred. During a cold start,
VMs are also placed in the preferred site. The preferred site is also elected to be the
active site in the event of a split quorum. The LowerQuorumPriorityNodeID property is
deprecated with Windows Server 2016.
Preferred sites can also be configured more granularly by using cluster groups. This enables
you to control site placement on a group basis, in addition to the cluster. Groups in a cluster
are placed based on the following priority order:
1.
Storage affinity site
2.
Group preferred site
3.
Cluster preferred site
Enable and configure node fairness
VM node fairness is another new feature in Windows Server 2016. Node fairness enables load
balancing between nodes in a cluster. Nodes that are overcommitted are identified based on
virtual machine memory and processor use in the node. VMs are then automatically migrated
to nodes that are not as heavily used, if available. The threshold of the load balancing can
be configured and tuned to ensure the best cluster performance. By default, node fairness is
enabled in a Windows Server 2016 failover cluster; but is disabled when System Center Virtual
Machine Manager Dynamic Optimization is enabled.
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Skill 5.5: Manage VM movement in clustered nodes
This section covers the basic operations that are used when managing a failover cluster. This
includes performing a live, quick, or storage migration of a virtual machine. It also includes
importing, exporting, and copying these VMs. Finally, VM health protection and draining a
node on shutdown are also discussed. These topics are covered briefly, as they do not introduce anything new in Windows Server 2016.
This section covers how to:
■
Perform live migration
■
Perform quick migration
■
Perform storage migration
■
Import, export, and copy VMs
■
Configure VM network health protection
■
Configure drain on shutdown
Perform live migration
Performing a live migration is similar to performing a move through the Hyper-V Manager.
In the context of a failover cluster, a live migration copies the running memory of a VM to
the destination node before committing the migration. When using CSVs, the migration is
almost instant, as no transfer of disk ownership is necessary. A live migration can be used
in a planned maintenance or transfer, but not as an unplanned failover. To perform a live
migration, you must enable the feature from the Hyper-V settings, as discussed earlier in this
chapter.
Perform quick migration
As with a live migration, a quick migration copies the running memory of a VM. However,
that memory is saved to disk rather than being transferred to the destination node. This still
provides for a fast migration, but again cannot be used for an unplanned failover.
Perform storage migration
A storage migration copies the physical data from the node that currently owns the data to
the destination node. The time that it takes to complete the migration depends on the size of
the VM, and the storage connectivity method for the nodes.
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Import, export, and copy VMs
Importing, exporting, and copying VMs are methods of manually transferring a VM from one
node to another. Exporting a VM consolidates the VM into the files that are specified during
the export process. They can then be copied and imported to a different node.
Configure VM network health protection
Windows Server 2012 R2 introduced a new option named Protected Network in the advanced settings of VM network adapters. Configuring a protected network is useful to protect
a highly available VM from a failed network connection. With the protected network option
enabled, the physical node monitors the network for disruptions. If the network connection
goes down, then the VM is migrated to another physical node that has a working network
connection.
FIGURE 5-39 Virtual machine network adapter advanced features
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Configure drain on shutdown
Drain on shutdown is a necessary process to efficiently suspend a node. When a node is active, there can be several connections to the roles that operate on the node. By setting a node
to drain, a node does not respond to any future requests in the cluster. Therefore, as existing
connections complete or drop, the node is essentially removed from a cluster without affecting any existing, or future, connections.
FIGURE 5-40 Draining a failover cluster node
Chapter summary
160
■
How to use the Hyper-V Manager to perform basic VM management
■
Configure migration and authentication details for Hyper-V servers
■
Install and configure a failover cluster
■
Configure quorum options, including Azure Cloud Witness
■
Use Cluster-Aware Updating to perform Windows Updates
■
Seamlessly upgrade clusters from Windows Server 2012 R2 to Windows Server 2016
■
Optimize clusters using storage technologies like CSVs and Storage Replica
■
Implement Storage Spaces Direct for increased storage performance
■
Manage failover clusters using failover and preference settings
■
Perform basic VM management by using the Failover Cluster Manager.
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Thought Experiment
A company currently has a single site with two standalone Hyper-V hosts. Each Hyper-V host
is connected to an external iSCSI enclosure. The storage enclosure stores the data for all virtual machines that the hosts run.
The company plans to open an additional office in the same city. As part of the plan, the
secondary office should be used with active connections, and serve as a backup if the primary
office experiences a failure. Both offices should use a third site to determine which site is
primary in the event of a failure. If the third site is unavailable from both offices, the original
primary should accept the active client requests.
Using the above scenario, answer the following questions.
1.
What should be deployed in the primary office to accomplish the goal?
2.
What should be deployed in the secondary office to accomplish the goal?
3.
What technology should be used to ensure the secondary office maintains the latest
available data?
4.
What technology should be used to ensure only one site is active in the event of a
failure?
5.
What should be configured to ensure that the primary site is used in the event of a
third-site failure?
Thought Experiment Answers
1.
The two Hyper-V servers should be placed in a failover cluster.
2.
Two Hyper-V servers should be deployed as part of the same failover cluster, to service
active requests when online.
3.
Storage Replica should be used to synchronously transfer data from the primary office
to the secondary, and back again if necessary.
4.
A cloud witness should be configured to ensure a site is always active in the event of a
failure.
5.
The primary site should be configured as the preferred site to ensure it is active in the
event the cloud witness is unavailable.
Thought Experiment Answers
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CHAPTER 6
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T
his chapter covers one skill that is represented on the exam, implementing and configuring DNS servers. There are a few new technologies introduced in Windows Server 2016
for DNS servers:
■
■
■
■
■
DNS Policies
requests.
Policies can be created to specify how DNS servers respond to client
Response Rate Limiting Mitigates denial of service attacks on DNS.
DNS-based Authentication of Named Entities Uses Transport Layer Security
Authentication to inform clients to expect a certificate from a Certification Authority
for the DNS zone.
Unknown record support Add records that are not explicitly supported by Windows Server DNS.
IPv6 root hints Native IPv6 root hints have been added to DNS.
We discuss these new technologies and review key technologies that already exist for
DNS in this chapter.
Skills in this chapter:
■
Implement and configure DNS servers
Implement and configure DNS servers
This section explains how DNS is used in a Windows Server environment. DNS has several
components that include forwarders, root hints, policies, logging, and more. Each of these
components are discussed, including how to configure the options for a typical enterprise
environment.
163
This section covers how to:
■
Determine DNS installation requirements
■
Determine supported DNS deployment scenarios on Nano Server
■
Install DNS
■
Configure forwarders
■
Configure Root Hints
■
Configure delegation
■
Implement DNS policies
■
Configure Domain Name System Security Extensions
■
Configure DNS Socket Pool
■
Configure cache locking
■
Enable Response Rate Limiting
■
Configure DNS-based Authentication of Named Entities
■
Configure DNS logging
■
Configure delegated administration
■
Configure recursion settings
■
Implement DNS performance tuning
■
Configure global settings using Windows PowerShell
Determine DNS installation requirements
The DNS server role can be installed on any edition or version of Windows Server, including
Nano Server. There are two primary use cases for running DNS on a Windows Server:
■
■
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Active Directory integration Active Directory Domain Services requires a DNS
server for the directory to function properly. Once integrated, the DNS zones that are
configured on the server can be stored in Active Directory for increased security.
DNS and DHCP integration You can enable DNS records to be updated automatically when devices join the network for the first time, or if a device changes on the
network. This works independently of Active Directory.
Implement DNS
Determine supported DNS deployment scenarios on
Nano Server
DNS can be installed on Nano Server, and offers the same features, security, and functionality
as installing it on Server Core or graphical versions of Windows Server. The only difference in
using Nano Server is the management of the server role after it has been deployed.
After deploying DNS on a Nano Server, you can manage it by using Windows PowerShell
remoting. Create a new session with the Nano Server by running the Enter-PSSession cmdlet.
Enter-PSSession -ComputerName "Nano1"
After connecting remotely to the Nano Server, you can import the PowerShell module for
DNS by running the Import-Module cmdlet.
Import-Module DNSServer
You can then run any DNS PowerShell cmdlet on the Nano Server. Alternatively, you
can run the DNS Manager from a separate management computer, and connect to the
DNS service that is running on the Nano Server. This gives you the ability to manage the
DNS service through the DNS Manager console as if it was installed on a server with a
graphical interface.
Install DNS
DNS can be installed by using the Add Roles and Features Wizard through Server Manager,
or by using Windows PowerShell with the Install-WindowsFeature cmdlet.
Install-WindowsFeature DNS
If adding the package to Nano Server, the package would be installed by using the
Install-NanoServerPackage cmdlet.
Install-NanoServerPackage -Package Microsoft-NanoServer-DNS-Package
Configure forwarders
When a DNS server receives a request to translate a domain name that it does not know, a
forwarder is used to transfer the request to another DNS server. DNS forwarders use recursive queries as the list of forwarders are processed. A recursive query either accepts a record
that is provided, or displays an error if the record cannot be found. Forwarders do not accept
referrals to other DNS servers. The next DNS server could be a different DNS server within a
corporate network, the ISP, or a public DNS server. Figure 6-1 shows the Forwarders configured for a DNS server, using Verisign and OpenDNS public servers, respectively.
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FIGURE 6-1 DNS Forwarders
An option shown in Figure 6-1 for forwarders is the Use Root Hints If No Forwarders
Are Available. This uses any configured root hints if the forwarders that have been
configured are not available. By default, this option is disabled. From the GUI, forwarders
are managed by modifying the properties of the DNS server. However, using Windows
PowerShell, forwarders have separate cmdlets. To configure a forwarder with PowerShell,
use the Add-DnsServerForwarder cmdlet.
Add-DnsServerForwarder 8.8.8.8
To configure whether root hints are used if a forwarder is unavailable, run the
Set-DnsServerForwarer cmdlet.
Set-DnsServerForwarder -UseRootHint $False
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Conditional forwarders
Another type of forwarder is a conditional forwarder. Conditional forwarders are useful for
partner organizations or other DNS domains that an organization might have access to. For
example, if your organization has partnered with adatum.com, then you can configure a conditional forwarder. Rather than use the global forwarders or root hints to identify unknown
resources in the domain, a conditional forwarder routes DNS requests for adatum.com to the
specified server. Figure 6-2 shows creating a conditional forwarder from DNS Manager.
FIGURE 6-2 Conditional forwarder
After forwarders have been configured, you can verify DNS is working properly by using
nslookup. The nslookup tool is a command-line utility that enables you to query specific record types using DNS. Figure 6-3 shows performing successful queries for: Microsoft.com, the
local domain contosoforest.com, and the partner domain adatum.com.
If you plan to use PowerShell to create a conditional forwarder, use the
Add-DnsServerConditionalForwarderZone cmdlet.
Add-DnsServerConditionalForwarderZone -Name adatum.com -MasterServers 10.0.0.105
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FIGURE 6-3 nslookup results
Configure root hints
Unlike forwarders which perform recursive queries, root hints perform iterative queries. If a
DNS server cannot find the record for a query in the local configuration, it can query a DNS
server on the internet. A root server responds with a referral to the DNS server that hosts the
authoritative zone for the top-level domain (.com, .net, etc). The local server then queries the
referred server for the record, which responds with another referral to the authoritative server
for the DNS domain (contoso.com). The query and referral process continues until the record
is successfully located, or the authoritative server says that the record does not exist.
Windows Server 2016 introduces default root hints for IPv6 queries, so that IPv6 records
can be located using iterative queries just as IPv4 addresses can be. These root hints have
been pushed by Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), and can be used for IPv6 queries. Figure 6-4 shows the default root hints that have been added to Windows Server 2016.
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FIGURE 6-4 Root hints
Root Hints can also be retrieved or configured by using PowerShell. To retrieve the same
list that the GUI displays, run the Get-DnsServerRootHint cmdlet. To add additional root hints,
use the Add-DnsServerRootHint cmdlet.
Add-DnsServerRootHint -NameServer a.root-servers.net -IPAddress 2001:503:ba3e::2:30
Configure delegation
Zone delegation enables you to divide a DNS namespace into multiple zones. These additional zones can be stored and replicated to other DNS servers. This is useful if you need to
delegate management for a portion of a namespace, or want to improve network distribution
by dividing larger zones.
Creating a new delegation zone can be performed from DNS Manager by right-clicking
the forward lookup zone that you plan to split, then click New Delegation. The New Delegation Wizard appears. The first configuration screen prompts for the domain that is delegated.
For example, we specify the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) emea.contosoforest.com to
be delegated as a separate domain. Figure 6-5 shows the New Delegation Wizard.
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FIGURE 6-5 New Delegation Wizard
You are then prompted to enter the FQDN of the DNS server that is authoritative for the
zone. You must also resolve the FQDN to the available IP addresses for that specific server.
Figure 6-6 displays configuring the FQDN and associated IP addresses for delegation.
FIGURE 6-6 New Name Server Record
After you complete the wizard, the delegation zone is created in the forward lookup zone.
You can also create the zone by using the Add-DnsServerZoneDelegation cmdlet.
Add-DnsServerZoneDelegation -Name contosoforest.com -ChildZoneName emea.contosoforest.
com -IPAddress 10.0.0.100 -NameServer DC1
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Implement DNS policies
Windows Server 2016 introduces DNS policies to manage queries based on configurable
parameters. There are a few scenarios in which DNS policies can be useful:
■
■
■
Application high availability
for an application.
DNS queries are forwarded to the healthiest endpoint
Traffic management Use the closest available DNS server for client queries.
Split-brain DNS If DNS records are split for internal and external addresses, clients
receive the appropriate response depending on their location.
■
Filtering
■
Forensics DNS clients that are suspected to be malicious can be redirected.
■
Manage an IP blocking list to prevent malicious queries.
Time-based redirects Provide different responses to DNS queries based on the time
of day.
There are three new objects in DNS that are used to manage DNS policies:
■
Client subnet
■
Recursion scope
■
Zone scope
Represents an IPv4 or IPv6 subnet where queries originate from.
Groups of settings that control recursion for a DNS server.
Sets of DNS records for zones on the DNS server.
There are two policies that can be configured at either the zone or server level, and a
single server-only level policy.
■
■
■
Query Resolution Policy Can be applied to either a DNS server or a specific DNS
zone. Query resolution policies are used to control incoming client queries and define
how the DNS server handles the requests.
Zone Transfer Policy Can be applied to either a DNS server or a specific DNS zone.
Zone transfer policies control whether zone transfers are configured to either Deny or
Ignore zone changes for a DNS topology.
Recursion policy Recursion policies are only applied to the server level and control
whether queries are denied or ignore recursion for the queries. You can also choose to
configure a set of forwarders that are used for the queries.
The overall process to creating a policy includes first creating the objects, and then creating the policies. For example:
1.
Create the subnet objects that DNS clients are connecting from.
2.
Create the zone scopes and resource records for each network as needed.
3.
Create a policy to manage the queries from the defined subnets.
As of this writing, policies are only configured by using PowerShell. To view the available
cmdlets that can be used with policies, run the Get-Command cmdlet.
Get-Command -Module DNSServer *policy* | Select Name
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The command returns a list similar to the following, which lists the cmdlets that are built-in
to the DNS PowerShell module:
Name
---Add-DnsServerQueryResolutionPolicy
Add-DnsServerZoneTransferPolicy
Disable-DnsServerPolicy
Enable-DnsServerPolicy
Get-DnsServerQueryResolutionPolicy
Get-DnsServerZoneTransferPolicy
Remove-DnsServerQueryResolutionPolicy
Remove-DnsServerZoneTransferPolicy
Set-DnsServerQueryResolutionPolicy
Set-DnsServerZoneTransferPolicy
NEED MORE REVIEW? CONFIGURING DNS POLICY
For details and instructions for configuring a DNS policy, visit https://technet.microsoft.
com/en-us/windows-server-docs/networking/dns/deploy/dns-policies-overview.
Configure Domain Name System Security Extensions
The process of using DNSSEC has not changed significantly from Windows Server 2012 or
Windows Server 2012 R2 to Windows Server 2016. If a zone is supported by an authoritative
DNS server, you can secure the zone by using zone signing. By signing the zone with DNSSEC, you are validating the zone without changing any of the queries or responses of DNS.
To validate a DNS response, the response must include a digital signature. The signatures
are contained in a DNSSEC resource record that are created during zone signing. Figure 6-7
illustrates transforming regular DNS records to using DNSSEC.
FIGURE 6-7 DNSSEC Illustration
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The overall checklist to deploying DNSSEC includes:
1.
Selecting a deployment method
2.
Signing a DNS zone
3.
Deploying trust anchors
4.
Deploying DNS client policies
5.
Deploy IPsec policies to protect zone transfers
6.
Review and manage name resolution
Configure DNS socket pool
The DNS socket pool randomizes the source port that is used with DNS queries. In Windows
Server 2008, the DNS service used a predictable source port number. When using a socket
pool, the DNS server randomly selects a port number to mitigate attacks on the server. Beginning with Windows Server 2012 R2, the DNS socket pool has 2,500 random ports enabled
by default and does not typically require additional configuration. To modify the number of
ports, use the dnscmd utility.
dnscmd /Config /SocketPoolSize 3000
Configure cache locking
With cache locking, when a DNS server receives a query and then provides a response, the
response is cached locally so that it can respond quicker to future requests. The timeout
value for the cache is determined by the Time To Live (TTL) value of the DNS record that was
obtained. Cache locking prevents the record from being overwritten if an update is received,
until the TTL has expired. Cache locking was introduced in Windows Server 2008 R2 and has
not changed significantly through to Windows Server 2016. By default, the cache locking
percentage is set to 100. To modify the percentage, use dnscmd.
dnscmd /Config /CacheLockingPercent 90
Enable Response Rate Limiting (RRL)
Response Rate Limiting (RRL) is a new feature that is introduced with Windows Server 2016.
RRL enables you to avoid Denial of Service (DoS) attacks on clients using the DNS server. RRL
provides configuration settings to control how to respond to requests when receiving numerous requests. This mitigates a DoS attack using the DNS servers. The following settings can be
configured with RRL:
■
■
Responses per second
in one second.
Errors per second
one second.
The maximum number of responses a single client receives
The maximum number of errors that are sent to a single client in
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■
■
■
■
Window
client.
The number of seconds that responses are suspended if a server blocks a
Leak rate Determines the frequency that a DNS server responds to queries when
requests are suspended. By default, if a server suspends a client for 10 seconds,
the leak rate is 5. The DNS server responds to one of every five requests sent to
the server.
TC rate Informs the client that DNS requests have been suspended. By default, if the
TC rate is 3, the server issues a request for a TCP connection for every 3 queries that
are received. The TC rate should be configured lower than the leak rate to ensure that
the client can connect using TCP before leaking responses.
Maximum responses The maximum number of response that the server issues to
clients while in a suspended state.
■
White list domains The list of domains that are excluded from RRL settings.
■
White list subnets
■
The list of subnets that are excluded from RRL settings.
White list server interfaces
settings.
The DNS server interfaces that are excluded from RRL
By default, RRL is disabled. You can either set RRL to log only the effects a configuration
would have, or to enable the configuration. To enable or modify the RRL settings, use the
Set-DnsServerResponseRateLimiting cmdlet. You can also use the Set-DnsServerRRL alias to
reference the cmdlet.
Set-DnsServerRRL -Mode LogOnly
To create any of the white list objects, use the Add-DnsServerResponseRateLimitingExceptionList cmdlet.
Add-DnsServerResponseRateLimitingExceptionlist -Name "Whitelist1" -Fqdn "EQ,*.contoso.
com"
Configure DNS-based Authentication of Named Entities
DANE is another new feature that is introduced with Windows Server 2016. DANE uses Transport Layer Security Authentication to communicate to DNS clients to expect a certificate from
a Certification Authority for the DNS zone. This ensures that a man-in-the-middle attack from
presenting a different certificate to successfully corrupt DNS.
For example, if the website www.contoso.com uses a certificate from a CA named TrustedCA, the DNS server would identify and save that the certificate is issued from that server.
Then, if a malicious redirect occurs sending users to a different web server that presents a
certificate signed from ExternalCA, the connection would be aborted. This is because by using DANE, the client is aware that the certificate that appears valid, is not actually from the CA
that is trusted and registered with DNS.
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Configure DNS logging
Windows Server 2016 provides enhanced DNS logging and diagnostics compared to Windows Server 2012 R2. However, when additional logging is enabled, the performance of the
server can be affected. There are two primary types of logging:
■
■
Diagnostic logging Provides detailed data from the DNS server for requests that are
sent and received. Logs can be gathered by using packet capture tools. Recommended
only for temporary use when detailed information is necessary,
Audit and analytic event logging DNS Audit events are logged by default, and
DNS Analytic events are not logged.
By default in Windows Server 2016, additional logging is enabled and can be viewed by
using Event Viewer.
NEED MORE REVIEW? DNS LOGGING
For more information on DNS logging, visit https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/
dn800669(v=ws.11).aspx.
Configure delegated administration
There are three primary methods of delegating access to DNS:
■
■
■
The DnsAdmins Active Directory security group The security group grants permission to the members of the group to manage any DNS server in an Active Directory
domain.
Modifying the DNS server properties If the DNS server is in a workgroup, or you
plan to grant read-only permissions to some administrators, you can modify the properties of the DNS server.
Modifying the zone properties Individual zones inherits the permissions from the
DNS server. However, you can disable the inheritance or modify the permissions, similar to managing files and directories.
Figure 6-8 shows the default settings for the DnsAdmins security group on a DNS server.
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FIGURE 6-8 Server level permissions
If you need to provide junior administrators the ability to view the DNS contents of the
zones, create a new security group and assign the Read permission. You could also have a
separate group that can create and update DNS objects, but not delete them.
Modifying the properties of a zone is a similar process. The zone inherits the permissions
that have been assigned at the server level. You can also add additional security groups that
can manage the zone. Figure 6-9 shows the default properties of a forward lookup zone.
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FIGURE 6-9 Zone level permissions
Configure recursion settings
As discussed in the earlier section “Configured Root Hints," recursive DNS queries use forwarders and references to identify a DNS record. By using a forwarder in DNS, the DNS server
uses recursive queries by default. This enables the server to forward the DNS request for
unknown domains to the next DNS server configured. The next server refers the request to a
different DNS server if it, too, does not have information about the record. This process could
continue a few times before locating a non-authoritative response for the request. You can
enable or disable recursion at the server level by using the Set-DnsServerRecursion cmdlet,
or by using DNS Manager. Disabling recursion should be used in limited environments, as it
can prohibit access to the Internet if not configured properly. Figure 6-10 shows the available
options on the Advanced tab, including recursion.
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FIGURE 6-10 Advanced DNS settings
In addition to enabling or disabling recursion, the PowerShell cmdlet also lets you configure specific recursion settings. For example, the RetryInterval setting specifies the amount
of time in seconds before a DNS server uses recursion. By default, the RetryInterval is set to
three seconds, but can be configured with a value from 1 to 15. Another configurable parameter is the AdditionalTimeout setting. This specifies the number of seconds before a DNS
server waits after using a recursive request to receive a response from the next DNS server. By
default, this setting is set to four seconds, but accepts a value from 0 to 15.
Set-DnsServerRecursion -RetryInterval 2
Recursion can also be enabled or disabled for specified forwarders by using a recursion
scope. A scope specifies a specific forwarder or forwarders to enable or disable recursion with.
The Set-DnsServerRecursionScope cmdlet provides this option.
Set-DnsServerRecursionScope -Name "DisabledScope" -Forwarder 192.168.0.1
-EnableRecursion $False
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Implement DNS performance tuning
Performance tuning is a relative topic, and depends on the size of the domain, the physical
specifications of a server, network performance, number of requests, and more. It would be
very challenging to create a question on the exam for performance that only had one correct
answer, without obviously stating the problem and thus providing a clear and simple resolution. Some simple methods of increasing DNS performance could include:
■
■
■
■
Modifying firewall properties Ensure that UDP port 53 is allowed on each DNS
server and has local only mapping enabled.
Increase the number of logical cores The DNS service creates threads based on
the total number of logical cores that are on the server. For a virtual machine, provide
the maximum number of logical cores.
Set the UDP receive thread count to 8 Modify the UdpRecvThreadCount DWORD
parameter that is located at HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\DNS\Parameters to ensure that all logical threads are used.
Maximize network adapter buffers Set the receive buffers to “Maximum” by using
the Set-NetAdapterAdvancedProperty cmdlet.
NEED MORE REVIEW? SOME DNS PERFORMANCE
The Windows Server Networking team tested performance of DNS on Windows Server
2012 R2. To review the results, visit https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/networkhttps://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/network
ing/2015/08/13/name-resolution-performance-of-authoritative-windows-dns-server2012-r2/.
2012-r2/
Configure global settings using Windows PowerShell
The DNS module for Windows PowerShell has a total of 130 cmdlets that can be used to view
or configure various components of a DNS server. Two of the cmdlets that have been added
in Windows Server 2016 that we did not discuss in the previous sections include:
■
■
Add-DnsServerZoneTransferPolicy Creates a new policy for zone transfers, and
includes whether to deny or ignore a zone transfer. Associated cmdlets include Get,
Set, and Remove-DnsServerZoneTransferPolicy.
Add-DnsServerResourceRecord Updated to support unknown record types. Associated cmdlets include Get, Set, and Remove-DnsServerResourceRecord.
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Chapter summary
■
Preparing for and installing the DNS Server role
■
Configuring forwarders and conditional forwarders for lookup zones
■
Using Root Hints to identify authoritative DNS servers
■
Configuring delegation for DNS
■
Implementing policies to be used by DNS servers and clients
■
Using security extensions to secure DNS
■
Explaining the Socket Pool and cache locking to mitigate DNS attacks
■
Enabling Response Rate Limiting to mitigate DNS attacks
■
Delegating administration to manage or view DNS for other administrators
■
Enabling, disabling, and configuring recursive DNS queries
■
Using Windows PowerShell to manage DNS servers and settings
Thought Experiment
A company has a production environment and a test environment. The production environment is in an Active Directory domain with DNS integrated into the domain. The test environment is in a workgroup with a separate DNS server. The company needs to prohibit the test
environment from resolving any names in the production environment, but must use the production server as a name server for the Internet. The production servers must be configured
to suspend responses to queries in the event of a DNS request flood. The test environment
must also wait 10 seconds before using non-authoritative DNS servers. You must also enable
a junior administrator to be able to view all objects and settings on the DNS server without
enabling them to make changes.
Given the above scenario, answer these questions.
180
1.
What should be used to prohibit resolution between networks?
2.
What should be used to suspend queries when flooded?
3.
How should the junior administrator be granted permissions?
4.
What must be configured in the test environment to wait 10 seconds for non-authoritative responses?
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Thought Experiment Answers
1.
You can disable recursion to prevent the test DNS server from using the forwarder. Use
a scope to specify recursion for the specific forwarder.
2.
Response Rate Limiting should be configured to suspend queries when the DNS server
is flooded with requests.
3.
The junior administrator can be delegated permissions based on a custom security
group that only has the Read permission to the DNS server.
4.
The test environment must have the timeout period recursion setting modified to wait
10 seconds before using non-authoritative responses.
Thought Experiment Answers
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CHAPTER 7
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Management
I
n this chapter, we will discuss how to install, configure, and use the built-in IP Address
Management functionality. In past exams, IPAM was a major component of the exam skills
that are tested. You should anticipate and be prepared to understand how to install and
configure IPAM on Windows Server 2016.
■
Windows Server 2016 introduces new features to IPAM, including:
■
Enhanced DNS service management
■
Multiple Active Directory Domain Services forest support
■
Purge Utilization Data
■
Windows PowerShell cmdlets for Role-Based Access Control
IPAM in Windows Server 2016 also improves on the existing IP address management and
integrated DNS and DHCP management from the IPAM console.
Skills in this chapter:
■
Install and configure IPAM
■
Manage DNS and DHCP using IPAM
Skill 7.1: Install and configure IPAM
In this section, we explain how to install and configure the basic IPAM configuration. This
includes the default database to use, provisioning the server and Group Policy settings,
configuring server discovery, and setting IP addresses. We also explain how to back up and
restore an IPAM database, which enables you to migrate that database from a previous version of Windows Server to Windows Server 2016. We also cover how to use a Microsoft SQL
Server as the database engine, and how to integrate IPAM with System Center.
183
This section covers how to:
■
Provision IPAM manually or by using Group Policy
■
Configure server discovery
■
Create and manage IP blocks and ranges
■
Monitor utilization of IP address space
■
Migrate existing workloads to IPAM
■
Configure IPAM database storage using SQL Server
■
Determine scenarios for using IPAM with System Center Virtual Machine Manager
for physical and virtual IP address space management
Provision IPAM manually or by using Group Policy
IPAM is a feature that can be added by using the Add Roles And Features wizard, or by using
the Install-WindowsFeature cmdlet. After installing the feature, one of the first tasks that you
must complete is to provision the IPAM server. Figure 7-1 shows the first configuration option
when provisioning IPAM, which is to specify the database that is being used.
FIGURE 7-1 Configuring IPAM database
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By default, IPAM uses a Windows Internal Database. We explain how to use a Microsoft
SQL Server database later in this section. After configuring the database, you are prompted to
select the provisioning type. There are two provisioning options:
■
■
Manual This requires that the network shares, security groups, and firewall rules are
created and managed individually on each server.
Group-Policy-based This uses Group Policy Objects (GPOs) that are created in each
domain that you plan to manage with IPAM. IPAM configures the GPOs as necessary,
and the GPOs are applied to the servers in the domain. When using GPOs, the wizard
asks for the prefix to name all GPOs with. For example, if you specify IPAM as the prefix, a GPO is named IPAM_DHCP for managed DHCP servers. Figure 7-2 shows selecting the provision method.
FIGURE 7-2 Selecting the IPAM provisioning method
EXAM TIP
If you select a GPO-based deployment, you cannot revert to a manual deployment.
However, a manual deployment can be changed to GPO-based by using the
Set-IpamConfiguration cmdlet.
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You can provision the server by using the Invoke-IpamServerProvisioning cmdlet, then
provision the GPOs by using the Invoke-IpamGpoProvisioning cmdlet.
Invoke-IpamServerProvisioning -ProvisioningMethod Automatic -GpoPrefix "IPAM-"
Invoke-IpamGpoProvisioning –Domain contosoforest.com –GpoPrefixName IPAM –IpamServerFqdn
ipam.contosoforest.com
Choosing the manual deployment method requires you to manually create or configure
different options on each managed server, including:
■
Network shares
■
Security groups
■
Firewall rules
DHCP servers
A managed DHCP server requires that all three options be configured on the servers. Table
7-1 summarizes the rules that must be configured on a managed DHCP server.
Table 7-1 DHCP server firewall changes
Firewall direction
Setting name
Description
Inbound
DHCP Server Management
Access DHCP server configuration data
Inbound
Remote Service Management
Access DHCP server configuration data
Inbound
File and Printer Sharing
Access DHCP server utilization data
Inbound
Remote Event Log Management
Access DHCP server logs
A universal security group must also be created in the domain with the name IPAMUG. The
members of the security group must include the computer account objects for each DHCP
server. Figure 7-3 shows the correct settings for the group.
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FIGURE 7-3 IPAMUG Properties
Once created, the IPAMUG universal security group must be added to the DHCP Users and
Event Log Readers security groups on each managed server. Figure 7-4 shows adding the user
group to the local groups on the DHCP server. If the server is also a domain controller, then
the Event Log Readers group in the Builtin container should be used.
FIGURE 7-4 Event Log Readers Properties
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The third configuration that must be made on a managed DHCP server is to create a
network share of the %windir%\system32\dhcp directory, named dhcpaudit. Figure 7-5 shows
the properties of the DHCP directory that has been shared.
FIGURE 7-5 DHCP directory properties
The permissions of the share must be modified to enable the IPAMUG universal security
group to read the contents of the directory. Figure 7-6 shows the share permissions that are
applied to the directory.
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FIGURE 7-6 Dhcpaudit share permissions
After making the required group membership changes, you must restart the DHCP service.
This ensures that the new permission levels are activated.
DNS Servers
Similar to DHCP servers, DNS servers must have several configuration changes when deploying IPAM manually. These changes include:
■
Inbound firewall rules
■
Security group changes
■
Delegated DNS access
Table 7-2 summarizes the DNS server firewall changes.
TABLE 7-2 DNS server firewall changes
Firewall direction
Setting name
Description
Inbound
DNS Service
Discover managed DNS servers
Inbound
Remote Service Management
Manage DNS servers
Inbound
Remote Event Log Management
Monitor DNS zones and services
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Just as with a DHCP server, a DNS server must have the IPAMUG universal security group
added to the Event Log Readers security group. Event log monitoring must also be enabled
on a managed DNS server. To enable event log monitoring, perform these steps.
Open a PowerShell session, and run the following command.
1.
Get-ADComputer <IPAM Server Name>
Copy the SID value for the IPAM server to the clipboard, as shown in Figure 7-7.
2.
FIGURE 7-7 Get-ADComputer cmdlet
3.
On the DNS server, open the registry editor.
4.
Navigate to the HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\EventLog\DNS Server hive.
5.
Double-click the CustomSD key.
6.
At the end of the value field, append the following to the string, replacing the SID
value for the server. Figure 7-8 shows adding the value to the key.
(A;;0x1;;; S-1-5-21-1910878678-1601286290-2698553502-1000)
FIGURE 7-8 CustomSD registry key
7.
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Click OK and then close the registry editor.
Implement IP Address Management
The third configuration for managed DNS servers is to add the IPAM server to the DnsAdmins security group. This ensures that the IPAM server can perform administrative tasks on
the DNS server. Figure 7-9 shows that the IPAMUG, which contains the computer object for
the IPAM servers, has been delegated rights to the DNS server.
FIGURE 7-9 DnsAdmins security group
Domain controller or NPS servers
For managed DCs or Network Policy Servers (NPS), there are similar configuration changes
that must be made. These servers must have the inbound Remote Event Log Management
firewall rule enabled. The IPAMUG universal security group must be added to the Event Log
Readers security group on both DCs and NPS servers.
Configure server discovery
After provisioning the IPAM server, the next in the deployment process is to configure and
start server discovery. Figure 7-10 shows the discovery set for the forest and root domain. To
include the domain in discovery, click Add.
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FIGURE 7-10 Configure server discovery
With Windows Server 2016, you can also manage other Active Directory forests if a twoway forest trust has been configured. After you click add for the domain, you can configure
whether to discover the domain controllers, DHCP servers, and DNS servers for the domain.
You can also add the domain to be discovered by using the Add-IpamDiscoveryDomain
cmdlet.
Add-IpamDiscoveryDomain -Name "contosoforest.com"
By default, after discovering the servers in the environment the manageability status is set
to unspecified. To configure a server as being managed, edit the server in the discovery list.
Set the Manageability Status to Managed, as shown in Figure 7-11.
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FIGURE 7-11 Edit server
Create and manage IP blocks and ranges
IPAM address blocks define the IPv4 or IPv6 addresses that are be managed. IPAM automatically labels the IPv4 blocks as either public or private blocks based on Internet Assigned
Numbers Authority (IANA) ranges. IP address blocks are typically divided into smaller chunks,
named ranges. IP address ranges can be used as a DHCP scope or pool of static addresses
that can be used on hosts. Ranges are comprised of individual IP addresses. Figure 7-12 shows
creating an IPv4 address block.
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FIGURE 7-12 IPv4 address block
Adding a block of IP addresses can also be completed from PowerShell using the AddIpamBlock cmdlet.
Add-IpamBlock -NetworkId "10.0.0.0/8"
Adding a range of IP addresses is like creating a block. The range expects the network
ID and either the subnet prefix or subnet mask. Figure 7-13 shows creating an IPv4 address
range.
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FIGURE 7-13 IPv4 address block
Like creating a block of IP addresses, a range can be created by using the Add-IpamRange
cmdlet.
Add-IpamRange -NetworkId "192.168.0.0/24"
Monitor utilization of IP address space
After you have added the blocks and ranges to the IPAM configuration, you can find available
addresses a few different ways. From the IPAM interface in server manager, right-click a range
and then click Find and Allocate Available IP Address. The tool searches the IP address range
for the next available IP address based on the search criteria, as shown in Figure 7-14.
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FIGURE 7-14 Find and Allocate Available IP Address
After locating an available IP address, you can use the same tool to then allocate that IP
address as a DHCP reservation, create a DNS record, or provide any other custom configuration with the IP address.
The IP Address Blocks and IP Address Range Groups pages in the IPAM interface also
displays the utilization rate for each block or range. The three states that a block or range can
be in are:
■
■
■
Under If the IP address allocation is less than 20 percent, then the block or range is
considered under-utilized.
Optimal If the IP address allocation is between 20 and 80 percent, then the block or
range is considered optimal.
Over If the IP address allocation is over 80 percent, then the block or range is considered over-utilized.
Figure 7-15 shows a portion of the IPAM interface that displays the utilization rate.
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FIGURE 7-15 IP address range utilization
The under and over utilization rates can also be configured by modifying the utilization
threshold for the IPAM configuration. From Server Manager, click Manage, and then click
IPAM Settings. On the IPAM Settings screen, click Configure Utilization Threshold. Figure 7-16
shows the configuration screen for the threshold settings.
FIGURE 7-16 Configure IP Address Utilization Threshold
There are also three PowerShell cmdlets that can be used to identify available IP addresses.
■
■
■
Find-IpamFreeAddress This cmdlet finds one or more available IP addresses that are
in a range of addresses defined on the IPAM server.
Find-IpamFreeRange
server.
Find-IpamFreeSubnet
IPAM server.
This cmdlet finds free IP ranges that are available on the IPAM
This cmdlet finds free IP subnets that are available on the
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Migrate existing workloads to IPAM
If you selected the default installation options when installing IPAM, the Windows Internal
Database (WID) files are located in the %WINDIR%\System32\ipam\Database directory. There
are two files listed: ipam.mdf and ipam_log.ldf. To migrate from an existing installation, follow
these general steps:
1.
Stop the WID service on the existing server
2.
Backup the IPAM database files on the existing server
3.
Install the IPAM feature on the new server, specifying the WID database type
4.
Stop the WID service on the new server
5.
Restore the database files from the backup
6.
Start the WID service on the new server
After migrating the workload to a new server, or performing an in-place upgrade, use the
Update-IpamServer cmdlet to update the IPAM schema based on the new operating system.
If you are using a Microsoft SQL Server to host the database on the existing server, you can
simply specify the server during the IPAM installation on the new server. If you need to migrate the SQL database, use the Move-IpamDatabase cmdlet as explained in the next section.
Configure IPAM database storage using SQL Server
As mentioned in the earlier section named “Provision IPAM manually or by using Group
Policy,” a Microsoft SQL Server can also be used to store the IPAM database. The SQL server
instance and database must be created to be used with IPAM. IPAM uses the NT AUTHORITY\
Network Service user account for all operations, for either a WID or SQL server database. To
use a SQL server, the network service account must be granted the following SQL roles:
■
db_datareader
■
db_datawriter
■
db_ddladmin
Additionally, the user account must also be granted the Alter and View database state
permission levels for dbo. After the instance and database have been created, and you have
assigned the appropriate permissions to the network service account, you can migrate the
database to the SQL server by using the Move-IpamDatabase cmdlet.
Move-IpamDatabase -DatabaseServer SQL1 -DatabaseName IPAMDB -DatabasePort 1433
-DatabaseAuthType Windows
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Determine scenarios for using IPAM with System Center
Virtual Machine Manager for physical and virtual IP
address space management
IPAM can be integrated with System Center Virtual Machine Manager (VMM) to manage the
logical networks and virtual machine networks in VMM. To configure VMM to integrate with
IPAM, a dedicated user account must be created. The user account, or a group that contains
the user account, must be granted the IPAM ASM Administrator role to enable VMM to manage IPAM. We explain the different role-based access control levels later in this chapter.
After the user account is created, specify the account as a Run As account in VMM. Create
a network service, specifying the Run As account, for the Microsoft IP Address Management
Provider. VMM then connects to the IPAM server using the credentials that you specified.
Table 7-1 compares the VMM names to the names of objects used in IPAM.
TABLE 7-1 Comparing VMM and IPAM object names
VMM object name
IPAM object name
Logical network
Virtualized IP address space
Network site
Virtualized IP address space
IP address subnet
IP address subnet
IP address pool
IP address range
VM network
Virtualized IP address space
Skill 7.2: Manage DNS and DHCP using IPAM
In this section, we discuss how to use IPAM to manage various aspects of DHCP and DNS.
This includes the server properties, scopes, policies, and failover configuration to be used on
the DHCP servers in the environment. The DNS options include server properties, zones, and
individual records. We will also explain the new support for multiple AD DS forests, and how
to delegate administration with RBAC.
This section covers how to:
■
Manage DHCP server properties using IPAM
■
Configure DHCP scopes and options
■
Configure DHCP policies and failover
■
Manage DNS server properties using IPAM
■
Manage DNS zones and records
■
Manage DNS and DHCP servers in multiple Active Directory forests
■
Delegate administration for DNS and DHCP using role-based access control
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Manage DHCP server properties using IPAM
After configuring the IPAM environment and successfully managing the discovered servers,
you can begin managing the individual services on these servers. Figure 7-17 shows the DNS
and DHCP services that are on a discovered server.
FIGURE 7-17 Managed DHCP and DNS services
Right-clicking a service offers multiple options, including managing the DHCP server properties from IPAM. Figure 7-18 displays the Edit DHCP Server properties configuration screen
from the IPAM interface.
FIGURE 7-18 Edit DHCP Server Properties
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The DHCP properties that can be modified include:
■
■
■
■
General
The only option from IPAM is to enable DHCP audit logging.
DNS Dynamic Updates This enables dynamic updates on the server, and allows for
additional configuration for name protection and lease options.
DNS Dynamic Update Credentials
with dynamic updates.
MAC Address Filters
The credentials that are used to register names
Whether an allow or deny list is used for the DHCP server.
NEED MORE REVIEW? MORE ON DNS AND IPAM
For more information on managing DNS with IPAM, watch this presentation at https://channel9.msdn.com/Blogs/windowsserver/Windows-Server-2016-DNS-management-in-IPAM.
Configure DHCP scopes and options
When you right-click the DHCP service from the IPAM interface, you are presented several
options that involve configuring the scopes and options on the DHCP server. Figure 7-19
shows a portion of the IPAM interface that displays the available options.
FIGURE 7-19 DHCP options in IPAM
The available options that can be configured from IPAM include:
■
■
Edit DHCP Server Options
DHCP server.
These are the options that can be configured for the
Create DHCP Scope This create a new IPv4 DHCP scope on the DHCP server, including DNS updates and advanced options.
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■
■
■
Configure Predefined DHCP Options
Options for the server.
Configure DHCP User Class
server.
This enables you to create DHCP Standard
This enables you to create user classes on the DHCP
Configure DHCP Vendor class
DHCP server.
This enables you to create vendor classes on the
Configure DHCP policies and failover
Configuring DHCP policies and failover is also performed by right-clicking the DHCP
service from the IPAM console. Figure 7-12 also shows that you can manage DHCP policies
from IPAM:
■
■
■
Configure DHCP Policy Enables you to create a DHCP policy that contains criteria,
conditions, and options for the specified policy.
Import DHCP Policy Enables you to import an existing policy at either the server or
scope level to the IPAM database.
Deactivate DHCP Policies
lected DHCP server.
This deactivates the policies that are applied to the se-
Manage DNS server properties using IPAM
Managing DNS from the IPAM interface is performed the same way as DHCP, but with fewer
options when you right-click the service. Figure 7-20 shows a portion of the IPAM interface
with the available DNS options.
FIGURE 7-20 DNS options in IPAM
The available options include:
■
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Launch MMC
face.
This launches the DNS Manager MMC snap-in from the IPAM inter-
Implement IP Address Management
■
■
Create DNS zone This enables you to create a forward or reverse lookup zone with
advanced options directly from IPAM.
Create DNS Conditional Forwarder This enables you to create a conditional forwarder with advanced options directly from IPAM.
■
Set Access Scope
■
Retrieve Server Data Obtain the latest data from the DNS server.
Configure the access scope for the DNS server.
Manage DNS zones and records
Individual zones and records can be managed from the DNS Zones tab of the IPAM interface.
Figure 7-21 shows a portion of the IPAM interface that displays the available DNS zone options.
FIGURE 7-21 DNS zone options in IPAM
The available DNS zone options that can be configured from the IPAM interface include:
■
■
■
■
Add DNS Resource Record
DNS zone.
This creates a record type, such as an A record, in the
Configure Preferred DNS Server
zone that is used by IPAM.
Select the authoritative DNS server for the DNS
Reset Zone Status Reset the status of the DNS zone in the IPAM database. Use the
Retrieve Server Data option to collect the latest data from the DNS server.
Edit DNS Zone Enables you to modify the name servers, scavenging, updates, and
zone transfer settings for the zone.
■
Delete DNS Zone
Remove the zone from the DNS server.
■
Set Access Scope
Set the access scope on the IPAM server.
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203
Manage DNS and DHCP servers in multiple Active
Directory forests
In Windows Server 2012 R2, IPAM had to be in the same forest as the DNS and DHCP servers
that were to be managed. With Windows Server 2016, IPAM can discover DNS and DHCP
servers across forests, provided there is a two-way forest trust established. After the forest
trust has been established, simply select the additional forests in the Configure Server Discover dialog box to add domains from remote forests. Figure 7-22 shows the Configure Server
Discovery screen. To identify additional forests, click the Get Forests button.
FIGURE 7-22 Configure server discovery
After the additional domains have been added to the IPAM database, the management
process is the same regardless of which forest the server is in.
Delegate administration for DNS and DHCP using RoleBased Access Control (RBAC)
While the day-to-day tasks of managing and configuring IPAM are simple enough, the more
complex aspect is understanding the different role-based security groups that are used with
IPAM. Table 7-3 summarizes the available groups and their associated permission level.
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TABLE 7-3 IPAM role-based access control
Task
IPAM
administrators
IPAM ASM
administrators
IPAM IP audit
administrators
IPAM MSM
administrators
IPAM
users
Server Inventory
Manage
Manage
Manage
Manage
View
IP Address Space
Manage
Manage
View
View
View
Monitor and
Manage
Manage
View
View
Manage
View
Event Catalog
View
View
View
View
View
IP Address
Tracking
View
Denied
View
Denied
Denied
Common management tasks
Manage
Manage
Manage
Manage
Manage
The Access Control tab of the IPAM interface lists the available roles that are used with
IPAM.
EXAM TIP
You should be familiar with each of these roles and the permissions that are granted as
part of that role. A common question when permissions and roles are used is to ask the
least privileged role that achieves a goal, to ensure that you do not over-assign permissions.
The IPAM roles include that are listed on the Access Control tab include:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
DNS Record Administrator Role
records.
This enables management of the DNS resource
IP Address Record Administrator Role This enables management of IP addresses,
including locating unallocated addresses, as well as creating and deleting IP addresses.
IPAM Administrator Role
This provides all permissions to manage IPAM.
IPAM ASM Administrator Role This provides permissions to manage the IP address
spaces, blocks, subnets, ranges, and individual addresses.
IPAM DHCP Administrator Role This provides the permission to manage a DHCP
server and its associated scopes and options.
IPAM DHCP Reservations Administrator Role
are needed to manage DHCP reservations.
IPAM DHCP Scope Administrator Role
DHCP scopes.
IPAM DNS Administrator Role
server, zones, and records.
This provides the permission that
This provides the permissions to manage
This role provides the permission to manage a DNS
IPAM MSM Administrator Role This role provides permissions to manage DHCP
and DNS servers as well as the scopes and options for each service.
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205
Chapter summary
■
How to deploy and provision IPAM and the required GPOs
■
Configuring server discovery to locate servers to be managed by IPAM
■
Creating and managing IP address blocks and ranges
■
Locating available IP addresses by using the interface and PowerShell
■
Moving and migrating a WID database to a new server
■
Moving the WID database to a Microsoft SQL Server database
■
Configuring IPAM with System Center VMM
■
Managing DHCP servers and scopes by using IPAM
■
Managing DNS servers and zones by using IPAM
■
Using IPAM to manage multiple forests
■
Role-based permissions that are used by IPAM
Thought Experiment
A company has a single Active Directory forest with multiple child domains. The company has
partnered with another organization, and a two-way Active Directory forest trust has been
established. The company plans to use IPAM with a Windows Internal Database, but needs to
ensure that the database is part of the backup strategy. The following users must be configured to manage the IPAM environment. Each user must not have more permissions than are
necessary.
■
User1 must be configured to manage IP address blocks.
■
User2 must be configured to manage DNS and DHCP servers.
■
User3 must be configured to manage IP address allocation in IPAM.
Using the above information, answer the following questions.
206
1.
How many IPAM servers must be deployed to manage both forests?
2.
How should the IPAM database be included in the backup strategy?
3.
Which role should User1 be added to?
4.
Which role should User2 be added to?
5.
Which role should User3 be added to?
CHAPTER 7
Implement IP Address Management
Thought Experiment Answers
1.
One. With Windows Server 2016, IPAM can manage multiple Active Directory forests if
a two-way trust has been established.
2.
The MDF and LDF files should be included in backup, that are typically located in the
%WINDIR%\System32\IPAM\Database directory.
3.
User1 should be a member of the IPAM ASM Administrator Role. This enables the user
to manage IP address blocks and ranges, but not other aspects of the IPAM configuration.
4.
User2 should be a member of the IPAM MSM Administrator Role. This enables the user
to manage DNS and DHCP without managing other aspects of IPAM.
5.
User3 should be a member of the IPAM IP Address Record Administrator Role. This
enables the user to manage IP address allocation within IPAM.
Thought Experiment Answers
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CHAPTER 8
Implement network
connectivity and remote
access solutions
This chapter covers one skill that is represented on the exam, which is implementing Virtual
Private Networks (VPNs) and DirectAccess. This is a small portion of the exam, and has not
changed significantly since Windows Server 2012 R2. The same protocols, authentication
options, and DirectAccess requirements that exist in Windows Server 2012 R2 still apply to
Windows Server 2016.
Skills in this chapter:
■
Implement Virtual Private Network and DirectAccess solutions
Implement Virtual Private Network and DirectAccess
solutions
In this section, we discuss how to implement a VPN and DirectAccess solution. We explain
the various VPN protocols and authentication options that can be used with the protocols.
DirectAccess is also explained, including how to install and configure it using the available
wizard.
209
This section covers how to:
■
Implement remote access and site-to-site VPN solutions using
remote access gateway
■
Configure different VPN protocol options
■
Configure authentication options
■
Configure VPN reconnect
■
Create and configure connection profiles
■
Determine when to use remote access VPN and site-to-site VPN and
configure appropriate protocols
■
Install and configure DirectAccess
■
Implement server requirements
■
Implement client configuration
■
Troubleshoot DirectAccess
Implement remote access and site-to-site VPN solutions
using Remote Access Gateway
A remote access gateway, or RAS Gateway, is installed with the Remote Access server role.
When installing the server role, there are three role services that can be included:
■
■
■
DirectAccess and VPN (RAS) This installs the DirectAccess service to provide a
method of seamless Connectivity for client computers connecting to a corporate network. The VPN services enable encrypted tunnels to connect remote clients to corporate offices.
Routing
This enables support for NAT, BGP, RIP, and other multicast networks.
Web Application Proxy This publishes web-based applications from the corporate
network to remote devices. Web application proxies are commonly used with Active
Directory Federation Services (AD FS) to authenticate users before granting access to
applications. AD FS is explained in Chapter 11.
EXAM TIP
While the Web Application Proxy is commonly used with AD FS, the role service requires
the Remote Access server role to be installed.
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When configuring a RAS Gateway, there are a few different VPN options:
■
■
■
■
■
Site-to-site VPN
corporate office.
This connects two networks together, such as a branch office to a
Point to site VPN This enables individual remote connections from client computers
to a corporate office.
Dynamic routing with Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) BGP provides automatic
route reconfiguration based on the routes that are connected from site-to-site VPNs.
Network Address Translation (NAT) NAT enables you to share a single IP address
to connect multiple devices to a network.
DirectAccess server DirectAccess provides a method of seamless VPN services for
client computers that are connecting to a corporate network.
The Remote Access server role can be installed by using the Add Roles and Features wizard, or by using the Install-WindowsFeature cmdlet. After installing the role, use the Routing
and Remote Access MMC snap-in to manage the server role. The initial setup requires completing the Routing and Remote Access Server Setup Wizard. Figure 8-1 shows the default
configuration of the RAS snap-in. Note that the server icon is showing as down because no
configuration has been defined.
FIGURE 8-1 RAS snap-in
To perform the initial configuration on the RAS server, right-click the server and then
select Configure And Enable Routing And Remote Access. Figure 8-2 shows the available options to configure the RAS server.
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211
FIGURE 8-2 RAS Setup Wizard Configuration
To enable remote access and VPN access for remote clients, use the Remote Access option.
The next configuration screen in the wizard prompts to configure the server for the type of
connect: VPN or Dial-up. Figure 8-3 shows selecting VPN as the connection type.
FIGURE 8-3 RAS Setup Wizard Remote Access
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The next configuration option in the wizard is to bind the services to a specific network
adapter. The available network adapters on the server are be displayed. By default, when a
network adapter is selected, the necessary firewall rules are enabled for the adapter to allow
inbound traffic on the adapter. Figure 8-4 shows the network adapter selection screen of the
wizard.
FIGURE 8-4 RAS Setup Wizard VPN Connection
For clients to connect to the network, they must have an IP address that is either on the
network, or is routable for the network. The RAS server provides the option to assign IP addresses to clients automatically, from either a DHCP server on the network, or act as a DHCP
server itself. You can also define a certain range of IP addresses for the RAS server to use specifically for remote clients. Figure 8-5 shows the IP Address Assignment screen of the wizard.
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213
FIGURE 8-5 RAS Setup Wizard VPN IP Address Assignment
Finally, the last option in the wizard is to configure the authentication method for the remote clients. By default, the RAS server authenticates the clients using Windows Authentication through Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) or Microsoft encrypted authentication
version 2 (MS-CHAP v2). Optionally, you can configure a RADIUS server to authenticate the
clients, or configure the RAS server to act as a RADIUS server. Figure 8-6 shows the authentication configuration during the wizard.
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FIGURE 8-6 RAS Setup Wizard authentication options
You can also configure the RAS role by using the Install-RemoteAccess cmdlet.
Install-RemoteAccess -VpnType Vpn
Configure different VPN protocol options
A RAS server supports a few different VPN protocols for connectivity. These protocols include:
■
■
■
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) PPTP enables traffic to be encrypted
and encapsulated before it is sent across the network. PPTP can be used for remote access and site-to-site VPNs. PPTP uses Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption (MPPE) with
encryption keys generated from MS-CHAP v2 or EAP-TLS authentication.
Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) L2TP encrypts traffic over any point-to-point
network, including IP and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) connections. L2TP uses
IPsec Transport Mode for encryption services instead of MPPE.
Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol (SSTP) SSTP is the newest of the protocols and
uses HTTPS to secure VPN traffic. This reduces firewall footprint by enabling an existing
firewall port (443) to be used for VPN traffic. SSTP encapsulates the network traffic
over SSL to provide transport-level security.
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215
Configure authentication options
There are two primary authentication options that are used with a RAS server:
■
■
Windows authentication This method is used by default for VPN connections, and
queries Active Directory or local accounts as part of the authentication process.
RADIUS authentication. RADIUS authentication uses an external source for authentication and authorization services. The RAS server can be configured as a RADIUS
server, or you can specify an external RADIUS server from the RAS server properties.
By default, Windows authentication is configured with RAS VPN services. When using
Windows authentication, there are a few authentication methods that can be used:
■
■
Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) This method is enabled by default, and
should be used if Network Access Protection (NAP) is also being used with the VPN
service.
Microsoft Encrypted Authentication version 2 (MS-CHAP v2)
enabled by default.
■
Encrypted authentication (CHAP)
■
Unencrypted password (PAP)
■
■
By default, this is disabled for VPN services.
By default, this is disabled for VPN services.
Allow machine certificate authentication for IKEv2
based authentication is disabled for VPN services.
Unauthenticated access
This method is also
By default, this certificate-
By default, this is disabled for VPN services.
Figure 8-7 shows the Authentication Methods dialog box with the default options selected.
FIGURE 8-7 Windows Authentication Methods
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Configure VPN reconnect
VPN Reconnect was introduced with Windows Server 2008. However, DirectAccess can replace a VPN as the recommended remote access method for client computers.
VPN reconnect is used with the IKEv2 tunneling protocol to provide seamless reconnects for mobile clients. This scenario can be whether a laptop is roaming between wireless
access points, or a mobile phone that has been configured with a VPN connection. With
other protocols, when a connection is interrupted, the device is typically disconnected. The
connection would then have to be reestablished manually to access resources on the network. With VPN reconnect, the connection attempts to reconnect automatically from any
interruption. VPN reconnect also uses multiple network adapters to attempt to establish a
connection, if available.
Create and configure connection profiles
Remote connection profiles are used with System Center Configuration Manager and
Microsoft Intune to enable users to access corporate resources, even if they are not on a
domain-joined computer. These devices include:
■
Windows-based personal computer
■
Android devices
■
iOS devices
With Intune, connection profiles enable you to deploy Remote Desktop Connection settings through a company portal. The portal is used to establish a remote desktop connect to
either a Remote Desktop Services (RDS) server, or to their individual work computer on the
network. Connection profiles can be used without Intune, but then requires a VPN connection for the remote desktop connection.
NEED MORE REVIEW? THE SYSTEM CENTER CONFIGURATION MANAGER
For more information on connection profiles with System Center Configuration Manager,
visit https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dn261225.aspx.
Determine when to use remote access VPN and site-to-site
VPN and configure appropriate protocols
The recommended deployment scenarios for a RAS gateway include:
■
Single tenant edge Connect an edge device in the network with a single tenant,
either a corporate or branch office network, with another network over the Internet.
This can be combined with BGP to provide dynamic routing based on the available
connections. Combined with DirectAccess, remote client computers can connect to any
resource anywhere on the network, regardless of physical location.
Implement Virtual Private Network and DirectAccess solutions
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217
■
Multitenant edge A RAS gateway for multitenant environments enables a cloud
provider to offer all the same features of a single tenant, including BGP, DirectAccess,
and NAT. The primary difference is that the device filters or reroutes traffic based on
the tenant that is being accessed.
Single tenant mode
Most corporate environments use the single tenant mode. In single tenant mode, a RAS gateway can be deployed as an edge device for a VPN server, DirectAccess server, or both. The
RAS gateway can enable remote client computers with multiple options for connecting back
to the corporate network.
Multitenant mode
If there are multiple tenants hosted in the datacenter that are accessed, then the multitenant
mode should be used. Multitenancy enables a datacenter to provide a cloud infrastructure to
support virtual machine workloads, virtual networks, and storage.
Virtual networks can be created by using Hyper-V Network Virtualization. A RAS gateway
can be integrated with the Hyper-V Network Virtualization stack to route network traffic efficiently depending on the tenant that is being accessed.
With Windows Server 2016, a RAS gateway can route traffic to any resource within a private or hybrid cloud network. The RAS gateway can route traffic between physical and virtual
networks at any location.
Install and configure DirectAccess
DirectAccess is a component of the Remote Access server role that provides seamless connectivity for remote clients to a corporate network. After configuring the RAS role on a server,
DirectAccess can be enabled from either the Routing and Remote Access MMC snap-in, from
the Remote Access Management Console, or by using Windows PowerShell. Figure 8-8 shows
the Remote Access Management Console, where DirectAccess can be enabled from the Tasks
panel.
FIGURE 8-8 Remote Access Management Console
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Enabling DirectAccess launches the Enable DirectAccess Wizard. One of the first steps of
the wizard is to perform a prerequisite check on the server that you are enabling DirectAccess
on. If successful, the wizard enables you to continue with the configuration. The first configuration item in the wizard is to select the security groups that contain the computer objects
foe which DirectAccess is enabled. You can also determine whether to only enable DirectAccess for mobile computers, or to force tunneling so that all Internet traffic from the computer
uses the corporate network. Figure 8-9 shows the configuration options for DirectAccess
groups.
FIGURE 8-9 Selecting DirectAccess computer groups
Next, you identify the topology of the DirectAccess implementation. The RAS server can
be in one of three configurations:
■
■
■
Edge The RAS server is directly connected to the Internet with no physical firewall or
NAT device in place.
Behind An Edge Device (With Two Network Adapters) The RAS server is behind a
network firewall or other device and has two network adapters. One network adapter
is on the network with the firewall. The second network adapter is on the corporate
internal network.
Behind An Edge Device (With A Single Network Adapter) The RAS server is
behind a network firewall or edge device. The network adapter on the RAS server is
connected to both the firewall and the internal corporate network.
Implement Virtual Private Network and DirectAccess solutions
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219
For any configuration, the external FQDN or IP address that clients uses to connect must
be specified. Figure 8-10 shows the network topology configuration in the wizard.
FIGURE 8-10 Specifying the network topology
After selecting the network topology, you can configure the DNS Suffix list that is used by
DirectAccess clients. This is similar to setting a suffix list from DHCP. Anytime a DirectAccess
client uses a single-label name, such as Server1, the server appends a list of DNS suffixes until
a response is found for a FQDN. The order that the list is in is also important. If a match is
found, then the remaining domains are skipped. If there are two Server1 objects in different
lookup zones (or FQDNs), then the first in the list is returned to the DirectAccess client. Figure
8-11 shows configuring DirectAccess with the domain name and an additional domain.
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FIGURE 8-11 Specifying the network topology
The final step is to configure the Group Policy Objects (GPOs) that are used to apply the
DirectAccess policies. Two GPOs are created and linked to the domain:
■
■
DirectAccess client GPO
ents.
This contains the client settings for the DirectAccess cli-
DirectAccess server GPO
server.
This contains the RAS server settings for the DirectAccess
Figure 8-12 shows the confirmation to create the two new GPOs in the domain.
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221
FIGURE 8-12 GPO Configuration
Implement server requirements
In studying for the exam, this topic can be slightly vague as to which requirements. For this
book, we assume that you are familiar with the the DirectAccess prerequisites. These include:
■
Windows Firewall enabled for all network adapter profiles.
■
All versions of Windows Server beginning with 2008 R2 are supported.
■
All Windows Enterprise clients beginning with Windows 7 are supported.
■
Force tunnel with a single server, or using KerbProxy authentication is not supported.
■
Changing policies by using another method than the DirectAccess Management Console or Windows PowerShell is not supported. Do not make changes directly to GPOs.
NEED MORE REVIEW?
DEPLOYING DIRECTACCESS
For more information on the prerequisites for deploying DirectAccess, visit https://technet.
microsoft.com/en-us/windows-server-docs/networking/remote-access/directaccess/prerequisites-for-deploying-directaccess.
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Implement client configuration
Similar to the previous section, “Implement server requirements”, implementing the client
configuration is also vague. In a best practice configuration, the GPOs that are configured
configure all of the necessary client components to enable the client to connect to the
DirectAccess server.
It is possible to perform a configuration manually for a computer that has not been joined
to the domain to receive the GPO settings. In that case, the client must be configured with a
few different settings:
■
The Teredo client must be set to the first IPv4 address of the DirectAccess server.
■
The 6to4 relay must be set to the first IPv4 address of the DirectAccess server.
■
The IP-HTTPS client must be enabled and configured.
Additionally, the Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) must be configured with the FQDN
of the corporate intranet.
NEED MORE REVIEW? DIRECTACCESS CLIENT CONFIGURATION
For details on performing a manual DirectAccess client configuration, visit https://technet.
microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee649267(WS.10).aspx
microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee649267(WS.10).aspx.
Troubleshoot DirectAccess
Troubleshooting DirectAccess can be performed from either the Remote Access Management Console, or by using PowerShell. You can also use the Remote Access Best Practices
Analyzer to identify any warnings or errors, then follow the provided steps to fix the issue.
Some DirectAccess fixes involve modifying the registry, which should not be memorized
for the exam. Overall, you should be able to:
■
Restore a DirectAccess configuration using PowerShell
■
Refresh a DirectAccess configuration using PowerShell
■
Troubleshoot client connection issues
■
Configure a proxy for an NRPT rule
NEED MORE REVIEW? TROUBLESHOOT DIRECTACCESS WITH WINDOWS SERVER 2016
For details on troubleshooting DirectAccess with Windows Server 2016, visit https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-server-docs/networking/remote-access/directaccess/
troubleshooting-directaccess.
Implement Virtual Private Network and DirectAccess solutions
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223
Chapter summary
■
Implementing the remote access server role
■
Configuring VPN options by using the RAS server role
■
Configuring authentication options through Windows or RADIUS authentication
■
Using VPN reconnect to automatically reconnect mobile clients
■
Setting connection profiles by using Intune or System Center
■
Understanding scenarios for single tenant and multitenant deployments
■
Installing and configuring the DirectAccess service
■
Implementing prerequisites for DirectAccess
■
Using GPOs to manage client configuration
■
Understanding basic troubleshooting methods for DirectAccess
Thought Experiment
A company has a corporate office and three branch offices. The corporate office has approximately 10,000 client computers. Each branch office has approximately 1,000 client
computers. Each branch office must have connectivity to the corporate office. The company
also employs 1,000 sales and field staff that must connect remotely to the corporate network. All mobile clients run Windows 8.1 or Windows 10 Enterprise editions. Executive-level
staff must have the ability to connect to the corporate network using their home computers
that are not domain joined. IT staff must have the ability to VPN into the corporate networking using SSL.
Using the above scenario, answer the following questions.
224
1.
How should the sales and field staff connect to the corporate office?
2.
How should executive-level staff connect to the corporate network?
3.
How should the branch offices connect to the corporate office?
4.
Which VPN protocol should the IT staff use for the VPN connection?
CHAPTER 8
Implement network connectivity and remote access solutions
Thought Experiment Answers
1.
Sales and field staff should connect using DirectAccess for the most seamless experience.
2.
Executive-level staff should use a company portal to access corporate resources from
computers that are not domain joined.
3.
The branch offices should be configured with a site-to-site VPN to connect to the
corporate office.
4.
IT staff should use the SSTP protocol, as it is the only protocol that connects using SSL.
Thought Experiment Answers
CHAPTER 8
225
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CHAPTER 9
Implement an advanced
network infrastructure
I
n this chapter, we will review the new features and skills that can be used with a network
infrastructure in Windows Server 2016. From a networking perspective, the primary
change to Windows Server 2016 is in the Software Defined Networking (SDN) components.
These updating include the ability to:
■
Mirror and route traffic to new or existing appliances
■
Dynamically segment workloads similar to Microsoft Azure
■
Use a distributed firewall and network security groups
■
Deploy and manage the SDN with System Center Virtual Machine Manager
■
Combine SDN with Docker for container networking
Windows Server 2016 also includes enhancements to the TCP stack, however, these
changes are not called out on the exam skills. These improvements include:
■
■
■
■
Increasing the Initial Congestion Window from 4 to 10
TCP Fast Open (TFO) has been enabled to reduce the time to establish a TCP
connection
TCP Tail Loss Probe (TLP) has been implemented to assist in recovering from
packet loss.
Recent Acknowledgement (RACK) has been implemented to reduce the time
required to transmit a packet
Skills in this chapter:
■
■
Implement high performance network solutions
Determine scenarios and requirements for implementing Software Defined
Networking
227
Skill 9.1: Implement high performance network
solutions
In this section, we discuss and outline the various high performance networking solutions that
can be used with Windows Server 2016. This includes teaming network adapters with virtual
switches and making individual network adapter configuration changes to enhance performance.
This section covers how to:
■
■
■
■
Implement NIC Teaming or the Switch Embedded Teaming solution and
identify when to use each.
Enable and configure Receive Side Scaling and enable and configure virtual
Receive Side Scaling on a Virtual Machine Queue capable network adapter.
Enable and configure network Quality of Service with Data Center Bridging.
Enable and configure SMB Direct on Remote Direct Memory Access enabled
network adapters.
■
Enable and configure SMB Multichannel.
■
Enable and configure Virtual Machine Multi-Queue.
■
Enable and configure Single-Root I/O Virtualization on a supported network
adapter.
Implement NIC Teaming or the Switch Embedded Teaming
solution and identify when to use each
NIC Teaming was introduced as a method of load balancing and failover for individual server
hosts. NIC Teaming enables you to use two or more network adapters to provide bandwidth
aggregation, or failover between adapters or external switches. With Windows Server 2016,
Switch Embedded Teaming (SET) can be used with Hyper-V virtual switches to team up to
eight network adapters into a single virtual network adapter.
Using SET provides similar benefits to traditional teaming, in that the virtual switch increases
performance and redundancy using several underlying network adapters. Configuring SET is as
simple as creating a NIC Team on the host machine, and then providing the team to the virtual
switch. Figure 9-1 shows creating a NIC team. Note that the figure was taken from a virtual
machine that does not enable all possible options that would be available on a physical host.
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FIGURE 9-1 NIC Teaming
Enable and configure Receive Side Scaling and enable and
configure virtual Receive Side Scaling on a Virtual Machine
Queue capable network adapter
Receive Side Scaling (RSS) can be used for a virtual machine path to enable the VM to support
additional network traffic loads. RSS distributes the traffic loads across multiple processor
cores on the Hyper-V host and the VM. A VM can only use RSS if the processor on the host
supports the feature, and if the VM is configured to use multiple processor cores.
RSS can be enabled from the Advanced tab of the network adapter properties. Figure 9-2
displays the Advanced tab with RSS enabled.
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229
FIGURE 9-2 Network Adapter Properties
You can also enable RSS by using the netsh command. Figure 9-3 shows running the full
netsh command.
netsh interface tcp set global rss=enabled
FIGURE 9-3 netsh RSS command
If you plan to use RSS in a virtual environment, then the Hyper-V host processor and network adapter must support RSS. Simply configure RSS by using the same methods within the
virtual machine.
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Implement an advanced network infrastructure
Enable and configure network Quality of Service with Data
Center Bridging
Data Center Bridging (DCB) is based on an Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
(IEEE) standard for networking. DCB enables multiple types of network traffic to be sent
across the same physical Ethernet media. DCB allocates bandwidth and Quality of Service
(QoS) at the hardware level, rather than from the operating system. DCB is a feature that can
be installed on server that runs Windows Server 2012 and later. Nano Server also supports
using DCB by specifying the Microsoft-NanoServer-DCB-Package option.
Using DCB requires that each component of the network topology supports the capabilities. From a Windows Server perspective, DCB can only be configured by using the following
PowerShell modules:
■
netqos
■
dcbqos
■
netadapter
Some important cmdlets in the dcbqos module to be aware of include:
■
Enable-NetQoSFlowControl
■
New-NetQoSTrafficClass Creates a new traffic class to be used with DCB.
■
Switch-NetQoSDcbxSetting
adapters on the server.
Enables priority-based flow control with DCB.
Sets the policy for globally or for specific network
Enable and configure SMB Direct on Remote Direct
Memory Access enabled network adapters
As discussed in Chapter 3, “Implement Hyper-V,” Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) provides direct memory access between computers without the need for the operating system.
RDMA enables high performance with low latency for storage environments. RDMA is currently supported on three types of network adapters:
■
Infiniband
■
Internet Wide Area RDMA Protocol (iWARP)
■
RDMA over Converged Ethernet (RoCE)
Windows Server 2016 introduces new RDMA support, including:
■
■
Converged RMDA. RDMA adapters can be teamed for multiple types of network traffic.
Switch Embedded Teaming (SET). Up to eight network adapters can be teamed and
used with virtual switches and provide the same benefits as discussed earlier in this
chapter.
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231
NEED MORE REVIEW? USING RDMA WITH SET
For more information on using RDMA with SET, visit https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/
library/mt403349.aspx
library/mt403349.aspx.
To obtain a list of network adapters on a server that can be used with RDMA, run the
Get-NetAdapterRdma cmdlet. To enable SMB Direct on a specific network adapter, run the
Enable-NetAdapterRdma cmdlet. To enable SMB Direct for all network adapters, run the SetNetOffloadGlobalSetting cmdlet.
Enable and configure SMB Multichannel
SMB Multichannel provides a method of aggregating available bandwidth and redundancy
if multiple paths are available between an SMB 3.0 client and server connection. SMB multichannel can be combined with Cluster Shared Volumes (CSV) to stream traffic across RDMA
network adapters and increase performance. When combined with Hyper-V, SMB Multichannel provides increased performance for virtual machine migrations with low CPU utilization.
SMB Multichannel can be configured by using the Set-SmbServerConfiguration cmdlet.
Figure 9-4 shows running the full command to enable SMB multichannel.
Set-SmbServerConfiguration -EnableMultiChannel $True
FIGURE 9-4 Set-SmbServerConfiguration
SMB Multichannel must be enabled on both the client and the server for it to be used. If
either one of the systems are disabled, then the SMB Multichannel is not used. Configuring a
client uses the same parameter, but is set by using the Set-SmbClientConfiguration cmdlet.
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Implement an advanced network infrastructure
Enable and configure Virtual Machine Multi-Queue
Virtual Machine Multi-Queue (VMMQ) uses hardware queues for each virtual machine on the
Hyper-V host. This provides a performance increase compared to previous versions of HyperV hosts. To enable VMQ on a network adapter, use the Enable-NetAdapterVmq cmdlet. Once
enabled, VMQ can be configured by using the Set-NetAdapterVmq cmdlet.
VMQ assists in routing packets for virtual machines on a Hyper-V host. By routing packets
to different queues, different processors can process the network traffic for multiple virtual
machines, increasing performance.
NEED MORE REVIEW? POWERSHELL SYNTAX
For more information on the VMQ interface, visit https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/
library/jj130870.aspx
library/jj130870.aspx.
Enable and configure Single-Root I/O Virtualization on a
supported network adapter
Single-Root IO Virtualization (SR-IOV) provides virtual machines with access to physical PCI
Express resources that are on a Hyper-V host. This requires specific supported hardware to be
used on the Hyper-V host, and additional drivers to be installed on the virtual machine. SRIOV can only be used with 64-bit versions of guest operating systems.
SR-IOV uses both Virtual Functions and is associated with a Physical Function. The Physical Function is what is used on the Hyper-V host, and is treated as a PCI-E device. The virtual
machine uses Virtual Functions to interact with the physical PCI-E device. A single physical
PCI-E device, such as a network adapter with multiple ports, can present each physical port
as a different Virtual Function to virtual machines. Figure 9-5 shows the settings of a virtual
machine. Both the VMQ and SR-IOV settings can be configured from the Hardware Acceleration options of a virtual machine.
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FIGURE 9-5 Virtual Machine Hardware Acceleration Settings
Skill 9.2: Determine scenarios and requirements for
implementing Software Defined Networking
In this section, we discuss the scenarios are requirements that are commonly used with SDN.
That includes the requirements for using Hyper-V Network Virtualization, Generic Route Encapsulation, and Virtual Extensible LAN encapsulation. We will also discuss new features that
can be used with Software Load Balancing to manage different traffic loads. Finally, we will
explain how to implement a Windows Server Gateway with different SDN needs, and how to
use new firewall policies to manage network traffic.
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This section covers how to:
■
■
■
■
■
Determine deployment scenarios and network requirements for deploying SDN.
Determine requirements and scenarios for implementing Hyper-V Network
Virtualization using Network Virtualization Generic Route Encapsulation encapsulation or Virtual Extensible LAN encapsulation.
Determine scenarios for implementation of Software Load Balancer for
North-South and East-West load balancing.
Determine implementation scenarios for various types of Windows Server
Gateways, including L3, GRE, and S2S, and their use.
Determine requirements and scenarios for distributed firewall policies and
network security groups.
Determine deployment scenarios and network
requirements for deploying SDN
Software-defined Networking (SDN) enables you to virtualize networks by abstracting individual networking components such as IP addresses, ports, and switches. An SDN configuration uses policies to manage how traffic is routed through both physical and virtual networks.
Windows Server 2016 provides a few tools to configure and manage a SDN:
■
■
■
■
■
Network Controller New to Windows Server 2016, the network controller centralizes the management, configuration, monitoring, and troubleshooting for infrastructures.
Hyper-V Network Virtualization This assists in the process of abstracting the software and workload from physical to virtual networks.
Hyper-V Virtual Switch Provides the connection from individual virtual machines to
virtual and physical networks in the infrastructure.
RRAS Multitenant Gateway Extends a network to Microsoft Azure to provide an
on-demand hybrid infrastructure.
NIC Teaming Combines network adapters to aggregate bandwidth and provide
redundancy for underlying physical networks.
A common scenario for an SDN configuration is to integrate with the Microsoft System
Center suite to extend the capabilities of the SDN. Some System Center benefits include:
■
■
■
System Center Operations Manager
and public clouds.
This enables you to monitor private, hybrid,
System Center Virtual Machine Manager This enables you to manage virtual machines, networks, and policies that apply to an infrastructure.
Windows Server Gateway This virtual endpoint enables you to route internal or
cloud traffic to the appropriate network. Windows Server Gateway is discussed in more
detail later in this chapter.
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NEED MORE REVIEW? DEPLOY SDN WITH VMM
For more information on the deploying an SDN with System Center Virtual Machine Manager, visit https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/mt210892.aspx.
https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/mt210892.aspx
A typical SDN deployment includes the following components:
■
■
■
■
■
■
Management and Hyper-V Network Virtualization Logical networks that can be
accessed by all Hyper-V hosts. Hyper-V network Virtualization is discussed in detail in
the next section.
Load balancing networks A dedicated network for gateways and software load
balancing that can be used for transit, public, private, or GRE networks.
RDMA-based storage network RDMA is used for storage connections, when a
separate VLAN should be defined.
Routing Virtual IP addresses should be advertised to other networks as necessary
by using BGP or another routing protocol. BGP peering can be configured on physical
switches or routers with the physical infrastructure.
Default gateways One default gateway must be defined that can connect to the different networks that have been configured.
Network hardware The underlying physical network must support the scaling
capabilities that the virtual network provides to the cloud services.
Determine requirements and scenarios for implementing
Hyper-V Network Virtualization using Network
Virtualization Generic Route Encapsulation encapsulation
or Virtual Extensible LAN encapsulation
Network virtualization enables you to manage network traffic like managing a virtual machine. Just as many virtual machines can run on a single Hyper-V host, many virtual networks
can be connected to provide multiple networks, network isolation, or improved performance.
Hyper-V in Windows Server 2016 supports using network virtualization by using two IP
addresses for individual virtual machines. This provides a method to separate the logical and
physical network topologies. The Hyper-V switch processes the network traffic to allow communication from the virtual machine to the physical network without additional overhead.
Network virtualization is typically used in these common scenarios:
■
■
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Provide flexible VM placement This ensures that you can use a virtual machine on
any Hyper-V host regardless of the underlying physical network.
Multitenant network isolation Network traffic isolation can be defined for tenants,
even without using separate VLANs. Network virtualization uses a 24-bit identifier for
Implement an advanced network infrastructure
virtual networks, and does not require any additional configuration on physical networking devices when moving or creating virtual machines.
■
IP address management Virtual machines that are in different virtual networks can
use the same IP address, even if they are on the same physical network.
Network Virtualization Generic Route Encapsulation (NVGRE) is the process of using two IP
addresses for a single virtual network adapter. These two IP addresses include:
■
■
Customer Address (CA) The IP address that is used by the virtual machine’s guest
operating system and by the tenant of the virtual machine. This IP address is used for
communication with other virtual machines on the same network.
Provider Address (PA) The IP address that is used by the cloud provider and is
assigned to a virtual machine by the Hyper-V host. When used with network virtualization, the Hyper-V host encapsulates packets from virtual machines and sends them
with the source modified to be the PA address. This ensures that the physical network
can route the packet appropriately, and that the Hyper-V hosts deliver responses to
the correct virtual machine.
Table 9-1 lists IP addresses that might exist in an example environment.
TABLE 9-1 Example IP address with network virtualization
Server name
CA
PA
Server1
192.168.1.100
10.0.0.1
Server2
192.168.1.101
10.0.0.2
Server3
192.168.1.102
10.0.0.3
Using the information in the above table, when Server1 communicates with Server2, only
the CA addresses are used during the communication. These addresses are on a virtual network that are only used by the virtual machines associated with the network. However, when
any of the servers communicate with the Internet, the CA is encapsulated by the Hyper-V
host. The Hyper-V host then modifies the source IP address of the packet header as the PA.
The PA is used on the physical network to exit the virtual network and onto the Internet.
When a response is received, it is sent to the PA address. The Hyper-V hosts then translate the
PA back to the CA to deliver to the individual virtual machine.
Determine scenarios for implementation of Software Load
Balancer for North-South and East-West load balancing
A new feature introduced with Windows Server 2016 is Network Controller. The Network
Controller feature provides two APIs: Southbound and Northbound. The Southbound API
enables you to communicate with a given network. The Northbound API enables you to
communicate with the Network Controller.
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237
The Southbound API enables you to:
■
Discover network devices
■
Detect network configurations
■
Ascertain network topology details
■
Push configuration changes to the network infrastructure
The Northbound API enables you to obtain information from the Network Controller to
monitor and configure a given network. The Northbound API can be used with:
■
Windows PowerShell
■
REST API
■
Management applications, including System Center
The Network Controller features can be used with Software Load Balancing (SLB) to
distribute network traffic based on the policies defined in the load balancer. This includes:
■
Layer 4 load balancing for North-South and East-West network traffic
■
Internal and external network traffic
■
Dynamic IP addresses
■
Health probes
An SLB maps virtual IP addresses to the dynamic addresses in an environment. The components of an SLB environment include:
■
■
■
■
■
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Virtual machine Manager
Controller and SLB.
System Center can be used to manage the Network
Network Controller Deploying the Network Controller feature is a requirement for
deploying SLB in an environment.
SLB Multiplexer
address.
Maps and directs traffic so that it is sent to the correct dynamic IP
SLB Host Agent Listens for policy updates from the Network Controller and
configures virtual switches with the configured policy.
BGP-enabled router
Multiplexer.
BGP enables you to route the traffic to and from the SLB
Implement an advanced network infrastructure
Determine implementation scenarios for various types of
Windows Server Gateways, including L3, GRE, and S2S, and
their uses
With Windows Server 2016 and System Center, you can deploy a Windows Server Gateway
to for routing in a multitenant environment. Windows Server Gateway supports BGP options,
including Local BGP IP Address and Autonomous System Numbers (ASN), List of BGP Peer IP
Addresses, and ASN values. This enables a cloud provider to route datacenter traffic between
virtual and physical networks to and from the internet.
A RAS Gateway can be used with Hyper-V Network Virtualization to provide several benefits:
■
■
■
■
Site-to-site VPNs
over the Internet.
Point-to-site VPNs
net.
GRE tunneling
works.
Connect two networks at different physical locations together
Connect individual clients to a corporate network over the Inter-
Provide connectivity for tenant virtual networks and external net-
BGP routing Uses a dynamic routing protocol to learn subnets and routes that are
connected to the RAS gateway.
A RAS Gateway is useful in several scenarios, including:
■
■
■
Multitenant gateway Virtual networks direct traffic to the RAS gateway. The RAS
gateway can then direct the traffic over a site-to-site VPN or other destination based
on the packet.
Multitenant NAT The RAS gateway can also forward the traffic from virtual networks to the Internet, and translate the addresses to publicly routable addresses.
Forwarding gateway If the virtual networks need access to physical resources on a
network, the RAS gateway can forward the traffic to the appropriate resource.
Determine requirements and scenarios for distributed
firewall policies and network security groups
A new service with Windows Server 2016 is the Datacenter Firewall. Datacenter firewall
provides stateful, multitenant firewall protection at the network layer. Figure 9-6 outlines the
how the firewall is used by a Network Controller.
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239
FIGURE 9-6 Virtual Machine Hardware Acceleration Settings
The Datacenter Firewall provides several benefits:
■
Scalable and manageable software-defined firewall
■
Move virtual networks without effecting tenant networks
■
Protect tenant services outside of an operating system
By using a Datacenter Firewall, you can apply firewall policies to virtual machines or subnets. Like a network access list, a Datacenter Firewall policy can be configured to look at five
key network traffic elements:
240
■
Protocol
■
Source port number
■
Destination port number
■
Source IP address
■
Destination IP address
CHAPTER 9
Implement an advanced network infrastructure
Chapter summary
■
Using NIC Teaming with virtual switches and Switch Embedded Teaming
■
How to enable Receive Side Scaling
■
Using Quality of Service with Data Center Bridging
■
Enabling SMB Direct with RDMA
■
Enabling VMMQ and SR-IOV on virtual machine network adapters
■
Define scenarios for using Software Defined Networking
■
Configuring Network Virtualization with Generic Route Encapsulation
■
Using Software Load Balancing with Network Controller
■
Using a RAS Gateway as a Windows Server Gateway
■
Using a Datacenter Firewall for multitenant network protection
Thought Experiment
A cloud provider is planning an expansion of their services. Additional Hyper-V hosts, network resources, storage, and other support components are installed. The cloud provider
plans to provide new capabilities to their customers as part of the expansion. These capabilities must include:
■
Built-in firewall services for tenant networks
■
Tenant networks must support overlapping IP addresses
■
Enhanced storage performance.
The provider also plans to use a Software Load Balancer for their network.
Using the above scenario, answer the following questions.
1.
What feature should the provider use to protect tenant networks?
2.
How can the provide ensure that tenant networks can overlap using the same IP addresses?
3.
What technology should the network equipment support to enhance storage performance?
Thought Experiment
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241
Thought Experiment Answers
242
1.
The provider should use the Network Controller and Datacenter Firewall features to
ensure that tenant networks have an additional layer of protection.
2.
Network Virtualization with Generic Route Encapsulation (NVGRE) can be used to
ensure that tenants can assign IP addresses that might overlap with other virtual networks.
3.
Networking equipment should support using RDMA to ensure that storage performance is maximized over the network.
CHAPTER 9
Implement an advanced network infrastructure
CHAPTER 10
Install and configure Active
Directory Domain Services
Organizations around the world use Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) in their
infrastructures to support and manage the users and devices on their networks. In doing so,
they benefit from enterprise-grade scalability, security, and manageability. AD DS leverages
a hierarchical design structure, enabling administrators to organize user and device objects
across multiple containers based on the needs of the business. For the exam, you need to
be familiar with the various deployment elements for AD DS, such as the installation and
configuration of domain controllers.
Skills in this chapter:
■
Install and configure domain controllers
Skill 10.1: Install and configure domain controllers
The first step in implementing AD DS involves installing and configuring a domain controller. In its simplest form, a domain controller is a server running the Windows Server
operating system with the AD DS role installed. Depending on the size of an organization,
the number of domain controllers supporting AD DS can vary. Considerations like location,
security, and redundancy play a major role in the architectural design of AD DS. Imagine
you are a system administrator for Wide World Importers. The organization has twelve
offices across the globe with 3,500 employees. Four of these offices have limited physical
security, but all of them require reliable authentication to the network. In this scenario, you
might expect to see redundant domain controllers at each office to improve performance
and reliability. The four offices with limited physical security could utilize read-only domain
controllers (RODC) to improve logical security.
There are a few different approaches for installing domain controllers, including the creation of a new forest and adding and removing domain controllers from that forest. After
installing AD DS, we spend some time reviewing basic configuration tasks, such as how to
243
configure a global catalog server, and transferring the operations master role. By the end of
this section you should have a good understanding of these fundamentals and be comfortable walking through the steps.
This section covers how to:
■
Install a new forest
■
Add or remove a domain controller from a domain
■
Upgrade a domain controller
■
Install AD DS on a Server Core installation
■
Install a domain controller from Install from Media
■
Resolve DNS SRV record registration issues
■
Configure a global catalog server
■
Transfer and seize operations master roles
■
Install and configure a read-only domain controller
■
Configure domain controller cloning
Install a new forest
The AD DS framework is built using a standardized logical structure. This design enables administrators to organize their domain and domain resources in a format that meets the needs
of their business. There are four core components in the Active Directory logical structure
that contribute to a forest. These include the following:
■
■
■
244 CHAPTER 10
Organizational Units Used for organizing the objects in your Active Directory
infrastructure. These are individual containers that enable administrators to structure
objects with similar requirements. For example, an organization with multiple offices
could have a separate organizational unit for each location. Beneath those containers
they have separate organizational units for computers and users. This format enables
the administrator to apply Group Policy settings and delegate administrative control
on a per-site basis.
Domains A collection of objects that share a common directory database. Each
domain acts as an administrative boundary for the associated objects. A single domain
can cover multiple geographical locations and contain millions of objects.
Domain Trees Consist of multiple domains. Domains that are grouped into trees
follow a parent child relationship. In a hierarchical structure, the tree root domain is
Install and configure Active Directory Domain Services
referred to as the parent domain. Domains joined to the parent domain are referred to
as child domains.
■
Forests Make up a complete Active Directory instance. Each forest acts as a security
boundary for the information contained within that Active Directory instance. A forest
can contain multiple domains and all objects within.
To get started with AD DS, we first need to install a new forest. In the following example,
Wingtip Toys has decided to implement AD DS into their environment. They are using Windows Server 2016 for all their domain controllers. For this exam, you should be familiar with
installing a forest using Server Manager and PowerShell.
Install a new forest using Server Manager
In this section, we are going to install a new forest using Server Manager. Follow these steps
to complete the installation:
1.
Open Server Manager.
2.
On the Server Manager Dashboard, click Add Roles And Features.
3.
On the Before You Begin page of the Add Roles And Features Wizard, click Next.
4.
On the Installation Type page, confirm Role-Based or Feature-Based Installation is
selected and click Next.
5.
On the Server Selection page, make sure that Select A Server From The Server Pool is
selected and your server is highlighted in the list. Click Next.
6.
On the Server Roles page, check the box for Active Directory Domain Services.
When prompted to add additional features, review the list and select Include Management Tools (If Applicable) is checked. Click Add Features and click Next.
7.
On the Features page, click Next.
8.
On the AD DS page, click Next.
9.
On the Confirmation page, review the list of roles and features to be installed. Refer to
Figure 10-1 as a reference. Click Install to begin the installation of AD DS.
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245
FIGURE 10-1 The Add Roles and Features Wizard shows a list of new roles and features to be
installed for AD DS
10. After completing the installation of AD DS, a new warning notification is displayed in
Server Manager. Click the notification icon and click Promote This Server To A Domain
Controller.
11. On the Deployment Configuration page of the Active Directory Domain Services
Configuration Wizard, select Add A New Forest. For the Root Domain Name, type
WingtipToys.local and click Next.
12. On the Domain Controller Options page, review the default settings for forest and
domain functional level. Confirm that Domain Name System (DNS) Server is checked.
For the Directory Services Restore Mode (DSRM) Password, type P@ssw0rd in the two
fields and click Next.
13. On the DNS Options page, note the DNS warning at the top of the wizard. This is ex-
pected as this is a new single-server installation of AD DS and we do not currently have
a DNS server. Click Next.
14. On the Additional Options page, review the NetBIOS domain name and click Next.
15. On the Paths page, review the default paths for the AD DS database, log files, and
sysvol folder. Click Next.
16. On the Review Options page, review the list of configuration options. Click View Script.
This opens a text file with the PowerShell commands used to configure AD DS. Copy
246 CHAPTER 10
Install and configure Active Directory Domain Services
the contents of this text file for use in the next section of this objective. Close the text
file and click Next.
17. On the Prerequisites Check page, review any warnings displayed in the results pane
and click Install. Once installation completes, the server automatically reboots to finish
the AD DS configuration.
After completing these steps, you have a new AD DS forest for WintipToys.local that consists
of a single domain controller. The first time you log into a new forest, use the WINGTIPTOYS\
Administrator account. Once logged in. you can create additional administrative accounts for
managing the objects in the domain.
Install a new forest using PowerShell
In this section, we are going to install a new forest using PowerShell. We utilize the PowerShell
script generated in the Server Manager example to assist with this task. Follow these steps to
complete the installation:
1.
Save the following PowerShell code to a text file under C:\ADDS and name the file
ADDSSetup.ps1.
Import-Module ADDSDeployment
Install-ADDSForest `
-CreateDnsDelegation:$false `
-DatabasePath “C:\Windows\NTDS” `
-DomainMode “WinThreshold” `
-DomainName “WingtipToys.local” `
-DomainNetbiosName “WINGTIPTOYS” `
-ForestMode “WinThreshold” `
-InstallDns:$true `
-LogPath “C:\Windows\NTDS” `
-NoRebootOnCompletion:$false `
-SysvolPath “C:\Windows\SYSVOL” `
-Force:$true
2.
Open an elevated PowerShell window.
3.
Run the following command to install the Active Directory Domain Services role and
all required features:
Install-WindowsFeature AD-Domain-Services –IncludeAllSubFeature –
IncludeManagementTools
4.
Run the following command to run the ADDSSetup.ps1 script:
C:\ADDS\ADDSSetup.ps1
5.
When prompted for the Safe Mode Administrator Password, type P@ssw0rd.
6.
Review the status messages in the PowerShell window as AD DS is configured on your
server. Once the operation completes, the server automatically reboots.
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247
At this point, we have completed the installation and configuration of a new AD DS forest
using both Server Manager and PowerShell. Both methods are effective and relatively straight
forward, but as with most operations, PowerShell does enable you to automate the installation. In the next section, we walk through the process of adding and removing domain
controllers from an existing forest.
Add or remove a domain controller from a domain
As an administrator of AD DS, you occasionally need to retire domain controllers and deploy
new ones. This might be due to an operating system update, or possibly due to some recent
expansion in your organization. In these situations, it is important to know the process.
Install a new domain controller
In the following example, you are a system administrator for Wingtip Toys. This organization
has a healthy AD forest running a single domain. Inside the WingtipToys.local domain, there
are three domain controllers located across three geographically dispersed offices. Wingtip
Toys has decided to close its Chicago office and open a new location in Washington. You
have been tasked with demoting the domain controller in Chicago and deploying a new one
in Washington. We start the process by deploying the new domain controller in Washington.
Before you begin, you need to set up a new server running Windows Server 2016. Confirm
that the server is on your network and can successfully resolve the WingtipToys.local domain.
Complete the following steps to install a new domain controller using Server Manager:
1.
Open Server Manager.
2.
On the Server Manager Dashboard, click Add Roles And Features.
3.
On the Before You Begin page of the Add Roles And Features Wizard, click Next.
4.
On the Installation Type page, confirm Role-Based or Feature-Based Installation is
selected and click Next.
5.
On the Server Selection page, highlight Select A Server From The Server Pool, and be
sure that your server is highlighted in the list. Click Next.
6.
On the Server Roles page, check the box for Active Directory Domain Services. When
prompted to add additional features, review the list and confirm that Include Management Tools (If Applicable) is checked. Click Add Features and click Next.
7.
On the Features page, click Next.
8.
On the AD DS page, click Next.
9.
On the Confirmation page, review the list of roles and features to be installed. Refer to
Figure 10-1 as a reference. Click Install to begin the installation of AD DS.
10. After completing the installation of AD DS, a new warning notification is displayed in
Server Manager. Click the notification icon and click Promote This Server To A Domain
Controller.
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Install and configure Active Directory Domain Services
11. On the Deployment Configuration page of the Active Directory Domain Services
Configuration Wizard, select Add A Domain Controller To An Existing Domain. Click
the Select option that appears next to the Domain field. When prompted, enter the
domain credentials for an account in the wingtiptoys.local domain that is a member of
the Domain Admins group. Select the WingtipToys.local domain and click Next.
12. On the Domain Controller Options page, review the default options. Confirm that
Domain Name System (DNS) Server and Global Catalog (GC) are checked. For the
Directory Services Restore Mode (DSRM) password, type P@ssw0rd in the two fields
and click Next.
13. On the DNS Options page, click Next.
14. On the Additional Options page, note the default option for Replication and click Next.
15. On the Paths page, review the default paths for the AD DS database, log files, and
sysvol folder. Click Next.
16. On the Review Options page, review the list of configuration options. Click View Script.
This opens a text file with the PowerShell commands used to configure the new domain controller, which is similar to what we saw when we installed a new forest. Close
the text file and click Next.
17. On the Prerequisites Check page, review any warnings displayed in the results pane
and click Install. Once the installation is complete, the server automatically reboots to
complete the installation.
After completing these steps, the new domain controller is now associated as an object in
the WingtipToys.local domain. Open Active Directory Users and Computers from an existing domain controller and confirm that the new server is shown in the Domain Controllers
organizational unit. As with the installation of a new forest, adding a new domain controller
can also be automated using the PowerShell script output seen in Step 16. Most notably, the
Install-ADDSDomainController cmdlet.
Demoting an existing domain controller
Continuing with our task, we now demote the domain controller in the Wingtip Toys Chicago
office. For this operation, let’s use PowerShell to demonstrate how quickly a domain controller can be demoted. Note that this same procedure can be accomplished in Server Manager
using the Remove Roles And Features Wizard. Follow these steps to demote the domain
controller using PowerShell:
1.
Open an elevated PowerShell window.
2.
Type the following command to uninstall the AD DS domain controller role:
Uninstall-ADDSDomainController
3.
When prompted, type the local administrator password for the server.
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4.
When prompted, type Y to complete the operation. Monitor the output shown in the
PowerShell window for any warnings or errors. Refer to Figure 10-2 for an example of
the expected output. Once complete, the server automatically reboots.
FIGURE 10-2 The Uninstall-ADDSDomainController cmdlet can be used to demote a domain
controller from an existing forest.
The process of promoting or demoting a domain controller is something you need to
be comfortable with. There are many situations where this can be a required task. Another
possible scenario involves upgrading a domain controller to achieve a more current domain
functional level, which we discuss in the next section.
Upgrade a domain controller
Once a domain controller is deployed, often they remain untouched, aside from routine
maintenance and patches. Of course, there are times where it does become important to
upgrade or refresh these servers. One such scenario involves upgrading the functional level
for your domain. With each iteration of Windows Server, new features and enhancements
are introduced for AD DS. Some of these features are domain-wide, such as the AD recycle
bin. However, before you can enable domain-wide features, you must first raise the functional level of your domain. This task involves updating each of the domain controllers in
your domain to the latest version of Windows Server and then raising the domain functional level to match.
Imagine you are a systems administrator for Wide World Importers. This organization
has a single domain that consists of 18 domain controllers. The domain functional level is
currently set to Windows Server 2008 R2 and there is a mixture of operating system versions among the existing domain controllers. Half of the servers are three to four years old
and are running Windows Server 2008 R2. The other half are one to two years old and are
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running Windows Server 2012 R2. Your team has been tasked with upgrading the operating system across all 18 domain controllers to Windows Server 2016, followed by raising the
domain functional level to match. There are three approaches to consider when faced with
this scenario:
■
■
■
In-place upgrade In-place upgrades of the Windows Server operating system are
supported. They also tend to be more cost effective, allowing you to reuse the existing
hardware. If you plan to do an in-place upgrade of the operating system, be aware of
the updated system requirements for the new operating system version. Also, take into
consideration any application compatibility concerns if the domain controller is hosting
additional roles for your organization.
Demote, upgrade, and promote If costs are a concern but a fresh installation is
preferred over an in-place upgrade, consider demoting the existing domain controller,
formatting it, installing the latest version of Windows Server, and promoting it back
into the domain. When taking this approach, you still need to consider the system
requirements for the newer version of Windows Server, and the lifecycle of the physical
hardware you are reusing.
Side-by-side upgrade A side-by-side upgrade is not as cost efficient as the previous two options, but might be mandatory if existing hardware has reached end-of-life
or doesn’t meet the system requirements for the latest version of Windows Server. In
this situation, you would build a new server and promote it as a domain controller.
You want to consider the need for new host names, IP addresses, and possibly firewall
changes to support the side-by-side upgrade. After a new domain controller is online,
you will transition any roles from the existing domain controller, and then demote the
existing domain controller.
After reviewing the above options, the best approach for Wide World Importers involves
a mixture of side-by-side upgrades and refreshing existing domain controllers. Knowing that
a portion of the existing domain controllers are three to four years old, it is safe to assume
that the hardware for those domain controllers is reaching end-of-life and should be replaced
soon. Whereas the servers that are one to two years old could be demoted, refreshed, and
promoted back into the domain.
Install AD DS on a Server Core installation
The first time you install Windows Server 2016, notice that the default installation type is set
to Server Core. Server Core is a minimalistic install of the Windows Server operating system.
This install type only provides access to certain core server roles, with the option to install
additional roles as needed. This type of installation reduces system overhead and greatly
improves the security posture of the server. Since its introduction with Windows Server 2008,
several enhancements have been made to Server Core, enabling administrators to manage
these servers centrally. For example, you can add and manage dozens of Server Core installs
from a central management server using Server Manager and PowerShell.
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As we mentioned earlier in this chapter, domain controllers are often deployed and then
managed from a central location, or through a set of tools that do not require direct access
to the server. A Server Core installation is an ideal install in these working conditions, while
collecting on the benefits that Server Core provides.
In the following example, we are going to walk through the steps for installing AD DS on
a Server Core installation of Windows Server 2016. Let’s create a new forest for Wingtip Toys.
Before installing AD DS on any server, it is important that we configure the network interface
first. There are multiple ways to accomplish this task in Server Core. The Server Configuration tool is one option, which provides you with a basic text interface for configuring core
components. You can access the Server Configuration tool by typing sconfig at the command
prompt. Another option is to use PowerShell. Let’s look at the PowerShell cmdlets used for
configuring the network adapter on our server.
1.
Log in to your server running Windows Server 2016 Server Core.
2.
At the command prompt, type powershell.exe to start PowerShell.
3.
Run the Get-NetAdapter command to retrieve a list of available network adapters on
your server. Make a note of the adapter name that you are configuring.
4.
Run the following command to assign a static IP address, replacing the value for
InterfaceAlias with the name of your network adapter:
New-NetIPAddress -IPAddress 10.0.0.10 -InterfaceAlias “Ethernet”
-DefaultGateway 10.0.0.254 -AddressFamily IPv4 -PrefixLength 24
5.
Run the following command to assign the DNS servers:
Set-DnsClientServerAddress -InterfaceAlias “Ethernet” -ServerAddresses
(“10.0.0.1”,”10.0.0.10”)
6.
Run the ipconfig /all command and review the IP and DNS settings for your network
adapter. Confirm that the values match the assignments set above.
With the network adapter configured, we can now install the AD DS role on this server. To
do so, utilize the same PowerShell cmdlets discussed earlier in this chapter.
1.
Log in to your server running Windows Server 2016 Server Core.
2.
At the command prompt, type powershell.exe to start PowerShell.
3.
Run the following command to install the Active Directory Domain Services role and all
required features:
Install-WindowsFeature AD-Domain-Services –IncludeAllSubFeature –
IncludeManagementTools
4.
Run the following command to create the new forest and promote the server to a
domain controller:
Install-ADDSForest –DomainName WintipToys.local
5.
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When prompted for the Safe Mode Administrator Password, type P@ssw0rd.
Install and configure Active Directory Domain Services
6.
When prompted to continue and allow an automatic reboot, type Y.
7.
Review the status messages in the PowerShell window as AD DS is configured on your
server. Once the operation completes the server automatically reboots.
After rebooting, your server is now an active domain controller in the WingtipToys.local
domain. At this point, you have the option of installing the AD DS management tools on a
remote server, or downloading the Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT) for Windows
10 and managing AD from your workstation. As you explore Server Core, familiarize yourself
with the sconfig utility. These options are important starting points for managing your Server
Core installs.
Install a domain controller from Install from Media
Every Active Directory domain rests on the shoulders of a database. This database varies in
size based on the amount of data stored in Active Directory, which is typically dictated by the
size of your organization and the number of objects you manage. As your database grows
in scale, variables such as replication and bandwidth become increasingly important. These
variables are even more important when dealing with WAN connections that have limited
bandwidth between remote offices.
In this section, we are going to look at promoting another domain controller, but this time
let’s use the Install From Media (IFM) feature. IFM is an option presented during the process
of promoting a new domain controller that enables you to select a recent database export
from your existing domain. Doing so eliminates the need for the new domain controller to
replicate a complete copy of the database when it first comes online. Instead, IFM only replicates the recent changes since the last export was created. This method can greatly reduce
the replication traffic and deployment time for a new domain controller. In some cases, this
might be a mandatory operation depending on a few factors, such as the size of your AD
database, the available bandwidth to the remote location, or if you have a short time window
to deploy the new domain controller.
There are four types of installation media that can be created. The four types include:
■
■
■
■
Create Full This installation media type is used for writable domain controllers or
Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) instances.
Create Sysvol Full This installation media type is used for writable domain controllers and includes SYSVOL.
Create RODC
(RODC).
This installation media type is used for read-only domain controllers
Create Sysvol RODC
SYSVOL.
This installation media type is used for RODC and includes
EXAM TIP
For the exam, you should be familiar with each installation media type and the output they
provide.
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As a systems administrator for Wide World Importers, you are responsible for deploying new domain controllers when the need arises. You work at the corporate headquarters,
located in San Francisco, CA. Your manager has just informed you that a new office is set to
open in Dublin, Ireland later this year. This is the company’s first office in Dublin, with the
expectation of future growth. Initially you are limited to a 10 MB WAN link between the new
office and the corporate headquarters. In the following example, we walk through the process
of exporting the existing AD database, copying it to a new server, and using the IFM option to
promote the server to a domain controller.
1.
Log in to a domain controller on your domain.
2.
Open an elevated command prompt.
3.
At the command prompt, run the ntdsutil command to start the command-line tool
for managing AD DS.
4.
Run the activate instance ntds command to set NTDS as the active instance.
5.
Run the ifm command to start the Install from Media process.
6.
Run the following command to begin exporting a copy of your AD database and corresponding files. In this example, we are using the create sysvol full media type.
7.
create sysvol full C:\IFM
Several status messages appear in the command prompt; these provide you with a progress report as the export runs. Once the export has completed successfully you receive a
status message, as shown in Figure 10-3. At this stage, you can copy the contents of the IFM
directory to a removable media source, or to the drive on the new server before you ship it to
its future destination.
FIGURE 10-3 The ntdsutil command line tool is used to manage Active Directory, including the
ability to create installation media for new domain controllers
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In this example, we copy the contents of the IFM folder to the root of the system drive on
our new server. Upon arrival, the server is powered up and ready to be promoted. The following steps demonstrate walk through promoting a domain controller using the IFM export:
1.
Open Server Manager.
2.
On the Server Manager Dashboard, click Add Roles And Features.
3.
On the Before You Begin page of the Add Roles And Features Wizard, click Next.
4.
On the Installation Type page, confirm Role-Based Or Feature-Based Installation is
selected and click Next.
5.
On the Server Selection page, confirm Select A Server From The Server Pool is selected
and your server is highlighted in the list. Click Next.
6.
On the Server Roles page, select Active Directory Domain Services. When prompted to
add additional features, review the list and confirm that Include Management Tools (If
Applicable) is checked. Click Add Features and click Next.
7.
On the Features page, click Next.
8.
On the AD DS page, click Next.
9.
On the Confirmation page, review the list of roles and features to be installed. Refer to
Figure 10-1 as a reference. Click Install to begin the installation of AD DS.
10. After completing the installation of AD DS, a new warning notification is displayed in
Server Manager. Click the notification icon and click Promote This Server To A Domain
Controller.
11. On the Deployment Configuration page of the Active Directory Domain Services Con-
figuration Wizard, select Add A Domain Controller To An Existing Domain. Click Select
next to the Domain field. When prompted, enter the domain credentials for an account
in the wingtiptoys.local domain that is a member of the Domain Admins group. Select
the WingtipToys.local domain and click Next.
12. On the Domain Controller Options page, review the default options. Confirm that
Domain Name System (DNS) Server and Global Catalog (GC) are checked. For the
Directory Services Restore Mode (DSRM) password, type P@ssw0rd in the two fields
and click Next.
13. On the DNS Options page, click Next.
14. On the Additional Options page, check the box for Install From Media, as shown in
Figure 10-4. In the path field, enter C:\IFM, where we copied the database export, and
click Verify to confirm the files can be accessed. Click Next.
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FIGURE 10-4 The Active Directory Domain Services Configuration wizard includes the Install
from Media (IFM) feature on the Additional Options page
15. On the Paths page, review the default paths for the AD DS database, log files, and
sysvol folder. Click Next.
16. On the Review Options page, review the list of configuration options. Click View Script.
Note the additional parameter for InstallationMediaPath. Close the text file and click
Next.
17. On the Prerequisites Check page, review any warnings displayed in the Results pane
and click Install. Once installation completes the server automatically reboots to complete the installation.
18. After your new domain controller is online, log in and open Active Directory Users and
Computers. Compare the contents with an existing domain controller. Confirm that the
OU structure, objects, and attributes match across both domain controllers.
At this stage in the chapter we have walked through multiple installation scenarios for
promoting a new domain controller. IFM adds some additional flexibility in your deployments,
enabling you to reliably deploy domain controllers remotely, with limited saturation to your
organization’s WAN. These same methods can be used to prepare for larger deployments. For
example, an organization that specializes in retail might have hundreds of stores across the
globe, each with their own domain controller. Using IFM in this situation can be very beneficial in reducing overhead.
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Resolve DNS SRV record registration issues
Throughout this chapter, we have deployed a few domain controllers under different
circumstances. One common component among those domain controllers has been DNS.
For AD DS to function properly, DNS must be installed and configured correctly. Every
environment is different when it comes to DNS, and that plays a major role in the overall
health of your AD DS forest.
AD DS relies on SRV records—also referred to as service records. Each record performs a
different purpose, such as guiding clients to their nearest LDAP server, or allowing servers to
communicate with each other. As the administrator for AD DS, you need to be familiar with
these SRV records and how to troubleshoot registration issues. When problems do arise,
there are a few resources that you can use to find a solution. Let’s look at those now.
■
DNS Manager. The DNS management console is part of the AD DS management
tools. You can explore the SRV records in your domain using DNS Manager. In Figure
10-5, you can see we are looking at the forward lookup zone for WingtipToys.local. In
the sites directory, we can confirm that the Ldap and Kerberos SRV records are present
for our domain controllers.
FIGURE 10-5 The DNS Manager management console is an important tool for checking on SRV
records
■
Dcdiag The dcdiag utility is a command-line tool that provides tests that can assist
in troubleshooting issues in your AD DS forest. A DNS test can be initiated from any of
your domain controllers by running the following command from an elevated command prompt: dcdiag /test:dns.
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■
■
Ipconfig The ipconfig utility provides network-specific information on your windows
devices. If DNS is setup to accept dynamic DNS updates, and you suspect a workstation or server has not registered their SRV record, you can run the following command
from an elevated command prompt: ipconfig /registerdns.
Netlogon.dns In environments where dynamic DNS is not enabled—and DNS is
managed by a separate appliance—you can retrieve the mandatory SRV records from
the netlogon.dns file on your domain controllers. This information can be provided to
your DNS team so they can ensure it is added. This file is located in the following path:
%WinDir%\System32\Config\netlogon.dns.
The DNS health among your domain controllers is an important variable when managing your AD DS environment. For the exam, make sure you are familiar with each of the tools
mentioned above. Spend time exploring DNS manager and reviewing the SRV records in your
domain.
Configure a global catalog server
In AD DS, the global catalog is designed to improve performance in environments with
multiple domain controllers, or sites with limited bandwidth. The global catalog contains
partial representation of every object in your AD DS forest. Domain Controllers can be
designated as global catalog servers, enabling them to answer global catalog requests.
If an application is connected to Active Directory, and that application issues a search to
a nearby global catalog server, the search completes faster because it has the necessary
information available.
Let’s start by determining whether a domain controller has been configured as a global
catalog server. There are places we can look for this information. The first location is in Active
Directory Users And Computers. If you navigate to the Domain Controllers container, there is
a column named DC Type. Domain controllers that have been designated as global catalog
servers have a DC type of GC (Global Catalog). In Figure 10-6, you can see that two of our
three domain controllers are set up as Global Catalog servers.
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FIGURE 10-6 The Active Directory Users and Computers management console displays the DC type for
the domain controllers in your domain
Another location for reviewing the status of a global catalog server is within the Active Directory Sites And Services Management console. To reveal these options, you need to expand
sites, followed by the site where your domain controller is assigned. Under the site, expand
Servers. With the desired domain controller selected, right-click NTDS Settings and choose
Properties. On the General tab of the NTDS Settings properties window, there is a checkbox
for designating the global catalog role, as shown in Figure 10-7. If you need to toggle this role
on or off, apply the action here and the AD DS topology is updated.
FIGURE 10-7 The Active Directory Users and Computers management console displays the DC type for
the domain controllers in your domain
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As you promote new domain controllers, you’ll notice that the Global Catalog role is
checked by default. In most scenarios, having the global catalog on every domain controller
in your environment is a positive addition. In rare situations, depending on the AD DS
topology, you might find a case in which removing the global catalog role from specific
domain controllers might improve the environment. Other considerations include a ReadOnly Domain Controller (RODC), which can be designated as a Global Catalog Server.
However, not all directory-enabled applications supports connectivity to a Global Catalog
Server hosted on a RODC.
NEED MORE REVIEW?
ADDITIONAL DETAILS ON THE GLOBAL CATALOG
To study more about the global catalog, dependencies, and interactions, visit https://technet.microsoft.com/library/cc728188(v=ws.10).aspx
net.microsoft.com/library/cc728188(v=ws.10).aspx.
Transfer and seize operations master roles
AD DS is comprised of five Flexible Single Master Operation (FSMO) roles. These roles are
assigned to the domain controllers in your environment. Each role can only be assigned to a
single domain controller, but there are no restrictions as to which roles are assigned where.
For example, if you have five different domain controllers, you could technically assign each
role to a different domain controller. It is also worth noting that RODCs cannot host any of
the FSMO roles. Let’s look at the function for each role:
■
■
■
■
■
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Schema master The schema master role can only be assigned to a single domain
controller at any given time. This role is responsible for performing schema updates
within AD. After processing a schema update, the schema master replicates the
changes to the other domain controllers.
Domain naming master The domain naming master role can only be assigned to a
single domain controller at any given time. This role is responsible for making changes
to the forest-wide domain name space within AD.
RID master The RID master role is responsible for processing relative ID (RID) requests from all domain controllers in your domain.
PDC emulator The PDC emulator role is responsible for synchronizing time within
AD. This role has associations with core security components, such as password
changes and account lockouts.
Infrastructure master The infrastructure master role is responsible for keeping
domain references to objects up-to-date. It accomplishes this by comparing its data
with the information in the global catalog. Due to its design, it is best to have the infrastructure master role on a domain controller that is not designated as a global catalog
server, but does have a strong connection to a global catalog server. If all your domain
controllers are designated as global catalog servers, the infrastructure manager role
does not operate.
Install and configure Active Directory Domain Services
EXAM TIP
You should be familiar with each of the FSMO roles, their individual purpose, and how to
transfer the roles to a different DC.
Now that you have a basic understanding of the FSMO roles, let’s look at where these roles
are installed in your domain.
1.
Log in to a domain controller on your domain.
2.
Open an elevated command prompt.
3.
Run the following command to lookup where each FSMO role is assigned, as shown in
Figure 10-8:
netdom /query FSMO
FIGURE 10-8 The netdom utility can assist in identifying where the FSMO roles are assigned in your
domain
After you have identified which domain controllers have which FSMO roles assigned, we
need to understand the difference between transferring a role and seizing a role.
■
■
Transfer Transferring an FSMO role is the preferred operation. You should use the
transfer option when the current role holder is operational and can be accessed on the
network by the future FSMO owner.
Seize Seizing an FSMO role is undesirable, but might be necessary in disaster recovery scenarios. You should use the seize option when the current role holder is experiencing a failure and is otherwise nonoperational.
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Transferring FSMO roles
Transferring and seizing FSMO roles is accomplished using the ntdsutil utility. Figure 10-8
shows that WTT-DC-01 contains all the FSMO roles for the domain. Let’s transfer the infrastructure master role to WTT-DC-03.
1.
Log in to a domain controller on your domain.
2.
Open an elevated command prompt.
3.
Type ntdsutil and press enter.
4.
Type roles and press enter.
5.
Type connections and press enter.
6.
Type connect to server WTT-DC-03. Review the output and confirm that the connection was successful.
7.
Type q and press enter.
8.
Type transfer infrastructure master and press enter. When prompted to confirm
the transfer, click Yes. Review the output and confirm that the transfer was successful.
9.
Type q to exit FSMO maintenance and q again to exit the ntdsutil.
After the role has been transferred, run the netdom utility again and confirm that the
infrastructure master role is now assigned to WTT-DC-03, as shown in Figure 10-9.
FIGURE 10-9 The netdom utility can assist in identifying where the FSMO roles are assigned in your
domain.
Seizing FSMO roles
Let’s imagine that WTT-DC-03 has suffered a catastrophic failure, which is preventing us from
cleanly transferring the assigned FSMO roles. In this example, the domain controller is no longer
on the network, so let’s use the seize option to recover the role and reassign it to WTT-DC-01.
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1.
Log in to a domain controller on your domain.
2.
Open an elevated command prompt.
3.
Type ntdsutil and press enter.
4.
Type roles and press enter.
5.
Type connections and press enter.
6.
Type connect to server WTT-DC-01. Review the output and confirm that the connection was successful.
7.
Type q and press enter.
8.
Type seize infrastructure master and press enter. When prompted to confirm the
transfer, click Yes. Review the output and confirm that the transfer was successful.
9.
Type q to exit FSMO maintenance and q again to exit the ntdsutil.
After the role has been seized, run the netdom utility once more and confirm that the
infrastructure master role is now assigned to WTT-DC-01
EXAM TIP
For the exam, make sure you understand the differences between the transfer and seize
operations.
Install and configure a read-only domain controller
Security is a critical consideration for any organization. The virtual perimeter surrounding your intellectual property requires constant attention and remediation. AD DS contains
user accounts, e-mail addresses, passwords, and most importantly, access to resources and
services that are intended to be tightly secured. When you review the security of AD DS,
one consideration to consider is the physical placement of your domain controllers, and the
expected requirements of those servers. Here are a few questions you should consider when
reviewing the security of your domain controllers:
1.
Is there physical security?
2.
Is the domain controller connected to an external network or DMZ?
3.
Are non-administrative users requesting access to the domain controller to support
internal applications?
The RODC was first introduced with Windows Server 2008. It was designed to address the
questions listed above. The features shown in Table 10.1 were introduced with the intention of
providing additional security to AD DS and your organization.
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TABLE 10-1 RODC security feature chart
Feature
Description
Unidirectional replication
Unlike writable domain controllers, RODCs are designed to replicate
changes inbound but not outbound. The other domain controllers in
your forest does not replicate changes from an RODC. This improves
security by preventing the possibility of a malicious update from
replicating outward through your forest.
Special krbtgt account
The krbtgt account prevents a comprised RODC from accessing resources at a remote site.
Password Replication Policy (PRP)
The PRP prevents passwords from being cached locally on the
RODC. If an RODC is compromised, no account passwords can be
obtained.
RODC Filtered attribute set (FAS)
The FAS enables the administrator to assign which applications can
replicate data to RODCs. This is accomplished by adding the attributes for the application to the RODC FAS and marking them as
confidential.
For example, Wingtip Toys has recently expanded into the retail market, with 12 new
stores set to open in the next six months. These stores require local domain controllers to
support the multiple point-of-sale computers at each location. The physical security of these
stores is limited, and in some cases, requires your servers to share some centralized rack space
with the joining stores. Based on these requirements you have chosen to promote RODCs at
each store. Let’s walk through process of promoting a RODC:
1.
Open Server Manager.
2.
On the Server Manager Dashboard, click Add Roles And Features.
3.
On the Before You Begin page of the Add Roles And Features Wizard, click Next.
4.
On the Installation Type page, confirm Role-Based or Feature-Based Installation is
selected and click Next.
5.
On the Server Selection page, confirm Select A Server From The Server Pool is selected
and your server is highlighted in the list. Click Next.
6.
On the Server Roles page, check the box for Active Directory Domain Services. When
prompted to add additional features, review the list and select Include Management
Tools (If Applicable). Click Add Features and click Next.
7.
On the Features page, click Next.
8.
On the AD DS page, click Next.
9.
On the Confirmation page, review the list of roles and features to be installed. Refer to
Figure 10-1 as a reference. Click Install to begin the installation of AD DS.
10. After completing the installation of AD DS, a new warning notification is displayed in
Server Manager. Click the notification icon and click Promote This Server To A Domain
Controller.
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11. On the Deployment Configuration page of the Active Directory Domain Services
Configuration Wizard, select Add A Domain Controller To An Existing Domain. Click
Domain field option. When prompted, enter the domain credentials for an account in
the wingtiptoys.local domain that is a member of the Domain Admins group. Select
the WingtipToys.local domain and click Next.
12. On the Domain Controller Options page, review the default options. Check the box
for Read Only Domain Controller (RODC), as shown in Figure 10-10. For the Directory
Services Restore Mode (DSRM) password, type P@ssw0rd in the two fields and click
Next.
FIGURE 10-10 The Active Directory Domain Services Configuration Wizard includes the option for
promoting a RODC on the Domain Controller Options page
13. On the RODC Options page, review the default accounts and groups that replicate pass-
words to the RODC and those that are denied, as shown in Figure 10-11. Click Next.
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FIGURE 10-11 The Active Directory Domain Services Configuration Wizard includes password
replication permissions on the RODC Options page
14. On the DNS Options page, click Next.
15. On the Additional Options page, note the default option for replication and click Next.
16. On the Paths page, review the default paths for the AD DS database, log files, and
sysvol folder. Click Next.
17. On the Review Options page, review the list of configuration options. Click View Script.
This opens a text file with the PowerShell commands used to configure the RODC.
Close the text file and click Next.
18. On the Prerequisites Check page, review any warnings displayed in the results pane
and click Install. Once installation completes, the server automatically reboots to complete the installation.
After completing the steps above, you should have a new domain controller in your
domain with a DC type of Read-only. Let’s connect to this domain controller and see what
options are available.
1.
Log in to one of your domain controllers.
2.
Open Active Directory Users And Computers.
3.
In the left pane of the Active Directory Users And Computer Management console,
right-click WingtipToys.local and choose Change Domain Controller.
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4.
On the Change Directory Server dialog window, select the RODC in the list and click
OK. Before connecting to the RODC you are presented with a warning stating that
write operations are not permitted, as shown in Figure 10-12. Click OK.
FIGURE 10-12 RODC does not allow you to perform write operations
5.
Right-click the Users container. Notice that the option to create new items is not available.
6.
Click the Users container. Right-click the Administrator account. Notice the options
to update group membership, disable the account, and reset the password are all
disabled.
Now that you have deployed an RODC and explored some of the basic functionality, consider the cases where this would make sense in your environment. The RODC is very effective
at preventing changes to your existing AD DS forest. However, be cautious in your deployments. I had a customer that insisted on replacing all the writable domain controllers with
RODCs at each of their remote offices. This quickly introduced a lot of management overhead. Changes could only be made on the writable domain controllers at the central office.
This affected replication when multiple changes needed to be made. Offices were thousands
of miles apart and operated in different time zones. These domain controllers were all racked
in secure locations, so the RODC topology didn’t make sense for this environment.
Configure domain controller cloning
Prior to Windows Server 2012, it was an unsupported practice to use any form of duplication
to deploy a new domain controller. This included operations like cloning the VHD of an existing domain controller. Doing so could severely affect your AD DS infrastructure. This has since
changed with the introduction of Windows Server 2012 and subsequent releases of Window
Server. Under the right circumstances, administrators can now clone an active virtual domain
controller, enabling them to do consistent deployments, in rapid succession if needed.
Before you can clone a virtual domain controller, you must meet the following requirements:
■
■
The target domain control must be running a Windows Server 2012 or later.
The administrator performing the cloning operation must be a member of the Domain
Admins group.
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■
■
The domain controller containing the PDC emulator role must be online during the
cloning process and
The hypervisor for the domain controller must support VM-Generation ID.
With these prerequisites in mind, let’s walk through the process of cloning an existing
virtual domain controller. In this example, let’s use Hyper-V for our hypervisor.
1.
Log in to the source domain controller in your domain. This is the domain controller
that we plan on cloning. In this example, the name of our domain controller is WTTDC-02.
2.
Confirm that the PDC emulator role is not currently assigned to this domain controller.
To do so, run the following command from an elevated command prompt:
netdom /query FSMO
3.
Open an elevated PowerShell window.
4.
Add the source domain controller to the AD security group: Cloneable Domain Controllers security group in AD. To do so, run the following command:
Add-ADGroupMember -Identity “Cloneable Domain Controllers” -Members “WTTDC-02$”
5.
Confirm that the source domain controller does not have any applications or services
installed that are not compatible with cloning. To do so, run the following command:
Get-ADDCCloningExcludedApplicationList
6.
If any items appear in the application list, they need to be removed from the domain
controller or added to a CustomDCCloneAllowList.xml before you can proceed with
cloning. To create the CustomDCCloneAllowList.xml, run the following command:
Get-ADDCCloningExcludedApplicationList -GenerateXML
7.
Create a new clone configuration file for the source domain controller. To do so, run
the following command and review the output for any warnings or errors:
New-ADDCCloneConfigFile -CloneComputerName “WTT-DC-03” -SiteName DefaultFirst-Site-Name -IPv4Address 10.0.0.15 -IPv4DefaultGateway 10.0.0.254
-IPv4SubnetMask 255.255.255.0 -IPv4DNSResolver 10.0.0.1,10.0.0.15 –Static
8.
Shutdown the source domain controller.
At this point we have prepared the source domain controller for cloning by granting it
access in the directory, validating the running services, and creating a configuration file. Next
let’s clone the VM by first exporting a copy of the source domain controller and re-importing
it. Because we are using Hyper-V, let’s utilize PowerShell for these steps.
1.
Open an elevated PowerShell window on your Hyper-V host.
2.
Run the following command to export a copy of your source Domain Controller.
Export-VM –Name WTT-DC-02 –path D:\VMExports
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3.
Run the following command to import the new virtual machine
Import-VM -Path “<XMLFile> -Copy -GenerateNewId -VhdDestinationPath D:\WTTDC-03
Once the import has completed, power on the new virtual machine. Be sure to leave the
source domain controller powered off during this time. When you start the new virtual machine,
it initially runs under the context of the source domain controller until the cloning process has
completed, at which point you can restore the source domain controller to active duty.
When the new domain controller powers up for the first time the cloning process triggers
automatically. This process utilizes the cloning configuration file that we created earlier in
this section. The boot sequence displays a simple percentage to indicate how far along the
cloning process is, as shown in Figure 10-13.
FIGURE 10-13 The domain controller cloning process starts automatically
Once the cloning process has completed, log in to your new domain controller. Open
Active Directory Sites and Services on your new domain controller. Navigate to the DefaultFirst-Site-Name site and look in the Servers directory. Confirm that all three domain controllers are present. At this stage, you can power on your source domain controller that was
previously left offline.
In preparation for the exam, familiarize yourself with the PowerShell cmdlets used to
generate the custom application list XML and cloning configuration XML. Be prepared to
answer questions related to prerequisites, such as knowing with versions of Windows Server
support domain controller cloning.
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Chapter summary
■
How to install a new forest by using the GUI and PowerShell
■
Adding and removing a domain controller
■
Upgrading a domain controller
■
Using Server Core with AD DS
■
Using the Install from Media option to provision a domain controller
■
Using DNS SRV records with AD DS
■
Configuring a domain controller as a global catalog
■
Using FSMO roles in AD DS
■
Installing a read-only domain controller
■
Configuring domain controller cloning
Thought experiment: Upgrading the forest
In this thought experiment, demonstrate your skills and knowledge of the topics covered in
this chapter. You can find answers to this thought experiment in the next section.
You are a systems administrator for Wingtip Toys, an organization with 16 offices around
the globe, and an additional 45 stores that specialize in high performance quadcopters and
drones. Your team is relatively new to the organization, inheriting a single-domain with a
total of 72 domain controllers. A single physical writeable domain controller is present at each
retail store, and a mixture of 1-2 domain controllers are present at each office. All the domain
controllers are running Windows Server 2008 R2 and the domain functional level is set to
match. All the hardware for these domain controllers are reaching end-of-support over the
next six months. Your enterprise applications team is also interested in integrating AD DS with
their public facing retail web portal. Your manager has added a domain controller refresh to
the annual budget. In preparation for this work, he has requested answers to the following
questions:
1.
There is a concern with the limited physical security at each of the retail stores. What
would you recommend for enhancing the logical security of the domain controllers at
these locations?
2.
System maintenance for the retail stores can only occur after hours, and it is critical that all systems are online before stores open. What is your recommendation for
deploying the new domain controllers in this limited timeframe?
3.
The main offices are not running a consistent number of domain controllers at each
location. What is your recommendation for improving this topology?
4.
What type of install would you recommend for the public facing retail web portal?
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Thought experiment answers
1.
Implementing RODCs at the retail stores helps restrict potential malicious activities if
the local domain controller is compromised.
2.
Utilizing IFM for the deployment of these new domain controllers enables the team
to rapidly deploy the new servers, as well as greatly reducing the replication overhead
across the multiple WAN links.
3.
To improve reliability and redundancy, each office should utilize two domain controllers. New servers should be deployed to offices that only contain a single domain
controller.
4.
For the web portal, utilizing a server core installation to host the domain controller improves security and limit downtime for routing patching, due to the reduced number
of security patches.
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CHAPTER 11
Implement identity
federation and access
solutions
I
n this chapter, we discuss the identify management solutions that are provided with
Active Directory Federation Services (AD FS). AD FS can also be combined with the Remote
Access server role, which can be used to enable a Web Application Proxy (WAP). AD FS can
be used to manage federated environments, and enable multi-factor authentication for
organizations. Used together with a WAP, clients can be preauthenticated by an application
or service before being directed to the application server.
Windows Server 2016 introduces a few new features to AD FS, not all of which are included on the upgrade exam. New features include:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Azure multi-factor authentication (MFA)
application or server in the organization.
Use Azure to enable MFA for an
Password-less access from devices Use Azure AD or Intune MDM policies to enable sign-on and access control based on the compliance status for the device.
Sign in using Windows Hello for Business
Microsoft Passport for Work.
This was previously known as
Enable sign-in using third-party LDAP LDAP v3-compliance directories can
be used as a source for authenticating users.
Customizable sign-in The logon screen for individual applications can be
customized for companies or brands.
Enhanced auditing AD FS in Windows Server 2016 has been streamlined and less
verbose to reduce administrative complexity.
SAML 2.0 support AD FS can be used with InCommon Federations and other
SAML 2.0 configurations.
Simplified password management When federating with Office 365, password
expiration notifications can be sent and managed by AD FS when a user is being
authenticated.
273
Easier upgrades Previous versions required exporting a configuration and the
importing it to a new farm. AD FS can now be upgraded using the existing farm to
introduce the new capabilities in Windows Server 2016.
■
Skills in this chapter:
■
Install and configure Active Directory Federation Services
■
Implement Web Application Proxy
Skill 11.1: Install and configure Active Directory
Federation Services
In this section, we discuss how to use Active Directory Federation Services (AD FS) to
manage federated environments. First, we explain the new upgrade process that can be
used with AD FS. We also explain new methods of managing authentication, including
access control policies, multi-factor authentication, and device registration. Another new
capability with Windows Server 2016 is enabling Windows Hello for Business for Windows
10 devices. Finally, we cover using new integration capabilities with Azure, Office 365, and
other LDAP directories.
This section covers how to:
274 CHAPTER 11
■
Upgrade and migrate previous AD FS workloads to Windows Server 2016
■
Implement claims-based authentication, including Relying Party Trusts
■
Configure authentication policies
■
Configure multi-factor authentication
■
Implement and configure device registration
■
Integrate AD FS with Windows Hello for Business
■
Configure for use with Microsoft Azure and Office 365
■
Configure AD FS to enable authentication of users stored in LDAP directories
Implement identity federation and access solutions
Upgrade and migrate previous AD FS workloads to
Windows Server 2016
To ensure that the new AD FS features introduced in Windows Server 2016 can be used in an
AD FS farm, the farm behavior level (FBL) has been introduced to determine which features
can and cannot be used. An AD FS farm that is comprised of Windows Server 2012 R2 hosts
has an FBL of Windows Server 2012 R2.
FBL works as the domain or forest functional level for Active Directory. When a Windows
Server 2016 host is added to a farm, the farm is considered running in a mixed mode. The
new features available with Windows Server 2016 cannot be used until the FBL has been
raised to Windows Server 2016. The FBL cannot be raised until all Windows Server 2012 R2
servers have been removed from the farm.
Upgrading a farm can be performed by performing in-place operating system upgrades
for individual servers, or add and replace servers as necessary. It is not necessary to deploy a
new farm or export and import configuration settings to perform an upgrade in the farm.
The overall process of upgrading the farm includes:
1.
Add the Windows Server 2016 servers to the existing farm.
2.
Configure the AD FS farm properties by using the Set-AdfsSyncProperties cmdlet.
3.
Complete the domain and forest preparation for Windows Server 2016.
4.
Upgrade the AD FS FBL by using the Invoke-AdfsFarmBehaviorLevelRaise cmdlet.
5.
Verify the current farm behavior by using the Get-AdfsFarmInformation cmdlet.
NEED MORE REVIEW? UPGRADING AD FS
For more information on using upgrading AD FS farms, visit: https://technet.microsoft.com/
en-us/windows-server-docs/identity/ad-fs/deployment/upgrading-to-ad-fs-in-windowsserver-2016.
Implement claims-based authentication, including Relying
Party Trusts
When adding a Relying Party Trust, you can choose to make the trust claims aware or
non-claims aware. Claims aware applications use security tokens as part of the process for
authentication and authorization. Non-claims aware applications can be used with a Web
Application Proxy (WAP) with Windows Integrated Authentication. Creating a Relying Party
Trust can be performed from the AD FS snap-in. Figure 11-1 shows the initial screen of the
wizard, selecting claims aware or non-claims aware.
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FIGURE 11-1 Add Relying Party Trust
The next step of configuring a relying party trust is to specify the source data for the
relying party. This information can be provided in one of three ways:
■
From a published source, online or on the network.
■
From a federation metadata file.
■
Entered manually in the wizard.
Figure 11-2 shows the available options for providing the configuration details.
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FIGURE 11-2 Specifying data source
When specifying the details manually, the information that is required includes:
■
Display name
■
Optional certificate
■
Federation URLs
■
Relying party trust identifiers
After specifying the trust details, the next configuration item is whether to set access
control policies. These policies can be configured now, or at a later time. A common access
method is to permit everyone, but require multi-factor authentication when the request is
external. Figure 11-3 shows selecting an access control policy.
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FIGURE 11-3 Specifying data source
Configure authentication policies
Authentication policies, or access control policies as defined in the AD FS management
snap-in, define the authentication methods for an application. These policies can be used
to define how users or devices can access an application by using AD FS. Figure 11-4 shows
the built-in policies from the AD FS management snap-in.
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FIGURE 11-4 Access Control Policies
You can also specify a custom access control policy from the AD FS management snap-in.
The available options to permit:
■
Everyone
■
Users
■
From a specific network
■
From specific security groups
■
From devices that have a specific trust level
■
With specific claims in the request
■
And require multi-factor authentication
You can also permit these users or groups with the following exceptions:
■
Specific networks
■
Specific groups
■
Devices with specific trust levels
■
Specific claims in the request
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Figure 11-5 shows defining a custom access control policy.
FIGURE 11-5 Custom access control policy
Configure multi-factor authentication
Using Azure multi-factor authentication (MFA) with AD FS has several pre-requisites:
■
Azure subscription that includes Azure Active Directory
■
Azure multi-factor authentication
■
As of this writing, this is included with Azure AD Premium and the Enterprise
Mobility Suite subscription options.
■
On-premises AD FS at the Windows Server 2016 Farm Behavior Level
■
The on-premises AD FS must be federated with Azure AD
■
The Windows Azure Active Directory Module for Windows PowerShell must be
installed
■
You must have global administrator permissions to modify Azure AD
■
You must have Enterprise Administrator credentials to configure the AD FS farm
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Overall, the general configuration process for using MFA with Azure includes:
1.
Generate a certificate for Azure MFA on each AD FS server.
2.
Add the credentials to the Azure MFA Auth-client SPN.
3.
Configure the AD FS farm.
Generating a certificate for Azure MFA is completed by running the New-AdfsAzureMfaTenantCertificate cmdlet. This certificate is generated and placed in the local machines
certificate store on the AD FS server. The subject name of the certificate is the TenantID for
the Azure AD directory.
To add the credentials to the SPN for Azure MFA, obtain the credentials from the generated certificate. Add the credentials by using the New-MsolServicePrincipalCredential cmdlet
and specify the GUID for the Azure MFA Auth Client.
Finally, you can configure the AD FS farm by using the Set-AdfsAzureMfaTenant cmdlet.
This cmdlet requires the TenantId and ClientId for the Azure subscription. After making the
configuration change, the AD FS service must be restarted on each server in the farm. After
restarting the service, Azure MFA is available as an authentication method. Figure 11-6 shows
using Azure MFA as an authentication method.
FIGURE 11-6 Authentication methods
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Implement and configure device registration
AD FS in Windows Server 2016 enhances device registration to enable sign on and access
control based on the compliance status of a device. When users authenticate using a device
credential, the device’s compliance is re-evaluated to ensure that policies are applied
appropriately. This can include:
■
Enable access only from devices that are managed and/or compliant
■
Enable external access for devices that are managed and/or compliant.
■
Require MFA for computers that are not managed or compliant.
Figure 11-7 illustrates using device registration with AD FS. Users and devices can be
enrolled by using Azure AD or Microsoft Intune. Both services use Azure AD with Azure AD
Connect device write-back. The devices can connect to on-premises services that might also
contain conditional access policies, device authentication, or MFA.
FIGURE 11-7 Device registration illustration
A device’s trust level is one of three levels:
■
■
■
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Authenticated Devices that have been authenticated are registered in Azure AD, but
have not been enrolled in a mobile device management (MDM) policy.
Managed
policy.
Managed devices are registered devices that are also enrolled in an MDM
Compliant Devices that are compliant are registered and enrolled in an MDM policy.
In addition, the device meets the requirements of the MDM policy.
Implement identity federation and access solutions
Integrate AD FS with Windows Hello for Business
Windows Hello for Business enables organizations to replace user passwords with a
PIN or biometric gestures. AD FS supports these Windows 10 capabilities to provide
authentication without needing a password. The general steps to enable Windows
Hello with AD FS include:
1.
Deploy System Center Configuration Manager with a public key infrastructure.
2.
Configure policies settings through Configuration Manager or Group Policy.
3.
Configure certificate profiles with smart card sign-in extended key usage.
NEED MORE REVIEW? CONFIGURING SCCM WITH WINDOWS HELLO
For a step by step of configuring Configuration Manager with Windows Hello, visit
https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/documentation/articles/active-directory-azureadjoinpassport-deployment/.
passport-deployment/
Configure for use with Microsoft Azure and Office 365
Earlier in this chapter we explained that you can enroll devices in MDM policies through
Azure AD and enable MFA with Azure AD. AD FS can also integrate with Azure and Office 365
to send password expiration claims to applications that are federated with AD FS. With Office
365, the password expiration notice can be sent to Exchange and Outlook to notify users that
their password soon expires.
As of this writing, these claims are only available for authentication using a username and
password, or using Windows Hello for Business. If a user authentication uses window integrated authentication without Windows Hello for Business, then the password expiration is not
displayed. Additionally, a password expiration notice is only displayed if the password expires
within the next 14 days.
To configure AD FS to enable password expiration claims, add the following claim rule to
the relying party trust.
c1:[Type == "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2012/01/passwordexpirationtime"]
=> issue(store = "_PasswordExpiryStore", types = ("http://schemas.microsoft.com/
ws/2012/01/passwordexpirationtime", "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2012/01/
passwordexpirationdays", "http://schemas.microsoft.com/ws/2012/01/passwordchangeurl"),
query = "{0};", param = c1.Value);
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Configure AD FS to enable authentication of users stored
in LDAP directories
AD FS in Windows Server 2016 introduces supports for three new LDAP scenarios:
■
Third-party LDAP v3 compliant directories
■
AD forests that do not have a two-way trust
■
AD Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS)
You can create a connection from AD FS to the LDAP directory by using the New-AdfsLdapServerConnection cmdlet. Figure 11-8 shows creating a new LDAP server connection.
FIGURE 11-8 New-AdfsLdapServerConnection
Then, you can map LDAP attributes to AD FS claims by using the New-AdfsLdapAttributeToClaimMapping cmdlet. For example, you can map name, surname, and displayname
fields to the appropriate AD FS claim. Finally, register the LDAP store with the AD FS farm
as a claims provider by using the Add-AdfsLocalClaimProviderTrust cmdlet.
Skill 11.2: Implement Web Application Proxy
In this section, we explain how to install and configure a reverse proxy by using the Web
Application Proxy (WAP). A WAP is useful for integrating with AD FS and providing access
to internal applications. A WAP enables organizations to use either pass-through or AD FS
preauthentication in a perimeter network for external users.
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This section covers how to:
■
Install and configure WAP
■
Implement WAP in pass-through mode
■
Implement WAP as AD FS proxy
■
Integrate WAP with AD FS
■
Configure AD FS requirements
■
Publish web apps via WAP
■
Publish Remote Desktop Gateway applications
■
Configure HTTP to HTTPS redirects
■
Configure internal and external Fully Qualified Domain Names
Install and configure WAP
While the WAP role service is used with AD FS, the role service itself is a part of the Remote
Access server role. Installing the role service is accomplished by using the Add Role or Feature
Wizard, or by using Windows PowerShell. Once added, use the Web Application Proxy
Configuration Wizard as shown in Figure 11-9 to configure the service.
FIGURE 11-9 Web Application Proxy Configuration
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As part of the configuration wizard, you connect to the AD FS farm and obtain the certificates that are available and can be used with the Web Application Proxy. Select the desired
certificate, as shown in Figure 11-10, and then complete the wizard.
FIGURE 11-10 Web Application Proxy Configuration
Additionally, you can configure the Web Application Proxy by using the
Install-WebApplicationProxy cmdlet. The cmdlet must specify the federation
service name and certificate thumbprint to be used:
Install-WebApplicationProxy -CertificateThumbprint
'A142A369FC60C7984A70A56A17E31228546D85D8' -FederationServiceName 'host02.contosoforest.
com'
Implement WAP in pass-through mode
Pass-through mode instructs the WAP to not perform any authentication. All requests that
are received by the WAP are automatically forwarded to the destination application. Figure
11-11 shows selecting pass-through as the WAP authentication method.
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FIGURE 11-11 Publish New Application Wizard
Alternatively, you can use the Add-WebApplicationProxyApplication cmdlet and specify
PassThrough for the ExternalPreAuthentication parameter.
Add-WebApplicationProxyApplication -BackendServerURL 'https://app1.contosoforest.com/'
-ExternalCertificateThumbprint '1a2b3c4d5e6f1a2b3c4d5e6f1a2b3c4d5e6f1a2b'
-ExternalURL 'https://app1.contosoforest.com/' -Name 'App1 (no preauthentication)'
-ExternalPreAuthentication PassThrough
Implement and integrate WAP as AD FS proxy
There are two sections of the skills that include using WAP with AD FS, which we combine
for this section. Figure 11-10 also shows the other pre-authentication option for WAP, which
is AD FS. If the WAP receives a request that is not authenticated, then the request is redirected to the AD FS farm. After being authenticated by AD FS, the request is then sent to
the backend application. If the client is using Windows integrated authentication, then the
WAP can forward the credentials to the backend application.
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Figure 11-12 shows the supported clients that can be used with an AD FS proxy, including:
■
■
■
Web and MSOFBA Authenticates web apps, including Microsoft Office.
HTTP Basic New for Windows Server 2016, this is used for clients that do not
support HTTP redirect, such as Exchange ActiveSync.
OAuth2
Windows Store apps or Office clients that support OAuth2 authentication.
FIGURE 11-12 Supported clients
Configure AD FS requirements
The only requirement for using a WAP with AD FS is that a farm is configured with a relying
party trust. Without a relying party trust, you are not able to publish an application to be
used with the WAP.
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Publish web apps via WAP
Publishing an application is performed from the Remote Access Management Console by
using the Publish New Application Wizard. When publishing an application, you must specify
specific information for the application:
■
Preauthentication method
■
Supported clients
■
Relying party trust
■
Publishing settings
Figure 11-13 shows the publishing settings that must be defined for an application.
FIGURE 11-13 Publish New Application Wizard
Alternatively, you can use the Add-WebApplicationProxyApplication cmdlet to publish an
application.
Add-WebApplicationProxyApplication -BackendServerUrl 'https://app1.contosoforest.com'
-ExternalCertificateThumbprint '2FC38D0224B0A6412F450A9597271179878708B0'
-EnableHTTPRedirect:$true -ExternalUrl 'https://app1.contosoforest.com'
-Name 'App1' -ExternalPreAuthentication ADFS -ADFSRelyingPartyName 'AD FS'
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Publish Remote Desktop Gateway applications
Publishing a Remote Desktop Gateway (RDG) enables you to restrict access to the RDG and
add a layer of pre-authentication using a WAP. This is especially useful for enabling MFA with
RDG. The process of publishing a RDG through a WAP depends on whether the RD Web
Access and RD Gateway are configured on the same server or different servers. Using one
server enables you to only publish the root FQDN. Using different servers means that you
must publish two directories separately.
As with other published applications, you must create a relying party trust using the FQDN
of the RDG. You can then publish the root of the site in the WAP. You must also disable the
HttpOnly cookie property in the WAP for the published application.
NEED MORE REVIEW? PUBLISHING RDG WITH WAP
For a step by step of publishing an RDG with a WAP, visit https://technet.microsoft.com/
en-us/library/dn765486.aspx
en-us/library/dn765486.aspx.
Configure HTTP to HTTPS redirects
Windows Server 2016 and WAP introduces a new capability to automatically redirect user
requests from unsecure HTTP to secure HTTPS connections. The redirection setting is
controlled per published application, and is simply enabled or disabled for the application.
Figure 11-14 shows the setting enabled for a published application.
When using the Add-WebApplicationProxyApplication cmdlet, the EnableHTTPRedirect
parameter accepts either $True or $False to enable or disable redirecting client requests.
Configure internal and external Fully Qualified Domain
Names (FQDNs)
As shown in Figure 11-13, there are two FQDN addresses that are configured with an application.
The External URL is the FQDN that external users request access to when attempting to access an
application. The backend server URL is the FQDN of the internal resource where the application
is available.
In most scenarios, these URLs should be the same. If the FQDNs are different for external
and internal requests, then URL translation must also be configured to ensure requests are
redirected correctly. To enable URL translation, use the Set-WebApplicationProxyApplication
cmdlet.
Set-WebApplicationProxyApplication –ID AppID -DisableTranslateUrlInRequestHeaders:$False
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Chapter summary
■
Using the Farm Behavior Level in AD FS to determine features
■
Creating a relying party trust for claims-based authentication
■
Configuring access control policies for AD FS
■
Using multi-factor authentication with AD FS
■
Understanding device registration with AD FS
■
Integrating Windows Hello for Business with AD FS
■
Using third-party LDAP with AD FS
■
Installing and configuring a Web Application Proxy
■
Using pass-through or AD FS modes of a WAP
■
Publishing applications through a WAP
■
Publishing Remote Desktop Gateways through WAP
■
Redirecting user requests to be secure with HTTPS
■
Understanding the external and backend URLs with WAP
Thought Experiment
An organization has an existing Windows Server 2012 R2 AD FS farm. They plan to upgrade
the farm to Windows Server 2016. After the upgrade, they also plan to implement Azure MFA
with their applications. The organization does not currently have any additional configuration
software in their environment. The MFA solution must also work with biometric options. After
the upgrade, they plan to centralize user requests by using a reverse proxy. All user requests
must be secured.
Using the above scenario, answer the following questions.
1.
How should the organization complete the upgrade?
2.
What additional software should the organization use to integrate Azure MFA?
3.
What technology should the organization use to enable biometric MFA?
4.
How should the organization ensure that all requests are secure?
Thought Experiment
CHAPTER 11
291
Thought Experiment Answers
1.
The organization should perform individual upgrades to raise the Farm Behavior Level
of the AD FS farm. They should not reinstall AD FS and export the configuration.
2.
They should use System Center Configuration Manager to simplify the configuration
and management of Azure MFA.
3.
Windows Hello for Business should be used to ensure that biometric authentication
can be used with the published applications.
4.
They should set the WAP to redirect all HTTP requests to HTTPS for each published
application.
292 CHAPTER 11
Implement identity federation and access solutions
Index
A
access. See data access
access control
role-based 204–205
access control policies 278–280
ACEs. See Access Control Entries (ACEs)
ACM. See Application Compatibility Manager
ACT. See Application Compatibility Toolkit
activation models 11–14
Active Directory-based activation 13–14
Automatic Virtual Machine Activation (AVMA) 11–12
Key Management Service (KMS) 13
Active Directory (AD) forests 204
Active Directory-based activation 13–14
Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) 2, 243–272
DNS and 257–258
DNS server and 164
domain controllers 243–272
cloning 267–269
demoting existing 249–250
installation 243–248
installing from Install from Media 253–256
installing new 248–249
read-only 243, 263–267
upgrading 250–251
Flexible Single Master Operation (FSMO) roles 260
forests
installation 244–248
global catalog servers 258–260
installing on Server Core 251–253
logical structure 244–245
Active Directory Domain Services Configuration
Wizard 246, 249, 266
Active Directory Federation Services (AD FS) 210,
273–292
authentication
claims-based 275–278
multi-factor 280–281
of users stored in LDAP directories 284
policies 278–280
device registration 282
features of 273
installation 274–275
Microsoft Azure and 283
migration of 275
Office 365 and 283
upgrades 274, 275
WAP and 287–288
Windows Hello for Business and 283
Active Directory Federation Services (AD FS)
Proxy role service. See Web Application Proxy
Active Directory Sites And Services Management
console 259
Add-AdfsLocalClaimProviderTrust cmdlet 284
Add-ClusterDisk cmdlet 141
Add-ClusterSharedVolume cmdlet 141
Add DNS Resource Record option 203
Add-DnsServerConditionalForwarderZone cmdlet 167
Add-DnsServerForwarder cmdlet 166
Add-DnsServerResourceRecord cmdlet 179
Add-DnsServerRootHint cmdlet 169
Add-DnsServerZoneDelegation cmdlet 170
Add-DnsServerZoneTransferPolicy cmdlet 179
Add-IpamBlock cmdlet 194
Add-IpamDiscoveryDomain cmdlet 192
Add-IpamRange cmdlet 195
Add Role or Feature Wizard 285
Add Roles and Features wizard 211
Add Roles and Features Wizard 52–53, 246
Add Roles And Features wizard 184
ADDSSetup.ps1 script 247
293
Add-WebApplicationProxyApplication cmdlet
Add-WebApplicationProxyApplication cmdlet
287, 289, 290
AD FS. See Active Directory Federation Services; See Active Directory Federation Services
AdministratorPassword parameter 16
Allow machine certificate authentication for IKEv2 216
applications
Remote Desktop Gateway 290
web-based 210
web, publishing 289
apps. See also application management
App-V. See Microsoft Application Virtualization
ASN. See Autonomous System Numbers
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) 215
ATM. See Asynchronous Transfer Mode
auditing
AD FS 273
audit logging 175
authentication
Allow machine certificate authentication for IKEv2 216
CHAP 38
claims-based 275–278
DNS-based 163
Encrypted 216
Extensible Authentication Protocol 216
HTML 121
Kerberos 121–123
KerbProxy 222
Microsoft Encrypted Authentication version 2 216
multi-factor 273, 280–281
OAuth2 288
options 216
policy configuration 278–280
RADIUS 216
remote clients 214–215
Reverse CHAP 38
Windows 216
Windows Integrated Authentication 275
Authorization Manager role 55–57
Automatic Virtual Machine Activation (AVMA) 11–12
Autonomous System Numbers (ASN) 239
Azure
AD FS and 283
multi-factor authentication 273, 280–281
Azure portal
storage account in 133–134
Azure Structured Query Language (SQL) 2
294
B
backend server URLs 290
backup options 136
backup solutions
deduplication and 48
bandwidth management 84
base operating system
installation 97
BGP. See Border Gateway Protocol
BGP-enabled router 238
BGP routing 239
BitLocker Drive Encryption 3
blob files 130
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) 211
C
CA. See Customer Address
cache locking 173
certificates. See digital certificates;
See user certificates
Certification Authority (CA) 114
CHAP protocol 38
checkpoints
management of 79
child domains 244
claims-based authentication 275–278
client configuration
for DirectAccess 223
client subnets 171
cloning
domain controllers 267–269
cloud witnesses
configuration of 130–134
Cluster-Aware Updating (CAU) 138–140
clustered shared volumes (CSVs) 141
cluster networking 134–135
Cluster Operating System Rolling Upgrade 140–141
Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade 10
clusters
guest 146–147
multi-domain 127–130
naming 129
single 127
site-aware 157–158
storage configuration 136–137
db_ddladmin
Storage Spaces Direct in 149–150
stretch 42, 157–158
without network names 142
workgroup 127–130
Cluster Shared Volumes (CSV) 232
cluster-to-cluster replication 42–43
collaboration. See also sharing
commit parameter 101
Common Address Redundancy Protocol
(CARP) 22
compute resiliency 145
conditional forwarders 167
configuration
Datacenter Bridging (DCB) 40
data deduplication 45–46
Desired State Configuration (DSC) 9–10
differencing disks 76
Docker 96–97
dynamic memory 63
FreeBSD Integration Services 69
Hyper-V networking 82–90
Hyper-V storage 73–82
Internet Storage Name Service (iSNS) 39–40
iSCSI target and initator 35–40
Linux Integration Services 69
MAC addresses 86–88
Microsoft UEFI Certificate Authority 70
Multi-Path IO (MPIO) 41–42
Nano Server 19–20
Non-Uniform Memory Access 63–64
pass-through disks 77
Resource Metering 65–66
Smart Paging 64–65
storage pools 30–32
storage Quality of Service 82
tiered storage 35
virtual machines 62–72
using Windows PowerShell Direct 59
Windows Containers 94–96
Configure Cluster Quorum Wizard 131–132
Configure DHCP Policy 202
Configure DHCP User Class 202
Configure DHCP Vendor class 202
Configure Predefined DHCP Options 202
Configure Preferred DNS Server option 203
connection profiles 217
connectivity. See also client connectivity
connectors. See also receive connectors;
See also send connectors
constrained delegation 123
containers 1
Converged RMDA 231
ConvertVHD cmdlet 78
Create DHCP Scope 201
Create DNS Conditional Forwarder 203
Create DNS zone 203
Create Full installation media 253
Create RODC installation media 253
Create Sysvol Full installation media 253
Create Sysvol RODC installation media 253
credentials
script 9
Credential Security Support Provider (CredSSP) 121–123
CrossSiteDelay property 157
CrossSiteThreshold property 157
CSV. See Cluster Shared Volumes
CustomDCCloneAllowList.xml 268
Customer Address (CA) 237
D
daemon.json file 96–97
DANE. See DNS-based Authentication of Names Entities
data
shared. See shared resources
DataAccess parameter 45
database storage
configuration of IPAM, using SQL Server 198
Data Center Bridging 90
Datacenter Bridging (DCB)
configuration 40
Data Center Bridging (DCB) 231
Datacenter Firewall 239–240
data deduplication 44–47
backup and restore solution with 48
configuration 45–46
implementation 45–46
monitoring 47–48
usage scenarios for 45–46
data volumes
container 106–107
db_datareader 198
db_datawriter 198
db_ddladmin 198
295
DCB
DCB. See Data Center Bridging
dcdiag utility 257
DCP. See Data Collection Package
DDA. See Discrete Device Assignment
Deactivate DHCP Policies 202
Debug-StorageSubsystem cmdlet 149
default gateways 236
delegated administration
of DNS server 175–177
Delete DNS Zone option 203
Denial of Service (DoS) attacks 173
DependsOn 9
deployment 20–25
FreeBSD 22–23
Linux 22–23
Windows Containers 93–99
Deployment Image Services and Management
(DISM) 25
Desired State Configuration (DSC) 9–10
components of 9
scripts 9
Desktop Experience 7
Device Health Attestation 5
device registration 282
DFS. See Distributed File System
DHCP. See Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DHCP directory properties 188
diagnostic logging 175
differencing disks 74
configuration of 76
DirectAccess 209
client configuration 223
configuration 218–222
DNS Suffix list 220
Group Policy Objects 221–222
installation 218–222
network topology 220–221
server requirements 222
troubleshooting 223
DirectAccess and VPN (RAS) role service 210
DirectAccess client GPO 221
DirectAccess server 211
DirectAccess server GPO 221
Directory Services Restore Mode (DSRM) password 249,
265
296
disaggregated Storage Spaces Direct 149
disaster recovery
Storage Replica for 42–44
Discrete Device Assignment (DDA) 72
disks 136
disk witness 130
distributed firewall policies 239–240
DLP. See Data Loss Prevention; See Data Loss Preventio
DNS. See Domain Name System
DnsAdmins Active Directory security group 175
DnsAdmins security group 191–192
DNS-based Authentication of Named Entities (DANE)
174
DNS Manager 257
DNS Record Administrator Role 205
DNSSEC. See Domain Name System Security Extension
DNS servers 163–182
cache locking 173
configuration, for IPAM deployment 189–191
delegated administration 175–177
delegation configuration 169–170
dynamic updates 201
forwarders configuration 165–168
installation 164–165
managing, in multiple AD forests 204
modifying global settings using PowerShell 179
performance tuning 179
properties 175
managing, using IPAM 202–203
recursion settings 177–178
Response Rate Limiting 173–174
root hints 168–169
usage scenariors 164
DNS Suffix list 220
docker 1
docker command 97
Docker daemon
Docker Hub and 107
installation 95–96
listing available networks using 105
Microsoft Azure and 109
resource control using 106
start-up options 96–97
Windows Container management using 101–102
Dockerfile 107
External URLs
Docker Hub 107–108
Docker tag 98–99
Docker VM Extension 109
documents. See also files
domain controllers 191, 243–272
cloning 267–269
demoting existing 249–250
DNS and 257–258
Flexible Single Master Operation (FSMO)
roles 260
forests
installation 244–248
global catalog servers 258–260
installation 243–248
from Install from Media 253–256
new 248–249
read-only 243, 260, 263–267
upgrading 250–251
Domain Name System (DNS)
deployment on Nano Server 165
DHCP integration 164
logging 175
policies 163, 171–172
records 203
socket pool 173
split-brain 171
using RBAC for administration of 204–205
zones 203
Domain Name System Security Extensions
(DNSSEC) 172–173
domain naming master role 260
domains 244
adding domain controller 248–249
demoting existing domain controllers 249–250
domain trees 244
Doman Name System (DNS)
SRV record registration issues 257–258
DRA. See Data Recovery Agent
dynamically expanding disks 73
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) 164
configuration
failover 202
options 201–202
policies 202
scopes 201–202
managing, using IPAM 199–202
server properties
managing, using IPAM 200–201
servers
configuration 186–189
in multiple AD forests 204
IP addresses 213
using RBAC for administration of 204–205
dynamic memory
configuration 63
Dynamic Quorum 130
dynamic routing 211
dynamic virtual machine queue (VMQ) 86
E
EAP. See Extensible Authentication Protocol
Edit DHCP Server Options 201
Edit DNS Zone option 203
Edit Virtual Hard Disk Wizard 77
emulated devices 69
Enable-ClusterS2D cmdlet 149
Enable DirectAccess Wizard 219
Enable-NetAdapterRdma cmdlet 232
Enable-NetAdapterVmq cmdlet 233
Enable-NetQoSFlowControl cmdlet 231
Enable-PSRemoting cmdlet 58
EnableVMResourceMetering cmdlet 66
encapsulation
Network Virtualization Generic
Route Encapsulation 237
enclosure awareness resiliency 34–35
enclosures 136
Encrypted authentication (CHAP) 216
encryption
Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption 215
enhanced session mode 68–69
EnterPSSession 60
Enter-PSSession cmdlet 165
ESRA. See EdgeSync replication account (ESRA)
Event Log Readers group 187
Event Viewer 175
exporting
virtual machines 71–72
Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) 214, 216
External URLs 290
297
Fabric Management
F
Fabric Management
shielding tools for 6
failover
DHCP 202
Failover Cluster feature 128
failover clustering 126–146
Cluster-Aware Updating 138–140
clustered shared volumes 141
cluster networking 134–135
Cluster Operating System Rolling Upgrade 140–141
clusters without network names 142
configure drain on shutdown 160–161
guest clusters 143, 146–147
live migration 158
management of 152–157
managing VMs in clustered nodes 158–161
multi-domain clusters 127–130
node fairness 157
preference settings 154–155
quorum and cloud witnesses 130–134
restore single node or cluster configuration 136
role-specific settings 152
Scale-Out File Server 142
single clusters 127–130
site-aware clusters 157–158
storage configuration 136–137
Storage Replica 143–144
stretch clusters 157–158
VHDX sharing 146–147
VM monitoring 153
VM resiliency 145
workgroup clusters 127–130
Failover Cluster Manager 128, 141
failover clusters
upgrading 10
failovers
planned 114
test 114
unplanned 115
with Hyper-V replica 114–115
farm behavior level (FBL) 275
farms
upgrading 275
Fast IDE drivers 23
298
FBL. See farm behavior level
federated environments 273
Fibre Channel (FC) adapters
virtual 80–81
files
shared. See shared resources
file share witness 130
file sizes
deduplication and 47
file system
settings 34–35
filtered attribute set (FAS) 264
FindIpamFreeAddress cmdlet 197
FindIpamFreeRange cmdlet 197
FindIpamFreeSubnet cmdlet 197
firewall policies
distributed 239–240
firewall port 443 215
firewall properties 179, 186, 189, 213
firewall settings
Nano Server 20
fixed size disks 73
Flexible Single Master Operation (FSMO) roles 260–263
functions of 260
installation 261
seizing 261, 262–263
transferring 261, 262
forests
about 245
DHCP servers in multiple 204
DNS servers in multiple 204
installation 244–249
using PowerShell 247–248
using Server Manager 245–247
forwarders 177
conditional 167
configuration of 165–168
forwarding gateways 239
FPS-SMB-In-TCP firewall rule 96
FreeBSD
deployment 22–23
virtual machines 69
FreeBSD Integration Services (BIS) 69
FSMO. See Flexible Single Master Operation
fully qualified domain name (FQDN) 169–170, 220
configuration 290
Hyper-V
G
garbage collection 45, 47
Generation 1 VMs 68
Generation 2 VMs 68
Generic Route Encapsulation 234
GEOM labels 23
Get-ADComputer cmdlet 190
Get-ClusterAvailableDisk cmdlet 141
Get-Command cmdlet 171
Get-DnsServerRootHint cmdlet 169
Get-NetAdapter cmdlet 252
Get-NetAdapterRdma cmdlet 232
GetScript 9
GetVMIntegrationService cmdlet 67
GetWindowsFeature cmdlet 6
Github repository 102
global catalog servers 258–260
Graphic User Interface (GUI) installation 3
GRE tunneling 239
Group Policy
IPAM provisioning with 185
Group Policy Objects (GPOs) 185
DirectAccess policies 221–222
Grub boot menu 23
guest clusters 143, 146–147
GUID Partition Tables (GPT) 68
H
hard-drive disks (HDD) 35
hardware requirements 3, 15
for Hyper-V 52
nested virtualization 94
high availability 113–162, 171
failover clustering 126–146, 152–157
in Hyper-V 114–126
Live Migration and 115–124
managing VMs in clustered nodes 158–161
Storage Spaces Direct 147–150
high performance network solutions 228–234
Data Center Bridging 231
NIC Teaming 228–229
Receive Side Scaling 229–230
Remote Direct Memory Access 231–232
Single-Root IO Virtualization 233–234
SMB Multichannel 232
Switch Embedded Teaming 228–229
Virtual Machine Multi-Queue 233
history parameter 102
HTML authentication 121
HTTP Basic 288
HTTP to HTTPS redirects 290
hygiene. See message hygiene
hyper-converged Storage Spaces Direct 150–151
Hyper-V
containers 99–101
delegation of virtual machine management 55–58
Discrete Device Assignment 72
enhanced session mode 68–69
FreeBSD and 69
guest clustering in 143
hardware and compatibility requirements for 52
high availability in 114–126
implementation 51–92
installation 51–58
integration services 67
Linux and 69
Live Migration in 115–120
management tools 52–53
memory enhancements 1
Move Wizard 123–126
moving and converting VMs 70–71
nested virtualization 60
network configuration 82–90
MAC addresses 86–88
network adapters 83–85
network isolation 84–85
network performance optimization 85–86
NIC teaming 88–89
virtual switches 84–85
vNICs 83–85
remote management of hosts 58–59
replica 114–115
resiliency 145
Smart Paging 64–65
storage configuration 73–82
storage migration 123–126
supported operating systems 22
upgrading from existing versions 54
virtual machine configuration 62–72
VM monitoring 153
Windows Containers and 94
299
Hyper-V Administrators group
Hyper-V Administrators group 55
Hyper-V Authorization Manager store 55
Hyper-V Manager
adding virtual network adapters 83–85
checkpoint configuration 79
creating VHD and VHDX files with 73–74
Hyper-V network virtualization 234, 235, 236–237, 239
Hyper-V Network Virtualization 218
Hyper-V Virtual Switch 235
I
identity management 273–292
Web Application Proxy 284–290
IFM. See Install from Media
IKEv2 tunneling protocol 217
images
base operating system 97
creating new container 107
for deployment 20–25
management of
using Docker Hub 107–108
using Microsoft Azure 109
managing 25
tagging 98–99
uninstalling operating system 98
viewing list of available container 99
image templates. See template images
Import DHCP Policy 202
importing
virtual machines 71–72
Import-Module cmdlet 165
Import-PackageProvider NanoServerPackage command
17
Import Virtual Machine wizard 72
Infiniband 231
infrastructure master role 260
Initial Congestion Window 227
in-place upgrades 251
installation
base operating system 97
Docker 95–96
FreeBSD Integration Services 69
GUI 3
Hyper-V 51–58
iSCSI Target Server server role 36
300
Linux Integration Services (LIS) 69
Nano Server 14–18
Server Core 7–8
server roles 6
Windows Containers 94–95
Windows Server 2016 2–14
activation models 11–14
features and roles 5–6
requirements 3
installation media
Install from Media feature 253–256
types of 253
Install from Media (IFM) 253–256
InstallNanoServerPackage cmdlet 18
Install-PackageProvider NanoServerPackage command
17
Install-RemoteAccess cmdlet 215
Install-WebApplicationProxy cmdlet 286
InstallWindowsFeature cmdle 94
Install-WindowsFeature cmdlet 184, 211
InstallWindowsFeature cmdlet 6, 40
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
231
integration services
management of 67
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) 168, 193
Internet Storage Name Service (iSNS)
configuration 39–40
Internet Wide Area RDMA Protocol (iWARP) 231
Intune 217. See Microsoft Intune
InvokeCommand 60
Invoke-IpamGpoProvisioning cmdlet 186
Invoke-IpamServerProvisioning cmdlet 186
I/O scheduler 23
IP Address Blocks page 196
IP addresses 103
filtering 171
for virtual machines 236
RAS server 213–214
space utilization 195–197, 199
virtual 238
with network virtualization 237
IP address management (IPAM) 183–208
configuration of database storage using SQL Server
198
DHCP management using 199–202, 204–205
LT tunnels
DNS management using 202–205
DNS server properties management using 202–203
DNZ records management using 203
DNZ zone management using 203
install and configure 183–199
IP address space utilization monitoring 195–197
IP blocks and ranges 193–195
migrating existing workloads to 198
object names 199
provisioning 184–191
RBAC and 204–205
server discovery 191–193
updating schema 198
virtual machines 237
with System Center Virtual Machine Manager 199
IP Address Range Groups page 196
IP address ranges 193–195, 196–197
IP Address Record Administrator Role 205
IPAM address blocks 193–195
IPAM Administrator Role 205
IPAM ASM Administrator Role 205
IPAM DHCP Administrator Role 205
IPAM DHCP Reservations Administrator Role 205
IPAM DHCP Scope Administrator Role 205
IPAM DNS Administrator Role 205
ipam_log.ldf file 198
ipam.mdf file 198
IPAM MSM Administrator Role 205
IPAMUG universal security group 186–187, 188, 190, 191
ipconfig utility 258
IPsec task offloading 84
IPv4 address blocks 193–195
IPv4 address ranges 194–195
IPv6 root hints 163, 168–169
iSCSI initiator
configuration of 35–40
iSCSI target
configuration of 35–40
iSCSI Target Server server role
installation 36
isolation
of Hyper-V containers 99–101
iterative queries 168
J
JSON file 96–97
K
Kerberos authentication 121–123
KerbProxy authentication 222
Key Management Service (KMS) 13
krbtgt account 264
L
L2 Bridge networks 105
L2 bridges 103
L2TP. See Layer Two Tunneling Protocol
LargeSend Offload 86
Launch MMC 202
Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) 215
LDAP directories 284
legal hold. See litigation hold
Linux
deployment 22–23
Secure Boot 70
virtual machines 69
Linux containers
management of 102
Linux Integration Services (LIS) 69
LIS. See Linux Integration Services
Live Migration 158
advanced settings 122
CredSSP and 121–123
implementation of 115–120
Kerberos authentication protocol for 121–123
shared nothing 120–121
load balancing networks 236
Local BGP IP Address 239
Local Configuration Manager (LCM) 9
logging
audit and analytic event 175
diagnostic 175
logical cores 179
Logical Unit Number (LUN) 41
LT tunnels 103
301
MAC addresses
M
MAC addresses
configuration 86–88
spoofing 61, 104
static 23
MAC address filters 201
MAC spoofing 86
mail flow. See also email delivery; See also message
delivery
management tools
Hyper-V
installation 52–53
Master Boot Record (MBR) 68
master roles 260–263
MBR. See Master Boot Record
MeasureVM cmdlet 66
memory
adding or removing, in VM 62
dynamic 63
Non-Uniform Memory Access 63–64
message delivery. See also email delivery
message transport. See transport
MFA. See multi-factor authentication
Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit
assessing virtualization workloads using 24–25
Microsoft Azure
managing container images using 109
Microsoft Encrypted Authentication version 2 (MS-CHAP
v2) 216
Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2016 4. See also Hyper-V
Microsoft Intune 217
Microsoft Management Console (MMC) 55
Microsoft-NanoServer-DCB-Package option 231
Microsoft Open Source Code of Conduct 102
Microsoft Passport 2
Microsoft Passport for Work 273
Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption (MPPE) 215
Microsoft UEFI Certificate Authority 70
migration
of existing workloads to IPAM 198
online 70
to Windows Server 2016 10–11
mirror storage layout 32–34
Mobile Device Management (MDM) 5
Move-IpamDatabase cmdlet 198
302
Move-IpamDatabase cmdlet. 198
mpclaim 41
MPIO devices 41
MPPE. See Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption
MRM. See Messaging Records Management
multi-domain clusters 127–130
multi-factor authentication (MFA) 273, 280–281
multi-host environment
connection types 103–104
Multi-Path IO (MPIO)
configuration 41–42
MultiPoint Services 5
multi-site failover clusters 131
multitenant edge 218
multitenant gateways 239
multitenant NAT 239
multitenant network isolation 236–237
N
Name Resolution Policy Table (NRPT) 223
Nano Server 1, 4
configuration and management 19–20
deduplication and 47
DNS deployment scenarios on 165
Docker installation 95–96
firewall settings 20
installation 14–18
MPIO on 41–42
requirements for 15
roles and features implementation 17–18
usage scenarios for 15
virtual machines and 68
Windows Container installation 95
Nano Server Image Generator 15–16
Nano Server Package 95
Nano Server Recovery Console 19
NAT. See network address translation
NAT networks 104
nested virtualization 1
implementation of 60
requirements for 94
netdom utility 261, 263
netlogon.dns file 258
netsh command 230
network adapter buffers 179
OWA
network adapters 23, 213, 217
configuring multiple 88–89
Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) 89–90
RMDA support 231–232
RSS on 229–230
synthetic 86
virtual 88, 89
Network Address Translation (NAT) 61, 103, 211
network configuration
Hyper-V 82–90
MAC addresses 86–88
network adapters 83–85
network isolation 84–85
network performance optimization 85–86
NIC teaming 88–89
virtual switches 84–85
vNICs 83–85
network connectivity 209–226
Virtual Private Network 209–218
Network Controller 235, 237–238, 239
network hardware 236
network infrastructure 227–242
high performance network solutions 228–234
Data Center Bridging 231
NIC Teaming 228–229
Receive Side Scaling 229–230
Remote Direct Memory Access 231–232
Single-Root IO Virtualization 233–234
SMB Multichannel 232
Switch Embedded Teaming 228–229
Virtual Machine Multi-Queue 233
Software-Defined Networking 234–240
networking
cluster 134–135
container 103–105
L2 Bridge networks 105
NAT networks 104
Software-Defined Networking 234–240
standards 231
transparent networks 104
network interface cards (NICs)
virtual 83–85
Network Policy Servers (NPS) 191
networks
load balancing 236
Quality of Service (QoS) 231
RDMA-based storage 236
virtual 218
network security groups 239–240
network switch topology 86
network virtualization 236–237
Network Virtualization Generic Route Encapsulation
(NVGRE) 237
New-AdfsAzureMfaTenantCertificate cmdlet 281
New-AdfsLdapAttributeToClaimMapping cmdlet. 284
New-AdfsLdapServerConnection cmdlet 284
New-Cluster cmdlet 142
New-MsolServicePrincipalCredential cmdlet 281
NewNanoServerImage cmdlet 16–17
New-NetQoSTrafficClass cmdlet 231
NewSRGroup 44
NewSRPartnership 44
New Storage Pool Wizard 136–137
New Virtual Disk Wizard 33–34
New Virtual Hard Disk Wizard 73–74
NewVMSwitch cmdlet 85
New Volume Wizard 33–34
NICs. See network interface cards (NICs); See network
interface cards
NIC teaming 88–89
NIC Teaming 228–229, 235
node fairness 157
Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) 63–64
Northbound API 237–238
NRPT. See Name Resolution Policy Table
NT AUTHORITY\Network Service 198
ntdsutil command line tool 254
ntdsutil utility 262
O
OAuth2 authentication 288
Office 365
AD FS and 283
offline migration 70
offloading 86
online migration 70
operating system images
uninstalling 98
Optimize-StoragePool cmdlet 149
OptimizeVHD cmdlet 78
Organizational Units (OUs) 244
OWA. See Outlook Web App (OWA);
See Outlook Web App
303
PackageManagement provider
P
PackageManagement provider 17
parent-child disks 76
parent domains 244
parity storage layout 32–34
pass-through disks
configuration 77
pass-through mode
WAP 286–287
Password Replication Policy (PRP) 264
passwords
Directory Services Restore Mode (DSRM) 249, 265
management, in AD FS 273
Safe Mode Administrator Password 247
unencrypted 216
PDC emulator role 260
performance tuning 179
PFS. See Perfect Forward Secrecy
Physical Functions 233
planned failovers 114
platform-as-a-service. See PaaS
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) 215
point-to-site VPNs 211, 239
port 443 215
port mapping 104
PowerShell
adding disks using 35
adding FC adapter using 81
adding network adapters using 84
container management using 102
direct running of 1
DISM in 25
Docker installation 95
enabling remoting in 58
exporting and importing VMs using 72–73
Hyper-V installation using 52
importing 15
MAC address configuration from 87
management tools installation using 53
managing virtual hard disks using 78
NIC teaming in 89
storage pool creation using 32–33
Storage Replica module 44
virtual disk creation using 33–34, 39
virtual switches from 85
Windows Container installation using 94
304
PowerShell Direct
configuring virtual machines using 59
PPTP. See Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
preference settings
for failover clustering 154–155
PreferredSite property 157
processor compatibility
VMs and 120–121
production checkpoints 79–80
Protected Network 159
Provider Address (PA) 237
provisioning types 33–35
proxies
web application 210
Publish New Application Wizard 289
PXE boot 83
PXE TFTP server 23
Q
Quality of Service (QoS) 231
storage 82
query resolution policy 171
quick migration
of VMs 158
quorum witnesses
configuration of 130–134
R
RADIUS authentication 216
RADIUS server 214
RAS Gateway 210–215
deployment scenarios 217–218
multitenant edge 218
single tenant edge 217, 218
VPN options 211
with Hyper-V Network Virtualization 239
RDG. See Remote Desktop Gateway
RDMA. See Remote Direct Memory Access
RDMA-based storage networks 236
RDMA over Converged Ethernet (RoCE) 231
RDS. See Remote Desktop Services
read-only domain controllers (RODCs) 243, 260,
263–267
security features 264
Receive Side Scaling (RSS) 229–230
ScriptBlock parameter
Recent Acknowledgement (RACK) 227
records
support for unknown 163
recursion policies 171
recursion scope 171
recursion settings 177–178
recursive queries 168
Relying Party Trusts 275–278
Remote Access Best Practices Analyzer 223
remote access gateway (RAS Gateway) 210–215
deployment scenarios 217–218
multitenant edge 218
single tenant edge 217, 218
VPN options 211
with Hyper-V Network Virtualization 239
Remote Access Management Console 218, 223
Remote Access server 210, 211
authentication methods 214–215
authentication options 216
configuration 211–215, 219–220
connection profiles 217
DirectAccess and 218–223
installation 211
IP addresses 213–214
network adapters 213
VPN protocol options 215
RemoteApp
Azure. See Azure RemoteApp
remote clients
authentication method for 214–215
Remote Desktop Connection settings 217
Remote Desktop Gateway (RDG) 290
Remote Desktop Services 2
Remote Desktop Services (RDS) 217
Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) 89–90, 231–232
Remote Event Log Management 191
remote management
of Hyper-V hosts 58–59
of Server Core 8
Remote Management Firewall Settings 20
Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT) 8, 52–53,
253
Remove Roles And Features Wizard 249
replication
Storage Replica 143–144
Reset Zone Status option 203
resiliency layouts 32–34
resilient filesystem (ReFS) 34–35
Resilient File System (ReFS) 141
resilient storage 32–34
ResizeVHD cmdlet 77, 78
resource control
management of 106
Resource Metering
configuration 65–66
Response Rate Limiting (RRL) 163, 173–174
restores
on single node or cluster configuration 136
restore solutions
deduplication and 48
Retrieve Server Data 203
Reverse CHAP protocol 38
RID master role 260
rmi parameter 102
rm parameter 105
RoCE. See RDNA over Converged Ethernet
role assignment
creation 58
role-based access control (RBAC)
delegate administration of DNS and DHCP using
204–205
rolling upgrades 1
root hints 168–169
routing 236
dynamic 211
Routing and Remote Access MMC snap-in 211, 218
Routing and Remote Access Server Setup Wizard 211
Routing role service 210
RRAS Multitenant Gateway 235
RRL. See Response Rate Limiting
RSAT. See Remote Server Administration Tools
S
Safe Mode Administrator Password 247
SAML 2.0 273
Scale-Out File Server (SoFS) 141, 150
implementation 142
usage scenarios 142
sc config command 96–97
schema master role 260
sconfig.cmd command 7–8
SCP. See Service Connection Point
ScriptBlock parameter 60
305
second-level address translation (SLAT)
second-level address translation (SLAT) 52
Secure Boot 70
Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol (SSTP) 215
security. See also passwords
security groups 186–187, 190–192
Self-Updating Options cluster role 139
Server Core
AD DS installation on 251–253
installation 7–8
remote management 8
server discovery 191–193, 204
Server Manager 8
forest installation using 245–247
storage pool creation in 30–31
Server Message Block version 3 (SMB 3) 1
Server Migration Tools 11
server roles
installing 6
list of 6
Nano Server 17, 18
server storage
Datacenter Bridging configuration 40
implementation of 29–44
iSCSI target and initiator 35–40
Multi-Path IO configuration 41–42
server pools 34–35
storage pools 30–32
Storage Replica 42–44
tiered storage 35
virtual disks 32–34
server-to-server replication 43
service records 257–258
SET. See Switch Embedded Teaming (SET); See Switch
Embedded Teaming
Set Access Scope option 203
Set-AdfsAzureMfaTenant cmdlet 281
Set-DnsServerForwarer cmdlet 166
Set-DnsServerRecursion cmdlet 177
Set-DnsServerRecursionScope cmdlet 178
Set-IpamConfiguration cmdlet 185
Set-NetAdapterVmq cmdlet 233
Set-NetOffloadGlobalSetting cmdlet 232
SetScript 9
Set-SmbClientConfiguration cmdlet 232
Set-SmbServerConfiguration cmdlet 232
Setup and Boot Event Collection 6
SetVM cmdlet 79
306
Set-VMHost cmdlet 122
SetVMHost cmdlet 87
Set-VMMemory cmdlet 63
SetVMNetworkAdapter cmdlet 88, 89
Set-WebApplicationProxyApplication cmdlet 290
shared nothing migration 120–121
share permissions 189
Sharepoint. See Microsoft Sharepoint
ShareVirtualDisk parameter 75
sharing. See also collaboration
external. See external users
shielded virtual machines 52
side-by-side upgrades 251
sign-ins
customizable 273
using third-party LDAP 273
simple storage layout 32–34
single-domain clusters 127
single-host environment
connection types 103
Single-Root IO Virtualization (SR-IOV) 233–234
SIP addresses. See Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) addresses
site-aware clusters 157–158
site-to-site (S2S) VPNs 210–215, 217–218, 239
SLAT. See second-level address translation
SLB. See Software Load Balancing
SLB Host Agent 238
SLB Multiplexer 238
slmgr tool 12
slmgr.vbs script 13
Smart Paging
configuration 64–65
SMB Direct 231–232
SMB Multichannel 232
SMTP. See Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
socket pools 173
Software Defined Networking (SDN)
deployment scenarios 235–236
firewall policies 239–240
Hyper-V network virtualization and 236–237
network controller 237–238
network requirements 235–236
network security groups 239–240
Windows Server Gateway 239–240
Software-Defined Networking (SDN) 234–240
Software Load Balancing (SLB) 234, 238
UsageType parameter
solid-state disks (SSD) 35
Southbound API 237–238
SPF. See send policy framework (SPF) records
split-brain DNS 171
SQL database 198
SQL Server 198
configuration of IPAM database storage using 198
SR-IOV 72. See Single-Root IO Virtualization
SRV records 257–258
SSTP. See Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol
static MAC addresses 23
storage
Hyper-V
configuration 73–82
Quality of Service (QoS) 82
VHDX shared 146–147
with failover clustering 136–137
storage account 133–134
storage layouts 32–34
storage migration 123–126, 158
storage migration and import 70
storage pools 136
configuration of 30–32
expanding 34–35
Storage Replica 2
implementation 143–144
implementation of 44–45
usage scenarios for 42–43
storage resiliency 145
storage sets 1
storage solutions 29–50
data duplication 44–47
server storage 29–44
Storage Spaces Direct 147–150
disaggregated, in a cluster 149
enabling, using Windows PowerShell 148
hyper-converged, in cluster 150–151
usage scenarios 148
stretch clusters 42, 144–145, 157–158
Switch Embedded Teaming (SET) 90, 228–229, 231
Switch-NetQoSDcbxSetting cmdlet 231
synthetic network adapters 86
System Center 235, 239
System Center Configuration Manager 217
System Center Operations Manager 235
System Center Virtual Machine Manager 235
System Center Virtual Machine Manager (VMM) 199
T
TCP checksum offload 86
TCP Fast Open (TFO) 227
TCP Tail Loss Probe (TLP) 227
Test-Cluster cmdlet 149
test failovers 114
TestScript 9
TestSRTopology 44
threshold settings
for IP address utilization 197
tiered storage
configuration of 35
time-based redirects 171
Time To Live (TTL) value 173
TPM. See Trusted Platform Module
traffic management 171
transparent networks 104
troubleshooting
DirectAccess 223
trust claims 275–278
Trusted Platform Module (TPM) chips 3
U
UCE. See Update Compatibility Evaluator (UCE); See Update Compatibility Evaluator
UdpRecvThreadCount DWORD parameter 179
UE-V. See User Experience Virtualization
Unattended Setup file 12
unauthenticated access 216
Unencrypted password (PAP) 216
unidirectional replication 264
Uninstall-ADDSDomainController cmdlet 250
universal security groups 186–187, 190, 191
unplanned failovers 115
Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet 141
Update-IpamServer cmdlet 198
Upgrade Configuration Version option 71–72
upgrades
Hyper-V 54
paths 10–11
rolling 1
VMs 70–71
UsageType parameter 45
307
validation
V
validation
failover clusters 128–129
VHD file extension 68
VHD files
creating 73–74
shared 75
VHDX file extension 68
VHDX files
creating 73–74
shared 75
VHDX sharing 146–147
virtual disks
creating 32–34
iSCSI 36–40
provisioning types 33–35
Virtual Extensible LAN encapsulation 234
virtual Fibre Channel (FC) adapters 80–81
Virtual Functions 233
virtual hard disks
resizing 77–78
virtualization
hosts 11
Hyper-V network 236–237
nested 1
Single-Root IO Virtualization 233–234
Windows Server
planning for 21–22
workload assessment 24–25
VIRTUAL_MACHINE_ACTIVATION string 12
Virtual Machine Manager (VMM)
object names 199
using IPAM with 199
Virtual Machine Multi-Queue (VMMQ) 233
virtual machine queue (VMQ) 84
dynamic 86
virtual machines
adding or removing memory 62
adding physical hard disk to 77
Automatic Virtual Machine Activation (AVMA) 11–12
checkpoints 79
configuration 62–72
using Windows PowerShell Direct 59
delegation of management 55–58
Discrete Device Assignment (DDA) 72
dynamic memory configuration 63
308
enhanced session mode 68–69
export and import 71–72
FreeBSD 69
Generation 1 or Generation 2 68
integration services 67
Linux 69
moving and converting 70–71
nested virtualization 60
networking configuration 83–91
NIC teaming 88–89
Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) 63–64
production checkpoints 79–80
QoS policies 82
Resource Metering 65–66
SCSI Controller settings for 75
shielded 1, 52
Smart Paging 64–65
supported 54
virtual Fibre Channel (FC) adapters 80–81
virtual machines (VMs)
configure drain on shutdown 160–161
copying 159
exporting 159
importing 159
IP addresses for 236
Live Migration of 115–120, 158
managing, in clustered nodes 158–161
monitoring 153
network health protection 159
node fairness 157
processor compatibility 120–121
quick migration of 158
Receive Side Scaling on 229–230
replication of 114–115
resiliency 145
shared nothing migration of 120–121
storage migration of 123–126, 158
System Center Virtual Machine Manager 199
VHDX sharing 146–147
virtual network adapters 88, 89
virtual network interface cards (vNICs) 83–85
virtual networks
creation of 218
Virtual Private Network (VPN) 209–218
connection profiles 217
dynamic routing 211
point-to-site 211, 239
Windows Server 2016
protocol options 215
site-to-site 210, 217–218, 239
VPN Reconnect 217
Virtual Receive Side Scaling (vRSS) 86
virtual switches 84–85
Virtual Switch Manager 84–85, 86–87, 88
VLAN performance 86
VM-Generation ID 268
VMM. See Virtual Machine Manager
VMs. See virtual machines
vmwp process 100
Volume Activation Services server role 13
volumes
creating 33–34
Volume Shadow Copy Service 79
volume sizes 34–35
deduplication and 46
VPN. See Virtual Private Network
VPN Reconnect 217
W
WAP. See Web Application Proxy
WCE. See Windows Compatibility Evaluator
WDS. See Windows Deployment Services
Web Application Proxy Configuration Wizard 285
Web Application Proxy role service 210
Web Application Proxy (WAP) 273, 275, 284–290
as AD FS proxy 287–288
configuration 285–286
configure AD FS requirements 288
FQDN configuration 290
HTTP to HTTPS redirects 290
installation 285–286
pass-through mode 286–287
publish RDG applications via 290
publish web apps via 289
uses of 284
web-based applications 210
Windows Assessment and Deployment Kit (Windows
ADK) 25
Windows authentication 216
Windows Containers
base operating system 97
configuration 94–96
creating new images using Dockerfile 107
deployment 93–99
Hyper-V 94, 99–101
image tagging 98–99
implementation 93–112
installation 94–95
requirements 94
management of 101–108
data volumes 106–107
images 107–108
networking 103–105
resource control 106
using Docker daemon 101–102
using Microsoft Azure 109
using PowerShell 102
scenarios for 94
Windows Server 99
Windows Defender 1, 6
Windows Hello for Business 273, 274, 283
Windows Integrated Authentication 275
Windows Internal Database 185
Windows Internal Database (WID) files 198
Windows Powershell
modifying DNS global settings using 179
Windows PowerShell
adding IP address blocks with 194
DCB configuration using 231
Desired State Configuration (DSC) 9–10
enabling DirectAccess using 218
enabling Storage Spaces Direct with 148
forest installation using 247–248
identifying available IP addresses with 197
Server Core installation using 8
Windows Server 2008
upgrading and migrating from 10–11
Windows Server 2012
upgrading and migrating from 10–11
Windows Server 2016
AD FS worloads in 275
configuration
Desired State Configuration (DSC) 9–10
Docker installation 95–96
editions 4
features 1–2, 6
installation 2–14
activation models 11–14
features and roles 5
requirements 3
network infrastructure 227–242
Secure Boot 70
309
Windows Server 2016 Datacenter
server storage 29–44
upgrades and migrations to 10–11
virtualization
planning for 21–22
Windows Server 2016 Datacenter 4
Windows Server 2016 Essentials 4
Windows Server 2016 MultiPoint Premium Server 4
Windows Server 2016 Standard 4
Windows Server Backup 48
Windows Server Core. See Server Core
Windows Server Gateway 235
implementation scenarios 239–240
Windows Storage Server 2016 4
Windows Update 67
Windows Updates 138
workgroup clusters 127–130
World Wide Name (WWN) 80
WS-MAN protocol 121
310
About the author
C HARLE S PLUTA is a technical consultant and Microsoft Certified Trainer
(MCT) who has authored several certification exams, lab guides, and learner
guides for various technology vendors. As a technical consultant, Charles has
assisted small, medium, and large organizations deploy and maintain their IT
infrastructure. He is also a speaker, staff member, or trainer at several large industry conferences every year. Charles has a degree in Computer Networking,
and holds more than 25 industry certifications. He makes a point to leave the United States to
travel to a different country once every year. When not working or traveling, he plays pool in
Augusta, Georgia.
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