Virtual I/O Server - Bull Support

REFERENCE
86 A1 42FF 05
ESCALA Power7
Virtual I/O Server
ESCALA Power7
Virtual I/O Server
The ESCALA Power7 publications concern the following models:
- Bull Escala E5-700 (Power 750 / 8233-E8B)
- Bull Escala M6-700 (Power 770 / 9117-MMB)
- Bull Escala M6-705 (Power 770 / 9117-MMC)
- Bull Escala M7-700 (Power 780 / 9179-MHB)
- Bull Escala M7-705 (Power 780 / 9179-MHC)
- Bull Escala E1-700 (Power 710 / 8231-E2B)
- Bull Escala E1-705 (Power 710 / 8231-E1C)
- Bull Escala E2-700 / E2-700T (Power 720 / 8202-E4B)
- Bull Escala E2-705 / E2-705T (Power 720 / 8202-E4C)
- Bull Escala E3-700 (Power 730 / 8231-E2B)
- Bull Escala E3-705 (Power 730 / 8231-E2C)
- Bull Escala E4-700 / E4-700T (Power 740 / 8205-E6B)
- Bull Escala E4-705 (Power 740 / 8205-E6C)
References to Power 755 / 8236-E8C models are irrelevant.
Hardware
May 2012
BULL CEDOC
357 AVENUE PATTON
B.P.20845
49008 ANGERS CEDEX 01
FRANCE
REFERENCE
86 A1 42FF 05
The following copyright notice protects this book under Copyright laws which prohibit such actions as, but not limited to, copying,
distributing, modifying, and making derivative works.
Copyright
Bull SAS 2012
Printed in France
Suggestions and criticisms concerning the form, content, and presentation of this book are
invited. A form is provided at the end of this book for this purpose.
To order additional copies of this book or other Bull Technical Publications, you are invited
to use the Ordering Form also provided at the end of this book.
Trademarks and Acknowledgements
We acknowledge the right of proprietors of trademarks mentioned in this book.
The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Bull will not be liable for errors contained herein, or
for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the use of this material.
Contents
Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
What's new in Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual I/O Server overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PowerVM Editions overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PowerVM Express Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PowerVM Standard Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PowerVM Enterprise Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operating system support for VIOS client logical partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Components of the Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual Fibre Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual Fibre Channel for HMC-managed systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual Fibre Channel on IVM-managed systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual SCSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual I/O Server storage subsystem overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Physical storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Physical volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Logical volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual media repository . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Storage pools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Optical devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Optical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Device compatibility in a Virtual I/O Server environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mapping devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Host Ethernet Adapter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Internet Protocol version 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Link Aggregation or EtherChannel devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual Ethernet adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual local area networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shared Ethernet Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shared memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paging VIOS partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual I/O Server management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual I/O Server command-line interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tivoli software and the Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Systems Director software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scenarios: Configuring the Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scenario: Configuring a Virtual I/O Server without VLAN tagging . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scenario: Configuring a Virtual I/O Server using VLAN tagging . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scenario: Configuring Shared Ethernet Adapter failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scenario: Configuring Shared Ethernet Adapter failover with load sharing . . . . . . . . . .
Scenario: Configuring Network Interface Backup in AIX client logical partitions without VLAN tagging
Scenario: Configuring Multi-Path I/O for AIX client logical partitions . . . . . . . . . . . .
Planning for the Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifications required to create the Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Limitations and restrictions of the Virtual I/O Server configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Capacity planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Planning for virtual SCSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual SCSI latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual SCSI bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual SCSI sizing considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. 1
. 6
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. 23
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. 69
iii
Planning for Shared Ethernet Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Network requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Adapter selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Processor allocation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Memory allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Configuration requirements for shared memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Redundancy considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Client logical partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Multipath I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Mirroring for client logical partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
PowerHA SystemMirror in the Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Link Aggregation or EtherChannel devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Shared Ethernet Adapter failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Shared Ethernet Adapters for load sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Virtual I/O Server logical partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Multipathing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
RAID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Link Aggregation or EtherChannel devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Redundancy configuration using virtual Fibre Channel adapters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Security considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Installing the Virtual I/O Server and client logical partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Installing the Virtual I/O Server manually by using HMC Version 7, release 7.1, and later . . . . . . . . 88
Entering the activation code for PowerVM Editions by using HMC Version 7 . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Creating the Virtual I/O Server logical partition on an HMC managed system . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Creating the Virtual I/O Server logical partition and partition profile manually by using the HMC . . . 89
Creating the Virtual I/O Server logical partition and client logical partitions by using the HMC to deploy
a system plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Installing the Virtual I/O Server from the HMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Installing the Virtual I/O Server from CD or DVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Finishing the Virtual I/O Server installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Viewing and accepting the Virtual I/O Server license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Reinstalling the Virtual I/O Server of a paging VIOS partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Migrating the Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Migrating the Virtual I/O Server from the HMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Migrating the Virtual I/O Server from a downloaded image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Migrating the Virtual I/O Server from DVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Configuring the Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Configuring virtual SCSI on the Virtual I/O Server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Creating the virtual target device on the Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Creating a virtual target device on a Virtual I/O Server that maps to a physical or logical volume, tape
or physical optical device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Creating a virtual target device on a Virtual I/O Server that maps to a file or logical volume . . . . 105
Creating a virtual target device on a Virtual I/O Server that maps to a file-backed virtual optical device 106
Setting the reserve policy attributes of a device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Creating logical volume storage pools on a Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Creating file storage pools on a Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Creating the virtual media repository on a Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Creating volume groups and logical volumes on a Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Configure the Virtual I/O Server to support SCSI-2 reserve functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Configure the Virtual I/O Server to support exporting the PPRC secondary disk to client partitions . . . 113
Identifying exportable disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Getting started with shared storage pools by using the VIOS command line . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Configuring the system to create shared storage pools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Managing a cluster by using the VIOS command line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Creating a cluster with a single VIOS logical partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Adding a VIOS logical partition to a cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Removing a VIOS logical partition from a cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Deleting a cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Managing storage pools by using the VIOS command line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Adding storage space to the storage pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Changing the storage threshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
iv
Virtual I/O Server
Managing logical units by using the VIOS command line. . . . . . . .
Provisioning client partitions with logical unit storage . . . . . . . .
Unmapping a logical unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing logical units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migrating a cluster configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Getting started with shared storage pools by using the VIOS configuration menu
Managing a cluster by using the VIOS configuration menu . . . . . . .
Creating a cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Listing all clusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting a cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding VIOS nodes to a cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting VIOS nodes from a cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Listing VIOS nodes in a cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing storage pools by using the VIOS configuration menu . . . . .
Listing storage pools in a cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Listing physical volumes in the storage pool . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding storage space to the storage pool . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting and modifying the storage pool threshold alert . . . . . . .
Managing logical units by using the VIOS configuration menu . . . . . .
Creating and mapping logical units . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating logical units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mapping logical units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unmapping logical units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting a logical unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Listing logical units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Listing logical unit maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a logical unit snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Listing logical unit snapshots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rolling back to the logical unit snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting a logical unit snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Getting started with Trusted Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual log repositories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual log devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the virtual log repository . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a virtual log. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Listing virtual logs or virtual log devices . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reconfiguring virtual logs or virtual log devices. . . . . . . . . . .
Removing virtual logs or virtual log devices . . . . . . . . . . . .
Live Partition Mobility of virtual log devices . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual log devices with shared storage pools. . . . . . . . . . . .
Benefits of using virtual log devices with shared storage pools . . . . .
Using virtual log devices with shared storage pools . . . . . . . .
Getting started with Trusted Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring virtual Ethernet on the Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . .
Creating a virtual Ethernet adapter by using HMC Version 7 . . . . . .
Configuring a Shared Ethernet Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring a Link Aggregation or EtherChannel device . . . . . . . .
Assigning the virtual Fibre Channel adapter to a physical Fibre Channel adapter.
Configuring the Tivoli agents and clients on the Virtual I/O Server . . . . .
Configuring the Tivoli Monitoring agent . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager agent . . . . . .
Configuring the Tivoli Storage Manager client . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the TotalStorage Productivity Center agents . . . . . . . .
Configuring the Director agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the Virtual I/O Server as an LDAP client . . . . . . . . . .
Managing the Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing and exporting volume groups and logical volume storage pools . .
Importing volume groups and logical volume storage pools . . . . . .
Exporting volume groups and logical volume storage pools . . . . . .
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124
124
127
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Contents
v
Mapping virtual disks to physical disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Increasing virtual SCSI device capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the virtual SCSI queue depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backing up and restoring files and file systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing storage using the TotalStorage Productivity Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the network configuration of the Virtual I/O Server logical partition . . . . . . . . .
Dynamically adding or removing VLANs on the Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling and disabling GVRP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing SNMP on the Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Upgrading the Virtual I/O Server from IPv4 to IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backing up the Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backing up the Virtual I/O Server to tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backing up the Virtual I/O Server to one or more DVDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backing up the Virtual I/O Server to a remote file system by creating a nim_resources.tar file . . . .
Backing up the Virtual I/O Server to a remote file system by creating a mksysb image . . . . . . .
Backing up user-defined virtual devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backing up user-defined virtual devices by using the backupios command . . . . . . . . . .
Backing up user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command . . . . . . . . . . .
Scheduling backups of the Virtual I/O Server and user-defined virtual devices . . . . . . . . .
Scheduling backups of the Virtual I/O Server and user-defined virtual devices by creating a script and
crontab file entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scheduling backups of user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command . . . . . . .
Backing up the Virtual I/O Server by using Tivoli Storage Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backing up the Virtual I/O Server by using Tivoli Storage Manager automated backup . . . . .
Backing up the Virtual I/O Server by using Tivoli Storage Manager incremental backup . . . . .
Restoring the Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restoring the Virtual I/O Server from tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restoring the Virtual I/O Server from one or more DVDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restoring the Virtual I/O Server from the HMC by using a nim_resources.tar file . . . . . . . .
Restoring the Virtual I/O Server from a NIM server by using a mksysb file . . . . . . . . . .
Restoring user-defined virtual devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restoring user-defined virtual devices manually. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restoring user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command . . . . . . . . . . .
Restoring the Virtual I/O Server by using Tivoli Storage Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing or replacing a PCI adapter with the system power on in Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . .
Getting started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing a PCI adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replacing a PCI adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unconfiguring storage adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing the client logical partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shutting down logical partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing information and statistics about the Virtual I/O Server, the server, and virtual resources . . . .
Monitoring the Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Security on the Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting to the Virtual I/O Server by using OpenSSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Virtual I/O Server system security hardening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting a security level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the settings in a security level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing the current security setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing security level settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Virtual I/O Server firewall settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring a Kerberos client on the Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using role-based access control with the Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing users on the Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting the Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting the Virtual I/O Server logical partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting virtual SCSI problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Correcting a failed Shared Ethernet Adapter configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Debugging problems with Ethernet connectivity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling noninteractive shells on Virtual I/O Server 1.3 or later . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vi
Virtual I/O Server
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Recovering when disks cannot be located . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting AIX client logical partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reference information for the Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual I/O Server and Integrated Virtualization Manager command descriptions
Configuration attributes for Tivoli agents and clients . . . . . . . . . .
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Network attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shared Ethernet Adapter failover statistics. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shared Ethernet Adapter statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
User types for the Virtual I/O Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Programming interface information .
Trademarks . . . . . . . . .
Terms and conditions. . . . . .
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Contents
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vii
viii
Virtual I/O Server
Virtual I/O Server
You can manage the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) and client logical partitions by using the Hardware
Management Console (HMC) and the Virtual I/O Server command-line interface.
The PowerVM® Editions feature includes the installation media for the VIOS software. The VIOS
facilitates the sharing of physical I/O resources between client logical partitions within the server.
When you install the VIOS in a logical partition on a system that is managed by the HMC, you can use
the HMC and the Virtual I/O Server command-line interface to manage the Virtual I/O Server and client
logical partitions. As an alternative to the HMC, you can also use the Systems Director Management
Console (SDMC) to manage the VIOS and client logical partitions.
When you install the VIOS on a managed system and there is no HMC attached to the managed system
when you install the VIOS, then the VIOS logical partition becomes the management partition. The
management partition provides the Integrated Virtualization Manager web-based system management
interface and a command-line interface that you can use to manage the system.
For the most recent information about devices that are supported on the VIOS and to download VIOS
fixes and updates, see the Fix Central website.
Related information:
PowerVM Information Roadmap
Integrated Virtualization Manager
Virtual I/O Server and Integrated Virtualization Manager commands
Managing the Virtual I/O Server by using the SDMC
VIOS release notes
What's new in Virtual I/O Server
Read about new or changed information in Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) since the previous update of this
topic collection.
May 2012
The following information is new for the Trusted Firewall feature:
v “Getting started with Trusted Firewall” on page 153
December 2011
The following updates have been made to the content.
With Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) Version 2.2.1.3, or later, you can create a cluster that consists of up to four
networked VIOS partitions that are connected to the same shared storage pool. This cluster has access to
distributed storage. The following information is new or updated for clusters:
v “Virtual SCSI” on page 20
v “Clusters” on page 26
v “Storage pools” on page 27
v “Getting started with shared storage pools by using the VIOS command line” on page 114
1
v
v
v
v
v
“Configuring the system to create shared storage pools” on page 115
“Managing a cluster by using the VIOS command line” on page 116
“Creating a cluster with a single VIOS logical partition” on page 116
“Adding a VIOS logical partition to a cluster” on page 118
“Removing a VIOS logical partition from a cluster” on page 119
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
“Adding storage space to the storage pool” on page 120
“Adding physical volumes to the storage pool” on page 120
“Replacing physical volumes in the storage pool” on page 122
“Changing the storage threshold” on page 123
“Creating logical units” on page 124
“Enabling the logical unit backed storage” on page 126
“Removing logical units” on page 128
v
v
v
v
v
v
“Migrating a cluster configuration” on page 129
“Getting started with shared storage pools by using the VIOS configuration menu” on page 130
“Managing a cluster by using the VIOS configuration menu” on page 130
“Listing all clusters” on page 131
“Adding VIOS nodes to a cluster” on page 132
“Deleting VIOS nodes from a cluster” on page 132
v “Listing VIOS nodes in a cluster” on page 133
v “Adding storage space to the storage pool” on page 134
v “Replacing physical volumes in the storage pool” on page 134
v
v
v
v
“Creating a logical unit snapshot” on page 141
“Listing logical unit snapshots” on page 141
“Listing snapshots for a logical unit” on page 141
“Listing logical units in a snapshot” on page 142
v “Listing all logical unit snapshots” on page 142
v “Rolling back to the logical unit snapshot” on page 142
v “Deleting a logical unit snapshot” on page 143
v
v
v
v
v
“Virtual log devices” on page 147
“Live Partition Mobility of virtual log devices” on page 150
“Virtual log devices with shared storage pools” on page 150
“Benefits of using virtual log devices with shared storage pools” on page 150
“Using virtual log devices with shared storage pools” on page 152
v “Using role-based access control with the Virtual I/O Server” on page 211
October 2011
The following updates have been made to the content.
v Added information about the 7/10 (31E/1C), 7/20 (02E/4C), 7/30 (31E/2C), and 7/40 (05E/6C)
servers.
– “Operating system support for VIOS client logical partitions” on page 11
– “Limitations and restrictions of the Virtual I/O Server configuration” on page 65
v Added information about the 7/70 (17M/MC) and 7/80 (79M/HC) servers.
– “Operating system support for VIOS client logical partitions” on page 11
– “Limitations and restrictions of the Virtual I/O Server configuration” on page 65
v Added information about the and servers.
2
Virtual I/O Server
– “Operating system support for VIOS client logical partitions” on page 11
– “Limitations and restrictions of the Virtual I/O Server configuration” on page 65
v With the VIOS Version 2.2.1.0, or later, you can use the Trusted Logging capability. Trusted Logging is
a capability that is supported on the PowerSC Standard Edition. By using the Trusted Logging
capability, you can configure AIX® logical partitions to write to log files stored on an attached VIOS.
The following information is new or updated for partitions that are capable of the Trusted Logging
capability:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
“Getting started with Trusted Logging” on page 143
“Virtual log repositories” on page 145
“Virtual logs” on page 145
“Virtual log devices” on page 147
“Configuring the virtual log repository” on page 147
“Creating a virtual log” on page 148
“Listing virtual logs or virtual log devices” on page 148
– “Reconfiguring virtual logs or virtual log devices” on page 149
– “Removing virtual logs or virtual log devices” on page 150
– “Live Partition Mobility of virtual log devices” on page 150
– “Virtual log devices with shared storage pools” on page 150
– “Benefits of using virtual log devices with shared storage pools” on page 150
– “Using virtual log devices with shared storage pools” on page 152
v With the VIOS Version 2.2.1.0, or later, you can configure primary and backup Shared Ethernet
Adapters for load sharing. The following information is new or updated for Shared Ethernet Adapters
that are capable of the load sharing capability:
– “Scenario: Configuring Shared Ethernet Adapter failover with load sharing” on page 59
– “Shared Ethernet Adapters for load sharing” on page 83
May 2011
The following updates have been made to the content.
v The following information is updated for the BladeCenter® PS/703 and BladeCenter PS/704 servers:
– “Operating system support for VIOS client logical partitions” on page 11
– “Limitations and restrictions of the Virtual I/O Server configuration” on page 65
v The SDMC can be used to manage systems servers. The following information is new or updated for
SDMC:
– “Virtual I/O Server” on page 1
– “Installing the Virtual I/O Server and client logical partitions” on page 88
– “Installing the Virtual I/O Server manually by using HMC Version 7, release 7.1, and later” on page
88
– “Entering the activation code for PowerVM Editions by using HMC Version 7” on page 89
– “Creating the Virtual I/O Server logical partition on an HMC managed system” on page 89
– “Creating the Virtual I/O Server logical partition and partition profile manually by using the HMC”
on page 89
– “Creating the Virtual I/O Server logical partition and client logical partitions by using the HMC to
deploy a system plan” on page 91
–
–
–
–
“Installing the Virtual I/O Server from the HMC” on page 91
“Installing the Virtual I/O Server from CD or DVD” on page 92
“Finishing the Virtual I/O Server installation” on page 94
“Viewing and accepting the Virtual I/O Server license” on page 94
Virtual I/O Server
3
–
–
–
–
–
“Migrating the Virtual I/O Server” on page 96
“Migrating the Virtual I/O Server from the HMC” on page 97
“Migrating the Virtual I/O Server from a downloaded image” on page 98
“Migrating the Virtual I/O Server from DVD” on page 100
“Setting the reserve policy attributes of a device” on page 108
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
“Configuring virtual Ethernet on the Virtual I/O Server” on page 154
“Creating a virtual Ethernet adapter by using HMC Version 7” on page 154
“Setting the LHEA to promiscuous mode” on page 155
“Backing up the Virtual I/O Server” on page 179
“Backing up the Virtual I/O Server to tape” on page 180
“Backing up the Virtual I/O Server to one or more DVDs” on page 181
“Backing up the Virtual I/O Server to a remote file system by creating a nim_resources.tar file” on
page 182
“Backing up the Virtual I/O Server to a remote file system by creating a mksysb image” on page
183
“Backing up user-defined virtual devices” on page 183
“Backing up user-defined virtual devices by using the backupios command” on page 184
“Backing up user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command” on page 186
–
–
–
–
– “Scheduling backups of the Virtual I/O Server and user-defined virtual devices” on page 187
– “Scheduling backups of the Virtual I/O Server and user-defined virtual devices by creating a script
and crontab file entry” on page 187
– “Scheduling backups of user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command” on page 188
– “Backing up the Virtual I/O Server by using Tivoli Storage Manager” on page 189
– “Backing up the Virtual I/O Server by using Tivoli Storage Manager automated backup” on page
189
– “Backing up the Virtual I/O Server by using Tivoli Storage Manager incremental backup” on page
190
– “Restoring the Virtual I/O Server” on page 190
– “Restoring the Virtual I/O Server from tape” on page 192
–
–
–
–
–
“Restoring
“Restoring
“Restoring
“Restoring
“Restoring
the Virtual I/O Server from one or more DVDs” on page 192
the Virtual I/O Server from the HMC by using a nim_resources.tar file” on page 193
the Virtual I/O Server from a NIM server by using a mksysb file” on page 193
user-defined virtual devices” on page 195
user-defined virtual devices manually” on page 195
– “Restoring user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command” on page 196
– “Restoring the Virtual I/O Server by using Tivoli Storage Manager” on page 197
– “Recovering when disks cannot be located” on page 223
December 2010
The following updates have been made to the content.
v With the HMC Version 7.7.2.0, or later, you can suspend an AIX or Linux logical partition with its
operating system and applications, and store its virtual server state to persistent storage. At a later
time, you can resume the operation of the logical partition. The following information is new or
updated for partitions with the Suspend/Resume feature:
– “Virtual I/O Server overview” on page 6
– “Configuration requirements for shared memory” on page 78
4
Virtual I/O Server
– “Multipath I/O” on page 80
– “Setting the reserve policy attributes of a device” on page 108
v With the VIOS Version 2.2.0.11, Fix Pack 24, Service Pack 1, you can create a cluster of only one Virtual
I/O Server partition connected to the same shared storage pool and having access to distributed
storage. The following information is new or updated for clusters:
– “Virtual SCSI” on page 20
– “Physical volumes” on page 23
– “Clusters” on page 26
– “Storage pools” on page 27
– “Creating the Virtual I/O Server logical partition and partition profile manually by using the HMC”
on page 89
– “Getting started with shared storage pools by using the VIOS command line” on page 114
– “Configuring the system to create shared storage pools” on page 115
– “Managing a cluster by using the VIOS command line” on page 116
–
–
–
–
–
“Creating a cluster with a single VIOS logical partition” on page 116
“Deleting a cluster” on page 119
“Managing storage pools by using the VIOS command line” on page 120
“Adding storage space to the storage pool” on page 120
“Adding physical volumes to the storage pool” on page 120
– “Changing the storage threshold” on page 123
– “Managing logical units by using the VIOS command line” on page 124
– “Provisioning client partitions with logical unit storage” on page 124
–
–
–
–
“Creating logical units” on page 124
“Enabling the logical unit backed storage” on page 126
“Unmapping a logical unit” on page 127
“Removing logical units” on page 128
– “Getting started with shared storage pools by using the VIOS configuration menu” on page 130
– “Managing a cluster by using the VIOS configuration menu” on page 130
– “Creating a cluster” on page 130
– “Deleting a cluster” on page 131
–
–
–
–
–
–
“Managing storage pools by using the VIOS configuration menu” on page 133
“Listing storage pools in a cluster” on page 133
“Listing physical volumes in the storage pool” on page 133
“Adding storage space to the storage pool” on page 134
“Adding physical volumes to the storage pool” on page 134
“Listing physical volumes in the storage pool” on page 135
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
“Setting and modifying the storage pool threshold alert” on page 135
“Listing the storage pool threshold alert value” on page 135
“Changing the storage pool threshold alert value” on page 136
“Removing the storage pool threshold alert value” on page 136
“Managing logical units by using the VIOS configuration menu” on page 137
“Creating and mapping logical units” on page 137
“Creating logical units” on page 137
– “Mapping logical units” on page 138
– “Unmapping logical units” on page 138
Virtual I/O Server
5
–
–
–
–
–
“Unmapping logical units by logical unit name” on page 138
“Unmapping logical units by virtual server adapter name” on page 138
“Unmapping logical units by virtual target device name” on page 139
“Deleting a logical unit” on page 139
“Listing logical units” on page 140
–
–
–
–
“Listing logical unit maps” on page 140
“Backing up user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command” on page 186
“Restoring user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command” on page 196
“Using role-based access control with the Virtual I/O Server” on page 211
September 2010
The following updates have been made to the content.
v The following information is updated for the 7/10 (31E/2B), 7/30 (31E/2B), 7/20 (02E/4B), 7/40
(05F/6B), and 7/95 (19F/HB) servers:
– “Operating system support for VIOS client logical partitions” on page 11
– “Limitations and restrictions of the Virtual I/O Server configuration” on page 65
v The following information is updated for the Universal Serial Bus (USB) (DAT320)-attached tape
device:
– “Tape” on page 28
v You can change PowerVM Editions while installing the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS). The following
information is updated for VIOS installation:
– “Installing the Virtual I/O Server from CD or DVD” on page 92
v With the VIOS Version 2.2, or later, you can add, remove, or modify the existing set of virtual local
area networks (VLAN) for a virtual Ethernet adapter that is assigned to an active partition on a
POWER7® processor-based server by using the Hardware Management Console (HMC) Version 7.7.2.0,
or later. The following information is new or updated for the dynamic addition and removal of
VLANs:
– “Virtual Ethernet adapters” on page 36
– “Dynamically adding or removing VLANs on the Virtual I/O Server” on page 176
v On the VIOS Version 2.2, or later, a system administrator can define roles based on job functions in an
organization by using role-based access control (RBAC). The following information is new or updated
for RBAC:
– “Using role-based access control with the Virtual I/O Server” on page 211
– “Managing users on the Virtual I/O Server” on page 219
March 2010
Added information for the new systems servers that contain the POWER7 processor.
Virtual I/O Server overview
Learn the concepts of the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) and its primary components.
The VIOS is part of the PowerVM Editions hardware feature. The VIOS is software that is located in a
logical partition. This software facilitates the sharing of physical I/O resources between client logical
partitions within the server. The VIOS provides virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) target,
virtual Fibre Channel, Shared Ethernet Adapter, and PowerVM Active Memory™ Sharing capability to
client logical partitions within the system. The VIOS also provides the Suspend/Resume feature to AIX
and Linux client logical partitions within the system.
6
Virtual I/O Server
As a result, you can perform the following functions on client logical partitions:
v Share SCSI devices, Fibre Channel adapters, Ethernet adapters
v Expand the amount of memory available to logical partitions and suspend and resume logical partition
operations by using paging space devices
A dedicated logical partition is required for the VIOS software solely for its use.
You can use the VIOS to perform the following functions:
v Sharing of physical resources between logical partitions on the system
v Creating logical partitions without requiring additional physical I/O resources
v Creating more logical partitions than there are I/O slots or physical devices available with the ability
for logical partitions to have dedicated I/O, virtual I/O, or both
v Maximizing use of physical resources on the system
v Helping to reduce the storage area network (SAN) infrastructure
Related information:
Virtual I/O Server and Integrated Virtualization Manager commands
PowerVM Editions overview
Learn about the editions of the PowerVM Editions hardware feature.
The PowerVM Editions hardware feature includes the following editions:
v PowerVM Express Edition
v PowerVM Standard Edition
v PowerVM Enterprise Edition
The following table describes each component of the PowerVM Editions feature and the editions in which
each component is included.
Table 1. PowerVM Editions components and editions
Component
Description
Editions
Integrated Virtualization
Manager (IVM)
You can use the graphical interface of the Virtual I/O
Server (VIOS) management partition on some servers that
are not managed by a Hardware Management Console
(HMC) or an Systems Director Management Console
(SDMC).
v Express Edition
You can migrate an active or inactive AIX or Linux logical
partition from one system to another by using Live
Partition Mobility.
v Enterprise Edition
A running AIX, Linux, or logical partition can be
suspended along with its operating system and
applications. When a logical partition is suspended, the
state of the logical partition is saved on persistent storage,
and the server resources that were in use by that logical
partition are made available for use by other logical
partitions. At a later time, the operation of the suspended
logical partition and its applications can be resumed.
v Express Edition
Live Partition Mobility
Logical partition suspend
and resume
v Standard Edition
v Enterprise Edition
v Trial Live Partition
Mobility
v Standard Edition
v Enterprise Edition
Virtual I/O Server
7
Table 1. PowerVM Editions components and editions (continued)
Component
Description
Editions
Management
Management tools like HMC, IVM, SDMC, and VMControl v Express Edition
help to aggregate and manage resources by using a
(Integrated
consolidated, logical view.
Virtualization
Manager, SDMC, and
VMControl)
v Standard Edition
(HMC, Integrated
Virtualization
Manager, SDMC, and
VMControl)
v Enterprise Edition
(HMC, Integrated
Virtualization
Manager, SDMC, and
VMControl)
Micro-Partitioning®
technology
You can allocate processors to logical partitions in
increments of 0.01 which allows multiple logical partitions
to share the processing power of the system.
Micropartitions can be defined as small as 0.1 of a
processor and can be changed in increments as small as
0.01 of a processor. A maximum of 10 micropartitions can
be created per core.
v Express Edition
v Standard Edition
v Enterprise Edition
N-Port ID Virtualization
(NPIV)
NPIV is a standard technology for Fibre Channel networks. v Express Edition
With NPIV you can connect multiple logical partitions to
v Standard Edition
one physical port of a physical Fibre Channel adapter.
v Enterprise Edition
PowerSC
With HMC Version 7.7.4, or later, and POWER7
processor-based servers with firmware at level 7.4, or later,
you can enable Virtual Trusted Platform Module (VTPM)
on an AIX logical partition. You can configure logical
partitions on each server by using the HMC or the SDMC,
with each logical partition having its own unique VTPM.
The VTPM software implementation checks system boot
process, and in association with the AIX Trusted Execution
technology provides security and assurance of the boot
image on the disk, operating system, and application
layers.
Trusted Firewall is a feature of PowerSC and you can
enable Trusted Firewall in PowerVM. Trusted Firewall is
supported on VIOS Version 2.2.1.5, or later. With the
Trusted Firewall feature, you can perform inter-VLAN
routing functions by using the Security Virtual Machine
(SVM) kernel extension. By using Trusted Firewall, logical
partitions that are present on different VLANs of the same
server can communicate by using the Shared Ethernet
Adapter (SEA).
A logical partition that is enabled for VTPM has the
Trusted Boot capability. Trusted Boot is an offering that is
supported on the Power Security and Compliance
(PowerSC) Standard Edition. Trusted Boot is a feature of
PowerSC. You can enable Trusted Boot in PowerVM.
Trusted Boot uses the Virtual Trusted Platform Module
(VTPM) software implementation on an AIX logical
partition.
8
Virtual I/O Server
v Standard Edition
v Enterprise Edition
Table 1. PowerVM Editions components and editions (continued)
Component
Description
PowerVM Active Memory
Sharing
You can share memory among logical partitions in a shared Enterprise Edition
memory pool, by using PowerVM Active Memory Sharing.
Shared processor pools
You can assign priorities to partitions, and the hypervisor
v Standard Edition
allocates processing power as needed by the applications.
v Enterprise Edition
This provides automatic nondisruptive balancing of
processing power between logical partitions assigned to
shared pools, which results in increased throughput and
the potential to reduce processor-based software licensing
costs. This feature is supported on POWER6® and POWER7
processor-based servers.
Shared storage pools
Shared storage pools provide distributed storage access to
all VIOSlogical partitions in the cluster. On VIOS Version
2.2.0.11, Fix Pack 24, Service Pack 1, you can create a
cluster of only one VIOS partition connected to the same
shared storage pool. On VIOS Version 2.2.1.3, or later, you
can create a cluster that consists of up to four VIOS
partitions.
v Standard Edition
Thin provisioning helps reduce the amount of unused
storage that is allocated to applications or users. Allocation
of actual space on the storage subsystem is deferred until
the data is written to disk.
v Standard Edition
Thick provisioning helps reserve storage space for virtual
disks, thus ensuring that no failures occur because of lack
of storage space.
v Standard Edition
Thin provisioning
Thick provisioning
VIOS
Editions
v Enterprise Edition
v Enterprise Edition
v Enterprise Edition
You can share physical I/O resources between client logical v Express® Edition
partitions within the server by using VIOS.
v Standard Edition
v Enterprise Edition
PowerVM Express Edition
PowerVM Express Edition is designed for users looking for an introduction to more advanced
virtualization features at a highly affordable price.
The PowerVM Express Edition includes the following components of the PowerVM Editions hardware
feature:
v Micro-Partitioning technology
v Virtual I/O Server
v Integrated Virtualization Manager (IVM)
v N-Port ID Virtualization (NPIV)
To use the Express Edition, the system must be managed by the Integrated Virtualization Manager or by
an Systems Director Management Console (SDMC).
Using the Express Edition, you can create up to two client logical partitions that use virtual Small
Computer System Interface (SCSI), NPIV, and shared processors, also called Micro-Partitioning
technology. To create more than two client logical partitions that use shared processors, virtual SCSI, or
NPIV, you must purchase either the Standard Edition or the Enterprise Edition and enter the activation
code.
Virtual I/O Server
9
An activation code is required to enable the PowerVM Editions hardware feature. When you specify the
feature with the initial system order, the firmware is activated to support the components of the feature.
If you order the feature separately from the server, you can enter the code by using the SDMC, or the
IVM.
PowerVM Standard Edition
PowerVM Standard Edition includes features designed to allow businesses to increase system utilization;
while helping to ensure applications continue to get the resources they need.
The PowerVM Standard Edition includes the following components of the PowerVM Editions hardware
feature:
v Micro-Partitioning technology
v Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
v Integrated Virtualization Manager (IVM)
v Partition suspend and resume
v
v
v
v
v
Trusted Boot
N-Port ID Virtualization (NPIV)
Shared processor pools
Shared storage pools
Thin provisioning
You can use the Standard Edition with POWER7 processor-based servers.
In Hardware Management Console (HMC) or Systems Director Management Console (SDMC)
environments, the IVM is disabled because the system is managed by the HMC or SDMC. For servers
that are not managed by an HMC or SDMC, the VIOS becomes the management partition and provides
the IVM to help you manage the system.
An activation code is required to enable the PowerVM Editions hardware feature. When you specify the
feature with the initial system order, the firmware is activated to support the components of the feature.
If you order the feature separately from the server, you can enter the code by using the HMC, the SDMC,
or the IVM.
PowerVM Enterprise Edition
PowerVM Enterprise Edition includes all the features of PowerVM Standard Edition and two more
capabilities called Active Memory Sharing and Live Partition Mobility.
PowerVM Enterprise Edition includes the following components of the PowerVM Editions hardware
feature:
v PowerVM Active Memory Sharing
v Micro-Partitioning technology
v Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
v Integrated Virtualization Manager (IVM)
v Live Partition Mobility
Note:
Note: On POWER7 processor-based servers with firmware at level 7.3, or later, you can evaluate Live
Partition Mobility at no charge by using Trial Live Partition Mobility. Trial Live Partition Mobility
requires an activation code. You must have a valid license and an active Software Maintenance contract
for PowerVM Standard Edition to use Trial Live Partition Mobility.
v Partition Suspend/Resume
10
Virtual I/O Server
v
v
v
v
v
N-Port ID Virtualization (NPIV)
Shared processor pools
Shared storage pools
Thin provisioning
Trusted Boot
. You can use the Enterprise Edition with POWER7 processor-based servers. Like the Standard Edition, in
Hardware Management Console (HMC) or Systems Director Management Console (SDMC) environments,
the IVM is disabled because the system is managed by the HMC or SDMC. For servers that are not
managed by an HMC or SDMC, the VIOS becomes the management partition and provides the IVM to
help you manage the system.
An activation code is required to enable the PowerVM Editions hardware feature. When you specify the
feature with the initial system order, the firmware is activated to support the components of the feature.
If you order the feature separately from the server, you can enter the code by using the HMC, the SDMC,
or the IVM. This code differs from the PowerVM Standard Edition activation code. For example, you
might have previously purchased the Standard Edition and enabled the feature on the system. Now you
want the ability to move logical partitions from one system to another. To do so, you must purchase the
Enterprise Edition and enter the activation code for the Enterprise Edition.
Operating system support for VIOS client logical partitions
The Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) supports client logical partitions that run the following operating systems
on the following POWER7 processor-based servers.
Table 2. Minimum operating system versions required for Virtual I/O Server client logical partitions
POWER7 processor-based servers
Minimum operating system versions
All POWER7 processor-based servers
operating system
All POWER7 processor-based servers
AIX 6.1
All POWER7 processor-based servers
AIX 5.3
v 02E/4B
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 Service Pack 1
v 02E/4C
v 05F/6B
v 05E/6C
v 31E/2B
v 31E/1C
v 31E/2C
v 33E/8B
v 36E/8C
v 17M/MB
v 17M/MC
v 19F/HB
v 79M/HB
v 79M/HC
v BladeCenter PS/700
v BladeCenter PS/701
v BladeCenter PS/702
v BladeCenter PS/703
v BladeCenter PS/704
Virtual I/O Server
11
Table 2. Minimum operating system versions required for Virtual I/O Server client logical partitions (continued)
POWER7 processor-based servers
Minimum operating system versions
v 02E/4C
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 Service Pack 4
v 05E/6C
v 31E/1C
v 31E/2C
v 17M/MC
v 79M/HC
v BladeCenter PS/703
v BladeCenter PS/704
v 02E/4B
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 Service Pack 3
v 05F/6B
v 31E/2B
v 33E/8B
v 36E/8C
v 17M/MB
v 19F/HB
v 79M/HB
v BladeCenter PS/700
v BladeCenter PS/701
v BladeCenter PS/702
v 02E/4C
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Version 6.1
v 05E/6C
v 31E/1C
v 31E/2C
v 17M/MC
v 79M/HC
v 02E/4B
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Version 6
v 05F/6B
v 31E/2B
v 33E/8B
v 36E/8C
v 17M/MB
v 19F/HB
v 79M/HB
v BladeCenter PS/700
v BladeCenter PS/701
v BladeCenter PS/702
v BladeCenter PS/703
v BladeCenter PS/704
v 02E/4C
v 05E/6C
v 31E/1C
v 31E/2C
v 17M/MC
v 79M/HC
12
Virtual I/O Server
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Version 5.7
Table 2. Minimum operating system versions required for Virtual I/O Server client logical partitions (continued)
POWER7 processor-based servers
Minimum operating system versions
v BladeCenter PS/703
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Version 5.6
v BladeCenter PS/704
v 02E/4B
Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 5.5
v 05F/6B
v 31E/2B
v 33E/8B
v 36E/8C
v 17M/MB
v 19F/HB
v 79M/HB
v BladeCenter PS/700
v BladeCenter PS/701
v BladeCenter PS/702
Components of the Virtual I/O Server
This topic provides a brief overview of virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI), virtual networking,
and the Integrated Virtualization Manager (IVM).
The Virtual I/O Server comprises the following primary components:
v Virtual SCSI
v Virtual networking
v IVM (Integrated Virtualization Manager)
The following sections provide a brief overview of each of these components.
Virtual SCSI
Physical adapters with attached disks or optical devices on the Virtual I/O Server logical partition can be
shared by one or more client logical partitions. The Virtual I/O Server offers a local storage subsystem
that provides standard SCSI-compliant logical unit numbers (LUNs). The Virtual I/O Server can export a
pool of heterogeneous physical storage as a homogeneous pool of block storage in the form of SCSI disks.
Unlike typical storage subsystems that are physically located in the storage area network (SAN), the SCSI
devices exported by the Virtual I/O Server are limited to the domain within the server. Although the
SCSI LUNs are SCSI compliant, they might not meet the needs of all applications, particularly those that
exist in a distributed environment.
The following SCSI peripheral-device types are supported:
v Disks backed up by logical volumes
v Disks backed up by physical volumes
v Disks backed up by files
v Optical devices (DVD-RAM and DVD-ROM)
v Optical devices backed up by files
v Tape devices
Virtual I/O Server
13
Virtual networking
Virtual I/O Server provides the following virtual networking technologies.
Table 3. Virtual networking technologies on the Virtual I/O Server
Virtual networking technology
Description
Shared Ethernet Adapter
A Shared Ethernet Adapter is a layer-2 Ethernet bridge
that connects physical and virtual networks together. It
allows logical partitions on the virtual local area network
(VLAN) to share access to a physical Ethernet adapter
and to communicate with systems outside the server.
Using a Shared Ethernet Adapter, logical partitions on
the internal VLAN can share the VLAN with stand-alone
servers.
On POWER7 processor-based systems, you can assign a
logical host Ethernet port of a logical Host Ethernet
Adapter, sometimes referred to as Integrated Virtual
Ethernet, as the real adapter of a Shared Ethernet
Adapter. A Host Ethernet Adapter is a physical Ethernet
adapter that is integrated directly into the GX+ bus on a
managed system. Host Ethernet Adapters offer high
throughput, low latency, and virtualization support for
Ethernet connections.
The Shared Ethernet Adapter on the Virtual I/O Server
supports IPv6. IPv6 is the next generation of Internet
Protocol and is gradually replacing the current Internet
standard, Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4). The key IPv6
enhancement is the expansion of the IP address space
from 32 bits to 128 bits, providing virtually unlimited,
unique IP addresses.
Shared Ethernet Adapter failover
Shared Ethernet Adapter failover provides redundancy
by configuring a backup Shared Ethernet Adapter on a
different Virtual I/O Server logical partition that can be
used if the primary Shared Ethernet Adapter fails. The
network connectivity in the client logical partitions
continues without disruption.
Link Aggregation (or EtherChannel)
A Link Aggregation (or EtherChannel) device is a
network port-aggregation technology that allows several
Ethernet adapters to be aggregated. The adapters can
then act as a single Ethernet device. Link Aggregation
helps provide more throughput over a single IP address
than would be possible with a single Ethernet adapter.
VLAN
VLAN allows the physical network to be logically
segmented.
IVM
The IVM (Integrated Virtualization Manager) provides a browser-based interface and a command-line
interface that you can use to manage some servers that use the Virtual I/O Server. On the managed
system, you can create logical partitions, manage the virtual storage and virtual Ethernet, and view
service information related to the server. The IVM is packaged with the Virtual I/O Server, but it is
activated and usable only on certain platforms and where no Hardware Management Console (HMC) is
present.
14
Virtual I/O Server
Virtual Fibre Channel
With N_Port ID Virtualization (NPIV), you can configure the managed system so that multiple logical
partitions can access independent physical storage through the same physical Fibre Channel adapter.
To access physical storage in a typical storage area network (SAN) that uses Fibre Channel, the physical
storage is mapped to logical units (LUNs) and the LUNs are mapped to the ports of physical Fibre
Channel adapters. Each physical port on each physical Fibre Channel adapter is identified using one
worldwide port name (WWPN).
NPIV is a standard technology for Fibre Channel networks that enables you to connect multiple logical
partitions to one physical port of a physical Fibre Channel adapter. Each logical partition is identified by
a unique WWPN, which means that you can connect each logical partition to independent physical
storage on a SAN.
To enable NPIV on the managed system, you must create a Virtual I/O Server logical partition (version
2.1, or later) that provides virtual resources to client logical partitions. You assign the physical Fibre
Channel adapters (that support NPIV) to the Virtual I/O Server logical partition. Then, you connect
virtual Fibre Channel adapters on the client logical partitions to virtual Fibre Channel adapters on the
Virtual I/O Server logical partition. A virtual Fibre Channel adapter is a virtual adapter that provides client
logical partitions with a Fibre Channel connection to a storage area network through the Virtual I/O
Server logical partition. The Virtual I/O Server logical partition provides the connection between the
virtual Fibre Channel adapters on the Virtual I/O Server logical partition and the physical Fibre Channel
adapters on the managed system.
The following figure shows a managed system configured to use NPIV.
The figure shows the following connections:
Virtual I/O Server
15
v A storage area network (SAN) connects three units of physical storage to a physical Fibre Channel
adapter that is located on the managed system. The physical Fibre Channel adapter is assigned to the
Virtual I/O Server and supports NPIV.
v The physical Fibre Channel adapter connects to three virtual Fibre Channel adapters on the Virtual I/O
Server. All three virtual Fibre Channel adapters on the Virtual I/O Server connect to the same physical
port on the physical Fibre Channel adapter.
v Each virtual Fibre Channel adapter on the Virtual I/O Server connects to one virtual Fibre Channel
adapter on a client logical partition. Each virtual Fibre Channel adapter on each client logical partition
receives a pair of unique WWPNs. The client logical partition uses one WWPN to log into the SAN at
any given time. The other WWPN is used when you move the client logical partition to another
managed system.
Using their unique WWPNs and the virtual Fibre Channel connections to the physical Fibre Channel
adapter, the operating systems that run in the client logical partitions discover, instantiate, and manage
their physical storage located on the SAN. In the previous figure, Client logical partition 1 accesses
Physical storage 1, Client logical partition 2 accesses Physical storage 2, and Client logical partition 3
accesses Physical storage 3. The Virtual I/O Server cannot access and does not emulate the physical
storage to which the client logical partitions have access. The Virtual I/O Server provides the client
logical partitions with a connection to the physical Fibre Channel adapters on the managed system.
There is always a one-to-one relationship between virtual Fibre Channel adapters on the client logical
partitions and the virtual Fibre Channel adapters on the Virtual I/O Server logical partition. That is, each
virtual Fibre Channel adapter on a client logical partition must connect to only one virtual Fibre Channel
adapter on the Virtual I/O Server logical partition, and each virtual Fibre Channel on the Virtual I/O
Server logical partition must connect to only one virtual Fibre Channel adapter on a client logical
partition.
Using SAN tools, you can zone and mask LUNs that include WWPNs that are assigned to virtual Fibre
Channel adapters on client logical partitions. The SAN uses WWPNs that are assigned to virtual Fibre
Channel adapters on client logical partitions the same way it uses WWPNs that are assigned to physical
ports.
You can configure virtual Fibre Channel adapters on client logical partitions that run the following
operating systems:
v AIX Version 6.1 Technology Level 2, or later
v
v
v
v
v
AIX Version 5.3 Technology Level 9
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Version 11, or later
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Version 10, Service Pack 3, or later
Red Hat Enterprise Server Version 5.4 or later
Red Hat Enterprise Server Version 6 or later
v SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Version 11, or later
v SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Version 10, Service Pack 3, or later
v Red Hat Enterprise Server Version 5.4 or later
v Red Hat Enterprise Server Version 6 or later
Related concepts:
“Redundancy configuration using virtual Fibre Channel adapters” on page 84
Redundancy configurations help protect your network from physical adapter failures as well as Virtual
I/O Server failures.
Virtual Fibre Channel for HMC-managed systems
On systems that are managed by the Hardware Management Console (HMC), you can dynamically add
and remove virtual Fibre Channel adapters to and from the Virtual I/O Server logical partition and each
16
Virtual I/O Server
client logical partition. You can also view information about the virtual and physical Fibre Channel
adapters and the worldwide port names (WWPNs) by using Virtual I/O Server commands.
To enable N_Port ID Virtualization (NPIV) on the managed system, you create the required virtual Fibre
Channel adapters and connections as follows:
v You use the HMC to create virtual Fibre Channel adapters on the Virtual I/O Server logical partition
and associate them with virtual Fibre Channel adapters on the client logical partitions.
v You use the HMC to create virtual Fibre Channel adapters on each client logical partition and associate
them with virtual Fibre Channel adapters on the Virtual I/O Server logical partition. When you create
a virtual Fibre Channel adapter on a client logical partition, the HMC generates a pair of unique
WWPNs for the client virtual Fibre Channel adapter.
v You connect the virtual Fibre Channel adapters on the Virtual I/O Server to the physical ports of the
physical Fibre Channel adapter by running the vfcmap command on the Virtual I/O Server.
The HMC generates WWPNs based on the range of names available for use with the prefix in the vital
product data on the managed system. This 6–digit prefix comes with the purchase of the managed system
and includes 32 000 pairs of WWPNs. When you remove a virtual Fibre Channel adapter from a client
logical partition, the hypervisor deletes the WWPNs that are assigned to the virtual Fibre Channel
adapter on the client logical partition. The HMC does not reuse the deleted WWPNs when generating
WWPNs for virtual Fibre Channel adapters in the future. If you run out of WWPNs, you must obtain an
activation code that includes another prefix with another 32 000 pairs of WWPNs.
To avoid configuring the physical Fibre Channel adapter to be a single point of failure for the connection
between the client logical partition and its physical storage on the SAN, do not connect two virtual Fibre
Channel adapters from the same client logical partition to the same physical Fibre Channel adapter.
Instead, connect each virtual Fibre Channel adapter to a different physical Fibre Channel adapter.
You can dynamically add and remove virtual Fibre Channel adapters to and from the Virtual I/O Server
logical partition and to and from client logical partitions.
Table 4. Dynamic logical partitioning tasks and results for virtual Fibre Channel adapters
Dynamically add or remove virtual
Fibre Channel adapter
To or from a client logical partition
or a Virtual I/O Server logical
partition
Add a virtual Fibre Channel adapter
To a client logical partition
The HMC generates the a pair of
unique WWPNs for the client virtual
Fibre Channel adapter.
Add a virtual Fibre Channel adapter
To a Virtual I/O Server logical
partition
You need to connect the virtual Fibre
Channel adapter to a physical port
on a physical Fibre Channel adapter.
Remove a virtual Fibre Channel
adapter
From a client logical partition
v The hypervisor deletes the
WWPNs and does not reuse them.
Result
v You must either remove the
associated virtual Fibre Channel
adapter from the Virtual I/O
Server, or associate it with another
virtual Fibre Channel adapter on a
client logical partition.
Virtual I/O Server
17
Table 4. Dynamic logical partitioning tasks and results for virtual Fibre Channel adapters (continued)
Dynamically add or remove virtual
Fibre Channel adapter
To or from a client logical partition
or a Virtual I/O Server logical
partition
Remove a virtual Fibre Channel
adapter
From a Virtual I/O Server logical
partition
Result
v The Virtual I/O Server removes
the connection to the physical port
on the physical Fibre Channel
adapter.
v You must either remove the
associated virtual Fibre Channel
adapter from the client logical
partition, or associate it with
another virtual Fibre Channel
adapter on the Virtual I/O Server
logical partition.
The following table lists the Virtual I/O Server commands that you can run to view information about
the Fibre Channel adapters.
Table 5. Virtual I/O Server commands that display information about Fibre Channel adapters
Virtual I/O Server command
Information displayed by command
lsmap
v Displays the virtual Fibre Channel adapters on the
Virtual I/O Server that are connected to the physical
Fibre Channel adapter
v Displays attributes of the virtual Fibre Channel
adapters on the client logical partitions that are
associated with the virtual Fibre Channel adapters on
the Virtual I/O Server that are connected to the
physical Fibre Channel adapter
lsnports
Displays information about the physical ports on the
physical Fibre Channel adapters that support NPIV, such
as:
v The name and location code of the physical port
v The number of available physical ports
v The total number of WWPNs that the physical port
can support
v Whether the switches, to which the physical Fibre
Channel adapters are cabled, support NPIV
You can also run the lshwres command on the HMC to display the remaining number of WWPNs and to
display the prefix that is currently used to generate the WWPNs.
Virtual Fibre Channel on IVM-managed systems
On systems that are managed by the Integrated Virtualization Manager (IVM), you can dynamically add
and remove worldwide port names (WWPNs) to and from logical partitions, and you can dynamically
change the physical ports to which the WWPNs are assigned. You can also view information about the
virtual and physical fibre channel adapters and the WWPNs by using the lsmap and lsnports commands.
To enable N_Port ID Virtualization (NPIV) on the managed system, you create a pair of WWPNs for a
logical partition and assign the pair directly to the physical ports of the physical Fibre Channel adapters.
You can assign multiple logical partitions to one physical port by assigning a pair of WWPNs for each
logical partition to the same physical port. When you assign a WWPN pair to a logical partition, the IVM
automatically creates the following connections:
18
Virtual I/O Server
v The IVM creates a virtual Fibre Channel adapter on the management partition and associates it with
the virtual Fibre Channel adapter on the logical partition.
v The IVM generates a pair of unique WWPNs and creates a virtual Fibre Channel adapter on the client
logical partition. The IVM assigns the WWPNs to the virtual Fibre Channel adapter on the client
logical partition, and associates the virtual Fibre Channel adapter on the client logical partition with
the virtual Fibre Channel adapter on the management partition.
When you assign the WWPNs for a logical partition to a physical port, the IVM connects the virtual Fibre
Channel adapter on the management partition to the physical port on the physical Fibre Channel adapter.
The IVM generates WWPNs based on the range of names available for use with the prefix in the vital
product data on the managed system. This 6–digit prefix comes with the purchase of the managed system
and includes 32 768 pairs of WWPNs. When you remove the connection between a logical partition and a
physical port, the hypervisor deletes the WWPNs that are assigned to the virtual Fibre Channel adapter
on the logical partition. The IVM does not reuse the deleted WWPNs when generating WWPNs for
virtual Fibre Channel adapters in the future. If you run out of WWPNs, you must obtain an activation
code that includes another prefix with 32 768 pairs of WWPNs.
To avoid configuring the physical Fibre Channel adapter to be a single point of failure for the connection
between the logical partition and its physical storage on the storage area network (SAN), do not assign a
logical partition to one physical Fibre Channel adapter twice. For example, do not assign a WWPN pair
for a logical partition to a physical port on a physical Fibre Channel adapter, and then assign another
WWPN pair for the same logical partition to another physical port on the same physical Fibre Channel
adapter. Instead, assign the WWPN pairs for each logical partition to different physical Fibre Channel
adapters.
You can add WWPN pairs for a new logical partition without assigning them to a physical port. Being
able to generate WWPNs independently of a physical port assignment for a logical partition allows you
to communicate these names to the SAN administrator. This ensures that the SAN administrator can
configure the SAN connection appropriately such that the logical partition can connect successfully to the
SAN without regard for which physical port the partition uses for the connection.
You can dynamically add or remove a WWPN pair to and from a logical partition. You can also
dynamically change the physical port that is assigned to a WWPN pair.
Table 6. Dynamic logical partitioning tasks and results
Action
Result
Dynamically add a WWPN pair to a logical partition
v The IVM creates a virtual Fibre Channel adapter on
the management partition and associates it with the
virtual Fibre Channel adapter on the logical partition.
v The IVM generates a pair of unique WWPNs and
creates a virtual Fibre Channel adapter on the logical
partition. The IVM assigns the WWPNs to the virtual
Fibre Channel adapter on the logical partition, and
associates the virtual Fibre Channel adapter on the
logical partition with the virtual Fibre Channel adapter
on the management partition.
Dynamically assign a WWPN pair to a physical port
The IVM connects the virtual Fibre Channel adapter on
the management partition to the physical port on the
physical Fibre Channel adapter.
Virtual I/O Server
19
Table 6. Dynamic logical partitioning tasks and results (continued)
Action
Result
Dynamically remove a WWPN pair from a logical
partition
v The IVM removes the connection between the virtual
Fibre Channel adapter on the management partition
and the physical port on the physical Fibre Channel
adapter.
v The IVM removes the virtual Fibre Channel adapter
from the management partition.
v The IVM removes the virtual Fibre Channel adapter
from the logical partition. The IVM deletes the
WWPNs and does not reuse them.
Dynamically change the physical port assignment of a
WWPN pair
The IVM changes the connection for the virtual Fibre
Channel adapter on the management partition to the
newly assigned physical port.
When you change the physical port to a value of None,
the IVM retains the virtual Fibre Channel adapter on the
management partition, but removes the connection to the
physical port on the physical Fibre Channel adapter. If
you later reassign a physical port to the WWPN pair, the
IVM reuses the original virtual Fibre Channel adapter on
the management partition and connects the adapter to
the newly assigned physical port.
The following table lists the Virtual I/O Server commands that you can run to view information about
the Fibre Channel adapters.
Table 7. Virtual I/O Server commands that display information about Fibre Channel adapters
Virtual I/O Server command
Information displayed by command
lsmap
v Displays the virtual Fibre Channel adapters on the
Virtual I/O Server that are connected to the physical
Fibre Channel adapter
v Displays attributes of the virtual Fibre Channel
adapters on the client logical partitions that are
associated with the virtual Fibre Channel adapters on
the Virtual I/O Server that are connected to the
physical Fibre Channel adapter
lsnports
Displays information about the physical ports on the
physical Fibre Channel adapters that support NPIV, such
as:
v The name and location code of the physical port
v The number of available physical ports
v The total number of WWPNs that the physical port
can support
v Whether the switches, to which the physical Fibre
Channel adapters are cabled, support NPIV
Virtual SCSI
Using virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI), client logical partitions can share disk storage and
tape or optical devices that are assigned to the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) logical partition.
Disk, tape, or optical devices attached to physical adapters in the VIOS logical partition can be shared by
one or more client logical partitions. The VIOS is a standard storage subsystem that provides standard
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Virtual I/O Server
logical unit numbers (LUNs) that are compliant with the SCSI. The VIOS can export a pool of
heterogeneous physical storage as a homogeneous pool of block storage in the form of SCSI disks. The
VIOS is a localized storage subsystem. Unlike typical storage subsystems that are physically located in
the SAN, the SCSI devices exported by the VIOS are limited to the domain within the server. Therefore,
although the SCSI LUNs are SCSI-compliant, they might not meet the needs of all applications,
particularly those that exist in a distributed environment.
The following SCSI peripheral device types are supported:
v Disk backed by logical volume
v Disk backed by physical volume
v Disk backed by file
v Optical CD-ROM, DVD-RAM, and DVD-ROM
v Optical DVD-RAM backed by file
v Tape devices
Virtual SCSI is based on a client-server relationship. The VIOS owns the physical resources and the virtual
SCSI server adapter, and acts as a server, or SCSI target device. The client logical partitions have a SCSI
initiator referred to as the virtual SCSI client adapter, and access the virtual SCSI targets as standard SCSI
LUNs. You configure the virtual adapters by using the HMC or Integrated Virtualization Manager. The
configuration and provisioning of virtual disk resources is performed by using the VIOS. Physical disks
owned by the VIOS can be either exported and assigned to a client logical partition as a whole or can be
partitioned into parts, such as logical volumes or files. The logical volumes and files can then be assigned
to different logical partitions. Therefore, using virtual SCSI, you can share adapters and disk devices. To
make a physical volume, logical volume, or file available to a client logical partition requires that it must
be assigned to a virtual SCSI server adapter on the VIOS. The client logical partition accesses its assigned
disks through a virtual-SCSI client adapter. The virtual-SCSI client adapter recognizes standard SCSI
devices and LUNs through this virtual adapter.
On the VIOS, you can thin-provision a client virtual-SCSI device for better storage space utilization. In a
thin-provisioned device, the used storage space might be greater than the actual used storage space. If the
blocks of storage space in a thin-provisioned device are unused, the device is not entirely backed by
physical storage space. With thin-provisioning, the storage capacity of the storage pool can be exceeded.
When the storage capacity is exceeded, a threshold exceeded alert is raised. To identify that a threshold
alert has occurred, check the errors listed in the VIOS system error log by running the errlog command
in the VIOS command-line interface. To recover after the threshold has exceeded, you can add physical
volumes to the storage pool. You can verify that the threshold is no longer exceeded in the VIOS system
error log. For instructions on how to add physical volumes to the storage pool by using the VIOS
command-line interface, see “Adding physical volumes to the storage pool” on page 120. For instructions
on how to add physical volumes to the storage pool by using the VIOS configuration menu, see “Adding
physical volumes to the storage pool” on page 134. You can also increase the storage capacity of the
storage pool by deleting data.
On the VIOS, multiple applications running on the virtual client can manage reservations on virtual disks
of the client by using the Persistent Reserves standard. These reservations persist across hard resets,
logical unit resets, or initiator target nexus loss. Persistent reservations that are supported by logical
devices from the VIOS shared storage pools support the required features for the SCSI-3 Persistent
Reserves standard.
On the VIOS, you can thick-provision a virtual disk. In a thick-provisioned virtual disk, you can allocate
or reserve storage space while initially provisioning the virtual disk. The allocated storage space for the
thick-provisioned virtual disk is guaranteed. This operation ensures that there are no failures because of
lack of storage space. By using thick-provisioning, initial storage in the virtual disk is faster because disk
blocks might be allocated to the disk during initial provisioning of the virtual disk.
Virtual I/O Server
21
The following figure shows a standard virtual SCSI configuration.
Note: The VIOS must be fully operational for the client logical partitions to be able to access virtual
devices.
Related tasks:
“Adding physical volumes to the
You can add physical volumes to
interface.
“Adding physical volumes to the
You can add physical volumes to
menu.
storage pool” on page 120
the storage pool by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) command-line
storage pool” on page 134
the storage pool by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) configuration
Virtual I/O Server storage subsystem overview
Learn about the Virtual I/O Server storage subsystem.
The Virtual I/O Server storage subsystem is a standard storage subsystem that provides standard logical
unit numbers (LUNs) compliant with the Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI). The Virtual I/O Server
is a localized storage subsystem. Unlike typical storage subsystems that are physically located in the
SAN, the SCSI devices exported by the Virtual I/O Server are limited to the domain within the server.
Like typical disk storage subsystems, the Virtual I/O Server has a distinct front end and back end. The
front end is the interface to which client logical partitions attach to view standard SCSI-compliant LUNs.
Devices on the front end are called virtual SCSI devices. The back end is made up of physical storage
resources. These physical resources include physical disk storage, both SAN devices and internal storage
devices, optical devices, tape devices, logical volumes, and files.
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Virtual I/O Server
To create a virtual device, some physical storage must be allocated and assigned to a virtual SCSI server
adapter. This process creates a virtual device instance (vtscsiX or vtoptX). The device instance can be
considered a mapping device. It is not a real device, but rather a mechanism for managing the mapping
of the portion of physical back-end storage to the front-end virtual SCSI device. This mapping device
re-creates the physical-to-virtual allocations in a persistent manner when the Virtual I/O Server is
restarted.
Physical storage
Learn more about physical storage, logical volumes, and the devices and configurations that are
supported by the Virtual I/O Server.
Physical volumes:
Physical volumes can be exported to client partitions as virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI)
disks. The Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) is capable of taking a pool of heterogeneous physical disk storage
attached to its back end and exporting this as homogeneous storage in the form of SCSI disk LUNs.
The VIOS must be able to accurately identify a physical volume each time it boots, even if an event such
as a storage area network (SAN) reconfiguration or adapter change has taken place. Physical volume
attributes, such as the name, address, and location, might change after the system reboots due to SAN
reconfiguration. However, the VIOS must be able to recognize that this is the same device and update the
virtual device mappings. Hence, to export a physical volume as a virtual device, the physical volume
must have either a unique identifier (UDID), a physical identifier (PVID), or an IEEE volume attribute.
For instructions about determine whether your disks have one of these identifiers, see “Identifying
exportable disks” on page 113.
The following commands are used to manage physical volumes.
Table 8. Physical volume commands and their descriptions
Physical volume
command
Description
lspv
Displays information about physical volumes within the VIOS logical partition.
migratepv
Moves allocated physical partitions from one physical volume to one or more other
physical volumes.
Logical volumes:
Understand how logical volumes can be exported to client partitions as virtual Small Computer Serial
Interface (SCSI) disks. A logical volume is a portion of a physical volume.
A hierarchy of structures is used to manage disk storage. Each individual disk drive or LUN, called a
physical volume, has a name, such as /dev/hdisk0. Every physical volume in use either belongs to a
volume group or is used directly for virtual storage. All of the physical volumes in a volume group are
divided into physical partitions of the same size. The number of physical partitions in each region varies,
depending on the total capacity of the disk drive.
Within each volume group, one or more logical volumes are defined. Logical volumes are groups of
information located on physical volumes. Data on logical volumes appears to the user to be contiguous
but can be discontiguous on the physical volume. This allows logical volumes to be resized or relocated
and to have their contents replicated.
Each logical volume consists of one or more logical partitions. Each logical partition corresponds to at
least one physical partition. Although the logical partitions are numbered consecutively, the underlying
physical partitions are not necessarily consecutive or contiguous.
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23
After installation, the system has one volume group (the rootvg volume group) consisting of a base set of
logical volumes required to start the system.
You can use the commands described in the following table to manage logical volumes.
Table 9. Logical volume commands and their descriptions
Logical volume
command
Description
chlv
Changes the characteristics of a logical volume.
cplv
Copies the contents of a logical volume to a new logical volume.
extendlv
Increases the size of a logical volume.
lslv
Displays information about the logical volume.
mklv
Creates a logical volume.
mklvcopy
Creates a copy of a logical volume.
rmlv
Removes logical volumes from a volume group.
rmlvcopy
Removes a copy of a logical volume.
Creating one or more distinct volume groups rather than using logical volumes that are created in the
rootvg volume group allows you to install any newer versions of the Virtual I/O Server while
maintaining client data by exporting and importing the volume groups created for virtual I/O.
Notes:
v Logical volumes used as virtual disks must be less than 1 TB (where TB equals 1 099 511 627 776 bytes)
in size.
v For best performance, avoid using logical volumes (on the Virtual I/O Server) as virtual disks that are
mirrored or striped across multiple physical volumes.
Volume groups:
Find information about volume groups.
A volume group is a type of storage pool that contains one or more physical volumes of varying sizes
and types. A physical volume can belong to only one volume group per system. There can be up to 4096
active volume groups on the Virtual I/O Server.
When a physical volume is assigned to a volume group, the physical blocks of storage media on it are
organized into physical partitions of a size determined by the system when you create the volume group.
For more information, see “Physical partitions” on page 25.
When you install the Virtual I/O Server, the root volume group called rootvg is automatically created
that contains the base set of logical volumes required to start the system logical partition. The rootvg
includes paging space, the journal log, boot data, and dump storage, each in its own separate logical
volume. The rootvg has attributes that differ from user-defined volume groups. For example, the rootvg
cannot be imported or exported. When using a command or procedure on the rootvg, you must be
familiar with its unique characteristics.
Table 10. Frequently used volume group commands and their descriptions
Command
Description
activatevg
Activates a volume group
chvg
Changes the attributes of a volume group
deactivatevg
Deactivates a volume group
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Virtual I/O Server
Table 10. Frequently used volume group commands and their descriptions (continued)
Command
Description
exportvg
Exports the definition of a volume group
extendvg
Adds a physical volume to a volume group
importvg
Imports a new volume group definition
lsvg
Displays information about a volume group
mkvg
Creates a volume group
reducevg
Removes a physical volume from a volume group
syncvg
Synchronizes logical volume copies that are not current
Small systems might require only one volume group to contain all of the physical volumes (beyond the
rootvg volume group). You can create separate volume groups to make maintenance easier because
groups other than the one being serviced can remain active. Because the rootvg must always be online, it
contains only the minimum number of physical volumes necessary for system operation. It is
recommended that the rootvg not be used for client data.
You can move data from one physical volume to other physical volumes in the same volume group by
using the migratepv command. This command allows you to free a physical volume so it can be removed
from the volume group. For example, you could move data from a physical volume that is to be replaced.
Physical partitions:
This topic contains information about physical partitions.
When you add a physical volume to a volume group, the physical volume is partitioned into contiguous,
equal-sized units of space called physical partitions. A physical partition is the smallest unit of storage
space allocation and is a contiguous space on a physical volume.
Physical volumes inherit the volume group's physical partition size.
Logical partitions:
This topic contains information logical storage partitions.
When you create a logical volume, you specify its size in megabytes or gigabytes. The system allocates
the number of logical partitions that are required to create a logical volume of at least the specified size.
A logical partition is one or two physical partitions, depending on whether the logical volume is defined
with mirroring enabled. If mirroring is disabled, there is only one copy of the logical volume (the
default). In this case, there is a direct mapping of one logical partition to one physical partition. Each
instance, including the first, is called a copy.
Quorums:
Find information about quorums.
A quorum exists when a majority of Volume Group Descriptor Areas and Volume Group Status Areas
(VGDA/VGSA) and their disks are active. A quorum ensures data integrity of the VGDA/VGSA in the
event of a disk failure. Each physical disk in a volume group has at least one VGDA/VGSA. When a
volume group is created onto a single disk, the volume group initially has two VGDA/VGSA on the disk.
If a volume group consists of two disks, one disk still has two VGDA/VGSA, but the other disk has one
VGDA/VGSA. When the volume group is made up of three or more disks, each disk is allocated just one
VGDA/VGSA.
Virtual I/O Server
25
A quorum is lost when enough disks and their VGDA/VGSA are unreachable so that a 51% majority of
VGDA/VGSA no longer exists.
When a quorum is lost, the volume group deactivates itself so that the disks are no longer accessible by
the logical volume manager. This prevents further disk I/O to that volume group so that data is not lost
or assumed to be written when physical problems occur. As a result of the deactivation, the user is
notified in the error log that a hardware error has occurred and service must be performed.
A volume group that has been deactivated because its quorum has been lost can be reactivated by using
the activatevg -f command.
Virtual media repository:
The virtual media repository provides a single container to store and manage file-backed virtual optical
media files. Media stored in the repository can be loaded into file-backed virtual optical devices for
exporting to client partitions.
Only one repository can be created within a Virtual I/O Server.
The virtual media repository is available with Virtual I/O Server Version 1.5 or later.
The virtual media repository is created and managed using the following commands.
Table 11. Virtual media repository commands and their descriptions
Command
Description
chrep
Changes the characteristics of the virtual media repository
chvopt
Changes the characteristics of a virtual optical media
loadopt
Loads file-backed virtual optical media into a file-backed virtual optical device
lsrep
Displays information about the virtual media repository
lsvopt
Displays information about file-backed virtual optical devices
mkrep
Creates the virtual media repository
mkvdev
Creates file-backed virtual optical devices
mkvopt
Creates file-backed virtual optical media
rmrep
Removes the virtual media repository
rmvopt
Removes file-backed virtual optical media
unloadopt
Unloads file-backed virtual optical media from a file-backed virtual optical device
Clusters:
Learn about using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) and creating a clustering configuration.
On VIOS Version 2.2.0.11, Fix Pack 24, Service Pack 1, you can create a cluster that consists of only one
VIOS partition that is connected to the same shared storage pool. On VIOS Version 2.2.1.3, or later, you
can create a cluster that consists of up to four networked VIOS partitions. Thus, a cluster consists of up to
four VIOS logical partitions with a shared storage pool that provides distributed storage access to the
VIOS logical partitions in the cluster. Each cluster requires a separate repository disk and shared storage
pool disks. The shared storage pool can be accessed by all VIOS logical partitions in the cluster.
All the VIOS logical partitions within a cluster must have access to all the physical volumes in a shared
storage pool.
You can create and manage clusters by using the commands in the following table.
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Virtual I/O Server
Table 12. Cluster commands and their descriptions
Command
Description
cluster
Provides cluster management and listing capabilities.
Storage pools:
Learn about logical volume storage pools and file storage pools.
In Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) Version 1.5, and later, you can create the following types of storage pools:
v Logical volume storage pools (LVPOOL)
v File storage pools (FBPOOL)
In Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) Version 2.2.0.11, Fix Pack 24, Service Pack 1, and later, you can create shared
storage pools. Shared storage pools provide distributed storage access to all VIOS logical partitions in a
cluster.
Like volume groups, logical volume storage pools are collections of one or more physical volumes. The
physical volumes that comprise a logical volume storage pool can be of varying sizes and types. File
storage pools are created within a parent logical volume storage pool and contain a logical volume
containing a file system with files.
Logical volume storage pools store logical volume backing devices, file-backed storage pools, and the
virtual media repository. File storage pools store file-backing devices.
By using storage pools, you are not required to have extensive knowledge of how to manage volume
groups and logical volumes to create and assign logical storage to a client logical partition. Devices
created by using a storage pool are not limited to the size of the individual physical volumes.
On the VIOS, you can use shared storage pools. Shared storage pools provide distributed storage access
to all VIOS logical partitions in a cluster. Each cluster consists of up to four VIOS logical partitions.
Storage pools are created and managed using the following commands.
Table 13. Storage pool commands and their descriptions
Command
Description
alert
Sets, removes, and lists all the alerts for the storage pool in a cluster.
chsp
Changes the characteristics of a storage pool.
chbdsp
Changes the characteristics of a backing device within a storage pool.
lssp
Displays information about a storage pool.
mkbdsp
Assigns storage from a storage pool to be a backing device for a virtual Small
Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) adapter.
mksp
Creates a storage pool. This storage pool is created by default when you create a
cluster.
rmbdsp
Removes a backing device from its virtual SCSI adapter, or a VIOS object (Version
2.2.0.11, Fix Pack 24, Service Pack 1, or later), and returns the storage back to the
storage pool.
rmsp
Removes a file storage pool. This storage pool is removed by default when you
remove a cluster.
snapshot
Creates, deletes, and rolls back a snapshot image of a single logical unit or multiple
logical units.
Virtual I/O Server
27
In VIOS logical partitions prior to Version 2.2.0.11, Fix Pack 24, Service Pack 1, each VIOS logical partition
has a single default storage pool that can be modified only by the prime administrator. By default, rootvg,
which is a logical volume pool, is the default storage pool unless the prime administrator configures a
different default storage pool.
Do not create client storage in rootvg. By creating one or more distinct logical volume storage pools
rather than using the rootvg volume group, you can install any newer versions of the VIOS while
maintaining client data by exporting and importing the volume groups created for virtual I/O.
Unless explicitly specified otherwise, the storage pool commands operate on the default storage pool.
This situation can be useful on systems that contain most or all of its backing devices in a single storage
pool.
Note: In VIOS logical partitions prior to Version 2.2.0.11, Fix Pack 24, Service Pack 1, storage pools
cannot be used when you assign whole physical volumes as backing devices.
Optical devices:
Optical devices can be exported by the Virtual I/O Server. This topic gives information about what types
of optical devices are supported.
The Virtual I/O Server supports exporting optical Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) devices. These
are referred to as a virtual SCSI optical devices. Virtual optical devices can be backed by DVD drives or
files. Depending on the backing device, the Virtual I/O Server will export a virtual optical device with
one of following profiles:
v DVD-ROM
v DVD-RAM
Virtual optical devices that are backed by physical optical devices can be assigned to only one client
logical partition at a time. In order to use the device on a different client logical partition, it must first be
removed from its current logical partition and reassigned to the logical partition that will use the device.
Tape:
Tape devices can be exported by the Virtual I/O Server. This topic gives information about what types of
tape devices are supported.
The Virtual I/O Server supports exporting physical tape devices to client logical partitions. These are
referred to as virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) tape devices. Virtual SCSI tape devices are
backed up by physical tape devices.
Virtual SCSI tape devices are assigned to only one client logical partition at any given time. To use the
device on a different client logical partition, it must first be removed from its current logical partition and
reassigned to the logical partition that will use the device.
Restriction:
v The physical tape device must be attached by a serial-attached SCSI (SAS) or Universal Serial Bus
(USB) tape device and both the drive types must be DAT320.
v The Virtual I/O Server does not support media movers, even if the physical device supports them.
v It is recommended that you assign the tape device to its own Virtual I/O Server adapter because as
tape devices often send large amounts of data, which might affect the performance of any other device
on the adapter.
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Virtual I/O Server
Virtual storage
Disks, tapes, and optical devices are supported as virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) devices.
This topic describes how those devices function in a virtualized environment and provides information
on what devices are supported.
Disk:
Disk devices can be exported by the Virtual I/O Server. This topic gives information about what types of
disks and configurations are supported.
The Virtual I/O Server supports exporting disk Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) devices. These are
referred to as virtual SCSI disks. All virtual SCSI disks must be backed by physical storage. The following
types of physical storage can be used to back virtual disks:
v Virtual SCSI disk backed by a physical disk
v Virtual SCSI disk backed by a logical volume
v Virtual SCSI disk backed by a file
Regardless of whether the virtual SCSI disk is backed by a physical disk, logical volume, or a file, all
standard SCSI rules apply to the device. The virtual SCSI device will behave as a standard
SCSI-compliant disk device, and it can serve as a boot device or a Network Installation Management
(NIM) target, for example.
Virtual SCSI Client Adapter Path Timeout
The virtual SCSI Client Adapter Path Timeout feature allows the client adapter to detect whether a
Virtual I/O Server is not responding to I/O requests. Use this feature only in configurations in which
devices are available to a client logical partition from multiple Virtual I/O Servers. These configurations
could be either configurations where Multipath I/O (MPIO) is being used or where a volume group is
being mirrored by devices on multiple Virtual I/O Servers.
If no I/O requests issued to the virtual SCSI server adapter have been serviced within the number of
seconds specified by the virtual SCSI path timeout value, one more attempt is made to contact the virtual
SCSI server adapter, waiting up to 60 seconds for a response.
If, after 60 seconds, there is still no response from the server adapter, all outstanding I/O requests to that
adapter are failed and an error is written to the client logical partition error log. If MPIO is being used,
the MPIO Path Control Module will retry the I/O requests down another path. Otherwise, the failed
requests will be returned to the applications. If the devices on this adapter are part of a mirrored volume
group, those devices will be marked as missing and the Logical Volume Manager logs errors in the client
logical partition error log. If one of the failed devices is the root volume group (rootvg) for the logical
partition, and the rootvg is not available via another path or is not being mirrored on another Virtual I/O
Server, the client logical partition is likely to shut down. The virtual SCSI client adapter attempts to
reestablish communication with the Virtual I/O Server and logs a message in the system error log when
it is able to do so. Mirrored volume groups must be manually resynchronized by running the varyonvg
command when the missing devices are once again available.
A configurable virtual SCSI client adapter ODM attribute, vscsi_path_to, is provided. This is a tunable
attribute that is specific to an AIX client. The path timeouts for the Linux operating system are configured
differently. This attribute is used both to indicate whether the feature is enabled and to store the value of
the path timeout if the feature is enabled.
The system administrator sets the ODM attribute to 0 to disable the feature, or to the time, in seconds, to
wait before checking if the path to the server adapter has failed. If the feature is enabled, a minimum
setting of 30 seconds is required. If a setting between 0 and 30 seconds is entered, the value will be
changed to 30 seconds upon the next adapter reconfiguration or reboot.
Virtual I/O Server
29
This feature is disabled by default, thus the default value of vscsi_path_to is 0. Exercise careful
consideration when setting this value, keeping in mind that when the virtual SCSI server adapter is
servicing the I/O request, the storage device the request is being sent to may be either local to the VIO
Server or on a SAN.
The vscsi_path_to client adapter attribute can be set by using the SMIT utility or by using the chdev -P
command. The attribute setting can also be viewed by using SMIT or the lsattr command. The setting
will not take affect until the adapter is reconfigured or the client partition is rebooted.
Optical:
Optical devices can be exported by the Virtual I/O Server. This topic gives information about what types
of optical devices are supported.
The Virtual I/O Server supports exporting physical optical devices to client logical partitions. These are
referred to as virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) optical devices. Virtual SCSI optical devices can
be backed by DVD drives or files. Depending on the backing device, the Virtual I/O Server will export a
virtual optical device with one of following profiles:
v DVD-ROM
v DVD-RAM
For example, file-backed virtual SCSI optical devices are exported as DVD-RAM devices. File-backed
virtual SCSI optical devices can be backed by read-write or read-only files. Depending on the file
permissions, the device can appear to contain a DVD-ROM or DVD-RAM disk. Read-write media files
(DVD-RAM) cannot be loaded into more than one file-backed virtual SCSI optical device simultaneously.
Read-only media files (DVD-ROM) can be loaded into multiple file-backed virtual SCSI optical devices
simultaneously.
Virtual SCSI optical devices that are backed by physical optical devices can be assigned to only one client
logical partition at any given time. To use the device on a different client logical partition, it must first be
removed from its current logical partition and reassigned to the logical partition that will use the device.
Virtual SCSI optical devices will always appear as SCSI devices on the client logical partitions regardless
of whether the device type exported from the Virtual I/O Server is a SCSI, IDE, USB device, or a file.
Tape:
Tape devices can be exported by the Virtual I/O Server. This topic gives information about what types of
tape devices are supported.
The Virtual I/O Server supports exporting physical tape devices to client logical partitions. These are
referred to as virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) tape devices. Virtual SCSI tape devices are
backed up by physical tape devices.
Virtual SCSI tape devices are assigned to only one client logical partition at any given time. To use the
device on a different client logical partition, it must first be removed from its current logical partition and
reassigned to the logical partition that will use the device.
Restriction:
v The physical tape device must be attached by a serial-attached SCSI (SAS) or Universal Serial Bus
(USB) tape device and both the drive types must be DAT320.
v The Virtual I/O Server does not support media movers, even if the physical device supports them.
v It is recommended that you assign the tape device to its own Virtual I/O Server adapter because as
tape devices often send large amounts of data, which might affect the performance of any other device
on the adapter.
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Virtual I/O Server
Device compatibility in a Virtual I/O Server environment:
Learn more about virtual-to-physical device compatibility in a Virtual I/O Server environment.
The virtual-to-physical device (p2v) compatibility described in this topic refers only to the data on the
device, not necessarily to the capabilities of the device. A device is p2v compatible when the data
retrieved from that device is identical regardless of whether it is accessed directly through a physical
attachment or virtually (for example, through the Virtual I/O Server). That is, every logical block (for
example, LBA 0 through LBA n-1) returns identical data for both physical and virtual devices. Device
capacity must also be equal in order to claim p2v compliance. You can use the Virtual I/O Server chkdev
command to determine if a device is p2v compatible.
Virtual disk devices exported by the Virtual I/O Server are referred to as virtual Small Computer Serial
Interface (SCSI) disks. A vitual SCSI disk device may be backed by an entire physical volume, a logical
volume, a multi-path device, or a file.
Data replication (such as copy services) and device movement between physical and virtual environments
are common operations in today's datacenter. These operations, involving devices in a virtualized
environment, often have a dependency on p2v compliance.
Copy Services refer to various solutions that provide data replication function including data migration,
flashcopy, point-in-time copy, and remote mirror and copy solutions. These capabilities are commonly
used for disaster recovery, cloning, backup/restore, and more.
Device movement between physical and virtual environments refers to the ability to move a disk device
between physical (for example, a direct-attached SAN) and virtual I/O (for example, . Virtual I/O
Server-attached SAN) environments and use the disk without having to backup or restore the data. This
capability is very useful for server consolidation.
The operations above may work if the device is p2v compatible. However, not all device combinations
and data replication solutions have been tested. See claims by the Copy Services vendor for support
claims for devices managed by Virtual I/O Server.
A device is p2v compatible if it meets the following criteria:
v It is an entire physical volume (for example, a LUN)
v Device capacity is identical in both physical and virtual environments
v The Virtual I/O Server is able to manage this physical volume using a UDID or iEEE ID. For more
information, see the Determining if a physical volume is managed by UDID or iEEE topic below.
Devices managed by the following multipathing solutions within the Virtual I/O Server are expected to
be UDID devices.
v All multipath I/O (MPIO) versions, including Subsystem Device Driver Path Control Module
(SDDPCM), EMC PCM, and Hitachi Dynamic Link Manager (HDLM) PCM
v EMC PowerPath 4.4.2.2 or later
v IBM® Subsystem Device Driver (SDD) 1.6.2.3 or later
v Hitachi HDLM 5.6.1 or later
Virtual SCSI devices created with earlier versions of PowerPath, HDLM, and SDD are not managed by
UDID format and are not expected to be p2v compliant. The operations mentioned above (for example,
data replication or movement between Virtual I/O Server and non-Virtual I/O Server environments) are
not likely to work in these cases.
Virtual I/O Server
31
Related information:
chkdev command
Determining whether a physical volume is managed by UDID or IEEE:
Determine whether a physical volume is or can be managed by a unit device identifier (UDID) or IEEE.
You can use the Virtual I/O Server chkdev command to display this data.
Before you begin
In order to determine whether a physical volume is or can be managed by the UDID format, the
following must be verified:
v If it is an existing Virtual I/O Server LUN, determine if its format is UDID.
v If it is a LUN to be moved to Virtual I/O Server, first verify that the Virtual I/O Server is prepared to
see that LUN as a UDID LUN by checking it at the source host.
Note: Moving a physical disk to a Virtual I/O Server that is not capable of managing the device using
UDID may result in data loss. In this case, backup the data prior to allocating the LUN to the Virtual
I/O Server.
About this task
To determine whether a device has a UDID or IEEE volume attribute identifier, complete the following
steps:
Procedure
1. To determine whether a device has an UDID or an IEEE volume attribute identifier for the Virtual
I/O Server, type chkdev -verbose. Output similar to the following example is displayed:
NAME:
IDENTIFIER:
PHYS2VIRT_CAPABLE:
VIRT2NPIV_CAPABLE:
VIRT2PHYS_CAPABLE:
PVID:
UDID:
IEEE:
VTD:
hdisk1
210ChpO-c4HkKBc904N37006NETAPPfcp
YES
NA
NA
00c58e40599f2f900000000000000000
2708ECVBZ1SC10IC35L146UCDY10-003IBXscsi
NAME:
IDENTIFIER:
PHYS2VIRT_CAPABLE:
VIRT2NPIV_CAPABLE:
VIRT2PHYS_CAPABLE:
PVID:
UDID:
IEEE:
VTD:
hdisk2
600A0B800012DD0D00000AB441ED6AC
YES
NA
NA
00c58e40dcf83c850000000000000000
600A0B800012DD0D00000AB441ED6AC
If the IEEE: field does not appear, then the device does not have an IEEE volume attribute identifier.
2. To determine whether a device has an UDID for the AIX operating system, type odmget
-qattribute=unique_id CuAt
The disks that have a UDID are listed. Output similar to the following example is displayed:
CuAt:
name = "hdisk1"
attribute = "unique_id"
value = "2708ECVBZ1SC10IC35L146UCDY10-003IBXscsi"
type = "R"
generic = ""
rep = "nl"
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Virtual I/O Server
nls_index = 79
CuAt:
name = "hdisk2"
attribute = "unique_id"
value = "210800038FB50AST373453LC03IBXscsi"
type = "R"
generic = ""
rep = "nl"
nls_index = 79
3. To determine whether a device has an IEEE volume attribute identifier for the AIX operating system,
run the following command: lsattr -l hdiskX. Disks with an IEEE volume attribute identifier have a
value in the ieee_volname field. Output similar to the following example is displayed:
...
cache_method
ieee_volname
lun_id
...
fast_write
Write Caching method
600A0B800012DD0D00000AB441ED6AC IEEE Unique volume name
0x001a000000000000
Logical Unit Number
If the ieee_volname field does not appear, then the device does not have an IEEE volume attribute
identifier.
Note: DS4K and FAStT storage that are using the Redundant Disk Array Controller (RDAC) driver
for multipathing are managed using an IEEE ID.
Related information:
chkdev command
Mapping devices
Mapping devices are used to facilitate the mapping of physical resources to a virtual device.
Virtual networking
Learn about virtual Ethernet, Host Ethernet Adapter (or Integrated Virtual Ethernet), Internet Protocol
Version 6 (IPv6), Link Aggregation (or EtherChannel), Shared Ethernet Adapter, Shared Ethernet Adapter
failover, and VLAN.
Virtual Ethernet technology facilitates IP-based communication between logical partitions on the same
system using virtual local area network (VLAN)-capable software switch systems. Using Shared Ethernet
Adapter technology, logical partitions can communicate with other systems outside the hardware unit
without assigning physical Ethernet slots to the logical partitions.
Host Ethernet Adapter
A Host Ethernet Adapter (HEA) is a physical Ethernet adapter that is integrated directly into the GX+ bus
on a managed system. HEAs offer high throughput, low latency, and virtualization support for Ethernet
connections. HEAs are also known as Integrated Virtual Ethernet adapters (IVE adapters).
Unlike most other types of I/O devices, you can never assign the HEA itself to a logical partition.
Instead, multiple logical partitions can connect directly to the HEA and use the HEA resources. This
allows these logical partitions to access external networks through the HEA without having to go through
an Ethernet bridge on another logical partition.
To connect a logical partition to an HEA, you must create a logical Host Ethernet Adapter (LHEA) for the
logical partition. A logical Host Ethernet Adapter (LHEA) is a representation of a physical HEA on a logical
partition. An LHEA appears to the operating system as if it were a physical Ethernet adapter, just as a
virtual Ethernet adapter appears as if it were a physical Ethernet adapter. When you create an LHEA for
a logical partition, you specify the resources that the logical partition can use on the actual physical HEA.
Each logical partition can have one LHEA for each physical HEA on the managed system. Each LHEA
can have one or more logical ports, and each logical port can connect to a physical port on the HEA.
Virtual I/O Server
33
You can create an LHEA for a logical partition using either of the following methods:
v You can add the LHEA to a partition profile, shut down the logical partition, and reactivate the logical
partition using the partition profile with the LHEA.
v You can add the LHEA to a running logical partition using dynamic logical partitioning. This method
can be used for Linux logical partitions only if you install the following operating systems on the
logical partition:
–
–
–
–
Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 4.6, or later
Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 5.1, or later
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Version 10, or later
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Version 11, or later
When you activate a logical partition, the LHEAs in the partition profile are considered to be required
resources. If the physical HEA resources required by the LHEAs are not available, then the logical
partition cannot be activated. However, when the logical partition is active, you can remove any LHEAs
you want from the logical partition.
After you create an LHEA for a logical partition, a network device is created in the logical partition. This
network device is named entX on AIX logical partitions and ethX on Linux logical partitions, where X
represents sequentially assigned numbers. The user can then set up TCP/IP configuration like a physical
Ethernet device to communicate with other logical partitions.
You can configure a logical partition so that it is the only logical partition that can access a physical port
of an HEA by specifying promiscuous mode for an LHEA that is assigned to the logical partition. When an
LHEA is in promiscuous mode, no other logical partitions can access the logical ports of the physical port
that is associated with the LHEA that is in promiscuous mode. You might want to configure a logical
partition to promiscuous mode in the following situations:
v If you want to connect more than 16 logical partitions to each other and to an external network
through a physical port on an HEA, you can create a logical port on a Virtual I/O Server logical
partition and configure an Ethernet bridge between the logical port and a virtual Ethernet adapter on a
virtual LAN. This allows all logical partitions with virtual Ethernet adapters on the virtual LAN to
communicate with the physical port through the Ethernet bridge. If you configure an Ethernet bridge
between a logical port and a virtual Ethernet adapter, the physical port that is connected to the logical
port must have the following properties:
– The physical port must be configured so that the Virtual I/O Server logical partition is the
promiscuous mode logical partition for the physical port.
– The physical port can have only one logical port.
v You want the logical partition to have dedicated access to a physical port.
v You want to use tools such as tcpdump or iptrace.
A logical port can communicate with all other logical ports that are connected to the same physical port
on the HEA. The physical port and its associated logical ports form a logical Ethernet network. Broadcast
and multicast packets are distributed on this logical network as though it was a physical Ethernet
network. You can connect up to 16 logical ports to a physical port using this logical network. By
extension, you can connect up to 16 logical partitions to each other and to an external network through
this logical network. The actual number of logical ports that you can connect to a physical port depends
upon the Multi-Core Scaling value of the physical port group. It also depends on the number of logical
ports that have been created for other physical ports within the physical port group. By default, the
Multi-Core Scaling value of each physical port group is set to 4, which allows four logical ports to be
connected to the physical ports in the physical port group. To allow up to 16 logical ports to be
connected to the physical ports in the physical port group, you must change the Multi-Core Scaling value
of the physical port group to 1 and restart the managed system.
34
Virtual I/O Server
You can set each logical port to restrict or allow packets that are tagged for specific VLANs. You can set a
logical port to accept packets with any VLAN ID, or you can set a logical port to accept only the VLAN
IDs that you specify. You can specify up to 20 individual VLAN IDs for each logical port.
The physical ports on an HEA are always configured on the managed system level. If you use an HMC
to manage a system, you must use the HMC to configure the physical ports on any HEAs belonging to
the managed system. Also, the physical port configuration applies to all logical partitions that use the
physical port. (Some properties might require setup in the operating system as well. For example, the
maximum packet size for a physical port on the HEA must be set on the managed system level using the
HMC. However, you must also set the maximum packet size for each logical port within the operating
system.) By contrast, if a system is unpartitioned and is not managed by an HMC, you can configure the
physical ports on an HEA within the operating system as if the physical ports were ports on a regular
physical Ethernet adapter.
HEA hardware does not support half duplex mode.
You can change the properties of a logical port on an LHEA by using dynamic logical partitioning to
remove the logical port from the logical partition. You can also add the logical port back to the logical
partition using the changed properties. If the operating system of the logical partition does not support
dynamic logical partitioning for LHEAs, and you want to change any logical port property other than the
VLANs on which the logical port participates, you must set a partition profile for the logical partition so
that the partition profile contains the wanted logical port properties, shut down the logical partition, and
activate the logical partition using the new or changed partition profile. If the operating system of the
logical partition does not support dynamic logical partitioning for LHEAs, and you want to change the
VLANs on which the logical port participates, you must remove the logical port from a partition profile
belonging to the logical partition, shut down and activate the logical partition using the changed partition
profile, add the logical port back to the partition profile using the changed VLAN configuration, and shut
down and activate the logical partition again using the changed partition profile.
Internet Protocol version 6
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the next generation of Internet Protocol and is gradually replacing the
current Internet standard, Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). The key IPv6 enhancement is the expansion
of the IP address space from 32 bits to 128 bits, providing virtually unlimited, unique IP addresses.
IPv6 provides several advantages over IPv4, including expanded routing and addressing, routing
simplification, header format simplification, improved traffic control, autoconfiguration, and security.
For more information about IPv6, see Internet Protocol (IP) version 6.
Note: For more information about IPv6 on the Linux operating system, see the documentation for the
Linux operating system.
Link Aggregation or EtherChannel devices
A Link Aggregation, or EtherChannel, device is a network port-aggregation technology that allows
several Ethernet adapters to be aggregated. The adapters can then act as a single Ethernet device. Link
Aggregation helps provide more throughput over a single IP address than would be possible with a
single Ethernet adapter.
For example, ent0 and ent1 can be aggregated to ent3. The system considers these aggregated adapters
as one adapter, and all adapters in the Link Aggregation device are given the same hardware address, so
they are treated by remote systems as if they are one adapter.
Link Aggregation can help provide more redundancy because individual links might fail, and the Link
Aggregation device will fail over to another adapter in the device to maintain connectivity. For example,
Virtual I/O Server
35
in the previous example, if ent0 fails, the packets are automatically sent on the next available adapter,
ent1, without disruption to existing user connections. ent0 automatically returns to service on the Link
Aggregation device when it recovers.
You can configure a Shared Ethernet Adapter to use a Link Aggregation, or EtherChannel, device as the
physical adapter.
Virtual Ethernet adapters
Virtual Ethernet adapters allow client logical partitions to send and receive network traffic without
having a physical Ethernet adapter.
Virtual Ethernet adapters allow logical partitions within the same system to communicate without having
to use physical Ethernet adapters. Within the system, virtual Ethernet adapters are connected to an IEEE
802.1q virtual Ethernet switch. Using this switch function, logical partitions can communicate with each
other by using virtual Ethernet adapters and assigning VIDs. With VIDs, virtual Ethernet adapters can
share a common logical network. The system transmits packets by copying the packet directly from the
memory of the sender logical partition to the receive buffers of the receiver logical partition without any
intermediate buffering of the packet.
Virtual Ethernet adapters can be used without using the Virtual I/O Server, but the logical partitions will
not be able to communicate with external systems. However, in this situation, you can use another
device, called a Host Ethernet Adapter (or Integrated Virtual Ethernet), to facilitate communication
between logical partitions on the system and external networks.
You can create virtual Ethernet adapters using the Hardware Management Console (HMC) and configure
them using the Virtual I/O Server command-line interface. You can also use the Integrated Virtualization
Manager to create and manage virtual Ethernet adapters. With the Virtual I/O Server Version 2.2, or later,
you can add, remove, or modify the existing set of VLANs for a virtual Ethernet adapter that is assigned
to an active partition on a POWER7 processor-based server by using the HMC. The server firmware level
must be at least AH720_064+ for high end servers, AM720_064+ for midrange servers, and AL720_064+
for low end servers. The HMC must be at Version 7.7.2.0, with mandatory efix MH01235, or later, to
perform this task.
Note: The AL720_064+ server firmware level is only supported on POWER7 processor-based servers, or
later.
Consider using virtual Ethernet on the Virtual I/O Server in the following situations:
v When the capacity or the bandwidth requirement of the individual logical partition is inconsistent
with, or is less than, the total bandwidth of a physical Ethernet adapter. Logical partitions that use the
full bandwidth or capacity of a physical Ethernet adapter should use dedicated Ethernet adapters.
v When you need an Ethernet connection, but there is no slot available in which to install a dedicated
adapter.
Virtual local area networks
Virtual local area networks (VLAN) allows the physical network to be logically segmented.
VLAN is a method to logically segment a physical network so that layer 2 connectivity is restricted to
members that belong to the same VLAN. This separation is achieved by tagging Ethernet packets with
their VLAN membership information and then restricting delivery to members of that VLAN. VLAN is
described by the IEEE 802.1Q standard.
The VLAN tag information is referred to as VLAN ID (VID). Ports on a switch are configured as being
members of a VLAN designated by the VID for that port. The default VID for a port is referred to as the
Port VID (PVID). The VID can be added to an Ethernet packet either by a VLAN-aware host, or by the
switch in the case of VLAN-unaware hosts. Ports on an Ethernet switch must therefore be configured
with information indicating whether the host connected is VLAN-aware.
36
Virtual I/O Server
For VLAN-unaware hosts, a port is set up as untagged and the switch will tag all packets entering
through that port with the Port VLAN ID (PVID). It will also untag all packets exiting that port before
delivery to the VLAN unaware host. A port used to connect VLAN-unaware hosts is called an untagged
port, and it can be a member of only a single VLAN identified by its PVID. Hosts that are VLAN-aware
can insert and remove their own tags and can be members of more than one VLAN. These hosts are
typically attached to ports that do not remove the tags before delivering the packets to the host, but will
insert the PVID tag when an untagged packet enters the port. A port will only allow packets that are
untagged or tagged with the tag of one of the VLANs that the port belongs to. These VLAN rules are in
addition to the regular media access control (MAC) address-based forwarding rules followed by a switch.
Therefore, a packet with a broadcast or multicast destination MAC is also delivered to member ports that
belong to the VLAN that is identified by the tags in the packet. This mechanism ensures the logical
separation of the physical network based on membership in a VLAN.
Shared Ethernet Adapters
With Shared Ethernet Adapters on the Virtual I/O Server logical partition, virtual Ethernet adapters on
client logical partitions can send and receive outside network traffic.
A Shared Ethernet Adapter is a Virtual I/O Server component that bridges a physical Ethernet adapter
and one or more virtual Ethernet adapters:
v The real adapter can be a physical Ethernet adapter, a Link Aggregation or EtherChannel device, or a
Logical Host Ethernet Adapter . The real adapter cannot be another Shared Ethernet Adapter or a
VLAN pseudo-device.
v The virtual Ethernet adapter must be a virtual I/O Ethernet adapter. It cannot be any other type of
device or adapter.
Using a Shared Ethernet Adapter, logical partitions on the virtual network can share access to the
physical network and communicate with stand-alone servers and logical partitions on other systems. The
Shared Ethernet Adapter eliminates the need for each client logical partition to a dedicated physical
adapter to connect to the external network.
A Shared Ethernet Adapter provides access by connecting the internal VLANs with the VLANs on the
external switches. Using this connection, logical partitions can share the IP subnet with stand-alone
systems and other external logical partitions. The Shared Ethernet Adapter forwards outbound packets
received from a virtual Ethernet adapter to the external network and forwards inbound packets to the
appropriate client logical partition over the virtual Ethernet link to that logical partition. The Shared
Ethernet Adapter processes packets at layer 2, so the original MAC address and VLAN tags of the packet
are visible to other systems on the physical network.
The Shared Ethernet Adapter has a bandwidth apportioning feature, also known as Virtual I/O Server
quality of service (QoS). QoS allows the Virtual I/O Server to give a higher priority to some types of
packets. In accordance with the IEEE 801.q specification, Virtual I/O Server administrators can instruct
the Shared Ethernet Adapter to inspect bridged VLAN-tagged traffic for the VLAN priority field in the
VLAN header. The 3-bit VLAN priority field allows each individual packet to be prioritized with a value
from 0 to 7 to distinguish more important traffic from less important traffic. More important traffic is sent
preferentially and uses more Virtual I/O Server bandwidth than less important traffic.
Note: When using the trunk of the Virtual Ethernet Adapter on an HMC, only traffic on VLANs with
specified VLAN IDs is delivered to the Virtual I/O Server with a VLAN tag. Consequently, to use this
feature, the adapter must be configured with additional VLAN IDs when the trunk of the Virtual
Ethernet Adapter is configured. Untagged traffic is always treated as though it belonged to the default
priority class, that is, as if it had a priority value of 0.
Depending on the VLAN priority values found in the VLAN headers, packets are prioritized as follows.
Virtual I/O Server
37
Table 14. VLAN traffic priority values and relative importance
Priority value and importance
1 (Least important)
2
0 (Default)
3
4
5
6
7 (Most important)
The Virtual I/O Server administrator can use QoS by setting the Shared Ethernet Adapter qos_mode
attribute to either strict or loose mode. The default is disabled mode. The following definitions describe
these modes:
disabled mode
This is the default mode. VLAN traffic is not inspected for the priority field. An example follows:
chdev -dev <SEA device name> -attr qos_mode=disabled
strict mode
More important traffic is sent preferentially over less important traffic. This mode provides better
performance and more bandwidth to more important traffic; however, it can result in substantial
delays for less important traffic. An example follows:
chdev -dev <SEA device name> -attr qos_mode=strict
loose mode
A cap is placed on each priority level so that after a number of bytes is sent for each priority
level, the following level is serviced. This method ensures that all packets are eventually sent.
More important traffic is given less bandwidth with this mode than with strict mode; however,
the caps in loose mode are such that more bytes are sent for the more important traffic, so it still
gets more bandwidth than less important traffic. An example follows:
chdev -dev <SEA device name> -attr qos_mode=loose
Note: In either strict or loose mode, because the Shared Ethernet Adapter uses several threads to bridge
traffic, it is still possible for less important traffic from one thread to be sent before more important traffic
of another thread.
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol
Shared Ethernet Adapters, in Virtual I/O Server Version 1.4 or later, support GARP VLAN Registration
Protocol (GVRP), which is based on Generic Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP). GVRP allows for the
dynamic registration of VLANs over networks, which can reduce the number of errors in the
configuration of a large network. By propagating registration across the network through the
transmission of Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs), devices on the network have accurate knowledge of
the bridged VLANs configured on the network.
When GVRP is enabled, communication travels one way, from the Shared Ethernet Adapter to the switch.
The Shared Ethernet Adapter notifies the switch which VLANs can communicate with the network. The
Shared Ethernet Adapter does not configure VLANs to communicate with the network based on
information received from the switch. Rather, the configuration of VLANs that communicate with the
network is statically determined by the virtual Ethernet adapter configuration settings.
Host Ethernet Adapter or Integrated Virtual Ethernet
A logical Host Ethernet Adapter (LHEA), which is sometimes referred to as Integrated Virtual Ethernet, is
a physical adapter that you can use to configure virtual Ethernet. With Virtual I/O Server Version 1.4, or
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Virtual I/O Server
later, you can assign a logical host Ethernet port of an LHEA, as the real adapter of a Shared Ethernet
Adapter. The logical host Ethernet port is associated with a physical port on the Host Ethernet Adapter.
The Shared Ethernet Adapter uses the standard device driver interfaces provided by the Virtual I/O
Server to communicate with the Host Ethernet Adapter.
To use a Shared Ethernet Adapter with a Host Ethernet Adapter, the following requirements must be met:
v The logical host Ethernet port must be the only port assigned to the physical port on the Host Ethernet
Adapter. No other ports of the LHEA can be assigned to the physical port on the Host Ethernet
Adapter.
v The LHEA on the Virtual I/O Server logical partition must be set to promiscuous mode. (In an
Integrated Virtualization Manager environment, the mode is set to promiscuous by default.) Promiscuous
mode allows the LHEA (on the Virtual I/O Server) to receive all unicast, multicast, and broadcast
network traffic from the physical network.
Recommendations
Consider using Shared Ethernet Adapters on the Virtual I/O Server in the following situations:
v When the capacity or the bandwidth requirement of the individual logical partition is inconsistent or is
less than the total bandwidth of a physical Ethernet adapter. Logical partitions that use the full
bandwidth or capacity of a physical Ethernet adapter should use dedicated Ethernet adapters.
v If you plan to migrate a client logical partition from one system to another.
Consider assigning a Shared Ethernet Adapter to a Logical Host Ethernet port when the number of
Ethernet adapters that you need is more than the number of ports available on the LHEA, or you
anticipate that your needs will grow beyond that number. If the number of Ethernet adapters that you
need is fewer than or equal to the number of ports available on the LHEA, and you do not anticipate
needing more ports in the future, you can use the ports of the LHEA for network connectivity rather than
the Shared Ethernet Adapter.
Shared memory
Shared memory is physical memory that is assigned to the shared memory pool and shared among
multiple logical partitions. The shared memory pool is a defined collection of physical memory blocks that
are managed as a single memory pool by the hypervisor. Logical partitions that you configure to use
shared memory (hereafter referred to as shared memory partitions) share the memory in the pool with other
shared memory partitions.
For example, you create a shared memory pool with 16 GB of physical memory. You then create three
logical partitions, configure them to use shared memory, and activate the shared memory partitions. Each
shared memory partition can use the 16 GB that are in the shared memory pool.
The hypervisor determines the amount of memory allocated from the shared memory pool to each shared
memory partition based on the workload and memory configuration of each shared memory partition.
When allocating the physical memory to the shared memory partitions, the hypervisor ensures that each
shared memory partition can access only the memory allocated to the shared memory partition at any
given time. A shared memory partition cannot access the physical memory allocated to another shared
memory partition.
The amount of memory that you assign to the shared memory partitions can be greater than the amount
of memory in the shared memory pool. For example, you can assign 12 GB to shared memory partition 1,
8 GB to shared memory partition 2, and 4 GB to shared memory partition 3. Together, the shared memory
partitions use 24 GB of memory, but the shared memory pool has only 16 GB of memory. In this
situation, the memory configuration is considered overcommitted.
Virtual I/O Server
39
Overcommitted memory configurations are possible because the hypervisor virtualizes and manages all
of the memory for the shared memory partitions in the shared memory pool as follows:
1. When shared memory partitions are not actively using their memory pages, the hypervisor allocates
those unused memory pages to shared memory partitions that currently need them. When the sum of
the physical memory currently used by the shared memory partitions is less than or equal to the
amount of memory in the shared memory pool, the memory configuration is logically overcommitted. In
a logically overcommitted memory configuration, the shared memory pool has enough physical
memory to contain the memory used by all shared memory partitions at one point in time. The
hypervisor does not need to store any data in auxiliary storage.
2. When a shared memory partition requires more memory than the hypervisor can provide to it by
allocating unused portions of the shared memory pool, the hypervisor stores some of the memory that
belongs to a shared memory partition in the shared memory pool and stores the remainder of the
memory that belongs to the shared memory partition in auxiliary storage. When the sum of the
physical memory currently used by the shared memory partitions is greater than the amount of
memory in the shared memory pool, the memory configuration is physically overcommitted. In a
physically overcommitted memory configuration, the shared memory pool does not have enough
physical memory to contain the memory used by all the shared memory partitions at one point in
time. The hypervisor stores the difference in auxiliary storage. When the operating system attempts to
access the data, the hypervisor might need to retrieve the data from auxiliary storage before the
operating system can access it.
Because the memory that you assign to a shared memory partition might not always reside in the shared
memory pool, the memory that you assign to a shared memory partition is logical memory. Logical
memory is the address space, assigned to a logical partition, that the operating system perceives as its
main storage. For a shared memory partition, a subset of the logical memory is backed up by physical
main storage (or physical memory from the shared memory pool) and the remaining logical memory is
kept in auxiliary storage.
A Virtual I/O Server logical partition provides access to the auxiliary storage, or paging space devices,
required for shared memory partitions in an overcommitted memory configuration. A paging space device
is a physical or logical device that is used by a Virtual I/O Server to provide the paging space for a
shared memory partition. The paging space is an area of nonvolatile storage used to hold portions of a
shared memory partition's logical memory that do not reside in the shared memory pool. When the
operating system that runs in a shared memory partition attempts to access data, and the data is located
in the paging space device that is assigned to the shared memory partition, the hypervisor sends a
request to a Virtual I/O Server to retrieve the data and write it to the shared memory pool so that the
operating system can access it.
On systems that are managed by a Hardware Management Console (HMC), you can assign up to two
Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) logical partitions to the shared memory pool at a time (hereafter referred to as
paging VIOS partitions). When you assign two paging VIOS partitions to the shared memory pool, you
can configure the paging space devices such that both paging VIOS partitions have access to the same
paging space devices. When one paging VIOS partition becomes unavailable, the hypervisor sends a
request to the other paging VIOS partition to retrieve the data on the paging space device.
You cannot configure paging VIOS partitions to use shared memory. Paging VIOS partitions do not use
the memory in the shared memory pool. You assign paging VIOS partitions to the shared memory pool
so that they can provide access to the paging space devices for the shared memory partitions that are
assigned to the shared memory pool.
Driven by workload demands from the shared memory partitions, the hypervisor manages
overcommitted memory configurations by continually performing the following tasks:
v Allocating portions of physical memory from the shared memory pool to the shared memory partitions
as needed
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Virtual I/O Server
v Requesting a paging VIOS partition to read and write data between the shared memory pool and the
paging space devices as needed
The ability to share memory among multiple logical partitions is known as the PowerVM Active Memory
Sharing technology. The PowerVM Active Memory Sharing technology is available with the PowerVM
Enterprise Edition for which you must obtain and enter a PowerVM Editions activation code.
Related reference:
“Configuration requirements for shared memory” on page 78
Review the requirements for the system, Virtual I/O Server (VIOS), logical partitions, and paging space
devices so that you can successfully configure shared memory.
Related information:
Paging space device
Paging VIOS partition
A Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) logical partition that is assigned to the shared memory pool (hereafter
referred to as a paging VIOS partition) provides access to the paging space devices for the logical
partitions that are assigned to the shared memory pool (hereafter referred to as shared memory partitions).
When the operating system that runs in a shared memory partition attempts to access data, and the data
is located in the paging space device that is assigned to the shared memory partition, the hypervisor
sends a request to a paging VIOS partition to retrieve the data and write it to the shared memory pool so
that the operating system can access it.
A paging VIOS partition is not a shared memory partition and does not use the memory in the shared
memory pool. A paging VIOS partition provides access to the paging space devices for the shared
memory partitions.
Integrated Virtualization Manager
On systems that are managed by the Integrated Virtualization Manager, the management partition is the
paging VIOS partition for the shared memory partitions that are assigned to the shared memory pool.
When you create the shared memory pool, you assign a paging storage pool to the shared memory pool.
The paging storage pool provides the paging space devices for the shared memory partitions that are
assigned to the shared memory pool.
HMC
On systems that are managed by a Hardware Management Console (HMC), you can assign one or two
paging VIOS partitions to the shared memory pool. When you assign a single paging VIOS partition to
the shared memory pool, the paging VIOS partition provides access to all of the paging space devices for
the shared memory partitions. The paging space devices can be located in physical storage in the server
or on a storage area network (SAN). When you assign two paging VIOS partitions to the shared memory
pool, you can configure each paging VIOS partition to access paging space devices in one of the
following ways:
v You can configure each paging VIOS partition to access independent paging space devices. Paging
space devices that are accessed by only one paging VIOS partition, or independent paging space
devices, can be located in physical storage in the server or on a SAN.
v You can configure both paging VIOS partitions to access the same, or common, paging space devices.
In this configuration, the paging VIOS partitions provide redundant access to paging space devices.
When one paging VIOS partition becomes unavailable, the hypervisor sends a request to the other
paging VIOS partition to retrieve the data on the paging space device. Common paging space devices
must be located on a SAN to enable symmetrical access from both paging VIOS partitions.
Virtual I/O Server
41
v You can configure each paging VIOS partition to access some independent paging space devices and
some common paging space devices.
If you configure the shared memory pool with two paging VIOS partitions, you can configure a shared
memory partition to use either a single paging VIOS partition or redundant paging VIOS partitions.
When you configure a shared memory partition to use redundant paging VIOS partitions, you assign a
primary paging VIOS partition and a secondary paging VIOS partition to the shared memory partition.
The hypervisor uses the primary paging VIOS partition to access the shared memory partition's paging
space device. At this point, the primary paging VIOS partition is the current paging VIOS partition for
the shared memory partition. The current paging VIOS partition is the paging VIOS partition that the
hypervisor uses at any point in time to access data in the paging space device that is assigned to the
shared memory partition. If the primary paging VIOS partition becomes unavailable, the hypervisor uses
the secondary paging VIOS partition to access the shared memory partition's paging space device. At this
point, the secondary paging VIOS partition becomes the current paging VIOS partition for the shared
memory partition and continues as the current paging VIOS partition even after the primary paging VIOS
partition becomes available again.
You do not need to assign the same primary and secondary paging VIOS partitions to all of the shared
memory partitions. For example, you assign paging VIOS partition A and paging VIOS partition B to the
shared memory pool. For one shared memory partition, you can assign paging VIOS partition A as the
primary paging VIOS partition and paging VIOS partition B as the secondary paging VIOS partition. For
a different shared memory partition, you can assign paging VIOS partition B as the primary paging VIOS
partition and paging VIOS partition A as the secondary paging VIOS partition.
The following figure shows an example of a system with four shared memory partitions, two paging
VIOS partitions, and four paging space devices.
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Virtual I/O Server
The example shows the configuration options for paging VIOS partitions and paging space devices as
described in the following table.
Virtual I/O Server
43
Table 15. Examples of paging VIOS partition configurations
Configuration option
Example
The paging space device that is assigned to a shared
Paging space device 4 provides the paging space for
memory partition is located in physical storage in the
Shared memory partition 4. Shared memory partition 4 is
server and is accessed by a single paging VIOS partition. assigned to use Paging VIOS partition 2 to access Paging
space device 4. Paging space device 4 is located in
physical storage in the server and is assigned to Paging
VIOS partition 2. Paging VIOS partition 2 is the only
paging VIOS partition that can access Paging space
device 4 (This relationship is shown by the blue line that
connects Paging VIOS partition 2 to Paging space device
4.).
The paging space device that is assigned to a shared
Paging space device 1 provides the paging space for
memory partition is located on a SAN and is accessed by Shared memory partition 1. Shared memory partition 1 is
a single paging VIOS partition.
assigned to use Paging VIOS partition 1 to access Paging
space device 1. Paging space device 1 is connected to the
SAN. Paging VIOS partition 1 is also connected to the
SAN and is the only paging VIOS partition that can
access Paging space device 1 (This relationship is shown
by the green line that connects Paging VIOS partition 1
to Paging space device 1.).
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Virtual I/O Server
Table 15. Examples of paging VIOS partition configurations (continued)
Configuration option
Example
The paging space device that is assigned to a shared
memory partition is located on a SAN and is accessed
redundantly by two paging VIOS partitions.
Paging space device 2 provides the paging space for
Shared memory partition 2. Paging space device 2 is
connected to the SAN. Paging VIOS partition 1 and
Paging VIOS partition 2 are also connected to the SAN
and can both access Paging space device 2. (These
relationships are shown by the green line that connects
Paging VIOS partition 1 to Paging space device 2 and the
blue line that connects Paging VIOS partition 2 to Paging
space device 2.) Shared memory partition 2 is assigned to
use redundant paging VIOS partitions to access Paging
space device 2. Paging VIOS partition 1 is configured as
the primary paging VIOS partition and Paging VIOS
partition 2 is configured as the secondary paging VIOS
partition.
Similarly, Paging space device 3 provides the paging
space for Shared memory partition 3. Paging space
device 3 is connected to the SAN. Paging VIOS partition
1 and Paging VIOS partition 2 are also connected to the
SAN and can both access Paging space device 3. (These
relationships are shown by the green line that connects
Paging VIOS partition 1 to Paging space device 3 and the
blue line that connects Paging VIOS partition 2 to Paging
space device 3.) Shared memory partition 3 is assigned to
use redundant paging VIOS partitions to access Paging
space device 3. Paging VIOS partition 2 is configured as
the primary paging VIOS partition and Paging VIOS
partition 1 is configured as the secondary paging VIOS
partition.
Because Paging VIOS partition 1 and Paging VIOS
partition 2 both have access to Paging space device 2 and
Paging space device 3, Paging space device 2 and Paging
space device 3 are common paging space devices that are
accessed redundantly by Paging VIOS partition 1 and
Paging VIOS partition 2. If Paging VIOS partition 1
becomes unavailable and Shared memory partition 2
needs to access data on its paging space device, the
hypervisor sends a request to Paging VIOS partition 2 to
retrieve the data on Paging space device 2. Similarly, if
Paging VIOS partition 2 becomes unavailable and Shared
memory partition 3 needs to access the data on its
paging space device, the hypervisor sends a request to
Paging VIOS partition 1 to retrieve the data on Paging
space device 3.
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Table 15. Examples of paging VIOS partition configurations (continued)
Configuration option
Example
A paging VIOS partition accesses both independent and
common paging space devices.
Paging space device 1 and Paging space device 4 are
independent paging space devices because only one
paging VIOS partition accesses each. Paging VIOS
partition 1 accesses Paging space device 1, and Paging
VIOS partition 2 accesses Paging space device 4. Paging
space device 2 and paging space device 3 are common
paging space devices because both paging VIOS
partitions access each. (These relationships are shown by
the green and blue lines that connect the paging VIOS
partitions to the paging space devices.)
Paging VIOS partition 1 accesses the independent paging
space device Paging space device 1, and also accesses the
common paging space devices Paging space device 2 and
Paging space device 3. Paging VIOS partition 2 accesses
the independent paging space device Paging space
device 4 and also accesses the common paging space
devices Paging space device 2 and Paging space device 3.
When a single paging VIOS partition is assigned to the shared memory pool, you must shut down the
shared memory partitions before you shut down the paging VIOS partition so that the shared memory
partitions are not suspended when they attempt to access their paging space devices. When two paging
VIOS partitions are assigned to the shared memory pool and the shared memory partitions are
configured to use redundant paging VIOS partitions, you do not need to shut down the shared memory
partitions to shut down a paging VIOS partition. When one paging VIOS partition is shut down, the
shared memory partitions use the other paging VIOS partition to access their paging space devices. For
example, you can shut down a paging VIOS partition and install VIOS updates without shutting down
the shared memory partitions.
You can configure multiple VIOS logical partitions to provide access to paging space devices. However,
you can only assign up to two of those VIOS partitions to the shared memory pool at any given time.
After you configure the shared memory partitions, you can later change the redundancy configuration of
the paging VIOS partitions for a shared memory partition by modifying the partition profile of the shared
memory partition and restarting the shared memory partition with the modified partition profile:
v You can change which paging VIOS partitions are assigned to a shared memory partition as the
primary and secondary paging VIOS partitions.
v You can change the number of paging VIOS partitions that are assigned to a shared memory partition.
Virtual I/O Server management
Learn about management tools for the Virtual I/O Server, such as the Virtual I/O Server command-line
interface, and several Tivoli® products that can manage different aspects of the Virtual I/O Server.
For systems that are not managed by a Hardware Management Console (HMC), the Virtual I/O Server
becomes the management partition and provides a graphical user interface, called the Integrated
Virtualization Manager, to help you manage the system. For more information, see Integrated
Virtualization Manager.
Virtual I/O Server command-line interface
Learn about accessing and using the Virtual I/O Server command-line interface.
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Virtual I/O Server
The Virtual I/O Server is configured and managed through a command-line interface. In environments
where HMC is not present, you can also perform some Virtual I/O Server tasks using the Integrated
Virtualization Manager. All aspects of Virtual I/O Server administration can be accomplished through the
command-line interface, including the following:
v Device management (physical, virtual, logical volume manager (LVM))
v Network configuration
v Software installation and update
v Security
v User management
v Maintenance tasks
In addition, in environments managed by the Integrated Virtualization Manager, you can use the Virtual
I/O Server command-line interface to manage logical partitions.
The first time you log in to the Virtual I/O Server, use the padmin user ID, which is the prime
administrator user ID. You will be prompted for a new password.
Restricted shell
After logging in, you will be placed into a restricted Korn shell. The restricted Korn shell works in the
same way as a standard Korn shell, except that you cannot perform the following:
v Change the current working directory
v Set the value of the SHELL, ENV, or PATH variables
v Specify the path name of the command that contains a forward slash (/)
v Redirect output of a command using any of the following characters: >, >|, <>, >>
As a result of these restrictions, you cannot execute commands that are not accessible to your PATH
variables. In addition, these restrictions prevent you from sending command output directly to a file.
Instead, command output can be piped to the tee command.
After you log in, you can type help to get information about the supported commands. For example, to
get help on the errlog command, type help errlog.
Execution mode
The Virtual I/O Server command-line interface functions similarly to a standard command-line interface.
Commands are issued with appropriate accompanying flags and parameters. For example, to list all
adapters, type the following:
lsdev -type adapter
In addition, scripts can be run within the Virtual I/O Server command-line interface environment.
In addition to the Virtual I/O Server command-line interface commands, the following standard shell
commands are provided.
Table 16. Standard shell commands and their functions
Command
Function
awk
Matches patterns and performs actions on them.
cat
Concatenates or displays files.
chmod
Changes file modes.
cp
Copies files.
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47
Table 16. Standard shell commands and their functions (continued)
Command
Function
date
Displays the date and time.
grep
Searches a file for a pattern.
ls
Displays the contents of a directory.
mkdir
Makes a directory.
man
Displays manual entries for the Virtual I/O Server commands.
more
Displays the contents of files one screen at a time.
rm
Removes files.
sed
Provides a stream editor.
stty
Sets, resets, and reports workstation operating parameters.
tee
Displays the output of a program and copies it to a file.
vi
Edits files with full screen display.
wc
Counts the number of lines, words, bytes, and characters in a file.
who
Identifies the users currently logged in.
As each command is executed, the user log and the global command log are updated.
The user log contains a list of each Virtual I/O Server command, including arguments, that a user has
executed. One user log for each user in the system is created. This log is located in the home directory of
the user and can be viewed by using either the cat or the vi commands.
The global command log is made up of all the Virtual I/O Server command-line interface commands
executed by all users, including arguments, the date and time the command was executed, and from
which user ID it was executed. The global command log is viewable only by the padmin user ID, and it
can be viewed by using the lsgcl command. If the global command log exceeds 1 MB, the log is
truncated to 250 KB to prevent the file system from reaching its capacity.
Note: Integrated Virtualization Manager commands are audited in a separate place and are viewable
either in Application Logs, or by running the following command from the command line:
lssvcevents -t console --filter severities=audit
Remote script
Secure Shell (SSH) is shipped with the Virtual I/O Server. Hence, scripts and commands can run
remotely after an exchange of SSH keys. To set up and run the commands remotely, perform the
following steps:
1. From the command line on the remote system, type the ssh command and verify that the Virtual I/O
Server has been added as a known host. If not, you must perform the following steps to exchange ssh
keys.
# ssh padmin@<vios> ioscli ioslevel
padmin@<vios>’s password:
2.1.2.0
Where <vios> is either the Virtual I/O Server host name or its TCP/IP address.
2. Generate the public ssh key on the remote system.
3. Transfer the ssh key to the Virtual I/O Server. The transfer can be done using File Transfer Protocol
(FTP).
4. On the Virtual I/O Server, type the following command to copy the public key to the .ssh directory:
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Virtual I/O Server
$ cat id_rsa.pub >> .ssh/authorized_keys2
5. From the command line on the remote system, type the same ssh command from step 1 to add the
Virtual I/O Server as a known host. The command prompts the user for a password if it has not
already been added as a known host.
6. From the command line on the remote system, type the same ssh command from step 1 to verify that
the ssh command can run without requiring the user to enter a password.
Related information:
Virtual I/O Server and Integrated Virtualization Manager commands
Tivoli software and the Virtual I/O Server
Learn about integrating the Virtual I/O Server into your Tivoli environment for Tivoli Application
Dependency Discovery Manager, Tivoli Monitoring, Tivoli Storage Manager, Tivoli Usage and Accounting
Manager, Tivoli Identity Manager, and TotalStorage Productivity Center.
Tivoli Application Dependency Discovery Manager
Tivoli Application Dependency Discovery Manager (TADDM) discovers infrastructure elements found in
the typical data center, including application software, hosts and operating environments (including the
Virtual I/O Server), network components (such as routers, switches, load balancers, firewalls, and
storage), and network services (such as LDAP, NFS, and DNS). Based on the data it collects, TADDM
automatically creates and maintains application infrastructure maps that include runtime dependencies,
configuration values, and change history. With this information, you can determine the interdependences
between business applications, software applications, and physical components to help you ensure and
improve application availability in your environment. For example, you can do the following tasks:
v You can isolate configuration-related application problems.
v You can plan for application changes to minimize or eliminate unplanned disruptions.
v You can create a shared topological definition of applications for use by other management
applications.
v You can determine the effect of a single configuration change on a business application or service.
v You can see what changes take place in the application environment and where.
TADDM includes an agent-free discovery engine, which means that the Virtual I/O Server does not
require that an agent or client be installed and configured in order to be discovered by TADDM. Instead,
TADDM uses discovery sensors that rely on open and secure protocols and access mechanisms to
discover the data center components.
Tivoli Identity Manager
With Tivoli Identity Manager, you can manage identities and users across several platforms, including
AIX systems, Windows systems, Solaris systems, and so on. With Tivoli Identity Manager 4.7 and later,
you can also include Virtual I/O Server users. Tivoli Identity Manager provides a Virtual I/O Server
adapter that acts as an interface between the Virtual I/O Server and the Tivoli Identity Manager Server.
The adapter might not be located on the Virtual I/O Server and the Tivoli Identity Manager Server
manages access to the Virtual I/O Server by using your security system.
The adapter runs as a service, independent of whether a user is logged on to the Tivoli Identity Manager
Server. The adapter acts as a trusted virtual administrator on the Virtual I/O Server, performing tasks like
the following:
v Creating a user ID to authorize access to the Virtual I/O Server.
v Modifying an existing user ID to access the Virtual I/O Server.
v Removing access from a user ID. This deletes the user ID from the Virtual I/O Server.
v Suspending a user account by temporarily deactivating access to the Virtual I/O Server.
Virtual I/O Server
49
v
v
v
v
Restoring a user account by reactivating access to the Virtual I/O Server.
Changing a user account password on the Virtual I/O Server.
Reconciling the user information of all current users on the Virtual I/O Server.
Reconciling the user information of a particular user account on the Virtual I/O Server by performing
a lookup.
Tivoli Monitoring
Virtual I/O Server V1.3.0.1 (fix pack 8.1), includes the Tivoli Monitoring System Edition agent. With
Tivoli Monitoring System Edition , you can monitor the health and availability of multiple servers
(including the Virtual I/O Server) from the Tivoli Enterprise Portal. Tivoli Monitoring System Edition
gathers data from the Virtual I/O Server, including data about physical volumes, logical volumes, storage
pools, storage mappings, network mappings, real memory, processor resources, mounted file system
sizes, and so on. From the Tivoli Enterprise Portal, you can view a graphical representation of the data,
use predefined thresholds to alert you on key metrics, and resolve issues based on recommendations
provided by the Expert Advice feature of Tivoli Monitoring.
Tivoli Storage Manager
Virtual I/O Server 1.4 includes the Tivoli Storage Manager client. With Tivoli Storage Manager, you can
protect Virtual I/O Server data from failures and other errors by storing backup and disaster-recovery
data in a hierarchy of offline storage. Tivoli Storage Manager can help protect computers running a
variety of different operating environments, including the Virtual I/O Server, on a variety of different
hardware. If you configure the Tivoli Storage Manager client on the Virtual I/O Server, you can include
the Virtual I/O Server in your standard backup framework.
Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager
Virtual I/O Server 1.4 includes the Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager agent on the Virtual I/O
Server. Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager helps you track, allocate, and invoice your IT costs by
collecting, analyzing, and reporting on the actual resources used by entities such as cost centers,
departments, and users. Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager can gather data from multi-tiered
datacenters that include Windows, AIX, Virtual I/O Server, HP/UX Sun Solaris, Linux, and VMware.
TotalStorage Productivity Center
With Virtual I/O Server 1.5.2, you can configure the TotalStorage Productivity Center agents on the
Virtual I/O Server. TotalStorage Productivity Center is an integrated, storage infrastructure management
suite that is designed to help simplify and automate the management of storage devices, storage
networks, and capacity utilization of file systems and databases. When you install and configure the
TotalStorage Productivity Center agents on the Virtual I/O Server, you can use the TotalStorage
Productivity Center user interface to collect and view information about the Virtual I/O Server. You can
then perform the following tasks using the TotalStorage Productivity Center user interface:
1. Run a discovery job for the agents on the Virtual I/O Server.
2. Run probes, run scans, and ping jobs to collect storage information about the Virtual I/O Server.
3. Generate reports using the Fabric Manager and the Data Manager to view the storage information
gathered.
4. View the storage information gathered using the topology Viewer.
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Virtual I/O Server
Related tasks:
“Configuring the Tivoli agents and clients on the Virtual I/O Server” on page 161
You can configure and start the Tivoli Monitoring agent, Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager, the Tivoli
Storage Manager client, and the Tivoli TotalStorage Productivity Center agents.
Related information:
IBM Tivoli Application Dependency Discovery Manager Information Center
IBM Tivoli Identity Manager
IBM Tivoli Monitoring version 6.2.1 documentation
IBM Tivoli Monitoring Virtual I/O Server Premium Agent User's Guide
IBM Tivoli Storage Manager
IBM Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager Information Center
IBM TotalStorage Productivity Center Information Center
Systems Director software
Learn about integrating the Virtual I/O Server into your Systems Director environment.
Systems Director is a platform-management foundation that streamlines the way you manage physical
and virtual systems across a heterogeneous environment. By leveraging industry standards, Systems
Director supports multiple operating systems and virtualization technologies acrossmany platforms.
Through a single user interface, Systems Director provides consistent views for viewing managed
systems, determining how these systems relate to one another, and identifying their statuses, thus helping
to correlate technical resources with business needs. A set of common tasks included with Systems
Director provides many of the core capabilities that are required for basic management. These common
tasks include discovery, inventory, configuration, system health, monitoring, updates, event notification
and automation across managed systems.
Systems Director's Web and command-line interfaces provide a consistent interface focused on these
common tasks:
v Discovering, navigating and visualizing systems on the network with the detailed inventory and
relationships to the other network resources
v Notifying users of problems that occur on systems and the ability to navigate to the source of the
problem
v Notifying users when systems need updates, and distributing and installing updates on a schedule
v Analyzing real-time data for systems, and setting critical thresholds that notify the administrator of
emerging problems
v Configuring settings of a single system, and creating a configuration plan that can apply those settings
to multiple systems
v Updating installed plug-ins to add new features and function to the base capabilities
v Managing the life cycle of virtual resources
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Related tasks:
“Configuring the Director agent” on page 167
You can configure and start the Director agent on the Virtual I/O Server.
Related information:
IBM Systems Director technical overview
Scenarios: Configuring the Virtual I/O Server
The following scenarios show examples of networking configurations for the Virtual I/O Server logical
partition and the client logical partitions. Use the following scenarios and configuration examples to
understand more about the Virtual I/O Server and its components.
Scenario: Configuring a Virtual I/O Server without VLAN tagging
Use this scenario to help you become familiar with creating a network without VLAN tagging.
About this task
Situation
You are the system administrator responsible for planning and configuring the network in an
environment with the Virtual I/O Server running. You want to configure a single logical subnet on the
system that communicates with the switch.
Objective
The objective of this scenario is to configure the network where only Port Virtual LAN ID (PVID) is used,
the packets are not tagged, and a single internal network is connected to a switch. There are no virtual
local area networks (VLAN) tagged ports set up on the Ethernet switch, and all virtual Ethernet adapters
are defined using a single default PVID and no additional VLAN IDs (VIDs).
Prerequisites and assumptions
v The Hardware Management Console (HMC) was set up. For more information about Installing and
configuring the Hardware Management Console, see Installing and configuring the Hardware
Management Console.
v You understand the partitioning concepts as described in the Logical partitioning. For more
information about Logical partitioning, see Logical partitioning.
v The Virtual I/O Server logical partition has been created and the Virtual I/O Server has been installed.
For instructions, see “Installing the Virtual I/O Server and client logical partitions” on page 88.
v You have created the remaining logical partitions that you want added to the network configuration.
v You have an Ethernet switch and a router ready to add to the configuration.
v You have IP addresses for all logical partitions and systems that will be added to the configuration.
While this procedure describes configuration in an HMC environment, this configuration is also possible
in an Integrated Virtualization Manager environment.
Configuration steps
The following figure shows the configuration that will be completed during this scenario.
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Virtual I/O Server
Using the preceding figure as a guide, follow these steps:
Procedure
1. Set up an Ethernet switch with untagged ports. Alternatively, you can use an Ethernet switch that
does not use VLAN.
2. For system S1, use the HMC to create a virtual Ethernet adapter (V11) for the Virtual I/O Server with
the trunk setting, PVID set to 1, and no additional VIDs.
3. For system S1, use the HMC to create virtual Ethernet adapters V12 and V13 for logical partitions S11
and S12, respectively, with PVID set to 1 and no additional VIDs.
Virtual I/O Server
53
4. For system S1, use the HMC to assign physical Ethernet adapter E11 to the Virtual I/O Server and
connect the adapter to the Ethernet switch port P1.
5. On the Virtual I/O Server, set up Shared Ethernet Adapter ent2 with the physical adapter ent0 and
virtual adapter ent1.
6. Start the logical partitions. The process recognizes the virtual devices that were created in Step 1.
7. Configure IP addresses for S11 (en0), S12 (en0), and S2 (en0), so that they all belong to the same
subnet with the router connected to Ethernet switch port P5.
Results
The Shared Ethernet Adapter on the Virtual I/O Server logical partition can also be configured with IP
addresses on the same subnet. This is required only for network connectivity to the Virtual I/O Server
logical partition.
Scenario: Configuring a Virtual I/O Server using VLAN tagging
Use this scenario to help you become familiar with creating a network using VLAN tagging.
About this task
Situation
You are the system administrator responsible for planning and configuring the network in an
environment with the Virtual I/O Server running. You would like to configure the network so that two
logical subnets exist, with some logical partitions on each subnet.
Objective
The objective of this scenario is to configure multiple networks to share a single physical Ethernet
adapter. Systems on the same subnet are required to be on the same VLAN and therefore have the same
VLAN ID, which allows communication without having to go through the router. The separation in the
subnets is achieved by ensuring that the systems on the two subnets have different VLAN IDs.
Prerequisites and assumptions
v The Hardware Management Console (HMC) was set up. For more information about Installing and
configuring the Hardware Management Console, see Installing and configuring the Hardware
Management Console.
v You understand the partitioning concepts as described in the Logical partitioning. For more
information about Logical partitioning, see Logical partitioning.
v The Virtual I/O Server logical partition has been created and the Virtual I/O Server has been installed.
For instructions, see “Installing the Virtual I/O Server and client logical partitions” on page 88.
v You have created the remaining AIX or Linux logical partitions that you want added to the network
configuration.
v You have an Ethernet switch and a router ready to add to the configuration.
v You have IP addresses for all logical partitions and systems that will be added to the configuration.
You cannot use VLAN in an Integrated Virtualization Manager environment.
Configuration steps
The following figure shows the configuration that will be completed during this scenario.
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Virtual I/O Server
Using the preceding figure as a guide, follow these steps.
Virtual I/O Server
55
Procedure
1. Set up the Ethernet switch ports as follows:
v P1: Tagged port (VID 1, 2)
v P2: Untagged port (PVID 1)
v P5: Untagged port (PVID 1)
v P6: Untagged port (PVID 2)
For instructions on configuring the ports, see the documentation for your switch.
2. For system S1, use the HMC to create virtual Ethernet adapters for the Virtual I/O Server:
v Create virtual Ethernet adapter V11 for the Virtual I/O Server with the trunk setting selected and
VID set to 2. Specify an unused PVID value. This value is required, even though it will not be used.
v Create virtual Ethernet adapter V12 for the Virtual I/O Server with the trunk setting selected and
VID set to 1. Specify an unused PVID value. This value is required, even though it will not be used.
3. For system S1, use the HMC to create virtual Ethernet adapters for other logical partitions:
v Create virtual adapters V13 and V14 for logical partitions S11 and S12, respectively, with PVID set
to 2 and no additional VIDs.
v Create virtual adapters V15 and V16 for logical partitions S13 and S14, respectively, with PVID set
to 1 and no additional VIDs.
4. For system S1, use the HMC to assign the physical Ethernet adapter (E11) to the Virtual I/O Server
and connect the adapter to the Ethernet switch port P1.
5. Using the Virtual I/O Server command-line interface, set up a Shared Ethernet Adapter ent3 with the
physical adapter ent0 and virtual adapters ent1 and ent2.
6. Configure IP addresses for the following:
v S13 (en0), S14 (en0), and S2 (en0) belong to VLAN 1 and are on the same subnet. The router is
connected to Ethernet switch port P5.
v S11 (en0) and S12 (en0) belong to VLAN 2 and are on the same subnet. The router is connected to
Ethernet switch port P6.
Results
You can configure the Shared Ethernet Adapter on the Virtual I/O Server logical partition with an IP
address. This is required only for network connectivity to the Virtual I/O Server.
As the tagged VLAN network is being used, you must define additional VLAN devices over the Shared
Ethernet Adapters before configuring IP addresses.
Scenario: Configuring Shared Ethernet Adapter failover
Use this scenario to help you to configure primary and backup Shared Ethernet Adapters in the Virtual
I/O Server logical partitions.
About this task
Situation
You are the system administrator responsible for planning and configuring the network in an
environment with the Virtual I/O Server running. You want to provide higher network availability to the
client logical partition on the system. This can be accomplished by configuring a backup Shared Ethernet
Adapter in a different Virtual I/O Server logical partition.
Objective
56
Virtual I/O Server
The objective of this scenario is to configure primary and backup Shared Ethernet Adapters in the Virtual
I/O Server logical partitions so that network connectivity in the client logical partitions will not be lost in
the case of adapter failure.
Prerequisites and assumptions
v The Hardware Management Console (HMC) was set up. For more information about Installing and
configuring the Hardware Management Console, see Installing and configuring the Hardware
Management Console.
v You understand the partitioning concepts as described in the Logical partitioning. For more
information about Logical partitioning, see Logical partitioning.
v Two separate Virtual I/O Server logical partitions have been created and the Virtual I/O Server has
been installed in each logical partition. For instructions, see “Installing the Virtual I/O Server and
client logical partitions” on page 88.
v You understand what Shared Ethernet Adapter failover is and how it works. See “Shared Ethernet
Adapter failover” on page 82.
v You have created the remaining logical partitions that you want added to the network configuration.
v EachVirtual I/O Server logical partition has an available physical Ethernet adapter assigned to it.
v You have IP addresses for all logical partitions and systems that will be added to the configuration.
You cannot use the Integrated Virtualization Manager with multiple Virtual I/O Server logical partitions
on the same server.
The following image depicts a configuration where the Shared Ethernet Adapter failover feature is set up.
The client logical partitions H1 and H2 are accessing the physical network using the Shared Ethernet
Adapters, which are the primary adapters. The virtual Ethernet adapters used in the shared Ethernet
setup are configured with the same VLAN membership information (PVID, VID), but have different
priorities. A dedicated virtual network forms the control channel and is required to facilitate
communication between the primary and backup shared Ethernet device.
Virtual I/O Server
57
Using the preceding figure as a guide, follow these steps:
Procedure
1. On the HMC, create the virtual Ethernet adapters following these guidelines:
v Configure the virtual adapters to be used for data as trunk adapters by selecting the trunk setting.
v Assign different prioritization values (valid values are 1-15) to each virtual adapter.
v Configure another virtual Ethernet to be used for the control channel by giving it a unique PVID
value. Make sure you use the same PVID when creating this virtual Ethernet for both Virtual I/O
Server logical partitions.
2. Using the Virtual I/O Server command line, run the following command to configure the Shared
Ethernet Adapter. Run this command on both Virtual I/O Server logical partitions involved in the
configuration:
58
Virtual I/O Server
mkvdev -sea physical_adapter -vadapter virtual_adapter -default
virtual_adapter\
-defaultid PVID_of_virtual_adapter -attr ha_mode=auto
ctl_chan=control_channel_adapter
For example, in this scenario, run the following command on both Virtual I/O Server logical
partitions:
mkvdev -sea ent0 -vadapter ent1 -default ent1 -defaultid 60 -attr ha_mode=auto
ctl_chan=ent2
Scenario: Configuring Shared Ethernet Adapter failover with load
sharing
Use this scenario to help you to configure primary and backup Shared Ethernet Adapters for load sharing
in the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) logical partitions.
About this task
Situation
You are the system administrator responsible for planning and configuring the network in an
environment with the VIOS running. You want to provide load sharing in addition to Shared Ethernet
Adapter failover to improve the bandwidth of the VIOS logical partition without impact to higher
network availability.
Objective
The objective of this scenario is to configure primary and backup Shared Ethernet Adapters for load
sharing so that you can use both the Shared Ethernet Adapters by sharing the bridging workload
between them.
Prerequisites and assumptions
v The Hardware Management Console (HMC) was set up. For more information about Installing and
configuring the Hardware Management Console, see Installing and configuring the Hardware
Management Console.
v You understand the partitioning concepts as described in the Logical partitioning. For more
information about Logical partitioning, see Logical partitioning.
v You have configured primary and backup Shared Ethernet Adapters in the VIOS logical partitions. See
“Scenario: Configuring Shared Ethernet Adapter failover” on page 56.
v You understand what Shared Ethernet Adapter load sharing is and how it works. See “Shared Ethernet
Adapters for load sharing” on page 83.
v The VIOS must be at Version 2.2.1.0, or later.
v The VIOS servers with the primary and backup Shared Ethernet Adapter support load sharing.
v Two or more trunk adapters are configured for the primary and backup Shared Ethernet Adapter pair.
v The virtual local area network (VLAN) definitions of the trunk adapters are identical between the
primary and backup Shared Ethernet Adapter pair.
v You cannot use the Integrated Virtualization Manager with multiple VIOS logical partitions on the
same server.
Note: Enable load sharing mode on the primary Shared Ethernet Adapter (the Shared Ethernet Adapter
with higher priority) before you enable load sharing mode on the backup Shared Ethernet Adapter (the
Shared Ethernet Adapter with lower priority).
Virtual I/O Server
59
To configure Shared Ethernet Adapters for load sharing, use the VIOS command line and run the
following command. Run this command on both Shared Ethernet Adapters.
mkvdev -sea physical_adapter -vadapter virtual_adapter1, virtual_adapter2 -default
virtual_adapter1\
-defaultid PVID_of_virtual_adapter1 -attr ha_mode=sharing
ctl_chan=control_channel_adapter
For example, in this scenario, run the following command on both Shared Ethernet Adapters:
mkvdev -sea ent0 -vadapter ent1,ent2 -default ent1 -defaultid 60 -attr ha_mode=sharing
ctl_chan=ent3
What to do next
You can restart load sharing by using the chdev command on the backup Shared Ethernet Adapter. To
restart load sharing, ensure that the ha_mode attribute is set to sharing on both the primary and backup
Shared Ethernet Adapter. By using the VIOS command line, run the chdev command on the backup
Shared Ethernet Adapter. If the load sharing criteria are met, load sharing restarts.
Scenario: Configuring Network Interface Backup in AIX client logical
partitions without VLAN tagging
Use this scenario to become familiar with using a Network Interface Backup (NIB) configuration in
Virtual I/O clients that are running AIX logical partitions and are not configured for VLAN tagging.
About this task
Situation
In this scenario, you want to configure a highly available virtual environment for your bridged network
using the NIB approach to access external networks from your Virtual I/O clients. You do not plan to use
VLAN tagging in your network setup. This approach requires you to configure a second Ethernet adapter
on a different VLAN for each client and requires a Link Aggregation adapter with NIB features. This
configuration is available for AIX logical partitions.
Note: You can also configure Ethernet bonding on Linux logical partitions. For more information, see the
documentation for the Linux operating system.
Typically, a Shared Ethernet Adapter failover configuration is the recommended configuration for most
environments because it supports environments with or without VLAN tagging. Also, the NIB
configuration is more complex than a Shared Ethernet Adapter failover configuration because it must be
implemented on each of the clients. However, Shared Ethernet Adapter failover was not available prior to
Version 1.2 of Virtual I/O Server, and NIB was the only approach to a highly available virtual
environment. Also, you might consider that in an NIB configuration you can distribute clients over both
Shared Ethernet Adapters in such a way that half of them will use the first Shared Ethernet Adapter and
the other half will use the second Shared Ethernet Adapter as primary adapter.
Objective
Create a virtual Ethernet environment using a Network Interface Backup configuration as depicted in the
following figure.
60
Virtual I/O Server
Prerequisites and assumptions
Before completing the configuration tasks, review the following prerequisites and assumptions.
v The Hardware Management Console (HMC) is already set up. For more information about Installing
and configuring the Hardware Management Console, see Installing and configuring the Hardware
Management Console.
v Two separate Virtual I/O Server logical partitions have been created and the Virtual I/O Server has
been installed in each logical partition. See the instructions in “Installing the Virtual I/O Server and
client logical partitions” on page 88.
v You have created the remaining logical partitions that you want added to the network configuration.
v Each Virtual I/O Server logical partition has an available physical Ethernet adapter assigned to it.
v You have IP addresses for all logical partitions and systems that will be added to the configuration.
Configuration tasks
Using the figure as a guide, complete the following tasks to configure the NIB virtual environment.
Virtual I/O Server
61
Procedure
1. Create a LAN connection between the Virtual I/O Servers and the external network:
a. Configure a Shared Ethernet Adapter on the primary Virtual I/O Server that bridges traffic
between the virtual Ethernet and the external network. See “Configuring a Shared Ethernet
Adapter” on page 156.
b. Configure a Shared Ethernet Adapter on the second Virtual I/O Server, as in step 1.
2. For each client logical partition, use the HMC to create a virtual Ethernet whose PVID matches the
PVID of the primary Virtual I/O Server. This will be used as the primary adapter.
3. For each client logical partition, use the HMC to create a second virtual Ethernet whose PVID matches
the PVID of the second (backup) Virtual I/O Server. This will be used as the backup adapter.
4. Create the Network Interface Backup setup using a Link Aggregation configuration. Make sure that
you specify the following items:
a. Select the primary Ethernet Adapter.
b. Select the Backup Adapter.
c. Specify the Internet Address to Ping. Select the IP address or host name of a host outside of the
Virtual I/O Server system that NIB will continuously ping to detect Virtual I/O Server failure.
Results
Note: Keep in mind, when you configure NIB with two virtual Ethernet adapters, the internal networks
used must stay separated in the hypervisor. You must use different PVIDs for the two adapters in the
client and cannot use additional VIDs on them.
Scenario: Configuring Multi-Path I/O for AIX client logical partitions
Multi-Path I/O (MPIO) helps provide increased availability of virtual Small Computer Serial Interface
(SCSI) resources by providing redundant paths to the resource. This topic describes how to set up
Multi-Path I/O for AIX client logical partitions.
Before you begin
In order to provide MPIO to AIX client logical partitions, you must have two Virtual I/O Server logical
partitions configured on your system. This procedure assumes that the disks are already allocated to both
the Virtual I/O Server logical partitions involved in this configuration.
Note: You can also configure MPIO on Linux logical partitions. For more information, see the
documentation for the Linux operating system.
About this task
To configure MPIO, follow these steps. In this scenario, hdisk5 in the first Virtual I/O Server logical
partition, and hdisk7 in the second Virtual I/O Server logical partition, are used in the configuration.
The following figure shows the configuration that will be completed during this scenario.
62
Virtual I/O Server
Using the preceding figure as a guide, follow these steps:
Procedure
1. Using the HMC, create SCSI server adapters on the two Virtual I/O Server logical partitions.
2. Using the HMC, create two virtual client SCSI adapters on the client logical partitions, each mapping
to one of the Virtual I/O Server logical partitions.
3. On either of the Virtual I/O Server logical partitions, determine which disks are available by typing
lsdev -type disk. Your results look similar to the following:
name
status
description
hdisk3
hdisk4
hdisk5
Available
Available
Available
MPIO Other FC SCSI Disk Drive
MPIO Other FC SCSI Disk Drive
MPIO Other FC SCSI Disk Drive
Select which disk that you want to use in the MPIO configuration. In this scenario, hdisk5 is
selected.
4. Determine the ID of the disk that you have selected. For instructions, see “Identifying exportable
disks” on page 113. In this scenario, the disk does not have an IEEE volume attribute identifier or a
unique identifier (UDID). Hence, determine the physical identifier (PVID) by running the lspv
hdisk5 command. Your results look similar to the following:
hdisk5
00c3e35ca560f919
None
The second value is the PVID. In this scenario, the PVID is 00c3e35ca560f919. Note this value.
5. List the attributes of the disk on the first Virtual I/O Server by using the lsdev command. In this
scenario, type lsdev -dev hdisk5 -attr. Your results look similar to the following
Virtual I/O Server
63
..
lun_id
0x5463000000000000
Logical Unit Number ID
..
..
pvid
00c3e35ca560f9190000000000000000 Physical volume identifier
..
reserve_policy single_path
Reserve Policy
False
False
True
Note the values for lun_id and reserve_policy. If the reserve_policy attribute is set to anything other
than no_reserve, then you must change it. Set the reserve_policy to no_reserve by typing chdev -dev
hdiskx -attr reserve_policy=no_reserve.
6. On the second Virtual I/O Server logical partition, list the physical volumes by typing lspv. In the
output, locate the disk that has the same PVID as the disk identified previously. In this scenario, the
PVID for hdisk7 matched:
hdisk7
00c3e35ca560f919
None
Tip: Although the PVID values should be identical, the disk numbers on the two Virtual I/O Server
logical partitions might vary.
7. Determine if the reserve_policy attribute is set to no_reserve using the lsdev command. In this
scenario, type lsdev -dev hdisk7 -attr. You see results similar to the following:
..
lun_id
0x5463000000000000
Logical Unit Number ID
..
pvid
00c3e35ca560f9190000000000000000 Physical volume identifier
..
reserve_policy single_path
Reserve Policy
False
False
If the reserve_policy attribute is set to anything other than no_reserve, you must change it. Set the
reserve_policy to no_reserve by typing chdev -dev hdiskx -attr reserve_policy=no_reserve.
8. On both Virtual I/O Server logical partitions, use the mkvdev to create the virtual devices. In each
case, use the appropriate hdisk value. In this scenario, type the following commands:
v On the first Virtual I/O Server logical partition, type mkvdev -vdev hdisk5 -vadapter vhost5 -dev
vhdisk5
v On the second Virtual I/O Server logical partition, type mkvdev -vdev hdisk7 -vadapter vhost7
-dev vhdisk7
The same LUN is now exported to the client logical partition from both Virtual I/O Server logical
partitions.
9. AIX can now be installed on the client logical partition. For instructions on installing AIX, see
Installing AIX in a Partitioned Environment in the servers and AIX Information Center.
10. After you have installed AIX on the client logical partition, check for MPIO by running the following
command:
lspath
You see results similar to the following:
Enabled hdisk0 vscsi0
Enabled hdisk0 vscsi1
If one of the Virtual I/O Server logical partitions fails, the results of the lspath command look
similar to the following:
Failed hdisk0 vscsi0
Enabled hdisk0 vscsi1
Unless a health check is enabled, the state continues to show Failed even after the disk has
recovered. To have the state updated automatically, type chdev -l hdiskx -a hcheck_interval=60
-P. The client logical partition must be rebooted for this change to take effect.
64
Virtual I/O Server
Planning for the Virtual I/O Server
Use this topic to help gain an understanding of what to consider when planning for the Virtual I/O
Server.
Specifications required to create the Virtual I/O Server
This topic defines the range of configuration possibilities, including the minimum number of resources
needed and the maximum number of resources allowed to create the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS).
To activate the VIOS, the PowerVM Editions (or Advanced POWER® Virtualization) hardware feature is
required. A logical partition with enough resources to share with other logical partitions is required. The
following is a list of minimum hardware requirements that must be available to create the VIOS.
Table 17. Resources that are required
Resource
Requirement
Hardware Management
Console or Integrated
Virtualization Manager
The HMC or Integrated Virtualization Manager is required to create the logical
partition and assign resources.
Storage adapter
The server logical partition needs at least one storage adapter.
Physical disk
The disk must be at least 30 GB. This disk can be shared.
Ethernet adapter
If you want to route network traffic from virtual Ethernet adapters to a Shared
Ethernet Adapter, you need an Ethernet adapter.
Memory
For POWER7 processor-based systems, at least 768 MB of memory is required.
Processor
At least 0.1 processor is required.
The following table defines the limitations for storage management.
Table 18. Limitations for storage management
Category
Limit
Volume groups
4096 per system
Physical volumes
1024 per volume group
Physical partitions
1024 per volume group
Logical volumes
1024 per volume group
Logical partitions
No limit
Limitations and restrictions of the Virtual I/O Server configuration
Learn about Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) configuration limitations.
Consider the following when implementing virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI):
v Virtual SCSI supports the following connection standards for backing devices: Fibre Channel, SCSI,
SCSI RAID, iSCSI, SAS, SATA, USB, and IDE.
v The SCSI protocol defines mandatory and optional commands. While virtual SCSI supports all of the
mandatory commands, not all of the optional commands are supported.
v There may be utilization implications when using virtual SCSI devices. Because the client/server model
is made up of layers of function, using virtual SCSI can consume additional processor cycles when
processing I/O requests.
v The VIOS is a dedicated logical partition, to be used only for VIOS operations. Other applications
cannot run in the VIOS logical partition.
Virtual I/O Server
65
v If there is a resource shortage, performance degradation might occur. If a VIOS is serving many
resources to other logical partitions, ensure that enough processor power is available. In case of high
workload across virtual Ethernet adapters and virtual disks, logical partitions might experience delays
in accessing resources.
v Logical volumes and files exported as virtual SCSI disks are always configured as single path devices
on the client logical partition.
v Logical volumes or files exported as virtual SCSI disks that are part of the root volume group (rootvg)
are not persistent if you reinstall the VIOS. However, they are persistent if you update the VIOS to a
new service pack. Therefore, before reinstalling the VIOS, ensure that you back up the corresponding
clients' virtual disks. When exporting logical volumes, it is best to export logical volumes from a
volume group other than the root volume group. When exporting files, it is best to create file storage
pools and the virtual media repository in a parent storage pool other than the root volume group.
Consider the following when implementing virtual adapters:
v Only Ethernet adapters can be shared. Other types of network adapters cannot be shared.
v IP forwarding is not supported on the VIOS.
v The maximum number of virtual adapters can be any value from 2 to 65,536. However, if you set the
maximum number of virtual adapters to a value higher than 1024, the logical partition might fail to
activate or the server firmware might require more system memory to manage the virtual adapters.
The VIOS supports client logical partitions running the following operating systems on the following
POWER7 processor-based servers.
Table 19. Minimum operating system versions required for VIOS client logical partitions
POWER7 processor-based servers
Minimum operating system versions
All POWER7 processor-based servers
operating system
All POWER7 processor-based servers
AIX 6.1
All POWER7 processor-based servers
AIX 5.3
v 02E/4B
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 Service Pack 1
v 02E/4C
v 05F/6B
v 05E/6C
v 31E/2B
v 31E/1C
v 31E/2C
v 33E/8B
v 36E/8C
v 17M/MB
v 17M/MC
v 19F/HB
v 79M/HB
v 79M/HC
v BladeCenter PS/700
v BladeCenter PS/701
v BladeCenter PS/702
v BladeCenter PS/703
v BladeCenter PS/704
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Virtual I/O Server
Table 19. Minimum operating system versions required for VIOS client logical partitions (continued)
POWER7 processor-based servers
Minimum operating system versions
v 02E/4C
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 Service Pack 4
v 05E/6C
v 31E/1C
v 31E/2C
v 17M/MC
v 79M/HC
v BladeCenter PS/703
v BladeCenter PS/704
v 02E/4B
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 Service Pack 3
v 05F/6B
v 31E/2B
v 33E/8B
v 36E/8C
v 17M/MB
v 19F/HB
v 79M/HB
v BladeCenter PS/700
v BladeCenter PS/701
v BladeCenter PS/702
v 02E/4C
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Version 6.1
v 05E/6C
v 31E/1C
v 31E/2C
v 17M/MC
v 79M/HC
v 02E/4B
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Version 6
v 05F/6B
v 31E/2B
v 33E/8B
v 36E/8C
v 17M/MB
v 19F/HB
v 79M/HB
v BladeCenter PS/700
v BladeCenter PS/701
v BladeCenter PS/702
v BladeCenter PS/703
v BladeCenter PS/704
v 02E/4C
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Version 5.7
v 05E/6C
v 31E/1C
v 31E/2C
v 17M/MC
v 79M/HC
Virtual I/O Server
67
Table 19. Minimum operating system versions required for VIOS client logical partitions (continued)
POWER7 processor-based servers
Minimum operating system versions
v BladeCenter PS/703
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Version 5.6
v BladeCenter PS/704
v 02E/4B
Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 5.5
v 05F/6B
v 31E/2B
v 33E/8B
v 36E/8C
v 17M/MB
v 19F/HB
v 79M/HB
v BladeCenter PS/700
v BladeCenter PS/701
v BladeCenter PS/702
Capacity planning
This topic includes capacity-planning considerations for the Virtual I/O Server, including information
about hardware resources and limitations.
Client logical partitions might use virtual devices, dedicated devices, or a combination of both. Before
you begin to configure and install the Virtual I/O Server and client logical partitions, plan what resources
each logical partition will use. Throughput requirements and overall workload must be considered when
deciding whether to use virtual or dedicated devices and when allocating resources to the Virtual I/O
Server. Compared to dedicated Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) disks, virtual SCSI disks might
achieve similar throughput numbers depending on several factors, including workload and virtual SCSI
resources. However, virtual SCSI devices generally have higher processor utilization when compared with
directly attached storage.
Planning for virtual SCSI
Find capacity-planning and performance information for virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI).
Different I/O subsystems have different performance qualities, as does virtual SCSI. This section
discusses the performance differences between physical and virtual I/O. The following topics are
described in this section:
Virtual SCSI latency:
Find information about virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) latency.
I/O latency is the amount of time that passes between the initiation and completion of a disk I/O
operation. For example, consider a program that performs 1000 random disk I/O operations, one at a
time. If the time to complete an average operation is 6 milliseconds, the program runs in no fewer than 6
seconds. However, if the average response time is reduced to 3 milliseconds, the run time might be
reduced by 3 seconds. Applications that are multithreaded or use asynchronous I/O might be less
sensitive to latency, but in most circumstances, lower latency can help improve performance.
Because virtual SCSI is implemented as a client and server model, there is some latency that does not
exist with directly attached storage. The latency might range from 0.03 to 0.06 milliseconds per I/O
operation depending primarily on the block size of the request. The average latency is comparable for
both physical disk and logical volume-backed virtual drives. The latency experienced when using a
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Virtual I/O Server
Virtual I/O Server in a shared-processor logical partition can be higher and more variable than using a
Virtual I/O Server in a dedicated logical partition. For additional information about the performance
differences between dedicated logical partitions and shared-processor logical partitions, see “Virtual SCSI
sizing considerations.”
The following table identifies latency (in milliseconds) for different block-size transmissions on both
physical disk and logical-volume-backed virtual SCSI disks.
Table 20. Increase in disk I/O response time based on block size (in milliseconds)
Backing type
4K
8K
32 K
64 K
128 K
Physical disk
0.032
0.033
0.033
0.040
0.061
Logical volume
0.035
0.036
0.034
0.040
0.063
The average disk-response time increases as the block size increases. The latency increases for a virtual
SCSI operation are relatively greater on smaller block sizes because of their shorter response time.
Virtual SCSI bandwidth:
View information about virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) bandwidth.
I/O bandwidth is the maximum amount of data that can be read or written to a storage device in a unit
of time. Bandwidth can be measured from a single thread or from a set of threads running concurrently.
Although many customer applications are more sensitive to latency than bandwidth, bandwidth is crucial
for many typical operations, such as backing up and restoring persistent data.
The following table compares the results of bandwidth tests for virtual SCSI and physical I/O
performance. In the tests, a single thread operates sequentially on a constant file that is 256 MB in size
with a Virtual I/O Server running in a dedicated partition. More I/O operations are issued when reading
or writing to the file using a small block size as compared to a larger block size. The test was conducted
using a storage server with feature code 6239 (type 5704/0625) and a 2-gigabit Fibre Channel adapter
attached to one RAID0 LUN that is composed of 5 physical disks from a DS4400 disk system (formerly a
FAStT700). The table shows the comparison of measured bandwidth in megabytes per second (MB/s)
using virtual SCSI and local attachment for reads with varying block sizes of operations. The difference
between virtual I/O and physical I/O in these tests is attributable to the increased latency when using
virtual I/O. Because of the larger number of operations, the bandwidth measured with small block sizes
is lower than with large block sizes.
Table 21. Physical and virtual SCSI bandwidth comparison (in MB/s)
I/O type
4K
8K
32 K
64 K
128 K
Virtual
20.3
35.4
82.6
106.8
124.5
Physical
24.3
41.7
90.6
114.6
132.6
Virtual SCSI sizing considerations:
Understand the processor and memory-sizing considerations when implementing virtual Small Computer
Serial Interface (SCSI).
When you are designing and implementing a virtual SCSI application environment, consider the
following sizing issues:
v The amount of memory allocated to the Virtual I/O Server
v The processor entitlement of the Virtual I/O Server
Virtual I/O Server
69
v Whether the Virtual I/O Server is run as a shared-processor logical partition or as a dedicated
processor logical partition
v The maximum transfer size limitation for physical devices and AIX clients
The processor impacts of using virtual I/O on the client are insignificant. The processor cycles run on the
client to perform a virtual SCSI I/O operation are comparable to that of a locally attached I/O device.
Thus, there is no increase or decrease in sizing on the client logical partition for a known task. These
sizing techniques do not anticipate combining the function of shared Ethernet with the virtual SCSI
server. If the two are combined, consider adding resources to account for the shared Ethernet activity
with virtual SCSI.
Virtual SCSI sizing using dedicated processor logical partitions
The amount of processor entitlement required for a virtual SCSI server is based on the maximum I/O
rates required of it. Because virtual SCSI servers do not normally run at maximum I/O rates all of the
time, the use of surplus processor time is potentially wasted when using dedicated processor logical
partitions. In the first of the following sizing methodologies, you need a good understanding of the I/O
rates and I/O sizes required of the virtual SCSI server. In the second, size the virtual SCSI server based
on the I/O configuration.
The sizing methodology used is based on the observation that the processor time required to perform an
I/O operating on the virtual SCSI server is fairly constant for a given I/O size. It is a simplification to
make this statement, because different device drivers have subtly varying efficiencies. However, under
most circumstances, the I/O devices supported by the virtual SCSI server are sufficiently similar. The
following table shows approximate cycles per second for both physical disk and logical volume
operations on a 1.65 Ghz processor. These numbers are measured at the physical processor; simultaneous
multithreading (SMT) operation is assumed. For other frequencies, scaling by the ratio of the frequencies
(for example, 1.5 Ghz = 1.65 Ghz / 1.5 Ghz × cycles per operation) is sufficiently accurate to produce a
reasonable sizing.
Table 22. Approximate cycles per second on a 1.65 Ghz logical partition
Disk type
4 KB
8 KB
32 KB
64 KB
128 KB
Physical disk
45,000
47,000
58,000
81,000
120,000
Logical volume
49,000
51,000
59,000
74,000
105,000
Consider a Virtual I/O Server that uses three client logical partitions on physical disk-backed storage.
The first client logical partition requires a maximum of 7,000 8-KB operations per second. The second
client logical partition requires a maximum of 10,000 8-KB operations per second. The third client logical
partition requires a maximum of 5,000 128-KB operations per second. The number of 1.65 Ghz processors
for this requirement is approximately ((7,000 × 47,000 + 10,000 × 47,000 + 5,000 × 120,000) / 1,650,000,000)
= 0.85 processors, which rounds up to a single processor when using a dedicated processor logical
partition.
If the I/O rates of the client logical partitions are not known, you can size the Virtual I/O Server to the
maximum I/O rate of the storage subsystem attached. The sizing could be biased toward small I/O
operations or large I/O operations. Sizing to maximum capacity for large I/O operations will balance the
processor capacity of the Virtual I/O Server to the potential I/O bandwidth of the attached I/O. The
negative aspect of this sizing methodology is that, in nearly every case, more processor entitlement will
be assigned to the Virtual I/O Server than it will typically consume.
Consider a case in which a Virtual I/O Server manages 32 physical SCSI disks. An upper limit of
processors required can be established based on assumptions about the I/O rates that the disks can
achieve. If it is known that the workload is dominated by 8096-byte operations that are random, then
assume that each disk is capable of approximately 200 disk I/O operations per second (15k rpm drives).
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Virtual I/O Server
At peak, the Virtual I/O Server would need to serve approximately 32 disks × 200 I/O operations per
second × 47,000 cycles per operation, resulting in a requirement for approximately 0.19 processor
performance. Viewed another way, a Virtual I/O Server running on a single processor should be capable
of supporting more than 150 disks doing 8096-byte random I/O operations.
Alternatively, if the Virtual I/O Server is sized for maximum bandwidth, the calculation results in a
higher processor requirement. The difference is that maximum bandwidth assumes sequential I/O.
Because disks are more efficient when they are performing large, sequential I/O operations than they are
when performing small, random I/O operations, a higher number of I/O operations per second can be
performed. Assume that the disks are capable of 50 MB per second when doing 128 KB I/O operations.
That situation implies each disk could average 390 disk I/O operations per second. Thus, the amount of
processing power necessary to support 32 disks, each doing 390 I/O operations per second with an
operation cost of 120,000 cycles (32 × 390 × 120,000 / 1,650,000,000) results in approximately 0.91
processors. Consequently, a Virtual I/O Server running on a single processor should be capable of
driving approximately 32 fast disks to maximum throughput.
Virtual SCSI server sizing using shared processor logical partitions
Defining virtual SCSI servers in shared processor logical partitions allows more specific processor
resource sizing and potential recovery of unused processor time by uncapped logical partitions. However,
using shared-processor logical partitions for virtual SCSI servers can frequently increase I/O response
time and make for somewhat more complex processor entitlement sizings.
The sizing methodology should be based on the same operation costs for dedicated logical partition I/O
servers, with added entitlement for running in shared-processor logical partitions. Configure the Virtual
I/O Server as uncapped, so that, if the Virtual I/O Server is undersized, there is opportunity to get more
processor time to serve I/O operations.
Because I/O latency with virtual SCSI can vary due to a number of conditions, consider the following if a
logical partition has high I/O requirements:
v Configure the logical partition with physical I/O if the configuration allows.
v In most cases, the Virtual I/O Server logical partition can use a shared, uncapped processor.
Virtual SCSI server memory sizing
Memory sizing in virtual SCSI is simplified because there is no caching of file data in the memory of the
virtual SCSI server. Because there is no data caching, the memory requirements for the virtual SCSI server
are fairly modest. With large I/O configurations and very high data rates, a 1 GB memory allocation for
the virtual SCSI server is likely to be sufficient. For low I/O rate situations with a small number of
attached disks, 512 MB will most likely suffice.
Virtual SCSI maximum transfer size limitation
If you add another virtual target device to the virtual SCSI server adapter and the new virtual target
device has a smaller maximum transfer size than the other configured devices on that adapter, the Virtual
I/O Server does not show a new virtual device to the client. At the time the virtual target device is
created, the Virtual I/O Server displays a message stating that the new target device will not be visible to
the client until you reboot the client.
To display the maximum transfer size of a physical device, use the following command: lsdev -attr
max_transfer -dev hdiskN
Planning for Shared Ethernet Adapters
Use this section to find capacity-planning and performance information for Shared Ethernet Adapter. This
section contains planning information and performance considerations for using Shared Ethernet
Adapters on the Virtual I/O Server.
Virtual I/O Server
71
Network requirements:
This topic includes information you need in order to accurately size your Shared Ethernet Adapter
environment.
To plan for using Shared Ethernet Adapters, you must determine your network needs. This section gives
overview information of what should be considered when sizing the Shared Ethernet Adapter
environment. Sizing the Virtual I/O Server for the Shared Ethernet Adapter involves the following
factors:
v Defining the target bandwidth (MB per second), or transaction rate requirements (operations per
second). The target performance of the configuration must be determined from your workload
requirements.
v Defining the type of workload (streaming or transaction oriented).
v Identifying the maximum transmission unit (MTU) size that will be used (1500 or jumbo frames).
v Determining if the Shared Ethernet Adapter will run in a threaded or nonthreaded environment.
v Knowing the throughput rates that various Ethernet adapters can provide (see Adapter selection).
v Knowing the processor cycles required per byte of throughput or per transaction (see Processor
allocation).
Bandwidth requirement
The primary consideration is determining the target bandwidth on the physical Ethernet adapter of the
Virtual I/O Server. This will determine the rate that data can be transferred between the Virtual I/O
Server and the client logical partitions. After the target rate is known, the correct type and number of
network adapters can be selected. For example, Ethernet adapters of various speeds could be used. One
or more adapters could be used on individual networks, or they could be combined using Link
Aggregation (or EtherChannel).
Workload type
The type of workload to be performed must be considered, whether it is streaming of data for workloads
such as file transfer, data backup, or small transaction workloads, such as remote procedure calls. The
streaming workload consists of large, full-sized network packets and associated small, TCP
acknowledgment packets. Transaction workloads typically involve smaller packets or might involve small
requests, such as a URL, and a larger response, such as a Web page. A Virtual I/O Server will need to
frequently support streaming and small packet I/O during various periods of time. In that case, approach
the sizing from both models.
MTU size
The MTU size of the network adapters must also be considered. The standard Ethernet MTU is 1500
bytes. Gigabit Ethernet and 10 gigabit Ethernet can support 9000-byte MTU jumbo frames. Jumbo frames
might reduce the processor cycles for the streaming types of workloads. However, for small workloads,
the larger MTU size might not help reduce processor cycles.
Threaded or nonthreaded environment
Use threaded mode when virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) will be run on the same Virtual
I/O Server logical partition as Shared Ethernet Adapter. Threaded mode helps ensure that virtual SCSI
and the Shared Ethernet Adapter can share the processor resource appropriately. However, threading
increases instruction-path length, which uses additional processor cycles. If the Virtual I/O Server logical
partition will be dedicated to running shared Ethernet devices (and associated virtual Ethernet devices)
only, the adapters should be configured with threading disabled. For more information, see “Processor
allocation” on page 75.
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Virtual I/O Server
Adapter throughput
Knowing the throughput capability of different Ethernet adapters can help you determine which adapters
to use as Shared Ethernet Adapters and how many adapters to use. For more information, see “Adapter
selection.”
Processor entitlement
You must determine how much processor power is required to move data through the adapters at the
desired rate. Networking device drivers are typically processor-intensive. Small packets can come in at a
faster rate and use more processor cycles than larger packet workloads. Larger packet workloads are
typically limited by network wire bandwidth and come in at a slower rate, thus requiring less processor
power than small packet workloads for the amount of data transferred.
Adapter selection:
Use this section to find the attributes and performance characteristics of various types of Ethernet
adapters to help you select which adapters to use in your environment.
This section provides approximate throughput rates for various Ethernet adapters set at various MTU
sizes. Use this information to determine which adapters will be needed to configure a Virtual I/O Server.
To make this determination, you must know the desired throughput rate of the client logical partitions.
Following are general guidelines for network throughput. These numbers are not specific, but they can
serve as a general guideline for sizing. In the following tables, the 100 MB, 1 GB, and 10 GB speeds are
rounded down for estimating.
Table 23. Simplex (one direction) streaming rates
Adapter speed
Approximate throughput rate
10 Mb Ethernet
1 MB/second
100 Mb Ethernet
10 MB/second
1000 Mb Ethernet (GB Ethernet)
100 MB/second
10000 Mb Ethernet (10 GB Ethernet, Host Ethernet
Adapter or Integrated Virtual Ethernet)
1000 MB/second
Table 24. Full duplex (two direction) streaming rates on full duplex network
Adapter speed
Approximate throughput rate
10 Mb Ethernet
2 MB/second
100 Mb Ethernet
20 MB/second
1000 Mb Ethernet (Gb Ethernet)
150 MB/second
10000 Mb Ethernet (10 Gb Ethernet, Host Ethernet
Adapter or Integrated Virtual Ethernet)
1500 MB/second
The following tables list maximum network payload speeds, which are user payload data rates that can
be obtained by sockets-based programs for applications that are streaming data. The rates are a result of
the network bit rate, MTU size, physical level overhead (such as interframe gaps and preamble bits), data
link headers, and TCP/IP headers. A gigahertz-speed processor is assumed. These numbers are optimal
for a single LAN. If your network traffic is going through additional network devices, your results might
vary.
Virtual I/O Server
73
In the following tables, raw bit rate is the physical media bit rate and does not reflect interframe gaps,
preamble bits, data link headers, and trailers. Interframe gaps, preamble bits, data link headers, and
trailers can all reduce the effective usable bit rate of the wire.
Single direction (simplex) TCP streaming rates are rates that can be achieved by sending data from one
machine to another in a memory-to-memory test. Full-duplex media can usually perform slightly better
than half-duplex media because the TCP acknowledgment packets can flow without contending for the
same wire that the data packets are flowing on.
Table 25. Single direction (simplex) TCP streaming rates
Network type
Raw bit rate (Mb)
Payload rate (Mb)
Payload rate (MB)
10 Mb Ethernet, Half
Duplex
10
6
0.7
10 Mb Ethernet, Full
Duplex
10 (20 Mb full duplex)
9.48
1.13
100 Mb Ethernet, Half
Duplex
100
62
7.3
100 Mb Ethernet, Full
Duplex
100 (200 Mb full duplex)
94.8
11.3
1000 Mb Ethernet, Full
Duplex, MTU 1500
1000 (2000 Mb full duplex)
948
113
1000 Mb Ethernet, Full
Duplex, MTU 9000
1000 (2000 Mb full duplex)
989
117.9
10000 Mb Ethernet, Full
10000
Duplex, Host Ethernet
Adapter (or Integrated
Virtual Ethernet) MTU 1500
9479
1130
10000
10000 Mb Ethernet, Full
Duplex, Host Ethernet
Adapter (or Integrated
Virtual Ethernet) MTU 9000
9899
1180
Full-duplex TCP streaming workloads have data streaming in both directions. Workloads that can send
and receive packets concurrently can take advantage of full duplex media. Some media, for example
Ethernet in half-duplex mode, cannot send and receive concurrently, thus they will not perform any
better, and can usually degrade performance, when running duplex workloads. Duplex workloads will
not increase at a full doubling of the rate of a simplex workload because the TCP acknowledgment
packets returning from the receiver must now compete with data packets flowing in the same direction.
Table 26. Two direction (duplex) TCP streaming rates
Network type
Raw bit rate (Mb)
Payload rate (Mb)
Payload rate (MB)
10 Mb Ethernet, Half
Duplex
10
5.8
0.7
10 Mb Ethernet, Full
Duplex
10 (20 Mb full duplex)
18
2.2
100 Mb Ethernet, Half
Duplex
100
58
7
100 Mb Ethernet, Full
Duplex
100 (200 Mb full duplex)
177
21.1
1000 Mb Ethernet, Full
Duplex, MTU 1500
1000 (2000 Mb full duplex)
1470 (1660 peak)
175 (198 peak)
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Virtual I/O Server
Table 26. Two direction (duplex) TCP streaming rates (continued)
Network type
Raw bit rate (Mb)
Payload rate (Mb)
Payload rate (MB)
1000 Mb Ethernet, Full
Duplex, MTU 9000
1000 (2000 Mb full duplex)
1680 (1938 peak)
200 (231 peak)
10000 Mb Ethernet, Host
10000
Ethernet Adapter (or
Integrated Virtual Ethernet)
Full Duplex, MTU 1500
14680 (15099 peak)
1750 (1800 peak)
10000 Mb Ethernet, Host
10000
Ethernet Adapter (or
Integrated Virtual Ethernet)
Full Duplex, MTU 9000
16777 (19293 pack)
2000 (2300 peak)
Notes:
1. Peak numbers represent optimal throughput with multiple TCP sessions running in each direction.
Other rates are for a single TCP session.
2. 1000 MB Ethernet (gigabit Ethernet) duplex rates are for the PCI-X adapter in PCI-X slots.
3. Data rates are for TCP/IP using the IPv4 protocol. Adapters with MTU set to 9000 have RFC 1323
enabled.
Processor allocation:
This section contains processor-allocation guidelines for both dedicated processor logical partitions and
shared processor logical partitions.
Because Ethernet running MTU size of 1500 bytes consumes more processor cycles than Ethernet running
Jumbo frames (MTU 9000), the guidelines are different for each situation. In general, the processor
utilization for large packet workloads on jumbo frames is approximately half that required for MTU 1500.
If MTU is set to 1500, provide one processor (1.65 Ghz) per Gigabit Ethernet adapter to help reach
maximum bandwidth. This equals ten 100-Mb Ethernet adapters if you are using smaller networks. For
smaller transaction workloads, plan to use one full processor to drive the Gigabit Ethernet workload to
maximum throughput. For example, if two Gigabit Ethernet adapters will be used, allocate up to two
processors to the logical partition.
If MTU is set to 9000 (jumbo frames), provide 50% of one processor (1.65 Ghz) per Gigabit Ethernet
adapter to reach maximum bandwidth. Small packet workloads should plan to use one full processor to
drive the Gigabit Ethernet workload. Jumbo frames have no effect on the small packet workload case.
Shared Ethernet Adapter using a dedicated processor logical partition
The sizing provided is divided into two workload types: TCP streaming and TCP request and response.
Both MTU 1500 and MTU 9000 networks were used in the sizing, which is provided in terms of machine
cycles per byte of throughput for streaming or per transaction for request/response workloads.
The data in the following tables was derived using the following formula:
(number of processors × processor_utilization × processor clock frequency) / Throughput rate in bytes
per second or transaction per second = cycles per Byte or transaction.
For the purposes of this test, the numbers were measured on a logical partition with one 1.65 Ghz
processor with simultaneous multi-threading (SMT) enabled.
Virtual I/O Server
75
For other processor frequencies, the numbers in these tables can be scaled by the ratio of the processor
frequencies for approximate values to be used for sizing. For example, for a 1.5 Ghz processor speed, use
1.65/1.5 × cycles per byte value from the table. This example would result in a value of 1.1 times the
value in the table, thus requiring 10% more cycles to adjust for the 10% slower clock rate of the 1.5 Ghz
processor.
To use these values, multiply your required throughput rate (in bytes or transactions) by the cycles per
byte value in the following tables. This result will give you the required machine cycles for the workload
for a 1.65 Ghz speed. Then adjust this value by the ratio of the actual machine speed to this 1.65 Ghz
speed. To find the number of processors, divide the result by 1,650,000,000 cycles (or the cycles rate if you
adjusted to a different speed machine). You would need the resulting number of processors to drive the
workload.
For example, if the Virtual I/O Server must deliver 200 MB of streaming throughput, the following
formula would be used:
200 × 1024 × 1024 × 11.2 = 2,348,810,240 cycles / 1,650,000,000 cycles per processor = 1.42 processors.
In round numbers, it would require 1.5 processors in the Virtual I/O Server to handle this workload.
Such a workload can then be handled by either a logical partition using two dedicated processors or by a
logical partition using 1.5-processor shared processors.
The following tables show the machine cycles per byte for a TCP-streaming workload.
Table 27. Shared Ethernet with threading option enabled
MTU 1500 rate and
processor utilization
MTU 1500, cycles per MTU 9000 rate and
byte
processor utilization
MTU 9000, cycles per
byte
Simplex
112.8 MB at 80.6%
processor
11.2
117.8 MB at 37.7%
processor
5
Duplex
162.2 MB at 88.8%
processor
8.6
217 MB at 52.5%
processor
3.8
Type of Streaming
Table 28. Shared Ethernet with threading option disabled
MTU 1500 rate and
processor utilization
MTU 1500, cycles per MTU 9000 rate and
byte
processor utilization
MTU 9000, cycles per
byte
Simplex
112.8 MB at 66.4%
processor
9.3
117.8 MB at 26.7%
processor
3.6
Duplex
161.6 MB at 76.4%
processor
7.4
216.8 MB at 39.6%
processor
2.9
Type of Streaming
The following tables show the machine cycles per transaction for a request and response workload. A
transaction is defined as a round-trip request and reply size.
Table 29. Shared Ethernet with threading option enabled
Size of transaction
Transactions per second and Virtual
I/O Server utilization
MTU 1500 or 9000, cycles per
transaction
Small packets (64 bytes)
59,722 TPS at 83.4% processor
23,022
Large packets (1024 bytes)
51,956 TPS at 80% processor
25,406
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Virtual I/O Server
Table 30. Shared Ethernet with threading option disabled
Size of transaction
Transactions per second and Virtual
I/O Server utilization
MTU 1500 or 9000, cycles per
transaction
Small packets (64 bytes)
60,249 TPS at 65.6% processor
17,956
Large packets (1024 bytes)
53,104 TPS at 65% processor
20,196
The preceding tables demonstrate that the threading option of the shared Ethernet adds approximately
16% – 20% more machine cycles per transaction for MTU 1500 streaming, and approximately 31% – 38%
more machine cycles per transaction for MTU 9000. The threading option adds more machine cycles per
transaction at lower workloads due to the threads being started for each packet. At higher workload
rates, like full duplex or the request and response workloads, the threads can run longer without waiting
and being redispatched. You can configure the thread option for each shared Ethernet adapter by using
the Virtual I/O Server commands. Disable the thread option if the shared Ethernet is running in a Virtual
I/O Server logical partition by itself (without virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) in the same
logical partition).
You can enable or disable threading using the -attr thread option of the mkvdev command. To enable
threading, use the -attr thread=1 option. To disable threading, use the -attr thread=0 option. For
example, the following command disables threading for Shared Ethernet Adapter ent1:
mkvdev -sea ent1 -vadapter ent5 -default ent5 -defaultid 1 -attr thread=0
Sizing a Virtual I/O Server for shared Ethernet on a shared processor logical partition
Creating a shared-processor logical partition for a Virtual I/O Server can be done if the Virtual I/O
Server is running slower-speed networks (for example 10/100 Mb) and a full processor logical partition is
not needed. It is recommended that this be done only if the Virtual I/O Server workload is less than half
a processor or if the workload is inconsistent. Configuring the Virtual I/O Server logical partition as
uncapped might also allow it to use more processor cycles as needed to handle inconsistent throughput.
For example, if the network is used only when other processors are idle, the Virtual I/O Server logical
partition might be able to use other machine cycles and could be created with minimal processor to
handle light workload during the day but the uncapped processor could use more machine cycles at
night.
If you are creating a Virtual I/O Server in a shared-processor logical partition, add additional entitled
processors as a sizing contingency.
Memory allocation:
Find information about memory allocation and sizing.
In general, 512 MB of memory per logical partition is sufficient for most configurations. Enough memory
must be allocated for the Virtual I/O Server data structures. Ethernet adapters and virtual devices use
dedicated receive buffers. These buffers are used to store the incoming packets, which are then sent over
the outgoing device.
A physical Ethernet adapter typically uses 4 MB for MTU 1500 or 16 MB for MTU 9000 for dedicated
receive buffers for gigabit Ethernet. Other Ethernet adapters are similar. Virtual Ethernet, typically uses 6
MB for dedicated receive buffers. However, this number can vary based on workload. Each instance of a
physical or virtual Ethernet would need memory for this number of buffers. In addition, the system has
an mbuf buffer pool per processor that is used if additional buffers are needed. These mbufs typically
occupy 40 MB.
Virtual I/O Server
77
Configuration requirements for shared memory
Review the requirements for the system, Virtual I/O Server (VIOS), logical partitions, and paging space
devices so that you can successfully configure shared memory.
System requirements
v
v
v
v
The
The
The
The
server must be a POWER6 processor-based server, or later.
server firmware must be at release 3.4.2, or later.
Hardware Management Console (HMC) must be at version 7 release 3.4.2, or later.
Integrated Virtualization Manager must be at version 2.1.1, or later.
v The PowerVM Active Memory Sharing technology must be activated. The PowerVM Active Memory
Sharing technology is available with the PowerVM Enterprise Edition for which you must obtain and
enter a PowerVM Editions activation code.
Paging VIOS partition requirements
v VIOS partitions that provide access to the paging space devices for the shared memory partitions that
are assigned to the shared memory pool (hereafter referred to as paging VIOS partitions) cannot use
shared memory. Paging VIOS partitions must use dedicated memory.
v Paging VIOS partitions must be at version 2.1.1, or later.
v On IVM-managed systems, all logical partitions that use shared memory (hereafter referred to as shared
memory partitions) must use virtual resources provided by the management partition.
v On HMC-managed systems, consider configuring separate VIOS partitions as server partitions and
paging VIOS partitions. For example, configure one VIOS partition to provide virtual resources to the
shared memory partitions. Then, configure another VIOS partition as a paging VIOS partition.
v On HMC-managed systems, you can configure multiple VIOS partitions to provide access to paging
space devices. However, you can only assign up to two of those VIOS partitions to the shared memory
pool at any given time.
Requirements for shared memory partitions
v Shared memory partitions must use shared processors.
v You can assign only virtual adapters to shared memory partitions. This means that you can
dynamically add only virtual adapters to shared memory partitions. More specifically, the following
table lists the virtual adapters that you can assign shared memory partitions.
Table 31. Virtual adapters that you can assign to shared memory partitions
AIX and Linux shared memory partitions
shared memory partitions
v Virtual SCSI client adapters
v Virtual SCSI client adapters
v Virtual Ethernet adapters
v Virtual Ethernet adapters
v Virtual fibre channel client adapters
v Virtual fibre channel client adapters
v Virtual serial adapters
v Virtual serial server adapters
Table 32. Virtual adapters that you can assign to shared memory partitions
Linux shared memory partitions
v Virtual SCSI client adapters
v Virtual Ethernet adapters
v Virtual fibre channel client adapters
v Virtual serial adapters
You cannot assign Host Ethernet Adapters (HEA) or host connection adapters (HCA) to shared
memory partitions.
v Shared memory partitions cannot use the barrier synchronization register.
78
Virtual I/O Server
v
v
v
v
Shared memory partitions cannot use huge pages.
AIX must be at version 6.1 Technology Level 3, or later, to run in a shared memory partition.
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server must be at version 11, or later, to run in a shared memory partition.
Red Hat Enterprise Server Version 6, or later, to run in a shared memory partition
Requirements for paging space devices
v The paging space devices for AIX or Linux shared memory partitions must be at least the size of the
maximum logical memory of the shared memory partition.
v Paging space devices can only be assigned to one shared memory pool at a time. You cannot assign the
same paging space device to a shared memory pool on one system and to another shared memory pool
on another system at the same time.
v Paging space devices that are accessed by a single paging VIOS partition must meet the following
requirements:
– They can be physical or logical volumes.
– They can be located in physical storage on the server or on a storage area network (SAN).
v Paging space devices that are accessed redundantly by two paging VIOS partitions must meet the
following requirements:
– They must be physical volumes.
– They must be located on a SAN.
– They must be configured with global IDs.
– They must be accessible to both paging VIOS partitions.
– The reserve attribute must be set to no reserve. (The VIOS automatically sets the reserve attribute to
no reserve when you add the paging space device to the shared memory pool.)
v Physical volumes that are configured as paging space devices cannot belong to a volume group, such
as the rootvg volume group.
Logical volumes that are configured as paging space devices must be located in a volume group that
is dedicated for paging space devices.
v Paging space devices must be available. You cannot use the physical volume or logical volume as a
paging space device if it is already configured as a paging space device or virtual disk for another
logical partition.
v
v Paging space devices cannot be used to boot a logical partition.
v After you assign a paging space device to the shared memory pool, you must manage the device by
using one of the following tools:
– The Create/Modify Shared Memory Pool wizard on the HMC.
–
The View/Modify Shared Memory Pool page on the Integrated Virtualization Manager.
Do not change or remove the device using other management tools.
v On logical partitions with the Suspend/Resume feature, paging space devices are used to save
suspension data for logical partitions that are configured to use shared memory. The paging space
device size must be a minimum of 110% of the maximum memory of the logical partition.
Redundancy considerations
Redundancy options are available at several levels in the virtual I/O environment. Multipathing,
mirroring, and RAID redundancy options exist for the Virtual I/O Server and some client logical
partitions. Ethernet Link Aggregation (also called EtherChannel) is also an option for the client logical
partitions, and the Virtual I/O Server provides Shared Ethernet Adapter failover. There is also support for
node failover (PowerHA® SystemMirror) for nodes using virtual I/O resources.
This section contains information about redundancy for both the client logical partitions and the Virtual
I/O Server. While these configurations help protect from the failure of one of the physical components,
Virtual I/O Server
79
such as a disk or network adapter, they might cause the client logical partition to lose access to its
devices if the Virtual I/O Server fails. The Virtual I/O Server can be made redundant by running a
second instance of it in another logical partition. When running two instances of the Virtual I/O Server,
you can use LVM mirroring, multipath I/O, network interface backup, or multipath routing with dead
gateway detection in the client logical partition to provide highly available access to virtual resources
hosted in separate Virtual I/O Server logical partitions.
Client logical partitions
This topic includes redundancy considerations for client logical partitions. MPIO, PowerHA
SystemMirror, and mirroring for the client logical partition are discussed.
Multipath I/O:
View Multipath I/O (MPIO) information for client logical partitions.
Multiple virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) or virtual Fibre Channel adapters in a client
logical partition can access the same disk through multiple Virtual I/O Server logical partitions. This
section describes a virtual SCSI multipath device configuration. If correctly configured, the client
recognizes the disk as a multipath device. If you are using PowerVM Active Memory Sharing technology
(or shared memory) or the Suspend/Resume feature, you can also use a multipath configuration to
enable two paging VIOS logical partitions to access common paging space devices.
Not all virtual SCSI devices are capable of MPIO. To create an MPIO configuration, the exported device
at the Virtual I/O Server must conform to the following rules:
v The device must be backed by a physical volume. Logical volume-backed virtual SCSI devices are not
supported in an MPIO configuration.
v The device must be accessible from multiple Virtual I/O Server logical partitions.
v The device must be an MPIO-capable device.
Note: MPIO-capable devices are those that contain a unique identifier (UDID) or IEEE volume
identifier. For instructions about how to determine whether disks have a UDID or IEEE volume
identifier, see “Identifying exportable disks” on page 113.
When setting up an MPIO configuration for virtual SCSI devices on the client logical partition, you must
consider the reservation policy of the device on the Virtual I/O Server. To use an MPIO configuration at
the client, none of the virtual SCSI devices on the Virtual I/O Server can be reserving the virtual SCSI
device. Ensure the reserve_policy attribute of the device is set to no_reserve.
Failover is the only supported behavior for MPIO virtual SCSI disks on the client logical partition.
Related tasks:
“Setting the reserve policy attributes of a device” on page 108
In some configurations, you must consider the reservation policy of the device on the Virtual I/O Server
(VIOS).
“Scenario: Configuring Multi-Path I/O for AIX client logical partitions” on page 62
Multi-Path I/O (MPIO) helps provide increased availability of virtual Small Computer Serial Interface
(SCSI) resources by providing redundant paths to the resource. This topic describes how to set up
Multi-Path I/O for AIX client logical partitions.
Related reference:
“Configuration requirements for shared memory” on page 78
Review the requirements for the system, Virtual I/O Server (VIOS), logical partitions, and paging space
devices so that you can successfully configure shared memory.
Mirroring for client logical partitions:
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Achieve mirroring for client logical partitions by using two virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI)
adapters.
The client partition can mirror its logical volumes using two virtual SCSI client adapters. Each of these
adapters should be assigned to separate Virtual I/O Server partitions. The two physical disks are each
attached to a separate Virtual I/O Server partition and made available to the client partition through a
virtual SCSI server adapter. This configuration protects virtual disks in a client partition against the
failure of any of the following:
v One physical disk
v One physical adapter
v One Virtual I/O Server
The performance of your system might be impacted when using a RAID 1 configuration.
PowerHA SystemMirror in the Virtual I/O Server:
Learn about PowerHA SystemMirror in the Virtual I/O Server.
PowerHA SystemMirror and virtual SCSI
Be aware of the following considerations when implementing PowerHA SystemMirror and virtual SCSI:
v The volume group must be defined as Enhanced Concurrent Mode. Enhanced Concurrent Mode is the
preferred mode for sharing volume groups in PowerHA SystemMirror clusters because volumes are
accessible by multiple PowerHA SystemMirror nodes. If file systems are used on the standby nodes,
those file systems are not mounted until the point of failover. If shared volumes are accessed directly
(without file systems) in Enhanced Concurrent Mode, these volumes are accessible from multiple
nodes, and as a result, access must be controlled at a higher layer.
v If any one cluster node accesses shared volumes through virtual SCSI, then all nodes must. This means
that disks cannot be shared between a logical partition using virtual SCSI and a node directly accessing
those disks.
v All volume group configuration and maintenance on these shared disks is done from the PowerHA
SystemMirror nodes, not from the Virtual I/O Server.
PowerHA SystemMirror and virtual Ethernet
Be aware of the following considerations when implementing PowerHA SystemMirror and virtual
Ethernet:
v IP Address Takeover (IPAT) by way of aliasing must be used. IPAT by way of Replacement and MAC
Address Takeover are not supported.
v Avoid using the PowerHA SystemMirror PCI Hot Plug facility in a Virtual I/O Server environment.
PCI Hot Plug operations are available through the Virtual I/O Server. When an PowerHA
SystemMirror node is using virtual I/O, the PowerHA SystemMirror PCI Hot Plug facility is not
meaningful because the I/O adapters are virtual rather than physical.
v All virtual Ethernet interfaces defined to PowerHA SystemMirror should be treated as single-adapter
networks. In particular, you must use the ping_client_list attribute to monitor and detect failure of the
network interfaces.
v If the Virtual I/O Server has multiple physical interfaces on the same network, or if there are two or
more PowerHA SystemMirror nodes using the Virtual I/O Server in the same frame, PowerHA
SystemMirror is not informed of, and does not react to, single physical interface failures. This does not
limit the availability of the entire cluster because the Virtual I/O Server routes traffic around the
failure.
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v If the Virtual I/O Server has only a single physical interface on a network, failure of that physical
interface is detected by PowerHA SystemMirror. However, that failure isolates the node from the
network.
Link Aggregation or EtherChannel devices:
A Link Aggregation, or EtherChannel, device is a network port-aggregation technology that allows
several Ethernet adapters to be aggregated. The adapters can then act as a single Ethernet device. Link
Aggregation helps provide more throughput over a single IP address than would be possible with a
single Ethernet adapter.
For example, ent0 and ent1 can be aggregated to ent3. The system considers these aggregated adapters
as one adapter, and all adapters in the Link Aggregation device are given the same hardware address, so
they are treated by remote systems as if they are one adapter.
Link Aggregation can help provide more redundancy because individual links might fail, and the Link
Aggregation device will fail over to another adapter in the device to maintain connectivity. For example,
in the previous example, if ent0 fails, the packets are automatically sent on the next available adapter,
ent1, without disruption to existing user connections. ent0 automatically returns to service on the Link
Aggregation device when it recovers.
You can configure a Shared Ethernet Adapter to use a Link Aggregation, or EtherChannel, device as the
physical adapter.
Shared Ethernet Adapter failover:
Shared Ethernet Adapter failover provides redundancy by configuring a backup Shared Ethernet Adapter
on a different Virtual I/O Server logical partition that can be used if the primary Shared Ethernet
Adapter fails. The network connectivity in the client logical partitions continues without disruption.
A Shared Ethernet Adapter is comprised of a physical adapter (or several physical adapters grouped
under a Link Aggregation device) and one or more virtual Ethernet adapters. It can provide layer 2
connectivity to multiple client logical partitions through the virtual Ethernet adapters.
The Shared Ethernet Adapter failover configuration uses the priority value given to the virtual Ethernet
adapters during their creation to determine which Shared Ethernet Adapter will serve as the primary and
which will serve as the backup. The Shared Ethernet Adapter that has the virtual Ethernet configured
with the numerically lower priority value will be used preferentially as the primary adapter. For the
purpose of communicating between themselves to determine when a failover should take place, Shared
Ethernet Adapters in failover mode use a VLAN dedicated for such traffic, called the control channel. For
this reason, a virtual Ethernet (created with a PVID that is unique on the system) must be specified as the
control channel virtual Ethernet when each Shared Ethernet Adapter is created in failover mode. Using
the control channel, the backup Shared Ethernet Adapter is notified when the primary adapter fails, and
network traffic from the client logical partitions is sent over the backup adapter. If and when the primary
Shared Ethernet Adapter recovers from its failure, it again begins actively bridging all network traffic.
A Shared Ethernet Adapter in failover mode might optionally have more than one trunk virtual Ethernet.
In this case, all the virtual Ethernet adapters in a Shared Ethernet Adapter must have the same priority
value. Also, the virtual Ethernet adapter used specifically for the control channel does not need to have
the trunk adapter setting enabled. The virtual Ethernet adapters used for the control channel on each
Shared Ethernet Adapter in failover mode must have an identical PVID value, and that PVID value must
be unique in the system, so that no other virtual Ethernet adapters on the same system are using that
PVID.
To ensure prompt recovery times, when you enable the Spanning Tree Protocol on the switch ports
connected to the physical adapters of the Shared Ethernet Adapter, you can also enable the portfast
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option on those ports. The portfast option allows the switch to immediately forward packets on the port
without first completing the Spanning Tree Protocol. (Spanning Tree Protocol blocks the port completely
until it is finished.)
The Shared Ethernet Adapter is designed to prevent network loops. However, as an additional
precaution, you can enable Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU) Guard on the switch ports connected to the
physical adapters of the Shared Ethernet Adapter. BPDU Guard detects looped Spanning Tree Protocol
BPDU packets and shuts down the port. This helps prevent broadcast storms on the network. A broadcast
storm is a situation where one message that is broadcast across a network results in multiple responses.
Each response generates more responses, causing excessive transmission of broadcast messages. Severe
broadcast storms can block all other network traffic, but they can usually be prevented by carefully
configuring a network to block illegal broadcast messages.
Note: When the Shared Ethernet Adapter is using GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP), it
generates BPDU packets, which causes BPDU Guard to shut down the port unnecessarily. Therefore,
when the Shared Ethernet Adapter is using GVRP, do not enable BPDU Guard.
For information about how to enable the Spanning Tree Protocol, the portfast option, and BPDU Guard
on the ports, see the documentation provided with the switch.
Related tasks:
“Scenario: Configuring Shared Ethernet Adapter failover” on page 56
Use this scenario to help you to configure primary and backup Shared Ethernet Adapters in the Virtual
I/O Server logical partitions.
Shared Ethernet Adapters for load sharing:
Learn about configuring Shared Ethernet Adapters with load sharing to share the workload between the
primary and backup Shared Ethernet Adapter.
The Shared Ethernet Adapter failover configuration provides redundancy only by configuring a backup
Shared Ethernet Adapter on a different Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) logical partition. This backup Shared
Ethernet Adapter is in the standby mode and can be used only if the primary Shared Ethernet Adapter
fails. Hence, the bandwidth of the backup Shared Ethernet Adapter is not used.
On the VIOS Version 2.2.1.0, or later, you can use the Shared Ethernet Adapter failover with load sharing
configuration to use the bandwidth of the backup Shared Ethernet Adapter without any impact to
reliability.
In the Shared Ethernet Adapter failover with load sharing configuration, the primary and the backup
Shared Ethernet Adapters negotiate the set of virtual local area network (VLAN) IDs that they are
responsible for bridging. After successful negotiation, each Shared Ethernet Adapter bridges the assigned
trunk adapters and the associated VLANs. Thus, both the primary and the backup Shared Ethernet
Adapter bridge the workload for their respective VLANs. If a failure occurs, the active Shared Ethernet
Adapter bridges all trunk adapters and the associated VLANs. This action helps to avoid disruption in
network services. You can restart load sharing by running the chdev command on the backup Shared
Ethernet Adapter. For more information, see chdev command.
To configure Shared Ethernet Adapter failover with load sharing, you must have two or more trunk
adapters with identical VLAN definitions assigned to each Shared Ethernet Adapter. To make optimum
use of the Shared Ethernet Adapter failover with load sharing configuration, design the workload so that
it is equally distributed among trunk adapters.
Virtual I/O Server logical partition
Redundancy options for the Virtual I/O Server include multi-pathing, Redundant Array of Independent
Disks (RAID) configurations, and Link Aggregation (or EtherChannel).
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Multipathing:
Multipathing for the physical storage within the Virtual I/O Server provides failover physical path
redundancy and load-balancing. The multipathing solutions available in the Virtual I/O Server include
MPIO as well as solutions provided by the storage vendors.
RAID:
Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) solutions provide for device level redundancy within the
Virtual I/O Server. Some RAID options, such as LVM mirroring and striping, are provided by the Virtual
I/O Server software, while other RAID options are made available by the physical storage subsystem.
Link Aggregation or EtherChannel devices:
A Link Aggregation, or EtherChannel, device is a network port-aggregation technology that allows
several Ethernet adapters to be aggregated. The adapters can then act as a single Ethernet device. Link
Aggregation helps provide more throughput over a single IP address than would be possible with a
single Ethernet adapter.
For example, ent0 and ent1 can be aggregated to ent3. The system considers these aggregated adapters
as one adapter, and all adapters in the Link Aggregation device are given the same hardware address, so
they are treated by remote systems as if they are one adapter.
Link Aggregation can help provide more redundancy because individual links might fail, and the Link
Aggregation device will fail over to another adapter in the device to maintain connectivity. For example,
in the previous example, if ent0 fails, the packets are automatically sent on the next available adapter,
ent1, without disruption to existing user connections. ent0 automatically returns to service on the Link
Aggregation device when it recovers.
You can configure a Shared Ethernet Adapter to use a Link Aggregation, or EtherChannel, device as the
physical adapter.
Redundancy configuration using virtual Fibre Channel adapters
Redundancy configurations help protect your network from physical adapter failures as well as Virtual
I/O Server failures.
With N_Port ID Virtualization (NPIV), you can configure the managed system so that multiple logical
partitions can access independent physical storage through the same physical Fibre Channel adapter.
Each virtual Fibre Channel adapter is identified by a unique worldwide port name (WWPN), which
means that you can connect each virtual Fibre Channel adapter to independent physical storage on a
SAN.
Similar to virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) redundancy, virtual Fibre Channel redundancy
can be achieved using Multi-path I/O (MPIO) and mirroring at the client partition. The difference
between traditional redundancy with SCSI adapters and the NPIV technology using virtual Fibre Channel
adapters, is that the redundancy occurs on the client, because only the client recognizes the disk. The
Virtual I/O Server is essentially just a pipe. The second example below uses multiple Virtual I/O Server
logical partitions to add redundancy at the Virtual I/O Server level as well.
Example: Host bus adapter failover
This example uses Host bus adapter (HBA) failover to provide a basic level of redundancy for the client
logical partition. The figure shows the following connections:
v The storage area network (SAN) connects physical storage to two physical Fibre Channel adapters
located on the managed system.
v The physical Fibre Channel adapters are assigned to the Virtual I/O Server and support NPIV.
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v The physical Fibre Channel ports are each connected to a virtual Fibre Channel adapter on the Virtual
I/O Server. The two virtual Fibre Channel adapters on the Virtual I/O Server are connected to ports on
two different physical Fibre Channel adapters in order to provide redundancy for the physical
adapters.
v Each virtual Fibre Channel adapter on the Virtual I/O Server is connected to one virtual Fibre Channel
adapter on a client logical partition. Each virtual Fibre Channel adapter on each client logical partition
receives a pair of unique WWPNs. The client logical partition uses one WWPN to log into the SAN at
any given time. The other WWPN is used when you move the client logical partition to another
managed system.
The virtual Fibre Channel adapters always has a one-to-one relationship between the client logical
partitions and the virtual Fibre Channel adapters on the Virtual I/O Server logical partition. That is, each
virtual Fibre Channel adapter that is assigned to a client logical partition must connect to only one virtual
Fibre Channel adapter on the Virtual I/O Server, and each virtual Fibre Channel on the Virtual I/O
Server must connect to only one virtual Fibre Channel adapter on a client logical partition.
The client can write to the physical storage through client virtual Fibre Channel adapter 1 or 2. If a
physical Fibre Channel adapter fails, the client uses the alternative path. This example does not show
redundancy in the physical storage, but rather assumes it would be built into the SAN.
Note: It is recommended that you configure virtual Fibre Channel adapters from multiple logical
partitions to the same HBA, or you configure virtual Fibre Channel adapters from the same logical
partition to different HBAs.
Example: HBA and Virtual I/O Server failover
This example uses HBA and Virtual I/O Server failover to provide a more advanced level of redundancy
for the client logical partition. The figure shows the following connections:
v The storage area network (SAN) connects physical storage to two physical Fibre Channel adapters
located on the managed system.
v There are two Virtual I/O Server logical partitions to provide redundancy at the Virtual I/O Server
level.
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v The physical Fibre Channel adapters are assigned to their respective Virtual I/O Server and support
NPIV.
v The physical Fibre Channel ports are each connected to a virtual Fibre Channel adapter on the Virtual
I/O Server. The two virtual Fibre Channel adapters on the Virtual I/O Server are connected to ports on
two different physical Fibre Channel adapters in order to provide redundancy for the physical
adapters. A single adapter could have multiple ports.
v Each virtual Fibre Channel adapter on the Virtual I/O Server is connected to one virtual Fibre Channel
adapter on a client logical partition. Each virtual Fibre Channel adapter on each client logical partition
receives a pair of unique WWPNs. The client logical partition uses one WWPN to log into the SAN at
any given time. The other WWPN is used when you move the client logical partition to another
managed system.
The client can write to the physical storage through virtual Fibre Channel adapter 1 or 2 on the client
logical partition through VIOS 2. The client can also write to physical storage through virtual Fibre
Channel adapter 3 or 4 on the client logical partition through VIOS 1. If a physical Fibre Channel adapter
fails on VIOS 1, the client uses the other physical adapter connected to VIOS 1 or uses the paths
connected through VIOS 2. If VIOS 1 fails, then the client uses the path through VIOS 2. This example
does not show redundancy in the physical storage, but rather assumes it would be built into the SAN.
Considerations
These examples can become more complex as you add physical storage redundancy and multiple clients,
but the concepts remain the same. Consider the following points:
v To avoid configuring the physical Fibre Channel adapter to be a single point of failure for the
connection between the client logical partition and its physical storage on the SAN, do not connect two
virtual Fibre Channel adapters from the same client logical partition to the same physical Fibre
Channel adapter. Instead, connect each virtual Fibre Channel adapter to a different physical Fibre
Channel adapter.
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v Consider load balancing when mapping a virtual Fibre Channel adapter on the Virtual I/O Server to a
physical port on the physical Fibre Channel adapter.
v Consider what level of redundancy already exists in the SAN to determine whether to configure
multiple physical storage units.
v Consider using two Virtual I/O Server logical partitions. Since the Virtual I/O Server is central to
communication between logical partitions and the external network, it is important to provide a level
of redundancy for the Virtual I/O Server. Multiple Virtual I/O Server logical partitions require more
resources as well, so you should plan accordingly.
v NPIV technology is useful when you want to move logical partitions between servers. For example, in
active partition mobility, if you use the redundancy configurations above, in combination with physical
adapters, you can stop all the I/O activity through the dedicated, physical adapter and direct all traffic
through a virtual Fibre Channel adapter until the logical partition is successfully moved. The dedicated
physical adapter would need to be connected to the same storage as the virtual path. Since you cannot
migrate a physical adapter, all I/O activity is routed through the virtual path while you move the
partition. After the logical partition is moved successfully, you need to set up the dedicated path (on
the destination logical partition) if you want to use the same redundancy configuration you had
configured on the original logical partition. Then the I/O activity can resume through the dedicated
adapter, using the virtual Fibre Channel adapter as a secondary path.
Related information:
Virtual I/O Server Deployment Examples
Configuring a virtual Fibre Channel adapter using the HMC
Configuring logical partitions to use virtual Fibre Channel on the Integrated Virtualization Manager
Security considerations
Review the security considerations for virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI), virtual Ethernet,
and Shared Ethernet Adapter and the additional security options available.
Systems allow cross-partition device sharing and communication. Functions such as dynamic LPAR,
shared processors, virtual networking, virtual storage, and workload management all require facilities to
ensure that system-security requirements are met. Cross-partition and virtualization features are designed
to not introduce any security exposure beyond what is implied by the function. For example, a virtual
LAN connection would have the same security considerations as a physical network connection.
Carefully consider how to utilize cross-partition virtualization features in high-security environments.
Any visibility between logical partitions must be manually created through administrative
system-configuration choices.
Using virtual SCSI, the Virtual I/O Server provides storage to client logical partitions. However, instead
of SCSI or fiber cable, the connection for this functionality is done by the firmware. The virtual SCSI
device drivers of the Virtual I/O Server and the firmware ensure that only the system administrator of
the Virtual I/O Server has control over which logical partitions can access data on Virtual I/O Server
storage devices. For example, a client logical partition that has access to a logical volume lv001 exported
by the Virtual I/O Server logical partition cannot access lv002, even if it is in the same volume group.
Similar to virtual SCSI, the firmware also provides the connection between logical partitions when using
virtual Ethernet. The firmware provides the Ethernet switch functionality. The connection to the external
network is provided by the Shared Ethernet Adapter function on the Virtual I/O Server. This part of the
Virtual I/O Server acts as a layer-2 bridge to the physical adapters. A VLAN ID tag is inserted into every
Ethernet frame. The Ethernet switch restricts the frames to the ports that are authorized to receive frames
with that VLAN ID. Every port on an Ethernet switch can be configured to be a member of several
VLANs. Only the network adapters, both virtual and physical, that are connected to a port (virtual or
physical) that belongs to the same VLAN can receive the frames. The implementation of this VLAN
standard ensures that the logical partitions cannot access restricted data.
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Installing the Virtual I/O Server and client logical partitions
Find instructions for installing the Virtual I/O Server and client logical partitions by deploying a system
plan or manually creating the logical partition and logical partition profiles and installing the Virtual I/O
Server (VIOS) and client operating systems.
These instructions apply to installing the Virtual I/O Server and client logical partitions on a system that
is managed by a Hardware Management Console (HMC). If you plan to install the Virtual I/O Server on
a system that is not managed by an HMC, then you need to install the Integrated Virtualization Manager.
For instructions, see Installing the Integrated Virtualization Manager.
The installation procedures vary depending on the following factors:
v The version of HMC attached to the managed system on which you plan to install the Virtual I/O
Server and client logical partitions. HMC Version 7 displays a different interface than prior versions of
the HMC. HMC Version 7 also provides the ability to deploy a system plan that includes the Virtual
I/O Server and client logical partitions.
v Whether you plan to deploy a system plan that includes the Virtual I/O Server and client logical
partitions. When you deploy a system plan, the HMC automatically performs the following tasks based
on the information provided in the system plan:
– Creates the Virtual I/O Server logical partition and logical partition profile.
– Installs the Virtual I/O Server and provisions virtual resources.
– Creates the client logical partitions and logical partition profiles.
– Installs the AIX and Linux operating systems on client logical partitions. The HMC must be at
V7R3.3.0, or later.
Note: As an alternative to the HMC, you can use the Systems Director Management Console (SDMC) to
install the VIOS and client logical partitions.
Related information:
Installing the Virtual I/O Server using NIM
Installing the VIOS and client virtual hosts by using the SDMC
Installing the Virtual I/O Server manually by using HMC Version 7,
release 7.1, and later
You can create the Virtual I/O Server logical partition and logical partition profile, and you can install the
Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) by using the Hardware Management Console (HMC) Version 7, release 7.1, or
later.
Before you begin
Before you start, ensure that you meet the following requirements:
v The system on which you plan to install the Virtual I/O Server is managed by a Hardware
Management Console (HMC).
v The HMC is at Version 7, release 7.1, or later.
What to do next
Note: As an alternative to the HMC, you can use the Systems Director Management Console (SDMC) to
install the VIOS manually.
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Related information:
Installing the VIOS manually by using the SDMC
Entering the activation code for PowerVM Editions by using HMC Version 7
Use these instructions to enter the PowerVM Editions (or Advanced POWER Virtualization) activation
code using the Hardware Management Console (HMC) Version 7, or later.
About this task
If PowerVM Editions is not enabled on your system, you can use the HMC to enter the activation code
that you received when you ordered the feature.
Use the following procedure to enter the activation code for the PowerVM Standard Edition and the
PowerVM Enterprise Edition. For information about the PowerVM Editions, see PowerVM Editions
overview.
To enter your activation code, follow these steps:
Procedure
1. In the Navigation area, expand Systems Management.
2. Select Servers.
3. In the contents area, select the managed system on which you plan to use PowerVM Editions. For
example, this might be the system on which you plan to install the Virtual I/O Server, or it might be
the system in which you plan to use the Micro-Partitioning technology.
4. Click Tasks and select Capacity on Demand (CoD) > PowerVM > Enter Activation Code.
5. Enter your activation code and click OK.
What to do next
Note: As an alternative to the HMC, you can use the Systems Director Management Console (SDMC) to
enter the PowerVM Editions (or Advanced POWER Virtualization) activation code.
Related information:
Entering the activation code by using the SDMC
Creating the Virtual I/O Server logical partition on an HMC managed system
You can use the Hardware Management Console (HMC) Version 7, release 7.1, or later to create a logical
partition and partition profile for the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS).
About this task
You can use the Hardware Management Console (HMC) Version 7, release 7.1, or later to create the
Virtual I/O Server partition and profile manually. Or, you can deploy a system plan to create the Virtual
I/O Server (VIOS) partition and profile. When you deploy a system plan you can optionally create client
logical partitions and their profiles on the managed system as well.
What to do next
Note: As an alternative to the HMC, you can use the Systems Director Management Console (SDMC) to
create a logical partition and partition profile for the VIOS.
Related information:
Creating the VIOS virtual server on an SDMC managed host
Creating the Virtual I/O Server logical partition and partition profile manually by using the HMC:
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89
You can use the Hardware Management Console (HMC) Version 7, release 7.1, or later to create a logical
partition and partition profile for the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS).
Before you begin
Before you start, ensure that you meet the following requirements:
v You are a super administrator or an operator.
v The PowerVM Editions (or Advanced POWER Virtualization) feature is activated. For instructions, see
“Entering the activation code for PowerVM Editions by using HMC Version 7” on page 89.
About this task
The Virtual I/O Server requires a minimum of 30 GB of disk space.
To create a logical partition and a partition profile on your server by using the HMC, follow these steps:
Procedure
1. In the Navigation area, expand Systems Management.
2. Select Servers.
3. In the contents area, select the server on which you want to create the partition profile.
4. Click Tasks and select Configuration > Create Logical Partition > VIO Server.
5. On the Create Partition page, enter a name and ID for the Virtual I/O Server partition.
6. On the Partition Profile page, complete the following steps:
a. Enter a profile name for the Virtual I/O Server partition.
b. Ensure that the Use all the resources in the system check box is cleared (not selected).
7. On the Processors page, decide if you want to use shared or dedicated processors (based on your
environment) by making the appropriate selection.
8. On the Processing Settings page, enter the appropriate amount of processing units and virtual
processors that you want to assign to the Virtual I/O Server partition.
9. On the Memory page, select the appropriate amount of memory that you want to assign to the
Virtual I/O Server partition. The required minimum value is 512 MB.
10. On the I/O page, select the physical I/O resources that you want in the Virtual I/O Server partition.
11. On the Virtual Adapters page, create the appropriate adapters for your environment.
12. On the Logical Host Ethernet Adapter (LHEA) page, configure one or more LHEAs for the Virtual
I/O Server partition. (Host Ethernet Adapter is sometimes referred to as Integrated Virtual Ethernet.)
13. On the Optional Settings page, complete the following steps:
a. Decide if you want connection monitoring by making the appropriate selection.
b. If you want the Virtual I/O Server to start when the managed system starts, select the
Automatically start with managed system option.
c. Decide if you want to enable redundant error path reporting by making the appropriate selection.
d. Select the boot mode for the Virtual I/O Server partition. In most cases, the Normal boot mode is
the appropriate selection.
14. Verify your selections in the Profile Summary window and click Finish.
What to do next
After you create the partition and partition profile, you are ready to install the Virtual I/O Server. For
instructions, see one of the following procedures:
v “Installing the Virtual I/O Server from the HMC” on page 91
v “Installing the Virtual I/O Server from CD or DVD” on page 92
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Virtual I/O Server
Note: As an alternative to the HMC, you can use the Systems Director Management Console (SDMC) to
create the VIOS partition and profile.
Related information:
Creating the VIOS virtual server and virtual server profile by using the SDMC
Creating the Virtual I/O Server logical partition and client logical partitions by using the HMC to
deploy a system plan:
You use the Hardware Management Console (HMC) Version 7, release 7.1, or later, to deploy a system
plan on a POWER7 managed system to create a logical partition and profile for the Virtual I/O Server
(VIOS). You also can use the system plan to optionally create client logical partitions and their profiles on
the managed system.
Before you begin
Before you start, ensure that you meet the following requirements:
v The system to which you plan to deploy the system plan is managed by a Hardware Management
Console (HMC) at Version 7, release 7.1, or later.
v The system plan can only create the Virtual I/O Server management partition and profile and client
logical partitions and profiles.
What to do next
After you use the system plan to create your management and client logical partitions and their
associated partition profiles, you are ready to install the Virtual I/O Server. For instructions, see one of
the following procedures:
v Installing the Virtual I/O Server from the HMC
v Installing the Virtual I/O Server from CD or DVD
Note: As an alternative to the HMC, you can use the Systems Director Management Console (SDMC) to
deploy a system plan on a POWER7 managed system to create a logical partition and profile for the
VIOS.
Installing the Virtual I/O Server from the HMC
Find instructions for installing the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) from the HMC by using the installios
command.
Before you begin
Before you start, complete the following tasks:
1. Ensure that you meet the following requirements:
v There is an HMC attached to the managed system.
v The Virtual I/O Server logical partition and logical partition profile are created. For instructions, see
“Creating the Virtual I/O Server logical partition and partition profile manually by using the
HMC” on page 89.
v If you are installing Virtual I/O Server Version 2.2.1.0, or later, ensure that the HMC is at Version 7
Release 7.4.0, or later.
v The Virtual I/O Server logical partition has at least one Ethernet adapter and a 16 GB disk assigned
to it.
v You have hmcsuperadmin authority.
2. Gather the following information:
v Static IP address for the Virtual I/O Server
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v Subnet mask for the Virtual I/O Server
v Default gateway for the Virtual I/O Server
About this task
To install the Virtual I/O Server, follow these steps:
Procedure
1. Insert the Virtual I/O Server CD or DVD into the HMC.
2. If you are installing the Virtual I/O Server through the public network interface, continue to step 3. If
you are installing the Virtual I/O Server through a private network interface, type the following from
the HMC command line:
export INSTALLIOS_PRIVATE_IF=interface
where interface is the network interface through which the installation should take place.
3. From the HMC command line, type:
installios
4. Follow the installation instructions according to the system prompts.
What to do next
After you install the Virtual I/O Server, finish the installation by checking for updates, setting up remote
connections, creating additional user IDs, and so on. For instructions, see “Finishing the Virtual I/O
Server installation” on page 94.
Note: As an alternative to the HMC, you can use the Systems Director Management Console (SDMC) to
install the VIOS.
Related information:
Installing the VIOS from the SDMC
Installing the Virtual I/O Server from CD or DVD
Find instructions for installing the Virtual I/O Server from a CD or DVD device that is attached to the
Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) logical partition.
Before you begin
Before you start, ensure that you meet the following requirements:
v There is an HMC attached to the managed system.
v The Virtual I/O Server logical partition and logical partition profile are created. For instructions, see
“Creating the Virtual I/O Server logical partition and partition profile manually by using the HMC” on
page 89.
v A CD or DVD optical device is assigned to the Virtual I/O Server logical partition.
About this task
To install the Virtual I/O Server from CD or DVD, follow these steps:
Procedure
1. Activate the Virtual I/O Server logical partition using the HMC Version 7 (or later) or HMC Version 6
(or earlier):
v Activate the Virtual I/O Server using the HMC Version 7 or later:
a. Insert the Virtual I/O Server CD or DVD into the Virtual I/O Server logical partition.
b. In the HMC navigation area, expand Systems Management > Servers.
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Virtual I/O Server
c. Select the server on which the Virtual I/O Server logical partition is located.
d. In the contents area, select the Virtual I/O Server logical partition.
e. Click Tasks > Operations > Activate. The Activate Partition menu opens with a selection of
logical partition profiles. Ensure the correct profile is highlighted.
f. Select Open a terminal window or console session to open a virtual terminal (vterm) window.
g. Click (Advanced) to open the advanced options menu.
h. For the boot mode, select SMS.
i. Click OK to close the advanced options menu.
j. Click OK. A virtual terminal window opens for the logical partition.
v Activate the Virtual I/O Server using the HMC Version 6 or earlier:
a. Insert the Virtual I/O Server CD or DVD into the Virtual I/O Server logical partition.
b. On the HMC, right-click the logical partition to open the menu.
c. Click Activate. The Activate Partition menu opens with a selection of logical partition profiles.
Ensure the correct profile is highlighted.
d. Select Open a terminal window or console session to open a virtual terminal (vterm) window.
e. Click (Advanced) to open the advanced options menu.
f. For the boot mode, select SMS.
g. Click OK to close the advanced options menu.
h. Click OK. A virtual terminal window opens for the logical partition.
2. Select the boot device:
a. Select Select Boot Options and press Enter.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Select Select Install/Boot Device and press Enter.
Select Select 1st Boot Device and press Enter.
Select CD/DVD and press Enter.
Select the media type that corresponds to the optical device and press Enter.
f. Select the device number that corresponds to the optical device and press Enter.
g. Set the boot sequence to configure the first boot device. The optical device is now the first device
in the Current Boot Sequence list.
h. Exit the SMS menu by pressing the x key, and confirm that you want to exit SMS.
3. Install the Virtual I/O Server:
a. Select the desired console and press Enter.
b. Select a language for the BOS menus and press Enter.
c. Select Start Install Now with Default Settings and press Enter. Select Change/Show Installation
Settings and Install to change the installation and system settings.
d. Select Continue with Install. The system will reboot after the installation is complete.
What to do next
After you install the Virtual I/O Server, finish the installation by checking for updates, setting up remote
connects, creating additional user IDs, and so on. For instructions, see “Finishing the Virtual I/O Server
installation” on page 94.
Note: As an alternative to the HMC, you can use the Systems Director Management Console (SDMC) to
install the VIOS from a CD or DVD device.
Virtual I/O Server
93
Related information:
Installing the VIOS from CD or DVD by using the SDMC
Finishing the Virtual I/O Server installation
After you install Virtual I/O Server, you must check for updates, set up remote connects, create
additional user IDs, and so on.
Before you begin
This procedure assumes that Virtual I/O Server is installed. For instructions, see “Installing the Virtual
I/O Server and client logical partitions” on page 88.
About this task
To finish the installation, complete the following steps:
Procedure
1. Accept the software maintenance terms and conditions, and the Virtual I/O Server product license.
For instructions, see “Viewing and accepting the Virtual I/O Server license.”
2. Set up remote connections to the Virtual I/O Server. For instructions, see “Connecting to the Virtual
I/O Server by using OpenSSH” on page 205.
3. Optional: Create the following additional user IDs. After the installation, the only active user ID is the
prime administrator (padmin). You can create the following additional user IDs: system administrator,
service representative, and development engineer. For information about creating user IDs, see
“Managing users on the Virtual I/O Server” on page 219.
4. Configure the TCP/IP connection for the Virtual I/O Server using the mktcpip command. You must
complete this task before you can perform any dynamic logical partitioning operations. Alternatively,
you can use the configuration assistance menu to configure TCP/IP connections. You can access the
configuration assistance menu by running the cfgassist command.
What to do next
When you are finished, do one of the following tasks:
v Create client logical partitions.
Note: You do not need to perform this task if you deployed a system plan to create all your client
logical partitions.
v Configure the Virtual I/O Server and install client operating systems. For information, see
“Configuring the Virtual I/O Server” on page 102 and Logical partitioning. For more information
about Logical partitioning, see Logical partitioning.
Related information:
Finishing the installation on the SDMC
Viewing and accepting the Virtual I/O Server license:
You must view and accept the license before using the Virtual I/O Server.
Before you begin
Before you start, ensure that the Virtual I/O Server logical partition profile is created and the Virtual I/O
Server is installed. For instructions, see “Installing the Virtual I/O Server and client logical partitions” on
page 88.
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Virtual I/O Server
About this task
To view and accept the Virtual I/O Server license, complete the following steps:
Procedure
1. Log in to the Virtual I/O Server using the padmin user ID.
2. Choose a new password. The software maintenance terms and conditions appear.
3. View and accept the Virtual I/O Server product license.
Note: If you installed the Virtual I/O Server by deploying a system plan, then you have already
accepted the Virtual I/O Server product license and do not need to complete this step.
a. To view the Virtual I/O Server product license, type license -ls on the command line. By
default, the license is displayed in English. To change the language in which the license is
displayed, follow these steps:
1) View the list of available locales to display the license by typing the following command:
license -ls
2) View the license in another language by typing the following command:
license -view -lang Name
For example, to view the license in Japanese, type the following command:
license -view -lang ja_JP
b. To accept the Virtual I/O Server product license, type license -accept on the command line.
4. In the installation program, English is the default language. If you need to change the language
setting for the system, follow these steps:
a. View the available languages by typing the following command:
chlang -ls
b. Change the language by typing the following command, replacing Name with the name of the
language you are switching to:
chlang -lang Name
Note: If the language fileset is not installed, use the -dev Media flag to install it.
For example, to install and change the language to Japanese, type the following command:
chlang -lang ja_JP -dev /dev/cd0
Related information:
Viewing and accepting the license by using the SDMC
Reinstalling the Virtual I/O Server of a paging VIOS partition
When you reinstall the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) that is assigned to the shared memory pool (hereafter
referred to as a paging VIOS partition), you need to reconfigure the shared memory environment. For
example, you might need to add the paging space devices again to the shared memory pool.
About this task
The paging VIOS partitions store information about the paging space devices that are assigned to a
shared memory pool. The Hardware Management Console (HMC) obtains information about the paging
space devices that are assigned to the shared memory pool from the paging VIOS partitions. When you
reinstall the VIOS, the information about the paging space devices is lost. For the paging VIOS partitions
to regain the information, you must assign the paging space devices again to the share memory pool after
you reinstall the VIOS.
Virtual I/O Server
95
The following table shows the reconfiguration tasks that you must perform in the shared memory
environment when you resinstall the Virtual I/O Server of a paging VIOS partition.
Table 33. Shared memory reconfiguration tasks for reinstalling the Virtual I/O Server of a paging VIOS partition
Number of paging VIOS
Number of paging VIOS
partitions that are assigned partitions for which you
to the shared memory pool want to reinstall the VIOS
1
1
Reconfiguration steps
1. Shut down all logical
1. Shutting down and
partitions that use
restarting logical
shared memory
partitions
(hereafter referred to as 2. Installing the Virtual
shared memory partitions).
I/O Server manually
2. Reinstall the VIOS.
using the HMC version
7
3. Add the paging space
devices again to the
shared memory pool.
2
1
1. Shut down each shared
memory partition that
uses the paging VIOS
partition (that you plan
to reinstall) as the
primary or secondary
paging VIOS partition.
2. Remove the paging
VIOS partition from the
shared memory pool.
3. Reinstall the VIOS.
4. Add the paging VIOS
partition again to the
shared memory pool.
2
2
Instructions
3. Adding and removing
paging space devices to
and from the shared
memory pool
1. Shutting down and
restarting logical
partitions
2. Removing a paging
VIOS partition from the
shared memory pool
3. Installing the Virtual
I/O Server manually
using the HMC version
7
4. Adding a paging VIOS
partition to the shared
memory pool
1. Shut down all the
shared memory
partitions.
1. Shutting down and
restarting logical
partitions
2. Reinstall the VIOS of
each paging VIOS
partition.
2. Installing the Virtual
I/O Server manually
using the HMC version
7
3. Add the paging space
devices again to the
shared memory pool.
3. Adding and removing
paging space devices to
and from the shared
memory pool
Migrating the Virtual I/O Server
You can migrate the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) logical partition from the Hardware Management Console
(HMC) Version 7, or later, from a DVD device that is attached to the Virtual I/O Server logical partition.
Before you start, verify that the following statements are true:
v The system on which you plan to migrate the Virtual I/O Server is managed by a Hardware
Management Console (HMC) Version 7, or later.
v The Virtual I/O Server is at Version 1.3, or later.
v The rootvg volume group has been assigned to the Virtual I/O Server.
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Virtual I/O Server
Note: If you are using an Integrated Virtualization Manager (IVM) environment, see Migrating the
Virtual I/O Server from DVD when using the Integrated Virtualization Manager.
In most cases, user configuration files from the previous version of the Virtual I/O Server are saved when
the new version is installed. If you have two or more Virtual I/O Server logical partitions in your
environment for redundancy, you are able to shut down and migrate one Virtual I/O Server logical
partition without interrupting any clients. After the migration is complete and the Virtual I/O Server
logical partition is running again, the logical partition will be available to clients without additional
configuration.
Attention:
Do not use the Virtual I/O Server updateios command to migrate the Virtual I/O Server.
Note: As an alternative to the HMC, you can use the Systems Director Management Console (SDMC) to
install the VIOS from a CD or DVD device.
Related information:
Migrating the Virtual I/O Server using NIM
Migrating the VIOS by using the SDMC
Migrating the Virtual I/O Server from the HMC
Find instructions for migrating the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) to Version 2.1.0.0, or later, from the
Hardware Management Console (HMC) by using the installios command.
Before you begin
Before you start, verify you meet the following requirements:
v HMC is attached to the managed system.
v The Virtual I/O Server logical partition has at least one Ethernet adapter and a 16 GB disk assigned to
it.
v You have hmcsuperadmin authority.
v You have the Virtual I/O Server migration media.
Note: The migration media is separate from the installation media.
v The Virtual I/O Server is currently at Version 1.3 or later.
v The disk name (PV_name) of your root volume group (rootvg) is hdisk0. You can verify the disk name
by running the following command from the Virtual I/O Server command line interface: lsvg -pv
rootvg
Note: If the disk name is anything other than hdisk0, you cannot use the migration DVD to perform
the migration. Instead, see Migrating the Virtual I/O Server from a downloaded migration image to
ensure that you can migrate the Virtual I/O Server successfully.
v The rootvg volume group has been assigned to the Virtual I/O Server
v Use the startnetsvc command to note what services you have started for the Virtual I/O Server.
v Determine the services and agents that are configured (by using the cfgsvc command) for use with the
Virtual I/O Server. Use the lssvc command to display a list of all agents. Use the lssvc with the agent
name parameter (lssvc <agent_name> to display information for a specified agent.
Note: If any parameters have been set for an agent or service, you will need to reconfigure the
parameters after you complete the migration process.
v Back up the mksysb image before migrating Virtual I/O Server. Run the backupios command and save
the mksysb image to a safe location.
Virtual I/O Server
97
About this task
To migrate the Virtual I/O Server, follow these steps:
Procedure
1. Insert the Virtual I/O Server migration DVD into the HMC.
2. If you are installing the Virtual I/O Server through the public network interface, continue to step 3. If
you are installing the Virtual I/O Server through a private network interface, type the following
command from the HMC command line:
export INSTALLIOS_PRIVATE_IF=interface
where interface is the network interface through which the installation should take place.
3. From the HMC command line, type:
installios
Attention: Do not use the Virtual I/O Server updateios command to migrate the Virtual I/O Server.
4. Follow the installation instructions according to the system prompts.
What to do next
After the migration is complete, the Virtual I/O Server logical partition is restarted to its preserved
configuration prior to the migration installation. It is recommended to perform the following tasks:
v Verify that migration was successful by checking the results of the installp command and by running
the ioslevel command. The results of the ioslevel command indicate the ioslevel is now $ ioslevel
2.1.0.0.
v Restart previously running daemons and agents:
1. Log on to the Virtual I/O Server as padmin user.
2. Complete the following command: $ motd -overwrite "<enter previous banner message>"
3. Start up any previously running daemons, such as FTP and Telnet.
4. Start up any previously running agents, such as ituam.
v Check for updates to the Virtual I/O Server. For instructions, see the Fix Central website.
Remember: The Virtual I/O Server migration media is separate from the Virtual I/O Server
installation media. Do not use the installation media for updates after you perform a migration. It does
not contain updates and you will lose your current configuration. Only apply updates using the
instructions from the Virtual I/O Server Support for Power Systems™ Web site.
Note: As an alternative to the HMC, you can use the Systems Director Management Console (SDMC) to
migrate the VIOS to Version 2.1.0.0, or later.
Related tasks:
“Backing up the Virtual I/O Server to a remote file system by creating a mksysb image” on page 183
You can back up the Virtual I/O Server base code, applied fix packs, custom device drivers to support
disk subsystems, and some user-defined metadata to a remote file system by creating a mksysb file.
Related information:
Migrating the Virtual I/O Server from DVD when using the Integrated Virtualization Manager
Migrating the VIOS from the SDMC
Migrating the Virtual I/O Server from a downloaded image
Find instructions for migrating the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) to Version 2.1.0.0, or later, from the
Hardware Management Console (HMC) when the disk name of the root volume group (rootvg) is not
hdisk0.
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Virtual I/O Server
Before you begin
Ensure that you have the latest HMC installation image. You can obtain the latest installation image from
the Fix Central website.
About this task
If the disk name (PV_name) of your root volume group (rootvg) is anything other than hdisk0, complete
the following steps to migrate the Virtual I/O Server:
Procedure
1. If the system detects that the first migratable disk does not contain a Virtual I/O Server installation
during a non-prompted migration, the migration will switch to the prompted mode. At this point, the
migration is cancelled and the Migration Confirmation Menu on the console for the logical partition
is displayed with the following message at the bottom of the screen: Cannot proceed with VIOS
migration. The selected disk does not contain a VIOS. To resolve this problem, you must end the
installation process by pressing CTRL-C from the session that executed the installios command.
2. Download the Virtual I/O Server migration image from the Virtual I/O Server Web site.
3. Determine the PVID value for the hard disk of your root volume group (rootvg). There are two ways
to obtain the PVID value:
v From the HMC command line, run the following command: viosvrcmd -m cecl -p viosl -c
"lspv"
The command returns information such as in the following example:
NAME
hdisk0
hdisk1
hdisk2
PVID
00cd1b0ef5e5g5g8
00cd1b0ec1b17302
none
VG
None
rootvg
None
STATUS
active
v From the Virtual I/O Server command line with padmin user authority, run the lspv to obtain the
PVID value of the disk targeted for the installation.
The command returns information such as in the following example:
NAME
hdisk0
hdisk1
hdisk2
PVID
00cd1b0ef5e5g5g8
00cd1b0ec1b17302
none
VG
None
rootvg
None
STATUS
active
4. From the HMC command line, run the installios command with flags. Specify option -E with the
PVID value of the Virtual I/O Server target disk that is the migration destination. For example, based
on the following example information, you might run this command: installios -s cec1 -S
255.255.255.0 -p vios -r vios_prof -i 10.10.1.69 -d /dev/cdrom -m 0e:f0:c0:00:40:02 -g
10.10.1.169 -P auto -D auto -E 00cd1b0ec1b17302
VIOS image source
managed_system
VIOS partition
VIOS partition profile
VIOS IP address
VIOS subnet mask
VIOS gateway address
VIOS network MAC address
VIOS network adapter speed
VIOS network adapter duplex
VIOS target disk PVID
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
/dev/cdrom
cec1
vios
vios_prof
10.10.1.69
255.255.255.0
10.10.1.169
0ef0c0004002
auto
auto
00cd1b0ec1b17302
rootvg
Note: When you install the Virtual I/O Server with the installios command, if the installation
process cannot find the PVID value that you entered with the -E option, the installation proceeds in
the prompt mode.
From the HMC terminal that is running the installios command, a message of
info=prompting_for_data_at_console is displayed. The LED code for the partition shows a code of
Virtual I/O Server
99
0c48. Either run the mkvterm -m cec1 -p vios command from the HMC to interact with the virtual
console to continue the migration or to rerun the installios command with the corrected PVID
value. Note that rerunning the installios command recopies the image from media to the disk.
What to do next
After the migration is complete, the Virtual I/O Server logical partition is restarted to its preserved
configuration before the migration installation. It is recommended to perform the following tasks:
v Verify that migration was successful by checking the results of the installp command and by running
the ioslevel command. The results of the ioslevel command indicate the ioslevel is now $ ioslevel
2.1.0.0.
v Restart previously running daemons and agents:
1. Log on to the Virtual I/O Server as padmin user.
2. Complete the following command: $ motd -overwrite "<enter previous banner message>"
3. Start up any previously running daemons, such as FTP and Telnet.
4. Start up any previously running agents, such as ituam.
v Check for updates to the Virtual I/O Server. For instructions, see the Fix Central website.
Remember: The Virtual I/O Server migration media is separate from the Virtual I/O Server
installation media. Do not use the installation media for updates after you perform a migration. It does
not contain updates and you can lose your current configuration. Only apply updates using the
instructions from the Virtual I/O Server Support for Power Systems Web site.
Note: As an alternative to the HMC, you can use the Systems Director Management Console (SDMC) to
migrate the VIOS to Version 2.1.0.0, or later, when the disk name of the root volume group (rootvg) is not
hdisk0.
Related information:
Migrating the VIOS from a downloaded image by using the SDMC
Migrating the Virtual I/O Server from DVD
Find instructions for migrating the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) from a DVD device that is attached to the
VIOS logical partition.
Before you begin
Before you start, ensure that you meet the following requirements:
v An HMC is attached to the managed system.
v A DVD optical device is assigned to the Virtual I/O Server logical partition.
v The Virtual I/O Server migration installation media is required.
Note: The Virtual I/O Server migration installation media is separate from the Virtual I/O Server
installation media.
v The Virtual I/O Server is currently at Version 1.3, or later.
v The root volume group (rootvg) has been assigned to the Virtual I/O Server
v Use the startnetsvc command to note what services you have started for the Virtual I/O Server.
v Determine the services and agents that are configured (by using the cfgsvc command) for use with the
Virtual I/O Server. Use the lssvc command to display a list of all agents. Use the lssvc with the agent
name parameter (lssvc <agent_name> to display information for a specified agent.
Note: If any parameters have been set for an agent or service, you will need to reconfigure the
parameters after you complete the migration process.
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Virtual I/O Server
v Back up the mksysb image before migrating the Virtual I/O Server. Run the backupios command and
save the mksysb image to a safe location.
Note: If you are using an Integrated Virtualization Manager (IVM) environment, see Migrating the
Virtual I/O Server from DVD when using the Integrated Virtualization Manager.
About this task
To migrate the Virtual I/O Server from a DVD, follow these steps:
Procedure
1. Activate the Virtual I/O Server logical partition using the HMC, Version 7 (or later):
a. Insert the Virtual I/O Server migration DVD into the DVD drive assigned to the Virtual I/O
Server logical partition.
b. In the HMC navigation area, expand Systems Management > Servers.
c. Select the server on which the Virtual I/O Server logical partition is located.
d. In the contents area, select the Virtual I/O Server logical partition.
e. Click Tasks > Operations > Activate. The Activate Partition menu opens with a selection of logical
partition profiles. Ensure that the correct profile is highlighted.
f. Select Open a terminal window or console session to open a virtual terminal (vterm) window.
g. Click Advanced to open the advanced options menu.
h. For the boot mode, select SMS.
i. Click OK to close the advanced options menu.
j. Click OK. A virtual terminal window opens for the logical partition.
2. Select the boot device:
a. Select Select Boot Options and press Enter.
b. Select Select Install/Boot Device and press Enter.
c. Select CD/DVD and press Enter.
d. Select the device number that corresponds to the DVD and press Enter. You can also select List all
devices and select the device number from a list and press Enter.
e. Select Normal mode boot.
f. Select Yes to exit SMS.
3. Install the Virtual I/O Server:
a. Select the desired console and press Enter.
b. Select a language for the BOS menus and press Enter.
c. Select Start Install Now with Default Settings and press Enter. You can also verify the installation
and system settings by typing 2 to select Change/Show Installation Settings and Install.
Note: You should not have to change installation settings simply to select the migration
installation method. If a previous version of the operating system exists, the installation method
defaults to migration.
d. Select Continue with Install. The system will reboot after the installation is complete.
What to do next
After the migration is complete, the Virtual I/O Server logical partition is restarted to its preserved
configuration prior to the migration installation. It is recommended that you perform the following tasks:
v Verify that migration was successful by checking the results of the installp command and by running
the ioslevel command. The results of the ioslevel command indicate the ioslevel is now $ ioslevel
2.1.0.0.
Virtual I/O Server
101
v Restart previously running daemons and agents:
1. Log on to the Virtual I/O Server as padmin user.
2. Complete the following command: $ motd -overwrite "<enter previous banner message>"
3. Start any previously running daemons, such as FTP and Telnet.
4. Start any previously running agents, such as ituam.
v Check for updates to the Virtual I/O Server. For instructions, see the Fix Central website.
Remember: The Virtual I/O Server migration media is separate from the Virtual I/O Server
installation media. Do not use the installation media for updates after you perform a migration. It does
not contain updates and you will lose your current configuration. Only apply updates using the
instructions from the Virtual I/O Server Support for Power Systems Web site.
Note: As an alternative to the HMC, you can use the Systems Director Management Console (SDMC) to
migrate the VIOS from a DVD device that is attached to the VIOS logical partition.
Related tasks:
“Backing up the Virtual I/O Server to a remote file system by creating a mksysb image” on page 183
You can back up the Virtual I/O Server base code, applied fix packs, custom device drivers to support
disk subsystems, and some user-defined metadata to a remote file system by creating a mksysb file.
Related information:
Migrating the Virtual I/O Server from DVD when using the Integrated Virtualization Manager
Migrating the VIOS from the DVD by using the SDMC
Configuring the Virtual I/O Server
You need to configure virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) and virtual Ethernet devices on the
Virtual I/O Server. Optionally, you can also configure virtual Fibre Channel adapters, Tivoli agents and
clients, and configure the Virtual I/O Server as an LDAP client.
About this task
Configuring virtual SCSI on the Virtual I/O Server
You can configure virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) devices by deploying a system plan,
creating volume groups and logical volumes, and configuring the Virtual I/O Server to support SCSI-2
reserve functions.
About this task
Provisioning virtual disk resources occurs on the Virtual I/O Server. Physical disks owned by the Virtual
I/O Server can either be exported and assigned to a client logical partition as a whole or can be
partitioned into parts, such as logical volumes or files. These logical volumes and files can be exported as
virtual disks to one or more client logical partitions. Therefore, by using virtual SCSI, you can share
adapters as well as disk devices.
To make a physical volume, logical volume, or file available to a client logical partition requires that it be
assigned to a virtual SCSI server adapter on the Virtual I/O Server. The SCSI client adapter is linked to a
particular virtual SCSI server adapter in the Virtual I/O Server logical partition. The client logical
partition accesses its assigned disks through the virtual SCSI client adapter. The Virtual I/O Server client
adapter sees standard SCSI devices and LUNs through this virtual adapter. Assigning disk resources to a
SCSI server adapter in the Virtual I/O Server effectively allocates resources to a SCSI client adapter in the
client logical partition.
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Virtual I/O Server
Creating the virtual target device on the Virtual I/O Server
Creating the virtual target device on the Virtual I/O Server maps the virtual Small Computer Serial
Interface (SCSI) adapter with the file, logical volume, tape, optical device or physical disk.
About this task
With the Virtual I/O Server Version 2.1 and later, you can export the following types of physical devices:
v Virtual SCSI disk backed by a physical volume
v Virtual SCSI disk backed by a logical volume
v Virtual SCSI disk backed by a file
v Virtual SCSI optical backed by a physical optical device
v Virtual SCSI optical backed by a file
v Virtual SCSI tape backed by a physical tape device
After a virtual device is assigned to a client partition, the Virtual I/O Server must be available before the
client logical partitions can access it.
Creating a virtual target device on a Virtual I/O Server that maps to a physical or logical volume, tape
or physical optical device:
You can create a virtual target device on a Virtual I/O Server that maps the virtual Small Computer
Serial Interface (SCSI) adapter to a physical disk, tape, or physical optical device, or to a logical volume
that is based on a volume group.
About this task
The following procedure can be repeated to provide additional virtual disk storage to any client logical
partition.
Before you start, ensure the following statements are true:
1. At least one physical volume, tape, or optical device, or logical volume is defined on the Virtual I/O
Server. For information, see “Logical volumes” on page 23.
2. The virtual adapters for the Virtual I/O Server and the client logical partitions are created. This
usually occurs during the creation of the logical partition profile. For information about creating the
logical partition, see Installing the Virtual I/O Server.
3. Be aware of the maximum transfer size limitation when you use AIX clients and physical devices. If
you have an existing and active AIX client, and you want to add another virtual target device to the
virtual SCSI server adapter used by that client, ensure that the max_transfer attribute is the same size
or larger than the devices already in use.
Tip: If you are using the HMC, Version 7 release 3.4.2 or later, you can use the HMC graphical interface
to create a virtual target device on the Virtual I/O Server.
To create a virtual target device that maps a virtual SCSI server adapter to a physical device or logical
volume, complete the following steps from the Virtual I/O Server command-line interface:
Procedure
1. Use the lsdev command to ensure that the virtual SCSI adapter is available. For example, running
lsdev -virtual returns results similar to the following:
name
ent3
vhost0
vhost1
vsa0
status
description
Available Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan)
Available Virtual SCSI Server Adapter
Available Virtual SCSI Server Adapter
Available LPAR Virtual Serial Adapter
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103
vtscsi0
vtscsi1
vtscsi2
Available
Available
Available
Virtual Target Device - Logical Volume
Virtual Target Device - File-backed Disk
Virtual Target Device - File-backed Disk
2. To create a virtual target device, which maps the virtual SCSI server adapter to a physical device or
logical volume, run the mkvdev command:
mkvdev -vdev TargetDevice -vadapter VirtualSCSIServerAdapter
Where:
v TargetDevice is the name of the target device, as follows:
– To map a logical volume to the virtual SCSI server adapter, use the name of the logical volume.
For example, lv_4G.
– To map a physical volume to the virtual SCSI server adapter, use hdiskx. For example, hdisk5.
– To map an optical device to the virtual SCSI server adapter, use cdx. For example, cd0.
– To map a tape device to a virtual SCSI adapter, use rmtx. For example, rmt1.
v VirtualSCSIServerAdapter is the name of the virtual SCSI server adapter.
Note: If needed, use the lsdev and lsmap -all commands to determine the target device and virtual
SCSI server adapter that you want to map to one another.
The storage is available to the client logical partition either the next time it starts, or the next time the
appropriate virtual SCSI client adapter is probed (on a Linux logical partition), or configured (on an
AIX logical partition).
3. View the newly created virtual target device by running the lsdev command. For example, running
lsdev -virtual returns results similar to the following:
name
vhost3
vsa0
vtscsi0
vttape0
status
description
Available Virtual SCSI Server Adapter
Available LPAR Virtual Serial Adapter
Available Virtual Target Device - Logical Volume
Available Virtual Target Device - Tape
4. View the logical connection between the newly created devices by running the lsmap command. For
example, running lsmap -vadapter vhost3 returns results similar to the following:
SVSA
Physloc
Client PartitionID
------------------------------------------------------vhost3
U9111.520.10DDEEC-V1-C20
0x00000000
VTD
Status
LUN
Backing device
Physloc
vtscsi0
Available
0x8100000000000000
lv_4G
The physical location is a combination of the slot number, in this case 20, and the logical partition ID.
The storage is now available to the client logical partition either the next time it starts, or the next
time the appropriate virtual SCSI client adapter is probed, or configured.
What to do next
If you later need to remove the virtual target device, you can do so by using the rmvdev command.
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Related concepts:
“Virtual SCSI sizing considerations” on page 69
Understand the processor and memory-sizing considerations when implementing virtual Small Computer
Serial Interface (SCSI).
Related information:
Creating a virtual disk for a VIOS logical partition using the HMC
Virtual I/O Server and Integrated Virtualization Manager commands
Creating a virtual target device on a Virtual I/O Server that maps to a file or logical volume:
You can create a virtual target device on a Virtual I/O Server that maps the virtual Small Computer
Serial Interface (SCSI) adapter to a file or a logical volume that is based on a storage pool.
About this task
The following procedure can be repeated to provide additional virtual disk storage to any client logical
partition.
Before you start, ensure the following statements are true:
v The Virtual I/O Server is at Version 1.5 or later.
v At least one file is defined in a file storage pool, or at least one logical volume is defined in a logical
volume storage pool on the Virtual I/O Server. For information, see “Virtual storage” on page 29 and
“Storage pools” on page 27.
v The virtual adapters for the Virtual I/O Server and the client logical partitions are created. This usually
occurs during the creation of the logical partition profile. For information about creating the logical
partition, see Installing the Virtual I/O Server.
Tip: If you are using the HMC, Version 7 release 3.4.2 or later, you can use the HMC graphical interface
to create a virtual target device on the Virtual I/O Server.
To create a virtual target device that maps a virtual SCSI server adapter to a file or logical volume,
complete the following steps from the Virtual I/O Server command-line interface:
Procedure
1. Use the lsdev command to ensure that the virtual SCSI adapter is available. For example, running
lsdev -virtual returns results similar to the following:
name
ent3
vhost0
vhost1
vsa0
vtscsi0
vtscsi1
vtscsi2
status
description
Available Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan)
Available Virtual SCSI Server Adapter
Available Virtual SCSI Server Adapter
Available LPAR Virtual Serial Adapter
Available Virtual Target Device - Logical Volume
Available Virtual Target Device - File-backed Disk
Available Virtual Target Device - File-backed Disk
2. To create a virtual target device, which maps the virtual SCSI server adapter to a file or logical
volume, run the mkbdsp command:
mkbdsp -sp StoragePool -bd BackingDevice -vadapter VirtualSCSIServerAdapter -tn TargetDeviceName
Where:
v StoragePool is the name of the storage pool that contains the file or logical volume to which you
plan to map the virtual SCSI server adapter. For example, fbPool.
v BackingDevice is the name of the file or logical volume to which you plan to map the virtual SCSI
server adapter. For example, devFile.
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v VirtualSCSIServerAdapter is the name of the virtual SCSI server adapter. For example, vhost4.
v TargetDeviceName is the name of the target device. For example, fbvtd1.
The storage is available to the client logical partition either the next time it starts, or the next time the
appropriate virtual SCSI client adapter is probed (on a Linux logical partition), or configured (on an
AIX logical partition).
3. View the newly created virtual target device by running the lsdev command. For example, running
lsdev -virtual returns results similar to the following:
name
vhost4
vsa0
fbvtd1
status
description
Available Virtual SCSI Server Adapter
Available LPAR Virtual Serial Adapter
Available Virtual Target Device - File-backed Disk
4. View the logical connection between the newly created devices by running the lsmap command. For
example, running lsmap -vadapter vhost4 returns results similar to the following:
SVSA
Physloc
Client PartitionID
------------------------------------------------------vhost4 U9117.570.10C8BCE-V6-C2
0x00000000
VTD
Status
LUN
Backing device
Physloc
fbvtd1
Available
0x8100000000000000
/var/vio/storagepools/fbPool/devFile
The physical location is a combination of the slot number, in this case 2, and the logical partition ID.
The virtual device can now be attached from the client logical partition.
What to do next
If you later need to remove the virtual target device and backup device (file or logical volume), use the
rmbdsp command. An option is available on the rmbdsp command to remove the virtual target device
without removing the backup device. A backup device file is associated with a virtual target device by
inode number rather than by file name, so do not change the inode number of a backing device file. The
inode number might change if you alter a backup device file (using the AIX rm, mv, and cp commands),
while the backup device file is associated with a virtual target device.
Related information:
Creating a virtual disk for a VIOS logical partition using the HMC
Virtual I/O Server and Integrated Virtualization Manager commands
Creating a virtual target device on a Virtual I/O Server that maps to a file-backed virtual optical
device:
You can create a virtual target device on a Virtual I/O Server that maps the virtual Small Computer
Serial Interface (SCSI) adapter to a file-backed virtual optical device.
About this task
The following procedure can be repeated to provide additional virtual disk storage to any client logical
partition.
Before you start, complete the following steps:
1. Ensure that the Virtual I/O Server is at Version 1.5 or later.
2. Ensure that the virtual adapters for the Virtual I/O Server and the client logical partitions are created.
This usually occurs during the creation of the logical partition profile. For information about creating
the logical partition, see “Installing the Virtual I/O Server and client logical partitions” on page 88.
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Tip: If you are using the HMC, Version 7 release 3.4.2 or later, you can use the HMC graphical interface
to create a virtual target device on the Virtual I/O Server.
To create a virtual target device that maps a virtual SCSI server adapter to a file-backed virtual optical
device, complete the following steps from the Virtual I/O Server command-line interface:
Procedure
1. Use the lsdev command to ensure that the virtual SCSI adapter is available. For example, running
lsdev -virtual returns results similar to the following:
name
ent3
vhost0
vhost1
vsa0
vtscsi0
vtscsi1
vtscsi2
status
description
Available Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan)
Available Virtual SCSI Server Adapter
Available Virtual SCSI Server Adapter
Available LPAR Virtual Serial Adapter
Available Virtual Target Device - Logical Volume
Available Virtual Target Device - File-backed Disk
Available Virtual Target Device - File-backed Disk
2. To create a virtual target device, which maps the virtual SCSI server adapter to a file-backed virtual
optical device, run the mkvdev command:
mkvdev -fbo -vadapter VirtualSCSIServerAdapter
where VirtualSCSIServerAdapter is the name of the virtual SCSI server adapter. For example, vhost1.
Note: No backing device is specified when creating virtual target devices for file-backed virtual
optical devices because the drive is considered to contain no media. For information about loading
media into a file-backed optical drive, see the loadopt command.
The optical device is available to the client logical partition either the next time it starts, or the next
time the appropriate virtual SCSI client adapter is probed (on a Linux logical partition), or configured
(on an AIX logical partition).
3. View the newly created virtual target device by running the lsdev command. For example, running
lsdev -virtual returns results similar to the following:
name
vhost4
vsa0
vtopt0
status
description
Available Virtual SCSI Server Adapter
Available LPAR Virtual Serial Adapter
Available Virtual Target Device - File-backed Optical
4. View the logical connection between the newly created devices by running the lsmap command. For
example, running lsmap -vadapter vhost1 returns results similar to the following:
SVSA
Physloc
Client PartitionID
---------------------------------------------------vhost1
U9117.570.10C8BCE-V6-C2 0x00000000
VTD
LUN
Backing device
vtopt0
0x8200000000000000
Physloc
The physical location is a combination of the slot number, in this case 2, and the logical partition ID.
The virtual device can now be attached from the client logical partition.
What to do next
You can use the loadopt command to load file-backed virtual optical media into the file-backed virtual
optical device.
If you later need to remove the virtual target device, you can do so by using the rmvdev command.
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107
Related information:
Creating a virtual disk for a VIOS logical partition using the HMC
Virtual I/O Server and Integrated Virtualization Manager commands
Setting the reserve policy attributes of a device:
In some configurations, you must consider the reservation policy of the device on the Virtual I/O Server
(VIOS).
About this task
The following table explains the situations in which the reservation policy of the device on the VIOS is
important for systems that are managed by the Hardware Management Console (HMC) and the
Integrated Virtualization Manager (IVM).
Table 34. Situations where the reservation policy of a device is important
HMC-managed systems
IVM-managed systems
For virtual SCSI devices used with Live Partition
v To use a Multipath I/O (MPIO) configuration at the
Mobility, the reserve attribute on the physical storage
client, none of the virtual Small Computer Serial
that is used by the mobile partition can be set as follows:
Interface (SCSI) devices on the VIOS can reserve the
virtual SCSI device. Set the reserve_policy attribute of v You can set the reserve policy attribute to no_reserve.
the device to no_reserve.
v You can set the reserve policy attribute to pr_shared
when the following products are at the following
v For virtual SCSI devices used with Live Partition
versions:
Mobility or the Suspend/Resume feature, the reserve
attribute on the physical storage that is used by the
– IVM Version 2.1.2.0, or later
mobile partition can be set as follows:
– The physical adapters support the SCSI-3 Persistent
– You can set the reserve policy attribute to
Reserves standard
no_reserve.
The reserve attribute must be the same on the source and
– You can set the reserve policy attribute to pr_shared
destination management partitions for successful
when the following products are at the following
partition mobility.
versions:
- HMC Version 7 release 3.5.0, or later
- VIOS Version 2.1.2.0, or later
- The physical adapters support the SCSI-3
Persistent Reserves standard
The reserve attribute must be the same on the source
and destination VIOS partitions for successful partition
mobility.
v For PowerVM Active Memory Sharing or
Suspend/Resume features, the VIOS automatically sets
the reserve attribute on the physical volume to no
reserve. The VIOS performs this action when you add
a paging space device to the shared memory pool.
Procedure
1. From a VIOS partition, list the disks (or paging space devices) to which the VIOS has access. Run the
following command:
lsdev -type disk
2. To determine the reserve policy of a disk, run the following command, where hdiskX is the name of
the disk that you identified in step 1. For example, hdisk5.
lsdev -dev hdiskX -attr reserve_policy
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The results might look like the following output:
..
reserve_policy
no_reserve
Reserve Policy
True
Based on the information in Table 34 on page 108, you might need to change the reserve_policy so
that you can use the disk in any of the described configurations.
3. To set the reserve_policy, run the chdev command. For example:
chdev -dev hdiskX -attr reserve_policy=reservation
where:
v hdiskX is the name of the disk for which you want to set the reserve_policy attribute to no_reserve.
v reservation is either no_reserve or pr_shared.
4. Repeat this procedure from the other VIOS partition.
Requirements:
a. Although the reserve_policy attribute is an attribute of the device, each VIOS saves the value of
the attribute. You must set the reserve_policy attribute from both VIOS partitions so that both
VIOS partitions recognize the reserve_policy of the device.
b. For partition mobility, the reserve_policy on the destination VIOS partition must be the same as
the reserve_policy on the source VIOS partition. For example, if the reserve_policy on the source
VIOS partition is pr_shared, the reserve_policy on the destination VIOS partition must also be
pr_shared.
Related information:
Setting the reserve policy attributes of a device on the SDMC
Creating logical volume storage pools on a Virtual I/O Server
You can create a logical volume storage pool on a Virtual I/O Server using the Hardware Management
Console or the mksp and mkbdsp commands.
Before you begin
Before you start, ensure that the Virtual I/O Server is at Version 1.5 or later.
Tip: If you are using the HMC, Version 7 release 3.4.2 or later, you can use the HMC graphical interface
to create logical volume storage pools on the Virtual I/O Server.
About this task
Logical volume storage pools are volume groups, which are collections of one or more physical volumes.
The physical volumes that comprise a logical volume storage pool can be of varying sizes and types.
To create a logical volume storage pool, complete the following steps from the Virtual I/O Server
command-line interface:
Procedure
1. Create a logical volume storage pool by running the mksp command:
mksp -f dev_clients hdisk2 hdisk4
In this example, the name of the storage pool is dev_clients and it contains hdisk2 and hdisk4.
2. Define a logical volume, which will be visible as a disk to the client logical partition. The size of this
logical volume will act as the size of disks that will be available to the client logical partition. Use the
mkbdsp command to create a 11 GB logical volume called dev_dbsrv as follows:
mkbdsp -sp dev_clients 11G -bd dev_dbsrv
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If you also want to create a virtual target device, which maps the virtual Small Computer Serial
Interface (SCSI) server adapter to the logical volume, add -vadapter vhostx to the end of the
command. For example:
mkbdsp -sp dev_clients 11G -bd dev_dbsrv -vadapter vhost4
Related information:
Creating storage pools on a Virtual I/O Server by using the HMC
Virtual I/O Server and Integrated Virtualization Manager commands
Creating file storage pools on a Virtual I/O Server
You can create a file storage pool on a Virtual I/O Server using the mksp and mkbdsp commands.
Before you begin
Before you start, ensure that the Virtual I/O Server is at Version 1.5 or later.
Tip: If you are using the HMC, Version 7 release 3.4.2 or later, you can use the HMC graphical interface
to create file storage pools on the Virtual I/O Server.
About this task
File storage pools are created within a parent logical volume storage pool and contain a logical volume
containing a file system with files.
To create a file storage pool, complete the following steps from the Virtual I/O Server command-line
interface:
Procedure
1. Create a file storage pool by running the mksp command:
mksp -fb dev_fbclt -sp dev_clients -size 7g
In this example, the name of the file storage pool is dev_fbclt and the parent storage pool is
dev_clients.
2. Define a file, which will be visible as a disk to the client logical partition. The size of the file
determines the size of the disk presented to the client logical partition. Use the mkbdsp command to
create a 3 GB file called dev_dbsrv as follows:
mkbdsp -sp dev_fbclt 3G -bd dev_dbsrv
If you also want to create a virtual target device, which maps the virtual Small Computer Serial
Interface (SCSI) server adapter to the file, add -vadapter vhostx to the end of the command. For
example:
mkbdsp -sp dev_fbclt 3G -bd dev_dbsrv -vadapter vhost4
Related information:
Creating storage pools on a Virtual I/O Server by using the HMC
Virtual I/O Server and Integrated Virtualization Manager commands
Creating the virtual media repository on a Virtual I/O Server
You can create the virtual media repository on a Virtual I/O Server using the mkrep command.
Before you begin
Before you start, ensure that the Virtual I/O Server is at Version 1.5 or later.
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Virtual I/O Server
About this task
The virtual media repository provides a single container to store and manage file-backed virtual optical
media files. Media stored in the repository can be loaded into file-backed virtual optical devices for
exporting to client partitions.
Only one repository can be created within a Virtual I/O Server.
Tip: If you are using the HMC, Version 7 release 3.4.2 or later, you can use the HMC graphical interface
to create a virtual media repository on the Virtual I/O Server.
Procedure
To create the virtual media repository from the Virtual I/O Server command-line interface, run the mkrep
command:
mkrep -sp prod_store -size 6g
In this example, the name of the parent storage pool is prod_store.
Related information:
Changing optical devices by using the Hardware Management Console
Virtual I/O Server and Integrated Virtualization Manager commands
Creating volume groups and logical volumes on a Virtual I/O Server
You can create logical volumes and volume groups on a Virtual I/O Server using the mkvg and mklv
commands.
About this task
If you are using the HMC, Version 7 release 3.4.2 or later, you can use the HMC graphical interface to
create volume groups and logical volumes on a Virtual I/O Server.
Otherwise, use the mklv command from the Virtual I/O Server command-line interface. To create the
logical volume on a separate disk, you must first create a volume group and assign one or more disks by
using the mkvg command.
Procedure
1. Create a volume group and assign a disk to this volume group by using the mkvg command. In this
example, the name of the volume group is rootvg_clients
mkvg -f -vg rootvg_clients hdisk2
2. Define a logical volume, which will be visible as a disk to the client logical partition. The size of this
logical volume will act as the size of disks that will be available to the client logical partition. Use the
mklv command to create a 2 GB logical volume as follows:
mklv -lv rootvg_dbsrv rootvg_clients 2G
Related information:
Changing a physical volume for a VIOS logical partition using the HMC
Changing a storage pool for a VIOS logical partition using the HMC
Configure the Virtual I/O Server to support SCSI-2 reserve functions
Understand the virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) setup requirements to support applications
using SCSI reserve and release.
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111
About this task
Virtual I/O Server Versions 1.3 and later provide support for applications that are enabled to use SCSI-2
reserve functions that are controlled by the client logical partition. Typically, SCSI reserve and release is
used in clustered environments where contention for SCSI disk resources might require greater control. To
ensure that Virtual I/O Server supports these environments, configure the Virtual I/O Server to support
SCSI-2 reserve and release. If the applications you are using provide information about the policy to use
for the SCSI-2 reserve functions on the client logical partition, follow those procedures for setting the
reserve policy.
Complete the following tasks to configure the Virtual I/O Server to support SCSI-2 reserve environments:
Procedure
1. Configure the Virtual I/O Server reserve_policy for single_path, using the following command:
chdev -dev1 hdiskN -attr reserve_policy=single_path
Note: Perform this task when the device is not in use. If you run this command while the device is
open or in use, then you must use the -perm flag with this command. If you use the -perm flag, the
changes do not take effect until the device is unconfigured and reconfigured.
2. Configure the client_reserve feature on the Virtual I/O Server.
v If you are creating a virtual target device, use the following command:
mkvdev -vdev hdiskN -vadapter vhostN -attr client_reserve=yes
where hdiskN is the virtual target device name and vhostN is the virtual SCSI server adapter name.
v If the virtual target device has already been created, use the following command:
chdev -dev vtscsiN -attr client_reserve=yes
where vtscsiN is the virtual device name.
Note: If the client_reserve attribute is set to yes, you cannot set the mirrored attribute to true. This is
because the client_reserve and Peer-to-Peer Remote Copy (PPRC) features are mutually exclusive.
3. On the Virtual client, complete the following steps to configure the SCSI reserve and release support
for the virtual disk backed by the physical disk that you configured in step 1. This is specific to an
AIX client.
a. Set the reserve policy on the Virtual client to single_path, using the following command:
chdev -a reserve_policy=single_path -1 hdiskN
where hdiskN is the virtual disk name
Note: Perform this task when the device is not in use. If you run this command while the device
is open or in use, then you must use the -P flag. In that case, the changes do not take effect until
the device is unconfigured and reconfigured.
b. Set the hcheck_cmd attribute so that the MPIO code uses the inquiry option. If the hcheck_cmd
attribute is set to test unit ready and the backing device is reserved, then test unit ready will fail
and log an error on the client.
chdev -a hcheck_cmd=inquiry -1 hdiskN
where hdiskN is the virtual disk name.
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Configure the Virtual I/O Server to support exporting the PPRC secondary disk to
client partitions
This topic describes how to export a Peer-to-Peer Remote Copy (PPRC) secondary device to a client
partition. You can perform this task by creating a virtual target device with the PPRC secondary device as
a backing device.
About this task
Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) Versions 2.2.0.0 and later, provide support for devices that are enabled to use
the Peer-to-Peer Remote Copy (PPRC) feature. The PPRC feature can be used for real-time mirroring of
disks. Typically, a PPRC pair consists of a primary virtual target device and a secondary virtual target
device. The secondary virtual target device stores the backup data from the primary virtual target device.
To enable exporting of the PPRC secondary virtual target device to a client partition, use the following
command:
mkvdev -vdev hdiskN -vadapter vhostN -attr mirrored=true
Where:
v hdiskN is the secondary virtual target device name
v vhostN is the virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) server adapter name
Identifying exportable disks
To export a physical volume as a virtual device, the physical volume must have an IEEE volume
attribute, a unique identifier (UDID), or a physical identifier (PVID).
About this task
To identify exportable disks, complete the following steps:
Procedure
1. Determine whether a device has an IEEE volume attribute identifier by running the following
command from the Virtual I/O Server command line:
lsdev -dev hdiskX -attr
Disks with an IEEE volume attribute identifier have a value in the ieee_volname field. Output similar
to the following is displayed:
...
cache_method
False
ieee_volname
False
lun_id
False
...
fast_write
Write Caching method
600A0B800012DD0D00000AB441ED6AC IEEE Unique volume name
0x001a000000000000
Logical Unit Number
If the ieee_volname field does not appear, then the device does not have an IEEE volume attribute
identifier.
2. If the device does not have an IEEE volume attribute identifier, then determine whether the device
has a UDID by completing the following steps:
a. Type oem_setup_env.
b. Type odmget -qattribute=unique_id CuAt. The disks that have a UDID are listed. Output similar
to the following is displayed:
CuAt:
name = "hdisk1"
attribute = "unique_id"
value = "2708ECVBZ1SC10IC35L146UCDY10-003IBXscsi"
type = "R"
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113
generic = ""
rep = "nl"
nls_index = 79
CuAt:
name = "hdisk2"
attribute = "unique_id"
value = "210800038FB50AST373453LC03IBXscsi"
type = "R"
generic = ""
rep = "nl"
nls_index = 79
Devices in the list that are accessible from other Virtual I/O Server partitions can be used in
virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) MPIO configurations.
c. Type exit.
3. If the device does not have either an IEEE volume attribute identifier or a UDID, then determine
whether the device has a PVID by running the following command:
lspv
The disks and their respective PVIDs are listed. Output similar to the following is displayed:
NAME
hdisk0
hdisk1
hdisk2
hdisk3
hdisk4
PVID
00c5e10c1608fd80
00c5e10cf7eb2195
00c5e10c44df5673
00c5e10cf3ba6a9a
none
VG
rootvg
rootvg
None
None
None
STATUS
active
active
4. If the device does not have either an IEEE volume attribute identifier, a UDID, or a PVID, then
complete one of the following tasks to assign an identifier:
a. Upgrade your vendor software and then repeat this entire procedure, Identifying exportable disks,
from the beginning. The latest versions of some vendor software include support for identifying
devices using a UDID. Before upgrading, ensure that you preserve any virtual SCSI devices that
you created when using the versions of the software that did not support identifying devices
using a UDID. For information and upgrade instructions, see the documentation provided by your
vendor software.
b. If the upgraded vendor software does not produce a UDID or IEEE volume attribute identifier,
then put a PVID on the physical volume by running the following command:
chdev -dev hdiskX -attr pv=yes
Getting started with shared storage pools by using the VIOS command
line
Learn about using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) command-line interface to manage shared storage pools.
On VIOS Version 2.2.0.11, Fix Pack 24, Service Pack 1, or later, you can create a clustering configuration.
VIOS partitions connected to the same shared storage pool must be part of the same cluster. Each cluster
has a default storage pool. You can use the VIOS command-line interface to manage shared storage pools.
Notes:
On VIOS Version 2.2.0.11, Fix Pack 24, Service Pack 1, a cluster consists of only one VIOS partition.
VIOS Version 2.2.1.0 supports only one cluster in a VIOS partition.
v On VIOS Version 2.2.1.3, or later, a cluster consists of up to four networked VIOS partitions.
v
The following sections describe how you can create a configuration of a cluster with each cluster
consisting of two VIOS partitions and several client partitions that use logical units, and how you can use
the VIOS command-line interface.
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Virtual I/O Server
To perform the shell command operations listed in the following sections on the VIOS, log in to the VIOS
by using the padmin user ID.
Configuring the system to create shared storage pools
Learn about configuring the system to create Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) shared storage pools.
Before creating shared storage pools, ensure that all logical partitions are preconfigured by using the
Hardware Management Console (HMC) as described in this topic. The names of logical partitions,
clusters, logical units, and storage pool names must not contain more than 16 characters in length.
Configuring the VIOS logical partitions
Configure four VIOS logical partitions with the following characteristics:
v There must be at least one CPU and one physical CPU of entitlement.
v The logical partitions must be configured as VIOS logical partitions.
v The logical partitions must consist of at least 4 GB of memory.
v The logical partitions must consist of at least one physical Fibre Channel adapter.
v The rootvg device for a VIOS logical partition cannot be included in storage pool provisioning.
v The associated rootvg device must be installed with VIOS Version 2.2.1.3, or later.
v The VIOS logical partition must be configured with sufficient number of virtual server Small Computer
Serial Interface (SCSI) adapter connections required for the client logical partitions.
v The VIOS logical partitions in the cluster require access to all the SAN-based physical volumes in the
shared storage pool of the cluster.
One VIOS logical partition must have a network connection either through an Integrated Virtual Ethernet
adapter or through a physical adapter.
Note: In shared storage pools, the Shared Ethernet Adapter must be in threaded mode. For more
information, see “Network attributes” on page 236.
Restriction: You cannot use the logical units in a cluster as paging devices for PowerVM Active Memory
Sharing or Suspend/Resume features.
Configuring client logical partitions
Configure client logical partitions with the following characteristics:
v The client logical partitions must be configured as AIX or Linux client systems.
v They must have at least 1 GB of minimum memory.
v The associated rootvg device must be installed with the appropriate AIX or Linux system software.
v Each client logical partition must be configured with a sufficient number of virtual SCSI adapter
connections to map to the virtual server SCSI adapter connections of the required VIOS logical
partitions.
You can define more client logical partitions.
Storage provisioning
When a cluster is created, you must specify one physical volume for the repository physical volume and
at least one physical volume for the storage pool physical volume. The storage pool physical volumes are
used to provide storage to the actual data generated by the client partitions. The repository physical
volume is used to perform cluster communication and store the cluster configuration. The maximum
client storage capacity matches the total storage capacity of all storage pool physical volumes. The
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115
repository disk must have at least 20 GB of available storage space. The physical volumes in the storage
pool must have at least 20 GB of available storage space in total.
Use any method that is available for the SAN vendor to create each physical volume with at least 20 GB
of available storage space. Map the physical volume to the logical partition Fibre Channel adapter for
each VIOS in the cluster. The physical volumes must only be mapped to the VIOS logical partitions
connected to the shared storage pool.
Note: Each of the VIOS logical partitions assign hdisk names to all physical volumes available through
the Fibre Channel ports, such as hdisk0 and hdisk1. The VIOS logical partition might select different hdisk
numbers for the same volumes to the other VIOS logical partition in the same cluster. For example, the
viosA1 VIOS logical partition can have hdisk9 assigned to a specific SAN disk, whereas the viosA2 VIOS
logical partition can have the hdisk3 name assigned to that same disk. For some tasks, the unique device
ID (UDID) can be used to distinguish the volumes. Use the chkdev command to obtain the UDID for each
disk.
Related information:
chkdev command
Managing a cluster by using the VIOS command line
You can use the command-line interface on the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) to manage a cluster and the
VIOS logical partitions.
Note: To add or remove devices in a cluster, you must use the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) of
the device.
Creating a cluster with a single VIOS logical partition:
You can create a cluster with a single VIOS logical partition by using the VIOS command-line interface.
Before you begin
Before you start, ensure that the following requirements are satisfied:
1. Log in to the viosA1 VIOS logical partition by using the padmin user ID, which provides a restricted
Korn shell environment.
2. Locate the physical volumes to be used for the clusterA cluster. For example, entering the lspv -free
command returns results similar to the following:
NAME
PVID
SIZE (megabytes)
------------------------------------------------------hdisk0
none
17408
hdisk2
000d44516400a5c2
20480
hdisk3
000d4451605a0d99
20482
hdisk4
none
10250
hdisk5
none
20485
hdisk6
none
20490
hdisk7
none
20495
hdisk8
none
20500
hdisk9
none
20505
The lspv command displays a list of physical volumes along with the ID. The physical volume ID
indicates that the device might be in use. The system administrator must ensure that the physical
volume is not in use before adding it to the cluster repository or shared storage pool. For example,
you can select the hdisk9 physical volume for the repository, and hdisk5 and hdisk7 physical volumes
for the storage pool.
About this task
To create a cluster with one VIOS logical partition, complete the following steps:
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Virtual I/O Server
Procedure
1. Run the cluster command to create the cluster. In the following example, the storage pool for the
clusterA cluster is named poolA.
cluster -create -clustername clusterA -repopvs hdisk9 -spname poolA -sppvs
viosA1_HostName
hdisk5
hdisk7 -hostname
Restriction: In a cluster configuration, you cannot change the host name of a VIOS logical partition.
To change the host name, perform the following options, as applicable:
v If there are two or more VIOS logical partitions in the cluster, remove the VIOS logical partitions
and change the host name. Subsequently, you can recreate the VIOS logical partitions.
v If there is only one VIOS logical partition in the cluster, you must delete the cluster and change the
host name. Subsequently, you can recreate the cluster.
2. After you create the cluster, run the lspv command to display the list of all the physical volumes
visible to the logical partition. For example, entering the lspv command returns results similar to the
following:
NAME
PVID
VG
STATUS
--------------------------------------------------------------------hdisk0
none
None
hdisk1
000d4451b445ccc7
rootvg
active
hdisk2
000d44516400a5c2
20480
hdisk3
000d4451605a0d99
10250
hdisk4
none
20485
hdisk5
none
20490
hdisk6
none
20495
hdisk7
none
20500
hdisk8
none
20505
hdisk9
none
caavg_private
active
Note: The disk for the repository has a volume group name caavg_private. Volume group commands
such as exportvg and lsvg must not be run on the repository disk.
3. To display a list of physical volumes for which the usage cannot be determined, run the lspv
command. For example, entering the lspv -free command returns results similar to the following:
NAME
PVID
SIZE (megabytes)
------------------------------------------------------hdisk0
none
17408
hdisk2
000d44516400a5c2
20480
hdisk3
000d4451605a0d99
20482
hdisk4
none
10250
hdisk6
none
20490
hdisk8
none
20500
4. To display the physical volumes in the storage pool, run the lspv command. For example, entering
the lspv -clustername clusterA -sp poolA command returns results similar to the following:
PV NAME
SIZE(MB)
PVUDID
------------------------------------------------------hdisk5
20480
200B75CXHW1026D07210790003IBMfcp
hdisk7
20495
200B75CXHW1020207210790003IBMfcp
5. To display cluster information, run the cluster command. For example, entering the cluster -status
-clustername clusterA command returns results similar to the following:
Partition
Partition
Partition
Partition
Name: npiv-fvt-client6.austin.ibm.com
uuid: f67f82b25a3711df9fc1001a64b913a4
mtm:
Number: 3
Partition
Partition
Partition
Partition
Name: npiv-fvt-client7.austin.ibm.com
uuid: ac68162e5a3911dfada5001a64b924e8
mtm:
Number: 7
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What to do next
To list cluster configuration information, use the lscluster command. For example, entering the
lscluster -m command returns results similar to the following:
Calling node query for all nodes
Node query number of nodes examined: 1
Node name: viosA1
Cluster shorthand id for node: 1
uuid for node: ff8dd204-2de1-11e0-beef-00145eb8a94c
State of node: UP NODE_LOCAL
Smoothed rtt to node: 0
Mean Deviation in network rtt to node: 0
Number of zones this node is a member in: 0
Number of clusters node is a member in: 1
CLUSTER NAME
TYPE SHID
UUID
clusterA
local
a3fe209a-4959-11e0-809c-00145eb8a94c
Number of points_of_contact for node: 0
Point-of-contact interface & contact state
n/a
For more information, see lscluster command.
Related information:
cluster command
lspv command
Adding a VIOS logical partition to a cluster:
You can add a VIOS logical partition to a cluster by using the VIOS command-line interface.
About this task
To add a VIOS logical partition to a cluster:
Procedure
1. Run the cluster command to add a VIOS logical partition to a cluster. The fully qualified network
host name for the VIOS logical partition must be specified. For example,
cluster -addnode -clustername clusterA
-hostname viosA2_hostname
In this example, the viosA2 VIOS logical partition is added to the clusterA cluster.
2. To display the VIOS logical partitions in the cluster, use the cluster command. For example,
cluster -status -clustername clusterA
3. Log in to the VIOS logical partition by using the padmin user ID to confirm the cluster characteristics
as seen by the VIOS logical partition. For example, the cluster characteristics of the clusterA cluster as
seen by the viosA2 VIOS logical partition are as follows:
cluster -status -clustername clusterA
lssp -clustername clusterA
lssp -clustername clusterA -sp poolA -bd
lspv -clustername clusterA -sp poolA
4. You can map the existing logical units to the virtual server adapters of the VIOS logical partitions. In
this example, the logical units added to the viosA1 VIOS logical partition must be visible. However,
these logical units are not yet mapped to the virtual server adapters that are provided by the viosA2
VIOS logical partition. To map existing logical units to the virtual server adapters of the viosA2 VIOS
logical partition (while logged in to the viosA2 VIOS logical partition) and to list the mappings, enter
the following commands:
mkbdsp -clustername clusterA -sp poolA -bd luA1 -vadapter vhost0
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mkbdsp -clustername clusterA -sp poolA -bd luA2 -vadapter vhost1
lsmap -clustername clusterA -all
The client systems can now be reconfigured to accommodate the new mappings.
Related information:
cluster command
lsmap command
lspv command
lssp command
mkbdsp command
Removing a VIOS logical partition from a cluster:
You can remove a VIOS logical partition from a cluster by using the VIOS command-line interface.
About this task
After adding a logical partition to a cluster and enabling the client mapping to the same logical unit, you
can remove the VIOS logical partition from the cluster. To remove a VIOS logical partition from a cluster:
Procedure
1. Run the cluster command to remove a VIOS logical partition from a cluster. Specify the fully
qualified network host name for the VIOS logical partition. For example,
cluster -rmnode -clustername clusterA -hostname viosA1_hostname
Note: You cannot run this command on the VIOS logical partition that is being removed.
2. To verify the removal of the node and the retention of objects that are still logged in to other
partitions, run the cluster and lssp commands. For example,
cluster -status -clustername clusterA
lssp -clustername clusterA -sp poolA -bd
lssp -clustername clusterA
lspv -clustername clusterA -sp poolA
Note: If the VIOS logical partition is mapped to a logical unit in the storage pool of the cluster,
removing that VIOS logical partition from a cluster fails. To remove the logical partition, unmap the
logical unit.
Related tasks:
“Unmapping a logical unit” on page 127
You can unmap a logical unit by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) command-line interface.
Related information:
cluster command
lspv command
lssp command
Deleting a cluster:
You can delete a cluster by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) command-line interface.
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119
About this task
Notes:
v You cannot restore a cluster if you delete the cluster. You cannot restore a VIOS logical partition in a
cluster if the VIOS logical partition is removed from the cluster.
v Deleting a cluster fails if the VIOS logical partition has any mappings to logical units in the shared
storage pool or if there are any logical units within the shared storage pool. Before you perform the
delete operation, remove all logical partition mappings and logical units.
To delete a cluster, including the physical volumes provisioned to its storage pool, complete the following
steps:
Procedure
1. Run the cluster command. For example, enter cluster -delete -clustername clusterA to delete the
clusterA cluster.
2. To verify that the physical volumes are released to the free state, run the lspv command. For example,
when you enter lspv -free, all the physical volumes should be displayed in the free physical volume
list.
Related concepts:
“Removing logical units” on page 128
You can remove logical units from the shared storage pool by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
command-line interface.
Related tasks:
“Unmapping a logical unit” on page 127
You can unmap a logical unit by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) command-line interface.
Related information:
cluster command
lspv command
Managing storage pools by using the VIOS command line
You can use the command-line interface on the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) to manage shared storage
pools.
Adding storage space to the storage pool:
When more storage space is required in a storage pool, you can add one or more physical volumes in the
storage pool by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) command-line interface.
Adding physical volumes to the storage pool:
You can add physical volumes to the storage pool by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) command-line
interface.
Before you begin
Prerequisites
Before you start, ensure that there are physical volumes capable of being added to the storage pool. To
display a list of physical volumes for which the usage cannot be determined, enter the lspv -free or
lspv -capable commands immediately before changing the storage provisioning. Another VIOS logical
partition might have taken a physical volume. For example, entering the lspv -free command returns
results similar to the following:
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NAME
PVID
SIZE (megabytes)
----------------------------------------------------hdisk0
none
17408
hdisk3
000d4451605a0d99
20482
hdisk4
none
10250
hdisk6
none
20490
hdisk8
none
20500
List the physical volumes that are capable of being included in the storage pool. For example, entering
the lspv -clustername clusterA -capable command returns results similar to the following:
PV NAME
SIZE (MB)
PVUDID
-------------------------------------------------------------------------hdisk0
17408
200B75CXHW1025F07210790003IBMfcp
hdisk3
20482
200B75CXHW1031007210790003IBMfcp
hdisk4
10250
200B75CXHW1031107210790003IBMfcp
hdisk6
20490
200B75CXHW1031307210790003IBMfcp
hdisk8
20500
200B75CXHW1031A07210790003IBMfcp
To determine if a physical volume is in use, run the prepdev command. If the physical volume is in use
as a cluster repository disk or as a storage pool disk, you will receive an error message. For example, by
entering prepdev -dev hdisk5, you can determine if the hdisk5 physical volume is in use. Output similar
to the following is displayed:
WARNING!
The VIOS has detected that this physical volume is currently in use. Data will be
lost and cannot be undone when destructive actions are taken. These actions should
only be done after confirming that the current physical volume usage and data are
no longer needed.
The VIOS could not determine the current usage of this device.
If the physical volume is in use as a cluster repository disk or as a storage pool disk, you can use the
cleandisk command to make the physical volume available.
Note: Ensure that the physical volume is no longer required, because running the cleandisk command
results in loss of data on the physical volume.
v To remove a cluster repository disk signature from the hdisk4 physical volume, enter the following
command:
cleandisk -r hdisk4
v To remove a storage pool disk signature from the hdisk4 physical volume, enter the following
command:
cleandisk -s hdisk4
About this task
To add one or more physical volumes to a storage pool, complete the following steps:
Procedure
1. Add physical volumes to the storage pool by using the chsp command. For example,
chsp -add -clustername clusterA -sp poolA hdisk4 hdisk8
In this example, the hdisk4 and hdisk8 physical volumes are added to the storage pool.
2. To display the list of physical volumes in the storage pool, use the lspv command. For example,
entering the lspv -clustername clusterA -sp poolA command returns results similar to the
following:
PV NAME
SIZE (MB)
PVUDID
-------------------------------------------------------------------------hdisk4
20485
200B75CXHW1031207210790003IBMfcp
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hdisk5
hdisk6
hdisk8
20495
10250
20500
200B75CXHW1031907210790003IBMfcp
200B75CXHW1031107210790003IBMfcp
200B75CXHW1031A07210790003IBMfcp
3. To display the list of the remaining free physical volumes that can be included in the cluster, use the
lspv command. For example, entering the lspv -clustername clusterA -capable command returns
results similar to the following:
PV NAME
SIZE (MB)
PVUDID
-------------------------------------------------------------------------hdisk0
17408
200B75CXHW1025F07210790003IBMfcp
hdisk3
20482
200B75CXHW1031007210790003IBMfcp
hdisk6
20490
200B75CXHW1031307210790003IBMfcp
hdisk9
20505
200B75CXHW1031A07210790003IBMfcp
Related information:
chsp command
cleandisk command
lspv command
prepdev command
Replacing physical volumes in the storage pool:
You can replace physical volumes in the storage pool by using the command-line interface on VIOS
Version 2.2.1.3, or later.
About this task
When more storage space is needed in a storage pool you can also remove and replace existing physical
volumes in a storage pool. If you are replacing the existing physical volume with a physical volume that
has a larger capacity, the capacity of the shared storage pool will increase.
Restrictions:
v You can replace physical volumes only in one cluster at a time.
v Do not use this task to only increase the capacity of the shared storage pool.
To remove and replace physical volumes in the storage pool, complete the following steps:
Procedure
1. Remove and replace a physical volume that is currently in a storage pool by running the chsp
command. For example,
chsp -replace -clustername clusterA -sp poolA -oldpv hdisk4 -newpv hdisk9
In this example, the hdisk4 physical volume is replaced by the hdisk9 physical volume in the storage
pool. The replaced disk is returned to the free physical volume list.
Note: If the size of physical volume that is being replaced is large, the replace operation might take a
longer time to complete.
2. To see the new set of physical volumes in the storage pool, run the lspv command. For example,
entering the lspv -clustername clusterA -sp poolA command returns results similar to the
following:
PV NAME
SIZE (MB)
PVUDID
--------------------------------------------------------------------------hdisk0
20485
200B75CXHW1031207210790003IBMfcp
hdisk1
20495
200B75CXHW1031907210790003IBMfcp
hdisk8
20500
200B75CXHW1031A07210790003IBMfcp
hdisk9
20505
200B75CXHW1031A07210790003IBMfcp
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Related information:
chsp command
lspv command
Changing the storage threshold:
You can change the threshold limit of the storage usage by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
command-line interface.
The shared storage pool memory is used to store virtual client partition user data. You must view
threshold alerts to verify if the free space decreases to a value lower that the acceptable value.
Important: Free space must not reduce to a value below 5% of the total space. If this reduction occurs,
I/O operations on the virtual client partition might fail. To avoid this failure, you must add physical
volumes to the pool or delete data from the pool to create free space.
The threshold limit for alert generation is a percentage value. If the actual storage usage transitions to a
value that is either higher or lower than the threshold limit, an alert is raised and an entry is made into
the VIOS error log in the VIOS logical partition that is a Primary Notification Node (PNN). If a PNN
does not exist, the error log is created on the Database Node (DBN). To determine whether the VIOS
logical partition is a PNN or the DBN, run the lssrc -ls vio_daemon command. The system error log is
used to track the threshold condition. These conditions are propagated to the Hardware Management
Console (HMC) or the Systems Director Management Console (SDMC) if they are connected to the VIOS
partition. The threshold limit can be changed to a value from 1% - 99%, with the number representing the
amount of free space. The default threshold monitoring is set to alert when the free space decreases to a
value lower than 35% of the total capacity.
For example, if the threshold limit is 20% and the amount of free space decreases to a value lower than
20%, an alert is raised with an indication that the threshold limit was exceeded. After you add storage
space, by adding storage capacity to the storage pool, and the amount of free space exceeds 20%, another
alert is raised with the indication that the threshold is no longer exceeded. An optimum threshold limit
depends on the administrative capability to respond to alerts and on how quickly storage is used.
The following list describes how to change the threshold limit, and remove and view threshold alerts:
v To change the threshold limit, run the alert command. In the following example, the threshold limit is
changed to 10%. Thus, an exceeded alert is raised when the free space decreases to a value lower than
10% of the physical storage pool capacity.
alert -set -clustername clusterA -spname poolA -type threshold -value 10
Note: You can check threshold alerts in the VIOS system error log.
v To remove the threshold alert from the storage pool, enter the alert -unset command.
alert -unset -clustername clusterA -spname poolA -type threshold
Note: If you disable the threshold alert notification feature, a threshold alert will not be raised before
the free space in a storage pool decreases to a value lower that the acceptable value. Threshold alerts
are important when you use thin-provisioned logical units in shared storage pool.
v To view the threshold alert on the storage pool, enter the alert -list command.
alert -list -clustername clusterA -spname poolA -type threshold
v To list the error log, enter the errlog –ls | more command. You can look for log entries containing the
following information:
– Information messages
– VIO_ALERT_EVENT label
– Threshold Exceeded alert
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123
Related information:
alert command
Managing logical units by using the VIOS command line
You can use the command-line interface on the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) to manage logical units in
shared storage pools.
Provisioning client partitions with logical unit storage:
You can provision client partitions with logical unit storage by using the command-line interface on the
Virtual I/O Server (VIOS).
Creating logical units:
You can create logical units and assign the logical units to virtual server adapters by using the Virtual
I/O Server (VIOS) command-line interface.
About this task
A logical unit provides the backing storage for the virtual volume of a client partition. By using the
following procedure, you can assign a logical unit for each client partition from the shared storage pool
of a cluster. Subsequently, you can map the logical unit to the virtual server adapter associated with the
virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) adapter of the client partition by using the Hardware
Management Console (HMC).
When the mapping operations are complete, the logical unit path is similar to the following example:
SAN Storage <=> poolA <=> luA1 <=> viosA1 vtscsi0 <=> viosA1 vhost0 <=> client1 vscsi0 <=> client hdisk0.
Notes:
v A single logical unit can be mapped by multiple virtual server adapters, and thus, accessed by multiple
client partitions. However, this mapping typically requires either an additional software layer such as a
database management system or the use of the Persistent Reserves standard to manage access to the
shared logical unit.
v A logical unit can be mapped from multiple VIOS partitions to a single virtual client.
To create logical units and assign the logical units to virtual server adapters, complete the following
steps:
Procedure
1. Obtain the physical location identifiers for the virtual server adapters by running the lsmap command.
For example, entering the lsmap -all command returns results similar to the following:
SVSA
Physloc
Client Partition ID
-------------------------------------------------------------------------vhost0
U8203.E4A.10D4451-V4-C12
0x00000000
VTD
NO VIRTUAL TARGET DEVICE FOUND
SVSA
Physloc
Client Partition ID
-------------------------------------------------------------------------vhost1
U8203.E4A.10D4451-V4-C13
0x00000000
Where, Physloc identifies the VIOS virtual server adapter related to the HMC property for the viosA1
VIOS logical partition illustrated in the following figure.
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Where:
v -C12 of the vhost0 virtual SCSI adapter physloc corresponds to the server SCSI adapter ID 12, which
maps to virtual SCSI adapter 4 on the client1 client partition with ID 2
v -C13 of the vhost1 virtual SCSI adapter physloc corresponds to the server SCSI adapter ID 13, which
maps to virtual SCSI adapter 3 on the client2 client partition with ID 7
The virtual target devices (VTD) also consist of a Physloc field. However, the Physloc field is empty
for VTDs because the HMC property is not applicable to a VTD.
2. Create the logical unit by running the mkbdsp command. For example:
v The luA1 logical unit is created in the poolA storage pool of the clusterA cluster, with
thin-provisioning and an initial provisional size of 100 MB.
mkbdsp -clustername clusterA -sp poolA 100M -bd luA1
v The luA3 logical unit is created in the poolA storage pool of the clusterA cluster, with
thick-provisioning and an initial provisional size of 100 MB.
mkbdsp -clustername clusterA -sp poolA 100M -bd luA3 -thick
3. Map the logical unit to the virtual server adapter associated with the client partition by running the
mkbdsp command. For example:
v The luA1 logical unit is thin-provisioned and mapped to the vscsi0 virtual server adapter associated
with the client1 client partition, which the HMC properties and the lsmap command indicate as
vhost0.
mkbdsp -clustername clusterA -sp poolA -bd luA1 -vadapter vhost0
v The luA3 logical unit is thick-provisioned and mapped to the vscsi0 virtual server adapter
associated with the client1 client partition, which the HMC properties and the lsmap command
indicate as vhost0.
mkbdsp -clustername clusterA -sp poolA -bd luA3 -vadapter vhost0 -thick
4. Create the logical unit in the shared storage pool, and map it to the virtual server adapter associated
with the client partition. For example:
v The luA2 logical unit is created in the poolA storage pool of the clusterA cluster, with
thin-provisioning and an initial provisional size of 200 MB. The luA2 logical unit is then mapped to
the vscsi0 virtual server adapter associated with the client2 client partition, which the HMC
properties and the lsmap command indicate as vhost1.
mkbdsp -clustername clusterA -sp poolA 200M -bd luA2 -vadapter vhost1 -tn vtscsi1
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125
v
The luA4 logical unit is created in the poolA storage pool of the clusterA cluster, with
thick-provisioning and an initial provisional size of 200 MB. The luA4 logical unit is then mapped
to the vscsi0 virtual server adapter associated with the client2 client partition, which the HMC
properties and the lsmap command indicate as vhost1.
mkbdsp -clustername clusterA -sp poolA 200M -bd luA4 -vadapter vhost1 -tn vtscsi1 -thick
Note: The -tn vtscsiX option is not mandatory. If this option is omitted, a default value is used. By
specifying the virtual target name, you can run the lsdevinfo command and search for information
using the target name. In addition, you can map multiple logical units to the same virtual host
adapter. The virtual target name is used to distinguish the mappings.
5. Display the logical unit information. For example, entering the lssp -clustername clusterA -sp
poolA -bd command returns results similar to the following. Here, the logical unit is the backing
device, or bd.
LU Name Size (MB)
ProvisionType
LU UDID
----------------------------------------------------------------------luA1
100
THIN
258f9b298bc302d9c7ee368ff50d04e3
luA2
200
THIN
7957267e7f0ae3fc8b9768edf061d2f8
luA3
100
THICK
459f9b298bc302fc9c7ee368f50d04e3
luA4
200
THICK
6657267e7d0ae3fc7b9768edf061d2d2
Entering the lsmap -all command returns results similar to the following:
SVSA
Physloc
Client Partition ID
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------vhost0
U8203.E4A.10D4451-V4-C12
0x00000002
VTD
Status
LUN
Backing device
Physloc
Mirrored
vtscsi0
Available
0x8100000000000000
lua1.b1277fffdd5f38acb365413b55e51638
VTD
Status
LUN
Backing device
Physloc
Mirrored
vtscsi1
Available
0x8200000000000000
lua2.8f5a2c27dce01bf443383a01c7f723d0
N/A
N/A
Results
In the examples in this topic, the vscsi0 virtual client SCSI adapter on client partitions Client1 and Client2
was mapped to the logical units luA1 and luA2.
Related information:
lsmap command
lssp command
mkbdsp command
Enabling the logical unit backed storage:
You can enable the logical unit backed storage by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) command-line
interface.
About this task
To display the virtual physical volumes that the logical units represent in the client environments and
enable the logical unit backed storage, complete the following steps:
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Virtual I/O Server
Procedure
1. Log in to the client as root user.
2. Enter the following commands in the Korn shell:
cfgmgr
lspv
lsdev -c adapter -F ’name physloc’
lsdev -t vdisk -F ’name physloc’
The cfgmgr command reassembles device configuration information and picks up the new mapping
for the virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) adapter. The lspv and lsdev commands on the
client, and the lsdev command on the VIOS can be used to verify the association of the hdiskX
physical volume and the vscsiX virtual SCSI adapter to the vhostY virtual server adapter on the VIOS
partition (where, X and Y are appropriate instance numbers). After the vscsiX to hdiskX mapping is
verified, the normal volume group, file system management, and I/O can proceed on the client
partitions, as if the hdiskX physical volume is another direct connection SCSI device. Other than
establishing the client virtual physical volume association with a VIOS path, no further action is
required on the client. Hence, you can exit the client shell.
These steps are unique to the AIX client. The Linux operating system also supports adding new
storage devices dynamically. Run the following commands:
ls -vscsi
lsscsi
echo "- - -" > /sys/class/scsi_host/hostX/scan
lsscsi
cat /sys/class/scsi_host/hostX/partition_name
The ls -vscsi command displays all virtual SCSI host adapters. The partition_name attribute
displays the connected VIOS partition. Replace hostX with the host number to which storage has been
added. The lsscsi command displays all attached SCSI disks.
Note: When new data is written to the hdiskX physical volume, the VIOS logical partition monitors
for overruns of threshold limits. A shell connection to each of the logical partitions must be
maintained to observe threshold alerts in the VIOS error log. Alerts can also be captured by using
management tools. The threshold limit can be changed to avoid or delay the alerts.
Related information:
cfgmgr command
lsdev command
lspv command
Unmapping a logical unit:
You can unmap a logical unit by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) command-line interface.
About this task
To unmap logical units from the virtual server adapter, complete the following steps:
Procedure
1. To display the mapping of the virtual server adapter, enter the lsmap -all command.
SVSA
Physloc
Client Partition ID
--------------- -------------------------------------------- -----------------vhost0
U8203.E4A.10D4451-V4-C12
0x00000002
VTD
Status
LUN
vtscsi0
Available
0x8100000000000000
Virtual I/O Server
127
Backing device
Physloc
Mirrored
testLU.b1277fffdd5f38acb365413b55e51638
VTD
Status
LUN
Backing device
Physloc
Mirrored
vtscsi1
Available
0x8200000000000000
test_LU.8f5a2c27dce01bf443383a01c7f723d0
N/A
N/A
2. To unmap a logical unit, run the rmbdsp command with the -vtd option. If you do not use the -vtd
option, the entire logical unit is removed. In the following example, the mapping for the luA2 logical
unit is removed.
rmbdsp -vtd vtscsi1
Related information:
lsmap command
rmbdsp command
Removing logical units:
You can remove logical units from the shared storage pool by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
command-line interface.
Before removing the logical units from shared storage pools, you must delete the mapping of physical
volumes by reconfiguring the clients that reference the logical unit path.
To remove a logical unit from the shared storage pool, use the following commands, as applicable:
v To display logical unit information, run the lssp command. For example, entering the lssp
-clustername clusterA -sp poolA -bd command returns results similar to the following:
LU Name Size (MB)
ProvisionType
LU UDID
----------------------------------------------------------------------luA1
100
THIN
258f9b298bc302d9c7ee368ff50d04e3
luA2
200
THIN
7957267e7f0ae3fc8b9768edf061d2f8
luA3
100
THICK
459f9b298bc302fc9c7ee368f50d04e3
luA4
200
THICK
6657267e7d0ae3fc7b9768edf061d2d2
v To remove a logical unit, run the rmbdsp command. For example:
rmbdsp -clustername clusterA -sp poolA -bd luA2
Notes:
– Returning a logical unit to the shared storage pool might cause a storage threshold transition alert.
– If the logical unit is still mapped to a different VIOS logical partition, the rmbdsp command fails.
– If the logical unit is only mapped to virtual server adapters on the same VIOS logical partition on
which you run the command, the mappings and the logical unit are deleted. To see the VIOS logical
partition that actually has the logical unit mapped, run the lsmap -clustername command.
v To remove one of the multiple logical units with the same name, specify the unique identifier of the
logical unit. For example, when there is a second logical unit luA1, entering the following command
removes that logical unit.
rmbdsp -clustername clusterA -sp poolA -luudid 258f9b298bc302d9c7ee368ff50d04e3
v To remove all the logical units from the shared storage pool, run the rmbdsp command with the -all
option.
rmbdsp -all
The shared storage pool is not removed when all the logical units are removed. All physical volumes
previously added to the pool remain in the pool and cannot be removed when the pool exists. Delete
the cluster to delete the default pool and recover the physical volumes.
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To remove all the logical units, there must be no virtual target device assigned to any logical unit. Run
the rmbdsp command with the -vtd option on each virtual target device assigned to the logical units to
ensure that no virtual target device is assigned to any logical unit.
Related tasks:
“Deleting a cluster” on page 119
You can delete a cluster by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) command-line interface.
Related information:
lssp command
rmbdsp command
Migrating a cluster configuration
You can migrate the cluster that you created and configured on the VIOS logical partition with Version
2.2.0.11, Fix Pack 24, Service Pack 1 to the VIOS logical partition with Version 2.2.1.0, or later. By
performing this task, you can restore the previous shared storage pool mappings with a new shared
storage pool and database versions.
About this task
To migrate a cluster that you created and configured on the VIOS logical partition with Version 2.2.0.11,
Fix Pack 24, Service Pack 1 to the VIOS logical partition with Version 2.2.1.0, or later:
Procedure
1. Create a backup of the cluster that you want to migrate on the VIOS logical partition with Version
2.2.0.11, Fix Pack 24, Service Pack 1. For example:
viosbr -backup -file oldCluster -clustername clusterA
Save the backup file that is generated on a different system. For example:
oldCluster.clusterA.tar.gz.
2. Reinstall the VIOS logical partition with Version 2.2.1.0, or later.
Note: Do not change the physical volumes that are used for the storage pool.
3. Migrate the backup file created in step 1 to the VIOS logical partition with Version 2.2.1.0, or later. For
example:
viosbr -migrate -file oldCluster.clusterA.tar.gz
This step migrates the backup file to the VIOS logical partition with Version 2.2.1.0, or later. For
example: oldCluster_MIGRATED.clusterA.tar.gz.
4. Clean the physical volume that will be used as the cluster repository disk. For example:
cleandisk -r hdisk9
Note: Do not change the physical volumes that are used for the storage pool.
5. Restore the network devices by using the migrated backup file. For example:
v viosbr -restore -file oldCluster_MIGRATED.clusterA.tar.gz -clustername clusterA -repopvs hdisk9
-type net
v viosbr -restore -file oldCluster_MIGRATED.clusterA.tar.gz -clustername clusterA -subfile
clusterAMTM9117-MMA0206AB272P9.xml -type net
6. Restore the cluster by using the migrated backup file. For example:
v viosbr -restore -file oldCluster_MIGRATED.clusterA.tar.gz -clustername clusterA -repopvs hdisk9
v viosbr -restore -file oldCluster_MIGRATED.clusterA.tar.gz -clustername clusterA -subfile
clusterAMTM9117-MMA0206AB272P9.xml
After a successful restore operation, the cluster and all shared storage pool mappings are configured
as in the VIOS logical partition with Version 2.2.0.11, Fix Pack 24, Service Pack 1.
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129
7. Verify that the cluster restored successfully by listing the status of the nodes in the cluster. For
example:
cluster -status -clustername clusterA
8. List the storage mappings on the VIOS. For example:
lsmap -all
Getting started with shared storage pools by using the VIOS
configuration menu
Learn about using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) configuration menu to manage shared storage pools.
On VIOS Version 2.2.0.11, Fix Pack 24, Service Pack 1, or later, you can create a clustering configuration.
VIOS partitions connected to the same shared storage pool must be part of the same cluster. Each cluster
has a default storage pool. You can use the VIOS command-line interface to manage shared storage pools.
Notes:
v On VIOS Version 2.2.0.11, Fix Pack 24, Service Pack 1, a cluster consists of only one VIOS partition.
v
v
VIOS Version 2.2.1.0 supports only one cluster in a VIOS partition.
On VIOS Version 2.2.1.3, or later, a cluster consists of up to four networked VIOS partitions.
To access VIOS configuration menu, run the cfgassist command from the command-line interface. On
the VIOS configuration menu, move the cursor to the Shared Storage Pools menu and press Enter. Use
the submenus to manage clusters, VIOS logical partitions, storage pools, and logical units in shared
storage pools.
To select information, such as existing cluster names, associated storage pool names, snapshot names, and
logical unit names on the Shared Storage Pools menu, you can use the following wizards on the VIOS
configuration menu:
v Cluster and Storage Pool Selection wizard: On the Shared Storage Pools menu, you can use the
Cluster and Storage Pool Selection wizard to select the name of an existing cluster and associated
storage pool. The Cluster and Storage Pool Selection wizard displays the set of cluster names. After
you select a cluster, the wizard displays the names of the associated storage pools.
v Logical Unit Selection wizard: On the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool submenu, you can use
the Logical Unit Selection wizard to select the names of logical units. You can identify multiple logical
unit names, redisplay the Logical Unit Selection wizard, and change the logical unit selection.
v Snapshot Selection wizard: On the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool submenu, you can use the
Snapshot Selection wizard to select snapshots and logical units. You can select cluster names and the
storage pool name.
Related information:
cfgassist command
Managing a cluster by using the VIOS configuration menu
You can use the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) configuration menu to manage a cluster and the Virtual I/O
Server logical partitions.
Creating a cluster:
You can create a cluster in shared storage pools by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) configuration
menu.
About this task
To create a cluster in shared storage pools:
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Virtual I/O Server
Procedure
1. From the Shared Storage Pools menu, move the cursor to the Manage Cluster and VIOS Nodes
submenu and press Enter.
2. From the Manage Cluster and VIOS Nodes submenu, move the cursor to the Create Cluster option
and press Enter. The Create Cluster window opens.
3. Enter the cluster name being created in the Cluster name field.
4. Enter the storage pool name in the Storage Pool name field.
5. Press F4 or Esc + 4 in the Physical Volumes for Repository field and select the repository physical
volumes.
6. Press F4 or Esc + 4 in the Physical Volumes for Storage Pool field field and select the physical
volume names for the storage pool.
7. To clean the physical volumes, type yes in the Clean physical volumes before use field. Otherwise,
type no.
8. Press Enter to create a cluster.
9. In the confirmation window that opens, select Yes to proceed with creating the cluster.
Listing all clusters:
You can list all clusters in shared storage pools by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) configuration
menu.
About this task
To list all clusters in shared storage pools:
Procedure
1. From the Shared Storage Pools menu, move the cursor to the Manage Cluster and VIOS Nodes
submenu and press Enter.
2. From the Manage Cluster and VIOS Nodes submenu, move the cursor to the List All Clusters
option and press Enter. The list of all clusters that are associated with the VIOS logical partition is
displayed.
Deleting a cluster:
You can delete a cluster from shared storage pools by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) configuration
menu.
About this task
Notes:
v You cannot restore a cluster if you delete the cluster. You cannot restore a VIOS logical partition in a
cluster if the VIOS logical partition is removed from the cluster.
v Deleting a cluster fails if the VIOS logical partition has any mappings to logical units in the shared
storage pool or if there are any logical units within the shared storage pool. Before you perform the
delete operation, remove all logical partition mappings and logical units.
To delete a cluster from shared storage pools:
Procedure
1. From the Shared Storage Pools menu, move the cursor to the Manage Cluster and VIOS Nodes
submenu and press Enter.
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131
2. From the Manage Cluster and VIOS Nodes submenu, move the cursor to the Delete Cluster option
and press Enter. The Cluster and Storage Pool Selection wizard starts.
3. Select the cluster name to be deleted. The Delete Cluster window displays the cluster name that you
selected.
4. Press Enter to delete the cluster.
5. In the confirmation window that opens, select Yes to proceed with deleting the cluster.
Related concepts:
“Unmapping logical units” on page 138
Learn about unmapping logical units by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) configuration menu.
Related tasks:
“Deleting a logical unit” on page 139
You can delete a logical unit from shared storage pools by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
configuration menu.
Adding VIOS nodes to a cluster:
You can add Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) nodes to a cluster by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
configuration menu.
About this task
To add VIOS nodes to a cluster:
Procedure
1. From the Shared Storage Pools menu, move the cursor to the Manage Cluster and VIOS Nodes
submenu and press Enter.
2. From the Manage Cluster and VIOS Nodes submenu, move the cursor to the Add VIOS Nodes to
Cluster option and press Enter. The Cluster and Storage Pool Selection wizard starts.
3. Select the cluster name. The Add VIOS Nodes to Cluster window displays the cluster name that you
selected.
4. Enter the VIOS node names in the Network names of Nodes to add field. Enter multiple node names
separated by a space.
5. Press Enter to add the VIOS nodes.
6. In the confirmation window that opens, select Yes to proceed with adding the VIOS nodes.
Deleting VIOS nodes from a cluster:
You can delete Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) nodes from a cluster by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
configuration menu.
About this task
To delete VIOS nodes from a cluster:
Procedure
1. From the Shared Storage Pools menu, move the cursor to the Manage Cluster and VIOS Nodes
submenu and press Enter.
2. From the Manage Cluster and VIOS Nodes submenu, move the cursor to the Delete Nodes from
Cluster option and press Enter. The Cluster and Storage Pool Selection wizard starts.
3. Select the cluster name. The nodes of the cluster are displayed.
4. Select one or more nodes and press Enter. The Delete VIOS Nodes From Cluster window opens.
5. Press F4 or Esc + 4 in the Network names of Nodes to delete field to change the node selection.
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Virtual I/O Server
6. Press Enter to delete the VIOS nodes.
7. In the confirmation window that opens, select Yes to proceed with deleting the VIOS nodes.
Note: If the VIOS logical partition is mapped to a logical unit in the storage pool of the cluster,
deleting VIOS nodes from a cluster fails. To remove the logical partition, unmap the logical unit.
Related concepts:
“Unmapping logical units” on page 138
Learn about unmapping logical units by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) configuration menu.
Listing VIOS nodes in a cluster:
You can list all Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) nodes in a cluster by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
configuration menu.
About this task
To list all Virtual I/O Server nodes in a cluster:
Procedure
1. From the Shared Storage Pools menu, move the cursor to the Manage Cluster and VIOS Nodes
submenu and press Enter.
2. From the Manage Cluster and VIOS Nodes submenu, move the cursor to the List Nodes in Cluster
option and press Enter.
3. Select the cluster name in the window that opens. The list of all VIOS nodes associated with the
cluster is displayed.
Managing storage pools by using the VIOS configuration menu
You can use the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) configuration menu to manage shared storage pools.
Listing storage pools in a cluster:
You can list storage pools in a cluster by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) configuration menu.
About this task
To list storage pools in a cluster:
Procedure
1. From the Shared Storage Pools menu, move the cursor to the Manage Storage Pools in Cluster
submenu and press Enter.
2. From the Manage Storage Pools in Cluster submenu, move the cursor to the List Storage Pools in
Cluster option and press Enter.
3. Select the cluster name in the window that opens. The list of all storage pools associated with the
cluster is displayed.
Listing physical volumes in the storage pool:
You can list the physical volumes in the storage pool by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
configuration menu.
About this task
To list the physical volumes in the storage pool:
Virtual I/O Server
133
Procedure
1. From the Shared Storage Pools menu, move the cursor to the Manage Storage Pools in Cluster
submenu and press Enter.
2. From the Manage Storage Pools in Cluster submenu, move the cursor to the List Physical Volumes
in Storage Pool option and press Enter. The Cluster and Storage Pool Selection wizard starts.
3. Select the cluster name and press Enter.
4. Select the storage pool name and press Enter. The list of all physical volumes associated with the
storage pool is displayed.
Adding storage space to the storage pool:
When more storage space is required in a storage pool, you can use the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
configuration menu to add one or more physical volumes to the storage pool.
Adding physical volumes to the storage pool:
You can add physical volumes to the storage pool by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) configuration
menu.
About this task
To add physical volumes to the storage pool:
Procedure
1. From the Manage Storage Pools in Cluster submenu, move the cursor to the Change/Show Physical
Volumes in Storage Pool submenu and press Enter.
2. From the Change/Show Physical Volumes in Storage Pool submenu, move the cursor to the Add
Physical Volumes to Storage Pool option and press Enter. The Cluster and Storage Pool Selection
wizard starts.
3. Select the cluster name and press Enter.
4. Select the storage pool name and press Enter. The Add Physical Volumes to Storage Pool window
displays the cluster name and storage pool name that you selected.
5. Press F4 or Esc + 4 in the Physical Volumes to add field and select the physical volume. You can
select multiple physical volumes.
6. To clean the physical volumes, type yes in the Clean physical volumes before use field. Otherwise,
type no.
7. Press Enter to add the physical volumes to the storage pool.
8. In the confirmation window that opens, select Yes to proceed with adding the physical volumes to the
storage pool.
Replacing physical volumes in the storage pool:
You can replace physical volumes in the storage pool by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
configuration menu.
About this task
When more storage space is needed in a storage pool you can also remove and replace existing physical
volumes in a storage pool. If you are replacing the existing physical volume with a physical volume that
has a larger capacity, the capacity of the shared storage pool will increase.
Restrictions:
v You can replace physical volumes only in one cluster at a time.
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Virtual I/O Server
v Do not use this task to only increase the capacity of the shared storage pool.
To remove and replace physical volumes in the storage pool:
Procedure
1. From the Manage Storage Pools in Cluster submenu, move the cursor to the Change/Show Physical
Volumes in Storage Pool submenu and press Enter.
2. From the Change/Show Physical Volumes in Storage Pool submenu, move the cursor to the Replace
Physical Volumes in Storage Pool option and press Enter. The Cluster and Storage Pool Selection
wizard starts.
3. Select the cluster name and press Enter.
4. Select the storage pool name and press Enter. The Replace Physical Volumes in Storage Pool window
displays the cluster name and storage pool name that you selected.
5. Press F4 or Esc + 4 in the Physical Volumes to replace field and select the physical volume. You can
select multiple physical volumes.
6. Press F4 or Esc + 4 in the Physical Volumes to add field and select the physical volume. You can
select multiple physical volumes.
7. Press Enter to replace the physical volumes in the storage pool.
8. In the confirmation window that opens, select Yes to proceed with replacing the physical volumes in
the storage pool.
Results
Note: If the size of physical volume that is being replaced is large, the replace operation might take a
longer time to complete.
Listing physical volumes in the storage pool:
You can list the physical volumes in the storage pool by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
configuration menu.
About this task
To list the physical volumes in the storage pool:
Procedure
1. From the Manage Storage Pools in Cluster submenu, move the cursor to the Change/Show Physical
Volumes in Storage Pool submenu and press Enter.
2. From the Change/Show Physical Volumes in Storage Pool submenu, move the cursor to the Physical
Volumes option and press Enter. The Cluster and Storage Pool Selection wizard starts.
3. Select the cluster name and press Enter.
4. Select the storage pool name and press Enter. The list of all physical volumes associated with the
storage pool is displayed.
Setting and modifying the storage pool threshold alert:
You can use the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) configuration menu to perform tasks related to setting or
modifying the storage pool threshold alert on the VIOS configuration menu.
Listing the storage pool threshold alert value:
You can list the threshold alert value of the storage pool by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
configuration menu.
Virtual I/O Server
135
About this task
To list the threshold alert value of the storage pool:
Procedure
1. From the Manage Storage Pools in Cluster submenu, move the cursor to the Set/Modify Storage
Pool Threshold Alert submenu and press Enter.
2. From the Set/Modify Storage Pool Threshold Alert submenu, move the cursor to the List threshold
alert levels in Storage Pool option and press Enter. The Cluster and Storage Pool Selection wizard
starts.
3. Select the cluster name and press Enter.
4. Select the storage pool name and press Enter. The threshold alert value of the storage pool is
displayed.
Changing the storage pool threshold alert value:
You can change the threshold alert value of the storage pool by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
configuration menu.
About this task
To change the threshold alert value of the storage pool:
Procedure
1. From the Manage Storage Pools in Cluster submenu, move the cursor to the Set/Modify Storage
Pool Threshold Alert submenu and press Enter.
2. From the Set/Modify Storage Pool Threshold Alert submenu, move the cursor to the Change
threshold alert level in Storage Pool option and press Enter. The Cluster and Storage Pool Selection
wizard starts.
3. Select the cluster name and press Enter.
4. Select the storage pool name and press Enter. The Change Threshold Alert Level in Storage Pool
window displays the cluster name, storage pool name, and current threshold alert value of the storage
pool.
5. Enter the new threshold alert value in the New threshold alert level field.
6. Press Enter to update the new threshold alert value.
Removing the storage pool threshold alert value:
You can remove the threshold alert value of the storage pool by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
configuration menu.
About this task
To remove the threshold alert value of the storage pool:
Procedure
1. From the Manage Storage Pools in Cluster submenu, move the cursor to the Set/Modify Storage
Pool Threshold Alert submenu and press Enter.
2. From the Set/Modify Storage Pool Threshold Alert submenu, move the cursor to the Remove
threshold alert level in Storage Pool option and press Enter. The Cluster and Storage Pool Selection
wizard starts.
3. Select the cluster name and press Enter.
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Virtual I/O Server
4. Select the storage pool name and press Enter. The Remove Threshold Alert Level in Storage Pool
window displays the cluster name and storage pool name that you selected.
5. Press Enter to remove the threshold alert level of the storage pool.
Managing logical units by using the VIOS configuration menu
You can use the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) configuration menu to manage logical units in shared storage
pools.
Creating and mapping logical units:
You can create and map logical units in shared storage pools by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
configuration menu.
About this task
To create and map logical units in shared storage pools:
Procedure
1. From the Shared Storage Pools, move the cursor to the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool
submenu and press Enter.
2. From the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool submenu, move the cursor to the Create and Map
Logical Unit option and press Enter. The Cluster and Storage Pool Selection wizard starts.
3. Select the cluster name and press Enter.
4. Select the storage pool name and press Enter. The Create and Map Logical Unit window displays the
cluster name and storage pool name that you selected.
5. Enter the logical unit name being created in the Logical Unit name field.
6. Enter the logical unit size in megabytes in the Logical Unit size field.
7. Press F4 or Esc + 4 in the Virtual server adapter to map field and select the virtual server adapter
name that you want to map.
8. Enter the virtual target device name in the Virtual target device name field.
9. Press Enter to create and map the logical unit.
Creating logical units:
You can create logical units in shared storage pools by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) configuration
menu.
About this task
To create logical units in shared storage pools:
Procedure
1. From the Shared Storage Pools, move the cursor to the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool
submenu and press Enter.
2. From the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool submenu, move the cursor to the Create Logical
Unit option and press Enter. The Cluster and Storage Pool Selection wizard starts.
3. Select the cluster name and press Enter.
4. Select the storage pool name and press Enter. The Create Logical Unit window displays the cluster
name and storage pool name that you selected.
5. Enter the logical unit name being created in the Logical Unit name field.
6. Enter the logical unit size in megabytes in the Logical Unit size field.
7. Press Enter to create the logical unit.
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137
Mapping logical units:
You can map an existing logical unit to a virtual server adapter in shared storage pools by using the
Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) configuration menu.
About this task
To map an existing logical unit to a virtual server adapter in shared storage pools:
Procedure
1. From the Shared Storage Pools, move the cursor to the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool
submenu and press Enter.
2. From the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool submenu, move the cursor to the Map Logical Unit
option and press Enter. The Cluster and Storage Pool Selection wizard starts.
3. Select the cluster name and press Enter.
4. Select the storage pool name and press Enter. The Logical Unit Selection wizard starts.
5. Select the logical unit name and press Enter. The Map Logical Unit window displays the cluster name,
storage pool name, and the logical unit name that you selected.
6. Press F4 or Esc + 4 in the Virtual server adapter to map field and select the virtual server adapter
name that you want to map.
7. Enter the virtual target device name in the Virtual target device name field.
8. Press Enter to map the logical unit.
Unmapping logical units:
Learn about unmapping logical units by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) configuration menu.
Unmapping logical units by logical unit name:
You can unmap logical units by selecting the logical unit names by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
configuration menu.
About this task
To unmap logical units by selecting the logical unit names:
Procedure
1. From the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool submenu, move the cursor to the Unmap Logical
Unit submenu and press Enter.
2. From the Unmap Logical Unit submenu, move the cursor to the Unmap Logical Unit by LU Name
option and press Enter. The Cluster and Storage Pool Selection wizard starts.
3. Select the cluster name and press Enter.
4. Select the storage pool name and press Enter. The Logical Unit Selection By LU Name window opens.
5. Move the cursor to the logical unit names that you want to unmap and press F7 (function key 7). You
can select multiple logical unit names. To unmap all logical units, select ALL.
6. Press Enter after selecting the logical units to unmap. The Unmap Logical Unit By LU Name window
displays the cluster name, storage pool name, and the logical unit names that you selected.
7. Type yes in the Confirm unmap field to confirm that you want to unmap the logical units.
8. Press Enter to unmap the logical units.
Unmapping logical units by virtual server adapter name:
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You can unmap logical units by virtual server adapter name by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
configuration menu.
About this task
To unmap logical units by selecting the virtual server adapter names:
Procedure
1. From the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool submenu, move the cursor to the Unmap Logical
Unit submenu and press Enter.
2. From the Unmap Logical Unit submenu, move the cursor to the Unmap Logical Unit by Virtual
Server Adapter Name option and press Enter. The Cluster and Storage Pool Selection wizard starts.
3. Select the cluster name and press Enter.
4. Select the storage pool name and press Enter. The Logical Unit Selection By Virtual Server Adapter
Name window opens.
5. Move the cursor to the virtual server adapter names corresponding to the logical unit that you want
to unmap and press F7 (function key 7). You can select multiple virtual server adapter names. To
select all virtual server adapter names, select ALL.
6. Press Enter after selecting the virtual server adapter names. The Unmap Logical Unit By VAdapter
window displays the cluster name, storage pool name, and the logical unit names corresponding to
the virtual server adapter names that you selected.
7. Type yes in the Confirm unmap field to confirm that you want to unmap the logical units.
8. Press Enter to unmap the logical units.
Unmapping logical units by virtual target device name:
You can unmap logical units by virtual target device name by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
configuration menu.
About this task
To unmap logical units by selecting the virtual target device names:
Procedure
1. From the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool submenu, move the cursor to the Unmap Logical
Unit submenu and press Enter.
2. From the Unmap Logical Unit submenu, move the cursor to the Unmap Logical Unit by Virtual
Target Device Name and press Enter. The Cluster and Storage Pool Selection wizard starts.
3. Select the cluster name and press Enter.
4. Select the storage pool name and press Enter. The Logical Unit Selection By Virtual Target Device
Name window opens.
5. Move the cursor to the virtual target device names corresponding to the logical unit that you want to
unmap and press F7 (function key 7). You can select multiple virtual target device names. To select all
virtual target device names, select ALL.
6. Press Enter after selecting the virtual target device names. The Unmap Logical Unit By VTD window
displays the cluster name, storage pool name, and the logical unit names corresponding to the virtual
target device names that you selected.
7. Type yes in the Confirm unmap field to confirm that you want to unmap the logical units.
8. Press Enter to unmap the logical units.
Deleting a logical unit:
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You can delete a logical unit from shared storage pools by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
configuration menu.
About this task
To delete a logical unit from shared storage pools:
Procedure
1. From the Shared Storage Pools, move the cursor to the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool
submenu and press Enter.
2. From the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool submenu, move the cursor to the Delete Logical
Unit option and press Enter. The Cluster and Storage Pool Selection wizard starts.
3. Select the cluster name and press Enter.
4. Select the storage pool name and press Enter. The Logical Unit Selection wizard starts.
5. Select the logical unit name and press Enter. The Delete Logical Unit window displays the cluster
name, storage pool name, and the logical unit name that you selected.
6. Press Enter to delete the logical unit.
7. In the confirmation window that opens, select Yes to proceed with deleting the logical unit.
Listing logical units:
You can list logical units in shared storage pools by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) configuration
menu.
About this task
To list logical units in shared storage pools:
Procedure
1. From the Shared Storage Pools, move the cursor to the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool
submenu and press Enter.
2. From the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool submenu, move the cursor to the List Logical Units
option and press Enter. The Cluster and Storage Pool Selection wizard starts.
3. Select the cluster name and press Enter.
4. Select the storage pool name and press Enter. The list of all logical units associated with the shared
storage pool is displayed.
Listing logical unit maps:
You can list the logical unit mappings in shared storage pools by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
configuration menu.
About this task
To list the logical unit mappings in shared storage pools:
Procedure
1. From the Shared Storage Pools, move the cursor to the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool
submenu and press Enter.
2. From the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool submenu, move the cursor to the List Logical Unit
Maps option and press Enter. The Cluster and Storage Pool Selection wizard starts.
3. Select the cluster name and press Enter.
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4. Select the storage pool name and press Enter. The list of all logical unit mappings associated with the
shared storage pool is displayed.
Creating a logical unit snapshot:
You can create snapshots of logical units in shared storage pools by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
configuration menu. Snapshots are images of a single logical unit or multiple logical units.
Before you begin
Note: Before you create a snapshot, perform synchronization of the virtual disk on the client partition.
About this task
To create snapshots of logical units in shared storage pools:
Procedure
1. From the Shared Storage Pools, move the cursor to the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool
submenu and press Enter.
2. From the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool submenu, move the cursor to the Create Logical
Unit Snapshot option and press Enter. The Cluster and Storage Pool Selection wizard starts.
3. Select the cluster name and press Enter.
4. Select the storage pool name and press Enter. The Logical Unit Selection wizard starts.
5. Select the logical unit names and press Enter. The Create Logical Unit Snapshot window displays the
cluster name, storage pool name, and the logical unit names that you selected.
6. Enter the snapshot name in the Snapshot name field.
7. Press Enter to create the snapshot of the logical units.
Listing logical unit snapshots:
Learn about listing snapshots of logical units by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) configuration menu.
Snapshots are images of a single logical unit or multiple logical units.
Listing snapshots for a logical unit:
You can list snapshots for a logical unit in shared storage pools by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
configuration menu.
About this task
To list snapshots for a logical unit in shared storage pools:
Procedure
1. From the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool submenu, move the cursor to the List Logical Unit
Snapshot submenu and press Enter.
2. From the List Logical Unit Snapshot submenu, move the cursor to the List Snapshots for a Logical
Unit option and press Enter. The Cluster and Storage Pool Selection wizard starts.
3. Select the cluster name and press Enter.
4. Select the storage pool name and press Enter.
5. Select the logical unit name in the window that opens and press Enter. The List Snapshots for a
Logical Unit window displays the cluster name, storage pool name, and the logical unit names.
6. Press Enter to display the set of snapshots that are associated with the selected logical unit.
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Listing logical units in a snapshot:
You can list the logical units in a snapshot in shared storage pools by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
configuration menu.
About this task
To list the logical units in a snapshot:
Procedure
1. From the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool submenu, move the cursor to the List Logical Unit
Snapshot submenu and press Enter.
2. From the List Logical Unit Snapshot submenu, move the cursor to the List Logical Units in a
Snapshot option and press Enter. The Cluster and Storage Pool Selection wizard starts.
3. Select the cluster name and press Enter.
4. Select the storage pool name and press Enter.
5. Select the snapshot name in the window that opens. The List Logical Units in a Snapshot window
displays the cluster name, storage pool name, and the snapshot name.
6. Press Enter to display the set of logical units that are associated with the selected snapshot.
Listing all logical unit snapshots:
You can list all logical unit snapshots in shared storage pools by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
configuration menu.
About this task
To list all logical unit snapshots in shared storage pools:
Procedure
1. From the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool submenu, move the cursor to the List Logical Unit
Snapshot submenu and press Enter.
2. From the List Logical Unit Snapshot submenu, move the cursor to the List All Logical Unit
Snapshots option and press Enter. The Cluster and Storage Pool Selection wizard starts.
3. Select the cluster name and press Enter.
4. Select the storage pool name and press Enter.
5. Press Enter to display all logical unit snapshots.
Rolling back to the logical unit snapshot:
You can roll back to the logical unit snapshot in shared storage pools by using the Virtual I/O Server
(VIOS) configuration menu. Snapshots are images of a single logical unit or multiple logical units.
Before you begin
Note:
v If the logical unit is a rootvg device, you must shut down the client partition before you roll back to
the logical unit snapshot.
v If the logical unit is a datavg device, stop access to all the volume groups in the virtual disk by using
the varyoffvg command.
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About this task
To roll back to a logical unit snapshot:
Procedure
1. From the Shared Storage Pools, move the cursor to the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool
submenu and press Enter.
2. From the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool submenu, move the cursor to the Roll Back to
Snapshot option and press Enter.
3. Enter the cluster name, storage pool name, the snapshot to roll back to, and the list of logical units
and press Enter.
4. Press Enter to roll back to the selected snapshot.
5. In the confirmation window that opens, press Enter to proceed with rolling back to the selected
snapshot.
Deleting a logical unit snapshot:
You can delete a logical unit snapshot in shared storage pools by using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
configuration menu. Snapshots are images of a single logical unit or multiple logical units.
About this task
To delete a logical unit snapshot:
Procedure
1. From the Shared Storage Pools, move the cursor to the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool
submenu and press Enter.
2. From the Manage Logical Units in Storage Pool submenu, move the cursor to the Delete Snapshot
option and press Enter.
3. Enter the cluster name, storage pool name, the snapshot to delete, and the list of logical units. Press
Enter.
4. Press Enter to delete the selected snapshot.
5. In the confirmation window that opens, press Enter to proceed with deleting the selected snapshot.
Getting started with Trusted Logging
Learn about using the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) command line to configure the Trusted Logging
capability for increased log security.
By using the PowerSC Trusted Logging capability, you can configure AIX logical partitions to write to log
files that are stored on an attached VIOS. Data is transmitted to the VIOS directly through the hypervisor.
Thus, configured network connectivity is not required between the client logical partitions and the VIOS
on which the log files are stored.
The VIOS administrator can create and manage the log files by using the VIOS command-line interface.
The following table lists the commands that can be used to configure and manage the Trusted Logging
capability.
Table 35. Commands to configure and manage the Trusted Logging capability
Command
Description
chvlog
Changes the configuration of an existing virtual log.
chvlrepo
Changes the configuration of a virtual log repository.
lsvlog
Lists the currently defined virtual logs.
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Table 35. Commands to configure and manage the Trusted Logging capability (continued)
Command
Description
lsvlrepo
Lists the current configuration of the virtual log repositories.
mkvlog
Creates a new virtual log.
rmvlog
Removes an existing virtual log.
The Trusted Logging capability introduces the following concepts:
v Virtual log repositories
v Virtual logs
v Virtual log devices
These concepts are present in the VIOS as illustrated in the following figure. The virtual log devices are
attached to virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) adapters to expose the virtual log functions to
client logical partitions. The virtual log devices are backed by virtual logs. Virtual logs are present in the
VIOS file system as subdirectories within the virtual log repository. The virtual log repository is a
directory in the VIOS file system.
The following figure shows the concepts of the Trusted Logging capability.
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Related reference:
PowerSC
Trusted Logging
Related information:
chvlog command
chvlrepo command
lsvlog command
lsvlrepo command
mkvlog command
rmvlog command
Virtual log repositories
Virtual log repositories are directories in the file system accessible by the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS). You
can create one or more virtual logs in a virtual log repository.
Every VIOS has at least the local virtual log repository in the /var/vio/vlogs directory by default. If the
VIOS is configured to use shared storage pools, there is another repository associated with each shared
storage pool. When virtual logs are created, they are placed inside a specified virtual log repository. If an
alternative repository is not specified, the local repository is used by default. The VIOS administrator can
change the location of the local repository in the file system. However, shared storage pool repositories
must reside in a fixed location.
Virtual logs
A virtual log is a directory in a virtual log repository.
The virtual log is used to store logs that are generated by an AIX logical partition. The properties of a
virtual log can either be specified or inherited from the virtual log repository when the virtual log is
created. The following table lists the virtual log properties.
Table 36. Virtual log properties
Property
Description
Unique ID (UUID)
Specifies the unique ID of the virtual log. This value is assigned when the virtual log
is created and is retained permanently. If a logical partition is migrated to another
system, the virtual log is re-created with the same configuration and unique ID on the
destination Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) partition. For more information, see “Live
Partition Mobility of virtual log devices” on page 150.
State
Indicates whether the virtual log can be attached to a client logical partition. It has the
following possible values:
v Enabled: Indicates that the virtual log can be attached to a client logical partition.
v Migrated: Indicates that the virtual log is active on another VIOS after a migration
operation.
v Disabled: Indicates that the virtual log is not available for use by a client logical
partition.
Client name
Indicates the name of the client. This property can be set to any value. However,
typically all virtual logs intended for a particular client logical partition are assigned
the same client name, for ease of administration. If a virtual log is created and
attached to a client logical partition in a single operation, the VIOS attempts to obtain
the host name from the client logical partition and use that as the client name if it is
not specified on the command line.
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Table 36. Virtual log properties (continued)
Property
Description
Log name
Indicates the name of a virtual log. This property can be assigned any value by the
administrator of the client logical partition, depending on the purpose, and must be
provided when a new virtual log is created. For example, you can create two virtual
logs, audit and syslog, for a given logical partition for the collection of audit and syslog
data.
Maximum log file size
Specifies the maximum file size of the virtual log in bytes.
Maximum number of log
files
Specifies the maximum number of virtual log files.
Maximum state file size
Specifies the maximum size of the state file in bytes. A state file consists of additional
information about when the virtual log devices were configured, opened, closed, and
various other operations that might be of interest in an analysis of log activity.
Maximum number of state
files
Specifies the maximum number of state files. A state file consists of additional
information about when the virtual log devices were configured, opened, closed, and
various other operations that might be of interest in an analysis of log activity.
Notes:
v The client name and log name properties also define the directory within the virtual log repository in
which the log is stored. A virtual log repository contains a subdirectory for each client name. This
subdirectory contains a directory for each log name. For example, with the local virtual log repository
set to the default directory /var/vio/vlogs, a virtual log with the client name lpar-01 and the log name
audit stores the logs in the /var/vio/vlogs/lpar-01/audit/ directory.
v If you rename the logical partition or change the host name, the client name property is not
automatically updated. Use the chvlog command to change the value of the client name for the virtual
log.
Each virtual log consists of the following types of information:
v Log data: Raw log data generated by the client logical partition. The log data is stored in files named
in the client_name_log_name.nnn format.
v State data: Additional information about when the virtual log devices were configured, opened, closed,
and various other operations that might be of interest in an analysis of log activity. This data is
generated without any explicit user action. The state data is stored in files that are named in the
client_name_log_name.state.nnn format.
In both cases, nnn starts at 000. The data is written to that file until the next write operation increases the
size of the file to a value more than the maximum log file size. When the size of the file increases to a
value more than the maximum log file size, nnn is incremented and a new file is created, overwriting any
existing file with that name. Log data is written to the new file until nnn is incremented again and it
reaches the limit specified in the properties of the virtual log. At this stage, nnn is reset to 000.
For example, consider a virtual log with the following properties:
Client name:
Log name:
Maximum number of log files:
Maximum log file size:
Maximum number of state files:
Maximum state file size:
lpar-01
audit
3
2091216
2
1000000
After a period of continued log generation, where the log files might have wrapped multiple times, the
following directory contents are expected. The new log data are written to lpar-01_audit.002 and the new
state data are written to lpar-01_audit.state.000. For example, running ls –l /var/vio/vlogs/lpar-01/
audit results in the following output:
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-rw-------rw-------rw-------rw-------rw-------
1
1
1
1
1
root
root
root
root
root
system
system
system
system
system
2091216
2091216
752104
16450
1000000
May
May
May
May
May
25
25
25
25
21
18:28
18:38
18:48
18:45
07:23
lpar-01_audit.000
lpar-01_audit.001
lpar-01_audit.002
lpar-01_audit.state.000
lpar-01_audit.state.001
Virtual log devices
A virtual log device is a virtual target device on the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS), attached to a virtual Small
Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) host adapter and backed by a virtual log.
By creating virtual log devices, virtual logs are made available to client logical partitions. The following
sections describe the use of the local virtual log repositories.
See “Virtual log devices with shared storage pools” on page 150 topic for the commands that can also be
used to work with virtual logs within a shared storage pool.
Configuring the virtual log repository
You can configure a virtual log repository by using the chvlrepo command. You can display the
properties of the virtual log repositories by using the lsvlrepo command.
To configure or display the properties of a virtual log repository, use the following commands, as
applicable:
v To display the current properties of virtual log repositories, enter the lsvlrepo command. Entering the
lsvlrepo -detail command returns results similar to the following:
Local Repository:
State:
Repository Root:
Maximum Log Files:
Maximum Log File Size:
Maximum State Files:
Maximum State File Size:
enabled
/var/vio/vlogs
10
2097152
10
1048576
v To display this information in a custom format, use the -field flag. Specify a string with field names,
separated by characters that are not alphanumeric, to display a customized output. The output contains
one line for every virtual log repository. For example, entering the lsvlrepo -field "state-path lf"
command returns results similar to one of the following:
– enabled-/tmp/vlogs/ 10
– disabled-/var/vio/SSP/cTA1/D_E_F_A_U_L_T_061310/vlogs/ 3
See lsvlrepo command for a list of all field names.
v To change the directory in which virtual logs are stored, enter the chvlrepo command. The virtual log
repository directory cannot be changed if any virtual logs exist in the repository. To change the
directory, enter the following command:
chvlrepo -path /mnt/logs
v You can change properties, such as the default number and size of log files, by using other options of
the chvlrepo command. See chvlrepo command for a list of all the options. For example, entering the
following command changes the default values for virtual logs that are created in the local virtual log
repository to have four log files, each up to 3 MB in size, and two state files, each up to 100 KB in size:
chvlrepo -lf 4 -lfs 3M -sf 2 -sfs 100K
Changing these default values does not change the configuration of existing virtual logs.
v You can also use the chvlrepo command to disable the repository to stop the creation of virtual logs. A
virtual log repository cannot be disabled if there are any virtual logs in the repository. For example,
entering the following command disables the repository:
chvlrepo -state disabled
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Creating a virtual log
You can create a virtual log and attach it to a virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) host adapter
by using the mkvlog command.
About this task
To create a virtual log and attach it to a virtual SCSI (VSCSI) host adapter, complete the following tasks:
Procedure
1. Enter the mkvlog command to create virtual logs. For example, entering the mkvlog -name syslog
-client lpar-01 command returns results similar to the following:
Virtual log 00000000000000005b3f6b7cfcec4c67 created
This command creates the syslog virtual log with the lpar-01 client name and other properties
inherited from the default values that are associated with the virtual log repository. The mkvlog
command returns the UUID that has been assigned to the new virtual log.
2. Attach the virtual log that has been created to a VSCSI host adapter for use by a client logical
partition. The VSCSI host adapter must not be configured to use the Any Client Can Connect mode. If
you specify this mode, you cannot identify the logical partition that generated the log messages in the
log files of the virtual log. For example, to attach the virtual log with UUID
00000000000000005b3f6b7cfcec4c67 to the VSCSI host adapter vhost0, enter the following command:
mkvlog -uuid 00000000000000005b3f6b7cfcec4c67 -vadapter vhost0
Results similar to the following are displayed:
vtlog0 Available
Results
You can also create a virtual log and attach it to a VSCSI host adapter by using a single command instead
of using the commands specified in step 1 and 2. For example, entering the mkvlog -name audit
-vadapter vhost1 command creates a new virtual log with the log name audit. This virtual log is attached
to the VSCSI host adapter vhost1, with the client name set to the host name of the client logical partition
that is attached to vhost1. Results similar to the following are displayed:
Virtual log 0000000000000000d96e956aa842d5f4 created
vtlog0 Available
Note: If the client logical partition is running, the client name does not need to be specified because the
mkvlog command discovers the client name from the client logical partition.
Listing virtual logs or virtual log devices
You can list virtual logs or virtual log devices by using the lsvlog command.
To list virtual logs or virtual log devices, use the following commands, as applicable:
v To display the properties of virtual logs, enter the lsvlog command. For example, entering the lsvlog
command returns results similar to the following:
Client Name
lpar-03
lpar-02
lpar-01
lpar-01
Log Name
syslog
syslog
audit
syslog
UUID
02392437473b6c552680a9ddd2fd8d06
956f8c1c25208091495c721e0796f456
9705340b31a7883573a1cd04b2254efd
b27a94a8e187ee5c917577c2a2df0268
VTD
vhost1/vtlog1
vhost0/vtlog0
v You can filter the output by using options such as -uuid to display only the log with a specific UUID.
For example, entering the lsvlog -uuid 02392437473b6c552680a9ddd2fd8d06 command returns results
similar to the following:
Client Name
lpar-03
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Log Name UUID
syslog
02392437473b6c552680a9ddd2fd8d06
Virtual I/O Server
VTD
vhost1/vtlog1
v To display all properties for each virtual log, use the -detail option. The virtual logs are displayed and
are sorted by client name. For example, entering the lsvlog -uuid 02392437473b6c552680a9ddd2fd8d06
-detail command returns results similar to the following:
Client Name: lpar-03
Log Name:
UUID:
Virtual Target Device:
Parent Adapter:
State:
Logical Unit Address:
Log Directory:
Maximum Log Files:
Maximum Log File Size:
Maximum State Files:
Maximum State File Size:
syslog
02392437473b6c552680a9ddd2fd8d06
vtlog1
vhost1
enabled
8100000000000000
/var/vio/vlogs/lpar-03/syslog
10
1048576
10
1048576
v To display this information in a custom format, use the -field option. Specify a string with field names
separated by characters that are not alphanumeric. For example, entering the lsvlog -field
"uuid\tsfs:sf" command lists all virtual logs. Results similar to the following are displayed:
02392437473b6c552680a9ddd2fd8d06
956f8c1c25208091495c721e0796f456
9705340b31a7883573a1cd04b2254efd
b27a94a8e187ee5c917577c2a2df0268
1048576:10
1048576:10
1048576:5
65536:20
Related information:
lsvlog command
Reconfiguring virtual logs or virtual log devices
You can reconfigure virtual logs or virtual log devices by using the chvlog command.
To reconfigure virtual logs or virtual log devices, use the following commands, as applicable:
v To change the properties of a virtual log, enter the chvlog command. You can change the properties of
virtual logs even if the virtual log is attached to a virtual log device on a virtual Small Computer Serial
Interface (SCSI) adapter, and the changes are immediate.
v If the virtual log is connected to a virtual SCSI adapter, it can be specified by using the name of the
virtual log device. For example, to change the log file size on the running virtual log device vtlog0 to 2
MB, enter the chvlog -dev vtlog0 -lfs 2M command. Results similar to the following are displayed:
Updated device.
v Regardless of whether a virtual log is connected to a virtual SCSI adapter, a virtual log can always be
specified by using the UUID of the virtual log. For example, to change the state of the virtual log with
UUID 00000000000000003cee6408c885d677 to disabled, enter the chvlog -uuid
00000000000000003cee6408c885d677 -state disabled command. Results similar to the following are
displayed.
Updated device.
v The state property for a virtual log controls whether the virtual log can be connected to a virtual SCSI
adapter. Therefore, it is not valid to change the state property when the virtual log is attached to a
virtual log device. For example, to change the state of the virtual log with UUID
00000000000000003cee6408c885d677 to disabled when it is connected to a virtual SCSI host adapter, enter
the chvlog -uuid 00000000000000003cee6408c885d677 -state disabled command. Results similar to
the following are displayed:
To change the state, the virtual log must not be connected to a device.
If you enter the lsvlog command, the VTD column is blank for this virtual log.
Note: To delete the virtual log device while retaining the virtual log, use the rmvlog -d command.
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Removing virtual logs or virtual log devices
You can use the rmvlog command to remove virtual logs or virtual log devices from a virtual Small
Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) adapter, or to unconfigure a virtual log device. The virtual log can be
specified by using the UUID or by the associated virtual log device name, if it exists.
To remove virtual log devices or virtual logs, use the following commands, as applicable:
v To change the specified virtual log device from the Available state to the Defined state, enter the rmvlog
command. To specify the virtual log device by name, use the -dev option. For example, entering rmvlog
-dev vtlog0 returns results similar to the following:
vtlog0 Defined
v To specify the virtual log device, use the -uuid option. When you use this option, the virtual log device
that is currently associated with a virtual log and the specified UUID is changed. For example, entering
rmvlog -uuid 0000000000000000a3e4dd0ba75972c2 returns results similar to the following:
vtlog0 Defined
v To remove the specified virtual log device, specify the -d option in addition to either the -dev or -uuid
option. When you use the -d option, the virtual log device is deleted. However, the virtual log and all
associated properties and data are retained. For example, entering the rmvlog -dev vtlog0 -d returns
results similar to the following:
vtlog0 deleted
v To remove the virtual log device and the virtual log, specify the -db option. When you use this option,
the data is still retained. For example, entering the rmvlog -uuid 9705340b31a7883573a1cd04b2254efd
-db command returns results similar to the following:
Virtual log 9705340b31a7883573a1cd04b2254efd deleted.
v To remove the virtual log device, the virtual log, and any log files that are associated with the virtual
log, specify the -dbdata option. For example, entering the rmvlog -dev vtlog0 -dbdata command
returns results similar to the following:
vtlog1 deleted
Virtual log 02392437473b6c552680a9ddd2fd8d06 deleted.
Log files deleted.
Live Partition Mobility of virtual log devices
When a client logical partition is moved from one host system to another during Live Partition Mobility,
new virtual log devices are created on the destination Virtual I/O Server (VIOS).
When you do not use Shared Storage Pools, these new virtual logs are independent of the virtual logs on
the source VIOS. The configuration data of the source virtual log without the log file content is copied to
the destination virtual log during migration. After migration, the source virtual log is placed in the
migrated state to indicate that the virtual log is no longer active on the system and that it has been
moved to another system. If you use a migration operation to move the client logical partition back to the
original host system, and you select the original VIOS to host the virtual logs of the logical partition, the
existing virtual log is moved back to the enabled state.
Virtual log devices with shared storage pools
You can use the Trusted Logging feature to direct log data to a file system shared across Virtual I/O
Server (VIOS) logical partitions.
By using the Trusted Logging feature with shared storage pools, you can obtain a single view of logical
partition activity across several separate systems.
Benefits of using virtual log devices with shared storage pools:
Using virtual log devices with shared storage pools provides multipath logs on a single system and Live
Partition Mobility of virtual logs.
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You can use the trusted log feature to direct log data to a file system shared across more than one Virtual
I/O Server (VIOS) and obtain a single view of logical partition activity across several separate systems.
This feature provides the following benefits:
v Multipath logs on a single system: By using virtual logs in shared storage pools, more than one VIOS
on a single host can make the same virtual log available to a client logical partition through different
virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) host adapters. The client logical partition detects the
multipath arrangement and tolerates the deactivation of a single VIOS by failing over to an alternative
path, without losing log data.
v Live Partition Mobility of virtual logs: When VIOS logical partitions on two different hosts have
visibility of the same shared storage pool virtual log repository, a migration operation is able to
continuously write to a single set of log files inside the shared storage pool, rather than to two
different local virtual log repositories. Thus, in contrast to Live Partition Mobility with local virtual log
repositories where the log files are split across two file systems, a single log file continues to be written
across the migration operation.
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Using virtual log devices with shared storage pools:
Learn about using virtual log devices with shared storage pools.
About this task
To use virtual logs with shared storage pools, the VIOS logical partitions must be clustered together. For
instructions, see “Configuring the system to create shared storage pools” on page 115. This process
creates a shared storage pool, the name of which is used in virtual log commands to operate on virtual
logs within that shared storage pool. To create a virtual log inside a shared storage pool, complete the
following tasks:
Procedure
1. Run the mkvlog command as described in “Creating a virtual log” on page 148. In addition, specify
the -sp option to indicate the shared storage pool to use. For example, entering the mkvlog -sp spool1
-name syslog -client lpar-01 command returns results similar to the following:
Virtual log f5dee41bf54660c2841c989811de41dd created
2. Attach the virtual log that was created in the shared storage pool to virtual Small Computer Serial
Interface (SCSI) adapters. For example, entering the mkvlog -uuid f5dee41bf54660c2841c989811de41dd
-vadapter vhost0 command returns results similar to the following:
vtlog1 Available
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Results
Notes:
v The lsvlog, chvlog and rmvlog commands operate on virtual logs in shared storage pools in the same
way that they operate on virtual logs in the local virtual log repository. However, the chvlog command
cannot be used to change virtual logs that are currently connected to virtual log devices anywhere in
the cluster. The virtual log devices must be removed before changes can be made to the virtual log
configuration.
v Additionally, the root path to a shared storage pool virtual log repository cannot be changed. The
location is decided by the mount point of the shared storage pool on the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS).
Each shared storage pool has a separate virtual log repository with a separate set of default properties
that are inherited by virtual logs created within that virtual log repository. By default, the lsvlrepo
command displays the properties of all virtual log repositories. You can use the -local and -sp options to
display the properties of a specific virtual log repository.
Getting started with Trusted Firewall
Learn about using the Trusted Firewall feature that is supported on the PowerSC Editions. You can use
this feature to perform intervirtual LAN routing functions by using the Security Virtual Machine (SVM)
kernel extension.
With Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) Version 2.2.1.5, or later, you can configure and manage the Trusted
Firewall feature. By using this feature, logical partitions on different VLANs of the same server can
communicate through the shared Ethernet adapter. The shared Ethernet adapter calls the intervirtual
LAN routing functions through the SVM kernel extension.
The SVM kernel extension consists of the following intervirtual LAN routing functions:
v Layer 3 routing: VLANs represent different logical networks. Hence, a layer 3 router is required to
connect the VLANs.
v Network filtering rules: Network filtering rules are required to permit, deny, or route intervirtual LAN
network traffic. Network filtering rules can be configured by using the VIOS command-line interface.
The following table lists the commands that can be used to configure and manage the Trusted Firewall
feature by using the VIOS command-line interface.
Table 37. Commands to configure and manage the Trusted Firewall feature
Command
Description
chvfilt
Changes the definition of a VLAN-crossing filter rule in the filter rule table.
genvfilt
Adds a filter rule for the VLAN-crossing between logical partitions on the same
Power Systems server.
lsvfilt
Lists the VLAN-crossing filter rules and their status.
mkvfilt
Activates the VLAN-crossing filter rules defined by the genvfilt command.
rmvfilt
Removes the VLAN-crossing filter rules from the filter table.
vlantfw
Displays or clears the IP and Media Access Control (MAC) mappings.
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153
Related reference:
PowerSC
Trusted Firewall
Related information:
chvfilt command
genvfilt command
lsvfilt command
mkvfilt command
rmvfilt command
vlantfw command
Configuring virtual Ethernet on the Virtual I/O Server
You can configure virtual Ethernet devices by deploying a system plan, create and configure a Shared
Ethernet Adapter, and configure a Link Aggregation device.
Related information:
Configuring virtual Ethernet by using the SDMC
Creating a virtual Ethernet adapter by using HMC Version 7
You can create a virtual Ethernet adapter on a Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) so that client logical partitions
can access the external network without having to own a physical Ethernet adapter.
Before you begin
If you plan to use a Shared Ethernet Adapter with a Host Ethernet Adapter (or Integrated Virtual
Ethernet), ensure that the Logical Host Ethernet Adapter (LHEA) on the Virtual I/O Server is set to
promiscuous mode. For instructions, see “Setting the LHEA to promiscuous mode” on page 155.
About this task
To create a virtual Ethernet adapter on the Virtual I/O Server using the Hardware Management Console
(HMC), Version 7 or later, complete the following steps:
Procedure
1. In the navigation area, expand Systems Management > Servers and select the server on which the
Virtual I/O Server logical partition is located.
2. In the contents are, select the Virtual I/O Server logical partition.
3. Click Tasks and select Configuration > Manage Profiles. The Managed Profiles page is displayed.
4. Select the profile in which you want to create the Shared Ethernet Adapter and click Actions > Edit.
The Logical Partition Profile Properties page is displayed.
5. Click the Virtual Adapters tab.
6. Click Actions > Create > Ethernet adapter.
7. Select IEEE 802.1Q-compatible adapter.
8. If you are using multiple VLANs, add any additional VLAN IDs for the client logical partitions that
must communicate with the external network using this virtual adapter.
9. Select Access external network to use this adapter as a gateway between VLANs and an external
network. This Ethernet adapter is configured as part of the Shared Ethernet Adapter.
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10. If you are not using Shared Ethernet Adapter failover, you can use the default trunk priority. If you
are using Shared Ethernet Adapter failover, then set the trunk priority for the primary share Ethernet
adapter to a lower number than that of the backup Shared Ethernet Adapter.
11. When you are finished, click OK.
12. Assign or create one of the following real adapters:
v Assign a physical Ethernet adapter to the Virtual I/O Server.
v If you plan to aggregate more than one physical Ethernet adapter into a Link Aggregation or
EtherChannel device, then assign multiple physical Ethernet adapters to the Virtual I/O Server.
v If you plan to use the Shared Ethernet Adapter with a Host Ethernet Adapter, then create an
LHEA for the Virtual I/O Server logical partition.
13. Click OK to exit the Logical Partition Profile Properties page.
14. Click Close to exit the Managed Profiles page.
15. Repeat this procedure for additional Shared Ethernet Adapters that you require.
What to do next
When you are finished, configure the Shared Ethernet Adapter using the Virtual I/O Server
command-line interface or the Hardware Management Console graphical interface, Version 7 Release 3.4.2
or later.
Note: As an alternative to the HMC, you can use the Systems Director Management Console (SDMC) to
create a virtual Ethernet adapter on a VIOS so that client logical partitions can access the external
network without having to own a physical Ethernet adapter.
Related tasks:
“Configuring a Shared Ethernet Adapter” on page 156
Find instructions for configuring Shared Ethernet Adapters.
Related information:
Creating a Shared Ethernet Adapter by using the SDMC
Setting the LHEA to promiscuous mode:
To use a Shared Ethernet Adapter with a Host Ethernet Adapter (or Integrated Virtual Ethernet), you
must set the Logical Host Ethernet Adapter (LHEA) to promiscuous mode.
Before you begin
Before you start, use the Hardware Management Console (HMC) to determine the physical port of the
Host Ethernet Adapter that is associated with the Logical Host Ethernet port. Determine this information
for the Logical Host Ethernet port that is the real adapter of the Shared Ethernet Adapter on the Virtual
I/O Server. You can find this information in the partition properties of the Virtual I/O Server, and the
managed system properties of the server on which the Virtual I/O Server is located.
About this task
To set the Logical Host Ethernet port (that is the real adapter of the Shared Ethernet Adapter) to
promiscuous mode, complete the following steps using the HMC:
Procedure
1. In the navigation area, expand Systems Management and click Servers.
2. In the contents area, select the server on which the Virtual I/O Server logical partition is located.
3. Click Tasks and select Hardware (information) > Adapters > Host Ethernet. The HEAs page is
shown.
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4. Select the physical location code of the Host Ethernet Adapter.
5. Select the physical port associated with the Logical Host Ethernet port on the Virtual I/O Server
logical partition, and click Configure. The HEA Physical Port Configuration page is shown.
6. Select VIOS in the Promiscuous LPAR field.
7. Click OK twice to return to the contents area.
What to do next
Note: As an alternative to the HMC, you can use the Systems Director Management Console (SDMC) to
set the Logical Host Ethernet Adapter (LHEA) to promiscuous mode.
Related information:
Setting the LHEA to promiscuous mode by using the SDMC
Configuring a Shared Ethernet Adapter
Find instructions for configuring Shared Ethernet Adapters.
Before you begin
Before you can configure a Shared Ethernet Adapter, you must first create the adapter using the
Hardware Management Console (HMC). For instructions, see “Creating a virtual Ethernet adapter by
using HMC Version 7” on page 154.
About this task
To configure a Shared Ethernet Adapter using the HMC, Version 7 release 3.4.2 or later, see Creating a
shared Ethernet adapter for a Virtual I/O Server logical partition using the Hardware Management
Console.
To configure a Shared Ethernet Adapter using versions prior to the HMC, Version 7 Release 3.4.2,
complete the following steps from the Virtual I/O Server command-line interface:
Procedure
1. Verify that the virtual Ethernet trunk adapter is available by running the following command:
lsdev -virtual
2. Identify the appropriate physical Ethernet adapter that will be used to create the Shared Ethernet
Adapter by running the following command:
lsdev -type adapter
Notes:
v Ensure that TCP/IP is not configured on the interface for the physical Ethernet adapter. If TCP/IP
is configured, the mkvdev command in the next step fails.
v You can also use a Link Aggregation, or EtherChannel, device as the Shared Ethernet Adapter.
v If you plan to use the Host Ethernet Adapter or Integrated Virtual Ethernet with the Shared
Ethernet Adapter, ensure that you use the Logical Host Ethernet Adapter to create the Shared
Ethernet Adapter.
3. Configure the Shared Ethernet Adapter by running the following command:
mkvdev -sea target_device -vadapter virtual_ethernet_adapters \
-default DefaultVirtualEthernetAdapter -defaultid SEADefaultPVID
Where:
target_device
The physical adapter being used as part of the Shared Ethernet Adapter device.
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virtual_ethernet_adapters
The virtual Ethernet adapter or adapters that will use the Shared Ethernet Adapter.
DefaultVirtualEthernetAdapter
The default virtual Ethernet adapter used to handle untagged packets. If you have only one
virtual Ethernet adapter for this logical partition, use it as the default.
SEADefaultPVID
The PVID associated with your default virtual Ethernet adapter.
For example:
v To create Shared Ethernet Adapter ent3 with ent0 as the physical Ethernet adapter (or Link
Aggregation) and ent2 as the only virtual Ethernet adapter (defined with a PVID of 1), type the
following command:
mkvdev -sea ent0 -vadapter ent2 -default ent2 -defaultid 1
v To obtain the value for the SEADefaultPVID attribute in the mkvdev command, type the following
command:
enstat -all ent2 | grep "Port VLAN ID:"
Output similar to the following example is displayed:
Port VLAN ID: 1
4. Verify that the Shared Ethernet Adapter was created by running the following command:
lsdev -virtual
5. Do you plan to access the Virtual I/O Server from the network with the physical device used to
create the Shared Ethernet Adapter?
v Yes: Go to step 6.
v No: You are finished with this procedure and do not need to complete the remaining steps.
6. Do you plan to set bandwidth apportioning by defining a Quality of Service (QoS)?
v Yes: Go to step 11 to enable the Shared Ethernet Adapter device to prioritize traffic.
v No: Go to step 9 to configure a TCP/IP connection.
7. Do you plan to define IP addresses on any VLANs other than the VLAN specified by the PVID of
the Shared Ethernet Adapter?
v Yes: Go to step 8 to create VLAN pseudo-devices.
v No: Go to step 9 to configure a TCP/IP connection.
8. To configure VLAN pseudo-devices, complete the following steps:
a. Create a VLAN pseudo-device on the Shared Ethernet Adapter by running the following
command:
mkvdev -vlan TargetAdapter -tagid TagID
Where:
v TargetAdapter is the Shared Ethernet Adapter.
v TagID is the VLAN ID that you defined when creating the virtual Ethernet adapter associated
with the Shared Ethernet Adapter.
For example, to create a VLAN pseudo-device using the Shared Ethernet Adapter ent3 that you
just created with a VLAN ID of 1, type the following command:
mkvdev -vlan ent3 -tagid 1
b. Verify that the VLAN pseudo-device was created by running the following command:
lsdev -virtual
c. Repeat this step for any additional VLAN pseudo-devices that you need.
9. Run the following command to configure the first TCP/IP connection. The first connection must be
on the same VLAN and logical subnet as the default gateway.
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157
mktcpip -hostname Hostname -inetaddr Address -interface Interface -netmask \
SubnetMask -gateway Gateway -nsrvaddr NameServerAddress -nsrvdomain Domain
Where:
v Hostname is the host name of the Virtual I/O Server
v Address is the IP address you want to use for the TCP/IP connection
v Interface is the interface associated with either the Shared Ethernet Adapter device or a VLAN
pseudo-device. For example, if the Shared Ethernet Adapter device is ent3, the associated interface
is en3.
v Subnetmask is the subnet mask address for your subnet.
v Gateway is the gateway address for your subnet.
v NameServerAddress is the address of your domain name server.
v Domain is the name of your domain.
If you do not have additional VLANs, then you are finished with this procedure and do not need to
complete the remaining step.
10. Run the following command to configure additional TCP/IP connections:
chdev -dev interface -perm -attr netaddr=IPaddress -attr netmask=netmask
-attr state=up
When using this command, enter the interface (enX) associated with either the Shared Ethernet
Adapter device or VLAN pseudo-device.
11. Enable the Shared Ethernet Adapter device to prioritize traffic. Client logical partitions must insert a
VLAN priority value in their VLAN header. For AIX clients, a VLAN pseudo-device must be created
over the Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter, and the VLAN priority attribute must be set (the default
value is 0). Do the following steps to enable traffic prioritization on an AIX client:
Note: You can also configure VLANs on Linux logical partitions. For more information, see the
documentation for the Linux operating system.
a. Set the Shared Ethernet Adapter qos_mode attribute to either strict or loose mode. Use one of the
following commands: chdev -dev <SEA device name> -attr qos_mode=strict or chdev -dev <SEA
device name> -attr qos_mode=loose. For more information about the modes, see Shared Ethernet
Adapter.
b. From the HMC, create a Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter for the AIX client with all of the tagged
VLANs that are required (specified in the Additional VLAN ID list). Packets sent over the default
VLAN ID (specified in the Adapter ID or Virtual LAN ID field) will not be tagged as VLAN;
therefore, a VLAN priority value cannot be assigned to them.
c. On the AIX client, run the smitty vlan command.
d. Select Add a VLAN.
e. Select the name of the Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter created in step 1.
f. In the VLAN Tag ID attribute, specify one of the tagged VLANs that are configured on the Virtual
I/O Ethernet Adapter that you created in step 1.
g. Specify an attribute value (0 - 7) in the VLAN Priority attribute, which corresponds to the
importance the VIOS should give to the traffic sent over that VLAN pseudo-device.
h. Configure the interface over the VLAN pseudo-device created in step 6.
Traffic sent over the interface created in step 7 will be tagged as VLAN and its VLAN header will
have the VLAN priority value specified in step 6. When this traffic is bridged by a Shared Ethernet
Adapter that has been enabled for bandwidth apportioning, the VLAN priority value is used to
determine how quickly it should be sent in relation to other packets at different priorities.
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Results
The Shared Ethernet Adapter is now configured. After you configure the TCP/IP connections for the
virtual adapters on the client logical partitions using the client logical partitions' operating systems, those
logical partitions can communicate with the external network.
Related concepts:
“Shared Ethernet Adapter failover” on page 82
Shared Ethernet Adapter failover provides redundancy by configuring a backup Shared Ethernet Adapter
on a different Virtual I/O Server logical partition that can be used if the primary Shared Ethernet
Adapter fails. The network connectivity in the client logical partitions continues without disruption.
“Shared Ethernet Adapters” on page 37
With Shared Ethernet Adapters on the Virtual I/O Server logical partition, virtual Ethernet adapters on
client logical partitions can send and receive outside network traffic.
Related information:
Creating a shared Ethernet adapter for a VIOS logical partition using the HMC
Virtual I/O Server and Integrated Virtualization Manager commands
Configuring a Link Aggregation or EtherChannel device
Configure a Link Aggregation device, also called an EtherChannel device, by using the mkvdev command.
A Link Aggregation device can be used as the physical Ethernet adapter in the Shared Ethernet Adapter
configuration.
About this task
Configure a Link Aggregation device by typing the following command:
mkvdev -lnagg TargetAdapter ... [-attr Attribute=Value ...]
For example, to create Link Aggregation device ent5 with physical Ethernet adapters ent3, ent4, and
backup adapter ent2, type the following:
mkvdev -lnagg ent3,ent4 -attr backup_adapter=ent2
After the Link Aggregation device is configured, you can add adapters to it, remove adapters from it, or
modify its attributes using the cfglnagg command.
Assigning the virtual Fibre Channel adapter to a physical Fibre
Channel adapter
To enable N-Port ID Virtualization (NPIV) on managed systems, connect the virtual Fibre Channel
adapter on the Virtual I/O Server logical partition to a physical port on a physical Fibre Channel adapter.
Before you begin
Before you start, verify that the following statements are true:
v Verify that you have created the virtual Fibre Channel adapters on the Virtual I/O Server logical
partition and associated them with virtual Fibre Channel adapters on the client logical partition.
v Verify that you have created the virtual Fibre Channel adapters on each client logical partition and
associated them with a virtual Fibre Channel adapter on the Virtual I/O Server logical partition.
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About this task
After the virtual Fibre Channel adapters are created, you need to connect the virtual Fibre Channel
adapter on the Virtual I/O Server logical partition to the physical ports of the physical Fibre Channel
adapter. The physical Fibre Channel adapter should be connected to the physical storage that you want
the associated client logical partition to access.
Tip: If you are using the HMC, Version 7 Release 3.4.2 or later, you can use the HMC graphical interface
to assign the virtual Fibre Channel adapter on a Virtual I/O Server to a physical Fibre Channel adapter.
To assign the virtual Fibre Channel adapter to a physical port on a physical Fibre Channel adapter,
complete the following steps from the Virtual I/O Server command-line interface:
Procedure
1. Use the lsnports command to display information for the available number of NPIV ports and
available worldwide port names (WWPNs). For example, running lsnports returns results similar to
the following:
Name
Physloc
fabric
tports
aports
swwpns
awwpns
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------fcs0
U789D.001.DQDMLWV-P1-C1-T1 1
64
64
2048
2047
fcs1
U787A.001.DPM0WVZ-P1-C1-T2 1
63
62
504
496
Note: If there are no NPIV ports in the Virtual I/O Server logical partition, the error code
E_NO_NPIV_PORTS(62) is displayed.
2. To connect the virtual Fibre Channel adapter on the Virtual I/O Server logical partition to a physical
port on a physical Fibre Channel adapter, run the vfcmap command: vfcmap -vadapter virtual Fibre
Channel adapter -fcp Fibre Channel port name where:
v Virtual Fibre Channel adapter is the name of the virtual Fibre Channel adapter created on the Virtual
I/O Server logical partition.
v Fibre Channel port name is the name of the physical Fibre Channel port.
Note: If no parameter is specified with the -fcp flag, the command unmaps the virtual Fibre
Channel adapter from the physical Fibre Channel port.
3. Use the lsmap command to display the mapping between virtual host adapters and the physical
devices to which they are backed. To list NPIV mapping information, type: lsmap -all -npiv. The
system displays a message similar to the following:
Name
Physloc
ClntID
ClntName ClntOS
--------------------------------------------------------------vfchost0 U8203.E4A.HV40026-V1-C12
1
HV-40026
AIX
Status:NOT_LOGGED_IN
FC name:fcs0
FC loc code:U789C.001.0607088-P1-C5-T1
Ports logged in:0
Flags:1 <not_mapped, not_connected>
VFC client name:
VFC client DRC:
What to do next
When you are finished, consider the following tasks:
v For each logical partition, verify that both WWPNs are assigned to the same physical storage and have
the same level of access on the storage area network (SAN). For instructions, see the System Storage®
SAN Volume Controller.
Note: To determine the WWPNs that are assigned to a logical partition, use the Hardware
Management Console (HMC) to view the partition properties or partition profile properties of the
client logical partition.
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v If you later need to remove the connection between the virtual Fibre Channel adapter created on the
Virtual I/O Server logical partition and the physical port, you can do so by using the vfcmap command
and not specifying a parameter for the -fcp flag.
Related information:
Configuring a virtual Fibre Channel adapter
Changing virtual Fibre Channel by using the Hardware Management Console
Virtual I/O Server and Integrated Virtualization Manager commands
Configuring the Tivoli agents and clients on the Virtual I/O Server
You can configure and start the Tivoli Monitoring agent, Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager, the Tivoli
Storage Manager client, and the Tivoli TotalStorage Productivity Center agents.
Related concepts:
“Tivoli software and the Virtual I/O Server” on page 49
Learn about integrating the Virtual I/O Server into your Tivoli environment for Tivoli Application
Dependency Discovery Manager, Tivoli Monitoring, Tivoli Storage Manager, Tivoli Usage and Accounting
Manager, Tivoli Identity Manager, and TotalStorage Productivity Center.
Related information:
cfgsvc command
Configuring the Tivoli Monitoring agent
You can configure and start the Tivoli Monitoring agent on the Virtual I/O Server.
Before you begin
With Tivoli Monitoring System Edition , you can monitor the health and availability of multiple servers
(including the Virtual I/O Server) from the Tivoli Enterprise Portal. Tivoli Monitoring System Edition
gathers data from the Virtual I/O Server, including data about physical volumes, logical volumes, storage
pools, storage mappings, network mappings, real memory, processor resources, mounted file system
sizes, and so on. From the Tivoli Enterprise Portal, you can view a graphical representation of the data,
use predefined thresholds to alert you on key metrics, and resolve issues based on recommendations
provided by the Expert Advice feature of Tivoli Monitoring.
Before you start, complete the following tasks:
v Ensure that the Virtual I/O Server is running fix pack 8.1.0.
v Verify that you are a super administrator of the HMC.
v Verify that you are the prime administrator of the Virtual I/O Server.
About this task
To configure and start the monitoring agent, complete the following steps:
Procedure
1. List all of the available monitoring agents using the lssvc command. For example,
$lssvc
ITM_premium
2. Based on the output of the lssvc command, decide which monitoring agent you want to configure.
For example, ITM_premium
3. List all of the attributes that are associated with the monitoring agent using the cfgsvc command. For
example:
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161
$cfgsvc –ls ITM_premium
HOSTNAME
RESTART_ON_REBOOT
MANAGING_SYSTEM
4. Configure the monitoring agent with its associated attributes using the cfgsvc command:
cfgsvc ITM_agent_name -attr Restart_On_Reboot=value hostname=name_or_address1
managing_system=name_or_address2
Where:
v ITM_agent_name is the name of the monitoring agent. For example, ITM_premium.
v value must be either TRUE of FALSE as follows:
– TRUE: ITM_agent_name restarts whenever the Virtual I/O Server restarts
– FALSE: ITM_agent_name does not restart whenever the Virtual I/O Server restarts
v name_or_address1 is either the host name or IP address of the Tivoli Enterprise Monitoring Server
(TEMS) server to which ITM_agent_name sends data.
v name_or_address2 is either the host name of IP address of the Hardware Management Console
(HMC) attached to the managed system on which the Virtual I/O Server with the monitoring agent
is located.
For example:
cfgsvc ITM_premium –attr Restart_On_Reboot=TRUE hostname=tems_server managing_system=hmc_console
In this example, the ITM_premium monitoring agent is configured to send data to tems_server, and to
restart whenever the Virtual I/O Server restarts.
5. Start the monitoring agent using the startsvc command. For example:
startsvc ITM_premium
6. From the HMC, complete the following steps so that the monitoring agent can gather information
from the HMC.
Note: After you configure a secure shell connection for one monitoring agent, you do not need to
configure it again for any additional agents.
a. Determine the name of the managed system on which the Virtual I/O Server with the monitoring
agent is located.
b. Obtain the public key for the Virtual I/O Server by running the following command:
viosvrcmd -m managed_system_name -p vios_name -c "cfgsvc -key ITM_agent_name"
Where:
v managed_system_name is the name of the managed system on which the Virtual I/O Server with
the monitoring agent or client is located.
v vios_name is the name of the Virtual I/O Server logical partition (with the monitoring agent) as
defined on the HMC.
v ITM_agent_name is the name of the monitoring agent. For example, ITM_premium.
c. Update the authorized_key2 file on the HMC by running the mkauthkeys command:
mkauthkeys --add public_key
where public_key is the output from the viosvrcmd command in step 6b.
For example:
$ viosvrcmd -m commo126041 -p VIOS7 -c "cfgsvc ITM_premium -key"
ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAABIwAAAQEAvjDZ
sS0guWzfzfp9BbweG0QMXv1tbDrtyWsgPbA2ExHA+xduWA51K0oFGarK2F
C7e7NjKW+UmgQbrh/KSyKKwozjp4xWGNGhLmfan85ZpFR7wy9UQG1bLgXZ
xYrY7yyQQQODjvwosWAfzkjpG3iW/xmWD5PKLBmob2QkKJbxjne+wqGwHT
RYDGIiyhCBIdfFaLZgkXTZ2diZ98rL8LIv3qb+TsM1B28AL4t+1OGGeW24
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Virtual I/O Server
2lsB+8p4kamPJCYfKePHo67yP4NyKyPBFHY3TpTrca4/y1KEBT0Va3Pebr
5JEIUvWYs6/RW+bUQk1Sb6eYbcRJFHhN5l3F+ofd0vj39zwQ== root@vi
os7.vios.austin.ibx.com
$ mkauthkeys --add ’ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAABIwAAAQEAvjDZ
sS0guWzfzfp9BbweG0QMXv1tbDrtyWsgPbA2ExHA+xduWA51K0oFGarK2F
C7e7NjKW+UmgQbrh/KSyKKwozjp4xWGNGhLmfan85ZpFR7wy9UQG1bLgXZ
xYrY7yyQQQODjvwosWAfzkjpG3iW/xmWD5PKLBmob2QkKJbxjne+wqGwHT
RYDGIiyhCBIdfFaLZgkXTZ2diZ98rL8LIv3qb+TsM1B28AL4t+1OGGeW24
2lsB+8p4kamPJCYfKePHo67yP4NyKyPBFHY3TpTrca4/y1KEBT0Va3Pebr
5JEIUvWYs6/RW+bUQk1Sb6eYbcRJFHhN5l3F+ofd0vj39zwQ== root@vi
os7.vios.austin.ibx.com’
Results
When you are finished, you can view the data gathered by the monitoring agent from the Tivoli
Enterprise Portal.
Related information:
IBM Tivoli Monitoring version 6.2.1 documentation
Tivoli Monitoring Virtual I/O Server Premium Agent User's Guide
Configuring the Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager agent
You can configure and start the Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager agent on the Virtual I/O Server.
About this task
With Virtual I/O Server 1.4, you can configure the Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager agent on the
Virtual I/O Server. Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager helps you track, allocate, and invoice your IT
costs by collecting, analyzing, and reporting on the actual resources used by entities such as cost centers,
departments, and users. Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager can gather data from multi-tiered
datacenters that include Windows, AIX, Virtual I/O Server, HP/UX Sun Solaris, Linux, and VMware.
Before you start, ensure that the Virtual I/O Server is installed. The Tivoli Usage and Accounting
Manager agent is packaged with the Virtual I/O Server and is installed when the Virtual I/O Server is
installed. For instructions, see “Installing the Virtual I/O Server and client logical partitions” on page 88.
To configure and start the Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager agent, complete the following steps:
Procedure
1. Optional: Add optional variables to the A_config.par file to enhance data collection. The A_config.par
file is located at /home/padmin/tivoli/ituam/A_config.par.
2. List all of the available Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager agents using the lssvc command. For
example,
$lssvc
ITUAM_base
3. Based on the output of the lssvc command, decide which Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager
agent you want to configure. For example, ITUAM_base
4. List all of the attributes that are associated with the Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager agent
using the cfgsvc command. For example:
$cfgsvc –ls ITUAM_base
ACCT_DATA0
ACCT_DATA1
ISYSTEM
IPROCESS
5. Configure the Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager agent with its associated attributes using the
cfgsvc command:
Virtual I/O Server
163
cfgsvc ITUAM_agent_name -attr ACCT_DATA0=value1 ACCT_DATA1=value2 ISYSTEM=value3 IPROCESS=value4
Where:
v ITUAM_agent_name is the name of the Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager agent. For example,
ITUAM_base.
v value1 is the size (in MB) of the first data file that holds daily accounting information.
v value2 is the size (in MB) of the second data file that holds daily accounting information.
v value3 is the time (in minutes) when the agent generates system interval records.
v value4 is the time (in minutes) when the system generates aggregate process records.
6. Start the Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager agent using the startsvc command. For example:
startsvc ITUAM_base
Results
After you start the Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager agent, it begins to collect data and generate log
files. You can configure the Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager server to retrieve the log files, which
are then processed by the Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager Processing Engine. You can work with
the data from the Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager Processing Engine as follows:
v You can generate customized reports, spreadsheets, and graphs. Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager
provides full data access and reporting capabilities by integrating Microsoft SQL Server Reporting
Services or Crystal Reports with a Database Management System (DBMS).
v You can view high-level and detailed cost and usage information.
v You can allocate, distribute, or charge IT costs to users, cost centers, and organizations in a manner that
is fair, understandable, and reproducible.
For more information, see the Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager Information Center.
Related reference:
“Configuration attributes for Tivoli agents and clients” on page 227
Learn about required and optional configuration attributes and variables for the Tivoli Monitoring agent,
the Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager agent, the Tivoli Storage Manager client, and the TotalStorage
Productivity Center agents.
Configuring the Tivoli Storage Manager client
You can configure theTivoli Storage Manager client on the Virtual I/O Server.
About this task
With Virtual I/O Server 1.4, you can configure the Tivoli Storage Manager client on the Virtual I/O
Server. With Tivoli Storage Manager, you can protect your data from failures and other errors by storing
backup and disaster-recovery data in a hierarchy of offline storage. Tivoli Storage Manager can help
protect computers running a variety of different operating environments, including the Virtual I/O
Server, on a variety of different hardware. If you configure the Tivoli Storage Manager client on the
Virtual I/O Server, you can include the Virtual I/O Server in your standard backup framework.
Before you start, ensure that the Virtual I/O Server is installed. The Tivoli Storage Manager client is
packaged with the Virtual I/O Server and is installed when the Virtual I/O Server is installed. For
instructions, see “Installing the Virtual I/O Server and client logical partitions” on page 88.
To configure and start the Tivoli Storage Manager client, complete the following steps:
Procedure
1. List all of the available Tivoli Storage Manager clients using the lssvc command. For example,
164
Virtual I/O Server
$lssvc
TSM_base
2. Based on the output of the lssvc command, decide which Tivoli Storage Manager client you want to
configure. For example, TSM_base
3. List all of the attributes that are associated with the Tivoli Storage Manager client using the cfgsvc
command. For example:
$cfgsvc –ls TSM_base
SERVERNAME
SERVERIP
NODENAME
4. Configure the Tivoli Storage Manager client with its associated attributes using the cfgsvc command:
cfgsvc TSM_client_name -attr SERVERNAME=hostname SERVERIP=name_or_address NODENAME=vios
Where:
v TSM_client_name is the name of the Tivoli Storage Manager client. For example, TSM_base.
v hostname is the host name of the Tivoli Storage Manager server to which the Tivoli Storage Manager
client is associated.
v name_or_address is the IP address or domain name of the Tivoli Storage Manager server to which
the Tivoli Storage Manager client is associated.
v vios is the name of the machine on which the Tivoli Storage Manager client is installed. The name
must match the name registered on the Tivoli Storage Manager server.
5. Ask the Tivoli Storage Manager administrator to register the client node, the Virtual I/O Server, with
the Tivoli Storage Manager server.
Results
After you are finished, you are ready to back up and restore the Virtual I/O Server using the Tivoli
Storage Manager. For instructions, see the following procedures:
v “Backing up the Virtual I/O Server by using Tivoli Storage Manager” on page 189
v “Restoring the Virtual I/O Server by using Tivoli Storage Manager” on page 197
Configuring the TotalStorage Productivity Center agents
You can configure and start the TotalStorage Productivity Center agents on the Virtual I/O Server.
About this task
With Virtual I/O Server 1.5.2, you can configure the TotalStorage Productivity Center agents on the
Virtual I/O Server. TotalStorage Productivity Center is an integrated, storage infrastructure management
suite that is designed to help simplify and automate the management of storage devices, storage
networks, and capacity utilization of file systems and databases. When you configure the TotalStorage
Productivity Center agents on the Virtual I/O Server, you can use the TotalStorage Productivity Center
user interface to collect and view information about the Virtual I/O Server.
Note: The TotalStorage Productivity Center agent Version 6.2.2.0, or later, is shipped on the Virtual I/O
Expansion media. This version of the TotalStorage Productivity Center agent requires the GSKit8 libraries,
which are also shipped on the Virtual I/O Expansion media.
Before you start, complete the following tasks:
1. Use the ioslevel command to verify that the Virtual I/O Server is at Version 1.5.2, or later.
2. Ensure that there are no other operations running on the Virtual I/O Server. Configuring the
TotalStorage Productivity Center consumes all of the processing time.
Virtual I/O Server
165
3. In addition to the memory required by the Virtual I/O Server logical partition, ensure that you have
allocated a minimum of 1 GB of memory to the Virtual I/O Server for the TotalStorage Productivity
Center agents.
To configure and start the TotalStorage Productivity Center agents, complete the following steps:
Procedure
1. List all of the available TotalStorage Productivity Center agents using the lssvc command. For
example,
$lssvc
TPC
The TPC agent includes both the TPC_data and TPC_fabric agents. When you configure the TPC
agent, you configure both the TPC_data and TPC_fabric agents.
2. List all of the attributes that are associated with the TotalStorage Productivity Center agent using the
lssvc command. For example:
$lssvc TPC
A:
S:
devAuth:
caPass:
caPort:
amRegPort:
amPubPort:
dataPort:
devPort:
newCA:
oldCA:
daScan:
daScript:
daInstall:
faInstall:
U:
The A, S, devAuth, and caPass attributes are required. The remainder of the attributes are optional.
For more information about the attributes, see “Configuration attributes for Tivoli agents and clients”
on page 227.
3. Configure the TotalStorage Productivity Center agent with its associated attributes using the cfgsvc
command:
cfgsvc TPC -attr S=tpc_server_hostname A=agent_manager_hostname devAuth=password_1 caPass=password_2
Where:
v tpc_server_hostname is the host name or IP address of the TotalStorage Productivity Center server
that is associated with the TotalStorage Productivity Center agent.
v agent_manager_hostname is the name or IP address of the Agent Manager.
v password_1 is the password required to authenticate to the TotalStorage Productivity Center device
server.
v password_2 is the password required to authenticate to the common agent.
4. Select the language that you want to use during the installation and configuration.
5. Accept the license agreement to install the agents according to the attributes specified in step 3.
6. Start each TotalStorage Productivity Center agent using the startsvc command:
v To start the TPC_data agent, run the following command:
startsvc TPC_data
v To start the TPC_fabric agent, run the following command:
startsvc TPC_fabric
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Virtual I/O Server
Results
After you start the TotalStorage Productivity Center agents, you can perform the following tasks using
the TotalStorage Productivity Center user interface:
1. Run a discovery job for the agents on the Virtual I/O Server.
2. Run probes, scans, and ping jobs to collect storage information about the Virtual I/O Server.
3. Generate reports using the Fabric Manager and the Data Manager to view the storage information
gathered.
4. View the storage information gathered using the topology Viewer.
For more information, see the TotalStorage Productivity Center support for agents on a Virtual I/O Server PDF
file. To view or download the PDF file, go to the TotalStorage Productivity Center v3.3.1.81 Interim Fix
Web site.
Configuring the Director agent
You can configure and start the Director agent on the Virtual I/O Server.
Before you begin
Before you start, use the ioslevel command to verify that the Virtual I/O Server is at Version
2.1.0.1-FP-20.1, or later.
About this task
With Virtual I/O Server 2.1.0.1-FP-20.1, you can configure the Director agent on the Virtual I/O Server.
Using the Director agent, you can view and track hardware configuration details of the system and
monitor performance and use of critical components, such as processors, disks, and memory.
To configure and start the Director agent, complete the following steps:
Procedure
1. List the available Director using the lssvc command. For example,
$lssvc
DIRECTOR_agent
2. Configure the Director agent to be started per default:
cfgsvc DIRECTOR_agent -attr RESTART_ON_REBOOT=TRUE
RESTART_ON_REBOOT designates whether the Director agent restarts if the Virtual I/O Server is
rebooted.
3. Start the Director agent using the startsvc command. To start the DIRECTOR_agent agent, run the
following command:
startsvc DIRECTOR_agent
Virtual I/O Server
167
Related concepts:
“Systems Director software” on page 51
Learn about integrating the Virtual I/O Server into your Systems Director environment.
“Tivoli software and the Virtual I/O Server” on page 49
Learn about integrating the Virtual I/O Server into your Tivoli environment for Tivoli Application
Dependency Discovery Manager, Tivoli Monitoring, Tivoli Storage Manager, Tivoli Usage and Accounting
Manager, Tivoli Identity Manager, and TotalStorage Productivity Center.
Related information:
cfgsvc command
Configuring the Virtual I/O Server as an LDAP client
Virtual I/O Server Version 1.4 can be configured as an LDAP client and then you can manage Virtual I/O
Server from an LDAP server.
Before you begin
Before you start, gather the following information:
v The name of the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) server or servers to which you want
the Virtual I/O Server to be an LDAP client.
v The administrator distinguish name (DN) and password for the LDAP server or servers to which you
want the Virtual I/O Server to be an LDAP client.
About this task
To configure the Virtual I/O Server as an LDAP client, complete the following steps:
Procedure
1. Change Virtual I/O Server users to LDAP users by running the following command:
chuser -ldap -attr Attributes=Value username
where username is the name of the user you want to change to an LDAP user.
2. Set up the LDAP client by running the following command:
mkldap –host ldapserv1 –bind cn=admin –passwd adminpwd
Where:
v ldapserv1 is the LDAP server or list of LDAP servers to which you want the Virtual I/O Server to
be an LDAP client
v cn=admin is the administrator DN of ldapserv1
v adminpwd is the password for cn=admin
Configuring the LDAP client automatically starts communication between the LDAP server and the
LDAP client (the Virtual I/O Server). To stop communication, use the stopnetsvc command.
Managing the Virtual I/O Server
You can manage virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) and virtual Ethernet devices on the
Virtual I/O Server, as well as back up, restore, update, and monitor the Virtual I/O Server.
168
Virtual I/O Server
About this task
Most of the information in this topic is specific to management in an HMC environment. For information
about management tasks in an Integrated Virtualization Manager environment, see Integrated
Virtualization Manager.
Managing storage
You can import and export volume groups and storage pools, map virtual disks to physical disks,
increase virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) device capacity, change the virtual SCSI queue
depth, back up and restore files and file systems, and collect and view information using the TotalStorage
Productivity Center.
Importing and exporting volume groups and logical volume storage pools
You can use the importvg and exportvg commands to move a user-defined volume group from one
system to another.
About this task
Consider the following when importing and exporting volume groups and logical volume storage pools:
v The import procedure introduces the volume group to its new system.
v You can use the importvg command to reintroduce a volume group or logical volume storage pool to
the system that it had been previously associated with and had been exported from.
v The importvg command changes the name of an imported logical volume if a logical volume of that
name already exists on the new system. If the importvg command must rename a logical volume, it
prints an error message to standard error.
v The export procedure removes the definition of a volume group from a system.
v You can use the importvg and exportvg commands to add a physical volume that contains data to a
volume group by putting the disk to be added in its own volume group.
v The rootvg volume group cannot be exported or imported.
Importing volume groups and logical volume storage pools:
You can use the importvg command to import a volume group or logical volume storage pool.
About this task
To import a volume group or logical volume storage pool, complete the following steps:
Procedure
1. Run the following command to import the volume group or logical volume storage pool:
importvg -vg volumeGroupName physicalVolumeName
Where:
v volumeGroupName is an optional parameter that specifies the name to use for the imported volume
group.
v physicalVolumeName is the name of a physical volume that belongs to the imported volume group.
2. If you know that the imported volume group or logical volume storage pool is not the parent of the
virtual media repository or any file storage pools, then you are finished importing the volume group
or logical volume storage pool and do not need to complete the remaining steps.
3. If you know that imported volume group or logical volume storage pool is the parent of the virtual
media repository or any file storage pools, or if you are unsure, then complete the following steps:
Virtual I/O Server
169
a. Run the mount all command to mount any file systems contained in the imported volume group
or logical volume storage pool. This command might return errors for file systems that are already
mounted.
b. If you are importing a volume group or logical volume storage to the same system from which
you exported it, run the cfgdev to reconfigure any devices that were unconfigured when you
exported the volume group or logical volume storage pool.
What to do next
To export a volume group or logical volume storage pool, see “Exporting volume groups and logical
volume storage pools.”
Exporting volume groups and logical volume storage pools:
You can use the exportvg command to export a volume group or logical volume storage pool.
Before you begin
Before you start, complete the following tasks:
1. Determine whether the volume group or logical volume storage pool that you plan to export is a
parent to the virtual media repository or to any file storage pools by completing the following steps:
a. Run the lsrep command to determine whether the volume group or logical volume storage pool
that you plan to export is a parent of the virtual media repository. The Parent Pool field displays
the parent volume group or logical volume pool of the virtual media repository.
b. Run the following command to determine whether a file storage pool is a child of the volume
group or logical volume pool that you plan to export:
lssp -detail -sp FilePoolName
The results list the parent volume group or logical volume storage pool of the file storage pool.
2. If the volume group or logical volume storage pool that you plan to export is a parent of the virtual
media repository or a file storage pool, then complete the following steps.
Table 38. Prerequisites steps if the volume group or logical volume storage pool is a parent of the virtual media
repository or a file storage pool
Parent of Virtual Media Repository
Parent of a file storage pool
1. Unload the backing device of each file-backed optical
virtual target device (VTD) that has a media file
loaded, by completing the following steps:
1. Unconfigure the virtual target devices (VTDs)
associated with the files contained in the file storage
pools by completing the following steps:
a. Retrieve a list of the file-backed optical VTDs by
running the following command:
lsmap -all -type file_opt
b. For each device that shows a backing device, run
the following command to unload the backing
device:
unloadopt -vtd VirtualTargetDevice
2. Unmount the Virtual Media Repository file system by
running the following command:
unmount /var/vio/VMLibrary
a. Retrieve a list of VTDs by running the following
command:
lssp -bd -sp FilePoolName
where FilePoolName is the name of a file storage
pool that is a child of the volume group or logical
volume storage pool that you plan to export.
b. For each file that lists a VTD, run the following
command:
rmdev -dev VirtualTargetDevice -ucfg
2. Unmount the file storage pool by running the
following command:
unmount /var/vio/storagepools/FilePoolName
where FilePoolName is the name of the file storage
pool to be unmounted.
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Virtual I/O Server
About this task
To export the volume group or logical volume storage pool, run the following commands:
Procedure
1. deactivatevg VolumeGroupName
2. exportvg VolumeGroupName
What to do next
To import a volume group or logical volume storage pool, see “Importing volume groups and logical
volume storage pools” on page 169.
Mapping virtual disks to physical disks
Find instructions for mapping a virtual disk on a client logical partition to its physical disk on the Virtual
I/O Server.
About this task
This procedure shows how to map a virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) disk on an AIX or
Linux client logical partition to the physical device (disk or logical volume) on the Virtual I/O Server.
To map a virtual disk to a physical disk, you need the following information. This information is
gathered during this procedure:
v Virtual device name
v Slot number of the virtual SCSI client adapter
v Logical unit number (LUN) of the virtual SCSI device
v Client logical partition ID
Follow these steps to map a virtual disk on an AIX or Linux client logical partition to its physical disk on
the Virtual I/O Server:
Procedure
1. Display virtual SCSI device information on the AIX or Linux client logical partition by typing the
following command:
lscfg -l devicename
This command returns results similar to the following:
U9117.570.1012A9F-V3-C2-T1-L810000000000
Virtual SCSI Disk Drive
2. Record the slot number, which is located in the output, following the card location label C. This
identifies the slot number of the virtual SCSI client adapter. In this example, the slot number is 2.
3. Record the LUN, which is located in the output, following the LUN label L. In this example, the LUN
is 810000000000.
4. Record the logical partition ID of the AIX or Linux client logical partition:
a. Connect to the AIX or Linux client logical partition. For example, using Telnet.
b. On the AIX or Linux logical partition, run the uname -L command.
Your results should look similar to the following:
2
fumi02
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171
The logical partition ID is the first number listed. In this example, the logical partition ID is 2. This
number is used in the next step.
c. Type exit.
5. If you have multiple Virtual I/O Server logical partitions running on your system, determine which
Virtual I/O Server logical partition is serving the virtual SCSI device. Use the slot number of the
client adapter that is linked to a Virtual I/O Server, and a server adapter. Use the HMC command
line to list information about virtual SCSI client adapters in the client logical partition.
Log in to the HMC, and from the HMC command line, type lshwres . Specify the managed console
name for the -m parameter and the client logical partition ID for the lpar_ids parameter.
Note:
v The managed console name, which is used for the -m parameter, is determined by typing lssyscfg
-r sys -F name from the HMC command line.
v Use the client logical partition ID recorded in Step 4 for the -lpar_ids parameter.
For example:
lshwres -r virtualio --rsubtype scsi -m fumi --filter lpar_ids=2
This example returns results similar to the following:
lpar_name=fumi02,lpar_id=2,slot_num=2,state=null,adapter_type=client,remote_lpar_id=1,
remote_lpar_name=fumi01,remote_slot_num=2,is_required=1,backing_devices=none
Record the name of the Virtual I/O Server located in the remote_lpar_name field and slot number of
the virtual SCSI server adapter, which is located in the remote_lpar_id field. In this example, the
name of the Virtual I/O Server is fumi01 and the slot number of the virtual SCSI server adapter is 2.
6. Log in to the Virtual I/O Server.
7. List virtual adapters and devices on the Virtual I/O Server by typing the following command:
lsmap -all
8. Find the virtual SCSI server adapter (vhostX) that has a slot ID that matches the remote slot ID
recorded in Step 5. On that adapter, run the following command:
lsmap -vadapter devicename
9. From the list of devices, match the LUN recorded in step 3 on page 171 with LUNs listed. This is the
physical device.
Results
Increasing virtual SCSI device capacity
As storage demands increase for virtual client logical partitions, you can add physical storage to increase
the size of your virtual devices and allocate that storage to your virtual environment.
About this task
You can increase the capacity of your virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) devices by increasing
the size of physical or logical volumes. With Virtual I/O Server Version 1.3 and later, you can do this
without disrupting client operations. To increase the size of files and logical volumes based on storage
pools, the Virtual I/O Server must be at Version 1.5 or later.
Tip: If you are using the HMC, Version 7 release 3.4.2 or later, you can use the HMC graphical interface
to increase the capacity of a virtual SCSI device on aVirtual I/O Server.
To increase virtual SCSI device capacity, complete the following steps:
Procedure
1. Increase the size of the physical volumes, logical volumes, or files:
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Virtual I/O Server
v Physical volumes: Consult your storage documentation to determine whether your storage
subsystem supports expanding the size of a logical unit number (LUN). For Virtual I/O Server
Version 2.1.2.0, ensure that the Virtual I/O Server recognizes and adjusts to the new size by
running the following command: chvg -chksize vg1, where vg1 is the name of the expanding
volume group.
The Virtual I/O Server examines all the disks in volume group vg1 to determine whether they have
grown in size. For those disks that have grown in size, the Virtual I/O Server attempts to add
additional physical partitions to the physical volumes. If necessary, the Virtual I/O Server
determines the correct 1016 multiplier and conversion to a big volume group.
v Logical volumes based on volume groups:
a. Run the extendlv command. For example: extendlv lv3 100M. This example increases logical
volume lv3 by 100 MB.
b. If there is no additional space in the logical volume, complete the following tasks:
1) Increase the size of the volume group by completing one of the following steps:
– Increase the size of the physical volumes. Consult your storage documentation for
instructions.
– Add physical volumes to a volume group by running the extendvg command. For
example: extendvg vg1 hdisk2. This example adds physical volume hdisk2 to volume
group vg1.
2) Allocate the increased volume to partitions by resizing logical volumes. Run the extendlv
command to increase the size of a logical volume.
v Logical volumes based on storage pools:
a. Run the chbdsp command. For example:chbdsp -sp lvPool -bd lv3 -size 100M. This example
increases logical volume lv3 by 100 MB.
b. If there is no additional space in the logical volume, complete the following tasks:
1) Increase the size of the logical volume storage pool by completing one of the following
steps:
– Increase the size of the physical volumes. Consult your storage documentation for
instructions.
– Add physical volumes to the storage pool by running the chsp command. For example:
chsp -add -sp sp1 hdisk2. This example adds physical volume hdisk2 to storage pool sp1.
2) Allocate the increased volume to partitions by resizing logical volumes. Run the chbdsp
command to increase the size of a logical volume.
v Files:
a. Run the chbdsp command. For example:chbdsp -sp fbPool -bd fb3 -size 100M. This example
increases file fb3 by 100 MB.
b. If there is no additional space in the file, increase the size of the file storage pool by running the
chsp command. For example:chsp -add -sp fbPool -size 100M. This example increases file
storage pool fbPool by 100MB.
c. If there is no additional space in the file storage pool, increase the size of the parent storage
pool by completing one of the following tasks:
– Increase the size of the physical volumes. Consult your storage documentation for
instructions.
– Add physical volumes to the parent storage pool by running the chsp command. For
example:chsp -add -sp sp1 hdisk2. This example adds physical volume hdisk2 to storage
pool sp1.
– Increase the size of the file storage pool by running the chsp command.
2. If you are running Virtual I/O Server versions prior to 1.3, then you need to either reconfigure the
virtual device (using the cfgdev command) or restart the Virtual I/O Server.
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173
3. If you are running Virtual I/O Server Version 1.3 or later, then restarting or reconfiguring a logical
partition is not required to begin using the additional resources. If the physical storage resources have
been set up and properly allocated to the system as a system resource, as soon as the Virtual I/O
Server recognizes the changes in storage volume, the increased storage capacity is available to the
client logical partitions.
4. On the client logical partition, ensure that the operating system recognizes and adjusts to the new
size. For example, if AIX is the operating system on the client logical partition, run the following
command:
chvg -g vg1
In this example, AIX examines all the disks in volume group vg1 to see if they have grown in size.
For the disks that have grown in size, AIX attempts to add additional physical partitions to physical
volumes. If necessary, AIX will determine proper 1016 multiplier and conversion to the big volume
group.
Related information:
chlv Command
chvg Command
Changing a storage pool for a VIOS logical partition using the HMC
Changing the virtual SCSI queue depth
Increasing the virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI) queue depth might provide performance
improvements for some virtual configurations. Understand the factors involved in determining a change
to the virtual SCSI queue depth value.
The virtual SCSI queue depth value determines how many requests the disk head driver will queue to
the virtual SCSI client driver at any one time. For AIX client logical partitions, you can change this value
from the default value of 3 to a value from 1 - 256 by using the chdev command. For Linux client logical
partitions, you can change this value from the default value of 16 to a value from 1 - 256 by using the
echo command.
Increasing this value might improve the throughput of the disk in specific configurations. However,
several factors must be taken into consideration. These factors include the value of the queue-depth
attribute for all of the physical storage devices on the Virtual I/O Server being used as a virtual target
device by the disk instance on the client logical partition, and the maximum transfer size for the virtual
SCSI client adapter instance that is the parent device for the disk instance.
For AIX and Linux client logical partitions, the maximum transfer size for virtual SCSI client adapters is
set by the Virtual I/O Server, which determines the value based on the resources available on the server
and the maximum transfer size set for the physical storage devices on that server. Other factors include
the queue depth and maximum transfer size of other devices involved in mirrored-volume-group or
Multipath I/O (MPIO) configurations. Increasing the queue depth for some devices might reduce the
resources available for other devices on that same shared adapter and decrease the throughput for those
devices.
To change the queue depth for an AIX client logical partition, on the client logical partition use the chdev
command with the queue_depth=value attribute as in the following example:
chdev -1 hdiskN -a "queue_depth=value"
hdiskN represents the name of a physical volume and value is the value you assign between 1 and 256.
To change the queue depth for a client logical partition on the client logical partition, use the echo
command as in the following example:
echo 16 > /sys/devices/vio/30000003/host0/target0:0:1/0:0:1:0/queue_depth
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By default, the value of the queue_depth attribute for a disk on the Linux operating system is 16.
To view the current setting for the queue_depth value, from the client logical partition issue the following
command:
lsattr -El hdiskN
Backing up and restoring files and file systems
You can use the backup and restore commands to back up and restore individual files or entire file
systems.
About this task
Backing up and restoring files and files systems can be useful for tasks, such as saving a file-backed
device.
The following commands are used to back up and restore files and files systems.
Table 39. Backup and restore commands and their descriptions
Command
Description
backup
Backs up files and file systems to media, such as physical tape and disk. For example:
v You can back up all the files and subdirectories in a directory using full path names or
relative path names.
v You can back up the root file system.
v You can back up all the files in the root file system that have been modified since the
last backup.
v You can back up virtual optical media files from the virtual media repository.
restore
Reads archives created by the backup command and extracts the files stored there. For
example:
v You can restore a specific file into the current directory.
v You can restore a specific file from tape into the virtual media repository.
v You can restore a specific directory and the contents of that directory from a file name
archive or a file system archive.
v You can restore an entire file system.
v You can restore only the permissions or only the ACL attributes of the files from the
archive.
Managing storage using the TotalStorage Productivity Center
You can use the TotalStorage Productivity Center collect and view information about the Virtual I/O
Server.
About this task
With Virtual I/O Server 1.5.2, you can install and configure the TotalStorage Productivity Center agents
on the Virtual I/O Server. TotalStorage Productivity Center is an integrated, infrastructure management
suite for storage that is designed to help simplify and automate the management of storage devices,
storage networks, and capacity utilization of file systems and databases. When you install and configure
the TotalStorage Productivity Center agents on the Virtual I/O Server, you can use the TotalStorage
Productivity Center interface to collect and view information about the Virtual I/O Server. You can then
perform the following tasks using the TotalStorage Productivity Center interface:
1. Run a discovery job for the agents on the Virtual I/O Server.
2. Run probes, run scans, and ping jobs to collect storage information about the Virtual I/O Server.
3. Generate reports using the Fabric Manager and the Data Manager to view the storage information
gathered.
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4. View the storage information gathered using the topology Viewer.
Related tasks:
“Configuring the TotalStorage Productivity Center agents” on page 165
You can configure and start the TotalStorage Productivity Center agents on the Virtual I/O Server.
Managing networks
You can change the network configuration of the Virtual I/O Server logical partition, enable and disable
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) on your Shared Ethernet Adapters, use Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP) to manage systems and devices in complex networks, and upgrade to
Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6).
Changing the network configuration of the Virtual I/O Server logical partition
Follow these steps to change or remove the network settings on the Virtual I/O Server logical partition,
such as the IP address, subnet mask, gateway, and nameserver address
About this task
In this scenario, the Virtual I/O Server logical partition already has its network configuration set. The
current configuration will be removed, and the updated configuration will then be set. If you plan to
undo your Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) configuration, use the following process and commands to
completely remove the TCP/IP interface and then configure a new TCP/IP interface for Internet Protocol
Version 4 (IPv4).
Procedure
1. View the current network configuration using the lstcpip command.
2. Remove the current network configuration by running the rmtcpip command. You can remove all
network settings or just the specific settings that need to be updated.
3. Configure the new network settings using the mktcpip command.
Example
The following example is for IPv4 where the Virtual I/O Server logical partition needs to have its domain
name server (DNS) information updated from its current address to 9.41.88.180:
1. Run lstcpip -namesrv to view the current configuration. Ensure you want to update this
configuration.
2. Run rmtcpip -namesrv to remove the current configuration.
3. Run mktcpip -nsrvaddr 9.41.88.180 to update the nameserver address.
Dynamically adding or removing VLANs on the Virtual I/O Server
With the Virtual I/O Server Version 2.2, or later, you can add, change, or remove the existing set of
VLANs for a virtual Ethernet adapter that is assigned to an active partition on a POWER7
processor-based server by using the Hardware Management Console (HMC).
Before you begin
Before you perform this task, ensure that you meet the following requirements:
v The server must be a POWER7 processor-based server, or later.
v The server firmware level must be at least AH720_064+ for high end servers, AM720_064+ for
midrange servers, and AL720_064+ for low end servers.
Note: The AL720_064+ server firmware level is only supported on POWER7 processor-based servers,
or later.
v The Virtual I/O Server must be at Version 2.2, or later.
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v The HMC must be at Version 7.7.2.0, with mandatory efix MH01235, or later.
About this task
You can use the HMC graphical interface or the chhwres command from the HMC command-line
interface to add, remove, or modify VLANs for a virtual Ethernet adapter that is assigned to an active
partition. You can also edit the IEEE standard of the virtual Ethernet adapter dynamically. To specify
additional VLANs, you must set the virtual Ethernet adapter to the IEEE 802.1Q standard.
To add, remove, or modify VLANs on the Virtual I/O Server, complete the following steps:
Procedure
1. Run the lssyscfg command to verify if the managed system supports adding, removing, or
modifying VLANs on the Virtual I/O Server. For example,
lssyscfg -r sys -m <managed system> -F capabilities
If the managed server supports adding, removing, or modifying VLANs, this command returns the
virtual_eth_dlpar_capable value.
2. Use the chhwres command to add, remove, or modify additional VLANs to the virtual Ethernet
adapter that is assigned to an active partition. You can also edit the IEEE standard of the virtual
Ethernet adapter dynamically by using the chhwres command. For example,
In this example, the VLAN ID 5 is added to the existing VLAN IDs for the virtual Ethernet adapter,
and the virtual Ethernet adapter is set to the IEEE 802.1Q standard.
chhwres -r virtualio --rsubtype eth -m <managed system> -o s {-p <partition name> |
--id <partition ID>} -s <virtual slot number> -a "addl_vlan_ids+=5,ieee_virtual_eth=1"
In this example, the VLAN ID 6 is removed from the existing VLAN IDs for the virtual Ethernet
adapter.
chhwres -r virtualio --rsubtype eth -m <managed system> -o s {-p <partition name> |
--id <partition ID>} -s <virtual slot number> -a "addl_vlan_ids-=6"
In this example, the VLAN IDs 2, 3, and 5 are assigned to the virtual Ethernet adapter instead of the
existing VLAN IDs.
chhwres -r virtualio --rsubtype eth -m <managed system> -o s {-p <partition name> |
--id <partition ID>} -s <virtual slot number> -a "addl_vlan_ids=2,3,5"
You can provide a comma-separated list of VLANs to the attributes, addl_vlan_ids=,
addl_vlan_ids+=, and addl_vlan_ids-=.
Enabling and disabling GVRP
You can enable and disable GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) on your Shared Ethernet
Adapters to control dynamic registration of VLANs over networks.
Before you begin
With Virtual I/O Server Version 1.4, Shared Ethernet Adapters support GARP VLAN Registration
Protocol (GVRP) which is based on GARP (Generic Attribute Registration Protocol). GVRP allows for the
dynamic registration of VLANs over networks.
By default, GVRP is disabled on Shared Ethernet Adapters.
Before you start, create and configure the Shared Ethernet Adapter. For instructions, see “Creating a
virtual Ethernet adapter by using HMC Version 7” on page 154.
Procedure
To enable or disable GVRP, run the following command:
chdev -dev Name -attr gvrp=yes/no
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Where:
v Name is the name of the Shared Ethernet Adapter.
v yes/no defines whether GVRP is enabled or disabled. Type yes to enable GVRP and type no to disable
GVRP.
Managing SNMP on the Virtual I/O Server
Find commands for enabling, disabling, and working with SNMP on the Virtual I/O Server.
About this task
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a set of protocols for monitoring systems and devices
in complex networks. SNMP network management is based on the familiar client-server model that is
widely used in Internet protocol (IP) network applications. Each managed host runs a process called an
agent. The agent is a server process that maintains information about managed devices in the
Management Information Base (MIB) database for the host. Hosts that are involved in network
management decision-making can run a process called a manager. A manager is a client application that
generates requests for MIB information and processes responses. In addition, a manager might send
requests to agent servers to modify MIB information.
In general, network administrators use SNMP to more easily manage their networks for the following
reasons:
v It hides the underlying system network
v The administrator can manage and monitor all network components from one console
SNMP is available on Virtual I/O Server Version 1.4 and later.
The following table lists the SNMP management tasks available on the Virtual I/O Server, as well as the
commands you need to run to accomplish each task.
Table 40. Tasks and associated commands for working with SNMP on the Virtual I/O Server
Task
Command
Enable SNMP
startnetsvc
Select which SNMP agent you want to run
snmpv3_ssw
Issue SNMP requests to agents
cl_snmp
Process SNMP responses returned by agents
cl_snmp
Request MIB information managed by an SNMP agent
snmp_info
Modify MIB information managed by an SNMP agent
snmp_info
Generate a notification, or trap, that reports an event to
the SNMP manager with a specified message
snmp_trap
Disable SNMP
stopnetsvc
Related information:
Network Management
Upgrading the Virtual I/O Server from IPv4 to IPv6
To take advantage of enhancements, such as expanded addressing and routing simplification, use the
mktcpip command to upgrade the Virtual I/O Server from Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) to Internet
Protocol Version 6 (IPv6).
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About this task
IPv6 is the next generation of Internet protocol and is gradually replacing the current Internet standard,
Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4). The key IPv6 enhancement is the expansion of the IP address space
from 32 bits to 128 bits, providing virtually unlimited, unique IP addresses. IPv6 provides several
advantages over IPv4 including expanded routing and addressing, routing simplification, header format
simplification, improved traffic control, autoconfiguration, and security.
Procedure
Run the following command to upgrade from the Virtual I/O Server from IPv4 to IPv6:
mktcpip –auto [-interface interface]
where interface specifies which interface you want to configure for IPv6.
This command automatically performs the following tasks:
v Configures all link-local addresses for IPv6 that are currently configured for IPv4.
v Turns on the specified interfaces daemonthat support IPv6.
v Starts the ndpd-host daemon.
v Ensures that the IPv6 configuration remains intact after you reboot the Virtual I/O Server.
What to do next
If you decide that you want to undo the IPv6 configuration, you must completely remove the TCP/IP
interface and then configure a new TCP/IP interface for IPv4. For instructions, see “Changing the
network configuration of the Virtual I/O Server logical partition” on page 176.
Backing up the Virtual I/O Server
You can back up the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) and user-defined virtual devices using the backupios
command or the viosbr command. You can also use Tivoli Storage Manager to schedule backups and to
store backups on another server.
About this task
The VIOS contains the following types of information that you need to back up: the VIOS itself and
user-defined virtual devices.
v The VIOS includes the base code, applied fix packs, custom device drivers to support disk subsystems,
and some user-defined metadata. All this information is backed up when you use the backupios
command.
v User-defined virtual devices include metadata, like virtual devices mappings, that define the
relationship between the physical environment and the virtual environment. You can back up
user-defined virtual devices in one of the following ways:
– You can back up user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command. Use this option in
situations where you plan to restore the configuration information to the same VIOS partition from
which it was backed up.
– You can back up user-defined virtual devices by saving the data to a location that is automatically
backed up when you use the backupios command to back up the VIOS. Use this option in situations
where you plan to restore the VIOS to a new or different system. (For example, in the event of a
system failure or disaster.) Furthermore, in these situations, you must also back up the following
components of your environment. Back up these components to fully recover your VIOS
configuration:
- External device configurations, such as storage area network (SAN) devices.
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- Resources defined on the Hardware Management Console (HMC), such as processor and memory
allocations. In other words, back up your HMC partition profile data for the VIOS and its client
partitions.
- The operating systems and applications running in the client logical partitions.
You can back up and restore the VIOS as follows.
Table 41. Backup and restoration methods for the VIOS
Backup method
Media
Restoration method
To tape
Tape
From tape
To DVD
DVD-RAM
From DVD
To remote file system
nim_resources.tar image
From an HMC using the Network
Installation Management (NIM) on
Linux facility and the installios
command
To remote file system
mksysb image
From an AIX 5L™ NIM server and a
standard mksysb system installation
Tivoli Storage Manager
mksysb image
Tivoli Storage Manager
Note: As an alternative to the HMC, you can use the Systems Director Management Console (SDMC) to
back up the VIOS.
Related tasks:
“Restoring the Virtual I/O Server” on page 190
You can restore the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) and user-defined virtual devices using the installios
command, the viosbr command, or Tivoli Storage Manager.
Related information:
backupios command
viosbr command
Backing up the VIOS by using the SDMC
Backing up the Virtual I/O Server to tape
You can back up the Virtual I/O Server base code, applied fix packs, custom device drivers to support
disk subsystems, and some user-defined metadata to tape.
Before you begin
If the system is managed by the Integrated Virtualization Manager, then you need to back up your
partition profile data for the management partition and its clients before you back up the Virtual I/O
Server. For instructions, see Backing up and restoring partition data. (Alternatively, you can use the
bkprofdata command.)
About this task
To back up the Virtual I/O Server to tape, follow these steps:
Procedure
1. Assign a tape drive to the Virtual I/O Server.
2. Get the device name by typing the following command:
lsdev -type tape
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If the tape device is in the Defined state, type the following command, where dev is the name of your
tape device:
cfgdev -dev dev
3. Type the following command, where tape_device is the name of the tape device you want to back up
to:
backupios -tape tape_device
This command creates a bootable tape that you can use to restore the Virtual I/O Server.
4. If you plan to restore the Virtual I/O Server to a different system from which it was backed up, you
need to back up the user-defined virtual devices. For instructions, see “Backing up user-defined
virtual devices by using the backupios command” on page 184.
Related information:
Backing up to tape on the SDMC
Backing up the Virtual I/O Server to one or more DVDs
You can back up the Virtual I/O Server base code, applied fix packs, custom device drivers to support
disk subsystems, and some user-defined metadata to DVD.
Before you begin
If the system is managed by the Integrated Virtualization Manager, then you need to back up your
partition profile data for the management partition and its clients before you back up the Virtual I/O
Server. For instructions, see Backing up and restoring partition data. (Alternatively, you can use the
bkprofdata command.)
About this task
To back up the Virtual I/O Server to one or more DVDs, follow these steps. Only DVD-RAM media can
be used to back up the Virtual I/O Server.
Note: Vendor disk drives might support burning to additional disk types, such as CD-RW and DVD-R.
Refer to the documentation for your drive to determine which disk types are supported.
Procedure
1. Assign an optical drive to the Virtual I/O Server logical partition.
2. Get the device name by typing the following command:
lsdev -type optical
If the device is in the Defined state, type:
cfgdev -dev dev
3. Run the backupios command with the -cd option. Specify the path to the device. For example:
backupios -cd /dev/cd0
Note: If the Virtual I/O Server does not fit on one DVD, then the backupios command provides
instructions for disk replacement and removal until all the volumes have been created.
This command creates one or more bootable DVDs that you can use to restore the Virtual I/O Server.
4. If you plan to restore the Virtual I/O Server to a different system from which it was backed up, then
you need to back up the user-defined virtual devices. For instructions, see “Backing up user-defined
virtual devices by using the backupios command” on page 184.
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Related information:
Backing up to one or more DVDs on the SDMC
Backing up the Virtual I/O Server to a remote file system by creating a
nim_resources.tar file
You can back up the Virtual I/O Server base code, applied fix packs, custom device drivers to support
disk subsystems, and some user-defined metadata to a remote file system by creating a nim_resources.tar
file.
Before you begin
Backing up the Virtual I/O Server to a remote file system will create the nim_resources.tar image in the
directory you specify. The nim_resources.tar file contains all the necessary resources to restore the Virtual
I/O Server, including the mksysb image, the bosinst.data file, the network boot image, and Shared
Product Object Tree (SPOT) resource.
The backupios command empties the target_disks_stanza section of bosinst.data and sets
RECOVER_DEVICES=Default. This allows the mksysb file generated by the command to be cloned to another
logical partition. If you plan to use the nim_resources.tar image to install to a specific disk, then you need
to repopulate the target_disk_stanza section of bosinst.data and replace this file in the nim_resources.tar
image. All other parts of the nim_resources.tar image must remain unchanged.
Before you start, complete the following tasks:
1. If the system is managed by the Integrated Virtualization Manager, then you need to back up your
partition profile data for the management partition and its clients before you back up the Virtual I/O
Server. For instructions, see Backing up and restoring partition data. (Alternatively, you can use the
bkprofdata command.)
2. Ensure that the remote file system is available and mounted.
3. Ensure that the Virtual I/O Server has root write access to the server on which the backup will be
created.
About this task
To back up the Virtual I/O Server to a remote file system, follow these steps:
Procedure
1. Create a mount directory where the backup image, nim_resources.tar, will be written. For example, to
create the directory /home/backup, type:
mkdir /home/backup
2. Mount an exported directory on the mount directory. For example:
mount server1:/export/ios_backup /home/backup
3. Run the backupios command with the -file option. Specify the path to the mounted directory. For
example:
backupios -file /home/backup
This command creates a nim_resources.tar file that you can use to restore the Virtual I/O Server from
the HMC.
4. If you plan to restore the Virtual I/O Server to a different system from which it was backed up, then
you need to back up the user-defined virtual devices. For instructions, see “Backing up user-defined
virtual devices by using the backupios command” on page 184.
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Related information:
Backing up to a remote file system by using the SDMC
Backing up the Virtual I/O Server to a remote file system by creating a mksysb
image
You can back up the Virtual I/O Server base code, applied fix packs, custom device drivers to support
disk subsystems, and some user-defined metadata to a remote file system by creating a mksysb file.
Before you begin
Backing up the Virtual I/O Server to a remote file system will create the mksysb image in the directory
you specify. The mksysb image is an installable image of the root volume group in a file.
Before you start, complete the following tasks:
1. If the system is managed by the Integrated Virtualization Manager, then you need to back up your
partition profile data for the management partition and its clients before you back up the Virtual I/O
Server. For instructions, see Backing up and restoring partition data. (Alternatively, you can use the
bkprofdata command.)
2. If you plan to restore the Virtual I/O Server from a Network Installation Management (NIM) server,
verify that the NIM server is at the latest release of AIX.
3. Ensure that the remote file system is available and mounted.
4. Ensure that the Virtual I/O Server has root write access to the server on which the backup will be
created.
About this task
To back up the Virtual I/O Server to a remote file system, follow these steps:
Procedure
1. Create a mount directory where the backup image, mksysb image, will be written. For example, to
create the directory /home/backup, type:
mkdir /home/backup
2. Mount an exported directory on the mount directory. For example:
mount server1:/export/ios_backup /home/backup
where server1 is the NIM server from which you plan to restore the Virtual I/O Server.
3. Run the backupios command with the -file option. Specify the path to the mounted directory. For
example:
backupios -file /home/backup/filename.mksysb -mksysb
where filename is the name of mksysb image that this command creates in the specified directory. You
can use the mksysb image to restore the Virtual I/O Server from a NIM server.
4. If you plan to restore the Virtual I/O Server to a different system from which it was backed up, then
you need to back up the user-defined virtual devices. For instructions, see “Backing up user-defined
virtual devices by using the backupios command” on page 184.
Related information:
Backing up to a remote file system by creating a mksysb image on the SDMC
Backing up user-defined virtual devices
You can back up user-defined virtual devices by saving the data to a location that is automatically backed
up when you use the backupios command to back up the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS). Alternatively, you
can back up user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command.
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About this task
User-defined virtual devices include metadata, such as virtual device mappings, that define the
relationship between the physical environment and the virtual environment. You can back up
user-defined virtual devices in one of the following ways:
v You can back up user-defined virtual devices by saving the data to a location that is automatically
backed up when you use the backupios command to back up the VIOS. Use this option in situations
where you plan to restore the VIOS to a new or different system. (For example, in the event of a
system failure or disaster.)
v You can back up user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command. Use this option in
situations where you plan to restore the configuration information to the same VIOS partition from
which it was backed up.
Related tasks:
“Restoring user-defined virtual devices” on page 195
You can restore user-defined virtual devices on the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) by restoring volume groups
and manually re-creating virtual device mappings. Alternatively, you can restore user-defined virtual
devices by using the viosbr command.
Related information:
Backing up user-defined virtual devices on the SDMC
Backing up user-defined virtual devices by using the backupios command:
In addition to backing up the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS), you must back up user-defined virtual devices
(such as virtual device mappings) in case you have a system failure or disaster. In this situation, back up
user-defined virtual devices by saving the data to a location that is automatically backed up when you
use the backupios command to back up the VIOS.
Before you begin
User-defined virtual devices include metadata, such as virtual device mappings, that define the
relationship between the physical environment and the virtual environment. In situations where you plan
to restore the VIOS to a new or different system, you need to back up both the VIOS and user-defined
virtual devices. (For example, in the event of a system failure or disaster.)
Before you start, complete the following tasks:
1. Back up the VIOS to tape, DVD, or a remote file system. For instructions, see one of the following
procedures:
v “Backing up the Virtual I/O Server to tape” on page 180
v “Backing up the Virtual I/O Server to one or more DVDs” on page 181
v “Backing up the Virtual I/O Server to a remote file system by creating a nim_resources.tar file” on
page 182
v “Backing up the Virtual I/O Server to a remote file system by creating a mksysb image” on page
183
2.
Decide whether you want to create a script of the following procedure. Scripting these commands
makes it easy to schedule automated backups of the information.
About this task
To back up user-defined virtual devices, complete the following steps:
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Procedure
1. List volume groups (and storage pools) to determine what user-defined disk structures you want to
back up by running the following command:
lsvg
2. Activate each volume group (and storage pool) that you want to back up by running the following
command for each volume group:
activatevg volume_group
where volume_group is the name of the volume group (or storage pool) that you want to activate.
3. Back up each volume group (and storage pool) by running the following command for each volume
group:
savevgstruct volume_group
where volume_group is the name of the volume group (or storage pool) that you want to back up. This
command writes a backup of the structure of a volume group (and therefore a storage pool) to the
/home/ios/vgbackups directory.
4. Save the information about network settings, adapters, users, and security settings to the
/home/padmin directory by running each command with the tee command as follows:
command | tee /home/padmin/filename
Where:
v command is the command that produces the information you want to save.
v filename is the name of the file to which you want to save the information.
Table 42. Commands that provide the information to save
Command
Information provided
cfgnamesrv -ls
Shows all system configuration database entries related
to domain name server information used by local
resolver routines.
entstat -all devicename
Shows Ethernet driver and device statistics for the device
specified.
devicename is the name of a device whose attributes or
statistics you want to save. Run this command for each
device whose attributes or statistics you want to save.
hostmap -ls
Shows all entries in the system configuration database.
ioslevel
Shows the current maintenance level of the Virtual I/O
Server.
lsdev -dev devicename -attr
Shows the attributes of the device specified.
devicename is the name of a device whose attributes or
statistics you want to save. Run this command for each
device whose attributes or statistics you want to save.
lsdev -type adapter
Shows information about physical and logical adapters.
lsuser
Shows a list of all attributes of all the system users.
netstat -routinfo
Shows the routing tables, including the user-configured
and current costs of each route.
netstat -state
Shows the state of all configured interfaces.
optimizenet -list
Shows characteristics of all network tuning parameters,
including the current and reboot value, range, unit, type,
and dependencies.
viosecure -firewall view
Shows a list of allowed ports.
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Table 42. Commands that provide the information to save (continued)
Command
Information provided
viosecure -view -nonint
Shows all the security level settings for noninteractive
mode.
Related tasks:
“Scheduling backups of the Virtual I/O Server and user-defined virtual devices by creating a script and
crontab file entry” on page 187
You can schedule regular backups of the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) and user-defined virtual devices to
ensure that your backup copy accurately reflects the current configuration.
“Backing up user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command”
You can back up user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command. Use the viosbr command
when you plan to restore the information to the same Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) logical partition from
which it was backed up.
Related information:
Backing up user-defined virtual devices by using the backupios command
Backing up user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command:
You can back up user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command. Use the viosbr command
when you plan to restore the information to the same Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) logical partition from
which it was backed up.
Before you begin
You can use the viosbr command to back up all the relevant data to recover a VIOS after an installation.
The viosbr command backs up all the device properties and the virtual devices configuration on the
VIOS. You can include information about some or all of the following devices in the backup:
v Logical devices, such as storage pools, clusters, file-backed storage pools, the virtual media repository,
and paging space devices.
v Virtual devices, such as Etherchannel, Shared Ethernet Adapter, virtual server adapters, and
virtual-server Fibre Channel adapters.
v Device attributes for devices like disks, optical devices, tape devices, fscsi controllers, Ethernet
adapters, Ethernet interfaces, and logical Host Ethernet Adapters.
Before you start, run the ioslevel command to verify that the VIOS is at Version 2.1.2.0, or later.
About this task
Procedure
To back up all the device attributes and logical and virtual device mappings on the VIOS, run the
following command:
viosbr -backup –file /tmp/myserverbackup
where /tmp/myserverbackup is the file to which you want to back up the configuration information.
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Related tasks:
“Restoring user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command” on page 196
You can restore user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command. Use the viosbr command
when you plan to restore the information to the same Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) logical partition from
which it was backed up.
“Scheduling backups of user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command” on page 188
You can schedule regular backups of the user-defined virtual devices on the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
logical partition. Scheduling regular backups ensures that your backup copy accurately reflects the
current configuration.
“Backing up user-defined virtual devices by using the backupios command” on page 184
In addition to backing up the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS), you must back up user-defined virtual devices
(such as virtual device mappings) in case you have a system failure or disaster. In this situation, back up
user-defined virtual devices by saving the data to a location that is automatically backed up when you
use the backupios command to back up the VIOS.
Related information:
ioslevel command
viosbr command
Backing up user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command
Scheduling backups of the Virtual I/O Server and user-defined virtual devices
You can schedule regular backups of the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) and user-defined virtual devices to
ensure that your backup copy accurately reflects the current configuration.
About this task
To ensure that your backup of the VIOS accurately reflects your current running VIOS, back up the VIOS
and the user-defined virtual devices each time that the configuration changes. For example:
v Changing the VIOS, like installing a fix pack.
v Adding, deleting, or changing the external device configuration, like changing the SAN configuration.
v Adding, deleting, or changing resource allocations and assignments for the VIOS, like memory,
processors, or virtual and physical devices.
v Adding, deleting, or changing user-defined virtual device configurations, like virtual device mappings.
You can schedule backups in one of the following ways:
v You can schedule backups of the VIOS and user-defined virtual devices by creating a script that
includes the backupios command. Then, create a crontab file entry that runs the script on a regular
interval. Use this option in situations where you plan to restore the VIOS to a new or different system.
(For example, use this option in the event of a system failure or disaster.)
v You can schedule backups of the configuration information for the user-defined virtual devices by
using the viosbr command. Use this option in situations where you plan to restore the configuration
information to the same VIOS partition from which it was backed up.
Related information:
Scheduling backups on the SDMC
Scheduling backups of the Virtual I/O Server and user-defined virtual devices by creating a script and
crontab file entry:
You can schedule regular backups of the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) and user-defined virtual devices to
ensure that your backup copy accurately reflects the current configuration.
Virtual I/O Server
187
About this task
To ensure that your backup of the VIOS accurately reflects your current running VIOS, back up the VIOS
each time that its configuration changes. For example:
v Changing the VIOS, like installing a fix pack.
v Adding, deleting, or changing the external device configuration, like changing the SAN configuration.
v Adding, deleting, or changing resource allocations and assignments for the VIOS, like memory,
processors, or virtual and physical devices.
v Adding, deleting, or changing user-defined virtual device configurations, like virtual device mappings.
Before you start, ensure that you are logged in to the VIOS as the prime administrator (padmin).
To back up the VIOS and user-defined virtual devices, complete the following tasks:
Procedure
1. Create a script for backing up the VIOS, and save it in a directory that is accessible to the padmin
user ID. For example, create a script called backup and save it in the /home/padmin directory. Ensure
that your script includes the following information:
v The backupios command for backing up the VIOS.
v Commands for saving information about user-defined virtual devices.
v Commands to save the virtual devices information to a location that is automatically backed up
when you use the backupios command to back up the VIOS.
2. Create a crontab file entry that runs the backup script on a regular interval. For example, to run backup
every Saturday at 2:00 a.m., type the following commands:
a. crontab -e
b. 0 2 * * 6 /home/padmin/backup
When you complete the task, remember to save and exit.
Related information:
backupios command
crontab command
Scheduling backups by creating a script and crontab file entry
Scheduling backups of user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command:
You can schedule regular backups of the user-defined virtual devices on the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS)
logical partition. Scheduling regular backups ensures that your backup copy accurately reflects the
current configuration.
About this task
To ensure that your backup of the user-defined virtual devices accurately reflects your currently running
VIOS, back up the configuration information of the user-defined virtual devices each time that the
configuration changes.
Before you start, run the ioslevel command to verify that the VIOS is at Version 2.1.2.0, or later.
Procedure
To back up the configuration information of the user-defined virtual devices, run the viosbr command as
follows:
viosbr -backup -file /tmp/myserverbackup -frequency how_often
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where:
v /tmp/myserverbackup is the file to which you want to back up the configuration information.
v how_often is the frequency with which you want to back up the configuration information. You can
specify one of the following values:
– daily: Daily backups occur every day at 00:00.
– weekly: Weekly backups occur every Sunday at 00:00.
– monthly: Monthly backups occur on the first day of every month at 00:01.
Related tasks:
“Backing up user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command” on page 186
You can back up user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command. Use the viosbr command
when you plan to restore the information to the same Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) logical partition from
which it was backed up.
Related information:
ioslevel command
viosbr command
Scheduling backups of user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command
Backing up the Virtual I/O Server by using Tivoli Storage Manager
You can use the Tivoli Storage Manager to automatically back up the Virtual I/O Server on regular
intervals, or you can perform incremental backups.
Related information:
Backing up using Tivoli Storage Manager
Backing up the Virtual I/O Server by using Tivoli Storage Manager automated backup:
You can automate backups of the Virtual I/O Server using the crontab command and the Tivoli Storage
Manager scheduler.
About this task
Before you start, complete the following tasks:
v Ensure that you configured the Tivoli Storage Manager client on the Virtual I/O Server. For
instructions, see “Configuring the Tivoli Storage Manager client” on page 164.
v Ensure that you are logged into the Virtual I/O Server as the prime administrator (padmin).
To automate backups of the Virtual I/O Server, complete the following steps:
Procedure
1. Write a script that creates a mksysb image of the Virtual I/O Server and save it in a directory that is
accessible to the padmin user ID. For example, create a script called backup and save it in the
/home/padmin directory. If you plan to restore the Virtual I/O Server to a different system from which
it was backed up, then ensure that your script includes commands for saving information about
user-defined virtual devices. For more information, see the following tasks:
v For instructions about how to create a mksysb image, see “Backing up the Virtual I/O Server to a
remote file system by creating a mksysb image” on page 183.
v For instructions about how to save user-defined virtual devices, see “Backing up user-defined
virtual devices by using the backupios command” on page 184.
2. Create a crontab file entry that runs the backup script on a regular interval. For example, to create a
mksysb image every Saturday at 2:00 a.m., type the following commands:
a. crontab -e
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189
b. 0 2 0 0 6 /home/padmin/backup
When you are finished, remember to save and exit.
3. Work with the Tivoli Storage Manager administrator to associate the Tivoli Storage Manager client
node with one or more schedules that are part of the policy domain. This task is not performed on
the Tivoli Storage Manager client on the Virtual I/O Server. This task is performed by the Tivoli
Storage Manager administrator on the Tivoli Storage Manager server.
4. Start the client scheduler and connect to the server schedule using the dsmc command as follows:
dsmc -schedule
5. If you want the client scheduler to restart when the Virtual I/O Server restarts, then add the
following entry to the /etc/inittab file:
itsm::once:/usr/bin/dsmc sched > /dev/null 2>&1 # TSM scheduler
Related information:
Automated backup on the SDMC
Backing up the Virtual I/O Server by using Tivoli Storage Manager incremental backup:
You can back up the Virtual I/O Server at any time by performing an incremental backup with the Tivoli
Storage Manager.
About this task
Perform incremental backups in situations where the automated backup does not suit your needs. For
example, before you upgrade the Virtual I/O Server, perform an incremental backup to ensure that you
have a backup of the current configuration. Then, after you upgrade the Virtual I/O Server, perform
another incremental backup to ensure that you have a backup of the upgraded configuration.
Before you start, complete the following tasks:
v Ensure that you configured the Tivoli Storage Manager client on the Virtual I/O Server. For
instructions, see “Configuring the Tivoli Storage Manager client” on page 164.
v Ensure that you have a mksysb image of the Virtual I/O Server. If you plan to restore the Virtual I/O
Server to a different system from which it was backed up, then ensure that the mksysb includes
information about user-defined virtual devices. For more information, see the following tasks:
– For instructions about how to create a mksysb image, see “Backing up the Virtual I/O Server to a
remote file system by creating a mksysb image” on page 183.
– For instructions about how to save user-defined virtual devices, see “Backing up user-defined
virtual devices by using the backupios command” on page 184.
Procedure
To perform an incremental backup of the of the Virtual I/O Server, run the dsmc command. For example,
dsmc -incremental sourcefilespec
Where sourcefilespec is the directory path to where the mksysb file is located. For example,
/home/padmin/mksysb_image.
Related information:
Incremental backup on the SDMC
Restoring the Virtual I/O Server
You can restore the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) and user-defined virtual devices using the installios
command, the viosbr command, or Tivoli Storage Manager.
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About this task
The VIOS contains the following types of information that you need to restore: the VIOS itself and
user-defined virtual devices.
v The VIOS includes the base code, applied fix packs, custom device drivers to support disk subsystems,
and some user-defined metadata. All this information is restored when you use the installios
command.
v User-defined virtual devices include metadata, such as virtual devices mappings, that define the
relationship between the physical environment and the virtual environment. You can restore
user-defined virtual devices in one of the following ways:
– You can restore user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command. Use this option in
situations where you plan to restore the configuration information to the same VIOS partition from
which it was backed up.
– You can restore user-defined virtual devices by restoring the volume groups and manually
recreating virtual device mappings. Use this option in situations where you plan to restore the VIOS
to a new or different system. (For example, in the event of a system failure or disaster.) Furthermore,
in these situations, you also need to restore the following components of your environment. Back up
these components to fully recover your VIOS configuration:
- External device configurations, such as storage area network (SAN) devices.
- Resources defined on the Hardware Management Console (HMC), such as processor and memory
allocations. In other words, restore your HMC partition profile data for the VIOS and its client
partitions.
- The operating systems and applications running in the client logical partitions.
Note: To perform Live Partition Mobility after you restore the VIOS, ensure that you restart the HMC.
You can back up and restore the VIOS as follows.
Table 43. Backup and restoration methods for the VIOS
Backup method
Media
Restoration method
To tape
Tape
From tape
To DVD
DVD-RAM
From DVD
To remote file system
nim_resources.tar image
From an HMC using the Network
Installation Management (NIM) on
Linux facility and the installios
command
To remote file system
mksysb image
From an AIX 5L NIM server and a
standard mksysb system installation
Tivoli Storage Manager
mksysb image
Tivoli Storage Manager
What to do next
Note: As an alternative to the HMC, you can use the Systems Director Management Console (SDMC) to
restore the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS).
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191
Related tasks:
“Backing up the Virtual I/O Server” on page 179
You can back up the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) and user-defined virtual devices using the backupios
command or the viosbr command. You can also use Tivoli Storage Manager to schedule backups and to
store backups on another server.
Related information:
installios command
viosbr command
Restoring the VIOS by using the SDMC
Restoring the Virtual I/O Server from tape
You can restore the Virtual I/O Server base code, applied fix packs, custom device drivers to support
disk subsystems, and some user-defined metadata from tape.
Before you begin
If the system is managed by the Integrated Virtualization Manager, then you need to restore your
partition profile data for the management partition and its clients before you restore the Virtual I/O
Server. For instructions, see Backing up and restoring partition data. (Alternatively, you can use the
rstprofdata command.)
About this task
To restore the Virtual I/O Server from tape, follow these steps:
Procedure
1. Specify the Virtual I/O Server logical partition to boot from the tape by using the bootlist command.
Alternatively, you can alter the bootlist in the System Management Services (SMS).
2. Insert the tape into the tape drive.
3. From the SMS menu, select to install from the tape drive.
4. Follow the installation steps according to the system prompts.
5. If you restored the Virtual I/O Server to a different system from which it was backed up, then you
need to restore the user-defined virtual devices. For instructions, see “Restoring user-defined virtual
devices manually” on page 195.
Related information:
Restoring from tape on the SDMC
Restoring the Virtual I/O Server from one or more DVDs
You can restore the Virtual I/O Server base code, applied fix packs, custom device drivers to support
disk subsystems, and some user-defined metadata from one or more DVDs.
Before you begin
If the system is managed by the Integrated Virtualization Manager, then you need to restore your
partition profile data for the management partition and its clients before you restore the Virtual I/O
Server. For instructions, see Backing up and restoring partition data. (Alternatively, you can use the
rstprofdata command.)
About this task
To restore the Virtual I/O Server from a one or more DVDs, follow these steps:
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Procedure
1. Specify the Virtual I/O Server partition to boot from the DVD by using the bootlist command.
Alternatively, you can alter the bootlist in the System Management Services (SMS).
2. Insert the DVD into the optical drive.
3. From the SMS menu, select to install from the optical drive.
4. Follow the installation steps according to the system prompts.
5. If you restored the Virtual I/O Server to a different system from which it was backed up, then you
need to restore the user-defined virtual devices. For instructions, see “Restoring user-defined virtual
devices manually” on page 195.
Related information:
Restoring from one or more DVDs on the SDMC
Restoring the Virtual I/O Server from the HMC by using a nim_resources.tar file
You can restore the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) base code, applied fix packs, custom device drivers to
support disk subsystems, and some user-defined metadata from a nim_resources.tar image stored in a
remote file system.
Before you begin
If the system is managed by the Integrated Virtualization Manager, then you need to restore your
partition profile data for the management partition and its clients before you restore the Virtual I/O
Server. For instructions, see Backing up and restoring partition data. (Alternatively, you can use the
rstprofdata command.)
About this task
To restore the Virtual I/O Server from a nim_resources.tar image in a file system, complete the following
steps:
Procedure
1. Run the installios command from the HMC command line. This restores a backup image,
nim_resources.tar, that was created using the backupios command.
2. Follow the installation procedures according to the system prompts. The source of the installation
images is the exported directory from the backup procedure. For example, server1:/export/
ios_backup.
3. When the restoration is finished, open a virtual terminal connection (for example, using telnet) to the
Virtual I/O Server that you restored. Some additional user input might be required.
4. If you restored the Virtual I/O Server to a different system from which it was backed up, you must
restore the user-defined virtual devices. For instructions, see “Restoring user-defined virtual devices
manually” on page 195.
What to do next
Note: As an alternative to the HMC, you can use the Systems Director Management Console (SDMC) to
restore the VIOS base code, applied fix packs, custom device drivers to support disk subsystems, and
some user-defined metadata from a nim_resources.tar image stored in a remote file system.
Related information:
Restoring from the SDMC using a nim_resources.tar file
Restoring the Virtual I/O Server from a NIM server by using a mksysb file
You can restore the Virtual I/O Server base code, applied fix packs, custom device drivers to support
disk subsystems, and some user-defined metadata from a mksysb image stored in a remote file system.
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193
Before you begin
Before you start, complete the following tasks:
v Ensure that the server to which you plan to restore the Virtual I/O Server is defined as a Network
Installation Management (NIM) resource.
v Ensure that the mksysb file (that contains the backup of the Virtual I/O Server) is on the NIM server.
v If the system is managed by the Integrated Virtualization Manager, then you need to restore your
partition profile data for the management partition and its clients before you restore the Virtual I/O
Server. For instructions, see Backing up and restoring partition data. (Alternatively, you can use the
rstprofdata command.)
About this task
To restore the Virtual I/O Server from a mksysb image in a file system, complete the following tasks:
Procedure
1. Define the mksysb file as a NIM resource, specifically, a NIM object, by running the nim command. To
view a detailed description of the nim command, see nim Command. For example:
nim -o define -t mksysb -a server=servername -alocation=/export/ios_backup/
filename.mksysb objectname
Where:
v servername is the name of the server that holds the NIM resource.
v filename is the name of the mksysb file.
v objectname is the name by which NIM registers and recognizes the mksysb file.
2. Define a Shared Product Object Tree (SPOT) resource for the mksysb file by running the nim
command. For example:
nim -o define -t spot -a server=servername -a location=/export/ios_backup/
SPOT -a source=objectname SPOTname
Where:
v servername is the name of the server that holds the NIM resource.
v objectname is the name by which NIM registers and recognizes the mksysb file.
v SPOTname is the NIM object name for the mksysb image that was created in the previous step.
3. Install the Virtual I/O Server from the mksysb file using the smit command. For example:
smit nim_bosinst
Ensure the following entry fields contain the following specifications.
Table 44. Specifications for the SMIT command
Field
Specification
Installation TYPE
mksysb
SPOT
SPOTname from step 3
MKSYSB
objectname from step 2
Remain NIM client after install?
no
4. Start the Virtual I/O Server logical partition. For instructions, see step 3, Boot the Virtual I/O Server,
of Installing the Virtual I/O Server using NIM.
5. If you restored the Virtual I/O Server to a different system from which it was backed up, you must
restore the user-defined virtual devices. For instructions, see “Restoring user-defined virtual devices
manually” on page 195.
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Related information:
Using the NIM define operation
Defining a SPOT resource
Installing a client using NIM
Restoring from a NIM server using a mksysb file on the SDMC
Restoring user-defined virtual devices
You can restore user-defined virtual devices on the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) by restoring volume groups
and manually re-creating virtual device mappings. Alternatively, you can restore user-defined virtual
devices by using the viosbr command.
About this task
User-defined virtual devices include metadata, such as virtual device mappings, that define the
relationship between the physical environment and the virtual environment. You can restore user-defined
virtual devices in one of the following ways:
v You can restore user-defined virtual devices by restoring volume groups and manually re-creating
virtual device mappings. Use this option in situations where you plan to restore the VIOS to a new or
different system. (For example, use this option in the event of a system failure or disaster.)
v You can restore user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command. Use this option in
situations where you plan to restore the configuration information to the same VIOS partition from
which it was backed up.
Related tasks:
“Backing up user-defined virtual devices” on page 183
You can back up user-defined virtual devices by saving the data to a location that is automatically backed
up when you use the backupios command to back up the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS). Alternatively, you
can back up user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command.
Related information:
Restoring user-defined virtual devices on the SDMC
Restoring user-defined virtual devices manually:
In addition to restoring the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS), you might need to restore user-defined virtual
devices (such as virtual device mappings). For example, in the event of a system failure, system
migration, or disaster, you need to restore both the VIOS and user-defined virtual devices. In this
situation, restore the volume groups by using the restorevgstruct command and manually re-create the
virtual device mappings by using the mkvdev command.
Before you begin
User-defined virtual devices include metadata, such as virtual device mappings, that define the
relationship between the physical environment and the virtual environment. In situations where you plan
to restore the VIOS to a new or different system, you need to back up both the VIOS and user-defined
virtual devices. (For example, in the event of a system failure or disaster, you must restore both the VIOS
and user-defined virtual devices.)
Before you start, restore the VIOS from tape, DVD, or a remote file system. For instructions, see one of
the following procedures:
v “Restoring the Virtual I/O Server from tape” on page 192
v “Restoring the Virtual I/O Server from one or more DVDs” on page 192
v “Restoring the Virtual I/O Server from the HMC by using a nim_resources.tar file” on page 193
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195
v “Restoring the Virtual I/O Server from a NIM server by using a mksysb file” on page 193
About this task
To restore user-defined virtual devices, complete the following steps:
Procedure
1. List all the backed-up volume groups (or storage pools) by running the following command:
restorevgstruct -ls
This command lists the files located in the /home/ios/vgbackups directory.
2. Run the lspv command to determine which disks are empty.
3. Restore the volume groups (or storage pools) to the empty disks by running the following command
for each volume group (or storage pool):
restorevgstruct -vg volumegroup hdiskx
Where:
v volumegroup is the name of a volume group (or storage pool) from step 1.
v hdiskx is the name of an empty disk from step 2.
4. Re-create the mappings between the virtual devices and physical devices by using the mkvdev
command. Re-create mappings for storage device mappings, shared Ethernet and Ethernet adapter
mappings, and virtual LAN settings. You can find mapping information in the file that you specified
in the tee command from the backup procedure. For example, /home/padmin/filename.
Related tasks:
“Restoring user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command”
You can restore user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command. Use the viosbr command
when you plan to restore the information to the same Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) logical partition from
which it was backed up.
Related information:
mkvdev command
restorevgstruct command
tee command
Restoring user-defined virtual devices manually on the SDMC
Restoring user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command:
You can restore user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command. Use the viosbr command
when you plan to restore the information to the same Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) logical partition from
which it was backed up.
Before you begin
The viosbr command restores the VIOS partition to the same state in which it was when the backup was
taken. With the information available from the backup, the command performs the following actions:
v Sets the attribute values for physical devices, such as controllers, adapters, disks, optical devices, tape
devices, and Ethernet interfaces.
v Imports logical devices, such as volume groups or storage pools, clusters, logical volumes, file systems,
and repositories.
v Creates virtual devices and their corresponding mappings for devices like Etherchannel, Shared
Ethernet Adapter, virtual target devices, virtual Fibre Channel adapters, and paging space devices.
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Before you start, complete the following tasks:
1. Run the ioslevel command to verify that the VIOS is at Version 2.1.2.0, or later.
2. Determine the backup file that you want to restore. The backup file must be a file that was created by
using the viosbr -backup command.
3. Verify that the VIOS partition to which you plan to restore the information is the same VIOS partition
from which it was backed up.
About this task
Procedure
To restore all the possible devices and display a summary of deployed and nondeployed devices, run the
following command:
viosbr -restore
–file /home/padmin/cfgbackups/myserverbackup.002.tar.gz
where /home/padmin/cfgbackups/myserverbackup.002.tar.gz is the backup file that contains the information
that you want to restore. The system displays information like the following output:
Backed up Devices that are unable to restore/change
==================================================
<Name(s) of non-deployed devices>
DEPLOYED or CHANGED devices:
============================
Dev name during BACKUP
Dev name after RESTORE
---------------------------------------------------------<Name(s) of deployed devices>
Related tasks:
“Backing up user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command” on page 186
You can back up user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command. Use the viosbr command
when you plan to restore the information to the same Virtual I/O Server (VIOS) logical partition from
which it was backed up.
“Restoring user-defined virtual devices manually” on page 195
In addition to restoring the Virtual I/O Server (VIOS), you might need to restore user-defined virtual
devices (such as virtual device mappings). For example, in the event of a system failure, system
migration, or disaster, you need to restore both the VIOS and user-defined virtual devices. In this
situation, restore the volume groups by using the restorevgstruct command and manually re-create the
virtual device mappings by using the mkvdev command.
Related information:
ioslevel command
viosbr command
Restoring user-defined virtual devices by using the viosbr command
Restoring the Virtual I/O Server by using Tivoli Storage Manager
You can use the Tivoli Storage Manager to restore the mksysb image of the Virtual I/O Server.
About this task
You can restore the Virtual I/O Server to the system from which it was backed up, or to a new or
different system (for example, in the event of a system failure or disaster). The following procedure
applies to restoring the Virtual I/O Server to the system from which it was backed up. First, you restore
the mksysb image to the Virtual I/O Server using the dsmc command on the Tivoli Storage Manager
client. But restoring the mksysb image does not restore the Virtual I/O Server. You then need to transfer
the mksysb image to another system and convert the mksysb image to an installable format.
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To restore the Virtual I/O Server to a new or different system, use one of the following procedures:
v “Restoring the Virtual I/O Server from tape” on page 192
v “Restoring the Virtual I/O Server from one or more DVDs” on page 192
v “Restoring the Virtual I/O Server from the HMC by using a nim_resources.tar file” on page 193
v “Restoring the Virtual I/O Server from a NIM server by using a mksysb file” on page 193
Before you start, complete the following tasks:
1. Ensure that the system to which you plan to transfer the mksysb image is running AIX.
2. Ensure that the system running AIX has a DVD-RW or CD-RW drive.
3. Ensure that AIX has the cdrecord and mkisofs RPMs downloaded and installed. To download and
install the RPMs, see the AIX Toolbox for Linux Applications Web site.
Restriction: Interactive mode is not supported on the Virtual I/O Server. You can view session
information by typing dsmc on the Virtual I/O Server command line.
To restore the Virtual I/O Server using Tivoli Storage Manager, complete the following tasks:
Procedure
1. Determine which file you want to restore by running the dsmc command to display the files that have
been backed up to the Tivoli Storage Manager server:
dsmc -query
2. Restore the mksysb image using the dsmc command. For example:
dsmc -restore sourcefilespec
Where sourcefilespec is the directory path to the location where you want to restore the mksysb image.
For example, /home/padmin/mksysb_image
3. Transfer the mksysb image to a server with a DVD-RW or CD-RW drive by running the following File
Transfer Protocol (FTP) commands:
a. Run the following command to make sure that the FTP server is started on the Virtual I/O Server:
startnetsvc ftp
b. Run the following command to make sure that the FTP server is started on the Virtual I/O Server:
startnetsvc ftp
c. Open an FTP session to the server with the DVD-RW or CD-RW drive: ftp server_hostname,
where server_hostname is the hostname of the server with the DVD-RW or CD-RW drive.
d. At the FTP prompt, change to the installation directory to the directory where you want to save
the mksysb image.
e. Set the transfer mode to binary: binary
f. Turn off interactive prompting if it is on: prompt
g. Transfer the mksysb image to the server: mput mksysb_image
h. Close the FTP session, after transferring mksysb image, by typing quit.
4. Write the mksysb image to CD or DVD using the mkcd or mkdvd commands.
5. Reinstall the Virtual I/O Server using the CD or DVD that you just created. For instructions, see
“Restoring the Virtual I/O Server from one or more DVDs” on page 192.
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Related reference:
mkcd Command
mkdvd Command
Related information:
Restoring using Tivoli Storage Manager
Installing or replacing a PCI adapter with the system power on in
Virtual I/O Server
You can install or replace a PCI adapter in the Virtual I/O Server logical partition or in the Integrated
Virtualization Manager management partition.
Before you begin
The Virtual I/O Server includes a PCI Hot Plug Manager that is similar to the PCI Hot Plug Manager in
the AIX operating system. The PCI Hot Plug Manager allows you to hot plug PCI adapters into the
server and then activate them for the logical partition without having to reboot the system. Use the PCI
Hot Plug Manager for adding, identifying, or replacing PCI adapters in the system that are currently
assigned to the Virtual I/O Server.
Getting started
Before you begin
Prerequisites:
v If you are installing a new adapter, an empty system slot must be assigned to the Virtual I/O Server
logical partition. This task can be done through dynamic logical partitioning (DLPAR) operations.
– If you are using a Hardware Management Console (HMC), you must also update the logical
partition profile of the Virtual I/O Server so that the new adapter is configured to the Virtual I/O
Server after you restart the system.
– If you are using the Integrated Virtualization Manager, an empty slot is probably already assigned to
the Virtual I/O Server logical partition because all slots are assigned to the Virtual I/O Server by
default. You only need to assign an empty slot to the Virtual I/O Server logical partition if you
previously assigned all empty slots to other logical partitions.
v If you are installing a new adapter, ensure that you have the software required to support the new
adapter and determine whether there are any existing PTF prerequisites to install.
v If you need help determining the PCI slot in which to place a PCI adapter, see the PCI adapter
placement.
About this task
Follow these steps to access the Virtual I/O Server, PCI Hot Plug Manager:
Procedure
1. If you are using the Integrated Virtualization Manager, connect to the command-line interface.
2. Use the diagmenu command to open the Virtual I/O Server diagnostic menu. The menus are similar
to the AIX diagnostic menus.
3. Select Task Selection, then press Enter.
4. At the Task Selection list, select PCI Hot Plug Manager.
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Installing a PCI adapter
About this task
To install a PCI adapter with the system power on in Virtual I/O Server, do the following steps:
Procedure
1. From the PCI Hot Plug Manager, select Add a PCI Hot Plug Adapter, then press Enter. The Add a
Hot-Plug Adapter window is displayed.
2. Select the appropriate empty PCI slot from those listed, and press Enter. A fast-blinking amber LED
located at the back of the server near the adapter indicates that the slot has been identified.
3. Follow the instructions on the screen to install the adapter until the LED for the specified PCI slot is
set to the Action state.
a. Set the adapter LED to the action state so that the indicator light for the adapter slot flashes
b. Physically install the adapter
c. Finish the adapter installation task in diagmenu.
4. Run the cfgdev command to configure the device for the Virtual I/O Server.
Results
If you are installing a PCI, Fibre Channel adapter, it is now ready to be attached to a SAN and have
LUNs assigned to the Virtual I/O Server for virtualization.
Replacing a PCI adapter
Before you begin
Prerequisite: Before you can remove or replace a storage adapter, you must unconfigure that adapter. See
“Unconfiguring storage adapters” on page 201 for instructions.
About this task
To replace a PCI adapter with the system power on in Virtual I/O Server, do the following steps:
Procedure
1. From the PCI Hot Plug Manager, select Unconfigure a Device, then press Enter.
2. Press F4 (or Esc +4) to display the Device Names menu.
3. Select the adapter you are removing in the Device Names menu.
4. In the Keep Definition field, use the Tab key to answer Yes. In the Unconfigure Child Devices
field, use the Tab key again to answer YES, then press Enter.
5. Press Enter to verify the information on the ARE YOU SURE screen. Successful unconfiguration is
indicated by the OK message displayed next to the Command field at the top of the screen.
Press F4 (or Esc +4) twice to return to the Hot Plug Manager.
Select replace/remove PCI Hot Plug adapter.
Select the slot that has the device to be removed from the system.
Select replace. A fast-blinking amber LED located at the back of the machine near the adapter
indicates that the slot has been identified.
10. Press Enter which places the adapter in the action state, meaning it is ready to be removed from the
system.
6.
7.
8.
9.
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Unconfiguring storage adapters
About this task
Before you can remove or replace a storage adapter, you must unconfigure that adapter. Storage adapters
are generally parent devices to media devices, such as disk drives or tape drives. Removing the parent
requires that all attached child devices either be removed or placed in the define state.
Unconfiguring a storage adapter involves the following tasks:
v Closing all applications that are using the adapter you are removing, replacing, or moving
v Unmounting file systems
v Ensuring that all devices connected to the adapter are identified and stopped
v Listing all slots that are currently in use or a slot that is occupied by a specific adapter
v Identifying the adapter's slot location
v Making parent and child devices unavailable
v Making the adapter unavailable
If the adapter supports physical volumes that are in use by a client logical partition, then You can
perform steps on the client logical partition before unconfiguring the storage adapter. For instructions, see
“Preparing the client logical partitions.” For example, the adapter might be in use because the physical
volume was used to create a virtual target device, or it might be part of a volume group used to create a
virtual target device.
Follow these steps to unconfigure SCSI, SSA, and Fibre Channel storage adapters:
Procedure
1. Connect to the Virtual I/O Server command-line interface.
2. Use the oem_setup_env command to close all applications that are using the adapter you are
unconfiguring.
3. Type lsslot-c pci to list all the hot plug slots in the system unit and display their characteristics.
4. Type lsdev -C to list the current state of all the devices in the system unit.
5. Type unmount to unmount previously mounted file systems, directories, or files using this adapter.
6. Type rmdev -l adapter -R to make the adapter unavailable.
Attention: Do not use the -d flag with the rmdev command for hot plug operations because this
action removes your configuration.
Preparing the client logical partitions
About this task
If the virtual target devices of the client logical partitions are not available, the client logical partitions can
fail or they might be unable to perform I/O operations for a particular application. If you use the HMC
to manage the system, you might have redundant Virtual I/O Server logical partitions, which allow for
Virtual I/O Server maintenance and avoid downtime for client logical partitions. If you are replacing an
adapter on the Virtual I/O Server and your client logical partition is dependent on one or more of the
physical volumes accessed by that adapter, then You can take action on the client before you unconfigure
the adapter.
The virtual target devices must be in the define state before the Virtual I/O Server adapter can be
replaced. Do not remove the virtual devices permanently.
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Procedure
To prepare the client logical partitions so that you can unconfigure an adapter, complete the following
steps depending on your situation.
Table 45. Situations and steps for preparing the client logical partitions
Situation
Steps
You have redundant hardware on the Virtual I/O Server
for the adapter.
No action is required on the client logical partition.
HMC-managed systems only: You have redundant
Virtual I/O Server logical partitions that, in conjunction
with virtual client adapters, provide multiple paths to
the physical volume on the client logical partition.
No action is required on the client logical partition.
However, path errors might be logged on the client
logical partition.
HMC-managed systems only: You have redundant
Virtual I/O Server logical partitions that, in conjunction
with virtual client adapters, provide multiple physical
volumes that are used to mirror a volume group.
See the procedures for your client operating system.
You do not have redundant Virtual I/O Server logical
partitions.
Shut down the client logical partition.
For instructions, see the following topics about shutting
down logical partitions:
v For systems that are managed by the HMC, see
“Shutting down AIX logical partitions using the
HMC”, and “Shutting down Linux logical partitions
using the HMC” in the Logical partitioning.1
v For systems that are managed by the Integrated
Virtualization Manager, see “Shutting down logical
partitions.”
1
The Logical partitioning can be found on the Hardware Information website at add URL here.
Shutting down logical partitions
You can use the Integrated Virtualization Manager to shut down the logical partitions or to shut down
the entire managed system.
Before you begin
Use any role other than View Only to perform this task.
About this task
The Integrated Virtualization Manager provides the following types of shutdown options for logical
partitions:
v Operating System (recommended)
v Delayed
v Immediate
The recommended shutdown method is to use the client operating systems shutdown command. Use the
immediate shutdown method only as a last resort because using this method causes an abnormal
shutdown which might result in data loss.
If you choose the Delayed shutdown method, then be aware of the following considerations:
v Shutting down the logical partitions is equivalent to pressing and holding the white control-panel
power button on a server that is not partitioned.
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v Use this procedure only if you cannot successfully shut down the logical partitions through operating
system commands. When you use this procedure to shut down the selected logical partitions, the
logical partitions wait a predetermined amount of time to shut down. This allows the logical partitions
time to end jobs and write data to disks. If the logical partition is unable to shut down within the
predetermined amount of time, it ends abnormally, and the next restart might take a long time.
If you plan to shut down the entire managed system, shut down each client logical partition, then shut
down the Virtual I/O Server management partition.
To shut down a logical partition, complete the following steps in the Integrated Virtualization Manager:
Procedure
1. In the navigation area, select View/Modify Partitions under Partition Management. The
View/Modify Partitions page is displayed.
2. Select the logical partition that you want to shut down.
3. From the Tasks menu, click Shutdown. The Shutdown Partitions page is displayed.
4. Select the shutdown type.
5. Optional: Select Restart after shutdown completes if you want the logical partition to start
immediately after it shuts down.
6. Click OK to shut down the partition. The View/Modify Partitions page is displayed, and the logical
partition state has a value of shutdown.
Viewing information and statistics about the Virtual I/O Server, the
server, and virtual resources
You can view information and statistics about the Virtual I/O Server, the server, and virtual resources to
help you manage and monitor the system, and troubleshoot problems.
About this task
The following table lists the information and statistics available on the Virtual I/O Server, as well as the
commands you need to run to view the information and statistics.
Table 46. Information and associated commands for the Virtual I/O Server
Information to view
Command
Statistics about kernel threads, virtual memory, disks,
traps, and processor activity.
vmstat
Statistics for a Fibre Channel device driver.
fcstat
A summary of virtual memory usage.
svmon
Information about the Virtual I/O Server and the server, uname
such as the server model, machine ID, Virtual I/O Server
logical partition name and ID, and the LAN network
number.
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Table 46. Information and associated commands for the Virtual I/O Server (continued)
Information to view
Command
Generic and device-specific statistics for an Ethernet
driver or device, including the following information for
a Shared Ethernet Adapter:
enstat
v Shared Ethernet Adapter statistics:
– Number of real and virtual adapters (If you are
using Shared Ethernet Adapter failover, this number
does not include the control channel adapter)
– Shared Ethernet Adapter flags
– VLAN IDs
– Information about real and virtual adapters
v Shared Ethernet Adapter failover statistics:
– High availability statistics
– Packet types
– State of the Shared Ethernet Adapter
– Bridging mode
v GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) statistics:
– Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU) statistics
– Generic Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP)
statistics
– GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) statistics
v Listing of the individual adapter statistics for the
adapters associated with the Shared Ethernet Adapter
The vmstat, fcstat, svmon, and uname commands are available with Virtual I/O Server Version 1.5 or later.
Monitoring the Virtual I/O Server
You can monitor the Virtual I/O Server using error logs or Tivoli Monitoring.
Error logs
AIX and Linux client logical partitions log errors against failing I/O operations. Hardware errors on the
client logical partitions associated with virtual devices usually have corresponding errors logged on the
server. However, if the failure is within the client logical partition, there will not be errors on the server.
Note: On Linux client logical partitions, if the algorithm for retrying Small Computer Serial Interface
(SCSI) temporary errors is different from the algorithm used by AIX, the errors might not be recorded on
the server.
Tivoli Monitoring
With Virtual I/O Server V1.3.0.1 (fix pack 8.1), you can install and configure the Tivoli Monitoring
System Edition agent on the Virtual I/O Server. With Tivoli Monitoring System Edition , you can monitor
the health and availability of multiple servers (including the Virtual I/O Server) from the Tivoli
Enterprise Portal. Tivoli Monitoring System Edition gathers data from the Virtual I/O Server, including
data about physical volumes, logical volumes, storage pools, storage mappings, network mappings, real
memory, processor resources, mounted file system sizes, and so on. From the Tivoli Enterprise Portal, you
can view a graphical representation of the data, use predefined thresholds to alert you on key metrics,
and resolve issues based on recommendations provided by the Expert Advice feature of Tivoli
Monitoring.
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Security on the Virtual I/O Server
Become familiar with the Virtual I/O Server security features.
Beginning with Version 1.3 of the Virtual I/O Server, you can set security options that provide tighter
security controls over your Virtual I/O Server environment. These options allow you to select a level of
system security hardening and specify the settings allowable within that level. The Virtual I/O Server
security feature also allows you to control network traffic by enabling the Virtual I/O Server firewall. You
can configure these options using the viosecure command. To help you set up system security when you
initially install the Virtual I/O Server, the Virtual I/O Server provides the configuration assistance menu.
You can access the configuration assistance menu by running the cfgassist command.
Using the viosecure command, you can set, change, and view current security settings. By default, no
Virtual I/O Server security levels are set. You must run the viosecure command to change the settings.
The following sections provide an overview of these features.
Virtual I/O Server system security hardening
The system security hardening feature protects all elements of a system by tightening security or
implementing a higher level of security. Although hundreds of security configurations are possible with
the Virtual I/O Server security settings, you can easily implement security controls by specifying a high,
medium, or low security level.
Using the system security hardening features provided by Virtual I/O Server, you can specify values such
as the following:
v Password policy settings
v Actions such as usrck, pwdck, grpck, and sysck
v Default file-creation settings
v Settings included in the crontab command
Configuring a system at too high a security level might deny services that are needed. For example, telnet
and rlogin are disabled for high level security because the login password is sent over the network
unencrypted. If a system is configured at too low a security level, the system might be vulnerable to
security threats. Since each enterprise has its own unique set of security requirements, the predefined
High, Medium, and Low security configuration settings are best suited as a starting point for security
configuration rather than an exact match for the security requirements of a particular enterprise. As you
become more familiar with the security settings, you can make adjustments by choosing the hardening
rules you want to apply. You can get information about the hardening rules by running the man
command.
Virtual I/O Server firewall
Using the Virtual I/O Server firewall, you can enforce limitations on IP activity in your virtual
environment. With this feature, you can specify which ports and network services are allowed access to
the Virtual I/O Server system. For example, if you need to restrict login activity from an unauthorized
port, you can specify the port name or number and specify deny to remove it from the allow list. You can
also restrict a specific IP address.
Connecting to the Virtual I/O Server by using OpenSSH
You can set up remote connections to the Virtual I/O Server using secure connections.
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205
About this task
You can use the Open Source Secure Sockets Layer (OpenSSL) and Portable Secure Shell (OpenSSH)
software to connect to the Virtual I/O Server using secure connections. For more information about
OpenSSL and OpenSSH, see the OpenSSL Project and Portable SSH Web sites.
To connect to the Virtual I/O Server using OpenSSH, complete the following tasks:
Procedure
1. If you are using a version of Virtual I/O Server prior to Version 1.3.0, then install OpenSSH before
you connect. For instructions, see “Downloading, installing, and updating OpenSSH and OpenSSL”
on page 207.
2. Connect to the Virtual I/O Server. If you are using Version 1.3.0 or later, then connect using either an
interactive or noninteractive shell. If you are using a version prior to 1.3.0, then connect using only an
interactive shell.
v To connect using an interactive shell, type the following command from the command line of a
remote system:
ssh username@vioshostname
where username is your user name for the Virtual I/O Server and vioshostname is the name of the
Virtual I/O Server.
v To connect using a noninteractive shell, run the following command:
ssh username@vioshostname command
Where:
– username is your user name for the Virtual I/O Server.
– vioshostname is the name of the Virtual I/O Server.
– command is the command that you want to run. For example, ioscli lsmap -all.
Note: When using a noninteractive shell, remember to use the full command form (including the
ioscli prefix) for all Virtual I/O Server commands.
3. Authenticate SSH. If you are using Version 1.3.0 or later, then authenticate using either passwords or
keys. If you are using a version prior to 1.3.0, then authenticate using only passwords.
v To authenticate using passwords, enter your user name and password when prompted by the SSH
client.
v To authenticate using keys, perform the following steps on the SSH client's operating system:
a. Create a directory called $HOME/.ssh to store the keys. You can use RSA or DSA keys.
b. Run the ssh-keygen command to generate public and private keys. For example,
ssh-keygen -t
rsa
This creates the following files in the $HOME/.ssh directory:
– Private key: id_rsa
– Public key: id_rsa.pub
c. Run the following command to append the public key to the authorized_keys2 file on the
Virtual I/O Server:
cat $HOME/.ssh/public_key_file | ssh username@vioshostname tee -a /home/username/.ssh/authorized_keys2
Where:
– public_key_file is the public key file that is generated in the previous step. For example,
id_rsa.pub.
– username is your user name for the Virtual I/O Server.
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– vioshostname is the name of the Virtual I/O Server.
What to do next
The Virtual I/O Server might not include the latest version of OpenSSH or OpenSSL with each release. In
addition, there might be OpenSSH or OpenSSL updates released in between Virtual I/O Server releases.
In these situations, you can update OpenSSH and OpenSSL on the Virtual I/O Server by downloading
and installing OpenSSH and OpenSSL. For instructions, see “Downloading, installing, and updating
OpenSSH and OpenSSL.”
Downloading, installing, and updating OpenSSH and OpenSSL
If you are using a Virtual I/O Server version prior to 1.3, you must download and install OpenSSH and
OpenSSL software before you can connect to the Virtual I/O Server using OpenSSH. You can also use this
procedure to update OpenSSH and OpenSSL on the Virtual I/O Server.
About this task
OpenSSH and OpenSSL might need to be updated on your Virtual I/O Server if the Virtual I/O Server
did not include the latest version of OpenSSH or OpenSSL, or if there were OpenSSH or OpenSSL
updates released in between Virtual I/O Server releases. In these situations, you can update OpenSSH
and OpenSSL on the Virtual I/O Server by downloading and installing OpenSSH and OpenSSL using the
following procedure.
For more information about OpenSSL and OpenSSH, see the OpenSSL Project and Portable SSH Web
sites.
Downloading the Open Source software:
About this task
The OpenSSL software contains the encrypted library that is required to use the OpenSSH software. To
download the software, complete the following tasks:
Procedure
1.
Download the OpenSSL RPM package to your workstation or host computer.
a. To get the RPM package, go to the AIX Toolbox for Linux Applications Web site and click the AIX
Toolbox Cryptographic Content link on the right side of the Web page.
b. If you are registered to download the RPM packages, then sign in and accept the license
agreement.
c. If you are not registered to download the RPM packages, then complete the registration process
and accept the license agreement. After registering, you are redirected to the download page.
d. Select any version of the package for download: openssl - Secure Sockets Layer and
cryptography libraries and tools and click Download Now to start the download.
2. Download the OpenSSH software by completing the following steps:
Note: Alternatively, you can install the software from the AIX Expansion Pack.
a. From your workstation (or host computer), go to the SourceFORGE.net Web site.
b. Click Download OpenSSH on AIX to view the latest file releases.
c. Select the appropriate download package and click Download.
d. Click the openssh package (tar.Z file) to continue with the download.
3. Create a directory on the Virtual I/O Server for the Open Source software files. For example, to create
an installation directory named install_ssh, run the following command: mkdir install_ssh.
4. Transfer the software packages to the Virtual I/O Server by running the following File Transfer
Protocol (FTP) commands from the computer on which you downloaded the software packages:
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207
a. Run the following command to make sure that the FTP server is started on the Virtual I/O Server:
startnetsvc ftp
b. Open an FTP session to the Virtual I/O Server on your local host: ftp vios_server_hostname,
where vios_server_hostname is the host name of the Virtual I/O Server.
c. At the FTP prompt, change to the installation directory that you created for the Open Source files:
cd install_ssh, where install_ssh is the directory that contains the Open Source files.
d. Set the transfer mode to binary: binary
e. Turn off interactive prompting if it is on: prompt
f. Transfer the downloaded software to the Virtual I/O Server: mput ssl_software_pkg, where
ssl_software_pkg is the software that you downloaded.
g. Close the FTP session, after transferring both software packages, by typing quit.
Install the Open Source software on the Virtual I/O Server:
About this task
To install the software, complete the following steps:
Procedure
1. Run the following command from the Virtual I/O Server command line: updateios -dev install_ssh
-accept -install, where install_ssh is the directory that contains the Open Source files. The
installation program automatically starts the Secure Shell daemon (sshd) on the server.
2. Begin using the ssh and scp commands; no further configuration is required.
Restrictions:
v The sftp command is not supported on versions of Virtual I/O Server earlier than 1.3.
v Noninteractive shells are not supported using OpenSSH with the Virtual I/O Server versions earlier
than 1.3.
Configuring Virtual I/O Server system security hardening
Set the security level to specify security hardening rules for your Virtual I/O Server system.
Before you begin
To implement system security hardening rules, you can use the viosecure command to specify a security
level of high, medium, or low. A default set of rules is defined for each level. You can also set a level of
default, which returns the system to the system standard settings and removes any level settings that
have been applied.
About this task
The low level security settings are a subset of the medium level security settings, which are a subset of
the high level security settings. Therefore, the high level is the most restrictive and provides the greatest
level of control. You can apply all of the rules for a specified level or select which rules to activate for
your environment. By default, no Virtual I/O Server security levels are set; you must run the viosecure
command to modify the settings.
Use the following tasks to configure the system security settings.
Setting a security level
Procedure
To set a Virtual I/O Server security level of high, medium, or low, use the command viosecure -level.
For example:
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Virtual I/O Server
viosecure -level low -apply
Changing the settings in a security level
Procedure
To set a Virtual I/O Server security level in which you specify which hardening rules to apply for the
setting, run the viosecure command interactively. For example:
1. At the Virtual I/O Server command line, type viosecure -level high. All the security level options
(hardening rules) at that level are displayed ten at a time (pressing Enter displays the next set in the
sequence).
2. Review the options displayed and make your selection by entering the numbers, separated by a
comma, that you want to apply, or type ALL to apply all the options or NONE to apply none of the
options.
3. Press Enter to display the next set of options, and continue entering your selections.
Note: To exit the command without making any changes, type “q”.
Viewing the current security setting
Procedure
To display the current Virtual I/O Server security level setting use the viosecure command with the
-view flag. For example:
viosecure -view
Removing security level settings
Procedure
v To unset any previously set system security levels and return the system to the standard system
settings, run the following command: viosecure -level default
v To remove the security settings that have been applied, run the following command: viosecure -undo
Configuring Virtual I/O Server firewall settings
Enable the Virtual I/O Server firewall to control IP activity.
Before you begin
The Virtual I/O Server firewall is not enabled by default. To enable the Virtual I/O Server firewall, you
must turn it on by using the viosecure command with the -firewall option. When you enable it, the
default setting is activated, which allows access for the following IP services:
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
ftp
ftp-data
ssh
web
https
rmc
cimom
Note: The firewall settings are contained in the file viosecure.ctl in the /home/ios/security directory. If
for some reason the viosecure.ctl file does not exist when you run the command to enable the firewall,
you receive an error. You can use the -force option to enable the standard firewall default ports.
You can use the default setting or configure the firewall settings to meet the needs of your environment
by specifying which ports or port services to allow. You can also turn off the firewall to deactivate the
settings.
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209
About this task
Use the following tasks at the Virtual I/O Server command line to configure the Virtual I/O Server
firewall settings:
Procedure
1. Enable the Virtual I/O Server firewall by running the following command:
viosecure -firewall on
2. Specify the ports to allow or deny, by using the following command:
viosecure -firwall allow | deny -port number
3. View the current firewall settings by running the following command:
viosecure -firewall view
4. If you want to disable the firewall configuration, run the following command:
viosecure -firewall off
Configuring a Kerberos client on the Virtual I/O Server
You can configure a Kerberos client on the Virtual I/O Server to enhance security in communications
across the Internet.
Before you begin
Before you start, ensure that the Virtual I/O Server Version 1.5 or later.
About this task
Kerberos is a network authentication protocol that provides authentication for client and server
applications by using a secret-key cyrptography. It negotiates authenticated, and optionally encrypted,
communications between two points anywhere on the Internet. Kerberos authentication generally works
as follows:
1. A Kerberos client sends a request for a ticket to the Key Distribution Center (KDC).
2. The KDC creates a ticket-granting ticket (TGT) for the client and encrypts it using the client's
password as the key.
3. The KDC returns the encrypted TGT to the client.
4. The client attempts to decrypt the TGT, using its password.
5. If the client successfully decrypts the TGT (for example, if the client gives the correct password), the
client keeps the decrypted TGT. The TGT indicates proof of the client's identity.
Procedure
To configure a Kerberos client on the Virtual I/O Server, run the follwoing command.
mkkrb5clnt -c KDC_server -r realm_name \ -s Kerberos_server -d Kerberos_client
Where:
v KDC_server is the name of the KDC server.
v realm_name is the name of the realm to which you want to configure the Kerberos client.
v Kerberos_server is the fully qualified host name of the Kerberos server.
v Kerberos_client is the domain name of the Kerberos client.
For example:
mkkrb5clnt -c bob.kerberso.com -r KERBER.COM \ -s bob.kerberso.com -d testbox.com
210
Virtual I/O Server
In this example, you configure the Kerberos client, testbox.com, to the Kerberos server, bob.kerberso.com.
The KDC is running on bob.kerberso.com.
Using role-based access control with the Virtual I/O Server
With Virtual I/O Server Version 2.2, and later, a system administrator can define roles based on job
functions in an organization by using role-based access control (RBAC).
A system administrator can use role-based access control (RBAC) to define roles for users in the Virtual
I/O Server. A role confers a set of permissions or authorizations to the assigned user. Thus, a user can
only perform a specific set of system functions depending on the access rights that are given. For
example, if the system administrator creates the role UserManagement with authorization to access user
management commands and assigns this role to a user, that user can manage users on the system but has
no further access rights.
The benefits of using role-based access control with the Virtual I/O Server are as follows:
v Splitting system management functions
v Providing better security by granting only necessary access rights to users
v Implementing and enforcing system management and access control consistently
v Managing and auditing system functions with ease
Authorizations
The Virtual I/O Server creates authorizations that closely emulate the authorizations of the AIX operating
system. The authorizations emulate naming conventions and descriptions, but are only applicable to the
Virtual I/O Server specific requirements. By default, the padmin user is granted all the authorizations on
the Virtual I/O Server, and can run all the commands. The other types of users (created by using the
mkuser command) retain their command execution permissions.
The mkauth command creates a new user-defined authorization in the authorization database. You can
create authorization hierarchies by using a dot (.) in the auth parameter to create an authorization of the
form ParentAuth.SubParentAuth.SubSubParentAuth.... All parent elements in the auth parameter must exist
in the authorization database before the authorization is created. The maximum number of parent
elements that you can use to create an authorization is eight.
You can set authorization attributes when you create authorizations through the Attribute=Value
parameter. Every authorization that you create must have a value for the id authorization attribute. If
you do not specify the id attribute using the mkauth command, the command automatically generates a
unique ID for the authorization. If you specify an ID, the value must be unique and greater than 15000.
The IDs 1 - 15000 are reserved for system-defined authorizations.
Naming convention:
The system-defined authorizations in the Virtual I/O Server start with vios.. Hence, user-defined
authorizations must not start with vios. or aix.. Since the authorizations that start with vios. and aix. are
considered system-defined authorizations, users cannot add any further hierarchies to these
authorizations.
Restriction:
Unlike in the AIX operating system, users cannot create authorizations for all Virtual I/O Server
commands. In the AIX operating system, an authorized user can create a hierarchy of authorizations for
all the commands. However, in the Virtual I/O Server, authorizations can only be created for the
Virtual I/O Server
211
commands or scripts owned by the user. Users cannot create any authorizations that start with vios. or
aix. since they are considered system-defined authorizations. Hence, users cannot add any further
hierarchies to these authorizations.
Authorization names must not begin with a dash (-), plus sign (+), at sign (@), or tilde (~). They must not
contain spaces, tabs, or newline characters. You cannot use the keywords ALL, default,
ALLOW_OWNER, ALLOW_GROUP, ALLOW_ALL, or an asterisk (*) as an authorization name. Do not
use the following characters within an authorization string:
v : (colon)
v " (quotation mark)
v # (number sign)
v , (comma)
v = (equal sign)
v \ (backslash)
v
v
v
v
/ (forward slash)
? (question mark)
' (single quotation mark)
` (grave accent)
The following table lists the authorizations corresponding to the Virtual I/O Server commands. The vios
and subsequent child authorizations, for example, vios and vios.device are not used. If a user is given a
role that has either the parent or subsequent child authorization, for example, vios or vios.device, that
user will have access to all the subsequent children authorizations and their related commands. For
example, a role with the authorization vios.device, gives the user access to all vios.device.config and
vios.device.manage authorizations and their related commands.
Table 47. Authorizations corresponding to Virtual I/O Server commands
Command
Command options
Authorization
activatevg
All
vios.lvm.manage.varyon
alert
All
vios.system.cluster.alert
alt_root_vg
All
vios.lvm.change.altrootvg
artexdiff
All
vios.system.rtexpert.diff
artexget
All
vios.system.rtexpert.get
artexlist
All
vios.system.rtexpert.list
artexmerge
All
vios.system.rtexpert.merge
artexset
All
vios.system.rtexpert.set
backup
All
vios.fs.backup
backupios
All
vios.install.backup
bootlist
All
vios.install.bootlist
cattracerpt
All
vios.system.trace.format
cfgassist
All
vios.security.cfgassist
cfgdev
All
vios.device.config
cfglnagg
All
vios.network.config.lnagg
cfgnamesrv
All
vios.system.dns
cfgsvc
All
vios.system.config.agent
chauth
All
vios.security.auth.change
chbdsp
All
vios.device.manage.backing.change
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Virtual I/O Server
Table 47. Authorizations corresponding to Virtual I/O Server commands (continued)
Command
Command options
Authorization
chdate
All
vios.system.config.date.change
chdev
All
vios.device.manage.change
checkfs
All
vios.fs.check
chedition
All
vios.system.edition
chkdev
All
vios.device.manage.check
chlang
All
vios.system.config.locale
chlv
All
vios.lvm.manage.change
chpath
All
vios.device.manage.path.change
chrep
All
vios.device.manage.repos.change
chrole
All
vios.security.role.change
chsp
All
vios.device.manage.spool.change
chtcpip
All
vios.network.tcpip.change
chuser
All
vios.security.user.change
chvg
All
vios.lvm.manage.change
chvlog
All
vios.device.manage.vlog.change
chvlrepo
All
vios.device.manage.vlrepo.change
chvopt
All
vios.device.manage.optical.change
cl_snmp
All
vios.security.manage.snmp.query
cleandisk
All
aix.system.cluster
cluster
All
vios.system.cluster.create
cplv
All
vios.lvm.manage.copy
cpvdi
All
vios.lvm.manage.copy
deactivatevg
All
vios.lvm.manage.varyoff
diagmenu
All
vios.system.diagnostics
dsmc
All
vios.system.manage.tsm
entstat
All
vios.network.stat.ent
errlog
-rm
vios.system.log
Others
vios.system.log.view
exportvg
All
vios.lvm.manage.export
extendlv
All
vios.lvm.manage.extend
extendvg
All
vios.lvm.manage.extend
fcstat
All
vios.network.stat.fc
fsck
All
vios.fs.check
hostmap
All
vios.system.config.address
hostname
All
vios.system.config.hostname
importvg
All
vios.lvm.manage.import
invscout
All
vios.system.firmware.scout
ioslevel
All
vios.system.level
ldapadd
All
vios.security.manage.ldap.add
ldapsearch
All
vios.security.manage.ldap.search
Virtual I/O Server
213
Table 47. Authorizations corresponding to Virtual I/O Server commands (continued)
Command
Command options
Authorization
ldfware
All
vios.system.firmware.load
license
-accept
vios.system.license
Others
vios.system.license.view
loadopt
All
vios.device.manage.optical.load
loginmsg
All
vios.security.user.login.msg
lsauth
All
vios.security.auth.list
lsdev
All
vios.device.manage.list
lsfailedlogin
All
vios.security.user.login.fail
lsfware
All
vios.system.firmware.list
lsgcl
All
vios.security.log.list
lslparinfo
All
vios.system.lpar.list
lslv
All
vios.lvm.manage.list
lsmap
All
vios.device.manage.map.phyvirt
lsnetsvc
All
vios.network.service.list
lsnports
All
vios.device.manage.list
lspath
All
vios.device.manage.list
lspv
All
vios.device.manage.list
lsrep
All
vios.device.manage.repos.list
lsrole
All
vios.security.role.list
lssecattr
-c
vios.security.cmd.list
-d
vios.security.device.list
-f
vios.security.file.list
-p
vios.security.proc.list
lssp
All
vios.device.manage.spool.list
lssvc
All
vios.system.config.agent.list
lssw
All
vios.system.software.list
lstcpip
All
vios.network.tcpip.list
lsuser
All
vios.security.user.list
Note: Any user can run this command to view a minimal
set of user attributes. However, only users with this
authorization can view all the user attributes.
lsvg
All
vios.lvm.manage.list
lsvlog
All
vios.device.manage.vlog.list
lsvlrepo
All
vios.device.manage.vlrepo.list
lsvopt
All
vios.device.manage.optical.list
migratepv
All
vios.device.manage.migrate
mirrorios
All
vios.lvm.manage.mirrorios.create
mkauth
All
vios.security.auth.create
mkbdsp
All
vios.device.manage.backing.create
mkkrb5clnt
All
vios.security.manage.kerberos.create
mkldap
All
vios.security.manage.ldap.create
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Table 47. Authorizations corresponding to Virtual I/O Server commands (continued)
Command
Command options
Authorization
mklv
All
vios.lvm.manage.create
mklvcopy
All
vios.lvm.manage.mirror.create
mkpath
All
vios.device.manage.path.create
mkrep
All
vios.device.manage.repos.create
mkrole
All
vios.security.role.create
mksp
All
vios.device.manage.spool.create
mktcpip
All
vios.network.tcpip.config
mkuser
All
vios.security.user.create
mkvdev
-fbo
vios.device.manage.create.virtualdisk
-lnagg
vios.device.manage.create.lnagg
-sea
vios.device.manage.create.sea
-vdev
vios.device.manage.create.virtualdisk
-vlan
vios.device.manage.create.vlan
mkvg
All
vios.lvm.manage.create
mkvlog
All
vios.device.manage.vlog.create
mkvopt
All
vios.device.manage.optical.create
motd
All
vios.security.user.msg
mount
All
vios.fs.mount
netstat
All
vios.network.tcpip.list
optimizenet
All
vios.network.config.tune
oem_platform_level
All
vios.system.level
oem_setup_env
All
vios.oemsetupenv
passwd
All
vios.security.passwd
Note: A user can change the password without having
this authorization. This authorization is required only if
the user wants to change the password of other users.
pdump
All
vios.system.dump.platform
ping
All
vios.network.ping
postprocesssvc
All
vios.system.config.agent
prepdev
All
vios.device.config.prepare
redefvg
All
vios.lvm.manage.reorg
reducevg
All
vios.lvm.manage.change
refreshvlan
All
vios.network.config.refvlan
remote_management
All
vios.system.manage.remote
replphyvol
All
vios.device.manage.replace
restore
All
vios.fs.backup
restorevgstruct
All
vios.lvm.manage.restore
rmauth
All
vios.security.auth.remove
rmbdsp
All
vios.device.manage.backing.remove
rmdev
All
vios.device.manage.remove
rmlv
All
vios.lvm.manage.remove
Virtual I/O Server
215
Table 47. Authorizations corresponding to Virtual I/O Server commands (continued)
Command
Command options
Authorization
rmlvcopy
All
vios.lvm.manage.mirror.remove
rmpath
All
vios.device.manage.path.remove
rmrep
All
vios.device.manage.repos.remove
rmrole
All
vios.security.role.remove
rmsecattr
-c
vios.security.cmd.remove
-d
vios.security.device.remove
-f
vios.security.file.remove
rmsp
All
vios.device.manage.spool.remove
rmtcpip
All
vios.network.tcpip.remove
rmuser
All
vios.security.user.remove
rmvdev
All
vios.device.manage.remove
rmvlog
All
vios.device.manage.vlog.remove
rmvopt
All
vios.device.manage.optical.remove
rolelist
-p
vios.security.proc.role.list
Note: You can run other options of this command without
having any authorizations.
-u
vios.security.role.list
savevgstruct
All
vios.lvm.manage.save
save_base
All
vios.device.manage.saveinfo
seastat
All
vios.network.stat.sea
setkst
All
vios.security.kst.set
setsecattr
-c
vios.security.cmd.set
-d
vios.security.device.set
-f
vios.security.file.set
-o
vios.security.domain.set
-p
vios.security.proc.set
showmount
All
vios.fs.mount.show
shutdown
All
vios.system.boot.shutdown
snap
All
vios.system.trace.format
snapshot
All
vios.device.manage.backing.create
snmp_info
All
vios.security.manage.snmp.info
snmpv3_ssw
All
vios.security.manage.snmp.switch
snmp_trap
All
vios.security.manage.snmp.trap
startnetsvc
All
vios.network.service.start
startsvc
All
vios.system.config.agent.start
startsysdump
All
vios.system.dump
starttrace
All
vios.system.trace.start
stopnetsvc
All
vios.network.service.stop
stopsvc
All
vios.system.config.agent.stop
stoptrace
All
vios.system.trace.stop
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Table 47. Authorizations corresponding to Virtual I/O Server commands (continued)
Command
Command options
Authorization
svmon
All
vios.system.stat.memory
syncvg
All
vios.lvm.manage.sync
sysstat
All
vios.system.stat.list
topas
All
vios.system.config.topas
topasrec
All
vios.system.config.topasrec
tracepriv
All
vios.security.priv.trace
traceroute
All
vios.network.route.trace
uname
All
vios.system.uname
unloadopt
All
vios.device.manage.optical.unload
unmirrorios
All
vios.lvm.manage.mirrorios.remove
unmount
All
vios.fs.unmount
updateios
All
vios.install
vasistat
All
vios.network.stat.vasi
vfcmap
All
vios.device.manage.map.virt
viosbr
-view
vios.system.backup.cfg.view
Others
vios.system.backup.cfg
Note: To run any other options of this command, this
authorization is required.
viosecure
All
vios.security.manage.firewall
viostat
All
vios.system.stat.io
vmstat
All
vios.system.stat.memory
wkldagent
All
vios.system.manage.workload.agent
wkldmgr
All
vios.system.manage.workload.manager
wkldout
All
vios.system.manage.workload.process
Roles
The Virtual I/O Server retains its current roles and will have the appropriate authorizations assigned to
the roles. Additional roles that closely emulate the roles in the AIX operating system can be created. The
roles emulate naming conventions and descriptions, but are only applicable to the Virtual I/O Server
specific requirements. Users cannot view, use, or modify any of the default roles in the AIX operating
system.
The following roles are the default roles in the AIX operating system. These roles are unavailable to the
Virtual I/O Server users, and are not displayed.
v AccountAdmin
v BackupRestore
v DomainAdmin
v FSAdmin
v SecPolicy
v SysBoot
v SysConfig
v isso
Virtual I/O Server
217
v sa
v so
The following roles are the default roles in the Virtual I/O Server:
v Admin
v DEUser
v PAdmin
v RunDiagnostics
v SRUser
v SYSAdm
v ViewOnly
The mkrole command creates a role. The newrole parameter must be a unique role name. You cannot use
the ALL or default keywords as the role name. Every role must have a unique role ID that is used for
security decisions. If you do not specify the id attribute when you create a role, the mkrole command
automatically assigns a unique ID to the role.
Naming convention:
There is no standard naming convention for roles. However, existing names of roles cannot be used for
creating roles.
Restriction:
The role parameter cannot contain spaces, tabs, or newline characters. To prevent inconsistencies, restrict
role names to characters in the POSIX portable file name character set. You cannot use the keywords ALL
or default as a role name. Do not use the following characters within a role-name string:
v : (colon)
v " (quotation mark)
v # (number sign)
v , (comma)
v = (equal sign)
v \ (backslash)
v / (forward slash)
v ? (question mark)
v ' (single quotation mark)
v ` (grave accent)
Privileges
A Privilege is an attribute of a process through which the process can bypass specific restrictions and
limitations of the system. Privileges are associated with a process and are acquired by running a
privileged command. Privileges are defined as bit-masks in the operating system kernel and enforce
access control over privileged operations. For example, the privilege bit PV_KER_TIME might control the
kernel operation to modify the system date and time. Nearly 80 privileges are included with the
operating system and provide granular control over privileged operations. You can acquire the least
privilege required to perform an operation through division of privileged operations in the kernel. This
feature leads to enhanced security because a process hacker can only get access to one or two privileges
in the system, and not to root user privileges.
218
Virtual I/O Server
Authorizations and roles are a user-level tool to configure user access to privileged operations. Privileges
are the restriction mechanism used in the operating system kernel to determine if a process has
authorization to perform an action. Hence, if a user is in a role session that has an authorization to run a
command, and that command is run, a set of privileges are assigned to the process. There is no direct
mapping of authorizations and roles to privileges. Access to several commands can be provided through
an authorization. Each of those commands can be granted a different set of privileges.
The following table lists the commands related to role-based access control (RBAC).
Table 48. RBAC commands and their descriptions
Command
Description
chauth
Modifies attributes of the authorization that is identified by the newauth parameter
chrole
Changes attributes of the role identified by the role parameter
lsauth
Displays attributes of user-defined and system-defined authorizations from the
authorization database
lsrole
Displays the role attributes
lssecattr
Lists the security attributes of one or more commands, devices, or processes
mkauth
Creates new user-defined authorizations in the authorization database
mkrole
Creates new roles
rmauth
Removes the user-defined authorization identified by the auth parameter
rmrole
Removes the role identified by the role parameter from the roles database
rmsecattr
Removes the security attributes for a command, a device, or a file entry that is
identified by the Name parameter from the appropriate database
rolelist
Provides role and authorization information to the caller about the roles assigned to
them
setkst
Reads the security databases and loads the information from the databases into the
kernel security tables
setsecattr
Sets the security attributes of the command, device, or process that are specified by
the Name parameter
swrole
Creates a role session with the roles that are specified by the Role parameter
tracepriv
Records the privileges that a command attempts to use when the command is run
Managing users on the Virtual I/O Server
You can create, list, change, switch, and remove users by using Virtual I/O Server or the Tivoli Identity
Manager.
About this task
When the Virtual I/O Server is installed, the only user type that is active is the prime administrator
(padmin having the default role PAdmin). The prime administrator can create additional user IDs with
types of system administrator, service representative, development engineer, or other users with different
roles.
Note: You cannot create the prime administrator (padmin) user ID. It is automatically created, enabled,
and the role PAdmin is assigned as the default role after the Virtual I/O Server is installed.
The following table lists the user management tasks available on the Virtual I/O Server, as well as the
commands you must run to accomplish each task.
Virtual I/O Server
219
Table 49. Tasks and associated commands for working with Virtual I/O Server users
Task
Command
Change passwords
cfgassist
Create a system administrator user ID
mkuser. This assigns Admin as the default role.
Create a service representative (SR) user ID
mkuser with the -sr flag. This assigns SRUser as the
default role.
Create a development engineer (DE) user ID
mkuser with the -de flag. This assigns DEUser as the
default role.
Create users with varied access rights
mkuser with the -attr flag by specifying roles and
default_roles attributes. This assigns users with varied
access rights, enabling them to access a varied set of
commands.
Create an LDAP user
mkuser with the -ldap flag
List a user's attributes
lsuser
For example, determine whether a user is an LDAP user.
Change a user's attributes
chuser
Switch to another user
su
Remove a user
rmuser
You can use the Tivoli Identity Manager to automate the management of Virtual I/O Server users. Tivoli
Identity Manager provides a Virtual I/O Server adapter that acts as an interface between the Virtual I/O
Server and the Tivoli Identity Manager Server. The adapter acts as a trusted virtual administrator on the
Virtual I/O Server, performing tasks like the following:
v
v
v
v
v
Creating a user ID to authorize access to the Virtual I/O Server.
Modifying an existing user ID to access the Virtual I/O Server.
Removing access from a user ID. This deletes the user ID from the Virtual I/O Server.
Suspending a user account by temporarily deactivating access to the Virtual I/O Server.
Restoring a user account by reactivating access to the Virtual I/O Server.
v Changing a user account password on the Virtual I/O Server.
v Reconciling the user information of all current users on the Virtual I/O Server.
v Reconciling the user information of a particular user account on the Virtual I/O Server by performing
a lookup.
For more information, see the Tivoli Identity Manager product manuals.
Troubleshooting the Virtual I/O Server
Find information about diagnosing Virtual I/O Server problems and information about how to correct
those problems.
This section includes information about troubleshooting the Virtual I/O Server. For information about
troubleshooting the Integrated Virtualization Manager, see Troubleshooting the Integrated Virtualization
Manager.
Troubleshooting the Virtual I/O Server logical partition
Find information and procedures for troubleshooting and diagnosing the Virtual I/O Server logical
partition.
220
Virtual I/O Server
Troubleshooting virtual SCSI problems
Find information and procedures for troubleshooting virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI)
problems in the Virtual I/O Server.
About this task
For problem determination and maintenance, use the diagmenu command provided by the Virtual I/O
Server.
If you are still having problems after using the diagmenu command, contact your next level of support
and ask for assistance.
in the Service provider information
Refer to the AIX fast-path problem-isolation documentation
because, in certain cases, the diagnostic procedures described in the AIX fast-path problem-isolation
documentation are not available from the diagmenu command menu.
Correcting a failed Shared Ethernet Adapter configuration
You can troubleshoot errors that occur when you configure a Shared Ethernet Adapter, such as those that
result in message 0514-040, by using the lsdev, netstat, and entstat commands.
Before you begin
When you configure a Shared Ethernet Adapter the configuration can fail with the following error:
Method error (/usr/lib/methods/cfgsea):
0514-040 Error initializing a device into the kernel.
About this task
To correct the problem, complete the following steps:
Procedure
1. Verify that the physical and virtual adapters that are being used to create the shared Ethernet adapter
are available by running the following command:
lsdev -type adapter
2. Make sure that the interface of neither the physical nor any of the virtual adapters are configured.
Run the following command:
netstat -state
Important: None of the interfaces of the adapters must be listed in the output. If any interface name
(for example, en0) does is listed in the output, detach it as follows:
chdev -dev interface_name -attr state=detach
You might want to perform this step from a console connection because it is possible that detaching
this interface will end your network connection to the Virtual I/O Server.
3. Verify that the virtual adapters that are used for data are trunk adapters by running the following
command:
entstat -all entX | grep Trunk
Note:
v The trunk adapter does not apply to the virtual adapter that is used as the control channel in a
Shared Ethernet Adapter Failover configuration.
v If any of the virtual adapters that are used for data are not trunk adapters, you need to enable
them to access external networks from the HMC.
Virtual I/O Server
221
4. Verify that the physical device and the virtual adapters in the Shared Ethernet Adapter are in
agreement on the checksum offload setting:
a. Determine the checksum offload setting on physical device by running the following command:
lsdev -dev device_name -attr chksum_offload
where device_name is the name of the physical device. For example, ent0.
b. If chksum_offload is set to yes, enable checksum offload for all of the virtual adapters in the
Shared Ethernet Adapter by running the following command:
chdev -dev device_name -attr chksum_offload=yes
Where device_name is the name of a virtual adapter in the Shared Ethernet Adapter. For example,
ent2.
c. If chksum_offload is set to no, disable checksum offload for all of the virtual adapters in the Shared
Ethernet Adapter by running the following command:
chdev -dev device_name -attr chksum_offload=no
where device_name is the name of a virtual adapter in the Shared Ethernet Adapter.
d. If there is no output, the physical device does not support checksum offload and therefore does
not have the attribute. To resolve the error, disable checksum offload for all of the virtual adapters
in the Shared Ethernet Adapter by running the following command:
chdev -dev device_name -attr chksum_offload=no
where device_name is the name of a virtual adapter in the Shared Ethernet Adapter.
5. If the real adapter is a Host Ethernet Adapter port, also known as, a Logical Integrated Virtual
Ethernet adapter port, make sure that the Virtual I/O Server has been configured as the promiscuous
logical partition for the physical port of the logical Integrated Virtual Ethernet adapter from the HMC.
Debugging problems with Ethernet connectivity
You can determine Ethernet connectivity problems by examining Ethernet statistics produced by the
entstat command. Then, you can debug the problems using the starttrace and stoptrace commands.
About this task
To help debug problems with Ethernet connectivity, follow these steps:
Procedure
1. Verify that the source client logical partition can ping another client logical partition on the same
system without going through the Virtual I/O Server. If this fails, the problem is likely in the client
logical partition's virtual Ethernet setup. If the ping is successful, proceed to the next step.
2. Start a ping on the source logical partition to a destination machine so that the packets are sent
through the Virtual I/O Server. This ping will most likely fail. Proceed to the next step with the ping
test running.
3. On the Virtual I/O Server, type the following command:
entstat –all SEA_adapter
where SEA_adapter is the name of your Shared Ethernet Adapter.
4. Verify that the VLAN ID to which the logical partition belongs is associated with the correct virtual
adapter in the VLAN IDs section of the output. Examine the ETHERNET STATISTICS for the virtual
adapter for this VLAN and verify that the packet counts under the Receive statistics column are
increasing.
This verifies that the packets are being received by the Virtual I/O Server through the correct adapter.
If the packets are not being received, the problem might be in the virtual adapter configuration. Verify
the VLAN ID information for the adapters using the Hardware Management Console (HMC).
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Virtual I/O Server
5. Examine the ETHERNET STATISTICS for the physical adapter for this VLAN and verify that the packet
counts under the Transmit statistics column are increasing. This step verifies that the packets are
being sent out of the Virtual I/O Server.
v If this count is increasing, then the packets are going out of the physical adapter. Continue to step
6.
v If this count is not increasing, then the packets are not going out of the physical adapter, and to
further debug the problem, you must begin the system trace utility. Follow the instructions in step 9
to collect a system trace, statistical information, and the configuration description. Contact service
and support if you need to debug the problem further.
6. Verify that the target system outside (on physical side of Virtual I/O Server) is receiving packets and
sending out replies. If this is not happening, either the wrong physical adapter is associated with the
Shared Ethernet Adapter or the Ethernet switch might not be configured correctly.
7. Examine the ETHERNET STATISTICS for the physical adapter for this VLAN and verify that the packet
counts under the Receive statistics column are increasing. This step verifies that the ping replies are
being received by the Virtual I/O Server. If this count is not increasing, the switch might not be
configured correctly.
8. Examine the ETHERNET STATISTICS for the virtual adapter for this VLAN and verify that the packet
counts under the Transmit statistics column are increasing. This step verifies that the packet is
being transmitted by the Virtual I/O Server through the correct virtual adapter. If this count is not
increasing, start the system trace utility. Follow the instructions in step 9 to collect a system trace,
statistical information, and the configuration description. Work with service and support to debug the
problem further.
9. Use the Virtual I/O Server trace utility to debug connectivity problems. Start a system trace using the
starttrace command specifying the trace hook ID. The trace hook ID for Shared Ethernet Adapter is
48F. Use the stoptrace command to stop the trace. Use the cattracerpt command to read the trace
log, format the trace entries, and write a report to standard output.
Enabling noninteractive shells on Virtual I/O Server 1.3 or later
After upgrading the Virtual I/O Server to 1.3 or later, you can enable noninteractive shells using the
startnetsvc command.
Before you begin
If you installed OpenSSH on a level of the Virtual I/O Server prior to 1.3, and then upgraded to 1.3 or
later, noninteractive shells might not work because the SSH configuration file needs modification.
Procedure
To enable noninteractive shells in Virtual I/O Server 1.3 or later, run the following command from the
SSH client:
ioscli startnetsvc ssh
Note: You can run the startnetsvc command when the SSH service is running. In this situation, the
command appears to fail, but is successful.
Recovering when disks cannot be located
Learn how to recover from disks not displaying when trying to boot or install a client logical partition.
About this task
Occasionally, the disk that is needed to install the client logical partition cannot be located. In this
situation, if the client is already installed, start the client logical partition. Ensure that you have the latest
levels of the software and firmware. Then ensure that the Slot number of the virtual Small Computer
Virtual I/O Server
223
Serial Interface (SCSI) server adapter matches the Remote partition virtual slot number of the virtual
SCSI client adapter.
Procedure
1. Ensure that you have the latest levels of the Hardware Management Console, firmware, and Virtual
I/O Server. Follow these steps:
a. To check whether you have the latest level of the HMC, see the Installing and configuring the
Hardware Management Console. For more information about Installing and configuring the
Hardware Management Console, see Installing and configuring the Hardware Management
Console.
b. Ensure that you have the latest firmware.
2. Ensure the server virtual SCSI adapter slot number is mapped correctly to the client logical partition
remote slot number:
a. In the navigation area, expand Systems Management > Servers and click the server on which the
Virtual I/O Server logical partition is located.
b. In the contents area, select the Virtual I/O Server logical partition.
c. Click Tasks and select Properties.
d. Click the Virtual Adapters tab.
e. Click Virtual SCSI.
f. If the values of the Remote Partition and Remote Adapter are Any Partition and Any Partition
Slot, then complete the following steps:
v Expand Virtual SCSI and click the slot number.
v Select Only selected client partition can connect.
v Enter the client logical partition's ID and adapter and click OK
v Click Virtual SCSI.
g. Record values of the Remote Partition and Remote Adapter. These values represent the client
logical partition and the slot number of the client's virtual SCSI adapter that can connect to the
associated server adapter. For example, the values of Remote Partition, Remote Adapter, and
Adapter are as follows: AIX_client, 2, 3. This means that virtual SCSI adapter 2 on the client
logical partition AIX_client can connect to the Virtual I/O Server virtual SCSI adapter 3.
h. Repeat steps a through g for the client logical partition.
3. Ensure the server virtual SCSI adapter slot number is mapped correctly to the client logical partition
remote slot number. Follow these steps:
a. Right-click the server profile, and select Properties.
b. Click the Virtual I/O Server tab.
c. If the Only selected remote partition and slot can connect radio button is not selected, select it.
d. Note the Remote partition and Remote partition virtual slot number values. This shows the
client logical partition name and the client logical partition virtual slot number. This is the client
logical partition and slot number that can connect to the slot given in the Slot number dialog box
at the top of the Virtual SCSI Adapter Properties window.
e. Repeat items a through e in this step for the client logical partition.
4. The Adapter value on the client logical partition must match the Remote Adapter on the Virtual I/O
Server logical partition, and the Adapter value on the Virtual I/O Server logical partition must match
the Remote Adapter on the client logical partition. If these numbers do not match, from the HMC,
modify the profile properties to reflect the correct mapping.
5. From the Virtual I/O Server command line, type cfgdev.
6. Shut down and reactivate the client logical partition.
7. From the Virtual I/O Server command line, type lsmap -all. You see results similar to the following:
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Virtual I/O Server
SVSA
Physloc
Client Partition ID
--------------- -------------------------------------------- -----------------vhost0
U9113.550.10BE8DD-V1-C3
0x00000002
VTD
LUN
Backing device
Physloc
vhdisk0
0x8100000000000000
hdisk5
U787B.001.DNW025F-P1-C5-T1-W5005076300C10899-L536F000000000000
In this example, the client logical partition ID is 2 (0x00000002).
Note: If the client logical partition is not yet installed, the Client Partition ID is 0x00000000.
The slot number of the server SCSI adapter is displayed under Physloc column. The digits following
the -C specify the slot number. In this case, the slot number is 3.
8. From the Virtual I/O Server command line, type lsdev -virtual. You see results similar to the
following:
name
status
description
vhost0
Available
Virtual SCSI Server Adapter
vhdisk0
Available
Virtual Target Device - Disk
What to do next
Note: As an alternative to the HMC, you can use the Systems Director Management Console (SDMC) to
recover from disks not displaying when trying to boot or install a client logical partition.
Related information:
Recovering when disks cannot be located by using the SDMC
Troubleshooting AIX client logical partitions
Find information and procedures for troubleshooting AIX client logical partitions.
About this task
If your client partition is using virtual I/O resources, check the Service Focal Point™ and Virtual I/O
Server first to ensure that the problem is not on the server.
On client partitions running the current level of AIX, when a hardware error is logged on the server and
a corresponding error is logged on the client partition, the Virtual I/O Server provides a correlation error
message in the error report.
Run the following command to gather an error report:
errpt -a
Running the errpt command returns results similar to the following:
LABEL:
IDENTIFIER:
VSCSI_ERR2
857033C6
Date/Time:
Sequence Number:
Machine Id:
Node Id:
Class:
Type:
Resource Name:
Tue Feb 15 09:18:11 2005
50
00C25EEE4C00
vio_client53A
S
TEMP
vscsi2
Description
Underlying transport error
Virtual I/O Server
225
Probable Causes
PROCESSOR
Failure Causes
PROCESSOR
Recommended Actions
PERFORM PROBLEM DETERMINATION PROCEDURES
Detail Data
Error Log Type
01
Reserve
00
Error Number
0006
RC
0000 0002
VSCSI Pointer
Compare the LABEL, IDENTIFIER, and Error Number values from your error report to the values in the
following table to help identify the problem and determine a resolution.
Table 50. Labels, identifiers, error numbers, problem descriptions, and resolutions of common virtual Small Computer
Serial Interface (SCSI) client logical partition problems
Label
Identifier
Error Number
0006
RC
0000 0002
VSCSI_ERR2
857033C6
001C
RC
0000 0000
000D
RC
FFFF FFF0
VSCSI_ERR3
ED995F18
000D
RC
FFFF FFF9
Problem
Resolution
The virtual SCSI
server adapter on the
Virtual I/O Server
logical partition is not
open.
Make the server
adapter on the Virtual
I/O Server logical
partition available for
use.
The virtual SCSI
server adapter on the
Virtual I/O Server
logical partition has
been closed abruptly.
Determine why the
server adapter in the
Virtual I/O Server
logical partition was
closed.
The virtual SCSI
server adapter on the
Virtual I/O Server
logical partition is
being used by
another client logical
partition.
Terminate the client
logical partition that
is using the server
adapter.
The virtual SCSI
server adapter
(partition number
and slot number)
specified in the client
adapter definition
does not exist.
On the HMC, correct
the client adapter
definition to associate
it with a valid server
adapter.
Reference information for the Virtual I/O Server
Find reference information about the Virtual I/O Server commands, configuration attributes for Tivoli
agents and clients, networking statistics and attributes, and Virtual I/O Server user types.
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Virtual I/O Server
Virtual I/O Server and Integrated Virtualization Manager command
descriptions
You can view a description of each Virtual I/O Server and Integrated Virtualization Manager command.
For more information about Virtual I/O Server and Integrated Virtualization Manager commands, see
Virtual I/O Server and Integrated Virtualization Manager commands.
Configuration attributes for Tivoli agents and clients
Learn about required and optional configuration attributes and variables for the Tivoli Monitoring agent,
the Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager agent, the Tivoli Storage Manager client, and the TotalStorage
Productivity Center agents.
In the following tables, the term attribute refers to an option that you can add to a Virtual I/O Server
command. The term variable refers to an option that you can specify in a configuration file for Tivoli
Storage Manager or Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager.
Tivoli Monitoring
Table 51. Tivoli Monitoring configuration attributes
Attribute
Description
HOSTNAME
The host name or IP address of the Tivoli Enterprise
Monitoring Server (TEMS) server to which the
monitoring agent sends data.
MANAGING_SYSTEM
The host name or IP address of the Hardware
Management Console (HMC) attached to the managed
system on which the Virtual I/O Server with the
monitoring agent is located. You can specify only one
HMC per monitoring agent.
If you do not specify the MANAGING_SYSTEM
attribute, the Virtual I/O Server uses the Resource
Monitoring and Control (RMC) connection to obtain the
host name of IP address of the HMC.
If the monitoring agent is running on the Integrated
Virtualization Manager, then you do not need to specify
the MANAGING_SYSTEM attribute.
RESTART_ON_REBOOT
Determines whether the monitoring agent restarts
whenever the Virtual I/O Server restarts. TRUE indicates
that the monitoring agent restarts whenever the Virtual
I/O Server restarts. FALSE indicates that the monitoring
agent does not restart whenever the Virtual I/O Server
restarts.
Tivoli Storage Manager
Table 52. Tivoli Storage Manager configuration attributes
Attribute
Description
SERVERNAME
The host name of the Tivoli Storage Manager server to
which the Tivoli Storage Manager client is associated.
SERVERIP
The IP address or domain name of the Tivoli Storage
Manager server to which the Tivoli Storage Manager
client is associated.
Virtual I/O Server
227
Table 52. Tivoli Storage Manager configuration attributes (continued)
Attribute
Description
NODENAME
The name of the machine on which the Tivoli Storage
Manager client is installed.
Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager
Table 53. Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager configuration variables in the A_config.par file
Variable
Description
Possible values
AACCT_TRANS_IDS
Designates the AIX
1, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, or 16
advanced accounting record
types included within the
usage reports.
10
AACCT_ONLY
Determines whether the
Usage and Accounting
Manager agent collects
accounting data.
Y
v Y: Indicates that the
Usage and Accounting
Manager agent collects
accounting data.
Default value
v N: Indicates that the
Usage and Accounting
Manager agent does not
collect accounting data.
ITUAM_SAMPLE
Determines whether the
v Y: Indicates that the
Usage and Accounting
Usage and Accounting
Manager agent collects data
Manager agent collects
about the storage file
data about the storage
system.
file system.
N
v N: Indicates that the
Usage and Accounting
Manager agent does not
collect data about the
storage file system.
Table 54. Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager configuration attributes
Attribute
Description
ACCT_DATA0
The size, in MB, of the first data file that holds daily
accounting information.
ACCT_DATA1
The size, in MB, of the second data file that holds daily
accounting information.
ISYSTEM
The time, in minutes, when the agent generates system
interval records.
IPROCESS
The time, in minutes, when the system generates
aggregate process records.
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Virtual I/O Server
TotalStorage Productivity Center attributes
Table 55. TotalStorage Productivity Center configuration attributes
Attribute
Description
Required or optional
S
Host name or IP address of the
TotalStorage Productivity Center
Server associated with the
TotalStorage Productivity Center
agent.
Required
A
Host name or IP address of the Agent Required
Manager.
devAuth
Password for authentication to the
TotalStorage Productivity Center
device server.
Required
caPass
Password for authentication to the
command agent.
Required
caPort
Number that identifies the port for
the common agent. The default is
9510.
Optional
amRegPort
Number that identifies the
registration port for the Agent
Manager. The default is 9511.
Optional
amPubPort
Number that identifies the public
port for the Agent Manager. The
default is 9513.
Optional
dataPort
Number that identifies the port for
the TotalStorage Productivity Center
Data server. The default is 9549.
Optional
devPort
Number that identifies the port of the Optional
TotalStorage Productivity Center
Device server. The default is 9550.
newCA
The default is true.
Optional
oldCA
The default is false.
Optional
daScan
Runs a scan for the TPC_data agent
after installation. The default is true.
Optional
daScript
Optional
Runs the script for the TPC_data
agent after installation. The default is
true.
daIntsall
Installs the TPC_data agent. The
default is true.
Optional
faInstall
Installs the TPC_fabric agent. The
default is true.
Optional
U
Uninstalls the TotalStorage
Productivity Center agents. Possible
values include:
Optional
v all
v data
v fabric
Virtual I/O Server
229
Related information:
IBM Tivoli Application Dependency Discovery Manager Information Center
IBM Tivoli Identity Manager
IBM Tivoli Monitoring version 6.2.1 documentation
IBM Tivoli Monitoring Virtual I/O Server Premium Agent User's Guide
IBM Tivoli Storage Manager
IBM Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager Information Center
IBM TotalStorage Productivity Center Information Center
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol statistics
Learn about Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU), Generic Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP), and
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) displayed by running the entstat -all command. You can
also view examples.
BPDU refers to all protocol packets that are exchanged between the switch and the Shared Ethernet
Adapter. The only bridge protocol currently available with the Shared Ethernet Adapter is GARP. GARP
is a generic protocol used to exchange attribute information between two entities. The only type of GARP
currently available on the Shared Ethernet Adapter is GVRP. With GVRP, the attributes exchanged are
VLAN values.
BPDU statistics
The BPDU statistics include all BPDU packets sent or received.
Table 56. Descriptions of BPDU statistics
BPDU statistic
Transmit
Description
Packets
Number of packets sent.
Failed packets
Number of packets that could not be sent (for
example, packets that could not be sent because
there was no memory to allocate the outgoing
packet).
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Virtual I/O Server
Table 56. Descriptions of BPDU statistics (continued)
BPDU statistic
Receive
Description
Packets
Number of packets received.
Unprocessed Packets
Packets that could not be processed because the
protocol was not running at the time.
Non-contiguous Packets
Packets that were received in several packet
fragments.
Packets with unknown PID
Packets that had a protocol ID (PID) different
than GARP. A high number is typical because
the switch might be exchanging other BPDU
protocol packets that the Shared Ethernet
Adapter does not support.
Packets with Wrong Length
Packets whose specified length (in the Ethernet
header) does not match the length of the
Ethernet packet received.
GARP statistics
The GARP statistics include those BPDU packets sent or received that are of type GARP.
Table 57. Descriptions of GARP statistics
GARP statistic
Transmit
Description
Packets
Number of packets sent.
Failed packets
Number of packets that could not be sent (for
example, packets that could not be sent because
there was no memory to allocate the outgoing
packet).
Leave All Events
Packets sent with event type Leave All.
Join Empty Events
Packets sent with event type Join Empty
Join In Events
Packets sent with event type Join In
Leave Empty Events
Packets sent with event type Leave Empty
Leave In Events
Packets sent with event type Leave In
Empty Events
Packets sent with event type Empty
Virtual I/O Server
231
Table 57. Descriptions of GARP statistics (continued)
GARP statistic
Receive
Description
Packets
Number of packets received
Unprocessed Packets
Packets that could not be processed because the
protocol was not running at the time.
Packets with Unknown Attr Type:
Packets with an unsupported attribute type. A
high number is typical because the switch might
be exchanging other GARP protocol packets that
the Shared Ethernet Adapter does not support.
For example, GARP Multicast Registration
Protocol (GMRP).
Leave All Events
Packets received with event type Leave All
Join Empty Events
Packets received with event type Join Empty
Join In Events
Packets received with event type Join In
Leave Empty Events
Packets received with event type Leave Empty
Leave In Events
Packets received with event type Leave In
Empty Events
Packets received with event type Empty
GVRP statistics
The GVRP statistics include those GARP packets sent or received that are exchanging VLAN information
using GVRP.
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Virtual I/O Server
Table 58. Descriptions of GVRP statistics
GVRP statistic
Transmit
Description
Packets
Number of packets sent
Failed packets
Number of packets that could not be sent (for
example, packets that could not be sent because
there was no memory to allocate the outgoing
packet).
Leave All Events
Packets sent with event type Leave All.
Join Empty Events
Packets sent with event type Join Empty
Join In Events
Packets sent with event type Join In
Leave Empty Events
Packets sent with event type Leave Empty
Leave In Events
Packets sent with event type Leave In
Empty Events
Packets sent with event type Empty
Virtual I/O Server
233
Table 58. Descriptions of GVRP statistics (continued)
GVRP statistic
Receive
Description
Packets
Number of packets received.
Unprocessed Packets
Packets that could not be processed because the
protocol was not running at the time.
Packets with Invalid Length
Packets that contains one or more attributes
whose length does not correspond to its event
type.
Packets with Invalid Event
Packets that contain one or more attributes
whose event type is invalid.
Packets with Invalid Value
Packets that contain one or more attributes
whose value is invalid (for example, an invalid
VLAN ID).
Total Invalid Attributes
Sum of all of the attributes that had an invalid
parameter.
Total Valid Attributes
Sum of all of the attributes that had no invalid
parameters.
Leave All Events
Packets sent with event type Leave All.
Join Empty Events
Packets sent with event type Join Empty
Join In Events
Packets sent with event type Join In
Leave Empty Events
Packets sent with event type Leave Empty
Leave In Events
Packets sent with event type Leave In
Empty Events
Packets sent with event type Empty
Example statistics
Running the entstat -all command returns results similar to the following:
-------------------------------------------------------------Statistics for adapters in the Shared Ethernet Adapter ent3
-------------------------------------------------------------Number of adapters: 2
SEA Flags: 00000009
< THREAD >
< GVRP >
VLAN IDs :
ent2: 1
Real Side Statistics:
Packets received: 0
Packets bridged: 0
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Virtual I/O Server
Packets consumed: 0
Packets transmitted: 0
Packets dropped: 0
Virtual Side Statistics:
Packets received: 0
Packets bridged: 0
Packets consumed: 0
Packets transmitted: 0
Packets dropped: 0
Other Statistics:
Output packets generated: 0
Output packets dropped: 0
Device output failures: 0
Memory allocation failures: 0
ICMP error packets sent: 0
Non IP packets larger than MTU: 0
Thread queue overflow packets: 0
-------------------------------------------------------------Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDU) Statistics:
Transmit Statistics:
-------------------Packets: 2
Failed packets: 0
Receive Statistics:
------------------Packets: 1370
Unprocessed Packets: 0
Non-contiguous Packets: 0
Packets w/ Unknown PID: 1370
Packets w/ Wrong Length: 0
--------------------------------------------------------------General Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP) Statistics:
Transmit Statistic:
------------------Packets: 2
Failed packets: 0
Receive Statistics:
------------------Packets: 0
Unprocessed Packets: 0
Packets w/ Unknow Attr. Type: 0
Leave All Events: 0
Join Empty Events: 0
Join In Events: 2
Leave Empty Events: 0
Leave In Events: 0
Empty Events: 0
Leave All Events: 0
Join Empty Events: 0
Join In Events: 0
Leave Empty Events: 0
Leave In Events: 0
Empty Events: 0
--------------------------------------------------------------GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) Statistics:
Transmit Statistics:
-------------------Packets: 2
Failed packets: 0
Receive Statistics:
------------------Packets: 0
Unprocessed Packets: 0
Attributes w/ Invalid Length: 0
Attributes w/ Invalid Event: 0
Attributes w/ Invalid Value: 0
Total Invalid Attributes: 0
Total Valid Attributes: 0
Leave All Events: 0
Join Empty Events: 0
Join In Events: 2
Leave Empty Events: 0
Leave In Events: 0
Empty Events: 0
Leave All Events: 0
Join Empty Events: 0
Join In Events: 0
Leave Empty Events: 0
Leave In Events: 0
Empty Events: 0
Virtual I/O Server
235
Network attributes
Find instructions for managing network attributes.
You can use several of the Virtual I/O Server commands, including chdev, mkvdev, and cfglnagg, to
change device or network attributes. This section defines attributes that can be modified.
Ethernet attributes
You can modify the following Ethernet attributes.
Attribute
Description
Maximum Transmission
Unit (mtu)
Specifies maximum transmission unit (MTU). This value can be any number from 60
through 65535, but it is media dependent.
Interface State (state)
Network Mask (netmask)
detach
Removes an interface from the network interface list. If the last interface is
detached, the network interface driver code is unloaded. To change the
interface route of an attached interface, that interface must be detached and
added again with the chdev -dev Interface -attr state=detach command.
down
Marks an interface as inactive, which keeps the system from trying to
transmit messages through that interface. Routes that use the interface,
however, are not automatically disabled. (chdev -dev Interface -attr state=down)
up
Marks an interface as active. This parameter is used automatically when
setting the first address for an interface. It can also be used to enable an
interface after the chdev -dev Interface -attr state=up command.
Specifies how much of the address to reserve for subdividing networks into
subnetworks.
The mask includes both the network part of the local address and the subnet part,
which is taken from the host field of the address. The mask can be specified as a
single hexadecimal number beginning with 0x, in standard Internet dotted-decimal
notation.
In the 32-bit address, the mask contains bits with a value of 1 for the bit positions
reserved for the network and subnet parts, and a bit with the value of 0 for the bit
positions that specify the host. The mask contains the standard network portion, and
the subnet segment is contiguous with the network segment.
Shared Ethernet Adapter attributes
You can modify the following Shared Ethernet Adapter attributes.
Attribute
Description
PVID (pvid)
Specifies the PVID to use for the Shared Ethernet Adapter.
PVID adapter
(pvid_adapter)
Specifies the default virtual adapter to use for non-VLAN tagged packets.
Physical adapter
(real_adapter)
Specifies the physical adapter associated with the Shared Ethernet Adapter.
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Virtual I/O Server
Attribute
Description
Thread (thread)
Activates or deactivates threading on the Shared Ethernet Adapter. Activating this
option adds approximately 16 - 20% more machine cycles per transaction for MTU
1500 streaming, and approximately 31 – 38% more machine cycles per transaction for
MTU 9000. The threading option adds more machine cycles per transaction at lower
workloads due to the threads being started for each packet. At higher workload rates,
such as full duplex or the request/response workloads, the threads can run longer
without waiting and being redispatched.
Threaded mode should be used when virtual Small Computer Serial Interface (SCSI)
will be run on the same Virtual I/O Server logical partition as Shared Ethernet
Adapter. Threaded mode helps ensure that virtual SCSI and the Shared Ethernet
Adapter can share the processor resource appropriately. However, threading adds
more instruction path length, which uses additional processor cycles. If the Virtual I/O
Server logical partition will be dedicated to running shared Ethernet devices (and
associated virtual Ethernet devices) only, the adapters should be configured with
threading disabled.
You can enable or disable threading using the -attr thread option of the mkvdev
command. To enable threading, use the -attr thread=1 option. To disable threading,
use the -attr thread=0 option. For example, the following command disables
threading for Shared Ethernet Adapter ent1:
mkvdev -sea ent1 -vadapter ent5 -default ent5 -defaultid 1 -attr thread=0
Virtual adapters
(virt_adapter)
Lists the virtual Ethernet adapters associated with the Shared Ethernet Adapter.
TCP segmentation offload
(largesend)
Enables TCP largesend capability (also known as segmentation offload) from logical
partitions to the physical adapter. The physical adapter must be enabled for TCP
largesend for the segmentation offload from the logical partition to the Shared Ethernet
Adapter to work. Also, the logical partition must be capable of performing a largesend
operation. On AIX, largesend can be enabled on a logical partition using the ifconfig
command.
You can enable or disable TCP largesend using the -a largesend option of the chdev
command. To enable it, use the '-a largesend=1' option. To disable it, use the '-a
largesend=0' option.
For example, the following command enables largesend for Shared Ethernet Adapter
ent1:
chdev -l ent1 -a largesend=1
By default the setting is disabled (largesend=0).
Jumbo frames
(jumbo_frames)
Allows the interface configured over the Shared Ethernet Adapter to increase its MTU
to 9000 bytes (the default is 1500). If the underlying physical adapter does not support
jumbo frames and the jumbo_frames attribute is set to yes, then configuration fails. The
underlying physical adapter must support jumbo frames. The Shared Ethernet Adapter
automatically enables jumbo frames on its underlying physical adapter if jumbo_frames
is set to yes. You cannot change the value of jumbo_frames at run time.
GARP VLAN Registration
Protocol (GVRP) (gvrp)
Enables and disables GVRP on a Shared Ethernet Adapter.
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Shared Ethernet Adapter failover attributes
You can modify the following Shared Ethernet Adapter failover attributes.
Attribute
Description
High availability mode
(ha_mode)
Determines whether the devices participate in a failover setup. The default is disabled.
Typically, a Shared Ethernet Adapter in a failover setup is operating in auto mode, and
the primary adapter is decided based on which adapter has the highest priority
(lowest numerical value). A shared Ethernet device can be forced into the standby
mode, where it will behave as the backup device as long as it can detect the presence
of a functional primary.
Control Channel (ctl_chan)
Sets the virtual Ethernet device that is required for a Shared Ethernet Adapter in a
failover setup so that it can communicate with the other adapter. There is no default
value for this attribute, and it is required when the ha_mode is not set to disabled.
Internet address to ping
(netaddr)
Optional attribute that can be specified for a Shared Ethernet Adapter that has been
configured in a failover setup. When this attribute is specified, a shared Ethernet
device will periodically ping the IP address to verify connectivity (in addition to
checking for link status of the physical devices). If it detects a loss of connectivity to
the specified ping host, it will initiate a failover to the backup Shared Ethernet
Adapter. This attribute is not supported when you use a Shared Ethernet Adapter with
a Host Ethernet Adapter (or Integrated Virtual Ethernet).
INET attributes
You can modify the following INET attributes.
Attribute
Description
Host Name (hostname)
Specify the host name that you want to assign to the current machine.
When specifying the host name, use ASCII characters, preferably alphanumeric only.
Do not use a period in the host name. Avoid using hexadecimal or decimal values as
the first character (for example 3Comm, where 3C might be interpreted as a hexadecimal
character). For compatibility with earlier hosts, use an unqualified host name of fewer
than 32 characters.
If the host uses a domain name server for name resolution, the host name must
contain the full domain name.
In the hierarchical domain naming system, names consist of a sequence of subnames
that are not case-sensitive and that are separated by periods with no embedded
blanks. The DOMAIN protocol specifies that a local domain name must be fewer than
64 characters, and that a host name must be fewer than 32 characters in length. The
host name is given first. Optionally, the full domain name can be specified; the host
name is followed by a period, a series of local domain names separated by periods,
and finally by the root domain. A fully specified domain name for a host, including
periods, must be fewer than 255 characters in length and in the following form:
host.subdomain.subdomain.rootdomain
In a hierarchical network, certain hosts are designated as name servers that resolve
names into Internet addresses for other hosts. This arrangement has two advantages
over the flat name space: resources of each host on the network are not consumed in
resolving names, and the person who manages the system does not need to maintain
name-resolution files on each machine on the network. The set of names managed by a
single name server is known as its zone of authority.
Gateway (gateway)
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Identifies the gateway to which packets are addressed. The Gateway parameter can be
specified either by symbolic name or numeric address.
Attribute
Description
Route (route)
Specifies the route. The format of the Route attribute is: route=destination, gateway,
[metric].
destination
Identifies the host or network to which you are directing the route. The
Destination parameter can be specified either by symbolic name or numeric
address.
gateway
Identifies the gateway to which packets are addressed. The Gateway parameter
can be specified either by symbolic name or numeric address.
metric
Sets the routing metric. The default is 0 (zero). The routing metric is used by
the routing protocol (the routed daemon). Higher metrics have the effect of
making a route less favorable. Metrics are counted as additional hops to the
destination network or host.
Adapter attributes
You can modify the following adapter attributes. The attribute behavior can vary, based on the adapter
and driver you have.
Attribute
Adapters/Drivers
Description
Media Speed (media_speed)
The media speed attribute indicates the speed
at which the adapter attempts to operate. The
available speeds are 10 Mbps half-duplex, 10
v 10/100/1000 Base-T Ethernet PCI-X
Mbps full-duplex, 100 Mbps half-duplex, 100
Adapter Device Driver
Mbps full-duplex and autonegotiation, with a
default of autonegotiation. Select
auto-negotiate when the adapter should use
autonegotiation across the network to
determine the speed. When the network will
not support autonegotiation, select the specific
speed.
v 2-Port 10/100/1000 Base-TX PCI-X
Adapter
1000 MBps half and full duplex are not valid
values. According to the IEEE 802.3z
specification, gigabit speeds of any duplexity
must be autonegotiated for copper (TX)-based
adapters. If these speeds are desired, select
auto-negotiate.
Media Speed (media_speed)
v 2-Port Gigabit Ethernet-SX PCI-X
Adapter
v Gigabit Ethernet-SX PCI-X Adapter
Device Driver
The media speed attribute indicates the speed
at which the adapter attempts to operate. The
available speeds are 1000 Mbps full-duplex and
autonegotiation. The default is autonegotiation.
Select auto-negotiate when the adapter should
use autonegotiation across the network to
determine the duplexity. When the network
does not support autonegotiation, select 1000
Mbps full-duplex.
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Attribute
Adapters/Drivers
Description
Media Speed (media_speed)
v 10/100 Mbps Ethernet PCI Adapter The media speed attribute indicates the speed
at which the adapter attempts to operate. The
Device Driver
available speeds are 10 Mbps half-duplex, 10
Mbps full-duplex, 100 Mbps half-duplex, 100
Mbps full-duplex and autonegotiation, with a
default of autonegotiation. When the adapter
should use autonegotiation across the network
to determine the speed, select autonegotiate.
When the network will not support
autonegotiation, select the specific speed.
If autonegotiation is selected, the remote link
device must also be set to autonegotiate to
ensure the link works correctly.
Media Speed (media_speed)
v 10/100/1000 Base-T Ethernet PCI
adapter
v Gigabit Ethernet-SX PCI Adapter
Device Driver
The media speed attribute indicates the speed
at which the adapter attempts to operate. The
available speeds are 10 Mbps half-duplex, 10
Mbps full-duplex, 100 Mbps half-duplex, 100
Mbps full-duplex and autonegotiation, with a
default of autonegotiation. Select autonegotiate
when the adapter should use autonegotiation
across the network to determine the speed.
When the network will not support
autonegotiation, select the specific speed.
For the adapter to run at 1000 Mbit/s, the
autonegotiation setting must be selected.
Note: For the Gigabit Ethernet-SX PCI
Adapter, the only selection available is
autonegotiation.
Enable Alternate Ethernet
Address (use_alt_addr)
Setting this attribute to yes indicates that the
address of the adapter, as it appears on the
network, is the one specified by the Alternate
Ethernet Address attribute. If you specify the
no value, the unique adapter address written in
a ROM on the adapter card is used. The
default value is no.
Alternate Ethernet
Address (alt_addr)
Allows the adapter unique address, as it
appears on the LAN network, to be changed.
The value entered must be an Ethernet address
of 12 hexadecimal digits and must not be the
same as the address of any other Ethernet
adapter. There is no default value. This field
has no effect unless the Enable Alternate
Ethernet Address attribute is set to yes value,
in which case this field must be filled in. A
typical Ethernet address is 0x02608C000001. All
12 hexadecimal digits, including leading zeros,
must be entered.
Enable Link Polling
(poll_link)
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v 10/100Mbps Ethernet PCI Adapter
Device Driver
Select no to cause the device driver to poll the
adapter to determine the status of the link at a
specified time interval. The time interval value
is specified in the Poll Link Time Interval
field. If you select no, the device driver will not
poll the adapter for its link status. The default
value is no.
Attribute
Adapters/Drivers
Description
Poll Link Time Interval
(poll_link_time)
v 10/100Mbps Ethernet PCI Adapter
Device Driver
The amount of time, in milliseconds, between
polls to the adapter for its link status that the
device driver is allowed. This value is required
when the Enable Link Polling option is set to
yes. A value between 100 through 1000 can be
specified. The incremental value is 10. The
default value is 500.
Flow Control (flow_ctrl)
v 10/100/1000 Base-T Ethernet PCI-X This attribute specifies whether the adapter
should enable transmit and receive flow
Adapter Device Driver
control. The default value is no.
v Gigabit Ethernet-SX PCI-X Adapter
Device Driver
v 2-Port 10/100/1000 Base-TX PCI-X
Adapter
v 2-Port Gigabit Ethernet-SX PCI-X
Adapter
v Gigabit Ethernet-SX PCI Adapter
Device Driver
Transmit Jumbo Frames
(jumbo_frames)
v 10/100/1000 Base-T Ethernet PCI-X Setting this attribute to yes indicates that
frames up to 9018 bytes in length might be
Adapter Device Driver
transmitted on this adapter. If you specify no,
v Gigabit Ethernet-SX PCI-X Adapter
the maximum size of frames transmitted is
Device Driver
1518 bytes. Frames up to 9018 bytes in length
v 2-Port 10/100/1000 Base-TX PCI-X can always be received on this adapter.
Adapter
v 2-Port Gigabit Ethernet-SX PCI-X
Adapter
v Gigabit Ethernet-SX PCI Adapter
Device Driver
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Attribute
Adapters/Drivers
Description
Checksum Offload
(chksum_offload)
v 10/100/1000 Base-T Ethernet PCI-X Setting this attribute to yes indicates that the
adapter calculates the checksum for
Adapter Device Driver
transmitted and received TCP frames. If you
v Gigabit Ethernet-SX PCI-X Adapter
specify no, the checksum will be calculated by
Device Driver
the appropriate software.
v 2-Port 10/100/1000 Base-TX PCI-X
When a virtual Ethernet adapter has checksum
Adapter
offload enabled, the adapter advertises it to the
v 2-Port Gigabit Ethernet-SX PCI-X
hypervisor. The hypervisor tracks which virtual
Adapter
Ethernet adapters have checksum offload
v Gigabit Ethernet-SX PCI Adapter
enabled and manages inter-partition
Device Driver
communication accordingly.
v Virtual Ethernet adapters
When network packets are routed through the
Shared Ethernet Adapter, there is a potential
for link errors. In this environment, the packets
must traverse the physical link with a
checksum. Communication works in the
following way:
v When a packet is received from the physical
link, the physical adapter verifies the
checksum. If the packet's destination is a
virtual Ethernet adapter with checksum
offload enabled, the receiver does not have
to perform checksum verification. A receiver
that does not have checksum offload enabled
will accept the packet after checksum
verification.
v When a packet originates from a virtual
Ethernet adapter with checksum offload
enabled, it travels to the physical adapter
without a checksum. The physical adapter
will generate a checksum before sending the
packet out. Packets originating from a
virtual Ethernet adapter with checksum
offload disabled generate the checksum at
the source.
To enable checksum offload for a Shared
Ethernet Adapter, all constituent devices must
have it enabled as well. The shared Ethernet
device will fail if the underlying devices do not
have the same checksum offload settings.
Enable Hardware Transmit v 10/100/1000 Base-T Ethernet PCI-X This attribute specifies whether the adapter is
TCP Resegmentation
to perform transmit TCP resegmentation for
Adapter Device Driver
TCP segments. The default value is no.
(large_send)
v Gigabit Ethernet-SX PCI-X Adapter
Device Driver
v 2-Port 10/100/1000 Base-TX PCI-X
Adapter
v 2-Port Gigabit Ethernet-SX PCI-X
Adapter
v Gigabit Ethernet-SX PCI Adapter
Device Driver
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Link Aggregation (EtherChannel) device attributes
You can modify the following Link Aggregation, or EtherChannel, attributes.
Attribute
Description
Link Aggregation adapters The adapters that currently make up the Link Aggregation device. If you want to
(adapter_names)
modify these adapters, modify this attribute and select all the adapters that should
belong to the Link Aggregation device. When you use this attribute to select all of the
adapters that should belong to the Link Aggregation device, its interface must not
have an IP address configured.
Mode (mode)
The type of channel that is configured. In standard mode, the channel sends the
packets to the adapter based on an algorithm (the value used for this calculation is
determined by the Hash Mode attribute). In round_robin mode, the channel gives one
packet to each adapter before repeating the loop. The default mode is standard.
Using the 802.3ad mode, the Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) negotiates the
adapters in the Link Aggregation device with an LACP-enabled switch.
If the Hash Mode attribute is set to anything other than the default, this attribute must
be set to standard or 802.3ad. Otherwise, the configuration of the Link Aggregation
device will fail.
Hash Mode (hash_mode)
If operating under standard or IEEE 802.3ad mode, the hash mode attribute
determines how the outgoing adapter for each packet is chosen. Following are the
different modes:
v default: uses the destination IP address to determine the outgoing adapter.
v src_port: uses the source TCP or UDP port for that connection.
v dst_port: uses the destination TCP or UDP port for that connection.
v src_dst_port: uses both the source and destination TCP or UDP ports for that
connection to determine the outgoing adapter.
You cannot use round-robin mode with any hash mode value other than default. The
Link Aggregation device configuration will fail if you attempt this combination.
If the packet is not TCP or UDP, it uses the default hashing mode (destination IP
address).
Using TCP or UDP ports for hashing can make better use of the adapters in the Link
Aggregationdevice, because connections to the same destination IP address can be sent
over different adapters (while still retaining the order of the packets), thus increasing
the bandwidth of the Link Aggregation device.
Internet Address to Ping
(netaddr)
This field is optional. The IP address that the Link Aggregation device should ping to
verify that the network is up. This is only valid when there is a backup adapter and
when there are one or more adapters in the Link Aggregation device. An address of
zero (or all zeros) is ignored and disables the sending of ping packets if a valid
address was previously defined. The default is to leave this field blank.
Retry Timeout (retry_time)
This field is optional. It controls how often the Link Aggregation device sends out a
ping packet to poll the current adapter for link status. This is valid only when the Link
Aggregation device has one or more adapters, a backup adapter is defined, and the
Internet Address to Ping field contains a non-zero address. Specify the timeout value
in seconds. The range of valid values is 1 to 100 seconds. The default value is 1
second.
Number of Retries
(num_retries)
This field is optional. It specifies the number of lost ping packets before the Link
Aggregation device switches adapters. This is valid only when the Link Aggregation
device has one or more adapters, a backup adapter is defined, and the Internet
Address to Ping field contains a non-zero address. The range of valid values is 2 to
100 retries. The default value is 3.
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Attribute
Description
Enable Gigabit Ethernet
Jumbo Frames
(use_jumbo_frame)
This field is optional. To use this attribute, all of the underlying adapters, as well as
the switch, must support jumbo frames. This will work only with a Standard Ethernet
(en) interface, not an IEEE 802.3 (et) interface.
Enable Alternate Address
(use_alt_addr)
This field is optional. If you set this to yes, you can specify a MAC address that you
want the Link Aggregation device to use. If you set this option to no, the Link
Aggregation device uses the MAC address of the first adapter.
Alternate Address
(alt_addr)
If Enable Alternate Address is set to yes, specify the MAC address that you want to
use. The address you specify must start with 0x and be a 12-digit hexadecimal address.
VLAN attributes
You can modify the following VLAN attributes.
Attribute
Value
VLAN Tag ID (vlan_tag_id) The unique ID associated with the VLAN driver. You can specify from 1 to 4094.
Base Adapter (base_adapter) The network adapter to which the VLAN device driver is connected.
Shared Ethernet Adapter Quality of Service (QoS) attribute
You can modify the following qos_mode attribute.
disabled mode
This is the default mode. VLAN traffic is not inspected for the priority field. For example,
chdev -dev <sea device name> -attr qos_mode=disabled
strict mode
More important traffic is bridged over less important traffic. This mode provides better
performance and more bandwidth to more important traffic; however, it can result in substantial
delays for less important traffic. For example,
chdev -dev <sea device name> -attr qos_mode=strict
loose mode
A cap is placed on each priority level, so that after a number of bytes are sent for each priority
level, the next level is serviced. This method ensures that all packets will eventually be sent. More
important traffic is given less bandwidth with this mode than with strict mode; however, the caps
in loose mode are such that more bytes are sent for the more important traffic, so it still gets
more bandwidth than less important traffic. For example,
chdev -dev <sea device name> -attr qos_mode=loose
Client-specific Shared Ethernet Adapter statistics
To gather network statistics at a client level, enable advanced accounting on the Shared Ethernet Adapter
to provide more information about its network traffic. To enable client statistics, set the Shared Ethernet
Adapter accounting attribute to enabled (the default value is disabled). When advanced accounting is
enabled, the Shared Ethernet Adapter keeps track of the hardware (MAC) addresses of all of the packets
it receives from the LPAR clients, and increments packet and byte counts for each client independently.
After advanced accounting is enabled on the Shared Ethernet Adapter, you can generate a report to view
per-client statistics by running the seastat command.
Note: Advanced accounting must be enabled on the Shared Ethernet Adapter before you can use the
seastat command to print any statistics.
To enable advanced accounting on the Shared Ethernet Adapter, enter the following command:
chdev -dev <sea device name> -attr accounting=enabled
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The following command displays per-client Shared Ethernet Adapter statistics. The optional -n flag
disables name resolution on IP addresses.
seastat -d <sea device name> [-n]
The following command clears all of the per-client Shared Ethernet Adapter statistics that have been
gathered:
seastat -d <sea device name> -c
Shared Ethernet Adapter failover statistics
Learn about Shared Ethernet Adapter failover statistics, such as high availability information and packet
types, and view examples.
Statistic descriptions
Table 59. Descriptions of Shared Ethernet Adapter failover statistics
Statistic
High availability
Description
Control Channel PVID
Port VLAN ID of the virtual Ethernet adapter
used as the control channel.
Control Packets in
Number of packets received on the control
channel.
Control Packets out
Number of packets sent on the control channel.
Packet types
Keep-Alive Packets
Number of keep-alive packets received on the
control channel. Keep-alive packets are received
on the backup Shared Ethernet Adapter while
the primary Shared Ethernet Adapter is active.
Recovery Packets
Number of recovery packets received on the
control channel. Recovery packets are sent by
the primary Shared Ethernet Adapter when it
recovers from a failure and is ready to be active
again.
Notify Packets
Number of notify packets received on the
control channel. Notify packets are sent by the
backup Shared Ethernet Adapter when it detects
that the primary Shared Ethernet Adapter has
recovered.
Limbo Packets
Number of limbo packets received on the
control channel. Limbo packets are sent by the
primary Shared Ethernet Adapter when it
detects that its physical network is not
operational, or when it cannot ping the specified
remote host (to inform the backup that it needs
to become active).
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Table 59. Descriptions of Shared Ethernet Adapter failover statistics (continued)
Statistic
Description
State
The current state of the Shared Ethernet Adapter.
INIT
The Shared Ethernet Adapter failover protocol
has just been initiated.
PRIMARY
The Shared Ethernet Adapter is actively
connecting traffic between the VLANs to the
network.
BACKUP
The Shared Ethernet Adapter is idle and not
connecting traffic between the VLANs and the
network.
RECOVERY
The primary Shared Ethernet Adapter recovered
from a failure and is ready to be active again.
NOTIFY
The backup Shared Ethernet Adapter detected
that the primary Shared Ethernet Adapter
recovered from a failure and that it needs to
become idle again.
LIMBO
One of the following situations is true:
v The physical network is not operational.
v The physical network's state is unknown.
v The Shared Ethernet Adapter cannot ping the
specified remote host.
Bridge Mode
Describes to what level, if any, the Shared Ethernet
Adapter is currently bridging traffic.
Unicast
The Shared Ethernet Adapter is only sending
and receiving unicast traffic (no multicast or
broadcast traffic). To avoid broadcast storms, the
Shared Ethernet Adapter sends and receives
unicast traffic only while it is in the INIT or the
RECOVERY states.
All
The Shared Ethernet Adapter is sending and
receiving all types of network traffic.
None
The Shared Ethernet Adapter is not sending or
receiving any network traffic.
Number of Times Server became Backup
Number of times the Shared Ethernet Adapter was active
and became idle because of a failure.
Number of Times Server became Primary
Number of times the Shared Ethernet Adapter was idle
and became active because the primary Shared Ethernet
Adapter failed.
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Table 59. Descriptions of Shared Ethernet Adapter failover statistics (continued)
Statistic
Description
High Availability Mode
How the Shared Ethernet Adapter behaves regarding the
Shared Ethernet Adapter failover protocol.
Auto
The Shared Ethernet Adapter failover protocol
determines whether the Shared Ethernet
Adapter acts as the primary Shared Ethernet
Adapter or as the backup Shared Ethernet
Adapter.
Standby
The Shared Ethernet Adapter operates as a
backup if there is another Shared Ethernet
Adapter available to act as the primary. Standby
causes a primary Shared Ethernet Adapter to
become a backup Shared Ethernet Adapter if
there is another Shared Ethernet Adapter that
can become the primary Shared Ethernet
Adapter.
Priority
Specifies the trunk priority of the virtual
Ethernet adapters of the Shared Ethernet
Adapter. It is used by the Shared Ethernet
Adapter protocol to determine which Shared
Ethernet Adapter acts as the primary Shared
Ethernet Adapter and which Shared Ethernet
Adapter acts as the backup Shared Ethernet
Adapter. Values range from 1 to 12, where a
lower number is favored to act as a primary
Shared Ethernet Adapter.
Example statistics
Running the entstat -all command returns results similar to the following:
ETHERNET STATISTICS (ent8) :
Device Type: Shared Ethernet Adapter
Hardware Address: 00:0d:60:0c:05:00
Elapsed Time: 3 days 20 hours 34 minutes 26 seconds
Transmit Statistics:
-------------------Packets: 7978002
Bytes: 919151749
Interrupts: 3
Transmit Errors: 0
Packets Dropped: 0
Receive Statistics:
------------------Packets: 5701362
Bytes: 664049607
Interrupts: 5523380
Receive Errors: 0
Packets Dropped: 0
Bad Packets: 0
Max Packets on S/W Transmit Queue: 2
S/W Transmit Queue Overflow: 0
Current S/W+H/W Transmit Queue Length: 1
Elapsed Time: 0 days 0 hours 0 minutes 0 seconds
Broadcast Packets: 5312086
Broadcast Packets: 3740225
Multicast Packets: 265589
Multicast Packets: 194986
No Carrier Sense: 0
CRC Errors: 0
DMA Underrun: 0
DMA Overrun: 0
Lost CTS Errors: 0
Alignment Errors: 0
Max Collision Errors: 0
No Resource Errors: 0
Late Collision Errors: 0
Receive Collision Errors: 0
Deferred: 0
Packet Too Short Errors: 0
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SQE Test: 0
Timeout Errors: 0
Single Collision Count: 0
Multiple Collision Count: 0
Current HW Transmit Queue Length: 1
Packet Too Long Errors: 0
Packets Discarded by Adapter: 0
Receiver Start Count: 0
General Statistics:
------------------No mbuf Errors: 0
Adapter Reset Count: 0
Adapter Data Rate: 0
Driver Flags: Up Broadcast Running
Simplex 64BitSupport ChecksumOffLoad
DataRateSet
-------------------------------------------------------------Statistics for adapters in the Shared Ethernet Adapter ent8
-------------------------------------------------------------Number of adapters: 2
SEA Flags: 00000001
< THREAD >
VLAN IDs :
ent7: 1
Real Side Statistics:
Packets received: 5701344
Packets bridged: 5673198
Packets consumed: 3963314
Packets fragmented: 0
Packets transmitted: 28685
Packets dropped: 0
Virtual Side Statistics:
Packets received: 0
Packets bridged: 0
Packets consumed: 0
Packets fragmented: 0
Packets transmitted: 5673253
Packets dropped: 0
Other Statistics:
Output packets generated: 28685
Output packets dropped: 0
Device output failures: 0
Memory allocation failures: 0
ICMP error packets sent: 0
Non IP packets larger than MTU: 0
Thread queue overflow packets: 0
High Availability Statistics:
Control Channel PVID: 99
Control Packets in: 0
Control Packets out: 818825
Type of Packets Received:
Keep-Alive Packets: 0
Recovery Packets: 0
Notify Packets: 0
Limbo Packets: 0
State: LIMBO
Bridge Mode: All
Number of Times Server became Backup: 0
Number of Times Server became Primary: 0
High Availability Mode: Auto
Priority: 1
-------------------------------------------------------------Real Adapter: ent2
ETHERNET STATISTICS (ent2) :
Device Type: 10/100 Mbps Ethernet PCI Adapter II (1410ff01)
Hardware Address: 00:0d:60:0c:05:00
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Transmit Statistics:
-------------------Packets: 28684
Bytes: 3704108
Interrupts: 3
Transmit Errors: 0
Packets Dropped: 0
Receive Statistics:
------------------Packets: 5701362
Bytes: 664049607
Interrupts: 5523380
Receive Errors: 0
Packets Dropped: 0
Bad Packets: 0
Max Packets on S/W Transmit Queue: 2
S/W Transmit Queue Overflow: 0
Current S/W+H/W Transmit Queue Length: 1
Broadcast Packets: 21
Multicast Packets: 0
No Carrier Sense: 0
DMA Underrun: 0
Lost CTS Errors: 0
Max Collision Errors: 0
Late Collision Errors: 0
Deferred: 0
SQE Test: 0
Timeout Errors: 0
Single Collision Count: 0
Multiple Collision Count: 0
Current HW Transmit Queue Length: 1
Broadcast Packets: 3740225
Multicast Packets: 194986
CRC Errors: 0
DMA Overrun: 0
Alignment Errors: 0
No Resource Errors: 0
Receive Collision Errors: 0
Packet Too Short Errors: 0
Packet Too Long Errors: 0
Packets Discarded by Adapter: 0
Receiver Start Count: 0
General Statistics:
------------------No mbuf Errors: 0
Adapter Reset Count: 0
Adapter Data Rate: 200
Driver Flags: Up Broadcast Running
Simplex Promiscuous AlternateAddress
64BitSupport ChecksumOffload PrivateSegment LargeSend DataRateSet
10/100 Mbps Ethernet PCI Adapter II (1410ff01) Specific Statistics:
-----------------------------------------------------------------------Link Status: Up
Media Speed Selected: Auto negotiation
Media Speed Running: 100 Mbps Full Duplex
Receive Pool Buffer Size: 1024
No Receive Pool Buffer Errors: 0
Receive Buffer Too Small Errors: 0
Entries to transmit timeout routine: 0
Transmit IPsec packets: 0
Transmit IPsec packets dropped: 0
Receive IPsec packets: 0
Receive IPsec SA offload count: 0
Transmit Large Send packets: 0
Transmit Large Send packets dropped: 0
Packets with Transmit collisions:
1 collisions: 0
6 collisions: 0
11 collisions: 0
2 collisions: 0
7 collisions: 0
12 collisions: 0
3 collisions: 0
8 collisions: 0
13 collisions: 0
4 collisions: 0
9 collisions: 0
14 collisions: 0
5 collisions: 0
10 collisions: 0
15 collisions: 0
-------------------------------------------------------------Virtual Adapter: ent7
ETHERNET STATISTICS (ent7) :
Device Type: Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan)
Hardware Address: 8a:83:54:5b:4e:9a
Transmit Statistics:
Receive Statistics:
Virtual I/O Server
249
-------------------Packets: 7949318
Bytes: 915447641
Interrupts: 0
Transmit Errors: 0
Packets Dropped: 0
------------------Packets: 0
Bytes: 0
Interrupts: 0
Receive Errors: 0
Packets Dropped: 0
Bad Packets: 0
Max Packets on S/W Transmit Queue: 0
S/W Transmit Queue Overflow: 0
Current S/W+H/W Transmit Queue Length: 0
Broadcast Packets: 5312065
Multicast Packets: 265589
No Carrier Sense: 0
DMA Underrun: 0
Lost CTS Errors: 0
Max Collision Errors: 0
Late Collision Errors: 0
Deferred: 0
SQE Test: 0
Timeout Errors: 0
Single Collision Count: 0
Multiple Collision Count: 0
Current HW Transmit Queue Length: 0
Broadcast Packets: 0
Multicast Packets: 0
CRC Errors: 0
DMA Overrun: 0
Alignment Errors: 0
No Resource Errors: 0
Receive Collision Errors: 0
Packet Too Short Errors: 0
Packet Too Long Errors: 0
Packets Discarded by Adapter: 0
Receiver Start Count: 0
General Statistics:
------------------No mbuf Errors: 0
Adapter Reset Count: 0
Adapter Data Rate: 20000
Driver Flags: Up Broadcast Running
Simplex Promiscuous AllMulticast
64BitSupport ChecksumOffload DataRateSet
Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan) Specific Statistics:
--------------------------------------------------------RQ Lingth: 4481
No Copy Buffers: 0
Trunk Adapter: True
Priority: 1 Active: True
Filter MCast Mode: False
Filters: 255
Enabled: 1 Queued: 0 Overflow: 0
LAN State: Operational
Hypervisor Send Failures: 2371664
Receiver Failures: 2371664
Send Errors: 0
Hypervisor Receive Failures: 0
ILLAN Attributes: 0000000000003103 [0000000000003103]
PVID:
1
VIDs: None
Switch ID: ETHERNET0
Buffers
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24
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24
24
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-------------------------------------------------------------Control Adapter: ent9
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Virtual I/O Server
ETHERNET STATISTICS (ent9) :
Device Type: Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan)
Hardware Address: 8a:83:54:5b:4e:9b
Transmit Statistics:
-------------------Packets: 821297
Bytes: 21353722
Interrupts: 0
Transmit Errors: 0
Packets Dropped: 0
Receive Statistics:
------------------Packets: 0
Bytes: 0
Interrupts: 0
Receive Errors: 0
Packets Dropped: 0
Bad Packets: 0
Max Packets on S/W Transmit Queue: 0
S/W Transmit Queue Overflow: 0
Current S/W+H/W Transmit Queue Length: 0
Broadcast Packets: 821297
Multicast Packets: 0
No Carrier Sense: 0
DMA Underrun: 0
Lost CTS Errors: 0
Max Collision Errors: 0
Late Collision Errors: 0
Deferred: 0
SQE Test: 0
Timeout Errors: 0
Single Collision Count: 0
Multiple Collision Count: 0
Current HW Transmit Queue Length: 0
Broadcast Packets: 0
Multicast Packets: 0
CRC Errors: 0
DMA Overrun: 0
Alignment Errors: 0
No Resource Errors: 0
Receive Collision Errors: 0
Packet Too Short Errors: 0
Packet Too Long Errors: 0
Packets Discarded by Adapter: 0
Receiver Start Count: 0
General Statistics:
------------------No mbuf Errors: 0
Adapter Reset Count: 0
Adapter Data Rate: 20000
Driver Flags: Up Broadcast Running
Simplex 64BitSupport ChecksumOffload DataRateSet
Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan) Specific Statistics:
--------------------------------------------------------RQ Length: 4481
No Copy Buffers: 0
Trunk Adapter: False
Filter MCast Mode: False
Filters: 255
Enabled: 0 Queued: 0 Overflow: 0
LAN State: Operational
Hypervisor Send Failures: 0
Receiver Failures: 0
Send Errors: 0
Hypervisor Receive Failures: 0
ILLAN Attributes: 0000000000003002 [0000000000003002]
PVID:
99
VIDs:
None
Switch ID: ETHERNET0
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Shared Ethernet Adapter statistics
Learn about general Shared Ethernet Adapter statistics, such as VLAN IDs and packet information, and
view examples.
Statistic descriptions
Table 60. Descriptions of Shared Ethernet Adapter statistics
Statistic
Description
Number of adapters
Includes the real adapter and all of the virtual adapters.
Note: If you are using Shared Ethernet Adapter failover,
then the control channel adapter is not included.
Shared Ethernet Adapter flags
Denotes the features that the Shared Ethernet Adapter is
currently running.
THREAD
The Shared Ethernet Adapter is operating in
threaded mode, where incoming packets are
queued and processed by different threads; its
absence denotes interrupt mode, where packets
are processed in the same interrupt where they
are received.
LARGESEND
The large send feature has been enabled on the
Shared Ethernet Adapter.
JUMBO_FRAMES
The jumbo frames feature has been enabled on
the Shared Ethernet Adapter.
GVRP
VLAN IDs
252
Virtual I/O Server
The GVRP feature has been enabled on the
Shared Ethernet Adapter.
List of VLAN IDs that have access to the network
through the Shared Ethernet Adapter (this includes PVID
and all tagged VLANs).
Table 60. Descriptions of Shared Ethernet Adapter statistics (continued)
Statistic
Real adapters
Description
Packets received
Number of packets received on the physical
network.
Packets bridged
Number of packets received on the physical
network that were sent to the virtual network.
Packets consumed
Number of packets received on the physical
network that were addressed to the interface
configured over the Shared Ethernet Adapter.
Packets fragmented
Number of packets received on the physical
network that were fragmented before being sent
to the virtual network. They were fragmented
because they were bigger than the outgoing
adapter's Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU).
Packets transmitted
Number of packets sent on the physical
network. This includes packets sent from the
interface configured over the Shared Ethernet
Adapter, as well as each packet sent from the
virtual network to the physical network
(including fragments).
Packets dropped
Number of packets received on the physical
network that were dropped for one of the
following reasons:
v The packet was the oldest packet on a
thread's queue and there was no space to
accommodate a newly received packet.
v The packet had an invalid VLAN ID and
could not be processed.
v The packet was addressed to the Shared
Ethernet Adapter interface, but its interface
had no filters registered.
Virtual I/O Server
253
Table 60. Descriptions of Shared Ethernet Adapter statistics (continued)
Statistic
Virtual adapters
Description
Packets received
Number of packets received on the virtual
network. In other words, the number of packets
received on all of the virtual adapters.
Packets bridged
Number of packets received on the virtual
network that were sent to the physical network.
Packets consumed
Number of packets received on the virtual
network that were addressed to the interface
configured over the Shared Ethernet Adapter.
Packets fragmented
Number of packets received on the virtual
network that were fragmented before being sent
to the physical network. They were fragmented
because they were bigger than the outgoing
adapter's MTU.
Packets transmitted
Number of packets sent on the virtual network.
This includes packets sent from the interface
configured over the Shared Ethernet Adapter, as
well as each packet sent from the physical
network to the virtual network (including
fragments).
Packets dropped
Number of packets received on the virtual
network that were dropped for one of the
following reasons:
v The packet was the oldest packet on a
thread's queue and there was no space to
accommodate a newly received packet.
v The packet was addressed to the Shared
Ethernet Adapter interface, but its interface
had no filters registered.
Output packets generated
Number of packets with a valid VLAN tag or no VLAN
tag sent out of the interface configured over the Shared
Ethernet Adapter.
Output packets dropped
Number of packets sent out of the interface configured
over the Shared Ethernet Adapter that are dropped
because of an invalid VLAN tag.
Device output failures
Number of packets that could not be sent due to
underlying device errors. This includes errors sent on the
physical network and virtual network, including
fragments and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
error packets generated by the Shared Ethernet Adapter.
Memory allocation failures
Number of packets that could not be sent because there
was insufficient network memory to complete an
operation.
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Virtual I/O Server
Table 60. Descriptions of Shared Ethernet Adapter statistics (continued)
Statistic
Description
ICMP error packets sent
Number of ICMP error packets successfully sent when a
big packet could not be fragmented because the don't
fragment bit was set.
Non IP packets larger than MTU
Number of packets that could not be sent because they
were bigger than the outgoing adapter's MTU and could
not be fragmented because they were not IP packets.
Thread queue overflow packets
Number of packets that were dropped from the thread
queues because there was no space to accommodate a
newly received packet.
Example statistics
ETHERNET STATISTICS (ent8) :
Device Type: Shared Ethernet Adapter
Hardware Address: 00:0d:60:0c:05:00
Elapsed Time: 3 days 20 hours 34 minutes 26 seconds
Transmit Statistics:
-------------------Packets: 7978002
Bytes: 919151749
Interrupts: 3
Transmit Errors: 0
Packets Dropped: 0
Receive Statistics:
------------------Packets: 5701362
Bytes: 664049607
Interrupts: 5523380
Receive Errors: 0
Packets Dropped: 0
Bad Packets: 0
Max Packets on S/W Transmit Queue: 2
S/W Transmit Queue Overflow: 0
Current S/W+H/W Transmit Queue Length: 1
Elapsed Time: 0 days 0 hours 0 minutes 0 seconds
Broadcast Packets: 5312086
Broadcast Packets: 3740225
Multicast Packets: 265589
Multicast Packets: 194986
No Carrier Sense: 0
CRC Errors: 0
DMA Underrun: 0
DMA Overrun: 0
Lost CTS Errors: 0
Alignment Errors: 0
Max Collision Errors: 0
No Resource Errors: 0
Late Collision Errors: 0
Receive Collision Errors: 0
Deferred: 0
Packet Too Short Errors: 0
SQE Test: 0
Packet Too Long Errors: 0
Timeout Errors: 0
Packets Discarded by Adapter: 0
Single Collision Count: 0
Receiver Start Count: 0
Multiple Collision Count: 0
Current HW Transmit Queue Length: 1
General Statistics:
------------------No mbuf Errors: 0
Adapter Reset Count: 0
Adapter Data Rate: 0
Driver Flags: Up Broadcast Running
Simplex 64BitSupport ChecksumOffLoad
DataRateSet
-------------------------------------------------------------Statistics for adapters in the Shared Ethernet Adapter ent8
-------------------------------------------------------------Number of adapters: 2
SEA Flags: 00000001
< THREAD >
VLAN IDs :
ent7: 1
Virtual I/O Server
255
Real Side Statistics:
Packets received: 5701344
Packets bridged: 5673198
Packets consumed: 3963314
Packets fragmented: 0
Packets transmitted: 28685
Packets dropped: 0
Virtual Side Statistics:
Packets received: 0
Packets bridged: 0
Packets consumed: 0
Packets fragmented: 0
Packets transmitted: 5673253
Packets dropped: 0
Other Statistics:
Output packets generated: 28685
Output packets dropped: 0
Device output failures: 0
Memory allocation failures: 0
ICMP error packets sent: 0
Non IP packets larger than MTU: 0
Thread queue overflow packets: 0
-------------------------------------------------------------Real Adapter: ent2
ETHERNET STATISTICS (ent2) :
Device Type: 10/100 Mbps Ethernet PCI Adapter II (1410ff01)
Hardware Address: 00:0d:60:0c:05:00
Transmit Statistics:
-------------------Packets: 28684
Bytes: 3704108
Interrupts: 3
Transmit Errors: 0
Packets Dropped: 0
Receive Statistics:
------------------Packets: 5701362
Bytes: 664049607
Interrupts: 5523380
Receive Errors: 0
Packets Dropped: 0
Bad Packets: 0
Max Packets on S/W Transmit Queue: 2
S/W Transmit Queue Overflow: 0
Current S/W+H/W Transmit Queue Length: 1
Broadcast Packets: 21
Multicast Packets: 0
No Carrier Sense: 0
DMA Underrun: 0
Lost CTS Errors: 0
Max Collision Errors: 0
Late Collision Errors: 0
Deferred: 0
SQE Test: 0
Timeout Errors: 0
Single Collision Count: 0
Multiple Collision Count: 0
Current HW Transmit Queue Length: 1
Broadcast Packets: 3740225
Multicast Packets: 194986
CRC Errors: 0
DMA Overrun: 0
Alignment Errors: 0
No Resource Errors: 0
Receive Collision Errors: 0
Packet Too Short Errors: 0
Packet Too Long Errors: 0
Packets Discarded by Adapter: 0
Receiver Start Count: 0
General Statistics:
------------------No mbuf Errors: 0
Adapter Reset Count: 0
Adapter Data Rate: 200
Driver Flags: Up Broadcast Running
Simplex Promiscuous AlternateAddress
64BitSupport ChecksumOffload PrivateSegment LargeSend DataRateSet
10/100 Mbps Ethernet PCI Adapter II (1410ff01) Specific Statistics:
256
Virtual I/O Server
-----------------------------------------------------------------------Link Status: Up
Media Speed Selected: Auto negotiation
Media Speed Running: 100 Mbps Full Duplex
Receive Pool Buffer Size: 1024
No Receive Pool Buffer Errors: 0
Receive Buffer Too Small Errors: 0
Entries to transmit timeout routine: 0
Transmit IPsec packets: 0
Transmit IPsec packets dropped: 0
Receive IPsec packets: 0
Receive IPsec SA offload count: 0
Transmit Large Send packets: 0
Transmit Large Send packets dropped: 0
Packets with Transmit collisions:
1 collisions: 0
6 collisions: 0
11 collisions: 0
2 collisions: 0
7 collisions: 0
12 collisions: 0
3 collisions: 0
8 collisions: 0
13 collisions: 0
4 collisions: 0
9 collisions: 0
14 collisions: 0
5 collisions: 0
10 collisions: 0
15 collisions: 0
-------------------------------------------------------------Virtual Adapter: ent7
ETHERNET STATISTICS (ent7) :
Device Type: Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan)
Hardware Address: 8a:83:54:5b:4e:9a
Transmit Statistics:
-------------------Packets: 7949318
Bytes: 915447641
Interrupts: 0
Transmit Errors: 0
Packets Dropped: 0
Receive Statistics:
------------------Packets: 0
Bytes: 0
Interrupts: 0
Receive Errors: 0
Packets Dropped: 0
Bad Packets: 0
Max Packets on S/W Transmit Queue: 0
S/W Transmit Queue Overflow: 0
Current S/W+H/W Transmit Queue Length: 0
Broadcast Packets: 5312065
Multicast Packets: 265589
No Carrier Sense: 0
DMA Underrun: 0
Lost CTS Errors: 0
Max Collision Errors: 0
Late Collision Errors: 0
Deferred: 0
SQE Test: 0
Timeout Errors: 0
Single Collision Count: 0
Multiple Collision Count: 0
Current HW Transmit Queue Length: 0
Broadcast Packets: 0
Multicast Packets: 0
CRC Errors: 0
DMA Overrun: 0
Alignment Errors: 0
No Resource Errors: 0
Receive Collision Errors: 0
Packet Too Short Errors: 0
Packet Too Long Errors: 0
Packets Discarded by Adapter: 0
Receiver Start Count: 0
General Statistics:
------------------No mbuf Errors: 0
Adapter Reset Count: 0
Adapter Data Rate: 20000
Driver Flags: Up Broadcast Running
Simplex Promiscuous AllMulticast
64BitSupport ChecksumOffload DataRateSet
Virtual I/O Ethernet Adapter (l-lan) Specific Statistics:
--------------------------------------------------------RQ Lingth: 4481
Virtual I/O Server
257
No Copy Buffers: 0
Trunk Adapter: True
Priority: 1 Active: True
Filter MCast Mode: False
Filters: 255
Enabled: 1 Queued: 0 Overflow: 0
LAN State: Operational
Hypervisor Send Failures: 2371664
Receiver Failures: 2371664
Send Errors: 0
Hypervisor Receive Failures: 0
ILLAN Attributes: 0000000000003103 [0000000000003103]
PVID:
1
VIDs: None
Switch ID: ETHERNET0
Buffers
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User types for the Virtual I/O Server
Learn about Virtual I/O Server user types and their user permissions.
The Virtual I/O Server has the following user types: prime administrator, system administrator, service
representative user, and development engineer user. After installation, the only user type that is active is
the prime administrator.
Prime administrator
The prime administrator (padmin) user ID is the only user ID that is enabled after installation of the
Virtual I/O Server and can run every Virtual I/O Server command. There can be only one prime
administrator in the Virtual I/O Server.
System administrator
The system administrator user ID has access to all commands except the following commands:
v lsfailedlogin
v
v
v
v
v
lsgcl
mirrorios
mkuser
oem_setup_env
rmuser
v shutdown
v unmirrorios
The prime administrator can create an unlimited number of system administrator IDs.
Service representative
Create the service representative (SR) user so that an service representative can log in to the system and
perform diagnostic routines. Upon logging in, the SR user is placed directly into the diagnostic menus.
258
Virtual I/O Server
Development engineer
Create a Development engineer (DE) user ID so that an development engineer can log in to the system
and debug problems.
View
This role is a read-only role and can perform only list-type (ls) functions. Users with this role do not have
the authority to change the system configuration and do not have write permission to their home
directories.
Virtual I/O Server
259
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Virtual I/O Server
Notices
This information was developed for products and services offered in the U.S.A.
The manufacturer may not offer the products, services, or features discussed in this document in other
countries. Consult the manufacturer's representative for information on the products and services
currently available in your area. Any reference to the manufacturer's product, program, or service is not
intended to state or imply that only that product, program, or service may be used. Any functionally
equivalent product, program, or service that does not infringe any intellectual property right of the
manufacturer may be used instead. However, it is the user's responsibility to evaluate and verify the
operation of any product, program, or service.
The manufacturer may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter described in
this document. The furnishing of this document does not grant you any license to these patents. You can
send license inquiries, in writing, to the manufacturer.
For license inquiries regarding double-byte character set (DBCS) information, contact the Intellectual
Property Department in your country or send inquiries, in writing, to the manufacturer.
The following paragraph does not apply to the United Kingdom or any other country where such
provisions are inconsistent with local law: THIS PUBLICATION IS PROVIDED “AS IS ” WITHOUT
WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Some states do not allow disclaimer of express or implied warranties in certain
transactions, therefore, this statement may not apply to you.
This information could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically
made to the information herein; these changes will be incorporated in new editions of the publication.
The manufacturer may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s)
described in this publication at any time without notice.
Any references in this information to websites not owned by the manufacturer are provided for
convenience only and do not in any manner serve as an endorsement of those websites. The materials at
those websites are not part of the materials for this product and use of those websites is at your own risk.
The manufacturer may use or distribute any of the information you supply in any way it believes
appropriate without incurring any obligation to you.
Licensees of this program who wish to have information about it for the purpose of enabling: (i) the
exchange of information between independently created programs and other programs (including this
one) and (ii) the mutual use of the information which has been exchanged, should contact the
manufacturer.
Such information may be available, subject to appropriate terms and conditions, including in some cases,
payment of a fee.
The licensed program described in this document and all licensed material available for it are provided
by IBM under terms of the IBM Customer Agreement, IBM International Program License Agreement,
IBM License Agreement for Machine Code, or any equivalent agreement between us.
Any performance data contained herein was determined in a controlled environment. Therefore, the
results obtained in other operating environments may vary significantly. Some measurements may have
been made on development-level systems and there is no guarantee that these measurements will be the
261
same on generally available systems. Furthermore, some measurements may have been estimated through
extrapolation. Actual results may vary. Users of this document should verify the applicable data for their
specific environment.
Information concerning products not produced by this manufacturer was obtained from the suppliers of
those products, their published announcements or other publicly available sources. This manufacturer has
not tested those products and cannot confirm the accuracy of performance, compatibility or any other
claims related to products not produced by this manufacturer. Questions on the capabilities of products
not produced by this manufacturer should be addressed to the suppliers of those products.
All statements regarding the manufacturer's future direction or intent are subject to change or withdrawal
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The manufacturer's prices shown are the manufacturer's suggested retail prices, are current and are
subject to change without notice. Dealer prices may vary.
This information is for planning purposes only. The information herein is subject to change before the
products described become available.
This information contains examples of data and reports used in daily business operations. To illustrate
them as completely as possible, the examples include the names of individuals, companies, brands, and
products. All of these names are fictitious and any similarity to the names and addresses used by an
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COPYRIGHT LICENSE:
This information contains sample application programs in source language, which illustrate programming
techniques on various operating platforms. You may copy, modify, and distribute these sample programs
in any form without payment to the manufacturer, for the purposes of developing, using, marketing or
distributing application programs conforming to the application programming interface for the operating
platform for which the sample programs are written. These examples have not been thoroughly tested
under all conditions. The manufacturer, therefore, cannot guarantee or imply reliability, serviceability, or
function of these programs. The sample programs are provided "AS IS", without warranty of any kind.
The manufacturer shall not be liable for any damages arising out of your use of the sample programs.
Each copy or any portion of these sample programs or any derivative work, must include a copyright
notice as follows:
© (your company name) (year). Portions of this code are derived from IBM Corp. Sample Programs. ©
Copyright IBM Corp. _enter the year or years_.
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Programming interface information
This Virtual I/O Server publication documents intended Programming Interfaces that allow the customer
to write programs to obtain the services of Virtual I/O Server.
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IBM, the IBM logo, and ibm.com are trademarks or registered trademarks of International Business
Machines Corp., registered in many jurisdictions worldwide. Other product and service names might be
trademarks of IBM or other companies. A current list of IBM trademarks is available on the web at
Copyright and trademark information at www.ibm.com/legal/copytrade.shtml.
Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries, or both.
262
Virtual I/O Server
Microsoft and Windows are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States, other countries, or
both.
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or registered trademarks of Red Hat, Inc., in the United States and other countries.
UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries.
Other product and service names might be trademarks of IBM or other companies.
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Permissions for the use of these publications are granted subject to the following terms and conditions.
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Notices
263
264
Virtual I/O Server