Creative Engineering
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Module 3: Task Clarification overall Steps, Needs Analysis,
User/Habitat Study, Market Study, Role Play
Centre for Product Design and Manufacturing
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India
Amaresh Chakrabarti
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Outline and Modules
Module Topic
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3
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5
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Introduction: design Thinking across domains, major elements of design thinking, definition of system, design, product design, engineering design, creativity, science, design science (research); Importance of design
design science (research); Importance of design
Product life cycle, Structure of systematic product design process, Structure of systematic product development process, Importance of systematic design, , Case Study
Task Clarification1: overall process and steps, market study, user/habitat analysis using
role play, observations and interaction with stakeholders
Task Clarification 2: Problem identification using requirement checklists, study of products and patents using Innovation Situation Questionnaire (ISQ), steps for collating data from multiple sources into a stakeholder requirement list translating stakeholder data from multiple sources into a stakeholder requirement list, translating
stakeholder
requirements into technical requirements, assigning importance to requirements
Task Clarification 3: Problem definition to develop solution neutral problem statements,
problem analysis to develop input‐output transformation, case study
Introduction to conceptual design: Identification of functions, Ideation, Consolidation into solution proposals (Concepts), and their systematic evaluation for selection of the most promising concept. Details of function structure generation and brainstorming
Conceptual design 2: Details of Synectics
Conceptual design
2: Details of Synectics method, Trigger Word technique, Checklist method, Trigger Word technique, Checklist
method, Examples
Conceptual design 3: Consolidation of ideas into concepts, e.g. with Morphological charts. Use of TRIZ Contradiction or ideality to identify and resolve issues with concepts
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Methods for simulation: analytical, virtual and physical h d f
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Conceptual design 4:
simulations, for evaluation or improvement.
Comparative evaluation and selection of concepts: ordinal and cardinal methods
TOTAL
No of hrs
No of hrs
6
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4 2
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Overview of Module 3
• Task clarification: Overall process and detailed steps
• Need analysis: Steps
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• Market Study
• User/Habitat Study
• Methods for interaction with stakeholders
• Role
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• Observations
• Interviews
• Example cases
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Main Stages of the Design Process
Main Stages of the Design Process
Activity
Input/Output
SOCIETAL NEED
(OR IDEA)
TASK
CLARIFICATION
REQUIREMENTS
CONCEPTUAL
DESIGN
CONCEPT
EMBODIMENT
DESIGN
LAYOUT
DETAIL
DESIGN
PRODUCTION
INSTRUCTIONS
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Task Clarification
• Purpose: Starting with perceived need, develop a requirements list
• Steps:
• Needs analysis – Establish current or latent economic existence of need (as a set of opportunities) using problems and opportunities based on knowledge of
set of opportunities) using problems and opportunities based on knowledge of • stakeholder/habitat study (who stakeholders are and what they need)
• market/business study (what the market is and what it can afford)
• product/technology study (competitive/related products/technologies)
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• Define stakeholder requirements of market segment – Identify what the market and its stakeholders might find attractive
• Define consumer‐specific technical requirements – Identify possible technical, economic, aesthetic etc. requirements for the product
• Assign importance –
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Assess relative importance of the requirements
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• Outcome: A set of requirements with relative importance
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Need to Requirements: A possible Route
Identify directions for what to observe
what to observe
Use requirement
Checklists, videos
Observe habitat and Observe
habitat and
activities to identify problems
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Use role plays
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Use U
QFD
Develop a list of testable, technical system requirements
Use
Use Matrix method,
Problem
Objectives tree
analysis
Establish relative importance of technical requirements
Identify further problems and questions to probe
questions to probe
Use ISQ
Study product to identify specific problems
Develop a list of stakeholder requirements
User interviews, surveys
Study habitat, and interact with users to identify specific Use requirement Checklists
problems
Develop a I/O Study market and y
statement of the business to identify problem
specific problems
Use Problem
definition
Develop a Solution Neutral Problem Statement (SNPS)
Use market surveys
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Outcome: A list of testable (where possible quantifiable), technical requirements with relative importance
Needs Analysis
• Purpose: Starting with perceived need, establish current or latest economic existence of needs
• Steps:
• Needs analysis – Establish current or latent economic existence of need (as a set of opportunities) using problems and opportunities based on knowledge of • stakeholder/habitat study (who stakeholders are and what they need)
• market/business study (what the market is and what it can afford)
a et/bus ess study ( at t e a et s a d at t ca a o d)
• product/technology study (competitive/related products/technologies
• Outcome: A list of problems and opportunities
A list of problems and opportunities
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Need: Three main areas of knowledge
Start from any of these, but study all three to establish the need
• Stakeholders face problems (e.g. difficult to use)
• Society faces problems (e.g. pollution)
• New regulations enforced (e.g. material banned)
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• Current products are expensive
• Current products cause problems
• New technology has better promise
New technology has better promise
Product/
Technology
Society/
Stakeholders
Needs
• Own product price too high
• Competitors
Competitors’ products are better
products are better
Market/
Business
• Sales of own products on decline
• New markets are emerging
New markets are emerging
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Need: main questions
• How is a current situation problematic, and what opportunities does a future situation offer for all actors involved? does a future situation offer for all actors
involved?
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•
•
•
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What problems are current (or benefits in future) for users?
What are current (or benefits in future) for manufacturers?
What are current (or benefits in future) for other stakeholders?
What are current (or benefits in future) for the society beyond?
What are current (or benefits in future) for the environment?
• Think of all life cycle phases of the products involved •
•
•
•
•
Are there issues in materials phase?
Are there issues in manufacturing phase?
Are there issues in distribution phase?
Are there issues in use phase?
Are there issues in use
Are there issues in after‐use phase?
• Think of the pain areas /opportunities for all major properties
•
•
•
•
•
•
Are there issues with performance
Are
there issues with performance (required output level, rate etc
(required output level rate etc at required accuracy)?
at required accuracy)?
Are there issues with aesthetics and semantics (semantic, aesthetic, emotional experience)?
Are there issues with ergonomics (comfort in doing various actions)?
Are there issues with reliability and robustness (repeatability with variability in conditions)?
Are there issues with safety (safety in both physical and mental faculties)?
Are there issues with resources (cost, time, materials, energy)?
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Need: A 3D space of problems
Lifecycle phases
Pro
operties
• For example
• Performance during use poor for users
• Cost for use high for the users
• Comfort during use low for the users
• Manufacturing processes unsafe for people M
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around the plant
• Cost for recycling during after‐use high for the municipality
the municipality…
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Part of Checklist from Roozenburg&Eekels(1995)
Main Headings
Main Headings
Questions
Performance
Which functions should the product fulfil?...
Environment
What are the environmental influences on the product?...
Life in service
How intensively will the product be used?...
Maintenance
What maintenance is necessary?...
Target product price
What should the product price be?...
Transportation
What transportation is needed during production?...
Packaging
Is packaging required?
Is packaging required?...
Quantity
What is the size of run?...
Manufacturing facilities
Should the product me made using existing facilities?...
Size and weight
Does lifecycle put any limits on these?
Aesthetics, appearance and finish
Is there a house style to be followed?...
Materials
Are special materials needed?...
Product life
How long will the product be made?...
Standards
Ergonomics
Quality, reliability
Self life, storage
Testing
Product policy
Safety
Product liability
Product liability
Installation, operation
After‐use
Social, political implications
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Part of Checklist from Pahl & Beitz (2007)
Main Headings
Examples
Geometry
Size,, space requirement, etc.
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Kinematics
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Type of motions, acceleration, etc.
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Forces
Direction of force, weight, etc.
Energy
Efficiency, output, pressure, etc.
Material
Flow of materials, prescribed materials, etc.
Signals
Inputs and outputs, display etc.
Safety
Operational safety, direct safety systems, etc.
Ergonomics
Type of operation, comfort, etc.
Production
Factory limitations, preferred production methods, etc.
Quality control
Quality control
Possibilities of testing, measuring, etc.
of testing measuring etc
Assembly
Installation, special regulations etc.
Transport
Means of transport (height and weight), etc.
Operation
Quietness wear etc
Quietness, wear, etc.
Maintenance
Inspection, servicing intervals, etc.
Recycling
Reuse, disposal etc.
Costs
Maximum allowable manufacturing costs, etc.
Schedules
Delivery date, etc.
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Market Study (Ulrich & Eppinger, 2003) • Identify new product development opportunities from literature
• Market data on existing or competitor’s products
• Benchmarking reports on competing products
• Reports on various user segments: their aspirations and problems
• Reports on emerging market segments, e.g. demographic change in cities
• Failure reports from service departments
• New technology opportunity reports
• Newspaper articles on any of these, Trend studies, etc.
• Identify market segmentations
• It is useful to think of customers belonging to distinct market segments
• Dividing a market into segments allows to see where competitors are active, affording complementary targets
• Identify new technology opportunities
• Look for technology S
Look for technology S‐curves
curves of where emerging or current technologies are so that appropriate technologies of where emerging or current technologies are so that appropriate technologies
can be chosen based on timescale of the product
• S‐curves: all technologies perform poorly initially, maturing rapidly, and saturating or becoming obsolete.
• Evaluate fundamentally new product opportunities
Evaluate fundamentally new product opportunities
• Assess market size (units/year X average price)
• Market growth rate (percent per year)
• Competitive intensity (number of competitors and their strengths)
• Depth of the developers existing knowledge of the market and technology
Depth of the developers existing knowledge of the market and technology
• Fitness with the developer’s other products and capabilities
• Potential for patents, trade secrets, or other barriers to competition
• Existence of a product champion within the developer organisation
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User/habitat Study
• Observe and analyse the product/system to identify possible problems and opportunities around the product
• Take photographs where possible
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• Use product role play to gain insights into possible problems
• Observe and analyse the product/system in action and what its people go through to identify possible problems and opportunities around the product its process and its people
around the product, its process and its people
• Use videos and photographs where possible
• Use stakeholder role play to gain insights into possible problems
• Interact with stakeholders to understand their views
• Use stakeholder role play to gain insights into possible problems
Use stakeholder role play to gain insights into possible problems
• Use structured, semi‐structured questionnaire
• Use audio or video where possible
• Use interviews
Use inter ie s and/or focus groups and/or surveys
and/or foc s gro ps and/or s r e s
• Use notebook or questionnaire forms to note down points 14
Role Play
• Role Play: a technique for empathising
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• Empathy: feeling like the subject (Emotional identification)
• Sympathy: feeling for the subject (cerebral identification)
• Apathy: Not feeling for the object (No identification)
• Role play can be carried out for, e.g.
Role play can be carried out for, e.g.
• Products: feeling like a product: e.g. if you are the pen, how do you feel?
• People: feeling like a stakeholder: e.g. if you are user of a pen, how do you feel?
• Role play requires one to
• Situate the subject in its context: e.g. name, age, education, family, past…
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• Describe the regular life and activities of the subject: What happens daily?
• Narrate aspirations & achievements of the subject: What does (s)he want to be?
• Use pain
Use pain points and failures
points and failures of the subject: What couldn
of the subject: What couldn’tt (s)he achieve? Why?
(s)he achieve? Why?
• Imagine that it is one’s own life: how does one feel?
• Next 6 slides give excerpts from role play by students of CPDM, IISc
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• Three person role play, three product role play, each rich in empathy
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Role Play for a Middle Aged School Teacher
(by Ms. Vani V., PhD Student at IISc)
My visit to bike show at CPDM, IISc
I am Mr.Kumarappa, 46 years old, working as P.T master at the village high school. I was a state level Kabadi player from 1977 84 I 1985 I j i d
1977‐84. In 1985 I joined our village school as P.T Master. I wanted to stay with my parents. I could manage this job with a ill
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recommendation from our MLA who likes Kabadi and encourages it. Our school students generally do very well in inter school competitions especially in Kabadi.
II am looking for a two wheeler for my daughter. She is doing B.Com
am looking for a two wheeler for my daughter She is doing B Com at Maharani college, Mysore. She travels by bus from at Maharani college Mysore She travels by bus from
our village. She is finding it difficult as there is only one bus to our village and she has to wait for more than one hour if she misses the bus. Actually I have a LUNA gifted by my father‐in‐law during my marriage. My daughter does not want to use it as she feels it is too old and in recent times it is failing quite frequently. So I decided to buy a two wheeler for her. But I do not want a vehicle which can be used only by ladies I want it to be equally useful for my son in future to go to college
not want a vehicle which can be used only by ladies. I want it to be equally useful for my son in future to go to college. Anyway in two years she will get married and go. He should not object to use the vehicle at that time. Also I may need to dispose my LUNA soon. In that case I also require to use the same vehicle at times. Our school science teacher, Krishna Murthy, suggested this bike show. His son, Mr
Our
school science teacher Krishna Murthy suggested this bike show His son Mr sunil, is studying here. Yesterday Mr.Sunil
sunil is studying here Yesterday Mr Sunil
could accommodate me in his hostel room. This campus in the heart of Bangalore, is much greener than our village. During dinner time in the mess I was surprised to see many girls. Actually my daughter got engineering seat in Mysore, but I could not send her.
Today I enjoyed this bike show here. I was particularly happy with the economy section bikes. I thought college students can only think of style, pickup, high speed etc. To my surprise there was enough focus on middle class requirements. I am quite impressed with the students and staff here. I hope my son can study here one day. I can not spend lot of money for a bike now as I need to save for my daughter’ss wedding and son
now, as I need to save for my daughter
wedding and son’ss education. The running cost ie., fuel consumption and education The running cost ie fuel consumption and
maintenance is also very important. It should not upset my monthly budget. From the presentation it looks like two to three bikes suites my requirements. Anyway before taking a final decision, I want my children to have a look at them. Very 16
soon I will bring them here to see this institute and the bikes. Thank you.
Role Play for a 10 Year Old Begger
(by Mr Sebastian, Exchange Masters Student at IISc)
I am Munyam. Just Munyam. I do not have any family name. But anyway, no one calls me my name. Only my two brothers knew it, and they live in another part of the city. I am staying in Bangalore, Malleshwaram is my address. It does not matter, nobodtyever
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needs me. Everyone sees me but when I reach out they ignore me. I think it’s a magic way to become invisible but it’s a secret. Sometimes, I receive one or two rupees by people who know my secret. My daily objective is to gether 30 rupees: 12 for the ice cream of the morning, 12 other for the evening, 2 for a morning banana, and 2 other for the evening. But the cheapest bananas and the cheapest ice cream are very far away. It’s not a problem, I am happy to go. It is a nice walk where I can find, when I am lucky, a bottle of drinking water not finished or something like that. With the 2 rupees left, I generally buy a candy. My favourite is the caramel one: when I can have this, it is the perfect day! My record is 47 rupees in one day! But I rarely have more than 20 rupees a day. The morning with the money of the previous day, when another boy won’t steal mine at night, I try to complete what I miss to have a real meal. But generally I begin with a banana and I look for something eatable in bins. The problem is that a lot of interesting bins are in control of other street children! Anyway, last year I found a good technique: I discreetly follow a dog with a wood stick and when the dog finds something eatable I just run after him and take the treasure!
and when the dog finds something eatable I just run after him and take the treasure!
Sometimes I go to the temples. It’s beautiful. I like to go in and pray that the statues become alive and give me everything I need. These days I cough a lot. May be because I did not wash for a long time. I am afraid to strip: someone may steal my clothes. But it is g
p
hard to find a good place to wash.
During I found something funny to do: each time I see a restaurant, I check the price and when it is too expensive for me, I try to calculate the meal most expensive of this restaurant and I classify it compared to those of other meals. My brother taught me tohe
numbers but I do not know how to read aany other language than Kannada. Anyway, I do not speak a lot. I am alone. So I speak to myself. I miss my mother. One thing I do not understand: why do girls of my age who have a mother make fun of me? They already have a mother to give them everything they want! It’s not my fault that I am not as well dressed as they are…
When evening comes, I am tired, I go to a station where it is lightened. I hate sleeping in the dark because if someone finds me, no else can see what is happening Most of the time it is the other steet children who try to steal off me. When it happens I cry because else can see what is happening. Most of the time, it is the other steet
children who try to steal off me When it happens I cry because
I do not have any secure place to put my money. And when I meet adults, they hurt me. Every night I am afraid now….
17
Role Play for a 14 Year Old Boy
(by Mr Siddharth, Masters Student at CPDM, IISc)
Greetings everyone ,I’m Abraham I’m 14 years old, I come from Tezpur, a scenic lush green hilly area in Assam of north‐east India .I li
live with my parents in my ancestral home in my town.my town is located in a valley surrounded by tea plantations.my dad is called ih
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‘the bijili man’ !, as he is an electrician in my place.as a child I always believed in magic, for me magic means anything new, like a cell
phone, a television,….i always thought these are like magic boxes and I still think they are.
My school is located towards the end of the town, so I have to cross the tea plantations to reach to my school. I go with my friend My
school is located towards the end of the town so I have to cross the tea plantations to reach to my school I go with my friend
Rohan,we often compete with each other to reach the school.as we run along the tea leaves brush against us leaving us with the fragrance of tea.
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As we run along the view of school flashes the aspirations in front of my eyes. I always wanted to become the district collector.
The bell rings and I’m in the Hindi class, the teacher begins with the Kabir das poems. But I never understood the relationship between a district collector and the kabir das poems.
In the noon, the school serves meals. I patiently wait for other to complete eating, so as to ensure that the food is safe to eat! If I had magic I would have known whether the food was safe. I don’t want to see anyone die in the school.
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As school comes to an end, I could see the dark clouds at the horizon. As we stared it had already stated to rain.as we kept running the slippers started to flap against my feet spilling mud on my pants.
As we entered the town, all the lights have started to fade away, it was a power cut. Unfortunately, there is no exception for the bijili
man’s home, had to spend the rest of the time with candles and mosquitoes. As my mother started to pray to Jesus for a better life. I started to think of magic, so I’ve come here. Can you people give me that Magic?
18
Role Play for a Sony Earphone
(by Mr Kashyep, Masters Student at CPDM, IISc)
The product is a pair of Sony ear phones. Bought and used for almost a year, this particular pair has been used many a hundred times and is nearing the end of its useful life.
Hi, my name is ED23f41256. I’m what you would call an ear phone. My paternal company is Sony and I was made in Korea. I don’t remember how I was assembled, but it really was quite a messy job. There were a lot of parts there and never was I able to know how they put me together so efficiently and perfectly. By the time they were finished, (almost after one minute it seems!) my left and right ear parts, the split cables, the main cable, and the jack, everything was there! Usually,
we assembly line products consider the Quality Check guy as our father. But, you know how the Koreans look! They all looked the same to me! That was the part about my birth. After my QC, I was put inside a thick cylindrical plastic cover with a color paper backing. Wow! My own home! Then I checked out the container writings, and found that I was “Like. No. Other” and assured to “perform to the best” and a one year warranty! And the cost, man, I was pricey! I cost almost 500 Indian rupees! I was packed away in a carton with almost a thousand others and sent to India by ship. I was transferred to a warehouse after I reached and spent a week there. Afterwards, I was moved to a store in a shopping mall. I thought it would be a long wait, but, one day later, along comes my master! He wanted to buy ear phones and not earbuds! Seemed like a sensible guy. The sales person pulled down many of the ear phones and at last, after much thought, my master picked me! But he grumbled while he paid my price and took me home.
After reaching home, the cover was taken off carefully and put aside, and I was plugged in to his mp3 player. He turned up the volume and I watched carefully for his reaction. A slow smile spread on his face and he started nodding his head! That was the start of my real life. After two months, he threw away my warranty card! Talk about brand value! We listened to songs, audio books, movies, etc, etc. I was carried around everywhere my master went, along with his phone and maybe more because he took me out for jogging and exercises too. I was handled roughly sometimes but, I would say it comes with the job. He would use me with his mp3 player, mobile and laptop. I “performed to the best” every single time. The only specific complaint was that I didn’t have enough “bass”. But I am an ear phone right? And also the tangled up wire problem. It is very frustrating to me and him too. We spend almost a minute trying to unravel me! Anyways, I have almost reached the end of my life, but I am glad of this life and let me say “Not afraid, No regrets, …” as they say in the song. 19
Role Play for an ink Pen
(by Mr Ishan Kapadia, Masters Student at CPDM, IISc)
I am ink pen. I am 1 years of old now and right now I am lying down in a dark cupboard drawer of a store room. I have been sitting here since almost two months and I haven’t been used since then.
But my life hasn
But
my life hasn’tt been like this always, actually on a contrary my past had been glorious. I was manufactured in a factory been like this always actually on a contrary my past had been glorious I was manufactured in a factory
called Zion Enterprises near Andhra Pradesh industrial estate fifteen months ago. I was the part of limited edition, so enough amount of care and consideration had been given in design and aesthetics. I have been manufactured by very skilled workers of the factory. My body had been made by high quality stainless steel sheet metal. My cap is beautifully copper coated My outer body had been polished in several layers to give a glossy mirror finish My nib had been made of
copper coated. My outer body had been polished in several layers to give a glossy mirror finish. My nib had been made of Zinc alloy to give enough strength which can sustain high pressure while writing. There had been beautiful carving done on my nib and body to make it more appealing and elegant. Then I had been packed in a classic wooden case.
II had been brought by a university chairman exactly a year ago to be gifted to a professor for his outstanding had been brought by a university chairman exactly a year ago to be gifted to a professor for his outstanding
performance in his field. My professor loved me and he had always taken good care of me, he only used me for special purposes like signing or writing special notes. As I did produced beautiful handwriting, my master used to experiment with different fonts and calligraphy. He used me daily and always carried me with him and used it with a pride. But after use of a year, my nib started wearing off and I started leaking ink on the paper. There are times that I used to leave large ink spots, so my master replaced my nib with new finer nib and it served purpose for some time. Also my master found it very difficult to refill the liquid ink into my body There was always a spillage of ink and his hands used to get dirty It was also a very time consuming
liquid ink into my body. There was always a spillage of ink and his hands used to get dirty. It was also a very time consuming procedure. Later I realised that my ink storage capacity was really less, and the ink tank used to get empty very frequently.
And I observed that my master found the use of ball pen more convenient than me as it provided longer writing time. Also after using several times there had been several scratch marks on my body and the copper coating started Also
after using several times there had been several scratch marks on my body and the copper coating started
wearing off so even if I was functioning very well my master didn’t feel motivated to use me more frequently. I also started leaking ink from the middle end of my body and one day I spoiled a brand new white shirt of my master. That day my master 20
has left me in this dark corner of this store room. Role Play for a Football Shoe
(by Mr Siddhant Prasad, Masters Student at CPDM, IISc)
I remember the day we left the store in a shopping bag. We had arrived a week back as a part of new batch of a new series. A lot was expected from us. We were supposed to make an instant impact and be cleared off the shelves almost as soon as we arrived, but that was not to be. Our maker had decided to give our predecessor a complete overhaul/make over. Our tongues were cut out to a modern unique shape. Our upper was made from a new lightweight fabric and the studs on our soles were specially designed and molded for quickness and agility. Hence it was a was made from a new lightweight fabric and the studs on our soles were specially designed and molded
for quickness and agility Hence it was a
rude shock that it took us a week to attract the attention of a young man, an amateur footballer. Yes I was one half of a pair of football shoes. I and my twin brother are useless when not together.
Luckily since the day we were acquired I was the favoured shoe. Our owner was left footed and he always preferred me during most of his game play. But my owner wasn't really quick and agile, in fact he was slightly well built and moderately fast so I had my doubts about him. Didn't he l B
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know that we were meant for a particular type of user? Maybe it was the exterior look and stitch quality in addition to my fluorescent colour that drew him to us. It’s been 6 months now and I’m much older than i used to be.
A day in my life starts with the cramped sharing of space with my brother and other shoes that accompany me in the shoe rack. It’s a cold damp place and smells like my owners feet most of the time. Around 4 pm he comes looking for me and my twin brother very excited to use us as usual. He puts us in a bag and unveils us only at the playing area where I’m eyed by other envious companions of my owner. He hasn’t untied the laces on us since our previous use so he performs this additional step before slipping his feet into our cavity and fastening our body around his feet. It was only during the first month that he religiously untied our laces after use but now that step is conveniently skipped with complete disregard for the wear that hasn’tt caused over the months. On the playground I show my true potential. My brother has an important function of disregard for the wear that hasn
caused over the months On the playground I show my true potential My brother has an important function of
providing pivotal support and grip while I assist in most of the heavy duty functions like passing, shooting, lobbing, dribbling and ball control. At times during the game our owner may have to sprint and this would’ve been tricky if not for the cleats provided on our sole which characterise our grip while we work in tandem. Little does he know that my exterior surface has been designed for high abrasion and water resistance which makes us usable even in harsh weather conditions? He is also unaware of the sweat resistance of the inner fabric but it’s these qualities that give me a longer life.
l
lif
Someday I hope to be owned by a professional player like Wayne Rooney .I have heard that players like him hire personnel to maintain their shoes , clean them , fix them etc. Everyone takes notice of a shoe worn by a professional. You start featuring in the papers and magazines more often. Its quiet a glamorous life but it’s a short one. One bad game is all that takes to provoke your owner to discard you forever but some professional have more mercy. We may get stepped on, we may get dragged along the ground, we may suffer the brunt of a speeding ball but we never fail to hold on to our owner and perform on the field unless, we are forcibly removed. The day he decides not to use us again is sadly the day we are sentenced to be replaced. 21
Interaction with stakeholders (from Ulrich & Eppinger, 2003)
• Interviews
• Designers discuss needs with a single stakeholder at a time
• Usually conducted in stakeholder
Usually conducted in stakeholder’ss environment, typically lasting 1‐2 hours
environment typically lasting 1 2 hours
• Detailed data on stakeholder, problems, environment for fewer people • Focus groups
Focus groups
• A moderator facilitates a 2‐hour discussion with a group of stakeholders
• Typical group size 8‐12
• In special rooms with facility for designers to observe group members
I
i l
ith f ilit f d i
t b
b
• Proceedings are often videotaped, and group members paid a nominal fee
• More expensive and time consuming than interviews, from more people
• Written surveys
• Typically structured questionnaire answered by a large no of stakeholders
• Mail or web‐based
• Provides less detailed information on more number of people
• Does not provide enough information on the stakeholder environment
• Useful later in the process or for establishing generality of specific issues
22
Interviews (from Ulrich & Eppinger, 2003)
• How many stakeholders to interview?
• Somewhere between 10‐50 for each segment addressed
• Can do sequentially, terminating when no new needs are identified
Can do sequentially terminating when no new needs are identified
• Detailed data on stakeholder, problems, environment for fewer people • Which stakeholders are to be interviewed?
Which stakeholders are to be interviewed?
• Lead users are the most important (von Hippel, 1998)
• Lead users: stakeholders who experience needs months/years ahead of others and stand to benefit substantially from product innovations
th
d t dt b
fit b t ti ll f
d ti
ti
• Buyers and users need not be same (e.g. parents buyers for toys of children)
• Use customer selection matrix from Ulrich and Eppinger (2003), shown for stakeholders for home cooking equipment (market segements on rows, type of sources on columns)
Lead users
Lead users
Users
Sales outlet
Sales outlet
Housewife (frequent use)
0
2
Roadside vendors (large ( g
quantity)
3
4
2
Cooks in restaurants (heavy duty)
3
2
2
Service centres
Service centres
3
23
Interviews: What questions to ask?
(from Ulrich & Eppinger, 2003)
• Be receptive to information provided by stakeholders
• avoid confrontations or being defensive
• goal is to elicit honest expression of needs
• not to convince what the stakeholder needs
• First introduce yourself and let the stakeholder introduce herself
• Then explain the purpose of the interview
Then explain the purpose of the interview
• Then ask the questions
• Possible questions for users (modify to suit other stakeholder)
• When and why do you use this type of product?
• Walk us through a typical session using the product
• What do you like about the existing products?
• What do you not like about the existing products?
• What issues do you consider when purchasing such products?
• What improvements would you make to the product?
• General guidelines for interviewing
General guidelines for interviewing
• Go with the flow: if the stakeholder is providing important information, let it flow.
• Use visual stimuli and props: Bring a collection of existing and competitors’ products, or even some new product concepts when there is maturity.
• Suppress preconceived hypotheses about the product technology: probe for the underlying needs
Suppress preconceived hypotheses about the product technology: probe for the underlying needs
• Have the stakeholder demonstrate the product and/or typical tasks related to the product
•Be alert for surprise and expression of latent needs
24
• Watch for non‐verbal information, e.g. for human dimensions such as comfort, image or style.
25
Creative Engineering
D i
Design
Aditi
Anupam
Ahmad
Ashish
&
Presents
Vinayak
The Product Story
26
CONTENTS
• Habitat
• Product brief
• Observations
• List of problems
• Role Play
• Interaction
27
Habitat
Habitat
28
Habitat
Yeshwantpur, 19 route bus stop
• It is a bus stop in the
yashawantpur
h
t
circle.
i l
• It is a bus stop with
frequency of 1 bus per 4
minutes.
• 15 to 16 people are
constantlyy at the bus stop
p
during peak hours
• The bus shelter is abutting
the curb of footpath
footpath, with
adequate space left at back
for pedestrians.
• There
Th
iis littl
little or no space for
f
bus to stop at the bus stop
29
Image Credit: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Totoro_Busstop.jpg
Bus Shelter
A Bus Shelter
•
Image Credit: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bus_stop_s
h lt
helter.wind‐_mill.jalasjarvi.20070703.ojp.jpg
i d
ill j l j i 20070703 j j
•
•
Image Credit: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pa%C5%A1ilai%C4%8Di%C5%B3_gatv%C4%97.jpg
•
It is a shelter providing for
people waiting for their bus.
It consists of a structural frame,
and
d covering
i materials.
t i l
It is also used for marketing, by
advertising agencies.
Also acts as a landmark for
pedestrians.
30
Signage
Shelter Shed
Framework
Billboards
Sitting
Image Credit: http://freiebahn.freeoda.com/Freie_Bahn//Bus_Act_files/widget14_markup.html
31
Product
The Bus Shelter
Product
32
Product
The Bus Shelter
•
•
This bus shelter provides for
adequately sitting 12 people at
a time.
It is made of steel framework
and corrugated tin sheets.
33
Product
The Bus Shelter
•
•
•
Displays lit from inside have been installed at sides and above the shed
for advertising.
It has three benches and railing abutting the road curb.
The shed just projects beyond the railing.
34
Product
The Bus Shelter
•
•
•
•
Slope towards backside to drain
water
Pipe to drain water from roof
Benches made from granite stones
Railings made from stainless steel
35
Observations
•
•
•
People stand outside the
bus shelter, as it is hard
to reach q
quickly
y to the
bus because of the
railings.
In case of rains
rains, water
leaks through shed.
Many people may
actually not notice the
billboards. And they get
dirty.
Observations
36
Observations
•
•
Signage is not visible.
No maps or timetables of
buses arriving.
arriving Nor the
name of bus stop has
been displayed.
37
Problem Checklist
Efficiency: (in terms of service)
– People don’t use the bus
shelter.
shelter
– Water leaks through the shed
– It is difficult to spot the bus
stop
– Billboards get dirty, due to
water
ate and
a d people
peop e spitting
sp tt g
over it.
– The railing meant for
protection actually becomes
protection,
an obstruction
P bl
Problem
Ch kli t
Checklist
38
Problem Checklist
Economic Value:
– The material used is steel
and tin corrugated sheets.
sheets
– The frame can be simplified
further to reduce usage of
materials
t i l
– Extra tin sheets used to
conceal the unpleasant
appearance of trusses.
– Granite slabs for sitting. It is
long lasting and easy to
maintain.
– Billboards add to the beauty
and mode of earning
revenue.
39
Problem Checklist
Safety:
– The habitat is unsafe in itself.
As there is no separate space
for buses to stop, and they
have to stop on roads.
– There
Th
iis accumulation
l ti off mud
d
in front of bus shelter, causing
slippery surface, which can
be dangerous as passengers
ascend or descend buses.
– The railing
g is used by
yp
people
p
for clinging to it with support
of hands, which is dangerous.
40
Problem Checklist
Safety:
– The water leaks over the
electric billboards
billboards.
– The electric wiring is
exposed. No conduit
provided.
id d
– The tin sheets come out of
there frames, due to rusting.
– The whole bus shelter frame
suffers from rusting.
41
Problem Checklist
Environmental:
– The materials used for frame and billboard are unsustainable. Both
the manufacturing
f
process and disposal are unsustainable.
– The complex frame structure requires lots of materials, which needs
to be minimized.
42
Role Play
43
Interaction
44
Srijeet,
j , Student,, from Kerala
P
e
o
p
l
e
His first time to be on this bus stop
Praveen, Student, from
Bangalore
g
Goes to Malleshwaram daily from
this bus stop.
Bernard, Municipal Hospital
Employee,
p y
Bangalore
g
Boards bus daily after waiting for
20 minutes on an average
45
Q
Questionnaire
ti
i
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Q1. What is your name?
Q2. What is your occupation, age?
Q3 Do
Q3.
D you come h
here d
daily?
il ?
Q4. How long you stay here?
Q5. do you find place to sit here?
Q6. Do you sit?
Q7. Do you find it useful?
Q8 Does
Q8.
D
water
t lleaks
k ffrom th
the ttop?
?
Q9. Can you comfortably move?
Q10. Do yyou actually
y see this advertisement?
Q11. Do you able to see bus no. from the bus stop?
Q12. What is bus frequency?
Q13 Is there any requirement of time table or route map?
Q13.
46
Interviews
Video
47
• The primary purpose of bus shelter is to provide a
temporary
p
y structure for waiting
g but it is a necessity
y that it
does not cause any difficulty in reaching the bus in the
limited time when buses arrive.
inference
• The design should be such that
– it prevents passengers from external factors
– provides a place to rest
– easy to maintain
– It also proves an effective medium to advertise or
showcase the culture of that area or country.
– The use of alternate, sustainable materials will help.
48
Special Thanks to
Srijeet
Pravin
Bernard
Kashyap
Thank You
Presented by
Vinayak
y
Anupam
Ashish
Ahmad
Aditi
49