Dvips: A DVI-to-PostScript Translator

Dvips: A DVI-to-PostScript Translator
for version 5.66a
February 1997
Tomas Rokicki
(edited for Dvipsk by
This document is based on `dvips.tex' by Tomas Rokicki. It is in the public domain.
Chapter 1: Why use Dvips?
1 Why use Dvips?
The Dvips program has a number of features that set it apart from other PostScript
drivers for TEX. This rather long section describes the advantages of using Dvips, and may
be skipped if you are just interested in learning how to use the program. See Chapter 2
[Installation], page 2, for details of compilation and installation.
The Dvips driver generates excellent, standard PostScript, that can be included in other
documents as gures or printed through a variety of spoolers. The generated PostScript
requires very little printer memory, so very complex documents with a lot of fonts can easily
be printed even on PostScript printers without much memory, such as the original Apple
LaserWriter. The PostScript output is also compact, requiring less disk space to store and
making it feasible as a transfer format.
Even those documents that are too complex to print in their entirety on a particular
printer can be printed, since Dvips will automatically split such documents into pieces,
reclaiming the printer memory between each piece.
The Dvips program supports graphics in a natural way, allowing PostScript graphics to
be included and automatically scaled and positioned in a variety of ways.
Printers with any resolution are supported, even if they have dierent resolutions in
the horizontal and vertical directions. High resolution output is supported for typesetters,
including an option that compresses the bitmap fonts so that typesetter virtual memory
is not exhausted. This option also signicantly reduces the size of the PostScript le and
decoding in the printer is very fast.
Missing fonts can be automatically generated if Metafont exists on the system, or fonts
can be converted from GF to PK format on demand. If a font cannot be generated, a
scaled version of the same font at a dierent size can be used instead, although Dvips will
complain loudly about the poor aesthetics of the resulting output.
Users will appreciate features such as collated copies and support for `tpic', `psfig',
`emtex', and `METAPOST'; system administrators will love the support for multiple printers,
each with their own conguration le, and the ability to pipe the output directly to a
program such as `lpr'. Support for MS-DOS, OS/2, and VMS in addition to Unix is
provided in the standard distribution, and porting to other systems is easy.
One of the most important features is the support of virtual fonts, which add an entirely
new level of exibility to TEX. Virtual fonts are used to give Dvips its excellent PostScript
font support, handling all the font remapping in a natural, portable, elegant, and extensible
way. Dvips even comes with its own Afm2tfm program that creates the necessary virtual
fonts and TEX font metric les automatically from the Adobe font metric les.
Source is provided and freely distributable, so adding a site-specic feature is possible.
Adding such features is made easier by the highly modular structure of the program.
There is really no reason to use another driver, and the more people use Dvips, the less
time will be spent ghting with PostScript and the more time will be available to create
beautiful documents. So if you don't use Dvips on your system, get it today.
Tom Rokicki wrote and maintains the original Dvips program.
Chapter 2: Installation
2 Installation
(A copy of this chapter is in the distribution le `dvipsk/INSTALL'.)
Installing Dvips is mostly the same as installing any Kpathsea-using program. Therefore,
for the basic steps involved, see section \Installation" in Kpathsea. (A copy is in the le
For solutions to common installation problems and information on how to report a bug,
see the le `kpathsea/BUGS' (see section \Bugs" in Kpathsea). For solutions to Dvipsspecic problems, see Section 2.4.1 [Debug options], page 5. Also see the Dvips home page
at http://www.radicaleye.com/dvips.
Dvips does require some additional installation, detailed in the sections below. Also, to
congure color devices, see Section 7.5 [Color device conguration], page 49.
2.1 `config.ps' installation
Dvips has its own conguration les: a le `config.ps' for sitewide defaults, and a
le `config.printer' for each printer (output device). Since these are site-specic, make
install does not create them; you must create them yourself.
(These Dvips conguration les are independent of the Kpathsea onguration le
`texmf.cnf' (see section \Cong les" in Kpathsea).
Dvips conguration les contents and searching are described fully in Section 3.4 [Cong
les], page 15. The simplest way to create a new conguration le is to copy and modify the
le `dvipsk/contrib/config.proto', seasoning with options to your taste from Section 3.4
[Cong les], page 15. Here is `config.proto' for your reading pleasure:
% Prototype Dvips configuration file.
% How to print, maybe with lp instead lpr, etc.
o |lpr
% Default resolution of this device, in dots per inch.
D 600
Metafont mode. (This is completely different from the -M command-line
option, which controls whether MakeTeXPK is invoked.) Get
ftp://ftp.tug.org/tex/modes.mf for a list of mode names. This mode
and the D number above must agree, or MakeTeXPK will get confused.
% Memory available. Download the three-line PostScript file:
% %! Hey, we're PostScript
% /Times-Roman findfont 30 scalefont setfont 144 432 moveto
% vmstatus exch sub 40 string cvs show pop showpage
% to determine this number. (It will be the only thing printed.)
m 3500000
% Correct printer offset. You can use testpage.tex from the LaTeX
Chapter 2: Installation
% distribution to find these numbers. Print testpage.dvi more than once.
O 0pt,0pt
% Partially download Type 1 fonts by default. Only reason not to do
% this is if you encounter bugs. (Please report them to
% tex-k@mail.tug.org if you do.)
% Also look for fonts at these resolutions.
R 300 600
% With a high resolution and a RISC cpu, better to compress the bitmaps.
% Uncomment these if you have and want to use PostScript versions of the
% fonts.
%p +cmfonts.map
%p +lafonts.map
%p +cyrfonts.map
%p +eufonts.map
% You will also want definitions for alternative paper sizes -- A4,
% legal, and such. Examples in `contrib/papersize.level2' and
% `contrib/papersize.simple'.
2.2 PostScript font installation
To use PostScript fonts with TEX and Dvips, you need both metric les (`.tfm' and
`.vf') and the outlines (`.pfa' or `.pfb'). See Section 6.1 [Font concepts], page 34.
To support the basic PostScript font set, the recommended (and simplest) approach is
to retrieve ftp://ftp.tug.org/tex/psfonts.tar.gz and unpack it in your $(fontdir)
directory (`/usr/local/share/texmf/fonts' by default). This archive contains metrics,
outlines, and bitmaps (for previewing) for the 35 de facto standard fonts donated by URW
and the additional high-quality freely available PostScript fonts donated by Adobe, Bitstream, and URW, including geometrically-created variants such as oblique and small caps.
`CTAN:/fonts/psfonts' contains support for many additional fonts for which you must
buy outlines (Adobe, Bigelow & Holmes, Monotype, Softkey, Y&Y). `psfonts.tar.gz' is a
small extract from this directory. (For CTAN info, see section \unixtex.ftp" in Kpathsea;
a copy is in the top-level le `INSTALL'.)
If you have additional PostScript fonts, you can make them available to Dvips by (1)
giving them with appropriate lenames; and (2) running Afm2tfm (see Section 6.2 [Making
a font available], page 38) to make TFM and VF metrics for TEX and Dvips to use. Also
add them to `psfonts.map' if necessary (see Section 6.4 [psfonts.map], page 45); it contains
everything contained in `psfonts.tar.gz' and most fonts that come with Unix systems.
Following are locations for vendor-supplied fonts. Please mail tex-k@mail.tug.org if
you nd fonts elsewhere on your system.
Chapter 2: Installation
DEC Ultrix
DEC Digital Unix
HP HP-UX 9, 10
IBM AIX /usr/lpp/DPS/fonts/outlines
SGI IRIX /usr/lib/DPS/outline/base /usr/lib/X11/fonts/Type1
Sun SunOS 4.x
(NeWSprint only)
Sun Solaris 2
The NeXT system supplies more fonts than any others, but there's a lot of overlap.
Finally, if you have an Hewlett-Packard printer, you should be able to get Type 1 font
les for the standard 35 fonts from HP, if the freely available URW Type 1's do not satisfy
for whatever reason. The phone number for HP Printer Drivers is (in the United States)
303-339-7009. The driver set to ask for is Adobe Type Manager 2.51, and the disk set
number is `MP210en3'. Mentioning anything other than Microsoft Windows when you ask
for the driver set will likely lead to great confusion on the other end.
2.3 Ghostscript installation
Ghostscript is a PostScript interpreter freely available to end-users, written by Peter
Deutsch. It can read the PostScript produced by Dvips and render it on your monitor, or
for another device (e.g., an Epson printer) that does not support PostScript, or in PDF
format. The latest version is available via http://www.cs.wisc.edu/~ghost/index.html
and ftp://ftp.cs.wisc.edu/pub/ghost/aladdin/.
A somewhat older version of Ghostscript is available under the GNU General Public
License, free to everyone. You can get that from ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu/.
The program Ghostview, written by Tim Theisen, provides typical previewing capabilities (next page/previous page, magnication, etc.). It requires Ghostscript to run, and les
in structured Postscript, specically with `%%Page' comments (no `N' in `config.ps'). You
can get Ghostview from the same places as Ghostscript.
Chapter 2: Installation
2.4 Diagnosing problems
You've gone through all the trouble of installing Dvips, carefully read all the instructions
in this manual, and still can't get something to work. The following sections provide some
helpful hints if you nd yourself in such a situation.
For details on eective bug reporting, common installation problems, and mktexpk problems, see section \Bugs" in Kpathsea.
2.4.1 Debug options
The `-d' ag to Dvips helps in tracking down certain errors. The parameter to this ag
is an integer that tells what errors are currently being tracked. To track a certain class of
debug messages, simply provide the appropriate number given below; if you wish to track
multiple classes, sum the numbers of the classes you wish to track. To track all classes, you
can use -1. Another useful value is 3650, which tracks everything having to do with le
searching and opening.
Some of these debugging options are actually provided by Kpathsea (see section \Debugging" in Kpathsea).
The classes are:
font compression
cong les
Partial Type 1 font encoding vectors
Partial Type 1 subr calls
Kpathsea stat calls
Kpathsea hash table lookups
Kpathsea path element expansion
Kpathsea path searches
2.4.2 No output at all
If you are not getting any output at all, even from the simplest one-character le (for
instance, `\ \bye'), then something is very wrong. Practically any le sent to a PostScript
laser printer should generate some output, at the very least a page detailing what error
occurred, if any. Talk to your system administrator about downloading a PostScript error
handler. (Adobe distributes a good one called `ehandler.ps'.)
Chapter 2: Installation
It is possible, especially if you are using non-Adobe PostScript, that your PostScript
interpreter is broken. Even then it should generate an error message. Dvips tries to work
around as many bugs as possible in common non-Adobe PostScript interpreters, but doubtless it misses a few. PowerPage Revision 1, Interpreter Version 20001.001, on a Mitsubishi
Shinko CHC-S446i color thermal dye sublimation printer is known to be unable to print
with any but builtin fonts.
If Dvips gives any strange error messages, or compilation on your machine generated a
lot of warnings, perhaps the Dvips program itself is broken. Try using the debug options
to determine where the error occurred (see Section 2.4.1 [Debug options], page 5).
It is possible your spooler is broken and is misinterpreting the structured comments. Try
the `-N' ag to turn o structured comments and see what happens.
2.4.3 Output too small or inverted
If some documents come out inverted or too small, probably your spooler is not supplying
an end of job indicator at the end of each le. (This commonly happens on small machines
that don't have spoolers.) You can force Dvips to do this with the `-F' ag (or `F' cong le
option), but this generates les with a terminating binary character (control-D). You can
also try using the `-s' ag (or `s' cong le option) to enclose the entire job in a save/restore
pair. See Section 3.2 [Command-line options], page 8, and Section 3.4 [Cong les], page 15.
2.4.4 Error messages from printer
If your printer returns error messages, the error message gives very good information on
what might be going wrong. One of the most common error messages is `bop undefined'.
This is caused by old versions of Transcript and other spoolers that do not properly parse
the setup section of the PostScript. To x this, turn o structured comments with the `-N'
option, but it'd be best to get your spooling software updated.
Another error message is `VM exhausted'. Some printers indicate this error by locking
up, others quietly reset. This is caused by Dvips thinking that the printer has more memory
than it actually does, and then printing a complicated document. To x this, try lowering
the `m' parameter in the conguration le; use the debug option to make sure you adjust
the correct le.
Other errors may indicate you are trying to include graphics that don't nest properly
in other PostScript documents, among other things. Try the PostScript le on a QMS
PS-810 or other Adobe PostScript printer if you have one, or Ghostscript (see Section 2.3
[Ghostscript installation], page 4); it might be a problem with the printer itself.
2.4.5 Long documents fail to print
This is usually caused by incorrectly specifying the amount of memory the printer has
in the conguration le; see the previous section.
2.4.6 Including graphics fails
The most common problem with including graphics is an incorrect bounding box (see
Section 5.1.1 [Bounding box], page 23). Complain to whoever wrote the software that
generated the le if the bounding box is indeed incorrect.
Chapter 2: Installation
Another possible problem is that the gure you are trying to include does not nest
properly; there are certain rules PostScript applications must follow when generating les to
be included. The Dvips program includes work-arounds for such errors in Adobe Illustrator
and other programs, but there are certainly applications that haven't been tested.
One possible thing to try is the `-K' ag which strips the comments from an included
gure. This might be necessary if the PostScript spooling software does not read the
structured comments correctly. Use of this ag will break graphics from some applications,
though, since some applications read the PostScript le from the input stream, looking for
a particular comment.
Any application which generates graphics output containing raw binary (not ASCII hex)
will probably fail with Dvips.
Chapter 3: Invoking Dvips
3 Invoking Dvips
Dvips reads a DVI le as output by (for example) TEX, and converts it to PostScript,
taking care of builtin or downloaded PostScript fonts, font reencoding, color, etc. These
features are described in other chapters in this document.
There many ways to control Dvips' behavior: conguration les, environment variables,
and command-line options.
3.1 Basic usage of Dvips
To use Dvips at its simplest, simply type
dvips foo
where `foo.dvi' is the output of TEX that you want to print. If Dvips has been installed
correctly, the document will probably roll out of your default printer.
If you use fonts that have not been used on your system before, they may be automatically
generated; this process can take a few minutes, so progress reports appear by default. The
next time that document is printed, these fonts will have been saved in the proper directories,
so printing will go much faster. (If Dvips tries to endlessly generate the same fonts over
and over again, it hasn't been installed properly. See section \Unable to generate fonts" in
Many options are available (see the next section). For a brief summary of available
options, just type
dvips --help
3.2 Command-line options
Dvips has a plethora of command line options. Reading through this section will give a
good idea of the capabilities of the driver.
3.2.1 Option summary
Here is a handy summary of the options; it is printed out when you run Dvips with no
arguments or with the standard `--help' option.
Usage: dvips [OPTION]... FILENAME[.dvi]
Translate the given DVI file to PostScript.
b #
c #
d #
e #
h f
Conserve memory, not time
Page copies, e.g., for posters
Uncollated copies
Maxdrift value
Run as filter
Add header file f
Separate file per section
Partially download Type 1's
Print crop marks
C #
D #
H f
Print only odd (TeX) pages
Print only even (TeX) pages
Collated copies
Create minimal EPSF
Send control-D at end
Same as h
K* Pull comments from inclusions
Chapter 3: Invoking Dvips
l #
n #
o f
p #
t s
Last page
Manual feed
Maximum number of pages
Output file
First page
Run quietly
Reverse order of pages
Enclose output in save/restore
Paper format
O c
P s
S #
T c
x # Override dvi magnification
X #
y # Multiply by dvi magnification Y #
z* Hyperdvi to HyperPostScript
- Query interactively for options
pp #-# First-last page
mode s Set mode to s
Don't make fonts
No structured comments
Set/change paper offset
Load config.$s
Run securely
Max section size in pages
Specify desired page size
Disable string param trick
Send downloadable PS fonts as PK
Horizontal resolution
Vertical resolution
Compress bitmap fonts
# = number f = file s = string * = suffix, 0 to turn off
c = comma-separated dimension pair (e.g., 3.1in,-41.5cm)
Email bug reports to tex-k@mail.tug.org.
3.2.2 Option details
Many of the parameterless options listed here can be turned o by suxing the option
with a zero (`0'); for instance, to turn o page reversal, use `-r0'. Such options are marked
with a trailing `*'.
`- '
Read additional options from standard input after processing the command
`--help' Print a usage message and exit.
Print the version number and exit.
Conserve memory by making three passes over the DVI le instead of two and
only loading those characters actually used. Generally only useful on machines
with a very limited amount of memory, like some PCs.
Print only the odd pages. This option uses TEX page numbers, not physical
page numbers.
`-b num' Generate num copies of each page, but duplicating the page body rather than
using the `/#copies' PostScript variable. This can be useful in conjunction with
a header le setting `bop-hook' to do color separations or other neat tricks.
Print only the even pages. This option uses TEX page numbers, not physical
page numbers.
`-c num' Generate num consecutive copies of every page, i.e., the output is uncollated.
This merely sets the builtin PostScript variable `/#copies'.
Chapter 3: Invoking Dvips
`-C num'
Generate num copies, but collated (by replicating the data in the PostScript
le). Slower than the `-c' option, but easier on the hands, and faster than
resubmitting the same PostScript le multiple times.
`-d num'
Set the debug ags, showing what Dvips (thinks it) is doing. This will work
unless Dvips has been compiled without the `DEBUG' option (not recommended).
See Section 2.4.1 [Debug options], page 5, for the possible values of num. Use
`-d -1' as the rst option for maximum output.
`-D num'
Set both the horizontal and vertical resolution to num, given in dpi (dots per
inch). This aects the choice of bitmap fonts that are loaded and also the positioning of letters in resident PostScript fonts. Must be between 10 and 10000.
This aects both the horizontal and vertical resolution. If a high resolution
(something greater than 400 dpi, say) is selected, the `-Z' ag should probably
also be used. If you are using fonts made with Metafont, such as Computer
Modern, `mktexpk' needs to know about the value for num that you use or
Metafont will fail. See the le ftp://ftp.tug.org/tex/modes.mf for a list of
resolutions and mode names for most devices.
`-e num'
Maximum drift in pixels of each character from its `true' resolution-independent
position on the page. The default value of this parameter is resolution dependent (it is the number of entries in the list [100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 800,
1000, 1200, 1600, 2000, 2400, 2800, 3200, . . . ] that are less than or equal to the
resolution in dots per inch). Allowing individual characters to `drift' from their
correctly rounded positions by a few pixels, while regaining the true position
at the beginning of each new word, improves the spacing of letters in words.
Generate an EPSF le with a tight bounding box. This only looks at marks
made by characters and rules, not by any included graphics. In addition, it
gets the glyph metrics from the TFM le, so characters that print outside their
enclosing TFM box may confuse it. In addition, the bounding box might be a
bit too loose if the character glyph has signicant left or right side bearings.
Nonetheless, this option works well enough for creating small EPSF les for
equations or tables or the like. (Of course, Dvips output, especially when using
bitmap fonts, is resolution-dependent and thus does not make very good EPSF
les, especially if the images are to be scaled; use these EPSF les with care.)
For multiple page input les, also specify `-i' to get each page as a separate
EPSF le; otherwise, all the pages are overlaid in the single output le.
Run as a lter. Read the DVI le from standard input and write the PostScript
to standard output. The standard input must be seekable, so it cannot be a
pipe. If your input must be a pipe, write a shell script that copies the pipe
output to a temporary le and then points Dvips at this le. This option
also disables the automatic reading of the PRINTER environment variable; use
`-P$PRINTER' after the `-f' to read it anyway. It also turns o the automatic
sending of control-D if it was turned on with the `-F' option or in the conguration le; use `-F' after the `-f' to send it anyway.
Write control-D (ASCII code 4) as the very last character of the PostScript
le. This is useful when Dvips is driving the printer directly instead of working
Chapter 3: Invoking Dvips
through a spooler, as is common on personal systems. On systems shared by
more than one person, this is not recommended.
`-h name' Prepend name as an additional header le, or, if name is `-', suppress all header
les. Any denitions in the header le get added to the PostScript `userdict'.
Make each section be a separate le; a section is a part of the document processed independently, most often created to avoid memory overow. The lenames are created replacing the sux of the supplied output le name by a
three-digit sequence number. This option is most often used in conjunction
with the `-S' option which sets the maximum section length in pages; if `-i' is
specied and `-S' is not, each page is output as a separate le. For instance,
some phototypesetters cannot print more than ten or so consecutive pages before running out of steam; these options can be used to automatically split a
book into ten-page sections, each to its own le.
Download only needed characters from Type 1 fonts. This is the default in the
current release. Some debugging ags trace this operation (see Section 2.4.1
[Debug options], page 5). You can also control partial downloading on a perfont basis (see Section 6.4 [psfonts.map], page 45).
Print crop marks. This option increases the paper size (which should be specied, either with a paper size special or with the `-T' option) by a half inch
in each dimension. It translates each page by a quarter inch and draws crossstyle crop marks. It is mostly useful with typesetters that can set the page size
automatically. This works by downloading `crop.pro'.
Remove comments in included PostScript graphics, font les, and headers; only
necessary to get around bugs in spoolers or PostScript post-processing programs. Specically, the `%%Page' comments, when left in, often cause diculties.
Use of this ag can cause other graphics to fail, however, since the PostScript
header macros from some software packages read portion the input stream line
by line, searching for a particular comment.
`-l [=]num'
The last page printed will be the rst one numbered num. Default is the last
page in the document. If num is prexed by an equals sign, then it (and the
argument to the `-p' option, if specied) is treated as a physical (absolute)
page number, rather than a value to compare with the TEX `\count0' values
stored in the DVI le. Thus, using `-l =9' will end with the ninth page of the
document, no matter what the pages are actually numbered.
Specify manual feed, if supported by the output device.
`-mode mode'
Use mode as the Metafont device name for path searching and font generation.
This overrides any value from conguration les. With the default paths, explicitly specifying the mode also makes the program assume the fonts are in
a subdirectory named mode. See section \TEX directory structure" in Kpathsea. If Metafont does not understand the mode name, see section \Unable to
generate fonts" in Kpathsea.
Chapter 3: Invoking Dvips
Turns o automatic font generation (`mktexpk'). If mktexpk, the invocation is
appended to a le `missfont.log' (by default) in the current directory. You can
then execute the log le to create the missing les after xing the problem. If the
current directory is not writable and the environment variable or conguration
le value `TEXMFOUTPUT' is set, its value is used. Otherwise, nothing is written.
The name `missfont.log' is overridden by the `MISSFONT_LOG' environment
variable or conguration le value.
`-n num'
Print at most num pages. Default is 100000.
Turns o generation of structured comments such as `%%Page'; this may be
necessary on some systems that try to interpret PostScript comments in weird
ways, or on some PostScript printers. Old versions of TranScript in particular
cannot handle modern Encapsulated PostScript. Beware: This also disables
page movement, etc., in PostScript viewers such as Ghostview.
`-o name' Send output to the le name. If `-o' is specied without name, the default is
`le.ps' where the input DVI le was `le.dvi'. If `-o' isn't given at all, the
conguration le default is used.
If name is `-', output goes to standard output. If the rst character of name
is `!' or `|', then the remainder will be used as an argument to popen; thus,
specifying `|lpr' as the output le will automatically queue the le for printing
as usual. (The MS-DOS version will print to the local printer device `PRN' when
name is `|lpr' and a program by that name cannot be found.)
`-o' disables the automatic reading of the PRINTER environment variable, and
turns o the automatic sending of control-D. See the `-f' option for how to
override this.
`-O x-oset,y-oset'
Move the origin by x-oset,y-oset, a comma-separated pair of dimensions such
as `.1in,-.3cm' (see Section 4.1 [papersize special], page 20). The origin of the
page is shifted from the default position (of one inch down, one inch to the right
from the upper left corner of the paper) by this amount. This is usually best
specied in the printer-specic conguration le.
This is useful for a printer that consistently osets output pages by a certain
amount. You can use the le `testpage.tex' to determine the correct value for
your printer. Be sure to do several runs with the same O value|some printers
vary widely from run to run.
If your printer osets every other page consistently, instead of every page, your
best recourse is to use `bop-hook' (see Section 5.3.4 [PostScript hooks], page 30).
`-p [=]num'
The rst page printed will be the rst one numbered num. Default is the rst
page in the document. If num is prexed by an equals sign, then it (and the
argument to the `-l' option, if specied) is treated as a physical (absolute)
page number, rather than a value to compare with the TEX `\count0' values
stored in the DVI le. Thus, using `-p =3' will start with the third page of the
document, no matter what the pages are actually numbered.
Chapter 3: Invoking Dvips
`-pp rst-last'
Print pages rst through last; equivalent to `-p rst -l last', except that multiple `-pp' options accumulate, unlike `-p' and `-l'. The `-' separator can also
be `:'.
`-P printer'
Read the conguration le `config.printer' (`printer.cfg' on MS-DOS), which
can set the output name (most likely `o |lpr -Pprinter'), resolution, Metafont
mode, and perhaps font paths and other printer-specic defaults. It works best
to put sitewide defaults in the one master `config.ps' le and only things that
vary printer to printer in the `config.printer' les; `config.ps' is read before
If no `-P' or `-o' is given, the environment variable PRINTER is checked. If
that variable exists, and a corresponding `config.printer' (`printer.cfg' on
MS-DOS) le exists, it is read. See Section 3.4.1 [Conguration le searching],
page 15.
Run quietly. Don't chatter about pages converted, etc. to standard output;
report no warnings (only errors) to standard error.
Output pages in reverse order. By default, page 1 is output rst.
Run securely. This disables shell command execution in \special (via ``', see
Section 5.1.4 [Dynamic creation of graphics], page 27) and cong les (via the
`E' option, see Section 3.4.2 [Conguration le commands], page 16), pipes as
output les, and opening of any absolute lenames.
Enclose the output in a global save/restore pair. This causes the le to not be
truly conformant, and is thus not recommended, but is useful if you are driving
a decient printer directly and thus don't care too much about the portability
of the output to other environments.
`-S num' Set the maximum number of pages in each `section'. This option is most commonly used with the `-i' option; see its description above for more information.
`-t papertype'
Set the paper type to papertype, usually dened in one of the conguration les,
along with the appropriate PostScript code to select it (see Section 4.2 [Cong
le paper sizes], page 20). You can also specify a papertype of `landscape',
which rotates a document by 90 degrees. To rotate a document whose paper
type is not the default, you can use the `-t' option twice, once for the paper
type, and once for `landscape'.
`-T hsize,vsize'
Set the paper size to (hsize,vsize), a comma-separated pair of dimensions such
as `.1in,-.3cm' (see Section 4.1 [papersize special], page 20). It overrides any
paper size special in the DVI le.
Disable a PostScript virtual memory-saving optimization that stores the character metric information in the same string that is used to store the bitmap
information. This is only necessary when driving the Xerox 4045 PostScript interpreter, which has a bug that puts garbage on the bottom of each character.
Not recommended unless you must drive this printer.
Chapter 3: Invoking Dvips
`-x num'
`-X num'
`-y num'
`-Y num'
Download non-resident PostScript fonts as bitmaps. This requires use of mtpk
or gsftopk or pstopk or some combination thereof to generate the required
bitmap fonts; these programs are supplied with Dvips. The bitmap must be
put into `psfonts.map' as the downloadable le for that font. This is useful
only for those fonts for which you do not have real outlines, being downloaded
to printers that have no resident fonts, i.e., very rarely.
Set the x magnication ratio to num=1000. Overrides the magnication specied in the DVI le. Must be between 10 and 100000. It is recommended that
you use standard magstep values (1095, 1200, 1440, 1728, 2074, 2488, 2986, and
so on) to help reduce the total number of PK les generated. num may be a
real number, not an integer, for increased precision.
Set the horizontal resolution in dots per inch to num.
Set the y magnication ratio to num=1000. See `-x' above.
Set the vertical resolution in dots per inch to num.
Pass `html' hyperdvi specials through to the output for eventual distillation
into PDF. This is not enabled by default to avoid including the header les
unnecessarily, and use of temporary les in creating the output. See Section 5.4
[Hypertext], page 31.
Compress bitmap fonts in the output le, thereby reducing the size of what
gets downloaded. Especially useful at high resolutions or when very large fonts
are used. May slow down printing, especially on early 68000-based PostScript
printers. Generally recommend today, and can be enabled in the conguration
le (see Section 3.4.2 [Conguration le commands], page 16).
3.3 Environment variables
Dvips looks for many environment variables, to dene search paths and other things. The
path variables are read as needed, after all conguration les are read, so they override values
in the conguration les. (Except for TEXCONFIG, which denes where the conguration les
themselves are found.)
See section \Path specications" in Kpathsea, for details of interpretation of path and
other environment variables common to all Kpathsea-using programs. Only the environment
variables specic to Dvips are mentioned here.
Default path to search for all fonts. Overrides all the font path cong le
options and other environment variables (see section \Supported le formats"
in Kpathsea).
Default path to search for PostScript header les. Overrides the `H' cong le
option (see Section 3.4.2 [Conguration le commands], page 16).
Overrides `mktexpk' as the name of the program to invoke to create missing
PK fonts. You can change the arguments passed to the mktexpk program with
Chapter 3: Invoking Dvips
the MAKETEXPK environment variable; see section \MakeTeX script arguments"
in Kpathsea.
Species the name of the startup le (see Section 3.4.1 [Conguration le searching], page 15) which is read after `config.ps' but before any printer-specic
conguration les.
Last-resort sizes for scaling of unfound fonts. Overrides the `R' denition in
cong les (see Section 3.4.2 [Conguration le commands], page 16).
Determine the default printer conguration le. (Dvips itself does not use
PRINTER to determine the output destination in any way.)
Path to search for Dvips' `config.printer' conguration les, including the
base `config.ps'. Using this single environment variable, you can override
everything else. (The printer-specic conguration les are called `printer.cfg'
on MS-DOS, but `config.ps' is called by that name on all platforms.)
Path to search for included graphics les. Overrides the `S' cong le option (see
Section 3.4.2 [Conguration le commands], page 16). If not set, TEXINPUTS is
looked for. See section \Supported le formats" in Kpathsea.
3.4 Dvips conguration les
This section describes in detail the Dvips-specic `config.*' device conguration les
(called `*.cfg' on MS-DOS), which override the `texmf.cnf' conguration les generic to
Kpathsea which Dvips also reads (see section \Cong les" in Kpathsea).
For information about installing these les, including a prototype le you can copy, see
Section 2.1 [cong.ps installation], page 2.
3.4.1 Conguration le searching
The Dvips program loads many dierent conguration les, so that parameters can be
set globally across the system, on a per-device basis, or individually by each user.
1. Dvips rst reads (if it exists) `config.ps'; it is searched for along the path for Dvips
conguration les, as described in section \Supported le formats" in Kpathsea.
2. A user-specic startup le is loaded, so individual users can override any options
set in the global le. The environment variable DVIPSRC, if dened, is used as the
specication of the startup le. If this variable is undened, Dvips uses a platformspecic default name. On Unix Dvips looks for the default startup le under the
name `$HOME/.dvipsrc', which is in the user's home directory. On MS-DOS and MSWindows, where users generally don't have their private directories, the startup le is
called `dvips.ini' and it is searched for along the path for Dvips conguration les
(as described in section \Supported le formats" in Kpathsea.); users are expected to
set this path as they see t for their taste.
Chapter 3: Invoking Dvips
3. The command line is read and parsed: if the `-Pdevice' option is encountered, at
that point `config.device' is loaded. Thus, the printer conguration le can override
anything in the site-wide or user conguration le, and it can also override options in
the command line up to the point that the `-P' option was encountered. (On MS-DOS,
the printer conguration les are called `device.cfg', since DOS doesn't allow more
than 3 characters after the dot in lenames.)
4. If no `-P' option was specied, and also the `-o' and `-f' command line options
were not used, Dvips checks the environment variable PRINTER. If it exists, then
`config.$PRINTER' (`$PRINTER.cfg' on MS-DOS) is loaded (if it exists).
Because the `.dvipsrc' le is read before the printer-specic conguration les, individual users cannot override settings in the latter. On the other hand, the TEXCONFIG
path usually includes the current directory, and can in any case be set to anything, so the
users can always dene their own printer-specic conguration les to be found before the
A few command-line options are treated specially, in that they are not overridden by
conguration les:
As well as setting the resolution, this unsets the mode, if the mode was previously set from a conguration le. If `config.$PRINTER' is read, however, any
`D' or `M' lines from there will take eect.
This overrides any mode setting (`M' line) in conguration les. `-mode' does
not aect the resolution.
This overrides any output setting (`o' line) in conguration les.
The purpose of these special cases is to (1) minimize the chance of having a mismatched
mode and resolution (which `mktexpk' cannot resolve), and (2) let command-line options
override cong les where possible.
3.4.2 Conguration le commands
Most of the conguration le commands are similar to corresponding command line
options, but there are a few exceptions. When they are the same, we omit the description
As with command line options, many may be turned o by suxing the letter with a
zero (`0').
Within a conguration le, empty lines, and lines starting with a space, asterisk, equal
sign, percent sign, or pound sign are ignored. There is no provision for continuation lines.
`@ name hsize vsize'
Dene paper sizes. See Section 4.2 [Cong le paper sizes], page 20.
Memory conservation. Same as `-a', see Section 3.2.2 [Option details], page 9.
`b #copies'
Multiple copies. Same as `-b', see Section 3.2.2 [Option details], page 9.
`D dpi'
Output resolution. Same as `-D', see Section 3.2.2 [Option details], page 9.
`e num'
Max drift. Same as `-e', see Section 3.2.2 [Option details], page 9.
Chapter 3: Invoking Dvips
`E command'
Executes the command listed with system(3); can be used to get the current
date into a header le for inclusion, for instance. Possibly dangerous; this may
be disabled, in which case a warning will be printed if the option is used (and
warnings are not suppressed).
Run as a lter. Same as `-f', see Section 3.2.2 [Option details], page 9.
`h header' Prepend header to output. Same as `h-', see Section 3.2.2 [Option details],
page 9.
`H path'
Use path to search for PostScript header les. The environment variable
DVIPSHEADERS overrides this.
`i n'
Make multiple output les. Same as `-i -S n', see Section 3.2.2 [Option details],
page 9.
Partially download Type 1 fonts. Same as `-j', see Section 3.2.2 [Option details],
page 9.
Remove comments from included PostScript les. Same as `-K', see Section 3.2.2
[Option details], page 9.
`m num'
Declare num as the memory available for fonts and strings in the printer. Default is 180000. This value must be accurate if memory conservation and document splitting is to work correctly. To determine this value, send the following
le to the printer:
%! Hey, we're PostScript
/Times-Roman findfont 30 scalefont setfont 144 432 moveto
vmstatus exch sub 40 string cvs show pop showpage
The number printed by this le is the total memory free; it is usually best
to tell Dvips that the printer has slightly less memory, because many programs download permanent macros that can reduce the memory in the printer.
Some systems or printers can dynamically increase the memory available to a
PostScript interpreter, in which case this le might return a ridiculously low
number; for example, the NeXT computer and Ghostscript. In these cases, a
value of one million works ne.
`M mode'
Metafont mode. Same as `-mode', see Section 3.2.2 [Option details], page 9.
Disable structured comments. Beware: This also turns o displaying page
numbers or changing to specic pagenumbers in PostScript viewers. Same as
`-N', see Section 3.2.2 [Option details], page 9.
`o name'
Send output to name. Same as `-', see Section 3.2.2 [Option details], page 9.
In the le `config.foo', a setting like this is probably appropriate:
o |lpr -Pfoo
The MS-DOS version will emulate spooling to lpr by printing to the local
printer device `PRN' if it doesn't nd an executable program by that name in
the current directory or along the PATH.
Chapter 3: Invoking Dvips
`O xo,yo '
Origin oset. Same as `-O', see Section 3.2.2 [Option details], page 9.
`p [+]name'
`P path'
Examine name for PostScript font aliases. Default is `psfonts.map'. This
option allows you to specify dierent resident fonts that dierent printers may
have. If name starts with a `+' character, then the rest of the name (after any
leading spaces) is used as an additional map le; thus, it is possible to have
local map les pointed to by local conguration les that append to the global
map le. This can be used for font families.
Use path to search for bitmap PK font les is path. The PKFONTS, TEXPKS,
GLYPHFONTS, and TEXFONTS environment variables override this. See section
\Supported le formats" in Kpathsea.
`Q '
Run quietly. Same as `-q', see Section 3.2.2 [Option details], page 9.
Page reversal. Same as `-r', see Section 3.2.2 [Option details], page 9.
`R num1 num2 . . . '
Dene the list of default resolutions for PK fonts. If a font size actually used
in a document is not available and cannot be created, Dvips will scale the font
found at the closest of these resolutions to the requested size, using PostScript
scaling. The resulting output may be ugly, and thus a warning is issued. To
turn this last-resort scaling o, use a line with just the `R' and no numbers.
The given numbers must be sorted in increasing order; any number smaller
than the preceding one is ignored. This is because it is better to scale a font up
than down; scaling down can obliterate small features in the character shape.
The environment and cong le values `DVIPSSIZES' or `TEXSIZES' override this
conguration le setting.
If no `R' settings or environment variables are specied, a list compiled in during installation is used. This default list is dened by the Makele variable
`default_texsizes', dened in the le `make/paths.make'.
Output global save/restore. Same as `-s', see Section 3.2.2 [Option details],
page 9.
`S path'
Use path to search for special illustrations (Encapsulated PostScript les or
psles). The TEXPICTS and then TEXINPUTS environment variables override
`T path'
Use path to search for TFM les. The TFMFONTS and then TEXFONTS environment variables overrides this. This path is used for resident fonts and fonts that
can't otherwise be found.
Work around bug in Xerox 4045 printer. Same as `-U', see Section 3.2.2 [Option
details], page 9.
`V path'
Use path to search for virtual font les. This may be device-dependent if you
use virtual fonts to simulate actual fonts on dierent devices.
Chapter 3: Invoking Dvips
`W [string]' If string is supplied, write it to standard error after reading all the conguration
les; with no string, cancel any previous `W' message. This is useful in the default
conguration le to remind users to specify a printer, for instance, or to notify
users about special characteristics of a particular printer.
`X num'
Horizontal resolution. Same as `-X', see Section 3.2.2 [Option details], page 9.
`Y num'
Vertical resolution. Same as `-Y', see Section 3.2.2 [Option details], page 9.
Compress bitmap fonts. Same as `-Z', see Section 3.2.2 [Option details], page 9.
Chapter 4: Paper size and landscape orientation
4 Paper size and landscape orientation
Most TEX documents at a particular site are designed to use the standard paper size
(letter size in the United States, A4 in Europe). The Dvips program can be customized
either sitewide or for a particular printer.
But many documents are designed for other paper sizes. For instance, you may want
to design a document that has the long edge of the paper horizontal. This can be useful
when typesetting booklets, brochures, complex tables, or many other documents. This type
of paper orientation is called landscape orientation (the default orientation is portrait).
Alternatively, a document might be designed for ledger or A3 paper.
Since the intended paper size is a document design decision, not a printing decision,
such information should be given in the TEX le and not on the Dvips command line. For
this reason, Dvips supports a `papersize' special. It is hoped that this special will become
standard over time for TEX previewers and other printer drivers.
4.1 `papersize' special
The format of the `papersize' special is
width is the horizontal size of the page, and height is the vertical size. The dimensions
supported are the same as for TEX; namely, in (inches), cm (centimeters), mm (millimeters),
pt (points), sp (scaled points), bp (big points, the same as the default PostScript unit), pc
(picas), dd (didot points), and cc (ciceros).
For a US letter size landscape document, the papersize would be:
An alternate specication of landscape:
This is supported for backward compatibility, but it is hoped that reventually the papersize
comment will dominate.
Of course, such a \special only informs Dvips of the desired paper size; you must also
adjust \hsize and \vsize in your TEX document typeset to those dimensions.
The papersize special must occur somewhere on the rst page of the document.
4.2 Conguration le paper size command
The `@' command in a conguration le sets the paper size defaults and options. The
rst `@' command denes the default paper size. It has three possible parameters:
@ [name [hsize vsize]]
If `@' is specied on a line by itself, with no parameters, it instructs Dvips to discard all
previous paper size information (possibly from another conguration le).
If three parameters are given, with the rst parameter being a name and the second and
third being a dimension (as in `8.5in' or `3.2cc', just like in the `papersize' special), then
the option is interpreted as starting a new paper size description, where name is the name
and hsize and vsize dene the horizontal and vertical size of the sheet of paper, respectively.
For example:
Chapter 4: Paper size and landscape orientation
@ letterSize 8.5in 11in
If both hsize and vsize are zero (you must still specify units!) then any page size will
match. If the `@' character is immediately followed by a `+' sign, then the remainder of the
line (after skipping any leading blanks) is treated as PostScript code to send to the printer,
presumably to select that particular paper size:
@ letter 8.5in 11in
@+ %%BeginPaperSize: Letter
@+ letter
@+ %%EndPaperSize
After all that, if the rst character of the line is an exclamation point, then the line is
put in the initial comments section of the nal output le; else, it is put in the setup section
of the output le. For example:
@ legal 8.5in 14in
@+ ! %%DocumentPaperSizes: Legal
@+ %%BeginPaperSize: Legal
@+ legal
@+ %%EndPaperSize
When Dvips has a paper format name given on the command line, it looks for a match
by the name; when it has a `papersize' special, it looks for a match by dimensions. The
rst match found (in the order the paper size information is found in the conguration le)
is used. If nothing matches, a warning is printed and the rst paper size is used. The
dimensions must match within a quarter of an inch. Landscape mode for all paper sizes is
automatically supported.
If your printer has a command to set a special paper size, then give dimensions of `0in
0in'; the PostScript code that sets the paper size can refer to the dimensions the user
requested as `hsize' and `vsize'; these will be macros dened in the PostScript that return
the requested size in default PostScript units. Virtually all of the PostScript commands
you use here are device-dependent and degrade the portability of the le; that is why the
default rst paper size entry should not send any PostScript commands down (although a
structured comment or two would be okay). Also, some printers want `BeginPaperSize'
comments and paper size setting commands; others (such as the NeXT) want `PaperSize'
comments and they will handle setting the paper size. There is no solution I could nd that
works for both (except maybe specifying both).
The Perl 5 script `contrib/mkdvipspapers' in the distribution directory may help in
determining appropriate paper size denitions.
If your printers are congured to use A4 paper by default, the conguration le (probably
the global `config.ps' in this case) should include this as the rst `@' command:
@ A4size 210mm 297mm
@+ %%PaperSize: A4
so that A4size is used as the default, and not A4 itself; thus, no PostScript a4 command
is added to the output le, unless the user explicitly says to use paper size `a4'. That is,
by default, no paper size PostScript command should be put in the output, but Dvips will
still know that the paper size is A4 because `A4size' is the rst (and therefore default) size
in the conguration le.
Chapter 4: Paper size and landscape orientation
Executing the `letter' or `a4' or other PostScript operators cause the document to be
nonconforming and can cause it not to print on certain printers, so the default paper size
should not execute such an operator if at all possible.
4.3 Paper trays
Some printers, such as the Hewlett-Packard HP4si, have multiple paper trays. You
can set up Dvips to take advantage of this using the bop-hook PostScript variable (see
Section 5.3.4 [PostScript hooks], page 30).
For example, suppose you have an alternate tray stocked with letterhead paper; the
usual tray has the usual paper. You have a document where you want the rst page printed
on letterhead, and the remaining pages on the usual paper. You can create a header le,
say `firstletterhead.PS', with the following (PostScript) code (bop-hook is passed the
current physical page number, which starts at zero):
/bop-hook { dup 0 eq { alternatetray } { normaltray } ifelse } def
where alternatetray and normaltray are the appropriate commands to select the paper trays.
On the 4SI, alternatetray is `statusdict begin 1 setpapertray end' and normaltray is
`statusdict begin 0 setpapertray end'.
Then, include the le with either
the `-h' command-line option (see Section 3.2.2 [Option details], page 9); or
the `h' cong le option (see Section 3.4.2 [Conguration le commands], page 16); or
`\special{header=le }' in your TEX document (see Section 5.2.1 [Including headers
from TEX], page 28).
Chapter 5: Interaction with PostScript
5 Interaction with PostScript
Dvips supports inclusion of PostScript gure les (e.g., Encapsulated PostScript), downloading other header les (e.g., fonts), including literal PostScript code, and hypertext.
5.1 PostScript gures
Scaling and including PostScript graphics is a breeze|if the PostScript le is correctly
formed. Even if it is not, however, the le can usually be accommodated with just a little
more work.
5.1.1 The bounding box comment
The most important feature of a good PostScript le from the standpoint of including it
in another document is an accurate bounding box comment. Every well-formed PostScript
le has a comment describing where on the page the graphic is located, and how big that
graphic is.
This information is given as the lower left and upper right corners of the box just
enclosing the graphic, and is thus referred to as the bounding box. These coordinates are
given in the default PostScript units (there are precisely 72 PostScript units to the inch,
like TEX big points) with respect to the lower left corner of the sheet of paper.
To see if a PostScript le has a bounding box comment, just look at the rst few lines
of the le. PostScript les are standard ASCII, so you can use any text editor to do this.
If within the rst few dozen lines there is a line like
%%BoundingBox: 25 50 400 300
(with any reasonable numbers), chances are very good that the le is Encapsulated
PostScript and will work easily with Dvips. If the le contains instead a line like
%%BoundingBox: (atend)
the le is still probably Encapsulated PostScript, but the bounding box is given at the end
of the le. Dvips needs it at the beginning. You can move it with that same text editor, or
a simple script. (The bounding box is given in this way when the program that generated
the PostScript couldn't know the size in advance, or was too lazy to compute it.)
If the document lacks a `%%BoundingBox:' altogether, you can determine one in a couple of ways. One is to use the `bbfig' program distributed with Dvips in the `contrib'
directory. This can usually nd the correct bounding box automatically; it works best with
If the comment looks like this:
%%BoundingBox: 0 0 612 792
the graphic claims to take up an entire sheet of paper. This is usually a symptom of a bug
in the program that generated it.
The other is to do it yourself: print the le. Now, take a ruler, and make the following
measurements (in PostScript units, so measure in inches and multiply by 72): From the
left edge of the paper to the leftmost mark on the paper is llx, the rst number. From
the bottom edge of the paper to the bottommost mark on the paper is lly, the second
number. From the left edge of the paper to the rightmost mark on the paper is urx, the
Chapter 5: Interaction with PostScript
third number. The fourth and nal number, ury, is the distance from the bottom of the
page to the uppermost mark on the paper.
Once you have the numbers, add a comment of the following form as the second line of
the document. (The rst line should already be a line starting with the two characters `%!';
if it is not, the le probably isn't PostScript.)
%%BoundingBox: llx lly urx ury
Or, if you don't want to modify the le, you can simply write these numbers down in a
convenient place and give them in your TEX document when you import the graphic, as
described in the next section.
If the document does not have such a bounding box, or if the bounding box is given at
the end of the document, or the bounding box is wrong, please complain to the authors of
the software package that generated the le.
5.1.2 Using the EPSF macros
Once the gure le has a bounding box comment (see the previous section,) you are
ready it the graphic into a TEX document. Many packages for using EPS les exist. One
distributed with Dvips is the les `epsf.tex' (for plain TEX) and `epsf.sty' (for LaTEX).
For plain TEX, add a line like this near the top of your input le:
\input epsf
If you are using LaTEX 2e, use the `graphics' or `graphicx' package. If you are using
LaTEX 2.09, add the `epsf' style option, as in:
In any case, the above only needs to be done once, no matter how many gures you plan
to include.
Now, at the point you want to include a le, enter a line such as:
If you are using LaTEX, you may need to add \leavevmode immediately before the
\epsffile command to get certain environments to work correctly. If your le does not
have a bounding box comment, you can supply the numbers as determined in the previous
section, in the same order they would have been in a normal bounding box comment:
\epsffile[100 100 500 500]{foo.ps}
Now, save your changes and run TEX and Dvips; the output should have your graphic
positioned at precisely the point you indicated, occupying the proper amount of space.
The \epsffile macro typesets the gure as a TEX \vbox at the point of the page that
the command is executed. By default, the graphic will have its `natural' width (namely, the
width of its bounding box). The TEX box will have depth zero and its natural height. By
default, the graphic will be scaled by any DVI magnication in eect, just as is everything
else in your document. See the next section for more information on scaling.
If you want TEX to report the size of the gure as a message on your terminal when it
processes each gure, give the command:
Chapter 5: Interaction with PostScript
25 EPSF scaling
Usually, you will want to scale an EPSF gure to some size appropriate for your document, since its natural size is determined by the creator of the EPS le.
The best way to do this is to assign the desired size to the TEX \epsfxsize or
\epsfysize variables, whichever is more convenient for you. That is, put
right before the call to \epsffile. Then the width of the TEX box will be dimen and its
height will be scaled proportionately. Similarly, you can set the vertical size with
in which case the height will be set and the width scaled proportionally.
If you set both, both will be honored, but the aspect ratio of the included graphic may
necessarily be distorted, i.e., its contents stretched in one direction or the other.
You can resize graphics in a more general way by redening the \epsfsize macro.
\epsffile calls this with two parameters: the natural horizontal and vertical sizes of the
PostScript graphic. \epsfsize must expand to the desired horizontal size, that is, the
width of the \vbox. Schematically:
\def\epsfsize#1#2{body }
Some useful denitions of body:
This denition (the default) enables the default features listed above, by setting
\epsfxsize to the same value it had before the macro was called.
Force the natural size by returning the rst parameter (the original width).
A special case, equivalent to `#1'.
Scale to half the natural size.
Scale to the current \hsize. (In LaTEX, use \textwidth instead of \hsize.)
If the natural width is greater than the current \hsize, scale to \hsize, otherwise use the natural width.
For compatibility with other PostScript drivers, it is possible to turn o the default
scaling of included gures by the DVI magnication with the following TEX command:
\special{! /magscale false def}
Use of this command is not recommended because it will make the \epsffile graphics the
\wrong" size if global magnication is being used, and it will cause any PostScript graphics
to appear improperly scaled and out of position if a DVI to DVI program is used to scale
or otherwise modify the document.
DVI magnication is not applied to any output from code you write in `bop-hook' or its
ilk (see Section 5.3.4 [PostScript hooks], page 30),
Chapter 5: Interaction with PostScript
26 EPSF clipping
By default, clipping is disabled for included EPSF images. This is because clipping to
the bounding box dimensions often cuts o a small portion of the gure, due to slightly
inaccurate bounding box arguments. The problem might be subtle; lines around the boundary of the image might be half their intended width, or the tops or bottoms of some text
annotations might be sliced o. If you want to turn clipping on, just use the command
and to turn clipping back o, use
5.1.3 `psfile' special
The basic special for le inclusion is as follows:
\special{psfile=lename.ps [key =value] ... }
This downloads the PostScript le `lename.ps' such that the current point will be the
origin of the PostScript coordinate system. The optional key =value assignments allow you
to specify transformations on the PostScript.
The possible keys are:
`hoffset' The horizontal oset (default 0)
`voffset' The vertical oset (default 0)
The horizontal clipping size (default 612)
The vertical clipping size (default 792)
The horizontal scaling factor (default 100)
The vertical scaling factor (default 100)
The rotation (default 0)
Enable clipping to the bounding box
The dimension parameters are all given in PostScript units. The `hscale' and `vscale'
are given in non-dimensioned percentage units, and the rotation value is specied in degrees.
\special{psfile=foo.ps hoffset=72 hscale=90 vscale=90}
will shift the graphics produced by le `foo.ps' right by one inch and will draw it at 0.9
times normal size. Osets are given relative to the point of the special command, and are
unaected by scaling or rotation. Rotation is counterclockwise about the origin. The order
of operations is to rotate the gure, scale it, then oset it.
For compatibility with older PostScript drivers, it is possible to change the units that
`hscale' and `vscale' are given in. This can be done by redening `@scaleunit' in `SDict'
by a TEX command such as
\special{! /@scaleunit 1 def}
The `@scaleunit' variable, which is by default 100, is what `hscale' and `vscale' are
divided by to yield an absolute scale factor.
Chapter 5: Interaction with PostScript
5.1.4 Dynamic creation of PostScript graphics les
PostScript is an excellent page description language|but it does tend to be rather
verbose. Compressing PostScript graphics les can reduce them by factor of ve or more.
For this reason, if the name of an included PostScript le ends with `.Z' or `.gz', Dvips
automatically runs `gzip -d'. For example:
\epsffile[72 72 540 720]{foo.ps.gz}
Since the results of such a command are not accessible to TEX, if you use this facility with
the `epsf' macros, you need to supply the bounding box parameter yourself, as shown.
More generally, if the lename parameter to one of the graphics inclusion techniques
starts with a left quote (``'), the parameter is instead interpreted as a command to execute
that will send the actual le to standard output. For example:
\special{psfile="`gnuplot foo"}
to include the le `foo'. Of course, the command to be executed can be anything, including
using a le conversion utility such as `tek2ps' or whatever is appropriate. This feature can
be disabled with the `-R' command-line option or `R' conguration option.
5.1.5 Fonts in gures
You can use any font available to TEX and Dvips within a graphics le by putting a
%*Font: line in the leading commentary of the le. Schematically, this looks like:
%*Font: tfmname scaledbp designbp hex-start:hex-bitstring
Here is the meaning of each of these elements:
The TEX TFM lename, e.g., `cmr10'. You can give the same tfmname on more
than one `%*Font' line; this is useful when the number of characters from the
font used needs a longer hex-bitstring (see item below) than conveniently ts
on one line.
The size at which you are using the font, in PostScript points (TEX big points).
72 bp = 72.27 pt = 1 in.
The designsize of the font, again in PostScript points. This should match the
value in the TFM le tfmname. Thus, for `cmr10', it should be `9.96265'.
The character code of the rst character used from the font, specied as two
ASCII hexadecimal characters, e.g., `4b' or `4B' for `K'.
An arbitrary number of ASCII hexadecimal digits specifying which characters
following (and including) hex-start are used. This is treated as a bitmap. For
example, if your gure used the single letter `K', you would use `4b:8' for hexstart and hex-bitstring. If it used `KLMNP', you would use `4b:f4'.
MetaPost's output gures contain lines like this for bitmap fonts used in a MetaPost
label (see section \MetaPost" in Web2c).
Chapter 5: Interaction with PostScript
5.2 PostScript header les
Header les are bits of PostScript included in the output le; generally they provide
support for special features, rather than producing any printed output themselves. You can
explicitly request downloading header les if necessary for some gure, or to achieve some
special eect.
Dvips includes some headers on its own initiative, to implement features such as
PostScript font reencoding, bitmap font downloading, handling of \special's, and so on.
These standard headers are the `.pro' les (for \prologue") in the installation directory
`$(psheaderdir)'; they are created from the `.lpro' (\long prologue") les in the
distribution by stripping comments, squeezing blank lines, etc., for maximum eciency. If
you want to peruse one of the standard header les, read the `.lpro' version.
The PostScript dictionary stack will be at the `userdict' level when header les are
5.2.1 Including headers from TEX
In order to get a particular graphic le to work, a certain font or header le might need
to be sent rst. The Dvips program provides support for this with the `header' \special.
For instance, to ensure that `foo.ps' gets downloaded:
As another example, if you have some PostScript code that uses a PostScript font not
built into your printer, you must download it to the printer. If the font isn't used elsewhere
in the document, Dvips can't know you've used it, so you must include it in the same way,
as in:
to include the font denition le for Adobe Utopia Roman.
5.2.2 Including headers from the command line
You can include headers when you run Dvips, as well as from your document (see the
previous section). To do this, run Dvips with the option `-P header'; this will read the
le `config.header', which in turn can specify a header le to be downloaded with the
`h' option. See Section 3.4.2 [Conguration le commands], page 16. These les are called
`header.cfg' on MS-DOS.
You can arrange for the same le to serve as a `-P' cong le and the downloadable header
le, by starting the lines of PostScript code with a space, leaving only the `h' line and any
comments starting in the rst column. As an example, see `contrib/volker/config.*'
(`contrib/volker/*.cfg' on MS-DOS). (These les also perform useful functions: controlling duplex/simplex mode on duplex printers, and setting various screen frequencies;
`contrib/volker/README' explains further.)
5.2.3 Headers and memory usage
Dvips tries to avoid overowing the printer's memory by splitting the output les into
\sections" (see the `-i' option in Section 3.2.2 [Option details], page 9). Therefore, for all
Chapter 5: Interaction with PostScript
header les, Dvips debits the printer VM budget by some value. If the header le has, in
its leading commentary a line of the form
%%VMusage: min max
then max is used. If there is no %%VMusage line, then the size (in bytes) of the header le
is used as an approximation.
Illustrations (gure les) are also checked for %%VMusage line.
5.3 Literal PostScript
You can include literal PostScript code in your document in several ways.
special: Literal PostScript
For simple graphics, or just for experimentation, literal PostScript code can be included.
Simply use a \special beginning with a double quote character `"'; there is no matching
closing `"'.
For instance, the following (simple) graphic:
was created by typing:
\vbox to 100bp{\vss % a bp is the same as a PostScript unit
\special{" newpath 0 0 moveto 100 100 lineto 394 0 lineto
closepath gsave 0.8 setgray fill grestore stroke}}
You are responsible for leaving space for such literal graphics, as with the \vbox above.
5.3.2 `ps' special
Generally, Dvips encloses specials in a PostScript save/restore pair, guaranteeing that the
special will have no eect on the rest of the document. The `ps' special, however, allows you
to insert literal PostScript instructions without this protective shield; you should understand
what you're doing (and you shouldn't change the PostScript graphics state unless you are
willing to take the consequences). This command can take many forms because it has had
a torturous history; any of the following will work:
Chapter 5: Interaction with PostScript
(with longer forms taking precedence over shorter forms, when they are present). `ps::' and
`ps::[end]' do no positioning, so they can be used to continue PostScript literals started
with `ps:' or `ps::[begin]'.
In addition, the variant
\special{ps: plotfile lename }
inserts the contents of lename verbatim into the output (except for omitting lines that
begin with %). An example of the proper use of literal specials can be found in the le
`rotate.tex', which makes it easy to typeset text turned in multiples of 90 degrees.
5.3.3 Literal headers: `!' \special
You can download literal PostScript header code in your TEX document, for use with (for
example) literal graphics code that you include later. The text of a \special beginning
with an `!' is copied into the output le. A dictionary SDict will be current when this
code is executed; Dvips arranges for SDict to be rst on the dictionary stack when any
PostScript graphic is included, whether literally (the `"' special) or through macros (e.g.,
For example:
\special{! /reset { 0 0 moveto} def}
5.3.4 PostScript hooks
Besides including literal PostScript at a particular place in your document (as described
in the previous section), you can also arrange to execute arbitrary PostScript code at particular times while the PostScript is printing.
If any of the PostScript names bop-hook, eop-hook, start-hook, or end-hook are
dened in userdict, they will be executed at the beginning of a page, end of a page, start
of the document, and end of a document, respectively.
When these macros are executed, the default PostScript coordinate system and origin is
in eect. Such macros can be dened in headers added by the `-h' option or the `header='
special, and might be useful for writing, for instance, `DRAFT' across the entire page, or,
with the aid of a shell script, dating the document. These macros are executed outside of
the save/restore context of the individual pages, so it is possible for them to accumulate
information, but if a document must be divided into sections because of memory constraints,
such added information will be lost across section breaks.
The single argument to bop-hook is the physical page number; the rst page gets zero,
the second one, etc. bop-hook must leave this number on the stack. None of the other
hooks are passed arguments.
As an example of what can be done, the following special will write a light grey `DRAFT'
across each page in the document:
\special{!userdict begin /bop-hook{gsave 200 30 translate
65 rotate /Times-Roman findfont 216 scalefont setfont
0 0 moveto 0.7 setgray (DRAFT) show grestore}def end}
Using bop-hook or eop-hook to preserve information across pages breaks compliance
with the Adobe document structuring conventions, so if you use any such tricks, you may
Chapter 5: Interaction with PostScript
also want to use the `-N' option to turn o structured comments (such as `%%Page'). Otherwise, programs that read your le will assume its pages are independent.
5.3.5 Literal examples
To nish o this section, the following examples of literal PostScript are presented without explanation:
\def\rotninety{\special{ps:currentpoint currentpoint translate 90
rotate neg exch neg exch translate}}\font\huge=cmbx10 at 14.4truept
\setbox0=\hbox to0pt{\huge A\hss}\vskip16truept\centerline{\copy0
\vbox to 2truein{\special{ps:gsave 0.3 setgray}\hrule height 2in
\vss\special{ps:gsave 1 setgray}\vbox to 0pt{\vskip2pt
\line{\hss\hskip4pt NEAT\hss}\vss}\special{ps:0 setgray}%
\hbox{\raise2pt\line{\hss NEAT\hss}\special{ps:grestore}}\vss}
Some caveats are in order, however. Make sure that each gsave is matched with a
grestore on the same page. Do not use save and restore; they can interact with the
PostScript generated by Dvips if care is not taken. Try to understand what the above
macros are doing before writing your own. The \rotninety macro especially has a useful
trick that appears again and again.
5.4 HyperTEXt
Dvips has support for producing hypertext PostScript documents. If you specify the
`-z' option, the `html:' specials described below will be converted into `pdfmark' PostScript
operators to specify links. Without `-z', `html:' specials are ignored.
The resulting PostScript can then be processed by a distiller program to make a PDF
le. (It can still be handled by ordinary PostScript interpreters as well.) Various versions
of both PC and Unix distillers are supported; Ghostscript includes limited distiller support
(see Section 2.3 [Ghostscript installation], page 4).
Chapter 5: Interaction with PostScript
Macros you can use in your TEX document to insert the specials in the rst place are
available from `CTAN:/support/hypertex'. For CTAN info, see section \unixtex.ftp" in
This hypertext support (and original form of the documentation) was written by Mark
Doyle and Tanmoy Bhattacharya as the `dvihps' program. You can retrieve their software
and additional documentation via the CTAN reference above. You may also be interested
in the Java previewer IDVI, available at http://www.win.tue.nl/~dickie/idvi, and/or
in http://www.emrg.com/texpdf.html, which describes the process of making PDF les
from TeX les in more detail.
Mail archives for the original project are at http://math.albany.edu:8800/hm/ht/.
5.4.1 Hypertext caveats
If you intend to go all the way to PDF, you will probably want to use PostScript fonts exclusively, since the Adobe PDF readers are extremely slow when dealing with bitmap fonts.
Commercial versions of the Computer Modern fonts are available from Blue Sky; public
domain versions are available from CTAN sites (for CTAN info, see section \unixtex.ftp"
in Kpathsea) in:
You may need to modify these fonts; see http://xxx.lanl.gov/faq/bakoma.html.
Also, the Adobe distillers prior to 2.1 drop trailing space characters (character code 32)
from strings. Unfortunately, the PostScript fonts use this character code for characters
other than space (notably the Greek letter psi in the Symbol font), and so these characters
are dropped. This bug is xed in version 2.1.
If you can't upgrade, One workaround is to change all the trailing blanks in strings
to a character code that isn't in the font. This works because the default behavior is to
substitute a blank for a missing character, i.e., the distiller is fooled into substituting the
right character. For instance, with the Blue Sky fonts, you can globally replace ` )' with
`\200)' (with sed, for example) and get the desired result. With the public domain fonts,
you will probably have to use a character code in the range 128 to 191 since these fonts
duplicate the rst 32 characters starting at 192 to avoid MS-DOS problems.
5.4.2 Hypertext specials
Current support for the World Wide Web in the TEX system does not involve modifying
TEX itself. We need only dene some specials; Arthur Smith (apsmith@aps.org), Tanmoy
Bhattacharya, and Paul Ginsparg originally proposed and implemented the following:
html:<a href="xurl ">
html:<a name="name ">
html:<img src="xurl ">
html:<base href="xurl ">
Like all TEX \special's, these produce no visible output, and are uninterpreted by TEX
itself. They are instructions to DVI processors only.
Chapter 5: Interaction with PostScript
Here, xurl is a standard WWW uniform resource locator (URL), possibly extended with
a `#type.string' construct, where type is `page', `section', `equation', `reference' (for
bibliographic references), `figure', `table', etc. For example,
\special{html:<a href="http://www.maths.tcd.ie/~tim/ch1.dvi#equation.1.1">}
is a link to equation (1.1) in an example document by Tim Murphy.
See http://www.w3.org/hypertext/WWW/Addressing/Addressing.html for a precise
description of base URL's. (That itself is a URL, in case you were wondering.)
Descriptions of the \special's:
Creates links in your TEX document. For example:
\special{html:<a href="http://www.tug.org/">}\TeX\ Users
The user will be able to click on the text `TEX Users Group' while running
Xdvi and get to the TUG home page. (By the way, this is for illustration. In
practice, you most likely want to use macros to insert the \special commands;
reference above.)
Denes URL targets in your TEX documents, so links can be resolved. For
\special{html:<a name="#paradise">}Paradise\special{html:</a>}
is exactly where you are right now.
This will resolve an `href="paradise"'.
Links to an arbitrary external le. Interactively, a viewer is spawned to read
the le according to the le extension and your `mailcap' le (see the Xdvi
Denes a base URL that is prepended to all the name targets. Typically unnecessary, as the name of the DVI le being read is used by default.
The `img' and `base' tags are not yet implemented in Dvips or the NeXTSTEP DVI
Chapter 6: PostScript fonts
6 PostScript fonts
Dvips supports the use of PostScript fonts in TEX documents. To use a PostScript
font conveniently, you need to prepare a corresponding virtual font; the program Afm2tfm,
supplied with Dvips, helps with that.
All the necessary support for the standard 35 PostScript fonts (`AvantGarde-Book'
through `ZapfDingbats'), plus other freely or commonly available PostScript fonts is available along with Dvips. To use these fonts, you need do nothing beyond what is mentioned
in the installation procedure (see Chapter 2 [Installation], page 2). This chapter is therefore relevant only if you are installing new PostScript fonts not supplied with Dvips. (Or if
you're curious.)
6.1 Font concepts
The information needed to typeset using a particular font is contained in two les: a
metric le that contains shape-independent information and a glyph le that contains the
actual shapes of the font's characters. A virtual font is an optional additional le that can
specify special ways to construct the characters. TEX itself (or LaTEX) look only at the
metric le, but DVI drivers such as Dvips look at all three of these les.
An encoding le denes the correspondence between the code numbers of the characters
in a font and their descriptive names. Two encoding les used together can describe a
reencoding that rearranges, i.e., renumbers, the characters of a font.
6.1.1 Metric les
A metric le describes properties of the font that are independent of what the characters
actually look like. Aside from general information about the font itself, a metric le has
two kinds of information: information about individual characters, organized by character
code, and information about sequences of characters.
The per-character information species the width, height, depth, and italic correction of
each character in the font. Any might be zero.
In addition to information on individual characters, the metric le species kerning, i.e.,
adding or removing space between particular character pairs. It further species ligature
information: when a sequence of input characters should be typeset as a single (presumably
dierent) \ligature" character. For example, it's traditional for the input `fi' to be typeset
as `', not as `fi' (with the dot of the `i' colliding with `f'). (In English, the only common
ligatures are , , , , and .)
Dierent typesetting systems use dierent metric le formats:
Each Postscript font has an Adobe font metrics (`.afm') le. These les are plain
text, so you can inspect them easily. You can get AFM les for Adobe's fonts from
TEX uses TEX font metrics (`.tfm') les. When you say `\font = font' in your TEX
document, TEX reads a le named `font.tfm'. (Well, except for the `texfonts.map'
feature; see section \Fontmap" in Kpathsea). TEX can then calculate the space occupied by characters from the font when typesetting. In addition, the DVI drivers you
use to print or view the DVI le produced by TEX may need to look at the TFM le.
Chapter 6: PostScript fonts
TFM les are binary (and hence are typically much smaller than AFM les). You can
use the tftopl program (see section \tftopl invocation" in Web2c) that comes with
TEX to transform a TFM le into a human-readable \property list" (`.pl') le. You can
also edit a PL le and transform it back to a TEX-readable TFM with the companion
program pltotf (see section \pltotf invocation" in Web2c). Editing metrics by hand
is not something you're likely to want to do often, but the capability is there.
ATM and other typesetting systems use printer font metric (`.pfm') les. These are
binary les. They are irrelevant in the TEX world, and not freely available, so we will
not discuss them further.
The Afm2tfm program distributed with Dvips converts an AFM le to a TFM le and
performs other useful transformations as well. See Section 6.3 [Invoking afm2tfm], page 39.
6.1.2 Glyph les
Although a metric le (see the previous section) contains information about the spatial
and other properties of the character at position 75, say, it contains nothing about what the
character at position 75 actually looks like. The glyphs|the actual shapes of the letterforms
in a font|are dened by other les, which we call glyph les. TEX itself only reads the
TFM le for a font; it does not need to know character shapes.
A glyph le is a le that denes the shapes of the characters in a font. The shapes can
be dened either by outlines or by bitmaps.
PostScript fonts are dened as outline fonts: Each character in the font is dened by
giving the mathematical curves (lines, arcs, and splines) that dene its contours. Dierent
sizes of a character are generated by linearly scaling a single shape. For example, a 10-point
`A' is simply half the size of a 20-point `A'. Nowadays, outline fonts usually also contain
hints|additional information to improve the appearance of the font at small sizes or low
Although various kinds of PostScript outline fonts exist, by far the most common, and
the only one we will consider, is called Type 1. The glyph les for Postscript Type 1
fonts typically have names ending in `.pfa' (\printer font ASCII") or `.pfb' (\printer font
In contrast, glyph les for Computer Modern and the other standard TEX fonts are
bitmap fonts, generated from Metafont (`.mf') descriptions. The Metafont program distributed with TEX generates bitmaps from these descriptions.
The glyph les for TEX bitmap fonts are usually stored in packed font (PK) les. The
names of these les end in `.nnnpk', where nnn is the resolution of the font in dots per
inch. For example, `cmr10.600pk' contains the bitmaps for the `cmr10' font at a resolution
of 600 dpi. (On DOS lesystems, it's more likely `dpi600\cmr10.pk'.)
Metafont actually outputs generic font (GF) les, e.g., `cmr10.600gf', but the GF les
are usually converted immediately to PK format (using the gftopk utility that comes with
TEX) since PK les are smaller and contain the same information. (The GF format is a
historical artifact.)
Chapter 6: PostScript fonts
6.1.3 Virtual fonts
A virtual font is constructed by extracting characters from one or more existing fonts and
rearranging them, or synthesizing new characters in various ways. The explanation in this
manual is intended to suce for understanding enough about virtual fonts to use them with
Dvips. It isn't a reference manual on virtual fonts. For more information: The primary
document on virtual fonts is Donald E. Knuth, TUGboat 11(1), Apr. 1990, pp. 13{23,
\Virtual Fonts: More Fun for Grand Wizards" (`CTAN:/info/virtual-fonts.knuth'; for
CTAN info, see section \unixtex.ftp" in Kpathsea). (Don't be intimidated by the subtitle.)
A virtual font (`.vf') le species, for each character in the virtual font, a recipe for
typesetting that character. A VF le, like a TFM le, is in a compressed binary format. The
vftovp and vptovf programs convert a VF le to a human-readable VPL (virtual property
list) format and back again. See section \vftovp invocation" in Web2c, and section \vptovf
invocation" in Web2c.
In the case of a PostScript font f being used in a straightforward way, the recipe says:
character i in the VF font is character j in font f. The font f is called a base font. For
example, the VF le could remap the characters of the PostScript font to the positions
where TEX expects to nd them. See Section 6.1.4 [Encodings], page 36.
Since TEX reads only TFM les, not VF's, each VF must have a corresponding TFM for
use with TEX. This corresponding TFM is created when you run vptovf.
You can expand virtual fonts into their base fonts with DVIcopy (see section \dvicopy
invocation" in Web2c). This is useful if you are using a DVI translator that doesn't understand vf's itself.
6.1.4 Encodings
Every font, whatever its type, has an encoding, that species the correspondence between
\logical" characters and character codes. For example, the ASCII encoding species that
the character numbered 65 (decimal) is an uppercase `A'. The encoding does not specify
what the character at that position looks like; there are lots of ways to draw an `A', and a
glyph le (see Section 6.1.2 [Glyph les], page 35) tells how. Nor does it specify how much
space that character occupies; that information is in a metric le (see Section 6.1.1 [Metric
les], page 34).
TEX implicitly assumes a particular encoding for the fonts you use with it. For example,
the plain TEX macro \', which typesets an acute accent over the following letter, assumes
the acute accent is at position 19 (decimal). This happens to be true of standard TEX fonts
such as Computer Modern, as you might expect, but it is not true of normal PostScript
It's possible but painful to change all the macros that assume particular character positions. A better solution is to create a new font with the information for the acute accent at
position 19, where TEX expects it to be. See Section 6.2 [Making a font available], page 38.
PostScript represents encodings as a sequence of 256 character names called an encoding
vector. An encoding le (`.enc') gives such a vector, together with ligature and kerning
information (with which we are not concerned at the moment). These encoding les are used
by the Afm2tfm program. Encoding les are also downloaded to the PostScript interpreter
Chapter 6: PostScript fonts
in your printer if you use one of them in place of the default encoding vector for a particular
PostScript font.
Examples of encodings: the `dvips.enc' encoding le that comes with Dvips in the
`reencode' directory is a good (but not perfect) approximation to the TEX encoding for
TEX's Computer Modern text fonts. This is the encoding of the fonts that originated
with Dvips, such as `ptmr.tfm'. The distribution includes many other encoding les; for
example, `8r.enc', which is the base font for the current PostScript font distribution, and
three corresponding to the TEX mathematics fonts: `texmext.enc' for math extensions,
`texmital.enc' for math italics, and `texmsym.enc' for math symbols.
6.1.5 How PostScript typesets a character
The output of Dvips is a program in the PostScript language that instructs your (presumably PostScript-capable) printer how to typeset your document by transforming it into
toner on paper. Your printer, in turn, contains a PostScript interpreter that carries out the
instructions in this typesetting program.
The program must include the denition of any PostScript fonts that you use in your
document. Fonts built into your printer (probably the standard 35: `Times-Roman',
`ZapfDingbats', . . . ) are dened within the interpreter itself. Other fonts must be
downloaded as pfa or pfb les (see Section 6.1.2 [Glyph les], page 35) from your host (the
computer on which you're running Dvips).
You may be wondering exactly how a PostScript interpreter gures out what character
to typeset, with this mass of metrics, glyphs, encodings, and other information. (If you're
not wondering, skip this section . . . )
The basic PostScript operator for imaging characters is show. Suppose you've asked TEX
to typeset an `S'. This will eventually wind up in the Dvips output as the equivalent of this
PostScript operation:
(S) show
Here is how PostScript typesets the `S':
1. PostScript interpreters use ASCII; therefore `S' is represented as the integer 83. (Any
of the 256 possible characters representable in a standard 8-bit byte can be typeset.)
2. A PostScript dictionary is a mapping of names to arbitrary values. A font, to the
interpreter, is a dictionary which contains entries for certain names. (If these entries
are missing, the interpreter refuses to do anything with that font.)
PostScript has a notion of \the current font"|whatever font is currently being typeset
3. One of the mandatory entries in a font dictionary is `Encoding', which denes the
encoding vector (see Section 6.1.4 [Encodings], page 36) for that font. This vector of
256 names maps each possible input character to a name.
4. The interpreter retrieves the entry at position 83 of the encoding vector. This value is
a PostScript name: /S.
5. For Type 1 fonts (we're not going to discuss anything else), the interpreter now looks
up /S as a key in a dictionary named CharStrings, another mandatory entry in a font
Chapter 6: PostScript fonts
6. The value of S in CharStrings is the equivalent of a series of standard PostScript
commands like `curveto', `lineto', `fill', and so on. These commands are executed
to draw the character. There can also be hint information that helps adapt the character
to low-resolution rasters. (See Section 6.1.2 [Glyph les], page 35.) The commands are
actually represented in a more compact way than standard PostScript source; see the
Type 1 book for details.
This method for typesetting characters is used in both Level 1 and Level 2 PostScript.
See the PostScript reference manuals for more information.
6.2 Making a PostScript font available
To make a PostScript font available in a TEX document, you need to install the font on
your system and then dene it within the document. Once you have installed the font, of
course, it is available for any document thereafter and you don't need to reinstall it. You
must have an AFM le for any font you install. Unless the font is built into your printer,
you must also have a PFA or PFB le.
In the following examples, we use the font `Times-Roman' to illustrate the process. But
you should use the prebuilt fonts for Times and the other standard fonts, rather than
rebuilding them. The prebuilt fonts are made using a more complicated process than that
described here, to make them work as well as possible with TEX. So following the steps
in this manual will not generate les identical to the distributed ones. See Section 2.2
[PostScript font installation], page 3, for pointers to the prebuilt fonts.
Installation of a PostScript font proceeds in three steps. See Section 6.1 [Font concepts],
page 34, for descriptions of the various les involved.
1. Run afm2tfm to create a TFM le for the original font, and the VPL form of the virtual
afm2tfm Times-Roman -v ptmr rptmr
2. Run vptovf to generate a VF and TFM le for the virtual font from the VPL le:
vptovf ptmr.vpl ptmr.vf ptmr.tfm
3. Insert an entry for the font in `psfonts.map' (See Section 6.4 [psfonts.map], page 45):
4. Install the les in the standard locations, as in:
cp ptmr.vf fontdir /vf/...
cp *ptmr.tfm fontdir /tfm/...
cp ptmr.afm fontdir /afm/...
cp ptmr.pf? fontdir /type1/...
The simplest invocation of Afm2tfm to make virtual fonts goes something like this:
afm2tfm Times-Roman -v ptmr rptmr
This reads the le `Times-Roman.afm', and produces two les as output, namely the virtual
property list'le `ptmr.vpl', and the \raw" font metric le `rptmr.tfm'. To use the font in
TEX, you rst run
vptovf ptmr.vpl ptmr.vf ptmr.tfm
You should then install the virtual font le `ptmr.vf' where Dvips will see it and install
`ptmr.tfm' and `rptmr.tfm' where TEX and Dvips will see them.
Chapter 6: PostScript fonts
Using these raw fonts is not recommended; there are no raw fonts in the prebuilt
PostScript fonts distributed along with Dvips. But nevertheless, that's how Afm2tfm
presently operates, so that's what we document here. The `r' prex convention is likewise historical accident.
You can also make more complex virtual fonts by editing `ptmr.vpl' before running
`vptovf'; such editing might add the uppercase Greek characters in the standard TEX
positions, for instance. (This has already been done for the prebuilt fonts.)
Once the les have been installed, you're all set. You can now do things like this in TEX:
\font\myfont = ptmr at 12pt
\myfont Hello, I am being typeset in 12-point Times-Roman.
Thus, we have two fonts, one actual (`rptmr', which is analogous to the font in the
printer) and one virtual (`ptmr', which has been remapped to the standard TEX encoding
(almost)), and has typesetting know-how added. You could also say
\font\raw = rptmr at 10pt
and typeset directly with that, but then you would have no ligatures or kerning, and you
would have to use Adobe character positions for special letters like . The virtual font
`ptmr' not only has ligatures and kerning, and most of the standard accent conventions of
TEX, it also has a few additional features not present in the Computer Modern fonts. For
example, it includes all the Adobe characters (such as the Polish ogonek and the French
guillemots). The only things you lose from ordinary TEX text fonts are the dotless `j' (which
can be hacked into the VPL le with literal PostScript specials if you have the patience)
and uppercase Greek letters (which just don't exist unless you buy them separately). See
Section [Reencoding with Afm2tfm], page 41.
As a nal step you need to record information about both the virtual font and the
original font (if you ever might want to use it) in the `psfonts.map' le (see Section 6.4
[psfonts.map], page 45). For our example, you'd insert the following into `psfonts.map':
Of course, Times-Roman is already built in to most every printer, so there's no need to
download any Type 1 le for it. But if you are actually following these instructions for new
fonts, most likely they are not built in to the printer.
These PostScript fonts can be scaled to any size. Go wild! Using PostScript fonts,
however, does use up a great deal of the printer's memory and it does take time. You may
nd downloading bitmap fonts (possibly compressed, with the `Z' option) to be faster than
using the built-in PostScript fonts.
6.3 Invoking Afm2tfm
The Afm2tfm program converts an AFM le for a PostScript font to a TFM le and
a VPL le for a corresponding virtual font (or, in its simplest form, to a TFM le for
the PostScript font itself). The results of the conversion are aected by the command-line
options and especially by the reencodings you can specify with those options. You can also
obtain special eects such as an oblique font.
An alternative to Afm2tfm for creating virtual fonts is Alan Jerey's fontinst program,
available from `CTAN:fonts/utilities/fontinst' (for CTAN info, see section \unixtex.ftp" in Kpathsea).
Chapter 6: PostScript fonts
6.3.1 Changing font encodings
Afm2tfm allows you to specify a dierent encoding for a PostScript font (for a general introduction to encodings, see Section 6.1.4 [Encodings], page 36). The `-t' options
changes the TEX encoding, `-p' changes the PostScript encoding, and `-T' changes both
simultaneously, as detailed in the sections below. `-t': Changing TEX encodings
To build a virtual font with Afm2tfm, you specify the `-v' or `-V' option. You can then
specify an encoding for that virtual font with `-t tex-enc'. (`-t' is ignored if neither `-v'
nor `-V' is present.) Any ligature and kerning information you specify in tex-enc will be
used in the VPL, in addition to the ligature and kerning information from the AFM le.
If the AFM le has no entry for a character specied in tex-enc, that character will be
omitted from the output VPL.
The `-t' option is likely to be needed when you have a PostScript font corresponding
to a TEX font other than a normal text font such as Computer Modern. For instance, if
you have a PostScript font that contains math symbols, you'd probably want to use the
encoding in the `texmsym.enc' le supplied with Dvips. (For a start; to actually get usable
math fonts, you have to dene much more than just an encoding.) `-p': Changing PostScript encodings
By default, Afm2tfm uses the encoding it nds in the AFM le. You can specify a
dierent PostScript encoding with `-p ps-enc'. This makes the raw TFM le (the one
output by Afm2tfm) have the encoding specied in the encoding le ps-enc. Any ligature
or kern information specied in ps-enc is ignored by Afm2tfm, since ligkern info is always
omitted from the raw TFM.
If you use this option, you must also arrange to download ps-enc as part of any document
that uses this font. You do this by adding a line like the following one to `psfonts.map'
(see Section 6.4 [psfonts.map], page 45):
zpopr Optima "MyEncoding ReEncodeFont" <myenc.enc
Using `-p' is the only way to access characters in a PostScript font that are neither
encoded in the AFM le nor constructed from other characters. For instance, Adobe's
`Times-Roman' font contains the extra characters `trademark' and `registered' (among
others); these can only be accessed through such a PostScript reencoding.
In fact, the `8r' base encoding used for the current PostScript font distribution (available
at ftp://ftp.tug.org/tex/psfonts.tar.gz) does do this reencoding, for precisely this
reason. `-T': Changing both TEX and PostScript encodings
The option `-T enc-le' is equivalent to `-p enc-le -t enc-le'. If you make regular
use of a private non-standard reencoding `-T' is usually a better idea than the individual
options, to avoid unexpected inconsistencies in mapping otherwise. An example of when
you might use this option is a dingbats font: when you have a TEX encoding that is designed
to be used with a particular PostScript font.
Chapter 6: PostScript fonts
41 Reencoding with Afm2tfm
The Afm2tfm program creates the TFM and VF les for the virtual font corresponding
to a PostScript font by reencoding the PostScript font. Afm2tfm generates these les from
two encodings: one for TEX and one for PostScript. The TEX encoding is used to map
character numbers to character names while the PostScript encoding is used to map each
character name to a possibly dierent number. In combination, you can get access to any
character of a PostScript font at any position for TEX typesetting.
In the default case, when you specify none of the -t, -p, or -T options, Afm2tfm uses
a default TEX encoding (which mostly corresponds to the Computer Modern text fonts)
and the PostScript encoding found in the AFM le being read. The reencoding is also
sometimes called a remapping.
For example, the default encodings reencode the acute accent in two steps: rst the
default TEX encoding maps the number 19 to the character name `acute'; then the default
PostScript encoding, as found in the AFM le for an ordinary PostScript font, maps the
character name `acute' to the number 194. (The PostScript encoding works in reverse, by
looking in the encoding vector for the name and then yielding the corresponding number.)
The combined mapping of 19 to 194 shows up explicitly in the VF le and also implicitly in
the fact that the properties of PostScript character 194 appear in position 19 of the TFM
le for the virtual font.
The default encoding of the distributed fonts (e.g., `ptmr.tfm') mostly follows plain
TEX conventions for accents. The exceptions: the Hungarian umlaut (which is at position
0x7D in `cmr10', but position 0xCD in `ptmr'); the dot accent (at positions 0x5F and 0xC7,
respectively); and the Scandinavian A ring \AA, whose denition needs dierent tweaking.
In order to use these accents with PostScript fonts or in math mode when \textfont0 is
a PostScript font, you will need to use the following denitions. These denitions will not
work with the Computer Modern fonts for the relevant accents. They are already part of
the distributed `psfonts.sty' for use with LaTEX.
\def\H#1{{\accent"CD #1}}
\def\.#1{{\accent"C7 #1}}
\def\dot{\mathaccent"70C7 }
\hbox to \wd0{\hss\char'27\hss}}A}
As a kind of summary, here are the `CODINGSCHEME's that result from the various possible
choices for reencoding.
default encoding
(CODINGSCHEME TeX text + AdobeStandardEncoding)
`-p dc.enc'
`-t dc.enc'
`-T dc.enc'
(CODINGSCHEME TeX text + DCEncoding)
(CODINGSCHEME DCEncoding + AdobeStandardEncoding)
(CODINGSCHEME DCEncoding + DCEncoding)
Chapter 6: PostScript fonts
The `CODINGSCHEME' line appears in the VPL le but is ignored by Dvips. Encoding le format
Afm2tfm's encoding les have the same format as an encoding vector in a PostScript
font. Here is a skeletal example:
% Comments are ignored, unless the rst word after the percent sign
% is `LIGKERN'; see below.
/MyEncoding [ % exactly 256 entries follow, each with a leading `/'
/Alpha /Beta /Gamma /Delta ...
/A /B ... /Z
... /.notdef /xfooaccent /yfooaccent /zfooaccent
] def
These encoding les are downloaded as part of changing the encoding at the PostScript
level (see the previous section).
Comments, which start with a percent sign and continue until the end of the line, are
ignored unless they start with `LIGKERN' (see below).
The rst non-comment word of the le must start with a forward slash `/' (i.e., a
PostScript literal name) and denes the name of the encoding. The next word must be
an left bracket `['. Following that must be precisely 256 character names; use `/.notdef'
for any that you want to leave undened. Then there must be a matching right bracket ].
A nal `def' token is optional. All names are case-sensitive.
Any ligature or kern information is given as a comment. If the rst word after the `%' is
`LIGKERN', then the entire rest of the line is parsed for ligature and kern information. This
ligature and kern information is given in groups of words: each group is terminated by a
space and a semicolon and (unless the semicolon is at the end of a line) another space.
In these LIGKERN statements, three types of information may be specied. These three
types are ligature pairs, kerns to ignore, and the character value of this font's boundary
Throughout a LIGKERN statement, the boundary character is specied as `||'. To set
the font's boundary character value for TEX:
% LIGKERN || = 39 ;
To indicate a kern to remove, give the names of the two characters (without the leading
slash) separated by `{}', as in `one {} one ;'. This is intended to be reminiscent of the
way you might use `{}' in a TEX le to turn o ligatures or kerns at a particular location.
Either or both of the character names can be given as `*', which is a wild card matching
any character; thus, all kerns can be removed with `* {} * ;'.
To specify a ligature, specify the names of the pair of characters, followed by the ligature
operation (as in Metafont), followed by the replacing character name. Either (but not both)
of the rst two characters can be `||' to indicate a word boundary.
The most common operation is `=:' meaning that both characters are removed and
replaced by the third character, but by adding the `|' character on either side of the `=:',
you can retain either or both of the two leading characters. In addition, by suxing the
ligature operation with one or two `>' signs, you can make the ligature scanning operation
skip that many resulting characters before proceeding. This works just like in Metafont.
Chapter 6: PostScript fonts
For example, the `' ligature is specied with `f i =: fi ;'. A more convoluted ligature
is `one one |=:|>> exclam ;' which separates a pair of adjacent 1's with an exclamation
point, and then skips over two of the resulting characters before continuing searching for
ligatures and kerns. You cannot give more >'s than |'s in an ligature operation, so there
are a total of eight possibilities:
=: |=: |=:> =:| =:|> |=:| |=:|> |=:|>>
The default set of ligatures and kerns built in to Afm2tfm is:
question quoteleft =: questiondown ;
exclam quoteleft =: exclamdown ;
hyphen hyphen =: endash ; endash hyphen =: emdash
quoteleft quoteleft =: quotedblleft ;
quoteright quoteright =: quotedblright ;
space {} * ; * {} space ; 0 {} * ; * {} 0 ;
1 {} * ; * {} 1 ; 2 {} * ; * {} 2 ; 3 {} * ; * {}
4 {} * ; * {} 4 ; 5 {} * ; * {} 5 ; 6 {} * ; * {}
7 {} * ; * {} 7 ; 8 {} * ; * {} 8 ; 9 {} * ; * {}
3 ;
6 ;
9 ;
6.3.2 Special font eects
Besides the reencodings described in the previous section, Afm2tfm can do other manipulations. (Again, it's best to use the prebuilt fonts rather than attempting to remake
`-s slant' makes an obliqued variant, as in:
afm2tfm Times-Roman -s .167 -v ptmro rptmro
This creates `ptmro.vpl' and `rptmro.tfm'. To use this font, put the line
rptmro Times-Roman ".167 SlantFont"
into `psfonts.map'. Then `rptmro' (our name for the obliqued Times) will act as if it were
a resident font, although it is actually constructed from Times-Roman via the PostScript
routine SlantFont (which will slant everything 1/6 to the right, in this case).
Similarly, you can get an expanded font with
afm2tfm Times-Roman -e 1.2 -v ptmrre rptmrre
and by recording the pseudo-resident font
rptmrre Times-Roman "1.2 ExtendFont"
in `psfonts.map'.
You can also create a small caps font with a command such as
afm2tfm Times-Roman -V ptmrc rptmrc
This will generate a set of pseudo-small caps mapped into the usual lowercase positions
and scaled down to 0.8 of the normal cap dimensions. You can also specify the scaling as
something other than the default 0.8:
afm2tfm Times-Roman -c 0.7 -V ptmrc rptmrc
It is unfortunately not possible to increase the width of the small caps independently of
the rest of the font. If you want a really professional looking set of small caps, you need to
acquire a small caps font.
To change the PaintType in a font from lled (0) to outlined (2), you can add
"/PaintType 2 store" to `psfonts.map', as in the following:
Chapter 6: PostScript fonts
Helvetica "/PaintType 2 store"
Afm2tfm writes to standard output the line you need to add to `psfonts.map' to use that
font, assuming the font is resident in the printer; if the font is not resident, you must add the
`<lename' command to download the font. Each identical line only needs to be specied
once in the `psfonts.map' le, even though many dierent fonts (small caps variants, or
ones with dierent output encodings) may be based on it.
6.3.3 Afm2tfm options
afm2tfm [option]... afmle [.afm] [tfmle [.tfm]]
Afm2tfm reads afmle and writes a corresponding (but raw) TFM le. If tfmle is not
supplied, the base name of the AFM le is extended with `.tfm' to get the output lename.
The simplest example:
afm2tfm Times-Roman rptmr
The TFM le thus created is raw because it omits ligature and kern information, and does
no character remapping; it simply contains the character information in the AFM le in
TFM form, which is the form that TEX understands. The characters have the same code in
the TFM le as in the AFM le. For text fonts, this means printable ASCII characters will
work ok, but little else, because standard PostScript fonts have a dierent encoding scheme
than the one that plain TEX expects (see Section 6.1.4 [Encodings], page 36). Although
both schemes agree for the printable ASCII characters, other characters such as ligatures
and accents vary. Thus, in practice, it's almost always desirable to create a virtual font as
well with the `-v' or `-V' option. See Section 6.2 [Making a font available], page 38.
The command line options to Afm2tfm:
`-c ratio' See `-V'; overrides the default ratio of 0.8 for the scaling of small caps.
`-e ratio' Stretch characters horizontally by ratio; if less than 1.0, you get a condensed
Output all character codes in the `vpl' le as octal numbers, not names; this
is useful for symbol or other special-purpose fonts where character names such
as `A' have no meaning.
`-p ps-enc'
Use ps-enc for the destination (PostScript) encoding of the font; ps-enc must
be mentioned as a header le for the font in `psfonts.map'. See Section
[Changing PostScript encodings], page 40.
`-s slant' Slant characters to the right by slant. If slant is negative, the letters slope to
the left (or they might be upright if you start with an italic font).
`-t tex-enc'
Use tex-enc for the target (TEX) encoding of the font. Ligature and kern
information may also be specied in le. le is not mentioned in `psfonts.map'.
`-T ps-tex-enc'
Use ps-tex-enc for both the PostScript and target TEX encodings of the font.
Equivalent to `-p le -t le'.
Chapter 6: PostScript fonts
Use only those characters specied in the TEX encoding, and no others. By
default, Afm2tfm tries to include all characters in the input font, even those
not present in the TEX encoding (it puts them into otherwise-unused positions,
`-v vpl-le'
`-V vpl-le'
Output a VPL (virtual property list) le, as well as a TFM le.
Same as `-v', but the virtual font generated is a pseudo small caps font obtained
by scaling uppercase letters by 0.8 to typeset lowercase. This font handles
accented letters and retains proper kerning.
6.4 `psfonts.map': PostScript font catalog
The `psfonts.map' le associates a PostScript font with related les and constructs.
Each line has the format:
lename PostScript-name options
For example, the line
rpstrn StoneInformal <StoneInformal.pfb
causes Dvips to download `StoneInformal.pfb' if your document (just as if it were a header
le, see Section 5.2 [Header les], page 28) uses the font `StoneInformal'.
If the `j' cong le or command-line option is enabled, `StoneInformal.pfb' will be
partially downloaded|only those characters your document actually uses will be extracted
and downloaded, and the remainder discarded. See Section 3.2.2 [Option details], page 9.
Filenames of fonts that are partially downloaded are surrounded by curly braces (`{...}')
in the progress report Dvips writes to standard output. Wholly-downloaded fonts appear
inside angle brackets (`<...>'), like other downloaded les.
Adobe Multiple Master fonts, such as Minion, cannot be partially downloaded. To
partially download in general, but avoid partial downloading for individual fonts, use `<<'
instead `<':
pmnr8r Minion <<Minion.pfb
You can generate transformed fonts with a line like this:
rpstrc StoneInformal <StoneInformal.pfb ".8 ExtendFont"
See Section 6.3.2 [Special font eects], page 43, for a complete list of font eects.
You can change the encoding of the Type 1 font at the PostScript level with a
`ReEncodeFont' instruction, plus the name of the encoding le. This allows you access to
characters that may be present in the Type 1 font le, but not encoded by default|most
of the preaccented characters, for example. An example:
pstrn8r StoneInformal "TeXBase1Encoding ReEncodeFont" <8r.enc <pstrn8a.pfb
The `8r' encoding mentioned here has been designed to serve as a base for all download-
able fonts; it allows access to all the characters commonly present in a Type 1 font. For
more details, see the `8r.enc' source le that comes with (and is installed with) Dvips.
You may notice that the same syntax is used for downloading encoding vectors and Type
1 font les. To make your intentions clear, you can also use `<[' to explicitly indicate you
are downloading an encoding vector, as in:
Chapter 6: PostScript fonts
pstrn8r StoneInformal "TeXBase1Encoding ReEncodeFont" <[8r.enc <pstrn8a.pfb
If the lename of your encoding vector does not end in `.enc', and you are using partial font downloading, you must use the `<[' syntax, or Dvips will not download the font
Similarly, the name of the Type 1 font le itself must have extension `.pfa' or `.pfb' for
partial downloading to work properly.
When using PFB les, Dvips is smart enough to unpack the binary PFB format into
printable ASCII so there is no need to perform this conversion yourself. In addition, Dvips
scans the font to determine its memory usage, just as it does for other header les (see
Section 5.2 [Header les], page 28).
Here is a brief summary of how `psfonts.map' is read:
1. If a line is empty or begins with a space, percent, asterisk, semicolon, or hash mark, it
is ignored.
2. Otherwise, the line is separated into words, where words are separated by spaces or
tabs, except that if a word begins with a double quote, it extends until the next double
quote or the end of the line.
3. If a word starts with `<<', it is taken as a font le to be wholly downloaded. Use this
to avoid partial downloading, as described above.
4. If a word starts with `<[', it is taken as an encoding le to be downloaded. Use this if
the name of the encoding le does end in `.enc', also as described above.
5. If a word starts with a `<' character, it is treated as a header le that needs to be
downloaded. If the name ends in `.pfa' or `.pfb', it is taken as Type 1 font le that
will be partially downloaded if the `j' option is in eect. There can be more than one
such header for a given font. If a `<' is a word by itself, the next word is taken as the
name of the header le.
6. If a word starts with a `"' character, it is taken as PostScript code used in generating
that font, and is inserted into the output verbatim at the appropriate point. (And the
double quotes beginning and ending the word are removed.)
7. Otherwise the word is a name. The rst such name is the TFM le that a virtual font
le can refer to. If there is a second name, it is used as the PostScript name; if there
is only one name, it is used for both the TEX name and the PostScript name.
Chapter 7: Color
7 Color
Dvips supports one-pass multi-color printing of TEX documents on any color PostScript
device. Initially added by Jim Hafner, IBM Research, hafner@almaden.ibm.com, the color
support has gone through many changes by Tomas Rokicki. Besides the source code support itself, there are additional TEX macro les: `colordvi.tex' and `blackdvi.tex', and
corresponding `.sty' versions for use with LaTEX.
In this section we describe the use of color from the document preparer's point of view
and then add some instructions on installation for the TEX administrator.
7.1 Color macro les
All the color macro commands are dened in `colordvi.tex' (or `colordvi.sty'). To
access these macros simply add to the top of your plain TEX le the command:
\input colordvi
For (the obsolete) LaTEX 2.09, add the `colordvi' style option as in:
For LaTEX 2e, these examples are not applicable. Instead, please see the documentation for the graphics package, available from `CTAN :doc/latex/graphics/'. See also
`CTAN :doc/epslatex.ps'.
These macros provide two basic kinds of color macros: ones for local color changes (a
few words, a single symbol) and one for global color changes (the whole document). All the
color names use a mixed case scheme to avoid conicts with other macros. There are 68
predened colors, with names taken primarily from the Crayola crayon box of 64 colors, and
one pair of macros for the user to set his own color pattern (see Section 7.2 [User-denable
colors], page 48). You can browse the le `colordvi.tex' for a list of the predened colors.
The comments in this le also show a rough correspondence between the crayon names and
A local color command has the form
\ColorName {this is the color ColorName }
where ColorName is the name of a predened color, e.g., `Blue'. As shown, these macros
take one argument, the text to print in the specied color. This can be used for nested
color changes since it restores the original color state when it completes. For example:
This text is normal but here we are \Red{switching to red,
\Blue{nesting blue}, recovering the red} and back to original.
The color nesting level has no hard limit, but it is not advisable to nest too deeply lest you
and the reader lose track of the color history.
The global color command has the form
These macros take no arguments and changes the default color from that point on to
ColorName. This of course can be overridden globally by another such command or locally
by local color commands. For example, expanding on the example above, we might have
Chapter 7: Color
This text is green but here we are \Red{switching to red,
\Blue{nesting blue}, recovering the red} and back to
original green.
The text from here on will be cyan until
\Yellow{locally changed to yellow}. Now we are back to cyan.
The color commands will even work in math mode and across math mode boundaries.
This means that if you have a color before going into math mode, the mathematics will be
set in that color as well. In alignment environments like \halign, `tabular' or `eqnarray',
local color commands cannot extend beyond the alignment characters.
Because local color commands respect only some environment and delimiter changes
besides their own, care must be taken in setting their scope. It is best not to have them
stretch too far.
At the present time there are no macros for color environments in LaTEX which might
have a larger range. This is primarily to keep the TEX and LaTEX use compatible.
7.2 User-denable colors
There are two ways for the user to specify colors not already dened. For local changes,
there is the command \Color which takes two arguments. The rst argument is four
numbers between zero and one and species the intensity of cyan, magenta, yellow and
black (CMYK) in that order. The second argument is the text that should appear in the
given color. For example, suppose you want the words \this color is pretty" to appear in
a color which is 50% cyan, 85% magenta, 40% yellow and 20% black. You would use the
\Color{.5 .85 .4 .2}{this color is pretty}
For global color changes, there is a command \textColor which takes one argument,
the CMYK quadruple of relative color intensities. For example, if you want the default
color to be as above, then the command
\textColor{.5 .85 .4 .2}
The text from now on will be this pretty color
will do the trick.
Making a global color change in the midst of nested local colors is highly discouraged.
Consequently, Dvips will give you warning message and do its best to recover by discarding
the current color history.
7.3 Color subtleties
Color macros are dened via \special keywords. As such, they are put in the `.dvi'
le only as explicit message strings to the driver. The (unpleasant) result is that certain
unprotected regions of the text can have unwanted color side eects. For example, if a color
region is split by TEX across a page boundary, then the footers of the current page (e.g., the
page number) and the headers of the next page can inherit that color. To avoid this eect
globally, users should make sure that these special regions of the text are dened with their
own local color commands. For example, to protect the header and footer in plain TEX, use
Chapter 7: Color
\headline{\Black{My Header}}
This warning also applies to gures and other insertions, so be careful!
Of course, in LaTEX, this is much more dicult to do because of the complexity of the
macros that control these regions. This is unfortunate but inevitable, because TEX and
LaTEX were not written with color in mind.
Even when writing your own macros, much care must be taken. The macros that `colorize' a portion of the text work prex the text work by outputting one \special command
to turn the color on before the text, and outputting another \special command afterwards
to restore the original color. It is often useful to ensure that TEX is in horizontal mode
before the rst special command is issued; this can be done by prexing the color command
with \leavevmode.
7.4 Printing in black/white after colorizing
If you have a TEX or LaTEX document written with color macros and you want to print
it in black and white there are two options. On all (good) PostScript devices, printing a
color le will print in corresponding gray levels. This is useful to get a rough idea of the
colors without using expensive color printing devices. The second option is to replace the
call to input `colordvi.tex' with `blackdvi.tex' (and similarly for the `.sty' les). So in
the above example, replacing the word `colordvi' with `blackdvi' suces. `blackdvi.tex'
denes the color macros as no-ops, and so will produce normal black/white printing. By
this simple mechanism, the user can switch to all black/white printing without having to
ferret out the color commands. Also, some device drivers, particularly non-PostScript ones
like screen previewers, will simply ignore the color commands and so print in black/white.
Hopefully, in the future screen previewers for color displays will be compatible with some
form of color support.
7.5 Color device conguration
To congure Dvips for a particular color device you need to ne tune the color parameters
to match your device's color rendition. To do this, you will need a Pantone chart for
your device. The header le `color.lpro' shows a (rough) correspondence between the
Crayola crayon names and the Pantone numbers and also denes default CMYK values
for each of the colors. Note that these colors must be dened in CMYK terms and not
RGB, as Dvips outputs PostScript color commands in CMYK. This header le also denes
(if they are not known to the interpreter) the PostScript commands `setcmykcolor' and
`currentcmykcolor' in terms of a RGB equivalent so if your device only understands RGB,
there should be no problem.
The parameters set in this le were determined by comparing the Pantone chart of a
Tektronix Phaser printer with the actual Crayola Crayons. Because these were dened for
a particular device, the actual color rendition on your device may be very dierent. There
are two ways to adjust this. One is to use the PAntone chart for your device to rewrite
`color.lpro' prior to compilation and installation. A better alternative, which supports
multiple devices, is to add a header le option in the conguration le (see Section 3.4.2
Chapter 7: Color
[Conguration le commands], page 16) for each device that denes, in `userdict', the
color parameters for those colors that need redening.
For example, if you need to change the parameters dening `Goldenrod' (approximately
Pantone 109 on the Phaser) for your device `mycolordev', do the following. In the Pantone
chart for your device, nd the CMYK values for Pantone 109. Let's say they are `{\ 0 0.10
0.75 0.03 }'. Then create a header le named `mycolordev.pro' with the commands
userdict begin
/Goldenrod { 0 0.10 0.75 0.03 setcmykcolor} bind def
Finally, in `config.mycolordev' add the line
h mycolordev.pro
This will then dene `Goldenrod' in your device's CMYK values in `userdict' which is
checked before dening it in `TeXdict' by `color.pro'. (On MS-DOS, you will have to call
this le `mycolordev.cfg'.)
This mechanism, together with additions to `colordvi.tex' and `blackdvi.tex' (and
the `.sty' les), can also be used to predene other colors for your users.
7.6 Color support details
To support color, Dvips recognizes a certain set of specials. These specials start with
the keyword `color' or the keyword `background', followed by a color specication.
7.6.1 Color specications
What is a color specication? One of three things. First, it might be a PostScript
procedure as dened in a PostScript header le. The `color.pro' le denes 64 of these,
including `Maroon'. This PostScript procedure must set the current color to be some value;
in this case, `Maroon' is dened as `0 0.87 0.68 0.32 setcmykcolor'.
The second possibility is the name of a color model (initially, one of `rgb', `hsb', `cmyk',
or `gray') followed by the appropriate number of parameters. When Dvips encounters
such a macro, it sends out the parameters rst, followed by the string created by prexing
`TeXcolor' to the color model. Thus, the color specication `rgb 0.3 0.4 0.5' would generate the PostScript code `0.3 0.4 0.5 TeXrgbcolor'. Note that the case of zero arguments
is disallowed, as that is handled by the single keyword case (`Maroon') above, where no
changes to the name are made before it is sent to the PostScript le.
The third and nal type of color specication is a double quote followed by any sequence
of PostScript. The double quote is stripped from the output. For instance, the color
specication `"AggiePattern setpattern' will set the `color' to the Aggie logo pattern
(assuming such exists.)
7.6.2 Color specials
We will describe `background' rst, since it is the simplest. The `background' keyword
must be followed by a color specication. That color specication is used as a ll color for
the background. The last `background' special on a page is the one that gets issued, and
it gets issued at the very beginning of the page, before any text or specials are sent. (This
Chapter 7: Color
is possible because the prescan phase of Dvips notices all of the color specials so that the
appropriate information can be written out during the second phase.)
The `color' special itself has three forms. The rst is just `color' followed by a color
specication. In this case, the current global color is set to that color; the color stack must
be empty when such a command is executed.
The second form is `color push' followed by a color specication. This saves the current
color on the color stack and sets the color to be that given by the color specication. This
is the most common way to set a color.
The nal version of the `color' special is just `color pop', with no color specication;
this says to pop the color last pushed on the color stack from the color stack and set the
current color to be that color.
Dvips correctly handles these color specials across pages, even when the pages are repeated or reversed.
These color specials can be used for things such as patterns or screens as well as simple
colors. However, note that in the PostScript, only one color specication can be active at
a time. For instance, at the beginning of a page, only the bottommost entry on the color
stack is sent; also, when a color is popped, all that is done is that the color specication
from the previous stack entry is sent. No `gsave' or `grestore' is used. This means that
you cannot easily mix usage of the `color' specials for screens and colors, just one or the
other. This may be addressed in the future by adding support for dierent categories of
color-like state.
(Index is nonexistent)
Short Contents
Why use Dvips? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Invoking Dvips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Paper size and landscape orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Interaction with PostScript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
PostScript fonts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Table of Contents
1 Why use Dvips? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
`config.ps' installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PostScript font installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ghostscript installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diagnosing problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.1 Debug options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.2 No output at all . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.3 Output too small or inverted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.4 Error messages from printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.5 Long documents fail to print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.6 Including graphics fails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 Invoking Dvips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.1 Basic usage of Dvips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2 Command-line options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2.1 Option summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2.2 Option details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.3 Environment variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.4 Dvips conguration les . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.4.1 Conguration le searching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.4.2 Conguration le commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4 Paper size and landscape orientation . . . . . . . 20
4.1 `papersize' special . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.2 Conguration le paper size command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.3 Paper trays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5 Interaction with PostScript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.1 PostScript gures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1 The bounding box comment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.2 Using the EPSF macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EPSF scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EPSF clipping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.3 `psfile' special . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.4 Dynamic creation of PostScript graphics les . . . .
5.1.5 Fonts in gures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 PostScript header les . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.1 Including headers from TEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.2 Including headers from the command line . . . . . . . .
5.2.3 Headers and memory usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 Literal PostScript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.1 " special: Literal PostScript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.2 `ps' special . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.3 Literal headers: `!' \special . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.4 PostScript hooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.5 Literal examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4 HyperTEXt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.1 Hypertext caveats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.2 Hypertext specials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 PostScript fonts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
6.1 Font concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.1 Metric les . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.2 Glyph les . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.3 Virtual fonts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.4 Encodings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.5 How PostScript typesets a character . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 Making a PostScript font available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3 Invoking Afm2tfm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.1 Changing font encodings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . `-t': Changing TEX encodings . . . . . . . . . `-p': Changing PostScript encodings . . . . `-T': Changing both TEX and PostScript
encodings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reencoding with Afm2tfm . . . . . . . . . . . . . Encoding le format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.2 Special font eects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.3 Afm2tfm options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4 `psfonts.map': PostScript font catalog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7 Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Color macro les . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
User-denable colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Color subtleties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing in black/white after colorizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Color device conguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Color support details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.1 Color specications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6.2 Color specials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52