INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS
13 SEER SERIES
CUBE HEAT PUMPS
11⁄2 - 5 TONS FEATURING
EARTH-FRIENDLY R-410A REFRIGERANT R-410
refrigerant
NOTE: Appearance of unit may vary.
!
RECOGNIZE THIS SYMBOL AS AN INDICATION OF IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION!
WARNING
!
▲WARNING
THESE INSTRUCTIONS
!
ARE INTENDED AS AN AID TO
These instructions
are intended
asPERSONNEL
an aid to qualified
licensed
QUALIFIED,
LICENSED
SERVICE
FOR PROPER
service
personnel
for
proper
installation,
adjustment
and
INSTALLATION, ADJUSTMENT AND OPERATION OF THIS UNIT.
operation of this unit. Read these instructions thoroughly
READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS THOROUGHLY BEFORE
before attempting installation or operation. Failure to follow
ATTEMPTING INSTALLATION OR OPERATION. FAILURE TO FOLthese instructions may result in improper installation, adjustLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS MAY RESULT IN IMPROPER
ment, service or maintenance possibly resulting in fire, electriINSTALLATION,
ADJUSTMENT,
SERVICE
MAINTENANCE
cal shock, property
damage, personal
injury OR
or death.
POSSIBLY RESULTING IN FIRE, ELECTRICAL SHOCK,
PROPERTY DAMAGE, PERSONAL INJURY OR DEATH.
ISO 9001:2000
DO NOT DESTROY THIS MANUAL
PLEASE READ CAREFULLY AND KEEP IN A SAFE PLACE FOR FUTURE REFERENCE BY A SERVICEMAN
92-20522-57-01
SUPERSEDES 92-20522-57-00
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 SAFETY INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.0 GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1 Checking Product Received. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.2 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.3 Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.4 Electrical and Physical Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.0 LOCATING UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1 Corrosive Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.2 Heat Pump Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.3 Operational Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.4 For Units With Space Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.5 Customer Satisfaction Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.6 Unit Mounting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.7 Factory-Prepferred Tie-Down Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.0 REFRIGERANT CONNECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.0 REPLACEMENT UNITS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
6.0 INDOOR COIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
6.1 Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7.0 INTERCONNECTING TUBING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7.1 Vapor & Liquid Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7.2 Maximum Length of Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7.3 Vertical Separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7.4 Tubing Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7.5 Tubing Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7.6 Leak Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
8.0 DEMAND DEFROST CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
8.1 Defrost Initiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
8.2 Defrost Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
8.3 Temperature Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
8.4 Test Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
8.5 Demand Defrost Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
8.6 Trouble Shooting Demand Defrost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
9.0 EVACUATION PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
10.0 START UP & PERFORMANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
11.0 CHECKING AIRFLOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
12.0 CHECKING REFRIGERANT CHARGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
12.1 Charging By Liquid Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
12.2 Charging By Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
12.3 Final Leak Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
13.0 ELECTRICAL WIRING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
13.1 Power Wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
13.2 Grounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
13.3 Control Wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
14.0 FIELD INSTALLED ACCESSORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
14.1 Compressor Crankcase Heat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
14.2 Low Ambient Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
14.3 High Pressure Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
15.0 SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
15.1 Single Pole Compressor Contactor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
16.0 TROUBLESHOOTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
16.1 Electrical Checks Flow Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
16.2 Cooling Mechanical Checks Flow Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
16.3 Heating Mechanical Checks Flow Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
16.4 Defrost Mechanical Checks Flow Chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
16.5 General Troubleshooting Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
16.6 Service Analyzer Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
17.0 WIRING DIAGRAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2
1.0 SAFETY INFORMATION
! WARNING
Disconnect all power to unit before starting maintenance. Failure to do so
can cause electrical shock resulting in severe personal injury or death.
! WARNING
Turn off electric power at the fuse box or service panel before making any
electrical connections.
Also, the ground connection must be completed before making line voltage connections. Failure to do so can result in electrical shock, severe
personal injury or death.
! WARNING
These instructions are intended as an aid to qualified licensed service
personnel for proper installation, adjustment and operation of this unit.
Read these instructions thoroughly before attempting installation or operation. Failure to follow these instructions may result in improper installation, adjustment, service or maintenance possibly resulting in fire, electrical shock, property damage, personal injury or death.
! WARNING
The unit must be permanently grounded. Failure to do so can cause electrical shock resulting in severe personal injury or death.
! WARNING
The manufacturer’s warranty does not cover any damage or defect to the
heat pump caused by the attachment or use of any components.
Accessories or devices (other than those authorized by the manufacturer) into, onto or in conjunction with the heat pump. You should be aware
that the use of unauthorized components, accessories or devices may
adversely affect the operation of the heat pump and may also endanger
life and property. The manufacturer disclaims any responsibility for such
loss or injury resulting from the use of such unauthorized components,
accessories or devices.
CAUTION
When coil is installed over a finished ceiling and/or living area, it is
recommended that a secondary sheet metal condensate pan be
constructed and installed under entire unit. Failure to do so can result
in property damage.
CAUTION
Single-pole contactors are used on all standard single-phase units up
through 5 tons. Caution must be exercised when servicing as only one leg
of the power supply is broken with the contactor.
3
2.0 GENERAL
! WARNING
The manufacturer’s warranty does not cover any damage or defect to the
heat pump caused by the attachment or use of any components.
Accessories or devices (other than those authorized by the manufacturer) into, onto or in conjunction with the heat pump. You should be aware
that the use of unauthorized components, accessories or devices may
adversely affect the operation of the heat pump and may also endanger
life and property. The manufacturer disclaims any responsibility for such
loss or injury resulting from the use of such unauthorized components,
accessories or devices.
2.1 CHECKING PRODUCT RECEIVED
Upon receiving unit, inspect it for any shipping damage. Claims for damage, either
apparent or concealed, should be filed immediately with the shipping company.
Check heat pump model number, electrical characteristics and accessories to
determine if they are correct. Check system components (evaporator coil, condensing unit, evaporator blower, etc.) to make sure they are properly matched.The information contained in this manual has been prepared to assist in the proper installation, operation and maintenance of the heat pump system. Improper installation, or
installation not made in accordance with these instructions, can result in unsatisfactory operation and/or dangerous conditions, and can cause the related warranty not
to apply.
Read this manual and any instructions packaged with separate equipment required
to make up the system prior to installation. Retain this manual for future reference.
To achieve optimum efficiency and capacity, the indoor cooling coils listed in the
heat pump specification sheet should be used.
2.2 APPLICATION
MATCH ALL COMPONENTS:
• OUTDOOR UNIT
• INDOOR COIL/METERING DEVICE
• INDOOR AIR HANDLER/FURNACE
• REFRIGERANT LINES
4
Before installing any heat pump equipment, a duct analysis of the structure and a
heat gain calculation must be made. A heat gain calculation begins by measuring all
external surfaces and openings that gain heat from the surrounding air and quantifying that heat gain. A heat gain calculation also calculates the extra heat load
caused by sunlight and by humidity removal.
There are several factors that the installers must consider:
• Outdoor unit location
• Proper equipment evacuation
• System refrigerant charge
• Indoor unit airflow
• Indoor unit blower speed
• Supply and return air duct design and sizing
• System air balancing
• Diffuser and return air grille location and sizing
2.3 DIMENSIONS (SEE FIGURE 1)
FIGURE 1
AIR DISCHARGE: ALLOW
60” MINIMUM CLEARANCE.
w
DIMENSIONS
A-00008
AIR INLETS
L
(LOUVERED
PANELS)
ALLOW 6”
MINIMUM
CLEARANCE
SERVICE ACCESS
ALLOW 24” CLEARANCE
H
NOTE: GRILLE APPEARANCE
MAY VARY.
SEE DETAIL A
2"
BASERAIL
DIMENSIONAL DATA
BASE PAN (BOTTOM VIEW)
DO NOT OBSTRUCT DRAIN HOLES
(SHADED).
13 SEER
18, 24
30
36
42, 48, 60
Cooling Capacity
Height “H” (in.) [mm] 261/8 [663.5] 265/8 [676.2] 2715/16 [709.6] 3515/16 [912.8]
Length “L” (in.) [mm] 235/8 [600] 275/8 [701.6] 315/8 [803.2] 315/8 [803.2]
Width “W” (in.) [mm] 235/8 [600] 275/8 [701.6] 315/8 [803.2] 315/8 [803.2]
5
2.4 ELECTRICAL & PHYSICAL DATA (SEE TABLE 1)
TABLE 1
ELECTRICAL AND PHYSICAL DATA
ELECTRICAL DATA
Compressor
Fan Motor
Model
Phase
Number Frequency (Hz) Rated Load Locked Rotor Full Load
Amperes
Amperes
Voltage (Volts) Amperes
(FLA)
(RLA)
(LRA)
PHYSICAL DATA
Minimum
Circuit
Ampacity
Amperes
Fuse or HACR
Circuit Breaker
Minimum Maximum
Amperes Amperes
Outdoor Coil
Face Area
Sq. Ft.
[m2] ➀
No.
Rows
CFM
[L/s]
Refrig.
Per
Circuit
Oz. [g]
Weight
Net
Lbs. [kg]
Shipping
Lbs. [kg]
18
1-60-208-230
9/9
48
0.6
12/12
15/15
20/20
11.06
[1.03]
1
1700
[802]
98
[2278]
135
[61.2]
143
[64.9]
24
1-60-208-230
12.8/12.8
58.3
0.6
17/17
20/20
25/25
11.06
[1.03]
1
2370
[1118]
89
[2523]
138
[62.6]
148
[67.1]
30
1-60-208-230
14.1/14.1
73
0.8
19/19
25/25
30/30
13.72
[1.27]
1
2800
[1321]
109
[3090]
191
[86.6]
203
[92.1]
36
1-60-208-230
17/17
96.7
1.2
23/23
30/30
35/35
16.39
[1.52]
1
3575
[1687]
116
[3289]
194
[88]
205
[93]
42
1-60-208-230
21.8/21.8
112
1.2
29/29
35/35
50/50
21.85
[2.03]
1
3575
[1687]
157
[4251]
218
[98.9]
229
[103.9]
48
1-60-208-230
21.8/21.8
117
1.2
29/29
35/35
50/50
21.85
[2.03]
1
3575
[1687]
143
[4054]
247
[112]
258
[117]
60
1-60-208-230
26.3/26.3
134
1.2
35/35
45/45
60/60
21.85
[2.03]
2
3575
[1687]
228
[6464]
247
[112]
258
[117]
NOTES:
➀ 20 Fins per inch
➁ Factory charged for 15 ft. of line set
3.0 LOCATING UNIT
3.1 CORROSIVE ENVIRONMENT
The metal parts of this unit may be subject to rust or deterioration if exposed to a
corrosive environment. This oxidation could shorten the equipment’s useful life.
Corrosive elements include, but are not limited to, salt spray, fog or mist in seacoast
areas, sulphur or chlorine from lawn watering systems, and various chemical contaminants from industries such as paper mills and petroleum refineries.
If the unit is to be installed in an area where contaminants are likely to be a problem, special attention should be given to the equipment location and exposure.
•
Avoid having lawn sprinkler heads spray directly on the unit cabinet.
•
In coastal areas, locate the unit on the side of the building away from the waterfront.
•
Shielding provided by a fence or shrubs may give some protection, but cannot
violate minimum airflow and service access clearances.
•
Elevating the unit off its slab or base enough to allow air circulation will help
avoid holding water against the basepan.
Regular maintenance will reduce the build-up of contaminants and help to protect
the unit’s finish.
! WARNING
Disconnect all power to unit before starting maintenance. Failure to do so
can cause electrical shock resulting in severe personal injury or death.
•
Frequent washing of the cabinet, fan blade and coil with fresh water will remove
most of the salt or other contaminants that build up on the unit.
•
Regular cleaning and waxing of the cabinet with an automobile polish will provide some protection.
•
A liquid cleaner may be used several times a year to remove matter that will not
wash off with water.
Several different types of protective coil coatings are offered in some areas. These
coatings may provide some benefit, but the effectiveness of such coating materials
cannot be verified by the equipment manufacturer.
6
3.2 HEAT PUMP LOCATION
Consult local and national building codes and ordinances for special installation
requirements. Following location information will provide longer life and simplified
servicing of the outdoor heat pump.
NOTE: These units must be installed outdoors. No ductwork can be attached, or
other modifications made, to the discharge grille. Modifications will affect performance or operation.
3.3 OPERATIONAL ISSUES
•
IMPORTANT: Locate the unit in a manner that will not prevent, impair or compromise the performance of other equipment horizontally installed in proximity
to the unit. Maintain all required minimum distances to gas and electric meters,
dryer vents, exhaust and inlet openings. In the absence of National Codes, or
manaufacturers’ recommendations, local code recommendations and requirements will take presidence.
•
Refrigerant piping and wiring should be properly sized and kept as short as
possible to avoid capacity losses and increased operating costs.
•
Locate the unit where water run off will not create a problem with the equipment. Position the unit away from the drip edge of the roof whenever possible.
Units are weatherized, but can be affected by the following:
o Water pouring into the unit from the junction of rooflines, without protective
guttering. Large volumes of water entering the heat pump while in operation
can impact fan blade or motor life, and coil damage may occur to a heat
pump if moisture cannot drain from the unit under freezing conditions.
o Freezing moisture, or sleeting conditions, can cause the cabinet to ice-over
prematurely and prevent heat pump operation, requiring backup heat, which
generally results in less economical operation.
•
Closely follow clearance recommendations (See Figure 1).
o 24” to the service panel access
o 60” above heat pump fan discharge (unit top) to prevent recirculation
o 6” to heat pump coil grille air inlets (per heat pump).
3.4 FOR UNITS WITH SPACE LIMITATIONS
In the event that a space limitation exists, we will permit the following clearances:
Single Unit Applications: Clearances below 6 inches will reduce unit capacity and
efficiency. Do not reduce the 60-inch discharge, or the 24-inch service clearances.
Multiple Unit Applications: When multiple heat pump grille sides are aligned, a 6inch per unit clearance is recommended, for a total of 12" between two units. Two
combined clearances below 12 inches will reduce capacity and efficiency. Do not
reduce the 60-inch discharge, or 24-inch service, clearances.
•
Do not obstruct the bottom drain opening in the heat pump base pan. It is
essential to provide defrost condensate drainage to prevent possible refreezing
of the condensation. Provide a base pad for mounting the unit, which is slightly
pitched away from the structure. Route condensate off the base pad to an area
which will not become slippery and result in personal injury.
•
Where snowfall is anticipated, the heat pump must be elevated above the base
pad to prevent ice buildup that may crush the tubing of the heat pump coil or
cause fin damage. Heat pump units should be mounted above the average
expected accumulated snowfall for the area.
3.5 CUSTOMER SATISFACTION ISSUES
•
The heat pump should be located away from the living, sleeping and recreational spaces of the owner and those spaces on adjoining property.
•
To prevent noise transmission, the mounting pad for the outdoor unit should
not be connected to the structure, and should be located sufficient distance
above grade to prevent ground water from entering the unit.
7
FIGURE 2
RECOMMENDED ELEVATED INSTALLATION
3.6 UNIT MOUNTING
If elevating the heat pump, either on a flat roof or on a slab, observe the
following guidelines.
•
The base pan provided elevates the heat pump 2” above the base pad.
•
If elevating a unit on a flat roof, use 4” x 4” (or equivalent) stringers positioned
to distribute unit weight evenly and prevent noise and vibration (see Figure 2).
NOTE: Do not block drain openings shown in Figure 1.
•
If unit must be elevated because of anticipated snow fall, secure unit and elevating stand such that unit and/or stand will not tip over or fall off. Keep in mind
that someone may try to climb on unit.
3.7 FACTORY-PREFERRED TIE-DOWN METHOD
INSTRUCTIONS:
IMPORTANT: These instructions are intended as a guide to securing equipment for windload ratings of “120 MPH sustained wind load” and “3-second, 150 MPH gust.” While this
procedure is not mandatory, the Manufacturer does recommend that equipment be properly secured in areas where high wind damage may occur.
STEP 1: Before installing, clear pad of any dirt or debris.
IMPORTANT: The pad must be constructed of industry-approved materials, and
must be thick enough to accommodate the concrete fastener.
STEP 2: Center basepan on pad, ensuring it is level.
STEP 3: Using metal straps as guides, mark spots on concrete where 4 holes will be
drilled (see Figure 1).
REQUIRED PARTS LIST
NOTE: ALL PARTS AVAILABLE THROUGH LOCAL HARDWARE SUPPLY
STORES
DESCRIPTION
QUANTITY
1/4” x 2” Hex Washer Head Concrete Screws
1/8” x 1 1/2” x W (width of unit + 4”) Metal straps
3/8” Washers
4
2
28
STEP 4: Drill four pilot holes in pad, ensuring that the hole is at least 1/4” deeper than the
concrete fastener being used.
8
FIGURE 3
TIE-DOWN KIT ASSEMBLY
DETAIL A
STEP 5: Gauge the amount of washers needed by stacking washers and metal strap in
place, as shown in Figure 3, Detail A. Typical installation requires 6 to 7 washers.
STEP 6: Insert concrete fastener into hole in metal strap, insert washers over end of fastener, and then insert into hole drilled into concrete.
STEP 7: Tighten concrete fastener.
NOTE: Do not over-tighten the concrete fastener. Doing so can weaken the
integrity of the concrete fastener and cause it to break.
STEP 8: Finish unit assembly per unit’s installation instructions.
4.0 REFRIGERANT CONNECTIONS
All units are factory charged with Refrigerant 410A for 15 ft. of line set. All models
are supplied with service valves. Keep tube ends sealed until connection is to be
made to prevent system contamination.
5.0 REPLACEMENT UNITS
To prevent failure of a new heat pump unit, the existing tubing system must be correctly sized and cleaned or replaced. Care must be exercised that the expansion
device is not plugged. For new and replacement units, a liquid line filter drier should
be installed and refrigerant tubing should be properly sized. Test the oil for acid. If
positive, a liquid line filter drier is mandatory.
6.0 INDOOR COIL
REFER TO INDOOR COIL MANUFACTURER’S INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS.
IMPORTANT: The manufacturer is not responsible for the performance and operation of a mismatched system, or for a match listed with another manufacturer’s coil.
9
6.1 LOCATION
Do not install the indoor coil in the return duct system of a gas or oil furnace.
Provide a service inlet to the coil for inspection and cleaning. Keep the coil pitched
toward the drain connection.
CAUTION
When coil is installed over a finished ceiling and/or living area, it is
recommended that a secondary sheet metal condensate pan be
constructed and installed under entire unit. Failure to do so can result
in property damage.
7.0 INTERCONNECTING TUBING
7.1 VAPOR AND LIQUID LINES
Keep all lines sealed until connection is made.
Make connections at the indoor coil first.
Refer to Line Size Information in Tables 2 and 3 for correct size and multipliers to be
used to determine capacity for various vapor line diameters and lengths of run. The
losses due to the lines being exposed to outdoor conditions are not included.
The factory refrigeration charge in the outdoor unit is sufficient for 15 feet of interconnecting lines. The factory refrigeration charge in the outdoor unit is sufficient for
the unit and 15 feet of standard size interconnecting liquid and vapor lines. For different lengths, adjust the charge as indicated below.
1/4” ± .3 oz. per foot
5/16” ± .4 oz. per foot
3/8” ± .6 oz. per foot
1/2” ± 1.2 oz. per foot
7.2 MAXIMUM LENGTH OF LINES
The maximum length of interconnecting line is 150 feet. Always use the shortest
length possible with a minimum number of bends. Additional compressor oil is not
required for any length up to 150 feet.
NOTE: Excessively long refrigerant lines cause loss of equipment capacity.
7.3 VERTICAL SEPARATION
Keep the vertical separation to a minimum. Use the following guidelines when
installing the unit:
1.
DO NOT exceed the vertical separations as indicated on Table 3.
2.
It is recommended to use the smallest liquid line size permitted to minimize system charge which will maximize compressor reliability.
3.
Table 3 may be used for sizing horizontal runs.
7.4 TUBING INSTALLATION
Observe the following when installing correctly sized type “L” refrigerant tubing
between the condensing unit and evaporator coil:
10
•
If a portion of the liquid line passes through a hot area where liquid refrigerant
can be heated to form vapor, insulating the liquid line is required.
•
Use clean, dehydrated, sealed refrigeration grade tubing.
•
Always keep tubing sealed until tubing is in place and connections are to be
made.
•
Blow out the liquid and vapor lines with dry nitrogen before connecting to the
outdoor unit and indoor coil. Any debris in the line set will end up plugging the
expansion device.
•
As an added precaution it is recommended that a high quality, bi-directional filter drier is installed in the liquid line.
•
Do not allow the vapor line and liquid line to be in contact with each other. This
causes an undesirable heat transfer resulting in capacity loss and increased
power consumption. The vapor line must be insulated.
•
If tubing has been cut, make sure ends are deburred while holding in a position
to prevent chips from falling into tubing. Burrs such as those caused by tubing
cutters can affect performance dramatically, particularly on small liquid line
sizes.
•
For best operation, keep tubing run as short as possible with a minimum number of elbows or bends.
•
Locations where the tubing will be exposed to mechanical damage should be
avoided. If it is necessary to use such locations, the copper tubing should be
housed to prevent damage.
•
If tubing is to be run underground, it must be run in a sealed watertight chase.
•
Use care in routing tubing and do not kink or twist. Use a tubing bender on the
vapor line to prevent kinking.
•
Route the tubing using temporary hangers, then straighten the tubing and
install permanent hangers. Line must be adequately supported.
•
The vapor line must be insulated to prevent dripping (sweating) and prevent
performance losses. Armaflex and Rubatex are satisfactory insulations for this
purpose. Use 1/2” minimum insulation thickness, additional insulation may be
required for long runs.
•
Check Table 2 for the correct vapor line size. Check Table 3 for the correct liquid line size.
7.5 TUBING CONNECTIONS
Indoor coils have only a holding charge of dry nitrogen. Keep all tube ends sealed
until connections are to be made.
•
Use type “L” copper refrigeration tubing. Braze the connections with accepted
industry practices.
•
Be certain both refrigerant shutoff valves at the outdoor unit are closed.
•
Clean the inside of the fittings before brazing.
•
Remove the cap and schrader core from service port to protect seals from heat
damage.
•
Use an appropriate heatsink material around the copper stub and the service
valves before applying heat.
•
IMPORTANT: Do not braze any fitting with the TEV sensing bulb attached.
•
Braze the tubing between the outdoor unit and indoor coil. Flow dry nitrogen
into a service port and through the tubing while brazing.
•
The service valves are not backseating valves. To open the valves, remove the
valve cap with an adjustable wrench. Insert a 3/16” or 5/16” hex wrench into the
stem. Back out counterclockwise.
•
Replace the valve cap finger tight then tighten an additional 1/2 hex flat for a
metal-to-metal seal.
7.6 LEAK TESTING
•
Pressurize line set and coil through service fittings with dry nitrogen to 150
PSIG maximum. Leak test all joints using liquid detergent. If a leak is found,
relieve pressure and repair.
11
TABLE 2
SUCTION LINE LENGTH/SIZE VS CAPACITY MULTIPLIER (R-410A)
g
Unit Size
1 1/2 Ton
Suction Line Connection Size 3/4" I.D.
5/85/8
Opt.
3/4*3/4
Std.
Suction Line Run - Feet
*
----Optional
1.00
25'
Standard
1.00
....
Optional
--Optional
0.98
50'
Standard
0.99
....
Optional
--Optional
0.95
100'
Standard
0.96
....
Optional
--Optional
0.92
150'
Standard
0.93
....
Optional
---
2 Ton
3/4" I.D.
5/85/8
Opt.
3/4*3/4
Std.
*
----1.00
1.00
--0.98
0.99
--0.95
0.96
--0.92
0.94
---
y
2 1/2 Ton
3 Ton
3/4" I.D. 7/8" I.D.
5/85/8
Opt.
5/83/4
Opt.
3/4*3/4
Std.
7/8*
Std.
7/8
*
*
7/87/8
Opt.
----1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
--0.96
0.98
0.98
0.99
0.99
--0.94
0.96
0.96
0.97
0.97
--0.91
0.94
0.93
0.95
0.95
---
NOTES:
*Standard line size
Using suction line larger than shown in chart will result in poor oil return and is not recommended.
12
3 1/2 Ton
7/8" I.D.
3/43/4
Opt.
7/8*7/8
Std.
*
----1.00
1.00
--0.99
0.99
--0.96
0.98
--0.94
0.96
---
4 Ton
7/8" I.D.
7/87/8
Opt.
111/8*
Std.
1/8
*
----1.00
1.00
--0.99
0.99
--0.96
0.98
--0.95
0.96
---
5 Ton
7/8" I.D.
7/87/8
Opt.
111/8*1/8
Std.
*
----1.00
1.00
--0.99
0.99
--0.97
0.98
--0.94
0.97
---
TABLE 3
LIQUID LINE SIZING (R-410A)
System
Capacity
1 1/2 Ton
2 Ton
2 1/2 Ton
3 Ton
3 1/2 Ton
4 Ton
5 Ton
Line Size
Connection Size Line Size
(Inch I.D.)
(Inch OD)
1/4
3/8"
5/16
3/8 *
1/4
3/8"
5/16
3/8 *
1/4
3/8"
5/16
3/8 *
5/16
3/8"
3/8 *
5/16
3/8"
3/8 *
3/8 *
1/2
3/8"
3/8 *
1/2
3/8"
q
g(
25
25
25
25
23
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
)
Liquid Line Size
Outdoor unit above or below indoor coil
(Heat Pumps Only)
Total Equivalent Length - Feet
50
75
100
125
Maximum Vertical Separation - Feet
40
25
9
N/A
50
62
58
53
50
75
72
70
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
36
29
23
16
50
72
70
68
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
49
38
27
17
50
68
65
62
50
37
22
7
50
68
63
58
23
4
N/A
N/A
50
43
36
30
46
38
30
22
50
56
55
53
50
56
44
32
50
75
81
79
150
N/A
49
68
N/A
9
65
N/A
6
58
N/A
53
N/A
24
15
52
20
76
NOTES:
*Standard line size
N/A - Application not recommended.
13
8.0 DEMAND DEFROST CONTROL
The demand defrost control is a printed circuit board assembly consisting of solid
state control devices with electro-mechanical outputs. The demand defrost control
monitors the outdoor ambient temperature, outdoor coil temperature, and the compressor run-time to determine when a defrost cycle is required.
8.1 DEFROST INITIATION
A defrost will be initiated when the three conditions below are satisfied:
1) The outdoor coil temperature is below 35°F.
2) The compressor has operated for at least 34 minutes with the outdoor coil temperature below 35°F.
3) The measured difference between the ambient temperature and the outdoor
coil temperature is greater than the calculated delta T.
Additionally, a defrost will be initiated if six hours of accumulated compressor runtime has elapsed without a defrost with the outdoor coil temperature below 35°F.
8.2 DEFROST TERMINATION (See Figure 4)
Once a defrost is initiated, the defrost will continue until fourteen minutes has
elapsed or the coil temperature has reached the terminate temperature. The terminate temperature is factory set at 70°F, although the temperature can be changed
to 50°F, 60°F, 70°F or 80°F by relocating a jumper on the board.
FIGURE 4
DEFROST TERMINATION SETTINGS
8.3 TEMPERATURE SENSORS
The coil sensor is clipped to the top tube on the outdoor coil at the point feed by the
distribution tubes from the expansion device (TEV) (short 3/8” dia. tube). The air
sensor is located on the defrost control board.
If the ambient sensor fails the defrost control will initiate a defrost every 34 minutes
with the coil temperature below 35°F.
If the coil sensor fails the defrost control will not initiate a defrost.
14
8.4 TEST MODE
The test mode is initiated by shorting the TEST pins. In this mode of operation, the
enable temperature is ignored and all timers are sped up by a factor of 240. To initiate a manual defrost, short the TEST pins. Remove the short when the system
switches to defrost mode. The defrost will terminate on time (14 minutes) or when
the termination temperature has been achieved. Short TEST pins again to terminate the defrost immediately.
8.5 DEMAND DEFROST OPERATION
It is important that such systems be off for a minimum of 5 minutes before restarting
to allow equalization of pressures. The thermostat should not be moved to cycle
unit without waiting five minutes. To do so may cause the compressor to stop on an
automatic opening overload device or blow a fuse. Poor electrical service can cause
nuisance tripping on overloads or blow fuses. For PSC type operation, the refrigerant metering must be done with cap tubes, flow check, or bleed type expansion
valve because of low starting torque.
IMPORTANT: The compressor has an internal overload protector. Under some
conditions, it can take up to 2 hours for this overload to reset. Make sure overload
has had time to reset before condemning the compressor.
8.6 TROUBLE SHOOTING DEMAND DEFROST
Set the indoor thermostat select switch to heat and thermostat lever to a call for
heat.
Jumper the “test pins” to put the unit into defrost. If the unit goes into defrost and
comes back out of defrost, the indication is that the control is working properly.
If the unit did not go into defrost using the test pins, check to ensure that 24V is
being supplied to the control board. If 24V is present then replace the control.
9.0 EVACUATION PROCEDURE
The life and efficiency of the equipment is dependent upon the thoroughness exercised by the technician when evacuating air and moisture from the system.
Air in the system causes high condensing temperatures and pressure, resulting in
increased power input and non-verifiable performance.
Moisture chemically reacts with the refrigerant and oil to form corrosive hydrofluoric
and hydrochloric acids. These attack motor windings and parts, causing breakdown.
After the system has been leak checked and proven sealed, connect the vacuum
pump and evacuate system to 500 microns. The vacuum pump must be connected
to both the high and low sides of the system through adequate connections. Use
the largest size connections available since restrictive service connections may lead
to false readings because of pressure drop through the fittings.
IMPORTANT: Compressors (especially scroll type) should never be used to evacuate the heat pump system because internal electrical arcing may result in a damaged or failed compressor.
15
10.0 START UP AND PERFORMANCE
Even though the unit is factory charged with Refrigerant-410A, the charge must be
checked to the charge table attached to the service panel and adjusted, if required.
(See Table 1). Allow a minimum of 5 minutes running. Before analyzing charge, see
the instructions on the unit service panel rating plate for marking the total charge.
11.0 CHECKING AIRFLOW
The air distribution system has the greatest effect on airflow. The duct system is
totally controlled by the contractor. For this reason, the contractor should use only
industry-recognized procedures.
Heat pump systems require a specified airflow. Each ton of cooling requires
between 350 and 450 cubic feet of air per minute (CFM), or 400 CFM nominally.
Duct design and construction should be carefully done. System performance can be
lowered dramatically through bad planning or workmanship.
Air supply diffusers must be selected and located carefully. They must be sized and
positioned to deliver treated air along the perimeter of the space. If they are too
small for their intended airflow, they become noisy. If they are not located properly,
they cause drafts. Return air grilles must be properly sized to carry air back to the
blower. If they are too small, they also cause noise.
The installers should balance the air distribution system to ensure proper quiet airflow to all rooms in the home. This ensures a comfortable living space.
An air velocity meter or airflow hood can give a reading of the system CFM.
12.0 CHECKING REFRIGERANT CHARGE
Charge for all systems should be checked against the Charging Chart inside the
access panel cover.
IMPORTANT: Do not operate the compressor without charge in system.
Addition of R-410A will raise pressures (vapor, liquid and discharge).
If adding R-410A raises both vapor pressure and temperature, the unit is overcharged.
IMPORTANT: Use industry-approved charging methods to ensure proper system
charge.
12.1 CHARGING BY LIQUID PRESSURE
The liquid pressure method is used for charging systems in the cooling and heating
mode. The service port on the liquid (small valve) and suction (large valve) is used
for this purpose.
Verify that the outdoor unit is running and the indoor air mover is delivering the
maximum airflow for this system size. Read and record the outdoor ambient temperature. Read and record the liquid and suction pressures at the ports on the liquid
and suction valves.
If refrigerant lines are sized using the nameplate charge, the correct liquid pressure
is found at the intersection of the suction pressure and the outdoor ambient.
1. Remove refrigerant charge if the liquid pressure is above the chart value.
2. Add refrigerant charge if the liquid pressure is below the chart value.
16
12.2 CHARGING BY WEIGHT
For a new installation, evacuation of interconnecting tubing and indoor coil is adequate; otherwise, evacuate the entire system. Use the factory charge shown in
Table 1 of these instructions or unit data plate. Note that charge value includes
charge required for 15 ft. of standard size interconnecting liquid line. Calculate actual charge required with installed liquid line size and length using:
1/4” O.D. = .3 oz./ft.
5/16” O.D. = .4 oz./ft.
3/8” O.D. = .6 oz./ft.
1/2” O.D. = 1.2 oz./ft.
With an accurate scale (+/– 1 oz.) or volumetric charging device, adjust charge difference between that shown on the unit data plate and that calculated for the new
system installation. If the entire system has been evacuated, add the total calculated charge.
12.3 FINAL LEAK TESTING
After the unit has been properly evacuated and charged, a halogen leak detector
should be used to detect leaks in the system. All piping within the condensing unit,
evaporator, and interconnecting tubing should be checked for leaks. If a leak is
detected, the refrigerant should be recovered before repairing the leak. The Clean
Air Act prohibits releasing refrigerant into the atmosphere.
13.0 ELECTRICAL WIRING
! WARNING
Turn off electric power at the fuse box or service panel before making any
electrical connections.
Also, the ground connection must be completed before making line voltage connections. Failure to do so can result in electrical shock, severe
personal injury or death.
Field wiring must comply with the National Electric Code (C.E.C. in Canada) and
any applicable local code.
13.1 POWER WIRING
It is important that proper electrical power from a commercial utility is available at
the heat pump contactor. Voltage ranges for operation are shown in Table 4.
Install a branch circuit disconnect within sight of the unit and of adequate size to
handle the starting current (see Table 1).
Power wiring must be run in a rain-tight conduit. Conduit must be run through the
connector panel below the access cover (see Figure 1) and attached to the bottom
of the control box.
Connect power wiring to contactor located in outdoor heat pump electrical box. (See
wiring diagram attached to unit access panel.)
Check all electrical connections, including factory wiring within the unit and make
sure all connections are tight.
DO NOT connect aluminum field wire to the contactor terminals.
13.2 GROUNDING
A grounding lug is provided near the contactor for a ground wire.
! WARNING
The unit must be permanently grounded. Failure to do so can cause electrical shock resulting in severe personal injury or death.
17
TABLE 4
VOLTAGE RANGES (60 HZ)
Nameplate Voltage
208/230 (1 Phase)
208/230 (3 Phase)
460
575
Operating Voltage Range at Copeland
Maximum Load Design Conditions for
Compressors
197 - 253
187 - 253
414 - 506
517 633
13.3 CONTROL WIRING
(See Figure 5)
If the low voltage control wiring is run in conduit with the power supply, Class I insulation is required. Class II insulation is required if run separate. Low voltage wiring
may be run through the insulated bushing provided in the 7/8 hole in the base
panel, up to and attached to the pigtails from the bottom of the control box. Conduit
can be run to the base panel if desired by removing the insulated bushing.
A thermostat and a 24 volt, 40 VA minimum transformer are required for the control
circuit of the condensing unit. The furnace or the air handler transformer may be
used if sufficient. See the wiring diagram for reference.
FIGURE 5
CONTROL WIRING FOR AIR HANDLER
Heat Pump Thermostat
B Y G W2 E C R
TYPICAL THERMOSTAT:
HEAT PUMP WITH
ELECTRIC HEAT
Air Handler
W2
W/BL
G
G/BK
Y
Y
W1
W/BK
B
BL
ODD
G/Y
C
BR
R
R
Heat Pump
Outdoor Unit
Y
B
C
R
D
Y
WIRING INFORMATION
Line Voltage
-Field Installed
-Factory Standard
18
NOTE: RED WIRE REQUIRED WITH RANCO DDL DEMAND DEFROST CONTROL.
NOTES:
1. Jumper “E” to “W2” to
transfer control of
supplemental heat to
1st stage when the
emergency heat switch
is on.
2. This wire turns on heat
for defrost, omit for most
economical operation.
3. Wire with colored tracing
stripe.
14.0 FIELD INSTALLED ACCESSORIES
14.1 COMPRESSOR CRANKCASE HEATER (CCH)
While scroll compressors usually do not require crankcase heaters, there are
instances when a heater should be added. Refrigerant migration during the off cycle
can result in a noisy start up. Add a crankcase heater to minimize refrigeration
migration, and to help eliminate any start up noise or bearing “wash out.”
TABLE 5
MAXIMUM SYSTEM CHARGE VALUES
Model
Size*
18
24
30
30
36
36
42
42
48
60
Compressor
Model Number
ZP16K5E-PFV
ZP21K5E-PFV
ZP25K5E-PFV
H81J22BABCA
ZP31K5E-PFV
H83C313ABCA
ZP36K5E-PFV
H83C363ABCA
ZP42K5E-PFV
ZP54K5E-PFV
Charge Limit
Without
Crankcase Heat*
8.0 lbs.
8.0 lbs.
8.0 lbs.
*
8.0 lbs.
8.0 lbs.
10.0 lbs.
12.0 lbs.
10.0 lbs.
*
*These compressors come with the crankcase heater factory installed.
NOTE: The installation of a crankcase heater is recommended if the system charge
exceeds the values in Table 5.
All heaters are located on the lower half of the compressor shell. Its purpose is to
drive refrigerant from the compressor shell during long off cycles, thus preventing
damage to the compressor during start-up.
At initial start-up or after extended shutdown periods, make sure the heater is energized for at least 12 hours before the compressor is started. (Disconnect switch on
and wall thermostat off.)
14.2 LOW AMBIENT CONTROL (LAC) – COOLING MODE ONLY
This component senses compressor head pressure and shuts the heat pump fan off
when the head pressure drops to approximately 175 PSIG. This allows the unit to
build a sufficient head pressure at lower ambient in order to maintain system balance and obtain improved capacity. Low ambient control should be used on all
equipment operated below 65°F ambient.
14.3 HIGH PRESSURE CONTROL (HPC)
This control keeps the compressor from operating in pressure ranges which can
cause damage to the compressor. This control is in the low voltage control circuit.
High pressure control (HPC) is a manual reset which opens near 610 PSIG. Do not
reset arbitrarily without first determining what caused it to trip.
15.0 SERVICE
15.1 SINGLE-POLE COMPRESSOR CONTACTOR (CC)
CAUTION
Single-pole contactors are used on all standard single-phase units up
through 5 tons. Caution must be exercised when servicing as only one leg
of the power supply is broken with the contactor.
19
16.0 TROUBLE SHOOTING
In diagnosing common faults in the heat pump system, develop a logical thought
pattern as used by experienced technicians. The charts which follow are not intended to be an answer to all problems but only to guide the technician’s thinking.
Through a series of yes and no answers, follow the logical path to a likely conclusion.
A novice technician should use these charts like a road map. Remember that the
chart should clarify a logical path to the problem’s solution.
16.1 ELECTRICAL CHECKS FLOW CHART
Unit Running?
YES
Repair and Recheck
NO
YES
Thermostat Problem?
Go to
Mechanical Checks
for Cooling or Heating
NO
Transformer Problem?
YES
Repair and Recheck
NO
Voltage on Compressor
Side of Contactor?
YES
NO
Run Capacitor
Voltage on Line
Side of Contactor?
Start Capacitor
NO
YES
Circuit Breakers
or Fuses Open
Compressor Contactor
Potential Relay
Compressor Internal
Overload Open
Hi Pressure Cut-Out
YES
Compressor Winding Open
Unit Wiring and
Connections
Hot Gas Sensor
Compressor Winding
Grounded
Compressor Time-Delay
Outdoor Fan Motor
Grounded
Unit Wiring and
Connections
Grounded Capacitor
Replace Fuses
or Reset Breakers
and Recheck System
20
16.2 COOLING MECHANICAL CHECKS FLOW CHART
Unit Running?
YES
NO
Pressure problems?
Go to Electrical
Checks Flow Chart
High Head Pressure
Low Head Pressure
Low Suction Pressure
Dirty Outdoor Coil
Low on Charge
Dirty Filters
Inoperative Outdoor Fan
Open IPR Valve
Dirty Indoor Coil
Overcharge
Low Ambient Temperature
Inadequate Indoor Air Flow
Recirculation of
Outdoor Air
Inoperative Compressor
Valves
Broken Indoor
Blower Belt
Non-condensibles
Outdoor Check Valve
Closed
Inoperative Indoor Blower
Higher than Ambient
Air Entering Outdoor Coil
Wrong Outdoor Fan Rotation
Low on Charge
Restricted Indoor
Metering Device
Restricted Indoor
Metering Device
Restricted
Filter Drier
Restriction in System
Reversing Valve
Failure
Recirculation of
Indoor Air
Wrong Indoor
Blower Rotation
Inadequate Ducts
Outdoor Check Valve Closed
Restricted Filter Drier
21
16.3 HEATING MECHANICAL CHECKS FLOW CHART
Unit Running?
YES
NO
Pressure problems?
Go to Electrical
Checks Flow Chart
High Head Pressure
Low Head Pressure
Low Suction Pressure
Dirty Filters
Low on Charge
Dirty Outdoor Coil
Dirty Indoor Coil
Low Indoor Temperature
Inadequate Air Flow
Over Outdoor Coil
Inoperative Indoor Blower
Open IPR Valve
Overcharge
Closed Indoor
Check Valve
Inoperative OD Fan
(Check Defrost Control)
Inadequate Indoor
Air Flow
Inoperative Compressor
Valves
Low On Charge
Non-condensibles
Restricted Outdoor
Metering Device
Restricted Outdoor
Metering Device
Restricted
Filter Drier
Restriction in System
Broken Indoor
Blower Belt
Wrong Indoor Blower Rotation
Closed Indoor Check Valve
Reversing Valve
Failure
Inadequate Ducts
Recirculation of Outdoor Air
Restricted
Filter Drier
22
16.4 DEFROST MECHANICAL CHECKS FLOW CHART
DEFROST SYSTEM
No Defrost
Incomplete Defrost
Excessive Defrost
Reversing Valve Stuck
Poor Sensor Location
Wrong Defrost Control
Timer Setting
No Defrost Timer
Control Power
Wrong Defrost Control
Timer Setting
Failed Defrost Control
Failed Defrost Relay
(doesn’t stop O.D. Fan)
Low System Charge
Failed Defrost Relay
Thermostat Satisfies
During Defrost
Wind Affecting
in Defrost
Poor Sensor Location
Loose Defrost
Sensor
23
16.5 GENERAL TROUBLE SHOOTING CHART
!
WARNING
Disconnect all power to unit before servicing. Contactor may break only one side. Failure to shut off power can
cause electrical shock resulting in personal injury or death.
SYMPTOM
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Unit will not run
• Power off or loose electrical connection
• Thermostat out of calibration-set too high
• Defective contactor
• Blown fuses / tripped breaker
• Transformer defective
• High pressure control open (if provided)
Outdoor fan runs, compressor
doesn’t
Insufficient cooling
Compressor short cycles
• Run or start capacitor defective
• Start relay defective
• Loose connection
• Check for correct voltage at contactor in condensing unit
• Reset
• Check for 24 volts at contactor coil - replace if contacts are
open
• Replace fuses / reset breaker
• Check wiring-replace transformer
• Reset-also see high head pressure remedy-The high pressure
control opens at 450 PSIG
• Compressor stuck, grounded or open motor winding,
open internal overload.
• Low voltage condition
• Replace
• Replace
• Check for correct voltage at compressor check & tighten all connections
• Wait at least 2 hours for overload to reset.
If still open, replace the compressor.
• Add start kit components
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Improperly sized unit
Improper indoor airflow
Incorrect refrigerant charge
Air, non-condensibles or moisture in system
• Incorrect voltage
• Defective overload protector
• Refrigerant undercharge
Registers sweat
REMEDY
Recalculate load
Check - should be approximately 400 CFM per ton.
Charge per procedure attached to unit service panel
Recover refrigerant, evacuate & recharge, add filter drier
• At compressor terminals, voltage must be ± 10% of
nameplate marking when unit is operating.
• Replace - check for correct voltage
• Add refrigerant
• Low indoor airflow
• Increase speed of blower or reduce restriction - replace air
filter
High head-low vapor pressures
• Restriction in liquid line, expansion device or filter drier
• Flowcheck piston size too small
• Incorrect capillary tubes
• Remove or replace defective component
• Change to correct size piston
• Change coil assembly
High head-high or normal vapor
pressure - Cooling mode
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Low head-high vapor pressures
• Flowcheck piston size too large
• Defective Compressor valves
• Incorrect capillary tubes
• Change to correct size piston
• Replace compressor
• Replace coil assembly
Low vapor - cool compressor iced indoor coil
• Low indoor airflow
• Operating below 65°F outdoors
• Moisture in system
• Increase speed of blower or reduce restriction - replace air
filter
• Add Low Ambient Kit
• Recover refrigerant - evacuate & recharge - add filter drier
• Excessive load
• Defective compressor
• Recheck load calculation
• Replace
• TEV hunting
• Air or non-condensibles in system
• Check TEV bulb clamp - check air distribution on coil - replace
TEV
• Recover refrigerant, evacuate & recharge
• Air or non-condensibles in system
• Recover refrigerant, evacuate & recharge
High vapor pressure
Fluctuating head & vapor
pressures
Gurgle or pulsing noise at
expansion device or liquid line
24
Dirty outdoor coil
Refrigerant overcharge
Outdoor fan not running
Air or non-condensibles in system
Clean coil
Correct system charge
Repair or replace
Recover refrigerant, evacuate & recharge
16.6 SERVICE ANALYZER CHART
COMPRESSOR OVERHEATING
SYMPTOMS
POSSIBLE CAUSE
CHECK/REMEDIES
High superheat
Low charge
Check system charge
Faulty metering device
Restricted cap tube, TEV (TXV)
Power element superheat
adjustment
Foreign matter stopping flow
High internal load
Hot air (attic) entering return
Heat source on; mis-wired or
faulty control
Restriction in liquid line
Drier plugged
Line kinked
Low head pressure
Low charge
Operating in low ambient
temperatures
Low voltage
Suction or liquid line subjected
to high heat source
Hot attic
Loose wire connections
Check wiring
Dirty or pitted compressor
contactor contacts
Replace contactor
Power company problem,
transformer
Have problem corrected before
diagnosis continues
Hot water line
Undersized wire feeding unit
Correct and complete diagnosis
High voltage
Power company problem
Have problem corrected
High head pressure
Overcharge
Check system charge
Dirty heat pump coil
Clean coil
Faulty or wrong size
heat pump fan motor
Replace fan motor
Faulty fan blade
or wrong rotation
Replace fan blade
Recirculation of air
Correct installation
Additional Heat Source
Check for dryer vent near unit
Replace with correct rotation motor
Check for recirculation from
other equipment
Short cycling of compressor
Non-condensibles
Recover refrigerant, Evacuate and
recharge system
Equipment not matched
Correct mis-match
Faulty pressure control
Replace pressure control
Loose wiring
Check unit wiring
Thermostat
Located in supply air stream
Differential setting too close
Customer misuse
TEV
Internal foreign matter
Power element failure
Valve too small
Distributor tube/tubes restricted
Capillary tube
Restricted with foreign matter
Kinked
I.D. reduced from previous
compressor failure
25
SYMPTOMS
POSSIBLE CAUSE
CHECK OR REMEDIES
Short cycling of compressor (cont.)
Low charge
Check system charge
Low evaporator air flow
Dirty coil
Dirty filter
Duct too small or restricted
Faulty run capacitor
Faulty Compressor Valves
Replace
Faulty internal overload
Replace compressor
Fast equalization/
Low pressure difference
Replace compressor and examine
system to locate reason
ELECTRICAL
SYMPTOMS
POSSIBLE CAUSE
CHECK OR REMEDIES
Voltage present on load side
of compressor contactor and
compressor won’t run
Compressor start components
Check start capacitor
Run capacitor
Check with ohmmeter
Voltage present on line side of
pressor contactor only
Check potential relay
Internal overload
Allow time to reset
Compressor windings
Check for correct ohms
Thermostat
Check for control voltage to comcontactor coil
Compressor control circuit
High pressure switch
Low pressure switch
Ambient thermostat
Solid state protection control or
internal thermal sensors
Compressor timed off/on
control or interlock
No voltage on line side
of compressor contactor
Improper voltage
Blown fuses or tripped circuit breaker
Check for short in wiring or unit
Improper wiring
Re-check wiring diagram
High voltage
Wrong unit
Power supply problem
Low voltage
Wrong unit
Power supply problem
Wiring undersized
Loose connections
Single Phasing (3 phase)
Check incoming power and fusing
SYMPTOMS
POSSIBLE CAUSE
CHECK OR REMEDIES
Moisture
Poor evacuation on installation
or during service
In each case, the cure is the same.
Recover refrigerant. Add filter drier,
evacuate and re-charge
High head pressure
Non-condensibles air
Unusual head and suction readings
Wrong refrigerant
Foreign Mattercopper filings
Copper tubing cuttings
Copper oxide
Dirty copper piping
Welding scale
Nitrogen not used
Soldering flux
Adding flux before seating
copper part way
CONTAMINATION
Excess soft solder
26
Wrong solder material
LOSS OF LUBRICATION
SYMPTOMS
POSSIBLE CAUSE
CHECK OR REMEDIES
Compressor failures
Line tubing too long
Add oil to the recommended level
Line tubing too large
Reduce pipe size to improve
oil return
Low charge
Check system charge
Refrigerant leaks
Repair and recharge
Cold, Noisy compressor - Slugging
Dilution of Oil with Refrigerant
Observe piping guidelines
Noisy compressor
Migration
Check crankcase heater
Cold, sweating compressor
Flooding
Check system charge
Low Load
Reduced air flow
Dirty filter
Low suction pressure
Dirty coil
Wrong duct size
Restricted duct
Short cycling of compressor
Thermostat setting
Advise customer
Faulty pressure control
Replace control
Loose wiring
Check all control wires
Thermostat
In supply air stream,
out of calibration,
Customer misuse
FLOODED STARTS
SYMPTOMS
POSSIBLE CAUSES
CHECK OR REMEDIES
Liquid in the compressor shell
Faulty or missing crankcase heater
Replace crankcase heater
Too much liquid in system
Incorrect piping
Check Piping guidelines
Overcharge
Check and adjust charge
SYMPTOMS
POSSIBLE CAUSES
CHECK OR REMEDIES
On start up
Incorrect piping
Review pipe size guidelines
TEV hunting when running
Oversized TEV
Check TEV application
SLUGGING
FLOODING
SYMPTOMS
POSSIBLE CAUSES
CHECK OR REMEDIES
Poor system control
using a TEV
Loose sensing bulb
Secure the bulb and insulate
Bulb in wrong location
Relocate bulb
Wrong size TEV
Use correct replacement
Improper superheat setting
Adjust, if possible;
Overcharge
Check system charge
High head pressures
Dirty heat pump
Replace, if not
Poor system control
using capillary tubes
Restricted air flow
Recirculation of air
Evaporator air flow too low
Adjust air flow to 400 CFM/Ton
27
THERMOSTATIC EXPANSION VALVES
SYMPTOMS
POSSIBLE CAUSE
CHECK OR REMEDIES
High Superheat, Low Suction Pressure
Moisture freezing and blocking valve
Recover charge, install filter-drier,
evacuate system, recharge
Dirt or foreign material blocking valve
Recover charge, install filter-drier,
evacuate system, recharge
Low refrigerant charge
Correct the charge
Vapor bubbles in liquid line
Remove restriction in liquid line
Correct the refrigerant charge
Remove non-condensible gases
Size liquid line correctly
Valve feeds too much refrigerant,
with low superheat and higher than
mal suction pressure
Compressor flood back upon start up
28
Misapplication of internally equalized
valve
Use correct TEV
Plugged external equalizer line
Remove external equalizer line
restriction
Undersized TEV
Replace with correct valve
Loss of charge from power
head sensing bulb
Replace power head or complete
TEV
Charge migration from sensing bulb
to power head (Warm power head
with warm, wet cloth. Does valve
operate correctly now?)
Ensure TEV is warmer than
sensing bulb
Improper superheat adjustment
(Only applicable to TEV with adjustable
superheat settings)
Adjust superheat setting counterclockwise
Moisture causing valve to stick open.
Recover refrigerant, replace filterdrier, evacuate system and then norrecharge
Dirt or foreign material causing
valve to stick open
Recover refrigerant, replace filterdrier, evacuate system and
recharge
TEV seat leak (A gurgling or hissing
sound is heard AT THE TEV during
the off cycle, if this is the cause.)
NOT APPLICABLE TO BLEED
PORT VALVES.
Replace the TEV
Oversized TEV
Install correct TEV
Incorrect sensing bulb location
Install bulb with two mounting
straps, in 2:00 or 4:00 position on
suction line, with insulation
Low superheat adjustment
(only applicable to TEV with
adjustable superheat setting)
Turn superheat adjustment
clockwise
Incorrectly installed, or restricted
external equalizer line
Remove restriction, or relocate
external equalizer
Refrigerant drainage from flooded
evaporator
Install trap riser to the top of the
evaporator coil
Compressor in cold location
Install crankcase heater on
compressor
Any of the causes listed under
Symptoms of Problem #2
Any of the solutions listed under
Solutions of Problem #2
THERMOSTATIC EXPANSION VALVES
SYMPTOMS
POSSIBLE CAUSE
CHECK OR REMEDIES
Superheat is low to normal
with low suction pressure
Unequal evaporator circuit loading
Ensure air flow is equally distributed
through evaporator
Ensure proper piston is inserted into
RCBA or RCHA evaporator coil
distributor
Check for blocked distributor
tubes
Low load or airflow entering
evaporator coil
Ensure blower is moving proper air
CFM
Remove/Correct any air flow
restriction
Superheat and suction
pressure fluctuate (valve is hunting)
Expansion valve is oversized
Install correct TEV
Sensing bulb is affected by liquid
refrigerant or refrigerant oil flowing
through suction line
Relocate sensing bulb in another
position around the circumference of
the suction line
Unequal refrigerant flow through
evaporator circuits
Ensure proper distributor piston is
inserted in RCBA or RCHA coil
Ensure sensing bulb is located
properly
Check for blocked distributor
tubes
Valve does not regulate at all
Improper superheat adjustment
(only possible with TEV having
superheat adjustment)
Replace TEV or adjust superheat
Moisture freezing and partially
blocking TEV
Recover refrigerant, change filterdrier, evacuate system and
recharge
External equalizer line not connected
or line plugged
Connect equalizer line in proper
location, or remove any blockage
Sensing bulb lost its operating charge
Replace TEV
Valve body damaged during soldering
or by improper installation
Replace TEV
29
17.0 WIRING DIAGRAMS
FIGURE 6
WIRING DIAGRAM
T3
T1
BK
CC
L1
L3
BK
OPTIONAL:
BELLY BAND CRANKCASE
HEATER
JHB
30
CCH
GND
01-19-04
90-101229-02
03
31
32
CM 0407
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