GPS & GLONASS module GNS 2301
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Datasheet
preliminary specification
1 INTRODUCTION
The GNS2301 module utilizes the new generation CSR SirF V GNSS chip that supports GPS and
GLONASS simultaneously.
Due to its capability to use GLONASS and GPS at the same time,
GNS2301 benefits from the higher availability of satellites in critical
environments. The navigation performance and accuracy is further
improved by using the correction data from SBAS (WAAS, EGNOS,
GAGAN, MSAS), QZSS.
First Fixes after just a few seconds are achieved with the help of
three different A-GPS technologies.
The module supports self prediction CGEE.
Server based AGPS (SGEE) and realtime AGPS is available on
request. These services are provided by CSR and are not free of
charge. They are available only for high quantities.
GNS2301 is based on Sirf chipset of the 5th generation. It includes a ROM based software code and
a patch RAM for later software improvements. Using the patch option is recommended by the chip
manufacturer CSR.
Several Low Power Mode options make it easy to implement this module in power sensitive, battery
supplied applications.
Low power requirements (~90mW@ 3.3V, full activity) and internal voltage regulators make it easy
to run the module with various power supplies and allows direct connection to LiIon batteries.
GNS2301 offers the industry’s highest level of navigation sensitivity down to -165dBm. It has
superior dynamic performance at high velocity and provides effective protection against
interference signals. Up to 8 independent channel interference can be eliminated or reduced.
For easy test and evalution, a Starter Kit is available.
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Features
 GLONASS and GPS simultaneously, GALILEO and BEIDOU ready
 52 channels
 Ultra high GPS tracking/navigation sensitivity: -165dBm/-160dBm
 Ultra high GLONASS tracking/navigation sensitivity: -163dBm/-159dBm
 Extremely fast TTFF at low signal level
 QZSS, SBAS (WAAS,EGNOS,MSAS,GAGAN) correction support
 A-GPS predicted / self predicted support (host support or external SPI memory required)
 Active Interference Canceller for GPS-in-band jammer rejection
 Embedded logger function (external SPI flash needed)
 High accuracy 1PPS output
 NMEA-0183 or binary protocol
 High update rate (up to 5/s)
 GPS+GLONASS Consumption current(@3.3V):
o Acquisition: 30mA Typical
o Tracking: 28mA Typical
 Low Power operating modes
2
 User selectable host interface : UART / SPI / I C
 hibernate current consumption 50uA, typical
 SMD type LGA; a stamp holes adaptor is available for manual solder process
 Small form factor: 10.0x9.3x2.0 mm
Applications:
Navigation
In-vehicle Navigation equipment
Dynamic Navigation
Portable (“nomadic”) devices
Netbooks, tablet PCs and mobile phones
Location based applications
GPS Logger
GPS Tracker
Security devices
Camera equipment
Geofencing
Health and fitness devices
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2 INDEX
1 INTRODUCTION ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
2 INDEX --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3
3 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15
3.16
3.17
Block diagram --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4
System description ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4
GPS and GLONASS simultaneous operation ------------------------------------------------------------------------------5
Power Management Unit ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5
Selectable Power management features ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------6
Logger function -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7
Active interference cancellation -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8
Assisted GNSS (A-GNSS) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9
Pulse Per Second (PPS) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10
SBAS (Satellite Based Augmentation) support ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10
Last position retention --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11
GPS almanac and ephemeris data--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11
Real time clock (RTC) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11
Host interface ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11
HW operation control----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13
Module default settings -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14
GNS2301 feature selection ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14
4.1
Typical System overview------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
GNSS characteristics ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16
Absolute Maximum Ratings ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17
Recommended Operating Conditions ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17
Electrical characteristics ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18
6.1
6.2
6.3
General-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19
GPS and GLONASS antenna --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19
GPS Antenna supply------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 19
4 TYPICAL APPLICATION BLOCK DIAGRAM ------------------------------------------------------------ 15
5 Electrical characteristics ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 16
6 DESIGN GUIDELINES --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19
7 DEVICE PINOUT DIAGRAM --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20
7.1
7.2
Pin configuration --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20
Pin assignment ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21
8.1
8.2
8.3
NMEA output sentences for GPS and GLONASS ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 22
NMEA command interface------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 23
Patch download ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 28
8 NMEA DATA interface --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 22
9 GNS2301 STARTER KIT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------10 PHYSICAL DIMENSIONS ----------------------------------------------------------------------------11 RECOMMENDED PAD LAYOUT ----------------------------------------------------------------------12 MATERIAL INFORMATION --------------------------------------------------------------------------13 RECOMMENDED SOLDERING REFLOW PROFILE --------------------------------------------------14 TAPE & REEL PACKAGE INFORMATION ------------------------------------------------------------15 TAPE&REEL INFORMATION -------------------------------------------------------------------------16 ORDERING INFORMATION -------------------------------------------------------------------------17 FCC AND CE COMPLIANCE -------------------------------------------------------------------------18 ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION ------------------------------------------------------------------19 MOISTURE SENSITIVITY ---------------------------------------------------------------------------20 DOCUMENT REVISION HISTORY -------------------------------------------------------------------21 RELATED DOCUMENTS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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Datasheet
GPS & GLONASS module GNS 2301
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3 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
3.1
Block diagram
9 1PPS
Antenna In
SAW
filter
SPI-memory interface
Switch
mode
power
supply
VDD
GPS/
GLONASS
chip
4
UART or SPI or I2C
host interface
32.768kHz
crystal
VIO
ON_OFF
RESET
26.000 MHz
TCXO
7
GND
3.2
System description
The GNS2301 core is a high performance, low power GPS and GLONASS receiver with Galileo option
that includes an integrated RF frontend.
Also GNS2301 provides position, velocity and time measurements without any host loading. This,
coupled with the optional built-in power management options, reduces the overall system power
budget.
Due to high input sensitivity and integrated low noise amplifier (LNA), it can work directly with a
passive antenna.
GNS2301 is a complete GNSS engine, including:
-
Full GPS and GLONASS processing without any host processing requirements
Standard NMEA message output
A powerful command and control interface
All clock sources integrated on module
RF frontend for direct connection of passive or active antennas
Rich additional features like logger (needs external SPI memory), Self predicted AGPS
(needs external SPI memory or host assistance)
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preliminary specification
GPS and GLONASS simultaneous operation
GNS2301 supports tracking of the GPS and the GLONASS satellite system at one time. This feature
enhances the overall performance significantly.
 Increased availability of number of satellites
 Increased spatial distribution allows better geometrical conditions
 Reduced Horizontal (HDOP) and Vertical Dilution of Precision (VDOP) factors
Using a combined receiver, users have an access to potentially 48 or more satellites. This high
number of satellites can overcome the typical problems of restricted visibility of the sky, such as in
urban canyons or indoor scenarios.
3.4
Power Management Unit
GNS2301 offers exceptional power management options. Main power supply voltage can be chosen
freely and can be altered (even during operation) between 2.3V and 4.3V. GNS2301 can be
operated directly with a LiIon cell without any need of an LDO.
The integrated SMPS controls the voltage and keeps the power consumption almost at a constant
level of ~73..105mW. (See figure 2 below).
Note : On request, GNS2301 is also available for a fixed 1.8V supply. The 1.8V option disables the switching
regulator by hardware, restricting the allowed supply voltage to 1.75 to 1.85 V.
I/O pins will be supplied independently through a dedicated V IO pin with a fixed voltage between 1.8
and 3.5V. This saves any need for external I/O level shifters.
Note: In hibernation mode, the current that flows into VIO pin will rise if VIO is higher than 3.1V. At 3.3V, IIO will be 120µA ,
at 3.6V it will be ~300µA.
Fig. 2. Current consumption and power requirement at full power operation vs. Voltage at V DD. VIO is 3.3V
0,12
0,1
0,08
current tracking[A]
0,06
power tracking[W]
current acquisition[A]
0,04
power acquisition[W]
0,02
0
2,3
2,8
3,3
3,8
4,3
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Selectable Power management features
GNS2301 can be switched to several power saving functions through the command interface.
An additional ON_OFF pin switches the module between standby and full operation, keeping the
Real Time Clock (RTC) and the RAM alive to provide quick hot starts when being waked up again.
Please refer to the GNS2301NMEAcommandInterface_manual for detailed information.





In Full Power Mode all components are fully active and a position fix is calculated every
second.
Push To Fix Mode II allows a long duty-cycle operation with periodic maintenance of the
position fix. An instant fix can be demanded by the host by sending an appropriate
command (see 0) to the GNS2301. Specific periods allow synchronizaion with the GNSS
satellites. This minimizes power used searching for framing patterns.
Using The Micro Power Mode with Awareness, the system is commanded to enter a very
low power mode with dynamically scheduled wakeups for updates and when the actual user
position changes.
Trickle Power Mode saves power by switching the receiver to a slower navigation update.
The update rate is selectable. However, when signal conditions do require shorter cycles, the
2301 will increase activity to maintain adequate position accuracy.
Trickle Power II Mode implements an additional power reduction by modulating the RF
stage power requirements depending on signal conditions.
In Standby mode, the RF frontend and internal MPU are switched to deep sleep state.
Power consumption is reduced to 50µA.This state can be entered by sending the appropriate
command or by applying a positive going pulse to the ON_OFF pin.
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Datasheet
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Logger function
Together with an externally connected SPI flash memory, GNS2301 provides an autonomous logger
function that automatically stores position information. A complete tracking unit can be realized
without any external CPU.
The parameters for logging are programmable via the NMEA command interface. The following
parameter can be set to optimize logging time:
- logger rate (1..65535 seconds)
- distance threshold for logging (prevents static logs)
- speed threshold for logging (prevents static logs)
- memory management (circular or stop on full)
- record format (position, altitude, speed, accuracy)
The commands for logger include:
- logger status request
- start logging
- stop logging
- erase memory
- readout memory
please refer to chapter 8.2 NMEA command interface for details.
Logger data rate
Logger data memory
Logger trigger
Min
1
Logger Function
Max
65535
User
defined
programm
able
Unit
s
Comment
kBytes
External SPI Flash memory
Logger can be triggered on
time, speed, movement[m]
The available memory for logging purpose is depending on the total size of the flash:
4 Mbit SPI Flash:
Allocation is 25 sectors of 4096 bytes each.
Total:
102,400 bytes
8 Mbit SPI Flash:
Allocation is 32 sectors of 4096 bytes each.
Total:
131,072 bytes
Other sectors are reserved for EE/Alamanac/Patch/Calibration data.
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Active interference cancellation
Multiple interference mitigation strategies address CW, narrowband and wideband interference, and
crosscorrelation and multipath effects.
The primary types of interference caused by jamming signals are:
 CW interference and other sources of interference that are substantially narrower than the
nominal receiver IF bandwidth (6 MHz).
 Pulsed interference from sources such as a GSM transmitter.
 Cross-correlation interference from a satellite signal that has a strong C/No, which the GNSS
receiver
Even with these features in place, pay close attention to system co-existence and board-level EMC
issues, and design to avoid jamming in the GNSS receiver. The above features are only useful if the
GNSS receiver remains linear and outside compression. Exercising these features will have an
impact on sensitivity and power consumption and should never be used as a substitute for good
design practice.
GNS2301 uses the following strategies to handle interference signals. All cancellation features are
active by default except the LTE Immunity mode
Bandwidth Restriction
If interference is in the GPS band and falls outside the 2 MHz main-lobe of the GPS signal, then a 2 MHz-wide
bandstop filter attenuates the interference. When the filter is used, GPS C/No degrades by approximately 0.3
dB because of the removal of the outer sidebands.
Active Notching
Interference falling within the 2 MHz GPS band and 8 MHz GLONASS band is mitigated with GNS2301 internal
filters and tone cancellers. GNS2301 actively detects, tracks and removes the 8 strongest internal or external
jamming signals in both GPS and GLONASS bands, without requiring prior knowledge of the jamming signal.
Software Detection
GNS2301 automatically detects and tracks in-band interference without prior knowledge of the jammer signal
or its characteristics. Algorithms monitor the behaviour of signals. If a suspect signal is detected, the
algorithms clear, reset and restart the channel assigned to track the satellite PRN.
Pulsed-interference Mitigation
GNS2301 contains technology to mitigate pulsed interference from GSM transceivers. When a pulse is
detected, the signal path is blocked. When the pulse is no longer detected, the signal path is unblocked.
Cross-correlation Interference
GNS2301 uses cross-correlation mitigation technology. This technology avoids the interference that a strong
satellite can cause to a weak satellite.
GPS Active Jamming Removal
GPS active jamming removal detects the 8 strongest jamming frequencies in the ±1 MHz centre band.
GLONASS Active Jamming Removal
This function detects the 8 strongest jammers in the ±4 MHz GLONASS band, by monitoring amplitude and
frequency
LTE Immunity Mode
LTE immunity mode is recommended if a LTE transceiver is part of the application. This mode will significantly
improve LTE immunity but also reduce the average sensitivity by 1dB. It will be started or stopped through an
OSP command.
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Assisted GNSS (A-GNSS)
A-GNSS allows speeding up TTFF (TimeToFirstFix) by injecting ephemeris data from an external
source into the module’s memory. With the help of these data, the module does not need to acquire
satellite positions by receiving the data from the satellites.
Depending on time and position information that is still available in the module memory, the TTFF
can be reduced to just a few seconds.
All A-GNSS technologies require an external SPI memory or host based memory support.
GNS 802 supports 2 different A-GNSS strategies:
CGEE self predicted Ephemeris – works on module
The GNSS engine can predict ephemeris data based on actually collected satellite data. The
prediction period is up to three days. The main advantage of self prediction is that no server
connection is needed. TTFF is 9..15 seconds.
Note:
Predicted ephemeris data is stored in external SPI memory or on the host respectively.
SGEE predicted ephemeris – long prediction periods
Is based on predicted ephemeris data that can be downloaded from a Server. A device that uses
SGEE has to connect to the internet from time to time and download a predicted data file. The
maximum prediction time frame is up to 31 days. One day will need 11kBytes download for GPS
and 9kByte for Glonass prediction data. The TTFF is as short as 5..10 seconds.
SGEE data must be held in a connected SPI memory or can be stored on the attached host. The
required commands can be implemented in NMEA or in OSP as described in the respective
documents.
Note: Due to CSR’s new licence rules, valid from beginning of 2015, Server based AGPS will cause significant
costs . GNS does not recommend to choose this option.
SUPL A-GNSS – ultra low TTFF
Is a real time ephemeris, time and almanac download. It needs 1.5kByte for GPS and 3kBytes for
Glonass. The valid period is up to 4 hours. SUPL A-GNSS provides the best performance, but needs
a network connection whenever the aiding is needed. TTFF is almost the same as for hot fix, ~ 1
second. This option is not free of charge and may require invidual programming.
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Pulse Per Second (PPS)
GNS2301 provides a Pulse Per Second (PPS) hardware output pin (GPIO 5, pin 13) for timing
purposes. After calculation of a 3D position fix (default setting), the PPS signal is accurately aligned
to the GPS second boundaries. The pulse generated is 250 milliseconds in duration and the
repetition rate is 1 second.
No pulse will be generated when there’s no fix available.
After having had a stable 3D fix and the PPS synchronized, a 2D- fix (3 satellites in fix solution) will
be sufficient to keep the PPS working.
T2
T1
T1 = 250ms T2 = 1sec
GNS2301 module provides an low RMS jitter of typical 30 nanoseconds.
1PPS pulse duration
1PPS time jitter
1PPS time deviation
from GPS second
1PPS rise and fall time
PPS characteristics based upon a 3D-fix
min
typ
max
Unit
249
250
251
msec
-
±30
-
nsec
RMS
-90
-
+90
nsec
-
5
-
nsec
comment
Pulse rising edge jitter from
average pulse, measured with
full 3D fix, -130dBm , 4SVs
Pulse rising edge deviation from
expected (GNS) pulse time,
measured with full 3D fix, 130dBm , 4SVs
10%..90%, load is 10k||5pF
table 1
3.10 SBAS (Satellite Based Augmentation) support
GNS2301 supports Satellite Based Augmentation for improvement of the navigation precision.
Correction data is sent from geostationary satellites to the GPS receiver. GNS2301 supports
European, US, and Asian augmentation systems (WAAS, MSAS,GAGAN and EGNOS) to enable
precision improvements in nearly every region of the world.
SBAS is inactive by default and must be activated after the module is power-cycled. See 0 for
command details.
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3.11 Last position retention
Depending on the application, it might be useful to retain the last position or to clear the position
when having no fix solution. Storage of last position data needs a permanent connection of power
on VDD pin.
3.12 GPS almanac and ephemeris data
For quick re-acquisition of the GPS after off-times, the GPS engine should have access to almanac
and ephemeris data. This data is permanently stored inside GNS2301 module, as long as a battery
is connected to VDD. When the GPS is powered-up again via the ON/OFF control, the data will be
used to allow a quick re-acquisition, as soon as a coarse time information is available. Time will be
available immediately, when RTC is kept running.
3.13 Real time clock (RTC)
GNS2301 has a real time clock with 32,768Hz crystal onboard. As long as VDD is connected to a
power source, the real time clock and the module memory can be kept alive at very low power
consumption of just 50uA. The RTC will track the current time and enable the module to start from
sleep states with very fast Time To First Fix (TTFF).
3.14 Host interface
The host interface is used for GNSS data reports and receiver control
GNS2103 provides three different options for interfacing a host system.
1. The UART interface with selectable baudrates
2. SPI interface : 4 wire with additional Interrupt line
3. I2C interface : 2 wire , slave device
The kind of Interface is selected through external resistors on pins 11 and 12.
Pull up and pull down must be performed over a 10kΩ resistor
Interface selection through bootstrap resistors
11
12
UART
Pull up
SPI
2
Pull down
I C
table 2
GNS2301 core works at 1.2V/1.8V internally. A flexible I/O supply structure allows to select the I/O
interface voltage by connecting the desired voltage to the VIO input.
The maximum voltage at VIO is limited to 3.5V.
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UART interface
The UART interface can be used with or without hardware handshake. The baudrate of the UART
can be selected over a software command or via hardware. The maximum baudrate is 1.2288
Mbps. Hardware handshake is available through CTS and RTS pins.
Baud rate
Data byte
Stop bit
Parity
UART default settings
See below table
8 Bit
1
None
table 3
The hardware baud rate selection supports 4 standard values that can be selected through GPIO 0
and 1 on pins 7 & 8. The following options can be selected
UART baud&protocol selection through bootstrap resistors
7
8
protocol
4800
Pull up
Pull up
NMEA
9600
Pull down
Pull up
NMEA
38400
Pull up
Pull down
NMEA
115200
Pull down
Pull down
OSP
table 4
SPI interface
The SPI interface is configured as a slave and uses 4-wires. An additional interrupt is used to for
signaling data availability
I2C interface
The I2C interface can be operated at max. 100kbps or 400kbps. It operates in multi master mode.
Multi-master Mode
Multi-master mode requires that hardware detect and arbitrate between collisions for master status
and data direction. Master or slave mode is determined from clock contention, whichever device is
generating the clock is the master and all other devices are slave.
In the event of contention time-out, the master device must take control of the error detection and
retries.
I2C Addresses
Address format is 7-bit by default and can be set to 10-bit. I2C supports multiple masters and
multiple slaves. GNS2301 address as master/sending is 0x62 and as slave/receiving is 0x60.
Access Contention
When GNS2301 operates in multi-master mode on the I2C bus, contention is managed by all
connected master devices. Hardware resolves contention and collision retries. You must ensure that
the bus capacity is adequate for the bus data transfer load peaks and that resulting latencies are
not detrimental to system performance.
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I2C Interface requirements
I2C requirements
Data frame size
Data bit order
Maximum bytes
per transfer
Clock rate
Bus contention
timeout
8 bit octets
MSB first
No limit
Max 400kbps,
When GNS2301 is master, the rate can be set using OSP message
30ms, fixed
table 5
notes:
1. GNS2301 may either lose or garble serial messages if the host does not poll often enough to fetch all messages.
The system design assumes unrestricted outflow of serial messages.
2. When switching GNS2301 to HIBERNATE mode, using an orderly shutdown with an ON_OFF pulse or by OSP/NMEA
command message, GNS2301 continues to run until I2C transmit/output buffers are empty. At slow I2C serial port speeds,
with a high volume of data, time-to-turn-off may be up to one second even with no throttling or pacing from bus contention.
If multi-master mode contention or clock stretching on the I2C bus stops output of data from GNS2301, GNS2301 takes
longer to turn off. If the I2C bus is inadvertently seized, or another device holds the clocks or data line low and never
releases, GNS2301 does not turn off until all pending messages have been sent.
3.15 HW operation control
GNS2301 should be switched from active to hibernate through the ON_OFF pin. The pin toggles the
power state whenever a positive going edge is supplied.
After powering up the module, it remains in hibernate until the rising edge is seen on ON_OFF pin.
A time gap of 500ms should be between power on and issueing the ON_OFF pulse.
Alternatively, the module can be started automatically by connecting the WAKEUP pin to the
ON_OFF pin over a 10k resistor.
Notes:
1.
2.
This auto start configuration is not yet qualified by the chip manufacturer CSR
This option can not be used in conjunction with power saving trickle modes (see 3.5 )
GNS2301 can be put to hibernate state (RTC on, last position and ephemeris is retained) at any
time with a positive edge on ON_OFF.
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3.16 Module default settings
The GNS2301 module comes with default settings, which are persistently programmed in ROM.
Whenever all power is removed from the module (VIO and VDD), the settings will be reset to the
values shown in the following table.
Some settings (as host interface type and baud rate setting) can be selected through pull-ups and
pull-downs on ome GPIO pins. Please refer to table 2,table 3,table 4.
The following table shows the defaults with all configuration pins left open.
Setting
UART setting
Host interface
Fix frequency (update rate)
NMEA sentences
NMEA rate
Self prediction mode
Active interference cancellation
SBAS option
Datum
PPS pulse output length
Logging parameters
Default value
9600,8,N,1
1/sec
RMC,GSA,GSV,GSV,VTG,GGA
Once a second:
RMC,GSA,VTG,GGA
every 5 sec :GSV sentences
tbd
enabled
disabled
WGS 84
250ms
Modification options
Bootstrap, see 0 ,
command via OSP or NMEA, see0
Bootstrap option, see 3.14
Selectable through OSP or NMEA, see 8.2
Selectable through OSP or NMEA, see 0
Selectable through OSP or NMEA, see 0
fixed
Selectable through OSP
Selectable through OSP or NMEA, see 8.2
fixed
Adjustable through OSP or NMEA, see 0
table 6
3.17 GNS2301 feature selection
GNS2301 provides a lot of interfacing and functional options. However, to keep the pin count low,
not all options can be used in any combination.
For the host connection, you can only choose one of the three options:
UART (2-wire or 4-wire) or I2C or SPI.
The option is selected via bootstrap resistors as described in3.14.
For the second SPI (I2C), you can connect an external memory for logging option.
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4 TYPICAL APPLICATION BLOCK DIAGRAM
Typical System overview
Mobile device
VDD
Power
Management
VIO
2.3~3.6V
GPS
Antenna
4.1
GNS 2301
ON_OFF
Host
interface
host
CPU
MMI
(keys, display)
Opt. SPI memory
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5 Electrical characteristics
5.1
GNSS characteristics
Parameter
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Note
general
Frequency
1575.42
1598.0625~
1609.3125
MHz
GPS L1
MHz
GLONASS L1
SV Numbers
GPS #1~32
GLONASS #65~96
GALILEO #201~253*
SBAS[QZSS,WAAS,EGNOS,
MSAS,GAGAN]
Self prediction, injected
prediction
DGPS
AGPS
Number of channels
Output data frequency
52
1
-
5
1/sec
Configurable, see 8.2
sensitivity
Navigation sensitivity
-160
dBm
GPS
Navigation sensitivity
-159
dBm
GLONASS
tracking sensitivity
-165
dBm
GPS
tracking sensitivity
-163
-146
Start times (TTFF)
<1
dBm
dBm
GLONASS
Acquisition sensitivity
sec
All SVs @-130dBm
sec
All SVs @-130dBm
sec
All SVs @-130dBm
m
-130dBm
m/s
At 30m/s
TTFF hotstart
TTFF autonomous cold
start
TTFF Warm Start
35
30
autonomous
accuracy
Horizontal static
Velocity
Heading
Dimension
Weight
2.5
0.01
0.01
9.3
*10.0*2.0
0.42
Power consumption
°
mm3
Tolerance is 0.2 mm
g
GPS/GLONASS ACTIVE
(acquisition)
30
mA
GPS/GLONASS ACTIVE
(tracking)
28
mA
NMEA frequency =
1/sec*,SBAS enabled,
VDD=3.3V, VIO=3.3V
NMEA frequency = 1/sec*,
SBAS enabled, VDD=3.3V,
VIO=3.3V
hibernate @ 3.0V
50
μA
*note: further power savings are possible using power saving modes as described under Selectable Power management
features
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ITAR limits
60,000
Operation altitude
Operation velocity
-
1200
dynamic
acceleration limit
Jerk limit
58.86
Parameter
Min
Typ
Max
10
-
50
1.5
10
-
(~18,000 m)
m/s2
m/s3
(6G) , at strong SV signals
(~1900km/h)
Unit
V
dBm
dB
Ω
Note
Pin5
Pin5
Pin5
Pin5
(RF_IN)
(RF_IN)
(RF_IN)
(RF_IN)
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Parameter
Supply voltage range: VDD
Interface voltage: VIO
Input voltage to analog pins
Operating ambient temperature range
Storage temperature range
5.3
Ft
mph
5
GPS/GLONASS input characteristics
Maximum DC input level
Maximum signal input level
Input return loss
Input impedance
5.2
preliminary specification
Value
Unit
–0.5 to 4.5
–0.5 to 3.6
–0.5 to 3.3
–40 to +85
–40 to +100
V
V
V
°C
°C
Recommended Operating Conditions
Parameter
Min
VDD
2.3
VIO
1.75
Operating temperature
Max
Unit
4.3
V
3.5
V
VIO
V
0.2*VIO
V
0.75* VIO
VIO
V
0
0.30* VIO
V
-40
85
°C
High level output voltage
0.8 * VIO
VOH
Low level output voltage
0
VOL
High-level input voltage
VIH
Low-level input voltage
VIL
Typ
1.8V /
3.3V
Note
supply voltage at pin VDD*
I/O voltage that defines the
interface to the host processor
Full specified sensitivity
*note: on request, a 1.8V version is available. In this case, the supply range (VDD) is restricted to 1.75..1.85V.
VIO can still be varied as specified above.
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5.4
Datasheet
preliminary specification
Electrical characteristics
Parameter
Min
Typ
Current consumption VDD
Current consumption VDD
Max
38
27
Current consumption VDD
35
Power consumption
Current consumption VIO
Current consumption VIO
92
50
Unit
mA
mA
µA
99
1
200
mW
µA
µA
Note
@2.3V, full operation, see Fig 2
@4.3V, full operation, see Fig 2
@2.3V, hibernate mode, RTC
and RAM powered
VIO = 2.3V
VIO = 3.4V
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Datasheet
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6 DESIGN GUIDELINES
6.1
General
Although GNS2301 GNSS module provides best performance and active jamming cancellation
algorithms at low power consumption, special care should be taken to provide clean signal and
clean power supplies. A multi layer carrier board with solid power- and ground planes is
recommended. Power lines should be blocked near to the module with low ESR capacitors.
Radiated noise from neighbour components may also reduce the performance of the module.
Special care must be taken when designing the RF input tracks and antenna connection.
6.2
GPS and GLONASS antenna
GNS2301 contains all input circuitry needed to connect a passive antenna directly. A special GPS &
GLONASS antenna that covers both frequencies must be chosen.
GNS recommends to follow exactly the antenna manufacturer guidelines to be able to implement an
successful design. Especially chip antennas are very sensible regarding the surrounding structure.
(Ground planes, grounding connections, structure and impedance of the tracks that connect the
antenna to the GPS).
If there is a long wire between GNS2301 RF input and antenna, there should be an LNA (on the
antenna side) to compensate for cable losses ("active" antenna).
When using an active antenna, a DC supply for antenna must be connected via an inductor. The DC
must be kept away from RF input by inserting a capacitor in the RF signal line. The DC power
supply voltage should match the active antenna specified voltage.
More information about connecting and implementing a GNSS antenna to an application PCB,
please refer to GPS Antenna Design Guide.pdf.
6.3
GPS Antenna supply
For an active antenna configuration, the antenna supply DC must be blocked from the antenna
signal line with a inductor L of 100nH and a 100pF capacitor C as shown in the diagram below.
Antenna
DC suply
L
Active
antenna
C
GNS2301
More information about connecting and implementing a GPS antenna to an application PCB, please
refer to Antenna Design Guide.pdf.
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Datasheet
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7 DEVICE PINOUT DIAGRAM
7.1
Pin configuration
Top view
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7.2
Datasheet
preliminary specification
Pin assignment
Pin
1
Name
GPIO 4
I/O
I/O
Description & Note
Multipurpose pin #4
2
GPIO 3
I/O
Multipurpose pin #3
1.
SPI for Logger memory :MOSI
1.
2.
Message waiting , Host Wakeup , signals availability of data
SPI for Logger memory :CS
3
RESET
P
System reset pin
4
RF_GND
A
RF Ground
5
RF_IN
A
RF input
6
WAKEUP
O
Wakeup output
7
GPIO 1
An external reset applied to this pin overrides all other internal controls. RESET# is an active low signal. Pulling
this pin low for at least 20 μs causes a system reset.
Ground connection of antenna should be connected at this pin.
connection for antenna. Supports passive antenna.
This pin indicates activity of the GPS and can be used to activate external system components
I/O
Multipurpose pin #1
1.
I/O
SPI for Logger memory :CLK_out
8
GPIO 0
Multipurpose pin #0
9
RXD
I
Serial Data Input
10
TXD
O
Serial Data Output
11
GPIO 6
I/O
Multipurpose pin #6
12
GPIO 7
I/O
Multipurpose pin #7
13
1PPS
O
1PPS Time Mark Output 2.8V CMOS Level
14
ON_OFF
I
Input for activity control
15
VIO
P
I/O System supply
16
VDD
P
Main power supply
E1
E2
GND
GND
P
P
Ground
Ground
1.
SPI for Logger memory :MISO
1.
2.
1.
2.
1.
2.
1.
2.
This pin receives UART commands from the host system
In SPI mode, this is the MOSI pin
This is the UART-A transmitter of the module. It outputs GPS information for application.
In SPI mode, this is the MISO pin
SPI host interface : CS
CTS for UART
SPI host interface : CLK_in
RTS for UART
This pin provides one pulse-per-second output from the module and synchronizes to GPS time. Keep floating if
not used. Pulse length is 250ms
a low-to-high input rising edge initiates system transitions from the keep-alive/start-up or
HIBERNATE state to the RUN state. A subsequent low-to-high rising edge initiates an orderly shutdown
Supply pin for the input / output system. Apply a voltage for the I/O lines , here (1.8 to 3.5V)
Apply the main operating voltage, here. Since the module has an internal switch mode regulator, the supply
voltage can be 2.3 to 4.3V
(1) I = INPUT; O = OUTPUT; I/O = BIDIRECTIONAL; P = POWER PIN; A = ANALOG PIN.
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8 NMEA DATA interface
GNS2301 provides NMEA (National Marine Electronics Association) 0183 compatible data.
Additionally, a set of proprietary NMEA commands are available to send control messages to the
module.
Since GNS2301 is a GNSS multisystem module, it supports extended NMEA sentence structure to
indicate GPS, GLONASS and resulting GNSS positioning solutions.
For standard operation, no commands are needed; the module will start outputting NMEA sentences
after power supply has been attached. GNS2301 will always start communication output with 9600
bit per second. Other rates can be hardware selected, following table
If non-standard options are needed (f.e. other baud rate , other NMEA sequence) they can be
programmed from host controller during runtime.
Important note : options set by using NMEA command interface are not persistent! They will be lost
when power VDD is removed.
8.1
NMEA output sentences for GPS and GLONASS
NMEA output sentences
Type
content
Common sentences
RMC
GGA
GLL
GSA
VTG
GSV
GNS
Recommended Minimum Navigation Information
Fix Data, Time, Position and fix related data for a GPS receiver
Geographic Position - Latitude/Longitude
GLONASS DOP and active satellites
Course and Speed Information relative to the Ground
Satellites in view
GNSS Navigation data
NMEA output sentences indentifier, related to GNSS system:
NMEA output identifier
System
GPS
GPS+GLONASS
GGA
GPGGA
GPGGA
GSA
GPGSA
GNGSA
GSV
GPGSV
GPGSV
GLGSV
RMC
GPRMC
GPRMC1 or
GNRMC
VTG
GPVTG
GPVTG
Note1: Before 3D fix RMC output is GPRMC, after 3D fix is achieved, it changes to GNRMC.
For more information, please refer to the NMEA protocol document.
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8.2
Datasheet
preliminary specification
NMEA command interface
GNS2301 NMEA command interface allows to control settings and some of the extended functions.
Each command must be terminated with a ‘*’, a checksum and <CR><LF>.
The checksum (CS) must be calculated as a XOR of all Bytes excluding the $ and *.
ReceiverOff
$PSRF117
Receiver off command
Puts the receiver to deep sleep.*
Memory and RTC will be kept alive, allowing
the receiver to start again with a short TTFF
Structure
$PSRF117,16 *0B<CR><LF>
Fields
SID
16 (fixed)
Example
Checksum (0B)
$PSRF117,16*0B<CR><LF>
Calculated from all datafields (XOR’ed)
Puts the receiver to deep sleep
*note: this command needs patch version 5.5.10 or later
PollSW_Version
$PSRF125
Structure
Retrieve the receiver firmware version
$PSRF125*21<CR><LF>
Fields
Checksum (21)
$PSRF125*21<CR><LF>
Example
Returns the version in a $PSRF195 sentence
Calculated from all datafields (XOR’ed)
A version string is sent.
Set Serial Port
$PSRF100
Set Serial Port
Structure
$PSRF100, protocol, Baud, DataBits, StopBits,
Parity, Checksum*CS, <CR><LF>
protocol
Baud
DataBits
StopBits
Parity
Checksum
$PSRF100,0,9600,8,1,0*CS<CR><LF>
NMEA,9600bd,8,N,1
Fields
Example
Default
setting after
power cycle
Defines SiRF or NMEA protocol, baud rate,
DataBits, StopBits, Parity
0 = SiRF binary
1 = NMEA
1200,…,115200 (all standard rates)
8
1
0
Calculated from all datafields (XOR’ed)
Sets serial port to SiRFbinary,9600bd,8,N,1
(bootstrap pull-up, pull-down can modify
default baud rate to other value)
Navigation Initialization
$PSRF101
Navigation Initialization
Defines receiver restart options with or
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Datasheet
preliminary specification
without Initialization data. Correct
Initialization data can speed up data
acquisition and TTFF. Coordinates must be
given in ECEF format
Structure
Fields
$PSRF101, Xcoord, Ycoord, Zcoord, ClkDrift,
TimeOfWeek, WeekNo, ChannelCt, ResetCfg,
Checksum*CS, <CR><LF>
Xcoord
Ycoord
Zcoord
ClkDrift
TimeOfWeek
WeekNo
ChannelCt
ResetCfg
Checksum
Example 1
$PSRF101,-2686700,4304200,3851624,96000,497260,921,12,3*CS<CR><LF>
Example 2
$PSRF101,0,0,0,0,0,0,12,4*CS<CR><LF>
Example 3
$PSRF101,0,0,0,0,0,0,12,8*CS<CR><LF>
ECEF X in meters
ECEF Y in meters
ECEF Z in meters
Use 0 for last saved value if available, use
96250 else
GPS Time Of Week
GPS Week Number
1..12
1 : HotStart
2 : WarmStart (no Init)
3 : WarmStart (use init params)
4 : ColdStart (no Init)
8 : Factory reset (no Init)
Calculated from all datafields (XOR’ed)
Start the receiver in WarmStart mode using
the parameters
Perform a ColdStart without using
parameters. Please use the zeroes for the
GPS params and set the ChnCt to 12 !
Perform a Factory reset.
This will select SiRf binary protocol at
115200baud.
All stored parameters will be deleted.
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Datasheet
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LLA Navigation Initialization
$PSRF104
Navigation Initialization
Structure
$PSRF104, Lat, Lon, Alt, ClkDrift, TimeOfWeek,
WeekNo, ChannelCt, ResetCfg, Checksum*CS,
<CR><LF>
Lat
Lon
Alt
ClkDrift
Fields
TimeOfWeek
WeekNo
ChannelCt
ResetCfg
Checksum
Example 1
$PSRF104,56.6757,6.009834,120,96250,497260,921,12,3*CS<CR><LF>
Example 2
$PSRF104,0,0,0,0,0,0,12,4*CS<CR><LF>
Example 3
$PSRF104,0,0,0,0,0,0,12,8*CS<CR><LF>
Defines receiver restart options with or
without Initialization data. Correct
Initialization data can speed up data
acquisition and TTFF.
This message is quite similar to $PSRF101,
but Coordinates must be given in degrees
format and altitude in meters
Latitude in decimal degrees North +90..-90
Longitude in decimal degrees East +90..-90
Altitude in meters
Use 0 for last saved value if available, use
96250 else
GPS Time Of Week
GPS Week Number
1..12
1 : HotStart
2 : WarmStart (no Init)
3 : WarmStart (use init params)
4 : ColdStart (no Init)
8 : Factory reset (no Init)
Calculated from all datafields (XOR’ed)
Start the receiver in WarmStart mode using
the parameters
Perform a ColdStart without using
parameters. Please use the zeroes for the
GPS params and set the ChnCt to 12 !
Perform a Factory reset.
This will select SiRf binary protocol at
115200baud.
All stored parameters will be deleted.
Query / Rate Control
$PSRF103
Query / Rate Control
Structure
$PSRF103, MsgToControl, Mode, Rate,
ChkSumEnable, *CS, <CR><LF>
MsgToControl
Fields
Mode
Defines output rate of the NMEA messages,
Navigation rate.
Allows to query a message at any time.
Defines whether a checksum should be
attached to NMEA messages.
0
1
2
3
4
5
0
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
GGA
GLL
GSA
GSV
RMC
VTG
Set Rate
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Rate
ChkSumEnable
Example 1
$PSRF103,00,06,00,01*CS<CR><LF>
Datasheet
preliminary specification
1 : Query one time
2 : ABP on
3 : ABP off (default)
4 : Reverse EE on
5 : Reverse EE off (default)
6 : 5Hz navigation on
7 : 5 Hz navigation off (default)
8 : SBAS ranging on
9 : SBAS ranging off (default)
10:FTS (FastTimeSync) on
11:FTS (FastTimeSync) off
1 .. 255 seconds between messages.
Only if Mode field is 0, otherwise ignored
0 : ChkSum enable (default)
1 : ChkSum disable
Set navigation update rate to 5 per second.
Note: select an appropriate serial baud rate
(see 0) when using high update rate!
Example 2
Example 3
$PSRF103,00,09,00,01* CS<CR><LF>
$PSRF103,03,00,01,01* CS<CR><LF>
Set SBAS support active
Set GSV rate to every second (default is
once/5 seconds)
DataLoggingCommand
$PSRF121
Data Logging Command
Structure
$PSRF121, Command, Logging Interval* CS,
<CR><LF>
Command
Fields
Logging Interval
Example
Checksum
$PSRF121,0,5*CS<CR><LF>
1. Starts or stops the data logger
function and defines the logging
data rate.
2. Clears memory
3. Allows readout of the data
4. provides Logger Status report
0 : Start logging
1 : Stop logging
2 : Clear memory
3 : retrieve logged data (response will be
$PSRF190<data>,<data>,….)
4 : retrieve logger status (response will be
$PSRF192<status data>
1 .. 65535 [sec]
Calculated from all datafields (XOR’ed)
Starts the logger and records a sample
every 5 seconds.
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Datasheet
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DataLoggingIntervalCommand
$PSRF122
Data Logging Interval Command
sets the data logger interval.
This message overrides the interval defined
in command 121.
The command can be sent any time, even
during a logging is active.
Structure
$PSRF122, Interval*CS, <CR><LF>
Fields
Interval
0..65535 [sec]
Example
Checksum
$PSRF122,12*CS<CR><LF>
Calculated from all datafields (XOR’ed)
Sets the logger interval to 12 seconds
DataLoggingThresholds
$PSRF123
Data Logging Threshold Definition
Structure
$PSRF123, DistanceThreshold,
SpeedThreshold* CS, <CR><LF>
DistanceThreshold
SpeedThreshold
Fields
Example
Checksum
$PSRF123,15,2*CS<CR><LF>
The logging can becontrolled by thresholds.
As long as at least one of the two thresholds
is not met, there will be no data logged.
The command can be applied any time,
even during a logging is active.
By default, both thresholds are 0.
0..65535 [meters]
0 ..515 [m/sec]
Calculated from all datafields (XOR’ed)
Starts the logger and records a sample
every 5 seconds.
DataLogging Memory Management
$PSRF124
Data Logging memory management
Definition
Structure
$PSRF124, StopOnFull, RecordType* CS,
<CR><LF>
StopOnFull
Fields
RecordType
Example
Checksum
$PSRF124,15,2*CS<CR><LF>
This command defines the memory handling
and the kind of information, that is logged
into the memory.
The command must be issued before
starting the logger.
0 : No, use circular buffering (default).
When memory is full, new data will
overwrite the oldest existing data
1 : Stop, when memory is full
0 : compatibility format
1 : position
2 : position + altitude
3 :position altitude speed
4 : position altitude speed accuracy
Calculated from all datafields (XOR’ed)
Starts the logger and records a sample
every 5 seconds.
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Datasheet
preliminary specification
There are some more NMEA commands available for A-GPS Extended Ephemeris data download
from host to GNS2301.
Please refer to the SiRFstarV™ SGEE Downloader and Embedded CGEE (CS-230871-AN-1) for
detailed information. The document is available under NDA.
8.3
Patch download
GNS2301 is based on CSR 5th generation SirF chipset. The chip is based on ROM memory that holds
the complete firmware. CSR provides updates for the ROM code that must be downloaded to the
chip after every time power is supplied to the chip.
Alternatively, the patch can be permanently stored in an attached SPI flash.
Patch data, a PC based patch download program and documentation is available on request. GNS
provides support for the patch implementation on the customer’s host application processor.
Note: GNS2301 is tested to operate properly from ROM only, without any patch.
However, CSR recommends to use always the most up to date patch version for best device performance.
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preliminary specification
9 GNS2301 STARTER KIT
GNS provides a Starter Kit for this module. The GNS2301Starter Kit is ready to run on a PC USB
port and allows quick tests. All I/Os are accessible through connectors or pinheaders and extension
modules are available to test advanced hardware options like external SPI memory for logging.
Bootstrap options are available via board jumpers.
10 PHYSICAL DIMENSIONS
TOP VIEW
all units in mm, tolerance is ±0.2mm
9.3
4.65
3.725
1.25
pads 0.85*0.90
pads 2.25*2.25
1.2
2.0
5.0
4.1
1.25=pad grid
0.625
1.25
10
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preliminary specification
11 RECOMMENDED PAD LAYOUT
TOP VIEW
16 pads
0.95*1.55
10.0
3.95
5.0
4.275
1.25
all units in mm
2 pads
2.85*2.65
1.25=pad grid
0.625
1.25
Note: For prototyping, GNS2301 is available on a stamp design adaptor board.
Recommended mainboard pad layout will fit for both.
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preliminary specification
12 MATERIAL INFORMATION
Complies to ROHS standard
ROHS documentations are available on request
Contact surface: gold over nickel
13 RECOMMENDED SOLDERING REFLOW PROFILE
T[°C]
300
250°C max
250°C for 10 sec max
230°C for 40 sec max
200
160°C  190°C 120 sec
reflow solder
100
100
200
t[sec]
Notes:
1. GNS2301 should be soldered in upright soldering position. In case of head-over soldering, please prevent
shielding / GNS2301 Module from falling down.
2. Do never exceed maximum peak temperature
3. Reflow cycles allowed : 1 time
4. Do not solder with Pb-Sn or other solder containing lead (Pb)
5. This device is not applicable for flow solder processing
6. This device is applicable for solder iron process
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14 TAPE & REEL PACKAGE INFORMATION
The GNS1301 are placed on a tray for quantities below 100 pieces. The trays will be stacked and
packed together.The trays are placed inside an antistatic bag.
15 TAPE&REEL INFORMATION
Tape information:
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preliminary specification
Reel information:
H= 24.5mm
Number of devices: 2000pcs/reel
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16 ORDERING INFORMATION
Ordering information
Type
Part#
label marking
Description
GNS2301
4037735105010
GNS 2301 type
1422/21 datecode/ROMversion
200341
serial#
GNS2301
GPS&GLONASS
GNSS module
17 FCC AND CE COMPLIANCE
This product has passed FCC and CE pre-tests successfully. The module emission and immunity has
been proven to be compliant.
However, applications using this module as a component must pass CE and/or FCC again in whole.
18 ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION
This product is free of environmental hazardous substances and complies with 2002/95/EC. (RoHS
directive).
19 MOISTURE SENSITIVITY
This device must be prebaked before being put to reflow solder process.
Disregarding may cause destructive effects like chip cracking, which leaves the device defective !
Shelf life
6 months , sealed
Possible prebake recommendations
12 hrs @ 60°C
Floor life (time from prebake to solder process) <72 hrs
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20 DOCUMENT REVISION HISTORY
V0.01
V0.2
V0.3
V0.4
V0.5
June 6 2013
Sep 10 2013
Nov 7 2013
Nov 19 2013
Jul 25 2014
P.Skaliks
P.Skaliks
P.Skaliks
P.Skaliks
P.Skaliks
V0.6
Feb 2 2015
P.Skaliks
initial , internal , not published
Preliminary, first release
Prelimanary, added a note under 8.2
Correction pinning (16), jerk limit and RF_IN data added
VIO,IIO data added, design hints edited
MEMS option removed, not available in this ROM, added
ROMversion to laser marking. AGPS server based option edited
21 RELATED DOCUMENTS
Title
Description / File
Design Guide to implement an GPS
GPS Antenna Design Guide
antenna to an application PCB
Description/sample code of the patch
CSR patch process documentation
load procedure for firmware
and sample code
improvements
User manual for the GNS2301 receiver
GNS2301_StarterKit_UserManual
based evaluation kit
Available from
www.forum.gns-gmbh.com
GNS, NDA required
www.forum.gns-gmbh.com
NMEA protocol, OSP protocol
Detailed description of NMEA protocol
Full version from chip
manufacturer CSR available
under NDA
CSR SGEE/CGEE manuals and
resources
Description of AGPS implementation , in
preparation
GNS, NDA required
 GNS GMBH 2013-2015
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