Oracle® Database
Installation Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2) for Linux
E16763-07
December 2010
Oracle Database Installation Guide, 11g Release 2 (11.2) for Linux
E16763-07
Copyright © 1996, 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Primary Authors: Prakash Jashnani, Namrata Bhakthavatsalam, Reema Khosla
Contributing Authors: Douglas Williams, Kevin Flood, Clara Jaeckel, Emily Murphy, Terri Winters
Contributors: David Austin, Subhranshu Banerjee, Janelle Simmons, Mark Bauer, Robert Chang, Jonathan
Creighton, Sudip Datta, Thirumaleshwara Hasandka, Joel Kallman, George Kotsovolos, Simon Law, Richard
Long, Shekhar Vaggu, Rolly Lv, Padmanabhan Manavazhi, Sreejith Minnanghat, Krishna Mohan, Rajendra
Pingte, Hanlin Qian, Roy Swonger, Ranjith Kundapur, Aneesh Khandelwal , Barb Lundhild, Barbara Glover,
Binoy Sukumaran, Hema Ramamurthy, Prasad Bagal, Martin Widjaja, Ajesh Viswambharan, Eric Belden,
Sivakumar Yarlagadda, Rudregowda Mallegowda , Matthew McKerley, Trivikrama Samudrala, Akshay
Shah, Sue Lee, Sangeeth Kumar, James Spiller, Saar Maoz, Rich Long, Mark Fuller, Sunil Ravindrachar,
Sergiusz Wolicki, Eugene Karichkin, Joseph Francis, Srinivas Poovala, David Schreiner, Neha Avasthy,
Dipak Saggi, Sudheendra Sampath, Mohammed Shahnawaz Quadri, Shachi Sanklecha, Zakia Zerhouni, Jai
Krishnani, Darcy Christensen.
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Contents
Preface ................................................................................................................................................................. xi
Audience.......................................................................................................................................................
Documentation Accessibility .....................................................................................................................
Command Syntax .......................................................................................................................................
Accessing Documentation.........................................................................................................................
Related Documentation ............................................................................................................................
Typographic Conventions........................................................................................................................
xi
xi
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xiii
xiv
What’s New in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) .......................................................... xv
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2) New Features.......................................................................
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features.......................................................................
Deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) ............................................................................
xv
xvi
xx
1 Overview of Oracle Database Installation
New Oracle Products and Features Installed with This Release .................................................... 1-1
Planning the Installation ........................................................................................................................ 1-1
Installing the Linux Operating System................................................................................................ 1-3
Completing a Minimal Linux Installation ...................................................................................... 1-3
Completing a Default Linux Installation ........................................................................................ 1-3
About Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Linux.............................................................. 1-4
About the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM .......................................................................... 1-4
Installing the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM from Unbreakable Linux Network ....... 1-5
Installing the Oracle Validated RPM from DVD Disks or Images.............................................. 1-6
Installation Considerations .................................................................................................................... 1-6
Hardware and Software Certification ............................................................................................. 1-7
Third-Party Database Certification for SQL Developer ........................................................ 1-7
Multiple Oracle Homes Support...................................................................................................... 1-7
Installing the Software on a System with an Existing Oracle Installation.......................... 1-7
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server ...................................................................... 1-8
Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services........................................................................................ 1-8
Installing Oracle Database Vault in an Oracle Data Guard Environment................................. 1-8
Oracle Database Vault Default Audit Policy and Initialization Parameters ............................. 1-8
Oracle Database Installation Methods................................................................................................. 1-9
Interactive Installation Types ........................................................................................................... 1-9
Automated Installation Methods Using Response Files ........................................................... 1-10
iii
Software Updates Option ....................................................................................................................
Oracle Database Editions.....................................................................................................................
Database Configuration Options .......................................................................................................
Preconfigured Database Types .....................................................................................................
Installation Choices that Affect Database Creation....................................................................
Creating a Database After Installation.........................................................................................
Database Storage Options ...................................................................................................................
File System .......................................................................................................................................
Oracle Automatic Storage Management......................................................................................
Database Management Options .........................................................................................................
Management Options for Preconfigured Databases..................................................................
Management Options for Custom Databases ............................................................................
Features Provided by Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control ....................................
Database Backup and Recovery Options..........................................................................................
Enabling Automated Backups.......................................................................................................
Backup Job Default Settings .........................................................................................................
E-mail Notification Options................................................................................................................
Migration Consideration .....................................................................................................................
Upgrade Considerations ......................................................................................................................
Upgrading an Oracle Database Installed on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1...........................
Oracle ASM Is Installed with Oracle Grid Infrastructure .........................................................
Daylight Savings Time Upgrade...................................................................................................
Upgrading an Oracle Database in the Same Oracle Home .......................................................
1-10
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2 Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
Logging In to the System as root ........................................................................................................... 2-2
Checking the Hardware Requirements................................................................................................ 2-3
Memory Requirements...................................................................................................................... 2-3
System Architecture........................................................................................................................... 2-5
Disk Space Requirements.................................................................................................................. 2-6
Display Requirements ....................................................................................................................... 2-7
Checking the Software Requirements ................................................................................................. 2-7
Operating System Requirements ..................................................................................................... 2-7
Kernel Requirements ......................................................................................................................... 2-8
Package Requirements ...................................................................................................................... 2-9
Compiler Requirements ................................................................................................................. 2-15
Additional Software Requirements .............................................................................................. 2-16
Oracle ODBC Drivers .............................................................................................................. 2-16
Oracle JDBC/OCI Drivers ...................................................................................................... 2-17
Linux-PAM Library ................................................................................................................. 2-17
Oracle Messaging Gateway .................................................................................................... 2-17
Browser Requirements ............................................................................................................ 2-17
Preinstallation Requirement for Oracle Database Vault .................................................... 2-18
Installation Fixup Scripts..................................................................................................................... 2-18
Enabling Core File Creation................................................................................................................ 2-18
Installing the cvuqdisk Package for Linux....................................................................................... 2-19
Checking the Network Setup.............................................................................................................. 2-20
iv
Installing on DHCP Computers ....................................................................................................
Installing on Multihomed Computers .........................................................................................
Installing on Computers with Multiple Aliases .........................................................................
Installing on Non-Networked Computers ..................................................................................
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users .............................................................
Creating Custom Configuration Groups and Users for Job Roles...........................................
Users for Oracle Installations with Job Role Separation ....................................................
Database Groups for Job Role Installations .........................................................................
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Groups for Job Role Installations ...........................................
Creating Database Operating System Groups and Users with Job Role Separation ............
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group...................................................................................
Creating the OSDBA Group for Database Installations .....................................................
Creating an OSOPER Group for Database Installation ......................................................
Creating the OSASM Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management......................
Creating the OSDBA Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management ......................
Creating the OSOPER Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management ....................
Creating the Oracle Software Owner User...........................................................................
Determining if an Oracle Software Owner User Exists...............................................
Creating an Oracle Software Owner User.....................................................................
Modifying an Existing Oracle Software Owner User..................................................
Check Resource Limits for the Oracle Software Installation Users ............................................
Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux........................................................................................
Displaying and Changing Kernel Parameter Values .................................................................
Identifying Required Software Directories .....................................................................................
Oracle Base Directory .....................................................................................................................
Oracle Inventory Directory............................................................................................................
Oracle Home Directory ..................................................................................................................
Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory ..........................................................................
Identifying an Existing Oracle Base Directory............................................................................
Creating an Oracle Base Directory................................................................................................
Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery Files.........................................
Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files ........................................................
Guidelines for Placing Oracle Database Files on a File System................................................
Creating Required Directories.......................................................................................................
Configuring Storage for Oracle Database Files Using Block Devices........................................
Configuring Disk Devices for Oracle Database..............................................................................
Example of Creating a Udev Permissions File for Oracle Database........................................
Example of Configuring Block Device Storage for Oracle Database.......................................
Stopping Existing Oracle Processes...................................................................................................
Configuring the oracle User’s Environment ....................................................................................
2-20
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2-21
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2-43
3 Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation...............................................................
Memory Requirements......................................................................................................................
Disk Space Requirements..................................................................................................................
Configuring the User’s Environment..............................................................................................
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM Support...........................................................................................
3-2
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-4
v
Managing Disk Groups for Older Database Versions ...................................................................... 3-5
Migrating Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instances......................................... 3-5
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation Considerations ........................................... 3-5
Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation ............................. 3-6
General Steps for Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management .................................. 3-7
Step 1: Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle Automatic Storage Management ......... 3-7
Step 2: Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for Oracle Automatic Storage Management... 3-9
Step 3: Configuring Disks for Oracle Automatic Storage Management ................................. 3-10
Configuring Disks for Oracle Automatic Storage Management Using the Automatic
Storage Management Library Driver (ASMLIB) 3-10
Configuring Disk Devices Manually for Oracle Automatic Storage Management........ 3-13
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure Using a Software-Only Installation ............................... 3-14
Installing the Software Binaries .................................................................................................... 3-15
Configuring the Software Binaries ............................................................................................... 3-15
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server..................... 3-15
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure with a New Database Installation................................ 3-16
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for an Existing Database................................................ 3-20
Modifying Oracle Grid Infrastructure Binaries After Installation ............................................. 3-21
Manually Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Groups ........................ 3-21
Testing the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation................................................ 3-22
4
Installing Oracle Database
Preinstallation Considerations .............................................................................................................. 4-1
Performing Multiple Oracle Database Installations in Response File or Silent Mode............. 4-1
Reviewing Component-Specific Installation Guidelines ................................................................ 4-1
Selecting the Database Character Set .............................................................................................. 4-2
Using an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Group .................................................. 4-3
Accessing the Installation Software ..................................................................................................... 4-4
Downloading Oracle Software......................................................................................................... 4-5
Downloading the Installation Archive Files from OTN........................................................ 4-5
Downloading the Software from Oracle E-Delivery ............................................................. 4-5
Extracting the Installation Files................................................................................................. 4-6
Copying the Software to the Hard Disk ......................................................................................... 4-7
Mounting Disks........................................................................................................................... 4-7
Copying the Oracle Database Software to a Hard Disk ........................................................ 4-8
Database Security Options ..................................................................................................................... 4-8
Installing the Oracle Database Software ............................................................................................. 4-9
Running Oracle Universal Installer ................................................................................................. 4-9
Installing Oracle Database Examples................................................................................................ 4-19
5 Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks
Required Postinstallation Tasks............................................................................................................
Downloading and Installing Patches ..............................................................................................
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks..................................................................................................
Creating a Backup of the root.sh Script ..........................................................................................
Configuring New or Upgraded Databases.....................................................................................
Creating and Configuring Additional Operating System Accounts ..........................................
vi
5-1
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-3
5-3
Configuring the Accounts of Oracle Users ............................................................................. 5-4
Setting the NLS_LANG Environment Variable............................................................................. 5-4
Generating the Client Static Library................................................................................................ 5-4
Guidelines for Setting Semaphore Parameters .............................................................................. 5-4
Create a Fast Recovery Area Disk Group ....................................................................................... 5-5
About the Fast Recovery Area and the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group........................... 5-5
Creating the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group ........................................................................ 5-6
Enabling and Disabling Database Options..................................................................................... 5-6
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks............................................................................. 5-7
Configuring Oracle Net Services ..................................................................................................... 5-7
Configuring Oracle Label Security .................................................................................................. 5-8
Configuring Oracle Database Vault ................................................................................................ 5-8
Configuring Oracle Messaging Gateway ....................................................................................... 5-8
Modifying the listener.ora File for External Procedures ....................................................... 5-9
Modifying the tnsnames.ora File for External Procedures ................................................... 5-9
Setting Up the mgw.ora Initialization File ........................................................................... 5-10
Configuring Oracle Precompilers ................................................................................................. 5-10
Configuring Pro*C/C++ ......................................................................................................... 5-10
Configuring Pro*FORTRAN .................................................................................................. 5-11
Configuring Secure Sockets Layer................................................................................................ 5-11
Installing Oracle Text Supplied Knowledge Bases .................................................................... 5-11
Configuring or Reinstalling Oracle XML DB .............................................................................. 5-11
Configuring and Using Direct NFS Client .................................................................................. 5-12
Direct NFS Client ..................................................................................................................... 5-12
Enabling Direct NFS Client ............................................................................................. 5-12
Disabling Direct NFS Client ............................................................................................ 5-14
Checking NFS Buffer Size Parameters........................................................................... 5-14
Postinstallation Tasks for SQL Developer ....................................................................................... 5-14
Migrating User Settings from Release 1.0.................................................................................... 5-14
Migrating Information from Previous Releases ......................................................................... 5-15
Location of User-Related Information ......................................................................................... 5-15
6
Getting Started with Oracle Database
Checking the Installed Oracle Database Contents and Directory Location ................................. 6-1
Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control .......................................................... 6-1
Managing Oracle Automatic Storage Management .......................................................................... 6-3
Starting and Stopping Oracle Automatic Storage Management................................................. 6-3
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Utilities.......................................................................... 6-3
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL*Plus ........................................................................................ 6-4
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL Developer .............................................................................. 6-4
Reviewing Accounts and Passwords .................................................................................................... 6-5
Unlocking and Resetting User Passwords........................................................................................... 6-8
Using Database Control to Unlock Accounts and Reset Passwords .......................................... 6-8
Using SQL*Plus to Unlock Accounts and Reset Passwords ........................................................ 6-9
Unlocking and Changing Passwords .............................................................................................. 6-9
Identifying Databases .......................................................................................................................... 6-10
Locating the Server Parameter File .................................................................................................... 6-11
vii
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files ..............................
Identifying Tablespaces and Data Files .......................................................................................
Locating Redo Log Files .................................................................................................................
Locating Control Files.....................................................................................................................
7
Removing Oracle Database Software
Reconfiguring Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services.................................................................
Removing Oracle Software Using the Deinstallation Tool..............................................................
About the Deinstallation Tool ..........................................................................................................
Downloading the Deinstall Tool for Use with Failed Installations ............................................
Example of Running the Deinstall Command ...............................................................................
Example of a Deinstallation Parameter File for Oracle Database ...............................................
Example of a Deinstallation Parameter File for Oracle Grid Infrastructure..............................
A
6-11
6-11
6-12
6-13
7-1
7-1
7-2
7-4
7-4
7-4
7-5
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
How Response Files Work..................................................................................................................... A-1
Reasons for Using Silent Mode or Response File Mode.............................................................. A-2
Creating a Database Using Oracle Automatic Storage Management as the Storage Option for
Database Files A-3
General Procedure for Using Response Files ................................................................................ A-3
Creating the oraInst.loc File .................................................................................................................. A-3
Preparing a Response File ..................................................................................................................... A-4
Editing a Response File Template................................................................................................... A-4
Saving a Response File ..................................................................................................................... A-6
Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response File ........................................................... A-7
Running Net Configuration Assistant Using a Response File....................................................... A-7
Running Database Configuration Assistant Using a Response File............................................. A-8
Using Database Configuration Assistant in Response File Mode ............................................. A-9
Using Database Configuration Assistant in Silent Mode............................................................ A-9
Running Database Configuration Assistant in Response File or Silent Mode......................... A-9
Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File .................................................................. A-10
About the Postinstallation Configuration File ............................................................................ A-10
Running Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File .............................................. A-11
B
Cloning an Oracle Home
Cloning an Oracle Home ....................................................................................................................... B-1
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a Cloned Oracle Home...................................... B-3
C
Using NAS Devices
General Configuration Guidelines for NAS Devices ......................................................................
NFS Feature Description........................................................................................................................
Choosing Mount Points .........................................................................................................................
Choosing Mount Points for Oracle Software Files .......................................................................
Choosing Mount Points for Oracle Database and Recovery Files .............................................
Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle Automatic Storage Management...........
NFS Mount Options................................................................................................................................
viii
C-1
C-2
C-2
C-2
C-4
C-4
C-5
D
Optimal Flexible Architecture
Overview of the Optimal Flexible Architecture Standard ..............................................................
Advantages of Multiple Oracle Homes and OFA ........................................................................
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture ...................................................................................
File Systems........................................................................................................................................
Number of File Systems ............................................................................................................
Naming Conventions ................................................................................................................
Naming Directories...........................................................................................................................
Oracle Base Directory Naming Convention...........................................................................
Naming Mount Points for Very Large Databases (VLDBs).................................................
Referring to Path Names...........................................................................................................
Oracle Home Directory Naming Convention........................................................................
Naming Subdirectories .............................................................................................................
Naming Database Files.....................................................................................................................
Separating Segments with Different Requirements.....................................................................
Exploiting the Optimal Flexible Architecture Structure for Oracle Files..................................
Optimal Flexible Architecture File Mapping ................................................................................
E
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers
About Managing Ports ...........................................................................................................................
Viewing Port Numbers and Access URLs ..........................................................................................
Port Numbers and Protocols of Oracle Components .......................................................................
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Management Agent Port..............................................................
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control Ports...............................................
F
E-1
E-2
E-2
E-3
E-4
Configuring Oracle Database Globalization Support
Installing and Using Oracle Components in Different Languages...............................................
Configuring Oracle Components to Run in Different Languages .............................................
Determining the Operating System Locale by Using the LANG Environment Variable
Configuring Locale and Character Sets Using NLS_LANG................................................
Installing Translation Resources .....................................................................................................
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages .........................................................
G
D-1
D-1
D-2
D-2
D-2
D-2
D-2
D-3
D-3
D-3
D-3
D-4
D-5
D-6
D-6
D-7
F-1
F-1
F-2
F-3
F-3
F-4
Troubleshooting
Verify Requirements...............................................................................................................................
X Window Display Errors ......................................................................................................................
Remote Terminal Installation Error .....................................................................................................
What to Do If an Installation Error Occurs?.......................................................................................
Reviewing the Log of an Installation Session ...................................................................................
Troubleshooting Host Name Changes and CSS................................................................................
Troubleshooting Configuration Assistants ........................................................................................
Configuration Assistant Failure......................................................................................................
Irrecoverable Errors ..........................................................................................................................
Troubleshooting Inventory Issues .......................................................................................................
Troubleshooting Screen Display Issues..............................................................................................
G-1
G-2
G-2
G-3
G-3
G-4
G-4
G-4
G-5
G-5
G-5
ix
Silent-Mode Response File Error Handling....................................................................................... G-5
Core File Not Enabled Error .................................................................................................................. G-6
Cleaning Up After a Failed Installation.............................................................................................. G-6
H
Frequently Asked Questions About Installation
Installing Oracle Database ...................................................................................................................
Installing Oracle Database Tools .........................................................................................................
Installing Oracle Database with Oracle Applications .....................................................................
Installing Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Tools (Gateways)...............................
Glossary
Index
x
H-1
H-3
H-7
H-8
Preface
This guide provides instructions about installing and configuring Oracle Database for
Linux. This guide covers Optimal Flexible Architecture, Database Storage Options,
and Database Configuration Options. This guide also talks about installing and
configuring database using response files, globalization support, ports, and
troubleshooting.
The preface contains the following topics:
■
Audience
■
Documentation Accessibility
■
Command Syntax
■
Accessing Documentation
■
Related Documentation
■
Typographic Conventions
Audience
This guide is intended for anyone responsible for installing Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2) on Linux systems. Additional installation guides for Oracle Database,
Oracle Real Application Clusters, Oracle Clusterware, Oracle Database Examples, and
Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control are available on the relevant installation
media.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Quick Installation Guide for Linux x86 to install
Oracle Database using the default settings
Oracle Database Quick Installation Guide for Linux x86-64 to install
Oracle Database using the default settings
Documentation Accessibility
Our goal is to make Oracle products, services, and supporting documentation
accessible to all users, including users that are disabled. To that end, our
documentation includes features that make information available to users of assistive
technology. This documentation is available in HTML format, and contains markup to
facilitate access by the disabled community. Accessibility standards will continue to
evolve over time, and Oracle is actively engaged with other market-leading
technology vendors to address technical obstacles so that our documentation can be
xi
accessible to all of our customers. For more information, visit the Oracle Accessibility
Program Web site at http://www.oracle.com/accessibility/.
Accessibility of Code Examples in Documentation
Screen readers may not always correctly read the code examples in this document. The
conventions for writing code require that closing braces should appear on an
otherwise empty line; however, some screen readers may not always read a line of text
that consists solely of a bracket or brace.
Accessibility of Links to External Web Sites in Documentation
This documentation may contain links to Web sites of other companies or
organizations that Oracle does not own or control. Oracle neither evaluates nor makes
any representations regarding the accessibility of these Web sites.
Access to Oracle Support
Oracle customers have access to electronic support through My Oracle Support. For
information, visit http://www.oracle.com/support/contact.html or visit
http://www.oracle.com/accessibility/support.html if you are hearing
impaired.
Command Syntax
UNIX command syntax appears in monospace font. The dollar character ($), number
sign (#), or percent character (%) are UNIX command prompts. Do not enter them as
part of the command. The following command syntax conventions are used in this
guide:
Convention
Description
backslash \
A backslash is the UNIX command continuation character. It is used in
command examples that are too long to fit on a single line. Enter the
command as displayed (with a backslash) or enter it on a single line
without a backslash:
dd if=/dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s6 of=/dev/rst0 bs=10b \
count=10000
braces { }
Braces indicate required items:
.DEFINE {macro1}
brackets [ ]
Brackets indicate optional items:
cvtcrt termname [outfile]
ellipses ...
Ellipses indicate an arbitrary number of similar items:
CHKVAL fieldname value1 value2 ... valueN
italics
Italic type indicates a variable. Substitute a value for the variable:
library_name
vertical line |
A vertical line indicates a choice within braces or brackets:
FILE filesize [K|M]
Accessing Documentation
The documentation for this release includes platform-specific documentation and
generic product documentation.
xii
Platform-Specific Documentation
Platform-specific documentation includes information about installing and using
Oracle products on particular platforms.
This guide contains information required to install Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
on various platforms of Linux. Ensure that you review information related to the
platform on which you intend to install Oracle Database 11g.
The platform-specific documentation for this product is available in both Adobe
portable document format (PDF) and HTML format on the product media. To access
the platform-specific documentation on media:
1.
Use a Web browser to open the welcome.html file in the top-level directory of
the media.
2.
Platform-specific documentation is available in PDF and HTML formats in the
Documentation section.
Product Documentation
Product documentation includes information about configuring, using, or
administering Oracle products on any platform. The product documentation for
Oracle Database 11g products is available in both HTML and PDF formats in the
following locations:
■
On the Oracle Database Documentation Library media
Use a Web browser to view or open the index.htm file in the top-level directory
on the media.
■
Online on the Oracle Technology Network (OTN) Web site:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/documentation/index.html
Related Documentation
The related documentation for Oracle Database 11g products includes the following
manuals:
■
Oracle Database Concepts
■
Oracle Database New Features Guide
■
Oracle Database Licensing Information
■
Oracle Database Readme
■
Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for Windows and UNIX
■
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide
■
Oracle Database Release Notes for Linux
■
Oracle Database Client Installation Guide for Linux
■
Oracle Database Examples Installation Guide
■
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide
■
Oracle Database Quick Installation Guide for Linux x86
■
Oracle Database Client Quick Installation Guide for Linux x86
■
Oracle Database Quick Installation Guide for Linux x86-64
■
Oracle Database Client Quick Installation Guide for Linux x86-64
xiii
■
Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX-Based Operating
Systems
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
■
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA
■
Oracle Application Express Installation Guide
For information about Oracle error messages, see Oracle Database Error Messages.
Oracle error message documentation is available only in HTML. If you only have
access to the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) Online Documentation Library, then
you can browse the error messages by range. Once you find the specific range, use
your browser's "find in page" feature to locate the specific message. When connected to
the Internet, you can search for a specific error message using the error message search
feature of the Oracle online documentation.
Many books in the documentation set use the sample schemas of the seed database,
which is installed by default when you install Oracle. Refer to Oracle Database Sample
Schemas for information about how these schemas were created and how you can use
them yourself.
To download free release notes, installation documentation, white papers, or other
collateral, please visit the Oracle Technology Network. You must register online before
using OTN; registration is free and can be done at:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/membership/
If you already have a user name and password for Oracle Technology Network, then
you can go directly to the documentation section of the Oracle Technology Network
Web site at:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/documentation/
Refer to Oracle Database Release Notes for Linux for important information that was not
available when this book was released. The release notes for Oracle Database 11g are
updated regularly. The most recent version is available on Oracle Technology Network
at:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/documentation/index.html
Typographic Conventions
The following text conventions are used in this document:
xiv
Convention
Meaning
boldface
Boldface type indicates graphical user interface elements associated
with an action, or terms defined in text or the glossary.
italic
Italic type indicates book titles, emphasis, or placeholder variables for
which you supply particular values.
monospace
Monospace type indicates commands within a paragraph, URLs, code
in examples, text that appears on the screen, or text that you enter.
What’s New in Oracle Database 11g Release
2 (11.2)
This section describes new features that are documented in this guide and provides
pointers to additional information.
■
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2) New Features
■
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features
■
Deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2) New Features
The following is a list of new features or enhancements provided with Oracle Database
11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2):
■
Enhanced Patch Set Installation
■
New Software Updates Option
■
In-Place Upgrade of Oracle Database Client
Enhanced Patch Set Installation
Starting with the release of the 11.2.0.2 patch set for Oracle Database 11g Release 2,
Oracle Database patch sets are full installations of the Oracle Database software. Note
the following changes with the new patch set packaging:
■
■
■
Direct upgrades from previous releases (11.x, 10.x) to the most recent patch set are
supported.
Out-of-place patch set upgrades, in which you install the patch set into a new,
separate Oracle home, are the best practices recommendation. In-place upgrades
are supported, but not recommended.
New installations consist of installing the most recent patch set, rather than
installing a base release and then upgrading to a patch release.
See Also: My Oracle Support note 1189783.1, "Important Changes to
Oracle Database Patch Sets Starting With 11.2.0.2", available from the
following URL:
https://support.oracle.com/CSP/main/article?cmd=show
&type=NOT&doctype=ANNOUNCEMENT&id=1189783.1
xv
New Software Updates Option
This functionality is available starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2).
Use the Software Updates feature to dynamically download and apply software
updates as part of the Oracle Database installation. You can also download the updates
separately using the -downloadUpdates option and later apply them during the
installation by providing the location where the updates are present.
See Also: "Software Updates Option" on page 1-10 for more
information about the Software Updates option
In-Place Upgrade of Oracle Database Client
This functionality is available starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2).
Use the In-Place Upgrade feature of Oracle Database Client to upgrade an existing
Oracle Database Client 11g Release 2 (11.2) version with the latest Oracle Database
Client version.
Oracle Database Client Installation Guide for Linux for more
information about In-Place Upgrade
See Also:
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features
The following is a list of new features or enhancements provided with Oracle Database
11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1):
■
New Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Option
■
New Desktop and Server Class Options
■
Daylight Savings Time Upgrade of Timestamp with Timezone Data Type
■
SYSASM Privilege
■
Fixup Scripts and Prerequisite Checks
■
Database Smart Flash Cache
■
New Tool to Configure Custom Installation Options
■
Deinstallation Tool
■
Intelligent Data Placement
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS)
■
Data Pump Export and Data Pump Import
■
Use Oracle Restart to Automatically Restart Your Database
■
SRVCTL Support for Single Instance Database in a Cluster
New Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Option
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 introduces the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
For single instance databases, Oracle Grid Infrastructure includes Oracle Automatic
Storage Management (Oracle ASM), the listener, and Oracle Restart. Oracle Restart is a
new feature that provides the ability to monitor, manage, and automatically restart on
failure of the Oracle Database environment including the Oracle Database instance,
Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance, and listeners. In a clustered
environment, Oracle Grid Infrastructure includes Oracle Clusterware, Oracle ASM,
and the listener.
xvi
If you want to use Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, then you must
install the Oracle software from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure media before you install
the database.
See Also:
Chapter 3, "Oracle Grid Infrastructure"
New Desktop and Server Class Options
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 introduces a new option that enables you to specify the
type of system on which the database is installed. If you are installing on a laptop or a
desktop, then select the Desktop Class option; otherwise, select the Server Class option
to install on a server. These options are available on the System Class screen.
There is no difference in the software that gets installed after you select any one option
but the Desktop Class option installs a single instance database without the advanced
configuration options.
"Interactive Installation Types" on page 1-9 for more
information about the desktop and server class options
See Also:
Daylight Savings Time Upgrade of Timestamp with Timezone Data Type
When time zone version files are updated due to Daylight Saving Time changes,
TIMESTAMP WITH TIMEZONE (TSTZ) data could become stale. In previous releases,
database administrators ran the SQL script utltzuv2.sql to detect TSTZ data
affected by the time zone version changes and then had to perform extensive manual
procedures to update the TSTZ data.
With this release, TSTZ data is updated transparently with very minimal manual
procedures using newly provided DBMS_DST PL/SQL packages. In addition, there is
no longer a need for clients to patch their time zone data files.
See Also:
■
■
■
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for information about preparing to
upgrade Timestamp with Time Zone data
Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for information about
how to upgrade the Time Zone file and Timestamp with Time
Zone data
Oracle Call Interface Programmer's Guide for information about
performance effects of clients and servers operating with different
versions of Time Zone files
SYSASM Privilege
Starting with 11g Release 2, Oracle ASM administration must be done with the
SYSASM privilege. The SYSASM privilege also can be granted using password
authentication on the Oracle ASM instance.
You can designate OPERATOR privileges (a subset of the SYSASM privileges, including
starting and stopping Oracle ASM) to members of the OSOPER for Oracle ASM group.
Using the SYSASM privilege for ASM administration creates a clearer division of
responsibility between ASM administration and database administration. It also
provides the optional capability to prevent different databases using the same storage
from accidentally overwriting each other's files.
xvii
See Also: Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
for more information about SYSASM privilege, ASMSNMP account, and
OSASM operating system group
Fixup Scripts and Prerequisite Checks
With this release, the installer (OUI) detects when minimum requirements for
installation are not completed, and creates scripts, called fixup scripts, to resolve many
incomplete system configuration requirements. If OUI detects an incomplete task, then
generate the fixup script by clicking the Fix & Check Again button.
For Oracle Clusterware, you also can have Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) generate
fixup scripts before installation.
The fixup script is generated during installation. You are prompted to run the script as
root in a separate terminal session. When you run the script, it sets some of the system
parameters to Oracle-recommended values, if necessary, and completes other
operating system configuration tasks.
Database Smart Flash Cache
Database Smart Flash Cache feature is a transparent extension of the database buffer
cache using solid state device (SSD) technology. The SSD acts as a Level 2 cache to the
(Level 1) SGA.
SSD storage is faster than disk, and cheaper than RAM. Database Smart Flash Cache
with SSD storage gives you the ability to greatly improve the performance of their
Oracle databases by reducing the amount of disk I/O at a much lower cost than
adding an equivalent amount of RAM.
Database Smart Flash Cache is supported on Oracle Solaris and Oracle Linux only.
See Also:
■
Oracle Database New Features Guide
■
Oracle Database Concepts
■
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about
Database Smart Flash Cache
New Tool to Configure Custom Installation Options
Oracle Universal Installer no longer provides the custom installation option of
individual components. Use the chopt tool, a command-line utility that is located in
the ORACLE_HOME\bin directory, to configure the database options.
See Also:
"Enabling and Disabling Database Options" on page 5-6
Deinstallation Tool
Use the new Deinstallation Tool (deinstall) available as an Oracle Technology
Network download (before installation) and in the Oracle home directory (after
installation) to remove Oracle Database software.
Refer to "Removing Oracle Software Using the Deinstallation Tool" on page 7-1 for
detailed information on using the deinstallation tool.
xviii
Intelligent Data Placement
The Intelligent Data Placement feature enables you to specify disk regions on Oracle
ASM disks to ensure that frequently accessed data is placed on the outermost (hot)
tracks which provide higher performance.
See Also: Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
for more information about Oracle ASM Intelligent Data Placement
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS)
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS) is a new
multi-platform, scalable file system, and storage management design that extends
Oracle ASM technology to support data which cannot be stored in Oracle ASM, in
both single instance and cluster configurations. Additionally, Oracle ACFS provides
snapshot functionality for a point in time copy of an Oracle ACFS system.
The software required for Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System
is installed with the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
See Also: Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
for more information about Oracle ACFS
Data Pump Export and Data Pump Import
Data Pump provides a legacy mode in which you can use original Export and Import
parameters when performing Data Pump Export and Import operations.
Oracle Database Utilities for more information about Data
Pump Legacy Mode
See Also:
Use Oracle Restart to Automatically Restart Your Database
Oracle Restart is a new feature included in this release to enhance the availability of
Oracle databases in a single-instance environment. If you install Oracle Restart, and
there is a temporary failure of any part of the Oracle Database software stack,
including the database, listener, and Oracle ASM instance, Oracle Restart
automatically restarts the failed component. In addition, Oracle Restart starts all these
components when the database host computer is restarted. The components are
started in the proper order, taking into consideration the dependencies among
components.
See Also: Chapter 4, "Configuring Automatic Restart of an Oracle
Database" in the Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more
information about Oracle Restart
New Method of Installing Oracle Automatic Storage Management
In past releases, Oracle ASM was installed as part of the Oracle Database installation.
With Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is installed when you install the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure components and shares an Oracle home with Oracle
Clusterware when installed in a cluster such as with Oracle RAC or with Oracle
Restart on a single instance database.
If you want to upgrade an existing Oracle ASM, then you must upgrade Oracle ASM
by running an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade. If you do not have Oracle ASM
installed and you want to use Oracle ASM as your storage option, then you must
complete an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation before you start your Oracle
Database installation.
xix
See Also: "Oracle Grid Infrastructure" for more information about
installing the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software
SRVCTL Support for Single Instance Database in a Cluster
SRVCTL has been enhanced to support single instance databases with Oracle Restart
on standalone servers and on clusters with Oracle Clusterware. SRVCTL is a
command-line interface used to manage Oracle processes (database instance, listener,
Oracle ASM instance) when using Oracle Restart. With SRVCTL, you can manage the
Oracle Restart configuration, see the status of processes managed by Oracle Restart,
and start or stop processes such as the Oracle Database.
See Also: Chapter 4, "Configuring Automatic Restart of an Oracle
Database" in the Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more
information about SRVCTL commands
Deprecated in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
The following are not supported or not available anymore with Oracle Database 11g
Release 2:
■
■
xx
Installing data files directly on raw devices is no longer available during
installation with Oracle Universal Installer or Database Configuration Assistant.
You must use a file system, or use Oracle ASM.
Oracle Ultra Search
1
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
1
This chapter describes the different installation types of Oracle Database and issues to
consider before you install Oracle Database:
■
New Oracle Products and Features Installed with This Release
■
Planning the Installation
■
Installing the Linux Operating System
■
Installation Considerations
■
Oracle Database Installation Methods
■
Software Updates Option
■
Oracle Database Editions
■
Database Configuration Options
■
Database Storage Options
■
Database Management Options
■
Database Backup and Recovery Options
■
E-mail Notification Options
■
Migration Consideration
■
Upgrade Considerations
New Oracle Products and Features Installed with This Release
Refer to What’s New in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) for more information
about the new features and products installed with this release.
Planning the Installation
The Oracle Database installation process consists of the following phases:
1.
Read the release notes: Read Oracle Database Release Notes for Linux before you
begin the installation. The release notes are available with the platform-specific
documentation. The latest version of the release notes is available on Oracle
Technology Network at:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/documentation
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
1-1
Planning the Installation
2.
Review the licensing information: Although the installation media in the media
pack contain many Oracle components, you are permitted to use only those
components for which you have purchased licenses.
Oracle Support Services does not provide support for components for which
licenses have not been purchased.
See Also:
3.
Oracle Database Licensing Information for more details
Plan the installation: This chapter describes the Oracle products that you can
install and issues that you must consider before starting the installation.
You can also refer to Appendix H, which covers frequently asked questions about
installing Oracle Database components, such as how to install Oracle Database if
the site uses Oracle applications or if you need multiple Oracle Database
connections.
4.
Complete preinstallation tasks: Chapter 2 describes preinstallation tasks that you
must complete before installing the product.
5.
Install the software: Use the following sections to install Oracle Database and
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server:
■
■
■
■
Chapter 3 describes how to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone
server.
Chapter 4 describes how to use Oracle Universal Installer to install Oracle
Database. Also describes how to clone an Oracle home.
Chapter 7 describes how to remove Oracle Database software.
Appendix A provides information about performing silent, or response file
installations, which you may want to use if you must perform multiple
installations of Oracle Database.
■
Appendix B provides information about cloning Oracle home.
■
Appendix F describes globalization support information.
■
Appendix G provides troubleshooting advice in case you encounter problems
with the installation.
6.
Complete postinstallation tasks: Chapter 5 describes recommended and required
postinstallation tasks.
7.
Get started using Oracle Database: Use the following sections to get started with
Oracle Database:
■
■
■
■
Chapter 6 describes how to check the contents of the installed Oracle
Database, how to start various tools, and how to locate various files.
Appendix C describes the network attached storage devices, which you can
use to store Oracle database files and Oracle software.
Appendix D describes the Optimal Flexible Architecture, which is a set of
guidelines that ensures reliable Oracle installations that requires little
maintenance.
Appendix E explains the method to manage Oracle Database port numbers.
1-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing the Linux Operating System
Installing the Linux Operating System
This section provides information about installing a supported Linux distribution. It
contains the following topics:
■
Completing a Minimal Linux Installation
■
Completing a Default Linux Installation
■
About Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Linux
■
About the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM
■
■
Installing the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM from Unbreakable Linux
Network
Installing the Oracle Validated RPM from DVD Disks or Images
Completing a Minimal Linux Installation
To complete a minimal Linux installation, select a minimal install option (either a
custom installation where you select the Minimal option from Package Group
Selection, or where you deselect all packages except for the Base pack). This
installation lacks many RPMs required for installation. However, when you install the
Oracle Validated RPM for your platform, the RPM downloads the minimum number
of packages required to run Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Database.
Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN) customers can obtain the Oracle Validated RPM
by using up2date. If you are not a ULN customer, and your operating system is Red
Hat or Oracle Linux, then you can obtain the Oracle Validated RPM at the following
URLs:
Oracle Linux 4:
http://oss.oracle.com/el4/oracle-validated/
Oracle Linux 5:
http://oss.oracle.com/el5/oracle-validated/
Note:
■
If you are not a member of ULN or RHN (Red Hat support
network) and you are an Oracle support customer, then you can
download instructions to configure a script that replicates Oracle
Validated RPM package downloads at the following URL:
https://support.oracle.com
Search for "minimal Linux."
■
The Oracle Validated RPM installs the X11 client libraries, but
does not install the X Window System server packages. To use
graphical user interfaces such as Oracle Universal Installer,
configuration assistants, and Enterprise Manager, set the display
to a system with X Window System server packages.
Completing a Default Linux Installation
If you do not install the Oracle Validated RPM, then Oracle recommends that you
install your Linux operating system with the default software packages (RPMs). This
installation includes most of the required packages and helps you limit manual checks
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
1-3
Installing the Linux Operating System
of package dependencies. Oracle recommends that you do not customize the RPMs
during installation.
For information about a default installation, log on to the My Oracle Support (formerly
OracleMetaLink) Web site at the following URL:
https://support.oracle.com
Search for "Default RPM."
After installation, review system requirements for your distribution to ensure that you
have all required kernel packages installed, and complete all other configuration tasks
required for your distribution, and for your system configuration.
About Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Linux
The Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Linux is available for x86-64 platforms.
It is based on a stable 2.6.32 Linux kernel, and also includes optimizations developed
in collaboration with Oracle Database, Oracle middleware, and Oracle hardware
engineering teams to ensure stability and optimal performance for the most
demanding enterprise workloads.
Oracle highly recommends deploying the Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel in
your Linux environment, especially if you are running Oracle software. However,
using Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is optional. If you require strict Red Hat
Enterprise Linux kernel (RHEL) compatibility, then Oracle Linux also includes a kernel
compatible with the RHEL Linux kernel, compiled directly from the RHEL source
code.
You can obtain more information about the Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for
Linux at the following URL:
http://www.oracle.com/us/technologies/linux
The Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Linux kernel installs directly on top of Oracle
Linux 5 or Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, starting with Update 5, so you are not required
to upgrade to a new major release of the operating system to obtain the benefits and
features of this new kernel. You can obtain additional information and download the
Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Linux at the following URL:
http://public-yum.oracle.com/
The Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Linux is the standard kernel used with
Oracle products. The build and QA systems for Oracle Database and other Oracle
products use the Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Linux exclusively. The
Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Linux is also the kernel used in Oracle
Exadata and Oracle Exalogic systems. Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Linux
is used in all benchmark tests on Linux in which Oracle participates, as well as in the
Oracle Validated Configuration program for x86-64.
Refer to "Kernel Requirements" on page 2-8 for Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel
requirements.
About the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM
If the Linux distribution is Oracle Linux, or Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and you are an
Unbreakable Linux customer, then you can complete most preinstallation
configuration tasks by using the Oracle Validated Configurations Setup RPM,
available from the Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN), or available on the Oracle
Linux DVD disks.
1-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing the Linux Operating System
When it is installed, the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM does the following:
■
■
■
Automatically installs any additional packages needed for installing Oracle Grid
Infrastructure and Oracle Database.
Creates an oracle user, and creates the oraInventory (oinstall) and OSDBA
(dba) groups for that user
Sets and verifies sysctl.conf settings, system startup parameters, user limits,
and driver parameters to values based on recommendations from the Oracle
Validated Configurations program
To become an Unbreakable Linux Network customer, contact your sales
representative, or purchase a license from the Unbreakable Linux store:
https://shop.oracle.com/product/oraclelinux
To register your server on the Unbreakable Linux Network, or to find out more
information, refer to the following URL:
https://linux.oracle.com
If you are using Oracle Linux 4.7 and higher, or Oracle Linux 5.2 and higher, then the
Oracle Validated RPM is included on the install media.
The Oracle Validated RPM sets kernel parameters and
resource limits only for the user account oracle. To use multiple
software account owners, you must perform system configuration for
other accounts manually.
Note:
Installing the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM from Unbreakable Linux Network
Use the following procedure to subscribe to Oracle Unbreakable Linux channels, and
to add the Oracle Software for Enterprise Linux channel that distributes the Oracle
Validated Configurations Setup RPM:
1.
Complete a default Oracle Linux workstation installation, or a default Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation.
2.
Register the server with Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN). By default, you are
registered for the Oracle Linux Latest channel for the operating system and
hardware.
3.
Log in to ULN at the following URL:
https://linux.oracle.com
4.
Click the Systems tab, and in the System Profiles list, select a registered server. The
System Details window opens, and displays the subscriptions for the server.
5.
From the Available Channels list, select the _base and _patch channels
corresponding to your Oracle Linux distribution. For example, if your distribution
is Oracle Linux 5 Update 5 for x86_64, then select the following:
■
Oracle Linux 5 Update 5 installation media copy (x86_64)
■
Oracle Linux 5 Update 5 Patch (x86_64)
6.
Click Subscribe.
7.
From a terminal session, as a root user, enter the following command:
# up2date --nox --show-channels
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
1-5
Installation Considerations
You should see output indicating that you have subscribed to the Oracle Linux
channel. For example:
el5_u5_i386_base
el5_u5_x86_64_patch
8.
Open a terminal session as a root user, and install the Oracle Validated
Configurations Setup RPM with up2date with the following command:
# up2date --install oracle-validated
Oracle Linux automatically creates a standard (not role-allocated) Oracle
installation owner and groups, and sets up other kernel configuration settings as
required for Oracle installations.
Check the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM log file to
review system configuration changes:
Note:
/var/log/oracle-validated/results/orakernel.log
Installing the Oracle Validated RPM from DVD Disks or Images
Use the following procedure to install the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM from
the Oracle Linux distribution:
1.
Obtain Oracle Linux disks either by ordering the Oracle Linux Media Pack from
Oracle Store, or downloading disk images from the Oracle E-Delivery Web site for
Oracle Linux and Oracle VM.
Oracle Store:
https://shop.oracle.com/store/enterpriselinux
E-Delivery Web Site:
http://edelivery.oracle.com/linux
2.
Start the Oracle Linux installation.
3.
At the first software selection screen, which lists task-specific software options,
there is an option at the bottom of the screen to customize now or customize later.
Select Customize now, and click Next.
4.
On the Customize selection page, select Base System on the list on the left side of
the screen, and then select System Tools on the right side of the screen. Then click
Optional Packages.
5.
The Packages in System Tools window opens. Select the Oracle Validated RPM
package box from the package list, and click Next.
6.
Complete other screens to finish installing Oracle Linux.
Oracle Linux automatically creates a standard (not role-allocated) Oracle
installation owner and groups, and sets up other kernel configuration settings as
required for Oracle installations.
Installation Considerations
This section contains information that you should consider before deciding how to
install this product. It contains the following sections:
1-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installation Considerations
■
Hardware and Software Certification
■
Multiple Oracle Homes Support
■
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
■
Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services
■
Installing Oracle Database Vault in an Oracle Data Guard Environment
■
Oracle Database Vault Default Audit Policy and Initialization Parameters
Hardware and Software Certification
The platform-specific hardware and software requirements included in this guide
were current when this guide was published. However, because new platforms and
operating system software versions might be certified after this guide is published,
review the certification matrix on the My Oracle Support Web site for the most
up-to-date list of certified hardware platforms and operating system versions. The My
Oracle Support Web site is available at the following URL:
https://support.oracle.com/
You must register online before using My Oracle Support. After logging in, click More
and then select Certifications from the list. On the Certification Information page, the
Certification Options list appears. Other options include Product Roadmap, Product
Availability, and Lifetime Support Policy.
Third-Party Database Certification for SQL Developer
SQL Developer can be used to view metadata and data of several non-Oracle
databases. The following table lists the third-party database certifications.
Database
Releases
Notes
Microsoft Access
Access 97
For any Access release: no JDBC driver needed,
but you must ensure read access to the system
tables in the .mdb file.
Access 2000
Access 2003
Microsoft SQL
Server
MySQL
SQL Server 7
SQL Server 2005
For any Microsoft SQL Server release: JDBC
driver jtds-1.2.2.jar required. This is
included in the jtds-1.2-dist.zip file
available from sourceforge.net
MySQL 3.x
For any MySQL release: JDBC driver required.
MySQL 4.x
For MySQL 5.x:
mysql-connector-java-5.0.4-bin.jar is
required, which is included in
mysql-connector-java-5.0.4.zip
SQL Server 2000
MySQL 5.x
Multiple Oracle Homes Support
This product supports multiple Oracle homes. This means, you can install this release
or earlier releases of the software more than once on the same system, in different
Oracle home directories.
Installing the Software on a System with an Existing Oracle Installation
You must install this product into a new Oracle home directory. You cannot install
products from one release of Oracle Database into an Oracle home directory of a
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
1-7
Installation Considerations
different release. For example, you cannot install Oracle Database 11g Release 2
software into an existing Oracle9i Oracle home directory.
You can install this release more than once on the same system if each installation is
installed in a separate Oracle home directory.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
The Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server provides the infrastructure to
include your single instance database in an enterprise grid architecture. Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) combines these infrastructure products into one software
installation called the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home. On a single instance database,
the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home includes Oracle Restart and Oracle Automatic
Storage Management (Oracle ASM) software.
If you want to use Oracle ASM or Oracle Restart, then you should first install Oracle
Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, and then install Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2).
Chapter 3, "Oracle Grid Infrastructure" for more
information about installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
standalone server
See Also:
Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services
When you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server, it will configure
the single-node version of Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS). The CSS
service is required to enable synchronization between an Oracle ASM instance and the
database instances that rely on it for database file storage. Because the service must be
running before any Oracle ASM instance or database instance starts, it is configured to
start automatically by Oracle Restart before the Oracle ASM instance is started.
For single instance installations, the CSS daemon is installed in and runs from the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure home which is the same home that runs Oracle ASM.
See Also:
■
■
■
"Oracle Automatic Storage Management" on page 1-13
"Reconfiguring Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services" on
page 7-1
"Removing Oracle Software Using the Deinstallation Tool" on
page 7-1
Installing Oracle Database Vault in an Oracle Data Guard Environment
If you plan to use Oracle Data Guard with Oracle Database Vault, then refer to Note
754065.1 on the My Oracle Support Web site at the following URL:
https://support.oracle.com/
Oracle Database Vault Default Audit Policy and Initialization Parameters
Oracle Database Vault installs a baseline database auditing policy. This policy covers
the access control configuration information stored in Database Vault database tables,
information stored in Oracle Catalog (rollback segments, tablespaces, and so on), the
use of system privileges, and Oracle Label Security configuration. When you install
1-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Oracle Database Installation Methods
Oracle Database Vault, the security specific database initialization parameters are
initialized with default values.
See Also: Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide for more
information about the database audit policy
Oracle Database Installation Methods
You can choose different installation methods to install Oracle Database, as follows:
■
Interactive Installation Types
■
Automated Installation Methods Using Response Files
Interactive Installation Types
When you use the interactive method to install Oracle Database, Oracle Universal
Installer displays a series of screens that enable you to specify all the required
information to install the Oracle Database software and optionally create a database.
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle Universal Installer provides
you the following options:
■
■
Desktop Class: Select this option if you are installing on a laptop or desktop class
system. This option includes a starter database and allows minimal configuration.
This option is designed for those who want to quickly set up a database.
Server Class: Select this option if you are installing on a server class system, such
as what you would use when deploying Oracle in a production data center. This
option allows for more advanced configuration options. Advanced configuration
options available with this option include Oracle RAC, Oracle ASM, backup and
recovery configuration, integration with Enterprise Manager Grid Control, and
more fine-grained memory tuning, among others.
Furthermore, the Server Class option provides you with the following installation
types:
–
Typical: Select this installation method if you want to quickly install Oracle
Database. This installation type requires minimal user input. It installs the
software and optionally creates a general-purpose database using the
information that you specify on the screen. It is the default installation type.
–
Advanced: Select this installation type if you want to complete any of the
following tasks:
–
Select a database character set or different product languages
–
Create the EXAMPLE tablespace during the installation
–
Create a database on a different file system from the software
–
Specify different passwords for administrative schemas
–
Configure automated backups or Oracle Enterprise Manager notifications
–
Configure Oracle Configuration Manager
–
Customize components from the available components list. In the Select
Database Edition screen, if you select Enterprise Edition, then Oracle
Universal Installer automatically selects the components most customers
need for their Oracle Database installation. You can also click Select
Options to customize components from the components list.
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
1-9
Software Updates Option
See Also: "Reviewing Component-Specific Installation Guidelines"
on page 4-1 for additional information about Oracle database
installation
Automated Installation Methods Using Response Files
By creating a response file and specifying this file when you start Oracle Universal
Installer, you can automate some or all of the Oracle Database installation. These
automated installation methods are useful if you must perform multiple installations
on similarly configured systems or if the system where you want to install the software
does not have X Window system software installed.
When you use a response file, you can run Oracle Universal Installer in the following
modes, depending on whether you specify all of the required information or not:
■
■
Silent Mode: Oracle Universal Installer runs in silent mode if you use a response
file that specifies all required information, and specify the-silent option when
starting Oracle Universal Installer. None of the Oracle Universal Installer screens
are displayed.
Response File Mode: Oracle Universal Installer runs in response file mode if you
do not specify all required information in the response file.
For more information about these modes and about how to complete an installation
using response files, refer to Appendix A.
Software Updates Option
Use the Software Updates feature to dynamically download and apply the latest
updates released by Oracle; such as, interim patch updates, critical patch updates,
Oracle Universal Installer updates, and the latest patch set updates. This functionality
is available with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2).
You can choose to download the latest updates by providing your My Oracle Support
credentials or you can apply previously downloaded updates. You can also download
the updates separately using the -downloadUpdates option and later apply them
during the Oracle Database installation by providing the location where the updates
are present.
See Also: "Running Oracle Universal Installer" on page 4-9 for more
information on the -downloadUpdates option, and dynamically
applying software updates during installation
Oracle Database Editions
You can choose one of the following database editions when installing Oracle Database
11g Release 2 (11.2):
■
■
Enterprise Edition: Installs licensable Oracle Database options and database
configuration and management tools in addition to all of the products that are
installed during a Standard Edition installation. It also installs products most
commonly used for data warehousing and transaction processing. This option also
allows you to enable or disable individual components from a components list.
Standard Edition: This installation type is designed for department or
workgroup-level applications and for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).
It is engineered to provide core relational database management services and
1-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Database Configuration Options
options. It installs an integrated set of management tools, full distribution,
replication, Web features, and facilities for building business-critical applications.
■
Standard Edition One: This installation type is designed for department,
workgroup-level, or Web applications. From single instance environments for
small business to highly distributed branch environments, Oracle Database
Standard Edition One includes all the facilities necessary to build business-critical
applications.
See Also:
■
■
You must install Oracle Database Client separately. You cannot
install it during an Oracle Database installation. Refer to Oracle
Database Client Installation Guide for Linux for installation
instructions.
Oracle Database Licensing Information for more information about
the features available with each Oracle Database edition and for
information about licensing
Note:
■
■
The installation process is the same for all the database editions.
Ensure that you install only those products for which you have a
valid license.
Database Configuration Options
During the installation, you can choose whether you want to create an Oracle database
as part of the installation. If you choose to create an Oracle database, then Oracle
Universal Installer uses Oracle Database Configuration Assistant to create it. You can
choose to create one of the preconfigured database types, which are designed for a
variety of different applications, modify one of the preconfigured database types, or
create a customized database to suit the requirements.
This section describes the following database configuration options:
■
Preconfigured Database Types
■
Installation Choices that Affect Database Creation
■
Creating a Database After Installation
Preconfigured Database Types
Oracle provides the following preconfigured database types that you can create or
customize during the installation:
■
General Purpose/Transaction Processing
■
Data Warehouse
Refer to the online help provided by either Oracle Universal Installer or Oracle
Database Configuration Assistant for a description of these preconfigured database
types.
Overview of Oracle Database Installation 1-11
Database Storage Options
Installation Choices that Affect Database Creation
Oracle Universal Installer runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in one of two
modes, depending on the choices that you make during the installation:
■
Silent or response file mode
If you choose either the Enterprise Edition or Standard Edition database edition,
then choose to create a preconfigured database type. Oracle Universal Installer
prompts you for the minimum amount of information required to create a
database of the type you choose. It then runs Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant in silent or response file mode to create the database after it installs the
software.
Oracle recommends that you use this method to create a
database if you have not previously created one.
Note:
■
Interactive mode
Install the database using Oracle Universal Installer and launch Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant from Oracle home. Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant will run in interactive mode. Using the screens in Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant, you can either modify one of the preconfigured database
types or customize the database.
Note: If you choose this method to create a database, then click
Help on any of the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant
screens for a description of the information that you must specify
on that screen.
Creating a Database After Installation
If you decide not to create a database during the installation, then you can use Oracle
Database Configuration Assistant to create one after you have installed the software.
For more information about using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant to create a
database after installation, refer to the Oracle Database 2 Day DBA manual.
Database Storage Options
If you choose to create a database during the installation, you can specify one of the
following storage options for database files:
■
File System
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Installing files on raw devices is no longer an option during
installation. You must use a file system, or use Oracle ASM.
Note:
File System
If you choose the file system option, then Oracle Database Configuration Assistant
creates the database files in a directory on a file system mounted on the computer.
Oracle recommends that the file system you choose be separate from the file systems
1-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Database Storage Options
used by the operating system or the Oracle software. The file system that you choose
can be any of the following:
■
A file system on a disk that is physically attached to the system
If you are creating a database on basic disks that are not logical volumes or RAID
devices, then Oracle recommends that you follow the Optimal Flexible
Architecture (OFA) recommendations and distribute the database files over more
than one disk.
■
A file system on a logical volume manager (LVM) volume or a RAID device
If you are using multiple disks in an LVM or RAID configuration, then Oracle
recommends that you use the stripe and mirror everything (SAME) methodology
to increase performance and reliability. Using this methodology, you do not need
to specify more than one file system mount point for database storage.
■
A network file system (NFS) mounted from a certified network attached storage
(NAS) device. You also have the option to use the Direct NFS feature, which
simplifies the administration of NFS configurations and also offers performance
improvements.
See Also: "Direct NFS Client" on page 5-12 for more information
about the Direct NFS feature
If the NAS device is certified by Oracle, then you can store the database files on
them.
If you choose the Advanced database creation option, then you can also choose to use
the Oracle Managed Files feature with the new database. If you use this feature, then
you must specify only the database object name instead of file names when creating or
deleting database files.
See Also: "Specifying Oracle Managed Files at Database Creation"
in Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about
Oracle Managed Files
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) is a high-performance storage
management solution. For Oracle Database files, it simplifies the management of a
dynamic database environment, such as creating and laying out databases and
managing disk space.
Oracle ASM can be used with single database installations, multiple database
installations, and in Oracle RAC environments. It can be used with databases created
in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1.0.3 or later). However, Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2) databases must use Oracle ASM from Oracle Database 11g Release 2
(11.2) or later. Oracle ASM is installed as part of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation. If you plan to use Oracle ASM, then you must install Oracle Grid
Infrastructure before installing your database. If you want to upgrade an existing
Oracle ASM installation, then you must upgrade Oracle ASM by running an Oracle
Grid Infrastructure upgrade.
Chapter 3, "Oracle Grid Infrastructure" for more
information about installing the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software
See Also:
Oracle ASM manages the storage of all database files, such as redo logs, control files,
and data pump export files.
Overview of Oracle Database Installation 1-13
Database Storage Options
Oracle ASM can manage the Oracle Database executable binary files as well as any
other non-database file by creating a file system with Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Cluster File System. Though Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Cluster File System is cluster aware it works as a file system on a single instance
database also.
See Also: "Introduction to Oracle ACFS" in Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Administrator's Guide for information about Oracle
Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System
At a high level, implementing Oracle ASM involves allocating partitioned disks for
Oracle Database with preferences for striping and mirroring. Oracle ASM manages the
disk space for you. This helps avoid the need for traditional disk management tools,
such as Logical Volume Managers (LVM), file systems, and the numerous commands
necessary to manage both. The synchronization between Oracle ASM and the database
instance is handled by CSS.
The following are components of an Oracle ASM installation:
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Groups
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instance
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Groups
A disk group is a set of disk devices that Oracle ASM manages as a single unit. Each
disk device can be an individual physical disk, a multiple disk device, such as a RAID
storage array or logical volume, or even a partition on a physical disk. However, in
most cases, disk groups consist of one or more individual physical disks. To enable
Oracle ASM to balance input-output operation and storage efficiently within the disk
group, you must ensure that all devices in the disk group have similar, if not identical,
storage capacity and performance.
You can set the redundancy and striping attributes of individual file types within a
disk group by using Oracle ASM disk group templates. When you create a disk group,
Oracle ASM creates a set of default templates for that disk group. Default template
settings depend on the disk group type. For example, the default template for control
files for both normal and high redundancy disk groups is set to three-way mirroring.
All other file templates are two-way mirrored. For a high redundancy disk group, the
default mirroring cannot be changed, which implies that all files are always three-way
mirrored in a high redundancy disk group. You can modify the default templates to
suit your site’s needs. Refer to Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's
Guide for more information.
Oracle ASM spreads data evenly across all the devices in the disk group to optimize
performance and utilization. You can add or remove disk devices from a disk group
without shutting down the database. When you add or remove disks, Oracle ASM
rebalances the files across the disk group. You can create multiple disk groups to
handle specific tasks, such as backup and recovery operations, in addition to regular
file storage activities.
When you add a device to a disk group, you can specify a failure group for that device.
Failure groups identify disk devices that have common failure characteristics, for
example, devices that are attached to the same controller. If the controller fails, then all
devices attached to it become unavailable. By default, each device also belongs to its
own failure group. By using the failure groups you specify, Oracle ASM can distribute
data among the devices in the disk group to minimize the risk of data loss caused by
component failures.
1-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Database Management Options
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instance
The Oracle ASM instance is a special Oracle instance that manages Oracle ASM disk
groups. The Oracle ASM instance and the ASMSNMP account are created and started, if
necessary, when you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure. Oracle Enterprise Manager
uses this account to monitor ASM instances to retrieve data from ASM-related data
dictionary views. The ASMSNMP account status is set to OPEN upon creation, and it is
granted the SYSDBA privilege.
Oracle recommends that you have the Oracle ASM instance in its own Oracle home.
Oracle also recommends that you run this instance before you start a database instance
that uses Oracle ASM.
For an Oracle Database installation, you only need one Oracle ASM instance,
regardless of the number of database instances on the computer.
See Also: "Managing Oracle ASM Users with Oracle Enterprise
Manager" in Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's
Guide for information about the ASMSNMP user
Database Management Options
To simplify database administration, Oracle provides a Web-based management tool
called Oracle Enterprise Manager. There are two ways to deploy Oracle Enterprise
Manager:
■
Deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager centrally in the environment
To deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager centrally, you must install at least one Oracle
Management Repository and one Oracle Management Service within the
environment, then install an Oracle Enterprise Management Agent on every
computer that you want to manage. You can then use a single HTML interface to
manage and monitor software and hardware targets on all of those systems.
Targets can include Oracle databases, application servers, Net listeners, and
third-party software. This single interface is called Oracle Enterprise Manager
Grid Control (or simply Grid Control).
Note:
■
Oracle Enterprise Manager is available separately on the Oracle
Enterprise Manager Grid Control installation media, and also
on the Oracle Technology Network Web site at:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/documentation/
oem.html
■
For latest certification information, refer to My Oracle Support
note 412431.1, "Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control
Certification Checker", available from the following URL:
https://support.oracle.com/
■
Deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control locally on the database
system
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control software is installed by default with
every Oracle Database installation. This local installation provides a Web-based
interface called Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control. The Database
Control is similar in function to the Grid Control, but it can manage only a single
Overview of Oracle Database Installation 1-15
Database Management Options
database. If you want to administer more than one database on this system, then
you must either configure a separate Database Control for each database, or install
Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control.
Note: Refer to the Oracle Enterprise Manager Concepts manual and
the Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control Basic Installation Guide on
the Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control installation media for
more information about Oracle Enterprise Manager.
This section contains the following topics:
■
Management Options for Preconfigured Databases
■
Management Options for Custom Databases
■
Features Provided by Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
Management Options for Preconfigured Databases
When you choose to create a preconfigured database during the installation, you must
select the Oracle Enterprise Manager interface that you want to use to manage the
database. The following options are available:
■
Use Grid Control for central database management
This option is available only if an Enterprise Manager Database Control Agent is
installed on the system. When Oracle Universal Installer detects an Oracle
Management Agent on the system, you can choose this option and specify the
Oracle Management Service that you want to use to manage the database.
If an Oracle Management Agent is not installed, then you must use Database
Control to manage the database. However, if Oracle Management Agent is
installed after Oracle Database, then you can use Grid Control to manage this
database.
■
Use Database Control for local database management
This option is selected by default if an Oracle Management Agent is not installed
on the system. However, even if a Management Agent is installed, you can still
choose to configure Database Control to manage the database.
Management Options for Custom Databases
Install the database using Oracle Universal Installer and launch Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant from Oracle home. Oracle Database Configuration Assistant
will run in interactive mode. Using a screen in Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant, you can specify the Oracle Enterprise Manager interface that you want to
use to manage the database. Alternatively, you can also choose not to configure the
database with Enterprise Manager.
Oracle recommends that you configure the database to use Enterprise Manager during
installation. However, if you choose not to configure the database to use Enterprise
Manager during the installation, then you can use Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant after the installation to configure the database to use it.
Features Provided by Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control provides a Web-based user interface that
enables you to monitor, administer, and maintain an Oracle database. You can use it to
1-16 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Database Backup and Recovery Options
perform all database administration tasks. You can also use it to determine
information about the database, such as:
■
Instance name, database version, Oracle home location, media recovery options,
and other instance data
■
Current instance availability
■
Database alert information
■
Session and SQL-related performance information
■
Space usage matrix
In addition, it provides you with automatic notification of security alerts, and the
ability to download and apply patches for the software.
Database Backup and Recovery Options
If you choose to use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control during the
installation, then you can optionally enable automated database backups that use the
Oracle-suggested default backup strategy. You do not have to enable automated
backups during the installation. If you prefer, you can use Oracle Enterprise Manager
Database Control or Grid Control to configure automated backups after you install the
software and create a database.
This section contains the following topics:
■
Enabling Automated Backups
■
Backup Job Default Settings
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for information about using Oracle
Enterprise Manager Database Control to configure or customize
automated backups or to recover a backed up database
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for more detailed
information about defining a backup strategy and backing up and
recovering Oracle databases
Enabling Automated Backups
If you enable automated backups, then Oracle Enterprise Manager schedules a daily
backup job that uses Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN) to back up all of the database
files to a disk storage area called the fast recovery area. The first time the backup job
runs, it creates a full backup of the database. Subsequent backup jobs perform
incremental backups, which enable you to recover the database to its state at any point
during the preceding 24 hours.
To enable automated backup jobs during installation, you must specify the following
information:
■
The location of the fast recovery area
You can choose to use either a file system directory or an Oracle ASM disk group
for the fast recovery area. To set the default values for fast recovery area and data
file location, use Oracle base as the starting point.
–
Default fast recovery area: $ORACLE_BASE/recovery_area
–
Default data file location: $ORACLE_BASE/oradata
Overview of Oracle Database Installation 1-17
E-mail Notification Options
The default disk quota configured for the fast recovery area is 2 GB. For Oracle
ASM disk groups, the required disk space depends on the redundancy level of the
disk group that you choose. Chapter 2 describes how to choose the location of the
fast recovery area and identifies its disk space requirements.
■
An operating system user name and password for the backup job
Oracle Enterprise Manager uses the operating system credentials that you specify
when running the backup job. The user name that you specify must belong to the
UNIX group that identifies database administrators (the ORA_DBA group). This
user also must have Logon As A Batch Job privilege.
Backup Job Default Settings
If you enable automated backups after choosing one of the preconfigured databases
during the installation, then automated backup is configured with the following
default settings:
■
The backup job is scheduled to run nightly at 2 a.m.
■
The disk quota for the fast recovery area is 2 GB.
If you enable automated backups by using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant,
either during or after the installation, then you can specify a different start time for the
backup job and a different disk quota for the fast recovery area.
E-mail Notification Options
If you choose to use the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control during the
installation, then you can configure Enterprise Manager to send an e-mail when
specific events occur. These events can include occurrences such as disk space reaching
a critical limit (a threshold), or a database shutting down unexpectedly.
If you choose to enable e-mail notifications, then you must specify the following
information:
■
The host name of a Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) server
■
The e-mail address that should receive the alerts
The e-mail address that you specify could belong to an individual or it could be a
shared e-mail account or a distribution list.
You can use Enterprise Manager Database Control to set up, change, or customize
e-mail notifications after you have created the database.
Migration Consideration
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) database for 32-bit Linux can be migrated to an
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) database for 64-bit Linux. Refer to "Database
Migration from a 32-Bit Linux to 64-Bit Linux Computer" section in the Oracle Database
Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX-Based Operating Systems for migration
information.
Upgrade Considerations
For information about upgrading a earlier release of Oracle Database to Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), refer to Oracle Database Upgrade Guide. The following
1-18 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Upgrade Considerations
sections provide additional platform-specific upgrade information that you should
review before upgrading an existing database:
■
Upgrading an Oracle Database Installed on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1
■
Oracle ASM Is Installed with Oracle Grid Infrastructure
■
Daylight Savings Time Upgrade
■
Upgrading an Oracle Database in the Same Oracle Home
Upgrading an Oracle Database Installed on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1
If you have the 8.1.7, 9.0.1, 9.2.0, or 10.1 release of Oracle Database installed on Red
Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1, then you must first upgrade the operating system to Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 4 (update 3) before you upgrade the database. To do this, perform
any one of the following procedures:
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Upgrade the operating system. Then, upgrade the database either manually or by
using Oracle Database Upgrade Assistant.
Copy the database files. This procedure involves the following steps:
1.
Copy the database files from the computer running Red Hat Enterprise Linux
2.1 to the one running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.
2.
Re-create the control files on the computer running Red Hat Enterprise Linux
4.
3.
Manually upgrade the database.
You cannot use Oracle Database Upgrade Assistant if you
follow this method. However, this method lets you easily revert to the
earlier database.
Note:
■
Upgrade the database by using the Export/Import utilities.
Oracle ASM Is Installed with Oracle Grid Infrastructure
In previous releases, Oracle ASM was installed as part of the Oracle Database
installation. With Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is part of an Oracle
Grid Infrastructure installation, either for a cluster, or for a standalone server.
If you want to upgrade an existing Oracle ASM installation, then you must upgrade
Oracle ASM by running an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade. If you do not have
Oracle ASM installed and you want to use Oracle ASM as your storage option, then
you must complete an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation before you start your
Oracle Database installation.
See Also:
■
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
Overview of Oracle Database Installation 1-19
Upgrade Considerations
Daylight Savings Time Upgrade
Refer to "Daylight Savings Time Upgrade of Timestamp with Timezone Data Type" for
information about Daylight Savings Time Upgrade.
Upgrading an Oracle Database in the Same Oracle Home
Refer to the Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for more information about performing an
in-place Oracle Database upgrade.
1-20 Oracle Database Installation Guide
2
Oracle Database Preinstallation
Requirements
2
This chapter describes the tasks that you must complete before you start Oracle
Universal Installer. It includes information about the following tasks:
Note:
■
■
This guide contains information required to install Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) on various platforms. Ensure that
you review information related to the platform on which you
intend to install Oracle Database 11g.
If you want to use Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle
ASM) or Oracle Restart, then you must first install Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a standalone server and then install Oracle
Database.
■
Logging In to the System as root
■
Checking the Hardware Requirements
■
Checking the Software Requirements
■
Installation Fixup Scripts
■
Enabling Core File Creation
■
Installing the cvuqdisk Package for Linux
■
Checking the Network Setup
■
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
■
Check Resource Limits for the Oracle Software Installation Users
■
Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux
■
Identifying Required Software Directories
■
Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory
■
Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery Files
■
Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files
■
Configuring Storage for Oracle Database Files Using Block Devices
■
Configuring Disk Devices for Oracle Database
■
Stopping Existing Oracle Processes
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
2-1
Logging In to the System as root
■
Configuring the oracle User’s Environment
See Also:
■
■
■
"Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation" for
installation requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
"Pre-installation Requirements" section in Oracle Configuration
Manager Installation and Administration Guide and Oracle
Configuration Manager Prerequisites for preinstallation requirements
for Oracle Configuration Manager
Appendix A, "Country Codes", in Oracle Configuration Manager
Installation and Administration Guide for a list of valid country
codes that can be used while installing Oracle Configuration
Manager
Logging In to the System as root
Before you install the Oracle software, you must complete several tasks as the root
user. To log in as the root user, complete one of the following procedures:
Unless you intend to complete a silent-mode installation,
you must install the software from an X Window System
workstation, an X terminal, or a PC or other system with X server
software installed.
Note:
For more information about silent-mode installations, refer to
Appendix A.
■
Following are the steps for installing the software from an X Window System
workstation or X terminal:
1.
Start a local terminal session, for example, an X terminal (xterm).
2.
If you are not installing the software on the local system, then enter the
following command to enable the remote host to display X applications on the
local X server:
$ xhost fully_qualified_remote_host_name
For example:
$ xhost somehost.us.example.com
3.
If you are not installing the software on the local system, then use the ssh,
rlogin, or telnet command to connect to the system where you want to
install the software:
$ telnet fully_qualified_remote_host_name
4.
If you are not logged in as the root user, then enter the following command
to switch user to root:
$ sudo sh
password:
#
■
Following are the steps for installing the software from a PC or other system with
X server software:
2-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Checking the Hardware Requirements
If necessary, refer to the X server documentation, or contact
your X server vendor or system administrator for more information
about completing this procedure. Depending on the X server
software that you are using, you may need to complete the tasks in
a different order.
Note:
1.
Start the X server software.
2.
Configure the security settings of the X server software to permit remote hosts
to display X applications on the local system.
3.
Connect to the remote system where you want to install the software and start
a terminal session on that system, for example, an X terminal (xterm).
4.
If you are not logged in as the root user on the remote system, then enter the
following command to switch user to root:
$ sudo sh
password:
#
Checking the Hardware Requirements
The system must meet the following minimum hardware requirements:
■
Memory Requirements
■
System Architecture
■
Disk Space Requirements
■
Display Requirements
Memory Requirements
The following are the memory requirements for installing Oracle Database 11g Release
2.
On Linux x86:
■
At least 1 GB of RAM
To determine the RAM size, enter the following command:
# grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
If the size of the RAM is less than the required size, then you must install more
memory before continuing.
■
The following table describes the relationship between installed RAM and the
configured swap space recommendation:
On Linux, the HugePages feature allocates non-swappable
memory for large page tables using memory-mapped files. If you
enable HugePages, then you should deduct the memory allocated to
HugePages from the available RAM before calculating swap space.
Note:
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
2-3
Checking the Hardware Requirements
RAM
Swap Space
Between 1 GB and 2 GB
1.5 times the size of RAM
Between 2 GB and 16 GB
Equal to the size of RAM
More than 16 GB
16 GB
On Linux x86-64:
■
At least 4 GB of RAM
To determine the RAM size, enter the following command:
# grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
If the size of the RAM is less than the required size, then you must install more
memory before continuing.
■
The following table describes the relationship between installed RAM and the
configured swap space recommendation:
On Linux, the HugePages feature allocates non-swappable
memory for large page tables using memory-mapped files. If you
enable HugePages, then you should deduct the memory allocated to
HugePages from the available RAM before calculating swap space.
Note:
RAM
Swap Space
Between 4 GB and 8 GB
2 times the size of RAM
Between 8 GB and 32 GB
1.5 times the size of RAM
More than 32 GB
32 GB
If the size of the RAM is less than the required size, then you must install more
memory before continuing.
To determine the size of the configured swap space, enter the following command:
# grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo
If necessary, refer to the operating system documentation for information about how to
configure additional swap space.
To determine the available RAM and swap space, enter the following command:
# free
Oracle recommends that you take multiple values for the
available RAM and swap space before finalizing a value. This is
because the available RAM and swap space keep changing
depending on the user interactions with the computer.
Note:
Automatic Memory Management
Starting with Oracle Database 11g, the Automatic Memory Management feature
requires more shared memory (/dev/shm)and file descriptors. The size of the shared
2-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Checking the Hardware Requirements
memory should be at least the greater of MEMORY_MAX_TARGET and MEMORY_TARGET
for each Oracle instance on the computer. If MEMORY_MAX_TARGET or MEMORY_
TARGET is set to a non zero value, and an incorrect size is assigned to the shared
memory, it will result in an ORA-00845 error at startup. On Linux systems, if the
operating system /dev/shm mount size is too small for the Oracle system global area
(SGA) and program global area (PGA), even then it will result in an ORA-00845 error.
The number of file descriptors for each Oracle instance should be at least
512*PROCESSES. Also, the limit of descriptors for each process should be at least 512.
If file descriptors are not sized correctly, you will notice ORA-27123 from various
Oracle processes and potentially Linux Error EMFILE (Too many open
files) errors in non-Oracle processes.
To determine the amount of shared memory available, enter the following command:
# df -h /dev/shm/
Note: MEMORY_MAX_TARGET and MEMORY_TARGET cannot be used
when LOCK_SGA is enabled or with HugePages on Linux.
On the Initialization Parameters page, note the Memory Size (SGA and PGA), which
sets the initialization parameter MEMORY_TARGET or MEMORY_MAX_TARGET. Note that
the initialization parameters cannot be greater than the shared memory file system on
the operating system. For example, if the shared memory file system allocation on
your system is 1 GB, but you set Memory Size (MEMORY_TARGET) to 2 GB, then the
following error messages are displayed during database startup:
ORA-00845: MEMORY_TARGET not supported on this system
ORA-01078: Failure in processing system parameters
In addition, if you click All Initialization Parameters and the global database name is
longer than 8 characters, then the database name value (in the DB_NAME parameter) is
truncated to the first eight characters, and the DB_UNIQUE_NAME parameter value is
set to the global name.
The workaround, if you encounter the ORA-00845 error, is to increase the /dev/shm
mountpoint size. For example:
# mount -t tmpfs shmfs -o size=7g /dev/shm
To make this change persistent across system restarts, add an entry in /etc/fstab
similar to the following:
shmfs /dev/shm tmpfs size=7g 0
System Architecture
To determine whether the system architecture can run the software, enter the
following command:
# uname -m
Verify that the processor architecture matches the Oracle software release that you
want to install. If you do not see the expected output, then you cannot install the
software on this system.
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
2-5
Checking the Hardware Requirements
Disk Space Requirements
The following are the disk space requirements for installing Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2):
■
1 GB of space in the /tmp directory
To determine the amount of space available in the /tmp directory, enter the
following command:
# df -h /tmp
If the free space available in the /tmp directory is less than what is required, then
complete one of the following steps:
■
■
Delete unnecessary files from the /tmp directory to meet the disk space
requirement.
Set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables when setting the oracle
user’s environment.
"Configuring the oracle User’s Environment" on page 2-43
for more information about setting TMP and TMPDIR
See Also:
■
■
Extend the file system that contains the /tmp directory. If necessary, contact
the system administrator for information about extending file systems.
To determine the amount of free disk space on the system, enter the following
command:
# df -h
■
The following tables describe the disk space requirements for software files, and
data files for each installation type on Linux x86:
Installation Type
Requirement for Software Files (GB)
Enterprise Edition
3.95
Standard Edition
3.88
Installation Type
Disk Space for Data Files (GB)
Enterprise Edition
1.7
Standard Edition
1.5
■
The following tables describe the disk space requirements for software files, and
data files for each installation type on Linux x86-64:
Installation Type
Requirement for Software Files (GB)
Enterprise Edition
4.35
Standard Edition
3.73
Installation Type
Disk Space for Data Files (GB)
Enterprise Edition
1.68
Standard Edition
1.48
2-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Checking the Software Requirements
Additional disk space, either on a file system or on an Oracle ASM disk group is
required for the fast recovery area if you choose to configure automated backups.
Display Requirements
The minimum display requirement for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) is a
resolution of 1024 x 768 or higher.
Checking the Software Requirements
Depending on the products that you intend to install, verify that the following
softwares are installed on the system.
Note:
■
■
This guide contains information required to install Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) on various platforms. Ensure that
you review information related to the platform on which you
intend to install Oracle Database 11g.
Oracle Universal Installer performs checks on the system to
verify that it meets the listed requirements. To ensure that these
checks pass, verify the requirements before you start Oracle
Universal Installer.
■
Operating System Requirements
■
Kernel Requirements
■
Package Requirements
■
Compiler Requirements
■
Additional Software Requirements
Operating System Requirements
The following or later versions of the operating systems are required for Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 (11.2):
■
■
On Linux x86:
–
Asianux Server 3 SP2
–
Oracle Linux 4 Update 7
–
Oracle Linux 5 Update 2
–
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 Update 7
–
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Update 2
–
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP2
–
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11
On Linux x86-64
–
Asianux Server 3 SP2
–
Oracle Linux 4 Update 7
–
Oracle Linux 5 Update 2
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
2-7
Checking the Software Requirements
–
Oracle Linux 5 Update 5 (only if using Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel)
–
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 Update 7
–
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Update 2
–
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Update 5 (only if using Red Hat compatible
kernel)
–
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 SP2
–
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), the Security Enhanced Linux (SE
Linux) feature is supported for Oracle Linux 4, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4, Oracle
Linux 5, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.
For Asianux Server, Oracle Linux, and Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, system requirements are identical by kernel version.
Specifically:
Note:
■
■
■
Oracle Linux 4 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 requirements are
the same.
Asianux Server 3, Oracle Linux 5, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5
Update 2 requirements are the same.
The Oracle Unbreakable Linux 5 Update 5 (2.6.32) kernel contains
several additional features and performance enhancements not
available either with Oracle Linux or with other supported Linux
distributions.
To determine the distribution and version of Linux installed, enter the following
command:
# cat /proc/version
Alternatively, you can also enter the following command on some distributions of
Linux:
# lsb_release -id
Only the distributions and versions listed in the earlier list
are supported. Do not install the software on other versions of
Linux.
Note:
See Also: "Hardware and Software Certification" on page 1-7 for
information about how to access the latest system requirements
Kernel Requirements
The following are the kernel requirements for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2):
For Linux x86
■
On Oracle Linux 4 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4:
2.6.9 or later
■
On Asianux Server 3, Oracle Linux 5, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5:
2-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Checking the Software Requirements
2.6.18 or later
■
On SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10:
2.6.16.21 or later
■
On SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11:
2.6.27.19 or later
For Linux x86-64
■
On Oracle Linux 4 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4:
2.6.9 or later
■
On Oracle Linux 5 Update 5 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Update 5:
–
The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel based on the 2.6.32 stable kernel
–
The Red Hat compatible kernel for strict Red Hat compatibility
Refer to "About Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for Linux" on page 1-4
■
On Asianux Server 3, Oracle Linux 5 Update 2, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5
Update 2:
2.6.18 or later
■
On SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10:
2.6.16.21 or later
■
On SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11:
2.6.27.19 or later
To determine whether the required kernel is installed, enter the following command:
# uname -r
The following is a sample output displayed by running this command on an Oracle
Linux 5 system:
2.6.18-128.el5PAE
In this example, the output shows the kernel version (2.6.18) and errata level
(-128.el5PAE) on the system.
If the kernel version does not meet the requirement, then contact the operating system
vendor for information about obtaining and installing kernel updates.
Package Requirements
The following are the list of packages required for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2):
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
2-9
Checking the Software Requirements
Note:
■
■
■
■
Oracle recommends that you install your Linux operating system
with the default software packages (RPMs), unless you
specifically intend to perform a minimal installation, and follow
the directions for performing such an installation to ensure that
you have all required packages for Oracle software.
Oracle recommends that you do not customize RPMs during a
default operating system installation. A default installation
includes most required packages, and will help you to limit
manual checks of package dependencies.
If you did not perform a default Linux installation, you intend to
use LDAP, and you want to use the scripts odisrvreg, oidca, or
schemasync, then install the Korn shell RPM for the Linux
distribution.
You must install the packages (or later versions) listed in the
following table. Also, ensure that the list of RPMs and all of the
prerequisites for these RPMs are installed.
On Linux x86:
Operating System
Requirement
Oracle Linux 4 and Red
Hat Enterprise Linux 4
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.15.92.0.2
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3
elfutils-libelf-0.97
elfutils-libelf-devel-0.97
gcc-3.4.6
gcc-c++-3.4.6
glibc-2.3.4-2.41
glibc-common-2.3.4
glibc-devel-2.3.4
glibc-headers-2.3.4
libaio-devel-0.3.105
libaio-0.3.105
libgcc-3.4.6
libstdc++-3.4.6
libstdc++-devel-3.4.6
make-3.80
numactl-0.6.4.i386
pdksh-5.2.14
sysstat-5.0.5
2-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Checking the Software Requirements
Operating System
Requirement
Asianux Server 3, Oracle
Linux 5, and Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 5
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
SUSE Linux Enterprise
Server 10
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.17.50.0.6
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3
elfutils-libelf-0.125
elfutils-libelf-devel-0.125
elfutils-libelf-devel-static-0.125
gcc-4.1.2
gcc-c++-4.1.2
glibc-2.5-24
glibc-common-2.5
glibc-devel-2.5
glibc-headers-2.5
kernel-headers-2.6.18
ksh-20060214
libaio-0.3.106
libaio-devel-0.3.106
libgcc-4.1.2
libgomp-4.1.2
libstdc++-4.1.2
libstdc++-devel-4.1.2
make-3.81
numactl-devel-0.9.8.i386
sysstat-7.0.2
binutils-2.16.91.0.5
compat-libstdc++-5.0.7
gcc-4.1.2
gcc-c++-4.1.2
glibc-2.4-31.63
glibc-devel-2.4-31.63
ksh-93r-12.9
libaio-0.3.104
libaio-devel-0.3.104
libelf-0.8.5
libgcc-4.1.2
libstdc++-4.1.2
libstdc++-devel-4.1.2
make-3.80
sysstat-8.0.4
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-11
Checking the Software Requirements
Operating System
Requirement
SUSE Linux Enterprise
Server 11
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.19
gcc-4.3
gcc-c++-4.3
glibc-2.9
glibc-devel-2.9
ksh-93t
libstdc++33-3.3.3
libstdc++43-4.3.3_20081022
libstdc++43-devel-4.3.3_20081022
libaio-0.3.104
libaio-devel-0.3.104
libgcc43-4.3.3_20081022
libstdc++-devel-4.3
make-3.81
sysstat-8.1.5
Note:
The numa package link for Linux x86 is /usr/lib.
On Linux x86-64:
IMPORTANT:
■
■
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2), all the 32-bit
packages, except for gcc-32bit-4.3, listed in the following
table are no longer required for installing a database on Linux
x86-64. Only the 64-bit packages are required. However, for any
Oracle Database 11g release prior to 11.2.0.2, both the 32-bit and
64-bit packages listed in the following table are required.
If you are using Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel, then all
required kernel packages are installed as part of the Oracle
Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel installation.
2-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Checking the Software Requirements
Operating System
Requirement
Oracle Linux 4 and Red
Hat Enterprise Linux 4
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.15.92.0.2
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3 (32 bit)
elfutils-libelf-0.97
elfutils-libelf-devel-0.97
expat-1.95.7
gcc-3.4.6
gcc-c++-3.4.6
glibc-2.3.4-2.41
glibc-2.3.4-2.41 (32 bit)
glibc-common-2.3.4
glibc-devel-2.3.4
glibc-headers-2.3.4
libaio-0.3.105
libaio-0.3.105 (32 bit)
libaio-devel-0.3.105
libaio-devel-0.3.105 (32 bit)
libgcc-3.4.6
libgcc-3.4.6 (32-bit)
libstdc++-3.4.6
libstdc++-3.4.6 (32 bit)
libstdc++-devel 3.4.6
make-3.80
numactl-0.6.4.x86_64
pdksh-5.2.14
sysstat-5.0.5
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-13
Checking the Software Requirements
Operating System
Requirement
Asianux Server 3, Oracle
Linux 5, and Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 5
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
SUSE Linux Enterprise
Server 10
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.17.50.0.6
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3 (32 bit)
elfutils-libelf-0.125
elfutils-libelf-devel-0.125
gcc-4.1.2
gcc-c++-4.1.2
glibc-2.5-24
glibc-2.5-24 (32 bit)
glibc-common-2.5
glibc-devel-2.5
glibc-devel-2.5 (32 bit)
glibc-headers-2.5
ksh-20060214
libaio-0.3.106
libaio-0.3.106 (32 bit)
libaio-devel-0.3.106
libaio-devel-0.3.106 (32 bit)
libgcc-4.1.2
libgcc-4.1.2 (32 bit)
libstdc++-4.1.2
libstdc++-4.1.2 (32 bit)
libstdc++-devel 4.1.2
make-3.81
numactl-devel-0.9.8.x86_64
sysstat-7.0.2
binutils-2.16.91.0.5
compat-libstdc++-5.0.7
gcc-4.1.0
gcc-c++-4.1.2
glibc-2.4-31.63
glibc-devel-2.4-31.63
glibc-devel-32bit-2.4-31.63
ksh-93r-12.9
libaio-0.3.104
libaio-32bit-0.3.104
libaio-devel-0.3.104
libaio-devel-32bit-0.3.104
libelf-0.8.5
libgcc-4.1.2
libstdc++-4.1.2
libstdc++-devel-4.1.2
make-3.80
numactl-0.9.6.x86_64
sysstat-8.0.4
2-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Checking the Software Requirements
Operating System
Requirement
SUSE Linux Enterprise
Server 11
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.19
gcc-4.3
gcc-32bit-4.3
gcc-c++-4.3
glibc-2.9
glibc-32bit-2.9
glibc-devel-2.9
glibc-devel-32bit-2.9
ksh-93t
libaio-0.3.104
libaio-32bit-0.3.104
libaio-devel-0.3.104
libaio-devel-32bit-0.3.104
libstdc++33-3.3.3
libstdc++33-32bit-3.3.3
libstdc++43-4.3.3_20081022
libstdc++43-32bit-4.3.3_20081022
libstdc++43-devel-4.3.3_20081022
libstdc++43-devel-32bit-4.3.3_20081022
libgcc43-4.3.3_20081022
libstdc++-devel-4.3
make-3.81
sysstat-8.1.5
Note:
The numa package link for Linux x86-64 is /usr/lib64/.
To determine whether the required packages are installed, enter commands similar to
the following:
# rpm -q package_name
If a package is not installed, then install it from the Linux distribution media or
download the required package version from the Linux vendor’s Web site.
Compiler Requirements
Intel C++ Compiler 10.1 or later and the version of GNU C and C++ compilers listed
under "Package Requirements" on page 2-9 are supported with Pro*C/C++, Oracle
Call Interface, Oracle C++ Call Interface, and Oracle XML Developer’s Kit (XDK) for
Oracle Database 11g Release 2.
Intel Compiler v10.1 can be used only with the standard
template libraries of the gcc versions mentioned in "Package
Requirements" on page 2-9, to build Oracle C++ Call Interface (OCCI)
applications.
Note:
Oracle XML Developer's Kit is supported with the same compilers as
OCCI.
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-15
Checking the Software Requirements
Additional Software Requirements
Depending on the components you want to use, you must ensure that the following
software are installed:
■
Oracle ODBC Drivers
■
Oracle JDBC/OCI Drivers
■
Linux-PAM Library
■
Oracle Messaging Gateway
■
Browser Requirements
■
Preinstallation Requirement for Oracle Database Vault
See Also: Chapter 2, "Oracle Application Express Installation
Requirements" and "Recommended Pre-installation Tasks" in Oracle
Application Express Installation Guide
Oracle ODBC Drivers
If you intend to use ODBC, then install the most recent ODBC Driver Manager for
Linux. Download and install the Driver Manager and Linux RPMs from the following
Web site:
http://www.unixodbc.org
To use ODBC on Linux x86, the following additional 32-bit ODBC RPMs are required:
■
On Oracle Linux 4 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4:
unixODBC-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
unixODBC-devel-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
■
On Asianux Server 3, Oracle Linux 5, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5:
unixODBC-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
unixODBC-devel-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
■
On SUSE 10:
unixODBC-32bit-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
unixODBC-devel-32bit-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
■
On SUSE 11:
unixODBC-32bit-2.2.12 (32-bit) or later
unixODBC-devel-32bit-2.2.12 (32 bit) or later
To use ODBC on Linux x86-64, the following additional ODBC RPMs are required:
■
On Oracle Linux 4 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4:
unixODBC-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
unixODBC-devel-2.2.11 (64 bit) or later
unixODBC-2.2.11 (64 bit ) or later
■
On Asianux Server 3, Oracle Linux 5, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5:
unixODBC-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
unixODBC-devel-2.2.11 (64 bit) or later
unixODBC-2.2.11 (64 bit) or later
■
On SUSE 10:
2-16 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Checking the Software Requirements
unixODBC-32bit-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
unixODBC-2.2.11 (64 bit ) or later
unixODBC-devel-2.2.11 (64 bit) or later
■
On SUSE 11:
unixODBC-2.2.12 or later
unixODBC-devel-2.2.12 or later
unixODBC-32bit-2.2.12 (32 bit) or later
Oracle JDBC/OCI Drivers
Use JDK 6 (Java SE Development Kit 1.6.0_21) or JDK 5 (1.5.0_24) with the JNDI
extension with the Oracle Java Database Connectivity and Oracle Call Interface
drivers. However, these are not mandatory for the database installation. Note that JDK
1.5 is installed with this release.
Linux-PAM Library
Install the latest Linux-PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules for Linux) library to
enable the system administrator to choose how applications authenticate users.
Oracle Messaging Gateway
Oracle Messaging Gateway supports the integration of Oracle Streams Advanced
Queuing (AQ) with the following software:
■
IBM WebSphere MQ V6.0, client and server, with corrective service diskette 5
(CSD05) or later:
MQSeriesClient
MQSeriesServer
MQSeriesRuntime
■
TIBCO Rendezvous 7.3
If you require a CSD for WebSphere MQ, then refer to the following Web site for
download and installation information:
http://www-306.ibm.com/software/integration/wmq/support
Browser Requirements
Web browsers must support JavaScript, and the HTML 4.0 and CSS 1.0 standards. The
following browsers meet these requirements for Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Control:
■
Netscape Navigator 8.1
■
Netscape Navigator 9.0
■
Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 SP2
■
Microsoft Internet Explorer 7.0 SP1
■
Microsoft Internet Explorer 8.0
■
Firefox 2.0
■
Firefox 3.0.7
■
Firefox 3.5
■
Firefox 3.6
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-17
Installation Fixup Scripts
■
Safari 3.1
■
Safari 3.2
■
Safari 4.0.x
■
Google Chrome 3.0
■
Google Chrome 4.0
Preinstallation Requirement for Oracle Database Vault
If you want to install Oracle Database Vault, then set the DB_BLOCK_SIZE
initialization parameter to 4096 or larger. If the value is less than 4096, then you cannot
change it. The only way to change the DB_BLOCK_SIZE value is by re-creating the
database.
See Also: "Specifying Database Block Sizes" in Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide
Installation Fixup Scripts
During installation, for certain prerequisite check failures, click Fix & Check Again to
generate a fixup script (runfixup.sh). You can run this script as the root user to
complete the required preinstallation steps.
The fixup script does the following:
■
Checks and sets kernel parameters to values required for successful installation,
including:
–
Shared memory parameters
–
Open file descriptor and UDP send/receive parameters
Oracle recommends that you do not modify the contents of the generated fixup script.
Using fixup scripts will not ensure that all the prerequisites for
installing Oracle Database are satisfied. You must still verify that all
the preinstallation requirements are met to ensure a successful
installation.
Note:
Enabling Core File Creation
During installation, the installer checks the system configuration file that sets core
dump preferences to see if core dumps are enabled. The value must be a file, and the
file is checked to see if it contains the value of one (1). The following files are checked,
in order of precedence:
/proc/sys/kernel/suid_dumpable
/proc/sys/fs/suid_dumpable
/proc/sys/kernel/core_setuid_ok
The first file that is present is read. If a value other than 1 is present in the file, then
core files are disabled. Enabling core file creation can vary between Linux
distributions; refer to your Linux vendor documentation for information about how to
enable core file creation. The following example shows how to enable core file creation
on Oracle Linux 5 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5:
2-18 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing the cvuqdisk Package for Linux
1.
Use a text editor to open the /etc/profile file of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation owner, and find the following line:
ulimit –S –c 0 > /dev/null 2>&1
Change it to the following:
ulimit -S -c unlimited > /dev/null 2>&1
2.
Use a text editor to open /etc/sysctl.conf, and find the following line:
kernel.core_uses_pid
Confirm that it is set to 1. This setting appends the PID to the generated core file,
which allows multiple core file dumps.
If kernel.core_uses_pid is missing, then add the following line:
kernel.core_uses_pid = 1
3.
Find the following line:
fs.suid_dumpable
By default, this value is set to 0. Change it to 1.
If fs.suid_dumpable is not in the sysctl.conf file, then add the following
line:
fs.suid_dumpable = 1
4.
Save /etc/sysctl.conf, and use the following command to reload settings:
# sysctl -p
Installing the cvuqdisk Package for Linux
Install the operating system package cvuqdisk. Without cvuqdisk, Cluster
Verification Utility cannot discover shared disks, and you receive the error message
"Package cvuqdisk not installed" when you run Cluster Verification Utility. Use the
cvuqdisk rpm for your hardware (for example, x86_64, or i386).
To install the cvuqdisk RPM, complete the following procedure:
If you prefer, you can choose to disable Cluster Verification
Utility shared disk checks by adding the following line to the file
oracle_home1/cv/admin/cvu_config:
Note:
CV_RAW_CHECK_ENABLED=FALSE
In this example, oracle_home1 is the Oracle home directory where
the database in installed.
1.
Locate the cvuqdisk RPM package, which is in the directory rpm on the
installation media. If you have already installed Oracle Grid Infrastructure, then it
is located in the directory oracle_home1/cv/rpm.
2.
Log in as root.
3.
Use the following command to find if you have an existing version of the
cvuqdisk package:
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-19
Checking the Network Setup
# rpm -qi cvuqdisk
If you have an existing version, then enter the following command to deinstall the
existing version:
# rpm -e cvuqdisk
4.
Set the environment variable CVUQDISK_GRP to point to the group that will own
cvuqdisk, typically oinstall. For example:
# CVUQDISK_GRP=oinstall; export CVUQDISK_GRP
5.
In the directory where you have saved the cvuqdisk rpm, use the following
command to install the cvuqdisk package:
rpm -iv package
For example:
# rpm -iv cvuqdisk-1.0.9-1.rpm
Checking the Network Setup
Typically, the computer on which you want to install Oracle Database is connected to
the network. The computer has local storage, to store the Oracle Database installation.
It also contains a display monitor, and DVD drive. This section describes how to install
Oracle Database on computers that do not meet the typical scenario. It covers the
following cases:
■
Installing on DHCP Computers
■
Installing on Multihomed Computers
■
Installing on Computers with Multiple Aliases
■
Installing on Non-Networked Computers
Installing on DHCP Computers
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) assigns dynamic IP addresses on a
network. Dynamic addressing enables a computer to have a different IP address each
time it connects to the network. In some cases, the IP address can change while the
computer is still connected. You can have a mixture of static and dynamic IP
addressing in a DHCP system.
In a DHCP setup, the software tracks IP addresses, which simplifies network
administration. This lets you add a new computer to the network without having to
manually assign a unique IP address to the newly added computer.
Installing on Multihomed Computers
You can install Oracle Database on a multihomed computer. A multihomed computer
is associated with multiple IP addresses. This is typically achieved by having multiple
network cards on the computer. Each IP address is associated with a host name. In
addition, you can set up aliases for the host name. By default, Oracle Universal
Installer uses the ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable setting to find the host
name. If ORACLE_HOSTNAME is not set and you are installing on a computer that has
multiple network cards, then Oracle Universal Installer determines the host name
from the /etc/hosts file.
2-20 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
Clients must be able to access the computer either by using this host name or by using
aliases for this host name. To verify this, ping the host name from the client computers
using the short name (host name only) and the full name (host name and domain
name). Both tests must be successful.
Setting the ORACLE_HOSTNAME Environment Variable
Use the following procedure to set the ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable. For
example, if the fully qualified host name is somehost.us.example.com, then enter
one of the following commands:
In Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ ORACLE_HOSTNAME=somehost.us.example.com
$ export ORACLE_HOSTNAME
In C shell:
% setenv ORACLE_HOSTNAME somehost.us.example.com
Installing on Computers with Multiple Aliases
A computer with multiple aliases is registered with the naming service under a single
IP but with multiple aliases. The naming service resolves any of those aliases to the
same computer. Before installing Oracle Database on such a computer, set the
ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable to the computer whose host name you
want to use.
Installing on Non-Networked Computers
You can install Oracle Database on a non-networked computer. If the computer, such
as a laptop, is configured for DHCP and you plan to connect the computer to the
network after the Oracle Database installation, then use the ping command on the
computer on which you want to install the database to check if the computer can
connect to itself. Perform this step by first using only the host name and then using the
fully qualified name, which should be in the /etc/hosts file.
Note: When you run the ping command on the computer itself, the
ping command should return the IP address of the computer.
If the ping command fails, then contact the system administrator.
Connecting the Computer to the Network after Installation
If you connect the computer to a network after installation, then the Oracle Database
instance on the computer can work with other instances on the network. The computer
can use a static IP or DHCP, depending on the network to which you are connected.
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
Depending on whether this is the first time Oracle software is being installed on this
system and on the products that you are installing, you may need to create several
operating system groups and users.
If you prefer to allocate operating system user privileges so that you can use one
administrative user and one group for operating system authentication for all
administrative privileges, then you can use the oracle user as the installation owner,
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-21
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
and use one group as the primary group for any user requiring administrative
privileges for Oracle ASM, and Oracle Database administration. This group must also
be the Oracle Inventory group. To simplify using the defaults for Oracle tools the
group name should be oinstall.
You can also create custom configuration groups and users based on job role
separation. A custom configuration is a configuration with groups and users that
divide access privileges granted by membership in separate operating system groups
and users. You can create a single user (for example, oracle) to own both Oracle
Database, and Oracle Grid Infrastructure installations. Alternatively, you can create a
separate user (for example, grid) to own the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
Note that all Oracle Database and Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server
installations must be owned by the Oracle software owner user (oracle), and belong
to the Oracle Inventory group (oinstall).
■
Creating Custom Configuration Groups and Users for Job Roles
■
Creating Database Operating System Groups and Users with Job Role Separation
In Oracle documentation, a user created to own only Oracle
Grid Infrastructure software installations is called the grid user. A
user created to own either all Oracle installations, or only Oracle
database installations, is called the oracle user.
Note:
Creating Custom Configuration Groups and Users for Job Roles
This section provides an overview of how to create users and groups to divide access
privileges by job roles. Log in as root to create these groups and users.
■
Users for Oracle Installations with Job Role Separation
■
Database Groups for Job Role Installations
■
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Groups for Job Role Installations
Users for Oracle Installations with Job Role Separation
Oracle recommends that you create one software owner to own each Oracle software
installation (typically, oracle, for the database software and grid for the Oracle
Restart owner user). You must create at least one software owner the first time you
install Oracle software on the system.
Oracle software owners must have the Oracle Inventory group as their primary group,
so that each Oracle software installation owner can write to the Central Inventory. The
database software owner (typically, oracle) must also have the OSDBA group of the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure home so that database instances can log on to Oracle ASM,
and (if you create it) the OSOPER group as secondary groups. In Oracle
documentation, the Oracle software owner users are referred to as oracle users.
For Oracle Grid Infrastructure only, the grid user (grid) must be in the OSDBA group
of every database home.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information
about the OSDBA, OSASM and OSOPER groups, and the SYSDBA,
SYSASM and SYSOPER privileges
Database Groups for Job Role Installations
Create the following operating system groups if you are installing Oracle Database:
2-22 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
■
The OSDBA group (typically, dba)
You must create this group the first time you install Oracle Database software on
the system. This group identifies operating system user accounts that have
database administrative privileges (the SYSDBA privilege). The name used for this
group in Oracle code examples is dba.
■
The OSOPER group for Oracle Database (typically, oper)
This is an optional group. Create this group if you want a separate group of
operating system users to have a limited set of database administrative privileges
(the SYSOPER privilege). This group cannot directly connect as SYSOPER, unless
explicitly granted. However, they will have the privileges granted by the SYSOPER
privilege. By default, even members of the OSDBA group have all privileges
granted by the SYSOPER privilege.
Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to specify the name of this group. The
usual name chosen for this group is oper.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Groups for Job Role Installations
Create the following operating system groups if you are installing Oracle Grid
Infrastructure:
You can designate a unique group, separate from database
administrator groups, or you can use the same group as the OSASM
and OSDBA group, to grant system privileges to administer both the
ASM instances and Oracle Database instances.
Note:
■
The OSDBA group for Oracle ASM (typically, asmdba)
The OSDBA group for Oracle ASM can be the same group used as the OSDBA
group for the database, or you can create a separate OSDBA group for Oracle ASM
(typically, asmdba) to provide administrative access to Oracle ASM instances.
The Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner (typically, grid) must be a
member of the OSDBA group. Membership in the OSDBA group allows access to
the files managed by Oracle ASM. If you have a separate OSDBA group for Oracle
ASM, then the Oracle Restart software owner must be a member of the OSDBA
group for each database and the OSDBA group for Oracle ASM.
■
The OSASM group for Oracle ASM (typically, asmadmin)
SYSASM privileges for Oracle ASM files provide administrator privileges for
storage file. In Oracle documentation, the operating system group whose members
are granted SYSASM privileges is called the OSASM group, and in command lines,
is referred to as asmadmin. Oracle ASM can support multiple databases.
Members of the OSASM group can use SQL to connect to an Oracle ASM instance
as SYSASM using operating system authentication. The SYSASM privileges permit
mounting and dismounting disk groups, and other storage administration tasks.
SYSASM privileges provide no access privileges on an RDBMS instance.
If you do not designate a separate group as the OSASM group, then the OSDBA
group you define is also by default the OSASM group.
■
The OSOPER group for Oracle ASM (typically, asmoper)
This is an optional group. Create this group if you want a separate group of
operating system users to have a limited set of Oracle instance administrative
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-23
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
privileges (the SYSOPER for ASM privilege), including starting up and stopping
the Oracle ASM instance. By default, members of the OSASM group also have all
privileges granted by the SYSOPER for ASM privilege.
If you want to have an OSOPER for ASM group, then the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure owner must be a member of this group.
Creating Database Operating System Groups and Users with Job Role Separation
The following sections describe how to create the required operating system user and
groups:
■
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group
■
Creating the OSDBA Group for Database Installations
■
Creating an OSOPER Group for Database Installation
■
Creating the OSASM Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
■
Creating the OSDBA Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
■
Creating the OSOPER Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
■
Creating the Oracle Software Owner User
If necessary, contact your system administrator before using or
modifying an existing user.
Note:
Oracle recommends that you do not use the UID and GID defaults on
each node, as group and user IDs likely will be different on each node.
Instead, provide common assigned group and user IDs, and confirm
that they are unused on any node before you create or modify groups
and users.
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group
When you install Oracle software on the system for the first time, Oracle Universal
Installer creates the oraInst.loc file. This file identifies the name of the Oracle
Inventory group (typically, oinstall), and the path of the Oracle Inventory directory.
You can configure one group to be the access control group for the Oracle Inventory,
for database administrators (OSDBA), and for all other access control groups used by
Oracle software for operating system authentication. However, this group then must
be the primary group for all users granted administrative privileges.
Log in as root, and use the following instructions to locate or create the Oracle
Inventory group and a software owner:
■
Determining Whether the Oracle Inventory Group Exists
■
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group
Determining Whether the Oracle Inventory Group Exists
An oraInst.loc file in the /etc or /var/opt/oracle directory has contents
similar to the following:
inventory_loc=central_inventory_location
inst_group=group
2-24 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
In the preceding example, central_inventory_location is the location of the Oracle
Central Inventory, and group is the name of the group that has permissions to write to
the central inventory.
If you have an existing Oracle Inventory, then ensure that you use the same Oracle
Inventory for all Oracle software installations, and ensure that all Oracle software
users you intend to use for installation have permissions to write to this directory.
To determine if the Oracle Inventory group exist, enter the following command:
# grep oinstall /etc/group
To determine whether the oraInst.loc file exists, enter the following command:
# more /etc/oraInst.loc
If the oraInst.loc file exists, then the output from this command is similar to the
following:
inventory_loc=/u01/app/oraInventory
inst_group=oinstall
In the previous output example:
■
■
The inventory_loc group shows the location of the Oracle Inventory
The inst_group parameter shows the name of the Oracle Inventory group (in
this example, oinstall).
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group
If the oraInst.loc file does not exist, then create the Oracle Inventory group by
entering the following command:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd oinstall
Creating the OSDBA Group for Database Installations
You must create an OSDBA group in the following circumstances:
■
■
An OSDBA group does not exist, for example, if this is the first installation of
Oracle Database software on the system
An OSDBA group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating
system users database administrative privileges for a new Oracle Database
installation
If the OSDBA group does not exist or if you require a new OSDBA group, then create
it as follows. In the following procedure, use the group name dba unless a group with
that name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 502 dba
Creating an OSOPER Group for Database Installation
Create an OSOPER group only if you want to identify a group of operating system
users with a limited set of database administrative privileges (SYSOPER operator
privileges). For most installations, it is sufficient to create only the OSDBA group. If
you want to use an OSOPER group, then you must create it in the following
circumstances:
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-25
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
■
■
If an OSOPER group does not exist; for example, if this is the first installation of
Oracle Database software on the system
If an OSOPER group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating
system users database operator privileges in a new Oracle installation
If you require a new OSOPER group (typically, oper), then create it as follows. In the
following, use the group name oper unless a group with that name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 503 oper
Creating the OSASM Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
If the OSASM group does not exist or if you require a new OSASM group, then create
it as follows. In the following procedure, use the group name asmadmin unless a
group with that name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 504 asmadmin
Creating the OSDBA Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
If you require a new OSDBA group for Oracle ASM, then create it as follows. In the
following procedure, use the group name asmdba unless a group with that name
already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 506 asmdba
Creating the OSOPER Group for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
If you require an OSOPER group, then create it as follows. In the following procedure,
use the group name asmoper unless a group with that name already exists:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd -g 505 asmoper
Creating the Oracle Software Owner User
You must create an Oracle software owner user in the following circumstances:
■
■
■
If an Oracle software owner user does not exist; for example, if this is the first
installation of Oracle software on the system.
If an Oracle software owner user exists, but you want to use a different operating
system user, with different group membership, to give database administrative
privileges to those groups in a new Oracle Database installation.
If you have created an Oracle software owner for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, such
as grid, and you want to create a separate Oracle software owner for Oracle
Database software, such as oracle.
Determining if an Oracle Software Owner User Exists To determine whether an Oracle
software owner user named oracle, or grid exists, enter a command similar to the
following (in this case, to determine if oracle exists):
# id oracle
If the user exists, then the output from this command is similar to the following:
uid=501(oracle) gid=501(oinstall) groups=502(dba),503(oper)
2-26 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Check Resource Limits for the Oracle Software Installation Users
Determine whether you want to use the existing user, or create another user. If you
want to use the existing user, then ensure that the user's primary group is the Oracle
Inventory group (oinstall) and that it is a member of the appropriate OSDBA and
OSOPER groups. Refer to the following sections for more information:
■
Creating an Oracle Software Owner User
■
Modifying an Existing Oracle Software Owner User
If necessary, contact your system administrator before using or
modifying an existing user.
Note:
Creating an Oracle Software Owner User If the Oracle software owner user does not exist,
or if you require a new Oracle software owner user, such as oracle or grid, then
create it as described in this section (in this case to create the oracle user).
In the following procedure, use the user name oracle unless a user with that name
already exists:
1.
To create an oracle user, enter a command similar to the following:
# /usr/sbin/useradd -u 502 -g oinstall -G dba,asmdba,[oper] oracle
In the preceding command:
■
■
■
2.
The -u option specifies the user ID. Using this command flag is optional, as
you can allow the system to provide you with an automatically generated user
ID number. However, you must make note of the oracle user ID number, as
you require it later during preinstallation.
The -g option specifies the primary group, which must be the Oracle
Inventory group--for example, oinstall
The -G option specifies the secondary groups, which must include the OSDBA
group, and, if required, the OSOPER and ASMDBA groups. For example: dba,
or asmdba,oper
Set the password of the oracle user:
# passwd oracle
Modifying an Existing Oracle Software Owner User If the oracle user exists, but its primary
group is not oinstall, or it is not a member of the appropriate OSDBA or OSOPER
groups, then modify it as follows:
Specify the primary group using the -g option and any required secondary group
using the -G option:
# /usr/sbin/usermod -g oinstall -G dba,asmdba[,oper] oracle
Check Resource Limits for the Oracle Software Installation Users
For each installation software owner, check the resource limits for installation, using
the following recommended ranges:
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-27
Check Resource Limits for the Oracle Software Installation Users
Table 2–1
Installation Owner Resource Limit Recommended Ranges
Resource Shell Limit
Resource
Soft Limit
Hard Limit
Open file descriptors
nofile
at least 1024
at least 65536
Number of processes available to a
single user
nproc
at least 2047
at least 16384
Size of the stack segment of the
process
stack
at least 10240 KB
at least 10240 KB, and
at most 32768 KB
To check resource limits:
1.
Log in as an installation owner.
2.
Check the soft and hard limits for the file descriptor setting. Ensure that the result
is in the recommended range. For example:
$ ulimit -Sn
4096
$ ulimit -Hn
65536
3.
Check the soft and hard limits for the number of processes available to a user.
Ensure that the result is in the recommended range. For example:
$ ulimit -Su
2047
$ ulimit -Hu
16384
4.
Check the soft limit for the stack setting. Ensure that the result is in the
recommended range. For example:
$ ulimit -Ss
10240
$ ulimit -Hs
32768
5.
Repeat this procedure for each Oracle software installation owner.
If necessary, update the resource limits in the /etc/security/limits.conf
configuration file for the installation owner. For example, add the following lines to
the /etc/security/limits.conf file:
oracle
oracle
oracle
oracle
oracle
2-28 Oracle Database Installation Guide
soft
hard
soft
hard
soft
nproc
nproc
nofile
nofile
stack
2047
16384
1024
65536
10240
Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux
Note:
■
■
The values mentioned in this example are illustrative and not
actual values that need to be added.
When the limits.conf file is changed, these changes take effect
immediately. However, if the grid or oracle users are logged in,
then these changes will not take effect until you log these users
out and log them back in. You must do this before you attempt to
use these accounts to install.
See Also:
"Configuring the oracle User’s Environment" on page 2-43
Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux
During installation, you can generate and run the Fixup script to check and set the
kernel parameter values required for successful installation of the database. This script
updates required kernel packages if necessary to minimum values.
If you cannot use the Fixup scripts, then verify that the kernel parameters shown in the
following table are set to values greater than or equal to the minimum value shown.
The procedure following the table describes how to verify and set the values manually.
Note: The kernel parameter and shell limit values shown in the
following section are minimum values only. For production
database systems, Oracle recommends that you tune these values to
optimize the performance of the system. Refer to the operating
system documentation for more information about tuning kernel
parameters.
Parameter
Minimum Value
File
semmsl
250
/proc/sys/kernel/sem
semmns
32000
semopm
100
semmni
128
shmall
2097152
/proc/sys/kernel/shmall
shmmax
Either 4 GB - 1 byte, or
half the size of physical
memory (in bytes),
whichever is lower.
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmax
Default: 536870912
shmmni
4096
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmni
file-max
6815744
/proc/sys/fs/file-max
aio-max-nr
Maximum: 1048576
/proc/sys/fs/aio-max-nr
Note: This value limits
concurrent outstanding
requests and should be
set to avoid I/O
subsystem failures.
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-29
Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux
Parameter
Minimum Value
File
ip_local_port_
range
Minimum: 9000
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_
port_range
rmem_default
262144
/proc/sys/net/core/rmem_
default
rmem_max
4194304
/proc/sys/net/core/rmem_max
wmem_default
262144
/proc/sys/net/core/wmem_
default
wmem_max
1048576
/proc/sys/net/core/wmem_max
Maximum: 65500
If the current value for any parameter is greater than the value
listed in this table, then the Fixup scripts do not change the value of
that parameter.
Note:
See Also:
■
■
"Guidelines for Setting Semaphore Parameters" on page 5-4
■
"Installation Fixup Scripts" on page 2-18
Displaying and Changing Kernel Parameter Values
Enter the commands shown in the following table to display the current values of the
kernel parameters, make a note of these values and identify any values that you must
change:
Parameter
Command
semmsl, semmns,
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep sem
semopm, and semmni
This command displays the value of the semaphore parameters
in the order listed.
shmall, shmmax,
and shmmni
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep shm
file-max
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep file-max
This command displays the details of the shared memory
segment sizes.
This command displays the maximum number of file handles.
ip_local_port_
range
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep ip_local_port_range
rmem_default
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep rmem_default
rmem_max
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep rmem_max
wmem_default
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep wmem_default
wmem_max
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep wmem_max
aio-max-nr
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep aio-max-nr
This command displays a range of port numbers.
If the value of any kernel parameter is different from the minimum value, then
perform the following:
2-30 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Kernel Parameters for Linux
1.
Using any text editor, create or edit the /etc/sysctl.conf file, and add or edit
lines similar to the following:
Note: Include lines only for the kernel parameter values that you
want to change. For the semaphore parameters (kernel.sem), you
must specify all four values. However, if any of the current values are
larger than the minimum value, then specify the larger value.
fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576
fs.file-max = 6815744
kernel.shmall = 2097152
kernel.shmmax = 536870912
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500
net.core.rmem_default = 262144
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 1048586
Note: The minimum value required for shmmax is 0.5 GB. However,
Oracle recommends that you set the value of shmmax to 2.0 GB for
optimum performance of the system.
By specifying the values in the /etc/sysctl.conf file, they persist when you
restart the system. However, on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server systems, enter the
following command to ensure that the system reads the /etc/sysctl.conf file
when it restarts:
# /sbin/chkconfig boot.sysctl on
2.
Enter the following command to change the current values of the kernel
parameters:
# /sbin/sysctl -p
Review the output from this command to verify that the values are correct. If the
values are incorrect, edit the /etc/sysctl.conf file, then enter this command
again.
3.
Enter the command /sbin/sysctl -a to confirm that the values are set
correctly.
4.
On SUSE systems only, enter the following command for the system to read the
/etc/sysctl.conf file when it restarts:
# /sbin/chkconfig boot.sysctl on
5.
On SUSE systems only, you must enter the GID of the oinstall group as the
value for the parameter /proc/sys/vm/hugetlb_shm_group. Doing this
grants members of oinstall a group permission to create shared memory segments.
For example, where the oinstall group GID is 501:
# echo 501 > /proc/sys/vm/hugetlb_shm_group
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-31
Identifying Required Software Directories
After running this command, use vi to add the following text to
/etc/sysctl.conf, and enable the boot.sysctl script to run on system
restart:
vm.hugetlb_shm_group=501
Note:
Only one group can be defined as the vm.hugetlb_shm_
group.
6.
After updating the values of kernel parameters in the /etc/sysctl.conf file,
either restart the computer, or run the command sysctl -p to make the changes
in the /etc/sysctl.conf file available in the active kernel memory.
Identifying Required Software Directories
You must identify or create the following directories for the Oracle software:
■
Oracle Base Directory
■
Oracle Inventory Directory
■
Oracle Home Directory
Note:
■
■
Ensure that the paths you select for Oracle software, such as the
Oracle home path and the Oracle base path, use only ASCII
characters. Because installation owner names are used by default
for some path, this ASCII character restriction applies to user
names, file names, and directory names.
Ensure that all paths used by the database software, such as the
Oracle home path and the Oracle base path, use characters only
from the following set: "#%&'()*+,-./:;<=>?@_A-Za-z0-9. This
includes user names, file names, and directory names. At the time
of this release, the use of other characters for an Oracle Grid
Infrastructure home or Oracle Database home is not supported.
The set of characters provided above is further restricted by user
and file naming rules of the operating system.
Oracle Base Directory
The Oracle base directory is a top-level directory for Oracle software installations. The
Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines recommend that you use a path
similar to the following for the Oracle base directory:
/mount_point/app/software_owner
In this example:
■
mount_point is the mount point directory for the file system that will contain the
Oracle software.
The examples in this guide use /u01 for the mount point directory. However, you
can choose another mount point directory, such as /oracle or /opt/oracle.
2-32 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Identifying Required Software Directories
■
software_owner is the operating system user name of the software owner
installing the Oracle software, for example oracle, or grid.
If you start a database instance using spfile with ORACLE_
BASE environment variable set, then its value is automatically stored
in spfile. If you unset ORACLE_BASE environment variable
subsequently and start the instance afresh, then database uses the
value of Oracle base stored in spfile.
Note:
You must specify the Oracle base folder that contains all Oracle products.
If you have an existing Oracle base, then you can select it from
the Use existing list. By default, the list contains the existing value for
Oracle base preselected. Refer to "Installing the Oracle Database
Software" on page 2-7 for further information.
Note:
If you do not have an Oracle base, then you can create one by editing
the text in the list box.
You can use the same Oracle base directory for more than one installation or you can
create separate Oracle base directories for different installations. If different operating
system users install Oracle software on the same system, then each user must create a
separate Oracle base directory. The following are examples of Oracle base directories
that can exist on the same system:
/u01/app/oracle
/u01/app/orauser
/opt/oracle/app/oracle
Refer to "Creating an Oracle Base Directory" on page 2-36 for information about
creating an Oracle base directory.
Oracle Inventory Directory
The Oracle Inventory directory (oraInventory) stores an inventory of all software
installed on the system. It is required and shared by all Oracle software installations on
a single system. If you have an existing Oracle Inventory path, then Oracle Universal
Installer continues to use that Oracle Inventory.
The first time you install Oracle software on a system, Oracle Universal Installer
provides an OFA-compliant path in the format u[01-09]/app, such as /u01/app.
The user running the installation has permissions to write to that path. If this is true,
then Oracle Universal Installer creates the Oracle Inventory directory in the path
/u[01-09]/app/oraInventory. For example:
/u01/app/oraInventory
If you have set ORACLE_BASE for the oracle user during installation, then Oracle
Universal Installer creates the Oracle Inventory directory in the path ORACLE_
BASE/../oraInventory. For example, if ORACLE_BASE is set to
/opt/oracle/11, then the Oracle Inventory directory is created in the path
/opt/oracle/oraInventory.
If you have neither created an OFA-compliant path nor set ORACLE_BASE, then the
Oracle Inventory directory is placed in the home directory of the user that is
performing the installation. For example:
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-33
Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory
/home/oracle/oraInventory
Oracle Universal Installer creates the directory that you specify and sets the correct
owner, group, and permissions for it. You do not need to create it.
Note:
■
■
■
All Oracle software installations rely on this directory. Ensure
that you back it up regularly.
Do not delete this directory unless you have completely
removed all Oracle software from the system.
By default, the Oracle Inventory directory is not installed under
the Oracle Base directory. This is because all Oracle software
installations share a common Oracle Inventory, so there is only
one Oracle Inventory for all users. Whereas, there is a separate
Oracle Base for each user.
Oracle Home Directory
The Oracle home directory is the directory where you choose to install the software for
a particular Oracle product. You must install different Oracle products or different
releases of the same Oracle product in separate Oracle home directories. When you
run Oracle Universal Installer, it prompts you to specify the path to this directory as
well as a name that identifies it. The directory that you specify must be a subdirectory
of the Oracle base directory. Oracle recommends that you specify a path similar to the
following for the Oracle home directory:
oracle_base/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
Oracle Universal Installer creates the directory path that you specify under the Oracle
base directory. It also sets the correct owner, group, and permissions on it. You do not
need to create this directory.
During installation, you must not specify an existing directory
that has predefined permissions applied to it as the Oracle home
directory. If you do, then you may experience installation failure due
to file and group ownership permission errors.
Note:
Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory
Before starting the installation, you must either identify an existing Oracle base
directory or if required, create one. This section contains information about the
following:
■
Identifying an Existing Oracle Base Directory
■
Creating an Oracle Base Directory
You can choose to create an Oracle base directory, even if
other Oracle base directories exist on the system.
Note:
2-34 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory
Identifying an Existing Oracle Base Directory
Existing Oracle base directories may not have paths that comply with OFA (Optimal
Flexible Architecture) guidelines. However, if you identify an existing Oracle
Inventory directory or existing Oracle home directories, then you can usually identify
the Oracle base directories, as follows:
■
Identifying an existing Oracle Inventory directory. Refer to "Creating the Oracle
Inventory Group" on page 2-24 for more information.
Oracle recommends that you do not put the oraInventory
directory under Oracle base for a new installation. However, if you
have an existing installation, then you should follow the steps
suggested in this section.
Note:
■
Identifying an existing Oracle home directory
Enter the following command to display the contents of the oratab file:
# more /etc/oratab
If the oratab file exists, then it contains lines similar to the following:
*:/u03/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1:N
*:/opt/orauser/infra_904:N
*:/oracle/9.2.0:N
The directory paths specified on each line identify Oracle home directories.
Directory paths that end with the user name of the Oracle software owner that you
want to use are valid choices for an Oracle base directory. If you intend to use the
oracle user to install the software, then you can choose one of the following
directories listed in the previous example:
/u03/app/oracle
/oracle
If possible, choose a directory path similar to the first one
(/u03/app/oracle). This path complies with the OFA guidelines.
Note:
■
Identifying an existing Oracle base directory
After you have located the Oracle home directory, run a similar command to
confirm the location of Oracle base:
cat /u01/app/oraInventory/ContentsXML/inventory.xml
Before deciding to use an existing Oracle base directory for this installation, ensure
that it satisfies the following conditions:
■
It should not be on the same file system as the operating system.
■
It must have sufficient free disk space, as follows:
Requirement
Free Disk Space
The Oracle base directory will contain only
software files.
Up to 4 GB
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-35
Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory
Requirement
Free Disk Space
The Oracle base directory will contain both
software and database files (not recommended for
production databases).
Up to 6 GB
To determine the free disk space on the file system where the Oracle base directory
is located, enter the following command:
# df -h oracle_base_path
To continue:
■
If an Oracle base directory exists and you want to use it, then refer to the
"Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery Files" section on
page 2-37.
When you configure the oracle user’s environment later in this chapter, set the
ORACLE_BASE environment variable to specify the directory you chose.
■
If an Oracle base directory does not exist on the system or if you want to create an
Oracle base directory, then refer to the following section.
Creating an Oracle Base Directory
Before you create an Oracle base directory, you must identify an appropriate file
system with sufficient free disk space.
To identify an appropriate file system:
1.
To determine the free disk space on each mounted file system use the following
command:
# df -h
2.
From the display, identify a file system that has appropriate free space.
The file system that you identify can be a local file system, a cluster file system, or
an NFS file system on a certified NAS device.
3.
Note the name of the mount point directory for the file system that you identified.
To create the Oracle base directory and specify the correct owner, group, and
permissions for it:
1.
Enter commands similar to the following to create the recommended
subdirectories in the mount point directory that you identified and set the
appropriate owner, group, and permissions on them:
# mkdir -p /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
# chown -R oracle:oinstall /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
# chmod -R 775 /mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
For example:
# mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle
# chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
# chmod -R 775 /u01/app/oracle
2.
When you configure the oracle user’s environment later in this chapter, set the
ORACLE_BASE environment variable to specify the Oracle base directory that you
have created.
2-36 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files
Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery Files
Oracle Database files include data files, control files, redo log files, the server
parameter file, and the password file. For all installations, you must choose the storage
option that you want to use for Oracle Database files. If you want to enable automated
backups during the installation, then you must also choose the storage option that you
want to use for recovery files (the fast recovery area). You do not have to use the same
storage option for each file type.
Database files and recovery files are supported on file systems
and Oracle ASM.
Note:
Use the following guidelines when choosing the storage options that you want to use
for each file type:
■
■
■
You can choose any combination of the supported storage options for each file
type.
Determine whether you want to use Oracle ASM for Oracle Database files,
recovery files, or both. Refer to "Step 1: Identifying Storage Requirements for
Oracle Automatic Storage Management" for more information.
For more information about these storage options, refer to the "Database Storage
Options" section on page 1-12.
For information about how to configure disk storage before you start the installation,
refer to one of the following sections depending on your choice:
■
■
■
To use a file system for database or recovery file storage, refer to the "Creating
Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files" section on page 2-37.
To use Oracle ASM for database or recovery file storage, refer to the "Preparing
Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation" section on
page 3-6.
To identify disk groups and determine the free disk space that they contain, refer
to the "Using an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Group" section.
Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files
This section contains the following topics:
■
Guidelines for Placing Oracle Database Files on a File System
■
Creating Required Directories
Guidelines for Placing Oracle Database Files on a File System
If you choose to place the Oracle Database files on a file system, then use the following
guidelines when deciding where to place them:
■
■
The default path suggested by Oracle Universal Installer for the database file
directory is a subdirectory of the Oracle base directory.
You can choose either a single file system or more than one file system to store the
database files:
–
If you want to use a single file system, then choose a file system on a physical
device that is dedicated to the database.
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-37
Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files
For best performance and reliability, choose a RAID device or a logical volume
on more than one physical device and implement the
stripe-and-mirror-everything (SAME) methodology.
–
If you want to use more than one file system, then choose file systems on
separate physical devices that are dedicated to the database.
This method enables you to distribute physical input-output operations and
create separate control files on different devices for increased reliability. It also
enables you to fully implement the OFA guidelines. You can choose the
Advanced database creation option to implement this method.
■
If you intend to create a preconfigured database during the installation, then the
file system (or file systems) that you choose must have at least 2 GB of free disk
space.
For production databases, you must estimate the disk space requirement
depending on the use that you want to make of the database.
■
■
For optimum performance, the file systems that you choose should be on physical
devices that are used only by the database.
The oracle user must have write permissions to create the files in the path that
you specify.
Creating Required Directories
You must perform this procedure only if you want to place
the Oracle Database or recovery files on a separate file system to the
Oracle base directory.
Note:
To create directories for the Oracle database, or recovery files on separate file systems
to the Oracle base directory:
1.
Use the following to determine the free disk space on each mounted file system:
# df -h
2.
From the display, identify the file systems that you want to use:
File Type
File System Requirements
Database files
Choose either:
■
■
Recovery files
A single file system with at least 2 GB of free disk space
Two or more file systems with at least 2 GB of free disk space in
total
Choose a file system with at least 2.4 GB of free disk space
If you are using the same file system for more than one type of file, then add the
disk space requirements for each type to determine the total disk space
requirement.
3.
Note the names of the mount point directories for the file systems that you
identified.
2-38 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Storage for Oracle Database Files Using Block Devices
4.
Enter commands similar to the following to create the recommended
subdirectories in each of the mount point directories and set the appropriate
owner, group, and permissions on them:
■
Database file directory:
# mkdir /mount_point/oradata
# chown oracle:oinstall /mount_point/oradata
# chmod 775 /mount_point/oradata
The default location for Database file directory is $ORACLE_BASE/oradata.
■
Recovery file directory (fast recovery area):
# mkdir /mount_point/recovery_area
# chown oracle:oinstall /mount_point/recovery_area
# chmod 775 /mount_point/recovery_area
The default fast recovery area is $ORACLE_BASE/recovery_area. However,
Oracle recommends that you keep the fast recovery area on a separate
physical disk than that of the database file directory. This will enable you to
use the fast recovery area to retrieve data if the disk containing oradata is
unusable due to any reasons.
5.
If you also want to use Oracle ASM for storage, then refer to the following section:
"Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation" on
page 3-6, else refer to the "Stopping Existing Oracle Processes" section on
page 2-41.
Configuring Storage for Oracle Database Files Using Block Devices
This section describes how to configure Oracle Database files on block devices. Use the
following procedure to create block device partitions:
1.
Use fdisk to create disk partitions on block devices for database files.
If you intend to configure block devices and use Oracle ASM to manage data files,
then create one partition for each disk comprising the whole disk, and go through
the section Configuring Disks for Oracle ASM with ASMLIB in Oracle Grid
Infrastructure Installation Guide.
2.
Create or modify a rules file in /etc/udev/rules.d, to change the permissions
of the datafiles from default root ownership.
Ensure that the file you create is appropriate for your distribution. For example,
name this file 99-oracle.rules on Asianux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Oracle
Linux, and SUSE Enterprise Server systems.
Example 2–1 Example of a Rules File With User oracle
/etc/udev/rules.d/99-oracle.rules
#
# ASM disks
KERNEL=="sdb[6-9]", OWNER="oracle", GROUP="dba", MODE="0660"
KERNEL=="sdb10", OWNER="oracle", GROUP="dba", MODE="0660"
Example 2–2 Example of a Rules File With User grid
/etc/udev/rules.d/99-oracle.rules
#
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-39
Configuring Disk Devices for Oracle Database
# ASM disks
KERNEL=="sdb[6-9]", OWNER="grid", GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660"
KERNEL=="sdb10", OWNER="grid", GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660"
See Also: Chapter 2, "Preparing Storage for ASM" in the Oracle
Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for information
about preparing the storage subsystem before you configure Oracle
ASM.
Configuring Disk Devices for Oracle Database
The O_DIRECT parameter enables direct read and writes to block devices, avoiding
kernel overhead. With Oracle Database Release 10.2 and later, Oracle Database files are
configured by default to use direct input/output.
With the 2. 6 kernel or later for Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Oracle Linux, and SUSE
Enterprise Server, you must create a permissions file to maintain permissions on
Oracle database files. If you do not create this permissions file, then permissions on
disk devices revert to their default values, root:disk, and Oracle database fails to
start. Use the following steps to set the permissions file number:
■
■
On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 and Oracle Linux 4, you must create a permissions
file number that is lower than 50.
On Asianux Server 3, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, Oracle Linux 5, SUSE Enterprise
Linux 10, or SUSE Enterprise Linux 11, you must create a permissions file number
that is higher than 50.
To configure a permissions file for disk devices, complete the following tasks:
■
Example of Creating a Udev Permissions File for Oracle Database
■
Example of Configuring Block Device Storage for Oracle Database
See Also: Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for information
about configuring storage for Oracle database files on shared storage
devices.
Example of Creating a Udev Permissions File for Oracle Database
Refer to the examples in "Configuring Storage for Oracle Database Files Using Block
Devices" on page 2-39 for more information about creating a permissions file.
Example of Configuring Block Device Storage for Oracle Database
The following is the procedure to create partitions for Oracle Database files on block
devices:
1.
Log in as root
2.
Enter the fdisk command to format a specific storage disk. For example,
/sbin/fdisk /dev/sdb
3.
Create a partition. For instance, make a partition of 280 MB for data files.
4.
Use the command similar to the following to update the kernel partition table for
the shared storage device:
/sbin/partprobe diskpath
2-40 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Stopping Existing Oracle Processes
The following is an example of how to use fdisk to create one partition on a shared
storage block disk device for a data file:
$ sudo sh
Password:
# /sbin/fdisk /dev/sdb
The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 1024.
Command (m for help): n
Command action
e
extended
P
primary partition (1-4)
p
Partition number (1-4): 1
First cylinder (1-1024, default 1):
Using default value 1
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-4462, default 1)
Using default value 1
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-1024, default 4462): using default
value 4462
Command (m for help):w
The partition table has been altered!
Calling ioctl () to re-read partition table.
Synching disks.
# exit
Last login Wed Feb 21 20:23:01 from localnode
$ sudo sh
Password:
# /sbin/partprobe /dev/sdb1
Stopping Existing Oracle Processes
If you are installing additional Oracle Database 11g
products in an existing Oracle home, then stop all processes,
including the listener and database, running in the Oracle home.
You must complete this task to enable Oracle Universal Installer to
relink certain executables and libraries.
Note:
Consider the following before you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure or Oracle
Database:
■
If you plan to use Oracle Restart, you must install the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
before you install the database. As such, when you perform a database installation,
then the database must use the same listener created during the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installation and you do not have to perform the steps listed in this
section.
The default listener and any additional listeners must run from the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure home. Refer to "Configuring the oracle User’s Environment" on
page 2-43 to continue.
■
If you have an existing Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) running on Oracle
ASM, then stop any existing Oracle ASM instance. After you finish installing the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure software, start the Oracle ASM instance again.
If you choose to create a database during the installation, then most installation types
configure and start a default Oracle Net listener using TCP/IP port 1521 and the IPC
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-41
Stopping Existing Oracle Processes
key value EXTPROC. However, if an existing Oracle Net listener process is using the
same port or key value, Oracle Universal Installer will look for the next available free
port (for example, 1522) and will configure and start the new listener on this available
free port.
To determine whether an existing listener process is running and to shut it down, if
necessary:
1.
Switch user to oracle:
# su - oracle
2.
Enter the following command to determine whether a listener process is running
and to identify its name and the Oracle home directory in which it is installed:
$ ps -ef | grep tnslsnr
This command displays information about the Oracle Net listeners running on the
system:
... oracle_home1/bin/tnslsnr LISTENER -inherit
In this example, oracle_home1 is the Oracle home directory where the listener is
installed and LISTENER is the listener name.
If no Oracle Net listeners are running, then refer to the
"Configuring the oracle User’s Environment" section on page 2-43
to continue.
Note:
3.
On the command prompt, set the ORACLE_HOME environment variable to specify
the appropriate Oracle home directory for the listener:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ ORACLE_HOME=oracle_home1
$ export ORACLE_HOME
■
C or tcsh shell:
% setenv ORACLE_HOME oracle_home1
4.
Enter the following command to identify the TCP/IP port number and IPC key
value that the listener is using:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/lsnrctl status listenername
If the listener uses the default name LISTENER, then you do
not have to specify the listener name in this command.
Note:
5.
Enter a command similar to the following to stop the listener process:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/lsnrctl stop listenername
6.
Repeat this procedure to stop all listeners running on this system.
2-42 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring the oracle User’s Environment
Configuring the oracle User’s Environment
You run Oracle Universal Installer from the oracle account. However, before you
start Oracle Universal Installer you must configure the environment of the oracle
user. To configure the environment, you must:
■
Set the default file mode creation mask (umask) to 022 in the shell startup file.
■
Set the DISPLAY environment variable.
Caution: Use shell programs supported by your operating system
vendor. If you use a shell program that is not supported by your
operating system, then you can encounter errors during installation.
To set the oracle user’s environment:
1.
Start a new terminal session, for example, an X terminal (xterm).
2.
Enter the following command to ensure that X Window applications can display
on this system:
$ xhost fully_qualified_remote_host_name
For example:
$ xhost somehost.us.example.com
3.
If you are not already logged in to the system where you want to install the
software, then log in to that system as the oracle user.
4.
If you are not logged in as the oracle user, then switch user to oracle:
$ su - oracle
5.
To determine the default shell for the oracle user, enter the following command:
$ echo $SHELL
6.
To run the shell startup script, enter one of the following commands:
■
Bash shell:
$ . ./.bash_profile
■
Bourne or Korn shell:
$ . ./.profile
■
C shell:
% source ./.login
7.
If you are not installing the software on the local computer, then run the following
command on the remote machine to set the DISPLAY variable:
■
Bourne, Bash or Korn shell:
$ export DISPLAY=local_host:0.0
■
C shell:
% setenv DISPLAY local_host:0.0
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-43
Configuring the oracle User’s Environment
In this example, local_host is the host name or IP address of the local
computer that you want to use to display Oracle Universal Installer.
Run the following command on the remote machine to check if the shell and the
DISPLAY environmental variable are set correctly:
echo $SHELL
echo $DISPLAY
Now to enable X applications, run the following commands on the local computer:
$ xhost + fully_qualified_remote_host_name
To verify that X applications display is set properly, run a X11 based program that
comes with the operating system such as xclock:
$ xclock
In this example, you can find xclock at /usr/X11R6/bin/xclocks. If the
DISPLAY variable is set properly, then you can see xclock on your computer
screen. If you receive any display errors, refer to "X Window Display Errors" on
page G-2.
See Also: PC-X Server or operating system vendor documents for
further assistance
8.
If you determined that the /tmp directory has less than 1 GB of free disk space,
then identify a file system with at least 1 GB of free space and set the TMP and
TMPDIR environment variables to specify a temporary directory on this file
system:
a.
To determine the free disk space on each mounted file system use the
following command:
# df -h /tmp
b.
If necessary, enter commands similar to the following to create a temporary
directory on the file system that you identified, and set the appropriate
permissions on the directory:
$ sudo mkdir /mount_point/tmp
$ sudo chmod a+wr /mount_point/tmp
# exit
c.
Enter commands similar to the following to set the TMP and TMPDIR
environment variables:
*
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ TMP=/mount_point/tmp
$ TMPDIR=/mount_point/tmp
$ export TMP TMPDIR
*
C shell:
% setenv TMP /mount_point/tmp
% setenv TMPDIR /mount_point/tmp
9.
Enter commands similar to the following to set the ORACLE_BASE and ORACLE_
SID environment variables:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
2-44 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring the oracle User’s Environment
$ ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
$ ORACLE_SID=sales
$ export ORACLE_BASE ORACLE_SID
■
C shell:
% setenv ORACLE_BASE /u01/app/oracle
% setenv ORACLE_SID sales
In this example, /u01/app/oracle is the Oracle base directory that you created
or identified earlier and sales is the name that you want to call the database
(typically no more than five characters).
10. Enter the following commands to ensure that the ORACLE_HOME and TNS_ADMIN
environment variables are not set:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ unset ORACLE_HOME
$ unset TNS_ADMIN
■
C shell:
% unsetenv ORACLE_HOME
% unsetenv TNS_ADMIN
If the ORACLE_HOME environment variable is set, then
Oracle Universal Installer uses the value that it specifies as the
default path for the Oracle home directory. However, if you set the
ORACLE_BASE environment variable, then Oracle recommends that
you unset the ORACLE_HOME environment variable and choose the
default path suggested by Oracle Universal Installer.
Note:
See Also: "Configuring the User’s Environment" on page 3-4 for
information about setting the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software
owner user’s environment
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-45
Configuring the oracle User’s Environment
2-46 Oracle Database Installation Guide
3
Oracle Grid Infrastructure
3
The Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server is the Oracle software that
provides system support for an Oracle database including volume management, file
system, and automatic restart capabilities. If you plan to use Oracle Restart or Oracle
Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM), you must install Oracle Grid
Infrastructure before installing your database. Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
standalone server is the software that includes Oracle Restart and Oracle ASM. Oracle
combined the two infrastructure products into a single set of binaries that is installed
as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home. Oracle Grid Infrastructure should be installed
before installing Oracle Database 11g Release 2.
Oracle ASM is a volume manager and a file system for Oracle database files that
supports single-instance Oracle Database and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle
RAC) configurations. Oracle ASM also supports a general purpose file system for your
application needs including Oracle Database binaries. Oracle ASM is Oracle's
recommended storage management solution that provides an alternative to
conventional volume managers, file systems, and raw devices.
Oracle Restart improves the availability of your Oracle database by providing the
following:
■
■
■
When there is a hardware or a software failure, Oracle Restart automatically starts
all Oracle components, including Oracle database instance, Oracle Net Listener,
database services, and Oracle ASM.
Oracle Restart starts components in the proper order when the database host is
restarted.
Oracle Restart runs periodic checks to monitor the health of Oracle components. If
a check operation fails for a component, then the component is shut down and
restarted.
Note:
■
■
If you want to use Oracle ASM or Oracle Restart, then you must
first install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server and
then install Oracle Database.
Oracle Restart is used in single-instance (non-clustered)
environments only.
This chapter contains the following sections:
■
Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
■
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM Support
Oracle Grid Infrastructure
3-1
Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
■
Managing Disk Groups for Older Database Versions
■
Migrating Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instances
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation Considerations
■
Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
■
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure Using a Software-Only Installation
■
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
■
Modifying Oracle Grid Infrastructure Binaries After Installation
■
Manually Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Groups
■
Testing the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
The system must meet the following requirements:
■
Memory Requirements
■
Disk Space Requirements
■
Configuring the User’s Environment
Memory Requirements
The following are the memory requirements for installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
On Linux x86:
■
At least 1 GB of RAM
To determine the RAM size, enter the following command:
# grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
If the size of the RAM is less than the required size, then you must install more
memory before continuing.
■
The following table describes the relationship between installed RAM and the
configured swap space requirement:
On Linux, the HugePages feature allocates non-swappable
memory for large page tables using memory-mapped files. If you
enable HugePages, then you should deduct the memory allocated to
HugePages from the available RAM before calculating swap space.
Note:
RAM
Swap Space
Between 1 GB and 2 GB
1.5 times the size of RAM
Between 2 GB and 16 GB
Equal to the size of RAM
More than 16 GB
16 GB
On Linux x86-64:
■
At least 4 GB of RAM
3-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Requirements for Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation
To determine the RAM size, enter the following command:
# grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
If the size of the RAM is less than the required size, then you must install more
memory before continuing.
■
The following table describes the relationship between installed RAM and the
configured swap space requirement:
On Linux, the HugePages feature allocates non-swappable
memory for large page tables using memory-mapped files. If you
enable HugePages, then you should deduct the memory allocated to
HugePages from the available RAM before calculating swap space.
Note:
RAM
Swap Space
Between 4 GB and 8 GB
2 times the size of RAM
Between 8 GB and 32 GB
1.5 times the size of RAM
More than 32 GB
32 GB
If the size of the RAM is less than the required size, then you must install more
memory before continuing.
To determine the size of the configured swap space, enter the following command:
# grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo
If necessary, refer to the operating system documentation for information about how to
configure additional swap space.
To determine the available RAM and swap space, enter the following command:
# free
Oracle recommends that you take multiple values for the
available RAM and swap space before finalizing a value. This is
because the available RAM and swap space keep changing
depending on the user interactions with the computer.
Note:
Disk Space Requirements
The following are the disk space requirements for installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure:
■
At least 2.2 GB of disk space.
■
At least 1 GB of space in the /tmp directory.
To determine the amount of free space available in the /tmp directory, enter the
following command:
# df -k /tmp
If there is less than 1 GB of free space available in the /tmp directory, then complete
one of the following steps:
Oracle Grid Infrastructure
3-3
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM Support
■
■
Delete unnecessary files from the /tmp directory to meet the disk space
requirement.
Set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables to specify a temporary directory
when setting the oracle user’s environment.
"Configuring the oracle User’s Environment" on page 2-43
for more information about setting TMP and TMPDIR
See Also:
■
Extend the file system that contains the /tmp directory. If necessary, contact the
system administrator for information about extending file systems.
Configuring the User’s Environment
Complete the following tasks to set the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner
user’s environment:
■
■
Review the information in "Logging In to the System as root" on page 2-2 section.
Ensure that you set the path to the Oracle base directory. Oracle Restart and Oracle
Database reside under the same Oracle base. For example:
# ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle;
# export ORACLE_BASE
■
■
■
Set the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner user default file mode creation
mask (umask) to 022 in the shell startup file. Setting the mask to 022 ensures that
the user performing the software installation creates files with 755 permissions.
Set ulimit settings for file descriptors and processes for the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installation software owner.
Set the DISPLAY environment variable in preparation for installation.
Oracle ACFS and Oracle ADVM Support
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS) extends
Oracle ASM technology to support of all of your application data in both single
instance and cluster configurations. Oracle Automatic Storage Management Dynamic
Volume Manager (Oracle ADVM) provides volume management services and a
standard disk device driver interface to clients. Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Cluster File System is layered on Oracle ASM through the Oracle
Automatic Storage Management Dynamic Volume Manager interface.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System and Oracle Automatic
Storage Management Dynamic Volume Manager are supported on Oracle Linux 5 and
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 for Linux x86 and Linux x86-64. Starting with Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2), it is also supported on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
10 SP3 and later SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 Service Pack's for Linux x86-64 only.
Oracle recommends that Oracle data files are installed in
Oracle ASM disk groups. Installing Oracle data files on an Oracle
ACFS file system is not supported. Oracle ACFS can be used as an
option only when Oracle ASM is configured.
Note:
Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (ACFS) resources are not
supported for Oracle Restart configurations on all platforms. ACFS drivers must be
3-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation Considerations
manually unloaded and loaded; ACFS file systems must be manually unmounted and
mounted (after the ASM instance is running); ACFS database home file systems can be
placed into the ACFS mount registry to be mounted along with other registered ACFS
file systems.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Release Notes for Linux for latest information about
supported platforms and releases
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
more information about Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Cluster File System and Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Dynamic Volume Manager
Managing Disk Groups for Older Database Versions
Releases prior to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 used Database Configuration Assistant
to perform administrative tasks on Oracle ASM. Starting with 11g Release 2, Oracle
ASM is installed with Oracle Restart.
Migrating Existing Oracle Automatic Storage Management Instances
If you have an Oracle ASM installation from a prior release installed on your server, or
in an existing Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, you can use Oracle Automatic
Storage Management Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) to upgrade the
existing Oracle ASM instance to 11g Release 2 (11.2), and subsequently configure disk
groups, Oracle ASM volumes and Oracle ASM file systems.
You must first shut down all databases and applications using
an existing Oracle ASM instance before upgrading it.
Note:
During installation, if you chose to use Oracle ASM and Oracle ASMCA detects that
there is a prior Oracle ASM version installed in another Oracle ASM home, then after
installing the Oracle ASM 11g Release 2 (11.2) binaries, you can start Oracle ASMCA to
upgrade the existing Oracle ASM instance.
See Also:
■
■
"Upgrading an Oracle ASM Instance with Oracle ASM
Configuration Assistant" in Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Administrator's Guide
"Upgrading an Oracle ASM Instance With Oracle Universal
Installer" in Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's
Guide
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation Considerations
In previous releases, Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) was
installed as part of the Oracle Database installation. With Oracle Database 11g Release
2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation, either for a
cluster, or for a standalone server.
If you want to upgrade an existing Oracle ASM installation, then you must upgrade
Oracle ASM by running an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade (upgrades of existing
Oracle Grid Infrastructure
3-5
Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
Oracle ASM installations). If you do not have Oracle ASM installed and you want to
use Oracle ASM as your storage option, then you must complete an Oracle Grid
Infrastructure installation before you start your Oracle Database installation.
You must run Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant (Oracle
ASMCA) for installing and configuring Oracle ASM instances, disk groups, volumes,
and Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS). In
addition, you can use the ASMCA command-line interface as a non-GUI utility.
See Also: Chapter 11, "Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant" in
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
information about Oracle ASMCA
Apply the following guidelines when you install Oracle ASM:
■
■
■
■
You must complete the steps listed under "Preparing Disks for an Oracle
Automatic Storage Management Installation" on page 3-6 to prepare a disk
partition to use for the Oracle ASM disk groups.
Ensure that at least one disk is configured appropriately for use in an Oracle ASM
diskgroup before beginning the installation.
When you install Oracle ASM, Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA) creates a separate server parameter file
(SPFILE) and password file for the Oracle ASM instance. As soon as Oracle ASM
is installed, the ASMSNMP schema and user are created. See Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Administrator's Guide for more information.
The Oracle ASM instance that manages the existing disk group will be running in
the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home directory.
Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
This section describes how to configure disks for use with Oracle ASM. The following
sections describe how to identify the requirements and configure the disks on each
platform:
■
■
■
■
General Steps for Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Step 1: Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management
Step 2: Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management
Step 3: Configuring Disks for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Oracle does not recommend using identifiers for database
object names that must be quoted. While these quoted identifiers may
be valid as names in the SQL CREATE statement, such as CREATE
DISKGROUP "1data" ..., the names may not be valid when using
other tools that manage the database object.
Note:
See Also: "Creating Disk Groups for a New Oracle Installation", in
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
information about creating and managing disk groups
3-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
General Steps for Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management
The following are the general steps to configure Oracle ASM:
1.
Identify the storage requirements of the site.
2.
If you are creating a new Oracle ASM disk group, create partitions for DAS or
SAN disks.
3.
Configure the disks for use with Oracle ASM. You must provide the Oracle ASM
disk configuration information during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
Step 1: Identifying Storage Requirements for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
To identify the storage requirements for using Oracle ASM, you must determine the
number of devices and the amount of free disk space that you require. To complete this
task:
1.
Determine whether you want to use Oracle ASM for Oracle Database files,
recovery files, or both.
You do not have to use the same storage mechanism for
Oracle Database files and recovery files. You can use a file system
for one file type and Oracle ASM for the other.
Note:
If you choose to enable automated backups and you do not have a
shared file system available, then you must choose Oracle ASM for
recovery file storage.
During the database installation, if you plan to enable automated backups, then
you can choose Oracle ASM as the storage mechanism for recovery files by
specifying an Oracle ASM disk group for the fast recovery area. Depending on
how you choose to create a database during the database installation, you have the
following options:
■
You can run Oracle ASMCA in interactive mode to create and configure the
required disk groups.
During the database installation, if you select an installation method that runs
Database Configuration Assistant in interactive mode (Advanced Installation
type), then you can select the diskgroups that you created using Oracle
ASMCA.
You have the option to use the disk groups you created using Oracle ASMCA
both for database files and recovery files, or you can choose to use different
disk groups for each file type. Ideally, you should create separate Oracle ASM
disk groups for data files and for recovery files.
■
If you run Oracle ASMCA in noninteractive mode, then you must use the
same Oracle ASM disk group for data files and recovery files. During the
database installation (Typical Installation type), you will have to select the
same disk group for both data files and recovery files.
See Also:
■
■
"Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant Command-Line Interface"
section in Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's
Guide
"Create a Fast Recovery Area Disk Group" on page 5-5
Oracle Grid Infrastructure
3-7
Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
2.
Choose the Oracle ASM redundancy level that you want to use for each Oracle
ASM disk group that you create.
The redundancy level that you choose for the Oracle ASM disk group determines
how Oracle ASM mirrors files in the disk group and determines the number of
disks and amount of disk space that you require, as follows:
■
External redundancy
This option does not allow Oracle ASM to mirror the contents of the disk
group. Oracle recommends that you select this redundancy level either when
the disk group contains devices, such as RAID devices, that provide their own
data protection or when the database does not require an uninterrupted access
to data.
■
Normal redundancy
To optimize performance and reliability in a normal redundancy disk group,
Oracle ASM uses two-way mirroring for data files and three-way mirroring
for control files, by default. In addition, you can choose the mirroring
characteristics for individual files in a disk group. Alternatively, you can use
two-way mirroring or no mirroring.
A normal redundancy disk group requires a minimum of two failure groups
(or two disk devices) if you are using two-way mirroring. The effective disk
space in a normal redundancy disk group is half the sum of the disk space in
all of its devices.
For most installations, Oracle recommends that you use normal redundancy
disk groups.
■
High redundancy
The contents of the disk group are three-way mirrored by default. To create a
disk group with high redundancy, you must specify at least three failure
groups (a minimum of 3 devices).
Although high-redundancy disk groups provide a high level of data
protection, you must consider the higher cost of additional storage devices
before deciding to use this redundancy level.
3.
Determine the total amount of disk space that you require for the database files
and recovery files.
If an Oracle ASM instance is already running on the system, then you can use an
existing disk group to meet these storage requirements. If necessary, you can add
disks to an existing disk group during the database installation.
Use the following table to determine the minimum number of disks and the
minimum disk space requirements for the installation:
Redundancy
Level
Minimum Number
of Disks
Data Files
Recovery
Files
Both File
Types
External
1
1.8 GB
3.6 GB
5.4 GB
Normal
2
3.6 GB
7.2 GB
10.8 GB
High
3
5.4 GB
10.8 GB
16.2 GB
4.
Optionally, identify failure groups for the Oracle ASM disk group devices.
3-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
If you intend to use a normal or high redundancy disk group, then you can further
protect the database against hardware failure by associating a set of disk devices in
a custom failure group. By default, each device comprises its failure group.
However, if two disk devices in a normal redundancy disk group are attached to
the same SCSI controller, then the disk group becomes unavailable if the controller
fails. The controller in this example is a single point of failure.
For instance, to avoid failures of this type, you can use two SCSI controllers, each
with two disks, and define a failure group for the disks attached to each controller.
This configuration would enable the disk group to tolerate the failure of one SCSI
controller.
If you define custom failure groups, then you must specify
a minimum of two failure groups for normal redundancy disk
groups and three failure groups for high redundancy disk groups.
Note:
5.
If you are sure that a suitable disk group does not exist on the system, then install
or identify appropriate disk devices to add to a new disk group. Apply the
following guidelines when identifying appropriate disk devices:
■
The disk devices must be owned by the user performing the grid installation.
See Also: Example 2–2, "Example of a Rules File With User grid" for
information about creating or modifying permissions
■
■
■
All the devices in an Oracle ASM disk group should be the same size and have
the same performance characteristics.
Do not specify multiple partitions on a single physical disk as a disk group
device. Oracle ASM expects each disk group device to be on a separate
physical disk.
Oracle does not recommend the use of a logical volume as a device in Oracle
ASM because the logical volume can hide the physical disk architecture which
prevents Oracle ASM from optimizing I/O across physical devices.
See Also:
■
■
"Step 3: Configuring Disks for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management" on page 3-10 for information about completing this
task
"Preparing Storage for ASM" in Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Administrator's Guide for information about
configuring Oracle ASM disk groups
Step 2: Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
In order to use a DAS or SAN disk in Oracle ASM, the disk must have a partition table.
Oracle recommends creating exactly one partition for each disk containing the entire
disk.
You can use any physical disk for Oracle ASM, as long as it is
partitioned.
Note:
Oracle Grid Infrastructure
3-9
Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
Step 3: Configuring Disks for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Oracle provides an Oracle ASM library driver that you can use to simplify the
configuration and management of the disk devices that you want to use with Oracle
ASM. A disk that is configured for Oracle ASM is known as a candidate disk.
If you intend to use Oracle ASM for database storage, then Oracle recommends that
you install the Automatic Storage Management library driver (ASMLIB) and
associated utilities and use them to configure the devices that you want to include in
an Oracle ASM disk group.
If you choose to configure disks using the Oracle Automatic
Storage Management library driver, then you must change the default
disk discovery string to ORCLDISK:*. If the diskstring is set to
ORCLDISK:*, or is left empty (""), then the installer discovers these
disks.
Note:
This section describes how to configure storage for use with Oracle ASM.
■
■
Configuring Disks for Oracle Automatic Storage Management Using the
Automatic Storage Management Library Driver (ASMLIB)
Configuring Disk Devices Manually for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Configuring Disks for Oracle Automatic Storage Management Using the Automatic
Storage Management Library Driver (ASMLIB)
To use the Automatic Storage Management library driver to configure Automatic
Storage Management devices, complete the following tasks:
■
■
■
Installing and Configuring the Automatic Storage Management Library Driver
Software
Configuring the Disk Devices to Use the Automatic Storage Management Library
Driver
Administering the Automatic Storage Management Library Driver and Disks
Installing and Configuring the Automatic Storage Management Library Driver
Software
To install and configure the Automatic Storage Management library driver software:
1.
Enter the following command to determine the kernel version and architecture of
the system:
# uname -rm
2.
If necessary, download the required Automatic Storage Management library driver
packages from the Oracle Technology Network Web site:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/tech/linux/asmlib/index.html
You must install the following packages, where version is the version of the
Automatic Storage Management library driver, arch is the system architecture,
and kernel is the version of the kernel that you are using:
oracleasm-support-version.arch.rpm
oracleasm-kernel-version.arch.rpm
oracleasmlib-version.arch.rpm
3-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
3.
Enter a command similar to the following to install the packages:
# sudo rpm -Uvh oracleasm-support-version.arch.rpm \
oracleasm-kernel-version.arch.rpm \
oracleasmlib-version.arch.rpm
For example, if you are using the Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS 3.0 enterprise
kernel on an x86 system, then enter a command similar to the following:
# sudo rpm -Uvh oracleasm-support-1.0.0-1.i386.rpm \
oracleasm-2.4.9-e-enterprise-1.0.0-1.i686.rpm \
oracleasmlib-1.0.0-1.i386.rpm
4.
Enter a command similar to the following to determine the UID of the Oracle
software owner user that you are using for this installation and the GID of the
OSASM group:
# id oracle
5.
Enter the following command to run the oracleasm initialization script with the
configure option:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm configure
6.
Enter the following information in response to the prompts that the script
displays:
Prompt
Suggested Response
Default UID to own the driver interface:
Specify the UID of the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure owner user (typically,
grid).
Default GID to own the driver interface:
Specify the GID of the OSASM group
(typically, asmadmin).
Start Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Library driver on start (y/n):
Enter y to start the Oracle Automatic
Storage Management library driver when
the system starts.
Scan for Oracle ASM disks on boot (y/n):
Enter y to scan for presence of any Oracle
Automatic Storage Management disks
when the system starts.
Configuring the Disk Devices to Use the Automatic Storage Management Library
Driver
To configure the disk devices that you want to use in an Automatic Storage
Management disk group:
1.
If you intend to use IDE, SCSI, or RAID devices in the Automatic Storage
Management disk group, then:
a.
If necessary, install or configure the disk devices that you intend to use for the
disk group and restart the system.
b.
To identify the device name for the disks that you want to use, enter the
following command:
# /sbin/fdisk -l
Depending on the type of disk, the device name can vary:
Oracle Grid Infrastructure 3-11
Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
Disk Type
Device Name
Format
IDE disk
/dev/hdxn
In this example, x is a letter that identifies the
IDE disk and n is the partition number. For
example, /dev/hda is the first disk on the first
IDE bus.
SCSI disk
/dev/sdxn
In this example, x is a letter that identifies the
SCSI disk and n is the partition number. For
example, /dev/sda is the first disk on the first
SCSI bus.
RAID disk
/dev/rd/cxdypz
/dev/ida/cxdypz
Depending on the RAID controller, RAID
devices can have different device names. In the
examples shown, x is a number that identifies
the controller, y is a number that identifies the
disk, and z is a number that identifies the
partition. For example, /dev/ida/c0d1 is the
second logical drive on the first controller.
Description
Oracle recommends that you create a single whole-disk
partition on each disk that you want to use.
Note:
c.
2.
Use either fdisk or parted to create a single whole-disk partition on the
disk devices that you want to use.
Enter a command similar to the following to mark a disk as an Automatic Storage
Management disk:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm createdisk DISK1 /dev/sdb1
In this example, DISK1 is a name that you want to assign to the disk.
Note:
■
If you are using a multipathing disk driver with Automatic
Storage Management, then ensure that you specify the correct
logical device name for the disk.
The disk names that you specify can contain uppercase letters,
numbers, and the underscore character. They must start with
an uppercase letter.
■
To create a database during the installation using the
Automatic Storage Management library driver, you must
change the default disk discovery string to ORCLDISK:*.
Administering the Automatic Storage Management Library Driver and Disks
To administer the Automatic Storage Management library driver and disks, use the
oracleasm initialization script with different options, as follows:
Option
Description
configure
Use the configure option to reconfigure the Automatic Storage
Management library driver, if necessary:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm configure
3-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
Option
Description
enable
disable
Use the disable and enable options to change the behavior of the
Automatic Storage Management library driver when the system starts.
The enable option causes the Automatic Storage Management library
driver to load when the system starts:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm enable
start
stop
restart
Use the start, stop, and restart options to load or unload the
Automatic Storage Management library driver without restarting the
system:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm restart
createdisk
Use the createdisk option to mark a disk device for use with the
Automatic Storage Management library driver and give it a name:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm createdisk DISKNAME devicename
deletedisk
Use the deletedisk option to unmark a named disk device:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm deletedisk DISKNAME
Note: Do not use this command to unmark disks that are being used by
an Automatic Storage Management disk group. You must drop the disk
from the Automatic Storage Management disk group before you unmark
it.
querydisk
Use the querydisk option to determine whether a disk device or disk
name is being used by the Automatic Storage Management library driver:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm querydisk {DISKNAME | devicename}
listdisks
Use the listdisks option to list the disk names of marked Automatic
Storage Management library driver disks:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm listdisks
scandisks
Use the scandisks option to enable cluster nodes to identify which
shared disks have been marked as Automatic Storage Management
library driver disks on another node:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm scandisks
Configuring Disk Devices Manually for Oracle Automatic Storage Management
By default, the 2.6 kernel device file naming scheme udev dynamically creates device
file names when the server is started, and assigns ownership of them to root. If udev
applies default settings, then it changes device file names and owners for the disks,
corrupting them when Oracle Storage Management instance is restarted. If you use
ASMLIB, then you do not need to ensure permissions and device path persistency in
udev.
If you do not use ASMLIB, then you must create a custom rules file. When udev is
started, it sequentially carries out rules (configuration directives) defined in rules files.
These files are in the path /etc/udev/rules.d/. Rules files are read in lexical order.
For example, rules in the file 10-wacom.rules are parsed and carried out before
rules in the rules file 90-ib.rules.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure 3-13
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure Using a Software-Only Installation
Where rules files describe the same devices, on Asianux, Red Hat, and Oracle Linux,
the last file read is the one that is applied. On SUSE 2.6 kernels, the first file read is the
one that is applied.
To configure a permissions file for disk devices, complete the following tasks:
1.
Configure SCSI devices as trusted devices (white listed), by editing the
/etc/scsi_id.config file and adding "options=-g" to the file. For example:
# cat > /etc/scsi_id.config
vendor="ATA",options=-p 0x80
options=-g
2.
Using a text editor, create a UDEV rules file for the Oracle ASM devices, setting
permissions to 0660 for the installation owner and the group whose members are
administrators of the grid infrastructure software. For example, using the
installation owner grid and using a role-based group configuration, with the
OSASM group asmadmin:
# vi /etc/udev/rules.d/99-oracle-asmdevices.rules
KERNEL=="sd?1", BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id",
RESULT=="14f70656e66696c00000000", OWNER="grid", GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660"
KERNEL=="sd?2", BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id",
RESULT=="14f70656e66696c00000000", OWNER="grid", GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660"
KERNEL=="sd?3", BUS=="scsi", PROGRAM=="/sbin/scsi_id",
RESULT=="14f70656e66696c00000000", OWNER="grid", GROUP="asmadmin", MODE="0660"
3.
Load updated block device partition tables on the server, using
/sbin/partprobe devicename. You must do this as root.
4.
Enter the command to restart the UDEV service.
On Asianux, OEL5, and RHEL5, the commands are:
# /sbin/udevcontrol reload_rules
# /sbin/start_udev
On SUSE 10 and 11, the command is:
# /etc/init.d boot.udev restart
Check to ensure that your system is configured correctly.
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure Using a Software-Only Installation
A software-only installation only copies the Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
Standalone Server binaries to the specified location. Configuring Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a standalone server and Oracle ASM must be done manually after
the installation has finished.
When you perform a software-only installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure software,
you must complete a few manual configuration steps to enable Oracle Restart after
you install the software.
Oracle recommends that only advanced users perform the
software-only installation, because this installation method provides
no validation of the installation and this installation option requires
manual postinstallation steps to enable the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
software.
Note:
3-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
Performing a software-only installation involves the following steps:
1.
Installing the Software Binaries
2.
Configuring the Software Binaries
Installing the Software Binaries
1.
Start the runInstaller command from the relevant directory on the Oracle
Database 11g release 2 (11.2) installation media or download directory.
2.
Complete a software-only installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
See "Configuring the Software Binaries" on page 15 for information about
configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure after performing a software-only
installation.
3.
Verify that the server meets the installation requirements using the command
runcluvfy.bat stage -pre hacfg. Ensure that you have completed all
storage and server preinstallation requirements.
Configuring the Software Binaries
To configure and activate a software-only Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation for
Oracle Restart, complete the following tasks:
1.
Run the roothas.pl script from Grid_home, using the following syntax:
Grid_home/perl/bin/perl -I Grid_home/perl/lib -I Grid_home/crs/install
Grid_home/crs/install/roothas.pl
For example, if your Grid home is /app/11.2.0/grid, then run the following
script:
$ /app/11.2.0/grid/perl/bin/perl -I /app/11.2.0/grid/perl/lib -I /app
/11.2.0/grid/crs/install /app/11.2.0/grid/crs/install/roothas.pl
2.
Change the directory to Grid_home/oui/bin, where Grid_home is the path of
the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home.
3.
Enter the following command:
./runInstaller -updateNodeList ORACLE_HOME=Grid_home -defaultHomeName
For example:
$ ./runInstaller -updateNodeList ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/11.2.0/grid
-defaultHomeName
CLUSTER_NODES= CRS=TRUE
4.
Use the SRVCTL utility along with Network Configuration Assistant and Oracle
ASMCA to add the listener, the Oracle ASM instance, and all Oracle ASM disk
groups to the Oracle Restart configuration.
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone
Server
If you install Oracle Grid Infrastructure and then create your database, the database is
automatically added to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure configuration, and is then
automatically restarted when required. However, if you install Oracle Grid
Infrastructure on a host computer on which a database already exists, you must
Oracle Grid Infrastructure 3-15
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
manually add the database, the listener, the Oracle ASM instance, and other
components to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure configuration.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure can accommodate multiple
single-instance databases on a single host computer.
Note:
This section includes the following topics:
■
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure with a New Database Installation
■
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for an Existing Database
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure with a New Database Installation
Perform the following steps to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure and then create a
database that is managed by Oracle Restart. First install Oracle Grid Infrastructure,
which installs Oracle Restart and Oracle ASM, then configure Oracle ASM with at least
one disk group, and then install Oracle database that stores database files in Oracle
ASM disk groups. Click the help button on the Oracle Universal Installer page for
page level assistance.
You may need to shut down existing Oracle processes before you proceed with the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. Refer to "Stopping Existing Oracle Processes"
on page 2-41 for more information.
To install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server with a new database
installation:
1.
Start Oracle Universal Installer as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner
user. Complete one of the following steps depending on the location of the
installation files:
■
If the installation files are on installation media, enter commands similar to the
following, where directory_path is the path of the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure directory on the installation media:
$ /directory_path/runInstaller
You must install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone
server from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure media.
Note:
■
If the installation files are on the hard disk, change the directory to the path of
the Oracle Grid Infrastructure (clusterware) directory and enter the
following command:
$ ./runInstaller
■
Downloading Updates Before Installation
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2), if you plan to run the
installation in a secured data center, then you can download updates before
starting the installation by starting Oracle Universal Installer on a system that
has Internet access in update download mode. To start Oracle Universal
Installer to download updates, enter the following command:
$ ./runInstaller -downloadUpdates
3-16 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
Provide the My Oracle Support user name and password, and provide proxy
settings if needed. After you download updates, transfer the update file to a
directory on the server where you plan to run the installation.
See Also:
■
■
■
Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for Windows and
UNIX for more information about response file formats
"Software Updates Option" on page 1-10
"Configuring the User’s Environment" on page 3-4 for information
about setting the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner user’s
environment
Start Oracle Universal Installer from the terminal session
where you logged in as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner
user and set the user’s environment.
Note:
If Oracle Universal Installer is not displayed, refer to "X Window Display Errors"
and "Remote Terminal Installation Error" for information about troubleshooting.
2.
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2), you can use the Software
Updates feature to dynamically download and apply latest updates. In the
Download Software Updates screen, select one of the following options and click
Next:
■
Use My Oracle Support credentials for download: Select this option to
download and apply the latest software updates.
Click Proxy Settings to configure a proxy for Oracle Universal Installer to use
to connect to the Internet. Provide the proxy server information for your site,
along with a user account that has access to the local area network through
which the server is connecting.
Click Test Connection to ensure that your proxy settings are correctly entered,
and the installer can download the updates.
■
■
3.
Use pre-downloaded software updates: Select this option to apply the
software updates previously downloaded using the -downloadUpdates
flag.
Skip Software Updates: Select this option if you do not want to apply any
updates.
The Apply Software Updates screen is displayed if you select to download the
software updates or provide the pre-downloaded software updates location. If you
selected Use My Oracle Support credentials for download in the previous screen,
then select Download and apply all updates, and click Next.
If you selected Use pre-downloaded software updates in the previous screen, then
select Apply all updates, and click Next.
4.
In the Select Installation Option screen, select the Install and Configure Grid
Infrastructure for a Standalone Server option to install and configure Oracle
Restart and Oracle ASM. Click Next.
5.
In the Select Product Languages screen, select one or more languages. Move the
languages from the Available Languages list to the Selected Languages list. Click
Next.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure 3-17
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
6.
The Create ASM Disk Group screen lists all the Oracle ASM disks under
ORCLDISK:*
Click Change Disk Discovery Path to select any devices that will be used by
Oracle ASM but are not listed. In the Change Disk Discovery Path window, enter a
string to use to search for devices that Oracle ASM will use. If the diskstring is set
to ORCLDISK:* or is left empty (""), then the installer discovers these disks. Click
OK.
After you finish selecting the disks to be used by Oracle ASM, click Next.
During installation, disk paths mounted on ASM and
registered on ASMLIB with the string ORCLDISK:* are listed as
default database storage candidate disks.
Note:
Consider the following information about disk devices while performing this step:
■
■
The Disk Group Name default is DATA. You can enter a new name for the disk
group, or use the default name.
The disk devices must be owned by the user performing the grid installation.
See Also: Example 2–2, "Example of a Rules File With User grid" for
information about creating or modifying permissions
■
Check with your system administrator to determine if the disks used by
Oracle ASM are mirrored at the storage level. If so, select External for the
redundancy. If the disks are not mirrored at the storage level, then choose
Normal for the redundancy.
For normal redundancy, you require twice as much disk space
to hold the same amount of data. For example, if your database is 100
GB, then you require approximately 200 GB of storage.
Note:
7.
In the Specify ASM Password screen, enter SYSASM password required to connect
to the Oracle ASM instance. The Oracle ASM instance is managed by a privileged
role called SYSASM, which grants full access to Oracle ASM disk groups. Oracle
recommends that you create a less privileged user, ASMSNMP, with SYSDBA
privileges to monitor the Oracle ASM instance.
Enter passwords for the SYS and ASMSNMP user accounts. The passwords should
be at least eight characters in length and include at least one alphabetic and one
numeric character.
Optionally, you can use the same password for all accounts. However, Oracle
recommends that you specify a different password for each account. You must
remember the passwords that you specify.
8.
In the Privileged Operating System Groups screen, select the name of the
operating system group you created for the OSDBA group, the OSASM group, and
the database operator group OSOPER. If you choose to create only the dba group,
then you can use that group for all three privileged groups. If you created a
separate asmadmin group, then use that value for the OSASM group. Click Next.
9.
In the Specify Installation Location screen, enter the following details, and click
Next:
3-18 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
■
■
Oracle Base: Enter the directory location for Oracle base. Do not include
spaces in the path name.
Software Location: This field is populated by default in concurrence with
Oracle base location.
See Also: "Naming Directories" on page D-2 for directory naming
conventions
10. If you have not installed any Oracle software previously on this server, the Create
Inventory screen appears.
Change the path for the Inventory Directory, if required. Select oinstall for the
oraInventory Group Name, if required. Click Next.
11. The Perform Prerequisite Checks screen checks if the minimum system
requirements are met to perform the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. If all
the system requirements are met, then you will be directed to the Summary screen.
However, if an installation fails, you can review the error.
If you click Check Again, then you can run the prerequisite check again to see if
the minimum requirements are met to carry on with the database installation.
Click Fix & Check Again, if you want the installer to fix the problem and check
the system requirements once more.
Note: The Fix & Check Again option generates a script that you must
run as the root user. This generated script sets some of the system
parameter values. Oracle recommends that you do not modify the
contents of this script. Refer to "Installation Fixup Scripts" on
page 2-18 for more information about fixup scripts.
To get a list of failed requirements, select Show Failed from the list. To get a list of
all the prerequirement checks run by the OUI, select Show All. To get a list of the
prerequirement checks that are successful, select Show Succeeded.
Oracle recommends that you use caution in checking the
Ignore All option. If you check this option, then Oracle Universal
Installer may not confirm that your system is able to install Oracle
Database successfully.
Note:
12. Review the contents of the Summary screen, and click Finish.
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), you can click Save Response
File to save all the installation steps into a response file. This file can be used for a
silent installation.
13. The Setup screen displays the progress of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation. During the installation process, the Execute Configuration Scripts
window appears. Do not click OK until you have run the scripts mentioned in this
screen.
Run the root.sh and, if required, the orainstRoot.sh configuration scripts as
the root user.
14. The Finish screen displays the installation status. Click Close to end the
installation, then Yes to confirm that you want to exit Oracle Universal Installer.
Oracle Grid Infrastructure 3-19
Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Standalone Server
If you encounter any problems, refer to the configuration log for information. The
path to the configuration log is displayed on the Configuration Assistants window.
15. To create additional disk groups, run the Oracle ASMCA utility. For example, you
can create another disk group named RECOVERY to store the fast recovery area.
See Also:
■
■
"Manually Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Disk Groups" on page 3-21
"Create a Fast Recovery Area Disk Group" on page 5-5
To check if the Oracle High Availability Service is installed
properly, run ./crsctl check has command from Grid_
home/bin directory.
Note:
Grid_home is the path to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home for a
standalone server. Ohasd is a daemon installed with Oracle Grid
Infrastructure that starts software services, such as Oracle ASM.
16. Install Oracle Database. Refer to "Installing the Oracle Database Software" on
page 4-9 for information about installing Oracle Database.
Note:
■
■
If a new database is installed after a grid infrastructure
installation, then the listener runs from the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure home. Because Oracle ASM is installed as part of
Oracle Grid Infrastructure, the default listener is created and runs
from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home. If you perform a
database installation, then the database must use the same listener
created during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.
If you are using Oracle Restart, then the default listener and any
additional listeners must run from the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
home.
Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure for an Existing Database
Follow the high-level instructions in this section to install Oracle Grid Infrastructure
and configure it for an existing Oracle database. Please note that Oracle Restart can
only manage existing 11.2 resources and hence you can install Oracle Grid
Infrastructure only for an existing 11.2 database. However, Oracle database releases
prior to 11.2 can coexist on the same server without being managed by Oracle Restart.
To install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for an existing database:
■
On the same host computer as the database, use Oracle Universal Installer to
install Oracle Grid Infrastructure, and select Install and Configure Grid
Infrastructure for a Standalone Server as the installation option.
The Oracle Grid Infrastructure components are installed in a separate Oracle
home.
Refer to "Installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure with a New Database Installation"
on page 16 for detailed instructions.
3-20 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Manually Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Groups
■
Go to the Grid home’s bin directory. Use the srvctl add database command
to manually add the database, the listener, the Oracle ASM instance, all Oracle
ASM disk groups, and any database services to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
configuration.
See Also: "srvctl add database" in Oracle Database Administrator's
Guide for more information about the srvctl add database
command
Modifying Oracle Grid Infrastructure Binaries After Installation
After installation, you must first stop the Oracle Restart stack to modify the software
installed in your Grid home. For example, if you want to apply a one-off patch or
modify any of the DLLs used by Oracle Restart or Oracle ASM, then you must follow
these steps to stop and restart the Oracle Restart stack.
Caution: Before relinking executables, you must shut down all
executables that run in the Oracle home directory that you are
relinking. In addition, shut down applications linked with Oracle
shared libraries.
Prepare the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home for modification using the following
procedure:
1.
Log in as the Oracle Grid Infrastructure software owner user and change the
directory to the path Grid_home\bin, where Grid_home is the path to the
Oracle Grid Infrastructure home:
$ cd Grid_home/bin
2.
Shut down the Oracle Restart stack using the following command:
$ crsctl stop has -f
3.
After the Oracle Restart stack is completely shut down, perform the updates to the
software installed in the Grid home.
4.
Use the following command to restart the Oracle Restart stack:
$ crsctl start has
Manually Configuring Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk
Groups
The Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant utility creates a
new Automatic Storage Management instance if there is no Oracle ASM instance
currently configured on the computer.
After installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure, you can also use Oracle ASMCA to create
and configure disk groups, Oracle Automatic Storage Management Dynamic Volume
Manager (Oracle ADVM) and Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File
System (Oracle ACFS).
If you want to create additional disk groups or manually configure Oracle ASM disks,
then you can run the Oracle ASMCA as follows:
$ cd Grid_home/bin
Oracle Grid Infrastructure 3-21
Testing the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
$ ./asmca
Where Grid_home is the path to the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home for a standalone
server.
See Also: Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
for more information on Oracle ASMCA
Testing the Oracle Automatic Storage Management Installation
To test the Oracle ASM installation, try logging in by using the asmcmd command-line
utility, which lets you manage Oracle ASM disk group files and directories. To do this:
1.
Open a shell window, and temporarily set the ORACLE_SID and ORACLE_HOME
environment variables to specify the appropriate values for the Oracle ASM
instance that you want to use.
For example, if the Oracle ASM SID is named +ASM and the Oracle home is
located in the grid subdirectory of the ORACLE_BASE directory, then enter the
following commands to create the required settings:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$
$
$
$
■
ORACLE_SID=+ASM
export ORACLE_SID
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid
export ORACLE_HOME
C shell:
% setenv ORACLE_SID +ASM
% setenv ORACLE_HOME /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid
2.
Use ASMCMD to list the disk groups for the Oracle ASM instance:
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/asmcmd lsdg
ASMCMD connects by default as the SYS user with SYSASM privileges.
If the Oracle ASM instance is not running, you can start the instance with the
following:
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/asmcmd startup
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Utilities for more information about ASMCMD
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for a
more information about Oracle ASM
3-22 Oracle Database Installation Guide
4
4
Installing Oracle Database
The Oracle Database software is available on installation media or you can download
it from the Oracle Technology Network Web site. In most cases, you use the graphical
user interface (GUI) provided by Oracle Universal Installer to install the software.
However, you can also use Oracle Universal Installer to complete silent-mode
installations, without using the GUI.
■
Preinstallation Considerations
■
Reviewing Component-Specific Installation Guidelines
■
Accessing the Installation Software
■
Database Security Options
■
Installing the Oracle Database Software
■
Installing Oracle Database Examples
See Also: Appendix A for information about silent-mode
installations
Preinstallation Considerations
After reviewing the information in Chapter 1, "Overview of Oracle Database
Installation" and completing the tasks listed in Chapter 2, "Oracle Database
Preinstallation Requirements", consider the following case.
Performing Multiple Oracle Database Installations in Response File or Silent Mode
If you must perform multiple installations of Oracle Database, you may want to use
silent or response file mode. In response file mode, at each node, you run Oracle
Universal Installer from the command line using a response file. The response file is a
text file containing the settings you normally enter in the Oracle Universal Installer
GUI dialog boxes.
See Also: Appendix A for information about silent mode
installations
Reviewing Component-Specific Installation Guidelines
Review the following guidelines before starting Oracle Universal Installer:
■
Oracle Universal Installer
Using Oracle Universal Installer from an earlier Oracle release to install
components from this release is no longer allowed.
Installing Oracle Database 4-1
Reviewing Component-Specific Installation Guidelines
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
In previous releases, Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) was
installed as part of the Oracle Database installation. With Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation,
either for a cluster, or for a standalone server.
If you want to upgrade an existing Oracle ASM installation, then you must
upgrade Oracle ASM by running an Oracle Grid Infrastructure upgrade. If you do
not have Oracle ASM installed and you want to use Oracle ASM as your storage
option, then you must complete an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation before
you start your Oracle Database installation.
Chapter 3, "Oracle Grid Infrastructure" for information
about Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server
See Also:
■
Installations on a Cluster
If Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC are already installed on the system, Oracle
Universal Installer displays the Specify Hardware Cluster Installation page. You
must select the Local Installation option, unless you want to install Oracle RAC.
See Also: Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for
information about installing Oracle RAC
Selecting the Database Character Set
Oracle Database uses the database character set for:
■
Data stored in SQL character datatypes (CHAR, VARCHAR2, CLOB, and LONG).
■
Identifiers such as table names, column names, and PL/SQL variables.
■
Stored SQL and PL/SQL source code, including text literals embedded in this
code.
Once a database is created, changing its character set is usually very expensive in
terms of time and resources. Such operation may require converting all character data
by exporting the whole database and importing it back. Therefore, it is important that
you carefully select the database character set already at installation time.
Oracle recommends Unicode AL32UTF8 as the database character set. Unicode is the
universal character set that supports most of the currently spoken languages of the
world. It also supports many historical scripts (alphabets). Unicode is the native
encoding of many technologies, including Java, XML, XHTML, ECMAScript, and
LDAP. Unicode is ideally suited for databases supporting the Internet and the global
economy.
As AL32UTF8 is a multibyte character set, database operations on character data may
be slightly slower when compared to single-byte database character sets, such as
WE8MSWIN1252. Storage space requirements for text in most languages that use
characters outside of the ASCII repertoire are higher in AL32UTF8 compared to legacy
character sets supporting the language. Note that the increase in storage space
concerns only character data and only data that is not in English. The universality and
flexibility of Unicode usually outweighs these additional costs.
Legacy character sets should be considered when compatibility, storage requirements,
or performance of text processing is critical and the database will ever support only a
single group of languages. The database character set to be selected in such case is the
character set of most clients connecting to this database.
4-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Reviewing Component-Specific Installation Guidelines
The default character set suggested or used by Oracle Universal Installer and Database
Configuration Assistant in this release is based on the language configuration of the
operating system.
For most languages, the default character set is one of the Microsoft Windows
character sets, for example WE8MSWIN1252, even though the database is not installed
on Windows. This results from the assumption that most clients connecting to the
database run under the Microsoft Windows operating system. As the database should
be able to store all characters coming from the clients and Microsoft Windows
character sets have richer character repertoire than the corresponding ISO 8859
character sets, the Microsoft Windows character sets are usually the better choice. For
example, the EE8MSWIN1250 character set supports the Euro currency symbol and
various smart quote characters, while the corresponding EE8ISO8859P2 character set
does not support them. In any case, Oracle converts the data between the database
character set and the client character sets, which are declared by the NLS_LANG
settings.
The list of database character sets that is presented to you for selection by Oracle
Universal Installer contains only the recommended character sets. Even though Oracle
Database supports many more character sets, they are either deprecated or they are
binary subsets of another recommended character set. For example, WE8DEC is a
deprecated character set and US7ASCII and WE8ISO8859P1 are both binary subsets of
WE8MSWIN1252.
If, for compatibility reasons, you must create a database in one of the
non-recommended character sets, choose the Advanced database configuration option.
Database Configuration Assistant in the interactive mode will give you the
opportunity to select any of the database character sets supported on Linux.
Using an Oracle Automatic Storage Management Disk Group
This section is optional and describes how to identify disk groups and determine the
free disk space that they contain. You can store either database or recovery files in an
existing Oracle ASM disk group that you created during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation.
The Oracle ASM instance that manages the existing disk
group will be running in the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home
directory.
Note:
To determine whether an existing Oracle ASM disk group exists, or to determine
whether there is sufficient disk space in a disk group, use the following procedure:
1.
View the contents of the oratab file to determine whether an Oracle ASM
instance is configured on the system:
# more /etc/oratab
If an Oracle ASM instance is configured on the system, then the oratab file
should contain a line similar to the following:
+ASM:oracle_home_path:N
In this example, +ASM is the system identifier (SID) of the Oracle ASM instance
and oracle_home_path is the Oracle home directory where Oracle ASM is
installed. By convention, the SID for an Oracle ASM instance should be +ASM.
Installing Oracle Database 4-3
Accessing the Installation Software
2.
Open a shell prompt and temporarily set the ORACLE_SID and ORACLE_HOME
environment variables to specify the appropriate values for the Oracle ASM
instance that you want to use.
For example, if the Oracle ASM SID is named +ASM and is located in the grid
subdirectory of the ORACLE_BASE directory, then enter the following commands
to create the required settings:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$
$
$
$
■
ORACLE_SID=+ASM
export ORACLE_SID
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid/
export ORACLE_HOME
C shell:
% setenv ORACLE_SID +ASM
% setenv ORACLE_HOME /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid
3.
By using SQL*Plus, connect to the Oracle ASM instance as the SYS user with
SYSASM privilege and start the instance if necessary:
# $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus /nolog
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSASM
Enter password: SYS_password
SQL> STARTUP
4.
Enter the following command to view the existing disk groups, their redundancy
level, and the amount of free disk space in each one:
SQL> SELECT NAME,TYPE,TOTAL_MB,FREE_MB FROM V$ASM_DISKGROUP;
5.
From the output, identify a disk group with the appropriate redundancy level and
note the free space that it contains.
6.
If necessary, install or identify the additional disk devices required to meet the
storage requirements listed in the previous section.
If you are adding devices to an existing disk group, then
Oracle recommends that you use devices that have the same size
and performance characteristics as the existing devices in that disk
group.
Note:
See Also: "Migrating Existing Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Instances" on page 3-5
Accessing the Installation Software
The Oracle Database software is available on installation media or you can download
it from the Oracle Technology Network Web site, or Oracle E-Delivery Web site. To
install the software from the hard disk, you must either download it and unpack it, or
copy it from the installation media, if you have it.
You can access and install Oracle Database by using one of the following methods:
■
To copy the software to a hard disk, refer to "Copying the Software to the Hard
Disk" on page 4-7
4-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Accessing the Installation Software
■
To download the software from Oracle Technology Network, refer to
"Downloading Oracle Software" on page 4-5
Downloading Oracle Software
You can download the trial version of the installation files from the Oracle Technology
Network (OTN) or Oracle E-Delivery Web site and extract them on your hard disk.
Make sure that you completely review and understand the terms of the license. Most
downloads include the development license. This section contains the following
topics:
■
Downloading the Installation Archive Files from OTN
■
Downloading the Software from Oracle E-Delivery
■
Extracting the Installation Files
Downloading the Installation Archive Files from OTN
To download the installation archive files from Oracle Technology Network:
1.
Use any browser to access the software download page from Oracle Technology
Network:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/software/
2.
Navigate to the download page for the product that you want to install.
3.
On the download page, identify the required disk space by adding the file sizes for
each required file.
The file sizes are listed next to the file names.
4.
Select a file system with enough free space to store and expand the archive files.
In most cases, the available disk space must be at least twice the size of all of the
archive files.
5.
On the file system that you selected in step 4, create a parent directory for each
product, for example OraDB11g, to hold the installation directories.
6.
Download all of the installation archive files to the directory that you created in
step 5.
7.
Verify that the files you downloaded are the same size as the corresponding files
on Oracle Technology Network.
8.
Extract the files in each directory that you just created.
9.
After you have extracted the required installation files, refer to "Installing the
Oracle Database Software" on page 4-9.
Downloading the Software from Oracle E-Delivery
You can download the software from Oracle E-Delivery as Media Packs. A Media Pack
is an electronic version of the software that is also available to Oracle customers on
CD-ROM or DVD. To download the Media Pack:
1.
Use any browser to access the Oracle E-Delivery Web site:
http://edelivery.oracle.com/
2.
Complete the Export Validation process by entering information (name, company,
e-mail address, and country) in the online form.
Installing Oracle Database 4-5
Accessing the Installation Software
3.
In the Media Pack Search page, specify the Product Pack and Platform to identify
the Media Pack you want to download. If you do not know the name of the
Product Pack, you can search for it using the License List.
4.
In the search results page, click Readme to download and review the Readme file
for download instructions and product information.
5.
After you review the Readme, choose the appropriate Media Pack from the search
results to download the individual zip files. Follow the Download Notes
instructions in this page. Once you download and extract the contents of the
required zip files, proceed with the installation of the software.
Print the page with the list of downloadable files. It contains a
list of part numbers and their corresponding descriptions that you
may need to reference during the installation process.
Note:
See Also: Frequently Asked Questions section on the Oracle
E-Delivery Web site for more information about Media Packs
Extracting the Installation Files
To extract the installation archive files, perform the following steps:
1.
If necessary, change to the directory that contains the downloaded installation
archive files.
2.
If the downloaded file has the zip extension, use the following command to
extract the content:
unzip file_name.zip
If the downloaded file has the cpio.gz extension, use the following command:
$ gunzip filename.cpio.gz
This command creates files with names similar to the following:
filename.cpio
To extract the installation files, enter a command similar to the following:
$ cpio -idcmv < filename.cpio
Refer to the download page for information about the
correct options to use with the cpio command.
Note:
Some browsers uncompress files while downloading them, but
leave the .gz file extension.
For each file, this command creates a subdirectory named Diskn, where n is the
disk number identified in the file name.
When you have extracted all of the required installation files, refer to the "Installing
the Oracle Database Software" section.
4-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Accessing the Installation Software
Copying the Software to the Hard Disk
Before installing Oracle Database, you might want to copy the software to the hard
disk. This enables the installation process to run a bit faster. Before copying the
installation media content to the hard disk, you must mount the disk. The following
sections describe how to mount the disk and copy its content to the hard disk.
Mounting Disks
On most Linux systems, the disk mounts automatically when you insert it into the disc
drive. If the disk does not mount automatically, then follow these steps to mount it:
1.
If necessary, log in as the root user and enter a command similar to one of the
following to eject the currently mounted disk, then remove it from the drive:
■
Asianux, Oracle Linux, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
# sudo eject /mnt/dvd
■
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server:
# eject /media/dvd
In these examples, /mnt/dvd and /media/dvd are the mount point directories
for the installation media.
2.
Insert the appropriate installation media into the disk drive.
3.
To verify if the disk is mounted automatically, enter one of the following
commands depending on the platform:
■
Asianux, Oracle Linux, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
# ls /mnt/dvd
■
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server:
# ls /media/dvd
4.
Before running the following command, ensure that the /mnt/dvd directory exists
on Red Hat Enterprise Linux. If not, create the /mnt/dvd as required, to mount
the installation media.
If this command fails to display the contents of the installation media, enter a
command similar to the following to mount it, depending on the platform:
■
Asianux, Oracle Linux, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
# mount -t iso9660 /dev/dvd /mnt/dvd
■
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server:
# mount -t iso9660 /dev/dvd /media/dvd
In these examples, /mnt/dvd and /media/dvd are the mount point directories
for the installation media.
5.
If Oracle Universal Installer is displaying the Disk Location dialog box, enter the
disk mount point directory path, for example:
/mnt/dvd
To continue, go to one of the following sections:
Installing Oracle Database 4-7
Database Security Options
■
■
If you want to copy software to a hard disk, refer to "Copying the Oracle Database
Software to a Hard Disk" on page 4-8.
If you want to install the software from the installation media, refer to "Installing
the Oracle Database Software" on page 4-9.
Copying the Oracle Database Software to a Hard Disk
If the system does not have a installation media, you can
copy the software from the disk to a file system on another system,
then either mount that file system using NFS, or use FTP to copy
the files to the system where you want to install the software.
Note:
To copy the contents of the installation media to a hard disk:
1.
Create a directory on the hard disk to hold the Oracle software:
$ mkdir OraDb11g
2.
Change directory to the directory you created in step 1:
$ cd OraDb11g
3.
Mount the disk, if it is not already mounted.
Some platforms automatically mount the disk when you insert it into the drive. If
the disk does not mount automatically, refer to the "Mounting Disks" section on
page 4-7 for platform-specific information about mounting it.
4.
Copy the contents of the mounted disk to the corresponding new subdirectory as
follows:
$ cp -R /directory_path OraDb11g
In this example, /directory_path is the disk mount point directory.
5.
If necessary, mount the next disk and repeat step 4.
Database Security Options
During installation, you are prompted to select a database security configuration. The
Secure Configuration option configures the database with database auditing options,
and password policy and expiration settings.
For new database installations, the default configuration for Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2) includes the Secure Configuration option. If you want to disable these
enhanced security controls, then you can uncheck the Assert all new security settings
check box in the Specify Configuration Option screen that appears during installation.
Oracle Database is then installed with default options for Oracle Database 10g Release
2. You can enable or disable auditing or password security settings, or revert to a
previous security setting. After installation, you can enable or disable the security
configuration by starting Database Configuration Assistant through the command-line
interface. Perform the following:
To Enable Security Configuration:
dbca -silent -configureDatabase -sourceDB SID -disableSecurityConfiguration NONE
-enableSecurityConfiguration true
4-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing the Oracle Database Software
To Disable Security Configuration:
dbca -silent -configureDatabase -sourceDB SID -disableSecurityConfiguration
[ALL|PASSWORD_PROFILE] -enableSecurityConfiguration false
Where SID is the system identifier.
For database upgrades, the upgraded database retains your existing database security
configuration, to ensure compatibility with existing applications.
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), the Security Enhanced Linux (SE
Linux) feature is supported for Oracle Linux 4, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4, Oracle
Linux 5, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.
Note:
■
■
Oracle strongly recommends configuring your database with the
Secure Configuration option either during installation, or after
installation using Database Configuration Assistant.
Database Vault is an enhanced Security feature. If it is installed
with the database, then you cannot change the Secure
Configuration using Database Configuration Assistant option.
Installing the Oracle Database Software
In most cases, you use the graphical user interface (GUI) provided by Oracle Universal
Installer to install Oracle Database. The instructions in this section explain how to run
the Oracle Universal Installer GUI to perform most database installations.
See Also:
■
■
■
If you plan to use Oracle Restart or Oracle ASM, you must install
Oracle Grid Infrastructure before you install the database. For
information about installing Oracle Grid Infrastructure, refer to
"Installing and Configuring Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
Standalone Server" on page 3-15
You may need to shut down existing Oracle processes before you
start the database installation. Refer to "Stopping Existing Oracle
Processes" on page 2-41 for more information.
Appendix A if you want to install Oracle Database by using the
silent or response file installation method, without the GUI. This
method is useful if you must perform multiple installations of
Oracle Database. This appendix covers other advanced
installation topics as well.
Running Oracle Universal Installer
For any type of installation process, start Oracle Universal Installer and install the
software, as follows:
1.
Log on as the Oracle software owner user (typically, oracle) to the computer on
which you want to install Oracle components.
2.
If you are installing the software from installation media, mount the disk if it is not
already mounted.
Installing Oracle Database 4-9
Installing the Oracle Database Software
If the disk does not mount automatically, refer to "Mounting Disks" section on
page 4-7 for platform-specific information about mounting it.
Some platforms automatically mount the disk when you insert the installation
media into the drive.
3.
To start Oracle Universal Installer, complete one of the following steps depending
on the location of the installation files:
Start Oracle Universal Installer from the terminal session
where you logged in as the oracle user and set the user’s
environment.
Note:
"Configuring the oracle User’s Environment" on page 2-43
for information about setting the oracle user’s environment
See Also:
■
If the installation files are on installation media, enter commands similar to the
following, where directory_path is the path of the database directory on
the installation media:
$ /directory_path/runInstaller
■
If the installation files are on the hard disk, change directory to the database
directory and enter the following command:
$ ./runInstaller
■
Downloading Updates Before Installation
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2), if you plan to run the
installation in a secured data center, then you can download updates before
starting the installation by starting Oracle Universal Installer on a system that
has Internet access in update download mode. To start Oracle Universal
Installer to download updates, enter the following command:
$ ./runInstaller -downloadUpdates
Provide the My Oracle Support user name and password, and provide proxy
settings if needed. After you download updates, transfer the update file to a
directory on the server where you plan to run the installation.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for Windows and
UNIX for more information about response file formats
"Software Updates Option" on page 1-10
If Oracle Universal Installer is not displayed, refer to "X Window Display Errors"
and "Remote Terminal Installation Error" for information about troubleshooting.
4.
Use the following guidelines to complete the installation:
■
■
Do not install Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) software into an existing
Oracle home.
Follow the instructions displayed on the Oracle Universal Installer screens. If
you need additional information, click Help.
4-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing the Oracle Database Software
See Also: "Reviewing Accounts and Passwords" on page 6-5 for
details on password guidelines
■
■
■
Do not modify the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) except by using a patch
provided by Oracle Support Services. Oracle Universal Installer automatically
installs the Oracle-supplied version of the JRE. This version is required to run
Oracle Universal Installer and several Oracle assistants.
If errors are displayed while installing the software, refer to Appendix G for
information about troubleshooting.
If you chose an installation type that runs Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant and Oracle Net Configuration Assistant in interactive mode, then
you must provide detailed information about configuring the database and
network.
If you need assistance when using the Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant or Oracle Net Configuration Assistant in interactive mode, click
Help on any screen.
Note: If you chose a default installation, Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant and Oracle Net Configuration Assistant do
not run interactively.
5.
When the configuration assistant tasks are complete click finish, click Exit, then
click Yes to exit from Oracle Universal Installer.
6.
When Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to run a script with root privileges,
enter a command similar to the following in a terminal where you are logged in as
the root user, then click Continue or OK:
# /script_path/script_name
7.
See Chapter 5 for information about tasks that you must complete after you have
installed Oracle Database.
The following table lists the various screens displayed during an Enterprise Edition
installation for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2):
Screen
Action
Configure Security Updates
Enter your e-mail address, preferably your My Oracle
Support (formerly OracleMetaLink) e-mail address or user
name in the Email field.
Select the I wish to receive security updates via My Oracle
Support check box if you want to receive security updates.
Enter your My Oracle Support password in the My Oracle
Support Password field.
Click Next.
Installing Oracle Database
4-11
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Screen
Action
Download Software Updates
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2), you can
use the Software Updates feature to dynamically download
and apply latest updates. Select one of the following options,
and click Next:
■
Use My Oracle Support credentials for download: Select
this option to download and apply the latest software
updates.
Click Proxy Settings to configure a proxy for Oracle
Universal Installer to use to connect to the Internet.
Provide the proxy server information for your site, along
with a user account that has access to the local area
network through which the server is connecting.
Click Test Connection to ensure that your proxy settings
are correctly entered, and the installer can download the
updates.
■
■
Use pre-downloaded software updates: Select this option
to apply the software updates previously downloaded
using the -downloadUpdates flag.
Skip Software Updates: Select this option if you do not
want to apply any updates.
See Also: "Software Updates Option" on page 1-10
Apply Software Updates
This screen is displayed if you select to download the
software updates or provide the pre-downloaded software
updates location.
If you selected Use My Oracle Support credentials for
download in the previous screen, select Download and apply
all updates, and then click Next.
If you selected Use pre-downloaded software updates in the
previous screen, select Apply all updates, and then click
Next.
Select Installation Option
Select one of the following install options, and click Next:
■
■
■
4-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Create and Configure a Database: This option creates a
new database along with sample schemas.
Install Database Software Only: This option only installs
the database binaries. To configure database, you must
run Oracle Database Configuration Assistant after the
software installation.
Upgrade an Existing Database: This option installs the
software binaries in a new Oracle home. At the end of
the installation, you can upgrade the existing database.
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Screen
Action
System Class
Select the type of system for installing the database, and click
Next.
■
Desktop Class: Choose this option if you are installing on
a laptop or desktop class system. This option includes a
starter database and allows minimal configuration. This
option is designed for those who want to get up and
running with the database quickly.
See Also: "Setting the ORACLE_HOSTNAME
Environment Variable" on page 2-21
■
Grid Installation Options
Server Class: Choose this option if you are installing on a
server class system, such as what you would use when
deploying Oracle in a production data center. This option
allows for more advanced configuration options.
Advanced configuration options available using this
option include Oracle RAC, Oracle ASM, backup and
recovery configuration, integration with Enterprise
Manager Grid Control, and more fine-grained memory
tuning, among many others.
Select the type of database installation you want to perform,
and click Next.
■
■
■
Single instance database installation: This option installs
the database and the listener.
Oracle Real Application Clusters database installation:
This option installs Oracle Real Application Clusters.
Oracle RAC One Node database installation: This option
installs Oracle RAC One Node database.
Note: Oracle RAC One Node is only supported with
Oracle Clusterware.
Select Install Type
Select one of the following, and click Next:
■
■
Select Product Language
Typical Installation: This installation method is selected
by default. It lets you quickly install Oracle Database
using minimal input. It installs the software and
optionally creates a general-purpose database using the
information that you specify on this screen.
Advanced Installation: This installation method enables
to perform more complex installations, such as creating
individual passwords for different accounts, creating
specific types of starter databases (for example, for
transaction processing or data warehouse systems),
using different language groups, specifying e-mail
notifications, and so on.
This option enables you to select the language in which you
want to run the product.
Select the product Language from the Available Languages
list, transfer it to the Selected Languages list. Click Next.
Installing Oracle Database
4-13
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Screen
Action
Select Database Edition
Select Enterprise Edition, Standard Edition, or Standard
Edition One. Click Next.
If you click Select Options, then based on your selection you
can enable or disable components from the components list.
This screen enables you to customize the database. The
components available in this screen are:
■
Oracle Partitioning
■
Oracle OLAP
■
Oracle Label Security
■
Oracle Data Mining RDBMS Files
■
Oracle Database Vault option
■
Oracle Real Application Testing
Click OK to continue.
Note: The Select Options button is enabled only if you select
the Enterprise Edition installation type.
Specify Installation Location
Specify Oracle Base, Software Location, and click Next.
The Oracle base directory is a top-level directory for Oracle
software installations owned by an Oracle installation owner
account. The default Oracle base path is
mountpoint/app/user, where user is the user account
running the installation. You can change the path based on
your requirements.
In the Software Location field, accept the default value or
enter the Oracle home directory path in which you want to
install Oracle software.
The directory path should not contain spaces. Click Next.
Note: This screen is available only with Advanced
Installation.
Ensure that the Oracle home path for the database home and
the Oracle base path use only ASCII characters. At the time of
this release, the use of non-ASCII characters for a Oracle
database home or Oracle base is not supported.
See Also: "Naming Directories" on page D-2 for information
about directory naming conventions
Create Inventory
You are prompted by the installer to specify the Inventory
Directory path for the central inventory the first time you
install any Oracle software on your computer.
Select the oraInventory Group Name of the operating system
group that should own the Oracle Inventory directory (the
Oracle Inventory group).
Click Next.
Note: By default, the Oracle Inventory directory is not
installed under the Oracle Base directory. This is because all
Oracle software installations share a common Oracle
Inventory, so there is only one Oracle Inventory for all users,
whereas there is a separate Oracle Base for each user.
4-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Screen
Action
Select Configuration Type
Select one of the following, and click Next:
■
■
General Purpose / Transaction Processing: This is a
starter database designed for general usage or
transaction-heavy applications.
Data Warehousing: A starter database optimized to run
Data Warehousing applications.
See the online Help provided by either Oracle Universal
Installer or Oracle Database Configuration Assistant for a
description of these preconfigured database types.
Specify Database Identifiers
Specify the following information, and click Next:
Database Naming
Specify the Global Database Name using the following
syntax:
db_unique_name.db_domain
where:
■
■
db_unique_name is the name of the database. It can
contain a maximum of 30 characters as long as the first
eight characters are unique. The characters include
alphanumeric, underscore (_), dollar ($), and pound (#).
db_domain is the computer environment used for the
database. It should contain no more than 128 characters
(alphanumeric, underscore (_), and pound (#)), inclusive
of all periods.
Note: Ensure that the combination of database name (first
eight unique characters of database unique name), delimiter,
and the database domain name does not exceed 128
characters.
For example:
sales.us.example.com
where:
■
db_unique_name is sales
■
db_domain is us.example.com
When you enter the Global Database Name, Oracle Universal
Installer automatically populates the SID prefix with the
database name. You can change this name in Advanced
installation. Oracle Universal Installer limits the SID to 12
alphanumeric characters and the SID cannot contain an
underscore (_), dollar ( $), or pound (#).
See Also: "Setting the ORACLE_HOSTNAME Environment
Variable" on page 2-21
Installing Oracle Database
4-15
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Screen
Action
Specify Configuration Options
Specify the following configuration details, and click Next:
Memory
Enable Automatic Memory Management option is selected by
default. This option enables the database to automatically
distribute memory between SGA and PGA. If you deselect
this option, then the SGA and PGA must be sized manually.
Character Sets
This option enables you to store the character data in the
database in one of the following methods:
■
■
■
Use the default: This option uses the operating system
language settings.
Use Unicode: This option enables you to store multiple
language groups
Choose from the following list of character sets: This
option enables the Select Database Character Set drop
down list.
See Also:
■
■
"Selecting the Database Character Set" on page 4-2
Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for
information about choosing a character set
Security
The Assert all new security settings option is selected by
default. This setting includes enabling auditing and using
new password profile.
Note: Oracle recommends that you use the default settings.
Sample Schema
The Create database with sample schemas option is not
selected by default. However, you can select the option, if you
want to create the starter database with sample schema.
Specify Management Options
Select one of the following options, and click Next:
■
■
Specify Database Storage
Options
Use an existing Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control
for database management: This option is useful if you
have Oracle Enterprise Manager installed.
Use Oracle enterprise Manager Database Control for
database management: This option enables you to
manage Oracle Database locally. Optionally, select
Enable Email Notifications and enter the outgoing SMTP
server and e-mail address.
Select one of the following options, and click Next.
■
■
File System: Specify the database file location.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management: Specify a
password for the ASMSNMP user.
Note: Installing Oracle data files on an Oracle ACFS file
system is not supported. Oracle recommends that these data
files are installed in Oracle ASM disk groups.
See Also: "Using an Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Disk Group" on page 4-3
4-16 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Screen
Action
Specify Recovery Options
Select one of the following options, and click Next.
■
■
Do not enable automated backups
Enable automated backups: If you select this option, then
the backup job will use a specified recovery area storage.
Select File System to use a file system directory for the
fast recovery area, and then specify the fast recovery area
path in the Recovery Area location field.
Select Oracle Automatic Storage Management to use an
Automatic Storage Management disk group for the fast
recovery area.
Specify your operating system user credentials to
perform the backup job.
See Also: "Preparing Disks for an Oracle Automatic
Storage Management Installation" on page 3-6
Select ASM Disk Group
This screen is displayed only if you select Oracle Automatic
Storage Management as your storage option.
Disk groups are created during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation. Disk groups are configured with the SYSASM
privilege using asmcmd or SQL create diskgroup
commands. An ASM disk group consists of multiple disk
partitions.
The table in this screen displays existing disk groups created
during the Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation. Select the
disk group that you want to use for database file storage.
Specify Schema Passwords
Enter and confirm passwords for the privileged database
accounts, and click Next.
Note: Optionally, you can use the same password for all
accounts. However, Oracle recommends that you specify a
different password for each account. You must remember the
passwords that you specify.
Refer to "Unlocking and Changing Passwords" on page 6-9
for information about password guidelines.
Privileged Operating System
Groups
The operating system groups are selected by default. You can
also manually select the OSDBA and OSOPER groups.
Click Next.
See Also: "Creating Required Operating System Groups and
Users" on page 2-21 for information about operating system
groups and users
Installing Oracle Database
4-17
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Screen
Action
Perform Prerequisite Checks
This option checks if the minimum system requirements to
perform the database installation are met.
If you click Check Again, then you can run the prerequisite
check again to see if the minimum requirements are met to
carry on with the database installation.
Click Fix & Check Again, if you want the installer to fix the
problem and check the system requirements once more.
Note: The Fix & Check Again option generates a script that
you need to run as the root user. This generated script sets
some of the system parameters to Oracle-recommended
values. Oracle recommends that you do not modify the
contents of this script. Refer to "Installation Fixup Scripts" on
page 2-18 for more information about fixup scripts.
To get a list of failed requirements, select ShowFailed from
the list. To get a list of all the prerequirement checks run by
the OUI, select Show All. To get a list of the prerequirement
checks that are successful, select Show Succeeded.
Note: Oracle recommends that you use caution in checking
the Ignore All option. If you check this option, then Oracle
Universal Installer may not confirm that your system is able
to install Oracle Database successfully.
See Also: Chapter 2, "Oracle Database Preinstallation
Requirements" for information about the system
requirements
Summary
Review the information displayed on this screen, and click
Finish.
Note: Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), you
can save all the installation steps into a response file by
clicking Save Response File. Later, this file can be used for a
silent installation.
Install product
This screen states the progress of a database installation. After
the database is installed, you are prompted to execute a root
configuration script for new inventory as the root user. Click
Next.
This screen then displays the status information for the
configuration assistants that configure the software and
create a database.
Finally, a message is displayed at the end of Database
Configuration Assistant process. Click OK.
Execute the root.sh script as the root user to complete the
installation, and click OK.
Finish
This screen is shown automatically when all the configuration
tools are successful.
Review the Enterprise Manager Database Control URL
information displayed in this screen and click Close.
4-18 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Database Examples
Caution: After installation is complete, do not manually remove, or
run cron jobs that remove /tmp/.oracle or /var/tmp/.oracle
directories or their files while Oracle software is running. If you
remove these files, then Oracle software can encounter intermittent
hangs. Oracle Restart installations will fail with the following error:
CRS-0184: Cannot communicate with the CRS daemon.
Installing Oracle Database Examples
If you plan to use the following products or features, then download and install the
products from the Oracle Database Examples media:
■
Oracle JDBC Development Drivers
■
Oracle Database Examples
■
Oracle Text Knowledge Base
■
Various Oracle product demonstrations
For information about installing software and various Oracle product demonstrations
from the Oracle Database Examples media, refer to Oracle Database Examples Installation
Guide.
Installing Oracle Database
4-19
Installing Oracle Database Examples
4-20 Oracle Database Installation Guide
5
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks
5
This chapter describes how to complete postinstallation tasks after you have installed
the software. It includes information about the following topics:
■
Required Postinstallation Tasks
■
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
■
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
■
Postinstallation Tasks for SQL Developer
You must perform the tasks listed in "Required Postinstallation Tasks" on page 5-1.
Oracle recommends that you perform the tasks listed in "Recommended
Postinstallation Tasks" on page 5-2 after all installations.
If you install and intend to use any of the products listed in "Required Product-Specific
Postinstallation Tasks" on page 5-7, then you must perform the tasks listed in the
product-specific subsections.
This chapter describes basic configuration only. Refer to
Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX-Based
Operating Systems, Oracle Database Administrator's Guide and
product-specific administration and tuning guides for more
detailed configuration and tuning information.
Note:
See Also: "Post-installation Database Configuration" section in
Oracle Configuration Manager Installation and Administration Guide for
information about postinstallation tasks for Oracle Configuration
Manager
Required Postinstallation Tasks
Perform the task described in the following section after completing an installation.
Downloading and Installing Patches
Check the My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink) Web site for required patch
updates for your installation.
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 5-1
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
Browsers require an Adobe Flash plug-in, version 9.0.115 or
higher to use My Oracle Support. Check your browser for the correct
version of Flash plug-in by going to the Adobe Flash checker page,
and installing the latest version of Adobe Flash.
Note:
If you do not have Flash installed, then download the latest version of
the Flash Player from the Adobe Web site:
http://www.adobe.com/go/getflashplayer
To download required patches:
1.
Use a Web browser to view the My Oracle Support Web site:
https://support.oracle.com/
2.
Log in to My Oracle Support.
Note: If you are not a My Oracle Support registered user, click
Register for My Oracle Support and follow the registration
instructions.
3.
On the main My Oracle Support page, click Patches and Updates.
4.
In the Patch & Updates page, click Advanced Search.
5.
On the Advanced Search page, click the search icon next to the Product or Product
Family field.
6.
In the Search and Select: Product Family field, select Database and Tools in the
Search list field, enter RDBMS Server in the text field, and click Go.
RDBMS Server appears in the Product or Product Family field. The current release
appears in the Release field.
7.
Select your platform from the list in the Platform field, and at the bottom of the
selection list, click Go.
8.
Any available patch updates are displayed under the Results heading.
9.
Click the patch number to download the patch.
10. On the Patch Set page, click View README and read the page that appears. The
README page contains information about the patch set and how to apply the
patches to your installation.
11. Return to the Patch Set page, click Download, and save the file on your system.
12. Use the unzip utility provided with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) to
uncompress the Oracle patch updates that you downloaded from My Oracle
Support. The unzip utility is located in the $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory.
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
Oracle recommends that you perform the tasks described in the following section after
completing an installation:
■
Creating a Backup of the root.sh Script
■
Configuring New or Upgraded Databases
5-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
■
Creating and Configuring Additional Operating System Accounts
■
Setting the NLS_LANG Environment Variable
■
Generating the Client Static Library
■
Guidelines for Setting Semaphore Parameters
■
Create a Fast Recovery Area Disk Group
■
Enabling and Disabling Database Options
Creating a Backup of the root.sh Script
Oracle recommends that you back up the root.sh script after you complete an
installation. If you install other products in the same Oracle home directory, then
Oracle Universal Installer updates the contents of the existing root.sh script during
the installation. If you require information contained in the original root.sh script,
then you can recover it from the backed up root.sh file.
Configuring New or Upgraded Databases
Oracle recommends that you run the utlrp.sql script after creating or upgrading a
database. This script recompiles all PL/SQL modules that might be in an invalid state,
including packages, procedures, and types. This is an optional step but Oracle
recommends that you do it during installation and not at a later date.
See Also: Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for more information about
database upgrade
To run the utlrp.sql script, follow these steps:
1.
Switch user to oracle.
2.
Use the oraenv or coraenv script to set the environment for the database where
you want to run the utlrp.sql script:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ . /usr/local/bin/oraenv
■
C shell:
% source /usr/local/bin/coraenv
When prompted, specify the SID for the database.
3.
Start SQL*Plus, as follows:
$ sqlplus / AS SYSDBA
4.
Start the database in restricted mode and run the utlrp.sql script:
SQL> @?/rdbms/admin/utlrp.sql
Creating and Configuring Additional Operating System Accounts
If required, create additional operating system accounts. Users must be members of
the OSDBA or OSOPER groups to connect to the database with administrator
privileges.
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 5-3
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
Configuring the Accounts of Oracle Users
Update the startup files of the oracle user and the operating system accounts of
Oracle users, specifying the appropriate environment variables in the environment file.
For the Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell, add the environment variables to the .profile
file, or the .bash_profile file for the Bash shell on Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
For the C shell, add the environment variables to the .login file.
You can use the oraenv or coraenv script to ensure that
Oracle user accounts are updated.
Note:
Setting the NLS_LANG Environment Variable
NLS_LANG is an environment variable that specifies the locale behavior for Oracle
software. This variable sets the language and territory used by the client application
and the database server. It also declares the character set of the client, which is the
character set of data entered or displayed by an Oracle client program, such as
SQL*Plus.
See Also: Appendix F, "Configuring Oracle Database
Globalization Support" for more information about the NLS_LANG
environment variable
Generating the Client Static Library
The client static library (libclntst11.a) is not generated during installation. If you
want to link the applications to the client static library, you must first generate it as
follows:
1.
Switch user to oracle.
2.
Set the ORACLE_HOME environment variable to specify the Oracle home directory
used by the Oracle Database installation. For example:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
$ export ORACLE_HOME
■
C shell:
% setenv ORACLE_HOME /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
3.
Enter the following command:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/genclntst
Guidelines for Setting Semaphore Parameters
Refer to the following guidelines only if the default semaphore parameter values are
too low to accommodate all Oracle processes:
Oracle recommends that you refer to the operating system
documentation for more information about setting semaphore
parameters.
Note:
5-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
1.
Calculate the minimum total semaphore requirements using the following
formula:
sum (process parameters of all database instances on the system) + system and
other application requirements
2.
Set semmns (total semaphores systemwide) to this total.
3.
Set semmsl (semaphores per set) to 256.
4.
Set semmni (total semaphores sets) to semmns / semmsl rounded up to the
nearest multiple of 1024.
Create a Fast Recovery Area Disk Group
During installation, by default you can create one disk group. If you plan to add an
Oracle Database for a standalone server, then you should create the fast recovery area
for database files.
About the Fast Recovery Area and the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group
The fast recovery area is a unified storage location for all Oracle Database files related
to recovery. Database administrators can define the DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST
parameter to the path for the fast recovery area to enable on-disk backups, and rapid
recovery of data. Enabling rapid backups for recent data can reduce requests to system
administrators to retrieve backup tapes for recovery operations.
When you enable fast recovery in the init.ora file, all RMAN backups, archive logs,
control file automatic backups, and database copies are written to the fast recovery
area. RMAN automatically manages files in the fast recovery area by deleting obsolete
backups and archive files no longer required for recovery.
Oracle recommends that you create a fast recovery area disk group. Oracle
Clusterware files and Oracle Database files can be placed on the same disk group, and
you can also place fast recovery files in the same disk group. However, Oracle
recommends that you create a separate fast recovery disk group to reduce storage
device contention.
The fast recovery area is enabled by setting DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST. The size of
the fast recovery area is set with DB _RECOVERY_FILE_DEST. As a general rule, the
larger the fast recovery area, the more useful it becomes. For ease of use, Oracle
recommends that you create a fast recovery area disk group on storage devices that
can contain at least three days of recovery information. Ideally, the fast recovery area
should be large enough to hold a copy of all of your datafiles and control files, the
online redo logs, and the archived redo log files needed to recover your database using
the datafile backups kept under your retention policy.
Multiple databases can use the same fast recovery area. For example, assume you have
created one fast recovery area disk group on disks with 150 GB of storage, shared by
three different databases. You can set the size of the fast recovery for each database
depending on the importance of each database. For example, if database1 is your
least important database, database2 is of greater importance and database3 is of
greatest importance, then you can set different DB_FILE_RECOVERY_DEST_SIZE
settings for each database to meet your retention target for each database: 30 GB for
database1, 50 GB for database2, and 70 GB for database3.
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 5-5
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
Creating the Fast Recovery Area Disk Group
To create a fast recovery file disk group:
1.
Navigate to the Grid home bin directory, and start ASM Configuration Assistant
(ASMCA). For example:
$ cd /u01/grid/bin
$ ./asmca
2.
ASMCA opens at the Disk Groups tab. Click Create to create a new disk group.
3.
The Create Disk Groups window opens.
In the Disk Group Name field, enter a descriptive name for the fast recovery area
group. For example: FRA.
In the Redundancy section, select the level of redundancy you want to use.
In the Select Member Disks field, select eligible disks to be added to the fast
recovery area, and click OK.
4.
The Diskgroup Creation window opens to inform you when disk group creation is
complete. Click OK.
5.
Click Exit.
See Also:
■
■
"Setting the Fast Recovery Area Location and Initial Size" section
in Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
Enabling and Disabling Database Options
When you install Oracle Database, some options are enabled and others are disabled.
If you want to enable or disable a particular database feature for an Oracle home, then
shut down the database and use the chopt tool. See Example 5–1.
The chopt tool is a command-line utility that is located in the ORACLE_HOME/bin
directory. The syntax for chopt is:
chopt [ enable | disable] db_option
The possible values for db_option are described in the following table:
Value
Description
dm
Oracle Data Mining RDBMS Files
dv
Oracle Database Vault
lbac
Oracle Label Security
olap
Oracle OLAP
partitioning
Oracle Partitioning
rat
Oracle Real Application Testing
ode_net
Oracle Database Extensions for .NET 1.x
ode_net_2
Oracle Database Extensions for .NET 2.0
5-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
Example 5–1 Complete Example of Running the Chopt Tool
To enable the Oracle Label Security option in your Oracle binary files, use the
following command:
cd %ORACLE_HOME%
srvctl stop database -d myDb
chopt enable lbac
srvctl start database -d myDb
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
The following sections describe platform-specific postinstallation tasks that you must
perform if you install and intend to use the products mentioned:
■
Configuring Oracle Net Services
■
Configuring Oracle Label Security
■
Configuring Oracle Database Vault
■
Configuring Oracle Messaging Gateway
■
Configuring Oracle Precompilers
■
Configuring Secure Sockets Layer
■
Installing Oracle Text Supplied Knowledge Bases
■
Configuring or Reinstalling Oracle XML DB
■
Configuring and Using Direct NFS Client
Note: You need only perform postinstallation tasks for products
that you intend to use.
Configuring Oracle Net Services
If you have an earlier release of Oracle software installed on this system, you might
want to copy information from the Oracle Net tnsnames.ora and listener.ora
configuration files from the earlier release to the corresponding files for the new
release.
The following sections describe about how to configure the Oracle Net Services:
■
Modifying the listener.ora File
■
Modifying the tnsnames.ora File
The default location for the tnsnames.ora and
listener.ora files is the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/
directory. However, you can also use a central location for these
files.
Note:
Modifying the listener.ora File
If you are upgrading from a previous release of Oracle Database, Oracle recommends
that you use the current release of Oracle Net listener instead of the listener from the
previous release.
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 5-7
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
If you have referenced the previous Oracle home directory names in the static listener
information, then these directory names must be modified before the listener.ora
file can be used in the 11.2 environment.
To use the listener from the current release, you may need to copy static service
information from the listener.ora file from the previous release to the version of
that file used by the new release.
For any database instances earlier than release 8.0.3, add static service information to
the listener.ora file. Oracle Database releases later than release 8.0.3 do not
require static service information.
Modifying the tnsnames.ora File
Unless you are using a central tnsnames.ora file, copy Oracle Net service names
and connect descriptors from the earlier release tnsnames.ora file to the version of
that file used by the new release.
If necessary, you can also add connection information for additional database instances
to the new file.
Configuring Oracle Label Security
If you installed Oracle Label Security, you must configure it in a database before you
use it. You can configure Oracle Label Security in two ways; with Oracle Internet
Directory integration and without Oracle Internet Directory integration. If you
configure Oracle Label Security without Oracle Internet Directory integration, you
cannot configure it to use Oracle Internet Directory at a later stage.
Note: To configure Oracle Label Security with Oracle Internet
Directory integration, Oracle Internet Directory must be installed in
your environment and the Oracle database must be registered in
the directory.
See Also: Oracle Label Security Administrator's Guide for more
information about Oracle Label Security enabled with Oracle
Internet Directory
Configuring Oracle Database Vault
If you have installed Oracle Database Vault, then you must register it in a database.
Ensure that you create the Database Vault Owner and, optionally, Database Vault
Account Manager administrative accounts before you can use it.
See Also: Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide for more
information about registering Oracle Database Vault
Configuring Oracle Messaging Gateway
To configure Oracle Messaging Gateway, refer to the section about Messaging
Gateway in Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing User's Guide. When following the
instructions listed in that manual, refer to this section for additional instructions about
configuring the listener.ora, tnsnames.ora, and mgw.ora files.
5-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
Modifying the listener.ora File for External Procedures
To modify the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/listener.ora file for external
procedures:
1.
Back up the listener.ora file.
2.
Ensure that the default IPC protocol address for external procedures is set as
follows:
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL=IPC)(KEY=EXTPROC))
3.
Add static service information for a service called mgwextproc by adding lines
similar to the following to the SID_LIST parameter for the listener in the
listener.ora file:
(SID_DESC =
(SID_NAME = mgwextproc)
(ENVS = "LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/oracle_home/jdk/jre/lib/i386:/oracle_
home/jdk/jre/lib/i386/server:/oracle_home/lib")
(ORACLE_HOME = oracle_home)
(PROGRAM = extproc)
)
In this example:
■
The ENVS parameter defines the shared library path environment variable and
any other required environment variables.
In the settings for the shared library path environment variable, you must also
add any additional library paths required for non-Oracle messaging systems,
for example, WebSphere MQ or TIBCO Rendezvous.
■
oracle_home is the path of the Oracle home directory.
■
extproc is the external procedure agent executable file
The following example shows a sample listener.ora file:
SID_LIST_LISTENER =
(SID_LIST =
(SID_DESC =
(SID_NAME = PLSExtProc)
(ORACLE_HOME = /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1)
(PROGRAM = extproc)
)
(SID_DESC =
(SID_NAME = mgwextproc)
(ENVS = "LD_LIBRARY_PATH =/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_
1/jdk/jre/lib/i386:/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_
1/jdk/jre/lib/i386/server:
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/lib")
(ORACLE_HOME = /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1)
(PROGRAM = extproc)
)
)
Modifying the tnsnames.ora File for External Procedures
To modify the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/tnsnames.ora file for external
procedures:
1.
Back up the tnsnames.ora file.
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 5-9
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
2.
In the tnsnames.ora file, add a connect descriptor with the net service name
MGW_AGENT, as follows:
MGW_AGENT =
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS_LIST= (ADDRESS= (PROTOCOL=IPC)(KEY=EXTPROC)))
(CONNECT_DATA= (SID=mgwextproc)))
In this example:
■
■
The value specified for the KEY parameter must match the value specified for
that parameter in the IPC protocol address in the listener.ora file.
The value of the SID parameter must match the service name in the
listener.ora file that you specified for the Oracle Messaging Gateway
external procedure agent in the previous section (mgwextproc).
Setting Up the mgw.ora Initialization File
To modify the $ORACLE_HOME/mgw/admin/mgw.ora file for external procedures, set
the CLASSPATH environment variable to include the classes in the following table and
any additional classes required for Oracle Messaging Gateway to access non-Oracle
messaging systems, for example WebSphere MQ or TIBCO Rendezvous classes:
Classes
Path
JRE runtime
$ORACLE_HOME/jdk/jre/lib/rt.jar
Oracle JDBC
$ORACLE_HOME/jdbc/lib/ojdbc5.jar
Oracle internationalization
$ORACLE_HOME/jlib/orai18n.jar
SQLJ
$ORACLE_HOME/sqlj/lib/runtime12.jar
JMS Interface
$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib/jmscommon.jar
Oracle JMS implementation
$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib/aqapi.jar
Java Transaction API
$ORACLE_HOME/jlib/jta.jar
All the lines in the mgw.ora file should consist of less than
1024 characters.
Note:
Configuring Oracle Precompilers
This section describes postinstallation tasks for Oracle precompilers:
■
Configuring Pro*C/C++
■
Configuring Pro*FORTRAN
All precompiler configuration files are located in the
$ORACLE_HOME/precomp/admin directory.
Note:
Configuring Pro*C/C++
Verify that the PATH environment variable setting includes the directory that contains
the C compiler executable.
Table 5–1 shows the default directories and the appropriate command to verify the
path setting of the compiler.
5-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
Table 5–1
C/C++ Compiler Directory
Path
Command
/usr/bin
$ which gcc
/opt/intel_cce_80/bin/icc
$ which icc
Configuring Pro*FORTRAN
Verify that the PATH environment variable setting includes the directory that contains
the FORTRAN compiler executable. You can verify the path setting by using the
which xlf command. The path for the FORTRAN executable is /usr/bin.
Configuring Secure Sockets Layer
Oracle highly recommends you configure and use a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) to
ensure that passwords and other sensitive data are not transmitted in clear text in
HTTP requests.
See Also:
■
■
"Using SSL" and "Enabling SSL" in Oracle Database Advanced
Security Administrator's Guide for more information about
configuring and using SSL
"SSL Usage Issues" in Oracle Database Advanced Security
Administrator's Guide for more information about SSL usage issues
Installing Oracle Text Supplied Knowledge Bases
An Oracle Text knowledge base is a hierarchical tree of concepts used for theme
indexing, ABOUT queries, and deriving themes for document services. If you plan to
use any of these Oracle Text features, then you can install two supplied knowledge
bases (English and French).
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Examples Installation Guide
Oracle Text Reference for information about creating and extending
knowledge bases, such as extending the supplied knowledge
bases to accommodate your requirements, or creating your own
knowledge bases in languages other than English and French
Configuring or Reinstalling Oracle XML DB
Refer to Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for more information about the following
tasks:
■
Reinstalling Oracle XML DB
■
Configuring or customizing the Oracle XML DB tablespace
■
Configuring FTP, HTTP/WebDAV port numbers
See Also:
Appendix A of Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 5-11
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
Configuring and Using Direct NFS Client
Many Oracle products and options must be configured before you use them for the
first time. Before using individual Oracle products or options, refer to the appropriate
manual in the product documentation library.
See Also:
■
■
Chapter 4, "Configuration Tasks When Installing from the
Database" in Oracle Application Express Installation Guide
Appendix C, "Using NAS Devices"
Direct NFS Client
With Oracle Database 11g, instead of using the operating system kernel NFS client, you
can configure Oracle Database to access NFS V3 servers directly using an Oracle
internal Direct NFS client. If Oracle Database cannot open an NFS server using Direct
NFS, then Oracle Database uses the platform operating system kernel NFS client. In
this case, the kernel NFS mount options must be set up as defined in "Checking NFS
Buffer Size Parameters" on page 5-14. Additionally, an informational message is
logged into the Oracle alert and trace files indicating that Direct NFS could not be
established.
The Oracle files resident on the NFS server that are served by the Direct NFS Client are
also accessible through the operating system kernel NFS client. The usual
considerations for maintaining integrity of the Oracle files apply in this situation.
Some NFS file servers require NFS clients to connect using reserved ports. If your filer
is running with reserved port checking, then you must disable it for Direct NFS to
operate. To disable reserved port checking, consult your NFS file server
documentation.
Direct NFS can use up to four network paths defined for an NFS server. The Direct
NFS client performs load balancing across all specified paths. If a specified path fails,
then Direct NFS reissues I/O commands over any remaining paths.
The following sections elaborate on enabling, disabling, checking the buffer size for a
Direct NFS Client:
■
Enabling Direct NFS Client
■
Disabling Direct NFS Client
■
Checking NFS Buffer Size Parameters
Enabling Direct NFS Client By default Direct NFS attempts to serve mount entries found
in /etc/mtab. No other configuration is required. You can use oranfstab to specify
additional Oracle specific options to Direct NFS. For example, you can use
oranfstab to specify additional paths for a mount point.
A new Oracle specific file oranfstab can be added to either /etc or to $ORACLE_
HOME/dbs. When oranfstab is placed in $ORACLE_HOME/dbs, its entries are
specific to a single database. However, when oranfstab is placed in /etc, then it is
global to all Oracle databases, and hence can contain mount points for all Oracle
databases.
Direct NFS does not work and fall back to traditional kernel
NFS path if the backend NFS server does not support a write size
(wtmax) of 32768 or larger.
Note:
5-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
Direct NFS determines mount point settings to NFS storage devices based on the
configurations in /etc/mtab. Direct NFS looks for the mount point entries in the
following order:
1.
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/oranfstab
2.
/etc/oranfstab
3.
/etc/mtab
It uses the first matched entry as the mount point.
In all cases, Oracle requires that mount points be mounted by the kernel NFS system
even when being served through Direct NFS.
Complete the following procedure to enable Direct NFS:
1.
You can optionally create an oranfstab file with the following attributes for each
NFS server to be accessed using Direct NFS:
■
■
■
Server: The NFS server name.
Path: Up to four network paths to the NFS server, specified either by IP
address, or by name, as displayed using the ifconfig command on the filer.
Local: Up to four local paths on the database host, specified by IP address or
by name, as displayed using the ifconfig command run on the database
host.
■
Export: The exported path from the NFS server.
■
Mount: The corresponding local mount point for the exported volume.
■
■
Dontroute: Specifies that outgoing messages should not be routed by the
operating system, but sent using the IP address they are bound to.
mnt_timeout: Specifies (in seconds) the time for which Direct NFS client
should wait for a successful mount before timing out. This parameter is
optional and the default timeout is 10 minutes.
The following is an example of an oranfstab file with two NFS server entries:
server: MyDataServer1
local: 145.34.45.12
path: 132.34.35.12
local: 132.34.45.13
path: 132.34.35.13
dontroute
export: /vol/oradata1 mount: /mnt/oradata1
server: MyDataServer2
local: LocalPath1
path: NfsPath1
local: LocalPath2
path: NfsPath2
local: LocalPath3
path: NfsPath3
local: LocalPath4
path: NfsPath4
dontroute
export: /vol/oradata2
export: /vol/oradata3
export: /vol/oradata4
export: /vol/oradata5
mount:
mount:
mount:
mount:
/mnt/oradata2
/mnt/oradata3
/mnt/oradata4
/mnt/oradata5
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 5-13
Postinstallation Tasks for SQL Developer
2.
Oracle Database is not shipped with Direct NFS enabled by default. To enable
Direct NFS, complete the following steps:
■
Change directory to $ORACLE_HOME/lib.
■
Enter the following commands:
make -f ins_rdbms.mk dnfs_on
Disabling Direct NFS Client Complete the following steps to disable the Direct NFS client:
1.
Remove the oranfstab file.
2.
Enter the following commands:
cd $ORACLE_HOME/lib
make -f ins_rdbms.mk dnfs_off
3.
Remove the specific NFS server or export paths in the oranfstab file.
If you remove an NFS path that Oracle Database is using, then
you must restart the database for the change to be effective.
Note:
Checking NFS Buffer Size Parameters If you are using NFS, then you must set the values
for the NFS buffer size parameters rsize and wsize to at least 16384. Oracle
recommends that you use the value 32768.
Direct NFS issues writes at wtmax granularity to the NFS server.
For example, to use rsize and wsize buffer settings with the value 32768, then
update the /etc/vfstab file on each node with an entry similar to the following:
nfs_server:/vol/DATA/oradata /home/oracle/netapp nfs\
rw,bg,hard,nointr,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,tcp,actimeo=0,vers=3,timeo=600
Refer to your storage vendor documentation for additional
information about mount options.
Note:
Postinstallation Tasks for SQL Developer
This section describes tasks that you must complete after you install the software:
■
Migrating User Settings from Release 1.0
■
Migrating Information from Previous Releases
■
Location of User-Related Information
Migrating User Settings from Release 1.0
The first time you start SQL Developer after installing it or after adding any
extensions, you are asked if you want to migrate your user settings from a previous
release. (This occurs regardless of whether there was a previous release on your
system.)
5-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Postinstallation Tasks for SQL Developer
Migration of user settings is supported only from SQL
Developer release 1.0 to release 1.1. It is not supported for migration
from a pre-release version of 1.1 to release 1.1.
Note:
These settings refer to database connections, reports, and certain SQL Developer user
preferences that you set in a previous version by clicking Tools and then Preferences.
However, some user preferences are not saved, and you must re-specify these using
the new release.
To migrate user settings from SQL Developer release 1.0:
1.
Unzip the release 1.1 kit into an empty directory (folder). Do not delete or
overwrite the directory into which you unzipped the release 1.0 kit.
2.
When you start SQL Developer release 1.1, click Yes when asked if you want to
migrate settings from a previous release.
3.
In the dialog box that is displayed, do not accept the default location for the
settings. Instead, specify the location of your release 1.0 settings, which might be a
folder whose path ends with sqldeveloper/jdev/system.
See Also: "Migrating Information from Previous Releases" on
page 5-15 for more information
Migrating Information from Previous Releases
If you have used a previous release of SQL Developer or a pre-release version of the
current release, you may want to preserve database connections that you have been
using. To preserve database connections, save your existing database connections in an
XML file. To save the connections, right-click the Connections node in the Connections
Navigator and select Export Connections. After you complete the installation
described in this guide, you can use those connections by right-clicking the
Connections node in the Connections Navigator and selecting Import Connections.
If you want to use any user-defined reports or the SQL history from a previous
version, see "Location of User-Related Information" on page 5-15 for information
about where these are located. If you want to use any user-defined reports or the SQL
history from release 1.0 with both releases 1.0 and 1.1, you must save them before
using release 1.1, because release 1.1 modifies the files to a format that is incompatible
with release 1.0.
SQL Developer preferences (specified by clicking Tools and then Preferences) from a
pre-release version of the current release cannot currently be saved and reused; you
must re-specify any desired preferences.
Location of User-Related Information
SQL Developer stores user-related information in several places, with the specific
location depending on the operating system and certain environment specifications.
User-related information includes user-defined reports, user-defined snippets, SQL
Worksheet history, and SQL Developer user preferences.
The user-related information is stored outside the SQL Developer installation directory
hierarchy, so that it is preserved if you delete that directory and install a new version.
This information is stored in or under the SQLDEVELOPER_USER_DIR location, if
defined; otherwise as indicated in the following table.
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 5-15
Postinstallation Tasks for SQL Developer
The table shows the typical default locations (under a directory or in a file) for specific
types of resources on different operating systems. (Note the period in the name of any
directory or folder named .sqldeveloper.)
Table 5–2
Default Locations for User-Related Information
Resource Type
Linux
User-defined reports
~/.sqldeveloper/UserReports.xml
User-defined snippets
~/.sqldeveloper/UserSnippets.xml
SQL history
~/.sqldeveloper/system/
SQL Worksheet archive files
~/.sqldeveloper/tmp/
SQL Developer user
preferences
~/.sqldeveloper/system/
SQL Worksheet archive files contain SQL statements that you have entered. These files
begin with sqldev and then have a random number (for example,
sqldev14356.sql). If you close SQL Developer with a SQL Worksheet open that
contains statements, then you will be prompted to save these files.
To specify a nondefault SQLDEVELOPER_USER_DIR location, do either of the
following:
■
■
Set the SQLDEVELOPER_USER_DIR environment variable to specify another
directory path.
Edit the sqldeveloper_
install\sqldeveloper\sqldeveloper\bin\sqldeveloper.conf file and
substitute the desired directory path for SQLDEVELOPER_USER_DIR in the
following line:
SetUserHomeVariable SQLDEVELOPER_USER_DIR
If you want to prevent other users from accessing your user-specific SQL Developer
information, you must ensure that the appropriate permissions are set on the directory
where that information is stored or on a directory preceding it in the path hierarchy.
For example, you may want to ensure that the ~/.sqldeveloper directory is not
world-readable.
5-16 Oracle Database Installation Guide
6
Getting Started with Oracle Database
6
This chapter provides information about the default preconfigured database, including
information about Oracle database accounts, passwords, and file locations. It includes
information about the following topics:
■
Checking the Installed Oracle Database Contents and Directory Location
■
Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
■
Managing Oracle Automatic Storage Management
■
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL*Plus
■
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL Developer
■
Reviewing Accounts and Passwords
■
Unlocking and Resetting User Passwords
■
Identifying Databases
■
Locating the Server Parameter File
■
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files
Checking the Installed Oracle Database Contents and Directory Location
You can use Oracle Universal Installer to check the contents and directory location of
an Oracle Database installation. To do this, perform the following steps:
1.
To start Oracle Universal Installer, run the following command:
$ ORACLE_HOME/oui/bin/runInstaller
2.
Click Installed Products to display the Inventory dialog box on the Welcome
screen.
3.
Select the Oracle Database product from the list to check the installed contents.
4.
Click Details to find additional information about an installed product.
5.
Click Close to close the Inventory dialog box.
6.
Click Cancel to close Oracle Universal Installer, and then click Yes to confirm.
Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
If you configured Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control (Database Control)
during the installation, you can use it to manage the database. Alternatively, you can
Getting Started with Oracle Database 6-1
Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
use Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control to manage the database. To display the
Database Control:
1.
First check the Database Control status using the following command:
emctl status dbconsole
2.
Use a Web browser to access the Database Control URL:
https://host:port/em
In this example:
■
host is the name of the computer on which you installed Oracle Database
■
port is the port number reserved for the Database Control during installation
If you do not know the correct port number to use, look for the following line in
the $ORACLE_HOME/install/portlist.ini file:
Enterprise Manager Console HTTP Port (db_name) = 1158
The installation reserves the first available port from the range 5500 to 5519. For
example, if you installed Oracle Database on host mgmt42, and the Database
Control uses port 1158, use the following URL:
https://mgmt42:1158/em
Oracle Enterprise Manager displays the Database Control login page.
3.
Log in to the database using the user name SYSTEM and connect as SYSDBA.
Enterprise Manager displays the Database Home page.
Use the password that you specified for the SYSTEM account during the
installation.
You can also log in to the Database Control using the SYS,
SYSTEM or SYSMAN accounts or you can grant login privileges to
other database users. If you log in as SYS, then you must connect as
SYSDBA.
Note:
Understanding Database Control Login Privileges
When you log in to the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control using the
SYSMAN user account, you are logging in as the Oracle Enterprise Manager super user.
The SYSMAN account is automatically granted the roles and privileges required to
access all the management features provided by the Database Control.
You can also use the SYS and SYSTEM accounts to log in to the Database Control. In
addition, you can grant login privileges to other database users, as follows:
1.
Log in to the Database Control.
See Also: The "Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager
Database Control" section for information about logging in to the
Database Control
2.
Click Setup at the top of the Database Control home page.
3.
Click Administrators in the left navigation bar.
4.
Click Create to create an Enterprise Manager user.
6-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Managing Oracle Automatic Storage Management
5.
In the Name field, enter the user name of an existing database user or click the
flashlight icon and select a user from the window.
6.
In the E-mail Address field, specify one or more e-mail addresses.
7.
In the Administrator Privilege list, select either View on all targets, Full on all
targets, or Super Administrator.
8.
You can also select the Grant SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE option.
9.
Enter the password for this user, and then click Review.
10. On the properties page, click Finish.
Enterprise Manager assigns login privileges to the specified user and includes this
user in the list of Enterprise Manager users on the Setup Administrators page.
Managing Oracle Automatic Storage Management
This section provides information about managing an Oracle Automatic Storage
Management (Oracle ASM) installation. It covers the following topics:
■
Starting and Stopping Oracle Automatic Storage Management
■
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Utilities
Starting and Stopping Oracle Automatic Storage Management
To start and stop Oracle ASM, refer to Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for
Linux and UNIX-Based Operating Systems.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Utilities
To manage Oracle ASM, you can use the following tools:
■
■
asmcmd: This command-line tool enables you to manage Oracle ASM disk group
files and directories.
ASMCA: Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant (Oracle
ASMCA) is an interactive utility that enables you to create a new Oracle ASM
instance or upgrade existing Oracle ASM instances.
It also allows you to create and configure disk groups, Oracle ASM volumes and
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS).
■
■
■
Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control: If you have Oracle Enterprise Manager
installed, you can use Grid Control to manage Oracle ASM functions, such as
migrating an existing database to Oracle ASM, checking the status of the Oracle
ASM instance, checking the performance of the Oracle ASM disk groups, and
creating or dropping Oracle ASM disk groups.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control: This utility enables you to perform
functions similar to Grid Control.
SQL*Plus: You can run commands that are specific to Oracle ASM from either of
these tools. To connect to an Oracle ASM instance, use the same methods that you
use to connect to an Oracle database instance.
Getting Started with Oracle Database 6-3
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL*Plus
See Also:
■
■
■
"Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control" on
page 6-1
Oracle Database Utilities for more information about asmcmd
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
more information on managing your storage with Oracle ASM
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL*Plus
To run the SQL and PL/SQL commands to access the Oracle Database, you can use
SQL*Plus. This tool enables you to perform the same database management
operations, and also to query, insert, update, or delete data directly in the database.
Before you start SQL*Plus, ensure that all the environment
variables, specially ORACLE_HOME and ORACLE_SID, are set. Refer to,
"Configuring the oracle User’s Environment" on page 2-43 for more
information about setting environment variables.
Note:
Use the following command to start SQL*Plus and log in as the SYS user, connecting
as SYSDBA:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
Enter password: SYS_password
For example, to log on as SYSTEM enter:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYSTEM
Enter password: password
If you are logging on as SYS, you must connect as SYSDBA:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
Enter password: SYS_password
See Also:
■
"Connecting to the Database with SQL*Plus" in Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide for more information about accessing Oracle
Database using SQL*Plus
■
SQL*Plus User's Guide and Reference
■
SQL*Plus Quick Reference
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL Developer
To run the SQL and PL/SQL commands to access Oracle Database, you can use SQL
Developer. All SQL and PL/SQL commands are supported as they are passed directly
from the SQL Worksheet to the Oracle Database.
Set Up the JDK Path For SQL Developer
Set the following environmental variables to ensure that the correct jdk is picked up:
6-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Reviewing Accounts and Passwords
■
$ORACLE_HOME
■
$JAVA_HOME=$ORACLE_HOME/jdk
■
$PATH=$JAVA_HOME/bin/:$PATH
To start SQL Developer on which the Sun Java SDK release 1.5 is installed, use the
following commands:
■
Change to $ORACLE_HOME/sqldeveloper.
■
Run $ ./sqldeveloper.sh.
■
Right-Click Connections. In the dialog box, enter a Connection name, username,
password, and for the host string, the name of the database to which you want to
connect and click Connect.
Once connected, you can view, create, modify, and delete the database objects using
the Connection Navigator or issue any SQL or PL/SQL command using a SQL
Worksheet (From the Tools menu, select SQL Worksheet).
SQL*Plus commands have to be interpreted by the SQL Worksheet before being
passed to the database. The SQL Worksheet currently supports many SQL*Plus
commands. SQL*Plus commands which are not supported by the SQL Worksheet are
ignored and are not sent to the Oracle Database.
See Also:
"SQL*Plus Statements Supported and Not Supported in SQL
Worksheet" in Oracle Database SQL Developer User's Guide
Reviewing Accounts and Passwords
All databases created by the Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) include the
SYS, SYSTEM, SYSMAN, and DBSNMP database accounts. In addition, Oracle provides
several other administrative accounts. Before using these accounts, you must unlock
them and reset their passwords. Table 6–1 describes these accounts and lists their user
names and default passwords.
See Also: "Unlocking and Resetting User Passwords" on page 6-8
for information about unlocking and resetting passwords
Use the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control to
view the complete list of database accounts.
Note:
Table 6–1
Database Accounts
User Name
Description
See Also
ANONYMOUS
Enables HTTP access to Oracle XML DB.
None
APEX_030200
The account owns the Application
Express schema and metadata.
Oracle Application Express
Application Builder User's
Guide
APEX_PUBLIC_USER
The minimally privileged account used
Oracle Application Express
for Application Express configuration
Application Builder User's
with Oracle HTTP Server and mod_plsql. Guide
APPQOSSYS
Used for storing/managing all data and
metadata required by Oracle Quality of
Service Management.
None
Getting Started with Oracle Database 6-5
Reviewing Accounts and Passwords
Table 6–1 (Cont.) Database Accounts
User Name
Description
See Also
BI
The account that owns the Business
Intelligence schema included in the
Oracle Sample Schemas. It is available
only if you loaded the Sample Schemas.
Oracle Database Sample
Schemas
CTXSYS
The Oracle Text account.
Oracle Text Reference
DBSNMP
The account used by the Management
Agent component of Oracle Enterprise
Manager to monitor and manage the
database. It is created only if you
configure the database to use the
Database Control.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid
Control Installation and Basic
Configuration
DIP
The account used by the Directory
None
Integration Platform (DIP) to synchronize
the changes in Oracle Internet Directory
with the applications in the database.
DVSYS
There are two roles associated with this
account. Database Vault owner role
manages the Database Vault roles and
configurations. The Database Vault
Account Manager is used to manage
database user accounts.
Oracle Database Vault
Administrator's Guide
Note: Part of Oracle Database Vault user
interface text is stored in database tables
in the DVSYS schema. By default, only
the English language is loaded into these
tables. You can use Oracle Database Vault
Configuration Assistant to add more
languages to Oracle Database Vault. For
the necessary steps, refer to Appendix C
in Oracle Database Vault Administrator's
Guide
EXFSYS
The account owns the Expression Filter
schema.
None
FLOWS_FILES
The account owns the Application
Express uploaded files.
Oracle Application Express
Application Builder User's
Guide
HR
The account that owns the Human
Resources schema included in the Oracle
Sample Schemas. It is available only if
you loaded the Sample Schemas.
Oracle Database Sample
Schemas
IX
The account that owns the Information
Transport schema included in the Oracle
Sample Schemas. It is available only if
you loaded the Sample Schemas.
Oracle Database Sample
Schemas
LBACSYS
The Oracle Label Security administrator
account.
Oracle Label Security
Administrator's Guide
MDDATA
The schema used by Oracle Spatial for
storing Geocoder and router data.
Oracle Spatial Developer's
Guide
MDSYS
The Oracle Spatial and Oracle
Multimedia Locator administrator
account.
Oracle Spatial Developer's
Guide
MGMT_VIEW
An account used by Oracle Enterprise
Manager Database Control.
None
6-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Reviewing Accounts and Passwords
Table 6–1 (Cont.) Database Accounts
User Name
Description
See Also
OE
The account that owns the Order Entry
Oracle Database Sample
schema included in the Oracle Sample
Schemas
Schemas. It is available only if you loaded
the Sample Schemas.
ORDPLUGINS
The Oracle Multimedia user. Plugins
supplied by Oracle and third-party
plugins are installed in this schema.
Oracle Multimedia Reference
ORDSYS
The Oracle Multimedia administrator
account.
Oracle Multimedia Reference
ORDDATA
This account contains the Oracle
Multimedia DICOM data model.
Oracle Multimedia DICOM
Developer's Guide
OUTLN
The account that supports plan stability.
Plan stability enables you to maintain the
same execution plans for the same SQL
statements. OUTLN acts as a role to
centrally manage metadata associated
with stored outlines.
Oracle Database Concepts
ORACLE_OCM
This account contains the instrumentation Oracle Configuration Manager
Installation and Administration
for configuration collection used by the
Guide
Oracle Configuration Manager.
OWBSYS
Oracle Warehouse Builder
The account used by Oracle Warehouse
Builder as its default repository. You must Installation and Administration
Guide
unlock this account after installing the
Oracle Database and before launching the
Warehouse Builder Repository Assistant.
OWBSYS_AUDIT
This account is used by the Warehouse
Builder Control Center Agent to access
the heterogeneous execution audit tables
in the OWBSYS schema.
PM
The account that owns the Product Media Oracle Database Sample
schema included in the Oracle Sample
Schemas
Schemas. It is available only if you loaded
the Sample Schemas.
SCOTT
An account used by Oracle sample
programs and examples.
SH
The account that owns the Sales History
Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide
schema included in the Oracle Sample
Schemas. It is available only if you loaded
the Sample Schemas during an Enterprise
Edition installation.
SI_INFORMTN_SCHEMA
The account that stores the information
views for the SQL/MM Still Image
Standard.
SPATIAL_CSW_ADMIN_
USR
Oracle Spatial Developer's
The Catalog Services for the Web (CSW)
Guide
account. It is used by the Oracle Spatial
CSW cache manager to load all record
type metadata, and record instances from
the database into the main memory for
the record types that are cached.
Oracle Warehouse Builder
Installation and Administration
Guide
Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide
Oracle Multimedia Reference
Getting Started with Oracle Database 6-7
Unlocking and Resetting User Passwords
Table 6–1 (Cont.) Database Accounts
User Name
Description
See Also
SPATIAL_WFS_ADMIN_
USR
The Web Feature Service (WFS) account. Oracle Spatial Developer's
It is used by the Oracle Spatial WFS cache Guide
manager to load all feature type
metadata, and feature instances from the
database into main memory for the
feature types that are cached.
SYS
The account used to perform database
administration tasks.
Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide
SYSMAN
The account used to perform Oracle
Enterprise Manager database
administration tasks. It is created only if
you configure the database to use the
Database Control.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid
Control Installation and Basic
Configuration
SYSTEM
Another account used to perform
database administration tasks.
Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide
WMSYS
The account used to store the metadata
information for Oracle Workspace
Manager.
Oracle Database Workspace
Manager Developer's Guide
XDB
The account used for storing Oracle XML
DB data and metadata.
Oracle XML DB Developer's
Guide
Unlocking and Resetting User Passwords
Passwords for all Oracle system administration accounts except SYS, SYSTEM,
SYSMAN, and DBSMP are revoked after installation. Before you use a locked account,
you must unlock it and reset its password. If you created a preconfigured database
during the installation, but you did not unlock a required account, you must unlock it,
using one of the following methods:
■
Using Database Control to Unlock Accounts and Reset Passwords
■
Using SQL*Plus to Unlock Accounts and Reset Passwords
■
Unlocking and Changing Passwords
If you are creating a database using Database Configuration
Assistant, you can unlock accounts after the database is created by
clicking Password Management before you exit from Database
Configuration Assistant.
Note:
Using Database Control to Unlock Accounts and Reset Passwords
To unlock and reset user account passwords using Oracle Enterprise Manager
Database Control:
1.
Log in to the Database Control.
See Also: "Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Control" on page 6-1 for information about logging in to the
Database Control
2.
Click Server.
3.
In the Security section of the Server page, click Users.
6-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Unlocking and Resetting User Passwords
Enterprise Manager displays a table listing all database accounts. The Account
Status column indicates whether the account is locked and whether the password
is expired.
4.
Select the user account to modify, then click Edit.
5.
Use the General page of the Users property sheet to unlock the account and,
optionally, to change the password.
Click Help in the Database Control window for more
information about using the Database Control
See Also:
Using SQL*Plus to Unlock Accounts and Reset Passwords
To unlock and reset user account passwords using SQL*Plus:
1.
Start SQL*Plus and log in as the SYS user, connecting as SYSDBA:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
Enter password: SYS_password
2.
Enter a command similar to the following, where account is the user account that
you want to unlock and password is the new password:
SQL> PASSWORD account UNLOCK;
Changing password for account
New password: password
Retype new password: password
If you unlock an account but do not reset the password,
then the password remains expired. The first time someone
connects as that user, they must change the user’s password.
Note:
To permit unauthenticated access to the data through HTTP, unlock
the ANONYMOUS user account.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more
information about:
■
Unlocking and changing passwords after installation
■
Oracle security procedures
■
Best security practices
Unlocking and Changing Passwords
Passwords for all Oracle system administration accounts except SYS, SYSTEM,
SYSMAN, and DBSNMP are revoked after installation. Before you use a locked account,
you must unlock it and reset its password. If you created a starter database during the
installation, Oracle Database Configuration Assistant displays a screen with your
database information and the Password Management button. Use the Password
Management button to unlock only the user names you use.
Apply the following guidelines when specifying passwords:
■
Passwords must be between 8 and 30 characters long.
■
Passwords must not start with a numeral.
Getting Started with Oracle Database 6-9
Identifying Databases
■
Passwords must not be the same as the user name.
■
Passwords must not be Oracle reserved words.
■
The SYS account password must not be change_on_install.
■
The SYSTEM account password must not be manager.
■
The SYSMAN account password must not be sysman.
■
The DBSNMP account password must not be dbsnmp.
■
■
■
■
If you choose to use the same password for all the accounts, then that password
must not be change_on_install, manager, sysman, or dbsnmp.
Passwords should have at least one alphabetic, one numeric, and one special
character.
Passwords should not be simple or obvious words, such as welcome, account,
database, and user.
Passwords should not have any consecutive repeating characters.
See Also: "Reviewing Accounts and Passwords" on page 6-5 for
more information about accounts and passwords
Identifying Databases
The Oracle Database 11g software identifies a database by its global database name. A
global database name consists of the database name and database domain. Usually, the
database domain is the same as the network domain, but it need not be. The global
database name uniquely distinguishes a database from any other database in the same
network. You specify the global database name when you create a database during the
installation, or using the Database Configuration Assistant. For example:
sales_world.example.com
In this example:
■
■
sales_world is the name of the database. The database name portion is a string
of no more than 30 characters that can contain alphanumeric, underscore (_),
dollar ($), and pound (#) characters. The DB_NAME initialization parameter
specifies the database name.
example.com is the database domain in which the database is located. In this
example, the database domain is the same as the network domain. Together, the
database name and the database domain make the global database name unique.
The domain portion is a string of no more than 128 characters that can contain
alphanumeric, underscore (_), and pound (#) characters. The DB_DOMAIN
initialization parameter specifies the database domain name.
The DB_NAME parameter and the DB_DOMAIN name parameter combine to create the
global database name value assigned to the SERVICE_NAMES parameter in the
initialization parameter file.
The System Identifier (SID) identifies a specific database instance. The SID uniquely
distinguishes the instance from any other instance on the same computer. Each
database instance requires a unique SID and database name. In most cases, the SID is
the same as the database name portion of the global database name.
6-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files
Locating the Server Parameter File
By default, the preconfigured database uses a server parameter file named
spfilesid.ora, which is stored in the $ORACLE_HOME/dbs directory. However, if
you choose Oracle ASM for the database, Database Configuration Assistant typically
uses the same storage mechanism for the server parameter file.
If the server parameter file is not located in the $ORACLE_HOME/dbs directory, the
database uses the SPFILE parameter in an initialization parameter file to locate it. The
default initialization parameter file is $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/initsid.ora.
You can use the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control to view the location of
the server parameter file and list all of the initialization parameters, as follows:
1.
Log in to the Database Control.
See Also: "Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Control" on page 6-1 for information about logging in to the
Database Control
2.
Click Server.
3.
In the Database Configuration section of the Server page, click Initialization
Parameters.
Enterprise Manager displays a table listing the current value of each initialization
parameter.
4.
Select the SPFile tab.
Enterprise Manager displays a table listing the value of each initialization
parameter specified in the server parameter file. The location of the server
parameter file is displayed on top of the page.
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files
The following sections contain information about tablespaces and data files, redo log
files, and control files:
■
Identifying Tablespaces and Data Files
■
Locating Redo Log Files
■
Locating Control Files
Identifying Tablespaces and Data Files
An Oracle database is divided into smaller logical areas of space known as tablespaces.
Each tablespace corresponds to one or more physical data files. Data files contain the
contents of logical database structures such as tables and indexes. You can associate
each data file with only one tablespace and database.
Note: The SYSAUX and SYSTEM tablespaces must be present in all
Oracle Database 11g databases.
Table 6–2 describes the tablespaces provided by the default preconfigured database.
Getting Started with Oracle Database
6-11
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files
Table 6–2
Tablespaces and Data Files
Tablespace
Data File
Description
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE01.DBF
Stores the Sample Schemas, if you included them.
SYSAUX
SYSAUX01.DBF
Serves as an auxiliary tablespace to the SYSTEM
tablespace. Some products and options that previously
used the SYSTEM tablespace now use the SYSAUX
tablespace to reduce the load on the SYSTEM tablespace.
SYSTEM
SYSTEM01.DBF
Stores the data dictionary, including definitions of tables,
views, and stored procedures needed by the Oracle
Database. Information in this area is maintained
automatically.
TEMP
TEMP01.DBF
Stores temporary tables and indexes created during the
processing of your SQL statement. If you run a SQL
statement that involves a lot of sorting, such as the
constructs GROUP BY, ORDER BY, or DISTINCT, then you
may need to expand this tablespace.
UNDOTBS
UNDOTBS01.DBF
Stores undo information. The undo tablespace contains
one or more undo segments that maintain transaction
history that is used to roll back, or undo, changes to the
database.
All starter databases are configured to run in automatic
undo management mode.
USERS
USERS01.DBF
Stores database objects created by database users.
Oracle Database Concepts and the Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide for more information about tablespaces and
data files
See Also:
To use the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control to view the list of data files
used by the database and their associated tablespaces:
1.
Log in to the Database Control.
See Also: "Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Control" on page 6-1 for information about logging in to the
Database Control
2.
Click Server.
3.
In the Storage section of the Server page, click Datafiles.
Enterprise Manager displays a table listing each data file, and the tablespace with
which it is associated.
See Also: For more information about using the Database Control
to view, modify, and create tablespaces, click Help in the Database
Control window
Locating Redo Log Files
The preconfigured database uses three redo log files. Redo log files record all changes
made to data in the database buffer cache. If an instance fails, then Oracle Database 11g
uses the redo log files to recover the modified data in memory.
Oracle Database uses redo log files in a cyclical fashion. For example, if three files
constitute the online redo log, Oracle Database fills the first file, then the second file,
6-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files
and then the third file. In the next cycle, it reuses and fills the first file, the second file,
and so on.
See Also: Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for
more information about redo log files
To use the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control to view or modify the redo log
files for the preconfigured database:
1.
Log in to the Database Control.
See Also: "Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Control" on page 6-1 for information about logging in to the
Database Control
2.
Click Server.
3.
In the Storage section of the Server page, click Redo Log Groups.
Enterprise Manager displays a table listing the redo log groups used by the
database.
4.
To view the name and location of the redo log file associated with a particular
group, select that group then click View.
See Also: For more information about using the Database Control
to view, modify, and create redo log files, click Help in the Database
Control window
Locating Control Files
The preconfigured database uses three control files. Oracle recommends that you keep
at least three control files for each database and set the CONTROL_FILES initialization
parameter to specify the location of each file.
A control file is an administrative file. Oracle Database 11g requires a control file to
start and run the database. The control file defines the physical structure of the
database. For example, it defines the database name and the names and locations of
the database data files and redo log files.
To use the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control to view information about the
control files for the preconfigured database:
1.
Log in to the Database Control.
See Also: "Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Control" on page 6-1 for information about logging in to the
Database Control
2.
Click Server.
3.
In the Storage section of the Server page, click Control Files.
Enterprise Manager displays a table listing the control files used by the database.
Getting Started with Oracle Database
6-13
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files
See Also:
■
■
For more information about using the Database Control to view
information about control files and creating backups of these
files to trace them, click Help in the Database Control window
For more information about setting the CONTROL_FILES
initialization parameter value, refer to Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide
6-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
7
7
Removing Oracle Database Software
This chapter describes how to completely remove Oracle software and configuration
files related to the specified Oracle home. It includes information about the following
topics:
■
Reconfiguring Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services
■
Removing Oracle Software Using the Deinstallation Tool
See Also:
■
■
■
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide and Oracle Real
Application Clusters Installation Guide for information about
removing an Oracle RAC installation.
The "Dropping Disk Groups" section in the Oracle Automatic
Storage Management Administrator's Guide for information about
removing an Oracle ASM disk group.
If you want to remove an individual product, refer to the
product-specific documentation for requirements and restrictions.
Reconfiguring Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services
Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS) is a daemon process that is configured
by the root.sh script when you configure an Oracle Grid Infrastructure instance. The
CSS daemon runs out of the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home and is configured to start
every time the system starts. This daemon process is required to enable
synchronization between Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) and
database instances. It must be running if an Oracle database is using Oracle ASM for
database file storage.
On cluster systems with Oracle RAC installations, the CSS
daemon is configured during the Oracle Clusterware installation. If
the system is running Oracle Clusterware, then refer to Oracle Real
Application Clusters Installation Guide for information about
removing Oracle RAC or Oracle Clusterware.
Note:
Removing Oracle Software Using the Deinstallation Tool
The deinstall command removes standalone Oracle Database installations, Oracle
Clusterware and Oracle ASM from your server, and also Oracle Real Application
Clusters (Oracle RAC) and Oracle Database client installations.
Removing Oracle Database Software
7-1
Removing Oracle Software Using the Deinstallation Tool
The following sections describe the command, and provide information about
additional options to use the command:
■
About the Deinstallation Tool
■
Downloading the Deinstall Tool for Use with Failed Installations
■
Example of Running the Deinstall Command
■
Example of a Deinstallation Parameter File for Oracle Database
■
Example of a Deinstallation Parameter File for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Caution: If you have a standalone database on a node in a cluster
and you have more than one database with the same global database
name (GDN), then you cannot use the deinstall tool to remove one
database only.
About the Deinstallation Tool
The Deinstallation Tool (deinstall) is available in Oracle home directories after
installation. It is located in the $ORACLE_HOME/deinstall directory.
The deinstall command uses the information you provide, plus information
gathered from the software home to create a parameter file. You can alternatively
supply a parameter file generated previously by the deinstall command using the
–checkonly option, or by editing the response file template.
The command uses the following syntax, where variable content is indicated in italics:
deinstall -home complete path of Oracle home [-silent] [-checkonly] [-local]
[-paramfile complete path of input parameter property file] [-params name1=value
name2=value . . .] [-o complete path of directory for saving files] [-help | -h]
The default method for running the deinstall tool is from the deinstall directory in the
Oracle home as the installation owner:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/deinstall/deinstall
Provide information about your servers as prompted or accept the defaults.
The deinstall command stops Oracle software, and removes Oracle software and
configuration files on the operating system.
In addition, you can run the deinstall tool from other locations, or with a parameter
file, or select other options to run the tool.
The options are:
■
-home
Use this flag to indicate the home path of the Oracle home that you want to check
or deinstall. To deinstall Oracle software using the deinstall command in the
Oracle home you plan to deinstall, provide a parameter file in another location,
and do not use the -home flag.
If you run deinstall from the $ORACLE_HOME/deinstall path, then the -home
flag is not required because the tool knows from which home it is being run. If you
use the standalone version of the tool, then -home is mandatory.
■
-silent
7-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Removing Oracle Software Using the Deinstallation Tool
Use this flag to run the command in silent or response file mode. If you use the
-silent flag, then you must use the -paramfile flag, and provide a parameter
file that contains the configuration values for the Oracle home that you want to
deinstall or deconfigure.
You can generate a parameter file to use or modify by running deinstall with
the -checkonly flag. The deinstall command then discovers information
from the Oracle home that you want to deinstall and deconfigure. It generates the
properties file, which you can then use with the -silent option.
You can also modify the template file deinstall.rsp.tmpl, located in the
response folder.
■
-checkonly
Use this flag to check the status of the Oracle software home configuration.
Running the command with the -checkonly flag does not remove the Oracle
configuration. The -checkonly flag generates a parameter file that you can use
with the deinstall command.
■
-local
Use this flag on a multinode environment to deinstall Oracle software in a cluster.
When you run deinstall with this flag, it deconfigures and deinstalls the Oracle
software on the local node (the node where deinstall is run). On remote nodes,
it deconfigures Oracle software, but does not deinstall the Oracle software.
■
-paramfile complete path of input parameter property file
Use this flag to run deinstall with a parameter file in a location other than the
default. When you use this flag, provide the complete path where the parameter
file is located.
The default location of the parameter file depends on the location of deinstall:
■
–
From the installation media or stage location: $ORACLE_
HOME/inventory/response.
–
From a unzipped archive file from OTN: /ziplocation/response.
–
After installation from the installed Oracle home: $ORACLE_
HOME/deinstall/response.
-params [name1=value name 2=value name3=value . . .]
Use this flag with a parameter file to override one or more values that you want to
change in a parameter file you have already created.
■
-o complete path of directory for saving response files
Use this flag to provide a path other than the default location where the properties
file (deinstall.rsp.tmpl) is saved.
The default location of the parameter file depends on the location of deinstall:
■
–
From the installation media or stage location before installation: $ORACLE_
HOME/
–
From a unzipped archive file from OTN: /ziplocation/response/.
–
After installation from the installed Oracle home: $ORACLE_
HOME/deinstall/response.
-help | -h
Removing Oracle Database Software
7-3
Removing Oracle Software Using the Deinstallation Tool
Use the help option (-help or -h) to obtain additional information about the
command option flags.
Downloading the Deinstall Tool for Use with Failed Installations
If you require the Deinstallation Tool (deinstall) to remove failed or incomplete
installations, then it is available as a separate download from the Oracle Technology
Network (OTN) Web site.
To download the Deinstallation tool:
1.
Go to the following URL:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/software/products/database/i
ndex.html
2.
Under Oracle Database 11g Release 2, click See All for the respective platform for
which you want to download the Deinstallation Tool.
The Deinstallation Tool is available for download at the end of this page.
Example of Running the Deinstall Command
As the deinstall command runs, you are prompted to provide the home directory
of the Oracle software that you want to remove from your system. Provide additional
information as prompted.
Use the optional flag -paramfile to provide a path to a parameter file.
In the following example, the deinstall command is in the path
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/deinstall, and it uses a
parameter file in the software owner location /home/usr/oracle:
$ cd /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/deinstall
$ ./deinstall -paramfile /home/usr/oracle/my_db_paramfile.tmpl
For the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home, use the deinstall script in the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a standalone server home, which in this example is
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid:
$ cd /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid/deinstall
$ ./deinstall -paramfile /home/usr/oracle/my_grid_paramfile.tmpl
If you enter the deinstall command outside of the $ORACLE_HOME/deinstall folder,
then help is displayed, unless you enter a -home flag and provide a path. If you run
the deinstall command from the $ORACLE_HOME/deinstall folder, then
deinstallation starts without prompting you for a home address.
Example of a Deinstallation Parameter File for Oracle Database
You can run the deinstall command on a standalone Oracle Database with the
-paramfile option to use the values you specify in the parameter file. The following
is an example of a parameter file, in which the Oracle Database binary owner is
oracle, the Oracle Database home (Oracle home) is in the path
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/, the Oracle base (where other
Oracle software is installed) is /u01/app/oracle/, the central Oracle Inventory
home (oraInventory) is /u01/app/oraInventory, the virtual IP address (VIP) is
192.0.2.1, the local node (the node where you run the deinstallation session from) is
myserver, and the OSDBA group is dba:
#Copyright (c) 2005, 2006 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.
7-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Removing Oracle Software Using the Deinstallation Tool
#Mon Feb 16 06:48:39 UTC 2009
DISK_GROUPS.sidb=
ASM_HOME=
ASM_LOCAL_SID=
LOGDIR=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/oraInventory/logs/
ORACLE_BASE.sidb=/u01/app/oracle/
RECOVERY_LOC.sidb=
STORAGE_TYPE.sidb=FS
ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle/
INVENTORY_LOCATION=/u01/app/oraInventory
DB_TYPE.sidb=SI_DB
NODE_LIST.sidb=myserver
ARCHIVE_LOG_DESTINATION_LOC.sidb=
LOCAL_SID.sidb=sidb
DB_UNIQUE_NAME_LIST=sidb
ASM_FILES.sidb=
HOME_TYPE=SIDB
CRS_HOME=false
RAW_MAPPING_FILE.sidb=
SID_LIST.sidb=sidb
ORACLE_BINARY_OK=true
DATAFILE_LOC.sidb=/u01/app/oracle/oradata
local=false
LOCAL_NODE=myserver
CREATION_MODE.sidb=y
CONFIGFILE_LOC.sidb=
DIAG_DEST.sidb=/u01/app/oracle/
silent=false
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/
SPFILE_LOC.sidb=
Example of a Deinstallation Parameter File for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
You can run the deinstall command on an Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a
standalone server home with the -paramfile option to use the values you specify in
the parameter file.
The following is an example of a parameter file, in which the Oracle Grid
Infrastructure binary owner is oracle, the Oracle Grid Infrastructure home is in the
path /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid, the Oracle base (where other
Oracle software is installed) is /u01/app/oracle/, the central Oracle Inventory
home (oraInventory) is /u01/app/oraInventory, the local node (the node where
you run the deinstallation session from) is myserver, and the OSDBA group is dba:
#Copyright (c) 2005, 2009 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.
#Thu Mar 05 11:36:03 PST 2009
LOCAL_NODE=myserver
HOME_TYPE=SIHA
ASM_REDUNDANCY=EXTERNAL
ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle/
SCAN_PORT=0
silent=false
ASM_UPGRADE=false
ORA_CRS_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid
GPNPCONFIGDIR=$ORACLE_HOME
LOGDIR=/home/oracle/tmp/deinstall/logs/
ASM_DISCOVERY_STRING=/u02/stor/asm*
GPNPGCONFIGDIR=$ORACLE_HOME
ORACLE_OWNER=oracle
Removing Oracle Database Software
7-5
Removing Oracle Software Using the Deinstallation Tool
ASM_DISKSTRING=
CRS_STORAGE_OPTION=0
ORACLE_BINARY_OK=true
OCR_VOTINGDISK_IN_ASM=false
ASM_ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
NETCFGJAR_NAME=netcfg.jar
ORA_DBA_GROUP=svrtech
JREDIR=/u01/app/oracle/grid/jdk/jre/
ORA_ASM_GROUP=dba
LANGUAGE_ID='AMERICAN_AMERICA.WE8ISO8859P1'
CSS_LEASEDURATION=400
ASM_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/grid
SHAREJAR_NAME=share.jar
HELPJAR_NAME=help4.jar
SILENT=false
local=false
INVENTORY_LOCATION=/u01/app/oraInventory
GNS_CONF=false
JEWTJAR_NAME=jewt4.jar
EMBASEJAR_NAME=oemlt.jar
ASM_
DISKS=/u02/stor/asm/asm0,/u02/stor/asm/asm2,/u02/stor/asm/asm3,/u02/stor/asm/asm1,
/u02/stor/asm/asm4,/u02/stor/asm/asm5,/u02/stor/asm/asm6,
/u02/stor/asm/asm7,/u02/stor/asm/asm8
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/grid
CRS_HOME=true
ASM_IN_HOME=true
EWTJAR_NAME=ewt3.jar
ASM_DROP_DISKGROUPS=false
ASM_LOCAL_SID=+ASM
JLIBDIR=/u01/app/oracle/grid/jlib
VNDR_CLUSTER=false
ASM_DISK_GROUP=DATA
7-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
A
A
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database
Using Response Files
This appendix describes how to install and configure Oracle products using response
files. It includes information about the following topics:
■
How Response Files Work
■
Creating the oraInst.loc File
■
Preparing a Response File
■
Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response File
■
Running Net Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
■
Running Database Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
■
Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File
How Response Files Work
You can automate the installation and configuration of Oracle software, either fully or
partially, by specifying a response file when you start Oracle Universal Installer. Oracle
Universal Installer uses the values contained in the response file to provide answers to
some or all of Oracle Universal Installer prompt. It includes information about the
following topics:
■
■
■
Reasons for Using Silent Mode or Response File Mode
Creating a Database Using Oracle Automatic Storage Management as the Storage
Option for Database Files
General Procedure for Using Response Files
Typically, Oracle Universal Installer runs in interactive mode, which means that it
prompts you to provide information in graphical user interface (GUI) screens. When
you use response files to provide this information, you run Oracle Universal Installer
at a command prompt using either of the following modes:
■
Silent mode
If you include responses for all of the prompts in the response file and specify the
-silent option when starting Oracle Universal Installer, then Oracle Universal
Installer runs in silent mode. During a silent-mode installation, Oracle Universal
Installer does not display any screens. Instead, it displays progress information in
the terminal that you used to start it.
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
A-1
How Response Files Work
■
Response file mode
If you include responses for some or all of the prompts in the response file and
omit the -silent option, then Oracle Universal Installer runs in response file
mode. During a response file mode installation, Oracle Universal Installer displays
all the screens, screens for which you specify information in the response file and
also screens for which you did not specify the required information in the
response file. The advantage is that you can validate the values in the screens for
which you have already provided the information in the response file and
continue with the installation.
You define the settings for a silent or response file installation by entering values for
the variables listed in the response file. For instance, to specify the Oracle home
location, you would supply the appropriate value for the ORACLE_HOME variable, as
follows:
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
Another way of specifying the response file’s variable settings is to pass them as
command line arguments when you run Oracle Universal Installer. For example:
-silent ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
In this command, directory_path is the path of the database directory on the
DVD or the path of the Disk1 directory on the hard drive.
This method is particularly useful if you do not want to embed sensitive information,
such as passwords, in the response file. For example:
-silent "s_dlgRBOPassword=password" ...
Ensure that you enclose the variable and its setting in quotes.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for Windows and
UNIX for more information about response file formats
My Oracle Support Web site for more information on response
files:
https://support.oracle.com/
Reasons for Using Silent Mode or Response File Mode
The following table describes several reasons why you might want to run Oracle
Universal Installer in silent mode or response file mode.
Mode
Uses
Silent
Use silent mode to:
■
■
■
Complete an unattended installation, which you might schedule using
operating system utilities such as cron
Complete several similar installations on multiple systems without user
interaction
Install the software on a system that does not have X Window System
software installed on it
Oracle Universal Installer displays progress information in the terminal that
you used to start it, but it does not display any of Oracle Universal Installer
screens.
A-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating the oraInst.loc File
Mode
Uses
Response File
Use response file mode to complete similar Oracle software installations on
more than one system, providing default answers to some, but not all of
Oracle Universal Installer prompts.
In response file mode, all the installer screens are displayed, but defaults for
the fields in these screens are provided by the response file. You have to
provide information for the fields in screens where you have not provided
values in the response file.
Creating a Database Using Oracle Automatic Storage Management as the Storage
Option for Database Files
Before you create a database that uses Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle
ASM), you must run the root.sh script. For this reason, you cannot create a database
using Oracle ASM as the storage option for database files during a silent-mode
installation. Instead, you can complete a software-only installation using silent mode,
and then run the Oracle Net Configuration Assistant and Database Configuration
Assistant configuration assistants in silent mode after you have completed the
software-only installation and you have run the root.sh script.
This limitation applies only to databases that use Oracle ASM
as the storage option for database files. You can create a database that
uses the file system option during a silent-mode installation.
Note:
General Procedure for Using Response Files
The following are the general steps to install and configure Oracle products using
Oracle Universal Installer in silent or response file mode:
You must complete all required preinstallation tasks on a
system before running Oracle Universal Installer in silent or response
file mode.
Note:
1.
Create the oraInst.loc file.
2.
Prepare a response file.
3.
Run Oracle Universal Installer in silent or response file mode.
4.
If you completed a software-only installation, then run Net Configuration
Assistant and Database Configuration Assistant in silent or response file mode if
required.
These steps are described in the following sections.
Creating the oraInst.loc File
If you plan to install Oracle products using Oracle Universal Installer in silent or
response file mode, then you must manually create the oraInst.loc file if it does
not already exist. This file specifies the location of the Oracle Inventory directory
where Oracle Universal Installer creates the inventory of Oracle products installed on
the system.
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
A-3
Preparing a Response File
If Oracle software has been installed previously on the
system, the oraInst.loc file might already exist. If the file does
exist, you do not need to create a file.
Note:
To create the oraInst.loc file, follow these steps:
1.
Switch user to root:
$ su - root
2.
Create the /etc/ directory if it does not exist:
# mkdir /etc/
3.
Change directory as follows:
# cd /etc/
4.
Use a text editor to create the oraInst.loc file, containing the following lines:
inventory_loc=$ORACLE_BASE/oraInventory
inst_group=oinstall
In this example, $ORACLE_BASE is the path of the Oracle base directory, for
example, /u01/app/oracle.
5.
Enter the following commands to set the appropriate owner, group, and
permissions on the oraInst.loc file:
# chown oracle:oinstall oraInst.loc
# chmod 664 oraInst.loc
Preparing a Response File
This section describes the following methods to prepare a response file for use during
silent mode or response file mode installations:
■
Editing a Response File Template
■
Saving a Response File
Editing a Response File Template
This method is most useful for the Enterprise Edition or Standard Edition installation
types.
Oracle provides response file templates for each product and installation type, and for
each configuration tool. These files are located at database/response directory on
the installation media.
If you copied the software to a hard disk, the response files
are located in the database/response directory.
Note:
Table A–1 lists the response files provided with Oracle Database.
A-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Preparing a Response File
Table A–1
Response Files
Response File
Description
db_install.rsp
Silent installation of Oracle Database 11g
grid_install.rsp
Silent installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure
dbca.rsp
Silent installation of Database Configuration Assistant
netca.rsp
Silent installation of Oracle Net Configuration Assistant
To copy and modify a response file:
1.
Copy the response file from the response file directory to a directory on your
system:
$ cp /directory_path/response/response_file.rsp local_directory
In this example, directory_path is the path to the database directory on the
installation media. If you have copied the software to a hard drive, then you can
edit the file in the response directory if you prefer.
2.
Open the response file in a text editor:
$ vi /local_dir/response_file.rsp
Remember that you can specify sensitive information, such as passwords, at the
command line rather than within the response file. "How Response Files Work" on
page A-1 explains this method.
See Also: Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for
Windows and UNIX for detailed information about creating response
files
3.
Follow the instructions in the file to edit it.
Note: Oracle Universal Installer or configuration assistant fails if
you do not correctly configure the response file. Refer to
"Silent-Mode Response File Error Handling" section on page G-5 for
more information about troubleshooting a failed response file mode
installation.
4.
Change the permissions on the file to 700:
$ chmod 700 /local_dir/response_file.rsp
A fully specified response file for an Oracle Database
installation contains the passwords for database administrative
accounts and for a user who is a member of the OSDBA group
(required for automated backups). Ensure that only the Oracle
software owner user can view or modify response files or consider
deleting them after the installation succeeds.
Note:
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
A-5
Preparing a Response File
Saving a Response File
You can use Oracle Universal Installer in interactive mode to save a response file,
which you can edit and then use to complete silent mode or response file mode
installations. This method is useful for custom or software-only installations.
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), you can save all the installation
steps into a response file during installation. You can click the Save Response File
button on the Summary page to do this. Later, this file can be used for a silent
installation.
When you save the response file, you can either complete the installation, or you can
exit from Oracle Universal Installer on the Summary page, before it starts to copy the
software to the system.
If you save a response file during a silent installation, then Oracle Universal Installer
saves the variable values that were specified in the original source response file into
the new response file.
Oracle Universal Installer does not save passwords in the
response file.
Note:
To save a response file:
1.
Complete the preinstallation tasks listed in Chapter 2.
When you run Oracle Universal Installer to save a response file, it checks the
system to verify that it meets the requirements to install the software. For this
reason, Oracle recommends that you complete all of the required preinstallation
tasks and save the response file while completing an installation.
2.
If you have not installed Oracle software on this system previously, create the
oraInst.loc file as described in "Creating the oraInst.loc File" on page A-3.
3.
Ensure that the Oracle software owner user has permissions to create or write to
the Oracle home path that you will specify when you run Oracle Universal
Installer.
4.
On each Oracle Universal Installer screen, specify the required information.
See Also: "Running Oracle Universal Installer" on page 4-9 for
information about the installation process
5.
When Oracle Universal Installer displays the Summary screen, perform the
following:
1.
Click Save Response File and specify a file name and location for the response
file. Then, click Save to save the values to the file.
2.
Click Finish to continue with the installation.
Click Cancel if you do not want to continue with the installation. The
installation stops, but the saved response file is retained.
6.
Before you use the saved response file on another system, edit the file and make
any required changes.
Use the instructions in the file as a guide when editing it.
A-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Running Net Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response File
Now, you are ready to run Oracle Universal Installer at the command line, specifying
the response file you created, to perform the installation. The Oracle Universal
Installer executable, runInstaller, provides several options. For help information
about the full set of these options, run the runInstaller command with the -help
option, for example:
$ directory_path/runInstaller -help
The help information appears in a window after some time.
To run Oracle Universal Installer using a response file:
1.
Complete the preinstallation tasks listed in Chapter 2.
2.
Log in as the Oracle software owner user (typically, oracle).
3.
If you are completing a response file mode installation, set the DISPLAY
environment variable.
You do not have to set the DISPLAY environment variable if
you are completing a silent-mode installation.
Note:
4.
To start Oracle Universal Installer in silent or response file mode, enter a command
similar to the following:
$ /directory_path/runInstaller [-silent] [-noconfig] \
-responseFile responsefilename
Do not specify a relative path to the response file. If you
specify a relative path, then Oracle Universal Installer fails.
Note:
In this example:
■
■
■
■
5.
directory_path is the path of the database directory on the DVD or the
path of the Disk1 directory on the hard drive.
-silent runs Oracle Universal Installer in silent mode.
-noconfig suppresses running the configuration assistants during
installation, and a software-only installation is performed instead.
responsefilename is the full path and file name of the installation response
file that you configured.
When the installation completes, log in as the root user and run the root.sh
script:
$ sudo sh
password:
# /oracle_home_path/root.sh
Running Net Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
You can run Net Configuration Assistant in silent mode to configure and start an
Oracle Net listener on the system, configure naming methods, and configure Oracle
Net service names. To run Net Configuration Assistant in silent mode, you must copy
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
A-7
Running Database Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
and edit a response file template. Oracle provides a response file template named
netca.resp in the response directory in the database/response directory on
the DVD.
If you copied the software to a hard disk, then the response
file template is located in the database/response directory.
Note:
To run Net Configuration Assistant using a response file:
1.
Copy the netca.rsp response file template from the response file directory to a
directory on your system:
$ cp /directory_path/response/netca.rsp local_directory
In this example, directory_path is the path of the database directory on the
DVD. If you have copied the software to a hard drive, you can edit the file in the
response directory if you prefer.
2.
Open the response file in a text editor:
$ vi /local_dir/netca.rsp
3.
Follow the instructions in the file to edit it.
Net Configuration Assistant fails if you do not correctly
configure the response file.
Note:
4.
Log in as the Oracle software owner user, and set the ORACLE_HOME environment
variable to specify the correct Oracle home directory.
5.
Enter a command similar to the following to run Net Configuration Assistant in
silent mode:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/netca /silent /responsefile /local_dir/netca.rsp
In this command:
■
■
The /silent option runs Net Configuration Assistant in silent mode.
local_dir is the full path of the directory where you copied the netca.rsp
response file template.
Running Database Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
You can run Database Configuration Assistant in response file or silent mode to
configure and start an Oracle Database on the system. To run Database Configuration
Assistant in response file or silent mode, you must copy and edit a response file
template. Oracle provides a response file template named dbca.rsp in the
database/response directory on the DVD.
If you copied the software to a hard disk, then the response
file template is located in the database/response directory.
Note:
A-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Running Database Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
See Also: "Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant Command-Line
Interface" section in Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Administrator's Guide for information about running Oracle ASMCA in
noninteractive mode
This section contains the following topics:
■
Using Database Configuration Assistant in Response File Mode
■
Using Database Configuration Assistant in Silent Mode
■
Running Database Configuration Assistant in Response File or Silent Mode
Using Database Configuration Assistant in Response File Mode
Use the -progressOnly flag to set the mode to response file. In the response file
mode, Database Configuration Assistant uses values that you specify, in the response
file or as command line options, to create a database. As it configures and starts the
database, it displays a window that contains status messages and a progress bar. The
window that it displays is the same window that is displayed when you choose to
create a preconfigured database during an Enterprise Edition or Standard Edition
installation.
To run Database Configuration Assistant in response file mode, you must use a
graphical display and set the DISPLAY environment variable.
Using Database Configuration Assistant in Silent Mode
Use -silent flag to set the mode to silent. In the silent mode, Database Configuration
Assistant uses values that you specify, in the response file or as command line options,
to create a database.
Running Database Configuration Assistant in Response File or Silent Mode
To run Database Configuration Assistant in response file or silent mode:
As an alternative to editing the response file template, you can
also create a database by specifying all required information as
command line options when you run Database Configuration
Assistant. For information about the list of options supported, enter
the following command:
Note:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbca -help
1.
Copy the dbca.rsp response file template from the response file directory to a
directory on your system:
$ cp /directory_path/response/dbca.rsp local_directory
In this example, directory_path is the path of the database directory on the
DVD. If you have copied the software to a hard drive, you can edit the file in the
response directory if you prefer.
2.
Open the response file in a text editor:
$ vi /local_dir/dbca.rsp
3.
Edit the file, following the instructions in the file.
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
A-9
Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File
Note: Database Configuration Assistant fails if you do not
correctly configure the response file.
4.
Log in as the Oracle software owner user, and set the ORACLE_HOME environment
variable to specify the correct Oracle home directory.
5.
If you intend running Database Configuration Assistant in response file mode, set
the DISPLAY environment variable.
6.
Enter a command similar to the following to run Database Configuration Assistant
in response file or silent mode with a response file:
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbca {-progressOnly | -silent} -responseFile \
/local_dir/dbca.rsp
In this example:
■
■
■
The -silent option runs Database Configuration Assistant in silent mode.
The -progressOnly option runs Database Configuration Assistant in
response file mode.
local_dir is the full path of the directory where you copied the dbca.rsp
response file template.
Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File
Use the following sections to create and run a response file configuration after
installing Oracle software.
About the Postinstallation Configuration File
When you run a silent or response file installation, you provide information about
your servers in a response file that you otherwise provide manually during a graphical
user interface installation. However, the response file does not contain passwords for
user accounts that configuration assistants require after software installation is
complete. The configuration assistants are started with a script called
configToolAllCommands. You can run this script in response file mode by using a
password response file. The script uses the passwords to run the configuration tools in
succession to complete configuration.
If you keep the password file to use for clone installations, then Oracle strongly
recommends that you store it in a secure location. In addition, if you must stop an
installation to fix an error, you can run the configuration assistants using
configToolAllCommands and a password response file.
The configToolAllCommands password response file consists of the following
syntax options:
■
internal_component_name is the name of the component that the configuration
assistant configures
■
variable_name is the name of the configuration file variable
■
value is the desired value to use for configuration.
The command syntax is as follows:
internal_component_name|variable_name=value
For example:
A-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File
oracle.assistants.asm|S_ASMPASSWORD=welcome
Oracle strongly recommends that you maintain security with a password response file:
■
■
Permissions on the response file should be set to 600.
The response file owner must be the installation owner user, with the group set to
the central inventory (oraInventory) group.
Running Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File
To run configuration assistants with the configToolAllCommands script:
1.
Create a response file using the syntax filename.properties. For example:
$ touch cfgrsp.properties
2.
Open the file with a text editor, and cut and paste the password template,
modifying as needed.
Example A–1 Password response file for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a standalone
server
Oracle Grid Infrastructure requires passwords for Automatic Storage Management
Configuration Assistant (Oracle ASMCA), and for Intelligent Platform Management
Interface Configuration Assistant (IPMICA) if you have a BMC card and you want to
enable this feature. Provide the following response file,
oracle.assistants.asm|S_ASMPASSWORD=password
oracle.assistants.asm|S_ASMMONITORPASSWORD=password
Example A–2 Password response file for Oracle Database
Oracle Database configuration requires the SYS, SYSTEM, SYSMAN, and DBSNMP
passwords for use with Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA). The S_
ASMSNMPPASSWORD response is necessary only if the database is using ASM for
storage. Also, if you selected to configure Oracle Enterprise Manager, then you must
provide the password for the Oracle software installation owner for the S_
HOSTUSERPASSWORD response.
oracle.assistants.server|S_SYSPASSWORD=password
oracle.assistants.server|S_SYSTEMPASSWORD=password
oracle.assistants.server|S_SYSMANPASSWORD=password
oracle.assistants.server|S_DBSNMPPASSWORD=password
oracle.assistants.server|S_HOSTUSERPASSWORD=password
oracle.assistants.server|S_ASMSNMPPASSWORD=password
If you do not want to enable Oracle Enterprise Manager or ASM, then leave those
password fields blank
3.
Change permissions to secure the file. For example:
$ ls -al cfgrsp
-rw------- 1 oracle oinstall 0 Apr 30 17:30 cfgrsp
4.
Change directory to $ORACLE_HOME/cfgtoollogs
Run the configuration script using the following syntax:
configToolAllCommands RESPONSE_FILE=/path/name.properties
for example:
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
A-11
Postinstallation Configuration Using a Response File
$ ./configToolAllCommands RESPONSE_FILE=/home/oracle/cfgrsp.properties
A-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
B
B
Cloning an Oracle Home
Cloning an Oracle home involves creating a copy of the Oracle home and then
configuring it for a new environment. If you are performing multiple Oracle Database
installations, then you may want to use this method to create each Oracle home,
because copying files from an existing Oracle Database installation takes less time than
creating a new version of them. This method is also useful if the Oracle home that you
are cloning has had patches applied to it. When you clone this Oracle home, the new
Oracle home has the patch updates as well.
When cloning Database Oracle homes using 11.2 Database Control, you must update
the exclude file list. This file list specifies files that need not be included when the
source Oracle home is archived because these files are not required for the clone
operation. The following files should not be included in the archive:
■
sqlnet.ora
■
tnsnames.ora
■
listener.ora
■
oratab
In addition to cloning an Oracle home, you can clone
individual Oracle Database installations by using Enterprise Manager
Database Control. Oracle Database Administrator's Guide provides
detailed information about cloning Oracle Database installations and
Oracle homes.
Note:
This appendix includes information about the following topics:
■
Cloning an Oracle Home
■
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a Cloned Oracle Home
Cloning an Oracle Home
Perform the following to clone an Oracle home:
1.
Verify that the installation of Oracle Database that you want to clone has been
successful.
You can do this by reviewing the installActionsdate_time.log file for the
installation session, which is normally located in the /orainventory_
location/logs directory.
If you have installed patches, then you can check their status using the following:
Cloning an Oracle Home B-1
Cloning an Oracle Home
$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/OPatch
Include $ORACLE_HOME/OPatch in $PATH
$ opatch lsinventory
2.
Stop all processes related to the Oracle home. Refer to "Removing Oracle Software
Using the Deinstallation Tool" on page 7-1 for more information about stopping
the processes for an Oracle home.
3.
Create a ZIP file with the Oracle home (but not Oracle base) directory.
For example, if the source Oracle installation is in the
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1, then you zip the dbhome_1
directory by using the following command:
# zip -r dbhome_1.zip /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
Do not include the admin, recovery_area, and oradata directories that are
under the Oracle base directory. These directories are created in the target
installation later, when you create a new database there.
4.
Copy the ZIP file to the root directory of the target computer.
5.
Extract the ZIP file contents by using the following command:
# unzip -d / dbhome_1.zip
6.
Repeat steps 4 and 5 for each computer where you want to clone the Oracle home,
unless the Oracle home is on a shared storage device.
7.
On the target computer, change directory to the unzipped Oracle home directory,
and remove all the .ora (*.ora) files present in the unzipped $ORACLE_
HOME/network/admin directory.
8.
From the $ORACLE_HOME/clone/bin directory, run clone.pl for the unzipped
Oracle home. Use the following syntax:
$ORACLE_HOME/perl/bin/perl clone.pl ORACLE_BASE="target_oracle_base" ORACLE_
HOME="target_oracle_home"
OSDBA_GROUP=OSDBA_privileged_group OSOPER_GROUP=OSOPER_privileged_group
-defaultHomeName
For example:
$ORACLE_HOME/perl/bin/perl clone.pl ORACLE_BASE="/u01/app/oracle/" ORACLE_
HOME="/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1"
OSDBA_GROUP=dba OSOPER_GROUP=oper -defaultHomeName
Oracle Universal Installer starts, and then records the cloning actions in the
cloneActionstimestamp.log file. This log file is normally located in
/orainventory_location/logs directory.
9.
To configure connection information for the new database, run Net Configuration
Assistant:
$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/bin
$ ./netca
10. To create a new database for the newly cloned Oracle home, run Database
Configuration Assistant as follows:
$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/bin
$ ./dbca
B-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a Cloned Oracle Home
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for Windows and
UNIX for detailed information about using Oracle Universal
Installer to clone an Oracle Database home
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about
cloning an Oracle databases, and cloning an Oracle Database
home
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a Cloned Oracle Home
Perform the following to configure Oracle Configuration Manager for a cloned Oracle
home:
1.
Run the following command from $ORACLE_HOME/ccr/state:
$ rm -rf *.ll*
2.
Run the following command from $ORACLE_HOME/ccr/inventory:
$ cp core.jar pending
3.
Run the following commands from $ORACLE_HOME/ccr/bin:
$ ./emSnapshotEnv
$ ./deployPackages
4.
Run the following command from $ORACLE_HOME/ccr/bin, and provide the
proper credentials:
$ ./configCCR
If Oracle Configuration Manager was manually configured using setupCCR, then
perform the following in the cloned Oracle home:
1.
Delete all the subdirectories of the $ORACLE_HOME/ccr/hosts directory to
remove previously configured hosts.
2.
Run the following command from $ORACLE_HOME/ccr/bin:
$ ./configCCR -a
If you have installed Oracle Configuration Manager in the original Oracle home but
have not configured it, then run the following command in the cloned Oracle home:
$ setupCCR
Cloning an Oracle Home B-3
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a Cloned Oracle Home
B-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
C
C
Using NAS Devices
This appendix provides guidelines for using a network attached storage (NAS) storage
device for Oracle software and database files. It includes information about the
following:
■
General Configuration Guidelines for NAS Devices
■
NFS Feature Description
■
Choosing Mount Points
■
■
Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle Automatic Storage
Management
NFS Mount Options
See Also:
■
■
"Configuring and Using Direct NFS Client" on page 5-12
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for information about
using NAS devices on Oracle Real Application Clusters
General Configuration Guidelines for NAS Devices
Refer to the documentation provided with the NAS device for specific information
about how to configure it. In addition, use the following guidelines to ensure that the
performance of the Oracle software meets the requirements:
■
Before using the NAS device for the installation, verify that it is certified.
For certify information refer to note 359515.1 on the My
Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink) Web site:
Note:
https://support.oracle.com/
■
The performance of Oracle software and databases stored on NAS devices
depends on the performance of the network connection between the Oracle server
and the NAS device.
For this reason, Oracle recommends that you connect the server to the NAS device
using a private dedicated network connection, which should be Gigabit Ethernet
or better.
■
For single instance database installations, Oracle recommends that you create a
separate Oracle home directory for each installation. Run the software in this
Oracle home directory only from the system that you used to install it.
Using NAS Devices C-1
NFS Feature Description
NFS Feature Description
The following are the features of NFS:
■
Oracle kernel handles best possible configuration to perform optimal I/O using
available resources. This enables better configuration management.
■
NFS storage is now available across different platforms.
■
ODM NFS helps standardize all the tunable configuration parameters.
■
■
ODM NFS has a stable NFS client that does not affect kernel performance. It
optimizes the I/O path when making NFS operations.This ensures higher stability.
NFA provides better diagnostics in case of errors.
Choosing Mount Points
This section provides guidelines on how to choose the mount points for the file
systems that you want to use for the Oracle software and database files. The guidelines
contained in the following sections comply with the Optimal Flexible Architecture
recommendations:
■
Choosing Mount Points for Oracle Software Files
■
Choosing Mount Points for Oracle Database and Recovery Files
Choosing Mount Points for Oracle Software Files
Oracle software files are stored in three different directories:
■
Oracle base directory
■
Oracle Inventory directory
■
Oracle home directory
For the first installation of Oracle software on a system, the Oracle base directory,
identified by the ORACLE_BASE environment variable, is normally the parent
directory for both the Oracle Inventory and Oracle home directories. For example, for
a first installation, the Oracle base, Oracle Inventory, and Oracle home directories
might have paths similar to the following:
Directory
Path
Oracle base ($ORACLE_BASE)
/u01/app/oracle
Oracle Inventory
$ORACLE_BASE/oraInventory
Oracle home
$ORACLE_BASE/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
For subsequent installations, you can choose to use either the same Oracle base
directory or a different one, but every subsequent installation uses the original Oracle
Inventory directory. For example, if you use the /u02/app/oracle directory as the
Oracle base directory for a new installation, then the Oracle Inventory directory
continues to be /u01/app/oracle/oraInventory.
To enable you to effectively maintain the Oracle software on a particular system,
Oracle recommends that you locate the Oracle Inventory directory only on a local file
system, if possible. If you must place the Oracle Inventory directory on a NAS device,
create a specific directory for each system, then to prevent more than one system from
writing to the same Inventory.
C-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Choosing Mount Points
Directory-Specific Guidelines
You can use any of the following directories as mount points for NFS file systems used
to store Oracle software:
In the following examples, the paths shown are the defaults
if the ORACLE_BASE environment variable is set before you start
Oracle Universal Installer.
Note:
■
Oracle base directory or its parents (/u01/app/oracle for example)
If you use the Oracle base directory of one of its parents as a mount point, then the
default location for all Oracle software and database files is on that file system.
During the installation, you might consider changing the default location of the
following directories:
–
The Oracle Inventory directory (oracle_base/oraInventory)
Specify a local file system or a host-specific directory on the NFS file system,
for example:
oracle_base/hostname/oraInventory
–
The Oracle database file directory (oracle_base/oradata)
You might want to use a different file system for database files, for example, to
enable you to specify different mount options or to distribute I/O.
–
The Oracle database recovery file directory (oracle_base/recovery_
area)
Oracle recommends that you use different file systems for database and
recovery files.
If you use this mount point, then all Oracle installations that use this Oracle base
directory will use the NFS file system.
■
The product directory (oracle_base/product)
By default, only software files are located on the NFS file system. You can also use
this mount point to install software from different releases, for example:
/u01/app/oracle/product/9.2.0
/u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/dbhome_1
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
■
The release directory (oracle_base/product/11.2.0)
By default, only software files are located on the NFS file system. You can also use
this mount point to install different products from the same release, for example:
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/client_1
■
The Oracle home directory (oracle_base/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1)
By default, only software files are located on the NFS file system. This is the most
restrictive mount point. You can use it only to install a single release of one
product:
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
Using NAS Devices C-3
Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Choosing Mount Points for Oracle Database and Recovery Files
To store Oracle database or recovery files on a NAS device, you can use different paths
depending on whether you want to store files from only one database or from more
than one database:
■
Use the NFS file system for files from more than one database
If you want to store the database files or recovery files from more than one
database on the same NFS file systems, then use paths or mount points similar to
the following:
File Type
Path or Mount Point
Database files
/u02/oradata
Recovery files
/u03/recovery_area
When Oracle Universal Installer prompts you for the data file and the recovery file
directories, specify these paths. The Database Configuration Assistant and
Enterprise Manager create subdirectories in these directories using the value you
specify for the database name (DB_NAME) as the directory name, for example:
/u02/oradata/db_name1
/u03/recovery_area/db_name1
■
Use the NFS file system for files from only one database
If you want to store the database files or recovery files for only one database in the
NFS file system, then you can create mount points similar to the following, where
orcl is the name that you want to use for the database:
/u02/oradata/orcl
/u03/recovery_area/orcl
Specify the directory /u02/oradata when Oracle Universal Installer prompts
you for the data file directory and specify the directory /u03/recovery_area
when Oracle Universal Installer prompts you for the recovery file location. The
orcl directory is used automatically either by Database Configuration Assistant
or by Enterprise Manager.
Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Oracle Automatic Storage
Management
If you have a certified NAS storage device, then you can create zero-padded files in an
NFS mounted directory and use those files as disk devices in an Oracle Automatic
Storage Management (Oracle ASM) disk group. To create these files, follow these
steps:
To use files as disk devices in an Oracle ASM disk group,
the files must be on an NFS mounted file system. You cannot use
files on local file systems.
Note:
1.
If necessary, create an exported directory for the disk group files on the NAS
device.
Refer to the NAS device documentation for more information about completing
this step.
C-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
NFS Mount Options
2.
Switch user to root:
$ sudo sh
password:
3.
Create a mount point directory on the local system:
# mkdir -p /mnt/oracleasm
4.
To ensure that the NFS file system is mounted when the system restarts, add an
entry for the file system in the /etc/mtab mount file.
For more information about editing the mount file for the operating system, refer
to the man pages. For more information about recommended mount options, refer
to the "NFS Mount Options" section on page C-5.
5.
Enter a command similar to the following to mount the NFS file system on the
local system:
# mount /mnt/oracleasm
6.
Choose a name for the disk group that you want to create, for example, nfsdg.
7.
Create a directory for the files on the NFS file system, using the disk group name
as the directory name:
# mkdir /mnt/oracleasm/nfsdg
8.
Use commands similar to the following to create the required number of
zero-padded files in this directory:
# dd if=/dev/zero of=/mnt/oracleasm/nfsdg/disk1 bs=1024k count=1000
This example creates 1 GB files on the NFS file system. You must create one, two,
or three files respectively to create an external, normal, or high redundancy disk
group.
Creating multiple zero-padded files on the same NAS box
does not guard against NAS box failure. Instead, create one file for
each NAS box and mirror them using the Oracle ASM technology.
Note:
9.
Enter the following commands to change the owner, group, and permissions on
the directory and files that you created:
# chown -R oracle:dba /mnt/oracleasm
# chmod -R 660 /mnt/oracleasm
10. When you are creating the database, edit the Oracle ASM disk discovery string to
specify a regular expression that matches the file names you created. For example,
you might specify a disk discovery string similar to the following:
/mnt/oracleasm/nfsdg/*
NFS Mount Options
You must mount NFS volumes used for storing database files with special mount
options on the host where the database server is running. When mounting an NFS file
system, Oracle recommends that you use the same mount point options that the NAS
vendor used when certifying the device. Refer to the device documentation or contact
the vendor for information about recommended mount-point options.
Using NAS Devices C-5
NFS Mount Options
C-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
D
D
Optimal Flexible Architecture
This appendix describes the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) standard. This
standard is a set of configuration guidelines created to ensure well organized Oracle
installations that are easier to maintain. It includes information about the following
topics:
■
Overview of the Optimal Flexible Architecture Standard
■
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
Overview of the Optimal Flexible Architecture Standard
The Optimal Flexible Architecture standard helps you to organize database software
and configure databases to allow multiple databases, of different versions, owned by
different users to coexist. Optimal Flexible Architecture assists in identification of
ORACLE_BASE with its Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR) diagnostic data to
properly collect incidents.
All Oracle components on the installation media are compliant with Optimal Flexible
Architecture. This means, Oracle Universal Installer places Oracle Database
components in directory locations, assigning the default permissions that follow
Optimal Flexible Architecture guidelines.
Oracle recommends that you use Optimal Flexible Architecture, specially if the
database will grow in size, or if you plan to have multiple databases.
Advantages of Multiple Oracle Homes and OFA
When you install Oracle database, you are installing one of the largest applications
that your computer can support. Using multiple Oracle homes and Optimal Flexible
Architecture provides many advantages when administering large databases. The
following advantages are important:
■
■
■
■
■
Structured organization of directories and files, and consistent naming for
database files simplify database administration.
Distribution of I/O across multiple disks prevents performance bottlenecks caused
by multiple read or write commands issued simultaneously to a single drive.
Distribution of applications across multiple disks safeguards against database
failures.
Login home directories are not at risk when database administrators add, move, or
delete Oracle home directories.
Multiple databases, of different versions, owned by different users can coexist
concurrently.
Optimal Flexible Architecture
D-1
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
■
Software upgrades can be tested in an Oracle home in a separate directory from
the Oracle home where your production database is located.
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
This section describes the naming strategy recommended by the Optimal Flexible
Architecture standard. It contains the following sections:
■
File Systems
■
Naming Directories
■
Naming Database Files
■
Separating Segments with Different Requirements
■
Exploiting the Optimal Flexible Architecture Structure for Oracle Files
■
Optimal Flexible Architecture File Mapping
File Systems
The following sections describe the conventions for mount points:
■
Number of File Systems
■
Naming Conventions
Number of File Systems
To fully implement the Optimal Flexible Architecture recommendations for a database
stored on file systems that are not striped or mirrored, you require at least three file
systems located on separate physical devices.
Naming Conventions
Name all file system mount points using the syntax /pm, where p is a string constant
and m is a unique fixed-length key (typically a two-digit number) used to distinguish
each mount point. For example: /u01 and /u02, or /disk01 and /disk02.
Naming Directories
The following sections describe the naming conventions for directories that are
compliant with the Optimal Flexible Architecture standard:
■
Oracle Base Directory Naming Convention
■
Naming Mount Points for Very Large Databases (VLDBs)
■
Referring to Path Names
■
Oracle Home Directory Naming Convention
■
Naming Subdirectories
Ensure that the paths you select for Oracle software, such as
the Oracle home path and the Oracle base path, use only ASCII
characters. Because installation owner names are used by default for
some path, this ASCII character restriction applies to user names, file
names, and directory names.
Note:
D-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
Oracle Base Directory Naming Convention
The Oracle Base directory is the top level directory that you can use to install the
various Oracle software products. You can use the same Oracle base directory for more
than one installation. If different operating system users install Oracle software on the
same system, then each user must create a separate Oracle base directory.
Name Oracle base directories using the syntax /pm/s/u. Table D–1 describes the
variables used in this syntax.
Table D–1
Syntax for Naming Oracle Base Directories
Variable
Description
pm
A mount point name
s
A standard directory name
u
The name of the owner of the directory (the user running Oracle Universal
Installer)
For example, /u01/app/oracle is an Oracle base directory created by the oracle
user and /u01/app/applmgr is an Oracle base directory created by the applmgr
user.
Placing Oracle base directories at the same level in the UNIX file system is
advantageous because it enables you to refer to the collection of Oracle base directories
on different mount points using a single pattern matching string, /*/app/*.
Naming Mount Points for Very Large Databases (VLDBs)
If each disk drive contains database files from one application and there are enough
drives for each database to prevent I/O bottlenecks, use the syntax /h/q/d for
naming mount points. Table D–2 describes the variables used in this syntax.
Table D–2
Syntax for Naming Mount Points for Very Large Databases
Variable
Description
h
Oracle base directory
q
A string denoting that Oracle data is stored in this directory, for example,
oradata
d
The value of the initialization parameter DB_NAME (typically the same as the
instance SID for single-instance databases)
For example, to allocate two drives exclusively for the test database, name the mount
points /u01/app/oracle/oradata/test and
/u02/app/oracle/oradata/test.
Referring to Path Names
Refer to explicit path names only in files designed specifically to store them, such as
the password file, /etc/passwd, and the Oracle oratab file. Refer to group
memberships only in the /etc/group file.
Oracle Home Directory Naming Convention
To help fulfill the Optimal Flexible Architecture requirement of simultaneously
running multiple versions of Oracle software, install the software in a directory
matching the pattern /pm/s/u/product/v/type_[n].
Table D–3 describes the variables used in this syntax.
Optimal Flexible Architecture
D-3
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
Table D–3
Syntax for Naming Oracle Home Directories
Variable
Description
pm
A mount point name
s
A standard directory name
u
The name of the owner of the directory
v
The version of the software
type
The type of installation, for example Database (dbhome_1), Client (client), or
Oracle Grid Infrastructure (grid)
n
An optional counter, which enables you to install the same product more than
once in the same Oracle base directory
For example:
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1 indicates the Oracle home
directory for the first installation of Oracle Database on this system.
The ORACLE_HOME environment variable is set to the Oracle home directory.
Naming Subdirectories
To facilitate the organization of administrative data, Oracle recommends that you store
database-specific administration files in subdirectories matching the pattern
/h/admin/d/a/, where h is the Oracle base directory, d is the database name (DB_
NAME), and a is a subdirectory for specific types of database administration files.
Table D–4 describes the database administration file subdirectories.
Table D–4
Subdirectories for Database Administration Files
Subdirectory
Description
arch
Archived redo log files
adump
Audit files
(Set the AUDIT_FILE_DEST initialization parameter to specify the adump
directory. Clean out this subdirectory periodically
create
Contains the data pump file dp.log
dpdump
Default directory for data pump operations. Scripts used to create the
database
exp
Database export files
logbook
Files recording the status and history of the database
pfile
Instance parameter files
scripts
Ad hoc SQL scripts
For example, /u01/app/oracle/admin/orcl/scripts/ is the scripts
subdirectory associated with the database named orcl.
In Oracle Database 11g, Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR) directories replace
the bdump, cdump, and udump directories. The ADR diagnostic data will go into the
/h/diag/rdbms/d/i/ directory.
where
h is Oracle Base
d is the database name
i is the instance name.
D-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
The ADR home has the trace, alert, and incident sub-directories. Table D–5 describes
the ADR directories.
Table D–5
Locations for Diagnostic Traces
Diagnostic Data
10g Location
11g Location
Foreground Process traces
user_dump_dest
ADR_HOME/trace/
Background Process traces
background_dump_dest
ADR_HOME/trace/
Alert Log Data
background_dump_dest
ADR_HOME/alert/
Core Dump
core_dump_dest
ADR_
HOME/incident/In/
Incident Dumps
user_dump_dest or
background_dump_dest
depending on the process
ADR_
HOME/incident/In/
Naming Database Files
The following table lists the recommended file naming conventions for database files:
Oracle Managed Files (OMF) and files stored in Oracle
Automatic Storage Management disk groups use different naming
conventions. For more information about these naming
conventions, refer to the Oracle Database Administrator's Guide.
Note:
File Type
File Naming Convention
Control files
/h/q/d/control.ctl
Redo log files
/h/q/d/redon.log
Data files
/h/q/d/tn.dbf
The following table describes this syntax:
Variable
Description
h
Oracle base directory
q
A string (typically oradata) distinguishing Oracle data from all other files
d
The value of the DB_NAME initialization parameter (typically, the same as the
instance SID for single-instance databases)
t
An Oracle tablespace name
n
A two-digit string
Note: Do not store files other than control files, redo log files, or
data files associated with database d in the path /h/q/d.
Using this convention, it is easy to determine the database to which the
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/sab/system01.dbf file belongs.
Optimal Flexible Architecture
D-5
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
Separating Segments with Different Requirements
Separate groups of segments with different lifespans, I/O request demands, and
backup frequencies across different tablespaces.
Table D–6 describes the special tablespaces that the Database Configuration Assistant
creates for each Oracle database. If you manually create a database, you must create
the required tablespaces. These tablespaces are in addition to those required for
application segments.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information
about creating databases manually
Table D–6
Special Tablespaces
Tablespace
Required
Description
EXAMPLE
No
The EXAMPLE tablespace used to store the Sample
Schemas
SYSAUX
Yes
Auxiliary tablespace to the SYSTEM tablespace
SYSTEM
Yes
Data dictionary segments
TEMP
Yes
Temporary segments
UNDOTBS1
Yes
Used by Oracle to store undo information
USERS
No
Miscellaneous user segments
Creating these special tablespaces is effective because data dictionary segments are
never dropped, and no other segments that can be dropped are allowed in the SYSTEM
tablespace.
See Also: "Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files,
and Control Files" on page 6-11 for information about redo log, and
control files
Exploiting the Optimal Flexible Architecture Structure for Oracle Files
Table D–7 describes the syntax used for identifying classes of files.
Table D–7
Directory Structure Syntax for Identifying Classes of Files
Directory Structure Syntax
Description
/u[0-9][0-9]
User data directories
/*/home/*
User home directories
/*/app/*
User application software directories
/*/app/applmgr
Oracle applications software subtrees
/*/app/oracle/product
Oracle software subtrees
/*/app/oracle/product/11.2.0
Oracle software subtree for release 11g products
/*/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db* Oracle home directories for Oracle Database 11g
/*/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/gri Oracle home directory for Oracle Grid
d*
Infrastructure 11g for a standalone server, for user
oracle
/*/app/oracle/admin/orcl
orcl database administrative subtrees
/*/app/oracle/admin/orcl/arch/*
orcl database archived log files
/*/app/oracle/oradata
Oracle data directories
D-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
Table D–7 (Cont.) Directory Structure Syntax for Identifying Classes of Files
Directory Structure Syntax
Description
/*/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/*
orcl database files
/*/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/*.log orcl database redo log files
Optimal Flexible Architecture File Mapping
Table D–8 shows a hierarchical file mapping of a sample Optimal Flexible
Architecture-compliant installation with two Oracle home directories and two
databases. The database files are distributed across three mount points, /u02, /u03,
and /u04.
Oracle recommends that you use Oracle ASM to provide
greater redundancy and throughput.
Note:
Table D–8
Hierarchical File Mapping for an Optimal Flexible Architecture Installation
Directory
Description
/
Root directory
/u01/
User data mount point 1
/u01/app/
Subtree for application software
/u01/app/oracle/
Oracle Base directory
/u01/app/oracle/admin/
Subtree for database administration files
/u01/app/oracle/admin/TAR
Subtree for support log files
/u01/app/oracle/admin/db_name1/
admin subtree for db_name1 database
/u01/app/oracle/admin/db_name2/
admin subtree for db_name2 database
/u01/app/oracle/doc/
Online documentation
/u01/app/oracle/recovery_area/
Subtree for recovery files
/u01/app/oracle/recovery_area/db_name1
Recovery files for db_name1 database
/u01/app/oracle/recovery_area/db_name2
Recovery files for db_name2 database
/u02/app/oracle/oradata
/u03/app/oracle/oradata
Oracle data directory
/u04/app/oracle/oradata
/u01/app/oracle/product/
Distribution files
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
Oracle home directory for Oracle Database, for user
oracle
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/grid
Oracle home directory for Oracle Grid Infrastructure
for a standalone server, for user oracle
/u01/app/kjf/
Oracle base directory for user kjf
/u01/app/edm/
Oracle base directory for user edm
Optimal Flexible Architecture
D-7
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
D-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
E
E
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers
During installation, Oracle Universal Installer assigns port numbers to components
from a set of default port numbers. This appendix lists the default port numbers and
describes how to change the assigned port after installation. It includes information
about the following topics:
■
About Managing Ports
■
Viewing Port Numbers and Access URLs
■
Port Numbers and Protocols of Oracle Components
■
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Management Agent Port
■
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control Ports
About Managing Ports
During installation, Oracle Universal Installer assigns port numbers to components
from a set of default port numbers. Many Oracle Database components and services
use ports. As an administrator, it is important to know the port numbers used by these
services, and to ensure that the same port number is not used by two services on your
host. Enter the following command to identify the ports currently used on your
computer:
$/bin/netstat -a
Most port numbers are assigned during installation. Every component and service has
an allotted port range, which is the set of port numbers Oracle Database attempts to
use when assigning a port. Oracle Database starts with the lowest number in the range
and performs the following checks:
■
Is the port used by another Oracle Database installation on the host?
The installation may be up or down at the time; Oracle Database can still detect if
the port is used.
■
Is the port used by a process that is currently running?
This could be any process on the host, even a non-Oracle Database process.
■
Is the port listed in the /etc/services files?
If the answer to any of the preceding questions is yes, Oracle Database moves to the
next highest port in the allotted port range and continues checking until it finds a free
port.
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers E-1
Viewing Port Numbers and Access URLs
Viewing Port Numbers and Access URLs
In most cases, the Oracle Database component’s port number is listed in the tool used
to configure the port. In addition, ports for some Oracle Database applications are
listed in the portlist.ini file. This file is located in the $ORACLE_HOME/install
directory.
If you change a port number, it is not updated in the portlist.ini file, so you can
only rely on this file immediately after installation. To find or change a port number,
use the methods described in this appendix.
Port Numbers and Protocols of Oracle Components
The following table lists the port numbers and protocols used by components that are
configured during the installation. By default, the first port in the range is assigned to
the component, if it is available.
Table E–1
Ports Used in Oracle Components
Component and Description
Default Port Number
Port Range
Protocol
Oracle SQL*Net Listener/Oracle Net
1521
1024-65535
TCP
1630
1630
TCP
1158
5500–5519
HTTP
5520
5520–5539
TCP
5540
5540–5559
TCP
3938
1830–1849
HTTP
Enables Oracle client connections to the database over
Oracle's SQL*Net protocol. You can configure it during
installation. To reconfigure this port, use Net
Configuration Assistant.
Connection Manager
Listening port for Oracle client connections to Oracle
Connection Manager. It is not configured during
installation, but can be configured manually by editing
the cman.ora parameter file. You can find the file under
/network/admin directory.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
HTTP port for Enterprise Manager Database Control. It is
configured during installation. "Changing the Oracle
Enterprise Manager Database Control Ports" on page E-4
explains how to modify its port number.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
RMI port for Enterprise Manager Database Control. It is
configured during installation."Changing the Oracle
Enterprise Manager Database Control Ports" on page E-4
explains how to modify its port number.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
JMS port for Enterprise Manager Database Control. It is
configured during installation. "Changing the Oracle
Enterprise Manager Database Control Ports" on page E-4
explains how to modify its port number.
Enterprise Manager Database Control Agent
HTTP port for Enterprise Management Agent. It is
configured during installation.
"Changing the Oracle Enterprise Management Agent
Port" on page E-3 explains how to modify its port
number.
E-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Management Agent Port
Table E–1
(Cont.) Ports Used in Oracle Components
Component and Description
Default Port Number
Port Range
Protocol
Oracle XML DB
0
Configured
Manually
HTTP
0
Configured
Manually
FTP
Dynamic
Dynamic
UDP
49896
49896
TCP
Dynamic
Dynamic
TCP
Dynamic
Dynamic
TCP
49897
49897–49898
TCP
Dynamic
Dynamic
TCP
The Oracle XML DB HTTP port is used if Web-based
applications must access an Oracle database from an
HTTP listener. It is configured during installation, but
you cannot view it afterward.
See Also: "Using HTTP(S) on a Standard Port Instead of
an Oracle XML DB Default Port" in Oracle XML DB
Developer's Guide
Oracle XML DB
The Oracle XML DB FTP is used when applications must
access an Oracle database from an FTP listener. It is
configured during installation, but you cannot view it
afterward.
See Also: "Using FTP on the Standard Port Instead of the
Oracle XML DB Default Port" in Oracle XML DB
Developer's Guide
Oracle RAC (UNIX)
The port number is assigned automatically during
installation. You cannot view or modify it afterward.
Oracle Clusterware
Oracle Clusterware Daemon internode connection. The
port number is assigned automatically during
installation. You cannot view or modify it afterward.
Cluster Synchronization Service (CSS)
CSS daemon internode connection for the GM layer. The
port number is assigned automatically. You cannot view
or modify it. This port is used exclusively with the cluster
interconnect, which is private network that is physically
separated from the public network.
Oracle Cluster Registry
The port number is assigned automatically during
installation. You cannot view or modify it afterward.
Oracle Event Manager
The port number is assigned automatically during
installation. You cannot view or modify it afterward.
Cluster Manager
The port number is assigned automatically during
installation. You cannot view or modify it afterward.
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Management Agent Port
To find the current setting for the Oracle Management Agent port, search for EMD_URL
in the $ORACLE_HOME/host_sid/sysman/config/emd.properties file.
To change the Oracle Management Agent HTTP port, use the emca -reconfig ports
command:
emca -reconfig ports -AGENT_PORT 1831
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers E-3
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control Ports
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control Ports
To find the current HTTP, RMI, and JMS port settings, search in the following files:
■
■
■
HTTP port: Search for REPOSITORY_URL in the $ORACLE_HOME/host_
sid/sysman/config/emd.properties file.
RMI port: Search for the port attribute in the rmi-server tag in the $ORACLE_
HOME/oc4j/j2ee/OC4J_DBConsole_host_sid/config/rmi.xml file.
JMS port: Search for the port attribute in the jms-server tag in the $ORACLE_
HOME/oc4j/j2ee/OC4J_DBConsole_host_sid/config/jms.xml file.
To change the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control ports, use the emca
-reconfig ports command:
$ORACLE_HOME/bin> emca -reconfig ports option setting
where option can be:
■
DBCONTROL_HTTP_PORT: Sets the HTTP port, for example:
emca -reconfig ports -DBCONTROL_HTTP_PORT 1820
■
RMI_PORT: Sets the RMI port, for example:
emca -reconfig ports -RMI_PORT 5520
■
JMS_PORT: Sets the JMS port, for example:
emca -reconfig ports -JMS_PORT 5521
You can enter multiple -reconfig port settings in one line, for example:
emca -reconfig ports -DBCONTROL_HTTP_PORT 1820 -AGENT_PORT 1821 -RMI_PORT 5520
E-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control Ports
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers E-5
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control Ports
E-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control Ports
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers E-7
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control Ports
E-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control Ports
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers E-9
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control Ports
E-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
F
F
Configuring Oracle Database Globalization
Support
This appendix describes the following Globalization Support topics:
■
Installing and Using Oracle Components in Different Languages
■
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages
See Also: Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for an overview
of globalization support for Oracle Database
Installing and Using Oracle Components in Different Languages
This section describes the following procedures:
■
Configuring Oracle Components to Run in Different Languages
■
Installing Translation Resources
Configuring Oracle Components to Run in Different Languages
You can specify the language and the territory, or locale, in which you want to use
Oracle components. The locale setting of a component determines the language of the
user interface of the component and the globalization behavior, such as date and
number formatting. Depending on the Oracle component, the locale of the component
is either inherited from the operating system session that started the component, or is
defined by the NLS_LANG environment variable.
The operating system locale usually influences Oracle components that are based on
Java technology. The NLS_LANG environment variable usually influences Oracle
components that use Oracle Client libraries such as OCI.
The user interface of an Oracle component is displayed in a
selected language only if the appropriate translation is available and
has been installed. Else, the user interface is displayed in English.
Note:
This section describes the following procedures:
■
■
Determining the Operating System Locale by Using the LANG Environment
Variable
Configuring Locale and Character Sets Using NLS_LANG
Configuring Oracle Database Globalization Support F-1
Installing and Using Oracle Components in Different Languages
Determining the Operating System Locale by Using the LANG Environment Variable
The locale setting of your operating system session determines the language of the
user interface and the globalization behavior for components such as Oracle Universal
Installer, Oracle Net Configuration Assistant, and Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant. It also determines the globalization behavior of Oracle Database sessions
created by a user application through Oracle JDBC driver, unless overridden by the
application.
The operating system locale is determined by the value of the LANG environment
variable. Depending on your desktop environment, such as KDE, GNOME, or telnet,
you can select a default session locale on a login screen, in a configuration panel, or in
a configuration file.
Refer to the operating system documentation on how to select
a locale for the operating system session in your desktop environment.
Note:
You can modify the LANG variable in the environment of your shell to start an Oracle
component in a selected language. For example, to start Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant in German, enter one of the following commands:
■
Bourne shell (sh), or Korn shell (ksh), or Bash shell (bash):
$ LANG=de_DE.iso88591 dbca
■
C shell (csh):
% setenv LANG de_DE.iso88591
Note: The LC_ALL environment variable overrides the value of the
LANG environment variable. For the commands listed in the
following section to work, either ensure that the LC_ALL environment
variable is not set in the environment, or substitute LC_ALL for LANG.
To modify the operating system locale for all Oracle components started by the given
shell, modify the LANG variable using one of the following commands:
■
Bourne shell (sh), or Korn shell (ksh), or Bash shell (bash):
$ LANG=de_DE.iso88591; export LANG
$ ...
■
C shell (csh):
% setenv LANG de_DE.iso88591
$ ...
The value of the LANG environment variable must be a valid operating system locale.
To see the list of valid locales, enter the following command:
$ locale -a
Refer to the operating system documentation for a mapping
between values of the LANG environment variable and the languages
and territories that they represent.
Note:
F-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing and Using Oracle Components in Different Languages
Configuring Locale and Character Sets Using NLS_LANG
The NLS_LANG environment variable determines the language of the user interface
and the globalization behavior for components such as SQL*Plus, exp, and imp. It sets
the language and territory used by the client application and the database user session.
It also declares the character set for entering and displaying data by the client
application.
The NLS_LANG environment variable uses the following format:
NLS_LANG=language_territory.characterset
In this format:
■
■
■
language specifies the language used for displaying Oracle messages, sorting,
day names, and month names
territory specifies the conventions for default date, monetary, and numeric
formats
characterset specifies the encoding used by the client application
In most cases, this is the Oracle character set that corresponds to the character set
of the user terminal or the operating system.
The NLS_LANG environment variable is set as a local environment variable for the
shell on all UNIX-based platforms. For example, if the operating system locale setting
is en_US.UTF-8, then the corresponding value of NLS_LANG environment variable is
AMERICAN_AMERICA.AL32UTF8.
See Also: Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for information
about the NLS_LANG parameter and Globalization Support
initialization parameters
The following examples illustrate some valid values for the NLS_LANG environment
variable.
Refer to the operating system documentation on how to
determine the operating system locale environment setting.
Note:
Operating System Locale
NLS_LANG Values
French (France)
FRENCH_FRANCE.WE8ISO8859P15
FRENCH_FRANCE.WE8ISO8859P1
FRENCH_FRANCE.WE8MSWIN1252
FRENCH_FRANCE.AL32UTF8
Japanese (Japan)
JAPANESE_JAPAN.JA16EUC
JAPANESE_JAPAN.JA16SJIS
JAPANESE_JAPAN.AL32UTF8
Installing Translation Resources
To view the user interface of Oracle components in different languages, you must
install the appropriate language translations along with the component.
Configuring Oracle Database Globalization Support F-3
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages
Note: Part of Oracle Database Vault user interface text is stored in
database tables in the DVSYS schema. By default, only the English
language is loaded into these tables. You can use Oracle Database
Vault Configuration Assistant to add more languages to Oracle
Database Vault. For the necessary steps, refer to Appendix C in Oracle
Database Vault Administrator's Guide.
To install the translation resources:
1.
Start Oracle Universal Installer.
2.
In the Configure Security Updates screen enter the relevant information and click
Next.
3.
In the Download Software Updates and Apply Software Updates screens, enter
the relevant information and click Next.
4.
In the Select Installation Option screen, select the installation option and click
Next.
5.
In the System Class screen, select the type of system class for installing the
database, and click Next.
6.
In the Grid Installation Options screen, select the type of database installation you
want to perform, and click Next.
7.
In the Select Product Languages screen, select the language in which you want to
use Oracle components from the Available Languages field.
The Available Languages field lists all languages supported by
Oracle globalization libraries. The set of languages for which a
translation is actually available is usually smaller and depends on a
particular component. The scope of translation for a given component
may differ between languages. For example, some translations may
include all user interface text, while others may include only error
messages and no help files.
Note:
8.
Use the > arrow to move the selected language to the Selected Languages field,
and then click Next.
Oracle Universal Installer will ignore languages in the Selected
Languages field for which no translation is available.
Note:
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages
Your operating system locale determines the language in which Oracle Universal
Installer runs. Oracle Universal Installer may run in one of the following languages:
■
Brazilian Portuguese (pt_BR)
■
French (fr)
■
German (de)
■
Italian (it)
■
Japanese (ja)
F-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages
■
Korean (ko)
■
Simplified Chinese (zh_CN)
■
Spanish (es)
■
Traditional Chinese (zh_TW)
To run Oracle Universal Installer in one of the available languages, change the locale in
which your operating system session is running before you start Oracle Universal
Installer with the ./runInstaller command. If the selected language is not one of
them listed earlier, Oracle Universal Installer runs in English.
You must ensure that the selected value for the LANG environment variable starts with
the appropriate language abbreviation. In the aforementioned list of languages, in
which Oracle Universal Installer can run, the required abbreviation appears in
parentheses beside the language name. For example, fr_FR and fr_CA are valid values
to run the Oracle Universal Installer in French.
Configuring Oracle Database Globalization Support F-5
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages
F-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
G
G
Troubleshooting
This appendix contains information about troubleshooting. It includes information
about the following topics:
■
Verify Requirements
■
X Window Display Errors
■
Remote Terminal Installation Error
■
What to Do If an Installation Error Occurs?
■
Reviewing the Log of an Installation Session
■
Troubleshooting Host Name Changes and CSS
■
Troubleshooting Configuration Assistants
■
Troubleshooting Inventory Issues
■
Troubleshooting Screen Display Issues
■
Silent-Mode Response File Error Handling
■
Core File Not Enabled Error
■
Cleaning Up After a Failed Installation
See Also: Chapter 6, "Troubleshooting Oracle Configuration
Manager" in Oracle Configuration Manager Installation and
Administration Guide for information about some errors that may occur
while using Oracle Configuration Manager and tips to troubleshoot
these errors
Verify Requirements
Before performing any of the troubleshooting steps in this appendix, ensure that the
system meets the requirements and that you have completed all of the preinstallation
tasks specified in Chapter 2.
Read the Release Notes
Read the release notes for the product before installing it. The release notes are
available on the Oracle Database 11g DVD. The latest version of the release notes is
also available on the Oracle Technology Network Web site:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/documentation/
Troubleshooting G-1
X Window Display Errors
X Window Display Errors
If you run Oracle Universal Installer on a remote system and you want to display
Oracle Universal Installer’s user interface on your local system, you might see error
messages similar to the following:
"Failed to connect to server"
"Connection refused by server"
"Can’t open display"
If you see one of these error messages, follow these steps:
This procedure applies only to users of UNIX workstations.
If you are using a PC or other system with X server software
installed, contact your X server vendor, system administrator, or
refer to the X server documentation for information about how to
permit remote systems to display X applications on the local
system.
Note:
1.
In a local terminal window, log in as the user that started the X Window session.
2.
Enter the following command:
$ xhost fully_qualified_remote_host_name
For example:
$ xhost somehost.us.example.com
3.
Enter the following commands, where workstation_name is the host name or IP
address of your workstation:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ DISPLAY=workstation_name:0.0
$ export DISPLAY
■
C shell:
% setenv DISPLAY workstation_name:0.0
4.
To determine whether X Window applications display correctly on the local
system, enter the following command:
$ xclock
The X clock should appear on your monitor.
5.
If the X clock appears, close the X clock and start Oracle Universal Installer again.
See Also: PC-X Server or operating system vendor documents for
further assistance
Remote Terminal Installation Error
If you run the installation from a remote terminal, or if you use an su command to
change users you might receive an error similar to the following:
Could not execute auto check for display colors using command
/usr/X11R6/bin/xdpyinfo
G-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Reviewing the Log of an Installation Session
This can occur if the DISPLAY variable is not set, or the user running the installation is
not authorized to open an X window. For instance, if you use an su command to
change from a user that is authorized to open an X window to a user account that is
not authorized to open an X window on the display, such as a lower-privileged user
opening windows on the root user's console display.
To troubleshoot this issue, run the command echo $DISPLAY to ensure that the
display variable is set to the correct visual or to the correct host. If the display variable
is set correctly then either ensure that you are logged in as the user authorized to open
an X window, or run the command xhost + to allow any user to open an X window.
What to Do If an Installation Error Occurs?
If you encounter an error during installation:
■
■
■
Do not exit Oracle Universal Installer.
If you click Next after you enter incorrect information on one of the installation
screens, click Back to return to the screen and correct the information.
If you encounter an error while Oracle Universal Installer is copying or linking
files, then rerun Oracle Universal Installer with the -debug option:
$./runInstaller -debug
Check the log file for details. Refer to "Reviewing the Log of an Installation
Session" section on page G-3.
■
■
If you encounter an error while a configuration assistant is running, refer to
"Troubleshooting Configuration Assistants" section on page G-4.
If you cannot resolve the problem, remove the failed installation by following the
steps listed in the "Cleaning Up After a Failed Installation" section on page G-6.
Reviewing the Log of an Installation Session
During an installation, Oracle Universal Installer records all of the actions that it
performs in a log file. If you encounter problems during the installation, review the log
file for information about possible causes of the problem.
To view the log file, follow these steps:
1.
If necessary, enter the following command to determine the location of the
oraInventory directory:
$ cat /etc/oraInst.loc
The inventory_loc parameter in this file specifies the location of the
oraInventory directory.
2.
Enter the following command to change directory to Oracle Universal Installer log
file directory, where orainventory_location is the location of the
oraInventory directory:
$ cd /orainventory_location/logs
3.
Enter the following command to determine the name of the log file:
$ ls -ltr
Troubleshooting G-3
Troubleshooting Host Name Changes and CSS
This command lists the files in the order of creation, with the most recent file
shown last. Installer log files have names similar to the following, where date_
time indicates the date and time that the installation started:
installActionsdate_time.log
4.
To view the most recent entries in the log file, where information about a problem
is most likely to appear, enter a command similar to the following:
$ tail -50 installActionsdate_time.log | more
This command displays the last 50 lines in the log file.
5.
If the error displayed by Oracle Universal Installer or listed in the log file indicates
a relinking problem, refer to the following file for more information:
$ORACLE_HOME/install/make.log
Troubleshooting Host Name Changes and CSS
If you change the host name for Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM),
then the Oracle CSS daemon does not start. In order to solve this problem, perform the
following:
■
■
■
Login as the root user
Run localconfig delete to deconfigure CSS. This removes any configuration
related files on the system that referenced the old host name.
Run localconfig add to reconfigure CSS using the new host name.
For Example:
# $ORACLE_HOME/bin/localconfig [add] [delete] [ reset destination_Oracle_home ]
[-silent] [-paramfile Complete_path_of_file_specifying_parameter_values]
Troubleshooting Configuration Assistants
To troubleshoot an installation error that occurs when a configuration assistant is
running:
■
■
■
Review the installation log files listed in the "Reviewing the Log of an Installation
Session" section on page G-3.
Review the specific configuration assistant log file located in the $ORACLE_
HOME/cfgtoollogs directory. Try to fix the issue that caused the error.
If you see the "Fatal Error. Reinstall" message, look for the cause of the problem by
reviewing the log files. Refer to "Irrecoverable Errors" on page G-5 for further
instructions.
Configuration Assistant Failure
Oracle configuration assistant failures are noted at the bottom of the installation
screen. The configuration assistant interface displays additional information, if
available. The configuration assistant execution status is stored in the following file:
oraInventory_location/logs/installActionsdate_time.log
The execution status codes are listed in the following table:
G-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Silent-Mode Response File Error Handling
Status
Result Code
Configuration assistant succeeded
0
Configuration assistant failed
1
Configuration assistant canceled
-1
Irrecoverable Errors
If you receive a irrecoverable error while a configuration assistant is running, you
must remove the current installation and reinstall the Oracle software, as follows:
1.
Remove the failed installation as described in the "Cleaning Up After a Failed
Installation" section on page G-6.
2.
Correct the cause of the irrecoverable error.
3.
Reinstall the Oracle software.
Troubleshooting Inventory Issues
If you face any of the following situations for Oracle home, then run the opatch
lsinventory -detail command to list the contents of the inventory and see
section "Recovering from inventory corruption" in the Oracle Universal Installer and
OPatch User's Guide for Windows and UNIX for information about fixing the issue.
■
Oracle home is cloned without completing the inventory steps.
■
There is bad inventory.
■
Inventory is not available but it is created when the Oracle Enterprise Manager
Agent is installed in a separate Oracle home.
Troubleshooting Screen Display Issues
If you connect to Oracle database with a screen resolution of 640X480 or 800X600, then
the Next button in the GUI is not visible as it hides behind the Taskbar. To fix this
problem, perform one of the following:
■
Hide the Taskbar.
■
Move the Oracle Universal Installer screen up.
■
Set the screen resolution to 1024X768 or higher.
Silent-Mode Response File Error Handling
To determine whether a silent-mode installation succeeds or fails, refer to the
following log file:
/oraInventory_location/logs/silentInstalldate_time.log
If necessary, refer to the previous section for information about determining the
location of the oraInventory directory.
A silent installation fails if:
■
You do not specify a response file
■
You specify an incorrect or incomplete response file
Troubleshooting G-5
Core File Not Enabled Error
For example, a common problem is that while all the product-specific data is filled
out correctly, the staging area location may be incorrect. If this is the case, check
the FROM_LOCATION variable and ensure that it points to the products.xml file
in the installation media. In the installation media, this products.xml is in
response/stage.
■
Oracle Universal Installer encounters an error, such as insufficient disk space
Oracle Universal Installer or configuration assistant validates the response file at run
time. If the validation fails, the silent-mode installation or configuration process ends.
Oracle Universal Installer treats values for parameters that are of the wrong context,
format, or type as if no value was specified in the file.
Core File Not Enabled Error
The core file setting currently prevents the creation of a core file for process aborts and
exceptions. Hence, you might receive the following error:
Core files are not enabled
The workaround is to enable core file creation. For example:
# /sbin/sysctl -w fs.suid_dumpable=1
Also update the parameter value in /etc/sysctl to enable core file creation.
Enabling core file creation can vary between distributions; refer to your vendor
documentation for details.
Cleaning Up After a Failed Installation
If an installation fails, you must remove files that Oracle Universal Installer created
during the attempted installation.
To do this, run the Deinstallation Tool. For more information about how to run the
Deinstallation Tool refer to the "Removing Oracle Software Using the Deinstallation
Tool" section.
G-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
H
H
Frequently Asked Questions About
Installation
Use the following guidelines to decide how to install Oracle Database components:
■
Installing Oracle Database
■
Installing Oracle Database Tools
■
Installing Oracle Database with Oracle Applications
■
Installing Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Tools (Gateways)
Some Oracle Database components may not be available on all
platforms. Consult your platform-specific installation guide or release
notes.
Note:
Installing Oracle Database
The following are frequently asked questions about installing Oracle database:
■
■
I only need one instance of Oracle Database or I just want to install a test database
to get familiar with the product. How do I install Oracle Database for these
situations?
How can I create an Oracle database that can handle transaction-heavy or data
warehousing applications?
■
What’s the best way to install multiple Oracle databases?
■
How do I configure client connections to an Oracle database?
■
■
■
■
What is the best way to install Oracle Client if my client nodes have limited disk
space?
How do I upgrade Oracle Database?
The computers at my site have been configured to run as a cluster. How should I
install Oracle Database?
How do I migrate my non-Oracle databases to Oracle Database?
I only need one instance of Oracle Database or I just want to install a test database
to get familiar with the product. How do I install Oracle Database for these
situations?
■
If you want a quick installation using the default installation settings, then refer to
the platform-specific Oracle Database Quick Installation Guide.
Frequently Asked Questions About Installation
H-1
Installing Oracle Database
■
If your site has special requirements, then refer to this guide for more information.
How can I create an Oracle database that can handle transaction-heavy or data
warehousing applications?
If you want to create a starter database designed for transaction-heavy or data
warehousing applications, then refer to this guide for more details. Select the
Advanced Installation method, and then select the database type you want on the
Select Database Configuration screen.
See Also:
Oracle Database Data Warehousing Guide after installation
Alternatively, you can install Oracle OLAP during the Oracle Database installation.
Oracle OLAP provides optimal support for database environments that must meet
OLAP requirements. To do so, in the Select Database Edition screen, select Enterprise
Edition. Click the Select Options button, and from the Choose Components screen,
select Oracle OLAP.
See Also:
■
Oracle OLAP User's Guide
■
Oracle OLAP DML Reference
■
Oracle OLAP Java API Reference
What’s the best way to install multiple Oracle databases?
Use this guide to install Oracle Database using either of the following methods:
■
■
Installing with response files: This method lets you run Oracle Universal Installer
at a command line using a response file that contains settings specific to each
computer.
Cloning a Database: Install Oracle Database on one computer using interactive
mode. You can also clone databases. Instructions for cloning databases are
described in Oracle Database Administrator's Guide.
How do I configure client connections to an Oracle database?
1. Install Oracle Database on a server by using this guide for more information.
2.
Use Oracle Database Client Installation Guide to install Oracle Client on each client
node, and select the Instant Client installation type.
If you have many client nodes, consider staging the software centrally, mapping
the drive, and running Oracle Universal Installer in the silent or response file
mode.
If the client nodes only require a default installation into a new Oracle home
directory, consider using this guide for more information.
What is the best way to install Oracle Client if my client nodes have limited disk
space?
1. Install Oracle Database onto a server by using this guide for more details.
2.
Use Oracle Database Client Installation Guide to install Oracle Client on each client
node, and select the Instant Client installation type.
If you have many client nodes, then consider running Oracle Universal Installer in
silent or response file mode.
H-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Database Tools
How do I upgrade Oracle Database?
Refer to Oracle Database Upgrade Guide.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide to use software
cloning to upgrade Oracle Database
The computers at my site have been configured to run as a cluster. How should I
install Oracle Database?
Use any of the following installation scenarios:
■
■
■
If you want to run a single-instance Oracle Database in a clustered environment,
then install Oracle Clusterware either before or after you install Oracle Database.
If you want a consolidated pool of storage for all databases in a cluster, then install
Oracle Clusterware first and use Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle
ASM) to manage this storage. Afterward, install Oracle Database (which can be
either a single instance database or Real Application Clusters).
If you plan to use Oracle Real Application Clusters, first install Oracle
Clusterware, and then install Oracle Real Application Clusters.
Refer to platform-specific Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide and Oracle Real
Application Clusters Installation Guide for the platform to install Oracle Clusterware or
Oracle Real Application Clusters. Oracle Clusterware is available on the Oracle
Clusterware installation media. Refer to this guide which explains how to install
Oracle ASM as well as Oracle Database.
Oracle Clusterware is a key component required by Oracle Real Application Clusters
installations. Oracle Clusterware is an integrated cluster management solution that can
bind multiple servers together to act as a single system. This is referred to as a cluster.
It performs workload management and component restart. For example, when an
instance supporting a particular service fails, Oracle Clusterware restarts the service
on the next available instance that you have configured for that service. Oracle
Clusterware can monitor non-Oracle programs, if they are defined within the Oracle
Clusterware environment using the High Availability API.
How do I migrate my non-Oracle databases to Oracle Database?
Use Oracle Migration Workbench to migrate your non-Oracle databases and
applications to Oracle. Oracle Migration Workbench software and documentation are
available at:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/tech/migration/index.html
Installing Oracle Database Tools
The following are frequently asked questions about installing Oracle database tools:
■
How do I install Oracle Application Server?
■
How can I administer and monitor my Oracle Database products?
■
How do I manage security for my Oracle Database products?
■
How do I use Oracle Database to manage my XML data?
■
■
Does Oracle Database provide OLAP tools so that I can analyze data such as
trends and time series in my database?
Does Oracle Database provide data mining tools that I can use to discover hidden
meaning in my data and predict likely outcomes based on my data?
Frequently Asked Questions About Installation
H-3
Installing Oracle Database Tools
■
How do I perform backup and recovery operations for Oracle Database?
■
Is Oracle Workflow included with Oracle Database 11g?
■
Is there a migration plan for customers that have built solutions using Oracle
Workflow?
How do I install Oracle Application Server?
Refer to Oracle Application Server Installation Guide. How you install Application Server
depends on whether you already have Oracle Database installed:
■
■
If you do not have Oracle Database installed or you do not want Oracle
Application Server to use any of your existing Oracle Databases, then Oracle
Universal Installer lets you install a separate Oracle Application Server instance.
This database is populated with the metadata that Oracle Application Server must
run.
If you want Oracle Application Server to use an existing Oracle Database, then do
the following:
1.
From the Oracle Application Server installation media, run Oracle Application
Server Repository Creation Assistant to populate your database with the
metadata that Application Server needs.
2.
Install the remaining Oracle Application Server components by following the
instructions in the Oracle Application Server Installation Guide.
How can I administer and monitor my Oracle Database products?
To perform regular administrative functions such as creating, configuring, or deleting
databases, or managing database templates, use one of the following methods:
To manage only the single database and listener that you are installing:
1.
Use this guide to install Oracle Database.
2.
From Oracle Database, use Database Configuration Assistant to manage your
databases.
You can also administer and monitor the database with Oracle Enterprise Manager
Grid Control, which is installed by default with Oracle Database. Oracle
Enterprise Manager Grid Control requires an agent which is not installed by
default.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control includes the Oracle Management Agent,
Oracle Management Service, and Oracle Management Repository, as well as Grid
Control, a browser-based central console through which administrators can
perform all monitoring, administration, and configuration tasks for the enterprise.
See Also: Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control Installation and Basic
Configuration available on the Enterprise Manager Grid Control
installation media
Documentation available on the Oracle Technology Network Web site
at:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/documentation/oem.h
tml
To perform advanced administration tasks, such as monitoring Oracle Database and
managing multiple hosts, application servers, and databases including the one that
you are installing, install Oracle Enterprise Manager as follows:
H-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Database Tools
1.
Use this guide to install Oracle Database.
If you plan to use Oracle Real Application Clusters, then install Oracle Database
by using the platform-specific Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide and
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide.
2.
Use Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control Installation and Basic Configuration to
install and configure Oracle Enterprise Manager. For postconfiguration tasks, use
Oracle Enterprise Manager Advanced Configuration. Refer to documentation available
on the Enterprise Manager Grid Control installation media, or on the Oracle
Technology Network Web site at:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/documentation/oem.html
How do I manage security for my Oracle Database products?
Oracle provides a wide range of security solutions for your enterprise environment,
including centralized administration and security features integrated with Oracle
Internet Directory. The set of Oracle security services called Oracle Platform Security
integrates the security features built into Oracle Database, Oracle Application Server,
and the Oracle Identity Management infrastructure. Combined, these features enable
the development and deployment of secure e-business applications.
Oracle Identity Management includes Oracle Internet Directory, a centralized
repository that simplifies administration of users and applications in the Oracle
environment with the following components:
■
■
Oracle Internet Directory client tools, including LDAP command-line tools, the
Oracle Internet Directory SDK, and Oracle Directory Manager.
Oracle Internet Directory server components, including the directory server, the
directory replication server, the directory integration server, and various tools for
starting and stopping them.
Oracle Database includes the Oracle Internet Directory client tools, but not the Oracle
Internet Directory server components. To install the Oracle Internet Directory server
components, run Oracle Universal Installer from an Oracle 10g Application Server
installation.
See Also:
■
Oracle Application Server Installation Guide (to install Oracle
Identity Management)
■
Oracle Database Security Guide
■
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Database Enterprise User Security Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Label Security Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Application Server Security Guide
■
Oracle Technology Network topics on database security:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/deploy/security/
index.html
How do I use Oracle Database to manage my XML data?
Use Oracle XML DB, which is installed as part of Oracle Database. Oracle XML DB
enables you to efficiently store, generate, retrieve, query, and manage XML data on
your site. Oracle XML DB provides all the advantages of a relational database, for
Frequently Asked Questions About Installation
H-5
Installing Oracle Database Tools
example, allowing you to control the referential integrity of XML data with constraints
and triggers. It works well with large amounts of XML data by storing it in a parsed,
relational form, which improves access performance.
Oracle XML DB supports XML Type, which is a native data type for XML data, for
which you can choose various storage options depending on your needs. In addition,
Oracle XML DB supports XML Schema processing, structured and unstructured
storage, a content repository that you can access by using common protocols (FTP,
HTTP(S), and WebDAV), and SQL/XML, which is a standard for SQL with XML. For
Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), Oracle XML DB introduced support for the
XQuery language for querying, transforming, and constructing XML; the ability for
users to define their own metadata for schema-based XML; a set of new SQL functions
for DML operations on XML data; and more.
You can use Oracle XML DB in conjunction with Oracle XML Developer’s Kit (XDK) to
build applications that run on either Oracle Database or Oracle Application Server.
See Also:
■
Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide
■
Oracle XML Developer's Kit Programmer's Guide
Does Oracle Database provide OLAP tools so that I can analyze data such as
trends and time series in my database?
Yes, install Oracle OLAP, which is provided in the Oracle Database installation. Oracle
OLAP provides optimal support for database environments that must meet OLAP
requirements.
Use either of the following methods in Oracle Database Installation Guide to install
Oracle OLAP:
■
When you run Oracle Universal Installer, in the Select Database Edition screen,
select Enterprise Edition. Click the Select Options button, and from the Choose
Components screen, select Oracle OLAP.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle OLAP User's Guide
■
Oracle OLAP DML Reference
■
Oracle OLAP Java API Reference
Select the Enterprise Edition installation type, and then on the Select Database
Configuration screen, select the Data Warehouse configuration.
See Also:
Oracle Database Data Warehousing Guide after installation
Does Oracle Database provide data mining tools that I can use to discover hidden
meaning in my data and predict likely outcomes based on my data?
Yes, you must have an Enterprise Edition licence for the database installation. Install
Oracle Data Mining, which is provided in the Oracle Database installation. With the
Oracle Data Mining option, you can create and execute predictive and descriptive data
mining models that use a variety of algorithms.
Use the following method in this guide to install Oracle Data Mining:
1.
When you run Oracle Universal Installer, select the Enterprise Edition installation
type.
H-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Database with Oracle Applications
2.
In the Select Database Configuration screen, select the General
Purpose/Transaction Processing configuration.
See Also: The following manuals after you have installed Oracle
Data Mining:
■
Oracle Data Mining Concepts
■
Oracle Data Mining Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Data Mining Application Developer's Guide
■
Oracle Data Mining Java API Reference
■
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference (search for
Data Mining)
How do I perform backup and recovery operations for Oracle Database?
Use Oracle Database Recovery Manager (RMAN), which is a backup and recovery tool
integrated into Oracle Database. This tool satisfies the pressing demands of
high-performance, manageable backup, and recovery. Recovery Manager is native to
the database server, automatically tracks database structure changes, and optimizes
operations accordingly. In addition, Recovery Manager is integrated with leading tape
media management products, so that Oracle database backups can be integrated with
your existing networked data protection infrastructure.
See Also:
■
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide
■
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference
Is Oracle Workflow included with Oracle Database 11g?
Starting with Oracle Database 11g, Oracle Workflow is no longer released with the
database. Oracle Workflow is available with the Oracle E-Business Suite releases.
See Also:
Oracle Workflow statement of direction:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/products/ias/workfl
ow/workflow_sod.html
Is there a migration plan for customers that have built solutions using Oracle
Workflow?
Starting January 2006, customers are encouraged to re-create and implement
workflows using Oracle BPEL Process Manager. Oracle is in the process of creating a
technical migration guide to provide detailed recommendations for migrating Oracle
Workflow processes to Oracle BPEL Process Manager.
See Also:
Oracle Workflow statement of direction:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/products/ias/workfl
ow/workflow_sod.html
Installing Oracle Database with Oracle Applications
The following are frequently asked questions about installing Oracle database with
Oracle applications:
■
How do I install my Oracle applications with Oracle Database?
Frequently Asked Questions About Installation
H-7
Installing Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Tools (Gateways)
■
How can I create Web applications that communicate with Oracle Database?
■
Which Web server can my Oracle applications use?
■
How can I migrate my non-Oracle applications to Oracle?
How do I install my Oracle applications with Oracle Database?
In most cases, install Oracle Database itself, then install the Oracle application. The
Oracle Universal Installer for that application prompts you for the connection
information. Check the application documentation requirements.
If you must implement your applications with Oracle Real Applications Clusters
databases, refer to Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide and Oracle Grid
Infrastructure Installation Guide for more information.
How can I create Web applications that communicate with Oracle Database?
Install Oracle Application Express and a Web server.
Use this guide to install Oracle Database. Oracle Application Express is automatically
installed, when you install Oracle database.
See Also:
Oracle Application Express Installation Guide
Which Web server can my Oracle applications use?
Install Oracle HTTP Server, which ships on separate media, or use the XML DB HTTP
Protocol Server and the embedded PL/SQL Gateway that installs with Oracle
Database 11g Release 2.
How can I migrate my non-Oracle applications to Oracle?
Use Oracle Migration Workbench to migrate your non-Oracle applications to Oracle.
Oracle Migration Workbench software and documentation are available at:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/tech/migration/index.html
Installing Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Tools (Gateways)
The following section discusses the Gateway products:
How can my Oracle applications access data in a non-Oracle database system?
How can my Oracle applications access data in a non-Oracle database system?
You can use Oracle Database Gateway as the connectivity tool to enable Oracle
applications to access data in non-Oracle databases. The following are the functions of
Oracle Database Gateway:
■
■
Integrates a non-Oracle database into your Oracle Database environment.
Enables Oracle PL/SQL applications to integrate with APPC-enabled transactions,
or access messages in IBM Websphere MQ.
You can install the Gateway product on a computer independent of the Oracle
application, Oracle database, and non-Oracle database.
For example, suppose you have the following scenario:
■
■
Oracle Database is installed on an UNIX computer.
The Oracle application is installed on a Microsoft Windows computer and accesses
data from the Oracle database on the UNIX computer.
H-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Tools (Gateways)
■
The Oracle application must join data in a DB2 database on Oracle Solaris and an
Oracle Database on UNIX.
You have the option of installing the Database Gateway for DRDA on the Oracle
Solaris computer where DB2 is running, on UNIX where Oracle is running, or on a
third computer.
Table H–1 lists the non-Oracle database systems that you can access from Oracle
applications, and the Gateways products that are available for those systems.
Table H–1
Oracle Gateway Products
Non-Oracle Database
Oracle Gateway Products and Documentation
IBM DB2 Universal
Database (UDB)
Oracle Database Gateway for DRDA.
IBM DB2 z/OS
Oracle Database Gateway for DRDA.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for AIX 5L Based
Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX Itanium, Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit), Linux x86,
and Linux x86-64 and Oracle Database Gateway for DRDA User's Guide.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for AIX 5L Based
Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX Itanium, Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit), Linux x86,
and Linux x86-64 and Oracle Database Gateway for DRDA User's Guide.
IBM DB2/400
Oracle Database Gateway for DRDA.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for AIX 5L Based
Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX Itanium, Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit), Linux x86,
and Linux x86-64 and Oracle Database Gateway for DRDA User's Guide.
WebSphere MQ
Oracle Database Gateway for WebSphere MQ.
Oracle Database Gateway for WebSphere MQ Installation and User's Guide.
CICS/TS
Oracle Database Gateway for APPC.
IMSTM
Use Oracle Database Gateway for APPC Installation and Configuration Guide for AIX 5L
Based Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX Itanium, Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit), Linux
x86, and Linux x86-64.
Use Oracle Database Gateway for APPC User's Guide
SQL Server
Oracle Database Gateway for SQL Server.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for AIX 5L Based
Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX Itanium, Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit), Linux x86,
and Linux x86-64 and Oracle Database Gateway for SQL Server User's Guide.
Sybase Adaptive Server
Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for AIX 5L Based
Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX Itanium, Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit), Linux x86,
and Linux x86-64 and Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase User's Guide.
Teradata
Oracle Database Gateway for Teradata.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for AIX 5L Based
Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX Itanium, Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit), Linux x86,
and Linux x86-64 and Oracle Database Gateway for Teradata User's Guide.
Informix Server
Oracle Database Gateway for Informix.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for AIX 5L Based
Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX Itanium, Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit), Linux x86,
and Linux x86-64 and Oracle Database Gateway for Informix User's Guide.
Frequently Asked Questions About Installation
H-9
Installing Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Tools (Gateways)
Table H–1 (Cont.) Oracle Gateway Products
Non-Oracle Database
Oracle Gateway Products and Documentation
IMS
Oracle Database Gateway for IMS.
Use Oracle Database Gateway for IMS, VSAM, and Adabas Installation and Configuration
Guide for AIX 5L Based Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX Itanium, Solaris Operating System
(SPARC 64-Bit), Linux x86, and Linux x86-64, Oracle Database Gateway for IMS User's
Guide and Oracle Connect for IMS, VSAM, and Adabas Gateways Installation and
Configuration Guide for IBM z/OS
VSAM
Oracle Database Gateway for VSAM.
Use Oracle Database Gateway for IMS, VSAM, and Adabas Installation and Configuration
Guide for AIX 5L Based Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX Itanium, Solaris Operating System
(SPARC 64-Bit), Linux x86, and Linux x86-64, Oracle Database Gateway for VSAM User's
Guide and Oracle Connect for IMS, VSAM, and Adabas Gateways Installation and
Configuration Guide for IBM z/OS.
Adabas
Oracle Database Gateway for Adabas.
Use Oracle Database Gateway for IMS, VSAM, and Adabas Installation and Configuration
Guide for AIX 5L Based Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX Itanium, Solaris Operating System
(SPARC 64-Bit), Linux x86, and Linux x86-64, Oracle Database Gateway for Adabas User's
Guide and Oracle Connect for IMS, VSAM, and Adabas Gateways Installation and
Configuration Guide for IBM z/OS.
H-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Glossary
Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group
A set of disk devices that Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM)
manages as a single unit. Each disk device can be an individual physical disk, a
multiple disk device such as a RAID storage array or logical volume, or even a
partition on a physical disk. You can create the Oracle ASM disk group when you
create the Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance, or with Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management instance
The Oracle instance that manages an Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk
group. It is created automatically when you install and configure Oracle Automatic
Storage Management. See also Oracle system identifier (SID).
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Enables creation of a single disk group from a collection of individual disk devices. It
balances I/O to the disk group across all of the devices in the disk group. It also
implements striping and mirroring to improve I/O performance and data reliability.
automatic undo management mode
A mode of Oracle Database in which undo data is stored in a dedicated undo
tablespace. Unlike in manual undo management mode, the only undo management
that you must perform is the creation of the undo tablespace. All other undo
management is performed automatically.
connect descriptor
A specially formatted description of the destination for a network connection. A
connect descriptor contains destination service and network route information.
The destination service is indicated by using its service name for the Oracle Database
or its Oracle system identifier (SID) for Oracle release 11.2 databases. The network
route provides, at a minimum, the location of the listener through use of a network
address.
connect identifier
A name, net service name, or service name that resolves to a connect descriptor. Users
initiate a connect request by passing a user name and password along with a connect
identifier in a connect string for the service to which they want to connect, for
example:
SQL> CONNECT user_name@connect_identifier
Enter password: password
Glossary-1
control files
control files
Files that record the physical structure of a database and contain the database name,
the names and locations of associated databases and online undo tablespace, the time
stamp of the database creation, the current log sequence number, and checkpoint
information.
default domain
The network domain within which most client requests take place. It can be the
domain where the client resides, or a domain from which the client often requests
network services. The default domain is also the client configuration parameter that
determines what domain to append to unqualified network name requests. A name
request is unqualified if it does not have a "." character within it.
directory naming
A naming method that specifies a directory server to resolve a net service name into a
connect descriptor. The net service name is stored centrally in a directory server.
directory server
A Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)-compliant directory server. A
directory can provide centralized storage and retrieval of database network
components, user and corporate policies preferences, user authentication, and security
information, replacing client-side and server-side localized files.
external procedures
Procedure or function written in the C programming language and stored in a shared
library. An Oracle server can call external procedures or functions using PL/SQL
routines. For Oracle Database to connect to external procedures, the server must be
configured with a net service name and the listener must be configured with protocol
address and service information.
global database name
The full database name that uniquely distinguishes it from any other database in your
network domain.
For example:
sales.us.example.com
where sales is the name you want to call your database and us.example.com is the
network domain in which the database is located.
initialization parameter file
An ASCII text file that contains information needed to initialize a database and
instance.
instance
Process associated with a running Oracle Database instance. When a database is
started on a database server (regardless of the type of computer), Oracle Database
allocates a memory area called the System Global Area and starts one or more Oracle
Database processes. This combination of the System Global Area and Oracle Database
processes is called an instance. The memory and processes of an instance manage the
associated database's data efficiently and serve the users of the database.
Glossary-2
net service name
installation type
A predefined component set that automatically selects which components to install.
See "Oracle Database Editions" on page 1-10 for a list of installation types available
with each top-level component.
Interprocess Communication (IPC)
A protocol that client applications use that resides on the same node as the listener to
communicate with the database. IPC can provide a faster local connection than
TCP/IP.
listener
A process that resides on the server and whose responsibility is to listen for incoming
client connection requests and manage the traffic to the server.
When a client requests a network session with a database server, a listener receives the
actual request. If the client information matches the listener information, then the
listener grants a connection to the database server.
listener.ora file
A configuration file for the listener that identifies the:
■
Listener name
■
Protocol addresses on which it is accepting connection requests
■
Services for which it is listening
The listener.ora file resides in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory.
An Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) does not require identification of the database
service because of service registration. However, static service configuration is
required for an Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) if you plan to use Oracle
Enterprise Manager.
local naming
A naming method that resolves a net service name into a connect descriptor. This
name is configured and stored in the tnsnames.ora file on each individual client.
manual undo management mode
A mode of the database in which undo blocks are stored in user-managed rollback
segments.
naming method
A resolution method used by a client application to resolve a connect identifier to a
network address when attempting to connect to a database service. Oracle Net
Services supports the following naming methods:
■
Local naming
■
Directory naming
■
Host naming
■
External naming
net service name
A simple name for a service that resolves to a connect descriptor. Users initiate a
connect request by passing a user name and password along with a net service name
in a connect string for the service to which they want to connect:
Glossary-3
OPS$
SQL> CONNECT user_name@net_service_name
Enter password: password
Depending on your needs, net service names can be stored in a variety of places,
including:
■
Local configuration file, tnsnames.ora, on each client
■
Directory server
■
External naming service, such as Network Information Service (NIS) or Cell
Directory Service (CDS)
OPS$
Acronym for operating system specific. The initialization file parameter OS_
AUTHENT_PREFIX enables users to specify a prefix that Oracle uses to authenticate
users attempting to connect to the database. Oracle concatenates the value of this
parameter to the beginning of the user's operating system account name and
password. When a connection request is attempted, Oracle compares the prefixed user
name with Oracle user names in the database.
The default value of this parameter is "" (a null string), thereby eliminating the
addition of any prefix to operating system account names. In earlier releases, OPS$
was the default setting.
ORACLE_BASE
ORACLE_BASE is the root of the Oracle Database directory tree. The Oracle Base
directory is the top level directory that you can use to install the various oracle
software products. You can use the same Oracle base directory for more than one
installation. For example, /u01/app/oracle is an Oracle base directory created by
the oracle user.
ORACLE_HOME
Corresponds to the environment in which Oracle Database products run. If you install
an OFA-compliant database, using Oracle Universal Installer defaults, Oracle home
(known as $ORACLE_HOME in this guide) is located beneath $ORACLE_BASE. The
default Oracle home is db_n where n is the Oracle home number. It contains
subdirectories for Oracle Database software executables and network files. See also
Oracle home.
Oracle home
The directory path to install Oracle components (for example,
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_n). You are prompted to enter an Oracle
home in the Path field of the Specify File Locations window. See also ORACLE_
HOME.
Oracle schema
A set of rules that determine what can be stored in an LDAP-compliant directory
server. Oracle has its own schema that is applied to many types of Oracle entries,
including Oracle Net Services entries. The Oracle schema for Oracle Net Services
entries includes the attributes the entries may contain.
Oracle Net foundation layer
A networking communication layer that establishes and maintains the connection
between the client application and server, as well as exchanging messages between
them.
Glossary-4
SID
protocol address
An address that identifies the network address of a network object.
When a connection is made, the client and the receiver of the request, such as the
listener, or Oracle Connection Manager, are configured with identical protocol
addresses. The client uses this address to send the connection request to a particular
network object location, and the recipient "listens" for requests on this address. It is
important to install the same protocols for the client and the connection recipient, and
to configure the same addresses.
raw partitions
Portions of a physical disk that are accessed at the lowest possible disk (block) level.
redo log files
Files that contain a record of all changes made to data in the database buffer cache. If
an instance failure occurs, then an administrator can use the redo log files to recover
the modified data that was in memory.
repository
A set of tables located in any Oracle database accessible to the Oracle Management
Server. Oracle Management Server uses a repository to store all system data and
application data, information about the state of managed nodes distributed
throughout the environment, as well as information about the separately licensable
management packs.
service registration
A feature by which the PMON process (an instance background process) automatically
registers information with a listener. Because this information is registered with the
listener, the listener.ora file does not need to be configured with this static
information.
Service registration provides the listener with the following information:
■
Service name(s) for each running instance of the database
■
Instance name(s) of the database
■
Service handlers (dispatchers and dedicated servers) available for each instance
This enables the listener to direct a client's request appropriately.
■
Dispatcher, instance, and node load information
This enables the listener to determine which dispatcher can best handle a client
connection's request. If all dispatchers are blocked, the listener can spawn a
dedicated server for the connection.
This information enables the listener to determine how best to service a client
connection request.
SID
The Oracle system identifier that distinguishes the database from all other databases
on your computer. The SID automatically defaults to the database name portion of the
global database name (sales in the example sales.us.example.com) until you
reach eight characters or enter a period. You can accept or change the default value.
The SID can also refer to an Oracle ASM instance SID, available when you install
Oracle Automatic Storage Management.
Glossary-5
sqlnet.ora file
sqlnet.ora file
A configuration file for the client or server that specifies the:
■
Client domain to append to unqualified service names or net service names
■
Order of naming methods for the client to use when resolving a name
■
Logging and tracing features to use
■
Route of connections
■
External naming parameters
■
Oracle Advanced Security parameters
The sqlnet.ora file resides in $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
An industry standard protocol designed by Netscape Communications Corporation
for securing network connections. SSL provides authentication, encryption, and data
integrity using public key infrastructure (PKI).
SSL
See Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
System Global Area
A group of shared memory structures that contain data and control information for an
Oracle Database instance.
system identifier
See SID.
tablespace
A logical storage unit within a database. Tablespaces are divided into logical units of
storage called segments, which are further divided into extents.
tnsnames.ora file
A configuration file that contains net service names mapped to connect descriptors.
This file is used for the local naming method. The tnsnames.ora file resides in
$ORACLE_BASE/network/admin.
undo tablespace
A tablespace that contains one or more undo segments. The creation of any other types
of segment (for example, tables, indexes) in undo tablespaces is not allowed.
In the automatic mode, each Oracle instance is assigned one and only one undo
tablespace. Each undo tablespace is composed of a set of undo files. Undo blocks are
grouped in extents. At any point in time, an extent is either allocated to (and used by)
a transaction table, or is free.
Blocks in undo tablespaces are grouped into the following categories:
■
■
■
Glossary-6
File control blocks, bitmap blocks, and so forth used for space management
Undo segments containing transaction table blocks, undo blocks, and extent-map
blocks used for transaction management
Free blocks that are unallocated to file control or undo segments
unqualified name
unqualified name
A net service name that does not contain a network domain.
Glossary-7
unqualified name
Glossary-8
Index
Symbols
/, G-3
A
accounts
reviewing, 6-5
unauthenticated access to, 6-9
accounts configured by, 1-5
ACFS, 1-14
requirements, 3-4
ADVM
requirements, 3-4
aio-max-nr file, 2-29
aliases, multiple on computers, 2-21
ANONYMOUS user
unauthenticated account access with, 6-9
APPC-enabled databases, H-9
applications, migrating non-Oracle applications to
Oracle, H-8
asm groups
creating, 2-26
ASM See Oracle Automatic Storage Management
asmcmd utility, 3-22
asmdba groups
creating, 2-26
Automatic Memory Management, 2-4
B
backups of database
Oracle Database Recovery Manager,
base directory
See Oracle base directory
block devices
creating permissions file, 3-13
H-7
C
certification, hardware and software, 1-7
checking distribution of the operating system, 2-8
checking version of the operating system, 2-8
chmod command, 2-36, 2-39
chown command, 2-36, 2-39
CLASSPATH environment variable, 5-10
client static library, generating, 5-4
cloning
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a
Cloned Oracle Home, B-3
Oracle home, B-1
Cluster Manager
ports, ranges and protocol, E-3
Cluster Ready Services (CRS). See Oracle Clusterware
Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS)
Oracle Automatic Storage Management, 1-14
ports, ranges and protocol, E-3
clusters
installation guidelines, 4-2
See also Oracle Clusterware, Oracle Real
Application Clusters
Clusterware
installed before Oracle Database, 4-2
Clusterware. See Oracle Clusterware
commands
fdisk, 2-39, 3-13
partprobe, 3-14
runcluvfy.bat, 3-15
setup.exe, 3-15
useradd, 2-27
usermod, 2-27
computers with multiple aliases, 2-21
computers, non-networked, 2-21
configuration assistants
failure, G-4
troubleshooting, G-4
configuring
accounts of Oracle users, 5-4
configuring disks for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 3-7 to ??, 4-4
Configuring Oracle Configuration Manager in a
Cloned Oracle Home, B-3
Connection Manager
ports, ranges and protocol, E-2
control files
locating, 6-13
naming, D-5
reviewing, 6-11
using Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
with, 6-13
CONTROL_FILES initialization parameter, 6-13
create inventory, 4-14
CSD
Index-1
download location for WebSphere MQ, 2-17
requirements
on Linux, 2-17
custom database
failure groups for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 3-9
requirements when using Oracle Automatic
Storage Management, 3-8
custom install option, 4-14
D
DAS (direct attached storage) disks, 3-9
data files
creating separate directories for, 2-38
defined, 6-11
managing with Oracle ASM, 1-13
minimum disk space for, 2-38
naming, D-5
options for placing on file system, 2-37
recommendations for file system, 2-37
reviewing, 6-11
setting permissions on data file directories, 2-39
setting up, 6-11
data loss
minimizing with Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 3-8
data mining tools
Oracle Data Mining, H-6
data warehousing tool
Oracle OLAP, H-6
Database Configuration Assistant
running in silent mode, A-8
troubleshooting, G-4
databases
files, 6-11
identifying, 6-10
initialization parameter file, 6-11
naming, 4-15
non-Oracle
APPC-enabled, H-9
non-Oracle, listed, H-9
OLAP support (Oracle OLAP), H-6
Optimal Flexible Architecture file naming
conventions, D-5
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
requirements, 3-8
recovery with Oracle Backup and Recovery, H-7
redo log files, 6-12
security management, H-5
tablespaces, 6-11
Daylight Savings Time, 1-20
DB_DOMAIN initialization parameter, 6-10
DB_NAME initialization parameter, 6-10
DB2 database, H-9
DB2 z/OS database, H-9
DB2/400 database, H-9
dba group
creating, 2-25
description, 2-23
Index-2
SYSDBA privilege, 2-23
dba groups
creating, 2-26
dbca.rsp file, A-5
default data files, 6-12
default file mode creation mask
setting, 2-43
default tablespaces, 6-12
Deinstallation Tool, 7-1
description
database restart, 3-1
Oracle Restart, 3-1
device names
IDE disks, 3-12
RAID, 3-12
SCSI disks, 3-12
DHCP computers, installing on, 2-20
directory
creating separate data file directories, 2-38
database file directory, 2-37
Oracle base directory, 2-32
Oracle home directory, 2-34
Oracle Inventory directory, 2-33
oraInventory, 2-33
permission for data file directories, 2-39
disc
mounting, 4-7
disk devices
in Oracle Automatic Storage Management, 1-14
managing with Oracle ASM, 1-13
disk space
checking, 2-6
requirement for Oracle base directory, 2-35
requirements for preconfigured database in Oracle
Automatic Storage Management, 3-8
disks
checking availability for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 3-11
configuring for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 3-7 to ??, 4-4
displaying attached disks, 3-11
supported for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 3-9
DISPLAY environment variable
setting, 2-43
DOMAIN_NAME initialization parameter, 6-10
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. See DHCP
E
Enterprise Manager Database Control Agent
ports
ranges and protocol, E-2
enterprise.rsp file, A-5
environment
configuring for oracle user, 2-43
environment variables
DISPLAY, 2-43
NLS_LANG, F-3
ORACLE_BASE, 2-36, 2-43
ORACLE_HOME, 2-42, 2-43, 2-45
ORACLE_HOSTNAME, 2-20
ORACLE_SID, 2-43
PATH, 2-43
SHELL, 2-43
TMP and TMPDIR, 2-6, 2-44, 3-3
TNS_ADMIN, 2-45
errata
Linux kernel errata, 2-9
errors
configuration assistants, G-4
display errors, G-2
installation, G-3, G-5
remote terminal installation, G-2
response file installation, G-5
silent mode, G-5
su command, G-2
/usr/X11R6/bin/xdpyinfo, G-2
X Window, G-1
X Window display errors, G-2
/etc/security/limits.so file, 2-28
/etc/sysctl.conf file, 2-31
EXAMPLE tablespace
description, 6-12
example01.DBF data file, 6-12
example01.DBF data file, 6-12
examples
Oracle Automatic Storage Management failure
groups, 3-9
Oracle base directories, 2-33
external redundancy
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
redundancy level, 3-8
F
failure group
examples of Oracle Automatic Storage
Management failure groups, 3-9
failure groups
characteristics of Oracle Automatic Storage
Management failure group, 3-8
examples in Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 3-9
in Oracle ASM, 1-14
Fast Recovery Area, 5-5
fatal errors, G-5
fdisk command, 3-11
file mode creation mask
setting, 2-43
file sets, 2-7
file system
appropriate for Oracle base directory, 2-36
data file and recovery file placement
options, 2-37
requirements for Oracle base directory, 2-36
using for data files, 2-37
file-max file, 2-29
file-max parameter
recommended value on Linux x86, 2-29
files, D-5
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/initsid.ora, 6-11
$ORACLE_HOME/install/portlist.ini, 6-2
control, 6-13, D-5
data files, D-5
dbca.rsp, A-5
enterprise.rsp, A-5
/etc/group, D-3
/etc/passwd, D-3
/etc/security/limits.so, 2-28
/etc/sysctl.conf, 2-31
listener.ora, 5-8
mgw.ora, 5-10
oraInst.loc, 2-25
oraInst.loc file, A-3
oratab, 2-35
/proc/sys/fs/file-max, 2-29
/proc/sys/kernel/sem, 2-29
/proc/sys/kernel/shmall, 2-29
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmax, 2-29
shmmax file, 2-29
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmni, 2-29
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range, 2-29
redo log, 6-12
response files, A-4
tnsnames.ora, 5-7
Flash Recovery Area
See Fast Recovery Area
For, 2-37
free
UNIX command, 2-4, 3-3
G
Gateways products FAQ, H-8
Global Database Name
about, 4-15
global database name, 6-10
globalization support, F-1
Grid Control. See Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid
Control
group file, D-3
groups
checking for existing oinstall group, 2-24
creating the asm group, 2-26
creating the asmdba group, 2-26
creating the dba group, 2-25
creating the oinstall group, 2-24
creating the oper group, 2-25
UNIX OSDBA group (dba), 2-23
UNIX OSDBA group for Oracle Restart
(dba), 2-23
UNIX OSOPER group (oper), 2-23
H
hardware certification, 1-7
hardware requirements, 2-3, 3-2
disk space, 2-6
display, 2-7
Index-3
memory, 2-3
system architecture, 2-5
high redundancy
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
redundancy level, 3-8
home directory
See Oracle home directory
host name, setting before installation, 2-21
I
IBM DB2 database, H-9
IBM DB2 z/OS database, H-9
IBM DB2/400 database, H-9
IBM WebSphere MQ
requirement on Linux, 2-17
IBM WebSphere MQ Series databases, H-9
IDE disks
device names, 3-12
Informix Server database, H-9
initialization parameter file
description, 6-11
in databases, 6-11
initsid.ora, 6-11
initialization parameters
DB_NAME, 6-10
DOMAIN_NAME, 6-10
SERVICE_NAMES, 6-10
initsid.ora file, 6-11
initsid.ora initialization parameter file, 6-11
in-place Oracle Database Client upgrade, xvi
installation
accessing installation software, 4-4
available products, 1-10
cleaning up after a failed installation, G-6
clusters, installation guidelines, 4-2
component-specific guidelines, 4-1
computer aliases, multiple, 2-21
considerations, 1-6
database editions, 1-10
errors, G-3, G-5
silent mode, G-5
laptops, 2-21
log files, G-3
Oracle Automatic Storage Management
requirements, 3-8
overview, 1-1 to 1-18
response file
oraInst.loc file, A-3
response files, A-1, A-4
preparing, A-4, A-6
silent mode, G-5
templates, A-4
responsefile
error handling, G-6
silent mode, A-7
upgrading, H-3
installation errors
steps to resolve, G-3
installation guidelines, 4-10
Index-4
installation overview, 1-1
installation software
copying to a hard disk, 4-8
extracting, 4-6
installation software, accessing, 4-4
Installing
Oracle restart, 3-16
installing Linux, 1-3
default install, 1-3
minimal install, 1-3
instance
instance identifier (SID), 2-43
IP addresses, multiple, 2-20
ip_local_port_range file, 2-30
ip_local_port_range parameter
recommended value on Linux x86, 2-30
IPC protocol address
Oracle Messaging Gateway setting, 5-9
J
JDK
internationalization class, 5-10
run-time class, 5-10
JDK requirements, 2-7
K
Kernel
requirements, 2-8
kernel
Linux errata, 2-9
kernel parameters
changing, 2-30
L
languages
installing Oracle components in different
languages, F-4
using Oracle components in different
languages, F-3
laptops, installing Oracle Database on, 2-21
limits.so file, 2-28
Linux
kernel errata, 2-9
listener
identifying Oracle home for, 2-42
lsnrctl command, 2-42
stopping, 2-42
listener.ora file, 5-8
modifying for external procedures, 5-9
local device
using for data files, 2-38
log files, G-3
troubleshooting, G-3
logical volume manager
See LVM
loopback adapters
non-networked computers, 2-21
lsdev command, 3-11
lsnrctl command, 2-42
LVM
recommendations for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 3-8
M
mask
setting default file mode creation mask, 2-43
memory requirements, 2-3, 3-2
MEMORY_MAX_TARGET, 2-4
MEMORY_TARGET, 2-4
MGW_AGENT service name, 5-9
mgwextproc service
adding static service information, 5-9
mgw.ora file
modifying, 5-10
Microsoft SQL Server database, H-9
migrating
See upgrading
migrating applications to Oracle, H-8
migrating non-Oracle databases to Oracle, H-3
mirroring Oracle Automatic Storage Management
disk groups, 3-8
mkdir command, 2-36, 2-39
mode
setting default file mode creation mask, 2-43
mount point
for Oracle base directory, 2-32
mount point directories, 4-8
mount point directory
choosing, C-2
mount points
Optimal Flexible Architecture conventions for
creating, D-2
MQSeries
class, 5-10
multihomed computers, installing on, 2-20
multiple aliases, computers with, 2-21
multiple databases and Oracle ASM, 2-23
multiple Oracle homes, 1-7
N
naming subdirectories, D-4
NAS devices
creating files on for use with Oracle Automatic
Storage Management, C-4
guidelines for configuration, C-1
Net Configuration Assistant
troubleshooting, G-4
Net Configuration Assistant (NetCA)
response files, A-7
running at command prompt, A-7
netca.rsp file, A-5
network adapters
computers with multiple aliases, 2-21
non-networked computers, 2-21
primary, on computers with multiple
aliases, 2-21
See also loopback adapters, primary network
adapters
network cards, multiple, 2-20
Network Information Services
alternative to local users and groups, 2-24
Network Information Services.See NIS
network setup
about, 2-20
computers with multiple aliases, 2-21
network topics
DHCP computers, 2-20
laptops, 2-21
multiple network cards, 2-20
non-networked computers, 2-21
NFS
mount options, C-5
NLS_LANG environment variable, F-3
noninteractive mode
See also response files, response file mode, A-2
non-networked computers, 2-21
non-Oracle databases, listed, H-9
normal redundancy, Oracle Automatic Storage
Management redundancy level, 3-8
O
OEM
See Oracle Enterprise Manager
oinstall group
checking for existing, 2-24
oinstall groups
creating, 2-24
OLAP tools
about, H-6
Oracle OLAP, H-6
OMF
See Oracle Managed Files
oper group
creating, 2-25
description, 2-23
oper groups
creating, 2-26
operating system
checking distribution and version, 2-8
operating system accounts
creating and configuring, 5-3
operating system groups
creating the oinstall group, 2-24
operating system requirements, 2-7
operating system users
root user, 4-11
Optimal Flexible Architecture
advantages, D-1
conventions for creating mount points, D-2
file identification, D-6
file mapping, D-7
files systems, D-2
naming, D-2
database files, D-5
Oracle base directory, D-2
Index-5
subdirectories, D-4
very large databases, D-3
Oracle Automatic Storage Management, D-5
Oracle Managed Files, D-5
overview, D-1
pathnames, D-3
recommendations for Oracle base directory, 2-32
recommended path for Oracle base
directory, 2-32
recommended path for Oracle home
directory, 2-34
recommended path for Oracle Inventory
directory, 2-33
special tablespaces, D-6
standard, D-1
using separate segments, D-6
Oracle ACFS, 1-14, 3-4
requirements, 3-4
Oracle ADVM, 3-4
requirements, 3-4
Oracle Application Server, H-4
Oracle applications
installing with Oracle Database, H-8
Oracle ASM, 1-13
Oracle ASM disk groups
about, 1-14
Oracle ASM failure groups
about, 1-14
Oracle ASM instance
about, 1-15
Oracle ASMCA, 6-3
Oracle Automatic Storage Management, 1-13
asmcmd utility, 3-22
characteristics of failure groups, 3-8
checking disk availability, 3-11
configuring disks, 3-7 to ??, 4-4
configuring disks for Automatic Storage
Management, 3-10
considerations before installing, 3-6
DAS disks, 3-9
disk devices, 1-14
disk groups, 3-8
disks, supported, 3-9
displaying attached disks, 3-11
failure groups
examples, 3-9
identifying, 3-9
identifying available disks, 3-11
identifying disks, 3-11
installation, testing, 3-22
managing, 6-3
mirroring, 3-8
multiple databases, 2-23
Optimal Flexible Architecture file naming
conventions, D-5
Oracle ASM disk group templates, 1-14
partition creation, 3-9
password file, 3-6
recommendations for disk groups, 3-8
redundancy levels, 3-8
Index-6
response files, A-3
SAN disks, 3-9
space required for preconfigured database, 3-8
SPFILE server parameter file, 3-6
starting and stopping, 6-3
templates, 1-14
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File
System, 1-14, 3-4
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Configuration
Assistant, 6-3
Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk groups
managing, 6-3
Oracle base directory
creating, 2-36
creating new, 2-36
description, 2-32
determining disk space on, 2-36
disk space requirements, 2-35
examples, 2-33
identifying appropriate file system, 2-36
identifying existing, 2-35
mount point for, 2-32
naming conventions, D-2
recommended path, 2-32
relationship with Oracle software owner
user, 2-33
requirement for, 2-32
requirements for existing directory, 2-35
requirements on file system, 2-36
Oracle Cluster Registry
See OCR
Oracle Cluster Registry port, E-3
Oracle Clusterware
about, H-3
ports, E-3
ports, ranges and protocol, E-3
used with Oracle Real Application Clusters, H-3
Oracle components
using in different languages, F-3
Oracle Data Mining
about, H-6
installing, H-6
Oracle Database
administering and monitoring, H-4
creating data file directories, 2-38
Enterprise Edition installation, 1-10
getting started using
accessing, 6-4
starting and stopping database, 6-4
installing with Oracle applications, H-8
minimum disk space requirements, 2-38
naming, 4-15
requirements with Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 3-8
security management, H-5
setting ORACLE_SID environment variable, 2-43
Standard Edition installation, 1-10
upgrading, H-3
Web servers, H-8
Oracle Database Client
configuring connections, H-2
Oracle Database components
administering and monitoring, H-4
connectivity FAQ, H-8
FAQ on installing, H-1 to H-3
installing with Oracle applications, H-8
installing with Oracle Database tools, H-4
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant
response file, A-5
Oracle Database Recovery Manager (RMAN)
about, H-7
Oracle Database Vault
audit policy, 1-8
postinstallation task, 5-8
preinstallation requirement, 2-18
Oracle Enterprise Management Agent
HTTP port, changing, E-3
Oracle Enterprise Manager, 1-15
Database Control
logging into, 6-1
port number, 6-1
using to modify control files, 6-13
using to modify redo log files, 6-13
using to view control files, 6-13
using to view redo log files, 6-13
login privileges, 6-2
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
ports, changing, E-4
ports, ranges and protocol, E-2
Oracle Event Manager
ports, ranges and protocol, E-3
Oracle home
cloning, B-1
Oracle home directory
description, 2-34
identifying for listener, 2-42
multiple homes, network considerations, 2-20
recommended path, 2-34
requirement for, 2-34
requirements, 2-34
using to identify Oracle base directory, 2-35
Oracle host name, setting before installation, 2-21
Oracle internationalization class, 5-10
Oracle Internet Directory, H-5
Oracle Inventory
description, 2-33
pointer file, 2-25
Oracle Inventory directory
description, 2-33
recommended path, 2-33
Oracle Inventory group
creating, 2-25
Oracle Inventory groups
checking for existing, 2-24
creating, 2-24
Oracle JDBC class, 5-10
Oracle Label Security
post-installation tasks, 5-8
Oracle Linux
and Oracle Validated RPM, 1-5
Oracle Managed Files
Optimal Flexible Architecture naming
conventions, D-5
Oracle Messaging Gateway
CSD requirements
on Linux, 2-17
postinstallation tasks, 5-8
requirements on Linux, 2-17
Oracle Messaging Gateway class, 5-10
Oracle Migration Workbench
migrating non-Oracle applications to Oracle, H-8
migrating non-Oracle databases to Oracle, H-3
Oracle Net
configuration file directory, 5-7
identifying Oracle home for listener, 2-42
lsnrctl command, 2-42
stopping listener, 2-42
stopping the listener, 2-42
Oracle Net Configuration Assistant
response file, A-5
Oracle Net Services
post-installation tasks, 5-7
Oracle OLAP
about, H-6
Oracle Precompilers
postinstallation tasks, 5-10
Oracle Procedural Gateway
listed products, H-9
Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC)
installed before Oracle Database, 4-2
installing with Oracle Enterprise Manager, H-5
Oracle Clusterware
about, H-3
Oracle Restart
description, 3-1
Installing, 3-16
OSDBA group description, 2-23
user, 2-23
Oracle Schemas, xiv
Oracle Software Owner user
creating, 2-26
oracle user, 2-27
Oracle software owner user
configuring environment for, 2-43
determining default shell, 2-43
relationship with Oracle base directory, 2-33
Oracle SQL Developer
accessing, 6-4
Oracle SQL*Net Listener
ports, ranges and protocol, E-2
Oracle Technology Network (OTN)
downloading documentation from, xiv
Oracle Text knowledge base, 5-11
Oracle Transparent Gateway
listed products, H-9
Oracle Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel
about, 1-4
requirements, 2-9
Oracle Universal Installer
guidelines for using, 4-1
Index-7
installation guidelines, 4-1
response files, A-1
list of, A-5
running, 4-9
running in different languages, F-4
oracle user
and Oracle Validated RPM, 1-5
configuring environment for, 2-43
creating, 2-26
determining default shell, 2-43
relationship with Oracle base directory, 2-33
Oracle user accounts
configuring, 5-4
Oracle Validated Configuration RPM
about, 1-4
included with Oracle Linux, 1-5
installing, 1-5
Oracle XML DB
about, H-5
ports, ranges and protocol, E-3
ORACLE_BASE environment variable, 2-36
setting, 2-43
ORACLE_HOME environment variable
setting, 2-42
unsetting, 2-45
ORACLE_HOSTNAME, 2-20
ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable
computers with multiple aliases, 2-21
multihomed computers, 2-20
setting before installation, 2-21
ORACLE_SID environment variable
setting, 2-43
oraInst.loc file
location, 2-25
location of, 2-25
oraInventory directory
See Oracle Inventory directory
oratab file, 2-35
formats, 2-35
location of, 2-35
OSASM groups
creating, 2-26
multiple databases, 2-23
SYSASM, 2-23
OSDBA groups
creating, 2-25
creating for Oracle Grid Infrastructure, 2-26
description for database, 2-23
SYSDBA privilege, 2-23
SYSDBA privilege for Oracle Restart, 2-23
OSOPER groups
creating, 2-25
description for database, 2-23
SYSOPER privilege, 2-23
OTN Web site
downloading installation software from, 4-5
P
package requirements, 2-9
Index-8
Linux x86, 2-10
Linux x86-64, 2-12
packages, checking, 2-15
partition
using with Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 3-8
partitions
creation for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management disks, 3-9
passwd file, D-3
password file for Oracle Automatic Storage
Management, 3-6
passwords
resetting, 6-8
with Database Control, 6-8
with SQL*Plus, 6-9
reviewing, 6-5
specifying for response files, A-2
unlocking, 6-8
with Database Control, 6-8
with SQL*Plus, 6-9
See also security
PATH environment variable
setting, 2-43
pathnames
Optimal Flexible Architecture, D-3
permissions
for data file directories, 2-39
for Oracle base directory, 2-36
port numbers
managing, E-1
portlist.ini file, 6-2, E-2
ports
access URLs, E-2
Cluster Manager, ranges and protocol, E-3
Cluster Synchronization Services, ranges and
protocol, E-3
configured for applications, E-2
Connection Manager, ranges and protocol, E-2
default ranges, E-1
Enterprise Manager Database Control Agent,
ranges and protocol, E-2
Oracle Cluster Registry, E-3
Oracle Clusterware, E-3
Oracle Clusterware, ranges and protocol, E-3
Oracle Enterprise Management Agent HTTP,
changing, E-3
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control,
changing, E-4
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control,
ranges and protocol, E-2
Oracle Event Manager, ranges and protocol, E-3
Oracle Net, E-2
Oracle SQL*Net Listener, ranges and
protocol, E-2
Oracle XML DB, ranges and protocol, E-3
post-installation
required tasks, 5-1
Oracle Label Security, configuring, 5-8
Oracle Net Services, configuring, 5-7
patches, installing and downloading, 5-1
postinstallation
recommended tasks
client static library, generating, 5-4
creating operating system accounts, 5-3
root.sh script, backing up, 5-3
required tasks
configuring Oracle Messaging Gateway, 5-8
Oracle Precompilers, 5-10
postinstallation tasks
Oracle Text knowledge base, 5-11
preconfigured database
Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk space
requirements, 3-8
requirements when using Oracle Automatic
Storage Management, 3-8
Pro*C/C++
configuring, 5-10
See also C compiler
process
stopping existing, 2-41
stopping listener process, 2-42
/proc/sys/fs/file-max file, 2-29
/proc/sys/kernel/sem file, 2-29
/proc/sys/kernel/shmall file, 2-29
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmni file, 2-29
/proc/sys/net/core/rmem_default file, 2-30
/proc/sys/net/core/rmem_max file, 2-30
/proc/sys/net/core/wmem_default file, 2-30
/proc/sys/net/core/wmem_max file, 2-30
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range file, 2-30
ps command, 2-42
R
RAID
device names, 3-12
using for Oracle data files, 2-37
RAM requirements, 2-3, 3-2
readme.txt file, E-2
recommendations
on perfomring software-only installations, 3-14
reconfiguring CSS, 7-1
recovery files
options for placing on file system, 2-37
recovery of databases
Oracle Backup and Recovery, H-7
Red Hat compatible kernel
about, 1-4
requirements, 2-9
Red Hat Package Manager
See RPM
redo log, D-5
redo log files
in starter database, 6-12
locating, 6-12
naming, D-5
reviewing, 6-11
using Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
with, 6-13
redundancy level
and space requirements for preconfigured
database, 3-8
for Oracle Automatic Storage Management, 3-8
redundant array of independent disks
See RAID
Rendezvous
requirement on Linux, 2-17
requirements
hardware, 2-3, 3-2
response file installation
oraInst.loc file, A-3
response files
preparing, A-4, A-6
templates, A-4
silent mode, A-7
errors, G-5
response file mode
about, A-2
reasons for using, A-3
response files, A-1
about, A-1
creating with template, A-4
dbca.rsp, A-5
enterprise.rsp, A-5
general procedure, A-3
Net Configuration Assistant, A-7
netca.rsp, A-5
Oracle Automatic Storage Management, A-3
passing values at command line, A-2
passwords, A-2
security, A-2
specifying with Oracle Universal Installer, A-7
response files installation
about, A-1
rmem_default file, 2-30
rmem_default parameter
recommended value on Linux, 2-30
rmem_max file, 2-30
rmem_max parameter
recommended value on Linux, 2-30
root user, 4-10, 4-11
logging in as, 2-2
root.sh script
backing up, 5-3
RPM
checking, 2-15
rpm command, 2-15
S
Sample Schemas
tablespaces and data files, 6-12
SAN (storage area network) disks, 3-9
schema passwords, 4-17
schemas
database schema passwords, 4-17
Oracle Schemas, about, xiv
Sample Schemas tablespaces and data files,
SCSI disks
6-12
Index-9
device names, 3-12
SE Linux, 2-8, 4-9
security
dividing ownership of Oracle software, 2-21
management tools, H-5
See also passwords
Security Enhanced Linux, 2-8, 4-9
sem file, 2-29
semmni parameter
recommended value on Linux x86, 2-29
semmns parameter
recommended value on Linux x86, 2-29
semmsl parameter
recommended value on Linux x86, 2-29
semopm parameter
recommended value on Linux x86, 2-29
server parameter file (SPFILE), 3-6
SERVICE_NAMES initialization parameter, 6-10
shell
determining default shell for oracle user, 2-43
SHELL environment variable
checking value of, 2-43
shmall file, 2-29
shmall parameter
recommended value on Linux x86, 2-29
shmmax parameter
recommended value on Linux x86, 2-29
shmmni file, 2-29
shmmni parameter
recommended value on Linux x86, 2-29
SID, 6-10
setting ORACLE_SID environment variable, 2-43
SID. See Oracle Database SID
silent mode
about, A-1
reasons for using, A-2
See also response file mode, response files, A-1
silent mode installation, A-7
software certification, 1-7
software requirements, 2-7
software updates option, xvi, 1-10, 3-17, 4-12
downloading before installation, 3-16, 4-10
SPFILE server parameter file, 3-6
SQL Developer
accessing, 6-4
SQL Server database, H-9
SQL*Plus
accessing, 6-4
SQLJ class, 5-10
static service information
adding for mgwextproc service, 5-9
storage area network disks, 3-9
storage devices
configuring for datafiles, 2-39
storage management See Oracle Automatic Storage
Management
suppressed mode. See response file mode
swap space
checking, 2-4, 3-3
requirements, 2-3, 3-2
Index-10
Sybase Adapter Server database, H-9
SYSASM
OSASM, 2-23
sysctl command, 2-30
sysctl.conf file, 2-31
SYSDBA privilege
associated UNIX group, 2-23
SYSOPER privilege
associated UNIX group, 2-23
SYSTEM
tablespace, description, 6-12
System Identifier, 6-10
See SID
system01.dbf data file, 6-12
T
tablespaces, 6-12
defined, 6-11
in databases, 6-11
reviewing, 6-11
setting up, 6-11
expanding for large sorts, 6-12
Optimal Flexible Architecture
special tablespaces, D-6
SYSTEM, 6-12
TEMP, 6-12
UNDOTBS, 6-12
USERS, 6-12
TEMP
tablespace (temp01.dbf), 6-12
temp01.dbf data file, 6-12
temporary disk space
requirements, 2-3, 3-2
Teradata database, H-9
TIBCO Rendezvous
requirement on Linux, 2-17
TMP environment variable, 2-6, 3-3
setting, 2-44
TMPDIR environment variable, 2-6, 3-3
setting, 2-44
TNS_ADMIN environment variable
unsetting, 2-45
tnsnames.ora file, 5-7
adding a connect descriptor, 5-9
MGW_AGENT service name, 5-9
modifying for external procedures, 5-9
troubleshooting, G-1
display errors, G-2
fatal errors, G-5
remote terminal installation, G-2
su command, G-2
/usr/X11R6/bin/xdpyinfo, G-2
U
umask command, 2-43
UNDOTBS
tablespace (undotbs01.dbf),
UNIX commands
6-12
chmod, 2-36, 2-39
chown, 2-36, 2-39
fdisk, 3-11
free, 2-4, 3-3
lsdev, 3-11
mkdir, 2-36, 2-39
ps, 2-42
rpm, 2-15
sysctl, 2-30
umask, 2-43
unset, 2-45
unsetenv, 2-45
xhost, 2-2
xterm, 2-2
UNIX groups
checking for existing oinstall group, 2-24
OSDBA (dba), 2-23
OSDBA (dba) for Oracle Restart, 2-23
OSOPER (oper), 2-23
using NIS, 2-24
UNIX users
using NIS, 2-24
UNIX workstation
installing from, 2-2
unset command, 2-45
unsetenv command, 2-45
upgraded databases
configuring, 5-3
upgrading, 1-18
ASM, 1-19
Daylight Savings Time, 1-20
Oracle Database on RHEL 2.1, 1-19
useradd command, 2-27
USERS
tablespace (users01.dbf), 6-12
users
creating the oracle user, 2-26
Oracle Restart, 2-23
users and groups, 2-21
UTLRP.SQL
recompiling invalid SQL modules, 5-3
recommended value on Linux, 2-30
wmem_max file, 2-30
wmem_max parameter
recommended value on Linux, 2-30
X
X Window
display errors, G-1
X Window system
enabling remote hosts, 2-2
xhost command, 2-2
XML data, H-5
xterm command, 2-2
V
very large databases
Optimal Flexible Architecture naming mount
points, D-3
W
Web servers (Oracle HTTP Server), H-8
WebSphere MQ
CSD download location, 2-17
CSDs required
on Linux, 2-17
requirement on Linux, 2-17
WebSphere MQ class, 5-10
WebSphere MQ Series database, H-9
wmem_default file, 2-30
wmem_default parameter
Index-11
Index-12