HVAC EFFICIENCY ANALYST
SENIOR CERTIFICATION
Certification Information
Scope - Tests a candidate's knowledge of the installation, service, maintenance, and repair of HVAC system operations to maintain high
levels of energy efficiency. System sizes are limited to 10 tons or less of Air Conditioning and 325,000 BTU or less heating capacity.
¾
¾
¾
Qualifications
This is a test and certification for TECHNICIANS in the HVAC industry. The test is designed for the highest level senior
technician. This test for certification is not intended for the HVAC system designer, sales force, or the engineering community.
This test will measure what 80% of the HVAC Efficiency Analyst candidates have an 80% likelihood of encountering at least once
during the year on a NATIONAL basis.
As a pre-requisite to sit for the HVAC Efficiency Analyst exam, the candidate shall hold two (2) certifications by NATE in Service
Sector Specialties as follows:
• Air Conditioning (AC) plus one of the following: AD, GS, OL, HG, or HO
• Air Distribution (AD) plus one of the following: AC, GS, HP, OL, HG, or HO
• Gas Heating (GS) plus one of the following: AC, AD, or HP
• Heat Pump (HP) plus one of the following: AD, GS, OL, HG, or HO
• Oil Heating (OL) plus one of the following: AC, AD, HP, HG, or HO
• Hydronics Gas (HG) plus one of the following: AC, AD, or HP
• Hydronics Oil (HO) plus one of the following: AC, AD, or HP
Test Specifications
Open Book
4 Hour Time Limit
100 Questions Passing Score: PASS/FAIL
Listed below are the percentages of questions that will be in each section of the HVAC Efficiency Analyst exam.
SECTION AREA DESCRIPTION
SECTION PERCENTAGE
Load Calculation
15%
Equipment Selection
10%
Air Distribution
20%
Hydronic Distribution
7%
System Performance
35%
Indoor Air/Environment Quality
7%
Planned Maintenance
6%
HVAC Efficiency Analyst Industry References
The reference materials listed below will be helpful in preparing for this exam. These materials may NOT contain all of the information necessary to be
competent in this specialty or to pass the exam.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Duct Calculators – Sheet Metal, Ductboard, and Flexible Duct
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) / Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manuals - Latest Edition
ƒ
“D”, “J”, “QI” - Quality Installation, and “S”
ACCA Manuals “T” and “RS” - Latest Editions
ACCA Residential Duct Diagnostics and Repair
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) / Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors’ National Association, Inc. (SMACNA) Manuals
ƒ
HVAC Duct Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible
Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors’ National Association, Inc. (SMACNA) Manuals
ƒ
Fibrous Glass Duct Construction Standards, Residential Comfort System Installation Standards Manual, and HVAC Air Duct
Leakage Test Manual
International Energy Conservation Code - Latest Edition with Addendum
Air Diffusion Council Flexible Duct Performance & Installation Standards
North American Insulation Manufacturers Association (NAIMA) Manuals
ƒ
Fibrous Glass Duct Construction Standards and A Guide to Insulated Air Duct Systems
International Mechanical Code - Latest Edition with Addendum
International Fuel Gas Code – Latest Edition with Addendum
National Fuel Gas Code – Latest Edition with Addendum
Specification of Energy-Efficient Installation and Maintenance Practices for Residential HVAC Systems developed by Consortium for Energy
Efficiency (CEE) - Latest Edition with Addendum
ASHRAE Standard-62.2 - Latest Edition with Addendum
ANSI / ASHRAE Standard-152-2004 - Latest Edition with Addendum
ENERGY STAR™ Home Sealing Standards - Latest Edition with Addendum
Passing Score Development Process
The passing scores for the NATE tests were established using a systematic procedure (a Passing Score Study). This procedure employed the judgment of
experienced HVAC professionals and educators representing various HVAC specialties and geographical areas. The passing scores were set using
criteria defining competent performance. The passing score for different test forms may vary slightly due to the comparative difficulty of the test
questions.
Exam Copyrights
All testing documents and questions are the copyrighted property of North American Technician Excellence Inc.-NATE. It is forbidden under federal
copyright law to copy, reproduce, record, distribute or display these documents or questions by any means, in whole or part, without written permission
from NATE. Doing so may subject you to severe civil and/or criminal penalties, including imprisonment and/or fines for criminal violations.
Suggested Retail Price: $300
HVAC Efficiency
Senior
LOAD CALCULATION
CUSTOMER SURVEY
WEATHER DATA
Design temperature - summer
Design temperature - winter
Heating degree days
Cooling degree days
Equivalent full load hours
BUILDING ORIENTATION
Building orientation
BUILDING SETTING OPTIONS
On slab construction
Crawlspace
Partial basement (cellar)
Full basement
TAKE OFFS - BLUEPRINT OR ACTUAL SITE REVIEW
Construction of walls
Area of walls
Insulation of walls
Number of windows (fenestration)
Area of windows (fenestration)
Construction of windows (fenestration)
Orientation of windows (fenestration)
Shading of windows (fenestration)
NFRC window ratings (thermal effectiveness)
Construction of floors
Area of floors
Insulation of floors
Construction of ceilings
Area of ceilings
Insulation of ceilings
Construction of roof
Area of roof
Insulation of roof
Construction of skylight(s)
Area of skylight(s)
Thermal effectiveness of skylight(s)
COORDINATION W/ ARCHITECT/DESIGNER/BUILDER/OTHER
Developing a good system design plan
Ensuring good practices amongst the trades
ZONING
SINGLE ZONE
Ducted
Hydronic
MULTIPLE ZONES
Ducted
Hydronic
INFILTRATION
AIR CHANGES PER HOUR
Equal exchange requirements
Heat gain / loss per CFM
Latent loss / gain per CFM
Building assembly air leakage - normal / tight
OCCUPANCY STANDARDS
Code requirements per occupancy
(C) 2004 NATE All Rights Reserved
Page: 1
HVAC Efficiency - Senior
EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS
Combustion air
Ventilation air
Dilution air
DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS
Envelope pressurization test (blower door)
Duct leakage test (duct blaster)
HOME SEALING
Standards
Requirements
EXFILTRATION - EXHAUST REQUIREMENTS
OCCUPANCY STANDARDS
Code requirements per occupancy
EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS
Boiler / furnace venting requirements
Combustion air zone requirements
VENTILATION
HEAT RECOVERY VENTILATOR (HRV)
Heat Recovery Ventilator (HRV)
ENERGY RECOVERY VENTILATOR (ERV)
Energy Recovery Ventilator (ERV)
INTERNAL LOADS
Human occupancy
Equipment loads
HEAT LOSS
TOTAL
Total
SENSIBLE
Sensible
LATENT
Latent
HEAT GAIN
TOTAL
Total
SENSIBLE
Sensible
LATENT
Latent
DUCT LOADS
GAIN
Total
Sensible
Latent
Infiltration
LOSS
Total
Sensible
Latent
Infiltration
DUCT DESIGN LOSS
Efficiency impact
Comfort impact
Improper duct design impact
Improper duct installation impact
Improper duct location impact
REGULATIONS
INDOOR AIR QUALITY
Fresh air supplies
(C) 2004 NATE All Rights Reserved
Page: 2
HVAC Efficiency - Senior
CODES
CODES
Energy
Plumbing
Mechanical
Fire
Municipalities
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS - COMFORT
TEMPERATURE
Designing for capacity
Using standard
HUMIDITY
Role of humidity in total comfort
Using standards
Humidity control related to cooling equipment size (over-sizing)
INDOOR AIR QUALITY
Ventilation - total comfort
Air cleaning for total comfort
Standards for air quality
Outside air
Filter ratings (MERV) related to system efficiency
Filter effect on system efficiency related to static pressure during load calculation
SOUND LEVEL
Equipment location considerations
Isolation, mounting pad, duct, and structure
Duct systems - flex joints
ZONING
Single zone
Multi-zone
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS - RESIDENTIAL
SPLIT SYSTEMS
Ventilation - fresh air
Ventilation - equipment
AIR BALANCING
Duct sizing
Blower speed adjustments
Damper position adjustments
Estimated air-flow rate for proper capacity
HYDRONIC BALANCING
Pipe sizing
Pump speed adjustments
Flow control position adjustments
Estimated flow rate for capacity
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS - COMPONENTS
IMPACT OF DIFFUSERS, GRILLES, & REGISTERS
Energy use
Comfort
Temperature stratification
IMPACT OF TEMPERATURE STRATIFICATION
Energy use
Comfort
IMPACT OF DIFF., GRILLES, & REGISTERS ON VSM’S
SELECTING DIFFUSERS FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY
Selecting diffusers for capacity
Selecting diffusers for reduced sound
Selecting diffusers for spread, throw, and pressure drop
Locations
SELECTING GRILLES FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY
(C) 2004 NATE All Rights Reserved
Page: 3
HVAC Efficiency - Senior
Selecting grilles for capacity
Selecting grilles for reduced sound
Selecting location
SELECTING REGISTERS FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY
Selecting registers for capacity
Selecting registers for reduced sound
Selecting registers for spread, throw, and pressure drop
Locations
Impact of registers on temperature stratification and energy use
DUCTS & FITTINGS - IMPACT ON ENERGY USE
Specifying physical dimensions
Sketching duct layout
Duct fitting equivalency - Equivalent Length to duct size
SPECIAL DUCTS & FITTINGS
Working drawings vs. Isometric drawings
Markings and abbreviations for duct fitting and manufacturing
Measurement for replacement of special duct or fitting
STATIC PRESSURE LOSSES
Energy impacts of fan motors with variable speed
Energy impacts on PSC fan motors
Filter grilles
Electronic Air Cleaner (EAC)
Electrostatic
Media type filters
Use of alerts / reminders to change filters
SELECTING HYDRONIC COMPONENTS
Selecting radiant output devices
Selecting different in-floor configurations
Selecting boiler temperature control devices
Selecting valves based on pressure drop / capacity
Selecting coils by capacity
Selecting pumps
Selecting pipe insulation
Selecting other distribution devices (hydronic specialties)
BLUEPRINT READING
Determination of dimension from scale blueprint / plans
Reading blueprints / plans
Visualizing duct layout from blueprints / plans
MECHANICAL CODE
EQUIPMENT ACCESS
Minimum clearance
Electrical disconnects
Fire dampers
REFRIGERANT LINE ROUTING
Support requirements
Inspection requirements
CONDENSATE DRAINS
Materials
Sizing
Location and routing
Clean outs and cut-offs
INDUSTRY STANDARDS
EQUIPMENT STANDARDS
Introduction to industry standards
ARI standards for ratings
SYSTEM STANDARDS
Introduction to industry standards
ASHRAE standards
SMACNA standards
(C) 2004 NATE All Rights Reserved
Page: 4
HVAC Efficiency - Senior
ACCA standards
CEE specification
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS - LIGHT COMMERCIAL
SPLIT SYSTEMS
System designs - closets, basements, etc.
Air distribution systems
Ventilation - fresh air
Ventilation - equipment
PACKAGED SYSTEMS
System designs
Economizers
Ventilation - equipment
AIR BALANCING
Duct sizing
Blower speed adjustments
Damper position adjustments
Measurement of air flow rate
Fan laws
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS - INCORRECT LOAD
CONSEQUENCES OF UNDER-SIZING
CONSEQUENCES OF OVER-SIZING
BIDS AND PROPOSALS
SYSTEM SIZING
Survey of requirements
Selecting equipment
Selecting accessories
PREPARATION FOR PROPOSAL
Understanding forms for proposals and bids
Understanding legal implications of a bid
EQUIPMENT SELECTION
CAPACITY
DESIGN HEATING LOAD
Total load
Sensible load
Latent load
CFM / FPM Requirements
GPM / PSI Requirements
Ventilation requirements
Matching of condenser and evaporator coil capacity - heat pumps
Impacts of heat recovery or energy recovery ventilators
Impacts of over-sizing and/or under-sizing
DESIGN COOLING LOAD
Total load
Sensible load
Latent load
CFM / FPM Requirements
GPM / PSI Requirements
Ventilation requirements
Impact of airflow on humidity removal
Matching of condenser and evaporator coil capacity
Use of thermostats to control humidity through airflow control
Impacts of heat recovery or energy recovery ventilators
Impacts of over-sizing and/or under-sizing
DESIGN VENTILATION LOAD
Total load
Sensible load
Latent load
CFM / FPM Requirements
(C) 2004 NATE All Rights Reserved
Page: 5
HVAC Efficiency - Senior
Ventilation requirements - natural / mechanical
Impact of airflow on humidity removal
Use of controls for humidity through airflow control
Impacts of heat recovery or energy recovery ventilators
Impacts of over-sizing and/or under-sizing
Impacts of night ventilation
Impacts of attic ventilation
Impacts of evaporative coolers
EFFICIENCY
SYSTEM EFFICIENCY
Steady state efficiency
Define ducts inside conditioned space
Ducts outside conditioned space
Ducted system gains / losses
Hydronic system gains / losses
HEATING EFFICIENCY
Gas furnace / boiler - Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE)
Efficiency gains with condensing furnaces vs. 80%
Comfort / efficiency gains with variable speed blower systems
Comfort / efficiency gains with two stage heating
Discussion of reduced comfort / efficiency of over-sizing heating systems
Impact of furnace fan
Oil furnace / boiler - combustion efficiency
Electric furnace / boiler efficiency
COOLING EFFICIENCY
Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER)
Importance of coil selection on efficiency and capacity (sensible/latent)
Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER)
Impact of furnace fan
CAPACITY CONTROLS
AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Constant fan speed selection - 1, 2, 3, 4
Variable fan speed selection
Thermostat control
CFM selection for humidity removal
Constant CFM per ton
Zoning control system
WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Constant pump speed selection
Variable pump speed selection
Zoning control system - valves or pumps
BOILER / FURNACE COMPONENTS
Constant firing rates
Variable firing rates
Electrical sequencing
Flow controls
COOLING COMPONENTS
Single compressor
Dual speed compressors
Unloading compressors
Multiple compressors
Variable speed compressors
Metering devices
LOW AMBIENT CONTROLS
HEATING
Outdoor reset control
Electric heating element sequencing
Electric heating element lockout
COOLING
(C) 2004 NATE All Rights Reserved
Page: 6
HVAC Efficiency - Senior
Variable condenser fan operation
On / off condenser fan
Two-stage air conditioner with variable speed fan
Bypass
AIR DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS
HEAT TRANSFER AND THE HEATING / COOLING CYCLE
Heat transfer and cooling
Refrigeration circuit - components
Dynamic analysis of temperatures and pressure in the refrigerant circuit.
Psychrometrics
Subcooling
Superheat
DUCT SYSTEMS
IMPACT ON ENERGY USE OF BASIC DUCT SYSTEMS
Overview of duct systems for split and package systems
Duct configuration - extended plenum
Duct configuration - reducing extended plenum
Duct configuration - perimeter radial
Duct configuration - perimeter loop
Duct configuration - overhead radial
Duct configuration - branching flexible
Duct configuration - concentric
IMPACT ON ENERGY USE OF DUCT LOCATION
Attic
Basement
Crawlspace
Slab
Roof
Furred down
Exposed
Chases
Inside the envelope - avoid non-insulated areas
BASIC ZONE SYSTEMS
Equipment zoned
Air side zoned
IMPACT ON ENERGY USE OF DUCT MATERIALS
Define / recognize ductboard
Define / recognize metal duct
Define / recognize flexible duct
Define / recognize PVC pipe
Insulating material
FITTING NOMENCLATURE
Define / recognize plenum
Define / recognize transition
Define / recognize elbow - 90 degrees and 45 degrees
Define / recognize round duct
Define / recognize rectangular duct
Define / recognize turning vanes
Return configurations - ducted, central, etc.
Define / recognize wye - rectangular and round
Define / recognize damper - rectangular and round
Sheet metal duct joints - "s" and drive, snaplock, button lock, etc.
IMPACT ON ENERGY USE OF DAMPERS
Balancing
Splitters
Economizers
Fresh air
Fire
(C) 2004 NATE All Rights Reserved
Page: 7
HVAC Efficiency - Senior
GRILLES
Types and uses
Selecting grilles by volume and velocity
Selecting grilles by purpose (floor, wall, and ceiling)
Proper installation techniques (follow installation instructions)
IMPACT ON ENERGY USE OF REGISTERS
Types and uses
Selecting registers
Selecting registers by use of fan specifications
Selecting registers by air spread and throw capacity
Proper installation techniques (follow installation instructions)
DIFFUSERS
Types and uses
Selecting diffusers
Selecting diffusers by use of fan specifications
Selecting diffusers by air spread and throw capacity
Proper installation techniques (follow installation instructions)
IMPACT ON ENERGY USE OF FILTRATION SYSTEMS
Filter access closures system
Media type filters
Electronic Air Cleaner (EAC)
Electrostatic filters - non-electric
Static pressure increases energy by ECM fan motors
VENTILATION SYSTEMS
Depressurization criteria
Draft of conditioned air into non-conditioned areas
Pressurization criteria
Forcing conditioned air into non-conditioned areas
Attic exhaust
Residential exhaust(s)
Lt. Commercial exhaust(s)
Heat / energy recovery ventilators
Infiltration
Passive venting
Soffits vents
Ridge vents
Gable vents
Power venting
HUMIDIFIERS
Fundamentals of operation
Types
Duct material requirements
Installation support
Installation location(s)
DUCT FABRICATION
DUCT FABRICATION EQUIPMENT
Ductboard tools - 90 V-groove, end cutoff, female shiplap, hole cutter, stapler, etc.
Flex tools - tensioning strap tools, knives, etc.
Metal tools - metal snips, sheers, benders, breaks, hand formers, calipers, rulers, stapler, etc. FABRICATION TECHNIQUES FOR METAL DUCT
Seam types - pittsburgh and snap lock
Joint types - gasketed connectors (J or G), drive cleats, reinforced drive cleats, "s" slip, and standing "s"
slip
Use of strength breaks in rectangular duct
FABRICATION TECHNIQUES FOR DUCTBOARD
Layout of duct fitting
Groove cutting - hand / machine
Proper use of joint tape
Approved type of joint tape
(C) 2004 NATE All Rights Reserved
Page: 8
HVAC Efficiency - Senior
Foil faced
Mastic type
UL181
DUCT INSTALLATION
FIELD CONSTRUCTION / INSTALLATION
Ductboard installation technique
Techniques for joining dissimilar duct
Duct of alternate materials - wood, aluminum, etc.
INSTALLING METAL DUCT
Assembly methods for rectangular duct
Installation technique - rectangular metal
Assembly methods for round duct
Installation technique - round metal
Hanging ductwork
Sealing metal duct
Insulation - internal and external
INSTALLING FLEXIBLE DUCT
Assembly methods
Appropriate length
Follow installation instructions
Flexible duct joints
Hanging flexible duct
Allowed deflection
Unacceptable deflection
Installation technique - flex duct
Sealing flexible duct
INSTALLING DUCTBOARD
Assembly methods for ductboard - supports
Installation technique -ductboard
Hanging methods for ductboard
Sealing ductboard
DUCT SEALING MATERIALS
Duct mastic
Approved tapes
INSTALL. GRILLE, REGISTER, DIFFUSER, & DAMPER
Mounting to ductwork
Securing methods
CHASES USED AS DUCTS
Floor joists as air ducts
Vertical chases
Floor joists as air ducts - impact on energy use
Vertical chases - impact on energy use
RECONNECTING DUCT WHEN REPLACING EQUIPMENT
Reconnecting metal duct
Reconnecting flexible duct
Reconnecting ductboard duct
INSTALLATION OF PLENUMS AND DUCT
Sizing plenums for physical fit
Types and styles of plenums selected for oil furnace
Insulation of plenums and ducts
AIRFLOW PRINCIPLES
AIRFLOW
Velocity
Static pressure
Airflow volume - CFM / SCFM (Standard Air CFM)
BLOWERS AND FANS
Define sequence of operation
Air side requirements
(C) 2004 NATE All Rights Reserved
Page: 9
HVAC Efficiency - Senior
AIRFLOW MEASUREMENTS
TOOLS
Using temperatures to determine airflow
Using manufacturer's airflow charts and/or tables
Measuring total supply and return airflow
AIRFLOW VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS
Pitot tube and manometer in measuring static pressure
Discharge velocity equipment
Static pressure drop across evaporator coil
Fan laws using known static pressure drop at specific flow(s)
Velometer - electronic and mechanical
Anemometer
Velocity measurement procedures
Gauge calibration
Airflow
Velocity
AIRFLOW PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS
Overview of static pressure measurements
Inclined manometer
Diaphragm type differential pressure gauge
U-tube manometer
Electronic manometer / pressure measurement
Gauge / meter calibration
Absolute vs. Gauge Pressure
Static pressure
Air pressure measurement terminology
Velocity pressure
Total pressure
AIR VOLUME MEASUREMENTS
Airflow hood
Formulae for determining CFM of air
Formulae for weight of air
Locations for air volume measurements
Airflow volume - CFM / SCFM (Standard Air CFM)
Powered flow hood test
Flow plate
DUCT LEAKAGE MEASUREMENTS (ALLOWANCE)
Duct leakage allowance to outdoors
Duct leakage allowance from outdoors
Duct leakage allowance to ambient
Duct leakage allowance from ambient
Total duct leakage allowance
AIR BALANCING
GATHERING DESIGN INFORMATION
Interpreting plans
Interpreting specifications
Interpreting equipment information
Interpreting control data
Interpreting as-built plans
PREPARATION OF SYSTEM FOR AIR TESTS
Locating registers, grilles, equipment, controls, and dampers in building walk-through
Setting dampers for tests
Setting thermostat for tests
Checking for proper fan operation and rotation
Checking for proper static pressure and temperature
PROCEDURES FOR CONDUCTING AIR TESTS
Measurements of each supply outlet - total readings
Measurements of each return inlet - total readings
MAKING ADJUSTMENTS
(C) 2004 NATE All Rights Reserved
Page: 10
HVAC Efficiency - Senior
Adjust airflow to achieve required total airflow
Re-measure total supply and return grille airflow
Adjust dampers to obtain design airflow
Re-measure total airflow to verify that it is within specification
FINAL TEST
Comparing manufacturer's equipment information with test results
Record sheave, pulley, and belt sizes data
Test and record full load motor amperes
Test and record voltage
Test and record motor and fan RPM
Test and record supply and return static pressures
Test and record supply and return air temperatures - wet bulb and dry bulb
COMPLETION OF APPROPRIATE FORMS
HVAC system report
System diagrams
Duct traverse or data pulley forms
Instrument list - including calibration dates
HVAC SYSTEM ANALYSIS
NOISE PROBLEMS
Interpreting supply / return air volume
Interpreting supply / return air velocity
Noise problems
Blower cavitation
Oil canning
Motor / belt noise
Vibration
HIGH UTILITY BILLS
Understanding of utility bills – interpreting energy usage
Assess customer practices or characteristics impacting energy use
WIDE TEMPERATURE SWINGS
Interpreting supply / return air temperature
Interpreting supply / return air volume
Evaluating duct leakage
Evaluating duct insulation
Envelope evaluation
Thermostat air sensing
Assess thermal reasons for temperature stratification
Understanding system interactions
Locational impact of supply registers and return
Evaluating throw and/or velocity
SINGLE/MULTIPLE AREA IS HOT OR COLD
Interpreting supply / return air temperature
Interpreting supply / return air volume
Evaluating duct leakage
Evaluating duct insulation
Envelope evaluation
Thermostat air sensing
Understanding system interactions
Locational impact of supply registers and return
Evaluating throw and/or velocity
INDOOR AIR QUALITY
Number of air changes per hour
Source control
Assess fan operation (ex. continuous)
Type of filter
Filter maintenance practices
Humidity or mold issues
ANALYZING REPORTED SYMPTOMS IN COOLING
POOR COOLING
(C) 2004 NATE All Rights Reserved
Page: 11
HVAC Efficiency - Senior
Interpreting supply / return air temperature
Interpreting supply / return air volume
Interpreting supply / return air velocity
Determining and interpreting the sensible heat ratio
Evaluating duct leakage
Evaluating envelope infiltration
Using wet bulb temperature drop across evaporator coil
HUMIDITY PROBLEMS
Interpreting wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures
Interpreting supply / return air volume
Determining and interpreting the sensible heat ratio
Evaluating duct leakage
Evaluating envelope infiltration
DRAFTY
Assess return and supply issues
Interpreting supply / return air temperature
Interpreting supply / return air volume
Interpreting supply / return air velocity
Evaluating envelope infiltration
ANALYZING REPORTED SYMPTOMS IN HEATING
POOR HEATING
Interpreting supply / return air temperature
Interpreting supply / return air volume
Interpreting supply / return air velocity
Evaluating duct leakage
Using temperature rise across the heat exchanger
HUMIDITY PROBLEMS
Interpreting wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures
Interpreting supply / return air volume
Determining the need for additional humidity
Evaluating duct leakage
DRAFTY
Interpreting supply / return air temperature
Interpreting supply / return air volume
Interpreting supply / return air velocity
DEALING WITH CONFLICTS
CODES
Codes vs. standards
STANDARDS
Standards vs. codes
BUILDING SCIENCE
Building science vs. codes or standards
HYDRONICS DISTRIBUTION
HEATING COMPONENTS
PROPER SELECTION
Baseboard units (finned, cast, radiant, etc.)
Kickspace heaters
Types of unit heaters
Radiant ceiling heating or cooling panels
Duct mounted heating coils
Hot water coil air handlers
Circulation pumps
Sizing of zoning distribution
Placement and location of types of heating units
Placement of air vents (manual or auto)
Radiant floor heating – how to maximize comfort with proper insulation with installation
PROPER SIZING
Baseboard units (finned, cast, radiant, etc.)
(C) 2004 NATE All Rights Reserved
Page: 12
HVAC Efficiency - Senior
Kickspace heaters
Types of unit heaters
Radiant ceiling heating or cooling panels
Duct mounted heating coils
Hot water coil air handlers
Circulation pumps
Sizing of zoning distribution
Placement and location of types of heating units
Placement of air vents (manual or auto)
Radiant floor heating – how to maximize comfort with proper insulation with installation
PROPER INSTALLATION
Baseboard units (finned, cast, radiant, etc.)
Kickspace heaters
Types of unit heaters
Radiant ceiling heating or cooling panels
Duct mounted heating coils
Hot water coil air handlers
Circulation pumps
Sizing of zoning distribution
Placement and location of types of heating units
Placement of air vents (manual or auto)
Radiant floor heating – how to maximize comfort with proper insulation with installation
AUXILLARY COMPONENTS
Location and selection of circulators
Location and sizing of expansion tanks
Location of air separators
Location of pressure reducing valve
Location of backflow preventer
Location and sizing of relief valves
Location of zone valves
Location of flow check devices
Location of water treatment access
Installation of indirect water heaters
Installation of low water cutoffs
PIPING SYSTEMS
Installation of series-loop system (benefits and limitations)
Installation of one-pipe system (benefits and limitations)
Installation of two-pipe system (reverse return) (benefits and limitations)
Installation of primary / secondary piping system (benefits and limitations)
Installation of multiple zone systems (benefits and limitations)
Installation of system bypass and boiler bypass piping
Installation of boiler piping (near, manifold piping, hartford loop)
WATER MEASUREMENTS
Pressure requirements
GPM requirement
Temperature drop
INSTALLING THERMOSTATS
Locating and mounting
Wiring electromechanical thermostats
Wiring electronic thermostats
Programming of electronic thermostats
Installation of outdoor reset controls
SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
GAS HEATING
COMPONENTS
Define heat exchanger
Define limit controls
Define vent system
Define burners
(C) 2004 NATE All Rights Reserved
Page: 13
HVAC Efficiency - Senior
Define fan controls
Define gas valve
Combustion air proving (pressure) switch
Hydronic controls
OPERATION
Define combustion air system
Air side requirements
Wet side requirements
Define sequence of operation
OIL HEATING
COMPONENTS
Define heat exchanger
Define limit controls
Define vent system
Define oil burners
Retention head burners energy efficiency gains
Hydronic controls
OPERATION
Define combustion air system
Air side requirements
Wet side requirements
Define sequence of operation
AIR CONDITIONING / HEAT PUMPS
COMPONENTS
Define evaporator
Define condenser
Define compressor
Define metering device
Reversing valves
Defrost controls
OPERATION
Define sequence of operation
Airside requirements
Metering device performance
ELECTRONIC CONTROLS
ELECTRONIC CONTROLLERS
Input / output operations
Logic
Electronic interface
Tap boards
ELECTRONIC THERMOSTATS
Selecting electronic thermostats
Electronic thermostat operation
ZONE CONTROLS
Selecting zone controls
Typical zone control logic
Bypass dampers
Types of zone controls
ELECTRONIC COMPRESSOR CONTROLS
Compressor staging controls
Compressor time delays
ELECTRONIC TIMERS
Blower delay timers
ECONOMIZER CONTROLLERS
Dry bulb controllers
Enthalpy controllers
Potentiometers
Sensors
(C) 2004 NATE All Rights Reserved
Page: 14
HVAC Efficiency - Senior
ELECTROMECHANICAL SENSING CONTROLS
ELECTROMECHANICAL WALL THERMOSTATS
Thermostat types and operation
Thermostat terminals and wiring
Selecting wall thermostats and sub-bases
Using electromechanical thermostats
ELECTROMECHANICAL TEMPERATURE CONTROLS
Bimetal controls
Disc type temperature limit controls
Electric heat high limits
Fuses and fuse links
Motor overloads
Fossil fuel kits
PRESSURE CONTROLS
Disc type pressure controls and hi/low controls
Selection of disc type pressure controls
Using disc type pressure controls
Low ambient cooling controls
ELECTROMECHANICAL OUTDOOR THERMOSTATS
Outdoor thermostats
Outdoor thermostat wiring
TROUBLESHOOTING SEQUENCE OF OPERATION
Check for proper sequence of operation
Interpreting system at sequence interruption
ANALYZING REPORTED SYMPTOMS
Insufficient / no heat
Short cycle
Humidity problems
Drafty
Noise problems
System runs continuously
High utility bills
Wide swings in room temperatures
Air quality
Noisy conditions due to air in piping
SYSTEM AIR SIDE DIAGNOSTICS
Temperature checks
Check system static pressure
Check system velocity
ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT CHECKS
Supply voltage
Indoor blowers
Wall thermostat
Transformers
Electronic controllers - input / output
Flame rectification
Pilot ignition
Thermocouple / power pile generator
Fuel valve
ELECTRICAL COMPONENT CHECKS
Thermostat
Transformers
Fuses and breakers
Relays and contactors
Capacitors
Pressure controls
Limit controls
Centrifugal switch
Door interlock switch
(C) 2004 NATE All Rights Reserved
Page: 15
HVAC Efficiency - Senior
Circulators
Zone valves
Boiler water controls (aquastats)
REPAIRS
Electrical wiring
Electrical components
Fuel supply
Flue stack / venting system
Condensate / drain system
REPLACEMENTS
Transformers
Relays and contactors
Indoor blowers
Capacitors
Heat exchanger
Fuel valve
Safety circuit switches
Draft motor
Pilot / igniters assemblies
Flame sensing rod
Circulators
Zone valves
Boiler water controls
VENT SYSTEM CHECKS
Natural / gravity draft
Forced draft
Induced draft
DIAGNOSING COMBUSTION PROBLEMS
Flame "roll-out"
Flame "lift-off"
Discolored flame
Intermittent flame
Partial burner flame
Delayed ignition
Carbon build up
Flashback
Trip on high limit
Carbon Monoxide
Carbon Dioxide checks for efficiency
Interpreting a smoke test
Balancing excess air and the smoke test
Diagnosing air leaks and efficiency loss
Diagnosing low draft-stack, overfire
Diagnosing excessive draft-stack, overfire
Diagnosing excessive draft on off cycle
Interpreting steady state efficiency measurements - stack loss calculations
Interpreting oxygen content for combustion diagnostics
Duct leakage induced combustion venting problems
Heating plants and water heaters
Problems with / caused by attic fans
LOW VOLTAGE CIRCUITS
Voltage tests
Control string analysis
Low voltage troubleshooting
Troubleshooting equipment with electronic devices
Troubleshooting with schematics
Troubleshooting without schematics
Current tests
Equipment continuity tests
(C) 2004 NATE All Rights Reserved
Page: 16
HVAC Efficiency - Senior
Ground tests
LINE VOLTAGE CIRCUITS
Voltage tests
Current tests
Component tests
Circuit tracing line voltages
Troubleshooting with schematics
Troubleshooting without schematics
Equipment continuity tests
Ground tests
FUEL PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS
Manometer
Dial gauge
LEAK DETECTION - FUEL LINES
Leak detection solution
Electronic leak detectors
FLUE GAS ANALYSIS
O2 measurements
Carbon Dioxide measurements
LEAK DETECTION - FLUE PASSAGES
Carbon Monoxide detector - electrical
Carbon Monoxide detector - manual
NOISE PROBLEMS
Interpreting supply / return air volume
Interpreting supply / return air velocity
Noise problems - air and water
Blower and pump cavitation
Oil canning
Motor / belt noise
Vibration
HIGH UTILITY BILLS
Baseline utility expenses in relation to heating / cooling expenses
Interpreting supply / return air and water temperature
Interpreting supply / return air and water volume
Interpreting supply / return air and water pressures
Evaluating duct leakage
Evaluating duct insulation
Envelope insulation
Envelope infiltration
Thermostat air sensing
WIDE TEMPERATURE SWINGS
Interpreting supply / return air and water temperature
Interpreting supply / return air and water volume
Interpreting supply / return air and water pressures
Evaluating duct leakage
Evaluating duct insulation
Envelope insulation
Envelope infiltration
Thermostat air sensing
AREA(S) BEING HOT / COLD
Interpreting supply / return air and water temperature (TD)
Interpreting supply / return air and water volume
Interpreting supply / return air and water pressures
Evaluating duct leakage
Evaluating duct insulation
Envelope infiltration
Envelope insulation
Thermostat air sensing
Zone controls - dampers and valves
(C) 2004 NATE All Rights Reserved
Page: 17
HVAC Efficiency - Senior
Circulator(s)
Blower(s)
Circulator controls
Outdoor reset control
Evaporator coil temperature drop
INDOOR AIR QUALITY
Number of air changes per hour
Source control
Economizer operations
HUMIDITY PROBLEMS
Interpreting wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures
Interpreting supply / return air volume
Determining the need for additional humidity
Evaluating duct leakage
Evaluating envelope infiltration
DRAFTS
Interpreting supply / return air temperature
Interpreting supply / return air volume
Interpreting supply / return air velocity
Evaluating envelope infiltration
REFRIGERANT SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS
Using superheat
Using subcooling
Refrigerant charge specification
Refrigerant charge adjustment
Energy impacts of undercharging
Energy impacts of overcharging
Energy impacts of metering devices - TXV / fixed
Analyzing overall refrigerant circuit performance
Analyzing effects of refrigerant circuits on reversing valve operation
Locating problems based on refrigerant circuit temperatures
INDOOR AIR / ENVIRONMENT QUALITY
DESIGNING FOR ACCEPTABLE IAQ / IEQ
UNDERSTANDING VENTILATION AND ACCEPTABLE IAQ
Requirement for mechanical and natural ventilation
INSTALLING IAQ / IEQ SYSTEMS
PREVENTING RE-ENTRAINMENT & CROSS-CONTAMINATION
OPERATING & MAINTAINING IAQ / IEQ SYSTEMS
FILTRATION SYSTEMS
RECOVERY VENTILATORS
ULTRAVIOLET C (UVC)
EXHAUST/VENTILATION FANS
TROUBLESHOOTING IAQ / IEQ SYSTEMS
REVIEW PLANS
CONDUCT INTERVIEWS
DIAGNOSTICS
DOCUMENT RESULTS
IAQ / IEQ CONTROL STRATEGIES
POLLUTANT PATHWAYS
Doors
Windows
Elevator shafts
Chimneys
Garages
Plumbing stacks
Stairs
Ducts
Chases
(C) 2004 NATE All Rights Reserved
Page: 18
HVAC Efficiency - Senior
Basements
SOURCE CONTROL - REMOVE / CONTAIN
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) - Formaldehyde, Ozone, Tobacco Smoke
Inorganic Compounds - NOx, Radon, CO, CO2
Moisture
Biological
FILTRATION
Particulate
Gases
DILUTION AIR
LOCAL EXHAUST
Bathrooms
Kitchens
Copiers
WHOLE HOUSE VENTILATION
PLANNED MAINTENANCE
PLANNED MAINTENANCE
ELECTRICAL
Connection checks
Control checks
General wiring
Induced draft motor
Forced draft motors
Supply air motor
Operation sequence
AIR DISTRIBUTION
Fan blades / blower scroll
Diffusers, grilles, and registers
Lubrication of blowers
Coil cleaning
Filter cleaning / replacement
Duct leakage check
Velocity
Volume
HYDRONIC
Pumps
Lubrication
Valves
Vents
Relief
Flow rates
Pressure
Expansion tank
Water treatment
Pump strainers
FIRE SIDE
Oil burner assembly service
Sectional cleaning
Gas burner assembly service
Performance checks - heat exchanger temperature rise
Flue / vent stack inspections
Combustion air supply check and adjustment
Fuel supply connections
Sequence of operation checks
Air intake / exhaust
Flame
Ignition
CO test
Draft test
(C) 2004 NATE All Rights Reserved
Page: 19
HVAC Efficiency - Senior
CAZ Test
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
Using superheat
Using subcooling
Refrigerant charge specification
Refrigerant charge adjustment
Energy impacts of undercharging
Energy impacts of overcharging
Energy impacts of metering devices - TXV / fixed
Analyzing overall refrigerant circuit performance
Analyzing effects of refrigerant circuits on reversing valve operation
Locating problems based on refrigerant circuit temperatures
(C) 2004 NATE All Rights Reserved
Page: 20
HVAC Efficiency - Senior