Port Forwarding & Case Study
Introduction
This is to test the port forwarding on most of the routers supplied by TalkTalk. The case study looks
at the wider picture, not just setting up port forwarding (in this case on a Huawei HG523A router),
but also testing with applications, configuring of PC firewalls etc.
Note: most routers do not allow ‘Loop Back’ access so you will need to access the device only from
an external network when using the external internet address. You will not be able to access the
external IP address from the internal IP address, when the external address is port forwarded to
another local device. Most routers prevent ‘Loop Back’ as an additional security measure.
If you have a Smartphone temporarily disable the WiFi and turn on Mobile Data, which will enable
you to test access to the device via your mobile phone network.
Basic order of work required
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Add the port forwarding rule(s) to the router
Reboot the router
Add the required inbound rule(s) to the firewall
Launch the application
Test it locally from another device connected to your router's network (i.e. a device with a
192.168.1.x address)
6. Test it with http://www.yougetsignal.com/tools/open-ports/ and only go to step 7, if it
reports ALL of the ports as OPEN. You will have to run it once for each port you are trying
to use.
7. Test using other people on the internet
Sections in this document
Case Study
• Test Setup
• FTP Server Settings
• FTP – active & passive modes
Other sections in the document:• Port forwarding on Huawei routers (not HG635)
• Windows 7 firewall settings
• Test Locally
• Test from Internet
• DDNS
• Port Forwarding to a port that is intercepted by the router
• Apple MACs running Windows applications
• Port Fowarding on other routers (all D-Link, HG633 & HG635)
• Universal Plug and Play (UPnP)
Page 1 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
Case Study
This case study looks not only at port forwarding, but applications on the local PC that require the
port forwarding, plus adding rules to the firewall that runs locally on that PC. It also deals with how
to test this (crucially from the internet, as well as locally on your router's network).
Test setup
FTP server running on Windows 7 Home Premium (SP1) : FileZilla Server V0.9.45
FTP client running on Android V2.3.6 : FTPCafe FTP client
Page 2 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
FTP Server Settings
Set up a User account &password plus a home directory.
Active or Passive FTP mode
The control of the FTP transfer is always done using TCP port 21, the port used to carry the data
transfer varies on the FTP mode used. There are two modes used to transfer the data from the server
to the client, active or passive mode.
Active mode always uses TCP port 20 and the data transfer session is initiated by the server to the
client. The client requests active mode by sending the PORT command to the server. It will tell the
server to start a session to the IP address & TCP port, that it gives the server. This will therefore be
initiated from the PC and will automatically be allowed through its firewall. It will still need some
port forwarding for the traffic from the client to the server, but as it is a static port, this is not a
problem.
If the client on the other hand sends a PASV command to request passive mode, the server if it
accepts this, will instruct the client to establish a new session to the required IP address & TCP port
number. This port number is dynamically assigned & will be greater than 1024. This mode is
regarded as more secure than active mode, but unless the router's port forwarding responded in a
dynamic fashion, it will fail at this point.
From my tests the HG523a will allow passive FTP mode transfers to pass through it correctly, even
though the FTP-DATA session is initiated from the client over the internet.
Page 3 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
Router login
To do this work, you will need to log in to your router. To do this browse to your router at:http://192.168.1.1
At the prompt:-
Enter your admin username & password. Unless you have changed this, the default is normally:Username : admin
password : admin
Page 4 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
Port Forwarding on Huawei routers (& some DSL-3780s)
Log in to the router & go into advanced mode. From there go to:Advanced > NAT > Port Mapping
Either select an existing “Application”, or use the “Customization” option. In this case the FTP
Server application can be used, but the IP address (maybe 192.168.1.2) for the device hosting the
FTP server will need to be added in the “Internal host” field:-
If both external start & end ports are left at 21 this will work in passive mode OK.
Page 5 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
Note when adding this forwarding rule you will see this box:-
Click OK to that.
Click “Submit” & reboot the router.
For all other routers, please see this section.
Page 6 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
Windows 7 Firewall settings
Go to:-
Create a new inbound rule:-
Click “Next” in the above screen, then on this next screen browse to the program's executable file.
In the case of the FileZilla Server, allow the server application (not the interface to the server):-
Page 7 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
Click Next, then on this screen tick “Allow connection”:-
Then click next and on the next screen set as appropriate:-
Page 8 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
Click “Next” again, give it a unique name & click “Complete”:-
It will now be displayed in the list of inbound rules under the name you allocated to it.
Page 9 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
Test Locally
The next thing is to test that the client when connected to the same subnet can access the FTP
Server on 192.168.1.3 and download a file. If all is OK, then setup the port forwarding on the
router.
Page 10 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
Testing from internet
Note: when testing, you must have your server software running (e.g. FTP or Minecraft server
software etc). Otherwise the port will always be closed.
There is a website that can target your WAN IP address automatically & allow you to specify a port
to check. It will report if it is open or closed. This should prove both your forwarding rule & your
inbound rule within the firewall on your PC. This site is:http://www.yougetsignal.com/tools/open-ports/
When you visit it from a device connected to your router (wired or wi-fi), it will populate the form
with your WAN IP address & port 80. Change the port number to the one you want to test & click
the "Check" button:-
The example below when the FTP server forwarding rule was working correctly:-
Once that is OK finally test from a PC or phone that is not connected to your router's network
(wired or wireless), but has access to the internet from another broadband connection or 3G or 4G
etc.
Page 11 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
Note: most routers do not allow ‘Loop Back’ access so you will need to access the device only from
an external network when using the external internet address. You will not be able to access the
external IP address from the internal IP address, when the external address is port forwarded to
another local device. Most routers prevent ‘Loop Back’ as an additional security measure.
So if the device being forwarded to is 192.168.1.3 and the device making the test is 192.168.1.63,
this device will not be able to make a test to the router's WAN IP address.
If you have a Smartphone temporarily disable the WiFi and turn on Mobile Data, which will enable
you to test access to the device via your mobile phone network. Alternatively you could use a
wireless hot spot.
As far as this case study is concerned an FTP client called “FTP Cafe” was run on an Android
phone via the 3G network.
To test from a browser (if applicable) you must specify the port number e.g. port 81:http://92.92.92.1:81
DDNS
TalkTalk like most ISPs only offer static WAN IP addresses in their business packages & even then
possible only as an extra option. DDNS however, gives you a static URL, which automatically
updates itself with your new WAN IP address. This allows you to direct the client on the internet
accessing your server software on local network via port forwarding, to target the DDNS URL,
rather than your WAN IP address, which will change from time to time.
For more details on DDNS, see this TalkTalk help page:http://help2.talktalk.co.uk/using-ddns
Testing via DDNS:To test via DDNS originate a request from the internet (not from your local network {Loopback
access will not work}). If you are using a browser to access an IP camera etc use your DDNS URL
followed by colon (:) and the port number. The example below shows someone trying to access port
81 via DDNS:http://xxxxxxx.dyndns.com:81/
If you are still having problems, ensure that the IP address used by the DDNS provider is correct.
Page 12 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
Port Forwarding to a port that is intercepted by the router
If you have a PC at say 192.168.1.100 which is hosting a webserver and you want to access this
from the internet, normal port forwarding will fail.
Your webserver is expecting an incoming connection on port 80.
So you make your connection attempt from the internet to:http://a.b.c.d
where a.b.c.d is the external or WAN IP address of the router.
The router's management system is also a webserver, so your connection attempt (as it is targeting
port 80), will be intercepted by the router's webserver. This is why you might see the router's login
screen & your connection never reaches the web server on your PC.
What you need to do is choose an unused TCP port number (maybe 8888), then create a new port
forwarding rule and translate the external port 8888 to the internal port 80 (called PAT or Port
Address Translation) and point this to the PC running the webserver.
What you need is a rule like this:-
Then from the internet try a browser connection to:http://a.b.c.d:8888
Page 13 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
Apple MACs running Windows applications
Apple MACs for sometime now have been able to run Windows applications via the “Parallels
Desktop” software:http://www.parallels.com/uk/products/desktop/
There are problems running certain Windows applications (e.g. Minecraft server), because these
applications may not open the ports correctly when using “Parallels”. This will mean that port
forwarding might not work, unless this is done correctly.
Page 14 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
Port Forwarding on other routers
This will depend on the make & model of router that you have. The following are included in this
guide. Once the PC firewall & port forwarding is all done, see the section on testing from the
internet.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Huawei & some D-Link DSL-3780 variants – (used in this case study)
D-Link DSL routers (not DSL-3780)
D-Link DSL-3780 variants with D-Link style interface
Huawei HG635 Super Router & possibly HG633
Page 15 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
D-Link DSL routers (not DSL-3780)
Log in to the router, then click on the “Advanced tab at the top and “Port Forwarding” on the left:-
Try leaving the “Connection” as PVC0 but this could need changing to PVC1.
There is no need to make any firewall changes within the router.
Once the changes are complete, click “Apply” & then “Reboot” on the left.
Page 16 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
D-Link DSL-3780
This is a bit of a weird router, in so much as some versions, once you get past the summary screens
into "Advanced" mode have the Huawei "Look and feel" interface and some go into the more
traditional D-Link interface. If your variant is of the "Huawei" interface and you should be able to
follow my guidelines for Huawei routers.
With this variant of the DSL-3780, you have to set up port forwarding in two places:1. The actual port forwarding rules (called “Virtual Servers”)
2. The firewall (this is only part of the firewall, the section required to be modified is called
“Applications”)
With either part you will first need to log in to the router.
Page 17 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
Virtual Servers
Follow these instructions below taking particular notice of the “interface” option. This should not
be left as WAN, but change it to PVC1. You can replace the IP/port number with whatever ones you
need.
Click on the “Advanced” tab along the top and down the left hand side, click on “Virtual Servers”
(no Port Forwarding option on this router):-
Page 18 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
To configure the port forwarding on this router:Tick to enable virtual server rules
Name: Enter what ever name you wish
Interface: PVC1
Internal IP: 192.168.1.2 (this is the IP address of the device you are forwarding to)
Internal startport: 80 (start port of a range, or just the one port you want to forward)
Internal endport: 80 (end port of a range, or just the one port you want to forward)
External startport: 80 (start port of a range, or just the one port you want to forward)
External endport: 80 (end port of a range, or just the one port you want to forward)
Protocol type: All
Time: Disable
Click “Add/Apply".
Now go to “Applications” shown on the next page.
Page 19 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
Applications
With the DSL-3780 you may also have to open up the ports on it's own firewall in addition to the
firewall on the device you are attempting to forward these ports to.
This is labelled as applications (right underneath virtual server).
Page 20 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
Typical settings:Enable Application : Enabled
Name : MyApplication
Trigger Port Start : 80
Trigger Port End : 80
Trigger Traffic Protocol Type : All Protocol
Open Port : 80
Open Traffic Protocol Type : All Protocol
Click “Add/Apply”.
Then reboot the router.
Page 21 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
HG635 Super Router & possibly HG633
This is different to other routers, because instead of pointing it to an IP address, you point it to a
“known device” which is identified by it's unique MAC address. First log in to the router.
Select “Internet” from the tabs across the top and then select “Port Forwarding”. Expand “Port
Mapping” and select “New Port Mapping”.
There are to ways to do this, using a predefined application setting that will forward the necessary
ports, or by adding a port mapping application, specifying the ports to forward yourself.
Via an application
1. Enter a name for this rule in the “Mapping Name” field.
2. Choose your application from the “Application” dropdown box
3. Specify the PC, phone, tablet etc to forward to by selecting it from the “Internal Host”
dropdown box:-
Page 22 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
Add a port mapping application
If your application is not listed, in the “Application” dropdown box, you will need to know what
ports that you have to forward for this to work.
1. Enter a name for this rule in the “Mapping Name” field (e.g. “Test”).
2. Click “Add a port mapping application
To configure this follow this procedure. You will see this dialogue box presented to you
Page 23 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
The “Name” field will automatically be set to the name that you used for the “Mapping Name” field
in the initial Port Mapping screen in step 1 above (e.g. “Test”).
Set the “External port” boxes to be the port number coming in from the internet that you want to
forward on to your device. This will most likely be one port number, if so enter it in both boxes. If
you have a consecutive range of ports e.g. 7700 – 7708, then put 7700 in the first box & 7708 in the
second. If you have a list of ports to forward that are not consecutive (perhaps 190, 375 & 3000)
then create 3 totally separate rules for them. Repeat these for the internal ports unless you need to
“port translate” as well:-
The “Protocol” field requires a slight knowledge of the TCP/IP. All applications on a device (e.g
PC, laptop, phone or tablet etc) have these ports associated with them. These applications sit in a
layered approach above the IP address layer. In between them & the IP layer, are two protocols
(TCP & UDP). Each port must go via TCP or UDP to get to the IP layer, it is these two protocols
that need to be set in the “Protocol field” above.
Application 1 (e.g. FTP)
Application 2 (e.g. Voice over IP client phone)
TCP
UDP
IP addresses
The options here are: TCP, UDP or TCP/UDP.
The last option is used when some ports are allowed to use both TCP and UDP. However, if you are
not 100% sure which protocol your ports use, then select TCP/UDP.
Once this stage is complete, click the “Save” button.
Page 24 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
Internal Host
It does not matter now if you have configured the ports to forward by simply selecting one of the
pre-defined applications from the “Application” dropdown box, or you have gone for the more
complex “Add port mapping application” approach.
This rule must now be pointed to the device connected locally to your router (wireless or wired).
This is simply done by selecting the required device in the “Internal Host” dropdown box. So long
as that device has connected previously to the HG635 router, it should be listed in there.
If it is not listed in there, you will need to find out the MAC (Media Access Control – nothing to do
with Apple Mac products) address (see my blog on IP addresses & ports as this explains what a
MAC address is). Once you know the MAC address, do not use the “Internal Host” dropdown box
above, but click on the “Add device” link below the dropdown box.
This is shown below:-
Page 25 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
Give it a meaningful name for the “Device Name” field – e.g. MyLaptop
Set the “Device Type dropdown box to one of the following options:Laptop computer
Desktop computer
Smartphone
Tablet
IP set top box
IP camera
IP phone
Game machine
Unrecognised device
Finally click the “Save” button.
Page 26 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
Port Forwarding Summary
Once all is done, you might see a summary page like this, but substituted with your applications:-
Reboot the router
Once all of the port mapping rules have been completed & saved, you must reboot the router.
Page 27 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015
Port Forwarding & Case Study
Universal Plug and Play
UPnP means that a device can open the ports it needs as it wants to, and it can close them
afterwards, nice and safe and very automatic.
Port forwarding would only open those very same ports and keep them open even when the device
was switched off, not as safe but will speed things up for that device as the router 'just knows'
already (the entries in its routing table) what port/IP this traffic is destined for, whether the device is
switched on and listening or not.
Some devices allow the use of UpnP, this can be be enabled within the router. To do this log into the
router and follow the brief guide below:Huawei routers
Advanced Mode > Advanced > UPnP
D-Link routers
Advanced mode > Advanced > Advanced LAN > UPnP
D-Link DSL-3780
Advanced mode > Advanced > Network Tools > Network Tools - UPNP & DNLA > UPNP
Settings
Huawei HG635
Home Network > LAN Interface > Universal Plug and Play
Page 28 of 28
Date : 27/04/2015