Using the OpenStep Desktop
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 1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
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Contents
Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xxxi
1. Starting and Ending a Work Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-1
Logging In and Starting the OpenStep Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-2
Your Workspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-2
Screen Saver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-4
Adjusting Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-4
Using the Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-5
Basic Mouse Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-6
Buttons, Text Fields, and Sliders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-6
Choosing Commands From Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Clicking for Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
Getting Help by Topic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15
Buttons in the Help Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16
Ending Your Work Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16
iii
2. Working With Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-1
Types of Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-1
Selecting a Window to Work In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-4
Reordering Windows That Overlap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-6
More Ways to Reorder Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-7
Moving a Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-8
Resizing a Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-9
Scrolling to See More . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
How to Scroll—A Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
Miniaturizing a Window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
Closing a Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
3. Using the File Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-1
File System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-2
As Seen in the File Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-3
Opening a Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-5
Opening a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-7
Which Application Opens a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Icons in the File System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Browsing Files and Folders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
Listing Files and Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
What You See in the Listing View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
Stocking the Shelf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
Opening Folders and Files by Typing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
Selecting Several Files and Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
iv
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Opening a Folder in Its Own Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25
File Packages—Files That Are Really Folders . . . . . . . . . . . 3-27
Finding Files and Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28
Shortcuts to Typing Path Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-30
Options for Searching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-31
Personalizing Your File Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-32
Network Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-35
4. Working With Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-1
Starting an OpenStep Application From the Dock . . . . . . . . . .
4-1
Running Several Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-3
Switching to Another Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-4
Hiding an Application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-6
Customizing the Application Dock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-7
When You Want to Locate a Docked Application . . . . . . . .
4-9
Starting an Application Automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Requesting Services From Other Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Quitting an Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
When the Quit Command Fails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14
OpenStep Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14
5. Creating and Saving Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-1
Creating a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-1
Opening a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-3
Saving a New File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-4
Guidelines for Naming Files and Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-6
Contents
v
Tricks in the Name Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-6
Saving Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-7
When You Save an Edit Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-8
Saving Another Version of a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-8
Why Save? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
6. Organizing Your Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-1
Permissions Granted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-2
Creating a Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-3
Renaming a File or Folder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-4
Copying a File or Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-5
Moving a File or Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-7
When It Is a Copy or a Move . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-9
Replacing a File or Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-9
Merging Two Folders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
How Merging Saves Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
Creating a Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
What Is a Link?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-14
Setting Options for Copying Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
Options for Copying Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
Compressing and Decompressing a File or Folder . . . . . . . . . . 6-16
Deleting a File or Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-18
Retrieving a File or Folder From the Recycler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-19
Handling Several Files and Folders at Once. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-21
Managing Several File Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-23
vi
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Solving File and Folder Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-24
Repeat Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-26
7. Inspecting Files and Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-1
Getting Information About a File or Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-1
When a File Is Not a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-3
Previewing the Contents of a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-3
Sorting Files and Folders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-4
Changing the Application That Opens a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-6
Assigning a File or Folder to a New Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-8
Changing Permissions for a File or Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-9
8. Working With Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-1
Inserting a Floppy Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-1
Preparing a New Floppy Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-3
Creating a Folder Window for a Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-4
Other Disk Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-5
Copying Files to or From a Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-5
DOS Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-7
When a File or Folder Does Not Fit on One Floppy Disk . . . . .
8-7
Reusing a Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-8
Ejecting a Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-9
Opening and Saving Files on a Floppy Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10
9. Typing and Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-1
Starting the Edit Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-1
Typing Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-3
Contents
vii
Keyboard Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-5
Selecting Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-6
Deleting and Replacing Text. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-7
Moving and Copying Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-8
Finding Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-9
Replacing Text That You Find. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11
Setting a New Font . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12
Fonts and Special Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-15
What Is a Font?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-15
Previewing a Font . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-16
Setting Margins, Indentation, and Tabs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17
Margin Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-19
Tab Stop Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-19
Indentation Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-20
Checking Your Spelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-21
Dictionary Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-23
10. Working With Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
Where to Find the Colors Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
Using Color in a Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Creating Color Swatches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4
Selecting a Color From the Color Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5
What Happens When You Print Colors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7
Selecting Colors From the Screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7
Mixing Your Own Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-9
viii
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Using an Image as a Palette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-14
Adding an Image to the List of Palettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-15
Using Part of an Image as a Palette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-16
Opacity and Transparency—When You Want Layers
of Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-16
Creating Your Own Color List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-17
If Your Application Supplies Color Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-21
11. Working With Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
Adding a Graphic Image. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
Graphics File Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3
Previewing Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3
Previewing Graphic Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5
12. Receiving and Sending Mail. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
Starting Mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
When a Mailbox Is Already in Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3
Opening Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3
Listening to a Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-5
Opening a File or Folder in a Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-6
Sending a Message. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-8
What Is Plain Text Mail? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-11
Addresses and Some Options for Entering Them . . . . . . . . 12-11
Attaching a File or Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-12
Forwarding a Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-14
Replying to a Message. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-16
Contents
ix
Recording and Inserting Sound in a Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-17
Editing Sound. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-19
Saving a Draft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-22
Restoring a Draft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-23
13. Managing the Mail Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1
Deleting Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1
Compacting a Mailbox to Free Disk Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-3
Looking Up Mail Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-5
Understanding the Types Column. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6
Creating a Mail Address Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-7
Creating Your Own Group Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8
Creating a Mailbox. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-10
Moving Messages to Another Mailbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-12
Finding Messages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-14
Focusing on a Group of Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-16
Tailoring How You Receive New Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-18
Setting a Sound to Announce New Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-20
Creating Headers for Messages You Send . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-21
Tailoring Headers in Messages You Receive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-23
General Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-25
Preferences for All the Messages You Send . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-27
Expert Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-29
14. Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
Preparing a File for Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
x
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Printing a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2
Print Panel Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4
Saving Your Pages as a PostScript File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-5
What Is a PostScript File? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-6
Why Save PostScript Files?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-7
15. Personalizing the Workspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1
Starting the Preferences Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2
Hiding Menus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-4
Selecting a Standard Location for Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6
Setting a Password. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6
What Makes a Password Secure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-9
Setting the Date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-10
Setting the Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-12
Choosing an Application Locale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-13
Changing Units of Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-14
Choosing a Paper Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15
Customizing the Services Menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-16
Creating Keyboard Alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-18
Changing the Fonts on the Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-19
Choosing a Font for Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-21
Setting Global File and Folder Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-22
Displaying Large File Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-23
Displaying UNIX Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-24
Contents
xi
16. Managing Hardware. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-1
Setting the Screen Saver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-1
Changing the Background Color of the Display . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2
Choosing System Beeps and Warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-4
Adjusting Sound Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-5
Setting the Rate for Repeating Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6
Choosing a Keyboard Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-8
Changing the Responsiveness of the Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-8
17. Using the Terminal Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1
Introduction to Terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2
Setting Terminal Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-3
Window Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-4
Title Bar Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-6
VT100 Emulation Preferences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-7
Display Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-8
Activity Monitor Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-10
Shell Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-11
Startup Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-12
Color Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-14
Saving a Terminal Configuration for Later Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-14
Printing the Contents of a Terminal Window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-16
Finding Text in a Terminal Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-16
Defining Services for Use in Other Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-18
xii
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
A. Command Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
Standard Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
Main Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2
Info Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2
Document Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-3
Edit Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-3
Format Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-5
Windows Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-8
Services Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-9
Workspace Manager Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-10
Workspace Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-10
Workspace Manager Info Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-11
Workspace Manager File Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-11
Workspace Manager Edit Menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-12
Workspace Manager Disk Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-13
Workspace Manager View Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-13
Workspace Manager Tools Menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-14
Edit Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-15
Edit Main Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-15
Edit Info Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-16
Mail Buttons and Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-17
Buttons in a Mailbox Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-17
Buttons in a Compose Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-17
Mail Menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-19
Contents
xiii
Mail Info Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-20
Mail Mailbox Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-21
Mail Message Menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-22
Mail Compose Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-24
Mail Edit Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-26
Mail Format Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-27
Mail Services Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-29
Preferences Buttons and Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-29
Preferences Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-29
Preferences Menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-31
Preview Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-31
Preview Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-31
Preview Info Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-32
Preview Display Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-32
Terminal Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-33
Terminal Main Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-33
Terminal Info Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-33
Terminal Shell Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-33
Terminal Edit Menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-35
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary-1
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index-1
xiv
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Figures
Figure 1-1
OpenStep Workspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-4
Figure 1-2
Moving the Mouse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-5
Figure 1-3
Compose Button Is Highlighted When Clicked . . . . . . . . . .
1-6
Figure 1-4
Mail Format Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-7
Figure 1-5
Check Box Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-7
Figure 1-6
Using a Pop-up List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-7
Figure 1-7
Using a Pull-down List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-8
Figure 1-8
Grouped Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-8
Figure 1-9
Dimmed Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-8
Figure 1-10
Button Operated With the Return Key. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-9
Figure 1-11
Typical Text Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-9
Figure 1-12
Typing Past the Edge of a Text Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-9
Figure 1-13
Screen Saver Slider Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-10
Figure 1-14
Mail Application’s Main Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-11
Figure 1-15
Mailbox Submenu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-11
Figure 1-16
Menu and Submenu Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-12
xv
xvi
Figure 1-17
Dragging Into the Submenu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-13
Figure 1-18
Mailbox Submenu Detached From the Main Menu . . . . . . .
1-13
Figure 1-19
Clicking for Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-14
Figure 1-20
Getting Help by Topic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-15
Figure 1-21
Logging Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-17
Figure 2-1
Typical Standard Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-2
Figure 2-2
Different Types of Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-3
Figure 2-3
Selecting a Window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-4
Figure 2-4
Main Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-5
Figure 2-5
Reordering Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-6
Figure 2-6
Moving a Window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-8
Figure 2-7
Dragging a Window Off the Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-9
Figure 2-8
Resize Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-9
Figure 2-9
Resizing a Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-10
Figure 2-10
Resized Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-11
Figure 2-11
Window Showing Only Part of a Document. . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-12
Figure 2-12
Scroller. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-12
Figure 2-13
Scrolling Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-14
Figure 2-14
Scroll Knob Indicates What Portion of the Document
Is Displayed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-15
Figure 2-15
Miniaturizing a Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-16
Figure 2-16
Closing a Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-17
Figure 2-17
Partially Drawn Close Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-18
Figure 3-1
Three Branches of a Typical OpenStep File System . . . . . . .
3-2
Figure 3-2
File Viewer, Showing One Branch of Starr’s File System . .
3-4
Figure 3-3
Opening a Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-5
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Figure 3-4
After Double-clicking on ReactionReports . . . . . . . . . . .
3-6
Figure 3-5
Opening a Folder From the Shelf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-6
Figure 3-6
Opening a Folder From the Icon Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-7
Figure 3-7
Opening a Folder in the Current View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-7
Figure 3-8
Opening a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-8
Figure 3-9
Dragging an Application to the Dock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-9
Figure 3-10
File Viewer’s Browser View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-13
Figure 3-11
Opening Files and Folders in Browser View . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-14
Figure 3-12
File Viewer’s Listing View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-15
Figure 3-13
File and Folder Permissions in the Listing View . . . . . . . . .
3-17
Figure 3-14
Adding a Folder To the Shelf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-18
Figure 3-15
Removing a Folder From the Shelf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-19
Figure 3-16
Opening Files or Folders From the Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-20
Figure 3-17
Using the Arrow Keys to Move in the Browser View . . . . .
3-21
Figure 3-18
Selecting Several Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-22
Figure 3-19
Opening Several Selected Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-23
Figure 3-20
Selecting Multiple Files in the Browser View . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-24
Figure 3-21
Extending a Selection in the Browser View . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-25
Figure 3-22
Opening a Folder in Its Own Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-26
Figure 3-23
Opening a File Package. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-28
Figure 3-24
Searching for Files and Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-29
Figure 3-25
Selecting a Second Target From the Results of the First Search 3-30
Figure 3-26
Adjusting the Spacing Between Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-32
Figure 3-27
Adjusting the Width of Columns in the Browser View . . . .
3-33
Figure 3-28
Adjusting the Spacing Between Icons on the Shelf. . . . . . . .
3-34
Figures
xvii
xviii
Figure 3-29
Adding Rows to the Shelf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-35
Figure 4-1
Starting the Edit Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-2
Figure 4-2
Application Icons Show Application Status . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-2
Figure 4-3
Starting Mail After Edit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-4
Figure 4-4
After Clicking in the Document Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-5
Figure 4-5
After Choosing Hide From the Mail Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-6
Figure 4-6
Customizing the Application Dock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-8
Figure 4-7
Removing an Icon From the Dock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-9
Figure 4-8
Locating a Docked Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-10
Figure 4-9
Setting Mail to Start Automatically. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-11
Figure 4-10
Requesting a Workspace Service While Using Mail. . . . . . .
4-12
Figure 4-11
After Quitting Edit (Mail Is Running But Hidden) . . . . . . .
4-13
Figure 4-12
When the Quit Command Fails. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-14
Figure 5-1
Creating a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-2
Figure 5-2
Opening a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-3
Figure 5-3
Typing a Path Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-4
Figure 5-4
Saving a New File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-5
Figure 5-5
Path Name of Saved File Displayed in Title Bar . . . . . . . . . .
5-5
Figure 5-6
Saving Changes in a File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-7
Figure 5-7
Saving Another Version of a File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-9
Figure 5-8
Reasons for Saving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-10
Figure 6-1
Creating a Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-3
Figure 6-2
Renaming a File or Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-4
Figure 6-3
Copying a File or Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-6
Figure 6-4
Moving a File or Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-8
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Figure 6-5
Replacing a File or Folder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-10
Figure 6-6
Effect of Replacing a Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-10
Figure 6-7
Merging Two Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-11
Figure 6-8
Effect of Merging Two Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-12
Figure 6-9
Creating a Link. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-13
Figure 6-10
Setting Options for Copying Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-15
Figure 6-11
Compressing a File or Folder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-17
Figure 6-12
Deleting a File or Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-18
Figure 6-13
Retrieving a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-20
Figure 6-14
Handling Several Files and Folders at Once . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-22
Figure 6-15
Managing Several File Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-23
Figure 6-16
Solving File and Folder Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-24
Figure 7-1
Getting Information About a File or Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-2
Figure 7-2
Previewing the Contents of a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-4
Figure 7-3
Sorting Files and Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-5
Figure 7-4
Changing the Application That Opens a File . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-7
Figure 7-5
Assigning a File or Folder to a New Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-8
Figure 7-6
Changing Permissions for a File or Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-10
Figure 8-1
Floppy Disk in the File Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-2
Figure 8-2
Initializing a Disk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-3
Figure 8-3
Disk Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-4
Figure 8-4
Copying Files to or From a Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-6
Figure 8-5
Reusing a Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-9
Figure 8-6
Ejecting a Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-10
Figure 8-7
Saving Files on a Floppy Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-11
Figures
xix
xx
Figure 9-1
Icons That Start Edit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-2
Figure 9-2
New Edit Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-3
Figure 9-3
Typing to Create a Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-4
Figure 9-4
Moving the Insertion Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-4
Figure 9-5
Typical Keyboard Layout for Sun Workstations . . . . . . . . .
9-5
Figure 9-6
Selecting the Word “blowout”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-6
Figure 9-7
Selecting Text With the Alt Key. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-7
Figure 9-8
Deleting and Replacing Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-8
Figure 9-9
Moving and Copying Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-8
Figure 9-10
Finding Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-10
Figure 9-11
Replacing Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-11
Figure 9-12
Font Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-13
Figure 9-13
Increasing or Decreasing the Font Size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-13
Figure 9-14
Current Font . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-14
Figure 9-15
Previewing a Font . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-17
Figure 9-16
Showing the Ruler in Edit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-18
Figure 9-17
Ruler Markers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-18
Figure 9-18
Setting Margins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-19
Figure 9-19
Adjusting a Tab Stop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-19
Figure 9-20
Setting Indentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-20
Figure 9-21
Checking Spelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-22
Figure 9-22
Checking the Spelling of a Word Not in the Document . . .
9-23
Figure 10-1
Using Color in a Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10-3
Figure 10-2
Creating Color Swatches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10-4
Figure 10-3
Selecting a Color From the Color Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10-6
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Figure 10-4
Finding the Color You Want to Select From the Screen . . .
10-8
Figure 10-5
Selecting a Color From the Screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10-9
Figure 10-6
RGB Color Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10-10
Figure 10-7
CMYK Color Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10-11
Figure 10-8
HSB Color Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10-12
Figure 10-9
Gray Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10-13
Figure 10-10 Using an Image as a Palette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10-14
Figure 10-11 Adding an Image to the List of Palettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10-15
Figure 10-12 Creating Your Own Color List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10-18
Figure 10-13 Renaming the Color List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10-19
Figure 10-14 Renaming a Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10-19
Figure 10-15 Adding Colors to a Color List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10-20
Figure 11-1
Adding a Graphic Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-2
Figure 11-2
Previewing a Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-4
Figure 11-3
Previewing a Graphic Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-5
Figure 12-1
Active Mailbox Window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-2
Figure 12-2
Opening a Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-4
Figure 12-3
Mail’s Icon Tells You About Unread Mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-4
Figure 12-4
Message With Three Recordings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-5
Figure 12-5
Playing Back the Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-6
Figure 12-6
Opening a File and a Folder Attached to a Message . . . . . .
12-7
Figure 12-7
Sending a Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-9
Figure 12-8
Triangle Reminder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-9
Figure 12-9
Mail Format Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-10
Figure 12-10 Send Options Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-12
Figures
xxi
xxii
Figure 12-11 Attaching a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-13
Figure 12-12 Forwarding a Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-15
Figure 12-13 Replying to a Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-17
Figure 12-14 Recording a Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-18
Figure 12-15 Including the Sound in a Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-19
Figure 12-16 Displaying the Waveform of the Current Sound . . . . . . . . .
12-20
Figure 12-17 Selecting a Segment of the Waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-21
Figure 12-18 Inserting New Material in the Waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-22
Figure 12-19 Saving a Draft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-23
Figure 12-20 Restoring a Draft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-24
Figure 13-1
Deleting a Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-2
Figure 13-2
Compacting a Mailbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-4
Figure 13-3
Looking Up a Mail Address. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-5
Figure 13-4
Using the Find Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-6
Figure 13-5
Creating Private User Sammi Wright. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-7
Figure 13-6
Creating Private Group “Festival_Planners” . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-9
Figure 13-7
Adding Poupon to Festival Planners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-9
Figure 13-8
Creating the Festival Mailbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-11
Figure 13-9
Opening the Festival Mailbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-12
Figure 13-10 Moving Messages to the Festival Mailbox. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-13
Figure 13-11 Finding a Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-15
Figure 13-12 Focusing on a Group of Messages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-17
Figure 13-13 Tailoring How You Receive New Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-19
Figure 13-14 Choosing a Sound to Announce New Mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-21
Figure 13-15 Creating a Header for Messages You Send . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-22
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Figure 13-16 Displaying a Header in Your Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-24
Figure 13-17 Preventing a Header From Displaying in Your Messages .
13-25
Figure 13-18 General Preferences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-26
Figure 13-19 Compose Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-27
Figure 13-20 Expert Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-30
Figure 14-1
Page Layout Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14-2
Figure 14-2
Print Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14-3
Figure 14-3
Specifying a Page Range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14-4
Figure 14-4
Saving Your Pages as a PostScript File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14-6
Figure 15-1
Preferences Icon Shows Application Status. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-2
Figure 15-2
Preferences Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-3
Figure 15-3
Hiding Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-5
Figure 15-4
Typing Your Current Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-7
Figure 15-5
Typing Your New Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-8
Figure 15-6
Verifying Your New Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-9
Figure 15-7
Setting the Date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-11
Figure 15-8
User Authentication Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-11
Figure 15-9
Setting the Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-12
Figure 15-10 Choosing an Application Locale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-14
Figure 15-11 Changing the Units of Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-15
Figure 15-12 Choosing a Paper Size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-16
Figure 15-13 Customizing the Services Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-17
Figure 15-14 Creating Keyboard Alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-18
Figure 15-15 Changing the Bold System Font . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-20
Figure 15-16 Previewing a Font . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-21
Figures
xxiii
xxiv
Figure 15-17 Changing the Application Font . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-22
Figure 15-18 Setting Global File and Folder Permissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-23
Figure 15-19 Displaying Large File Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-24
Figure 15-20 Displaying UNIX FIles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15-25
Figure 15-21 UNIX System Files Displayed in the File Viewer . . . . . . . . .
15-26
Figure 16-1
Setting the Screen Saver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16-2
Figure 16-2
Changing the Background Color of Your Display . . . . . . . .
16-3
Figure 16-3
Choosing System Beeps and Warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16-4
Figure 16-4
Adjusting the Sound Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16-5
Figure 16-5
Setting the Rate for Repeating Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16-7
Figure 16-6
Choosing a Keyboard Arrangement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16-8
Figure 16-7
Changing the Responsiveness of the Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16-9
Figure 17-1
Typical Terminal Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17-2
Figure 17-2
Terminal Preferences Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17-3
Figure 17-3
Terminal Window Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17-5
Figure 17-4
Terminal Title Bar Preferences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17-6
Figure 17-5
Terminal VT100 Emulation Preferences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17-7
Figure 17-6
Terminal Display Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17-9
Figure 17-7
Terminal Activity Monitor Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17-11
Figure 17-8
Terminal Shell Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17-12
Figure 17-9
Terminal Startup Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17-13
Figure 17-10 Terminal Colors Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17-14
Figure 17-11 Saving a Terminal Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17-15
Figure 17-12 Terminal Print Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17-16
Figure 17-13 Terminal Find Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17-17
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Figure 17-14 Terminal Services Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figures
17-18
xxv
xxvi
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Tables
Table 1-1
Standard Pointer Shapes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-3
Table 2-1
Keyboard Commands for Reordering Windows . . . . . . . . .
2-7
Table 2-2
Ways to Scroll—A Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-13
Table 3-1
Which Application Opens a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-10
Table 3-2
File Extensions Recognized by OpenStep Desktop
Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-10
Table 3-3
Icons in the File System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-11
Table 4-1
OpenStep Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-15
Table 9-1
Find Options in Edit and Mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-10
Table 9-2
Replace Options Available in Edit and Mail . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-12
Table 9-3
Commonly Available Font Families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-16
Table 11-1
Graphics File Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-3
Table 13-1
How to Select a Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-3
Table 13-2
Types Used on the Address Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13-6
Table 17-1
Find Panel Controls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17-17
Table A-1
Main Menu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-2
Table A-2
Info Menu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-2
xxvii
xxviii
Table A-3
Document Menu Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-3
Table A-4
Edit Menu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-3
Table A-5
Find Submenu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-4
Table A-6
Link Submenu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-5
Table A-7
Format Menu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-5
Table A-8
Font Submenu Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-6
Table A-9
Text Submenu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-7
Table A-10
Windows Menu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-8
Table A-11
Services Menu Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-9
Table A-12
Workspace Menu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-10
Table A-13
Workspace Manager Info Menu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-11
Table A-14
Workspace Manager File Menu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-11
Table A-15
Workspace Manager Edit Menu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-12
Table A-16
Workspace Manager Disk Menu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-13
Table A-17
Workspace Manager View Menu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-13
Table A-18
Workspace Manager Tools Menu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-14
Table A-19
Edit Main Menu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-15
Table A-20
Edit Info Menu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-16
Table A-21
Edit Text Submenu Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-16
Table A-22
Mail Menu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-19
Table A-23
Mail Info Menu Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-20
Table A-24
Mail Mailbox Menu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-21
Table A-25
Mail Sorting Submenu Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-22
Table A-26
Mail Message Menu Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-22
Table A-27
Mail MIME Submenu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-23
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Table A-28
Mail Compose Menu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-24
Table A-29
Mail Drafts Submenu Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-25
Table A-30
Mail Edit Menu Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-26
Table A-31
Mail Find Submenu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-27
Table A-32
Mail Format Menu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-27
Table A-33
Mail Font Submenu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-28
Table A-34
Mail Services Menu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-29
Table A-35
Preferences Menu Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-31
Table A-36
Preview Menu Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-31
Table A-37
Preview Info Menu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-32
Table A-38
Preview Display Menu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-32
Table A-39
Terminal Info Menu Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-33
Table A-40
Terminal Shell Menu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-33
Table A-41
Terminal Edit Menu Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-35
Table A-42
terminal Find Submenu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-36
Table A-43
Terminal Font Submenu Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-37
Tables
xxix
xxx
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Preface
This manual, Using the OpenStep Desktop, is a comprehensive introduction to
the Solaris™ OpenStep™ user interface. With the help of this guide, you can
quickly get familiar with the various color, sound, graphics, and text
applications that make up the Solaris OpenStep desktop environment.
Who Should Use This Book
If you are just beginning to use the Solaris OpenStep applications, this manual
is for you. It provides step-by-step instructions for managing your workspace
and using the applications that enable you to perform everyday tasks. If you
are developing or designing OpenStep applications, some familiarity with the
content of this book would help you understand the more in-depth
information in the OpenStep User Interface Guidelines manual.
How This Book Is Organized
This manual contains the following chapters:
Chapter 1, “Starting and Ending a Work Session,” describes the day-to-day
tasks you perform in using OpenStep, such as logging in and out, using the
mouse, choosing commands, and accessing online help.
Chapter 2, “Working With Windows,” discusses how you use windows on the
OpenStep desktop. It tells you how to open, close, reorder, move, miniaturize,
and resize windows, as well as how to scroll to view a window’s contents.
xxxi
Chapter 3, “Using the File Viewer,” tells you how to use the File Viewer to
locate and use folders and files. It describes how to browse, find, list, and open
folders and files; and how to stock the File Viewer’s shelf for faster access to
folders and files you use frequently.
Chapter 4, “Working With Applications,” describes how to use applications
from the OpenStep desktop, including how to start an application both
manually and automatically, how to run several applications and switch
among them, and how to customize the application dock with applications you
use frequently.
Chapter 5, “Creating and Saving Files,” tells you how to use OpenStep tools
to create and save files.
Chapter 6, “Organizing Your Work,” discusses various tasks for organizing
your work by creating new folders; and deleting, renaming, moving, and
copying existing folders and files. It also tells you how to link and merge
folders, and how to compress files and folders to save space.
Chapter 7, “Inspecting Files and Folders,” describes how to get information
about a folder or file, as well as how to manage access to folders and files by
assigning them to appropriate groups and changing access permissions.
Chapter 8, “Working With Disks,” tells you how to use floppy disks and
CD-ROMs with OpenStep.
Chapter 9, “Typing and Editing,” describes how you can type and edit in any
OpenStep application to create documents or simply to name files and folders.
It includes instructions for using fonts and special characters. And it tells you
how to format your documents by setting margins, indentation, and tabs.
Chapter 10, “Working With Color,” discusses ways of selecting and using
color in OpenStep, using the color wheel, colors on the screen, and three color
models. It tells you how to create color lists, palettes, and a swatch bar to save
colors for use in your files and applications.
Chapter 11, “Working With Graphics,” tells you how to add graphic images to
your documents.
Chapter 12, “Receiving and Sending Mail,” discusses how to use the
OpenStep Mail application to receive and send electronic messages. It tells you
how to compose messages using text, sound, and graphic images, and how to
attach an existing file or folder to your message.
xxxii
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Chapter 13, “Managing the Mail Application,” tells you how to manage
mailboxes and messages. It includes instructions for creating a mailbox;
finding, moving, and deleting messages; and tailoring how you receive new
messages and how the system notifies you of new mail.
Chapter 14, “Printing,” describes how to prepare a file for printing, and how
to print a file to a printer or a PostScript™ file.
Chapter 15, “Personalizing the Workspace,” covers how to use the Preferences
application to customize your OpenStep workspace. It includes instructions for
setting your password; setting the date and time; choosing localization options
such as an application language, units of measurement, and paper size for
printing; choosing fonts for the screen and for applications; setting global file
and folder permissions; speeding up the display of large file systems; and
displaying UNIX® system and dot files.
Chapter 16, “Managing Hardware,” covers how to use the Preferences
application to manage your hardware. It includes instructions for setting the
screen save delay on your system; changing the background color of your
display, choosing system beeps and warnings, and changing how your mouse
responds.
Chapter 17, “Using the Terminal Application,” tells you how to use the
Terminal application to run UNIX programs that you cannot run effectively in
the OpenStep workspace.
Appendix A, “Command Reference,” summarizes the menus, commands, and
buttons that are available in each OpenStep application.
Related Books
For a quick overview of the basics of using the OpenStep user interface, refer
to QuickStart to Using the OpenStep Desktop.
Preface
xxxiii
What Typographic Changes Mean
Table P-1 describes the typographic changes used in this book.
Table P-1
Typographic Conventions
Typeface or
Symbol
Meaning
Example
AaBbCc123
The names of commands,
files, and directories;
on-screen computer output
Edit your .login file.
Use ls -a to list all files.
machine_name% You have mail.
AaBbCc123
What you type, contrasted
with on-screen computer
output
AaBbCc123
Command-line placeholder:
replace with a real name or
value
To delete a file, type rm filename.
AaBbCc123
Book titles, new words or
terms, or words to be
emphasized
Read Chapter 6 in User’s Guide.
These are called class options.
You must be root to do this.
machine_name% su
Password:
Shell Prompts in Command Examples
Table P-2 shows the default system prompt and superuser prompt for the C
shell, Bourne shell, and Korn shell.
Table P-2
xxxiv
Shell Prompts
Shell
Prompt
C shell prompt
machine_name%
C shell superuser prompt
machine_name#
Bourne shell and Korn shell
prompt
$
Bourne shell and Korn shell
superuser prompt
#
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Starting and Ending a Work Session
1
The Solaris™ OpenStep™ workspace is a complete environment with color,
sound, graphics, and text to support the most extraordinary tasks—as well as
your day-to-day work.
This chapter describes the tasks you will need to perform to start using
OpenStep, such as the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Logging in and starting the OpenStep desktop
Using the mouse
Choosing commands
Clicking for help
Getting help by topic
Ending your work session
1-1
1
Logging In and Starting the OpenStep Desktop
If your system is running the OpenWindows environment, the OpenStep
desktop starts automatically when you log in unless you or your system
administrator has configured it for manual startup (see the Solaris OpenStep
Installation Guide). If you have chosen to start the OpenStep desktop manually,
you use the openstep command to start the OpenStep desktop after
OpenWindows is started (see the openstep man page).
If your system is running the CDE environment, the OpenStep desktop starts
automatically when you select “OpenStep” from the CDE login menu. You can
use the openstep command to start the OpenStep desktop with the
application dock not visible (see the openstep man page).
Note – You can change your password using the Preferences application. See
“Setting a Password” on page 15-6.
Your Workspace
The workspace is where you do all your work on your system. It is where you
both create and organize your creations. When you first enter the workspace, it
contains the elements shown in Figure 1-1 on page 1-4.
Most icons in the application dock represent applications such as Edit—a text
processor for creating formatted documents—or the electronic Mail
application. The dock makes it easy to start up applications you use frequently.
Applications present information in windows, which open and close in your
workspace. File Viewer gives you access to your files, including all your
applications. The File Viewer has a menu, titled Workspace, that lists commands
you can choose to make the application do something.
1-2
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
1
The shape of the pointer changes depending on what you are doing. Common
shapes are shown in Table 1-1.
Table 1-1
Shape
Standard Pointer Shapes
Used For
The arrow, for pointing to objects.
The I-beam, for editing text.
The question mark, for pointing to something you want to find out about.
The copy pointer, used to indicate that a file or folder is being copied
The move pointer, used to indicate that a file or folder is being moved.
The link pointer, used to indicate that a file or folder is being linked.
Starting and Ending a Work Session
1-3
1
A menu lists commands
you choose to make an
application do something.
An icon is a small
pictorial representation
of something, such as a
file or application.
The File Viewer provides
access to your files.
This column of icons is
the application dock, or
dock, for short.
Figure 1-1
OpenStep Workspace
Screen Saver
If, when you are in the workspace, you leave the system on but you do not use
the mouse or keyboard for a while, the screen saver starts up. The screen saver
normally starts up if you do not press a key or move the mouse for 30 minutes.
You can change this delay or even turn off the screen saver completely with the
Preferences application. See “Setting the Screen Saver” on page 16-1.
Adjusting Volume
If your system can play sounds, you can adjust the volume with the
Preferences application. See “Adjusting Sound Volume” on page 16-5.
1-4
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
1
Using the Mouse
Except for typing text, you do almost everything on the computer with the
mouse (or whatever pointing device you are using). The mouse controls
movement of the pointer.
A Sun™ optical mouse uses optical sensing to measure how far you slide it,
and it must be used on a Sun mouse pad. The mouse pad must be aligned
correctly; its long sides must be horizontal, like the computer screen.
1. Move the pointer by sliding the mouse over the supplied mouse pad or
over a smooth, flat surface.
2. Position the pointer on an object such as a button, slider, or icon.
3. Use a mouse button to click, press, drag, or double-click.
Note – The Sun mouse has three buttons, and an x86 mouse can have two or
three buttons. Normally, the left button performs the operations described
here—clicking, double-clicking, dragging, and so on (see Figure 1-2), but some
users, especially left-handed ones, prefer to switch these operations to the right
button. (You can do so with the Preferences application; see “Hiding Menus”
on page 15-4.) In this manual, “clicking a mouse button” and “clicking on an
object” mean pressing whichever button you are using for these operations.
The left mouse button is
normally used for clicking,
double-clicking, dragging,
and the other mouse
operations described in
this chapter.
Figure 1-2
ST
DJU
CT A
SELE
U
MEN
The right mouse button is
normally used to open
application menus, but
some left-handed users
prefer to make it into the
Select button. When they
do, the left button
becomes the menu button.
Moving the Mouse
If you reach the edge of the mouse pad while sliding the mouse, you can lift it
and put it back down somewhere else without moving the pointer. No matter
how far you move the mouse, the pointer stays on the screen.
Starting and Ending a Work Session
1-5
1
Basic Mouse Actions
Once the pointer is pointing to something—it is over an icon or word, for
example—you use a mouse button to perform one of these actions:
Click Without moving the mouse, press and release a mouse button.
Press Without moving the mouse, press a mouse button and hold it down.
Pressing usually has the same effect as repeated clicking.
Drag Press a mouse button and hold it down. Then move the pointer by
sliding the mouse. Finally, release the mouse button.
Double-click Click twice in quick succession. This often extends the action
caused by a single click. In text editing, for example, clicking once selects a
location between characters and clicking twice selects a word. An application
may even use triple-clicking, for example, to select a paragraph.
Note – You can use the Preferences application to reverse the mouse buttons, to
adjust the responsiveness of the computer to multiple-clicking, and to adjust
the responsiveness of the pointer to mouse movement. See “Hiding Menus” on
page 15-4 and “Changing the Responsiveness of the Mouse” on page 16-8.
Buttons, Text Fields, and Sliders
Buttons You often use the mouse to operate buttons in windows to make
something happen in an application. Buttons come in all shapes and sizes.
They are labeled with text or graphics to indicate what they do. You click on or
press a button with the mouse, and the button responds visually—it is usually
highlighted in white until its function is completed, as shown in Figure 1-3.
When you click on a button it is
highlighted to let you know that it
is responding to your action.
Figure 1-3
1-6
Compose Button Is Highlighted When Clicked
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
1
If you decide that you do not want to click on a button after all, you can move
the cursor away from the button before releasing the mouse button.
Clicking on a button might change a setting. To change it again, you may need
to click on the button again. A visual clue tells you what the setting is, as
shown in Figure 1-4.
This is the normal
format for Mail
messages.
Figure 1-4
When you click on the
button, it changes to
indicate that you are
preparing a message in
the alternate format.
Mail Format Button
Clicking on a check box button places or removes a check mark in the box (see
Figure 1-5).
When this check box button is checked,
the size of each message is displayed. If
you click on the box, the check mark
disappears and sizes are not displayed.
Figure 1-5
Check Box Button
Pressing a button with a
on it displays a pop-up list of options from which
you can choose (see Figure 1-6). For example, when printing, you can use such
a button to specify the units of measurement for the dimensions of custom
paper in your printer.
The label above
the button
describes its
function.
The text on
the button is
the current
setting.
To open the list, press the
button and hold it down.
Figure 1-6
Drag through the list
until the pointer reaches
the option you want.
Release the button to
choose the option.
When you release the
button the pop-up list
closes; your selection is
displayed as the current
setting.
Using a Pop-up List
Starting and Ending a Work Session
1-7
1
Pressing a button with a
on it displays a pull-down list of commands that
cause actions to occur. You drag the pointer through the list to the option you
want and then release the mouse button, with the results shown in Figure 1-7.
Figure 1-7
Using a Pull-down List
When buttons are grouped together, as shown in Figure 1-8, clicking on one to
select it might deselect another. Often you can drag through the group and
operate one of the buttons by releasing the mouse button when the pointer is
over it. You can do this in the Preferences application, for example, when
selecting one of four rates at which character keys on the keyboard repeat
when you hold them down.
Only one of these buttons can be
selected. If you click on another one,
this one will be deselected.
Figure 1-8
Grouped Buttons
A dimmed button—shown in gray rather than in black—is currently unavailable
for use. The button in Figure 1-9, for example, is used on a number of panels to
restore the original settings. It is dimmed when you open one of these panels
and remains dimmed until you actually change one of the settings.
This button appears on the font panel. It is
dimmed until you change the font setting.
Figure 1-9
Dimmed Button
The return symbol on a button, as shown in Figure 1-10 on page 1-9, means
you can operate the button (when it is not dimmed) by pressing the Return key
on the keyboard.
1-8
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
1
When this button appears, you
can start the print process by
pressing the Return key.
This is the return symbol.
Figure 1-10 Button Operated With the Return Key
Text fields Sometimes telling an application what to do involves typing in a
white area called a text field, as shown in Figure 1-11. A label indicates the text
field’s function.
This is the label
for this text field.
Click in this area to
place the insertion point,
then begin typing.
As you type, the
insertion point moves.
Figure 1-11 Typical Text Field
When you work in a window that contains text fields, an insertion point often
appears in the first field, indicating that you can insert text there.
To move the insertion point to another text field, click in the other field. You
can also press the Tab key to move to the next field in a window. Or hold down
the Shift key and press Tab to go to the previous field.
If you type more than can fit in a text field, text you have already typed moves
to the left, out of view, so you can see what you are typing, as shown in
Figure 1-12.
You can type past the
end of a text field.
Drag back to the left to
see what you have
already typed.
Figure 1-12 Typing Past the Edge of a Text Field
Sliders You sometimes use a slider to specify a setting in a range. Simply
move a knob back and forth in a bar by dragging it. Or click on the bar to make
the knob jump to the position under the pointer.
Starting and Ending a Work Session
1-9
1
The position of the
slider sets a value.
The value set by the slider is
displayed in this text field.
Figure 1-13 Screen Saver Slider Controls
If a text field next to the slider shows a value representing the current setting,
you can type in the field to change the setting.
Choosing Commands From Menus
To tell an application what to do, you often use commands. Commands are
displayed in menus. Each application has a main menu that is displayed when
you are working in the application (see Figure 1-14 on page 1-11).
1. To choose a command, click on it, type its keyboard alternative, or drag to
it.
2. To keep a submenu open, drag it by its title bar.
3. To close a detached submenu, click on its close button.
Some commands perform an action on something you have selected, such as
text, an icon, or a window. Other commands open a panel—a small window
that may ask for more instructions—or another menu called a submenu (see
Figure 1-15 on page 1-11).
A dimmed command is shown in gray rather than in black, and is currently
unavailable.
1-10
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
1
To choose a command, click on it.
When you choose a command, it is highlighted in white until it
is executed.
The triangle symbol indicates a command that opens a submenu.
The ellipsis marks a command that opens a panel.
This command is dimmed.
It cannot be chosen in the current situation.
Figure 1-14 Mail Application’s Main Menu
If you prefer to use the keyboard, you can type a command’s keyboard
alternative. Hold down the Command key and type the character shown next
to the command. For an uppercase character, hold down the Shift key too.
Note – Your keyboard’s Command key is the key to the left of the space bar. It is
usually labeled ◆ and referred to as the Meta key. The submenu stays open
until the next time you choose a command from the first menu.
To choose this command, hold down the Command key and the
Shift key. Press the “N” key.
To choose this command, hold down the Command key and press
the “k” key.
Figure 1-15 Mailbox Submenu
If the command opens a submenu, the submenu is displayed next to the main
menu, as shown in Figure 1-16.
Starting and Ending a Work Session
1-11
1
Submenu
You can move a menu and its submenu
by dragging the first menu’s title bar.
Figure 1-16 Menu and Submenu Together
Note – The button that you do not use for clicking (which is normally the right
button) opens the menu at the pointer location. For more information, see
“Hiding Menus” in Chapter 20.
You can also choose a command while dragging through a menu. Start with
the pointer pointing to any command, drag to the one you want, and release
the mouse button. As you drag through a menu, each command is highlighted
in turn. If a command opens a submenu, the submenu appears until you move
to another command (see Figure 1-17 on page 1-13).
1-12
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
1
You can drag into a submenu to choose a command.
The submenu closes afterward.
Figure 1-17 Dragging Into the Submenu
A submenu normally closes when you choose another command from the
menu that opens it. If you do not want the submenu to close, you can detach it,
as shown in Figure 1-18. The submenu is then displayed until you close it
yourself.
Drag a submenu
by its title bar to
detach it.
A close button
appears
Click on the
button to
close the
submenu.
Figure 1-18 Mailbox Submenu Detached From the Main Menu
Starting and Ending a Work Session
1-13
1
If you press on the command that opened a detached submenu, another copy
of the submenu is displayed next to the main menu. You can drag into this
copy to choose a command, but when you release the mouse button it will
close.
Clicking for Help
In some applications, you can find out about an item by selecting it with the
question mark pointer, as shown in Figure 1-19. You get this pointer by holding
down the Help key.
♦ Hold down the Help key and click on any command, window, or panel.
When you click on
something with the
question mark pointer,
the Help panel opens.
The help you requested
is displayed here.
You may need to drag
this knob downward to
see more.
Click on a
button to see a related
topic.
Figure 1-19 Clicking for Help
1-14
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
1
Clicking with the question mark pointer usually provides help on a command,
window, or panel. In some cases, you can also find out about a specific button
or icon in a window by using the question mark pointer to click on it.
Getting Help by Topic
You can find out how to do something in an application by selecting a topic
from the table of contents in the Help panel, as shown in Figure 1-20.
1. Choose Info from the application’s main menu.
2. Choose Help from the Info menu.
3. Click a topic in the Help panel.
Click on a topic in the table of contents.
To see all the topics, you can drag
this knob up or down.
Drag this knob to resize the two areas in
the panel.
The topic is displayed here.
Figure 1-20 Getting Help by Topic
You can also click on a
button to see a related topic.
Starting and Ending a Work Session
1-15
1
Buttons in the Help Panel
The three buttons at the top of the Help panel provide other ways to find a
topic.
Index Click on this button to view an index of topics in the application. The
index appears in the topic area. Then select the index entry you want to find
out about.
Backtrack You can click on this button to see the topic you viewed last.
Find You can type a keyword in the text field at the top of the Help panel.
Then click on Find to view the next topic that contains the keyword. Help is
organized like a stack of topics. The Find button searches through the stack
starting from the current topic. You can click on Find again and again until you
find the topic you want.
Ending Your Work Session
At the end of a work session, you can log out of the OpenStep desktop to put
all your work away. Before doing this, make sure to save any work you have
done in any application.
♦ To log out, choose Log Out from the Workspace menu and click on the
Log Out button.
You log out with the Log Out command in the Workspace menu, as shown in
Figure 1-21 on page 1-17. If this menu is not visible, you can make it appear by
clicking in the File Viewer, or by double-clicking on the Sun icon at the top of
the dock.
When you choose Log Out, the panel shown in Figure 1-21 on page 1-17 opens.
If you click on Log Out by accident, click on Cancel in the panel to make it
close so you can keep working.
1-16
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
1
Choose Log Out from
the Workspace menu.
Click here or press Return
to log out.
Figure 1-21 Logging Out
The Log Out command shuts down all running OpenStep applications. If you
have unsaved work, another panel asks if you want to save.
The Log Out command also shuts down the X server unless the
TerminateWindowManager user default has been set to NO (see the Solaris
OpenStep Installation Guide).
Note – For information on how to save work before logging out, see Chapter 5,
“Creating and Saving Files.”
Starting and Ending a Work Session
1-17
1
1-18
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Working With Windows
2
This chapter describes how to work with windows and includes information
about the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Types of windows
Selecting a window to work in
Reordering overlapping windows
Moving a window
Resizing a window
Scrolling to see more
Miniaturizing a window
Closing a window
Types of Windows
Windows can look different from one another, but they generally have a few
things in common.
•
•
A title bar at the top of the window shows the window’s name.
•
A resize bar at the bottom of many windows is for changing the window’s
size.
Scrollers—shaded areas along the left side and sometimes the bottom of a
window—to adjust the view in the window when there is more of it than
you can currently see.
2-1
2
OpenStep™ has two types of windows: standard windows and panels.
A standard window is where the action in an application occurs. If you are
creating a document, you type or draw in a standard window, such as the Edit
window shown in Figure 2-1. The File Viewer is also a standard window—it is
where you do desktop management tasks such as organizing files.
The title bar
usually
contains
one
or two
buttons for
miniaturizin
g
The title bar
is light
gray, or it is
highlighted
in light gray
and black.
Scrollers
let you
adjust the
view when
there is
more to
see.
The resize bar lets you change the window’s size.
Figure 2-1
Typical Standard Window
Panels are windows in which you tell an application what to do. Often they
open when you choose a command, asking you for more instructions or to
confirm the command. When you quit an application without saving your
changes, for example, a panel might ask if you want to save those changes.
2-2
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
2
Some panels act on the contents of a standard window. For example, a Find
panel locates specific text in a document (see Figure 2-2).
A panel might
have places for
you to enter
text, or buttons
for telling an
application
what to do.
A blank title bar
indicates an
attention panel.
The
symbol means
you can operate the button
by pressing the Return key.
A Cancel button is for
closing the panel without
performing any function.
You often click on an OK
button to close a panel after
reading its message.
Figure 2-2
Different Types of Panels
A panel with a blank title bar (no title or buttons) is an attention panel (see
Figure 2-2). When one of these panels opens, you have to respond to it before
you can do anything else in the application.
Working With Windows
2-3
2
Selecting a Window to Work In
To work in a window, you make it the key window—the window where you
type, or that accepts your keystrokes. There is only one key window at a time
(see Figure 2-3).
♦ Click in the window where you want to work.
The key window’s title bar is black.
Other standard
windows and
panels have gray
title bars.
Figure 2-3
2-4
Selecting a Window
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
2
When you open a panel that helps you work in a standard window, the panel
becomes the key window—its title bar becomes black. The standard window
then gets a dark gray title bar and is known as the main window (see
Figure 2-4).
Here, the FInd panel
is the key window.
The
window it
searches
is the main
window—
its title bar
is dark
gray.
Figure 2-4
Main Window
A standard window with a black title bar is both the key window and the main
window.
Working With Windows
2-5
2
Reordering Windows That Overlap
Like sheets of paper on your desk, windows can overlap or completely cover
each other. You bring a window forward so you can work in it by clicking in it
(see Figure 2-5).
♦ To bring a window forward, click in it.
or
♦ Choose Windows from the Workspace menu and then choose the window
from the Windows menu.
Clicking in a
window brings
it forward and
makes it the
key window.
Figure 2-5
2-6
Reordering Windows
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
2
No other window can cover an attention panel. Menus stay in front of standard
windows and ordinary panels.
More Ways to Reorder Windows
In addition to reordering by direct clicking, you can use keys on the keyboard
to reorder windows in special ways, as listed Table 2-1.
Table 2-1
Keyboard Commands for Reordering Windows
Action
Effect
Alt1
Hold down the
key and click in the
window’s title bar.
Brings the window forward without
making it the key window
Hold down the Command2 key and click
in the window’s title bar.
Sends the window to the back of other
windows
Hold down the Command key and press
the up arrow key.
Brings the back window to the front
Hold down the Command key and press
the down arrow key.
Sends the front window to the back
1. On a Sun keyboard, either of the Alt keys works as you r Alt key.
2. On a Sun keyboard, the ◆ key works as your Command key.
For more information about the Windows menu, see “Standard Commands”
on page A-1.
Working With Windows
2-7
2
Moving a Window
You can move a window on the screen by dragging its title bar as shown in
Figure 2-6 (do not press any buttons in the title bar). As you drag, the entire
window follows the pointer. When the window is where you want it, release
the mouse button.
♦ Drag the title bar of the window you want to move.
Former location
Figure 2-6
Moving a Window
Dragging a window brings it to the front of other windows. It also makes it the
key window (unless you hold down the Alt key while you drag).
You can drag a window anywhere on the screen and even partially off the edge
of the screen (see Figure 2-7 on page 2-9). Since the pointer cannot leave the
screen, part of the window’s title bar—the part where the pointer is—always
remains visible, and you can drag the window back into full view.
2-8
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
2
You can drag a window partially off the
edge of the screen.
Figure 2-7
Dragging a Window Off the Screen
Resizing a Window
You can make a window larger, to see more of its contents, or smaller, so it
takes up less space (see Figure 2-9 on page 2-10 and Figure 2-10 on page 2-11).
To do so, drag its resize bar—the narrow gray border along the bottom of most
windows (see Figure 2-8).
♦ To change the width of a window, drag horizontally from either end
region of its resize bar.
♦ To change its height, drag vertically from the middle region.
♦ To change width and height at the same time, drag diagonally from an
end region.
End region
Figure 2-8
Middle region
End region
Resize Bar
Working With Windows
2-9
2
As you drag the resize bar, an outline of
the window follows the pointer.
Figure 2-9
2-10
Resizing a Window
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
2
You see more (or less) of the window’s contents
when you finish dragging the resize bar.
Figure 2-10 Resized Window
Scrolling to See More
Often there is more in a window than you can see at once. To see what is not
visible, you scroll, as shown in Figure 2-11 on page 2-12. If only one page of a
25-page document is showing, for example, you can use the vertical scroller to
see the other pages.
♦ To scroll one line or other increment, click on the scroll button that points
in the direction you want to scroll.
♦ To scroll a “windowful,” hold down the Alt key and click on a scroll
button.
Working With Windows
2-11
2
♦ To scroll to an approximate location, drag the scroll knob or click in the
bar.
Use a scroller when information is too long or wide to appear all at once.
Figure 2-11 Window Showing Only Part of a Document
A scroller works like a slider—you move a knob up and down or back and
forth in a bar (see Figure 2-12). You can also click on a scroll button. Press either
of the scroll buttons to scroll continuously.
Scroller
Scroll buttons
Scroll knob
Figure 2-12 Scroller
2-12
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
2
How to Scroll—A Summary
Table 2-2 summarizes the ways in which you can scroll through windows.
Table 2-2
Ways to Scroll—A Summary
Action
Effect
Click a scroll button
Scrolls an increment
Press a scroll button
Scrolls continuously by increments
Alt1-click a scroll button
Scrolls a “windowful”
Click in the bar
Scrolls directly to any location
Drag the scroll knob
Scrolls gradually to any location
Alt-drag the scroll knob
Scrolls more gradually to any location
1. On a Sun keyboard, either of the Alt keys works as your Alt key.
Some applications have their own buttons for scrolling a page at a time. See the
user’s guide that comes with the application.
You can hold down the Alt key while clicking on a scroll button to scroll by
just less than the height or width of the current view, showing some of the
previous view for context. Figure 2-13 on page 2-14 shows other ways to scroll.
Working With Windows
2-13
2
Drag the scroll knob to
scan contents as they go
by. Hold down the Alt key
while dragging to scroll
more gradually.
Click in the scroll bar. The
scroll knob jumps to where
the pointer is and contents
scroll accordingly.
Press and hold down the
mouse button in the bar
and keep dragging.
Figure 2-13 Scrolling Techniques
The size and position of the scroll knob show how much and what part of the
total contents you are viewing. The scroller represents the length or width of
the contents, and the knob represents the portion and location of the current
view (see Figure 2-14 on page 2-15).
2-14
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
2
This window shows the
middle third of the document.
When you type more, the knob
gets shorter.
Figure 2-14 Scroll Knob Indicates What Portion of the Document Is Displayed
The size of the scroll knob also changes when you resize the window.
Working With Windows
2-15
2
Miniaturizing a Window
If you want to put a window aside without actually closing it, you can
miniaturize it, as shown in Figure 2-15. When you do this, the window shrinks
into a miniwindow—an icon that appears at the bottom of the screen.
♦ To miniaturize a window, click on the miniaturize button at the left of its
title bar.
♦ To restore the window, double-click on its miniwindow.
Click on the
miniaturize button
to shrink the
window into a
miniwindow.
The miniwindow
shows at least
part of the
window’s title.
Figure 2-15 Miniaturizing a Window
2-16
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
2
You can move the miniwindow by dragging it, or click on it to bring it to the
front. You cannot, however, drag it into the dock (as you can an application
icon) or into the File Viewer (as you might a file or folder icon).
When you double-click on the miniwindow to restore the window, the
miniwindow goes away and the window returns as you left it—in its same size
and location as though it had never been miniaturized. Unsaved work is still
there too.
You can also miniaturize a window by choosing Miniaturize Window from the
Windows menu (see “Standard Commands” on page A-1).
Closing a Window
When you are finished with a window, you can close it to remove it from the
workspace completely, as shown in Figure 2-16. Unlike miniaturizing, closing a
window makes it disappear from the screen.
♦ Click on the close button at the right end of the window’s title bar.
Click on the close
button to close the
window.
Figure 2-16 Closing a Window
Working With Windows
2-17
2
A partially drawn close button usually means that the window contains
unsaved work (see Figure 2-17). When you save, the button returns to normal.
If you click on the button while it is partially drawn, a panel asks if you want
to save your work. After you respond to the panel, the window closes.
A partially drawn close
button reminds you
that the window
contains work you
have not saved.
Figure 2-17 Partially Drawn Close Button
If you close a window without saving changes, the changes will not be there
the next time you open the window.
For information on saving work in a window before closing that window, see
Chapter 5, “Creating and Saving Files.”
You can also close a window by choosing Close Window from the Windows
menu. See “Standard Commands” on page A-1.
2-18
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Using the File Viewer
3
The Workspace Manager has a variety of tools for browsing information in
your file system and locating files and applications. You use the File Viewer to
see what files and applications you have. It has a Finder for quickly locating a
specific file or folder.
This chapter describes how you can do the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Open a folder
Open a file
Browse files and folders
List files and folders
Stock the shelf
Open folders and files by typing
Select several files and folders
Open a folder in its own window
Find files and folders
Personalize your File Viewer
3-1
3
File System
The OpenStep™ file system keeps information in files and folders. A file might
be a magazine article you write, an illustration you create with a graphics
application, or the application itself. A folder is a container, and it can contain
files and other folders, which can themselves contain more folders. Folders can
be “nested” in as many layers, or levels, as you find useful.
The files and folders make up a file system. You can think of this file system as
an upside down tree, with a root folder at the top and branches that grow
downward. Figure 3-1 shows three branches of a typical OpenStep file system.
natsume
net
usr
fred
openstep
export
Apps
home
starr
ReactionReports
winn
EBDraft.rtf
publicity
Figure 3-1
3-2
creative
Three Branches of a Typical OpenStep File System
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
3
Each file or folder has a name that identifies its contents. For example, a folder
containing the Solaris™ OpenStep™ applications is called Apps. A file might
be called EB_draft.rtf.
A file or folder also has a path name that identifies its location. The path name
lists the folders along its branch of the file system. The folder names are
separated by slashes (/). A slash at the beginning of a path name represents
the root folder.
The complete name for the Apps folder (referring to Figure 3-1 on page 3-2) is
/usr/openstep/Apps; the complete name for the text document is
/home/starr/EB_draft.rtf.
You often identify a file or folder by its path name. You might type a path
name or read it in a panel.
Workstations running the OpenStep desktop are typically part of a network,
and make use of files on other computers. Many of these files are displayed in
a path that includes the /net folder, which represents the network. Referring
again to Figure 3-1 on page 3-2, the path name
/net/fred/export/publicity identifies a folder named publicity on
another computer that is named fred.
As Seen in the File Viewer
To get to the files and folders in the file system, you use the File Viewer (see
Figure 3-2 on page 3-4). The File Viewer appears when you enter the OpenStep
workspace and can stay open the whole time you are working.
Using the File Viewer
3-3
3
Figure 3-2
File Viewer, Showing One Branch of Starr’s File System
Files and folders are displayed as icons. Different areas of the File Viewer have
the following uses:
•
Icons on the shelf can provide a shortcut to files and folders you access
frequently. The shelf always contains your home folder, which is where you
keep your own work. You can add or remove other files and folders.
•
The icon path shows where you are in the file system. This row of icons
shows the selected file or folder and the folders above it in its branch of the
file system.
•
The bottom area displays the contents of the current folder—the one you are
currently working in. When you use OpenStep for the first time, files and
folders here are shown as icons.
When you enter the workspace, you see the contents of your home folder. Your
home folder has the icon of a house. Its name is your user name.
3-4
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
3
Opening a Folder
You open a folder (as shown in Figure 3-3) to see its contents, which are
displayed in the bottom area of the File Viewer (as shown in Figure 3-4 on
page 3-6). When you first use OpenStep, files and folders here are displayed as
large icons. To see them as large icons if you do not currently, open the View
menu and choose Icon.
♦ Click on a folder on the shelf or in the icon path.
or
♦ Double-click on a folder in the current view.
Click on a
folder on
the shelf.
Click on a
folder in
the icon
path.
Or doubleclick on a
folder that
is in the
current
view.
Figure 3-3
Opening a Folder
Using the File Viewer
3-5
3
The folder you
open is
highlighted
as the
selection.
The contents
of each folder
appear below,
replacing the
contents of
the previous
folder.
Figure 3-4
After Double-clicking on ReactionReports
With the icon view, you can select a folder without opening it by clicking on it
in the current view instead of double-clicking on it.
The way you move through the file system when you open a folder depends
on what part of the File Viewer you open it from (see Figure 3-5, Figure 3-6 on
page 3-7, and Figure 3-7 on page 3-7).
Opening a folder
from the shelf goes
directly to that folder.
Figure 3-5
3-6
Opening a Folder From the Shelf
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
3
Opening a
folder from the
icon path
moves up the
current branch
of the file
system.
Figure 3-6
Opening a Folder From the Icon Path
Opening a
folder in the
current
view moves
down its
path in the
file system.
Figure 3-7
Opening a Folder in the Current View
The file system contains UNIX® files that are not displayed in the File Viewer
unless you specify that you want them to be displayed. See “Displaying UNIX
Files” on page 15-24.
Opening a File
You open a file (as shown in Figure 3-8 on page 3-8) to see its contents.
If a file is associated with an OpenStep application, the application associated
with the file starts, if it is not already running. It then shows the contents of the
file in a window. See “Which Application Opens a File” on page 3-10 for
information on the file extensions that are recognized by OpenStep desktop
applications.
♦ Double-click on the file on the shelf, in the icon path, or in the current
view.
Using the File Viewer
3-7
3
Click on a file
to select it.
Double-click
to open it.
The file is
highlighted in
the icon path.
The
rightmost
folder in the
icon path is
the current
folder.
Figure 3-8
Opening a File
If a file is associated with a non-OpenStep application (for example, a
document file associated with FrameMaker), opening the file in the File Viewer
does not start the non-OpenStep application, but may start an OpenStep
application.
If you open a file that is an OpenStep application, the application simply starts.
If you open a file that is a non-OpenStep application, OpenStep does one of the
following:
•
Starts the Terminal application, which then attempts to start the application
you opened.
•
Displays an alert panel with the message “This application doesn’t contain
software for this kind of computer.”
When an OpenStep application that is not in the dock starts, its icon is
displayed at the bottom of the screen. You can drag the icon into the dock, as
shown in Figure 3-9 on page 3-9. Do not drag icons of non-OpenStep
applications into the dock.
3-8
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
3
If an application is not in the dock, you
can drag it to an empty area of the dock.
Figure 3-9
When a ghost image appears in the
dock, release the mouse button.
Dragging an Application to the Dock
If a file does not open, you may not have read permission for it. See
“Permissions Granted” on page 6-2 and “Changing Permissions for a File or
Folder” on page 7-9.
Using the File Viewer
3-9
3
Which Application Opens a File
You can tell which application opens a file by the file icon. Usually, it resembles
the application icon (see Table 3-1). You can also tell by the file name
extension—the last period in the name and the characters that follow. The
extension describes the type of information in the file. For example, a file in
Rich Text Format (RTF) has the extension .rtf. A file with encapsulated
PostScript™ has an .eps extension. A plain text file has no extension.
Table 3-1
Which Application Opens a File
File Extension
File Icon
Application Icon
Application
.eps
Preview
.rtf
Edit
OpenStep desktop applications recognize files with the extensions listed in
Table 3-2, and the correct application is started to open these files. The icons for
these file types are shown in Table 3-3 on page 3-11.
Table 3-2
File Extensions Recognized by OpenStep Desktop Applications
Opened by
Extensions
Edit1
.rtfd, .rtf, .text
Mail
.mbox, .vox
Preview
.ps, .tiff, .eps
1. Other file types are used by OpenStep development tools. Some of
these files may also be opened by Edit.
Note – For more information, see “Changing the Application That Opens a
File” on page 7-6.
3-10
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
3
Icons in the File System
Different kinds of files and folders have different icons. There are also icons for
disks, disk drives, or any other devices that might appear in your file system.
Table 3-3 shows some common icons. (For information on other icons, see
Chapter 4, “Working With Applications” and Chapter 8, “Working With
Disks.”) You also may see icons for applications you buy or create yourself.
Table 3-3
Icon
Icons in the File System
Meaning
A general-purpose folder. You can create folders of this type.
A folder that is on another computer on the network. You can open it by
clicking, even though it is on another computer. (In most cases, you will
not have access to every folder on the other computer.)
A computer’s root folder. The computer’s name is displayed with the
icon.
Your home folder.
Someone else’s home folder, which you might see if you are working on
a network or sharing your computer with other people.
The /net folder, which contains folders on other computers that belong
to the network.
Using the File Viewer
3-11
3
Table 3-3
Icon
Icons in the File System (Continued)
Meaning
A file in Rich Text Format (often called an RTF file), which contains text
with font and formatting properties, such as bold or italic.
An RTF file that contains one or more graphic images.
A file that contains only plain text—text with no font or formatting
properties.
A file that contains a graphic image in encapsulated PostScript format,
often called an EPS file.
A file with a graphic image in tag image file format, often called a TIFF
file.
An application that does not have its own icon.
A file or folder that has been compressed. See “Compressing and
Decompressing a File or Folder” on page 6-16.
A broken link to a file or folder (see Chapter 6, “Organizing Your Work,”
for information on links).
An application that cannot be run—for example, because it is not
configured to run on your type of computer. In the dock, it might be an
application that was moved, renamed, or that no longer exists.
3-12
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
3
A folder is dimmed when you do not have permission to open it. If you try to
open it, no contents are displayed even if it has some.
Browsing Files and Folders
Browsing is a way to move quickly through the files and folders in your file
system. When you choose Browser, the current view becomes a browser, which
lists the contents of each folder in the icon path, as shown in Figure 3-10. The
contents are listed by name in the column below the icon.
♦ To see the contents of several folders at once, choose View from the Dock
menu and then choose Browser from the View menu.
♦ To open a folder, select its name in the browser.
♦ To open a file, double-click on its name in the browser.
A
marks
a folder.
Other
names are
files.
Name of
the current
folder.
Contents
of the
current
folder.
Figure 3-10 File Viewer’s Browser View
Using the File Viewer
3-13
3
When you select a folder in a browser, the contents of the folder are displayed
in the column to the right (see Figure 3-11).
Click on a
folder to
open it.
Doubleclick on a
file to open
it.
Figure 3-11 Opening Files and Folders in Browser View
You can also open files and folders from the shelf and icon path, just as you can
when you are working with other views.
3-14
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
3
Listing Files and Folders
♦ To change to the listing view, choose View from the Workspace menu and
then choose Listing from the View menu.
♦ To open a file or folder, double-click on the icon next to its name.
You can list the contents of the current folder to show the size, history, and
permissions for files and folders. When you choose Listing, the view changes
to show this information (see Figure 3-12).
Drag this
knob to
adjust the
width of
the Name
column.
Click on a
file or
folder to
select it.
Doubleclick on the
icon (not
the name)
to open the
file or
folder.
Scroll if all columns are not visible at once.
Figure 3-12 File Viewer’s Listing View
Using the File Viewer
3-15
3
In the listing view, the icon next to a name indicates whether it is a file, folder,
or application:
Marks a folder
Marks an application
Marks any other file
You can also open a file or folder from the shelf or icon path, just as you can
when working with other views.
To find out the size of a folder, you have to use the Inspector command. See
“Getting Information about a File or Folder” in Chapter 7.
What You See in the Listing View
When you display the contents of a folder in the listing view, the columns next
to each file or folder name provide the following information (see Figure 3-13
on page 3-17):
Size The size, in bytes, for files. In a plain text file, for instance, each character
occupies one byte.
Last Changed The date and time (based on a 24-hour clock) that the file or
folder was created, or that changes were last made to it. Older files list the year
instead of the time.
Permissions The read (r), write (w), and execute (x) permissions, successively,
for the person who owns the file or folder, a group of people who may have
special access it, and anyone else who has access to the file system. A listing of
r – x for the group, for example, means the group has read and execute
permissions but not write permission.
Owner The user name of the person who owns the file or folder.
Group The group of users who have the group permissions.
For more information on permissions, see “Changing Permissions for a File or
Folder” on page 7-9.
3-16
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
3
Owner
permissions
Group
permissions
Permissions
for everyone
else
A d marks a
folder (UNIX
directory)
An l marks a
link to a file
or folder
Figure 3-13 File and Folder Permissions in the Listing View
Stocking the Shelf
You can stock your shelf with folders or files you use frequently. Just drag
them from the icon path as shown in Figure 3-14 on page 3-18.
♦ To add a folder or file to the shelf, select the folder or file. Then drag it
from the icon path to an empty space on the shelf.
♦ To remove a folder or file from the shelf, drag it out of the File Viewer
into the workspace.
Using the File Viewer
3-17
3
Drag a file
or folder to
the shelf.
Release the
mouse
button when
a ghost
image of the
icon
appears.
In the icon
view, you
can also
drag a file or
folder from
the current
view.
Figure 3-14 Adding a Folder To the Shelf
Drag a file or folder into the workspace to remove it from the shelf (see
Figure 3-15 on page 3-19).
3-18
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
3
Release
the mouse
button when
the file or
folder
disappears
from the
shelf.
You
cannot
remove
your home
folder from
the shelf.
Figure 3-15 Removing a Folder From the Shelf
!
Caution – When you drag a file or folder to add it to the shelf or remove it, do
not release the mouse button while the icon you are dragging is over another
folder. If you do, you might accidentally copy or move the file or folder you
are dragging.
You can make more room on your shelf by resizing the File Viewer so it is
wider.
You can adjust the number of rows on your shelf. See “Personalizing Your File
Viewer” on page 3-32.
Using the File Viewer
3-19
3
Opening Folders and Files by Typing
You can put your mouse aside and select and open folders and files from
the keyboard, as shown in Figure 3-16 and Figure 3-17 on page 3-21.
♦ To move along the current branch of the file system, press the left or right
arrow key.
♦ To move through the contents of a folder in the browser or listing view,
press the up or down arrow key.
♦ To select a specific file or folder in the current folder, type the first few
characters of its name.
♦ To open the selected file or folder, press Return.
The left
arrow key
selects
(moves the
highlight to)
this folder.
When a
folder is
selected,
the right
arrow key
selects the
first name in
the current
folder.
Typing ‘Gr’
selects this
folder.
Figure 3-16 Opening Files or Folders From the Keyboard
If you make a mistake or change your mind while typing a file or folder name,
pause for a moment to start over.
3-20
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
3
With the browser or listing view, you can use the up and down arrow keys to
move through the contents of a folder, as shown in Figure 3-17.
The up
arrow key
selects and
opens this
folder.
The down
arrow key
selects this
file.
Figure 3-17 Using the Arrow Keys to Move in the Browser View
You can locate any file or folder by typing its path name. As soon as you type
a slash (/) or tilde character (~) to begin the path name, the Finder opens. See
“Options for Searching” on page 3-31.
Using the File Viewer
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3
Selecting Several Files and Folders
You can select several files and folders in the current folder and then perform
some operation with all of them (see Figure 3-18). For example, you can open
several files at the same time by selecting them and double-clicking on the
selection icon (see Figure 3-19 on page 3-23).
♦ Drag around (or over) the files and folders you want to select.
♦ Hold down the Shift key and select each file or folder you want to add to
the selection or remove from it.
♦ In the browser or listing view, hold down the Alt key and click to select a
range between the current selection and where you click.
In the icon
view, begin
dragging at a
point outside
the icons you
want to
select.
As you drag,
an outline
surrounds
the icons.
Figure 3-18 Selecting Several Files
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
3
Double-click
on the
selection
icon to open
all the files in
the
selection.
Shift-click
on a file or
folder to
add it to the
selection.
Figure 3-19 Opening Several Selected Files
You can also hold down the Shift key while dragging around several icons to
add all of them to your selection.
You can drag and use the Shift key to make multiple selections in the browser
or listing view too (see Figure 3-20 on page 3-24).
Using the File Viewer
3-23
3
Drag to make a continuous selection.
Shift-click on a name to add it to the
selection.
Figure 3-20 Selecting Multiple Files in the Browser View
Or you can use the Alt key to select a range of files and folders, as shown in
Figure 3-21 on page 3-25.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
3
Alt-click to extend a selection ...
... to here.
Figure 3-21 Extending a Selection in the Browser View
In either the browser or listing view, you can hold down the Shift key while
you click a selected file or folder, or while you drag over several, to remove
files or folders from the selection.
To find out which is your keyboard’s Alt key, see “Keyboard Basics” on
page 9-5.
Opening a Folder in Its Own Window
You can open a folder in its own window (see Figure 3-22 on page 3-26), for
example, to be able to see the folder’s contents while opening other folders in
the File Viewer.
1. Select the folder you want to open.
Using the File Viewer
3-25
3
2. Choose File from the Dock menu.
3. Choose Open as Folder from the File menu.
Select the
folder you
want to open
in its own
window and
choose
Open as
Folder.
The
window’s
title bar
shows the
folder name.
The folder
appears on
the window’s
shelf and in
the icon
path.
You can
display
contents
in icon,
browser, or
listing
view.
Figure 3-22 Opening a Folder in Its Own Window
This window behaves like the File Viewer, except that it shows only the
contents of the selected folder. In it, you can open files and folders, drag them
to the shelf, and do anything else you do in the File Viewer.
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3
File Packages—Files That Are Really Folders
A file package is a special kind of folder whose contents are not normally
shown in the File Viewer or any other folder window. Instead, file packages
look and behave like regular files. Double-clicking on a file package, for
example, starts up an application or shows the contents of a file in a window.
File packages keep together information that should not be separated. When
you add a graphic image to an Edit document, for example, Edit puts the
graphic in its own file and stores it in a file package along with a file
containing the document’s text. Most applications are also file packages. They
consist of a file containing the actual application and other files that the
application uses, such as sounds.
You rarely need to see the contents of a file package, and you shouldn’t
normally change its contents. But to look inside one—for example, to copy
something from it—select it in the File Viewer and choose Open as Folder from
the File menu as shown in Figure 3-23 on page 3-28.
You can tell that a file is really a file package if:
•
The Open as Folder command is not dimmed when the file is selected.
When you select a regular file, this command is dimmed.
•
When you inspect the file with the Inspector command, the file is treated as
a folder. See “Getting Information About a File or Folder” on page 7-1.
•
•
The file is an RTF file with an .rtfd extension.
The file is an application with an .app extension.
Using the File Viewer
3-27
3
The contents
of the file
package are
displayed in a
separate
window.
The file
package has
its usual file
icon.
This file
package has
a TIFF
graphic file,
an EPS
graphic file,
and a text file.
Figure 3-23 Opening a File Package
Finding Files and Folders
You can search for a file or folder (see Figure 3-24 on page 3-29) based on any
part of its name. You can also search for a file based on a string of text that is
in the file. You tell the Finder where to search by designating a target. You can
drag any folder from the File Viewer to the Finder’s shelf and use it as a target.
1. Choose Tools from the Dock menu.
2. Choose Finder from the Tools menu.
3. Select a target from the Finder’s shelf.
4. Use the pop-up list to indicate whether you are searching for a file name
or a text string inside a file.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
3
5. Type in the name or text string for which you want to search.
6. Click on the Find button or press the Return key.
Click on a target on the
Finder’s shelf.
Type text to search for
here.
Press here to choose to
search by name or by
file content.
Click on Find to begin
the search.
Files and folders are
listed here.
Figure 3-24 Searching for Files and Folders
You can search for a single file or folder by name—regardless of the target—by
typing its entire path name in the Finder, such as
/home/starr/publicity/Press_Releases or ~starr/creative. When
found, the file or folder is selected in the File Viewer.
Using the File Viewer
3-29
3
Shortcuts to Typing Path Names
Here are a few shortcuts you can use to enter a path name in the Finder.
•
You can designate your home folder with a tilde character (~). To identify a
path that continues past your home folder, just continue the path name.
Typing ~/EB_draft.rtf, for example, is a shortcut for
/home/starr/EB_draft.rtf. To specify someone else’s home folder,
type ~ followed by the name of that person’s home folder, as in ~poupon.
•
You can type a few characters of a name in a path name and press the Esc
key to fill in the rest of the name. To type /home/starr, for example, type
/h and press Esc, then type /s and press Esc. If more than one name
matches what you have typed so far, the Finder lists all possible matches
each time you press Esc.
During a search, the Find button changes to a stop sign that you can click on to
interrupt the search.
You can select a file or folder in the Finder and use the Inspector command to
inspect it (see Chapter 7, “Inspecting Files and Folders”). You can also search
for an address book by content.
To narrow down your search, you can select from the files and folders you
find, as shown in Figure 3-25, and then search on the selection.
Select one or more files,
for example, by dragging
over them.
The selection appears
here.
You can drag the
selection to the shelf to
make it the new target.
Figure 3-25 Selecting a Second Target From the Results of the First Search
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
3
When you search by name, you can double-click on a file or folder listed in the
Finder to select it in the File Viewer—even while the search is still in progress.
When you search by content, double-clicking on a file listed in the Finder
opens the file and selects the text you are searching for. In either mode, you can
also select a file in the Finder and then double-click on its icon to open it.
Options for Searching
You can find any file or folder while working in the File Viewer by typing its
full path name. As soon as you type a slash (/) or tilde character (~), the Finder
opens and shows your typing. Complete the path name and press Return. The
file or folder is selected in the File Viewer and the Finder closes.
You can also press Esc in the File Viewer to type the path name of the current
selection in the Finder.
If you want the Finder to list a file or folder without selecting it in the File
Viewer—for example, so you can drag it to the Finder’s shelf to use as a
target—type the path name and press Esc instead of Return.
You can Shift-click an item on the shelf to add it to your target. If you forget
what is in a target that consists of a multiple selection, press the Esc key to list
the selection’s contents.
When searching by name, you can use an asterisk (*) as a wildcard. For
example, to find all TIFF files within a target, type *.tiff.
To search for names that contain a ~ or *, enclose your text in quotation marks,
as in “~oldfile”.
You can select more than one file or folder in the Finder the same as with
browser or listing view in the File Viewer. See “Selecting Several Files and
Folders” on page 3-22. You can use the Preferences command to search for one
or more keywords in files. See “Workspace Manager Commands” on
page A-10.
Using the File Viewer
3-31
3
Personalizing Your File Viewer
You can adjust spacing of icons or browser columns displayed in the File
Viewer. The Icon View option lets you adjust the spacing in the icon view, as
shown in Figure 3-26.
1. Choose Info from the Workspace menu.
2. Choose Preferences from the Info menu.
3. Choose the Icon View, Browser, or Shelf option from the pop-up list at the
top of the Workspace Manager Preferences panel.
4. Make settings in the panel to adjust spacing between icons or the width
of browser columns.
Choose the Icon View
option
Drag an arrow to adjust
spacing between icons.
The white field shows
the space available for
text beneath an icon.
Figure 3-26 Adjusting the Spacing Between Icons
With the Browser option, you can adjust the width of columns in the browser
view, as shown in Figure 3-27 on page 3-33.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
3
Choose the Browser
option
Drag the arrow inward
or outward to adjust
column width.
Figure 3-27 Adjusting the Width of Columns in the Browser View
With the Shelf option, you can adjust spacing between icons on the shelf, as
shown in Figure 3-28 on page 3-34.
Using the File Viewer
3-33
3
Choose the Shelf
option.
Drag an arrow to adjust
spacing between icons.
The white field shows
the space available for
text beneath an icon.
Check this box to make
the shelf in folder
windows resizable.
Figure 3-28 Adjusting the Spacing Between Icons on the Shelf
You can also add rows to the shelf. When you click on the Resizable Shelf box,
a resize knob appears at the bottom center of the shelf, as shown in Figure 3-29
on page 3-35.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
3
Drag the
knob
downward
to add
rows to the
shelf.
Figure 3-29 Adding Rows to the Shelf
You can click on the Use Default Setting button in the Preferences panel to
return to the default OpenStep settings.
Network Perspective
Since OpenStep runs on computers that are connected in networks,
understanding the basics of networking will help you get the most out of
OpenStep. It is the network that makes it possible to exchange electronic mail
with other people and share their files, all within seconds and without ever
leaving your own desk.
A network can consist of two computers or two thousand. Some of them will
have people like you working at them. Others, known as servers, will contain
files and folders shared by everyone on the network.
Using the File Viewer
3-35
3
You access servers and the files they contain through the /net folder in your
root folder. Files and folders accessed through other paths, such as
/usr/openstep, are usually on the hard disk in your own computer.
Note – Your home folder is typically on a server, and therefore accessible from
any computer in the network. This means you can log into any computer on
the network with your user name and password, and find yourself in your
own workspace, with access to the files in your home folder.
Working with files and folders on a server is no different than working with
files and folders on your own computer. But while everyone can access the
folders in /net, only you can access the other folders in your root folder.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Working With Applications
4
This chapter describes the following topics:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Starting an OpenStep™ application from the dock
Running several applications
Switching to another application
Hiding an application
Customizing the application dock
Starting applications automatically
Requesting services from other applications
Quitting an application
Starting an OpenStep Application From the Dock
Solaris™ OpenStep™ comes with several applications, and you may add other
OpenStep applications that you buy or create yourself. You can keep the icons
that represent the applications in the application dock—the column of icons
lining the right side of the screen.
When you double-click on an application icon in the dock, the icon is
highlighted for a moment. Then the application’s main menu appears, often
along with another window, as shown in Figure 4-1 on page 4-2.
♦ Double-click on the application icon in the dock.
4-1
4
The Sun icon remains at
the top of the dock. You
can drag it downward to
remove most of the dock
from view.
Figure 4-1
You can double-click on an
application to start it up.
You use the recycler to
delete files and folders
from the file system.
Starting the Edit Application
Before you start an application, its icon has an ellipsis
. While an
application is starting, its icon is highlighted. When the application is running,
the ellipsis disappears. See Figure 4-2.
Not running
Figure 4-2
4-2
Starting up
Running
Application Icons Show Application Status
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
4
Note – You start an OpenStep application that is not in the dock by opening a
file from the Workspace Manager. See “Opening a File” on page 3-7.
The recycler is described in “Deleting a File or Folder” on page 6-18.
Running Several Applications
You can run several applications at once, as shown in Figure 4-3 on page 4-4.
For instance, you can view a Mail message while typing in an Edit document.
Although several applications can be running, you work in only one at a
time—the active application.
When you start an application, it becomes the active application. Its main
menu replaces any other menus on the screen.
♦ Start each application you want to run.
Working With Applications
4-3
4
The active application is the
one with a menu showing.
Figure 4-3
It also contains the key window.
Starting Mail After Edit
You might also do something that causes an application to start up automatically.
For example, double-clicking on a document file icon starts the Edit application
and opens the document file.
Switching to Another Application
When you want to work in another application, just click in one of its windows
as shown in Figure 4-4 on page 4-5. If no windows are showing, double-click
on the application icon.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
4
♦ Click in one of the application windows.
or
♦ Double-click on its icon.
Click in a window to bring the window
forward and activate its application.
Figure 4-4
Or double-click on its application icon.
After Clicking in the Document Window
When you leave one application to work in another, the standard windows that
belong to the application you leave stay on your screen. If an attention panel is
open, it stays too. But the application’s menus and all other panels are no
longer displayed. When you switch back to the application, its menus and
panels reappear, just as you left them.
Working With Applications
4-5
4
Hiding an Application
If you want to stop working with an application but plan to use it later in the
same work session, you can hide it to get its windows out of the way. All its
windows disappear from view, but the application continues to run (see
Figure 4-5).
By hiding applications, you can have several running and easily accessible
while your workspace remains free of windows you are not currently using.
♦ To hide an application, choose Hide from its main menu.
♦ To show the application, double-click on its icon.
Unhide the Workspace Manager
application by clicking on the Sun icon.
Figure 4-5
4-6
When a docked application is
hidden—as opposed to not
running—there is no ellipsis
in its icon.
After Choosing Hide From the Mail Menu
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
4
When you unhide an application, all its windows reappear, and the application
is activated, just as though it had never been hidden.
Note – When you hide an application, no unsaved work is lost. Nor is it saved.
For information on saving your work, see Chapter 5, “Creating and Saving
Files.”
Customizing the Application Dock
You can fill your dock with frequently used OpenStep applications. Then, to
start up a docked application, you just double-click on it.
The Solaris™ OpenStep™ applications can be found in the
/usr/openstep/Apps folder. Any additional OpenStep applications installed
on your network should be in the /usr/local/openstep/Apps folder, and
OpenStep applications installed only on your computer should be in
~/openstep/Apps. If you installed WorkShop™ OpenStep™, you can find
the developer applications in /usr/openstep/Developer/Apps folder.
♦ To add an OpenStep application to the dock, select the application in the
File Viewer and drag it into an empty space in the dock (see Figure 4-6 on
page 4-8).
♦ To remove an application from the dock, drag it into the workspace while
it is not running (see Figure 4-7 on page 4-9).
♦ To reorder applications in the dock, drag one from its current location to
an empty space in the dock.
Working With Applications
4-7
4
Drag an application icon
from the File Viewer to any
empty space in the dock.
Figure 4-6
You can also drag a
freestanding application
into the dock.
When a ghost image
appears in the dock,
release the mouse button.
Customizing the Application Dock
You can drag an application from the File Viewer to an empty space in the
dock. (Release the mouse button when a ghost image of the icon is displayed in
the dock.) You can also drag a freestanding application icon into the dock.
Normally, no windows or menus can cover the dock. However, if you hold
down the Alt key and click on the Sun icon in the dock, the dock can
be covered. To bring the dock back to the front, Alt-click on the Sun icon again.
Note – Alt-clicking on the Sun icon to send the dock to the back increases the
area of the screen you can work in.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
4
If your dock fills up, you must remove an icon from it to add any others. You
can drag an application out of the dock when it is not running, as shown in
Figure 4-7. (Release the application when it is no longer displayed in the dock.)
You can drag an application out of the
dock when it is not running.
Release the mouse button when the
application disappears from the dock.
Figure 4-7
Removing an Icon From the Dock
The Sun icon always remains at the top of the dock. The Recycler appears in
the dock, or if there is no room there, at the lower-left corner of the screen.
Note – You can remove a running application from the dock by holding down
the Command key and dragging it out of the dock. You can also do this to
remove the recycler.
Note – Do not drag non-OpenStep applications to the dock.
When You Want to Locate a Docked Application
If you forget where a docked application is in the file system, you can see its
path name in the Workspace Manager Preferences panel, as shown in
Figure 4-8 on page 4-10. Open the Info menu and choose the Preferences
command. Then choose the Dock option from the pop-up list at the top of the
panel.
Working With Applications
4-9
4
Choose Dock from
this pop-up list.
Click on the name of
an application.
The path to the
application is
displayed here.
Figure 4-8
Locating a Docked Application
Starting an Application Automatically
You can set any application that is in the dock to start up automatically when
you enter the workspace, as shown in Figure 4-9 on page 4-11. If you regularly
exchange electronic mail with other people on a network, for instance, you can
set the Mail application to start up when you log in.
1. Put the application in the dock.
2. Choose Info from the Workspace menu.
3. Choose Preferences from the Info menu.
4. Choose Dock from the pop-up list at the top of the Preferences panel.
5. Click on an application to select it.
6. Click on the Start up at login check box.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
4
Choose Dock from
this pop-up list.
Click on the name of
an application.
When you click on this
button, a check mark
appears in front of the
application name.
A check mark means
the application is set to
start automatically. If
you select the
application and click on
the button, the check
mark disappears.
Figure 4-9
Setting Mail to Start Automatically
The Workspace Manager is always running, and so it is always checked.
Requesting Services From Other Applications
You can request the service of one application while you are working in
another. A service provides a shortcut to starting up or switching to an
application and requesting a specific action from it. Available services are listed
in the Services menu.
Figure 4-10 on page 4-12 shows an example.
1. Select the text or file you want serviced.
2. Choose Services from the application’s main menu.
3. Choose a command from the Services menu.
Working With Applications
4-11
4
Select a path
name you
receive in a Mail
message.
Choose Open in
Workspace from
the Services menu.
The file opens
without your
having to locate it
first in the File
Viewer.
Figure 4-10 Requesting a Workspace Service While Using Mail
The exact commands in the Services menu depend on which applications you
have. Some commands, like the one shown in Figure 4-10, are not available
until you select something, like a file’s path name.
Several OpenStep applications provide services. If you have other applications,
you might see other services in the menu too.
Note – Services menu commands for OpenStep applications are described in
“Standard Commands” on page A-1. You can use the Preferences application to
remove commands you do not need from the Services menu. See “Customizing
the Services Menu” on page 15-16.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
4
Quitting an Application
When you are completely finished with your work in an application, you can
quit the application to close all its windows and any work they contain.
♦ Choose Quit from the application’s main menu.
A docked
application that
is hidden does
not have an
ellipsis
in
its icon.
When you quit an application that is in the
dock, the ellipsis
is displayed again in
its icon.
Figure 4-11 After Quitting Edit (Mail Is Running But Hidden)
If any window in the application contains unsaved work, a panel asks if you
want to save before quitting the application (and closing the window).
Note – If you think you may use the application later in your work session and
just want its windows out of the way, it is better to hide the application rather
than quit it—it takes less time to unhide an application than it does to restart it.
For information on saving your work before quitting an application, see
Chapter 5, “Creating and Saving Files.”
Working With Applications
4-13
4
When the Quit Command Fails
On rare occasions, your actions in an application may have no effect due to a
software problem. You can usually solve the problem simply by quitting the
application and starting it again.
If choosing the Quit command has no effect, you may be able to quit the
application by using the Workspace Manager Processes command, as shown in
Figure 4-12. Switch to the Workspace Manager—for instance, by clicking in the
File Viewer. Open the Tools menu and choose the Processes command. Then
choose Applications from the pop-up list at the top of the Processes panel.
Select the application you want to quit and click on the Kill button.
The application quits running, but any unsaved work in the application is lost.
You should use the Processes command to quit an application only as a last
resort.
Choose Applications
from this pop-up list.
Select the application
that is causing
problems from this list.
Click here to quit the
application without
saving any work.
Figure 4-12 When the Quit Command Fails
OpenStep Applications
OpenStep comes with several applications, which are kept in the
/usr/openstep/Apps folder. These applications are briefly described in
Table 4-1 on page 4-15 along with their icons.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
4
If you installed the developer software, you will find the developer
applications in /usr/openstep/Developer/Apps.
Table 4-1
Icon
OpenStep Applications
Application
Preferences is an application for setting personal preferences for using
the OpenStep desktop, such as key repeat speed or an application
language. When it is running, its icon in the dock shows the date and
time. See Chapter 15, “Personalizing the Workspace” and Chapter 16,
“Managing Hardware.”
Mail is a multimedia electronic mail application for communicating
with others on a network. You can send text, graphics, sound, and even
files and folders. See Chapter 12, “Receiving and Sending Mail” and
Chapter 13, “Managing the Mail Application.”
Edit is a Rich Text editor you can use to create formatted documents
with graphics. See Chapter 9, “Typing and Editing” and Chapter 11,
“Working With Graphics.”
Terminal is for working directly with UNIX® by entering UNIX
commands and running UNIX programs. Terminal can also run
programs that require VT100 terminal support. See Chapter 17, “Using
the Terminal Application.”
Preview displays the contents of PostScript™, EPS, and TIFF files as
images. See Chapter 11, “Working With Graphics.”
Working With Applications
4-15
4
4-16
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Creating and Saving Files
5
Whenever you create a document (for example, a text report, an illustration, or
a spreadsheet), you start by creating a file. All the work you do is kept in that
file when you save it. You can change it and save the changes, or you can save
different versions of the file.
This chapter describes how to do the following:
•
•
•
•
•
Create a file
Open a file
Save a new file
Save changes
Save another version of a file
Creating a File
When you want to create something new, you start the application you want to
use, open a new window, and begin to work in it.
You open the window with the New command in the document menu, as
shown in Figure 5-1 on page 5-2. This menu might be called Document, Image,
Project, or whatever describes what you create with the application.
1. Start the application you want to use.
2. Choose the command that opens the document menu.
3. Choose New.
5-1
5
Choose the command below Info, which opens the
document menu, named File here.
Choose New to open a new window.
A new window’s title bar contains a temporary title.
As soon as the window opens,
you can begin working, for
example, by typing.
Figure 5-1
Creating a File
You store the work you do in a file. You name the new file and put it in a folder
when you first save the contents of the new window.
If you close the window without saving, no file is created and work you have
done in the window is lost.
Some applications give you a new window automatically when you start them
from the dock or when you open their files from the File Viewer.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
5
Opening a File
You can open a file while you are working in an application. Use the Open
panel, which contains a small browser that lists the files the application can
open, as shown in Figure 5-2. You locate a file in this browser just as you locate
a file with the browser view in the File Viewer.
1. Choose the command that opens the document menu.
2. Choose Open.
3. In the Open panel, select the file or files you want to open.
4. Click on OK.
Scroll along a branch of the file system
Open a folder by clicking on it.
Select the file you want to open.
Click to open the file.
Clicking on this button opens your
home folder.
Figure 5-2
Opening a File
Instead of selecting the file you want to open in the browser, you can type its
path name, as shown in Figure 5-3 on page 5-4. If the file is further down the
branch of the file system from the folder that is currently open in the panel,
you only need to type the part of the path name that begins with a name in
that folder.
Creating and Saving Files
5-3
5
You can type this to open
SummerCatalog.rtfd in the
Catalog folder.
Figure 5-3
Typing a Path Name
Note – You can double-click on a file in the browser to open the file without
having to click on OK. You can also open more than one file by selecting the files
you want to open—for example, by dragging over them—and clicking on OK.
When you open a file, the panel goes away and the contents of the file are
displayed in a window.
Note – You can use the same shortcuts to typing path names in the Open panel
as you can in the Finder. See “Shortcuts to Typing Path Names” on page 3-30.
For more information on using a browser, see “Browsing Files and Folders” on
page 3-13.
You can use the disk buttons in an Open panel to open and eject floppy disks.
See “Opening and Saving Files on a Floppy Disk” on page 8-10.
Saving a New File
To name a new file and put it in a folder, you must save it. When you are
working in a new window and you choose Save, a panel opens that contains a
browser (see Figure 5-4 on page 5-5). Locate and open a folder in this browser
just as you do with the browser view in the File Viewer.
1. Choose the command that opens the document menu.
2. Choose Save.
3. In the Save panel, name the file and open the folder in which you want to
put it.
4. Click on OK.
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5
Scroll along a branch of the file system
Open the folder in which you want to
put the file by clicking on the folder.
Type a name for the file here.
Click to save the file.
Clicking on this button opens your
home folder.
Figure 5-4
Saving a New File
When you save a file, the Save panel closes and the file is placed in its folder,
as shown in Figure 5-5.
The name of the file and the
path name of the folder in which
you put it are displayed in the
new window’s title bar.
Figure 5-5
Path Name of Saved File Displayed in Title Bar
Creating and Saving Files
5-5
5
Guidelines for Naming Files and Folders
You can choose nearly any name you want for a file or folder. Just keep the
following in mind:
•
You cannot use the same name more than once in the same folder. However,
you can use the same name in different folders.
•
Lowercase letters are distinguished from uppercase letters, so Fall
Catalog is the name of one file and fall catalog is the name of another
file.
•
You can use any characters except a slash (/), which separates names in a path
name. It is better to avoid spaces and the ‘ “ & | - and ^ characters,
which have special meanings in UNIX®.
•
Remember that the extension at the end of most file names associates the file
with an application. If you do not include the extension when you name
the file, the application adds it automatically.
Tricks in the Name Field
Instead of selecting a folder to save a file in, you can type a path name for the
file in the Save panel. Use the same shortcuts described in “Shortcuts to Typing
Path Names” on page 3-30.
To save the file further down the branch of the file system from the folder that
is currently open in the panel, type just the part of the path name that begins
with a name in that folder. In the panel Figure 5-4 on page 5-5, for example,
type Catalogs/FallCatalog to save FallCatalog.rtfd in the Catalogs
folder.
You can also create a folder in which to save a file. Type a path name for the
file that includes the folder’s name as though the folder already exists. Type
Festival/Program, for example, to create a Festival folder and save
Program.rtfd in it. In the panel that asks if you want to create the folder,
click on Create.
To replace a file with the one you are saving, select the file you want to replace
and click on OK. In the panel that asks if you want to replace the file, click on
Replace.
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5
Saving Changes
You save changes you make to a file so they are there when you next open the
file. Just choose Save while working in the window that contains the file. The
contents of the window replace the previous version of the file on disk. The
window stays on the screen so you can keep working in the file (see
Figure 5-6).
♦ To save changes in a file, open the document menu from the main menu
and then choose Save from the document menu.
♦ To save changes in all the files open in an application, choose Save All
from the document menu.
A partially drawn close
button means the window
contains unsaved changes.
After you save the file, the
close button returns to
normal.
Figure 5-6
Saving Changes in a File
Creating and Saving Files
5-7
5
You can undo changes you do not want to keep with the Revert to Saved
command in the document menu. See “Standard Commands” on page A-1.
Note – You should save changes periodically as you work in a file, not just
when you are about to close it. By saving frequently, you avoid losing a lot of
work if the file closes unexpectedly—for example, if there is a power failure.
If you choose Save All when any window in the application contains work that
has not yet been saved, a Save panel opens. You can then name the file and put
it in a folder.
When You Save an Edit Document
When you save an Edit document, Edit creates a temporary backup file, which
contains the version of the file without the changes you are saving. Edit deletes
this backup file as soon as the new version is successfully saved on disk.
If something happens that prevents Edit from saving the file—a power failure,
for example—the backup copy remains, and you can recover its contents. You
can tell which is the backup copy because it has the same name as the original
file but with a tilde (~) appended to it. For example, the backup copy for
Memo.rtf would be Memo.rtf~.
If you only the backup file remains, you can remove the ~ from the name and
use it in place of the original. See “Renaming a File or Folder” on page 6-4.
Saving Another Version of a File
You can save the contents of a file under a different name and in a different
folder while keeping the original file too. You typically do this to save one
version of a file before making any more changes to it.
Both the Save As and Save To commands save the contents of the window you
are working in as another file. Each command opens the Save panel, where you
name the new version of the file and put it in a folder, just as you do for a new
file (see Figure 5-7 on page 5-9). The original file stays the same as when you
last saved it.
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5
1. Open the document menu from the main menu.
2. Choose Save As or Save To from the document menu.
3. In the Save panel, name the new version and open the folder in which
you want to put it.
4. Click on OK.
Save As puts away the
previous version, which
does not include
changes. You keep
working in the new
version, which includes
changes.
Save To puts away the
new version, which
includes changes. You
keep working in the old
version, where your
changes are not yet
saved.
Figure 5-7
Saving Another Version of a File
Note – You can think of these commands as taking a snapshot of the file and
putting the snapshot away, while you continue to work in the other version of
the file. Save As puts a snapshot of the original version aside, and Save To puts
a snapshot of the revised version aside.
Creating and Saving Files
5-9
5
Why Save?
When you work in a file—for example, by typing in an Edit document—the
system displays your work in a window. But it does not retain your work
permanently on disk until you save the file.
Before closing a window that contains a file you have been working in, you
need to save your changes if you want them to be there the next time you open
the file. If you close the file without saving, the changes are not copied onto the
disk and they are there when you next open the file.
When you open a file:
OpenStep leaves the original file on disk.
It copies the file into the window.
When you revise a file, for
example, by typing in it:
The file on disk remains unchanged.
You see your revisions in the window.
When you save the file:
The copy you have revised replaces the file on disk.
Figure 5-8
5-10
Reasons for Saving
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Organizing Your Work
6
This chapter describes the following tasks you can perform in the OpenStep™
environment to organize your work:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Creating a folder
Renaming a file or folder
Copying a file or folder
Moving a file or folder
Replacing a file or folder
Merging two folders
Creating a link
Setting options for copying links
Compressing and decompressing a file or folder
Deleting a file or folder
Retrieving a file or folder from the recycler
Handling several files and folders at once
Managing several file operations
Solving file and folder problems
6-1
6
Permissions Granted
To make changes to the file system, for instance, by moving files around or
renaming them, you must have certain permissions for the files and folders
you are working with. To rename a file, for example, you need permission to
change the contents of the folder it is in.
There are two basic types of permissions for a file or folder: read
permission—that is, permission to look at its contents—and write permission, or
permission to change its contents.
All of the tasks described in this chapter require that you have the correct
permissions. When you try to do something you do not have permission
for—such as move a file out of someone else’s folder—a panel typically
informs you that you cannot do it.
You can set permissions for your own files and folders to prevent anyone else
from changing them. For example, you might give other people permission to
read a folder, and therefore browse its contents. But if you do not give them
write permission for the folder, they cannot change the folder’s contents, for
example, by moving a file out of it.
You can even use permissions to protect your work from yourself. If you
remove write permission from an important file, for example, you cannot
accidentally alter the file by saving changes to it.
For information on how to set permissions for yourself and for others who
have access to your files, see “Changing Permissions for a File or Folder” on
page 7-9.
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6
Creating a Folder
As you accumulate files, you can create folders to put them in so they are easy
to find. Choosing New Folder creates a folder in the current folder, as shown in
Figure 6-1.
1. Open the folder in which you want to put the new folder.
2. Choose File from the Workspace menu.
3. Choose New Folder from the File menu.
4. Type a name for the folder and press Return.
At first, the
folder is
called
NewFolder
You type the
name you
want and
press
Return.
Figure 6-1
Creating a Folder
Your new folder is empty at first. But you can put files and other folders in it
by copying or moving them into it, by saving files in it, or by creating other
new folders in it.
Organizing Your Work
6-3
6
Pick a name for your folder as described in “Guidelines for Naming Files and
Folders” on page 5-6.
Renaming a File or Folder
You can rename a file or folder simply by editing its name in the File Viewer or
any other folder window, as shown in Figure 6-2.
1. Select the file or folder.
2. Edit the name in the icon path.
3. Press Return.
When you
click in a
name in the
icon path,
an insertion
point is
displayed.
In the icon or
listing view,
you can also
edit a name
in the
current view.
Figure 6-2
Renaming a File or Folder
Pick a new name for the file or folder as described in “Guidelines for Naming
Files and Folders” on page 5-6.
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6
You can use Edit menu commands to edit a file or folder name. You can also
choose Sort Icons from the View menu to alphabetize the contents of a folder
after renaming in it. See “Workspace Manager Commands” on page A-10.
The name of a file or folder cannot or should not change in these cases:
•
•
You cannot rename your home folder.
•
Do not change a file’s extension if that will prevent the file from opening in
the right application.
Do not rename an application. Changing an application’s name may prevent
you from opening files you have already created with the application.
Copying a File or Folder
You can make a copy of a file or folder in another folder, as shown in
Figure 6-3 on page 6-6. When you copy a folder, you copy all the files and
folders in it too.
1. Select the file or folder and drag it to the shelf.
2. Select the folder in which you want to put the copy.
3. Hold down the Alt key and drag what you are copying from the shelf to
the folder in the icon path.
Organizing Your Work
6-5
6
The folder
opens to
accept the
selection.
The copy
pointer
shows that
you are
copying
instead of
moving.
In the icon
view, you
can also
drag to or
from the
current view.
Figure 6-3
Copying a File or Folder
The standard way to copy a file or folder is to drag it from the shelf to a folder
in the icon path. But you can also drag from the icon path to a folder on the
shelf, or from one folder window to another.
You might not need to hold down the Alt key while you drag. It depends on
where you are dragging the selection. When you drag it to a folder that is on a
different disk, for example, the selection is copied even if you do not use the
Alt key.
If a folder does not open when you drag a selection to it, check your
permissions for that folder.
To find out which is your keyboard’s Alt key, see “Keyboard Basics” on
page 9-5.
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6
If the Processes panel asks for additional instructions, see “Solving File and
Folder Problems” on page 6-24.
For information on copying a selection of files or folders, see “Handling
Several Files and Folders at Once” on page 6-21.
You can also use the Duplicate command in the File menu to copy a file or
folder. See “Workspace Manager Commands” on page A-10.
Moving a File or Folder
You move a file or folder into another folder much as you copy it—by dragging
it to the other folder, as shown in Figure 6-4 on page 6-8. When you move a
folder, you move all the files and folders in it, too.
1. Select the file or folder and drag it to the shelf.
2. Select the folder you want to put it in.
3. Hold down the Command key and drag what you are moving from the
shelf to the folder in the icon path.
Organizing Your Work
6-7
6
The folder
opens to
accept the
selection.
The pointer
changes
color to
show that
you are
moving
instead of
copying.
In the icon
view, you
can also
drag to or
from the
current view.
Figure 6-4
Moving a File or Folder
The standard way to move a file or folder is to drag it from the shelf to a folder
in the icon path. But you can also drag from the icon path to a folder on the
shelf, or from one folder window to another.
If the Processes panel asks for additional instructions, see “Solving File and
Folder Problems” on page 6-24.
For information on moving a selection of files or folders, see “Handling Several
Files and Folders at Once” on page 6-21.
You might not need to hold down the Command key while you drag. It
depends on where you are dragging the selection. When you drag it to a folder
on the same part of a disk, for example, the selection is moved even if you do
not use the Command key.
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6
If a folder does not open when you drag a selection to it, you do not have
permission to put anything in that folder.
When It Is a Copy or a Move
When you drag a file or folder to another folder, the Workspace Manager either
copies it or moves it, depending on where the destination folder is. You can tell
which by the shape of the pointer.
A
copies the selection. This pointer is displayed when the selection and the
folder to which you are dragging it are on a different disk (or different part of
a disk, if your system administrator has partitioned the disk to act as separate
disks). For example, it is displayed when you drag a file from your system’s
hard disk to a floppy disk or to a disk on another system on the network.
A
moves the selection. This pointer is displayed when the selection and the
folder are on the same disk or part of a disk.
To make the copy pointer appear in any case, you can hold down the Alt key
as you drag. To get the move pointer, hold down the Command key as you
drag.
Replacing a File or Folder
You can replace a file or folder with another one of the same name. If the
replacement and original do not have the same name, rename one of them so
they do. Then copy or move the replacement into the folder that contains the
original. The Processes panel (see Figure 6-5 on page 6-10) asks if you want to
replace the existing file or folder.
1. Select the file or folder you want to use as the replacement.
2. Drag the selection to the folder that contains the file or folder you want to
replace.
3. Click on Replace in the Processes panel.
Organizing Your Work
6-9
6
Path name—or part of
path name—of folder
you are copying.
Folder you want to
replace.
Click if you do not want
to replace anything.
Click to replace the
folder.
Figure 6-5
Replacing a File or Folder
Replacing a folder removes the entire contents of the existing folder and leaves
only the contents of the folder you copied or moved, as shown in Figure 6-6.
Contents:
Contents:
Contents:
dog.tiff
frog.tiff
cat.tiff
dog.tiff
dog.tiff
frog.tiff
Copy this Art folder..
Figure 6-6
...over this Art folder. The
entire folder is replaced.
Click on Replace to get
these contents.
Effect of Replacing a Folder
Any file or folder you replace is moved into the recycler. To get it back, see
“Retrieving a File or Folder From the Recycler” on page 6-19.
For information on replacing a selection of files and folders, see “Handling
Several Files and Folders at Once” on page 6-21.
If the Processes panel asks for additional instructions, see “Solving File and
Folder Problems” on page 6-24.
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6
Merging Two Folders
You can incorporate changes made to one folder into another folder that has
the same name. When you copy a folder over another with the same name, the
Processes panel provides the options shown in Figure 6-7.
1. Select the folder you want to merge.
2. Hold down the Alt key and drag the selection to the folder that contains
the folder with which you want to merge.
3. Click on Merge in the Processes panel.
Path name—or part of
path name—of folder
you are copying.
Folder with which you
are merging it.
Click to merge the two
folders.
Click to stop the
operation without
merging anything.
Figure 6-7
Merging Two Folders
When you merge two folders, the new folder contains the entire contents of the
folder you copy, plus any files or folders unique to the existing folder, as
shown in Figure 6-8 on page 6-12.
Organizing Your Work
6-11
6
Contents:
Contents:
dog.tiff
frog.tiff
cat.tiff
dog.tiff
Copy this Art folder..
Figure 6-8
...over this Art folder. Only
one file will be replaced
Contents:
cat.tiff
dog.tiff
frog.tiff
Click on Merge to get
these contents
Effect of Merging Two Folders
To find out which is your keyboard’s Alt key, see “Keyboard Basics” on
page 9-5.
For information on merging more than one folder at a time, see “Handling
Several Files and Folders at Once” on page 6-21.
Any file or folder that is replaced is moved into the recycler. To get it back, see
“Retrieving a File or Folder From the Recycler” on page 6-19.
If the Processes panel asks for more instructions, see “Solving File and Folder
Problems” on page 6-24.
How Merging Saves Time
Before the Workspace Manager replaces a file during merging, it checks for any
differences between it and the replacement. It compares their size and the date
they were last changed. If it finds no difference, it does not replace the file.
When you are working on a large project at your office, you might copy part of
the project onto a disk to work on it at home. Maybe you change 5 files out of
20 that you copied. When you merge them back with the rest of the files, the
Desktop Manager detects that you changed only 5 files. Instead of taking the
time to copy all 20 files, it copies only those 5.
Creating a Link
You can keep a file or folder in one location and work with it in another by
creating a link to it (see Figure 6-9 on page 6-13). The link looks just like the file
or folder to which it points. It has the same icon, and when you open it, you
see the same contents.
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6
1. Select the file or folder to which you want to create a link and drag it to
the shelf.
2. Select the folder in which you want to put the link.
3. Hold down the Control key and drag the selection from the shelf to the
folder in the icon path.
The folder
opens to
accept the
selection.
A link
pointer
shows that
you are
creating a
link instead
of copying or
moving.
In the icon
view, you
can also
drag to or
from the
current view.
Figure 6-9
Creating a Link
To create a link, you can also drag from the icon path to a folder on the shelf,
or from one folder window to another.
If a folder does not open when you drag a selection over it, you do not have
permission to put a link in that folder.
For information on creating several links at a time, see “Handling Several Files
and Folders at Once” on page 6-21.
Organizing Your Work
6-13
6
You can identify a link and tell what file or folder it points to with the
Inspector command. See “Getting Information About a File or Folder” on
page 7-1.
What Is a Link?
A link is a pointer to a file or folder that is somewhere else in the file system. A
link looks and acts like the file or folder to which it points. It has the same icon,
and when you open it, you see the same contents.
•
On a network, links make it easy for several people to open the same file.
For example, if you are working with a group of people on the same project,
you can create a link to your group’s Schedule file and keep it in your
home folder. To see the current schedule—including any changes made to
it—you can open your link.
•
Links save time.
Instead of following a lengthy path to a folder you work in frequently, you
can create a link to the folder and put it somewhere convenient, such as in
your home folder. Then to get to the actual contents of the folder, you just
open your link.
•
Links save disk space.
Instead of copying a sound or application into your home folder, just make
a link to it. Since a link is just a pointer to the file, it takes up practically no
space on the disk.
A link remains tied to the name and location of the file or folder it points to.
You can move the link or rename it, and it still points to the file or folder. If the
actual file or folder is moved, renamed, or deleted, however, the link breaks.
You should therefore make links only to files or folders that you are relatively
sure are not going to be moved or renamed.
When a link does break, its icon changes to a question mark. You can reestablish the link by returning the actual file or folder to its original location
and name. Otherwise, you should delete the link.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
6
Setting Options for Copying Links
When you copy a file that is actually a link, the Processes panel asks whether
you want to make another link, or make a copy of the actual file or folder the
link points to. If you do not want to be asked, you can select an option that
applies for every link you copy. You select this option in the Workspace
Manager Preferences panel, as shown in Figure 6-10.
1. Choose Info from the Workspace menu.
2. Choose Preferences from the Info menu.
3. Choose File Copy Options from the pop-up list at the top of the
Workspace Manager Preferences panel.
4. Select an option.
Press here to choose
File Copy Options.
Select an option for
how you want all links
to be copied.
Figure 6-10 Setting Options for Copying Links
Options for Copying Links
Select one of the following options from the File Copy Options in the
Workspace Manager Preferences panel. The option you select applies for all
links that you copy.
Organizing Your Work
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6
Ask When this option is selected, the Processes panel asks what you want to
do for each link you try to copy.
Make a new link Select this option and the Workspace Manager creates
another link for each link it copies.
Skip the link Select this option and the Workspace Manager skips all links
without copying them.
Copy the original Select this option and the Workspace Manager creates a
copy of the actual file or folder to which a link points.
Compressing and Decompressing a File or Folder
You can free space on your disk by compressing a file or folder, as shown in
Figure 6-11. Then when you want to open the file or folder, you decompress it.
1. To compress a file or folder, select it and choose File from the Workspace
menu. Then choose Compress from the File menu.
2. To decompress the file or folder so you can open it, select it and choose
File from the Workspace menu. Then choose Decompress from the File
menu.
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6
A compressed
file or folder
looks like this
and has a
.compressed
extension.
Figure 6-11 Compressing a File or Folder
When you compress a file or folder, the amount its size is reduced depends on
the kind of information in it. Compression works best on text files, reducing
the size by up to 75 percent. It is also a good idea for folders that you do not
look in very often, such as a folder containing an old project you are not
currently working on.
You can decompress a file or folder with the Decompress command or you can
double-click on a compressed file or folder. In the latter case, the Inspector
panel opens, and you can click on the Decompress button to decompress the
file or folder. The file or folder then has its original icon and takes up its
original amount of disk space.
You can use the Inspector command to find out the size of a file or folder
before and after compressing it. See “Getting Information About a File or
Folder” on page 7-1.
Organizing Your Work
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6
Deleting a File or Folder
You can remove a file or folder from the file system without immediately
destroying it by moving it into the recycler—the icon at the bottom of the
screen, as shown in Figure 6-12. When you decide you really want to destroy it,
you can empty the recycler.
1. Select the file or folder.
2. Drag the selection from the icon path to the recycler.
3. When you are sure you want to destroy everything in the recycler, choose
File from the Workspace menu and then choose Empty Recycler from
the File menu.
A sphere in the center of the recycler
means there is something in it.
Figure 6-12 Deleting a File or Folder
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
The recycler starts spinning
to accept your selection.
6
You can also drag a file or folder from the shelf to the recycler. Or with the icon
view, you can drag it from the current view.
!
Caution – The Empty Recycler command permanently destroys the contents of
the recycler. You should leave files and folders in the recycler until you are sure
you do not need them. But to free disk space, make sure to empty the recycler
periodically.
Retrieving a File or Folder From the Recycler
When you move a file or folder into the recycler, it is not lost forever. You can
retrieve it by opening the recycler and dragging the file or folder back to the
File Viewer or any other folder window, as shown in Figure 6-13 on page 6-20.
1. Double-click on the recycler.
2. Drag the file or folder from the Recycler window to a folder in the
File Viewer.
3. Click on the close button in the Recycler window.
Organizing Your Work
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6
Double-click on the recycler
to see its contents.
Drag the file or folder from the Recycler
window to a folder in the File Viewer.
Click to close the
Recycler window.
Figure 6-13 Retrieving a File
You can only retrieve files or folders that you recycled since you last chose the
Empty Recycler command.
You can destroy a file or folder without moving it to the recycler with the
Destroy command in the File menu. See “Workspace Manager File Menu” on
page A-11.
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6
On many networks, the system administrator makes backup copies of files. If
you accidentally destroy something, see your system administrator about
retrieving a copy of it.
For information on deleting a selection of files and folders, see “Handling
Several Files and Folders at Once” on page 6-21.
Handling Several Files and Folders at Once
You can work with several files and folders at once—to move them all to
another folder, for example, or to put them all in the recycler. When you select
several files or folders, a selection icon is displayed in the icon path, as shown
in Figure 6-14 on page 6-22. You can drag this icon to copy, move, link, or
delete the selection of files and folders just as you drag a single file or folder.
1. Select the files or folders you want to copy, move, link, or delete.
2. Drag the selection icon to a folder or the recycler.
Organizing Your Work
6-21
6
Drag the
selection
icon to
maneuver a
selection of
files and
folders.
The folder
opens to
accept the
selection.
Figure 6-14 Handling Several Files and Folders at Once
If the folder does not open, you do not have permission to complete
the operation.
Select more than one file or folder as described in “Selecting Several Files and
Folders” on page 3-22.
If the Processes panel asks for additional instructions, see “Solving File and
Folder Problems” on page 6-24.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
6
Managing Several File Operations
OpenStep can perform several file operations at the same time (see
Figure 6-15). You can copy a selection, compress a folder, and delete another
folder, without waiting for any previous operation to be completed. In the
meantime, you can do something else in the Workspace Manager or with any
other application.
1. Choose Tools from the Workspace menu.
2. Choose Processes from the Tools menu.
3. Choose Background from the pop-up list at the top of the Processes panel.
4. Click on the operation you want to check.
5. If you want to halt the operation, click on Pause or Stop.
OpenStep carries out most of the file operations described in this chapter in the
background—that is, behind the scenes where you do not have to worry about
them. You can track the progress of an operation, or stop, or pause it with the
Processes panel.
Press here to choose
Background.
Click on an operation in
this list.
Shading in the circle
shows the percentage of
the operation that is
complete.
Click to stop the
operation completely.
Click to halt the
operation and click again
to resume it.
Figure 6-15 Managing Several File Operations
Organizing Your Work
6-23
6
!
Caution – Sometimes you need to make sure that a particular operation is
complete before you begin another. For example, if you are moving some files
out of a folder that you then want to delete, make sure the move is complete
before you delete the folder.
If you stop an operation that is partially completed, such as a copy or move,
any file or folder already named in the panel is copied or moved. If you stop
while a folder is named, parts of the folder may be copied or moved.
Solving File and Folder Problems
Sometimes when you are working with files, the Processes panel may describe
a problem and wait for additional instructions before proceeding, as shown in
Figure 6-16.
This is the problem.
This is what you can do.
The options change
for each problem.
If you are working with
several files or folders,
you can check here to
repeat instructions for
all of them.
You can press this
button to stop the
operation completely.
Figure 6-16 Solving File and Folder Problems
6-24
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
6
Here are some common messages and ways to respond to them.
One or several folders already exist at destination
♦ Click on Merge to merge all folders in the selection with the existing
folder of the same name.
♦ Click on Replace to have all folders in the selection replace the existing
folder of the same name.
♦ Click on Proceed to decide for each folder.
When you click on Proceed, you are asked whether you want to replace,
merge, or skip each folder, one at a time (see the messages in “File or folder
already exists”).
File or folder already exists
♦ Click on Replace to replace the existing file or folder named in the panel.
See “Replacing a File or Folder” on page 6-9 for more information.
♦ Click on Merge to merge the folder named in the panel with the existing
folder.
See “Merging Two Folders” on page 6-11.
♦ Click on Skip if you do not want to replace the file or folder.
When you are copying or moving a selection of files or folders, this button
skips the one currently named in the panel, but keeps copying or moving
the rest of the selection.
File or folder is a link
♦ Click on Copy to create a copy of the actual file or folder the link points
to.
This copy is not a link.
♦ Click on New Link to create another link to the file or folder.
♦ Click on Skip if you do not want to copy the link.
When you are copying or moving a selection of files and folders, this button
skips the link currently named, but continues with the rest of the selection.
Note – You can choose one of these options for all links you copy with the
Preferences command. See “Setting Options for Copying Links” on page 6-15.
Organizing Your Work
6-25
6
No room on disk
1. Remove files and folders from the disk to which you are copying or
moving and click on Proceed. Choose the Inspector from the Tools menu
to see how much space is left on the disk and the size of your selection.
2. Free the necessary amount of space, return to the Processes panel, and
click on Proceed to complete the operation.
No room in recycler
♦ Click on Empty to empty the recycler.
Any files or folders in the recycler are permanently removed and then the
operation continues.
Repeat Box
When the Processes panel asks how to handle one of several files or folders in
a selection, you can check the Repeat box. Then click on a button to apply your
response to the entire selection.
For example, if the panel says a file already exists, you can check Repeat and
click on Replace to replace all files with the same name as any in the selection
without being asked about each one.
If the panel says that a file or folder you are copying is a link, you can check
Repeat and click on New Link to copy all links as links. Or check Repeat and
click on Skip if you do not want to copy any links in the selection.
The Repeat option can carry out or skip any of these actions: replacing files,
copying links, or merging or replacing folders. It applies only to the exact
situation named in the panel.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Inspecting Files and Folders
7
The Workspace Manager’s Inspector panel gives you quick information about
files and folders—and some options for managing them. You open the
Inspector panel with the Inspector command in the Tools menu.
The following topics are discussed in this chapter:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Getting information about a file or folder
Previewing the contents of a file
Sorting files and folders
Changing the application that opens a file
Assigning a file or folder to a new group
Changing permissions for a file or folder
Getting Information About a File or Folder
You can use the Inspector to get information about a file or folder—its size,
owner, and group, as well as its permissions and the last time it was changed,
as shown in Figure 7-1 on page 7-2.
1. Choose Tools from the Workspace menu.
2. Choose Inspector from the Tools menu.
3. Select a file or folder in the File Viewer.
4. Choose Attributes from the pop-up list at the top of the Inspector panel.
7-1
7
Choose Attributes to get information
about the selected file or folder.
File name
Path name
Click here to compute the size of a folder.
Permissions show who can open
or change a file or folder.
Date and time the file or folder
was last changed
Figure 7-1
Getting Information About a File or Folder
The size of a file is displayed automatically each time you inspect it. But you
have to compute the size of a folder if you have changed any of its files since
the last time you inspected it.
7-2
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
7
When a File Is Not a File
In the File Viewer, you may see things that look like files or folders but really
are not. These are either links or file packages.
Links A link looks and acts like an ordinary file or folder but is actually a
pointer to a file or folder somewhere else in the system. When you inspect a
link, the Inspector panel shows both the path name for the link and the path
name for the file or folder to which it is linked. See “What Is a Link?” on
page 6-14.
File packages A file package is a folder that looks and acts like a file. It
contains information that should not be separated, such as the text and
graphics files that make up a document or the files that make up an
application. When you inspect a file package, it looks like a folder—you need
to press the Compute button to compute its size. See “File Packages—Files
That Are Really Folders” on page 3-27.
You can also get this information in the File Viewer. See “Listing Files and
Folders” on page 3-15.
Previewing the Contents of a File
You can get a quick look at the contents of a file without taking the time to
open the file and start up its application—to make sure it is the one you want,
for example.
You use the File Inspector panel, which changes when you open different types
of files. For example, the Inspector panels in Figure 7-2 on page 7-4 show the
contents of an RTF file and a TIFF file.
1. Choose Tools from the Workspace menu.
2. Choose Inspector from the Tools menu.
3. Select a file in the File Viewer.
4. Choose Contents from the pop-up list at the top of the Inspector panel.
Inspecting Files and Folders
7-3
7
Choose Contents to preview a file.
You can select text in the preview of an RTF file
to copy and paste in another document.
Click here to display the complete TIFF
image in the window.
Figure 7-2
Previewing the Contents of a File
The Workspace Manager provides Inspector panels for inspecting several types
of files, including RTF (.rtf and .rtfd), EPS, TIFF, and sound (.snd) files. If
the application you are using produces a different kind of file, it may provide
its own Inspector panel. If not, you cannot preview its files.
Sorting Files and Folders
The files and folders in the File Viewer and other folder windows are normally
listed alphabetically by name. You can change the order in any folder to list its
contents by kind, date, size, or owner, as shown in Figure 7-3 on page 7-5.
7-4
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
7
1. Choose Tools from the Workspace menu.
2. Choose Inspector from the Tools menu.
3. Open the folder you want to sort in the File Viewer.
4. Choose Contents from the pop-up list at the top of the Inspector panel.
5. Click on one of the sorting options and click on OK.
Click on Contents.
Then click on one of these options to
change the way the contents are
organized.
Click on OK to confirm the sorting
option.
Figure 7-3
Sorting Files and Folders
Any change you make in the Folder Inspector panel applies only to the folder
that is currently open in the File Viewer.
Inspecting Files and Folders
7-5
7
In the icon view, you can also use the Clean Up Icons command and the Sort
Icons command in the View menu to organize your files and folders. See
“Workspace Manager Commands” on page A-10.
Changing the Application That Opens a File
When you open a file in the Workspace Manager, an application automatically
starts at the same time. That application depends on the type of file—that is, on
its file extension. For example, when you open an RTF file, Edit normally
starts.
You can use the Inspector to see which applications can open a file, to change
the application that starts whenever you open specific types of files, or to open
a file temporarily in another application, as shown in Figure 7-4 on page 7-7.
1. Choose Tools from the Workspace menu.
2. Choose Inspector from the Tools menu.
3. Select a file in the File Viewer.
4. Choose Tools from the pop-up list at the top of the Inspector panel.
5. Click on the application you want to open the file.
6. Click on Set Default.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
7
Choose Tools.
The highlighted application is the one that
currently starts when you open the file.
Click on another application to make it the
startup application.
To open the file temporarily in another
application, double-click on the
application’s icon.
Click on Set Default to start the
highlighted application whenever
you open the file.
Figure 7-4
Changing the Application That Opens a File
Note – You can also open a file temporarily in an application by holding down
the Command key and dragging the file icon from the icon path to the
application icon in the dock.
For more information about what makes a file and application compatible, see
“Which Application Opens a File” on page 3-10.
Inspecting Files and Folders
7-7
7
Assigning a File or Folder to a New Group
The Workspace Manager helps groups of people work more efficiently by
sharing access to a set of files and folders. Every file and folder you create is
assigned to a group. If you belong to more than one group, you can reassign
files and folders from one group to another, as shown in Figure 7-5.
1. Choose Tools from the Workspace menu.
2. Choose Inspector from the Tools menu.
3. Select a file or folder in the File Viewer.
4. Choose Attributes from the pop-up list at the top of the Inspector panel.
5. Choose the new group from the Group pop-up list and click on OK.
Choose Attributes.
When you belong to more than one
group, you get a pop-up list here.
You choose the group to which you want
to assign the file or folder.
Click on OK to confirm.
Figure 7-5
7-8
Assigning a File or Folder to a New Group
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
7
You can reassign only files and folders that you created.
For information about setting up groups to share files and folders, see your
system administrator.
Changing Permissions for a File or Folder
You can control access to individual files and folders that you create—and
protect them from accidental changes—by setting permissions for them, as
shown in Figure 7-6 on page 7-10.
1. Choose Tools from the Workspace menu.
2. Choose Inspector from the Tools menu.
3. Select a file or folder in the File Viewer.
4. Choose Access Control from the pop-up list on the Inspector panel.
5. Check the permissions you want in the grid and click on OK.
Inspecting Files and Folders
7-9
7
Choose Access Control.
Check Read for permission to look at the
contents of a file, or the list of files and
folders in a folder.
Check Write for permission to change
the contents of a file or folder.
Check Execute for permission to run
applications or other program files.
The person who created the file or folder.
Anyone in the group associated with the
file.
Everyone else who has access to your file
system.
Click here if you want the permissions to
apply to all files and folders in a folder.
Figure 7-6
Changing Permissions for a File or Folder
Permission is granted when a check mark appears in the appropriate square.
An X indicates that permission is denied. You can change permissions only if
you are the owner of the file or folder.
You can also set read and write permissions in the Attributes Inspector panel.
These permissions apply only to the current file or folder—not the files and
folders it contains.
!
7-10
Caution – Do not change execute permissions unless you are an expert user. If
you uncheck execute permissions for an application, you may not be able to
open any of the files that use the application. If you uncheck execute
permissions for a folder, you or others may not be able to open any of the files
in the folder.
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
7
Permissions affect many file operations. For an overview, see “Permissions
Granted” on page 6-2.
You can preset permissions for any file or folder you create with the
Preferences application.
Inspecting Files and Folders
7-11
7
7-12
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Working With Disks
8
This chapter discusses how to use disks: floppy disks and CD-ROMs. It covers
the following topics:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Inserting a floppy disk
Preparing a new floppy disk
Creating a folder window for a disk
Copying files to or from a disk
Reusing a disk
Ejecting a disk
Opening and saving files on a floppy disk
Inserting a Floppy Disk
You can use a floppy disk to store backup files or to move files from one
computer to another. The disk can be in DOS format or UNIX® format.
1. Slide the disk into the drive, metal end first, label side up.
2. Gently push the disk until it clicks into place.
3. Choose Disk from the Workspace menu.
4. Choose Check for Disks from the Disk menu.
5. Click on the disk on the shelf or double-click on it in the current view to
open it.
8-1
8
Note – If a panel says that the disk is unreadable, you have to initialize the
disk. See “Preparing a New Floppy Disk” on page 8-3.
For information on inserting a disk while working in an Open or Save panel,
see “Opening and Saving Files on a Floppy Disk” on page 8-10. For
information about how to insert a CD-ROM, see the owner’s guide for your
CD-ROM drive.
When you insert a floppy disk and choose Check for Disks, it is displayed in
your File Viewer—you have to choose Check for Disks for the disk to be
displayed.
The disk is put in the folder called floppy in your root folder and the files and
folders on the disk become part of your file system, as shown in Figure 8-1.
You can open the disk to see its contents just like you open a folder.
The disk
appears on
the shelf if
space
permits.
Click on it
to open it.
The disk is
put in the
floppy
folder in
your root
folder, and
has a name,
just like a file
or folder.
Figure 8-1
8-2
Floppy Disk in the File Viewer
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
8
You are the owner for all files and folders on any floppy disk that you insert.
You can work in all its files and folders and change their permissions.
Preparing a New Floppy Disk
Before you can use a brand-new floppy disk, you have to initialize it.
Initializing a disk prepares it to store files and folders. When you insert a
new disk and choose Check for Disks, the Workspace Manager usually
asks if you want to initialize the disk.
1. Insert the disk in the disk drive.
2. Choose Disk from the Workspace menu and choose Check for Disks from
the Disk menu.
3. Click on Initialize.
4. Choose a format from the pop-up list in the Initialize panel.
5. Type a name for the disk.
6. Click on Erase.
When you click on Initialize, the panel shown in Figure 8-2 opens.
Type a name for the disk here.
Press here if you want to choose
DOS format.
Click to initialize the disk.
Figure 8-2
Initializing a Disk
If you do not name the disk, it has the name unnamed_floppy.
Working With Disks
8-3
8
Note – You should initialize a disk in DOS format if you want to use the disk
to copy files from your system to a DOS computer.
Creating a Folder Window for a Disk
When you insert a floppy disk or CD-ROM in your computer, the disk
normally shows up on the File Viewer’s shelf, if space permits. You can have
the disk open in its own window instead (see Figure 8-3).
1. Choose Info from the Workspace menu.
2. Choose Preferences from the Info menu.
3. Choose Disk Options from the pop-up list in the Workspace Manager
Preferences panel.
4. Click on the “open new folder window” option for removable disks.
Choose DIsk Options
from this pop-up list.
Select an option for
floppy disks or
CD-ROMs.
Figure 8-3
8-4
Disk Options
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
8
Other Disk Options
You can select one of four options for how removable disks are displayed
in your file system. No matter which option you select, you can always find the
disk to open it in your root folder.
Place icon on shelf When this option is selected, the disk is displayed on the
shelf, if space permits.
Open new folder window Select this option to display the contents of the disk
in its own folder window.
Select the disk This option selects and opens the disk in the File Viewer so its
contents are displayed.
Do nothing This option simply puts the disk in your root folder without
opening it or putting it on the shelf.
Copying Files to or From a Disk
You copy files or folders to or from a disk just like you copy them between
folders. Select them and drag them where you want to put them, as shown in
Figure 8-4 on page 8-6. To move a selection instead of copying it, hold down
the Command key as you drag.
1. Select the files you want to copy and drag them to the shelf.
2. Select the disk you want to copy them to. Or if you are copying from
a disk, select the folder you want to copy them to.
3. Drag the files from the shelf to the disk or folder.
Working With Disks
8-5
8
When you
drag to a
disk, it
sparkles to
accept the
selection.
Figure 8-4
Copying Files to or From a Disk
Note – The best way to work with a file on a floppy disk is to copy the file
somewhere else in your file system first and work in the copy. If you want to
change a file on a CD-ROM, you must copy it somewhere else in your file
system and then change the copy. You cannot change the contents of a
CD-ROM.
Note – After copying files to a floppy disk, you can eject the disk and insert it
into another computer to transfer files to that computer. See“Ejecting a Disk”
on page 8-9.
8-6
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
8
DOS Disks
You can use a floppy disk to transfer files between a DOS computer and your
system.
When you insert a DOS floppy disk into your system, the disk is displayed in
the floppy folder in your root folder like any other disk. You can then copy
files from the disk to your file system.
If you want to transfer a file from your system to a DOS computer, you can
initialize a disk in DOS format (see “Reusing a Disk” on page 8-8. Then copy
the files you want to transfer onto the disk, eject the disk, and insert it into the
other computer.
Once a DOS disk is in your file system, you can work with its files just as you
do anywhere else in the file system, with these exceptions:
•
You do not set permissions for files or folders on a DOS disk, but you can
when you copy them to your system’s disk.
•
You cannot rename a DOS disk by editing its name in the icon path. You
have to name it when you initialize it.
You may need to rename a file that you copy from a DOS disk.
When a File or Folder Does Not Fit on One Floppy Disk
If a file or folder is too large to fit on one floppy disk, you can copy it onto
several. To make a backup copy of a 2-Mbyte file, for example, you can copy it
onto two 1.4-Mbyte disks.
1. Copy the file or folder to a floppy disk as you normally would.
2. If what you are copying is too big to fit on the disk, a panel asks if you
want to create a multi-volume file. When you click Yes, the Workspace
Manager copies a “chunk” of the file or folder onto the disk.
3. When the disk is full, a panel asks you to remove the disk from its drive
and insert another one. After doing this, click Proceed in the panel. The
Workspace Manager copies the second chunk.
4. Repeat this for as many disks as needed.
Working With Disks
8-7
8
To copy the file or folder from the disk back into your file system, perform the
following steps:
1. Insert the disk containing the first chunk—a file with a .chunk extension.
2. Drag the chunk to the folder you want to put it in.
3. When a panel asks for the next chunk, remove the disk, insert the next
one, and click on Proceed.
4. Repeat this until you have copied all the chunks. Make sure to copy
chunks in the order they were originally copied.
5. If you insert a disk in the wrong order, just remove it and insert the
correct one before clicking Proceed.
6. After you copy all the chunks, you can open the file or folder as usual.
Note – The Workspace Manager compresses a file or folder before it copies a
chunk onto the floppy disk. Sometimes this makes the file or folder fit on one
disk, in which case the Workspace Manager does not request an additional disk
after all.
Reusing a Disk
You can erase a floppy disk and change its format by reinitializing it. Just select
the disk (or any file or folder on it), and choose Initialize.
1. Insert the disk into the disk drive.
2. Choose Disk from the Workspace menu and choose Check for Disks from
the Disk menu.
3. Select the disk in the File Viewer.
4. Choose Initialize from the Disk menu.
5. Choose a file format from the pop-up list in the Initialize panel and type a
new name for the disk.
6. Click on Erase.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
8
!
Caution – Initializing a disk destroys all files and folders on it. They cannot
be retrieved.
When you choose Initialize, the panel shown in Figure 8-5 on page 8-9 opens.
You can type a new name for the disk here.
Press here if you want to choose
DOS format.
Click to erase the current contents of
the disk.
Figure 8-5
Reusing a Disk
You can give the disk a new name when you initialize it. If the disk is in UNIX
format, you can also rename it later by editing its name in the icon path (just
like you rename a file or folder).
Ejecting a Disk
When you are done using a removable disk, such as a floppy disk or a
CD-ROM, you choose Eject to remove the disk’s contents from the file system,
as shown in Figure 8-6 on page 8-10. Only after you choose Eject and see the
message asking you to eject should you actually remove the disk from the
drive.
1. Select the disk you want to eject.
2. Choose Disk from the Workspace menu.
3. Choose Eject from the Disk menu.
4. When a message asks you to eject the disk, remove the disk from your
system’s disk drive.
Working With Disks
8-9
8
Select the
disk (or any
file or folder
on it) and
choose
Eject from
the Disk
menu.
Figure 8-6
!
Ejecting a Disk
Caution – Do not remove a floppy disk from the disk drive before a message
says to, or else you might lose information from that disk or from the next one
you insert.
You can also eject a disk while working in an Open or Save panel. See
“Opening and Saving Files on a Floppy Disk.”
Opening and Saving Files on a Floppy Disk
To make it easy to open and save files on a floppy disk, you can insert and eject
disks while working in an Open or Save panel, as shown in Figure 8-7 on
page 8-11.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
8
1. When an Open or Save panel is open, insert the disk you want to open
from or save on.
2. Click on the disk button in the panel.
3. Select the file you want to open, or type a name for the one you are
saving.
4. Click on OK in the panel.
Insert a disk and click here to open it
in the browser. Click the button after
browsing to locate and select the
disk again.
Click here to remove a disk from the
file system so you can safely eject it
and insert another one.
Figure 8-7
!
Saving Files on a Floppy Disk
Caution – Do not remove a floppy disk from the disk drive before a message
says to, or else you might lose information from that disk or from the next one
you insert.
You can use the disk and eject buttons to open and eject a floppy disk,
a CD-ROM, or any other removable disk.
Working With Disks
8-11
8
When you have more than one removable disk in your file system, clicking on
the disk button repeatedly selects the next disk. To eject a particular disk when
there is more than one, you must select the disk or a file or folder on it, and
then click on the eject button.
You can browse several disks, one after the other, in an Open or Save panel.
Just insert a disk and click on the disk button. Then after browsing, click on the
eject button, remove the disk, insert another one, and click on the disk
button again.
For information on opening and saving files in general, see Chapter 5,
“Creating and Saving Files.”
The disk and eject buttons in an Open or Save panel perform the same
operations as the Check for Disks and Eject commands in the Workspace
Manager’s Disk menu. See “Workspace Manager Commands” on page A-10.
8-12
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Typing and Editing
9
This chapter describes how you can type and edit documents. Most of the
examples show Solaris™ OpenStep’s™ Edit application, but any application
that uses text, including the File Viewer and Mail, will use these editing
techniques. The techniques work in text areas of any size, from file names in
the File Viewer to Mail messages to large documents produced in Edit:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Starting the Edit application
Typing text
Selecting text
Deleting and replacing text
Moving and copying text
Finding text
Replacing text that you find
Typing special characters
Previewing special characters
Setting a new font
Previewing a font
Setting margins, indentation, and tabs
Checking your spelling
Starting the Edit Application
The Edit application is a tool for creating formatted documents. You can start
Edit with its icon in the dock or by opening an RTF file (one with an .rtf or
.rtfd extension) from the File Viewer (see Figure 9-1 on page 9-2).
9-1
9
♦ Double-click on the Edit icon in the dock.
or
♦ Open the /usr/openstep/Apps folder in the File Viewer and then
double-click on Edit.app.
or
♦ Double-click on the icon for an RTF or RTFD file.
Edit application icon
Figure 9-1
.rtf file icon
.rtfd file icon
Icons That Start Edit
You create an Edit document in a document window. When you start up Edit
from the application dock, an empty document window like the one in
Figure 9-2 on page 9-3 appears. When you start up Edit by clicking on a file
icon, the file is opened in a document window. A window with a document in
it looks like the one in Figure 9-3 on page 9-4. You can also open a new
document window by choosing New from the File menu.
9-2
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
9
A new Edit
document is
untitled. You
name the
document
when you
first save it.
Figure 9-2
New Edit Document
For information on naming an Edit document, see Chapter 5, “Creating and
Saving Files.”
You can add color or graphic images to a document. See Chapter 10, “Working
With Color,” and Chapter 11, “Working With Graphics.”
Typing Text
You type text in a document or text field using the keyboard (see Figure 9-3 on
page 9-4). As you type each character, it appears in the key window at the
insertion point.
1. Click in the window where you want to type.
2. Type without pressing Return at the end of each line.
3. Press Return to end each paragraph.
4. Click elsewhere to continue typing there.
Typing and Editing
9-3
9
The pointer
usually
becomes
an I-beam
when you
can type
text.
The
insertion
point
moves
forward as
you type.
Figure 9-3
Typing to Create a Document
To move the insertion point and select a new place to type, click where you
want the text to be displayed (see Figure 9-4).
The insertion point is
displayed where you
click.
Text you type is
inserted, and lines in
the paragraph adjust
to accommodate it.
Figure 9-4
Moving the Insertion Point
You can also move the insertion point with an arrow key on the keyboard.
You do not have to press Return to end a line as you do on a typewriter.
Applications automatically break lines between words (a process known
as word wrap). You only press Return to cut a line short, as when ending
a paragraph.
9-4
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
9
Keyboard Basics
Most keys on your keyboard are labeled with letters, numbers, punctuation, or
other symbols that the keys generate when you press them (see Figure 9-5).
Help
Stop
Again
Props Undo
F1
Esc
~
`
Q
Copy
Caps
Lock
Open
Paste
Shift
Find
Cut
W
A
F4
R
D
X
F5
%
5
$
4
E
S
Z
Ctrl
F3
#
3
@
2
!
1
Tab
Front
Figure 9-5
F2
^
6
T
F
C
I
N
M
F10
_
)
0
O
K
J
F9
F8
(
9
8
U
H
B
F7
*
&
7
Y
G
V
F6
+
=
{
[
P
:
;
L
F11
F12
Back Space
}
]
|
\
"
'
<
>
?
,
.
/
Print
Pause
Screen Scroll
Lock
Insert
Home
Delete End
Page
Up
Page
Down
Num
Lock
8
7
Home
/
-
*
9
PgUp
4
5
6
1
End
2
3
PgDn
+
Enter
Shift
Alt
Com
pose
Alt
Graph
0
Ins
Enter
'
Del
Typical Keyboard Layout for Sun Workstations
•
Holding down the Shift key while typing another key gives you either
uppercase letters or the upper characters on keys labeled with two
characters. On most keyboards, you can press Caps Lock if you want to type
uppercase letters without holding down the Shift key. To turn off Caps Lock,
press the key again.
•
•
Press the space bar to insert a space between two characters.
•
Press Tab to move to the next tab stop in a document or to the next text field
in a panel. Sometimes, holding down Shift while pressing Tab moves you in
the reverse direction—for example, to the previous field in a panel.
•
To delete text, press the Back Space key, which backs up over text one
character at a time.
•
On a Sun keyboard, the ◆ and Alt keys work as your Command key and Alt
key, respectively. On the x86 keyboard, the key labeled “Alt” to the left of
the space bar is the Command key, and the key labeled “Alt” to the right of
the space bar is the Alt key. Several uses for these keys are given throughout
this book.
Press Return to end a paragraph or begin a new line. In some panels,
pressing Return operates a button.
Typing and Editing
9-5
9
•
When you hold down a key, the character repeats itself. You can use the
Preferences application to adjust the repetition speed. See “Setting the Rate
for Repeating Characters” on page 16-6.
•
The numeric keypad provides a convenient way to enter numbers and do
calculations. There is no difference between typing the same character here
and on the main part of the keyboard.
•
Finally, if you type when there is no key window or if the key window does
not accept typing, your system beeps so you know that your keystrokes are
not having any effect.
Selecting Text
To edit text, you usually select it first, as shown in Figure 9-6. Your next action,
such as choosing the Delete command, acts on the selection.
♦ Drag across the text you want to select.
♦ Hold down the Alt key while clicking to select a range between the
insertion point and where you click.
♦ Double-click on a word to select it.
♦ Triple-click anywhere in a paragraph to select the whole paragraph.
One way to select text is to drag across it. Drag horizontally to select text on
the same line or vertically to select several lines of text. You can even drag past
the edge of your view—for instance, past the bottom of an Edit window—to
scroll the window’s contents and keep selecting.
Selected text is
highlighted in gray so
that it stands out.
Figure 9-6
Selecting the Word “blowout”
The Alt key is useful for selecting large amounts of text, as shown in Figure 9-7
on page 9-7. You can even scroll beforehand to select more than is currently
displayed.
Typing and Editing
9-6
9
Click here and
then scroll.
Figure 9-7
Alt-click to
select to here.
You can Alt-click again to extend
the selection (or shorten it).
Selecting Text With the Alt Key
If you select text by double-clicking or triple-clicking on it, you can drag before
releasing the mouse button the final time to extend the selection by a word
or paragraph at a time. If you then Alt-click, the selection is extended to the
next word or paragraph boundary.
Deleting and Replacing Text
Pressing the Back Space key as you type backs up and deletes characters one at
a time. When text (or a graphic image) is selected, the Delete command in the
Edit menu and the Back Space key do the same thing—they delete the selection
(see Figure 9-8 on page 9-8).
♦ To delete text as you type, press the Back Space key.
♦ To delete a block of text, select it. Then choose Delete from the Edit menu
or press the Back Space key.
♦ To replace text, select it. Then type the replacement text.
Typing and Editing
9-7
9
Press the Back Space
key to delete the
selection.
Or type text to replace
the selection.
Figure 9-8
Deleting and Replacing Text
When you delete a word that you selected by double-clicking on it, spacing is
automatically adjusted around the remaining words. For instance, if you
double-click on the word automatically in the first sentence of this paragraph
and then delete it, one space remains between is and adjusted instead of two.
Moving and Copying Text
You can move and copy text with the Cut, Copy, and Paste commands in the
Edit menu, as shown in Figure 9-9. In applications where you work with
graphic images, you can typically copy and move them too.
1. Select what you want to move or copy.
2. Choose Edit from the application’s main menu.
3. Choose Cut to move the selection or choose Copy to copy it.
4. Put the insertion point where you want the selection to be displayed.
5. Choose Paste.
Cut or copy the selection.
Move the insertion point.
Paste the selection.
Figure 9-9
Moving and Copying Text
Typing and Editing
9-8
9
Choosing Cut removes the current selection and places it on the
pasteboard—your system’s holding place for information you are transferring
from one place to another. Choosing Copy puts a copy of the selection on the
pasteboard.
The Paste command inserts the contents of the pasteboard at the insertion
point, or if you selected text, in place of the selection.
You can paste text anywhere you can type—somewhere else in a document, in
a text field, even in another application. Just click where you want the text
to go.
A selection stays on the pasteboard until you replace it by choosing Cut or
Copy again. You can therefore keep choosing Paste to paste the same selection
over and over. When you paste a word that you cut or copied after doubleclicking on it, spacing is adjusted around the pasted word.
Finding Text
You can search for a string of text in a document, such as an Edit document or
a Mail message you are composing. You do this with the Find panel as shown
in Figure 9-10 on page 9-10.
1. Choose Edit from the application’s main menu.
2. Choose Find from the Edit menu.
3. Choose Find Panel from the Find menu.
4. Click in the document you want to search.
5. In the Find panel, type the text you want to find.
6. Click on the Next or Previous button.
Typing and Editing
9-9
9
Type what you want to find here.
Click to search
forward or backward
from the insertion
point or selection.
The FInd panel remains
the key window so you
can keep searching for
text by clicking on a
button in the panel.
When text is found, it is
highlighted in the main
window.
Figure 9-10 Finding Text
You can search for any sequence of characters in the standard text character set,
including spaces. In some applications, you can also search for characters such
as tabs and returns.
The Find panels in Edit and Mail have the options listed in Table 9-1 for
searching for text.
Table 9-1
9-10
Find Options in Edit and Mail
Option
Meaning
Ignore Case
Uncheck the Ignore Case box to distinguish between uppercase
and lowercase letters during the search—for example, to locate
“Planet” but not “planet”.
Regular Expression
Check this box if you want the Find panel to recognize UNIX
regular expressions, which are described in the UNIX manual
page for ed.
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
9
Commands in the Find menu provide other ways to search for text. See
“Standard Commands” on page A-1.
Replacing Text That You Find
In some applications, including Edit and Mail, the Find panel (see Figure 9-11)
provides easy ways to replace each occurrence of text you find with another
string of text. You can replace occurrences one by one, or you can replace them
all at once.
1. Choose Edit from the application’s main menu.
2. Choose Find from the Edit menu.
3. Choose Find Panel from the Find menu.
4. Click in the document you want to search.
5. In the Find panel, type the text you want to find and the replacement text.
6. Click on the Next or Previous button.
7. Click on a replace button.
Type the text you want to replace here.
Type the replacement text here.
After you find text, click on one of
these buttons to replace it.
Figure 9-11 Replacing Text
Note – You can delete one or more occurrences of text you are searching for by
leaving the “Replace with” field empty and clicking on a replace button.
Typing and Editing
9-11
9
The Find panel in Edit and Mail has several options (see Table 9-2) for
replacing text you find. In Mail, these options apply only for a message you are
composing.
Table 9-2
Replace Options Available in Edit and Mail
Option
Meaning
Replace
Click on this button after finding an occurrence of text to
replace it with the text in the “Replace with” field.
Replace & Find
Click on this button to replace the current occurrence and find
the next one, all in one motion.
Replace All
You can use the Replace All button to replace all occurrences of
the text you are searching for. Replace All can apply to the
entire document or to a selection only, depending on the setting
under Replace All Scope.
Entire File
If you set the Entire File option under Replace All Scope,
Replace All replaces all occurrences in the document.
Selection
You can select a portion of a document and set Selection under
Replace All Scope. Clicking on Replace All then replaces only
the occurrences in the selection.
Setting a New Font
You can give text in a document a different look by setting its font—changing
its font family, making it bold, making it larger or smaller, or combining these
effects. You use the Font Panel, as shown in Figure 9-12 and Figure 9-13 on
page 9-13. The new font you select on the panel applies to text you are about to
type at the insertion point or to text you select.
1. Select the text whose font you want to change, or click where you want to
type text in a new font.
2. Choose Format from the application’s main menu.
3. Choose Font from the Format menu.
4. Choose Font Panel from the Font menu.
5. In the Font Panel, select the font family, typeface, and size you want.
6. Click on Set.
9-12
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
9
Select a font family by clicking
on it in this column.
Click in this column to select a
typeface within the family.
Type a size for the text in the text
field—decimals are okay—or
click on a size in the column.
Click on this button to apply your
selections to your document.
Or click on this button to undo
selections you have made in the panel.
Figure 9-12 Font Panel
Type a + or - before a size value to increase or decrease each
character in the selection by a certain number of points.
Figure 9-13 Increasing or Decreasing the Font Size
You can double-click on a font property to set it without clicking on Set. For
example, double-click on 12 in the Size column to make your selection 12
points.
The top of the Font Panel usually displays the current font—the one you are
about to type at the insertion point or the font of text you select (see
Figure 9-14 on page 9-14).
Typing and Editing
9-13
9
The current font is displayed against a
white background.
If you select text that contains more than
one font, the top of the font panel looks
like this.
Figure 9-14 Current Font
You can apply one font property to a selection without affecting other
properties. For example, you might select the following text:
Third Annual Blue Planet
We are the Earth
This selection includes more than one size and typeface. If you reset its size to
11 points, the whole selection is displayed in 11-point but the typefaces stay the
same:
Third Annual Blue Planet
We are the Earth
If you set a family but not a typeface, for example, by double-clicking on the
family in the Font Panel, a matching typeface in the new family is set
automatically. Changing the above example to Helvetica, for example, makes it
look like this:
Third Annual Blue Planet
We are the Earth
If a matching typeface is not available, setting the family but not a typeface has
no effect.
You can also set font properties by choosing commands such as Bold or Italic
from the Font menu. See “Standard Commands” on page A-1.
In some applications, the Font command is in the main menu. See the user’s
guide for the application.
See also “What Is a Font?” on page 9-15.
9-14
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
9
Fonts and Special Characters
When you work with symbols and graphic characters that are not standard text
characters, you can change the font family of standard characters in a selection
without affecting the other characters. Just do not set a typeface.
For example, if you select “ Blue Planet,” which is in the Helvetica font
family, and then double-click on Times in the Font Panel, the standard
characters change to Times and the  remains, as in “ Blue Planet.” If you
similarly change “The value πr2” from Helvetica to Times, the standard
characters assume the new font but the π remains. If you instead set a typeface
in either of these examples, the  or π changes to its equivalent standard
character—here, a c or a p.
Some special characters, including π, are actually members of another font
family. See “What Is a Font?.
What Is a Font?
A font is a set of properties—font family, typeface, and size—that determine
what text looks like.
A font family is a collection of characters with a consistent design. Most families
contain standard text characters. Some families, however, have symbols or
graphic characters. The Symbol family, for example, has letters from the Greek
alphabet and mathematical symbols.
Unlike other families, the characters in the Courier family all have the same
width.
A typeface is a variation of a font family, such as Bold, Italic, or Bold Italic. Each
family has its own set of typefaces.
The size of text is measured in points: A point is 1/72 of an inch. Point size is
relative within a font family, so 11-point Times is larger than 10-point Times
but looks smaller than 11-point Helvetica.
All characters—even spaces—have a font. If you put the insertion point after
the space between two words and start to type, the text is displayed in the
same font as the space character (which may not be the font of any neighboring
text character).
Typing and Editing
9-15
9
The fonts available for your use will depend on the network you are using, but
the fonts listed in Table 9-3 should be available in most situations.
Table 9-3
Commonly Available Font Families
Font Family
Example
Lucida Sans
This family is used on the OpenStep windows, and is usually the
default font for Edit, Mail and other documents.
Times
This family is popular for memos, letters, or other documents.
Helvetica
This family is often used for headlines or headings.
Symbol
π≥÷≠
Courier
This is a standard typewriter family.

↔Ω
Previewing a Font
You can see what a font looks like before you actually apply it to your
document, as shown in Figure 9-15 on page 9-17.
1. Choose Format from the application’s main menu.
2. Choose Font from the Format menu.
3. Choose Font Panel from the Font menu.
4. In the Font Panel, select the font you want to preview and click on
Preview.
5. Replace text at the top of the panel with text you want to preview.
6. Delete text you typed to display font names at the top of the panel again.
9-16
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
9
The previewed font appears here.
You can type to preview your own text.
Delete it when you are through.
Click to preview the font you selected.
Click to undo your selections and return
settings to the current font.
Figure 9-15 Previewing a Font
If you hold down the Shift key while clicking on the Preview button, the
button remains highlighted until you Shift-click on it again. While the button
is highlighted, each selection you make in the Font Panel is previewed at
the top of the panel.
Setting Margins, Indentation, and Tabs
In many applications, you can use a ruler to alter margins, tab stops, and
indentation (see Figure 9-16 through Figure 9-20). The ruler is initially hidden,
but you can display it in a document window with the Show Ruler command.
1. Choose Format from the application’s main menu.
2. Choose Text from the Format menu.
3. Choose Show Ruler from the Text menu.
4. Drag the left and right margin markers to set the margins for the
entire document.
5. Adjust tab and indentation markers to format individual paragraphs.
Typing and Editing
9-17
9
Ruler
Indented
paragraph
Text placed
at a tab
stop
Figure 9-16 Showing the Ruler in Edit
Left margin
marker
Body indentation
marker
Indentation marker for first
line only
Figure 9-17 Ruler Markers
9-18
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Tab
marker
Right margin
marker
9
Margin Markers
The margin markers
set the left and right margins of all text in the
document (see Figure 9-18).
Drag a margin
marker.
While you drag, a
gray line shows the
margin position.
When you finish
dragging, tab
and indentation
markers move
with the left
margin.
Figure 9-18 Setting Margins
Tab Stop Markers
To change the tab stops in a paragraph, click or select text anywhere in the
paragraph. Then adjust tab markers in one of the ways shown in Figure 9-19.
Drag a tab
marker to
reposition it.
Drag a marker
off either end
of the ruler to
remove it.
Click just below
the ruler’s scale
to create a tab
marker.
Figure 9-19 Adjusting a Tab Stop
Once you adjust the markers, you can press the Tab key anywhere in the
paragraph and the insertion point advances to the next tab position.
Typing and Editing
9-19
9
Indentation Markers
Indentation markers also apply to the paragraph where you click or make
a selection. Drag the first line indentation marker ( ) to indent the first line of
the paragraph. Drag the body indentation marker (▼) to indent the rest of the
lines of the paragraph.
When you press Return to start a new paragraph, the new paragraph has the
same indentation and tab stops as the one preceding it. You can also select
several paragraphs to format all at once.
Note – If you drag the first line marker to the left of the body indent marker
you can create a hanging indent. If you then align the body indentation marker
with a tab marker, you can type a bulleted paragraph, like the one in
Figure 9-20.
Drag the ▼
marker to
indent all
but the first
line.
Press Tab
under the
bullet to
type this
paragraph.
Figure 9-20 Setting Indentation
You can also use commands in the Text menu to align text in a paragraph and
to copy and paste ruler settings. See “Standard Commands” on page A-1.
The location of the Text command may vary for some OpenStep applications.
For specific information, see the chapter that describes the application.
9-20
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
9
Checking Your Spelling
In some applications, including Edit and Mail, you can quickly locate
misspelled words and choose from possible corrections, as shown in
Figure 9-21 on page 9-22.
1. Click in the document you want to check.
2. Choose Edit from the application’s main menu.
3. Choose Spelling from the Edit menu.
4. Click on Find Next in the Spelling panel.
5. When a misspelled word is found, correct it or select another option from
the panel.
6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 until you have checked the entire document.
Typing and Editing
9-21
9
Click to find the next misspelled word.
Select from this list of possible corrections.
Or type your own correction here.
Click to replace the misspelled
word with your correction.
The misspelled
word is highlighted
in the document.
Figure 9-21 Checking Spelling
If a word appears to be misspelled, but is actually correct for the document
you are checking, click on Ignore. For this document only, the panel skips all
other occurrences of the word.
9-22
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
9
You can double-click on a word listed in the guess section of the panel to
correct the misspelled word in your document. Then you do not have to click
on Correct.
You can choose Check Spelling from the Edit menu to check spelling without
opening the Spelling panel. See “Standard Commands” on page A-1.
You can even check the spelling of a word that is not in the document you are
checking so that you can determine the correct spelling before you type it, as
shown in Figure 9-22.
Type a word you want to find out how to spell.
Click on Guess to see a list of possible corrections.
Figure 9-22 Checking the Spelling of a Word Not in the Document
Dictionary Options
The Spelling panel checks spelling against an English spelling dictionary. It
also provides options for selecting from other dictionaries you have installed
or for modifying a dictionary.
Dictionary If you have installed additional dictionaries, you can press this
button to choose the one you want to use. The panel checks spelling against
words listed in the dictionary you choose.
Typing and Editing
9-23
9
Learn If the panel identifies a correctly spelled word as misspelled, you can
click on Learn to add the word to the current dictionary. The panel then treats
this word as correct when you use any dictionary of the same language.
Forget You can select a word you have added to the current dictionary and
click on Forget to remove the word from the dictionary.
Ignore Click on this button to treat all occurrences of a word as correct for this
document only, without adding the word to the dictionary.
For information on installing additional dictionaries, such as a French or
German dictionary, see the instructions that come with the dictionary.
9-24
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Working With Color
10
This chapter discusses the following topics:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Using color in a document
Creating color swatches
Selecting a color from the color wheel
Selecting colors from the screen
Mixing your own colors
Using an image as a palette
Adding an image to the list of palettes
Creating your own color list
Where to Find the Colors Panel
You use the Colors command to open the Colors panel.
In text applications like Edit and Mail, the Colors command is in the Font
menu. (Choose Format from the main menu and then choose Font from the
Format menu.) In applications that have color tools, the Colors command is
typically in the Tools menu.
If you want to have the Colors panel at your fingertips, you can create a
keyboard alternative for the Colors command and use it in any application that
has a Colors command. See “Creating Keyboard Alternatives” on page 15-18.
10-1
10
Using Color in a Document
When you send Mail messages, you can send them in color. When you write a
memo in Edit, you can highlight the text with color. When you want to add
color to documents or even change the background color of your screen, you
select the colors you want from the Colors panel, as shown in Figure 10-1 on
page 10-3.
1. Open the Colors panel.
2. Select the color you want.
3. Drag the color from the color well to selected text in the document.
10-2
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
10
Drag the color in
this color well to
your document.
Click to select a color from the color wheel.
You can also drag one of these color
swatches to your document.
Figure 10-1 Using Color in a Document
Some applications have color tools—for drawing in color, for example. These
tools typically use colors from wells in the application’s Inspector panel. To put
color in one of these wells, you select a color in the Colors panel and drag it to
the color well in the Inspector panel.
For more information about the color wheel, see “Selecting a Color From the
Color Wheel” on page 10-5.
For other ways to select colors, see the instructions throughout this chapter.
Working With Color
10-3
10
Creating Color Swatches
When you need to use the same colors over and over, you can save them as
swatches in the swatch bar at the bottom of the Colors panel, as shown in
Figure 10-2.
1. Open the Colors panel.
2. Select a color.
3. Drag the color from the color well to the swatch bar.
Drag the color from the color well to
the swatch bar.
Enlarge the panel and then drag here
to show several rows of swatches.
Figure 10-2 Creating Color Swatches
10-4
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
10
Each swatch has its own cell in the swatch bar. When you drag a new color to
a cell, it replaces the existing color. You can make room for more
swatches—hundreds of them—by making the Colors panel bigger.
All Colors panels have the same swatches. When you put a color swatch in the
swatch bar in one application, it is instantly displayed in the Colors panels in
other applications. The swatch remains there until you replace it with a new
swatch.
Selecting a Color From the Color Wheel
The color wheel is a quick, visual method for selecting colors (see Figure 10-3
on page 10-6).
1. Open the Colors panel.
2. Click on the color wheel button.
3. Click or drag in the color wheel to select the color you want.
4. Drag the brightness slider to make the color lighter or darker.
Working With Color
10-5
10
Color wheel button
Brightness slider
Click to select a color.
Or drag to scan a range of
colors in the color well.
Shift-drag to change the
saturation without changing
the hue.
Figure 10-3 Selecting a Color From the Color Wheel
As you move the pointer around the wheel, the hues change. Hue is what
distinguishes between red and yellow or yellow and green, for example. The
colors on the rim of the wheel are the most saturated. You can think of
saturation as the intensity of the color—or how much of a particular hue is in
the color. As you move the pointer toward the center of the wheel, the colors
become less saturated and more neutral. At the very center of the wheel, they
appear white.
10-6
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
10
What Happens When You Print Colors
The colors you see on the screen can never precisely match printed colors
because screen colors are created with light, while printed colors are created
with pigments. Also, colors printed by different printing methods never look
exactly alike.
However, your OpenStep™ environment has some features that help you get
the color you want. Most colors you select in the Colors panel are calibrated so
that they look the same when you print them on different brands of Level-II
printers.
The exceptions are the CMYK colors described “Mixing Your Own Colors” on
page 10-9. If you are an expert color graphics user and are using a traditional
printing process, you can use these color models to specify colors
numerically—for exact results.
If you are not an expert, you should use one of the other models and a Level-II
printer to produce your printed images. Check the owner’s guide that comes
with your printer to find out if it is a Level-II printer.
Selecting Colors From the Screen
You can capture any color that is on the screen and use it in a document or
save it as a color swatch (see Figure 10-5 on page 10-9).
1. Open the Colors panel.
2. Click on the magnifying glass; then move it to find the color you want.
3. Center the color you want between the crosshairs and click.
Working With Color
10-7
10
When you click here, the pointer
changes to a magnifying glass.
Use the magnifying glass
to find the color you want.
Figure 10-4 Finding the Color You Want to Select From the Screen
When you move the magnifying glass around the screen, it shows a magnified
picture of every pixel you drag it over. (A pixel is one of the dots that makes up
the image on the screen.)
10-8
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
10
)
You center the
color you want
between the
crosshairs and
click.
Figure 10-5 Selecting a Color From the Screen
Mixing Your Own Colors
You can mix your own colors—or shades of gray—using one of four models
built into the Colors panel. Each of these models creates colors differently.
1. Open the Colors panel.
2. Click on the color models button.
3. Click on the color model you want.
4. Drag the sliders to mix the color you want.
Working With Color
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10
For example, the RGB color model (see Figure 10-6) mixes colors by blending
red, green, and blue light. This is a standard model for representing color on
computer screens. The slider values indicate brightness, which can range from
0 for minimum brightness to 255 for maximum brightness.
Color models button
RGB button
Each of these buttons represents a
different color model.
Adjusting these sliders is like mixing
colored lights.
Figure 10-6 RGB Color Model
The CMYK color model (see Figure 10-7 on page 10-11) simulates the four-color
printing process, which creates colors by combining cyan, magenta, yellow,
and black inks. The slider values indicate saturation, which can range from 0
for no saturation to 100 for maximum saturation.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
10
CMYK button
Adjusting these sliders is like mixing inks
on a printing press.
Figure 10-7 CMYK Color Model
The HSB color model (see Figure 10-8 on page 10-12) mixes colors by adjusting
hue, saturation, and brightness. You can think of hue as the color name—red,
green, or yellow, for example. Saturation is the intensity, or how much of a
particular hue is in the color. Brightness is how dark or light the color is.
Working With Color
10-11
10
HSB button
Adjusting hue, saturation, and brightness
is like using the color wheel—but you can
set precise values.
Figure 10-8 HSB Color Model
In addition to these three color models, you can use the gray scale (see
Figure 10-9 on page 10-13) to work with shades of gray. The values on the
gray-scale slider show the percentage of white in the gray.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
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Grayscale button
Drag to select unlimited shades of gray.
Click to select distinctive shades of gray
well-suited to the screen display.
Figure 10-9 Gray Scale
If you are working with both color and shades of gray, you can also select
shades of gray with the other models. In the RGB model, you set the same
values for all three sliders. In the CMYK model, you set the cyan, magenta, and
yellow sliders to 0 and adjust the black slider. In the HSB model, you set the
hue and saturation sliders to 0 and adjust the brightness slider.
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10
Using an Image as a Palette
You can use an image as a color palette, as shown in Figure 10-10. For example,
if you have a cover image for a color brochure, you can keep it in a list of
palettes in the Colors panel. Then you can choose one of the colors from it to
use in the text of the brochure.
1. Open the Colors panel.
2. Click on the palette button.
3. Choose an image from the pop-up list at the top of the panel.
4. Click or drag in the image to select the color you want.
Palette button
You choose an image from this
pop-up list of palettes.
Click or drag in the image to select a color.
Figure 10-10 Using an Image as a Palette
Some applications come with several images to use as palettes. You can also
add your own images as described in “Adding an Image to the List of Palettes”
on page 10-15.
You can also select a color directly from an image on the screen. See “Selecting
Colors From the Screen” on page 10-7.
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10
Adding an Image to the List of Palettes
You can add images to a list of palettes in the Colors panel to turn any image
file into a palette, as shown in Figure 10-11.
1. Open the Colors panel.
2. Click on the palette button.
3. Choose New from File from the Palette pop-up list.
4. Select an image file and click on OK.
Choose New from File to add the image.
When you add an image, it is added to this
pop-up list.
In the browser, select the image file you want to
add to your list of palettes and click on OK—or
drag a file or selection of files directly from the File
Viewer to the image area of the Colors panel.
Figure 10-11 Adding an Image to the List of Palettes
Working With Color
10-15
10
You can press Palette and choose Rename to change the name of an image. You
can also remove images from the list with the Remove command. All the
images you add are saved as TIFF files in your ~/Library/Colors folder.
Using Part of an Image as a Palette
If you want to use part of a color image as a palette, you can do the following:
1. Select the part of the image you want and copy it to the pasteboard.
2. Then open the Colors panel, click on the palette button, and choose New
from Pasteboard from the Palette pop-up list.
3. The image on the pasteboard is displayed in the Colors panel, and it is
listed as an unnamed palette in the list at the top of the panel.
To use the image in the color palette in a document, you can press Palette,
choose Copy, and then use the Paste command in your application to paste it.
Opacity and Transparency—When You Want Layers of Color
Sometimes you want layers of color. For example, you may want to show color
text over a color photograph. Or you may want the text to block part of the
image behind it. You may want the image to show through your words. Or
maybe you want to blend two or more images into a collage of semitransparent
objects that overlap each other but do not block each other out.
In some applications, the Colors panel has an Opacity slider. You can use this
slider to make selected objects and text as opaque or transparent as you want.
When you move the Opacity slider, you begin to see a split pattern in the color
well. It is as though you were looking through a colored glass at a surface that
is half black and half white. The more transparent the color becomes, the more
clearly you see the black-and-white contrast.
In some applications, you can select individual pixels and change their opacity,
so you can make parts of the image transparent.
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Creating Your Own Color List
You can create your own list of colors, as shown in Figure 10-12 on page 10-18,
and select them by name in the Colors panel. For example, if you have a
publication that uses a standard palette of colors, you can name the colors and
save them in a list.
1. Open the Colors panel.
2. Select the first color you want to put in the list.
3. Click on the Color List button.
4. Choose New from the List pop-up list.
5. Select another color, click on the Color List button, press Color,
and choose New.
6. Repeat step 5 for each color in the list.
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10
Select a color using any of
the methods in this chapter.
Color List button
When you choose New here, a
new unnamed list opens.
The currently selected color is the first
color in the new list.
Figure 10-12 Creating Your Own Color List
When you create a list, it is displayed as an unnamed list in the pop-up list at
the top of the panel. You can choose Rename from the List pop-up list to give
it a name, as shown in Figure 10-13 on page 10-19.
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10
Choose Rename from the
List pop-up list to name
the list.
Figure 10-13 Renaming the Color List
You can choose Rename from the Color pop-up list to name individual colors
in the list, as shown in Figure 10-14.
Choose Rename from
the Color pop-up list to
name the selected color.
Figure 10-14 Renaming a Color
You can add as many colors as you want to the list. You just select each color
one at a time and choose New from the Color pop-up list (see Figure 10-15 on
page 10-20).
Working With Color
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10
When you choose New here, the color
in the color well is added to the list.
Or you can drag a color directly from the
color well or from a color swatch to the
list. You can also drag from a color well in
another application.
Figure 10-15 Adding Colors to a Color List
You can choose Remove from the Color pop-up list to remove selected colors
you do not want in the list. If you no longer need the list, you can choose
Remove from the List pop-up list to remove it.
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10
If Your Application Supplies Color Lists
Some applications supply color lists. They are stored in files with the extension
.clr. You can open these lists in the Colors panel and use them like the color
lists you create. You can choose Open from the List pop-up list to find them in
your file system. When you select a .clr file and click on OK, it is displayed
in the list. You can also drag the file icon directly into the list in the Colors
panel.
All color lists that you create as well as those you get from applications are
kept as .clr files in your ~/Library/Colors folder. When you open an
application’s list with the Open command, a copy of the original file appears in
the folder. When you remove the color list, the original file remains in your file
system.
!
Caution – If you remove a list you created, the Remove command permanently
removes it from the file system, and it can no longer be retrieved.
Working With Color
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10-22
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Working With Graphics
11
You can drag or paste graphic images into your pages in most OpenStep™
applications. You can preview how your pages will look before you print them.
This chapter describes the following topics to help you work with graphics:
•
•
•
Adding a graphic image
Previewing pages
Previewing graphic images
Adding a Graphic Image
You can add a graphic image to documents such as Edit documents or
Mail messages (see Figure 11-1 on page 11-2). The image may be a file in TIFF,
EPS, or another graphics file format.
1. Click in the document where you want the graphic image to appear.
2. Drag the icon for the graphic file from the File Viewer into the document
window.
If you add a graphic image to an Edit document that contains only text, the
document is converted to an untitled RTFD file. (RTFD files are Edit file
packages that contain rich text and one or more graphic images.)
11-1
11
You drag
the icon for
a graphic
file into the
document.
The pointer changes to a
to
show that you are adding a
copy—not the original file.
Figure 11-1 Adding a Graphic Image
If you want to add only part of a graphic image, you can use the commands in
the Edit menu to copy what you want from the graphics document and paste it
in the document where you want to add it.
You cannot modify the contents of graphic images you add to text documents.
You can only move, copy, or delete them with the commands in the Edit menu.
For more information about file packages, see “File Packages—Files That Are
Really Folders” on page 3-27.
You select graphic images you want to copy differently in different
applications. For more information, see the user’s guide for your application.
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11
Graphics File Formats
Graphic images and the documents they are created in can be stored in a
number of different formats. The most common are shown in Table 11-1.
Table 11-1 Graphics File Formats
Icon
Format
TIFF Tagged image file format is a format for single-page or
smaller images. TIFF files typically include gray-scale or color
halftones (such as photographs or shaded art) or screen images,
as well as other kinds of art. TIFF files have a .tiff extension.
EPS Encapsulated PostScript is another format for single-page
or smaller images. EPS files typically include black-and-white,
gray-scale, or color text or line art (such as technical drawings),
as well as other kinds of art. Unlike TIFF files, EPS files
can look good at almost any scale or resolution. Many
illustration applications create EPS files. EPS files have an .eps
extension.
PS PostScript™ is a format for single- or multiple-page files.
They can include the same kinds of information as EPS and
TIFF files, but they also include information about how text and
images are oriented on one or more pages. PS files can include
fonts and printer-specific information for how they should be
printed. As a rule, you cannot add PS files to your documents,
but you can open them in Preview and print them. PS files have
a .ps extension.
For more information, see “What Is a PostScript File?” on page 14-6.
Previewing Pages
You can preview your pages on screen before you print them, so you can see
how they will look when you print them (see Figure 11-2 on page 11-4).
1. Choose Print from your application’s main menu and then click on
Preview.
2. Double-click on a PostScript (PS) file, if you have saved your pages in
this format.
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11
When you click on Preview or double-click on a PostScript file that has a .ps
extension, the Preview application starts and displays the first page of the file
in a window.
Type the number of
the page you want to
preview and press
Return.
Figure 11-2 Previewing a Page
You can use the commands in the Display menu to switch pages, enlarge or
reduce the scale of the pages in the window, and change how your pages are
displayed in other ways.
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11
Note – If you are having trouble previewing a file, start the Preview
application in the /usr/openstep/Apps folder. Then try to open the file with
the Open command in Preview’s File menu, but click on Use Simple Mode in
the Open panel before clicking on OK. Some of Preview’s commands are not
available in simple mode, but you can open a wider range of graphics files.
For more information about PostScript files and how to create them, see
“Saving Your Pages as a PostScript File” on page 14-5.
For more information about the commands in the Display menu, see “Preview
Commands” on page A-31.
Previewing Graphic Images
You can preview a graphic image in TIFF, EPS, and other graphics file formats
to see how it will look when you add it to a document or print it (see
Figure 11-3).
1. Start up the Preview application by opening the /usr/openstep/apps
folder and double-clicking on Preview.app.
2. Choose File from the Preview menu.
3. Choose Open from the File menu.
4. Select a graphics file in the panel.
5. Click on OK.
A graphics file opens in a
Preview window sized to
fit the image.
Figure 11-3 Previewing a Graphic Image
Use the Zoom In and Zoom Out commands in the Display menu to enlarge
and reduce the image.
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11
You can also use the Inspector command on the Workspace Manager menu to
preview a graphic image. See “Previewing the Contents of a File” on page 7-3.
11-6
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Receiving and Sending Mail
12
The Solaris™ OpenStep™ Mail application enables you to receive and send
messages, which may contain text, sound, graphic images, and even entire files
or folders.
This chapter describes how to do the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Start Mail
Open a message
Listen to a recording
Open a file or folder in a message
Send a message
Attach a file or folder
Forward a message
Reply to a message
Record and insert sound in a message
Edit sound
Save and restore a draft
Starting Mail
The Mail application is a tool for exchanging electronic messages with other
people on a network or with others who have home folders in your system.
When Mail starts, a window displays the contents of your Active mailbox, as
shown in Figure 12-1 on page 12-2. The Active mailbox is where all new
messages are delivered.
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12
♦ Double-click on the Mail icon in the application dock.
or
♦ Open the /usr/openstep/Apps folder in the File Viewer and
double-click on Mail.app.
A one-line
summary of each
message you
receive is
displayed in the
summary area.
Drag to see
more or fewer
summaries at
once.
Figure 12-1 Active Mailbox Window
Click on the Get Mail button to receive your undelivered mail. When you
become familiar with the Mail application, you will probably want to set it up
for automatic delivery. See “Tailoring How You Receive New Messages” on
page 13-18 for more information.
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12
When a Mailbox Is Already in Use
If a panel warns that your mailbox is locked when Mail starts up, one of two
causes is probable:
•
Your Active mailbox is open on another system on the network. Click on
Cancel in the panel so the mailbox does not open on this system.
•
Your last Mail session ended abnormally, because of a power failure, for
example. The mailbox is not open anywhere else so you can click on OK to
open it now.
When working on a network, do not open the same mailbox on more than one
system at once or you might lose mail from that mailbox. If you tend to log
into several systems and you have set Mail to start automatically, you should
set it to start hidden, which prevents your Active mailbox from opening at
startup. To do so, do the following:
1. Choose Preferences from the Info menu.
2. Then check the Hide on Auto-Launch box in the Preferences panel.
Note – You can also use the Mail application by choosing a command from an
application’s Services menu. See “Standard Commands” on page A-1.
Opening Messages
Messages you receive are listed in the summary area of your Active mailbox.
When you select a message in the summary area, its contents appear in the
message area below, as shown in Figure 12-2 on page 12-4.
1. Select the message you want to look at by clicking it in the summary area.
2. Click on the down arrow button to select the next message, or click on the
up arrow to select the previous one.
Receiving and Sending Mail
12-3
12
Click to step
through your
messages.
Date and
time the
message
was sent
If your
system
administrator
has enabled
this feature,
the sender’s
picture can
be displayed
here.
A
in the
summary
line means
the message
is unread.
An
means that
the message
is a MIME
message,
that includes
text
formatting,
sound,
attachments,
or graphics.
The
message
area shows
the current
message.
Figure 12-2 Opening a Message
As a shortcut, you can press Return to operate the down arrow button, and
you can hold down Shift while pressing Return to operate the up arrow button.
After reading your messages, you can hide Mail. As long as Mail is running,
you can tell if there are new messages by the appearance of its icon in the dock
(see Figure 12-3).
New messages
No new messages
Figure 12-3 Mail’s Icon Tells You About Unread Mail
Note – You can receive a sound signal when new messages arrive. See “Setting
a Sound to Announce New Messages” on page 13-20.
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12
Listening to a Recording
You might receive a sound recording in a message. The recording is displayed
as an icon, as shown in Figure 12-4. If your computer can play sounds, you can
play back the recording, as shown in Figure 12-5 on page 12-6.
1. Double-click on the sound icon in the message.
2. Click on Play in the Lip Service panel.
When you
double-click
on a sound
icon, the Lip
Service panel
opens.
Figure 12-4 Message With Three Recordings
Receiving and Sending Mail
12-5
12
Click to play the recording.
During playback this meter
indicates the sound level of
the recording.
Click to stop playback before
the end.
Click to pause during playback.
Click again to resume.
Figure 12-5 Playing Back the Recording
The buttons in the Lip Service panel work like those on a standard
tape recorder.
Opening a File or Folder in a Message
You might receive a message with a file attached to it—or a folder containing
several files. The file or folder is displayed as an icon on which you can
double-click to see its contents (see Figure 12-6 on page 12-7).
♦ Double-click on the file or folder in the message.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
12
A file opens in its associated
application.
A folder opens
in its own
Workspace
Manager folder
window.
Figure 12-6 Opening a File and a Folder Attached to a Message
Receiving and Sending Mail
12-7
12
You can edit the contents of the file and save your changes. If you then send
the message to anyone else—for example, by forwarding it—the file with your
changes goes with it.
If you want to keep a copy of the file or folder, drag it out of the mailbox
window to one of your folders in the File Viewer. You can also drag a graphic
image out of the window to keep a copy of it.
Sending a Message
You can send a message to one person, a group of people, or a combination of
individuals and groups. You address the message directly to at least one
person or group. You can also send a “carbon copy” to anyone else who should
see the message. You address and compose a message in a Compose window,
shown in Figure 12-7 on page 12-9.
1. Click on the Compose button in a mailbox window.
2. Address the message and type a brief summary of it.
3. Compose your message.
4. Click on the Deliver button.
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Type at least one
address here.
Type a brief
summary here.
Send carbon copies
by typing addresses
here. Separate
addresses with a
comma or space.
Compose the
message here.
Click to deliver the
message.
Figure 12-7 Sending a Message
You can type your message, set fonts, and make ruler settings just as you can
in any standard document, such as an Edit document. To add a graphic image,
drag a TIFF or EPS file into the message from the File Viewer or from another
Mail window. You can also paste text or images copied from a Mail window or
from another application.
When you set fonts, make ruler settings, or add images, a
triangle reminds you to send the message only to people
running OpenStep mail.
Figure 12-8 Triangle Reminder
When you include a graphic image in a message, Mail delivers a copy of the
image. The file that contains the original remains wherever you dragged
it from.
Receiving and Sending Mail
12-9
12
If you change your mind about sending a graphic, you can delete it just as you
would delete text—for example, by pressing the Back Space key.
If you do not know an address, you can look it up. See “Looking Up Mail
Addresses” on page 13-5.
Note – For more information on typing, formatting, and adding images, see
Chapter 9, “Typing and Editing” and “Adding a Graphic Image” on page 11-1.
Note – For a summary of the buttons in a Compose window, see “Mail Buttons
and Commands” on page A-17.
You can send your message to computers that do not run OpenStep mail, such
as those on a NetWare network. Some of these computers will be able to
receive MIME messages, include formatting, graphics, and attachments, but
others will not. To be sure that what recipients who are not running OpenStep
mail see matches what you send them, set the mail format button to MIME
mail before delivering the message (see Figure 12-9).
Click to send your
message to a computer
that can display MIME
messages.
Click to send your
message to a
computer that
cannot display
MIME messages.
Figure 12-9 Mail Format Button
Note – Formatting, graphics, sounds, or file or folder attachments generate
unintelligible messages on computers that cannot receive MIME mail. If your
message is going to other kinds of computers, switch the mail format button to
Plain Text before delivering the message.
If you log out when a Compose window is open, without saving or delivering
the message in it, a panel asks if you want to save your draft before closing it.
If you click on Save, the message is saved in your Drafts mailbox.
Note – Use only ASCII characters in the address and Subject fields. Mail
converts any other types of characters to ASCII characters.
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12
What Is Plain Text Mail?
When you click on the Plain Text button in a Compose window, the text in
your message is displayed in a fixed-width font, such as Courier. Any
formatting is lost and line length is limited to 72 characters.
Also, if there are any graphic images, sounds, or attachments in the message, a
panel asks you to remove them. Remove them and click on Plain Text again.
As you type your message, word wrap works as usual. But when you send the
message, Return characters are added to the ends of lines, as required by the
receiving computer.
You should include only ASCII characters in a message to a computer that does
not run OpenStep. Mail converts any other characters to ASCII. For example, it
converts an em dash (—) to a hyphen (-).
You can change the maximum line length of plain text messages. See “Expert
Preferences” on page 13-29.
Addresses and Some Options for Entering Them
A person’s address is usually his or her user name. Your system administrator
may also have set up group addresses, such as BP_publicity, that allow you
to send messages to a specific group of people.
To send a message to someone on another network, you need to include
information about the network. Such an address might look like
sammi_wright@globalvoice.com.
You can look up the address of a person or a group on your network with the
Addresses panel. See “Looking Up Mail Addresses” on page 13-5. A person’s
address also is displayed in the summary of any message that person sends to
you.
If you want to type a long list of addresses in a Compose window, choose Send
Options from the Compose menu and type the list in the Send Options panel
(see Figure 12-10 on page 12-12). (This panel has a large area for listing more
addresses than can fit in a Compose window field.) Then press the button at
the top of the panel to choose a type of address, as follows:
Receiving and Sending Mail
12-11
12
•
Choose To or Cc to insert the addresses in the Compose window’s To or Cc
field.
•
Choose bcc (blind carbon copy) to send hidden copies of the message.
Whoever you enter here receives a copy of the message, but no other
recipients know because the bcc list is not displayed in the message.
Press here to choose a type
of address.
Type a list of addresses
here.
Type the address of any
person or group you want
to receive replies to the
message.
Check here if you want the
message archived.
Figure 12-10 Send Options Panel
You can also have replies to your message go to one or more addresses other
than your own. Type the addresses in the Reply-To field. When recipients click
Reply in their mailbox window to reply to your message, any address you type
here is inserted in their To field. If you also want a reply, type your address
here too. For more information, see “Replying to a Message” on page 12-16.
You can specify a Reply-To address for all messages you send with the
Preferences command in the Info menu. See “Mail Buttons and Commands” on
page A-17.
Attaching a File or Folder
You can include a file or even an entire folder in a message, as shown in
Figure 12-11 on page 12-13. Just drag the file or folder from the File Viewer or
any other Workspace Manager folder window. You can even drag a selection
icon into your message to attach all the files and folders in the selection.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
12
1. Click in the Compose window where you want the file or folder to be
displayed.
2. In the Workspace Manager’s File Viewer, select the file or folder you want
to send.
3. Drag the selection from the icon path into the Compose window.
The triangle
reminds you
to send the
message only
to people
using
computers
running
OpenStep.
Drag a file or folder
from the File Viewer.
The file or folder appears where you last
clicked or in place of the current selection.
Figure 12-11 Attaching a File
Note – File or folder attachments generate unintelligible messages on
computers that cannot read MIME mail.
You can also copy or drag a file or folder from another Compose window or
from a mailbox window.
Receiving and Sending Mail
12-13
12
When you click on Deliver, Mail delivers a copy of the file or folder. The
original remains wherever you dragged it from.
If you change your mind about attaching a file or folder, you can delete it from
the message, for example, by pressing the Back Space key.
Forwarding a Message
You can quickly forward a message to others who may want to read it, as
shown in Figure 12-12 on page 12-15.
1. Open the message you want to forward.
2. Click on the Compose button in the mailbox window.
3. Click on Forward in the Compose window.
4. Address the message.
5. Click on Deliver.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
12
Click to copy the
current message
and its subject
into a Compose
window.
Fill in the
addresses.
Insert anything
you want to add
to the message.
Mail adds
information
about where the
message came
from.
Figure 12-12 Forwarding a Message
You can forward several messages all in the same message. Just open each
message in your mailbox window and click on Forward in the Compose
window. Each message is inserted following anything that is already there.
Receiving and Sending Mail
12-15
12
When you copy a message into a Compose window with the Forward button,
all formatting is copied, too, as well as any recordings, graphics, or file or
folder attachments.
Note – You can remove formatting from a message you are forwarding
by choosing Make ASCII from the Utilities menu. See “Mail Buttons and
Commands” on page A-17.
Replying to a Message
If you want to reply to a message, you can quickly copy the sender’s address
and subject into a Compose window, as shown in Figure 12-13 on page 12-17.
Just click on the Reply button in your Compose window. To then copy the
addresses listed in the message’s Cc field, click on the button again.
1. Open the message.
2. Click on the Compose button in the mailbox window.
3. Click on Reply in the Compose window.
4. Click on Reply All to also send the reply to those who received a carbon
copy of the original message.
5. Type your reply.
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12
6. Click on Deliver.
The Reply
button
alternates
between Reply
and Reply All
when you click
on it.
Reply fills these
fields.
Reply All fills this
one.
You just type
your reply.
Figure 12-13 Replying to a Message
If the sender used the Send Options command to route your reply to an
address other than his or her own, clicking Reply fills the To field with that
address. See “Addresses and Some Options for Entering Them” on page 12-11.
Note – Use Forward and Reply together to include a copy of the original
message to which you are responding. If recipients of your message do the
same thing, their replies will contain all of the earlier messages in the
exchange, and the message history will grow.
Recording and Inserting Sound in a Message
If your system can record sounds, you can include a sound recording in a
message, as shown in Figure 12-14 on page 12-18 and Figure 12-15 on
page 12-19.
Receiving and Sending Mail
12-17
12
You can use the Play button to play back your recording before inserting it. If
you do not like the recording, just record over it or click Erase. You can also
close the Lip Service panel without inserting the recording. Unless you erase it,
the recording will be there when you next open the panel.
1. While composing a message in a Compose window, click on the Lip
Service button.
2. Click on Record in the Lip Service panel and record through your
computer’s microphone.
3. Click on Stop when you are finished.
4. Click in the Compose window where you want the sound icon to be
displayed.
5. Click on Insert.
Click to begin recording.
This meter displays the
recording’s sound level.
Click when you are finished recording.
Figure 12-14 Recording a Sound
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Click to insert the recording in your message.
12
Click to open
the Lip
Service
panel.
The sound
icon is
inserted
where you last
clicked.
The triangle
reminds you
to send the
message only
to people
using
computers
running
OpenStep.
Figure 12-15 Including the Sound in a Message
If you change your mind about sending a recording after you insert it, delete
the sound icon, for example, by pressing the Back Space key.
For more information on using a microphone with your computer, see the
owner’s guide for the computer or for any devices you have attached to it.
Editing Sound
You can edit a recording you have made or received by modifying its
waveform in the Lip Service panel, as shown in Figure 12-16 on page 12-20,
Figure 12-17 on page 12-21, and Figure 12-18 on page 12-22.
1. Double-click on the sound icon.
2. Click on the waveform button in the Lip Service panel.
3. Select a portion of the waveform or click somewhere in it.
Receiving and Sending Mail
12-19
12
4. Use Edit menu commands to edit the waveform. Or click Record to insert
new material.
5. Click on Play to listen to the result.
Click to display the
waveform for the current
sound. Click again to hide
the waveform.
Scroll to see the entire
waveform.
Resize to see more of the
waveform at once.
Figure 12-16 Displaying the Waveform of the Current Sound
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12
You can select a segment of the waveform, as shown in Figure 12-17. Then click
on Play to play back the segment. Click on Record to record over it. Or choose
Cut or Copy from the Edit menu to move or copy it.
Drag across the waveform
to select a segment of it.
Figure 12-17 Selecting a Segment of the Waveform
You can also click in the waveform where you want to insert new material (see
Figure 12-18 on page 12-22). Then click on Record to record the material, or
choose Paste to insert a segment you cut or copied.
Receiving and Sending Mail
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12
An insertion point is
displayed where you click.
Figure 12-18 Inserting New Material in the Waveform
!
Caution – The Erase button erases the entire recording, even when only a
segment is selected.
Saving a Draft
You can save the contents of a message you are composing, much as you save
the contents of a document, as shown in Figure 12-19 on page 12-23. You might
do this when composing a message you want to finish later or to save versions
of a message as you type it.
1. Choose Compose from the Mail menu.
2. Choose Drafts from the Compose menu.
3. Choose Save in Drafts from the Drafts menu.
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12
Mail saves the
contents of your
Compose
window as a
message in the
Drafts mailbox,
which it creates
for you.
The subject and
addresses you
have typed are
saved too.
Figure 12-19 Saving a Draft
If you close a Compose window without saving or delivering the message in it,
a panel asks if you want to save your draft before closing it. If you click on
Save, the message is saved in your Drafts mailbox.
Each time you save a draft, Mail saves another version of the message in the
Drafts mailbox—it does not replace the last version you saved.
Remember to delete drafts you do not need anymore from the Drafts mailbox
so they do not take up disk space.
Restoring a Draft
You can restore the last draft of a message you saved so you can resume
working in it, as shown in Figure 12-20 on page 12-24. Just choose the Restore
Draft command. A Compose window opens that contains your draft, exactly as
when you last saved it.
Receiving and Sending Mail
12-23
12
♦ To restore the last draft you saved, open the Compose menu and choose
Restore Draft from the Drafts menu.
♦ To restore an earlier draft, open the Drafts mailbox, select the message,
and choose Restore Draft.
Mail opens a
Compose
window
containing the
draft.
Mail restores your
subject and
addresses too.
Figure 12-20 Restoring a Draft
To restore an earlier draft, you must open the Drafts mailbox, select the
message summary of the draft you want to restore, and choose Restore Draft.
You open the Drafts mailbox using the Mailboxes panel.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Managing the Mail Application
13
Besides getting and sending messages, you can use the Mail application to
create and manage the contents of mailboxes, find out someone’s mail address,
send messages to groups of people, and set a variety of other personal
preferences. The contents of this chapter show you how to do the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Delete messages
Compact a mailbox to free disk space
Look up Mail addresses
Create a Mail address book
Create your own group address
Create a mailbox
Move messages to another mailbox
Find messages
Focus on a group of messages
Tailor how you get new messages
Set a sound to announce new messages
Create headers for messages you send
Tailor headers in messages you receive
Deleting Messages
You can let important messages accumulate in your mailbox. But you should
delete messages you do not need (see Figure 13-1 on page 13-2)—especially if
they contain sounds, graphic images, or attached files or folders, which can
take up a large amount of disk space.
13-1
13
1. Select the message or messages you want to delete in the summary area.
2. Click on the Delete button or press the Back Space key.
Deletes the
selected
message or
messages.
Figure 13-1 Deleting a Message
If you can tell without reading a message that you want to delete it, hold down
the Control key while clicking on its summary to select the message without
waiting for its contents to appear.
Table 13-1 on page 13-3 summarizes the ways in which you can select
messages.
Note – You may be able to restore a message you deleted with the Undelete
command in the Edit menu. See “Mail Buttons and Commands” on page A-17.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
13
.
Table 13-1 How to Select a Message
What You Do
What Happens
Drag
Selects the messages you drag across
Shift-click
Adds the message to the selection, or removes it from the
selection
Alt-click
Selects all messages between the one you click and the last one
you selected
Control-click
Selects a message without opening it
Compacting a Mailbox to Free Disk Space
Deleting a message removes it from the mailbox, but it does not remove the
message from the system. To do that, you have to compact your mailbox, as
shown in Figure 13-2 on page 13-4.
!
Caution – If you do not periodically compact your Active mailbox, messages
accumulate and unnecessarily take up disk space. Once you compact, however,
messages you have deleted from the mailbox are destroyed permanently—you
cannot restore them with the Undelete command.
1. Open the mailbox you want to compact.
2. Choose Utilities from the Mail menu.
Managing the Mail Application
13-3
13
3. Choose Compact from the Utilities menu.
You delete a message.
You choose Compact.
The message is removed But it remains on your list and you
can retrieve it with the Undelete
from your mailbox.
command.
All deleted messages are removed
from disk permanently. Remaining
messages in the mailbox are
renumbered.
Figure 13-2 Compacting a Mailbox
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
13
Looking Up Mail Addresses
You can look up the addresses of other people and groups on your network
with the Addresses panel, as shown in Figure 13-3. This panel lists addresses in
a browser.
1. Open a Compose window and click the Addresses button.
2. Click on the type of address for which you are looking.
3. Select an address, or type part of a name and click on Find.
4. Click on the To or cc button to copy the address into your Compose
window.
Click on the type of
address for which you
are looking in the Types
column.
Click to select an
address. Or type the
first few characters.
If the person has a
picture in the system,
it is displayed here.
Click to copy the
address into a field in
the Compose window.
Figure 13-3 Looking Up a Mail Address
You can copy several addresses, one after the other, into a Compose window.
Just select an address and click To or cc. The button appends the address to any
already in the corresponding Compose window field.
You can use the Find button in the Addresses panel to search for an address
based on any text in it, as shown in Figure 13-4 on page 13-6. For instance, if
you type greg in the Name field and click on Find, Mail can find addresses
like Greg.McLaughlin or gregm@dublin. Click on Find again to find the
next occurrence of text in the list.
Managing the Mail Application
13-5
13
Type any part of the
address here.
Click on Find.
Mail finds an address
in the current list.
Figure 13-4 Using the Find Feature
When you select an individual’s address, a picture is displayed if your system
administrator has set up Mail that way. For groups, and for people who do not
have pictures in the system, the panel displays silhouette icons.
Understanding the Types Column
You can look up addresses in one of five lists described in Table 13-2. You select
a list from the Types column.
Table 13-2 Types Used on the Address Panel
13-6
What You Do
What Happens
Users
List all addresses for everyone on your network
Groups
Lists group addresses available to everyone on the network
Login Names
Lists the user name of each person on the network
Private Users
Lists addresses that you use frequently
Private Groups
Lists group addresses you create
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
13
Addresses in Users, Groups, and Login Names are defined by your system
administrator. You add the Private Users and Private Groups addresses
yourself. See “Creating a Mail Address Book” next and “Creating Your Own
Group Address” on page 13-8.
Creating a Mail Address Book
You can keep your own list of addresses in the Private Users list of your
Addresses panel (see Figure 13-5). Maintaining such a list for addresses you
use frequently saves you the trouble of searching through long lists to find
them.
1. Open a Compose window and click the Addresses button.
2. Click on Private Users in the Types column of the Addresses panel.
3. Type an address in the Name field.
4. Click on Add.
Type an address here.
Click here to add it.
The address is added
to your Private Users
list.
Figure 13-5 Creating Private User Sammi Wright
Once an address is in your Private Users list, you can select it and click on the
To or cc button to copy the private address to the Compose window.
Managing the Mail Application
13-7
13
To remove an address from your Private Users list, select the address and click
on the Remove button.
Note – If you open a message from someone whose address you want to add
to your Private Users list, choose Add Private User from the Utilities menu.
The sender’s address is automatically added to your list, even if the Addresses
panel is not open.
Creating Your Own Group Address
In addition to the group addresses set up by your system administrator, you
can create some for your own use, as shown in Figure 13-6 on page 13-9. You
might create an address for sending messages to everyone working on a
particular project. When naming a group, do not use a comma or a space.
Otherwise, follow the same guidelines as for naming files and folders.
1. Click on the Addresses button in a Compose window.
2. Click on Private Groups in the Types column of the Addresses panel.
3. Type a name for the group address and click on Add.
4. In the Private Groups column, select the group address you just created.
5. Type an address you want assigned to the group and click on Add.
6. Repeat step 5 for each address in the group.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
13
Select Private Groups.
Type a name for the
group here.
Click on Add.
The new group is
displayed in Private
Groups after you click
on Add.
Figure 13-6 Creating Private Group “Festival_Planners”
The group automatically includes your own address. You can add other
addresses by selecting the group, typing an address, and clicking on Add again
(see Figure 13-7).
Select the group.
Type an address here.
Click on Add.
The new address is
displayed in the group
after you click on Add.
Figure 13-7 Adding Poupon to Festival Planners
Managing the Mail Application
13-9
13
To remove an address from the group, select the address and click on Remove.
You cannot remove the last remaining address associated with a group (so if
you want to remove your own address, you have to add another one first). But
you can remove the entire group by selecting its name in the Private Groups
column and clicking on Remove.
Note – You can create a shorthand address for one person. Just create a group
and assign only that person to it. For example, if you send messages frequently
to the address sammi_wright@globalvoice.com, you might create the
group sammi, add his address to it, remove your own, and then send messages
to him using the shorthand address.
For more information on naming a group address, see “Guidelines for Naming
Files and Folders” on page 5-6.
Creating a Mailbox
Instead of letting messages accumulate in your Active mailbox, you can
organize them in other mailboxes. You create and manage mailboxes with the
Mailboxes panel, as shown in Figure 13-8 on page 13-11.
1. Click on the Mailboxes button in a mailbox window.
2. Type a name for the new mailbox in the Mailboxes panel.
3. Click on New.
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13
Type a name for a mailbox.
Click on New to create it.
The new mailbox is displayed in the list.
Figure 13-8 Creating the Festival Mailbox
When you create a mailbox, an empty mailbox window opens for it.
You can also open a mailbox to see its messages (see Figure 13-9 on
page 13-12). Or you can delete the mailbox to destroy all the messages in it. If
you delete your Active mailbox, Mail creates another, empty Active mailbox
the next time you start it.
Managing the Mail Application
13-11
13
Select the mailbox you want to open or delete.
Click here to open it.
Click here to delete it.
Figure 13-9 Opening the Festival Mailbox
You can select a mailbox in the list by clicking it or by typing the first few
characters of its name.
Note – You can create a mailbox that collects outgoing messages using the
Preferences command in the Info menu. See “Mail Buttons and Commands” on
page A-17.
Moving Messages to Another Mailbox
After you create a mailbox, you can move messages to it from your Active
mailbox. You can also move messages between any mailboxes you create. See
Figure 13-10 on page 13-13.
1. In a mailbox window, select the messages you want to move.
2. Click on the Mailboxes button.
3. In the Mailboxes panel, select the mailbox to which you want to move the
messages.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
13
4. Click on Transfer.
Select the
messages you
want to move.
Select the
mailbox to
which you want
to move them.
Click on Transfer.
Figure 13-10 Moving Messages to the Festival Mailbox
You can also use Edit menu commands to move selected messages. Choose Cut
from the Edit menu. Then click in the summary area of the mailbox window
you are moving to and choose Paste.
Managing the Mail Application
13-13
13
Note – After removing messages from a mailbox window, remember to
compact the mailbox.
A Mailbox Is a File Package
Your Active mailbox and any mailboxes you create are actually file packages
with an .mbox extension. Mail keeps these file packages in the Mailboxes
folder in your home folder.
You do not have to open a file package to read the messages in a mailbox. It is
easiest to read and maintain messages in the mailbox window.
For information on selecting several messages to move at once, see Table 13-1
on page 13-3.
Finding Messages
You can find a message by searching for any text in its summary, as shown in
Figure 13-11 on page 13-15. You can search for text in the message’s subject,
message number, date, or sender’s address. Any message that is found is
highlighted in the summary area.
1. Click in the summary area of the mailbox window.
2. Choose Find from the Edit menu.
3. In the Find panel, type what you want to find.
4. Choose the options you want.
5. Click on Next, Previous, or Find All.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
13
Click on any
summary.
Type the text for
which you want to
search here.
Click to search
forward or
backward.
Click to select all
message
summaries that
contain the text.
Figure 13-11 Finding a Message
To open a message that you find, you have to click on its summary.
You can also open the Find panel by clicking on the Find button if it appears in
the Mailbox window. The Find button replaces the Get New Mail button when
you have Mail set up to retrieve new messages automatically (see “Tailoring
How You Receive New Messages” on page 13-18).
Managing the Mail Application
13-15
13
Note – You can also search for text in a message—either one you received or
one you are composing. See “Finding Text” on page 9-9.
Note – You can use commands in the Sorting menu to sort message summaries
in a variety of orders.
Focusing on a Group of Messages
You can find all messages in a mailbox that have your search text either in their
summaries or in the messages. You can then “focus” on those messages,
temporarily hiding others so it is easy to find a particular message.
1. Click in the summary area of a mailbox window.
2. Click on the Find button.
3. In the Find panel, type the text you want to find.
4. Select the options you want.
5. Click on Find All.
6. Open the Message menu and choose Focus.
7. When you are finished reviewing the messages resulting from the search,
choose Unfocus.
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13
Type the text for which you want
to search here.
Click on Find All to find all
messages that contain the text.
When you
choose Focus,
Mail displays all
the messages
selected by the
search.
Figure 13-12 Focusing on a Group of Messages
As a shortcut, you can hold down the Alt key and click on Find All to have
Mail find the messages and then focus on them automatically.
To narrow your search, you can do another Find All search and choose Focus
again to display the results of that search in the mailbox window. You can keep
selecting messages and choosing Focus as many times as you want.
Managing the Mail Application
13-17
13
To see all your messages again, choose Unfocus. Mail also displays all
messages the next time you open the mailbox.
You can stop a search before it is complete by holding down the Command key
and typing a period (.).
Tailoring How You Receive New Messages
Before messages addressed to you actually reach you, they are collected in a
central “post office”—a folder on the network that your system administrator
maintains. At first, Mail is set up to check this post office when you click on the
Get New Mail button. If you prefer, you can have mail check the post office at
a regular interval and deliver new messages to your Active mailbox.
You can set how often Mail checks for new messages in the Preferences panel
(see Figure 13-13 on page 13-19).
1. Choose Info from the Mail menu.
2. Choose Preferences from the Info menu.
3. Choose General from the pop-up list at the top of the Preferences panel.
4. In the Preferences panel, click on Automatic or Manual.
5. If you clicked on Automatic, use the Minutes field to indicate how
frequently Mail should check for new messages.
6. Click on Set.
7. If you clicked on Manual, you must click on the Mailbox window’s Get
New Mail button when you want to retrieve new messages.
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13
Choose General from the pop-up list
at the top of the panel.
Click here to retrieve new messages
manually.
Click here to have new messages
delivered automatically.
Type a retrieval interval in
minutes here.
Figure 13-13 Tailoring How You Receive New Messages
When you select Automatic, Mail does not wait for you to retrieve your
messages. The next time a mailbox window opens, a Find button is displayed
in place of the Get New Mail button. Mail checks the post office at a regular
intervals and delivers new messages to your Active mailbox.
If you prefer to control how quickly messages accumulate in your mailbox, you
can retrieve new messages yourself.
When you select Manual, Mail no longer delivers messages automatically.
Instead, the next time a mailbox window opens, a Get New Mail button is
displayed in place of the Find button. To retrieve messages, you must either
click on the Get New Mail button or choose New Mail from the Mailbox menu.
When new messages are ready to be retrieved, a fan of letters is displayed in
Mail’s icon in the dock.
Managing the Mail Application
13-19
13
Setting a Sound to Announce New Messages
When new messages arrive, a fan of letters appears in the Mail icon in
the dock. You can also choose to have a sound notify you of new messages.
If you receive messages automatically, the sound tells you that there are
new messages in your Active mailbox. If you check for messages manually,
the sound tells you that there are messages for you to retrieve with the Get
New Mail button.
When you click the Sound button in the Preferences panel, an Open panel is
displayed, as shown in Figure 13-14 on page 13-21.
1. Choose Info from the Mail menu.
2. Choose Preferences from the Info menu.
3. Choose General from the pop-up list at the top of the Preferences panel.
4. In the General Preferences panel, click on Sound and then click on the Set
button.
5. In the Open panel, select a sound file.
6. Click on OK in the Open panel.
7. Click on Set in the Preferences panel.
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13
Select a file with an .snd or .au
extension.
When you click on OK, you hear the
sound.
Figure 13-14 Choosing a Sound to Announce New Mail
You can select a sound file from the /usr/openstep/Library/Sounds
folder. You can use any sound file, as long as it has an .snd or .au extension.
If your system makes only one sound, you will get that one, no matter which
sound file you select.
You locate and select a sound file in the Open panel just as you open a file from
any standard Open panel. For more information, see “Opening a File” on
page 5-3.
Creating Headers for Messages You Send
You can create headers of your own that will be displayed in messages you
send. You can create up to two headers. You do so using Mail’s Expert
Preferences, as shown in Figure 13-15 on page 13-22.
1. Choose Info from the Mail menu.
2. Choose Preferences from the Info menu.
Managing the Mail Application
13-21
13
3. Choose Expert from the pop-up list at the top of the Preferences panel.
4. Double-click in the Key field and type the name of a header you want to
create.
5. Press Tab, type any text you want to appear with the Header in the Value
field, and press Return.
Follow these guidelines when typing a name in the Key field:
Mark Custom Headers with “X-” It is common protocol among network users to
precede the name of headers you create with an X-, as in X-Quote-Of-The-Day.
Do Not Use Spaces Do not use a space to separate words in a header, or else
Mail will not recognize the header and include it in your messages. If a header
contains more than one word, separate words with a dash, as in X-Quote-OfThe-Day.
Choose Expert from the pop-up list at
the top of the panel.
Type the name of the header here.
Type text to be displayed with the
header here, and press Return.
Figure 13-15 Creating a Header for Messages You Send
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13
If you type a value for the header, the headers are displayed with that value in
all messages you send. To send a different value in a message, choose the
header in the Send Options panel when you send the message and type
another value for it there.
If you leave the Value field empty, you must choose the header from the Send
Options panel and type a value for it to include it in a message.
Your headers are displayed at the top of your message in each recipient’s
mailbox window.
Note – You open the Send Options panel by choosing Send Options from the
Compose menu.
Tailoring Headers in Messages You Receive
You can choose which headers normally are displayed in messages you
receive. You do this in the Headers view of Mail’s Preferences panel, shown in
Figure 13-16 on page 13-24 and Figure 13-17 on page 13-25.
♦ To display a header that is normally hidden in messages you receive,
remove it from the hidden resources list in the panel.
♦ To prevent a header from being displayed in your messages, add it to the
Hidden Headers list.
Managing the Mail Application
13-23
13
Choose Headers from the pop-up list
at the top of the panel.
Select a header that you want to be
displayed in your messages.
Click on Remove to remove it from the list
of hidden headers.
Click on Set to display it in your
messages.
Figure 13-16 Displaying a Header in Your Messages
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13
Choose Headers from the pop-up list
at the top of the panel.
To hide a header that currently is
displayed in your messages, type the
header name here exactly as it is
displayed in your messages.
Click on Add to add it to the
list of hidden headers.
The header appears in the list.
Click on Set to hide it in your messages.
Figure 13-17 Preventing a Header From Displaying in Your Messages
General Preferences
The Preferences panel has options for managing what is displayed in mailbox
windows, for hiding Mail after starting it up automatically, and for showing
the number of unread messages in the Mail icon. To set these options, choose
Preferences from the Info menu and then choose General from the pop-up list
at the top of the panel, as shown in Figure 13-18 on page 13-26.
Managing the Mail Application
13-25
13
Figure 13-18 General Preferences
Show Message Totals Check this box to have all your mailboxes display the
total number of messages in them.
Show Message Sizes Check this box to have all mailboxes display the size of
each message and the total size of messages in the mailbox.
Show Deleted Messages Check this box to open all mailboxes with dimmed
summaries of deleted messages showing (messages deleted since you last
compacted the mailbox).
Use Fixed Pitch Font for Plain Text Check this box to type all plain text messages
using a fixed-width font, such as Courier.
Hide on Auto-Launch If you have used the Workspace Manager to have Mail
start up automatically, check this box to have Mail start up hidden.
Show Unread Count in Icon If you do not want to see the number of unread
messages displayed in the Mail icon, uncheck this box.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
13
Preferences for All the Messages You Send
You can set options for all messages you send using the Compose view of the
Mail Preferences panel, shown in Figure 13-19. Choose Preferences from the
Info menu and then choose Compose from the pop-up list at the top of the
Preferences panel.
Figure 13-19 Compose Preferences
Use the panel to choose any of the following options.
Format Press the Format button to choose a format—MIME Mail or Plain
Text—for all your compose windows to open in.
Indent New Lines When you check this option, pressing Return in a Compose
window indents the next paragraph the same as the previous one. This option
is useful for typing UNIX® code.
Emacs Key Bindings Check this option to use Emacs text editor commands in a
Compose window. (Emacs commands are popular among UNIX developers.)
Managing the Mail Application
13-27
13
Reply in Same Format Check this option to reply to messages in the same
format as the original messages. When you click Reply in a Compose window,
the window selects the format for you.
Remove Self from Replies Check this option if you do not want to receive
replies you send using the Reply All button. If you are “carbon copied” in a
message and you click Reply All in a Compose window to reply to that
message, Mail does not copy your address from the message’s Cc field into
your Compose window. For this option to work, Mail must recognize your
address in the message as being you. You can make Mail recognize an address
if it does not already (see “Other Addresses for Self” on page 13-29).
Reply-To You can have all replies to your messages go to someone other than
yourself. Type one or more addresses in the Reply-To field. When anyone uses
the Reply button to respond to one of your messages, the To field of his or her
Compose window is filled with the addresses you type here. (To also have
replies go to you, type your address, too.)
Request Read Receipt Check this option to receive a notification message when
each OpenStep recipient reads any message you send.
Archive Outgoing Mail Check this option to collect copies of all messages you
send in the Outgoing mailbox. Mail creates this mailbox for you, if it does not
already exist. You can instead archive individual messages when you send
them (see “Addresses and Some Options for Entering Them” on page 12-11).
Expand Private Groups You can make it easy for recipients of messages you
send to a private group address to reply to others in the group. When you
check this option, individual addresses in the group, rather than the group
address, are listed in each recipient’s message. Recipients can then click Reply
All to reply to everyone in the group. For information on creating a private
group, see “Creating Your Own Group Address” on page 13-8.
Send MIME Alternatives Check this option to send contents of MIME messages
in plain text as well as using formatted text. You might do this if you are not
sure which formats recipients’ computers can display. For information on
sending MIME messages, see “Sending a Message” on page 12-8.
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13
Expert Preferences
The Preferences panel has options for how Mail manages messages in the
Expert view, shown in Figure 13-20 on page 13-30. Choose Expert from the
pop-up list at the top of the panel to type in these fields:
Other Addresses for Self If you are known by addresses that Mail does not
recognize as you, type them in this field. For example, Mail already recognizes
your user name and your full name in the format Jason_Starr. But it does
not recognize addresses used from other networks, like jstarr@blues.com,
or ones you create in the Addresses panel, until you type them here.
When you reply to a message sent to an address entered here, Mail can remove
you from that reply. For information, see “Remove Self from Replies” on page
13-28.
If you send a message to one of these addresses, To: followed by recipients'
addresses is displayed in your mailbox window rather than your address.
System administrators can modify how Mail stores, retrieves, and delivers
messages. They can replace the path names in the following fields:
•
Mail Dir: The folder where Mail keeps your mailboxes. Normally this is
Mailboxes in your home folder.
•
Spool Dir: The “post office” folder that collects incoming messages. If your
system administrator is using a folder other than the one currently named
here, you should specify that folder here instead.
•
Mailer: The program Mail uses to deliver mail. You might want to use
another program, such as one that tracks statistics.
Line Length This value is the maximum number of characters per line in
messages you send in Plain Text format. You might want to change this value
to send messages through a gateway to a network that supports fewer than 70
characters per line. For information on sending a plain text message, see “What
Is Plain Text Mail?” on page 12-11.
Send Limit You can set a size limit for messages you send. Type the number of
kilobytes in this field. If you compose a message that is larger than this size, a
panel tells you so when you click on Deliver in the Compose window. To send
the message anyway, click on Deliver Anyway in the panel.
Managing the Mail Application
13-29
13
Choose Expert from the pop-up list at
the top of the panel.
Type addresses you are known by on
other networks or that you created
yourself. Separate addresses with a
comma.
Only your system administrator should
edit these fields.
You can type a new line length, in
characters, for plain text messages here.
Type a maximum size, in kilobytes, for
messages you send.
Click here to put the new settings into
effect.
Figure 13-20 Expert Preferences
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Printing
14
Use the information in this chapter when you want to print your work.
The following topics are discussed:
•
•
•
Preparing a file for printing
Printing a file
Saving your pages as a PostScript file
Preparing a File for Printing
Before you print a file, you can change its paper size and orientation. You can
also scale your pages to enlarge or reduce them. You use the Page Layout
command to choose what your pages will look like on paper, as shown in
Figure 14-1 on page 14-2.
1. Open the file and choose Format from the application’s main menu.
2. Choose Page Layout from the Format menu.
3. Choose a paper size from the Paper Size pop-up list. Or type custom
dimensions in the Width and Height fields.
4. Click on Portrait or Landscape.
5. Click on OK.
14-1
14
The miniature page changes size and
orientation to reflect your settings.
Select the layout options you
want and click on OK.
Figure 14-1 Page Layout Panel
You can make the size of the pages in your file match the size of the paper in
your printer with the Paper Size pop-up list. When you choose a paper size, its
dimensions are displayed in the Width and Height fields.
If your paper size is not included in the list, you can type custom dimensions
in the Width and Height fields in inches, centimeters, picas, or points. (Picas
and points are commonly used to measure typographical material. A point is
1/72 of an inch, and a pica is 12 points, or 1/6 of an inch.) You can choose the
units of measurement you want to use from the Units pop-up list.
You can print your pages upright or sideways on the paper by clicking on the
Portrait or Landscape button respectively.
The Page Layout command may not be in the Format menu in your
application. See the user’s guide for your application.
Printing a File
When you are ready to print a file, select a printer, the pages you want to print,
and the number of copies, as shown in Figure 14-2 on page 14-3.
1. Open the file and choose Print from the application’s main menu.
2. Click on the name of the printer you want to use.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
14
3. Type the number of copies in the Copies field.
4. Click on All to print the whole file. Or type page numbers in the From
and To fields to print part of the file.
5. Choose Paper Feed and Resolution options.
6. Click on Options to set any special options for your printer.
7. Click on Print.
Select the printer you
want to use.
Type the number of
copies and range of
pages you want to
print.
Choose the other
options you want and
click on Print.
Figure 14-2 Print Panel
The name of the current printer appears at the top of the Print panel. It remains
the current printer until you select a different one. If only one printer is
available, the scrolling list is not displayed in the panel.
Printing
14-3
14
Type the range of pages you want to print in the To and From fields (see
Figure 14-3). You can type 0 or even a negative number in the From field if you
want to print pages that come before page 1.
If you type a starting page number,
the To field is set to last.
If you type an ending page, the
From field is set to first.
Figure 14-3 Specifying a Page Range
When you click on Print, your pages are prepared for printing. A temporary
file is created and sent to the print queue for the printer you selected. If no
other files are in the queue, your file is printed immediately.
You can preview on screen what your pages will look like on paper with the
Preview button. See “Previewing Pages” on page 11-3.
Print Panel Options
Different printers offer different options in the Print panel. You choose the
options you want from the pop-up lists in the Print and Printer Options panels.
Paper Feed
This option lists the sources of paper available to your printer. Some common
sources are as follows:
Cassette Uses the paper in the printer’s cassette.
Manual Uses envelopes, acetate, or other stationery you feed into the printer
by hand. (For instructions on feeding paper manually, see the owner’s guide
for your printer.)
Upper, Lower, or another named cassette Uses paper from a specific cassette, if
your printer has more than one.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
14
Any Tray Automatically uses paper from the cassette that matches the size of
your pages.
Split Uses multiple cassettes. The paper in the second cassette is used for the
first page, and the paper in the first cassette is used for the second and
following pages in the file. This option is commonly used to print cover sheets
on letterhead or other special paper.
Resolution
This option lists the resolutions your printer can print at, expressed in dots per
inch (dpi). You can print sharper lines and smoother gradations of shading by
choosing a higher resolution. High-resolution printing may take longer than
low-resolution printing.
Options
If your printer offers options beyond those shown on the Print panel, you can
click on the Options button in the Print panel to set them. The Printer Options
panel displays the special settings for your printer in a series of pop-up lists.
For example, a printer might offer several printing modes for different paper
stocks and ink coverages. For more information about the options offered by
your printer, see its owner’s guide.
Saving Your Pages as a PostScript File
You can prepare a file for printing and then save the prepared file instead of
printing it, as shown in Figure 14-4 on page 14-6. The prepared file is a
PostScript™ file.
1. Choose Print from the main menu.
2. On the Print panel, select a printer, the page range, and other options you
want.
3. Click on the Print panel’s Save button.
4. On the Save panel, type a name for the file and select the folder in which
you want to save it.
5. Click on OK.
Printing
14-5
14
Select the folder in which you want
to save the file.
Type the name under which you want
to save the file.
Press to choose the kind of
PostScript file you want.
Figure 14-4 Saving Your Pages as a PostScript File
What Is a PostScript File?
A PostScript file is a description, in the PostScript language, of a graphic image
or pages.
PostScript is a standard programming language for describing text, images,
and pages. PostScript is most commonly used to describe pages for a printer. It
is also the language used to describe what you see on the OpenStep desktop.
Different types of PostScript files are designed for different purposes. For
example, the PostScript files you create with the Print panel describe whole
pages, and may include options for working with a variety of printers or
features specific to a single kind of printer. They have a .ps extension. You
can open them with the Preview application, as described in Chapter 11,
“Working With Graphics.”
Some applications, such as illustration applications, use image-oriented
encapsulated PostScript (EPS) files for displaying graphics. These files have an
.eps extension.
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14
The files you create in the Print panel are not EPS files, so you should not try to
open them in page layout and graphics applications.
Why Save PostScript Files?
You can use the PostScript files you create with the Print panel to:
•
Take a “snapshot” of your pages. Sometimes, page layout and other options
you choose in an application change the way a page is printed. You can save
a version as a PostScript file so that in the future, you can print it exactly as
you saved it, regardless of other changes you make to the file, to your
application, or to your system software.
•
Create a version of your pages that anyone with a PostScript printer can
print, exactly as you intended, even if they do not have the same system,
application software, and fonts as you have.
•
Prepare a file for a printer you do not own, such as a high-resolution
imagesetter or film recorder. For example, you may want to take a copy of
the PostScript file to a service bureau for printing.
Printing
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14-8
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Personalizing the Workspace
15
Individual applications have Preferences commands that you can use to tailor
the applications to your needs. But if you want to set preferences that apply to
all your applications—or if you just want to set the date and time—use the
Preferences application.
This chapter describes how to do the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Start the Preferences application
Hide menus
Set a password
Set the date
Set the time
Choose an application locale
Change the units of measurement
Choose a paper size
Customize the Services menu
Create keyboard alternatives
Change the fonts on the screen
Choose a font for applications
Set permissions on your files and folders
Display large file systems
Display UNIX® files
15-1
15
Starting the Preferences Application
You use the Preferences application to choose a wide range of options for
personalizing your workspace, managing your hardware, and controlling
access to your computer. The Preferences application normally starts when you
start Solaris™ OpenStep™ and is hidden automatically. It is displayed in the
dock as an icon that shows the time and date (see Figure 15-1).
♦ Double-click on the Preferences icon in the dock.
or
♦ Open the /usr/openstep/Apps folder in the File Viewer and then
double-click on Preferences.app.
The Preferences icon
shows the date and
time when Preferences
is hidden.
Figure 15-1 Preferences Icon Shows Application Status
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
It looks like this when
Preferences is not running.
15
When you start Preferences or unhide it, the window shown in Figure 15-2
opens.
Click on one of
these buttons for the
type of preference
you want to set.
Scroll to see more
Preferences
buttons.
The options for the
type of preferences
you click on are
displayed here.
Figure 15-2 Preferences Window
You can rearrange the buttons in the Preferences window—hold down the
Control key and drag one button at a time.
Some of the settings you choose with Preferences take effect immediately.
Others take effect only after you start an application or restart OpenStep.
Note – If you do not want Preferences to start automatically when you start
OpenStep, see “Starting an Application Automatically” on page 4-10.
Note – Some applications may add their own Preferences buttons to this
window. For information about these custom preferences, see the user’s guide
for the application.
Personalizing the Workspace
15-3
15
Hiding Menus
You can hide application menus and use your mouse to display them only
when you need them, as shown in Figure 15-3 on page 15-5.
1. Start Preferences.
2. Click on the button for Menu Preferences.
3. Drag the Preferences menu (the one in your workspace) off the lower
right corner of the screen.
4. Click on the button for Mouse Preferences.
5. Click on Left or Right to choose the mouse button that will display
hidden menus.
6. Log out of OpenStep and restart it.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
15
Menu Preferences
button
When you drag the
Preferences menu off
the screen, this
minimenu
disappears.
You can click
anywhere in this box
to restore the
Preferences menu.
Mouse Preferences
button
Choose the left or right
button for displaying
menus.
Figure 15-3 Hiding Menus
When you restart OpenStep or start a new application, all the menus will be
hidden, and you must press the mouse’s MENU button (normally the right
button) to display them.
Personalizing the Workspace
15-5
15
Selecting a Standard Location for Menus
You can choose a standard location for all your main menus in two ways. First,
you can click on the button for Menu Preferences and drag the Preferences
menu to the new location in the workspace. Or you can drag the minimenu in
the Menu Preferences.
The next time you start an application, its main menu is displayed in the new
standard location—unless you have moved the menus in your application. If
you have, the menu is displayed where you left it.
Setting a Password
If you work on a network, you have a user name and a password that you use
every time you log in. A system administrator usually assigns both of these
names initially, but you should change your password at least once a month, as
shown in Figure 15-4 on page 15-7, Figure 15-5 on page 15-8, and Figure 15-6
on page 15-9.
Note – Setting or changing your password in OpenStep has the same effect as
using the UNIX passwd command or yppasswd command. It changes the
password associated with your user login name and stored in /etc/passwd.
And if you have a network password, it changes the network password
associated with your username in the network information service (NIS)
database.
1. Start Preferences and click on the Password button.
2. Type your current password and click on OK.
3. Type your new password and click on OK.
4. Type the new password again to verify it and then click on OK.
5. Click on OK in the confirmation panel.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
15
Password Preferences
button
Type your current
password here.
Figure 15-4 Typing Your Current Password
For security, your password is never displayed on the screen as you type it.
The pointer follows the progress of your typing, but no characters are
displayed. If you make a mistake, press the Back Space key and type the letter
again.
Personalizing the Workspace
15-7
15
Type your new
password here.
Figure 15-5 Typing Your New Password
After you type your new password, the application asks you to type the new
password again to make sure that what you typed the first time was what you
wanted to type.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
15
Type your new
password again.
Figure 15-6 Verifying Your New Password
If you type the same word a second time, a panel confirms that the new
password is set. When you click on OK in this panel, the original password
field redisplays, ready for the next time you want to change your password. If
you make a mistake when you are verifying the password, you must start over.
What Makes a Password Secure
Passwords should be easy to remember but difficult for others to guess. Here
are some guidelines:
•
•
Avoid names of your children, pets, or other obvious personal favorites.
•
Combine lowercase and uppercase letters, numbers, symbols, and spaces in
your password.
Choose a password with at least eight characters. The shorter a password is,
the easier it is for someone to decode.
Personalizing the Workspace
15-9
15
Here are some examples of good passwords:
*a*l*l*a
a#bcd ef
W$Bridge
bARnEgt!
Setting the Date
OpenStep has an internal clock that displays the date and time in your
workspace. It is also used to create a date and time stamp for changes to your
files and folders. You can use this internal clock to set the date, as shown in
Figure 15-7 on page 15-11.
1. Start Preferences and click on the button for the Date & Time Preferences.
2. Click on the month arrows to change the month.
3. Click on the year arrows to change the year.
4. Click on a date in the calendar area.
5. Click on Set.
6. Unless you have previously set the date or time since starting Preferences,
a panel asks you for your root password (see Figure 15-8 on page 15-11).
After you type the correct root password, the new date value is set.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
15
Date and Time
Preferences button
You can check here to
choose a 24-hour clock.
You can click here to
choose a different time
and date display.
When you click on Set,
the new date is
displayed in the dock.
Figure 15-7 Setting the Date
Type your root password here.
Figure 15-8 User Authentication Panel
If the Preferences panel is displayed without the date and time options, your
system administrator has probably disabled the date and time preferences. If
you have questions, see your system administrator.
Personalizing the Workspace
15-11
15
Setting the Time
OpenStep has an internal clock that displays the date and time in your
workspace. It is also used to create a date and time stamp for changes to your
files and folders. You can use this internal clock to set the date, as shown in
Figure 15-9.
1. Start Preferences and click on the button for Date & Time Preferences.
2. Click on the arrows to change the time. Or type a new time.
3. Click in the map to select a time zone.
4. Select the hours, minutes, or seconds in the time field.
5. Click on Set.
6. Unless you have previously set the date or time since starting Preferences,
the User Authentication panel asks you for your root password (see
Figure 15-8 on page 15-11). After you type the correct root password, the
new time value is set.
Date and Time
Preferences button
Click here to specify
regional differences
within a time zone.
Click anywhere in the
map to select a time
zone.
Change the time here.
You can select hours,
minutes, or seconds.
Then click on the
arrows or type to
change the time.
When you click on Set,
the new date is
displayed in the dock.
Figure 15-9 Setting the Time
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
15
When you select a time zone, the button above the map shows the difference,
in hours, between your time zone and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). When
you press this button, a pop-up list shows regional variations within your time
zone. You can select the one that applies to you. Select the time zone before
you set the date and time. Otherwise, your settings are lost.
If the Preferences panel appears without the date and time options, your
system administrator has probably disabled the date and time preferences. If
you have questions, see your system administrator.
Choosing an Application Locale
Some applications can display the text in their windows, menus, and panels in
the languages of more than one locale. You can specify the locale you want to
use in these applications, as shown in Figure 15-10 on page 15-14.
1. Start Preferences and click on the button for Localization Preferences.
2. Drag your preferred locale to the top of the Locale list.
3. Drag the remaining locales into the order you want.
4. Restart your applications.
Personalizing the Workspace
15-13
15
Localization
Preferences button
Drag the locales into
the order you want.
Figure 15-10 Choosing an Application Locale
When you start an application, it checks your order of preference and displays
text in the language of the first locale it has available. The C locale is the
default Solaris locale, which displays text in English.
Note – You may also need to specify a different keyboard arrangement for the
locale you are using. See “Choosing a Keyboard Arrangement” on page 16-6.
Changing Units of Measurement
In some applications, you can specify the size of objects or pages. For example,
in Edit and Mail, you can specify the width of the page. With Preferences,
you can set a standard unit of measurement for all your applications that
specify sizes, as shown in Figure 15-11 on page 15-15.
1. Start Preferences and click on the button for Localization Preferences.
2. Choose the unit of measurement you want from the Measurement Units
pop-up list.
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
15
3. Restart your applications.
Localization
Preferences button
Click to select a
standard unit of
measurement for all
applications.
Figure 15-11 Changing the Units of Measurement
The new unit of measurement takes effect for an application the next time you
start it.
Note – You can change the units of measurement in some applications
independently. For example, you might choose inches in Preferences but then
work with picas and points in your page layout program. For details, see the
user’s guide for your application.
Choosing a Paper Size
You can use the Localization Preferences to set a standard paper size you
prefer to work with in all your applications, as shown in Figure 15-12 on
page 15-16.
1. Start Preferences and click on the button for Localization Preferences.
Personalizing the Workspace
15-15
15
2. Choose the paper size you want from the Paper Size pop-up list.
3. Restart your applications.
Localization
Preferences button
Select a standard
paper size for all
applications.
Figure 15-12 Choosing a Paper Size
The paper size you set in your individual application may override the paper
size you set here.
The new paper size takes effect for an application the next time you start it.
Customizing the Services Menu
When you are working in applications, you can request some of the services of
other applications from the Services menu, as shown in Figure 15-13 on
page 15-17. If you have many services, you may choose to display some of
these services and not others.
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15
1. Start Preferences and click on the button for Services Preferences.
2. Select the service you want to enable or disable.
3. Click on the Enable or Disable button.
Services
Preferences button
When a service is
disabled, it is dimmed.
This button switches
from Disable to Enable
when you disable a
service.
Figure 15-13 Customizing the Services Menu
The next time you use an application, its Services menu lists only the services
that are enabled.
Note – For information about using services, see “Requesting Services From
Other Applications” on page 4-11. See also the list of OpenStep application
services in “Standard Commands” on page A-1.
Personalizing the Workspace
15-17
15
Creating Keyboard Alternatives
Most applications include keyboard alternatives for some or all of the
commands in their menus. A keyboard alternative is a combination of the
Command key and other keys that you can use instead of choosing a command
from a menu. If a command has no alternative, you can create your own, as
shown in Figure 15-14. You can also change existing keyboard alternatives.
1. Start Preferences and click on the button for Menu Preferences.
2. Click in the Command field and type the name of the command.
3. Click in the Key Alternative field and type a character.
4. Click on Add.
5. Restart your applications.
Menu Preferences
button
Keyboard alternatives
you create are listed
here.
Type the name of the
command exactly as it
is displayed in the
menu.
Type an uppercase
or lowercase letter
here.
Figure 15-14 Creating Keyboard Alternatives
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Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
15
When you type the command name, be sure to match the capitalization,
spaces, and ellipses in the menu. The keyboard alternative can be any character
except a space. Case makes a difference. For example, if you type a lowercase c,
the keyboard alternative is Command-c. If you type an uppercase C, the
keyboard alternative is Command-Shift-C.
When you set a keyboard alternative, it is added to all applications that have
the command (unless the application overrides Preferences). If you choose
an alternative that is already in use, it is removed from the current command
and added to the one you specify.
To remove a keyboard alternative that you have created, select it from the list
in the Menu Preferences and click on Remove. Or to modify it, type another
character in the Key Alternative field and click on Add.
New keyboard alternatives take effect in an application the next time you start
it. They take effect in Workspace Manager menus the next time you log in.
To find out your keyboard’s Command key, see “Keyboard Basics” on page 9-5.
Changing the Fonts on the Screen
You can change fonts that are displayed in menus, window titles, prompts, and
other objects on the screen, as shown in Figure 15-15 on page 15-20.
1. Start Preferences and click on the button for General Preferences.
2. Choose the type of font you want to change from the pop-up list under
Fonts.
3. Click on the Font Panel button.
4. Select a font family, typeface, and size from the Font Panel.
5. Click on Set.
6. Log out of OpenStep and restart it.
Personalizing the Workspace
15-19
15
General Preferences
button
These three types of
fonts are displayed on
the screen—you
choose the one you
want to change.
Current font setting
Example of where
the type of font is
displayed
Figure 15-15 Changing the Bold System Font
When you choose a type of font and click on Font Panel, the Font Panel opens
(see Figure 15-16 on page 15-21). You use it to select a font family, typeface, and
size.
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15
Click on Preview to display
the font here.
You can click here to revert to
the last font you selected.
Click on Set to use the selected font.
Figure 15-16 Previewing a Font
The fonts you choose are displayed on the screen the next time you log in.
Note – For more information about setting fonts, see “Setting a New Font” on
page 9-12.
Choosing a Font for Applications
You can choose a default font for your applications, as shown in Figure 15-17
on page 15-22. The default font is the one the application uses when you first
type text in a new document or anytime you do not specify a font.
1. Start Preferences and click on the button for General Preferences.
2. Choose Application Font from the pop-up list under Fonts.
3. Click on Font Panel.
4. Select a font family, typeface, and size from the Font Panel.
5. Click on Set.
Personalizing the Workspace
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15
General Preferences
button
Choose Application
Font from this pop-up
list.
Current font setting
Example of the
current font
Figure 15-17 Changing the Application Font
The Font Panel displays all the available font families, typefaces, and sizes (see
Figure 15-16 on page 15-21).
Applications use the new font the next time you start them. However, some
applications may not use the font you set. Some have their own options for
setting a default font that overrides the font you set here. Also, some
applications preset their own default font family, typeface, or size. This preset
font overrides your choice.
Setting Global File and Folder Permissions
You can grant others permission to read and change your files and to run
programs that you own—or you can deny permission. You can make this
choice for individual files and folders with the Inspector, but you can also set
global permissions with the Expert Preferences panel, as shown in Figure 15-18
on page 15-23.
1. Start Preferences and click on the button for Expert Preferences.
2. Check the permissions you want.
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15
3. Log out of OpenStep and restart it.
Expert Preferences
button
If you check here,
people in a group set
up by your system
administrator can
change your files.
If you check here,
anyone outside your
group can change
your files.
Figure 15-18 Setting Global File and Folder Permissions
The permissions you set here take effect the next time you log in. They apply to
all new files and folders that you create, unless your application has built-in
permission settings that override the global settings. In any case, you can
change permissions for individual files and folders with the Inspector.
Note – For information about using the Inspector to check and set permissions,
see “Changing Permissions for a File or Folder” on page 7-9.
Note – Permissions affect many file operations. For an overview, see
“Permissions Granted” on page 6-2.
Displaying Large File Systems
If you are working with disks and folders that contain several hundred files
and folders, you can optimize the File Viewer to display them more quickly, as
shown in Figure 15-19 on page 15-24.
Personalizing the Workspace
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15
1. Start up Preferences and click on the button for Expert Preferences.
2. Check Large File System.
3. Log out of OpenStep and restart it.
Expert Preferences
button
Check here to display
large numbers of files
and folders more
quickly.
Figure 15-19 Displaying Large File Systems
When you check Large File System, the File Viewer, the Open panel, and the
Save panel can all open large folders faster than normal. Scrolling through
large folders, however, may take a bit longer than normal.
This option takes effect the next time you log in.
Displaying UNIX Files
Your system uses many files that are not normally displayed in the File Viewer.
Some of these are UNIX system files. Some are files called dot files—their names
begin with a period. If you are a system administrator or developer, you may
want to use these files. Otherwise, it is best to leave them hidden. You can
display these files in the File Viewer (see Figure 15-20 on page 15-25).
1. Start Preferences and click on the button for Expert Preferences.
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15
2. Check UNIX Expert.
Expert Preferences
button
Click here to display
all UNIX system files
and dot files.
Figure 15-20 Displaying UNIX FIles
The UNIX and dot files are immediately displayed in the File Viewer, as shown
in Figure 15-21 on page 15-26. They are also displayed in Open and Save
panels as well as in any other panel that displays the contents of disks and
folders.
Personalizing the Workspace
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15
UNIX files
and files
whose
names
begin with a
period are
hidden until
you check
UNIX
Expert.
Figure 15-21 UNIX System Files Displayed in the File Viewer
Note – When naming a file, do not use a name that starts with a period. If you
do, the file will be hidden with the other dot files when UNIX Expert is not
checked.
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Managing Hardware
16
The Preferences application not only helps you custom-fit your workspace,
as described in Chapter 15, “Personalizing the Workspace.” It also helps you
manage your hardware—from the keys on your keyboard to the speed of your
mouse.
This chapter describes how to do the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Set the screen saver
Change the background color of the display
Choose system beeps and warnings
Adjust sound volume
Set the rate for repeating characters
Choose a keyboard arrangement
Change the responsiveness of the mouse
Setting the Screen Saver
To protect your display, a screen saver automatically starts when you are not
using it. The screen saver normally starts if you do not press a key or move the
mouse for 30 minutes. You can change this delay or even turn off the screen
saver completely, as shown in Figure 16-1 on page 16-2.
1. Start Preferences and click on the button for Display Preferences.
2. Use the Automatic Screen Saver slider to set the delay for the screen saver.
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16
Display Preferences
button
Drag to set the delay
in minutes.
You can also type the
delay here.
Figure 16-1 Setting the Screen Saver
You can set a delay from 5 to 59 minutes. You can turn off the screen saver
completely by dragging the slider all the way to the right. The new setting
takes effect immediately.
Changing the Background Color of the Display
You can choose the background color of your workspace, as shown in
Figure 16-2 on page 16-3. It may be a color from the Sun color list, a color that
you pick from the screen, or a color that you choose from one of three color
models.
If you work on both a color display and a monochrome display, you set the
background colors separately for each display.
1. Start Preferences and click on the button for Display Preferences.
2. Click on the Colors button.
3. Select a color from the Colors panel.
4. Drag the color from the Colors panel to the Background Color well.
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Display Preferences
button
The color well
displays the current
background color.
Click here to display
the Colors panel.
Drag the selected
color from this well to
the Background Color
well.
Drag or click on the color
wheel to select a color.
Or drag one of these
swatches to the
Background Color
well.
Figure 16-2 Changing the Background Color of Your Display
Note – If you want to save the current background color while you experiment
with new colors, you can click in the color well and drag a color swatch to the
row of swatches at the bottom of the Colors panel.
Managing Hardware
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16
Choosing System Beeps and Warnings
The OpenStep™ applications have several ways to alert you when something
requires your attention. A system beep may sound when you make a mistake
typing. A panel may alert you to a problem or request additional information.
You can tailor these system beeps and warnings to your needs, as shown in
Figure 16-3.
1. Start Preferences and click on the button for General Preferences.
2. Click on Audio for a sound beep or Visual for a warning flash.
3. If you clicked on Audio, select a type of system beep from the list.
4. Click on Use Voice Alerts if you want spoken notices and warnings.
Click on the General
Preferences button.
Use the Display
Preferences to adjust
the volume of sounds
you choose in this
panel.
Select a system beep
from this list.
Click here for a visual
warning instead of a
system beep.
Check here for
spoken alerts.
Figure 16-3 Choosing System Beeps and Warnings
Some applications have spoken versions of some panels. If you prefer to hear
these messages rather than read them, you can check Use Voice Alerts to hear
the spoken versions.
If you click on Visual, the Sun icon at the top of the application dock flashes
whenever something needs your attention. No beeps sound.
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16
These choices take effect immediately.
Note – You can add your own sounds to the list of possible system beeps by
adding a sound (.snd) or (.au) file to the /Library/Sounds folder in your
home folder.
Note – You can use voice alerts or a custom system beep only if your computer
can play sounds.
Adjusting Sound Volume
You can adjust the volume of your system beeps and warnings in the Display
Preferences panel, as shown in Figure 16-4.
1. Start Preferences and click on the button for Display Preferences.
2. Use the Volume slider to set the sound volume of your system.
Click on the Display
Preferences button.
Drag the slider to
change the volume of
the sounds your
computer makes.
Figure 16-4 Adjusting the Sound Volume
Managing Hardware
16-5
16
To turn off the speaker on your system, drag the slider all the way to the left.
The volume setting takes effect immediately.
Setting the Rate for Repeating Characters
Sometimes you need to repeat characters in a long string. Typical repeating
characters are periods and asterisks, but you can repeat any character on the
keyboard by holding the key down. The Back Space and Tab keys also repeat,
as does the space bar.
You do not want the characters to begin repeating too quickly when you press
a key, or will have double and triple characters scattered throughout your text.
You may also want to control how quickly the character repeats (see
Figure 16-5).
1. Start Preferences and click on the button for Keyboard Preferences.
2. Click on a setting for the initial key repeat.
3. Click on a setting for the key repeat rate.
4. Test your settings by pressing any character key.
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16
Keyboard Preferences
button
Click here to set the
longest delay before a
character starts
repeating.
Click here to set the
fastest repeat rate.
Press any character
key and watch the
initial delay and
repeat rates here.
Figure 16-5 Setting the Rate for Repeating Characters
Managing Hardware
16-7
16
Choosing a Keyboard Arrangement
The standard arrangement of keys on keyboards differs from country to
country. If you are accustomed to working on a particular type of keyboard,
you can choose its arrangement regardless of which keyboard you are actually
using, as shown in Figure 16-6.
1. Start Preferences and click on the button for Localization Preferences.
2. Select a type of keyboard from the list.
Localization
Preferences button
Select a keyboard
arrangement from
this list.
Figure 16-6 Choosing a Keyboard Arrangement
The new keyboard arrangement takes effect immediately.
Changing the Responsiveness of the Mouse
You can make the mouse more responsive to your movements in two ways.
FIrst, you can change the mouse speed—which is how fast and how far the
pointer moves when you move the mouse. Second, you can change the doubleclick delay—the setting that determines when the system responds to two
clicks as a double-click as opposed to two distinct clicks. See Figure 16-7 on
page 16-9.
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16
1. Start Preferences and click on the button for Mouse Preferences.
2. Click on the mouse speed you want.
3. Click on the double-click delay you want.
4. Test the delay by double-clicking in the Test field.
Mouse Preferences
button
Slowest—the pointer
moves in direct
proportion to the
mouse.
Accelerated
settings—the pointer
moves farther when
you move the mouse
faster.
If you double-click
slowly, choose a
longer delay.
Figure 16-7 Changing the Responsiveness of the Mouse
You should choose the shortest double-click delay that works for you. You can
test it by double-clicking on the word Test. Double-click at your normal speed.
If Test is highlighted, you are double-clicking fast enough for the delay you
have chosen.
The new mouse settings take effect immediately.
Managing Hardware
16-9
16
16-10
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Using the Terminal Application
17
Although you can run standard UNIX® programs and commands on your
system, such programs cannot be run directly from the workspace, which does
not include traditional UNIX constructs such as standard input and standard
output.
To run these programs, you can use the Terminal application. Terminal offers a
number of useful features:
•
Scrollers let you scroll backward to text that is no longer displayed in the
window.
•
Text can be copied and pasted within a Terminal window, between
windows, or to and from other applications that support cutting and
pasting, such as Mail and Edit.
•
Terminal has a Print command to enable you to print the contents of a
window, and a Find command to let you search for text.
•
Terminal’s Services menu enables you to make interapplication requests.
You can also define your own Terminal services for use in other
applications.
•
Terminal’s Preferences command enables you to change the size, title bar
text, emulation characteristics, and font properties of one or more Terminal
windows.
•
Terminal provides strict VT100 terminal emulation. Every UNIX program or
utility you run (such as Emacs or vi) should work as intended.
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17
The rest of this chapter describes Terminal in more detail.
Introduction to Terminal
A UNIX shell is a program that functions as an intermediary between you and
the UNIX operating system. As the shell runs, it prompts you for commands,
interprets what you type, and passes the commands to the operating system
for execution. For more information about the two most common UNIX shells,
the Bourne Shell and the C Shell, see their UNIX manual pages (sh(1) and
csh(1)).
You start Terminal in the workspace as you would any other OpenStep™
application, by double-clicking its icon in the dock or locating it with the File
Viewer (in /usr/openstep/Apps) and double-clicking. You can use the
Workspace Manager’s Preferences command to make Terminal start when
OpenStep starts.
Terminal runs in its own window, in which you can type commands and run
UNIX programs and scripts. Figure 17-1 shows a typical Terminal window.
This Terminal window ran a
login script when it was
opened; it shows the shell
directory in its title bar; these
and other characteristics can
be changed with Terminal
Preferences.
Figure 17-1 Typical Terminal Window
You can create additional Terminal windows as you need them with the New
Shell command. To change a window’s characteristics, select the appropriate
settings in the Preferences panel as described in “Setting Terminal Preferences”
on page 17-3.
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17
Setting Terminal Preferences
The Preferences command in the Info menu displays the Terminal Preferences
panel, shown in Figure 17-2. The Preferences panel lets you change values and
set new default values for various Terminal options. For example, you can set
the font properties of a particular window, or specify different default font
properties to be used for new windows. The figures in this section show the
settings you start out with the first time you use the Terminal application. As
you click in shell windows, the Preferences panel shows the settings for the
main window.
Press here to
choose the group of
Terminal
Preferences you
want to set from the
pop-up list.
Figure 17-2 Terminal Preferences Panel
Type values and click on buttons to specify new preferences. You may need to
click on Set Window to set the new preferences (or, click on Set Default to
make the new settings be the default settings or Show Default to show the
currently defined default settings). New settings remain in effect until you
change them. However, some settings affect only new windows while others
affect existing Terminal windows as well. Specifically, when no buttons are
displayed at the bottom of the panel, settings are global and apply to all
Terminal windows.
Using the Terminal Application
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17
Note – If you open Terminal Preferences when more than one Terminal
window is open, it will display preferences for the current main window (the
Terminal window in which you last clicked).
Terminal Preferences are divided into the following seven groups:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Window preferences
Title Bar preferences
VT100 Emulation preferences
Display preferences
Activity Monitor preferences
Shell preferences
Startup preferences
Each group of options is displayed in its own view in the Preferences panel.
Select the view you want by clicking on the button labeled Window at the top
of the panel and dragging.
Window Preferences
You can use the Window Preferences panel to set the size and font of one or
more Terminal windows, as shown in Figure 17-3 on page 17-5. If you click on
Set Window, the settings are applied to the Terminal window that is currently
the main window. If you want the settings to apply to new windows, click on
Set Default.
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Figure 17-3 Terminal Window Preferences
The Columns and Rows fields specify values for the number of columns and
rows. Even after setting the number of columns and rows, you can still resize
the window, thereby changing the number of columns and rows for that
window.
The When Shell Exits field lets you specify what you want to have happen to a
window when the shell running in it exits. In some special situations, a
window might not obey the default setting. For example, double-clicking on a
command in the workspace results in a window that stays open even after the
command finishes running.
Use the Font field to specify a font for one or more Terminal windows as
follows:
•
•
Click on the Set button to open the Font panel.
•
Click on Set Window in the Preferences panel to set the font for just the
main window, or click on Set Default to make this font the default for new
windows.
In the Font panel, select a font (note that only fixed-width fonts are listed)
and font size. Click on the Set button in the Font panel to type the settings in
the Font field of the Preferences panel.
Using the Terminal Application
17-5
17
Title Bar Preferences
You can use the Title Bar view of the Preferences panel to configure the title bar
of one or more Terminal windows, as shown in Figure 17-4. If you click on Set
Window, the new settings you specify are applied to the Terminal window that
is currently the main window. If you want the settings to apply to new
windows you create, click on Set Default.
Figure 17-4 Terminal Title Bar Preferences
The Include these Elements field provides a number of elements that you can
include in the title bar of Terminal windows, including a “custom title”
element that you define yourself. Any combination of elements can be used. If
no elements are selected, the title that is used is simply Terminal.
To specify a custom title, type it in the Custom Title field. The custom title is
used in the title bar, however, only if you click on the Custom Title box in the
Include these Elements field.
As you experiment with various combinations of elements, the sample title bar
displayed in the Preferences panel is updated to show the effect of the current
settings.
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VT100 Emulation Preferences
The VT100 Emulation view is used to set the VT100 characteristics of Terminal
windows (see Figure 17-5).
Figure 17-5 Terminal VT100 Emulation Preferences
“Translate new lines to carriage returns when pasting” should normally be
checked. It is required by some other operating systems, and it works correctly
for most UNIX programs.
If “Generate VT100 codes from the keypad” is checked, the keys on the
numeric keypad generate VT100 keypad sequences. Otherwise, the keys on the
numeric keypad generate the characters shown on the keys. Holding down
the Alt key while pressing a key on the numeric keypad toggles the
interpretation temporarily.
If “Perform strict VT100 emulation” is checked, some additional (and normally
undesirable) aspects of VT100 emulation are strictly enforced:
•
If you type a Delete character at the left edge of a Terminal window, the
command-line cursor will not wrap around to the end of the previous line.
This may make it difficult to edit long command lines that wrap.
Using the Terminal Application
17-7
17
•
Strict DECCOLM handling is enforced. Otherwise, the DECCOLM escape
code to change the window’s size is obeyed only if the new size is larger
than the old size.
•
The + key on the numeric keypad generates a comma (,) character.
When “Alternate key generates Escape sequences” is selected, typing a
character while you hold down the Alt key causes a two-character sequence to
be generated—an Escape character followed by the character you typed. (This
is useful when running Emacs, so you can use the Alt key as a Meta key.) Click
“Alternate key generates special characters” if you want Alt key combinations
to generate a single character with the high bit set. Some programs interpret
special characters in their own way, so this does not always work as expected;
Emacs, for example, simply strips out the high bit from special characters.
Note – If necessary, you can specify a character other than Escape as the first
character in a two-character sequence. To do so, use the dwrite shell
command to set the value of the Terminal Meta variable to the decimal value
of the desired character.
Display Preferences
The Display view of the Preferences panel is used to set various display
characteristics of one or more Terminal windows (see Figure 17-6 on
page 17-9). If you click on Set Window, the new settings you specify are
applied to the Terminal window that is currently the main window. If you
want the settings to apply to new windows you create, click on Set Default.
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Figure 17-6 Terminal Display Preferences
If the Enabled box is checked, windows retain text that scrolls off the top of the
window in a scrollback buffer, allowing text that is scrolled off the window to
be scrolled back into view, copied, or printed. Otherwise, text that scrolls off
the top of the window cannot be retrieved.
If you enable the scrollback buffer, you can choose to let it grow without limit
or you can specify the maximum number of lines that you want saved.
Whichever you choose, you can use the Edit menu’s Clear Buffer command at
any time to clear the buffer.
Although it is often useful, the scrollback buffer adds to the amount of
memory that is used by the Terminal program, and is unnecessary in some
Terminal windows (for example, one that is running a text editor such as
Emacs rather than a UNIX shell).
If the “Wrap lines that are too long” box is checked, characters that would
extend beyond the right edge of the window wrap around to the beginning of
the following line. Otherwise, each line of text occupies only one line in the
window—the last character that fits on a line is overwritten by subsequent
characters that are displayed on that line.
Using the Terminal Application
17-9
17
If the “Scroll to the bottom of the window when input is received” box is
checked, typing in the Terminal window causes the window to scroll to the end
of the buffer and display the insertion point (of course, if the insertion point
happens to be already visible and positioned at the end of the buffer, no
scrolling occurs). Otherwise, typing never causes the window to scroll
automatically.
Activity Monitor Preferences
Normally, Terminal tries to determine whether your Terminal windows are in
active use (busy) by monitoring the processes inside them. If Terminal finds
something interesting happening inside a window, it marks the window
with a broken “X”. As with unsaved document windows in other applications,
you will be prompted for confirmation before closing a busy window or
quitting Terminal when there are busy windows.
To determine whether a window is clean (not busy), Terminal looks at
information about processes it considers relevant. For example, Terminal
considers shells and a few other processes such as su to be innocuous and, in
general, will not mark windows busy on account of them. Occasionally
Terminal may be wrong about whether a window is clean.
In the Activity Monitor view of the Preferences panel (see Figure 17-7 on
page 17-11), you can designate additional clean command names in the Clean
Commands list (likely candidates are rlogin and telnet). Commands you
specify in this list are not used in determining whether a window is busy or
clean.
Click on the “Activity monitor enabled” button if you want to enable or
disable activity monitoring. When activity monitoring is off, Terminal always
asks for confirmation before letting you quit.
Click on the “Background processes are ‘clean’” button if you want to specify
whether background processes are considered relevant in determining whether
a window is clean. For example, a window running a background process
could be considered clean, as long as the process is running without problems
in the background. (The current process or one that you have explicitly
suspended with Control-z will always cause the window to be classified as
busy.)
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Figure 17-7 Terminal Activity Monitor Preferences
Note – Terminal cannot respond to processes running on other machines, so
you should not rely on Terminal’s process monitor when logged into a remote
system.
Shell Preferences
The Shell view of the Preferences panel (see Figure 17-8 on page 17-12) is used
to specify a shell or other program to be run in Terminal windows.
Use the Shell field to specify the absolute path name of a shell or program to
run on startup. Possible values include /bin/csh, /bin/sh, and
/usr/ucb/vi.
Note – You must press the Return key after typing the path name in order for
the new value to be set.
Using the Terminal Application
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17
Figure 17-8 Terminal Shell Preferences
If the “Read login script” box is checked (and you are using csh), Terminal
runs your .login file for each new Terminal window you open. Otherwise,
the .login file is ignored.
Startup Preferences
The Startup view of the Preferences panel, shown in Figure 17-9 on page 17-13,
lets you specify what happens when Terminal starts.
When Terminal starts you can have it do nothing (that is, create no windows),
create one new shell window, or open a startup file (that is, a configuration file
that specifies a collection of windows to open). If you select “Open the startup
file,” you need to make sure a startup file is specified in the Startup File
portion of the panel.
Note – For information about how to create a startup file, see “Saving a
Terminal Configuration for Later Use” on page 17-14.”
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Figure 17-9 Terminal Startup Preferences
Click on the Auto-Launch check button if you auto-launch the Terminal
application and want it to be hidden initially. This button has no effect if you
do not auto-launch Terminal.
Although you can have any number of Terminal configuration files in your
~/Library/Terminal directory, you can specify only one as the startup file.
To specify a particular Terminal configuration file as the startup file, type its
path name in the Path field or click on Set to open an Open panel in which to
select the path name.
Note – The path name you type must be an absolute path name beginning
with a slash (/); characters such as tilde (~) do not work.
Using the Terminal Application
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17
Color Preferences
The Colors view of the Preferences panel, shown in Figure 17-10, lets you choose
several options for the appearance of the Terminal windows.
Figure 17-10 Terminal Colors Preferences
Saving a Terminal Configuration for Later Use
Information about a window or set of windows can be saved to a file, enabling
you to save your preferred configurations for later use, as shown in
Figure 17-11 on page 17-15. Everything about each window is saved except the
contents of the scrollback buffer—this includes the shell, the size and location
of the window on the screen, the title bar and font characteristics, and whether
or not the window is miniaturized. To save a configuration, choose Save (or
Save As) in the Shell menu. Terminal appends a .term file extension to the file
name you specify. Since Terminal looks for configuration files in your
~/Library/Terminal directory, this is where you should save them.
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Figure 17-11 Saving a Terminal Configuration
When you first save the configuration (or whenever you choose Save As), you
can choose whether you want just the main window or all windows saved to
the file.
Once a window is associated with a file, you can use the Save command to
flush the settings out again without seeing a Save Panel, just as with other
documents. However, if more than one window belongs with that file, all the
relevant windows will be resaved (the menu item indicates this by changing to
Save Set). This allows you to open your favorite set of files, rearrange the
windows, then just choose Save to save them all back into the file. There is no
way to select a subset of the currently open windows to go into a new file.
To open a configuration file, choose Open in the Shell menu. To have a
configuration file open automatically each time you start Terminal, either
check the box in the Save or Save As panel, or specify the file name in the
Startup view of the Preferences panel.
Using the Terminal Application
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17
Printing the Contents of a Terminal Window
To print all or part of the text in a Terminal window, open the Print panel by
choosing Print in the main menu (see Figure 17-12).
Figure 17-12 Terminal Print Panel
Finding Text in a Terminal Window
The Find panel lets you search for text in the main Terminal window. To open
the Find panel, choose Find Panel in the Find menu (see Figure 17-13 on
page 17-17).
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Figure 17-13 Terminal Find Panel
The Find panel locates the next occurrence of a specified string, and can search
either forward or backward. In the Find field, type the string to search for.
The controls in the Find panel have the effects shown in Table 17-1.
Table 17-1 Find Panel Controls
Control
Effect
Next
Selects the first occurrence of the Find string following the current
selection or insertion point. (Pressing the Return key has the same
effect, but with one difference: If you have used the keyboard
alternative to display the panel, pressing Return causes the panel
to disappear instead of remaining on the screen.)
Previous
Selects the first occurrence of the Find string, searching backward
from the current selection or insertion point.
Ignore Case
Makes the find operation case-insensitive (that is, capitalization is
ignored when determining a match). If this box is unchecked, the
search is case-sensitive.
If the end of the text is reached, Find continues searching from the beginning
(conversely, when searching backward, if the beginning of the text is reached,
Find continues searching from the end).
If no instance of the Find string is located, Terminal beeps and the message
“Not Found” is displayed in the Find panel.
Commands in the Find menu (which is in the Edit menu) provide alternatives
and shortcuts to using the Find panel. There is also a Jump to Selection
command for scrolling the insertion point into view. For more information, see
“Terminal Commands” on page A-33.
Using the Terminal Application
17-17
17
Defining Services for Use in Other Applications
Although by default Terminal does not make services available to other
applications through the Services menu, Terminal does contain a Terminal
Services
panel that you can use to define any services you want Terminal to provide.
To open the Terminal Services panel, choose Terminal Services in the Info
menu. If no Terminal services are defined, you will see a panel asking if you
want to load a set of example services (see Figure 17-14). You may find it useful
to load and examine this set of examples, and then remove those you do not
want to keep.
Figure 17-14 Terminal Services Panel
Currently defined services are listed at the top of the panel. You can
add services, as well as redefine or delete existing commands.
17-18
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
17
•
To add a service, click on the New button. A new entry named New Service
#1 is added to the service list. Type the name that you would like to see in
the Services menu, and then configure the service using the controls in the
Terminal Services panel. When you are finished, click on OK.
•
•
To delete a service, select it and click on the Remove button.
To modify a service definition, select its name and then redefine the service
using the controls on the Terminal Services panel. When you are finished,
click on OK.
The Accept field lets you specify what type of data the service accepts. Click on
one or more of these buttons as appropriate.
The Use Selection field lets you specify whether the selected text should be
used as a command-line argument, or as input to the service. Click on one or
the other as appropriate.
The Execution field lets you specify various options that affect the running of
the service, such as whether the output is returned or discarded.
When defining the service, you can use the tokens %s and %p to refer to the
locations where the selection and prompted input are inserted, respectively.
Prompted input is not requested unless %p appears in the definition.
Using the Terminal Application
17-19
17
17-20
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Command Reference
A
This appendix summarizes the menus, commands, and buttons that are
available in each Solaris™ OpenStep™ application.
Standard Commands
These are standard commands that are common to most OpenStep
applications.
A-1
A
Main Menu
Table A-1 Main Menu Commands
Command
Action
Info
Lists commands for getting information about the application and
setting preferences. See “Info Menu”.
Document
Lists commands for opening, creating, and saving files. The name of this
command depends on what you create and save in the application. See
“Document Menu” on page A-3.
Edit
Lists commands for editing text, graphics, or whatever you work with
in the application. See “Edit Menu” on page A-3.
Format
Lists commands for setting fonts, aligning text, choosing ruler settings,
and changing page layout options. See “Format Menu” on page A-5.
Windows
Lists commands for managing windows in the application. See
t“Windows Menu” on page A-8.
Services
Lists commands that request the service of another application. See
“Services Menu” on page A-9.
Print
Opens a panel that you can use to print the contents of the main
window. See Chapter 14, “Printing.”
Hide
Hides the application, removing all its windows from view without
closing them. You can unhide the application by double-clicking its
icon. See “Hiding an Application” on page 4-5.
Quit
Quits the application, closing all its windows and any files they contain.
See “Quitting an Application” on page 4-12.
Info Menu
Table A-2 Info Menu Commands
A-2
Command
Action
Info Panel
Displays general information about an application, such as which
version you are using and who wrote it.
Help
Opens a panel where you can get step-by-step instructions for using
the application. See “Getting Help by Topic” on page 1-14.
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
A
Document Menu
Table A-3 Document Menu Commands
Command
Action
Open
Opens a panel you can use to open a file in the application. See
“Opening a File” on page 5-3.
New
Opens an empty window where you can create a file. See
“Creating a File” on page 5-1.
Save
Saves changes you have made to the file you are working in, or
opens a panel that you can use to save a new file. See “Saving
Changes” on page 5-7 and “Saving a New File” on page 5-4.
Save As,
Save To
These commands each open a panel that you can use to save a
new version of the file you are working in. See “Saving
Another Version of a File” on page 5-8.
Save All
Saves changes in all files that are open in the application. See
“Saving Changes” on page 5-7 and “Saving a New File” on
page 5-4.
Revert To Saved
Discards changes you have made to the current file since you
last saved it.
Close
Closes the main window. If the current file is displayed in more
than one window, this command closes all its windows.
Edit Menu
Table A-4 Edit Menu Commands
Command
Action
Cut
Removes the current selection and puts it on the pasteboard. See
“Moving and Copying Text” on page 9-8.
Copy
Makes a copy of the current selection and puts it on the
pasteboard. See “Moving and Copying Text” on page 9-8.
Paste
Inserts the contents of the pasteboard at the insertion point or in
place of the current selection. See “Moving and Copying Text” on
page 9-8.
Delete
Deletes the current selection without putting it on the
pasteboard. See “Deleting and Replacing Text” on page 9-7.
Command Reference
A-3
A
Table A-4 Edit Menu Commands (Continued)
Command
Action
Undo
Reverses your last editing operation, such as typing or choosing
the Delete command. Choosing Undo again redoes the operation.
Sometimes this command is called Undelete, and it reverses and
redoes only a deletion.
Find
Lists commands for locating text. See “Find Submenu”.
Link
Lists commands for working with linked information. See “Link
Submenu” on page A-5.
Spelling
Opens a panel where you can check the spelling in the document
you are working in. See “Checking Your Spelling” on page 9-21.
Check Spelling
Finds and selects the next misspelled word in the main window.
Choosing the Check Spelling command has the same effect as
clicking on Find Next in the Spelling panel.
Select All
Selects the entire contents of the window or the section of the
window that you are working in. This command selects not only
what is showing but also contents you can scroll to see.
Find Submenu
Table A-5 Find Submenu Commands
A-4
Command
Action
Find Panel
Opens a panel that you can use to search for text. See
“Finding Text” on page 9-9.
Find Next
Finds the next occurrence of the text in the Find field of the
Find panel. This command does the same thing as the Next
button in the Find panel. You can use this command even if
the Find panel is not open. See “Finding Text” on page 9-9.
Find Previous
Finds the previous occurrence of the text in the Find field of
the Find panel. This command does the same thing as the
Previous button in the Find panel. You can use this command
even if the Find panel is not open. See “Finding Text” on
page 9-9.
Enter Selection
Copies selected text from the main window into the Find field
of the Find panel, whether it is open or not. You can then
choose Find Next or Find Previous to search for the text.
Jump To Selection
Scrolls to display the insertion point or current selection in
the main window.
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
A
Link Submenu
Table A-6 Link Submenu Commands
Command
Action
Paste and Link
Inserts the contents of the pasteboard at the insertion point
and links it to the original.
Paste Link Button
Inserts a diamond-shaped button in the document. The button
is linked to the last item you copied.
Publish Selection
Opens a panel where you can create and name a file that is a
link to the selection in the main window.
Show Links
Highlights each link in a document window with a chain-link
pattern. If links are already shown, the command changes to
Hide Links and removes the highlighting.
Link Inspector
Opens a panel that you can use to update and get information
about links.
Format Menu
Table A-7 Format Menu Commands
Command
Action
Font
Lists commands for changing the appearance of text. See “Font
Submenu” on page A-6.
Text
Lists commands for aligning text and choosing ruler settings. See
“Text Submenu” on page A-7.
Page Layout
Opens a panel that you can use to choose basic page layout options
for printing documents. See “Preparing a File for Printing” on
page 14-1.
Command Reference
A-5
A
Font Submenu
Table A-8 Font Submenu Commands
A-6
Command
Action
Font Panel
Opens a panel that you can use to change the font of text or preview
a font before using it. See “Setting a New Font” on page 9-12 and
“Previewing a Font” on page 9-16.
Bold
Makes text bold. This command sets or removes the standard bold
typeface for text you type at the insertion point or for selected text. If
the current font is already bold, the command changes to Unbold and
removes bold.
Italic
Makes text italic. This command sets or removes the standard italic
typeface for text you type at the insertion point or for selected text. If
the current font is already italic, the command changes to Unitalic
and removes italic.
Underline
Underlines selected text or text you type at the insertion point. If text
is already underlined, the command removes underlining.
Superscript
Moves selected text up slightly in relation to the baseline. You can
choose the command again to move the text higher.
Subscript
Moves selected text down slightly in relation to the baseline. You can
choose the command again to move the text lower.
Unscript
Returns superscripted or subscripted text to a normal position.
Colors
Opens a panel that you can use to change the color of text or graphics
you are working with. In some applications, this command is in the
Tools menu. See Chapter 10, “Working With Color.”
Copy Font
Copies the font at the insertion point or at the beginning of the text
selection so you can apply the font elsewhere with the Paste Font
command. This command does not copy text, so it does not change
the contents of the pasteboard.
Paste Font
Applies the font you copied with the Copy Font command to the
selected text or text you type at the insertion point.
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
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Text Submenu
Table A-9 Text Submenu Commands
Command
Action
Align Left
Aligns text in a paragraph with the left margin, leaving the right
margin ragged. This command aligns the paragraph where you last
clicked or made a selection. If the selection spans more than one
paragraph, all of them are aligned.
Align Right
Aligns text in a paragraph with the right margin, leaving the left
margin ragged. This command aligns the paragraph where you last
clicked or made a selection. If the selection spans more than one
paragraph, all of them are aligned.
Center
Centers text in a paragraph between the left and right margins. This
command centers the paragraph where you last clicked or made a
selection. If the selection spans more than one paragraph, all of them
are centered.
Show Ruler
Displays a ruler at the top of the document window you are working
in. See “Setting Margins, Indentation, and Tabs” on page 9-17.
Copy Ruler
Copies the ruler settings of the paragraph that begins the current
selection or contains the insertion point. You can the apply the ruler
settings to other paragraphs with the Paste Ruler command. The
Copy Ruler command does not copy text, so it does not change the
contents of the pasteboard. You do not need to show the ruler to use
Copy Ruler.
Paste Ruler
Applies ruler settings you copied with the Copy Ruler command to
the paragraph that contains the insertion point or the current
selection. If the selection spans more than one paragraph, all of them
are centered.
Command Reference
A-7
A
Windows Menu
The Windows menu lists the names of all standard windows that are open in
the application. Choosing a name brings the window forward.
An X marks a window
that contains no
unsaved work.
A partial X means the
window contains unsaved
work.
The Windows menu also lists the commands shown in Table A-10.
Table A-10 Windows Menu Commands
A-8
Command
Action
Arrange in Front
Neatly stacks all standard windows that are open in the
application.
Miniaturize Window
Changes the key window to a miniwindow at the bottom of
the screen, if the key window has a miniaturize button. See
“Miniaturizing a Window” on page 2-16.
Close Window
Closes the key window if it has a close button. See “Closing a
Window” on page 2-17.
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
A
Services Menu
The exact commands in this menu depend on which applications you have.
Services provided by OpenStep applications are listed in Table A-11. See also
“Requesting Services From Other Applications” on page 4-11 and
“Customizing the Services Menu” on page 15-16.
Table A-11 Services Menu Commands
Command
Action
Edit Replace Selection
Provides a quick way to insert the contents of an Edit file
in the document you are working in. When you choose
this command, an Open panel appears in the Edit
application. Opening a file from this panel inserts the
contents of the file in your document at the insertion
point or in place of the current selection.
Edit Save Selection
Opens a new document window in the Edit application
and inserts the current selection in the window. This
command also opens a Save panel that you use to save
the selection in an Edit file. See “Saving a New File” on
page 5-4.
Mail Document
Opens a Compose window in Mail and inserts the current
file in it as an attachment. The current file can be the one
you are working in or the file or folder selected in the File
Viewer. For information on attachments, see “Attaching a
File or Folder” on page 12-12.
Mail Selection
Opens a Compose window in Mail and inserts text you
have selected in it. For more information, see “Sending a
Message” on page 12-8.
Open in Workspace
Opens the file or folder with the selected path name. See
“Opening a Folder” on page 3-5 and “Opening a File” on
page 3-7.
Command Reference
A-9
A
Workspace Manager Commands
Workspace Menu
Table A-12 Workspace Menu Commands
A-10
Command
Action
Info
Lists commands for getting information and setting preferences. See
“Workspace Manager Info Menu” on page A-11.
File
Lists commands for working with files, folders, and on-line address
books. See “Workspace Manager File Menu” on page A-11.
Edit
Lists standard editing commands. See “Workspace Manager Edit Menu”
on page A-12.
Disk
Lists commands for working with disks. See “Workspace Manager Disk
Menu” on page A-13.
View
Lists commands for changing the way you view the contents of folders.
See “Workspace Manager View Menu” on page A-13.
Tools
Lists commands that open panels and windows you can use as tools in
the Workspace Manager. See “Workspace Manager Tools Menu” on
page A-14.
Windows
Lists commands for managing Workspace Manager windows. See
“Windows Menu” on page A-8.
Services
Lists commands that request the services of other applications. See
“Services Menu” on page A-9.
Hide
Hides the Workspace Manager application, removing its windows and
menus from view. You can double-click the Sun icon at the top of the
dock to restore the windows and menus to view.
Log Out
Quits all running applications. This command also shuts down the X
server unless the TerminateWindowManager user default is set to NO.
See “Ending Your Work Session” on page 1-16.
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
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Workspace Manager Info Menu
Table A-13 Workspace Manager Info Menu Commands
Command
Action
Info Panel
Displays information about the Workspace Manager application and
your system in general.
Preferences
Opens a panel that you can use to personalize your workspace. You
can set applications to start up automatically (see “Starting an
Application Automatically” on page 4-9); customize the arrangement
of icons and columns in the File Viewer (see “Personalizing Your File
Viewer” on page 3-32); and choose how disks are displayed (see
“Creating a Folder Window for a Disk” on page 8-4.
Help
Opens a panel where you can get step-by-step instructions for using
the Workspace Manager. See “Getting Help by Topic” on page 1-14.
Workspace Manager File Menu
Table A-14 Workspace Manager File Menu Commands
Command
Action
Open
Opens the selected file or folder.
Open as Folder
Opens the selected folder in a separate window or displays the
contents of a file package. See “Opening a Folder in Its Own
Window” on page 3-25.
New Folder
Creates an empty folder and puts it in the current folder. See
“Creating a Folder” on page 6-3. When you are working in an
address book, this command changes to New Address.
Duplicate
Creates a copy of the selected file or folder and puts it in the
current folder. The copy is labeled CopyOf. You can rename it. If
you select more than one file or folder, Duplicate creates a copy
of each one. When you are working in an address book, the
command changes to New Group.
Command Reference
A-11
A
Table A-14 Workspace Manager File Menu Commands (Continued)
Command
Action
Compress
Compresses the selected file or folder into a format that requires
less space on the disk. When you select a compressed file or
folder, the command changes to Decompress and it returns the
selection to its original format. See “Compressing and
Decompressing a File or Folder” on page 6-16.
Destroy
Permanently deletes one or more selected files or folders. A
panel asks you to confirm the deletion or cancel it.
Empty Recycler
Permanently deletes all files and folders in the recycler so you
cannot retrieve them. Emptying the recycler frees disk space.
Workspace Manager Edit Menu
Table A-15 Workspace Manager Edit Menu Commands
A-12
Command
Action
Cut,
Copy,
Paste,
Delete
These are standard commands for moving, copying, or deleting text. In
the Workspace Manager, you can use these commands when renaming a
file or folder or when typing in a panel. See “Moving and Copying Text”
on page 9-8 and “Deleting and Replacing Text” on page 9-7.
Select All
Selects the entire contents of the section of a window you are working
in. In the File Viewer, this command can select the contents of the
current folder. If you are editing a file or folder name, the name is
selected. If you are typing in a text field, the text you have typed is
selected. The Select All command selects not only what is showing but
also what you can scroll to see.
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
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Workspace Manager Disk Menu
Table A-16 Workspace Manager Disk Menu Commands
Command
Action
Eject
Removes the contents of a floppy disk from your file system so
you can safely eject the disk from its disk drive. See“Ejecting a
Disk” on page 8-9.
Initialize
Opens a panel that you can use to erase a disk you want to reuse.
You can also rename the disk and choose a format for storing files
and folders. See “Reusing a Disk” on page 8-8.
Check for Disks
Detects any floppy disk you have inserted so it appears in the File
Viewer. See “Inserting a Floppy Disk” on page 8-1.
Workspace Manager View Menu
Table A-17 Workspace Manager View Menu Commands
Command
Action
Browser
Changes the current view in the main window to the browser
view. See “Browsing Files and Folders” on page 3-13.
Icon
Changes the current view in the main window to the icon view.
The icon view is the standard view. It represents files and folders
as icons. File and folder names appear under the icon.
Listing
Changes the current view in the main window to the listing view.
See “Listing Files and Folders” on page 3-15.
Sort Icons
Sorts the icons in the current folder according to the category you
choose with the Inspector command. This command applies only
to the icon view. See “Sorting Files and Folders” on page 7-4.
Command Reference
A-13
A
Table A-17 Workspace Manager View Menu Commands (Continued)
Command
Action
Clean Up Icons
Lines up icons in the current folder to remove empty spaces. This
command applies only to the icon view.
New Viewer
Opens a duplicate of your File Viewer. You can use multiple File
Viewers to view different parts of your file system at the same
time. Unlike your original File Viewer, the duplicate has a close
button you can use to get rid of it.
Update Viewers
Updates the contents of folder windows to include changes made
elsewhere. This command can show the correct icon for files
associated with a newly installed application, if the correct icon
does not appear automatically. Choosing Update Viewers gives the
files their correct icon so they can open in the right application.
Update Viewers can also show changes made to the file system
with a UNIX command in the Terminal application. For example, if
you change the permission of a file in Terminal, you may need to
choose Update Viewers in order for the change to appear in the
File Viewer.
Workspace Manager Tools Menu
Table A-18 Workspace Manager Tools Menu Commands
A-14
Command
Action
Inspector
Opens a panel where you can get information about the selected file or
folder and specify some options for using it. See Chapter 7, “Inspecting
Files and Folders.”
Finder
Opens a window that you can use to find files and folders. See “Finding
Files and Folders” on page 3-28.
Processes
Opens a panel where you can track and manage processes—such as
copying a file—that are going on in the background. You can also use
this panel to quit an application if you have a software problem. See
“Managing Several File Operations” on page 6-23 and “When the Quit
Command Fails” on page 4-14.
Console
Opens a special UNIX window that shows you the version of the
system software you are using and error messages or other status
messages that may occur.
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
A
Edit Commands
These are the basic Edit application commands. For information on other
commands that are available in developer mode, see OpenStep Development
Tools.
Edit Main Menu
Table A-19 Edit Main Menu Commands
Commands
Action
Info
Lists commands for getting information and setting preferences.
See“Edit Info Menu” on page A-16.
File
Lists commands for opening, creating, and saving Edit documents. See
“Document Menu” on page A-3.
Edit
Lists standard editing commands. See “Edit Menu” on page A-3.
Format
Lists commands for setting fonts, aligning text, and changing page
layout options. See the “Format Menu” on page A-5. See also “Edit Text
Submenu” on page A-16.
Windows
Lists commands for managing Edit windows. See “Windows Menu” on
page A-8.
Print
Opens a panel where you can print an Edit document. See Chapter 14,
“Printing.”
Services
Lists commands that request the services of other applications. See
“Services Menu” on page A-9.
Hide
Hides the Edit application, removing its windows and menus from
view without closing them. You can double-click the Edit application
icon to restore the windows and menus to view.
Quit
Quits the Edit application, putting all its windows away. If a document
window contains unsaved changes, a panel asks if you want to save
them before quitting.
Command Reference
A-15
A
Edit Info Menu
Table A-20 Edit Info Menu Commands
Command
Action
Info Panel,
Help
These are the standard commands for getting information. See “Info
Menu” on page A-2.
Preferences
Opens a panel that you can use to personalize the Edit application. If
you are an application developer, you can choose to start Edit in
Developer mode, which provides features for working with
programming code. Just select the Developer Mode option.
You can also have new documents open as plain text files rather than
RTF files. Select the Plain Text (ASCII) option. You can choose a default
font for RTF or plain text files—that is, the font that is displayed when
you first type in a document. Click the Set button for the type of file.
Then set a font in the Font Panel. For plain text files, you must choose
a fixed-width font family, such as Courier. See “Setting a New Font” on
page 9-12.
Edit Text Submenu
Table A-21 Edit Text Submenu Commands
A-16
Command
Action
Align Left,
Center,
Align Right
These are the standard commands for aligning text. See “Text
Submenu” on page A-7.
Show Ruler,
Copy Ruler,
Paste Ruler
These are the standard commands for making ruler settings in a
document. See “Text Submenu” on page A-7.
Make ASCII
Changes the document you are working in from RTF to plain text
format. All formatting is lost, and text is displayed in a fixed-width
font. When you choose this command, it changes to Make RTF. You
can then choose the command again to set fonts and formatting in the
document.
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
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Mail Buttons and Commands
Buttons in a Mailbox Window
Up Arrow, Down Arrow These buttons open the previous or next message
listed in the summary area of a mailbox window. See “Opening Messages”
on page 12-3.
Delete Deletes selected messages from a mailbox window. See “Deleting
Messages” on page 13-1.
Compose Opens a window that you can use to compose and deliver a
message. See “Sending a Message” on page 12-8.
Mailboxes Opens a panel that you can use to create and manage your
mailboxes. See “Creating a Mailbox” on page 13-10 and “Moving Messages
to Another Mailbox” on page 13-12.
Find Opens a panel that you can use to search for text in a message or
messages in a mailbox. See “Finding Text” on page 9-9 and “Finding
Messages” on page 13-14.
New Mail Retrieves all new messages and puts them in your Active
mailbox. This button appears in place of the Find button if you have used
the Preferences command to retrieve messages manually. “Tailoring How
You Receive New Messages” on page 13-18.
Buttons in a Compose Window
Deliver Sends the message displayed in the Compose window to the
recipients listed in the To and Cc fields. See “Sending a Message” on
page 12-8.
Lip Service Opens a panel that you can use to listen to a recording you
receive or to include a recording in a message. See “Listening to a
Recording” on page 12-5, “Recording and Inserting Sound in a Message” on
page 12-17, and “Editing Sound” on page 12-19.
Command Reference
A-17
A
Addresses Opens a panel with addresses of other people who are on your
network or share your computer. You can also use this panel to create group
addresses or even your own address book. See “Looking Up Mail
Addresses” on page 13-5, “Creating Your Own Group Address” on
page 13-8, and “Creating a Mail Address Book” on page 13-7.
Reply, Reply All Automatically enters addresses in your Compose window
so you can quickly reply to the current message in your mailbox window.
This button alternates between Reply and Reply All when you click it. See
“Replying to a Message” on page 12-16.
Forward Copies the current message into your Compose window so you
can quickly forward it to other addresses. See “Forwarding a Message” on
page 12-14.
No Receipt, Receipt Gives you the option of receiving a notification
message when your message has been read by each recipient using
OpenStep mail. The button alternates between No Receipt and Receipt when
you click it.
MIME Mail, PlainText Prepares a message for people using a computer
that is not running OpenStep. The button alternates between MIME Mail
and Plain Text when you click it. See “Sending a Message” on page 12-8.
A-18
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
A
Mail Menu
Table A-22 Mail Menu Commands
Command
Action
Info
Lists commands for getting information about Mail and setting
preferences. See “Mail Info Menu” on page A-20.
Mailbox
Lists commands for working with mailboxes. See “Mail Mailbox Menu”
on page A-21.
Message
Lists commands for sending and managing messages. See “Mail
Message Menu” on page A-22.
Compose
Lists commands that open panels and windows for tools you can use in
Mail. See “Mail Compose Menu” on page A-24.
Edit
Lists the standard editing commands. See “Mail Edit Menu” on
page A-26.
Format
Lists standard commands for changing fonts, ruler settings, and page
layout options. See “Mail Format Menu” on page A-27.
Windows
Lists commands for managing Mail windows. See “Windows Menu” on
page A-8.
Print
Opens a panel you can use to print messages.
Services
Lists commands that request the services of other applications. See
“Mail Services Menu” on page A-29.
Hide
Hides the Mail application, removing its windows and menus from
view. You can double-click the Mail icon in the dock to restore the
windows and menus to view.
Quit
Quits the Mail application, putting all its windows away. If a Compose
window contains an undelivered message, a panel asks if you want to
deliver it.
Command Reference
A-19
A
Mail Info Menu
Table A-23 Mail Info Menu Commands
Command
Action
Info Panel,
Help
These are standard commands for finding out about the Mail
application. See “Info Menu” on page A-2.
Preferences
Opens a panel that you can use to personalize the Mail application.
You can decide whether you want to receive messages automatically or
retrieve them yourself (see “Tailoring How You Receive New
Messages” on page 13-18) and get a sound announcement of new
messages (see “Setting a Sound to Announce New Messages” on
page 13-20).
You can set Mail to start hidden. If you have already used the
Workspace Manager to have Mail start automatically, you check the
“Hide on Auto-Launch” box to have Mail start hidden.
You can have replies to all your messages go to someone other than
yourself. You type one or more addresses in the Reply To field. When
anyone uses the Reply button to respond to one of your messages, the
To field of his or her Compose window is filled with the addresses you
type here.
You can check the Request Read Receipt option to receive a notification
message from OpenStep recipients of all messages you send. Mail
delivers the notification messages to your Active mailbox.
You can check the Send MIME Alternatives option to have all your
Compose windows open in the proper format for sending messages to
people not running OpenStep Mail.
You can check the Archive Outgoing Mail option to create a special
mailbox that collects outgoing messages. Mail creates a mailbox named
Outgoing.mbox, and puts copies of all messages you send in it. You
can open this mailbox using the Mailboxes panel.
You can set preferences for developers and system administrators. See
“Expert Preferences” on page 13-29.
A-20
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
A
Mail Mailbox Menu
Table A-24 Mail Mailbox Menu Commands
Command
Action
Mailboxes
Opens Mailboxes panel.
Get New Mail
Retrieves all new messages and puts them in your Active
mailbox—just like the New Mail button in a mailbox window.
You use this command if you have used the Preferences
command to retrieve messages manually. See “Tailoring How
You Receive New Messages” on page 13-18.
Sorting
Lists commands for sorting messages in a mailbox window.
See “Mail Sorting Submenu” on page A-22.
Focus
Focuses on a group of messages and lists only their summaries
in the mailbox window you are working in.
Unfocus
Lets you see all your messages again after focusing on a group
of messages; lists all message summaries in the mailbox
window you are working in.
Show Sizes
Lets you see the size of each message and the total size of all
messages in the mailbox window you are working in.
Hide Sizes
Hides the size of each message and the total size of all
messages in the mailbox window in which you are working.
Show Deleted
Lets you see dimmed summaries of messages you have
deleted since you last compacted the mailbox you are working
in.
Hide Deleted
Hides dimmed summaries of deleted messages.
Compact
Permanently removes from the disk all messages you have
deleted from the mailbox you are working in. See
“Compacting a Mailbox to Free Disk Space” on page 13-3.
Command Reference
A-21
A
Mail Sorting Submenu
Table A-25 Mail Sorting Submenu Commands
Command
Action
Sort by Date
Sorts messages in the order they were sent. This order may
differ from the order in which they were received.
Sort by Name
Sorts messages alphabetically by the sender’s name, with
uppercase letters preceding lowercase letters.
Sort by Number
Sorts messages sequentially, in the order they were received.
Sort by Size
Sorts messages by their sizes, listing the smallest message first.
Sort by Subject
Sorts messages by their subject titles. You can use this
command to collect messages on a certain topic, for example, to
delete them or move them to another mailbox.
Mail Message Menu
Table A-26 Mail Message Menu Commands
A-22
Command
Action
Mark as Unread
Marks a selected message in the mailbox you are
working in with an unread symbol.
Mark as Read
Removes the unread symbol from the selected
message in the mailbox you are working in.
Show All Headers
Displays all headers in the current message in the
mailbox in which you are working.
Show Filtered Headers
Displays original set of headers in the current
message in the mailbox in which you are working.
Undelete
Undeletes the last message you deleted. Repeated
use of the Undelete command restores previously
deleted messages up to the last time the mailbox
was compacted.
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
A
Table A-26 Mail Message Menu Commands (Continued)
Command
Action
MIME
Opens the MIME submenu.
Decode Foreign Attachments
Decodes any files encoded with the UNIX
uuencode command in the current message in your
mailbox. Opens a Workspace Manager folder
window that contains a temporary copy of each file.
Add Private User
Adds the sender’s address from the current message
in your mailbox window to the Private Users list in
the Addresses panel. This command adds the
address even if the panel is not open. See “Creating
a Mail Address Book” on page 13-7.
Mail MIME Submenu
Table A-27 Mail MIME Submenu Commands
Command
Action
Show First Alternative
Displays a MIME message in its first available format,
which is usually the plainest format.
Show Best Alternative
Displays each part of a MIME message in its richest format.
Show All Alternatives
Displays all versions of each part of a MIME message. If
parts of the message are included in multiple formats, those
parts may appear multiple times.
Combine Messages
Combines pieces of a MIME message into one message. Use
this command to see the original message when you receive
a MIME message that has been split into multiple messages.
Command Reference
A-23
A
Mail Compose Menu
Table A-28 Mail Compose Menu Commands
A-24
Command
Action
New
Opens a Compose window.
Reply
Copies the address of the person who sent the current message
into the To field of a Compose window. If the sender used the
Send Options or Preferences command to specify a return
address, choosing Reply copies that address to the To field.
Reply All
Copies addresses from the Cc field of the current message into
the Cc field of your Compose window.
Forward
Forwards the current message in a mailbox window to the
people you name in the To and Cc fields. When you choose
Forward, the current message is copied into your Compose
window following any text that is already there.
Addresses...
Opens the Addresses panel; performs the same operation as the
Addresses button in a Compose window. You can use the
Addresses panel to define group addresses for groups of
people to whom you frequently send messages and to create
your own address book.
Send Options...
Opens a panel where you can type a long list of addresses and
choose message destinations. See “Addresses and Some
Options for Entering Them” on page 12-11.
Lip Service...
Opens the Lip Service panel; performs the same operation as
the Lip Service button in a Compose window. You can use the
Lip Service panel to create and edit sound recordings in your
messages. You can also use this panel to listen to a recording
you have received in a message.
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
A
Table A-28 Mail Compose Menu Commands (Continued)
Command
Action
Make ASCII
Converts all text in the message area of a Compose window to
plain text. If the message contains any graphic images, sound
icons, or file or folder attachments, a panel asks you to remove
them. You should remove them and choose Make ASCII again.
The Make ASCII command does not enforce a line length,
change text to a fixed-width font, or add returns to the ends of
lines, as does the MIME Mail/PlainText button in a Compose
window. You use that button rather than Make ASCII to send a
message to a computer that is not running OpenStep.
Drafts
Opens the Drafts submenu. Creates the Drafts mailbox if it
does not already exist.
Deliver
Delivers the message in the Compose window to the people
named in the To and Cc fields.
Mail Drafts Submenu
Table A-29 Mail Drafts Submenu Commands
Command
Action
Save in Drafts
Saves the contents of your Compose window as a message in
the Drafts mailbox. Each time you save a draft of the same
message, Mail saves another version of the message—it does
not replace the last version you saved.
Restore Draft
Restores the last draft of a message you saved.
Command Reference
A-25
A
Mail Edit Menu
Table A-30 Mail Edit Menu Commands
A-26
Command
Action
Cut,
Copy,
Paste
These are standard commands that you can use to move or copy
text, graphic images, icons, or segments of a waveform in the Lip
Service panel. You can also use these commands to move or copy
messages from one mailbox to another by selecting the messages in
one mailbox window and choosing Cut or Copy. Then you can click
in the summary area of another mailbox window and choose Paste.
See “Edit Menu” on page A-3.
Delete
Deletes the current selection. In a Compose window, you can use
the Delete command to delete text, graphic images, icons, or
segments of a waveform in the Lip Service panel. In a mailbox
window, the Delete command deletes selected messages—just like
the Delete button in the window.
Undo
Restores the last text you deleted from the message in a Compose
window. Repeated use of Undo inserts copies of the last deleted
text. Undo does not reverse any other editing actions.
Undelete
Restores the last message you deleted.
Find
Lists commands for locating text and messages. See “Mail Find
Submenu” on page A-27.
Spelling,
Check Spelling
These are standard commands you can use to check spelling in a
message in a Compose window. See “Edit Menu” on page A-3.
Select All
Selects the entire contents of the last area you clicked in. This can be
the summary area of a mailbox window, a message in a mailbox or
Compose window, a text field, or a waveform in the Lip Service
panel.
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
A
Mail Find Submenu
Table A-31 Mail Find Submenu Commands
Command
Action
Find Panel
Opens a panel you can use to find text in a message and find
messages in a mailbox. See “Finding Text” on page 9-9 and
“Finding Messages” on page 13-14.
Find Next,
Find Previous,
Enter Selection
These are standard commands you can use to find text in a message
or in a summary area of a mailbox. See “Find Submenu” on
page A-4.
Mail Format Menu
Table A-32 Mail Format Menu Commands
Command
Action
Font
Lists the standard Font submenu commands. See “Mail Font
Submenu” on page A-28.
Text
Lists commands you can use to align text in a message. See “Standard
Commands” on page A-1.
Page Layout
Opens a panel where you can define how a message looks on the
printed page. See “Preparing a File for Printing” on page 14-1.
Command Reference
A-27
A
Mail Font Submenu
Table A-33 Mail Font Submenu Commands
Command
Action
Font Panel
Opens the standard panel for setting and previewing fonts. In a
Compose window, settings in the Font Panel apply to text you type or
select in a message. In a mailbox window, they apply to all the text in
the summary area or all the text in the message area—wherever you
clicked last. The font you set in the message area of a mailbox window
also becomes the font you get automatically in Compose windows.
See “Setting a New Font” on page 9-12 and “Previewing a Font” on
page 9-16.
Bold,
Italic
These are the standard Font menu commands for changing the
typeface of text. In a Compose window, these commands apply to text
you type or select in a message. In a mailbox window, they apply to
all text in the summary area, or all text in the message area—wherever
you clicked last. See “Font Submenu” on page A-6.
Underline
Adds or removes underlining from selected text or text you are about
to type. The Underline command works only in a message you are
composing.
Superscript,
Subscript,
Unscript
These are the standard commands for moving selected text up or
down in relation to the baseline, and for returning it to normal. These
commands work only in a message you are composing.
Colors
Opens a panel you can use to set the color of text in a message you are
composing. See Chapter 10, “Working With Color.”
Copy Font,
Paste Font
These are standard commands for copying the font of selected text
and applying it to other text. See “Font Submenu” on page A-6.
Mail Text Submenu
This menu lists the standard commands for aligning text in a message. You can
use these commands in a message you are composing or one opened in a
mailbox window. See “Text Submenu” on page A-7.
A-28
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
A
Mail Services Menu
This menu lists the standard commands that request services from other
applications. (See “Services Menu” on page A-9.) In addition, it lists two
commands that are available only in the Mail application.
Table A-34 Mail Services Menu Commands
Command
Action
Edit Open Message
Provides a quick way to insert the contents of an Edit file
into a message you are composing. When you choose this
command, an Open panel appears in the Edit application.
Opening a file from this panel inserts the contents of the file
into a Compose window.
Edit Save Message
Opens a new document window in the Edit application and
inserts the current message in the window. This command
also opens a Save panel that you use to save the message in
an Edit file. For more information, see “Saving a New File”
on page 5-4.
Preferences Buttons and Commands
Preferences Buttons
Mouse Preferences Displays options for setting the responsiveness of the
mouse. You can also choose a mouse button to display hidden menus. See
“Changing the Responsiveness of the Mouse” on page 16-7 and “Hiding
Menus” on page 15-4.
Keyboard Preferences Displays options for setting and testing the
responsiveness of the keyboard for repeating characters. See “Setting the
Rate for Repeating Characters” on page 16-6.
Display Preferences Displays options for setting the delay for the
automatic screen saver. You can also choose a background color for your
display. See “Setting the Screen Saver” on page 16-1 and “Changing the
Background Color of the Display” on page 16-2.
Localization Preferences Displays options for choosing an application
language, choosing a paper size for printing files, and setting units of
measurement. See “Choosing an Application Locale” on page 15-13,
Command Reference
A-29
A
“Choosing a Paper Size” on page 15-15, and “Changing Units of
Measurement” on page 15-14. See also “Choosing a Keyboard
Arrangement” on page 16-8.
General Preferences Displays options for choosing the fonts that are
displayed on the screen and in applications, selecting a system beep,
choosing visual warnings, and requesting voice alerts. See “Changing the
Fonts on the Screen” on page 15-19 and “Choosing a Font for Applications”
on page 15-21. See also “Choosing System Beeps and Warnings” on
page 16-4.
Date & Time Preferences Displays options for setting the date and time,
changing time zones, and choosing a display for the date and time. Your
system administrator may disable these options entirely. See “Setting the
Date” on page 15-10 and “Setting the Time” on page 15-12.
Password Preferences Displays options for setting a new password or
changing your current password. See “Setting a Password” on page 15-6.
Menu Preferences Displays options for hiding your menus, choosing a
standard location for menus, and creating your own keyboard alternatives.
See “Hiding Menus” on page 15-4 and “Creating Keyboard Alternatives” on
page 15-18.
Expert Preferences Displays options for displaying large file systems and
UNIX files. You can also set options for controlling access to new files and
folders. See “Displaying Large File Systems” on page 15-23, “Displaying
UNIX Files” on page 15-24, and “Setting Global File and Folder
Permissions” on page 15-22.
Services Preferences Displays options for you to choose the services you
want to be displayed in the Services menu for all applications. See
“Customizing the Services Menu” on page 15-16.
A-30
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
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Preferences Menu
Table A-35 Preferences Menu Commands
Command
Action
Info
Lists standard commands for getting information about the application.
See “Info Menu” on page A-2.
Edit
Lists standard editing commands. See “Edit Menu” on page A-3.
Windows
Lists standard window management commands. See “Windows Menu”
on page A-8.
Hide
Hides the Preferences application, removing its windows and menus
from view. You can double-click the Preferences icon in the dock to
restore the windows and menus to view.
Quit
Quits the Preferences application, closing all its windows and panels.
Preview Commands
Preview Menu
Table A-36 Preview Menu Commands
Command
Action
Info
Lists commands for getting information about Preview. See “Preview
Info Menu” on page A-32.
File
Lists commands for opening and saving graphic files. See “Document
Menu” on page A-3. See also “Previewing Pages” on page 11-3 and
“Previewing Graphic Images” on page 11-5.
Edit
Lists standard editing commands. See “Edit Menu” on page A-3.
Format
Lists the Page Layout command. See “Format Menu” on page A-5.
Display
Lists commands for switching pages in multiple-page files and for
changing the way the current page is displayed in the window. See
“Preview Display Menu” on page A-32.
Windows
Lists commands for managing Preview windows. See “Windows Menu”
on page A-8.
Print
Opens a panel where you can print the image in the main window. See
“Printing a File” on page 14-2.
Command Reference
A-31
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Table A-36 Preview Menu Commands (Continued)
Command
Action
Services
Lists commands that request the services of other applications. See
“Services Menu” on page A-9.
Hide
Hides the Preview application, removing all its windows and menus
from view without closing them. You can double-click the Preview
application icon to restore the windows and menus to view.
Quit
Quits the Preview application, putting all its windows away.
Preview Info Menu
Table A-37 Preview Info Menu Commands
Command
Action
Info Panel
Displays the version number, author, and copyright notice for the
Preview application.
Help
Opens a window with information about the Preview application.
Preview Display Menu
Table A-38 Preview Display Menu Commands
A-32
Command
Action
Page Backward
Displays the previous page in a page-oriented PostScript
file.
Draw Page
Redraws the page in the main window.
Page Forward
Displays the next page in a page-oriented PostScript file.
Cancel
Stops Preview from drawing or redrawing the image in the
main window. This command is useful when the image is
complicated and takes a long time to display.
Zoom In
Increases the magnification of the image in the main
window.
Zoom Out
Decreases the magnification of the image in the main
window.
Disable Image Caching
Changes the method Preview uses to redraw pages. If
image caching is already turned off, the command changes
to Enable Image Caching, and you can choose it to switch
Preview back to the original drawing method.
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
A
Terminal Commands
The following sections summarize the menus and commands available in
Terminal.
Terminal Main Menu
Terminal’s main menu contains the standard Windows, Print, Services, Hide,
and Quit commands. The other commands and the submenus they open are
described in the sections that follow. Several standard commands are discussed
here only in terms of their particular use in Terminal.
Terminal Info Menu
Terminal’s Info menu provides the standard Info Panel command, plus the
commands listed in Table A-39.
Table A-39 Terminal Info Menu Commands
Command
Description
Preferences
Opens the Preferences panel. See “Setting Terminal
Preferences” on page 17-3.
Terminal Services
Opens the Terminal Services panel. See“Defining Services for
Use in Other Applications” on page 17-18.
Terminal Shell Menu
Terminal’s Shell menu provides the commands listed in Table A-40.
Table A-40 Terminal Shell Menu Commands
Command
Description
Open
Opens an existing shell window or set of shell windows that
have previously been saved in a file using the Save (or Save As)
command.
New
Opens a new shell window, using the default settings.
Command Reference
A-33
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Table A-40 Terminal Shell Menu Commands (Continued)
Command
Description
Run Command
Displays a panel in which you type a UNIX command to be
run. The command is run in a new Terminal window. (The
command is displayed as the title of the window; when the
process running in the window has completed, the title
changes to “Dead Terminal.”)
Save, Save As
Saves a window or set of windows to a file, allowing you to
save and reuse your preferred configurations. See “Saving a
Terminal Configuration for Later Use” on page 17-14.
Set Title
Displays a panel for you to edit and set the current title of the
window. The Preferences panel allows greater control over
this—you can combine your own text with Terminal’s
automatically updated information. See “Title Bar Preferences”
on page 17-6 for more information.
Steal Keys
Allows you to effectively debug an application from a shell
window in which the debugger is running. The debugging
process frequently involves alternately activating Terminal (to
type debugger commands) and the other application (to test
the application being debugged). However, clicking to
alternatively activate and deactivate the application being
debugged causes the application to change its state in
unpredictable ways.
To let you avoid this problem, the Steal Keys command puts
Terminal in a special debugging mode. In this mode, Terminal
can be activated or deactivated simply by moving the pointer
into or out of the Terminal shell window. Therefore, you can
easily activate Terminal whenever you want to type a debugger
command, without clicking and thus affecting the state of the
application you are debugging.
When you are ready to exit debugging mode, click in the
Terminal window to make the Terminal main menu redisplay,
and then choose this command again (its name will have
changed to Yield Keys).
Page Layout
A-34
Displays the standard Page Layout panel, which lets you
choose among various paper sizes, scaling factors, and
orientations for text printed from the main window.
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
A
Terminal Edit Menu
Terminal’s Edit menu provides the standard editing and text-searching
commands listed in Table A-41, which can be used for finding and editing text
in a Terminal window.
Table A-41 Terminal Edit Menu Commands
Command
Description
Cut, Copy, Paste
These commands let you copy or move text, either between
Terminal windows or between a Terminal window and another
window that supports copying and pasting. To duplicate text,
select the text and choose Copy. To insert the most recently cut
or copied text at the Terminal window’s command-line pointer
location, choose Paste.
Copy puts a copy of the selected text onto the pasteboard, from
where it can be pasted with the Paste command. The
pasteboard holds just one selection; each Copy operation
overwrites the previous contents of the pasteboard.
Note: Cut is always disabled. The only way to remove text
from a Terminal window is to use the Clear Buffer command.
Find
Displays a submenu that contains commands for finding text,
as described in “Terminal Find Submenu” on page A-36.
Clear Buffer
Removes text from the scrollback buffer, leaving just the
current command line.
Select All
Selects all the text in the main window. This is useful, for
example, when you want to copy the entire range of text to
another application, such as Edit.
Command Reference
A-35
A
Terminal Find Submenu
The Terminal Find submenu contains the commands listed in Table A-42 that
let you search for text in the main Terminal window.
Table A-42 terminal Find Submenu Commands
Command
Description
Find Panel
Opens the Find panel, which enables you to locate the next
occurrence of a specified string. For more information, see
“Finding Text in a Terminal Window” on page 17-16.
Find Next, Find
Previous
These are the standard Find menu commands. The Find Next
command performs the same function as the Next button in
the Find panel, and Find Previous is the same as the Find
panel’s Previous button.
Enter Selection
Copies the selected text in the main window into the Find
panel’s Find field, even if the Find panel is not open or the key
window.
Jump to Selection
When the insertion point or current text selection is not
showing in the main window, the Jump to Selection command
scrolls it into view. If there is no insertion point or current text
selection, this command scrolls to the end of the buffer.
Note: Clicking in a Terminal window positions the insertion
point where you clicked. However, the insertion point is not
visible since it is not possible to perform any copy or paste
operation on it. This may cause some confusion, since the
Jump to Selection command may sometimes jump to a location
that does not appear to have any selected text associated with
it.
A-36
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Terminal Font Submenu
The Terminal Font submenu contains the standard Font menu commands
described in “Font Submenu” on page A-6 and listed in Table A-43. However,
these commands apply to the entire contents of the Terminal window, not just
to selected text.
Table A-43 Terminal Font Submenu Commands
Command
Description
Font Panel
Displays the standard Font panel, which lets you choose
among various fonts, typefaces, and font sizes. However,
only fixed-width fonts, such as Courier, can be used in
Terminal.
Bold, Italic
Makes the text in the main Terminal window become bold
or italic.
Larger, Smaller
Makes the text in the main Terminal window become
larger or smaller.
Copy Font, Paste Font
Copy Font copies the font settings of the main window so
that you can paste them into another window with the
Paste Font command.
Colors
Displays the standard Colors panel.
Command Reference
A-37
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A-38
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Glossary
active application
The application that you are currently working in. It is the only application
with any menus showing. The key window belongs to it.
application
A program with a graphical user interface that you can start from the
workspace, such as Edit, Mail, or Preferences.
application dock (or dock)
A column along the right edge of the screen that contains application icons you
can use to start applications. The dock also contains the recycler.
arrow keys
Four keys, labeled with arrows, that cause movement (usually of the insertion
point) in the indicated direction.
ASCII characters
A standard set of the characters that can be used in plain text files.
attention panel
A panel where you must perform an action before you can continue to work in
an application. An attention panel cannot be covered by any other window or
icon.
Back Space key
A key used to remove individual characters, words, graphics, or other items.
Glossary-1
browser
A multiple-column area of a window in which you can browse through
hierarchically organized information by clicking on names in the columns.
button
A graphic object that you click on to make something happen or press for a
continuous action. Buttons are labeled with text, graphics, or both.
byte
A unit of information in the computer. In a plain text file, for example, each
character occupies one byte.
CD-ROM
Compact disk read-only memory, which is a removable disk that is physically
identical to an audio CD but holds computer files.
click
To position the pointer on something and, without moving the mouse, quickly
press and release a mouse button. See also double-click.
close
To remove a window from the workspace when you are finished using it.
When you close a window, you usually have a chance to save changes first.
close button
A button in a window’s title bar that, when clicked on, closes the window.
When the close button is partially drawn, it means that the window contains
unsaved changes or that its contents aren’t up to date.
CMYK color model
A method of specifying colors by simulating a mix of cyan, magenta, yellow,
and black inks.
command
A word or phrase in a menu that describes something you can do or a panel
that you can open in an application.
current folder
The folder in which you are currently working. If you are working in a file, the
current folder is the one that contains that file. In the File Viewer, the current
folder is usually the rightmost folder in the icon path.
Glossary-2
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
current font
The font of either the text you are about to type at the insertion point or the
first character in the selected text.
current message
The message that is currently open in a mailbox window in the Mail
application.
cursor
See pointer.
depth
A measure of how much color information there is for each pixel in an image.
detach
To drag a submenu away from its associated menu.
dimmed
Gray, faded, or otherwise made to recede into the background. You cannot
choose a command or operate a button when it is dimmed.
disk
A magnetic medium on which the computer stores information. See also floppy
disk and hard disk drive.
dock
See application dock.
dot file
A file or folder whose name begins with a period and which typically contains
information that you do not need to access. Dot files are normally hidden from
view in the File Viewer and folder windows.
double-click
To click on an object twice in quick succession. A double-click often extends
the action of a click. See also click.
drag
To press and hold down a mouse button, move the pointer by sliding the
mouse, and then release the mouse button.
EPS
Encapsulated PostScript, which is a standard format for storing graphics.
Glossary
Glossary-3
Ethernet
An industry-standard physical medium for transmitting network signals
between computers.
extension
The last period in a file name and all characters that follow. A file’s extension
indicates the type of information in it and the applications that can open it.
file
A collection of related information stored on a disk, such as a document,
graphic image, or application.
file package
A special folder containing files that are not normally shown in folder
windows. Instead, a file package looks and behaves like a file (when you open
it by double-clicking on it, for example).
file system
The collection of all the files you can access through your computer. See also
hierarchical file system.
File Viewer
A Workspace Manager window that you can use to view and open the files in
your file system.
floppy disk
A plastic disk, encased in a protective cartridge, that holds information you
can access with a floppy disk drive.
floppy disk drive
A mechanism that can store and retrieve information on a floppy disk.
folder
A place in the file system that contains files and other folders. Opening a folder
displays the names of the files and folders it contains.
folder window
A Workspace Manager window that displays the contents of one or more
folders and that you use to locate, open, and organize files.
font
A set of properties that describe the appearance of text: font family (such as
Times), typeface (such as bold or italic), and size (in points). See also point.
Glossary-4
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
font family
A collection of characters with a consistent design, such as Helvetica and
Times.
group
A class of users for whom permissions are assigned for a file or folder. A group
is set up by a system administrator.
group address
A shorthand address used in the Mail application to identify a single user or a
group of users.
hanging indent
First-line indentation to the left of the subsequent lines of a paragraph. A
hanging indent is useful for bulleted or numbered items.
hard disk drive
A device that can store and retrieve information from metal disks permanently
encased within it. A hard disk drive is usually installed inside your computer.
hide
To temporarily remove the windows of a running application from view.
hierarchical file system
A file system in which folders can contain other folders. See also folder.
highlight
To make something—such as a command, text, icon, or title bar—stand out
visually. Highlighting usually indicates that something has been chosen to
perform an action or selected to receive an action.
home folder
Your home base in the file system. Your home folder holds your personal files.
Its name is the same as your user name.
host name
The name by which a computer on a network is known to the other computers
on the network. The host name is assigned by the system administrator. It is
displayed as the name of your root folder.
HSB color model
A method of specifying colors by adjusting hue, saturation, and brightness. See
also hue and saturation.
Glossary
Glossary-5
hue
The quality of a color that distinguishes its class, such as red, green, or blue.
icon
A small pictorial representation of an application, file, folder, disk, or other
item.
icon path
An area in the File Viewer that displays the selected file or folder and the
folders along its branch of the file system hierarchy.
initialize
To prepare a disk so it can hold information. When you initialize a disk, any
information already on it is destroyed.
insertion point
The place where text and graphics may be entered, usually represented by a
blinking vertical bar.
ISDN
Integrated services digital network, which is an alternative physical medium
for transmitting network signals over phone lines.
justify
To adjust all the lines of a paragraph (except the last line) so that they are
aligned with both the left and the right margins.
key window
The standard window or panel that currently receives keystrokes. Its title bar is
highlighted in black. You make a window the key window by clicking in it.
keyboard alternative
A combination of keys, including the Command key, that you can use instead
of the mouse for choosing a command.
kilobyte
A unit of measurement equal to 1024 bytes. See also byte.
link
A special file that looks and acts like an ordinary file or folder. When you open
it, however, you actually access the contents of a file or folder that is
somewhere else in the file system.
log in
To gain access to a computer by providing a user name and a password.
Glossary-6
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
log out
To quit all running applications and (if you had to log in to use the computer)
return to the login window.
Mail address book
A list of Mail addresses that you can compile in the Private Users list in the
Mail application’s Addresses panel.
mailbox
A file package (in the Mailboxes folder in your home folder) in which the Mail
application stores messages. Everyone has an Active mailbox where all
incoming messages are delivered.
main menu
The menu that is displayed in your workspace when an application is active.
Its title bar displays the application’s name (or an abbreviation).
main window
The standard window that you are currently working in. If it is not also the key
window, it has a dark gray title bar. Actions you perform in a panel usually
apply to the main window.
menu
A list of commands.
miniaturize button
A button in a window’s title bar that, when clicked on, shrinks the window
into a miniwindow.
miniwindow
An icon that represents a miniaturized window.
mouse buttons
The two buttons on the mouse that you use for clicking and dragging.
network
Two or more computers connected electronically so that people using them can
share files and devices (such as printers), and exchange electronic mail. See
also server.
nonbreaking space
A space you can type between words so that they will always be on the same
line. You type a nonbreaking space by holding down the Alt key and pressing
the space bar.
Glossary
Glossary-7
open
To display a window in your workspace. Opening a file or folder displays a
window with the contents of the file or folder.
owner
The person (represented by a user name) who created a file or folder. The
owner may also be a class of users for whom permissions are assigned for a file
or folder.
panel
A window that typically appears in response to a command and that you use
to control what the application does or to get information about
the application.
password
A secret sequence of characters that you must type along with your user name
when logging in. It can consist of three or more letters, numbers, symbols, and
spaces.
pasteboard
The place where the computer stores what you last cut or copied with the Cut
or Copy command.
pathname
A name—or a sequence of names separated by slashes (/)—that specifies a file
or folder in the file system.
permissions
Characteristics of a file or folder that determine what certain users can do with
the file or folder—for example, whether they can view a file’s contents or
remove a file from a folder.
pixel
The smallest unit of light on a computer’s screen.
plain text
A data format consisting solely of characters from the ASCII character set.
These include text characters (with no font properties) and control characters.
point
A unit of measurement equal to 1/72 of an inch.
Glossary-8
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
pointer
The image on the screen that moves as you move the mouse. It is usually an
arrow.
pop-up list
A list of options that you can choose from. You open the list by pressing a
button with a
on it.
press
To position the pointer on something and, without moving the mouse, hold
down a mouse button and keep it down until the desired effect is achieved.
program
A set of coded instructions that a computer follows to perform a specific task.
public window server
A workstation running Solaris™ OpenStep™ that can display the windows of
an application that is running on another computer on a network.
pull-down list
A list of commands that you can choose from to cause an action. You open the
list by pressing a button with a
on it.
read-only
A file that has read permission, but not write or execute permission, for one or
more classes of users. Those users can see the file’s contents, but they cannot
save changes to it.
read permission
A characteristic of a file or folder that allows certain users to view its contents.
See also permissions.
recycler
An icon that you use to delete files and folders from the file system. It is either
in the dock or at the lower left corner of the screen.
resize bar
The narrow strip at the bottom of a window that you can drag to change the
size of the window.
resolution
The number of dots per inch of images on a computer screen or in printed
output. The higher the resolution, the clearer the image.
Glossary
Glossary-9
Return key
A key used to start a new line or paragraph. You can also press Return to
operate a button with a
on it.
RGB color model
A method of specifying colors by blending red, green, and blue lights.
root folder
The folder at the top of the file system hierarchy. This folder is represented by
a slash (/). It is physically located on the startup disk.
RTF
Rich Text Format, a standard text format that includes font and formatting
properties. See also plain text.
ruler
The numerical scale you can use to change the format of a paragraph (for
example, its indentation and tab stops).
saturation
The intensity of a color—how much of a particular hue is in the color. See also
hue.
save
To store information on a computer’s disk.
scroll
To move the information in a window or section of a window when there is
more than can be displayed at one time, so that a different part of the
information is visible.
scroll button
A button, usually in a scroller, that you click on or press to scroll by small
increments. You can Alt-click on a scroll button to scroll by a windowful.
scroll knob
A box in a scroller that moves as you scroll and that you can drag to scroll. Its
length varies to indicate how much of the scrollable contents are currently
displayed, and its position indicates what part of the contents are displayed.
scroller
A dark gray vertical or horizontal bar that contains a scroll knob and scroll
buttons. Scrollers are displayed along the left side or bottom of an area that
you can scroll through.
Glossary-10
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
server
A computer on a network that contains files and folders that many people on
the network can use.
shelf
An area at the top of the File Viewer where you can keep files and folders that
you access frequently.
Shift key
The key used to produce the uppercase letters on letter keys and the upper
character on keys labeled with two characters.
slider
A control that lets you set a value in a range by dragging a knob within a bar.
standard window
A window where you do the primary work of an application.
startup disk
The disk that contains the system files that your computer needs in order to
operate. It is usually a hard disk inside your computer.
submenu
A menu that is opened by a command in another menu.
system administrator
The person who sets up and maintains a computer network or of a computer
used by more than one person.
system files
Files that the computer needs in order to operate and that must be loaded into
the computer after it is turned on.
Tab key
A key used to move to the next stopping point in a sequence, such as a tab stop
in a document or a text field in a panel.
text field
A box where you can type text. A text field is usually labeled with text that
identifies what information should go in it.
TIFF
Tag image file format, a standard format for storing graphics.
Glossary
Glossary-11
title bar
The bar at the top of a window that contains its title and possibly buttons for
manipulating the window. It is highlighted in black if it is the key window or
in dark gray if it is the main window but not the key window.
typeface
A variation of a font family, such as Bold, Italic, or Bold Italic.
user name
The name by which the computer identifies you. This is the name you log in
with, the name used to identify you as the owner of files and folders, and the
name of your home folder.
volume keys
The two keys that control the volume of your computer speaker. The upper key
increases the volume, the lower key decreases it.
window
A rectangular area in which information is presented on the screen. See
standard window and panel.
word
Any sequence of characters between spaces or punctuation marks. You can
select a word by double-clicking on it.
word wrap
The automatic breaking of lines between words. With word wrap, you can type
without having to press Return to end each line.
workspace
The screen environment in which you do your work in OpenStep applications.
write permission
A characteristic of a file or folder that allows certain users to change its
contents. See also permissions.
Glossary-12
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Index
A
access to files and folders 6-2, 15-22
active application 4-3
Active mailbox 12-1
Add Private User command in Mail A-23
address book, creating a Mail 13-7
addresses
creating a group 13-8
entering in messages 12-11, 13-5
looking up in Mail 13-5–13-6
type of Mail 13-6
Addresses button A-18
Addresses command in Mail A-24
Align Left command A-7
in Edit A-16
Align Right command A-7
in Edit A-16
Alt key
on Sun keyboard 2-7, 2-13, 9-5
on x86 keyboard 9-5
application dock 1-2, 3-8
covering 4-8
customizing 4-7–4-10
starting applications from 4-1
application locale, choosing 15-13
applications 1-2, 4-1–4-15
active 4-3
adding to the dock 4-7
changing the startup, for files 7-6
choosing fonts for 15-21
determining which opens a file 3-10
hiding 4-6
locating docked 4-9
quitting 4-13
removing from the dock 4-7–4-9
reordering in the dock 4-7
requesting the service of 4-11
running several at once 4-3
starting automatically 4-10
starting from the dock 4-1
switching to another 4-4
Arrange in Front command A-8
arrow pointer 1-3
attention panel 2-3
B
Back Space key 9-5
background color, changing 16-2
Backspace key 9-7
Bold command A-6
browser 3-13
Browser command in Workspace Manager
A-13
Index-1
browser view in the File Viewer 3-13
adjusting column width in 3-32
buttons 1-6–1-8
dimmed 1-8
C
Cancel command A-32
Center command A-7
in Edit A-16
changes, saving 2-18, 5-7–5-8
Check for Disks command 8-1–8-2, A-13
Check Spelling command A-4
Clean Up Icons command in Workspace
Manager A-14
clicking 1-6
Close command A-3
Close Window command A-8
CMYK color model 10-10
color models 10-9–10-13
color palettes
adding an image to a list of 10-15
using images as 10-14
color swatches, creating 10-4
color wheel 10-5
colors 10-1–10-21
creating a list of 10-17–10-20
layers of 10-16
mixing custom 10-9–10-13
opacity of 10-16
printing 10-7
removing from a list 10-20
selecting from an image 10-14
selecting from the color wheel 10-5
selecting from the screen 10-7
transparency of 10-16
using in a document 10-2
Colors command A-6
locating 10-1
Combine Messages command in Mail
A-23
Command key
on Sun keyboard 2-7, 9-5
Index-2
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
on x86 keyboard 9-5
using to choose commands 1-11
commands 1-2, 1-10
choosing 1-10–1-11
choosing from a pull-down list 1-8
dimmed 1-10
Compact command in Mail A-21
Compose button 12-8, 12-14, 12-16, A-17
Compose menu in Mail A-24
Compress command in Workspace
Manager A-12
Console command A-14
Copy command
in Edit 9-8, A-3
in Mail A-26
in Terminal A-35
in Workspace Manager A-12
Copy Font command A-6
copy pointer 1-3
Copy Ruler command A-7
in Edit A-16
copying
file 6-5
files to or from a disk 8-5
folder 6-5
graphic images 9-8
links 6-15, 6-25
text 9-8
creating
color list 10-17–10-20
color swatch 10-4
file 5-1–5-2
folder 6-3
group address in Mail 13-8
keyboard alternative 15-18
link 6-12
Mail address book 13-7
mailbox 13-10
current folder 3-4
current view in the File Viewer 3-6
Cut command A-3
in Edit 9-8
in Mail A-26
Cut command (Continued)
in Terminal A-35
in Workspace Manager A-12
D
Date & Time Preferences button A-30
date, setting 15-10
Decode Foreign Attachments command in
Mail A-23
Delete button A-17
Delete command 9-7, A-3
in Mail A-26
in Workspace Manager A-12
deleting
file 6-18
folder 6-18
graphic images 9-7
Mail messages 13-1
mailbox 13-11
text 9-7
Deliver button 12-8, A-17
Destroy command in Workspace Manager
A-12
dictionary, spelling, options for 9-23
Disable Image Caching command A-32
Disk menu A-13
disks
copying files to and from 8-5
creating folder windows for 8-4
DOS 8-1
ejecting 8-9
disks, floppy
inserting 8-1, 8-1–8-3
opening and saving on 8-10
reusing 8-8
Display menu in Preview A-32
Display Preferences button A-29
Document menu A-2
documents
adding graphic images to 11-1–11-2
using color in 10-2
dot files 15-24
double-clicking 1-6
down arrow button 12-3, A-17
Drafts command in Mail A-25
Drafts submenu in Mail A-25
dragging 1-6
Draw Page command A-32
Duplicate command A-11
E
Edit application 4-15
how it saves a backup file 5-8
starting 9-1
Edit main menu A-15
Edit menu A-3
in Mail A-26
in Terminal A-35
in Workspace Manager A-12
Edit Replace Selection command A-9
Edit Save Selection command A-9
editing text 9-1–9-24
Eject command 8-9, A-13
Empty Recycler command 6-18, 6-20, A-12
encapsulated PostScript format 11-3
Enter Selection command A-4
EPS file 3-10, 11-3
icon for 3-12
previewing 7-4
sending in a Mail message 12-9
Expert Preferences button A-30
extensions
of chunks 8-8
of file names 3-10, 5-6
F
File menu in Workspace Manager A-11
file names
extensions of 3-10
guidelines for choosing 5-6
file operations
Index-3
managing several at once 6-23
solving problems during 6-24–6-26
file packages 3-27, 7-3
file system
as seen in the File Viewer 3-2–3-4
displaying large 15-22
icons in 3-11
File Viewer 3-3
personalizing 3-32–3-35
using 3-1–3-36
files 1-2, 3-2
application that opens 3-10
application that opens, changing 7-6
assigning to a new group 7-8
attaching to a message 12-12
browsing 3-13
changing permissions for 7-9
compressing 6-16
copying 6-5
copying to and from a disk 8-5
creating 5-1–5-2
decompressing 6-16
deleting 6-18
distinction from links and file
packages 7-3
DOS 8-7
EPS 3-10, 11-3
finding 3-28–3-31
getting information about 7-1
guidelines for naming 5-6
handling several at once 6-21
handling when too large to fit on one
floppy disk 8-7
inspecting 7-1–7-10
moving 6-7–6-9
opening 3-7–3-9, 3-20, 5-3
opening in a message 12-6
opening temporarily in an application
7-7
organizing 6-1–6-26
plain text 3-10, 3-12
preparing for printing 14-1–14-7
previewing contents of 7-3
printing 14-2
renaming 6-4
Index-4
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
replacing 6-9
retrieving from the recycler 6-19
RTF 3-10, 3-12
saving 5-1, 5-4–5-10
saving another version of 5-8
saving new 5-4–5-6
selecting several at once 3-22–3-25
sorting 7-4
Find button, in a mailbox window A-17
Find command
in Mail A-26
in Terminal A-35
Find menu A-4
Find Next command A-4
Find Panel command 9-9, 9-11, A-4
Find Previous command A-4
Find submenu
in Mail A-27
in Terminal A-36
Finder command 3-28–3-31, A-14
Focus command in Mail A-21
folder names, guidelines for choosing 5-6
folder window
creating for disks 8-4
opening for a folder 3-25
folders 3-2
assigning to a new group 7-8
attaching to a message 12-12
browsing 3-13
changing permissions for 7-9
compressing 6-16
copying 6-5
creating 6-3
current 3-4
decompressing 6-16
deleting 6-18
dimmed 3-13
finding 3-28–3-31
getting information about 7-1
guidelines for naming 5-6
handling several at once 6-21
home 3-4
inspecting 7-1–7-10
folders (Continued)
merging 6-11
moving 6-7–6-9
opening 3-5–3-7, 3-20, 3-25
opening in a message 12-6
organizing 6-1–6-26
renaming 6-4
replacing 6-9
retrieving from the recycler 6-19
root 3-2
selecting several at once 3-22–3-25
sorting 7-4
font 9-15
changing in a selection 9-15
changing screen 15-19
choosing for applications 15-21
previewing 9-16
setting a new 9-12–9-15
font family 9-15
Font menu
in Mail ??–A-28
Font Panel command 9-12–9-14, 9-16, A-6
Font submenu A-6
in Mail A-28
in Terminal A-37
Format menu A-5
in Mail A-27
Forward button 12-14, A-18
Forward command in Mail A-24
G
General Preferences button A-30
Get New Mail command in Mail A-21
graphic images 11-1–11-6
adding to a list of color palettes 10-15
adding to a message 12-9
adding to documents 11-1–11-2
copying 9-8
deleting 9-7
file formats of 11-3
previewing 11-5
replacing 9-7
using as color palettes 10-14
gray scale 10-12
group address in Mail 12-11
creating 13-8
groups, assigning files and folders to 7-8
H
hanging indent, creating 9-20
hardware, managing 16-1–16-9
help
getting by clicking 1-14
getting by topic 1-15
Help command 1-15, A-2
Hide command 4-6, A-2
Hide Deleted command in Mail A-21
Hide Sizes command in Mail A-21
hiding an application 4-6
home folder 3-4
icon 3-11
notation in a path name 3-30
HSB color model 10-11
hue 10-6
I
I-beam pointer 1-3
Icon command in Workspace Manager
A-13
icon path 3-4
icon view in the File Viewer 3-6
adjusting spacing in 3-32
icons 1-2, 3-4
for OpenStep applications 4-14
in the file system 3-11
indentation
creating a hanging 9-20
setting 9-17–9-20
indentation markers 9-20
Info menu A-2
in Edit A-16
in Mail A-20
in Preview A-32
in Terminal A-33
Info menu (Continued)
Index-5
in Workspace Manager A-11
Info Panel command A-2
Initialize command 8-8
Initialize command in Workspace
Manager A-13
initializing disks 8-3, 8-8
insertion point 9-4
Inspector command in Workspace
Manager 7-1–7-10, A-14
Italic command A-6
J
Jump To Selection command A-4
K
key window 2-4
keyboard alternative 1-11
creating 15-18
keyboard basics 9-5
Keyboard Preferences button A-29
L
Link Inspector command A-5
Link menu A-5
link pointer 1-3
links in the Workspace Manager 6-14
copying 6-25
creating 6-12
inspecting 7-3
setting options for copying 6-15
Lip Service button 12-18, A-17
Lip Service command in Mail A-24
Listing command 3-15, A-13
listing view in the File Viewer 3-15, 3-16
locale, choosing for applications 15-13
Localization Preferences button A-29
Log Out command 1-16, A-10
logging in 1-2
logging out 1-16
Index-6
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
M
Mail application 4-15, 12-1–??, 13-1–13-30
commands A-19
creating an address book in 13-7
creating mailboxes in 13-10
looking up addresses in 13-5–13-6
managing 13-1–13-30
opening messages in 12-3
starting 12-1
Mail Document command A-9
mail format button 12-10
Mail menu A-19
Mail Selection command A-9
mailbox
Active 12-1
compacting to free disk space 13-3
creating 13-10
deleting 13-10
moving messages to another 13-12
opening 13-10
Mailbox menu in Mail A-21
Mailboxes button 13-10, 13-12, A-17
Mailboxes command in Mail A-21
main menu 1-10
main window 2-5
Make ASCII command
in Edit A-16
in Mail A-25
Make RTF command in Edit A-16
margin markers 9-19
margins, setting 9-17–9-20
Mark as Read command in Mail A-22
Mark as Unread in Mail A-22
measurements, changing units of 15-14
Menu Preferences button A-30
menus 1-2, 1-10
choosing a standard location for 15-6
hiding 15-4
merging folders 6-11
Message menu in Mail A-22
messages
adding graphic images to 12-9
attaching files or folders to 12-12
copying addresses into 13-5
deleting 13-1
deleting sound from 12-19
finding 13-14
forwarding 12-14
having replies sent to an address
other than your own 12-12
inserting sound in 12-17
listening to a recording in 12-5
moving to another mailbox 13-12
opening 12-3
opening a file or folder in 12-6
replying to 12-16
sending 12-8–12-10
sending carbon copies of 12-8
sending hidden copies of 12-12
sending to computers that do not run
OpenStep mail 12-10
setting sound to announce new 13-20
tailoring how you receive new 13-18
typing addresses in 12-11
MIME command in Mail A-23
MIME submenu in Mail A-23
Miniaturize Window command A-8
miniwindow 2-16
mouse 1-5
Mouse Preferences button A-29
move pointer 1-3
N
network 3-35
New command 5-1, A-3
in Mail A-24
in Terminal A-33
New Folder command 6-3, A-11
New Mail button 13-18, A-17
New Viewer command in Workspace
Manager A-14
No Receipt button A-18
O
Opacity slider 10-16
Open as Folder command 3-26, 3-27, A-11
Open command 5-3, A-3
in Terminal A-33
in Wrkspace Manager A-11
Open in Workspace command A-9
opening
file 3-7–3-10, 5-3
folder 3-5–3-7
folders and files by typing 3-20
folders and files on a floppy disk 8-10
mailbox 13-11
message 12-3
orientation, changing for printing 14-2
P
Page Backward command in Preview A-32
Page Forward command in Preview A-32
Page Layout command 14-1, A-5
in Terminal A-34
panel 1-10, 2-2
attention 2-3
paper size
changing 14-2
specifying custom dimensions 14-2
paragraph
selecting 9-6
typing 9-3
Password Preferences button A-30
Paste and Link command A-5
Paste command A-3
in Edit 9-8
in Mail A-26
in Terminal A-35
in Workspace Manager A-12
Paste Font command A-6
Paste Link Button command A-5
Paste Ruler command A-7
in Edit A-16
Index-7
path names 3-3
typing in the Save panel 5-6
using a tilde (~) in 3-30
permissions 6-2, 15-22
changing for files and folders 7-9
seeing in the listing view 3-16
pixel 10-8
plain text file 3-10
icon for 3-12
plain text message in Mail 12-11
pointer 1-3
arrow 1-3
copy 1-3
I-beam 1-3
link 1-3
move 1-3
moving the 1-5
question mark 1-3, 1-14
pop-up lists 1-7
PostScript files, description of 14-6
PostScript format 11-3
saving pages in 14-5–14-7
Preferences application 4-15
buttons A-29–A-31
commands A-29–A-31
starting 15-2
using to manage hardware 16-1–16-9
using to personalize your workspace
15-1–15-26
Preferences command
in Edit A-16
in Mail A-20
in the Workspace Manager 3-32, 4-9,
4-10, 6-15, 8-4, A-11
Preferences menu A-31
pressing 1-6
Preview application 4-15, 11-4, 11-5
Preview menu A-31
Print command A-2
printer, selecting 14-3
printing 14-1–14-7
a file 14-2
changing orientation for 14-2
Index-8
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
preparing files for 14-1–14-2
selecting a range of pages for 14-4
Processes command 4-14, 6-23, A-14
Publish Selection command A-5
pull-down lists 1-8
Q
question mark pointer 1-3
Quit command 4-13, A-2
when it fails 4-14
R
Receipt button A-18
recycler 6-18
emptying 6-19
removing from the dock 4-9
retrieving a file or folder from 6-19
replace options in Edit and Mail 9-12
Reply All button 12-16, A-18
Reply All command in Mail A-24
Reply button 12-16, A-18
Reply command in Mail A-24
resize bar 2-1, 2-9
Restore Draft command in Mail A-25
Revert To Saved command A-3
RGB color model 10-10
root folder 3-2
icon 3-11
RTF file 3-10
icon for 3-12
previewing 7-4
ruler, use of 9-17–9-20
Run Command command A-34
S
saturation, color 10-6
Save All command 5-7, A-3
Save As command 5-8, A-3
in Terminal A-34
Save command 5-4, 5-7, A-3
in Terminal A-34
Save in Drafts command in Mail A-25
Save To command 5-8, 5-9, A-3
saving
a new file 5-4
another version of a file 5-8
before logging out 1-17
changes to a file 2-18, 5-7–5-8
Edit documents 5-8
file as a PostScript file 14-5
files on a floppy disk 8-10
reasons for 5-10
tips for 5-8
screen
changing fonts on 15-19
selecting colors from 10-7
screen saver, setting 1-4
scroll button 2-12
scrollbar 2-1
scroller 2-11
scrolling 2-11–2-14
search options, in Edit and Mail 9-10
searching
for files and folders 3-28–3-31
for messages 13-14
for text 9-9
Select All command A-4
in Mail A-26
in Terminal A-35
in Workspace Manager A-12
selecting
colors 10-5, 10-7
locale 15-13
paragraph 9-6
several files and folders 3-22–3-25
text 9-6
window to work in 2-4
word 9-6
Send Options command 12-11, A-24
server 3-35
service, requesting from another
application 4-11
Services menu A-9
customizing 15-16
in Mail A-29
Services Preferences button A-30
Set Title command A-34
shelf 3-4
adjusting space on 3-33
enlarging 3-19, 3-34
removing files or folders from 3-18
stocking 3-17
Shell Menu in Terminal A-33
Show All Alternatives in Mail A-23
Show All Headers command in Mail A-22
Show Best Alternative in Mail A-23
Show Deleted command in Mail A-21
Show Filtered Headers command in Mail
A-22
Show First Alternative in Mail A-23
Show Links command A-5
Show Ruler command 9-17, A-7
in Edit A-16
Show Sizes command in Mail A-21
sliders 1-9
Sort by Date command in Mail A-22
Sort by Name command in Mail A-22
Sort by Number command in Mail A-22
Sort by Size command in Mail A-22
Sort by Subject command in Mail A-22
Sort Icons command in Workspace
Manager A-13
Sorting command in Mail A-21
sorting files 7-4
sorting folders 7-4
Sorting submenu in Mail A-22
sound
deleting from a message 12-19
editing 12-19
listening to in a message 12-5
recording for a message 12-17
setting for new messages 13-20
speaker, adjusting volume 1-4
special characters, using in a selection 9-15
Index-9
Spelling command 9-21, A-4
spelling, checking 9-21–9-24
standard window 2-2
Steal Keys command A-34
submenus 1-10
detaching 1-12
Subscript command A-6
Superscript command A-6
T
tab markers 9-19
tabs, setting 9-17–9-20
tagged image file format 11-3
Terminal application 4-15
text
changing font of 9-12
copying 9-8
deleting 9-7
finding 9-9
moving 9-8
replacing 9-7
replacing with the Find panel 9-11
selecting 9-6
typing 9-3
text fields 1-9
Text menu ??–A-7
Text submenu A-7
in Mail A-28
TIFF file 11-3
icon for 3-12
sending in a Mail message 12-9
time, setting 15-12
title bar 2-1
Tools menu in Workspace Manager A-14
transparency 10-16
typeface 9-15
typing text 9-1–9-24
U
Unbold command A-6
Undelete command A-22, A-26
Index-10
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Underline command A-6
Undo command A-4
in Mail A-26
Unfocus command in Mail A-21
Unitalic command A-6
units of measurement, changing 15-14
UNIX files, displaying 15-24
UNIX regular expressions 9-10
Unscript command A-6
up arrow button 12-3, A-17
Update Viewers command in Workspace
Manager A-14
V
View menu A-13
views in the File Viewer
browser 3-13
current 3-6
icon 3-6
listing 3-15, 3-16
volume of speaker, adjusting 1-4
W
window 2-1–2-18
closing 2-17
key 2-4
main 2-5
miniaturizing 2-16
moving 2-8
reordering 2-6
resizing 2-9
scrolling to see more 2-11–2-14
selecting 2-4
standard 2-2
types of 2-1–2-3
Windows menu A-8
word wrap 9-4
word, selecting 9-6
work session, starting and ending 1-1–??
workspace 1-2
personalizing 15-1–15-26
Workspace menu 1-16, A-10
Z
Zoom In command A-32
Zoom Out command A-32
Index-11
Index-12
Using the OpenStep Desktop—September 1996
Copyright 1996 Sun Microsystems Inc., 2550 Garcia Avenue, Mountain View, Californie 94043-1100 USA.
Tous droits réservés. Ce produit ou document est protégé par un copyright et distribué avec des licences qui en restreignent
l’utilisation, la copie, et la décompliation. Aucune partie de ce produit ou de sa documentation associée ne peuvent être
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de licence, s’il en a.
Des parties de ce produit pourront etre derivees du système UNIX®, licencié par UNIX Systems Laboratories, Inc., filiale
entierement detenue par Novell, Inc., ainsi que par le système 4.3. de Berkeley, licencié par l’Université de Californie. Le
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MARQUES
Sun, Sun Microsystems, le logo Sun, SunSoft, le logo SunSoft, Solaris, SunOS, OpenWindows, DeskSet, ONC, ONC+, NFS, et
NEO sont des marques deposées ou enregistrées par Sun Microsystems, Inc. aux Etats-Unis et dans d’autres pays. OpenStep
est une marque enregistrée de NeXT Software, Inc. UNIX est une marque enregistrée aux Etats-Unis et dans d’autres pays,
et exclusivement licenciée par X/Open Company Ltd. OPEN LOOK est une marque enregistrée de Novell, Inc. PostScript et
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est une marque enregistrée d’Object Design, Inc.
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Le système X Window est un produit du X Consortium, Inc.
Ce produit incorpore la technologie licencié par Object Design, Inc.
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