Complimentary Reference Material

Complimentary Reference Material
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Form 080/01
instructions for
TABLE OF CONTENTS
MODELS 1900/2900 SOUND LEVEL METER
WITH THE OB-100/OB-300
Models
1900 and 2900
Integrating
and Logging
Sound Level Meter
Note: Due to the new ATEX Directive in Europe, all references in this document to "Ex"
or "EEx" for intrinsic safety approvals should be disregarded effective 7/1/03 within the
member countries of the European Union (EU). At this time, this product is not approved
in accordance with the new ATEX Directive and is not sold for use in hazardous
atmospheres or explosive zones by customers within the EU. Outside of the EU, all
references to intrinsic safety continue without change.
56-352
Rev. F
1/98
1.
INTRODUCTION TO THE MODELS 1900/2900
1.1 Assembling the Meter . . . . . .
Microphone Handling and Storage
1.2 Initial Turn On and Check . . .
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1
2
2
3
2.
ABOUT
2.1
2.2
2.3
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5
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3.
OPERATING PROCEDURE . . . . . . . .
3.1 Measured Quantities . . . . .
Acoustic Study Options . . .
File Creation . . . . . . . .
Session Mode . . . . . . . .
Viewing Measured Results . .
3.2 Reviewing Memory Locations .
Memory Capacity . . . . . . .
Erasing Stored Data . . . . .
3.3 Setup Menus . . . . . . . . .
DISP Setup Menu . . . . . . .
LOG Setup Menu . . . . . . .
PRNT Setup Menu . . . . . . .
COMM Setup Menu . . . . . . .
PARA Setup Menu . . . . . . .
Typical Setups . . . . . . .
3.4 Overload Detection . . . . .
3.5 Battery Replacement . . . . .
3.6 C-A Measurements : Second RMS
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9
9
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26
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29
29
30
4.
COMMUNICATIONS . . . . . . .
4.1 RS-232 Serial Interface
4.2 Downloading Data . . .
4.3 Remote Control and Data
ASCII Commands . . . .
4.4 Printing Data . . . . .
4.4 Chart Recording . . . .
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31
31
32
33
35
38
41
THE METER . . . .
The Display . . .
Keypad Functions
Output Jacks . .
DC . . . . . . .
AC . . . . . . .
COMM . . . . . .
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Collection
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5.
GENERAL SOUND MEASUREMENT PRACTICES
5.1 Calibration . . . . . . . . .
Storing the Calibration Value
Calibrating A Microphone with
5.2 Meter / Microphone Placement
5.3 Background Noise . . . . . .
5.4 Wind Screen Effects . . . . .
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Sensitivity
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42
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6.
TECHNICAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1 Principles of Operation . . . . . . . . .
6.2 Microphones - Model 1900 . . . . . . . .
6.3 Microphone - Model 2900 . . . . . . . . .
6.4 Preamplifier Input Characteristics . . .
6.5 Microphone Preamplifier Extension Cables
6.6 Input Buffer Circuitry . . . . . . . . .
6.7 Weighting Characteristics . . . . . . . .
6.8 Internal Electrical Noise . . . . . . . .
6.9 Tone Burst Response . . . . . . . . . . .
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46
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7.
SPECIFICATIONS
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55
8.
ACCESSORIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
59
9.
INTRODUCTION TO THE MODELS OB-100 and OB-300
. . . . . . . . . . .
60
10.
ABOUT THE FILTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1 Filter Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2 Filter Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
60
60
61
11.
OPERATING PROCEDURE . . . .
11.1 Operational Check . .
11.2 Taking a Measurement .
MANUAL Filter Operation
AUTO Filter Operation .
11.3 Reviewing the Data . .
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12.
TECHNICAL INFORMATION - OB-100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
64
13.
SPECIFICATIONS - OB-100
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65
14.
TECHNICAL INFORMATION - OB-300 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65
15.
SPECIFICATIONS - OB-300
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65
QUEST SERVICE AND WARRANTY POLICY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
67
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1.
1.1 Assembling the Meter
INTRODUCTION TO THE MODELS 1900/2900
The Quest Models 1900 and 2900 are advanced sound level meters which
perform a wide variety of acoustical measurements. Both exponential averaged
and time integrated measurements may be made, with the capability of either
internal or external data logging. The output of an independently weighted
peak detector may also be displayed or logged.
Applications include
laboratory, industrial, community and audiometric measurement and analysis.
The models 1900 and 2900 provide a numerical readout of measurements as
well as a moving bar graph indication.
The results of individual sound
studies may be stored in internal memory for future reference.
Meter
operation is controlled from either the membrane keypad or through the
communications port. AC and DC output jacks are provided for connecting to
external devices such as audio recorders, chart recorders, oscilloscopes,
etc. Data may be sent to a parallel printer by using a special interface
cable. The meters are housed in a tough injection molded plastic case with
internal shielding to protect against external electrical interference, such
as that from motors or portable radios.
The microphone and preamplifier must be assembled prior to making any
measurements.
Microphone Handling and Storage
The microphones used with the model 1900 will provide years of reliable
use, but certain precautions should be followed with regard to handling and
storage.
1.
Never remove the microphone grid.
This will expose the diaphragm,
making it susceptible to physical
damage. When removing a microphone
from the preamplifier be careful not
to unscrew only the grid.
2.
Never touch the diaphragm.
The Model 1900 delivers Type 1 accuracy for critical measurements, while
the model 2900 is a Type 2 instrument for general field survey work. The
model 2900 uses a 0.52 inch electret microphone, while the 1900 accommodates
a variety of microphones to meet even the most unconventional applications.
As both meters are operationally identical, this manual will refer only to
the model 1900 except where appropriate.
3.
Electret (prepolarized) microphones
should never be stored at high
temperatures,
as
long
term
degradation
of
the
polarization
charge may occur. This results in a
decrease in microphone sensitivity.
Options include expanded logging memory and a second RMS detector to
allow simultaneous measurement of C-A frequency weighted LEQ or LAVG.
4.
An electret microphone should be
stored in its protective box when not
in use for long periods of time.
Plug in the Model OB-300 combination 1/3 create a 1/3 or 1/1 octave band analyzer covering
kHz.
The addition of the Model OB-100 Octave
octave band analyzer covering 10 bands from 31.5
1/1 Octave Filter Set and
33 bands from 12.5 Hz to 20
Filter Set will create an
Hz to 16 kHz.
If sound measurements need to be made from a distance, simply remove the
microphone/pre-amplifier and insert either an ICM-10 (10 foot) or an ICM-50
(50 foot) extension cable. Distances of up to 100 feet can be accommodated
by adding two ICM-50 extension cables in series.
With the microphone and preamplifier removed, the meter can accept other
input devices such as the Quest Model VI-90 Vibration Integrator.
The
VA-508C Vibration Assembly, combined with the Models 1900 or 2900, provides
a quick and precise method of measuring and analyzing many types of
industrial vibration.
To
attach
the
microphone
to
the
preamplifier, screw the microphone onto the
threaded end of the preamplifier. Attach the
preamplifier to the meter by placing the
connector ends together and rotating the
preamplifier until it drops onto the meter.
Finger tighten the black locking ring by
screwing it
onto the meter.
Figure 1 Preamp Assembly
1
2
MODEL 1900 ONLY:Microphone Polarization Voltage - 200VDC
Check that the microphone polarization voltage switch is set properly.
This switch is located inside the battery compartment on the rear of the
meter. To locate this switch, remove the battery door with a phillips head
screwdriver and pull the 9 volt batteries out of the compartment. Electret,
or prepolarized microphones such as the QE4146 or QE224 should be operated
with the 200 Volt microphone polarization voltage turned OFF.
Condenser
microphones must be operated with the 200 Volts turned ON.
CAUTION:
Be careful not to turn on the
200 volt polarization switch if
a
prepolarized
(electret)
microphone is attached.
The
microphone may be damaged.
1.
Turn the Calibrator ON. If optional, set the frequency to 1 kHz.
Note the SPL of the calibrator.
3.
Insert the microphone fully into the calibrator adapter ring, if
required for the size microphone in use.
4.
Slowly place the Calibrator onto the adapter/microphone.
5.
Using the FUNCTION key, set the Model 1900 to read SPL and set the
weighting, response and range as appropriate. Note: SPL must be
one of the display options enabled in the Setup Menu.
6.
Use a screwdriver to adjust the calibration control, located
through the small hole on the left side of the meter, until the
display matches the calibration level.
Storing the Calibration Value
The model 1900 can store the time, date and SPL of a calibration, which
will be included in the printout and in downloaded data for each study.
Enter the PARA Setup Menu and go to CAL by pressing the following keys:
1.2 Initial Turn On and Check
Figure 2 200V Polarization
Before taking measurements with the Model Switch
1900, there is a series of quick checks that
should be performed.
Turn the unit on by pressing the ON/OFF key.
The
display will indicate that a brief warmup is taking place. Check for the BAT
indicator in the display. If it indicates a low battery condition, replace
the batteries.
A measurement display such as SPL or LEQ will appear in the display.
Pressing the FUNCTION key will select a different display. Press FUNCTION to
review the possible measurements. When you have done this, set the display
to read SPL.
The meter is now displaying current Sound Pressure Level.
Press the A/C/LIN key to change the frequency weighting.
Press the
FAST/SLOW/PEAK/IMPULSE key to change the response time of the reading.
SETUP,
ª or « to " PARA ",
ENTER,
ª or « to " CAL "
The meter will display current SPL. Perform a calibration as directed in the
previous section.
Range and weighting keys will be operational, but the
response time will be set to FAST.
When the reading on the display is
correct, press ENTER to store. The display will briefly read " CALOK " and
return to the "PARA" menu display. The calibration SPL, time and date are
now stored. Press SETUP to return to the measurement displays, such as SPL.
To perform an Acoustic Study, press RUN/PAUSE. Allow the meter to run
for a while and press RUN/PAUSE again to end the study. The FUNCTION key may
now be used to review the results.
Although the Model 1900 will maintain accurate
period of time, the calibration should be checked
adjusted, if necessary, before each use. To check
Model 1900, perform the following procedure using a
calibration over a long
and the meter slightly
the calibration of the
Quest Calibrator.
3
4
2.
ABOUT THE METER
2.2
2.1
Keypad Functions
The Display
The LCD display provides the user with the selected measurement and the
current measurement parameters. The measurement range, as well as instrument
status such as low battery ( BAT ), RUN ( − ), PAUSE ( %% ), and OVERLOAD (
OL ) is also displayed. The numeric display normally updates every second,
while the bargraph provides a continuous indication of the sound level.
The bar indicator portion of the display always indicates the current
SPL (Sound Pressure Level). The range of the bar indicator is the same as
that of the instrument and is indicated by the numbers on either side of the
bargraph. Each segment of the bargraph represents 2 dB.
Press this key to turn the meter on.
After a warmup period of several
seconds, the meter is ready to use.
Pressing and holding this key for five
seconds until " OFFOFF " is displayed, and
then releasing, will turn the meter off.
Momentarily pressing this key turns
the LCD backlight on for several
seconds. Pressing and holding for 3
seconds will turn the backlight on
until the switch is again pressed to turn it
off.
Note: Leaving the backlight on for extended
periods will reduce battery life.
Press this key to begin a study, which
automatically increments the memory
location counter by 1. The number of
the location appears on the display
briefly after pressing RUN.
Pressing
RUN/PAUSE again ends the study and stores the
data in that memory location.
Press the ª or « to increase or
decrease the 60dB measuring range in
10dB steps. Pressing this key while
in RUN ends the current study and
begins a new study.
When this
happens, the memory location will
momentarily appear on the screen so
that the operator may make note of his
time and location for that study. (Key locked
out while in Session mode and RUN.)
Figure 3 Model 1900 Display
While inside the SETUP menus, the RANGE
key may be used as UP and DOWN arrows for
incrementing or decrementing numeric values.
Figure 4 Model 1900 Meter
5
6
Press this key to select the time averaging from the four choices of
FAST, SLOW, IMPULSE or PEAK.
A display annunciator indicates the
response by displaying " F ",
" S ", " I " or " P ". Pressing this key while in RUN mode will end
the current study and begin a new study. (Key locked out while in Session
mode and RUN.) Refer to section 6.8 for details on time averaging.
Press this key to cycle the frequency weighting through the choices
of A, C or Linear. The choice is shown by a letter following 'dB' in
the display (A, C or L). Pressing this key while in RUN mode will end
the current study and begin a new study. (Key is locked out while in
Session mode and RUN.)
display a measured quantity such as LAV. The FUNCTION key may be used to
display other quantities (LMAX, SEL, etc.). Press ENTER again to return to
the " XXLOC " display. The function key may be used to increment or decrement
memory locations. If incrementing past the last location the display will
read " 1 LOC ", or the first study. If 10,000 or more studies have been
performed,
the display will read
" XXXXXLOC ". Press MEMORY again to exit study review. (Refer to section 3.2
for more details)
Pressing MEMORY while in RUN briefly displays the number of the current
memory location (study number and session number).
Press this key while in PAUSE to print all studies in memory to a
parallel printer or computer. Press this key while in Memory Review
to print only the study currently under review.
To interrupt a
printout, press again.
Press FUNCTION ª or « to select any of the following displays that
have been selected via the SETUP key:
SPL, LEQ (LAVG), TWA, LMAX, LMIN, LN1, LN2, LN3, LN4, LDN,
CNEL, % OL time, exposure in Pa2S or Pa2H, LPK, SEL, elapsed
TIME (min/sec), elapsed TIME (hour/min), LLOG (LAVG or LEQ last
logged - this value updates every logging interval), BATT, or
TAKM. If the C-A
option is installed, C-A Leq or Lavg may also be displayed. Refer to section
3.1, Measured Quantities.
While in RUN mode, the display shows the current value for the study. While
in PAUSE mode the final value for the previous study is displayed. SPL will
always show the current 1 second MAX according to the response selected
(F/S/I/P). While in PAUSE, if selecting quantities such as LMAX, LEQ, etc.
after the meter has been RESET (had it's memory cleared) the display will
show "----".
FUNCTION is also used while in the setup mode as an up/down arrow key for
selecting menus or parameters.
While in PAUSE mode, press SETUP to access one of five Setup Menus
which allow the user to define the operation of the meter. There are
many quantities that may be displayed, logged or printed, and most
users will not be interested in all of them. SETUP allows the user to
select only the items of interest, for example SPL, LAV and L10, excluding
all others. The five menus are:
COMM
Communications Parameters
PARA
Measurement Parameters
PRNT
Data to be Printed
LOG
Data to be Logged
DISP
Data to be Displayed
The ENTER key is used in SETUP to enter or exit any of the five setup
menus. When changing a numeric value in the PARA menu, it will store
that value and turn off the bar graph segments above that parameter.
This key has two functions. While in SETUP, it is used to turn on or
off display, logging or print choices, or to cycle through certain
parameter selections (3>4>5>6>3....dB exchange rate for example). When
not in setup (i.e. in PAUSE), pressing and holding RESET/EDIT will
clear the internal memory.
2.3
DC -
The Sound Pressure Level (SPL) over
the 60 dB range selected is linearly
represented by a 0 to 1 volt DC
output. Zero volts is equal to the
bottom of the range and 1 volt is
equal to full scale. This output is Figure 5. Output Jack
provided for connecting to a 0 to 1 Connections
volt input data acquisition system or
chart recorder. See section 4.4 "Chart Recording" for details.
AC -
This jack provides an amplified, weighted AC signal.
output (SPL) equals 3.16VAC.
COMM -
The COMM jack is used for direct connection to an RS-232 compatible
device such as a personal computer via the supplied cable.
An
optional Parallel Interface Module is used to connect to a parallel
printer.
Refer to section 3.3 for details on meter SETUP.
This key is used to group studies stored in memory into a File for
printout, and to review individual studies stored in memory.
While
in PAUSE, press MEMORY to display
" FILE ". Press ENTER to group the previously stored studies into a
File . Pressing FUNCTION ª or « causes " XXLOC " to be displayed, where XX
is the number of the last study (as in memory LOCation #XX). Press ENTER to
7
Output Jacks
8
Full scale
3.
OPERATING PROCEDURE
Pressing the ON/OFF key will turn the meter on. The initial display is
" 1900128K " where 128k bytes is the amount of memory installed. The next
display, " X.XREV " shows the revision of the installed firmware. A 5 second
warmup will follow, and the display will read " 5WMUP " counting down to " 1WMUP
". If the logging memory has been filled, the display will read " FULLMEM "
for those 5 seconds. If this occurs, reset the unit before performing any
studies.
3.1
LN -
The SPL exceeded for N% of the time during a study. Four user
selectable values are calculated. The default values are L5,
L10, L50 and L90. The values may be changed in the PARA Setup
Menu.
LDN -
Day/Night Sound Level. The average sound pressure over a 24
hour study, with additional factors for time of day. Sound
pressures between the hours of 10 pm and 7 am are increased by
10dB prior to being averaged.
A 3dB exchange rate should be
used and is generally assumed. If an exchange rate other than
3dB is selected via the Setup Menu, LDN will not be calculated
and " ----LDN" will be displayed.
CNEL -
Community Noise Exposure Level. The average sound pressure
over a 24 hour study, with additional factors for time of day.
Sound pressures between the hours of 7 pm and 10 pm are
increased by 5dB prior to being averaged. Sound pressures
between the hours of 10 pm and 7 am are increased by 10dB
prior to being averaged. A 3dB exchange rate should be used
and is generally assumed. If an exchange rate other than 3dB
is selected via the Setup Menu, CNEL will not be calculated
and the display will show " ----CNEL ".
%OL -
Percentage of time during the study that an overload (OL)
condition occurred. Overload indicates that the signal has
exceeded the measuring range.
PA2S PA2H
Sound Exposure in Pascal-squared seconds or Pascal
-squared hours, switching from Pa2S to Pa2H at 3600 Pa2S. The
display will show " ----PA2 " if the exchange rate is not 3dB.
SEL -
The Sound Exposure Level is the constant sound level which, if
lasting for one second, would deliver the same amount of
acoustical energy as that accumulated over the entire study.
Measured Quantities
The FUNCTION switch steps through the following possible measurements
performed by the model 1900. This list may be shortened as desired via the
DISP Setup Menu. Refer to section 3.3 "Setup Menus" for details.
SPL -
Sound Pressure Level will be displayed, with the selected
weighting and response characteristics. The value displayed
is the maximum SPL during the previous second. (SPL is also
always shown in the display bar indicator.)
LEQ -
The average integrated sound level accumulated while in the
RUN mode is shown in the numeric display. LEQ indicates that
a 3dB exchange rate was used for the measurements.
LAVG -
The same type of measurement as LEQ, except that a 4, 5 or 6dB
exchange rate was used. The display will be correct for the
exchange rate selected.
TWA -
Time Weighted Average. The average level accumulated during
a study, but calculated with an eight hour integration time.
LMAX -
The Maximum SPL obtained while in the RUN mode is shown in the
numeric display. With PEAK response selected, this functions
as a Peak Hold.
LMIN -
The Minimum Sound Pressure Level obtained while in the RUN
mode is shown in the numeric display.
9
RTMS or RTHM - The total RUN time will be displayed. Time
may be displayed in MIN:SEC and HRS:MIN. The MIN:SEC display
for a study that lasts over one hour will wrap around to
00:00. The HRS:MIN display will count to 99:59 and then wrap
around to 00:00 but the actual time will be stored in memory.
10
LPK -
LLOG -
The Peak Level. The output of a second peak detector may be
viewed as LPK or logged.
The frequency weighting is
independent of the main RMS detector and may be set in the
PARA setup menu as 2PK. The selection of whether or not to
log peaks
is made in the LOG Setup Menu.
The weighting
selection (A, C or LIN) is made in the PARA Setup Menu. While
viewing LPK the weighting of the second peak detector is
displayed, and the Weighting and Response keys are disabled.
The LEQ (or LAVG) last logged during a study. Data is logged
at a user defined interval.
This feature may be used to
display a timed LEQ for the previous logging interval. This
display updates at the end of each logging interval.
The
display will show
" ----LLOG " if LEQ is not being logged.
Acoustic Study Options
An acoustic Study is a set of measurements performed over a user defined
period of time, referred to as the Run Time. The study begins at the Start
Time and ends at the Stop Time. Each study is stored in a consecutively
numbered Memory Location which is displayed briefly at the beginning of each
study. Consecutive studies may be grouped into a File. When printing data,
each File will have its own individual header, which makes it easier to
locate related groups of data in the printout. Alternately, place the meter
in Session Mode to create a cummulative summary of the data from consecutive
studies with identical measuring parameters.
Up to five quantities may be logged at user defined time intervals.
Final summary data for all measured quantities is also stored for each study.
The study may be initiated and ended in several ways (refer to Figure
6):
TAKM
The time integration of individual Taktmaximal values.
Taktmaximal is the maximum level (LMAX) encountered over either
a 3 or 5 second interval.
3 or 5 second Taktmaximal is
selected in the PARA Setup Menu. Individual Taktmaximal (LMAX)
values may be logged by setting the logging interval to 3 or
5 seconds in the LOG Setup Menu. Taktmaximal measurements are
required by some countries' noise regulations. A Taktmaximal
measurement calculates a higher average level for highly
impulsive sounds than does a LEQ measurement.
TAKM is
affected by the Exchange Rate and should be run with an
Exchange Rate of 3dB.
BATT
Displays the voltage of the weaker of the two 9 volt batteries
to give an indication of remaining life.
The low battery
indication (BAT) on the display occurs at approximately 6.8
volts.
LC-A
An optional second RMS detector may be used to provide a
simultaneous C-A weighted LEQ or LAVG of the measured sound.
Refer to section 3.6 "C-A Option".
11
Manual Study - Press RUN/PAUSE to begin a study, causing the RUN
indicator to light. " XLOC " will be displayed briefly,
where X is the number of the current memory location.
Press RUN/PAUSE again to end the study, causing the PAUSE
indicator to light.
NOTE:
During a study, pressing a key to change a parameter such
as weighting, range or response time will stop the
current study and, after a brief settling time, begin a
new study.
Manual Timed Study - Press RUN/PAUSE to begin a study. If a
Programmed Run Time duration has been set and enabled in the
Parameter (PARA) setup menu, the study will run for this time
duration and automatically stop. The study may be interrupted
by pressing the PAUSE key.
Auto Timed Study - An Auto ON time and date must be set
and enabled in the setup menu and the meter must be
turned OFF.
When the internal clock/calendar reaches
this time and date, the meter will turn on and begin a
study. The duration of the study will be that of the
Programmed Run Time stored via the setup menu. At the
end of the study, the unit will PAUSE and turn itself
OFF.
The study may be interrupted by depressing the
PAUSE key.
12
Threshold Triggered Study - A Trigger Threshold ON level in
dB must be set and enabled in the setup menu. While in PAUSE
mode, press RUN to arm the meter.
If the SPL reaches the
desired level a study will begin. The study will end in one
of three ways. If a Trigger Threshold OFF level in dB is set,
the study will end when the SPL falls to this level. (Note:
This level cannot be greater than the Trigger Threshold ON
level.) If a Programmed Run Time duration is enabled, the
study will last for the specified length of time unless the
OFF level is reached. If the SPL is still above the ON level
a new study will begin.
The study may be interrupted by
pressing PAUSE.
NOTE:
Both Threshold Triggered and Auto Timed studies may not
be enabled simultaneously. While in the Setup Menu, one
may not be enabled without first disabling the other.
Filter Controlled Study - Each time the filter band on the
optional bandpass filters (OB-100 or OB-300) is changed, either
manually or automatically, the current study is ended and, after a
brief settling time, a new study will begin.
NOTE:
Figure 6 Manual and Automatic Study Options
13
14
For long term unattended measurements where the possibility of
power interruption exists, it is recommended that the meter be set
up to run shorter term consecutive studies, such as one hour
threshold-triggered studies with a Trigger Threshold ON level
sufficiently low to always retrigger at the end of the hour. If
power is interrupted during a RUN, all data for that study will be
lost. The data from previous studies will be retained.
File Creation (Grouping Studies)
Viewing Measured Results
It may be desirable to separate a group of studies into a File. For
example, if several studies were performed at a single site using various
weightings, response times or filters, you might wish to separate the
printout of these studies from that of a similar group of studies performed
at a different site. Grouping consecutive studies into a File accomplishes
this. A File is created after performing the last study to be grouped, and
prior to beginning the first study of the next group.
While performing a study (unit is in RUN mode) the FUNCTION key may be
used to view the various measurements as they are occurring.
Only
measurements selected via the DISP Setup Menu will be available for viewing.
If the meter is in Session mode, the value displayed will be the overall
summary for the entire session. The displayed value will be updated each
second, except for LLOG which is updated each logging interval as selected
in the Setup menu.
Pressing the MEMORY key during a study will briefly
display " XXLOC ", where XX is the current memory location. If the meter is
in Session mode, pressing MEMORY will briefly display " XXSESS "" followed by
" XXLOC "" to indicate the current session and memory location.
To create a File, press MEMORY while in Pause mode.
" FILE " will
appear in the display. Press ENTER. This will group all studies performed
since the last File was created into a new File. When printing data, each
File will have a Header section to separate it from the previous File. Refer
to Figure 7.
mode.
File creation is not available if the meter is set to run in session
Refer to the next section.
While the unit is in PAUSE mode, the FUNCTION key may be used to view
the results of the previous study, or the results of the current session if
the meter is in Session mode. The exceptions to this are SPL, which always
shows the current SPL updated once per second, and LLOG, the value of which
is not displayed. Again, only measurements selected via the Setup Menu will
be available for viewing.
Session Mode (Combined Studies)
To obtain a cumulative measurement of consecutive studies (which must
have identical measurement parameters), enable Session mode in the Parameters
Setup Menu. (The meter must first have its memory cleared by performing a
RESET.)
A Session consists of individual studies stored in their memory
locations with the addition of an overall summary of all of those studies.
Any number of consecutive studies may be grouped into a Session. For example
Session 1 might consist of studies 1 through 5, session 2 might consist of
studies 6 through 9 and session 3 might consist of studies 10 through 31.
Pressing RUN after performing a RESET begins Session 1 and Study 1
(memory location 1). A session is closed in one of four ways:
1)
2)
3)
4)
Press MEMORY , then RESET
Change a measurement parameter such as weighting or exchange rate while
in PAUSE (Weighting, Response and Range keys are locked out while in RUN
only in Session mode)
Change the state of an optional bandpass filter. This may be done in
either RUN or PAUSE.
Turn the meter off. This session cannot be reopened.
After closing a session, the next time RUN is pressed will begin the
next session and study. Measurements for individual studies cannot be viewed
while measuring Session mode. The displayed data is for the overall session.
Individual studies can be viewed by reviewing data in memory. (Refer to
section 3.2)
15
While in PAUSE mode, any change to range, weighting or response will
make the data from the previous study or session available only by reviewing
its memory location. Turning on the optional bandpass filter or changing its
frequency will also cause this to happen.
3.2
Reviewing Memory Locations
The results of all currently stored studies are available by pressing
the MEMORY key. The memory review process is slightly different depending
upon whether or not Session mode was used to create the data in memory.
If Session mode was not enabled, pressing MEMORY will cause
" FILE " to appear in the display (refer to File Creation).
Press the
FUNCTION ª or « key. This will display the memory location of the last study
performed. For example " 19LOC " would indicate that the last study was the
19th study stored in memory. The ª or « keys are used to select other memory
locations. Pressing « would select " 18LOC ", but pressing ª would wrap around
to the first study and select " 1LOC ". Refer to Figure 7.
If Session mode is enabled, pressing MEMORY will display
" xxSESS ", which is the last session completed (a currently open session
cannot be viewed in memory).
The FUNCTION arrow keys select the desired
session. The RANGE arrow keys select either individual memory locations of
studies within that session or the overall session data.
16
Once the memory location of the desired study is selected, press ENTER
to view the measurement results. The measurement parameters such as range ,
weighting and response will be shown in the display and the " M " indicator
will be lit. If an optional bandpass filter was used during the study, the
frequency will be briefly displayed.
Use the FUNCTION key to select the
measurements of interest. Only measurements currently selected via the Setup
menu will be available for viewing, but these can be changed at any time by
going back to the Setup menu.
Pressing ENTER will return to the memory
location or session number display. Pressing MEMORY returns to Pause mode.
The data in the memory location being reviewed may be printed using the
PRINT key. Refer to section 4.4, "Printing Data". Data logged during a
study may be viewed by printing the Time History portion of the printout.
Memory Capacity
The number of studies (memory locations) that can be created is limited
by the amount of memory. The amount of data that is logged, if any, during
a study will also fill the available memory. Logging data every second will
fill memory faster than logging every minute. Session mode will also use
more memory due to the extra summary information that must be stored. If the
memory fills during a study, the unit will PAUSE and display " FULL ".
In addition to the problem of filling the memory, the total amount of
energy accumulated during a study can cause the unit to overflow, causing
calculation errors. This is dependent upon the range setting and how high
the SPLs are during the study. This can be determined from the value of SEL
at various exchange rates as follows:
Exchange Rate
3 dB
4 dB
5 dB
6 dB
Figure 7 Reviewing Data Stored in Memory
17
18
Maximum SEL
150 dB
200 dB
250 dB
301 dB
Without Overflow
+ Range
+ Range
+ Range
+ Range
For example, with an exchange rate of 3dB on the 60 - 120 dB range, the
maximum SEL without overflow would be 150 dB + 60 dB = 210dB.
The following chart shows approximate time available versus logging rate and
number of items logged for the standard 128Kbyte memory.
Maximum number of studies with no data logged: 796 for 128k memory.
Number of items logged
Logging Rate
1
1 second
3 seconds
5 seconds
seconds
8.7 dy
15 seconds
30 seconds
1 minute
3 minutes
5 minutes
10 minutes
15 minutes
30 minutes
1 hour
17 yr
4 hours
8 hours
24 hours
21
2.6
4.4
4.4
13.3
26
53
159
265
1.3
2.2
4.3
8.6
8.6
34
69
209
2
hr
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
yr
yr
yr
yr
yr
yr
yr
yr
10.5
1.3
2.2
2.8
6.5
13.2
26
79
132
265
1
2.2
4.3
5.7
17
34
104
3
hr
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
yr
yr
yr
yr
yr
yr
yr
7
21
1.4
2.2
4.4
8.7
17.6
53
88
176
265
1.3
2.9
4.3
11.6
23
69
4
hr
hr
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
yr
yr
yr
yr
yr
yr
5
15
1.1
1.7
3.3
6.6
13.3
39
66
132
198
1
2.2
3.4
8.6
17
52
3.3
Setup Menus
The operation of the model 1900 may be customized through the Setup
menus.
While in PAUSE mode, pressing the SETUP key lights the SET
annunciator in the display and allows access to the various menus. Pressing
the FUNCTION ª or « keys selects from among the five Setup menus. Once the
desired menu is displayed, pressing the ENTER key enters that menu and
displays the first item that may be modified. Refer to figures 8 - 11. The
five menus are:
5
hr
hr
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
yr
yr
yr
yr
yr
yr
4 hr
12.5 hr
21 hr
2.6
5.3
10.5
31
53
106
159
318
1.7
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
dy
yr
1
0
DISP -
Displayed Data, or the measurements that may be viewed by
pressing FUNCTION while in RUN or PAUSE.
LOG -
Logged Data and Logging parameters, or which measurements are
logged, where the data is stored and how often the data is
stored.
PRNT -
Printout format, or printout data presentation.
PARA -
Measurement Parameters, or variables affecting the way a
measurement is performed.
These include thresholds,
percentage values for LN, peak detector weighting, etc. as
well as clock/calendar setting and calibration value storage.
COMM -
Communications parameters for using the COMM port.
2 hours
6.9 yr
13.9 yr
41 yr
The key sequence to exit a Setup Menu is the reverse of the one used to
enter the menu.
If the 512K memory option is installed, the above times would increase
by a factor of 4.
The total number of logged items (LEQ, LMAX, LPK, L10 or L90) possible
can be calculated by the following formula:
# of logged items = 2/3 [ M - (144 x # of studies) (3072 x # of studies with stats logged)]
DISP Setup Menu (Displayed data) Refer to Figure 8
Press SETUP and the FUNCTION ª or « keys until "DISP" is displayed.
Pressing ENTER gets you into the Display Setup Menu and will, for example,
display " onSPL ". You may now choose whether or not SPL will be among the
active displays by pressing RESET/EDIT, which toggles between " onSPL " and "
oFFSPL ". Pressing FUNCTION « cycles to the next selection, " onLAV " which may
be turned on or off with the RESET/EDIT key. The displayed quantities that
are selected in this manner are:
where M = 114687 w/ 128k memory or 507903 w/ 512k memory. The total run
time is calcuated by multiplying the number of logged items by the logging
rate divided by the number of items logged.
SPL (Sound Pressure Level), LEQ or LAVG (Equivalent Level), TWA (Time
Weighted Average), LMAX (Maximun Level), LMIN (Minimum Level), LN1, LN2,
LN3, LN4 (% Exceedance Levels), LDN (Day Night Level) , CNEL (Community
Noise Exposure Level), %OL (Percent Overload Time), PA2S or Pa2H
(Exposure), LPK (Peak Level) , SEL (Sound Exposure Level), RTMS (Run
Time MIN:SEC), RTHM (Run Time HR:MIN), LLOG (Last LEQ Logged), BATT
(Battery Voltage), TAKM (Taktmaximal) and/or LEQ (LAVG) C-A if the C-A
option is installed. (TAKM and LC-A cannot both be enabled.)
Erasing Stored Data
To erase the data in the memory locations, the meter must be in the
Pause mode. Press and hold the RESET/EDIT key for five seconds. The display
will read " 5RST " , count down from 5 to 1, and " ----RST " will be displayed.
The memory is now cleared and the next study will be stored in memory
location 1.
19
Press ENTER to exit the DISP Setup Menu, displaying "DISP".
or « keys may now be used to select another Setup menu.
20
The FUNCTION ª
LOG Setup Menu (Data to be logged) Refer to Figure 9
After pressing SETUP, the ª or « keys may be pressed until "LOG" is
displayed. Pressing ENTER gets you into the Logging Setup Menu and will, for
example, display " onLEQ ". You may now choose whether or not LEQ will be
among the data that will be periodically logged. Press RESET/EDIT to toggle
between " onLEQ " and " oFFLEQ ".
Pressing FUNCTION cycles to the next
selection, " onLPEAK ", which is turned on or off in the same way.
The
measured quantities available for logging are:
LAV(or LEQ), Peak, LMAX, L10, L90.
Note that the Peak value that is logged has independently selectable
weighting from that of the main measurement. This is set in the PARA Setup
Menu.
In addition, whether or not to log to internal memory, whether or not to
log to the COMM port, and the time interval (logging rate) may be selected.
Saving statistics tables (STAT on or off) for each study may also be
selected. The statistics tables provide useful information when downloaded
to the optional PC support software, but are not available to the user
directly from the meter.
At each of the five measured quantities, press RESET/EDIT to turn that
quantity on or off. Do the same for STAT.
To select the destination for logged data, depress FUNCTION to display
" onCOMM " or " onMEM " which sends logged data to the COMM jack or internal
memory respectively. Use the RESET/EDIT key to turn these options on or off.
To select the logging interval, press EDIT/RESET which will light the
bargraph over the time interval shown on the display. Use the UP or DOWN
arrow key to select the desired time interval. The choices are:
1, 3, 5, 10, 15 or 30 seconds
1, 3, 5, 10, 15 or 30 minutes
1, 2, 4, 8 or 24 hours
When the desired interval is displayed, press ENTER to store your selection.
Press ENTER again to exit the LOG Setup menu.
Figure 8. Display Setup Menu
21
22
Figure 9. Log Setup Menu
Figure 10. Print and Communications Setup Menus
23
24
PRNT Setup Menu (Data to be printed) Refer to Figure 10
After pressing SETUP, the ª or « arrow keys may be pressed until PRNT is
displayed. The data presentation for the printout may be selected in the
Print setup menu.
Pressing ENTER gets you into the menu and will, for
example, display " onHDR ". You may now choose whether or not the header is
included in the printout. Pressing EDIT/RESET toggles between " onHDR " and
" oFFHDR ". Pressing FUNCTION cycles to the next selection, " onSUMR ", which
is turned on or off in the same way. The printout options are:
HEDR -
Header, on or off
SUMR -
Summary of all measurements, on or off
THIS -
Numeric Time History, on or off
FILT -
Filter Data Grouping, on or off. Data collected using an
optional bandpass filter may be grouped under a common
header (ON) or printed as an individual study (OFF).
P-40 -
Compressed print mode. This will fit the printout onto
a small 40 column printer.
LOC -
Print individual memory locations along with session data
(Session mode only)
PARA Setup Menu (Measurement parameters) Refer to Figure 11
After pressing SETUP, the ª or « keys may be pressed until PARA is
displayed.
Pressing ENTER gets you into the Measurement Parameter setup
menu, where the following parameters may be set:
ER - Exchange Rate selection of 3, 4, 5 or 6dB.
Changing this
parameter from 3dB changes LEQ to LAVG for all displays.
TH - Threshold level for averaging (set dB level from 0
to 180, or turn off). If the threshold is enabled, the meter
will not integrate SPL below the threshold.
LNX - Four selectable exceedance (LN) values (X = 1
through 4).
For each LNX, set N from 1 to
increments.
RTHM or RTMS - Programmed Run Time Duration in
Hours/Minutes or Minutes/Seconds (set hours/minutes/seconds,
or turn off). Sets study length for manual, threshold, or
Auto-On initiated study.
99 hour, 59 minute 59 second
maximum. Setting to 00:00:00 will default to OFF.
While in SETUP, press the FUNCTION key to display "COMM". Press ENTER
to access the Communications Setup Menu where the following selections
involving data communications are made:
FLOW -
Flow control or handshaking. Select HARDware, SOFTware or OFF.
This is important for transfers of large amounts of data to
prevent lost data.
EOL -
End of Line Characters. Choice of :
Cr (carriage return)
CrLF (carriage return and line feed)
LF (line feed)
LFCr (line feed and carriage return)
AOMD, AOHM or AOMS - Auto-On Time in Month/Day,
Cycle through these parameters by pressing the ª and « keys. Press the
RESET/EDIT key to change the values. Pressing ENTER returns to the "COMM"
display. Refer to section 4, Communications, for more information.
25
1%
ToFF - Threshold Trigger OFF level (set dB level < or =
Threshold Trigger ON level). Sets Threshold triggered study
termination level (this is overridden if Programmed Run Time
Duration is enabled).
A sample printout is shown in Section 4.4, "Printing Data".
Baud Rate. Choice of 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200
baud or parallel printer output (PRLL).
in
Ton - Threshold Trigger ON level (set dB level from 0 to
180 or turn off). Sets Threshold triggered study initiation
level.
COMM Setup Menu (Communications parameters) Refer to Figure 10
BAUD -
99
26
Hours
/Minu
t e s
o
r
Minut
es/Se
conds
(Set
Month
,
Day,
Time,
o
r
turn
off).
Sets
time
t
o
autom
atica
l l y
turn
o
n
unit
a n d
begin
study
. 24
hour
milit
a r y
time
forma
t is
used
f o r
Hours
/Minu
tes.
YEAR, MODY or HRMN - Clock/Calendar (Set year,
month/day, hours/minutes). 24 hour military time format is
used.
Figure 11. Parameter Setup Menu
27
28
CAL - Calibration Value. Stores calibration value for
SPL and peak detector. SPL calibration value and time and date of
calibration will appear on the printout. The instrument's range
settings may be adjusted to compensate for microphones that differ
in sensitivity from the standard mics.
Refer to section 5.1
"Calibration" for details.
2PK - Select Weighting of Second Peak Detector (A, C,
LIN) used for LPK display or for logging data.
TAKM - 3 or 5 second LMAX for Taktmaximal measurements.
SESS - Session mode ON or OFF. ON combines consecutive
studies into a cumulative summary.
See section 3.2 for
details. If there is data in memory, this cannot be changed
without first resetting the unit.
The user cycles through these parameters by pressing the ª and « keys.
Pressing the EDIT/RESET key allows the user to change the values or
enable/disable the parameter.
When setting numeric values the bargraph
sections above the quantity to be changed will be lit. The ª and « keys are
used to change numeric values. Pressing ENTER stores the value. Pressing
ENTER again returns to the "PARA" display.
OSHA NOISE COMPLIANCE
Exchange Rate = 5dB
Response = Slow
While viewing SPL the overload indicator (OL) is displayed whenever the
incoming signal saturates (overloads) the circuitry. If the OL indicator is
on, increase the RANGE until the OL condition is removed. If an OL condition
occurs while in the RUN mode, the OL indicator will light and remain on for
the duration of the study.
The percentage overload time is a display option that may be enabled via
the DISP setup menu and then selected using the FUNCTION key. The overload
time will also be printed on the hard copy printout. While reviewing a study
stored in memory, the OL indicator will remain on if an overload occurred
during that study. Percentage overload time may be useful in determining the
validity of a study during which overload occurred.
A small percentage
indicates that the data is fairly accurate, while a larger percentage
indicates that significant errors occurred.
An overload will also be indicated while logging to the serial port or
printing a time history of a study. For each logging interval that contained
an overload condition, OL will print at the end of that line of data.
3.5
Battery Replacement
A lithium coin cell (type CR2032) is accessible through the battery
compartment.
This battery maintains the data memory, clock/calendar and
setup information when the meter is turned off.
A dead lithium cell will cause the meter to lose information stored in the
setup menus, the serial number and any data. As long as the meter is turned
on, this information will not be lost. If the meter is to be turned off
while changing the lithium cell, retrieve any data stored in the meter and
make note of setup parameters as these will be erased. Refer to figure 2.
OSHA HEARING CONSERVATION
Same as above except with Threshold = 80dB
DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NOISE COMPLIANCE
Threshold = 80dB
Weighting = A
Overload Detection
The BAT indicator in the display means that one or both 9V batteries is
weak and should be replaced.
Make sure the meter is turned off when
replacing the batteries.
Use a phillips head screwdriver to remove the
battery cover on the rear of the unit. Remove the old batteries and replace
with fresh alkaline batteries.
Typical Setups
Threshold = 90dB
Weighting = A
3.4
Exchange Rate = 4dB
Response = Slow
1.
Remove the 9 volt batteries from the battery compartment. Using a
fingernail or other thin non-metallic object, push the bottom edge
of the battery toward the top (microphone end) of the meter until
it comes out of the holder.
Exchange Rate = 3dB
Response = Slow
2.
Insert the new lithium cell, edge first and + side up, into the top
of the holder. Press the bottom edge of the battery toward the top
of the meter until it snaps into the holder.
IEC NOISE MONITORING
Threshold = OFF
Weighting = A
TAKTMAXIMAL
Weighting = A
Response = Fast
TAKM = 3 or 5 Seconds as desired, with Logging Interval set to 3 or 5
seconds to log TAFts as LMAX values if LMAX is enabled in LOG Setup Menu
29
30
4.
3.
Reinstall the 9 volt batteries, turn the unit on and re-enter any
setup information, including the serial number. The serial number
is entered via an ASCII command through the COMM jack (refer to
section 4.3, Remote Control). Note: Calibrate the meter before
performing any measurements. Peak detector and C-A calibration is
lost when the battery is removed. Refer to section 5.1.
Note: Due to intrinsic safety requirements for use in hazardous locations,
the model 2900 UL does not have a user replaceable lithium battery. Safety
approvals are indicated by a label on the meter and the serial number prefix
CE. If your model 2900 has UL safety approval, consult your dealer or the
factory for lithium cell replacement.
3.6
C-A Measurements : Second RMS Option
The C-A option provides a second RMS circuit which allows simultaneous
measurement of both C and A weighted sound pressure levels for evaluation of
hearing protectors and other noise reduction devices. C-A LEQ (or LAVG) is
indicated by " XX.XLC-A " on the display. Note: If a threshold is set, it
affects both C and A, which may cause large values for C-A if the levels are
at or near the threshold. (See PARA Setup Menu regarding thresholds)
The C-A option is enabled by entering the Display Setup Menu (DISP).
Press the FUNCTION ª or « key to display " oFFC-A ". Press RESET/EDIT to
change to " onC-A ". Refer to section 3.3.
COMMUNICATIONS
DEFINITIONS
PARALLEL MODE: Data is passed along multiple wires simultaneously.
used for sending information to parallel printers.
This is
SERIAL MODE: All of the data is passed along a single wire in a 'serial'
stream. This mode is used when sending information to a computer or
serial printers. RS-232 is a type of serial mode communication.
BAUD RATE: Baud rate is the speed at which serial communications take place,
measured in bits per second. The baud rate options for the model 1900
are 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, and 19,200. The higher the baud
rate, the faster the communication. When trying to pass information
from an instrument to a computer or serial printer, both must be set for
the same baud rate.
(Baud rate settings have no affect on parallel
printing.)
COM PORT: Abbreviated name for a serial communications port on a computer
(also called RS232 port). Most PCs have between 1 and 4 serial ports
referred to as COM1, COM2, etc... This is where the cable from the
meter connects to the PC. The COM ports generally will take the form of
either a 25 pin male (has pins instead of holes) connector or a 9 pin
male connector.
4.1
RS-232 Serial Interface
C-A LEQ (or LAVG) will only be displayed under the following conditions:
1.
A weighting must be selected. If C or Linear weighting is selected
by pressing the A/C/LINEAR key, the display will show " ----LC-A ".
Bandpass filters should not be used while performing C-A
measurements. Also, PEAK response is not available.
2.
The Response must be set to FAST, SLOW or IMPULSE. PEAK response
is not allowed, otherwise the display will show " ----LC-A ".
Note that battery current is increased when the C-A measurment is
enabled. To prolong battery life, do not enable C-A unnecessarily.
The COMM jack on the side of the model 1900 provides direct connection
to a computer's COM port with the serial communications cable (#056-999)
provided. To connect to a serial printer or similar device, a 25-pin male to
male gender changer is required. The pinout of the COMM jack is shown in
figure 12.
The model 1900 may be controlled
under RS-232 control by sending ASCII
commands from a computer. Measurement
results may be requested and received
from a remote location.
Figure 12. COMM Jack Pinout for
RS-232 Communication
31
32
Downloading Using WindowsTM TERMINAL
The communications parameters for the ASCII data byte are the following:
Microsoft® WindowsTM has a communications program under the ACCESSORIES
icon called TERMINAL. Instructions on how to use TERMINAL are located in the
Windows'TM manuals.
1 start bit
8 data bits
1 stop bit
No parity (disabled)
Baud rate and flow control must be set the same for both the 1900 and the RS232 device connected to it (RATE and FLOW as set in the COMM Setup Menu).
Refer to section 3.3 COMM Setup Menu.
Open TERMINAL. For TERMINAL, the communications settings are found by
first selecting SETTINGS, then COMMUNICATIONS.
Select the desired COM
(serial) port and the baud rate. The baud rate must match the BAUD selected
in the 1900's COMM Setup Menu. TERMINAL also needs the following information
in its setup:
data bits = 8
parity = none
There are three common problems when using COM ports.
1.
The ports are often not labelled, making it difficult to
determine which port is connected.
2.
The printer output port on the computer is a 25 pin female.
Adding an extra 'converter' cable to the serial cable and
plugging it into the printer port will not work.
1.
Select TRANSFERS, then select RECEIVE TEXT FILE.
2.
Enter a file name with the ending ".TXT".
Often some other device, such as a mouse, is plugged into the
COM port. If that is the only COM port then the mouse must be
disconnected and the PC possibly must be reconfigured.
3.
Press the PRINT key on the 1900.
display.
4.
When complete, PRN will disappear from the 1900's display.
TANSFERS, then STOP in the TERMINAL program.
5.
Exit TERMINAL.
6.
The file has been saved and can be opened with a word processor or
editor such as Windows'TM NOTEPAD.
(Remember which directory the
file was saved in.
The default for Terminal is the WINDOWS
directory.)
3.
4.2
stop bits = 1
flow control = must match the 1900
To save the downloaded data to a file, use the following procedure.
After the communication settings are made:
Downloading Data
Data stored in the model 1900 may be downloaded to a personal computer.
Several methods are available.
The Quest Sound Manager software package provides an easy method of
receiving data from the meter. Data presentation options include tabular or
graphical form.
In addition, remote control and access to all operating
parameters is possible via an easy to use menu driven interface.
By using the RS-232 port on a PC and a communications package such as
Procomm or Windows Terminal, the printout from the meter may be received and
stored as a file. The 1900 must be set for serial operation and the settings
(Baud rate, etc.) must match that of the PC. The serial communications cable
must be connected between the meter and the PC. Pressing the PRINT key will
cause the meter to print to the PC.
4.3
PRN will appear in the 1900's
Select
Remote Control and Data Collection
Serial communications options for the model 1900 depend upon the
operating mode of the instrument. Certain functions are available depending
upon whether the unit is in RUN or PAUSE mode, or whether or not logging to
the COMM port has been selected.
While in PAUSE, any function available by a front panel key press
(except MEMORY) may be duplicated via an ASCII commmand. A "data request"
command will provide the same data that would be presented on the display if
the FUNCTION key were pressed to select that display.
For example,
requesting LEQ would result in receiving the LEQ from the previous study.
Requesting SPL would result in a single reply of the current 1 second MAX
SPL.
33
34
While in RUN, and if logging to the COMM port is selected, the only
command that would be allowed would be PAUSE.
Other commands will be
ignored. At short logging intervals such as 1 and 5 seconds, and especially
at slower baud rates, frequent communication with the unit would be
difficult, as it would be sending data almost constantly.
This mode of
operation is useful for remote data collection of logged parameters. The
model 1900 will provide the following output:
SAMPLE #
1
2
3
4
5
LEQ
85.4
85.6
85.8
85.7
89.5
LMAX
85.5
85.7
86.5
85.6
90.5
L10
85.4
85.5
85.6
85.5
89.3
L90
84.9
85.0
85.0
84.9
87.2
ASCII Commands
The following is a list of commands used to control the model 1900 via
RS-232.
Data Request Commands - Returns the current value plus OL if an overload
has occured during the study. If in session mode, session data will be
returned. If an R is included where an asterisk (*) is shown, the
current Run Time will also be returned. (Do NOT include the * in the
command string)
LPEAK
92.1
89.7
94.0
89.8
94.8 OL
SPL
LEQx*
x = 1 or blank. Returns current LEQ or LAVG. The 1
will return the C-weighted LEQ value if the C-A board is
installed and enabled.
LAVGx* x = 1 or blank, see above. Returns current LEQ or
LAVG.
TWA*
LMAX returns the value of LMAX and the time that it occurred.
LMIN returns the value of LMIN and the time that it occurred.
LNx
x = 1, 2, 3 or 4. Returns the selected Lxx value.
LDN*
CNEL*
%OL
PA2H* returns the value of Exposure in Pa2S or Pa2H.
SEL*
RT
returns elapsed study run time - HH:MM:SS
LPK
returns the value of LPK and the time that it occurred.
LLOG returns the value LLOG and the logging time interval.
C-A
returns C-A LEQ or LAVG if C-A board is installed and
enabled.
BATT returns the voltage of the weaker battery.
MEM
returns the current (or last if in PAUSE) memory
location.
TAKM returns the integrated Taktmaximal value
While in RUN and not logging to the COMM port, the model 1900 will
respond to "data request" commands for display functions by sending the
measured quantity, requested data and Run Time if requested. Any quantity
may be requested, regardless of what has been selected in the DISP Setup
menu. For example:
ASCII command
Reply
LEQ
TIME
LEQR
LN1 (LN1=L10)
SPL
SPL
LEQ = 93.4dB
TIME = 14:02:34
LEQ = 93.6dB @ 0:12:25
L10 = 47.3dB
SPL = 98.6dB
SPL = 103.5dB
NOTE: If the model 1900 is set to log data to the COMM port, it must be
connected to another device, especially if hardware (HARD) flow control has
been selected in the COMM Setup Menu. The meter may appear to malfunction
when RUN/PAUSE is pressed to begin a study, as it needs a signal back from
the device that it is connected to in order to operate properly. When this
happens, the display will freeze and the keypad will be inoperative.
Properly connecting the serial cable between the meter and the other device
will restore normal operation.
Operating Status Commands - Change or request the settings of
measurement parameters and unit operation. Sending the command with no
value for 'x' returns the current setting.
WGTx
RESx
RNGx
PARA
x = A, C or L; sets weighting to 'x' if in PAUSE.
x = F, S, I or P; sets response to 'x' if in PAUSE.
x = 20, 30, 40, etc. to set range if in PAUSE.
returns the current settings for Run/Pause, range,
weighting, response time, integration threshold,
exchange rate, peak weighting, bandpass filter
frequency.
BLON turns on the display backlight.
BLOFF turns off the display backlight.
FILT returns current bandpass filter frequency, or NONE.
On units with software revision 1.3 and higher: If the above condition
exists, the meter will automatically change the flow control option to NONE,
preventing an apparent lockup condition. The flow control option may need to
be reset prior to using the COMM port for serial communications.
35
36
TONON enables the threshold triggered study feature.
TONOFF disables the threshold triggered study feature.
TOFFxxx sets the study end threshold level. xxx = 0 to 180.
TOFFON enables the study end threshold level.
TOFFOFF disables the study end threshold level.
The following commands will be executed only in PAUSE mode.
Setup Commands - Duplicates the functions available inside the
setup menus. Omitting parameters w, x, y, or z will return the current
setting.
Refer to Section 3.3 for details on setting the following
parameters.
LOGxy
Sets quantities to log. x
x
x
x
x
y = ON to enable logging, y =
= L
= M
= P
= 1
= 9
OFF
PRTDxx:yy:zz sets the programmed run time duration where xx =
hours, yy = minutes, zz = seconds.
PRTDON enables the programmed run time duration feature.
PRTDOFF disables the programmed run time duration feature.
for LEQ or LAVG
for LMAX
for LPK
for L10
for L90
to disable logging.
AOTvv:ww:xx:yy:zz sets the auto on time. vv = month, ww =
xx = hour (0 to 24), yy = minutes, zz = seconds.
AOTON enables the auto on feature.
AOTOFF disables the auto on feature.
LINTxxy Sets the logging interval. xx = 2 digit number from
the values allowed for logging interval, y = H, M or S
for hours, minutes or seconds.
TIMExx:yy sets the clock where xx = hours (0 to 24),
yy = minutes
LMEMx Enables or disables logging to internal memory. x = 0
for off, x = 1 for on.
LCOMx Enables or disables logging to the COMM port. x = 0 for
off, x = 1 for on.
DATExx/yy/zzzz sets the calendar.
zzzz = year.
2PKx
sets the weighting of the second peak detector.
x = A, C or L.
TAKx
sets the Taktmaximal period. x = 3 or 5 (seconds)
BAUDxxxxx sets the baud rate for serial communications.
xxxxx = 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600 or 19200.
PRLL
sets communications for a parallel printer.
SESSON enables Session mode. (must RESET unit first)
SESSOFF disables Session mode. (must RESET unit first)
FLOWx enables or disables flow control for RS-232.
x = H for Hardware, x = S for Software, x = N for none
?M
?S
EOLxx sets the end of line character for serial
communications, either carriage return, line feed or a
combination of the two. xx = C, CL, L or LC where
C = carriage return and L = line feed.
OFF
sets the exchange rate.
returns a list of the measurement commands.
returns a list of setup commands
Function Commands
PRNxy sets the items to print. x = H for header,
x = S for summary, x = T for time history, x = F for
filter grouping, x = L for printing location data along
with a session summary. y = Y to enable, y = N to
disable.
ERx
xx = month, yy = day,
turns the unit off. Caution: unit cannot be turned on
via remote control. Enable Auto On with a valid date
and time, or use the ON/OFF key to turn the unit on.
PRINTxxxxx returns the printout of a specific memory location.
xxxxx = 1 to 99999 to specify the memory location. If
x is omitted all memory locations will print.
PRINTSxxxxx returns the printout of a specific session if the
meter is in Session mode.
x = 3, 4, 5 or 6.
THxxx sets the integration threshold. xxx = 0 to 180
THON enables the integration threshold.
THOFF disables the integration threshold.
RESET clears the memory.
@SAxxxxxxxxx stores the meter's serial number, where xxxxxxxxx
is the serial number on the back panel.
LNxyy sets the exceedance levels of interest. x = 1, 2, 3 or
4 to select which exceedance level to set. yy = 1
to 99 to
set the percent value.
TONxxx sets the study trigger threshold for beginning a study.
xxx = 0 to 180.
37
RUN places unit into RUN mode.
PAUSE places unit into PAUSE mode.
38
day,
Messages Returned From the Meter
FULL
The model 1900 can be connected to a serial (RS-232) printer or a PC by
using the serial interface cable provided with the meter. A 25-pin male to
male gender changer will be required for connection to the printer.
The
printer's communications parameters must match that of the model 1900. Refer
to the preceding section.
indicates internal memory is filled. The meter should
be reset before beginning another study.
C-A OPTION NOT INSTALLED returned when a request has been made
for a reading from an option which is not installed.
Some printers can work either in serial or parallel mode. The printer
must be set up for one or the other.
Simply plugging into the correct
connector is not sufficient. Refer to the printer's manual. THE 1900 HAS A
SEPARATE CABLE FOR CONNECTING TO A PARALLEL PRINTER. THE SERIAL CABLE CANNOT
BE ADAPTED TO WORK WITH A PARALLEL PRINTER.
C-A DISABLED indicates that the C-A option is installed, but
not turned on in the DISP Setup Menu.
4.4
Printing Data
The model 1900 may be connected to either a parallel or serial (RS-232)
printer by using the proper cable and adapter. Data may also be printed
directly to a PC by using a communications package such as Procomm or Windows
Terminal.
The printout contains the information from each study, or an
individual study including:
1.
2.
3.
SAMPLE PRINTOUT
(HEADER SECTION)
QUEST TECHNOLOGIES
1900 Noise Integrating/Logging Sound Level Meter
All measurement parameters (Range, Weighting, etc.)
Data Summary of all measured parameters (LEQ, LMAX, etc.)
Start, Stop and Run Times and OL Time in %
Unit Version Number: 1.01
Serial Number: QS2100035
Name ____________________________________________________________________
The information printed will be that selected in the Print (PRNT) Setup
Menu (Refer to section 3.3).
See the following two pages for a sample
printout. The printout sections selected in the setup menu are labeled on
the sample printout for clarity.
Work Area _______________________________________________________________
To connect the model 1900 to a parallel printer, the 056-875 Parallel
Interface is required. The 8 pin miniature DIN connector plugs into the COMM
jack on the side of the meter. The 36 pin flat cable connector plugs into
the printer. The meter must be set for parallel operation (PRLL option for
RATE, located in the COMM Setup Menu - Refer to section 3.3).
Meter Calibration:
Comments ________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
114.0dB
17-DEC-94 @ 08:38:55
Calibrator:
Serial Number ___________________
Calibration Date __________________
(SUMMARY SECTION)
The meter and the printer should all have their power switches turned
ON. The meter must be in either Pause or Memory Review mode. Pressing the
PRINT key will start the printout. The printout will contain either of the
following:
1)
2)
If the meter is in the Memory Review mode, only the data stored in
the memory location selected will print. If in Session mode and
the overall Session summary data is selected for viewing, that
summary data will print out. The data for the individual studies
will print if selected in the Print Setup menu by turning on the
LOC, or memory location, option.
If the meter is in normal Pause mode, all studies stored will
print. Studies that were made using an optional bandpass filter
will print according to the selection made at the FILT option in
the PRNT Setup Menu.
STUDY 1
Notes ___________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
Measuring Parameters:
Range
40-110dB
Threshold
OFF
Session Started
15-JAN-94 @ 10:56:38
Peak Level 102.6dB
Max Level
88.0dB
Min Level
73.4dB
Overload
0.0%
LEQ
LDN
L10
To interrupt a printout, press PRINT again. Disconnect the interface from
the printer before turning the model 1900 off.
39
40
80.5dB
82.6dB
87.2dB
Weighting
Exchange Rate
A
3dB
Session Stopped
15-JAN-94 @ 10:58:42
15-JAN-94 @ 10:56:42
15-JAN-94 @ 10:56:43
15-JAN-94 @ 10:57:12
SEL(3) 115.1dB
CNEL
83.5dB
L25
84.6dB
TWA
TAKM3
L50
41.0dB
81.6dB
78.2dB
Time Constant Slow
Peak Weighting LIN
Run Time
00:02:00
Pa2Hr
L90
0.5
74.0dB
4.4
Chart Recording
The Model 1900 has a DC output that is linearly related to the 60 dB
measurement range as follows:
SAMPLE PRINTOUT (continued)
Bottom of Measuring Range = 0 VDC output
Top of Measuring Range = 1 VDC output
60dB per 1 volt or 16.67 mVDC per dB.
(GROUPED FILTER DATA SECTION)
Measuring Parameters:
Range
70-110dB
Threshold
OFF
Filter Summary:
#
Freq(Hz)
2
31.5
3
63
4
125
5
250
6
500
7
1000
8
2000
9
4000
10
8000
11 16000
Weighting
Exchange Rate
LIN
3dB
This output, capable of driving up to 100 feet of shielded or twisted pair
cable, is intended for use with a 0 to 1 volt DC input chart recorder that
has an input impedance greater than 20K ohms. It is also suitable for use
with a variety of data acquisition devices.
Time Constant Slow
Peak Weighting LIN
Model OB-50/100 Octave Filter Set - Serial No. _________
Leq
Max
Sel
Start-time
Run-time
OL-%
75.6
77.3
85.4
11:00:09
0:00:09
0.00%
82.1
84.1
92.7
11:00:20
0:00:11
0.00%
90.8
107.3
102.8
11:00:33
0:00:10
0.50%
87.8
89.7
98.4
11:00:45
0:00:11
0.00%
89.7
91.6
100.9
11:00:58
0:00:13
0.00%
87.5
89.0
97.1
11:01:13
0:00:09
0.00%
87.2
88.6
97.5
11:01:24
0:00:12
0.00%
84.1
86.0
83.0
11:01:38
0:00:11
0.00%
83.5
86.0
89.5
11:01:52
0:00:10
0.00%
82.9
84.1
92.5
11:02:04
0:00:11
0.00%
Refer to Figure 13, Chart Recording of SPL. Connect the Model 1900 to
the chart recorder input. Observe proper polarity. Use a 1 kHz acoustic
calibrator, preferably 94 dB, to calibrate the chart recorder as follows:
1.
Turn the meter to ON.
80-140dB.
NOTE:
(TIME HISTORY SECTION)
LOGGING (1 Sec)
LEQ
Study 1
10:56:39
100.6dB
10:56:40
100.8dB
10:56:41
99.6dB
10:56:42
100.7dB
10:56:43
100.6dB
10:56:44
100.8dB
10:56:45
99.6dB
10:56:46
100.7dB
.
.
.
.
.
.
LMAX
101.3dB
101.4dB
97.5dB
102.8dB
100.5dB
101.8dB
97.5dB
100.8dB
.
.
.
LPK
L10
102.5dB
102.8dB
100.3dB
103.4dB
102.3dB
103.4dB
104.3dB
102.4dB
.
.
.
101.7dB
101.7dB
96.7dB
98.7dB
101.7dB
101.7dB
96.7dB
98.7dB
.
.
.
If an adapter is needed to mate the microphone size to the
calibrator coupler, insert it fully into the calibrator.
2.
Place the calibrator fully onto the microphone with the calibrator
turned off. The meter should read less than 80 dB which provides
0 volts DC at the DC output.
Adjust the zero control on the
recorder so that the pen indicates a relative dB of 0.
3.
Turn the Calibrator ON to produce 94 dB (or the level specified on
the label) at 1 kHz. Set the 1900 dB RANGE for the highest bar
graph level without causing an overload. The recorder pen should
rise to the correct relative dB. (54 if the calibrator level is 94
dB and the dB RANGE is set to 40 to 100.) A small adjustment may
be needed. Use the zero adjust to do this.
4.
Be sure to document all chart recorder settings and meter settings
when taking measurements.
L90
78.7dB
78.7dB
72.7dB
74.7dB
78.7dB
78.7dB
72.7dB
74.7dB
.
.
.
Set the meter RESPONSE to FAST, and RANGE to
Note that any range position can be set on the Model 1900 and the 60 dB
span of the meter range will always correspond to the full 60 dB range on the
chart recorder.
Quest Chart paper # 58-653 has a 60dB scale, and will
41
42
provide an
easy
to
r e a d
recording.
5.
GENERAL SOUND MEASUREMENT PRACTICES
Before taking measurements with the Model 1900, there is a series of
quick checks that should be performed. After switching the unit ON, check
for the BAT indicator in the display. Replace the batteries if needed.
Although the Model 1900 will maintain accurate calibration over a long
period of time, the calibration should be checked and the meter slightly
adjusted, if necessary, before each use.
When performing integrating measurements, press the RUN/PAUSE key,
making sure " Í " is indicated in the display. If the meter is in the RUN
mode and you want to change Weighting, Response or Range, it is a good idea
to stop accumulating data by entering the Pause mode. This will eliminate
electrical switching noise from affecting your study, especially when using
SLOW or IMPULSE response. To do this, press the RUN/PAUSE key again and " Í
" will disappear from the display. Change the desired settings, and then
press RUN again to begin a new study. It is always a good idea to document
all measurement conditions and meter settings for possible future needs. If
a printer is used, the settings will all appear on the printout.
Figure 13. Chart Recording of SPL
43
44
5.1
Calibration
result in bad peak data.
To check the calibration of the Model 1900, perform the following
procedure using a Quest Calibrator.
NOTE:
1.
Check that the BAT indicator is not on, indicating that one or both
of the batteries is weak.
2.
Turn the Calibrator ON. If optional, set the frequency to 1 kHz.
Note the SPL of the calibrator.
3.
Insert the microphone fully into the calibrator adapter ring, if
required for the size microphone in use.
4.
Slowly place the Calibrator onto the adapter/microphone.
5.
Using the FUNCTION key, set the Model 1900 to read SPL and set the
weighting, response and range as appropriate. Note: SPL must be
one of the display options enabled in the Setup Menu.
6.
Use a screwdriver to adjust the calibration control, located
through the small hole on the left side of the meter, until the
display matches the calibration level.
Most calibrators are affected by changes in altitude and barometric
pressure. The rated SPL is set at standard barometric pressure at
sea level (760 mm Hg).
Consult your calibrator manual for
correction factors.
Calibrating A Microphone with A Different Sensitivity
The model 1900 covers a 30 - 140dB measuring range when using the
standard 0.52" microphones (39 - 50 mV/Pa).
The operating range may be
adjusted to read correctly for other microphones.
For instance, using a
microphone that has 10dB lower sensitivity, the meter can be set to cover the
range of 40 - 150dB.
While in the CAL portion of the PARA Setup Menu, apply the calibration
tone to the microphone and verify that the meter will not calibrate to the
proper level. Adjust the calibration control so that the display shows a
difference from the desired reading of +/- 10dB or a multiple of 10dB. Press
The RESET/EDIT key.
" CAL+ " will appear in the display. The RANGE key may now be pressed to
adjust the reading in increments of 10dB, adjusting the overall operating
range by the same amount. When the reading is correct, press ENTER to store
the calibration value.
5.2
Meter / Microphone Placement
Whenever possible, the meter should be tripod-mounted in a relatively
open area to minimize reflections from your body or other large reflective
structures.
Avoid placement against a wall or in a corner.
If body
reflections are of concern, a microphone extension cable may be used to
separate the preamplifier from the meter for better microphone placement.
When taking measurements while holding the meter in your hand, keep your arm
fully extended.
Storing the Calibration Value
The model 1900 can store the time, date and SPL of a calibration, which
will be included in the printout and in downloaded data for each study.
Enter the PARA Setup Menu and go to CAL by pressing the following keys:
When using a random incidence or pressure microphone, point it
approximately 70 degrees to the direction of the sound.
If using a
free-field microphone, point it directly at the noise source ( 0 degrees ).
5.3
SETUP,
ª or « to " PARA ",
ENTER,
ª or « to " CAL "
The number in the display is the current SPL. Calibrate as directed in the
previous section.
Range and weighting keys will be operational, but the
response time will be set to FAST.
When the reading on the display is
correct, press ENTER to store. The display will briefly read " CALOK " and
return to the "PARA" menu display. The calibration SPL, time and date are
now stored.
NOTE: When ENTER is pressed to store the calibration value, the logging peak
detector and C-A option (if installed) are also calibrated. This should be
done whenever the lithium battery is replaced. As the peak detector is most
accurate over the upper portion of the range, the calibration value should be
in the upper half of the range used for calibration. It is important to not
disturb the meter during this time, as this may cause a high peak reading and
45
Background Noise
Background noise can cause considerable error in measurement when its
level is close to that of the noise source of interest.
When it is not
possible to eliminate or reduce the background noise, use the curve shown in
Figure 14 to correct for the effect of the background noise on the
measurement.
46
6.
5.4
Wind
S c r e e n
Effects
6.1
T
o
prevent
measuring
e r r o r s
caused by
w i n d
blowing
across the
microphone
, the use
o f
a
windscreen
i
s
recommende
d.
The
w i n d
s c r e e n Figure 14 Effect of Background on Measurement
w i l l
reduce wind effects and will also help protect the microphone under dusty,
oily, or humid conditions. Acoustic attenuation effects of the WS-7 (for
.52" mic) and the WS-3 (for 1 inch mic) windscreens are shown in Figure 15.
TECHNICAL INFORMATION
Principles of Operation
The Quest Model 1900 uses low noise, low power circuitry to ensure long
battery life, maximum stability, and superior reliability over a wide range
of environmental conditions.
Figure 16 is a block diagram of the 1900's
internal operations.
Figure 15. Acoustic Effect of Windscreens
Figure 16. Block Diagram of the Model 1900
6.2
47
48
Microphones - Model 1900
The Model 1900 is normally supplied with a 0.52" microphone of either
the free field or random incidence (pressure) type.
Either prepolarized
(electret) or condenser types may be used. The electret microphone does not
require the 200 volt polarization that can be supplied by the model 1900.
Refer to section 1.1.
The microphone screws directly onto the preamplifier which, in turn,
connects directly to the meter. The preamplifier converts the high output
impedance of the microphone into a low output impedance, allowing the
microphone to drive up to 100 feet of cable for remote operation.
Typical microphones used with the 1900 include the following:
QE4146
QE4170
QE4160
QE4150
QE4140
1/4-inch
QE4120
QE4846
1/2-inch freefield, prepolarized
39.8 mv/Pa
(25-145dB)
1-inch pressure, 200V polarized
50 mv/Pa
(10-150dB)
1/2-inch pressure, 200V polarized
50 mv/Pa
(20-145dB)
1/2-inch freefield, 200V polarized 50 mv/Pa
(20-145dB)
1/2-inch pressure, 200V polarized
16 mv/Pa
(35-160dB)
freefield, 200V polarized 3.5 mV/Pa
(60-175dB)
1/4-inch pressure, 200V polarized 1.3 mv/Pa
(60-175dB)
1/2-inch freefield, prepolarized
40 mv/Pa
(25-140dB)
QE4110
Typical microphone response curves for the Models QE4846 and QE4170 are shown
in Figures 17 and 18 respectively.
Figure 18.
Typical
Frequency
Response Model
QE4170
Microphone
6.3
Microphone - Model 2900
The model 2900 is designed to accept a prepolarized (electret)
microphone, Model QE7052. The impedance of this microphone is 18pF. The
microphone screws directly onto the preamplifier, model 056-852. Typical
response for the QE7052 is shown in Figure 19.
6
.
4
Preamplifi
er
Input
Characteri
stics
T h e
i n p u t
impedance
of
the
preamplifi
er affects
both
the
l
o
w
frequency
response
and
the
microphone Figure 19. QE7052 Microphone Response
attenuatio
n as shown
in Figures 20 and 21. The approximate microphone capacitances for the 1/2
inch and one inch microphones are 18pf and 60pf respectively.
Figure 17 QE4846 Microphone Response
Figure 20. Effect of Microphone Output Capacitance on Preamp
Low Frequency Response
49
50
input circuitry (1 Megohm in series with 0.1 MFD) of the model 1900 will
accept up to a 10 volt RMS signal. The model 2900 will accept up to 4 volts
RMS. With the microphone and preamplifier removed, other transducer devices
(such as the Quest Model VI-90 Vibration Integrator) can be connected to give
a dB readout on the meter.
6
.
5
Microphone
Preamplifi
e
r
Extension
Cables
T h e
preamplifi
er
is
removable
b
y
unscrewing
the black
plastic
c o l l a r
below the Figure 21. Microphone Output Attenuation Caused by Input
preamplifi Capacitance of Preamp
e
r
housing.
Extension cables of up to 100 feet in length can be connected
between the preamplifier and meter. Quest Electronics offers the following
lengths of remote cables:
# 59-733
# 59-734
ICM-10
ICM-50
To remove the preamplifier unscrew the black plastic collar below the
preamp housing. Note that when connecting other input devices to the Model
1900, the 200 volt microphone polarization switch located inside of the
battery compartment should be turned OFF for safety. Only use pins 1 and 3
for the AC signal input. NEVER connect to pins 2 and 4.
10 Ft. Remote Cable.
50 Ft. Remote Cable.
The calibration level at 1kHz and below is affected by less than 0.1 dB
with the insertion of a cable. Therefore, there is no need to recalibrate
when
the
cable
is
a d d e d .
Maximum
output at
h i g h
frequencie
s
i s
affected
by
long
c a b l e
lengths.
T h i s
effect is
shown
in
Figure 22.
6.6 Input
B u f f e r
Circuitry
T h e
h i g h Figure 22. Frequency/Amplitude Limitations with Extension
impedance Cables
51
52
6
.
8
Internal
Electrical
Noise
To input an electrical
signal requires a special
connector, Quest part number
14-739. Figure 23 shows the
function of each of the pins
within
the
meter
input
connector.
6.7
W e i g h t i n g Figure 23
Characteristics
Meter Electrical Input (Direct)
The weighting characteristics (frequency response) for A, C, and LINear
are shown in Figure 24. The A weighting response emulates the response of
the human ear and is used for most industrial and community noise
measurements. C weighting is often used for measuring noise reduction in
hearing protectors and for other scientific purposes. The "LINear" weighting
has a flat frequency response over the range of human hearing and is useful
in many applications such as audiometric analysis. It is also used when
taking octave and 1/3 octave measurements.
T h e
maximum
measurable
SPL of the
1900 Meter
is 140 dB
with
a
sinusoidal
i n p u t .
(120 dB if
measuring
a complex
s i g n a l
with a 20
dB
crest Figure 24 Weighting Characteristics
factor.)
W i t h
optional microphones the upper range can be extended to 180 dB.
When used with either the OB-100 or OB-300 filter (octave mode), the
specific minimum measurable SPL's when using either the Model QE4170 or the
Model QE4146 microphone are shown in the following tables.
The inherent
noise level is typically at least 5 dB below the RMS values shown in each
table.
Noise Floor values were determined by substituting an equivalent
electrical impedance in place of each microphone.
Model QE4170, 1 Inch Microphone (equivalent impedance = 56pF):
Octave
Band
All Pass
31.5 and 63
125 and 250
500 and 1K
2K and 4K
8K and 16K
Weighting
A
C
LIN
20dB
16dB*
16dB*
16dB*
16dB*
16dB*
27dB
22dB
18dB
16dB*
16dB*
16dB*
39dB
25dB
20dB
16dB*
16dB*
16dB*
* 11.6dB is the lowest SPL indicated by the instrument,
measurements below 16dB are of questionable accuracy.
53
54
therefore
Model QE4146, 0.52 Inch Microphone (equivalent impedance = 18pF):
Octave
Band
All Pass
31.5 and 63
125 and 250
500 and 1K
2K and 4K
8K and 16K
Weighting
A
C
LIN
27dB
16dB*
16dB*
18dB
16dB*
16dB*
36dB
31dB
26dB
20dB
16dB*
16dB*
45dB
33dB
26dB
20dB
16dB*
16dB*
Values for the model 2900's QE7052 Type 2 microphone will be approximately 2
dB higher than those for the QE4146.
6.9
Tone Burst Response
Figures 25 through 29 show the meter's tone burst response to sinewave
inputs of varied burst duration. The four available time constants are:
SLOW RESPONSE
(1000 msec time constant)
Figure 25.
Decay Rate = 4.35 dB per second.
FAST RESPONSE
(125 msec time constant) Figure 26.
Decay Rate = 34.7 dB per second.
PEAK RESPONSE
(50 microsecond time constant)
Figure 26.
Figure 27.
PEAK Response
Figure 27.
IMPULSE RESPONSE (35 msec rise time constant with a decay
2.9 dB/sec) Figures 28 and 29.
rate of
Figure 25. SLOW Response
55
56
FAST Response
7.
SPECIFICATIONS
Standards:
Model 1900 : Type 1 ; Model 2900 : Type 2
S1.4-1983, IEC 651-1979, IEC 804-1985.
A N S I
Measurement Range: 20 - 140dB in 7 60dB ranges with standard
microphone. Model 1900 only: display range may be shifted
upward in 10dB steps to 60 - 180dB by using optional
microphones. The second peak detector operates over the range
of -40 to +10dB relative to the top of the selected
measurement range.
Display:
Figure 28.
4 Digit Liquid Crystal Display with an additional Quasi-Analog
60 dB indicator in 2 dB increments. Level display indicates
to 0.1 dB resolution. Time display indicates either Min:Sec
or Hr:Min. Annunciators are included for Battery Check, RUN,
Pause, and Overload Indication.
Measurements Performed: Sound Pressure Level (SPL),Equivalent
Level (LEQ or LAVG), Time Weighted Average (TWA), Maximum
Level (LMAX), Minimum Level (LMIN), Percentile Levels (LN),
Day/Night Level (LDN), Community Noise Exposure Level (CNEL),
Overload Time (%OL), Exposure (PA2H), Sound Exposure Level
(SEL), Taktmaximal (TAKM), and Run Time (RTxx). Optional C-A
module allows simultaneous C-A weighted measurement of LEQ (or
LAVG).
IMPULSE Response
Automatic Measurement Modes: Programmed Run Duration, Level
Triggered Run/Pause, Clock/Calendar Triggered Power on and run
for programmed run duration.
Figure 29.
IMPULSE
Response to
Repeated
Impulses
Minimum Measurement: Meter only, with Model QE4146 Microphone -27 dBA.
Various Weightings with an Octave Filter Set refer to
Section 6.8.
The minimum measurement varies depending on the
filter frequency selected.
Maximum Measurement: With Model QE4146 Microphone -- 120 dB with
20 dB Crest Factor. (140 dB if measuring a sinusoidal signal.)
Overload indication will occur if upper range is exceeded.
Optional microphones may raise the upper measurement limit.
Frequency Weighting Networks: A, C, and Linear. When using a
filter set, any one of the weightings may be selected.
Meter Response:
Slow, Fast, Impulse, and Peak. (The Peak onset
time constant is less than 50 microseconds). Peak measurements may
be made in either A, C, or Linear Weighting.
A second peak
detector is included for logged measurements.
57
58
Microphones:
Preamplifier:
Removable
1/2
inch
prepolarized
condenser
(electret)
microphone is standard.
Optional 1/2 inch, one inch, and
other microphones are available for the model 1900 only.
Directly accepts 0.52" microphone, other sizes with proper
adapter. Removable, the preamp will drive up to 100 feet of
cable with negligible signal loss. (See Figure 22.)
module.
Frequency Range: 4 Hz (-3dB) to 50 kHz (-3dB) on linear weighting,
meter only. (Subject to microphone limitations.)
Reference Range:
60 to 120 dB Range setting
Reference SPL: 114 dB
Model 1900: Preamplifier model 056-856. The input impedance
is greater than 1 gigaohm in parallel with 2 pF.
Reference Frequency:
Model 2900: Preamplifier model 056-852. The input impedance
is greater than 1 gigaohm in parallel with 47 pF.
Polarization (1900 only) : Regulated 200V DC (+/- 2%) for use with
condenser microphones. The voltage must be manually switched off
when using prepolarized condenser (electret) microphones.
Meter Input:
The input impedance is 1 Megohm in series with
0.1uF.
Model 1900: Maximum sinusoidal input voltage = 10V RMS
Model 2900: Maximum sinusoidal input voltage = 4V RMS
AC Output:
3.16 V RMS at full scale (60 dB). (3.8 V RMS maximum) The
output impedance is 3.2K ohms. Connected equipment should
have an input impedance of > 10K ohms. The output can be
shorted without damaging the meter or changing the meter
reading.
DC Output:
0 to 1.00V DC; 60 dB span. Each 0.167V change
equals 10 dB.
Output impedance is 1000 ohms.
Connected
equipment should have an input impedance of > 10K ohms. The
output can be shorted without damaging the meter or changing
the meter reading.
COMM Output:
RS-232 serial output to printers or computers.
Selectable
data rates
of
1200
through
1 9 2 0 0
b a u d .
A S C I I
character
format.
Parallel
printer
o u t p u t
w i t h
optional
interface
59
60
1 kHz
Reference Direction: 0 Degree when using a Free Field Microphone.
Sound is arriving from directly in front of the microphone
diaphragm. (A Normal line extending from the center of the
microphone diaphragm.)
Detector:
Operating Humidity: Over a range of 30 to 90% relative humidity,
the accuracy is within +/- 0.5 dB.
Do not exceed 95% relative
humidity because possible damage to the unit may result.
True RMS
Detector Pulse Range:
Temperature Range: Operating: -10oC to +50oC. Accuracy is within
+/- 0.5 dB.
Storage (less batteries): -20oC to +60oC
Do not exceed the Storage Temperature Range because possible
damage to the unit may result.
63 dB
Detector Measuring Range: 40 dB from the lower range limit (when
measuring a signal with a 20 dB Crest Factor). The extra 20 dB (40
to 60) on top of the measuring range produces the 20 dB Crest
Factor capability .
Effect of Magnetic Fields: A magnetic field of 1 Oersted (80A/m)
at 60Hz produces a maximum reading of 40 dB on Linear Weighting.
Effect of Electrostatic Fields:
Negligible as long as the
Primary Indicator Range / Linearity Range: 60 dB (The range as
shown by the Range Indicators on either side of the bargraph).
Tested with a sinusoidal signal input.
prote
ction
grid
i
s
kept
o
n
t h e
micro
phone
.
Level Linearity: Inside the Primary Indicator Range. It is tested
on the Reference Range (60 to 120 dB) with a sinusoidal input
signal. Tolerance is +/- 0.7 dB referenced to 94 dB.
Overload Indication: OL in the display indicates a momentary
overload while viewing SPL. OL stays lit while viewing data from
a study.
Batteries:
Two 9-volt alkaline batteries (NEDA 1604A) recommended.
Battery Life:
Typical operating time for meter alone and for
individual operating conditions which increase operating
current. Combinations of these conditions will further reduce
operating time.
Attenuator Accuracy: Referred to the Reference Range and the
Reference SPL. Within 0.5 dB from 31.5 Hz to 8 kHz. Within 1.0 dB
from 20 Hz to 12.5 kHz.
Warm-up Time:
30 seconds.
Meter only
w/ 200 Volts On
w/ Backlight On
w/ Filter
w/ C-A Option On
Integration Time (Settling Time): 1 minute when measuring a short
impulse. 5 seconds when integrating a constant input signal.
Accuracy:
Within 0.5 dB at 25oC; Within 1.0 dB over the
temperature range of -10oC to +50oC.
2nd Peak Detector: within 1.5dB from -40 to +10dB relative to
the top of the measurement range.
Memory Capacity: Standard 128K: allows logging of 5 quantities
at 1 second intervals for up to 4 hours.
Optional 512K upgrade: allows logging of 5 quantities at 1
second intervals for up to 18 hours, 30 minutes.
Decreasing the number of logged quantities or increasing the
logging time interval increases available logging time
capacity proportionately.
61
1900
20 hours
18 hours
13 hours
8 hours
17 hours
2900
29 hours
n/a
19 hours
11 hours
24 hours
2900UL
24 hours
n/a
11 hours
3 hours
15 hours
Tripod Mount:
A threaded insert on back of the meter accepts a standard
1/4-20 tripod mounting screw.
Size:
3.3 x 8.2 x 1.8 inches (84 x 208 x 47mm) not including the
height of the preamp.
Weight:
23 oz. (654g) including the preamp and batteries.
62
8.
ACCESSORIES
056-981
QC-10 Calibrator; 114dB at 1000 Hz Output
056-982
QC-20 Calibrator; Selectable 94dB or 114dB at 250 Hz or 1000
Hz Output
Note: Specifications subject to change.
Calibrator Microphone Adapters
056-990
056-988
0.52" diameter
1/4" diameter
059-344
WS-7 Windscreen for 0.52" microphone (package of 3)
058-115
WS-3 Windscreen for 1" microphone (package of 3)
056-877
C-A Measurement Option (Factory Installed)
056-887
512K Memory Option (Factory Installed)
059-045
TP-1 Tripod (Larger - will not fit in carrying case)
059-046
TP-2 Tripod (Smaller - fits in carrying case)
056-875
Parallel Printer Interface
056-999
Serial Interface (RS-232 to PC) cable
Preamplifier Remote Cables
059-899
059-733
059-734
ICM-2 Microphone Cable (2 foot length)
ICM-10 Microphone Cable (10 foot length)
ICM-50 Microphone Cable (50 foot length)
059-703
Input adapter: Female BNC to 0.52" microphone thread, with
18pF capacitance. Allows direct electrical signal input to
the meter.
Quest Suite for Windows PC support software
056-709
63
64
DC Power Supply Module: Acccepts 12-16VDC input to
power the meter and optional filter.
9.
INTRODUCTION TO THE MODELS OB-100 and OB-300
TIME
The Quest Model OB-100 Octave Filter and OB-300 1/3 - 1/1 Octave Filter
are plug-in modules containing a bandpass filter with a selectable center
frequency.
The OB-100 meets the most stringent requirements of ANSI
S1.11-1986 and IEC R225-1966 for octave band filters. The OB-100 is a full
octave bandwidth active filter with ten selectable center frequencies from
31.5 Hz to 16 kHz. The OB-300 meets the most stringent requirements of ANSI
S1.11-1986 and IEC R225-1966 for octave and third octave band filters. The
OB-300 is an active filter with 33 selectable center frequencies from 12.5 Hz
to 20 kHz when in the 1/3 mode and 11 selectable center frequencies from 16
Hz to 16 kHz when in the 1/1 mode. The filters may be operated manually, or
can automatically step through each consecutive band at a user selectable
rate.
Primary uses include frequency analysis for product noise emission,
material acoustics, community noise, audiometer calibration and analysis of
audiometric rooms.
10.
ABOUT THE FILTER
10.1
Filter Controls
POWER Switch:
A three position slide switch:
OFF -- Disconnects the filter circuitry from the attached sound
level meter. With this switch in the off position, the filter does
not use power from the meter batteries.
MANUAL -- Filter frequency selection is performed with two push
buttons (START Buttons - ª and «).
AUTO -- Unit automatically cycles through the desired filter
frequencies while storing sample information for each frequency
during the RUN mode.
START (UP and DOWN Arrows)
Allows the user to step through the different bandpass filters. The two
buttons allow manual frequency control (in MANUAL Mode) or frequency
direction control (in AUTO Mode).
-20 dB
A screwdriver adjustment controls the automatic cycle time of each
filter frequency from approximately 5 to 30 seconds.
MODE Switch (OB-300 only)
Selects either the 1/3 octave filter set (33 frequencies) or the 1/1
octave filter set (11 frequencies).
10.2
The 30 pin connector on the top of the filter is used for connecting the
filter to the sound level meter. Figure 30 shows the pinout for the filter
connector.
1
1
.
OPERATING
PROCEDURE
T h e
Model 1900
becomes an
O c t a v e
B a n d
Analyzer
with
the
addition
of
the
O B - 1 0 0
O c t a v e
Filter Set
or a 1/3
O c t a v e
B a n d
analyzer
with
the
a d d i t i o n Figure 30. External Filter Connector
of the OB300 Filter
Set.
The two units are connected together with the long captive screw
provided with the filter box. The operating considerations for the Model
1900 (Section 3.1) are basically the same when using the filters with the
meter.
When this button is pressed, the output of the filter is amplified by 20
dB and then fed back to the sound level meter. Therefore, 20 dB has to
be subtracted from the meter reading when using this button.
NOTE:
This button should not be pressed during a study, as it will result in
incorrect data.
65
Filter Connector
66
11.1
Operational Check
If a measurement other than SPL is selected, the display will not
show a value, as no study has been stored under the current
conditions (filter ON).
The Model 1900 should be calibrated as outlined in the meter section of
the manual (Section 5.1) while the filter module is OFF. The filter has a
fixed gain of approximately 1 (0 dB) at each center frequency and requires no
adjustment.
After the meter is calibrated, check the filter for proper
operation as follows:
1.
11.2
Read the calibrator 1 kHz output level. Set the meter dB
switch so that the calibrator level will indicate within the
20 dB of the meter display.
Set the RESPONSE switch to
WEIGHTING switch to LIN and MODE switch to SPL. Turn the
switch to ON.
RANGE
upper
FAST,
POWER
2.
Set the filter's switch to MANUAL. If using an OB-300 set the MODE
switch to 1/1. Then use the UP or DOWN arrow buttons on the filter
to select the 1 kHz filter.
3.
Place the calibrator (and adapter if needed) onto the microphone.
Turn the calibrator ON. A meter reading that is very close to the
level listed on the calibrator should result. An error of +/- 0.5
dB is acceptable.
This is due to the center frequency filter
tolerance of +/- 0.5 dB maximum.
4.
Change the filter frequency to 500 and read the display.
Then
change to 2k and read the display.
At both frequencies the
readings should be 19 to 23 dB less than the 1 kHz calibrator
level.
5.
Change the filter frequency to 1k and the meter dB RANGE so that
the meter reads 20 to 40 dB less than full scale. Press and hold
the -20 dB button on the OB-100. The meter reading shall rise
approximately 20 dB to verify that the -20 dB button functions.
6.
Remove the calibrator.
The analyzer is now ready to use.
Taking a Measurement
1.
Turn the meter POWER switch ON.
Pause mode.
2.
Set the RANGE to 80 - 140 dB. Set the RESPONSE to FAST, WEIGHTING
to LIN (see note below), and the MODE switch to SPL.
NOTE:
The meter will turn on in the
4.
MANUAL Filter Operation
Place the meter into the Pause mode using the RUN/PAUSE key. Select the
first frequency of interest. Current SPL may be viewed on the display. If
a study is desired, press the RUN/PAUSE key to enter the Run mode.
The
memory location number will show briefly on the display and the meter will
begin accumulating data. Remain in Run mode for the required amount of time
necessary to obtain a valid sample. Press RUN/PAUSE to enter the Pause mode,
change to the next frequency of interest and enter RUN/PAUSE again, etc.
Repeat this process for all frequencies of interest. Each successive RUN
will increment the memory location counter.
AUTO Filter Operation
Place the meter into the Pause mode using the RUN/PAUSE key.
If
desired, press RESET to clear all internal memory. Set the meter for FAST
response time to minimize its settling time after the filter switches
frequencies. Select the first frequency of interest. (Be sure that the TIME
adjustment is set to the desired filter cycle time.)
Slide the filter POWER switch to AUTO. To start the sampling sequence,
place the meter into the RUN mode and immediately press the proper direction
button.
(The ª button causes the frequency to cycle to the next higher
frequency, the « button causes the frequency to cycle to the next lower
frequency.) Each time the filter band changes, a new study is initiated and
the memory location counter will increment.
A brief period of time will
occur between studies to allow for measurement settling time.
When the last frequency of interest has completed its cycle time, slide
the filter POWER switch to MANUAL and immediately place the meter into the
Pause mode.
Note that the filter response can be in series with either A,
C, or LIN. However, LIN is generally used when taking octave
band measurements.
To minimize settling time following a filter band change, FAST
response is generally recommended, especially if frequent
filter band changes will be made.
3.
Turn the filter's POWER switch to MANUAL to activate the filter.
67
Select the desired filter band by pressing the UP or DOWN arrow
buttons. Press the RANGE ª or « keys so that the display reads
approximately 20dB below the top of the range.
68
13.
11.3
Standards:
R225-1966.
Each filter band measurement is treated as a separate study, the same as
if RUN and PAUSE had been pressed to initiate and end a study. Each study is
stored in a sequential memory location. To review the data, the meter must
be in the Pause mode. When entering a memory location to review data, the
filter frequency band will be displayed briefly (example: " 6300HZ "). Review
stored data as outlined in section 3.2.
12.
SPECIFICATIONS - OB-100
Reviewing the Data
ANSI
S1.11-1986,
Order
3,
Type
2,
Sub-type
C
and
IEC
Center Frequencies: 10 frequencies from 31.5 Hz to 16 kHz.
Frequency Selection: Full manual
stepping through each frequency.
TECHNICAL INFORMATION - OB-100
control
or
automatic
sequential
Power Source: Sound Level Meter.
The OB-100 conforms to ANSI S1.11-1986, Order 3, Type 2, Sub-type C and
IEC R225-1966. The normalized passband characteristic of a typical octave
filter response is depicted in Figure 31.
The OB-100 filter is flat within 0.5 dB in the passband, with the 3 dB
down points at approximately .707 fc and 1.414 fc where fc is the center
frequency of the band chosen.
The fc/2 and 2fc frequencies are down by
approximately 21 dB with the decade points (fc/10 and 10fc) down by greater
than 70 dB.
The block diagram of the OB-100 is shown in Figure 33.
Size: 3.3 x 2.8 x 1.8 inches (84 x 71 x 47mm)
Weight: 6 ounces (170 grams)
14.
TECHNICAL INFORMATION - OB-300
The OB-300 conforms to ANSI S1.11-1986, Order 3, Type 2, Sub-type C and
IEC R225-1966. The normalized passband characteristics of both the 1/1 and
1/3 filter responses are depicted in Figure 32.
The 1/1 filters are flat within 0.5 dB in the passband, with the 3 dB
down points at approximately 0.707 fc and 1.414 fc where fc is the center
frequency of the band chosen.
The fc/2 and 2fc frequencies are down by
approximately 21 dB with the decade points (fc/10 and 10fc) down by greater
than 70 dB.
The 1/3 filters are flat within 0.3 dB in the passband, with the 3 dB
down points at approximately 0.89 fc and 1.12 fc where fc is the center
frequency of the band chosen.
The fc/2 and 2fc frequencies are down by
approximately 50 dB.
The block diagram of the OB-300 is shown in Figure 33.
15.
SPECIFICATIONS - OB-300
Standards:
R225-1966.
ANSI
S1.11-1986,
Order
3,
Type
2,
Sub-type
C
and
IEC
Center Frequencies: (1/3 Mode) 33 frequencies from 12.5 Hz to 20 kHz.
(1/1 Mode) 11 frequencies from 16 Hz to 16 kHz.
Frequency Selection: Full manual
stepping through each frequency.
Figure 31.
Typical OB-100 Filter Response
control
or
Power Source: Sound Level Meter.
Size: 3.3 x 4.2 x 1.8 inches (84 x 107 x 47mm)
Weight: 9 ounces (255 grams)
69
70
automatic
sequential
QUEST SERVICE AND WARRANTY POLICY
Service Policy
The Quest product you have purchased is one of the finest acoustic
instruments available.
It is backed by our full one year warranty which
seeks complete customer satisfaction. This is your assurance that you can
expect prompt courteous service for your equipment from the entire Quest
service organization.
Should your Quest equipment need to be returned for repair or
recalibration, please contact the Service Department at 1(800)245-0779 (USA)
or Fax (414)567-4047 for a Return Authorization Number. The RA number is
valid for 30 days, and must be shown on the shipping label and purchase
order/cover letter. If you are unable to return instruments in that time
call for a new RA number.
Send it prepaid and properly packed in the
original shipping carton directly to Quest Technologies, 510 S. Worthington
St., Oconomowoc, WI 53066 U.S.A.
Repair or replacement work done under warranty will be performed free of
charge, and the instrument will be returned to you prepaid. Your copy or a
photocopy of the Quest Registration Card will serve as proof of warranty
should the factory require this information.
Figure 32. Typical OB-300 Filter Response
If for any reason you should find it necessary to contact the factory
regarding service or shipping damage, please direct your calls or letters to
the attention of the Service Manager, Quest Technologies, (414) 567-9157 or
(800) 245-0779. Office hours are from 8 AM to 5 PM (Central Standard Time)
Monday through Friday.
Warranty
Quest Technologies warrants our instruments to be free from defects in
materials and workmanship for one year under normal conditions of use and
service. For U.S.A. customers we will replace or repair (our option)
defective instruments at no charge, excluding batteries, abuse, misuse,
alterations, physical damage, or instruments previously repaired by other
than Quest Technologies. Microphones, sensors, printers and chart recorders
may have shorter warranty periods. This warranty states our total obligation
in place of any other warranties expressed or implied. Our warranty does not
include any liability or obligation directly resulting from any defective
instrument or product or any associated damages, injuries, or property loss,
including loss of use or measurement data.
For warranty outside the U.S.A., a
to the same limitation and exceptions
arranged through the authorized Quest
Service Laboratory. Foreign purchasers
agent for details.
Figure 33. Block Diagram of Models OB-100 and OB-300
71
72
minimum of one year warranty applies
as above with service provided or
sales agent or our Quest European
should contact the local Quest sales