IBM System Storage N series Data ONTAP 8.2 Data Protection Tape

Release Candidate Documentation - Contents Subject To Change
IBM System Storage N series
Data ONTAP 8.2 Data Protection Tape
Backup and Recovery Guide For 7-Mode
SC27-5940-01
Release Candidate Documentation - Contents Subject To Change
Release Candidate Documentation - Contents Subject To Change
Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
About this guide . . . . .
Supported features . . . .
Websites . . . . . . .
Getting information, help, and
Before you call. . . . . .
Using the documentation . .
Hardware service and support
Firmware updates . . . .
How to send your comments
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. ix
. ix
. ix
. x
. x
. x
. x
. x
. xi
Data protection using tape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Advantages and disadvantages of tape backup . . . .
Types of tape backup supported by Data ONTAP . . .
How to initiate a dump or SMTape backup . . . . .
Differences between dump backup and SMTape backup .
Considerations before choosing a tape backup method .
How online migration affects tape backup . . . . .
How volume move operations affect tape backup . . .
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Tape drive management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
What tape devices are . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of tape devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tape device name format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supported number of simultaneous tape devices . . . . . . . . .
Displaying tape device statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying supported tape devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What assigning tape aliases is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What physical path names are . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What serial numbers are . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying existing aliases of tape drives . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying information about tape drives and medium changers . . . .
Assigning tape aliases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing tape aliases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Propagating tape aliases to multiple storage systems . . . . . . . .
Considerations when configuring multipath tape access . . . . . . .
How to add tape drives and libraries to storage systems . . . . . . .
How to display tape drive and tape library information . . . . . . .
Displaying information about tape drives . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying information about tape medium changers . . . . . . .
Displaying information about tape drive connections to the storage system
Controlling tape drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving a tape to the end of data . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving forward to a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving backward to the beginning of a file . . . . . . . . . .
Rewinding a tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Taking a tape drive offline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying status information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What qualified tape drives are . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Format of the tape configuration file . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How the storage system qualifies a new tape drive dynamically. . . .
How to use a nonqualified tape drive . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying information about nonqualified tape drives . . . . . . .
Tape drive information required for emulation . . . . . . . . .
Emulating a qualified tape drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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. 5
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iii
Release Candidate Documentation - Contents Subject To Change
What tape reservations are . .
Enabling tape reservations .
Disabling tape reservations .
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. 24
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NDMP management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Advantages of NDMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What NDMP security is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying NDMP access by host or interface . . . . . . . . .
Specifying the NDMP authentication type . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling or disabling NDMP connection logging . . . . . . . .
Specifying the NDMP password length . . . . . . . . . . .
Generating an NDMP-specific password for non-root administrators .
How to manage NDMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling and disabling NDMP services . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying a preferred network interface. . . . . . . . . . .
Designating the range of ports for NDMP data connections . . . .
Turning off a data connection specification . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying the general status information about NDMP sessions . .
Displaying detailed NDMP session information . . . . . . . .
Optimizing NDMP communication performance . . . . . . . .
Terminating an NDMP session . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying the NDMP version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NDMP options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NDMP extensions supported by Data ONTAP . . . . . . . . . .
Tape backup using NDMP services . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Common NDMP tape backup topologies . . . . . . . . . .
Considerations when using NDMP . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scalability limits for NDMP sessions . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tape devices and configurations you can use with the storage system .
Preparing for basic NDMP backup application management . . . .
What environment variables do. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Data backup to tape using the dump engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
How a dump backup works . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What the dump engine backs up . . . . . . . . . . . .
What increment chains are . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to specify tape devices for the backup . . . . . . . .
What the /etc/dumpdates file is . . . . . . . . . . . .
What the blocking factor is . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Considerations before using the dump backup . . . . . . .
Determining the amount of backup data. . . . . . . . .
Estimating the number of tapes for the backup . . . . . .
Scalability limits for dump backup and restore sessions . . .
When to restart a dump backup . . . . . . . . . . . .
How a dump restore works . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What the dump engine restores. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Considerations before restoring data . . . . . . . . . . .
How to perform a dump backup and restore using NDMP services
Environment variables supported for dump . . . . . . .
Enabling or disabling enhanced DAR functionality . . . . .
What the ndmpcopy command does . . . . . . . . . .
Transferring data using ndmpcopy . . . . . . . . .
Use cases for ndmpcopy . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying file history statistics . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to perform a dump backup using the CLI . . . . . . .
What the dump command syntax is . . . . . . . . . .
Where to enter the dump command . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying the backup level . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Improving incremental dump performance . . . . . . . .
Updating the /etc/dumpdates file. . . . . . . . . . .
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IBM System Storage N series: Data ONTAP 8.2 Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide For 7-Mode
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Release Candidate Documentation - Contents Subject To Change
Specifying a local tape device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying a tape device on a remote storage system . . . . . . . . . . .
Example: Tape drive attached to a remote storage system having an IPv6 address .
Examples: Tape drive attached to a Solaris system . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying the dump path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying a list of files for backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backing up all data that is not in a qtree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Excluding specified files and directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Omitting ACLs from a backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying a name for a backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying a blocking factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying the tape file size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appending backups to tapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verifying the files backed up by a dump command backup . . . . . . . . .
Checking the status of a dump backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Finding out whether a backup has to be restarted . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to get details about a specific backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restarting a dump command backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting restartable dump command backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to perform a dump restore using the CLI . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restore command syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What restore types are. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What modifiers are . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Where to enter the restore command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Executing a restore command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restoring incremental backups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restoring each volume backed up as separate subtrees or qtrees. . . . . . . .
Restoring individual files and directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying a full restore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What a table-of-contents restore is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying table-of-contents restores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying a resume restore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying tape devices in the restore command . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying a single tape file on a multifile tape . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying the restore destination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying the blocking factor during restore . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying detailed status output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ignoring inode limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying automatic confirmations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying no ACLs to be restored . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying not to restore qtree information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying a test restore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restore examples: Restoring using a remote tape drive . . . . . . . . . . .
Restore examples: Multiple tape restores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How dump works when volume access type changes . . . . . . . . . . . .
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68
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69
69
70
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71
72
73
74
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75
76
76
76
79
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80
81
81
81
81
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83
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84
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85
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86
86
87
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89
90
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91
92
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95
96
Data backup to tape using the SMTape engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
How SMTape backup works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What tape seeding is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Features of SMTape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Features not supported in SMTape. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum number of SMTape backup and restore sessions . . . . .
How to perform an SMTape backup and restore using NDMP services .
Environment variables supported for SMTape . . . . . . . . .
How to back up and restore using the SMTape commands . . . . .
Backing up data to tape using SMTape . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying the volume geometry of a traditional volume . . . . .
Displaying the image header of a tape . . . . . . . . . . .
Restoring data from tape using SMTape . . . . . . . . . .
Aborting a backup or restore operation using smtape abort command
Continuing a backup or restore after reaching the end of tape . . .
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. 97
. 98
. 98
. 99
. 99
. 99
. 99
. 101
. 101
. 102
. 102
. 103
. 104
. 104
Contents
v
Release Candidate Documentation - Contents Subject To Change
Displaying the status of SMTape backup and restore operations . . . . . .
Removing the SnapMirror status entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing the SnapMirror status entry after an SMTape backup . . . . .
Removing the SnapMirror status entry after an SMTape restore. . . . . .
Enabling or disabling concurrent volume SnapMirror and SMTape backup operations
Performing SMTape restores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing a baseline restore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing an incremental restore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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105
105
106
107
108
109
109
109
What event logging is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Accessing the event log files . . . . . . . . .
What the dump and restore event log message format is
What logging events are . . . . . . . . . .
What dump events are . . . . . . . . . .
What restore events are . . . . . . . . . .
What the SMTape event log message format is . . .
What SMTape CLI backup and restore events are .
What SMTape backup events are . . . . . . .
What SMTape restore events are . . . . . . .
Enabling or disabling event logging . . . . . . .
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111
111
112
112
113
115
115
115
116
117
Error messages for tape backup and restore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Backup and restore error messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resource limitation: no available thread . . . . . . . . . . .
Duplicated tape drive (tape_drive) specified in the tape argument list .
Invalid tape drive tape_drive in tape argument list . . . . . . . .
Tape reservation preempted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Could not initialize media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Too many active dumps/restores currently in progress . . . . . .
Media error on tape write . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tape write failed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tape write failed - new tape encountered media error . . . . . . .
Tape write failed - new tape is broken or write protected. . . . . .
Tape write failed - new tape is already at the end of media . . . . .
Tape write error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Media error on tape read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tape read error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Already at the end of tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tape record size is too small. Try a larger size. . . . . . . . . .
Tape record size should be block_size1 and not block_size2 . . . . .
Tape record size must be in the range between 4KB and 256KB . . .
NDMP error messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Network communication error. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Message from Read Socket: error_string . . . . . . . . . . .
Message from Write Dirnet: error_string . . . . . . . . . . .
Read Socket received EOF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ndmpd invalid version number: version_number . . . . . . . .
Error: Unable to retrieve session information . . . . . . . . . .
ndmpd session session_ID not active . . . . . . . . . . . .
No such user user_name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cannot generate NDMP password . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The specified operation could not be completed as the volume is moving
Could not obtain vol ref for Volume volume_name . . . . . . . .
ndmpcopy error messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ndmpcopy: Socket connection to host_name failed . . . . . . . .
Ndmpcopy: Error opening NDMP connection . . . . . . . . .
Ndmpcopy: Client authentication request failed . . . . . . . . .
Ndmpcopy: Authentication failed for source . . . . . . . . . .
Ndmpcopy: Authentication failed for destination . . . . . . . .
Ndmpcopy: Failed to start dump on source . . . . . . . . . .
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IBM System Storage N series: Data ONTAP 8.2 Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide For 7-Mode
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119
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Release Candidate Documentation - Contents Subject To Change
Ndmpcopy: Failed to start restore on destination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ndmpcopy: Error in getting extension list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Error getting local hostname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ndmpcopy: Connection setup for transfer failed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONNECT: Connection refused . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Invalid name. Source filer name does not resolve to the specified address mode . . . . . . .
Invalid name. Destination filer name does not resolve to the specified address mode . . . . .
Dump error messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No default tape device list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Invalid/offline volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unable to lock a snapshot needed by dump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Failed to determine snapshot type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Volume is temporarily in a transitional state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unable to locate bitmap files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Failed to locate the specified restartable dump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dump context created from NDMP. Cannot restart dump . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unable to locate snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Invalid inode specified on restart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Invalid restart context. Cannot restart dump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Failed to retrieve saved info for the restartable dump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Destination volume is read-only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Destination qtree is read-only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IB restore in progress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Could not access volume in path: volume_name. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No files were created . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restore of the file <file name> failed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Truncation failed for src inode <inode number>... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SMTape error messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Internal assertion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Job aborted due to shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Job not found . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Job aborted due to Snapshot autodelete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Invalid volume path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
UNIX style RMT tape drive is not supported . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Volume is currently in use by other operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Volume offline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Volume not restricted. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tape is currently in use by other operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Invalid input tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Too many active jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Failed to allocate memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Failed to get data buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Failed to create job UUID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Failed to create snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Failed to find snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Failed to lock snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Failed to access the named snapshot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Failed to softlock qtree snapshots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Failed to delete softlock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Failed to delete snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Image header missing or corrupted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chunks out of order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tapes out of order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Already read volume_name tape_number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mismatch in backup set ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aborting: Destination volume, volume_name, is too small . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aborting: Destination volume, volume_name, is a clone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Source volume size is greater than maximum supported SIS volume size on this platform. Aborting
Incompatible SnapMirror or copy source Version. Aborting . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transfers from volume volume_name are temporarily disabled . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Too many active transfers at once, aborting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Invalid contents in destination volume geometry string volume_geometry_string, aborting . . . .
Cannot init input, aborting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Source volume is not a flexible volume. Aborting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Source volume is a flexible volume. Aborting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Destination is not an aggregate. Aborting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Source is not an aggregate. Aborting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Source is not a hybrid aggregate. Aborting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Invalid checksum for the chunk descriptor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Received VBN header with invalid checksum error_string, aborting transfer on volume volume_name
Duplicate VBN VBN_number received for volume volume_name, aborting transfer . . . . . . .
Bad block in read stream. VBN = VBN_number, max_VBN = max_VBN_number. . . . . . . .
Invalid checksum found for one of the data block, where VBN number is VBN_number . . . . .
Block for VBN VBN_number failed checksum verification, aborting the current transfer on volume
volume_name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Language setting for the Snapshot is not found . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Volume is currently under migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Failed to get latest snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Failed to load new tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remote tape not supported. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Failed to initialize tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Failed to initialize restore stream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Failed to read backup image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Invalid backup image magic number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chunk format not supported . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Invalid backup image checksum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mismatch in backup level number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mismatch in backup time stamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Volume read-only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Invalid source path: /vol/newvol/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Copyright and trademark information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Trademark information .
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. 144
Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
viii
IBM System Storage N series: Data ONTAP 8.2 Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide For 7-Mode
Release Candidate Documentation - Contents Subject To Change
Preface
About this guide
This document applies to IBM N series systems running Data ONTAP, including
systems with gateway functionality. If the term 7-Mode is used in the document, it
refers to Data ONTAP operating in 7-Mode, which has the same features and
functionality found in the prior Data ONTAP 7.1, 7.2, and 7.3 release families.
In this document, the term gateway describes IBM N series storage systems that
have been ordered with gateway functionality. Gateways support various types of
storage, and they are used with third-party disk storage systems—for example,
disk storage systems from IBM, HP®, Hitachi Data Systems®, and EMC®. In this
case, disk storage for customer data and the RAID controller functionality is
provided by the back-end disk storage system. A gateway might also be used with
disk storage expansion units specifically designed for the IBM N series models.
The term filer describes IBM N series storage systems that either contain internal
disk storage or attach to disk storage expansion units specifically designed for the
IBM N series storage systems. Filer storage systems do not support using
third-party disk storage systems.
Supported features
IBM System Storage N series storage systems are driven by NetApp Data ONTAP
software. Some features described in the product software documentation are
neither offered nor supported by IBM. Please contact your local IBM representative
or reseller for further details.
Information about supported features can also be found on the N series support
website (accessed and navigated as described in Websites).
Websites
IBM maintains pages on the World Wide Web where you can get the latest
technical information and download device drivers and updates. The following
web pages provide N series information:
v A listing of currently available N series products and features can be found at
the following web page:
www.ibm.com/storage/nas/
v The IBM System Storage N series support website requires users to register in
order to obtain access to N series support content on the web. To understand
how the N series support web content is organized and navigated, and to access
the N series support website, refer to the following publicly accessible web page:
www.ibm.com/storage/support/nseries/
This web page also provides links to AutoSupport information as well as other
important N series product resources.
v IBM System Storage N series products attach to a variety of servers and
operating systems. To determine the latest supported attachments, go to the IBM
N series interoperability matrix at the following web page:
www.ibm.com/systems/storage/network/interophome.html
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
ix
Release Candidate Documentation - Contents Subject To Change
v For the latest N series hardware product documentation, including planning,
installation and setup, and hardware monitoring, service and diagnostics, see the
IBM N series Information Center at the following web page:
publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/nasinfo/nseries/index.jsp
Getting information, help, and service
If you need help, service, or technical assistance or just want more information
about IBM products, you will find a wide variety of sources available from IBM to
assist you. This section contains information about where to go for additional
information about IBM and IBM products, what to do if you experience a problem
with your IBM N series product, and whom to call for service, if it is necessary.
Before you call
Before you call, make sure you have taken these steps to try to solve the problem
yourself:
v Check all cables to make sure they are connected.
v Check the power switches to make sure the system is turned on.
v Use the troubleshooting information in your system documentation and use the
diagnostic tools that come with your system.
v Refer to the N series support website (accessed and navigated as described in
Websites) for information on known problems and limitations.
Using the documentation
The latest versions of N series software documentation, including Data ONTAP
and other software products, are available on the N series support website
(accessed and navigated as described in Websites).
Current N series hardware product documentation is shipped with your hardware
product in printed documents or as PDF files on a documentation CD. For the
latest N series hardware product documentation PDFs, go to the N series support
website.
Hardware documentation, including planning, installation and setup, and
hardware monitoring, service, and diagnostics, is also provided in an IBM N series
Information Center at the following web page:
publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/nasinfo/nseries/index.jsp
Hardware service and support
You can receive hardware service through IBM Integrated Technology Services.
Visit the following web page for support telephone numbers:
www.ibm.com/planetwide/
Firmware updates
IBM N series product firmware is embedded in Data ONTAP. As with all devices,
ensure that you run the latest level of firmware. Any firmware updates are posted
to the N series support website (accessed and navigated as described in Websites).
x
IBM System Storage N series: Data ONTAP 8.2 Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide For 7-Mode
Release Candidate Documentation - Contents Subject To Change
Note: If you do not see new firmware updates on the N series support website,
you are running the latest level of firmware.
Verify that the latest level of firmware is installed on your machine before
contacting IBM for technical support.
How to send your comments
Your feedback helps us to provide the most accurate and high-quality information.
If you have comments or suggestions for improving this document, please send
them by email to starpubs@us.ibm.com.
Be sure to include the following:
v Exact publication title
v Publication form number (for example, GC26-1234-02)
v Page, table, or illustration numbers
v A detailed description of any information that should be changed
Preface
xi
Release Candidate Documentation - Contents Subject To Change
xii
IBM System Storage N series: Data ONTAP 8.2 Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide For 7-Mode
Release Candidate Documentation - Contents Subject To Change
Data protection using tape
You use tape backup and recovery to create tape archives and to retrieve data from
tape archives.
You back up data from disk to tape for the following reasons:
v You can store the backup tapes at an off-site archive to protect the data against
natural disasters.
v You can restore data from tape if an application or a user inadvertently corrupts
or deletes files that cannot be recovered using the Snapshot copy feature.
v You can restore data from tape after you reinstall the file system on the storage
system (for example, when migrating to larger disks or converting a
single-volume storage system to a multivolume storage system).
Advantages and disadvantages of tape backup
Data backed up to tape requires fewer resources to maintain. However, restoring
data from tape might take a long time.
The following are the advantages of tape backup over online storage:
v Tape backups require fewer resources to maintain.
v You can place the archives in a more secure place than you can place a storage
system.
v You can recover data from any release of Data ONTAP.
The following are the disadvantages of tape archives over online storage:
v Restoring data from tape takes a long time.
v Finding a particular file or directory on tape is time consuming.
Types of tape backup supported by Data ONTAP
Data ONTAP supports two types of tape backup: the dump backup and the
SMTape backup.
Tape backup using dump
Dump is a Snapshot copy-based backup to tape, in which your file system data is
backed up to tape. The Data ONTAP dump engine backs up files, directories, and
the applicable ACL information to tape. Dump supports level-0, differential, and
incremental backups.
Tape backup using SMTape
SMTape is a Snapshot copy-based high performance disaster recovery solution that
backs up blocks of data to tape. You can use SMTape to perform volume backups
to tapes. However, you cannot perform a backup at the qtree or subtree level.
SMTape supports level-0, differential, and incremental backups.
Related concepts:
“Data backup to tape using the dump engine ” on page 43
“Data backup to tape using the SMTape engine” on page 97
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
1
Release Candidate Documentation - Contents Subject To Change
“Differences between dump backup and SMTape backup”
How to initiate a dump or SMTape backup
You can initiate a dump or SMTape backup by using the Data ONTAP CLI
commands or through NDMP-compliant backup applications.
When you use a backup application to back up your data, you must choose the
backup type when initiating a backup.
You can perform a CLI-based dump backup or restore using the Data ONTAP dump
and restore commands.
Similarly, you can perform a CLI-based SMTape backup or restore using the Data
ONTAP smtape backup and smtape restore commands.
Related concepts:
“Data backup to tape using the dump engine ” on page 43
“Data backup to tape using the SMTape engine” on page 97
Differences between dump backup and SMTape backup
There are certain differences between dump and SMTape backup engines such as
type of data backed up, support of single file restore, and preservation of
deduplication. The SMTape backup provides faster backup performance when
compared to a dump backup.
The following table lists the differences between SMTape backup and dump
backup:
SMTape backup
Dump backup
Backs up blocks of data to tape.
Backs up files and directories to tape.
Does not support single file restore.
Supports single file restore.
Capable of backing up multiple Snapshot
copies in a volume.
Capable of backing up only the base
Snapshot copy.
Preserves deduplication while backing up
and restoring data.
Does not preserve deduplication while
backing up data.
Considerations before choosing a tape backup method
You must consider your business requirements before choosing a tape backup
method. Data ONTAP supports dump backup and SMTape backup methods.
You should use dump backup and restore if you want the following features:
v A backup and recovery solution that helps you perform the following tasks:
– Perform Direct Access Recovery (DAR) of files and directories.
– Back up some, but not all, subdirectories or files in a specific path.
– Exclude specific files and directories during a backup.
v Preserve your backups for several years.
You should use SMTape backup and restore if you want the following features:
v A disaster recovery solution that provides high performance.
2
IBM System Storage N series: Data ONTAP 8.2 Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide For 7-Mode
Release Candidate Documentation - Contents Subject To Change
v To use tape backup to perform an initial full-volume transfer of a source
SnapMirror volume to a remote destination storage system and then perform
incremental transfers over the network.
In such cases, you can perform an SMTape backup of the SnapMirror volume to
a tape, ship the tape to the remote location and restore the contents to a target
volume, and set up a SnapMirror relationship. After the SnapMirror relationship
is established, the incremental backups are performed over the network. You can
also use this method to establish a SnapMirror relationship between source and
destination storage systems over a low-bandwidth connection.
v To preserve the deduplication on the backed up data during the restore
operation.
v To back up large volumes.
If you use the dump engine to back up volumes with a large number of small
files, your backup performance might be affected. This is because, the dump
engine performs a file system level backup and has to traverse through the files
and directories to back up the volumes. These volumes can be more efficiently
backed up to tape by using SMTape.
How online migration affects tape backup
You cannot perform a tape backup or restore of a vFiler unit during the cutover
phase of online migration.
v Backup or restore of a vFiler unit during the cutover phase of online migration
results in the following message: volume is currently under migration
v During the cutover phase of online migration, transfer of file system data by
using the ndmpcopy command results in a failure.
v After online migration, incremental backup of a vFiler unit is possible
depending on whether the backup is made from the vFiler unit or vfiler0.
Before migration, if a
backup is made from...
After migration, if an
Is incremental backup of
incremental backup is made the vFiler unit possible after
from...
migration?
vFiler unit
vFiler unit
yes
vFiler unit
vfiler0
No
vfiler0
vFiler unit
No
vfiler0
vfiler0
No
For more information about online migration, see the Data ONTAP MultiStore
Management Guide for 7-Mode.
How volume move operations affect tape backup
You cannot perform a tape backup or restore operation while a volume move
operation is in cutover phase. Similarly, the cutover phase of a volume move
operation cannot start while a tape backup or restore is in progress. You must wait
until one of the operations is complete before initiating the other.
For more information about volume move operations, see the Data ONTAP SAN
Administration Guide for 7-Mode.
Data protection using tape
3
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4
IBM System Storage N series: Data ONTAP 8.2 Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide For 7-Mode
Release Candidate Documentation - Contents Subject To Change
Tape drive management
You need to manage tape drives when you back up data from the storage system
to tape and when you restore data from tape to the storage system.
When you back up data to tape, the data is stored in tape files. File marks separate
the tape files, and the files have no names. You specify a tape file by its position
on the tape. You write a tape file by using a tape device. When you read the tape
file, you must specify a device that has the same compression type that you used
to write that tape file.
What tape devices are
A tape device is a representation of a tape drive. It is a specific combination of
rewind type and compression capability of a tape drive.
A tape device is created for each combination of rewind type and compression
capability. Therefore, a tape drive or tape library can have several tape devices
associated with it. You must specify a tape device to move, write, or read tapes.
When you install a tape drive or tape library on a storage system, Data ONTAP
creates tape devices associated with the tape drive or tape library.
Data ONTAP detects tape drives and tape libraries and assigns logical numbers
and tape devices to them. Data ONTAP detects the Fibre Channel, SAS, and
parallel SCSI tape drives and libraries when they are connected to the interface
ports. Data ONTAP detects these drives when their interfaces are enabled.
Types of tape devices
There are two types of tape devices: local and remote. A local tape device is on a
storage system that performs the tape operation. A remote tape device is connected
through the network to a host or storage system that is performing the tape
operation.
The remote tape device has a trust relationship with the storage system that
performs the tape operation. The remote magnetic tape (RMT) protocol, which is a
bundled component of Data ONTAP runs on the remote tape device.
Note: SMTape does not support remote tape backups and restores.
Note: You cannot use tape devices associated with tape libraries (media changers)
on remote hosts.
Tape device name format
Each tape device has an associated name that appears in a defined format. The
format includes information about the type of device, rewind type, alias, and
compression type.
The format of a tape device name is as follows:
[remote_host:]rewind_type st alias_number compression_type
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
5
Release Candidate Documentation - Contents Subject To Change
remote_host is optional. You specify a remote host storage system if you want to use
a tape drive attached to that host. You must follow the remote host name with a
colon (:).
rewind_type is the rewind type.
The following list describes the various rewind type values:
r
Data ONTAP rewinds the tape after it finishes writing the tape file.
nr
Data ONTAP does not rewind the tape after it finishes writing the tape file.
Use this rewind type when you want to write multiple tape files on the
same tape.
ur
This is the unload/reload rewind type. When you use this rewind type, the
tape library unloads the tape when it reaches the end of a tape file, and
then loads the next tape, if there is one.
Use this rewind type only under the following circumstances:
v The tape drive associated with this device is in a tape library or is in a
medium changer that is in the library mode.
v The tape drive associated with this device is attached to a storage
system.
v Sufficient tapes for the operation that you are performing are available
in the library tape sequence defined for this tape drive.
Note: If you record a tape using a no-rewind device, you must rewind the tape
before you read it.
st is the standard designation for a tape drive.
alias_number is the alias that Data ONTAP assigns to the tape drive. When Data
ONTAP detects a new tape drive, Data ONTAP assigns an alias to the tape drive.
compression_type is a drive-specific code for the density of data on the tape and the
type of compression.
The following list describes the various values for compression_type:
a
Highest compression
h
High compression
m
Medium compression
l
Low compression
Examples
v nrst0a specifies a no-rewind device on tape drive 0 using the highest
compression.
v remfiler:nrst0a specifies a no-rewind device on tape drive 0 on the remote host
remfiler that uses the highest compression.
Attention: When using the urst device with the dump or restore command,
ensure that you use tape libraries and that there are sufficient tapes in the library
sequence. Otherwise, the tape drives involved terminate the command sequence or
overwrite the same tape multiple times.
6
IBM System Storage N series: Data ONTAP 8.2 Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide For 7-Mode
Release Candidate Documentation - Contents Subject To Change
Example of a listing of tape devices
The following example shows the tape devices associated with HP Ultrium 2-SCSI:
Tape drive (fc202_6:2.126L1) HP
rst0l - rewind device,
nrst0l - no rewind device,
urst0l - unload/reload device,
rst0m - rewind device,
nrst0m - no rewind device,
urst0m - unload/reload device,
rst0h - rewind device,
nrst0h - no rewind device,
urst0h - unload/reload device,
rst0a - rewind device,
nrst0a - no rewind device,
urst0a - unload/reload device,
Ultrium
format is:
format is:
format is:
format is:
format is:
format is:
format is:
format is:
format is:
format is:
format is:
format is:
2-SCSI
HP (200GB)
HP (200GB)
HP (200GB)
HP (200GB)
HP (200GB)
HP (200GB)
HP (200GB)
HP (200GB)
HP (200GB)
HP (400GB w/comp)
HP (400GB w/comp)
HP (400GB w/comp)
The following list describes the abbreviations in the preceding example:
v GB—Gigabytes; this is the capacity of the tape.
v w/comp—With compression; this shows the tape capacity with compression.
Related tasks:
“Assigning tape aliases” on page 12
Supported number of simultaneous tape devices
Data ONTAP supports a maximum of 64 simultaneous tape drive connections, 16
medium changers, and 16 bridge or router devices for each storage system in any
mix of Fibre Channel, SCSI, or SAS attachments.
Tape drives or medium changers can be devices in physical or virtual tape libraries
or stand-alone devices.
Note: Although a storage system can detect 64 tape drive connections, the
maximum number of backup and restore sessions that can be performed
simultaneously depends upon the scalability limits of the backup engine.
Displaying tape device statistics
The tape device statistics help understand tape performance and check usage
pattern. You reset the statistics reading and restart the process of displaying the
statistics whenever you want.
Procedure
To display the statistics for a specified tape device, enter the following command:
storage stats tape tape_name
tape_name is the name of a tape device.
Tape drive management
7
Release Candidate Documentation - Contents Subject To Change
Example
filerA> storage stats tape nrst0l
Bytes Read: 71471104
Bytes Written: 382147584
Command
Num issued Max (ms) Min (ms) Avg (ms)
---------------- -------- -------- -------WRITE - Total
2518
1927
2
24
6269
44-48KB
897
372
2
6
6531
60-64KB
421
1927
3
13
4796
128-132KB
800
131
8
19
6761
508KB+
400
481
32
83
6242
READ - Total
1092
1570
5
14
4582
60-64KB
92
1390
5
25
2493
64-68KB
1000
1570
5
13
4958
WEOF
5
2827 2787 2810
FSF
1
13055 13055 13055
BS
0
0
0
0
FSR
2
1390
5
697
BSR
1
23
23
23
REWIND
9
67606
94 22260
KB/s
KB/s
KB/s
KB/s
KB/s
KB/s
KB/s
KB/s
Displaying supported tape devices
You can view a list of tape devices supported by a storage system using the
storage show tape supported command. You can use a tape device only if it is
listed in the output of this command.
Procedure
To display a list of the tape drives supported by the storage system, enter the
following command:
storage show tape supported [-v]
The -v option gives you more detailed information about each tape drive.
Examples
filer1>storage show tape supported
Supported Tapes
-----------------------Exabyte 8500C 8mm
Exabyte 8505 8mm
Exabyte 8900 8mm
Exabyte 8500 8mm
Exabyte Mammoth-2 8mm
Digital DLT2000
Quantum DLT2000
Sun DLT2000
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storage show tape supported -v
IBM ULTRIUM-TD1
Density Compression
Setting
Setting
------- ----------0x40
0x00
0x40
0x00
0x40
0x00
0x40
0x01
LTO
LTO
LTO
LTO
IBM 03590B
Density Compression
Setting
Setting
------- ----------0x29
0x00
0x29
0x00
0x29
0x00
0x29
0xFF
B
B
B
B
Format
Format
Format
Format
10
10
10
20
GB
GB
GB
GB comp
IBM 03590E
Density Compression
Setting
Setting
------- ----------0x2A
0x00
0x2A
0x00
0x2A
0x00
0x2A
0xFF
E
E
E
E
Format
Format
Format
Format
20
20
20
40
GB
GB
GB
GB comp
IBM 03590H
Density Compression
Setting
Setting
------- ----------0x2C
0x00
0x2C
0x00
0x2C
0x00
0x2C
0xFF
H
H
H
H
Format
Format
Format
Format
30
30
30
60
GB
GB
GB
GB comp
Format
Format
Format
Format
100
100
100
200
GB
GB
GB
GB comp
Certance Ultrium 2 Density Compression
Setting
Setting
------- ----------0x00
0x00
0x00
0x01
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x01
Dynamically Qualified
Certance Ultrium 3 Density Compression
Setting
Setting
------- ----------0x00
0x00
0x00
0x01
0x00
0x00
0x00
0x01
Dynamically Qualified
LTO-1
LTO-1
LTO-2
LTO-2
100GB
200GB cmp
200GB
400GB cmp
LTO-1(ro)/2 1/200GB
LTO-1(ro)/2 2/400GB cmp
LTO-3 400GB
LTO-3 800GB cmp
What assigning tape aliases is
Aliasing simplifies the process of device identification. Aliasing binds a physical
path name (PPN) or a serial number (SN) of a tape or a medium changer to a
persistent, but modifiable alias name.
The following table describes how tape aliasing enables you to ensure that a tape
drive (or tape library or medium changer) is always associated with a single alias
name:
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Scenario
Reassigning of the alias
When the system reboots
The tape drive is automatically reassigned
its previous alias.
When a tape device moves to another port
The alias can be adjusted to point to the new
address.
When more than one system uses a
particular tape device
The user can set the alias to be the same for
all the systems.
Assigning tape aliases provides a correspondence between the logical names of
backup devices (for example, st0 or mc1) and a name permanently assigned to a
port, a tape drive, or a medium changer.
Note: st0 and st00 are different logical names.
You can use tape aliases as parameters to the dump, restore, smtape backup, and
smtape restore commands.
Note: Logical names and serial numbers are used only to access a device. After the
device is accessed, it returns all error messages by using the physical path name.
There are two types of names available for aliasing: physical path name and serial
number.
Related tasks:
“Assigning tape aliases” on page 12
“Removing tape aliases” on page 13
What physical path names are
Physical path names (PPNs) are the numerical address sequences that Data
ONTAP assigns to tape drives and tape libraries based on the SCSI-2/3 adapter or
switch (specific location) they are connected to, on the storage system. PPNs are
also known as electrical names.
PPNs of direct-attached devices use the following format:
host_adapter. device_id_lun
Note: The LUN value is displayed only for tape and medium changer devices
whose LUN values are not zero; that is, if the LUN value is zero the lun part of the
PPN is not displayed.
For example, the PPN 8.6 indicates that the host adapter number is 8, the device
ID is 6, and the logical unit number (LUN) is 0.
SAS tape devices are also direct-attached devices. For example, the PPN 5c.4
indicates that in a storage system, the SAS HBA is connected in slot 5, SAS tape is
connected to port C of the SAS HBA, and the device ID is 4.
PPNs of Fibre Channel switch-attached devices use the following format:
switch:port_id. device_id_lun
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For example, the PPN MY_SWITCH:5.3L2 indicates that the tape drive connected
to port 5 of a switch called MY_SWITCH is set with device ID 3 and has the LUN
2.
The LUN (logical unit number) is determined by the drive itself. Fibre Channel,
SCSI tape drives and libraries, and disks have PPNs.
In the following example, the dump command is using the tape device name of a
tape drive:
dump 0f /dev/nrst0a /vol/vol0
In the following example, the dump command is using the PPN of the tape drive:
dump 0f /dev/nr.MY_SWITCH:5.6.a /vol/vol0
PPNs of tape drives and libraries do not change unless the name of the switch
changes, the tape drive or library moves, or the tape drive or library is
reconfigured. PPNs remain unchanged after reboot.
For example, if a tape drive named MY_SWITCH:5.3L2 is removed and a new tape
drive with the same device ID and LUN is connected to port 5 of the switch
MY_SWITCH, the new tape drive would be accessible by using
MY_SWITCH:5.3L2.
What serial numbers are
A serial number (SN) is a unique identifier for a tape drive or a medium changer.
Starting with Data ONTAP 8.2, Data ONTAP generates aliases based on SN instead
of the WWN.
Since the SN is a unique identifier for a tape drive or a medium changer, the alias
remains the same regardless of the multiple connection paths to the tape drive or
medium changer. This helps storage systems to track the same tape drive or
medium changer in a tape library configuration.
The SN of a tape drive or a medium changer does not change even if you rename
the Fibre Channel switch to which the tape drive or medium changer is connected.
However, in a tape library if you replace an existing tape drive with a new one,
then Data ONTAP generates new aliases because the SN of the tape drive changes.
Also, if you move an existing tape drive to a new slot in a tape library or remap
the tape drive’s LUN, Data ONTAP generates a new alias for that tape drive.
Attention:
aliases.
You must update the backup applications with the newly generated
The SN of a tape device uses the following format: SN[xxxxxxxxxx]L[X]
x is an alphanumeric character and LX is the LUN of the tape device. If the LUN is
0, the LX part of the string is not displayed.
Each SN consists of up to 32 characters; the format for the SN is not case-sensitive.
Displaying existing aliases of tape drives
You can determine the existing aliases of tape drives and medium changers by
using the storage alias command.
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Procedure
To determine the existing aliases of tape drives, enter the following command:
storage alias
The following example displays two tape drive aliases, st0 and st2, and two
medium changer aliases, mc0 and mc1 mapped to serial numbers:
STSW-3070-2_cluster-01>storage alias
Alias
Mapping
---------------------------------------st0
SN[HU1008922R]
st2
SN[1068060730]
mc0
SN[c940abe8b0c3a0980248c8]
mc1
SN[2B13078413]L1
Displaying information about tape drives and medium changers
You can display information about tape drives and medium changers that helps
you assign tape aliases.
Procedure
To display information about tape drives and medium changers, enter the
following command:
storage show {tape | mc} [name]
name is the name of the tape device or medium changer.
Examples
The following examples show detailed information about tape device, nrst0a, and
medium changer, 3d.0L1:
filer1>storage show tape nrst0a
Tape Drive:
3c.0
Description:
Hewlett-Packard LTO-5
Serial Number:
HU1008922R
WWNN:
5:001:10a001:389194
WWPN:
5:001:10a001:389194
Alias Name(s):
st0
Device State:
available
filer1>storage show mc 3d.0L1
Medium Changer:
3d.0L1
Description:
OVERLAND NEO Series
Serial Number:
2B13078413
WWNN:
5:005:076312:4b4d6c
WWPN:
5:005:076312:4b4d6c
Alias Name(s):
mc1
Device State: available
Assigning tape aliases
You can assign tape aliases to provide a correspondence between the logical names
of backup devices and a name permanently assigned to a port, a tape drive, or a
medium changer.
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Procedure
To assign an alias to a tape drive or medium changer, enter the following
command:
storage alias [alias {PPN | SN}]
alias is the logical name of the tape drive or medium changer to which you want to
add the alias.
PPN is the physical path name to which you want to assign the tape drive or
medium changer.
SN is the unique identifier of a tape drive or medium changer.
Examples
storage alias st0 MY_SWITCH:5.3L3
The tape device st0 is assigned to the physical path name MY_SWITCH:5.3L3.
storage alias mc80 SN[HU106150D4]
The medium changer alias mc80 is mapped to its serial number SN[HU106150D4]
on LUN 0.
Removing tape aliases
You can remove aliases from tape drives, medium changers, or both, using the
storage unalias command.
Procedure
To remove an alias from a tape drive or medium changer, enter the following
command:
storage unalias {alias | -a | -m | -t}
alias is the logical name of the tape drive or medium changer from which you
want to remove the alias.
-a removes all aliases.
-m removes the aliases from all medium changers.
-t removes the aliases from all tape drives.
Examples
storage unalias st0
storage unalias mc80
Propagating tape aliases to multiple storage systems
If you need to use the same set of tape drives to back up more than one storage
system, you can save the tape alias information in a file. You can then propagate
the aliases to multiple storage systems.
Procedure
1. To propagate tape aliases to multiple storage systems, create a file named
tape_alias containing the tape alias information.
storage
storage
storage
storage
unalias -a
alias st0 8.6
alias st1 8.7
alias mc0 8.1
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2. Copy the file to the root volume of each storage system.
3. Execute the following command on each storage system:
source /vol/root_volume_name/tape_alias
root_volume_name specifies the root volume. All the storage systems contain the
same configuration information.
Note: To ensure that multiple storage systems assign the same alias to a tape
drive or medium changer, you can type the same set of storage alias
commands on each storage system.
Considerations when configuring multipath tape access
You can configure multiple paths from the storage system to access tape drives in a
tape library. If one path fails, then the storage system can use the other paths to
access tape drives without having to immediately repair the failed path. This
ensures that tape operations can be restarted.
You must take into account a list of considerations when configuring multipath
tape access from your storage system:
v In tape libraries that support LUN mapping, for multipath access to a LUN
group, LUN mapping must be symmetrical on each path.
Tape drives and media changers are assigned to LUN groups (set of LUNs that
share the same initiator path set) in a tape library. All tape drives of a LUN
group must be available for backup and restore operations on all multiple paths.
v Maximum of two paths can be configured from the storage system to access tape
drives in a tape library.
v Multipath tape access does not support load balancing.
How to add tape drives and libraries to storage systems
You can add tape drives and libraries to storage systems dynamically (without
taking the storage systems offline).
When you add a new medium changer, the storage system detects its presence and
adds it to the configuration. If the medium changer is already referenced in the
alias information, no new logical names are created. If the library is not referenced,
the storage system creates a new alias for the medium changer.
In a tape library configuration, you must configure a tape drive or medium
changer on LUN 0 of a target port for Data ONTAP to discover all medium
changers and tape drives on that target port.
How to display tape drive and tape library information
You can view information about tape drives, tape medium changers, and tape
drive connections to the storage system.
You can use this information to verify that the storage system detects the tape
drive associated with the tape device. You can also verify the available tape device
names associated with the tape drive. You can view information about qualified
and nonqualified tape drives, tape libraries, and tape drive connections to the
storage system.
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Displaying information about tape drives
You can view information about the tape drives on a storage system, such as the
slot on the storage system and the tape drive's SCSI ID.
Procedure
To view the tape drive information on a storage system, enter the following
command:
sysconfig -t
Example
filer1>sysconfig -t
Tape drive (0b.1) Exabyte 8900
rst0l - rewind device,
nrst0l - no rewind device,
urst0l - unload/reload device,
rst0m - rewind device,
nrst0m - no rewind device,
urst0m - unload/reload device,
rst0h - rewind device,
nrst0h - no rewind device,
urst0h - unload/reload device,
rst0a - rewind device,
nrst0a - no rewind device,
urst0a - unload/reload device,
8mm
format
format
format
format
format
format
format
format
format
format
format
format
is:
is:
is:
is:
is:
is:
is:
is:
is:
is:
is:
is:
EXB-8500
EXB-8500
EXB-8500
EXB-8500C
EXB-8500C
EXB-8500C
EXB-8900
EXB-8900
EXB-8900
EXB-8900C
EXB-8900C
EXB-8900C
5.0GB(readonly)
5.0GB(readonly)
5.0GB(readonly)
(w/compression)
(w/compression)
(w/compression)
10.0GB
10.0GB
10.0GB
(w/compression)
(w/compression)
(w/compression)
The numbers following “Tape drive” show the slot on the storage system that the
drive is attached to, followed by the drive’s SCSI ID. In the preceding example, the
Exabyte 8900 has SCSI ID 1 and is attached to a controller in slot 0b.
Note: Compression capacity in the display is an estimate; actual capacity depends
on how much data being written to the tape can be compressed.
Displaying information about tape medium changers
You can view the details about a tape medium changer, such as the slot to which it
is attached in the storage system.
Procedure
To view details about tape medium changers, enter the following command:
sysconfig -m
filer1>sysconfig -m
Medium changer (UC060000834:49.126)
mc0 - medium changer device
EXABYTE
EXB-440
Note: If the autoload option of the medium changer is set to On, the medium
changer information might not appear.
Displaying information about tape drive connections to the
storage system
You can view the information about a tape drive connection to the storage system.
You can view information such as the SCSI ID, Vendor ID, Product ID, and
firmware version.
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Procedure
Enter the following command:
sysconfig -v
Example
This example shows a tape medium changer with SCSI ID 6 and a tape drive with
SCSI ID 4 attached to slot 6 of the storage system. The SCSI firmware is 2.26, and
the SCSI adapter clock rate is 60 MHz.
slot 6: SCSI Host Adapter 6 (QLogic ISP 1040B)
Firmware Version 2.26
Clock Rate 60MHz.
6: BHTi
Quad 7
1.41
4: QUANTUM DLT7000
1B41
Controlling tape drives
You can move and position the tape drives by using the mt command.
You can use the mt command to perform any of the following tasks:
v Move a tape to the end of data to append a backup.
v Skip forward over files to access a particular tape file.
v Skip backward over files to access a particular tape file.
v Append a backup to save the tape if you have small backups.
v Rewind a tape to get to the beginning of the tape after using a no-rewind
device.
v Take a tape drive offline to service it.
v Display status information to find out whether a tape drive is online, offline, in
use, or not in use.
The syntax of the mt command is as follows:
mt {-f|-t} device command [count]
Variables and options
Description
-f and -t
Indicates that the next parameter is a device.
These options are interchangeable.
device
Is a tape device.
command
Is a command that controls the tape drives.
count
Specifies the number of times to execute a
command that supports multiple operations.
The command option can be any one of the following:
16
Command
Task
eom
Position the tape to the end of the data or
the end of the medium if the tape is full.
fsf
Move the tape forward, skipping a specified
number of files.
bsf
Move the tape backward, skipping a
specified number of files.
IBM System Storage N series: Data ONTAP 8.2 Data Protection Tape Backup and Recovery Guide For 7-Mode
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Command
Task
fsr
Move the tape forward and position the tape
on the end-of-tape side of the records.
bsr
Move the tape backwards and position the
tape on the beginning-of-tape side of the
records.
rewind
Rewind the tape.
offline
Rewind the tape and unload the tape
medium, if possible.
status
Display information about a device and the
drive associated with it.
Note: Use a no-rewind (nrst) device for all tape status and movement operations.
Using other rewind types can produce unwanted results.
Attention: When you use an unload/reload (urst) device with the mt command,
you must use tape libraries for the backup and there must be enough tapes in the
tape library. Otherwise, the tape drives involved terminate the command sequence
or overwrite the same tape multiple times.
Moving a tape to the end of data
You move a tape to the end of data if you want to append data on a tape.
Procedure
Enter the following command:
mt -f device eom
device is the name of a no-rewind tape device.
Example
mt -f nrst0a eom
Note: If you use a rewind or unload/reload tape device, this command rewinds
the device, moves the tape to the beginning of data, and unloads it, if possible.
Moving forward to a file
You move forward to access a particular tape file further along the tape. You can
skip over a specified number of file marks and stop at the end-of-tape side of a file
mark. This puts the tape drive head at the beginning of a file.
Procedure
To move forward to the beginning of a tape file, enter the following command:
mt -f device fsf n
device is the name of a tape device used on the tape.
n is the number of tape file marks you want to skip over going forward. The tape
moves forward to the beginning of the nth file from its current file location.
Example
If you enter the following command in the middle of the third file on the tape, it
moves the tape to the beginning of the eighth file on the tape:
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mt -f nrst0a fsf 5
Moving backward to the beginning of a file
You move backward to access a particular tape file positioned towards the
beginning of tape from the current position.
Procedure
1. Enter the following command:
mt -f device bsf n
device is the name of a tape device used on the tape.
n is the number of tape file marks you want to skip over going backward. The
tape moves backward to the end of the nth file from its current file location.
2. Enter the following command:
mt -f device fsf 1
The tape moves forward one file mark to the beginning of the desired file.
Example
If you enter the following commands in the middle of file 5 on the tape, the tape
moves to the beginning of file 2 on the tape:
mt -f nrst0a bsf 4
mt -f nrst0a fsf 1
Rewinding a tape
If you use a no-rewind tape device to back up the data, the tape device does not
automatically rewind the tape after the backup. To restore data backed up using
such a tape device, you should rewind the tape when you load the tape drive.
Procedure
To rewind a tape, enter the following command:
mt -f device rewind
device is the name of a tape device used on the tape.
Example
mt -f nrst0a rewind
Related concepts:
“Tape device name format” on page 5
Taking a tape drive offline
You take a drive offline to remove or change the tape cartridge. This operation
rewinds the tape cartridge and ejects it from the tape drive. The device is still
available to the system, but is not ready for I/O or tape movement.
About this task
You use a urst tape device to unload and reload a tape cartridge during a backup
or restore operation. When you use a urst device, Data ONTAP waits for you to
insert the new cartridge before continuing the operation. However, when you want
to remove the current cartridge when no other operation is ongoing, you must use
the mt offline command with an nrst tape device.
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Procedure
To rewind the tape and take the tape drive offline by unloading the tape, enter the
following command:
mt -f device offline
device is the name of a tape device.
Example
mt -f nrst0a offline
Related concepts:
“Tape device name format” on page 5
Displaying status information
You display status information to find out whether you can read with a device or
to verify that a tape drive is not in use.
Procedure
To display status information about a tape device and the drive associated with it,
enter the following command:
mt -f device status
device is the name of the tape device.
Example
filer1>mt -f nrst0a status
Tape drive: CERTANCEULTRIUM 3
Status: ready, write enabled
Format: LTO-3 800GB cmp
fileno = 0 blockno = 0 resid = 0
The following list describes the output of the command:
Tape drive The model of the tape drive.
Status Whether the tape drive is ready and write-enabled.
Format The tape drive type, total capacity in gigabytes, and whether data
compression is used.
fileno The current tape file number; numbering starts at 0.
blockno The current block number.
resid The number of bytes that the drive attempted to write or read, but could not
because it reached the end of the tape.
What qualified tape drives are
A qualified tape drive is a tape drive that has been tested and found to work
properly on storage systems.
You can add support for tape drives to existing Data ONTAP releases by using the
tape configuration file. To download the tape configuration file, go to the IBM N
Tape drive management
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series support website (accessed and navigated as described in Websites). You can
view the instructions required to download the tape configuration file, add support
to Data ONTAP for a tape drive that was qualified after the release of the Data
ONTAP version, and view the current list of supported tape drives at the IBM N
series support website (accessed and navigated as described in Websites).
Only qualified tape drives are listed in the tape qualification list. The tape libraries
are not listed. For example, the tape library IBM TS3500 is not listed. However, the
IBM LTO 4 tape drives that the IBM TS3500 contains are listed.
You can view information about qualified and nonqualified tape drives, tape
libraries, and tape drive connections to the storage system.
Related information:
IBM N series interoperability matrix website: www.ibm.com/systems/storage/
network/interophome.html
Format of the tape configuration file
The tape configuration file format consists of fields such as vendor ID, product ID,
and details of compression types for a tape drive. This file also consists of optional
fields for enabling the autoload feature of a tape drive and changing the command
timeout values of a tape drive.
The following table displays the format of the tape configuration file:
Item
Size
Description
vendor_id (string)
up to 8 bytes
The vendor ID as reported
by the SCSI Inquiry
command.
product_id (string)
up to 16 bytes
The product ID as reported
by the SCSI Inquiry
command.
id_match_size (number)
20
The number of bytes of the
product ID to be used for
matching to detect the tape
drive to be identified,
beginning with the first
character of the product ID
in the Inquiry data.
vendor_pretty (string)
up to 16 bytes
If this parameter is present, it
is specified by the string
displayed by the sysconfig
-v or sysconfig -t
command; otherwise,
INQ_VENDOR_ID is
displayed.
product_pretty (string)
up to 16 bytes
If this parameter is present, it
is specified by the string
displayed by the sysconfig
-v or sysconfig -t
command; otherwise,
INQ_PRODUCT_ID is
displayed.
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Note: The vendor_pretty and product_pretty fields are optional, but if one of these
fields has a value, the other must also have a value.
The following table explains the description, density code, and compression
algorithm for the various compression types such as, l, m, h, and a:
Item
Size
Description
{l | m | h |
a}_description=(string)
up to 16 bytes
The string to print for the
sysconfig -t command that
describes characteristics of
the particular density setting.
{l | m | h |
a}_density=(hex codes)
The density code to be set in
the SCSI mode page block
descriptor corresponding to
the desired density code for
l, m, h, or a.
{l | m | h |
a}_algorithm=(hex codes)
The compression algorithm
to be set in the SCSI
Compression Mode Page
corresponding to the density
code and the desired density
characteristic.
The following table describes the optional fields available in the tape configuration
file:
Field
Description
autoload=(Boolean yes/no)
This field is set to yes if the tape drive has
an automatic loading feature; that is, after
tape cartridge is inserted, the tape drive
becomes ready without the need to execute
a SCSI load (start/stop unit) command. The
default for this field is no.
cmd_timeout_0x
Individual timeout value. Use this field only
if you want to specify a different timeout
value from the one being used as a default
by the tape driver. The sample file lists the
default SCSI command timeout values used
by the tape drive. The timeout value can be
expressed in minutes (m), seconds (s), or
milliseconds (ms).
Note: You should change this field only
with guidance from technical support.
To download and view the tape configuration file, go to the N series support
website (accessed and navigated as described in Websites).
Example of a tape configuration file format
The tape configuration file format for the HP LTO5 ULTRIUM tape drive is as
follows:
vendor_id="HP"
product_id="Ultrium 5-SCSI"
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id_match_size=9
vendor_pretty="Hewlett-Packard"
product_pretty="LTO-5"
l_description="LTO-3(ro)/4 4/800GB"
l_density=0x00
l_algorithm=0x00
m_description="LTO-3(ro)/4 8/1600GB cmp"
m_density=0x00
m_algorithm=0x01
h_description="LTO-5 1600GB"
h_density=0x58
h_algorithm=0x00
a_description="LTO-5 3200GB cmp"
a_density=0x58
a_algorithm=0x01
autoload="yes"
Related information:
IBM N series interoperability matrix website: www.ibm.com/systems/storage/
network/interophome.html
How the storage system qualifies a new tape drive
dynamically
The storage system qualifies a tape drive dynamically by matching its vendor ID
and product ID with the information contained in the tape qualification table.
When you connect a tape drive to the storage system, the storage system looks for
a vendor ID and product ID match between information obtained during the tape
discovery process and information contained in the internal tape qualification
table. If the storage system discovers a match, it marks the tape drive as qualified
and can access the tape drive. If the storage system cannot find a match, the tape
drive remains in the unqualified state and is not accessed.
How to use a nonqualified tape drive
You can use a nonqualified tape drive (one that is not on the list of qualified tape
drives) on a storage system if it can emulate a qualified tape drive. It is then
treated as though it were a qualified tape drive.
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For a nonqualified tape drive to emulate a qualified tape drive, you must enter the
nonqualified tape drive information in the /etc/cloned_tapes file. This file enables
the storage system to register the drive as a clone of a qualified drive.
Displaying information about nonqualified tape drives
To use a nonqualified tape drive, you must first determine whether it emulates any
of the qualified tape drives.
About this task
You can use a nonqualified tape drive (one that is not on the list of qualified tape
drives) on a storage system if it can emulate a qualified tape drive. It is then
treated as though it were a qualified tape drive.
Procedure
1. If the storage system has accessed the tape drive through the dump or mt
command, go directly to Step 3. If the storage system has not accessed the tape
drive through the dump or mt command, go to Step 2.
2. To access the tape drive, enter the following command :
mt -f device status
device is any device that contains the tape drive number that you think is
assigned to the tape drive.
mt -f nrst1a status
3. Enter the following command :
sysconfig -t
If the storage system has registered a tape drive as emulating a qualified tape
drive, it displays a message similar to the following:
Tape drive (6.5) DLT9000 emulates Digital DLT7000
If the storage system has not registered a tape drive as emulating a qualified
tape drive, it displays a message similar to the following:
Tape drive (6.5) DLTXXXX (Non-qualified tape drive)
Tape drive information required for emulation
To emulate a qualified tape drive, you must know certain specific information
about your nonqualified tape drive.
The required information is as follows:
v Which qualified tape drive the nonqualified tape drive can emulate.
v The vendor ID string, which is a SCSI string and should be in the SCSI section
of your tape drive manual.
v The product ID string, which is a SCSI string and should be in the SCSI section
of your tape drive manual.
Emulating a qualified tape drive
You can use a nonqualified tape drive by making it emulate a qualified tape drive.
Procedure
1. Ensure that you have a tape adapter available on the storage system.
2. Disable the adapter port to which the tape drive will be attached.
3. Connect the tape drive to the storage system according to the tape drive
manufacturer’s instructions.
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4. Turn on the tape drive and wait for the tape drive to complete its power-on
activities.
5. Enable the adapter interface. When the adapter is enabled, it will discover the
device. An error message is displayed, which tells you that the tape drive is
unsupported.
6. Enter the following command:
sysconfig -t
This command creates the /etc/cloned_tapes file, if it does not exist. Observe
the vendor ID and product ID of the nonqualified devices.
Note: The cloned tapes emulation method cannot be used if the product ID
contains spaces. For example, the product ID Ultrium 4-SCSI cannot be used for
cloning because it has a space between Ultrium and 4. In such a case, you must
use a configuration file.
7. Open the storage system’s /etc/cloned_tapes file in a text editor on a client
that can access it.
8. For each nonqualified tape drive, create a line with the following format in the
/etc/cloned_tapes file:
[clone_vendor_ID] clone_product_ID EMULATES [vendor_ID] product_ID
clone_vendor_ID is the vendor of the nonqualified tape drive.
clone_product_ID is the model number of the nonqualified tape drive.
vendor_ID is the vendor of a qualified tape drive that you want the
nonqualified tape drive to emulate.
product_ID is the model number of a qualified tape drive that you want the
nonqualified tape drive to emulate. The following entry in the
/etc/cloned_tapes file enables the storage system to treat the nonqualified
Quantum DLT9000 tape drive as a clone of the qualified Quantum DLT7000
tape drive:
QUANTUM DLT9000 EMULATES QUANTUM DLT7000
9. Enter the following command:
sysconfig -t
The system reads the cloned_tapes file and puts emulation into effect. Verify
that the new device appears as an emulated device.
Related concepts:
“What qualified tape drives are” on page 19
What tape reservations are
Multiple storage systems can share access to tape drives, medium changers,
bridges, or tape libraries. Tape reservations ensure that only one storage system
accesses a device at any particular time by enabling either the SCSI
Reserve/Release mechanism or SCSI Persistent Reservations for all tape drives,
medium changers, bridges, and tape libraries.
Note: All the systems that share devices in a library, whether switches are
involved or not, must use the same reservation method.
The SCSI Reserve/Release mechanism for reserving devices works well under
normal conditions. However, during the interface error recovery procedures, the
reservations can be lost. If this happens, initiators other than the reserved owner
can access the device.
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Reservations made with SCSI Persistent Reservations are not affected by error
recovery mechanisms, such as loop reset or target reset; however, not all devices
implement SCSI Persistent Reservations correctly.
Enabling tape reservations
You can enable tape reservation using the options tape.reservations command.
By default, tape reservation is turned off.
Procedure
To use either the SCSI Reserve/Release mechanism or SCSI Persistent Reservations,
enter the following command:
options tape.reservations {scsi | persistent}
scsi selects the SCSI Reserve/Release mechanism.
persistent selects SCSI Persistent Reservations.
Disabling tape reservations
Enabling the tape reservations option can cause problems if tape drives, medium
changers, bridges, or libraries do not work properly. If tape commands report that
the device is reserved when no other storage systems are using the device, this
option should be disabled.
Procedure
To turn off tape reservations, enter the following command:
options tape.reservations off
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NDMP management
The Network Data Management Protocol (NDMP) is a standardized protocol for
controlling backup, recovery, and other types of data transfer between primary and
secondary storage devices, such as storage systems and tape libraries.
By enabling NDMP protocol support on a storage system, you enable that storage
system to communicate with NDMP-enabled network-attached backup applications
(also called Data Management Applications or DMAs), data servers, and tape servers
participating in backup or recovery operations. All network communications occur
over TCPIP or TCP/IPv6 network. NDMP also provides low-level control of tape
drives and medium changers.
Advantages of NDMP
Accessing data protection services through backup applications that support
NDMP offers a number of advantages.
v NDMP backup applications provide sophisticated scheduling of data protection
operations across multiple storage systems.
v They also provide media management and tape inventory management services
to eliminate or minimize manual tape handling during data protection
operations.
v NDMP backup applications support data cataloging services that simplify the
process of locating specific recovery data.
Direct Access Recovery (DAR) optimizes the access of specific data from large
backup tape sets.
v NDMP supports multiple topology configurations, allowing efficient sharing of
secondary storage (tape library) resources through the use of three-way network
data connections.
v NDMP backup applications typically provide user-friendly interfaces that
simplify the management of data protection services.
What NDMP security is
Data ONTAP provides features for preventing or monitoring unauthorized use of
NDMP connections to your storage system.
You can restrict the set of backup application hosts permitted to start NDMP
sessions on a storage system. You can specify the authentication method to use
(text or challenge) in order to allow NDMP requests. You can enable or disable
monitoring of NDMP connection requests.
All non-root NDMP users on the root vFiler unit and all NDMP users on vFiler
units are required to use NDMP passwords that are distinct from the password of
the user. This password can be generated by using the ndmpd password userid
command.
NDMP users must have the login-ndmp capability to be able to successfully
authenticate NDMP sessions. A predefined role named backup, by default, has the
login-ndmp capability. To provide a user with the login-ndmp capability, the backup
role can be assigned to the group to which the user belongs. However, when a
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group is assigned the backup role, all users within the group get the login-ndmp
capability. Therefore, it is best to group all NDMP users in a single group that has
the backup role.
Data ONTAP also generates an NDMP-specific password for administrators who
do not have root privilege on the target storage system.
Data ONTAP provides a set of commands that enable you to manage and monitor
the security of NDMP connections to the storage system.
The following are the commands that monitor the security of NDMP connections
to storage systems:
v The options ndmpd.access command enables you to restrict which hosts can run
NDMP sessions with the storage system.
v The options ndmpd.authtype command enables you to specify the authentication
method (plaintext, challenge, or both) through which users are allowed to start
NDMP sessions with the storage system.
v The options ndmpd.connectlog command allows you to enable or disable
logging of NDMP connections attempts with the storage system.
v The options ndmpd.password_length command allows you specify an 8- or
16-character NDMP password.
v The ndmpd password command generates a secure NDMP password for
administrators who do not have root privileges on the storage system.
This password allows them to perform NDMP operations through an
NDMP-compliant backup application. For the NDMP password to be generated,
the NDMP user must have the login-ndmp capability.
Specifying NDMP access by host or interface
You can use the options ndmpd.access command to specify the hosts or interfaces
through which NDMP sessions are permitted. Conversely, you can also specify
hosts or interfaces to block from NDMP sessions.
Procedure
1. Start a console session on the storage system to which you want to restrict
NDMP access.
2. Enter the following command:
options ndmpd.access {all|legacy|host[!]=hosts|if[!]=interfaces}
all is the default value, which permits NDMP sessions with any host.
legacy restores previous values in effect before a Data ONTAP version
upgrade.
host =hosts is a parameter string that allows a specified host or a
comma-separated list of hosts to run NDMP sessions on this storage system.
The hosts can be specified by either the host name or by an IPv4 or IPv6
address.
host!= hosts is a parameter string that blocks a specified host or a
comma-separated list of hosts from running NDMP sessions on this storage
system. The hosts can be specified by either the host name or by an IPv4 or
IPv6 address.
if= interfaces is a parameter string that allows NDMP sessions through a
specified interface or a comma-separated list of interfaces on this storage
system.
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if!= interfaces is a parameter string that blocks NDMP sessions through a
specified interface or a comma-separated list of interfaces on this storage
system.
Specifying the NDMP authentication type
Data ONTAP supports two methods for authenticating NDMP access to a storage
system: plaintext and challenge. You can use the options ndmpd.authtype
command to specify whether a storage system will accept plaintext, challenge, or
both to authenticate NDMP session requests.
Procedure
1. Start a console session on the storage system whose NDMP authentication
method you want to specify.
2. Enter the following command:
options ndmpd.authtype {challenge|plaintext|plaintext,challenge}
challenge sets the challenge authentication method, generally the preferred and
more secure authentication method.
plaintext sets the plaintext authentication method, in which the login
password is transmitted as clear text.
plaintext,challenge sets both challenge and plaintext authentication methods.
Note: If you are carrying out NDMP operations through a backup application,
the authentication type or types you specify on this command line must
include the types supported by that backup application.
Enabling or disabling NDMP connection logging
Data ONTAP can log NDMP connection attempts in the /etc/messages file. These
entries enable an administrator to determine whether and when authorized or
unauthorized individuals are attempting to start NDMP sessions. The default value
is off.
Procedure
1. Start a console session on the storage system on which you want to enable or
disable NDMP connection monitoring.
2. Enter the following command:
options ndmpd.connectlog.enabled {on|off}
Note: The value you set for this option will persist across storage system
reboots.
3. If you want to check attempted NDMP connection activity, use your UNIX or
Windows Admin host to view your storage system’s /etc/messages file. Entries
recording attempted NDMP connections or operations will display the
following fields:
v Time
v Thread
v NDMP request and action (allow or refuse)
v NDMP version
v Session ID
v Source IPv4 or IPv6 address (address from where the NDMP request
originated)
v Destination IPv4 or IPv6 address (address of the storage system receiving the
NDMP request)
v Source port (through which the NDMP request was transmitted)
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v Storage system port (through which the NDMP request was received)
Example
Thu Apr 15 09:27:00 GMT Apr 15 09:27:00
[host1:ndmp.connection.accept:info]: ndmpd.access allowed for version = 4,
sessionId = 2922, from src ip = 192.0.2.68, dst ip = 192.0.2.100, src port
= 41855, dst port = 10000
Specifying the NDMP password length
Administrators who have an account on a storage system but do not have root
status on that storage system must input a special NDMP-specific password when
carrying out NDMP-related operations on the storage system. This password is a
system-generated string derived from that administrator’s regular storage system
account password.
About this task
The NDMP password can be either 8 or 16 characters long. The default value is 16
characters.
Procedure
To specify the NDMP password length, enter the following command on the
storage system console:
options ndmpd.password_length length
length is either 8 or 16. If you enter a value other than 8 or 16, the storage system
prompts you with the following message:
options ndmpd.password_length: Length must be either 8 or 16
Note: If this option is set to 8, all NDMP applications managing backups for the
storage system must use an 8-character password for authentication.
Generating an NDMP-specific password for non-root
administrators
An administrator without root privileges uses the NDMP-specific password for any
NDMP backup and restore operation that requires password input in either a
backup application or CLI environment.
Procedure
1. Start a console session on the storage system you want to access.
2. Enter the following command:
ndmpd password username
username is the user name of the administrator. The system returns an 8- or 16character string, depending on the password length set using the
ndmpd.password_length command. For example:
filer>ndmpd password barbaraD
password QM12N%$cnaFWPBVe
You use this password in any current or future NDMP operation that requires
password input.
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Note: This NDMP-specific password is valid until you change the password to
your regular account.
3. If you change the password to your regular storage system account, repeat this
procedure to obtain your new system-generated NDMP-specific password.
How to manage NDMP
You can enable or disable NDMP services, specify a preferred network interface,
turn off a data connection specification, optimize performance, or terminate a
session by using a set of ndmpd commands. You can also view the status of NDMP
sessions using the ndmpd command.
Enabling and disabling NDMP services
Enabling NDMP service on your storage system allows NDMP-compliant data
protection applications to communicate with the storage system.
Procedure
To enable or disable NDMP service, enter the following command:
ndmpd {on|off}
Use on to enable NDMP.
Use off to disable NDMP.
After you disable the NDMP service, the storage system continues processing all
requests on already established sessions, but rejects new sessions.
Note: This setting is persistent across reboots.
Specifying a preferred network interface
You can specify the preferred storage system network interface to be used when
establishing an NDMP data connection to another storage system.
About this task
By default, an NDMP data connection uses the same network interface as the
NDMP control connection established by the NDMP backup application. However,
to establish a data connection between NDMP-enabled storage systems over an
alternate network, you need to specify the storage system’s interface through
which the alternate network will be accessed.
For example, a UNIX or NT resident NDMP backup application and multiple
storage systems can be interconnected through a corporate network. The same
storage systems can also be interconnected through an isolated private network. To
minimize load on the corporate network, the options ndmpd.preferred_interface
command can be used to direct all NDMP data connections over the isolated
private network.
Procedure
To specify the preferred network interface to be used for NDMP data connections,
enter the following command:
options ndmpd.preferred_interface interface
interface identifies the network interface to be used for all NDMP data connections.
Any network interface providing TCP/IP access can be specified. If no parameter
is specified, the command returns the name of the interface currently configured
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for data connections. If no interface is currently set, it reports disable.
You can find the available network interfaces by using the ifconfig -a command.
Note: The preferred network interfaces that are set using the options
ndmpd.preferred_interface command are persistent across storage system reboots.
Designating the range of ports for NDMP data connections
Data ONTAP supports a designated range of TCP/IP ports that can be used for
NDMP data connections in response to NDMP_DATA_LISTEN and
NDMP_MOVER_LISTEN operations.
About this task
Data ONTAP 8.0 7-Mode and earlier versions do not support data migration by
using the ndmpcopy command and three-way tape backups in environments where
the source and destination networks are separated by a firewall. This is because the
data or mover port that is used in a data transfer is unpredictable.
Starting with Data ONTAP 8.0.1, administrators can designate range of ports that
can be used for NDMP data connections in response to NDMP_DATA_LISTEN and
NDMP_MOVER_LISTEN operations. Therefore, Data ONTAP enables you to
perform data migration by using ndmpcopy command and 3-way tape backups even
in environments where the source and destination networks are separated by a
firewall.
Procedure
To enable the data port range, enter the following command:
options ndmpd.data_port_range {start_port-end_port}
The ndmpd.data_port_range option allows administrators to specify a port range on
which the NDMP server can listen for data connections.
The start_port and end_port indicate the range of ports designated for data
connection and can have values between 1024 and 65535; start_port must be less
than or equal to end_port.
If a valid range is specified, NDMP uses a port within that range to listen for
incoming data connections. A listen request fails if no ports in the specified range
are free.
The default value for ndmpd.data_port_range option is all. The all implies that any
available port can be used to listen for data connections.
Note: The ndmpd.data_port_range option is persistent across reboots.
Example
Filer1> options ndmpd.data_port_range 1024-2048
Turning off a data connection specification
You can disable a preferred network interface specification and force the NDMP
default interface to be used for data connections.
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Procedure
To disable a preferred network interface specification and force the NDMP default
interface to be used for data connections, enter the following command:
options ndmpd.preferred_interface disable
Note: The default value is disable.
Displaying the general status information about NDMP
sessions
You can view the general status information to determine whether the NDMP
session is operating as expected.
Procedure
To display general NDMP status information, enter the following command:
ndmpd status
Example
filerA> ndmpd status
ndmpd ON.
Session: 12923
Active
version:
4
Operating on behalf of primary host.
tape device:
nrst0a
mover state:
Active
data state:
Connected
data operation: None
Displaying detailed NDMP session information
You can view detailed NDMP session information to help you debug errors
encountered during an NDMP session.
Procedure
To display detailed NDMP session information, enter the following command:
ndmpd probe [session]
session is the number of the session you want to probe. To display the detailed
information about all sessions, do not enter any value for session.
Example
In the following example, the command shows the detailed status of session 4 with
an IPv4 control connection and IPv6 data connection.
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filer1>ndmpd probe 7
ndmpd ON.
Session: 7
isActive:
TRUE
protocol version:
4
effHost:
Local
authorized:
TRUE
client addr:
192.0.2.65
spt.device_id:
none
spt.ha:
-1
spt.scsi_id:
-1
spt.scsi_lun:
-1
tape.device:
not open
tape.mode:
Read only
mover.state:
Idle
mover.mode:
Read
mover.pauseReason
N/A
mover.haltReason
N/A
mover.recordSize:
0
mover.recordNum:
0
mover.bytesMoved:
0
mover.seekPosition:
0
mover.bytesLeftToRead: 0
mover.windowOffset:
0
mover.windowLength:
0
mover.position:
0
mover.setRecordSizeFlag: false
mover.setWindowFlag:
false
mover.connect.addr_type:LOCAL
data.operation:
None
data.state:
Connected
data.haltReason:
N/A
data.connect.addr_type: TCP_IPV6
data.connect.addr:
[2001:0db8::10]
data.connect.port:
63920
data.bytesProcessed:
0
filerA> ndmpd probe
ndmpd ON.
Session: 12923
isActive:
protocol version:
effHost:
authorized:
client addr:
spt.device_id:
spt.ha:
spt.scsi_id:
spt.scsi_lun:
tape.device:
tape.mode:
mover state:
mover.mode:
mover.pauseReason
mover.haltReason
mover.recordSize:
mover.recordNum:
mover.bytesMoved:
mover.seekPosition:
mover.bytesLeftToRead:
mover.windowOffset:
mover.windowLength:
mover.position:
mover.setRecordSizeFlag:
mover.setWindowFlag:
mover.connect.addr_type:
data.operation:
data.state:
data.haltReason:
data.connect.addr_type:
data.bytesProcessed:
34
TRUE
4
Local
TRUE
192.0.2.100:1591
none
-1
-1
-1
nrst0a
Read/Write
Active
Read
N/A
N/A
64512
0
0
0
0
0
18446744073709551615
0
true
true
LOCAL
None
Connected
N/A
LOCAL
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Optimizing NDMP communication performance
You can optimize the performance of the NDMP socket through which the storage
system communicates with the DMA.
About this task
You can optimize performance for either minimal transmission delay or
throughput. By default, the performance is optimized for overall throughput. If the
communication performance is optimized for minimal transmission delay, the
queued packets are sent immediately.
Procedure
To optimize NDMP communication performance, enter the following command:
options ndmpd.tcpnodelay.enable {on|off}
on optimizes for minimal transmission delay.
off optimizes for overall throughput.
Terminating an NDMP session
If an NDMP session is not responding, you can terminate it using the ndmpd kill
command. The ndmp kill command allows nonresponding sessions to be cleared
without the need for a reboot.
Procedure
To terminate an NDMP session, enter the following command:
ndmpd kill session
session is the specific NDMP session you want to terminate.
Note: If you want to terminate all NDMP sessions, use the ndmpd killall
command.
Displaying the NDMP version
Starting with Data ONTAP 8.2, the storage system supports only NDMP version 4.
You can view the latest NDMP version that the storage system is currently set to
use.
Procedure
To view the NDMP version, enter the following command:
ndmpd version
The latest version that NDMP currently allows you to use is displayed.
NDMP options
You can use NDMP options to manage NDMP on your storage system.
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The following table lists the NDMP options that you can use with the options
command:
Option
Description
Default value
ndmpd.access {all|legacy|host[!]= hosts|if Specifies the hosts or interfaces
[!]= interfaces}
through which NDMP sessions
are permitted or blocked
all
ndmpd.authtype
Specifies whether a storage
{challenge|plaintext|plaintext,challenge} system accepts plaintext,
challenge, or both to
authenticate NDMP session
requests
challenge
ndmpd.connectlog.enabled {on|off}
Enables or disables the
monitoring of NDMP
connections
off
ndmpd.enable {on|off}
Enables or disables NDMP
service on your storage system
off
ndmpd.maxversion
Specifies the highest NDMP
version
Note: Starting with Data
ONTAP 8.2, only NDMP
version 4 is supported.
4
ndmpd.ignore_ctime.enabled {on|off}
Enables or disables incremental
backup of files that have their
ctime changed since the
previous backup
off
ndmpd.offset_map.enable {on|off}
Enables or disables offset map
generation during backup
on
ndmpd.password_length {8|16}
Specifies the length of NDMP
password
16
ndmpd.preferred_interface
{interface|disable}
Specifies the preferred network
interface to be used for NDMP
data connections
disable
ndmpd.tcpnodelay.enable {on|off}
Optimizes the performance of
the NDMP socket through
which the storage system
communicates with the DMA
off
ndmpd.tcpwinsize {tcp_window_size}
Specifies the TCP window size
for data connection
Note: The valid TCP window
size range is 8192 – 7631441.
32768
ndmpd.data_port_range
{start_port-end_port|all}
Specifies a port range on which all
the NDMP server can listen for
data connections
Note:
v start_port and end_port can
have values between 1024
and 65535; start_port must be
less than or equal to end_port.
v It is best to use start_port and
end_port values between
18600 and 18699.
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NDMP extensions supported by Data ONTAP
NDMP v4 provides a mechanism for creating NDMP v4 protocol extensions
without requiring modifications to the core NDMP v4 protocol.
The following are the NDMP v4 extensions supported by Data ONTAP:
v Restartable backup
This extension is not supported by SMTape.
v SnapVault management
v SnapMirror management
v Snapshot management
v CAE (Connection Address Extension) for IPv6 support
Tape backup using NDMP services
You can use NDMP-enabled commercial backup applications to perform
network-based tape backup and recovery.
Common NDMP tape backup topologies
NDMP supports a number of topologies and configurations between backup
applications and storage systems or other NDMP servers providing data (file
systems) and tape services.
Storage system-to-local-tape
In the simplest configuration, a backup application backs up data from a storage
system to a tape subsystem attached to the storage system. The NDMP control
connection exists across the network boundary. The NDMP data connection that
exists within the storage system between the data and tape services is called an
NDMP local configuration.
Storage system-to-tape attached to another storage system
A backup application can also back up data from a storage system to a tape library
(a medium changer with one or more tape drives) attached to another storage
system. In this case, the NDMP data connection between the data and tape services
is provided by a TCP or TCP/IPv6 network connection. This is called an NDMP
three-way storage system-to-storage system configuration.
Storage system-to-network-attached tape library
NDMP-enabled tape libraries provide a variation of the three-way configuration. In
this case, the tape library attaches directly to the TCP/IP network and
communicates with the backup application and the storage system through an
internal NDMP server.
Storage system-to-data server-to-tape or data server-to-storage
system-to-tape
NDMP also supports storage system-to-data-server and data-server-to-storage
system three-way configurations, although these variants are less widely deployed.
Storage system-to-server allows storage system data to be backed up to a tape
library attached to the backup application host or to another data server system.
The server-to-storage system configuration allows server data to be backed up to a
storage system-attached tape library.
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Considerations when using NDMP
You have to take into account a list of considerations when starting the NDMP
service on your storage system.
v NDMP backup applications require specification of a target system password.
To enable successful authentication by NDMP services on the storage system,
you must use either the storage system’s root password or a system-generated
NDMP-specific password (to authenticate a non-root user or administrator).
v NDMP services can generate file history data at the request of NDMP backup
applications.
File history is used by backup applications to enable optimized recovery of
selected subsets of data from a backup image. File history generation and
processing might be time-consuming and CPU-intensive for both the storage
system and the backup application.
Note: SMTape does not support file history.
If your data protection needs are limited to disaster recovery, where the entire
backup image will be recovered, you can disable file history generation to
reduce backup time. See your backup application documentation to determine if
it is possible to disable NDMP file history generation.
Note: When your data protection needs are limited to disaster recovery, it is
recommended that you use SMTape to back up data.
v When a SnapMirror destination is backed up to tape, only the data on the
volume is backed up.
The SnapMirror relationships and the associated metadata are not backed up to
tape. Therefore, during restore, only the data on that volume is restored and the
associated SnapMirror relationships are not restored.
Scalability limits for NDMP sessions
The maximum number of NDMP sessions that can be established simultaneously
on a storage system depends on the storage system model. This constitutes of 72
NDMP sessions and the number of NDMP sessions required for concurrent
replication operations, such as SnapVault and SnapMirror operations.
The number of NDMP sessions required for concurrent replication operations
depends on the storage system model.
For more information about the number of concurrent replication operations that
can be performed on a storage system, see the Data ONTAP Data Protection Online
Backup and Recovery Guide for 7-Mode.
Tape devices and configurations you can use with the storage
system
You can use different types of tape devices and configurations on your storage
system.
The storage system can read from or write to these devices when using NDMP:
v Stand-alone tape drives or tapes within a tape library attached to the storage
system
v Tape drives or tape libraries attached to the workstation that runs the backup
application
v Tape drives or tape libraries attached to a workstation or storage system on your
network
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v NDMP-enabled tape libraries attached to your network
When you use NDMP to back up the storage system to attached tape libraries, you
need to set the tape library autoload setting to Off. If the autoload setting is On, the
storage system uses the tape library the same way it uses a stand-alone tape drive
and does not allow medium changer operations to be controlled by the NDMP
backup application.
Naming conventions for tape libraries
Historically, the following names were always used to refer to tape libraries:
v mcn or /dev/mcn
v sptn or /dev/sptn
In a specific tape library name, n is a number. For example, mc0, spt0, /dev/mc0,
and /dev/spt0 all refer to the same library.
To view the tape libraries recognized by your system, use the sysconfig -m
command on the storage system console. To see what names are currently assigned
to any libraries, use the storage show mc command on the storage system. Tape
aliasing is also used to refer to tape drives, and you can see the aliases of tape
drives using the storage show tape command.
Example
The following is an example of an output from the storage show mc command:
filerA> storage show mc
Media Changer:
2.3
Description:
SPECTRA 10000
Serial Number:
7030290500
World Wide Name:
WWN[2:000:0090a5:00011c]
Alias Name(s):
mc0
Device State:
available (does not support reservations)
Preparing for basic NDMP backup application management
To enable a storage system for basic management by a commercial NDMP backup
application, you must enable the storage system’s NDMP support and specify the
backup application’s configured NDMP version, host IP address, and
authentication method.
About this task
If an operator without root privileges to the storage system is using a backup
application, that user must use a storage system-generated NDMP-specific
password to perform backup operations on that storage system.
Procedure
1. To enable NDMP, enter the following command at the console command line of
the target storage system:
ndmpd on
2. To view the NDMP version supported by the storage system, enter the
following command:
ndmpd version
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Note: Your backup application must support the same NDMP version that is
supported by your storage system.
3. To specify a restricted set of NDMP backup application hosts that can connect
to the storage system, enter the following command:
options ndmpd.access hosts
hosts is a comma-separated list of host names or IP addresses of nodes
permitted to start NDMP sessions with the storage system.
Note: By default, all hosts have NDMP access.
4. Specify the authentication type (plaintext, challenge, or plaintext and challenge)
required for an NDMP connection to this storage system. The following
example shows the authentication type specified is plaintext and challenge:
options ndmpd authtype plaintext,challenge
This setting must include the authentication type supported by the NDMP
backup application.
Note: The challenge authentication type is the default for this option.
5. If operators without root privilege on the storage system are performing tape
backup operations through the NDMP backup application, make sure they have
a user administration account on the storage system.
a. If the operator does not have a user administration account on the storage
system, enter the following command:
useradmin useradd username
b. If you want to know the system-generated NDMP-specific password, enter
the following command:
ndmpd password username
Use this user name and password to connect to the storage system to perform
NDMP backup and restore operations.
Related tasks:
“Enabling and disabling NDMP services” on page 31
“Specifying a preferred network interface” on page 31
“Specifying NDMP access by host or interface” on page 28
“Specifying the NDMP authentication type” on page 29
“Generating an NDMP-specific password for non-root administrators” on page 30
What environment variables do
Environment variables are used to communicate information about a backup or
restore operation between an NDMP-enabled backup application and a storage
system.
For example, if a user specifies that a backup application should back up
/vol/vol0/etc, the backup application sets the FILESYSTEM environment variable
to /vol/vol0/etc. Similarly, if a user specifies that a backup should be a level 1
backup, the backup application sets the LEVEL environment variable to 1 (one).
Note: The setting and examining of environment variables are typically
transparent to backup administrators; that is, the backup application sets them
automatically.
A backup administrator rarely specifies environment variables; however, you might
want to change the value of an environment variable from that set by the backup
application to characterize or work around a functional or performance problem.
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For example, an administrator might want to temporarily disable file history
generation to determine if the backup application's processing of file history
information is contributing to performance issues or functional problems.
Many backup applications provide a means to override or modify environment
variables or to specify additional environment variables. For information, see your
backup application documentation.
Related concepts:
“Environment variables supported for dump” on page 51
Related reference:
“Environment variables supported for SMTape” on page 99
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Data backup to tape using the dump engine
Dump is a Snapshot copy-based backup and recovery solution from Data ONTAP
that helps you to back up files and directories from a Snapshot copy to a tape
device and restore the backed up data to a storage system.
You can back up your file system data, such as directories, files, and their
associated security settings to a tape device by using the dump backup. You can
back up an entire volume, an entire qtree, or a subtree that is neither an entire
volume nor an entire qtree.
You can perform a dump backup or restore by using NDMP-compliant backup
applications or by using Data ONTAP operating in 7-Mode dump and restore CLI
commands.
When you perform a dump backup, you can specify the Snapshot copy to be used
for a backup. If you do not specify a Snapshot copy for the backup, the dump
engine creates a Snapshot copy for the backup. After the backup operation is
completed, the dump engine deletes this Snapshot copy.
You can perform level-0, incremental, or differential backups to tape by using the
dump engine.
How a dump backup works
A dump backup writes file system data from disk to tape using a predefined
process.
You can back up a volume, a qtree, or a subtree that is neither an entire volume
nor an entire qtree.
The following table describes the process that Data ONTAP uses to back up the
object indicated by the dump path:
Stage
Action
1
For less than full volume or full qtree
backups, Data ONTAP traverses directories
to identify the files to be backed up.
If you are backing up an entire volume or
qtree, Data ONTAP combines this stage with
Stage 2.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
2
For a full volume or full qtree backup, Data
ONTAP identifies the directories in the
volumes or qtrees to be backed up.
3
Data ONTAP writes the directories to tape.
4
Data ONTAP writes the files to tape.
5
Data ONTAP writes the ACL information (if
applicable) to tape.
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The dump backup uses a Snapshot copy of your data for the backup. Therefore,
you do not have to take the storage system or volume offline before initiating the
backup.
The dump backup names each Snapshot copy it creates as snapshot_for_backup.n,
where n is an integer starting at 0. Each time the dump backup creates a Snapshot
copy, it increments the integer by 1. The storage system resets the integer to 0
when it is rebooted. After the backup operation is completed, the dump engine
deletes this Snapshot copy.
When Data ONTAP performs multiple dump backups simultaneously, the dump
engine creates multiple Snapshot copies. For example, if Data ONTAP is running
two dump backups simultaneously, you find the following Snapshot copies in the
volumes from which data is being backed up: snapshot_for_backup.0 and
snapshot_for_backup.1
Note: When you are backing up from a Snapshot copy, the dump engine does not
create an additional Snapshot copy.
The dump engine does not back up inconsistent LUN clones. Inconsistent LUN
clones are LUN clones whose backing Snapshot copies are missing and therefore
have missing data blocks.
What the dump engine backs up
The dump engine can back up a file, directory, qtree, or an entire volume to a tape.
In addition to backing up data in files, the dump engine can back up the following
information about each file, as applicable:
v UNIX® GID, owner UID, and file permissions
v UNIX access, creation, and modification time
v
v
v
v
File type
File size
DOS name, DOS attributes, and creation time
Access Control Lists (ACLs) with 1024 Access Control Entries (ACEs)
Note: If you restore ACLs backed up from storage systems running Data
ONTAP 8.2 to storage systems running Data ONTAP 8.1.x and earlier that have
an ACE limit lower than 1024, a default ACL is restored.
v Qtree information
v LUN and LUN clones
You can back up only an entire LUN object; you cannot back up a single file
within the LUN object. Similarly, you can restore an entire LUN object but not a
single file within the LUN.
Note: The dump engine backs up LUN clones as independent LUNs.
When you back up data to tape, the dump command does not back up the LUN
clones that are inconsistent. For all other LUN clones, the dump command locks
their backing Snapshot copies to ensure that they do not become inconsistent
during the backup.
When you back up a volume SnapMirror destination to tape, only the data on the
volume is backed up. The associated metadata is not backed up. Therefore, when
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you try to restore the volume, only the data on that volume is restored.
Information about the volume SnapMirror relationships is not available in the
backup and therefore is not restored.
If you dump a file that has only Windows NT® permissions and restore it to a
UNIX-style qtree or volume, the file gets the default UNIX permissions for that
qtree or volume.
If you dump a file that has only UNIX permissions and restore it to an NTFS-style
qtree or volume, the file gets the default Windows permissions for that qtree or
volume.
Other dumps and restores preserve permissions.
What increment chains are
An increment chain consists of a series of incremental backups of the same path.
Because you can specify any level of backup at any time, you must understand
increment chains to be able to perform backups and restores effectively. You can
perform nine levels of incremental backup operations.
There are two types of increment chains:
v A consecutive increment chain is a sequence of incremental backups that starts
with level 0 and is raised by 1 at each subsequent backup.
v A nonconsecutive increment chain is one in which incremental backups skip
levels or have levels that are out of sequence, such as 0, 2, 3, 1, 4, or more
commonly, 0, 1, 1, 1 or 0, 1, 2, 1, 2.
Incremental backups base themselves on the most recent lower-level backup. For
example, the sequence of backup levels 0, 2, 3, 1, 4 gives two increment chains: 0,
2, 3 and 0, 1, 4. The following table explains the bases of the incremental backups:
Back-up order
Increment level
Increment chain Base
Files backed up
1
0
Both
Files on the
storage system
All files in the
back up path
2
2
0, 2, 3
The level-0
backup
Files in the
backup path
created since the
level-0 backup
3
3
0, 2, 3
The level-2
backup
Files in the
backup path
created since the
level-2 backup
4
1
0, 1, 4
The level-0
backup, because
that is the most
recent level that
is lower than the
level-1 backup
Files in the
backup path
created since the
level-0 backup,
including files
that are in the
level-2 and
level-3 backups
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Back-up order
Increment level
Increment chain Base
5
4
0, 1, 4
Files backed up
The level-1
Files created
backup, because since the level-1
it is both of a
backup
lower level and
more recent than
the level-0,
level-2, or level-3
backups
How to specify tape devices for the backup
You must specify at least one tape device to do a backup. If you specify more than
one tape device, each tape device in the list is used in the order listed to write a
tape file.
You can specify two types of tape devices: local and remote.
If the backup requires more tape devices than the number specified, the last tape
device is used for all remaining tape files.
Attention: If you specify more than one rewind device on the same tape drive,
the storage system displays a warning and terminates the dump command.
Note that the storage system device names might not be valid on remote tape
drive hosts. For tape drives attached to remote hosts, use tape device names that
follow the host naming conventions.
What the /etc/dumpdates file is
The /etc/dumpdates file enables you to keep track of backups.
It records the following information:
v The name of the backup, which can be one of the following:
– If you use the n option, the name you supply
– If you use the Q option, the volume you are backing up followed by the
notation /all_non_quota_files
– If you use neither, the dump path
v The level of the backup
v The time of the Snapshot copy used for the backup
Reasons to update the /etc/dumpdates file
You update the /etc/dumpdates file for the following reasons:
v You plan to perform incremental backups.
The storage system uses the data in the /etc/dumpdates file to determine what
to include in incremental backups.
v You want to keep the history of a backup.
Principles applying to the /etc/dumpdates file
The following principles apply to the /etc/dumpdates file:
v If the /etc/dumpdates file does not exist when you try to update it, the storage
system creates it.
v You can edit the /etc/dumpdates file manually, if needed.
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v A new backup of the same path and level overwrites the old entry.
Example
An /etc/dumpdates file lists one backup per line. Each line contains the name of
the backup, followed by the level of the backup, then the date of the backup.
/vol/vol1/ 0 Tue Jul 24 22:07:48 2001
/vol/vol0/ 0 Tue Jul 24 21:06:53 2001
/vol/vol0/etc 0 Tue Jul 24 19:06:15 2001
my_named_dump 0 Tue Jul 24 20:40:09 2001
/vol/vol0/all_non_quota_files 0 Tue Jul 24 20:54:06 2001
/vol/vol0/home 0 Tue Jul 24 21:06:39 2001
/vol/vol1/ 1 Tue Jul 24 22:08:09 2001
/vol/vol1/ 2 Tue Jul 24 22:08:20 2001
my_named_dump 1 Tue Jul 24 22:12:26 2001
/vol/vol0/home 5 Tue Jul 24 22:12:45 2001
What the blocking factor is
A tape block is 1,024 bytes of data. During a tape backup or restore, you can
specify the number of tape blocks that are transferred in each read/write
operation. This number is called the blocking factor.
Data ONTAP 8.1 supports a blocking factor between the range of 4 KB to 256 KB.
The default blocking factor is 63 KB. If you plan to restore a backup to a system
other than the system that did the backup, the restore system must support the
blocking factor that you used for the backup. For example, if you use a blocking
factor of 128, the system on which you restore that backup must support a
blocking factor of 128.
During an NDMP backup, the MOVER_RECORD_SIZE determines the blocking
factor. Data ONTAP allows a maximum value of 256 KB for
MOVER_RECORD_SIZE.
Considerations before using the dump backup
Before backing up data using the dump command, you must have a clear idea of
how much data you will be backing up and how many tapes you will need to
store the data.
Determining the amount of backup data
Before you enter the dump command, it is helpful to estimate the amount of backup
data so that you can determine the number of tape files and the number of tapes
required for the backup.
Procedure
For each item that you want to back up, enter the following command:
df path_name
path_name is the name of the path.
Note: For multiple items, such as multiple volumes, add the data for each item to
determine the total amount of data to be backed up.
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Estimating the number of tapes for the backup
You must estimate the number of tapes required for the backup before executing
the dump command. This estimate helps you to ensure that the dump command does
not fail because it runs out of tapes. It also helps you to load the required number
of tapes in the tape drives or libraries in advance for an unattended backup.
About this task
If you initiate the dump command from the console and have not loaded enough
tapes, Data ONTAP prompts you to load additional tapes. However, if you initiate
the dump command from a Remote Shell connection and have not loaded enough
tapes, you do not see the prompts from Data ONTAP and the dump command
terminates.
Procedure
1. Determine the capacity of the tape device you are using for the backup by
entering the following command:
sysconfig -t
2. Determine the amount of data to be backed up.
3. Divide the amount of data by the capacity of the tape.
4. If your estimate indicates that your data will nearly fill the last tape, add a tape
to the estimate. This avoids a backup failure if the backup exceeds your
estimate. This is especially important when using compression, because
compression rates vary based on the data.
Related tasks:
“Determining the amount of backup data” on page 47
Scalability limits for dump backup and restore sessions
You must be aware of the maximum number of dump backup and restore sessions
that can be performed simultaneously on storage systems of different system
memory capacities. This maximum number depends on the system memory of a
storage system.
System memory of a storage system
Total number of dump backup and restore
sessions
Less than 16 GB
4
Greater than or equal to 16 GB but less than
24 GB
16
Greater than or equal to 24 GB
32
Note: If you use ndmpcopy command to copy data within storage systems, two
sessions are established: dump backup and dump restore.
Note: The number of dump backup and restore sessions indicate backup and
restore operations initiated by NDMP as well as the dump and restore commands.
You can obtain the system memory of your storage system by using the sysconfig
-a command (available through the nodeshell). For more information about using
this command, see the man pages.
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When to restart a dump backup
A dump backup sometimes does not finish because of internal or external errors,
such as tape write errors, power outages, accidental user interruptions, or internal
inconsistency on the storage system. If your backup fails for one of these reasons,
you can restart it.
You can choose to interrupt and restart a backup to avoid periods of heavy traffic
on the storage system or to avoid competition for other limited resources on the
storage system, such as a tape drive. You can interrupt a long backup and restart it
later if a more urgent restore (or backup) requires the same tape drive. Restartable
backups persist across reboots.
You can restart an aborted backup to tape only if the following conditions are true:
v The aborted backup is in phase IV.
v All the associated Snapshot copies that were locked by the dump command are
available.
v File history must be enabled before performing restartable backups.
Starting with Data ONTAP 7.2.3, you can restart dumps of volumes containing
qtree SnapMirror destinations.
Dumps of volumes containing qtree SnapMirror destinations read data from
multiple Snapshot copies and write them onto a tape. When such a dump
operation is aborted and left in a restartable state, the associated Snapshot copies
are locked. These Snapshot copies are released after the backup context is deleted.
To view the list of locked Snapshot copies, run the backup status command.
Example
filer> backup status
2
State: RESTARTABLE
Type:
ndmp
Path: /vol/vol1
Level:
0
Snapshot: filer(0101184236)_vol1_filer_svp-dst.0
Snapshot: snapshot_for_backup.9 [Dec 27 00:41]
Options:
b=63, X
Devices:
[none]
Completed:
1 tapefile(s)
Last Update: Thu Dec 27 00:41:23 2007
The backup status output provides the following information:
State The state of the dump: ACTIVE or RESTARTABLE.
Type The type of invocation of dump: CLI or NDMP.
Path The dump path.
Level The level of the dump (0 through 9).
Snapshot The snapshot copies of the path that is being backed up.
Options All the options specified for the backup and their respective parameters.
Devices The current device to which the dump is writing.
Completed The number tape files that have already been copied.
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Last Updated The time and date of the last completed update.
Related tasks:
“Restarting a dump command backup” on page 80
How a dump restore works
A dump restore writes file system data from tape to disk using a predefined
process.
The process in the following table shows how the dump restore works:
Stage
Action
1
Data ONTAP catalogs the files that need to
be extracted from the tape.
2
Data ONTAP creates directories and empty
files.
3
Data ONTAP reads a file from tape, writes it
to disk, and sets the permissions (including
ACLs) on it.
4
Data ONTAP repeats stages 2 and 3 until all
the specified files are copied from the tape.
What the dump engine restores
The dump engine enables you to recover all the information that you backed up.
The dump engine can recover the following data:
v Contents of files and directories
v UNIX file permissions
v ACLs
If you restore a file that has only UNIX file permissions into an NTFS qtree or
volume, the file has no Windows NT ACLs. The storage system uses only the
UNIX file permissions on this file until you create a Windows NT ACL on it.
Attention: Data ONTAP 7.3 and later releases support more than 192 Access
Control Entries (ACEs) per ACL, whereas earlier versions support only a
maximum of 192. Therefore, any data migration from Data ONTAP 7.3 or later
releases to an earlier release will result in loss of ACLs.
v
v
v
v
v
v
50
Note: If you restore ACLs backed up from storage systems running Data
ONTAP 8.2 to storage systems running Data ONTAP 8.1.x and earlier that have
an ACE limit lower than 1024, a default ACL is restored.
Qtree information
Qtree information is used only if a qtree is restored to the root of a volume.
Qtree information is not used if a qtree is restored to a lower directory, such as
/vs1/vol1/subdir/lowerdir, and it ceases to be a qtree.
All other file and directory attributes
Windows NT streams
LUNs
– A LUN must be restored to a volume level or a qtree level for it to remain as
a LUN. If it is restored to a directory, it is restored as a file because it does
not contain any valid metadata.
Clustered Data ONTAP volume can be restored to a 7-Mode volume.
SnapLock volumes are restored as normal read/write volumes.
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v The destination volume for a restore operation might have files with mandatory
or advisory locks. While performing restore operation to such a destination
volume, the dump engine ignores these locks.
Considerations before restoring data
You can restore the backed up data to its original path or to a different destination.
If you are restoring the backed up data to a different destination, you must prepare
the destination for the restore.
Before restoring data either to its original path or to a different destination, you
must have the following information and meet the following requirements:
v The level of the restore
v The path into which you are restoring the data
v The blocking factor used during the backup
v If you are doing an incremental restore, all tapes must be in the backup chain.
v A tape drive that is available and compatible with the tape to be restored from.
Before restoring data to
operations:
v If you are restoring a
v If you are restoring a
are likely to have the
a different destination, you must perform the following
volume, you must create a new volume.
qtree or a directory, you must rename or move files that
same names as files you are restoring.
Attention: If a restored file has the same name as an existing file, the existing file
is overwritten by the restored file. However, the directories are not overwritten.
To rename a file, directory, or qtree during restore without using DAR, you must
set the EXTRACT environment variable to E.
Required space on the destination storage system
You need about 100 MB more space on the destination storage system than the
amount of data to be restored.
Attention:
The restore operation command terminates if it runs out of space.
How to perform a dump backup and restore using NDMP services
You can perform a dump backup or restore by using NDMP-compliant backup
applications.
Data ONTAP provides a set of environment variables that enable you to perform a
tape backup and restore using NDMP services. The dump engine-based restore
using NDMP also supports enhanced direct access recovery (DAR), which enables
directory DAR and DAR of files with NT streams.
You can also transfer file system data between storage systems by using the
ndmpcopy command.
Environment variables supported for dump
Data ONTAP supports environment variables for dump, which have an associated
default value. However, you can manually modify these default values.
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If you manually modify the values set by the backup application, the application
might behave unpredictably. This is because the dump or restore operations might
not be doing what the backup application expected them to do. But in some cases,
judicious modifications might help in identifying or working around problems.
The following table contains descriptions of what the environment variables
supported by Data ONTAP do if they are used:
Note: In most cases, variables that have Y or N values also accept T or F values,
respectively.
Environment variable
Valid values
Default
Description
ACL_START
return_only
none
Created by the backup operation, the
ACL_START variable is an offset value
used by a direct access restore or
restartable NDMP backup operation. The
offset value is the byte offset in the dump
file where the ACL data (Pass V) begins
and is returned at the end of a backup. For
a direct access restore operation to
correctly restore backed up data, the
ACL_START value must be passed to the
restore operation when it begins. An
NDMP restartable backup operation uses
the ACL_START value to tell the backup
application where the nonrestartable
portion of the backup stream begins.
BASE_DATE
0,-1, or
-1
DUMP_DATE
value
Specifies the start date for incremental
backups. There is no equivalent option for
the dump command. When set to -1, the
BASE_DATE incremental specifier is
disabled. When set to 0 on a level 0
backup, incremental backups are enabled.
Subsequent to the initial backup, the value
of the DUMP_DATE variable from the
previous incremental backup is assigned to
the BASE_DATE variable. These variables
are an alternative to the /etc/dumpdates
file for controlling incremental backups.
These variables are an alternative to the
LEVEL/UPDATE based incremental
backups.
DEBUG
Y or N
N
Specifies that debugging information is
printed.
Note: There is no command line
equivalent for the DEBUG variable.
DIRECT
Y or N
N
Specifies that a restore should fast-forward
directly to the location on the tape where
the file data resides instead of scanning the
entire tape. For direct access recovery to
work, the backup application must provide
positioning information. If this variable is
set to Y, the backup application will specify
the file or directory names and the
positioning information.
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Environment variable
Valid values
Default
Description
DMP_NAME
string
none
Specifies the name for a multiple subtree
backup. The DMP_NAME variable is
equivalent to the n option of the dump
command. This variable is mandatory for
multiple subtree backups.
DUMP_DATE
return_value
none
You do not change this variable directly. It
is created by the backup if the
BASE_DATE variable is set to a value other
than -1. The DUMP_DATE variable is
derived by prefixing the 32-bit level value
to a 32-bit time value computed by the
dump software. The level is incremented
from the last level value passed into the
BASE_DATE variable. The resulting value
is used as the BASE_DATE value on a
subsequent incremental backup.
ENHANCED_DAR_ENABLED
Y or N
N
Specifies if enhanced DAR functionality is
instantiated. Enhanced DAR functionality
supports directory DAR, and DAR of files
with NT Streams. It provides performance
improvements. Enhanced DAR during
restore is possible only if the following
conditions are met:
v Data ONTAP supports enhanced DAR
v File history is enabled (HIST=Y) during
the backup
v The ndmpd.offset_map.enable option is
set to "on"
v ENHANCED_DAR_ENABLED variable
is set to "Y" during restore
EXCLUDE
pattern_string
none
Specifies files or directories that are
excluded when backing up data. The
EXCLUDE variable is equivalent to the X
option of the dump command. The exclude
list is a comma-separated list of file or
directory names. If the name of a file or
directory matches one of the names in the
list, it is excluded from the backup. The
following are rules for specifying names in
the exclude list:
v The exact name of the file or directory
must be used.
v An asterisk (*) is a wildcard character.
The asterisk must be either the first or
the last character of the string. Each
string can have up to two asterisks.
v A comma in a file or directory name
must be preceded with a backslash.
v The exclude list can contain up to 32
names.
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Environment variable
Valid values
Default
Description
EXTRACT
Y, N, or E
N
Specifies that subtrees of a backed-up data
set are to be restored. The EXTRACT
variable is equivalent to the x option of the
restore command. The backup application
specifies the names of the subtrees to be
extracted. If a file name specified matches
a directory whose contents were backed
up, the directory is recursively extracted.
To rename a file, directory, or qtree during
restore without using DAR, you must set
the EXTRACT environment variable to E.
EXTRACT_ACL
Y or N
Y
Specifies that ACLs from the backed up file
are restored on a restore operation. The
EXTRACT_ACL variable is equivalent to
the A option of the restore command. The
default is to restore ACLs when restoring
data, except for DARs (DIRECT=Y).
FILESYSTEM
string
none
Specifies the path name of the root of the
data that is being backed up. For example,
/vol/vol0/etc.
FORCE
Y or N
N
The FORCE variable is equivalent to the F
option of the restore command.
Determines if the restore operation must
check for volume space and inode
availability on the destination volume.
Setting this variable to Y causes the restore
operation to skip checks for volume space
and inode availability on the destination
path.
If there is not enough volume space or
inodes available on the destination volume,
the restore operation recovers as much
data allowed by the destination volume
space and inode availability. The restore
operation stops when there is no more
volume space or inodes left.
HIST
54
Y or N
N
Specifies that file history information is
sent to the backup application. Most
commercial backup applications set the
HIST variable to Y. If you want to increase
the speed of a backup operation, or you
want to troubleshoot a problem with the
file history collection, you can set this
variable to N.
Note: You should not set the HIST variable
to Y if the backup application does not
support file history.
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Environment variable
Valid values
Default
Description
IGNORE_CTIME
Y or N
N
Specifies that a file is not incrementally
backed up if only its ctime value has
changed since the previous incremental
backup. Some applications, such as virus
scanning software, change the ctime value
of a file within the inode, even though the
file or its attributes have not changed. As a
result, an incremental backup might back
up files which have not changed. The
IGNORE_CTIME variable should be
specified only if incremental backups are
taking an unacceptable amount of time or
space because the ctime value was
modified.
IGNORE_QTREES
Y or N
N
Specifies that the restore operation does
not restore qtree information from backed
up qtrees. The IGNORE_QTREES variable
is equivalent to the Q option of the restore
command.
LEVEL
0-9
0
Specifies the backup level. Level 0 copies
the entire data set. Incremental backup
levels, specified by values above 0, copy all
files new or modified since the last
incremental backup. For example, a level 1
backs up new or modified files since the
level 0 backup, a level 2 backs up new or
modified files since the level 1 backup, and
so on.
LIST
Y or N
N
Lists the backed-up file names and inode
numbers without actually restoring the
data. The LIST variable is equivalent to the
t option of the restore command.
LIST_QTREES
Y or N
N
Lists the backed-up qtrees without actually
restoring the data. The LIST_QTREES
variable is equivalent to the T option of the
restore command.
MULTI_SUBTREE_ NAMES
string
none
Specifies that the backup is a multiple
subtree backup. The
MULTI_SUBTREE_NAMES variable is
equivalent to the l option of the dump
command. Multiple subtrees are specified
in the string which is a newline-separated,
null-terminated list of subtree names.
Subtrees are specified by path names
relative to their common root directory,
which must be specified as the last element
of the list. If you use this variable, you
must also use the DMP_NAME variable.
NDMP_UNICODE_ FH
Y or N
N
Specifies that a Unicode name is included
in addition to the NFS name of the file in
the file history information. This option is
not used by most backup applications and
should not be set unless the backup
application is designed to receive these
additional file names. The HIST variable
must also be set.
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Environment variable
Valid values
Default
Description
NDMP_VERSION
return_only
none
You should not modify the
NDMP_VERSION variable. Created by the
backup operation, the NDMP_VERSION
variable returns the NDMP version. Data
ONTAP sets the NDMP_VERSION variable
during a backup for internal use and to
pass to a backup application for
informational purposes. The NDMP
version of an NDMP session is not set with
this variable.
NO_ACLS
Y or N
N
Specifies that ACLs not be copied when
backing up data. The NO_ACLS variable is
equivalent to the A option of the dump
command. Ordinarily a backup using the
dump command writes out metadata related
to Windows ACLs. The NO_ACLS variable
stops this information from being backed
up.
NON_QUOTA_TREE
Y or N
N
Specifies that files and directories in qtrees
be ignored when backing up data. The
NON_QUOTA_TREE variable is equivalent
to the Q option of the dump command.
When set to Y, items in qtrees in the data
set specified by the FILESYSTEM variable
are not backed up. This variable has an
effect only if the FILESYSTEM variable
specifies an entire volume. The
NON_QUOTA_TREE variable only works
on a level-0 backup and does not work if
the MULTI_SUBTREE_NAMES variable is
specified.
NOWRITE
Y or N
N
Specifies that the restore operation not
write data to the disk. The NOWRITE
variable is equivalent to the N option of the
restore command. This variable is used
for debugging.
PATHNAME_SEPARATOR
return_value
none
Specifies the pathname separator character.
This character depends upon the file
system being backed up. For Data ONTAP,
the character "/" is assigned to this
variable. NDMP server sets this variable
prior to starting a tape backup operation.
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Environment variable
Valid values
Default
Description
RECURSIVE
Y or N
Y
Specifies that directory entries during a
DAR restore be expanded. The DIRECT
and ENHANCED_DAR_ENABLED
environment variables must be enabled (set
to Y) as well. If the RECURSIVE variable is
disabled (set to N), only the permissions
and ACLs for all the directories in the
original source path are restored from tape,
not the contents of the directories. If the
RECURSIVE variable is N or the
RECOVER_FULL_PATHS variable is Y, the
recovery path must end with the original
path.
Note: If the RECURSIVE variable is
disabled and if there are more than one
recovery path, all the recovery paths must
be contained within the longest of the
recovery paths. Otherwise, an error
message is displayed.
For example, the following are valid
recovery paths as all the recovery paths are
within foo/dir1/deepdir/myfile:
v /foo
v /foo/dir
v /foo/dir1/deepdir
v /foo/dir1/deepdir/myfile
The following are invalid recovery paths:
v /foo
v /foo/dir
v /foo/dir1/myfile
v /foo/dir2
v /foo/dir2/myfile
RECOVER_FULL_PATHS
Y or N
N
Specifies that full recovery path will have
their permissions and ACLs restored after
the DAR. DIRECT and
ENHANCED_DAR_ENABLED must be
enabled (set to Y) as well. If
RECOVER_FULL_PATHS is Y, recovery
path must end with the original path. If
directories already exist on the destination
volume, their permissions and ACLs will
not be restored from tape.
TYPE
dump or
smtape
dump
Specifies the type of backup you can
choose to perform tape backup and restore
operations. Data ONTAP supports two
types of backup: the dump backup and
SMTape backup.
UPDATE
Y or N
Y
Updates the metadata information to
enable LEVEL based incremental backup.
VERBOSE
Y or N
N
Increases the log messages while
performing a tape backup or restore
operation.
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Enabling or disabling enhanced DAR functionality
Enhanced direct access recovery (DAR) functionality provides support for directory
DAR and DAR of files with NT Streams. You can enable or disable enhanced DAR
functionality by using the options ndmpd.offset_map.enable command. By default,
enhanced DAR functionality is enabled.
About this task
Enhanced direct access recovery (DAR) functionality is supported only for the
NDMP-initiated dump backup and restore and provides improved restore
performance. This feature is not supported in SMTape backup and restore.
Because an offset map has to be created and written onto tape, enabling enhanced
DAR functionality might impact the backup performance.
Note: You should enable or disable this functionality before you initiate the NDMP
dump operation.
Procedure
To enable enhanced DAR functionality on your storage system, enter the following
command:
options ndmpd.offset_map.enable [on|off]
on enables enhanced DAR functionality.
off disables enhanced DAR functionality.
Related concepts:
“Considerations when using NDMP” on page 38
What the ndmpcopy command does
The ndmpcopy command enables you to transfer file system data between storage
systems that support NDMP v3 or v4.
The ndmpcopy command functions as a simple NDMP data management application
(backup application) that performs data transfers by initiating a backup operation
on the source storage system and a recovery operation on the destination storage
system. The command establishes control connections to the storage systems and
facilitates data connection establishment. After connections are established, it
facilitates data transfer. You can use host names or IPv4 addresses of source and
destination storage systems in the ndmpcopy command.
Starting with Data ONTAP 7.3.3, the ndmpcopy command supports IPv6 addresses
of storage systems also. You can use IPv6 addresses to establish control connections
to source and destination storage systems and can request the ndmpcopy command
to use an IPv6 address mode to establish the data connection.
Using the ndmpcopy command, you can perform both full and incremental data
transfers; however, incremental transfers are limited to a maximum of two levels
(one full and up to two incremental backups). You can transfer full or partial
volumes, qtrees, directories, or individual files.
You cannot perform a block-level transfer using the ndmpcopy command.
Transferring data using ndmpcopy
You can run the ndmpcopy command at the command line of the source storage
system, the destination storage system, or a storage system that is neither the
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source nor the destination of the data transfer. You can also run ndmpcopy on a
single storage system that is both the source and the destination of the data
transfer.
Procedure
To transfer data within a storage system or between storage systems using
ndmpcopy, enter the following command:
ndmpcopy [options][source_filer:]source_path
[destination_filer:]destination_path [-mcs {inet|inet6}][-mcd
{inet|inet6}][-md {inet|inet6}]
v You can specify one or more options in the ndmpcopy command. The following
table lists the available options:
Option
Description
-sa username:[password]
Source authorization that specifies the user
name and password for connecting to the
source storage system
Note: For a user without root privilege, you
must specify the user's system-generated
NDMP-specific password and not the
regular storage system account password.
-da username:[password]
Destination authorization that specifies the
user name and password for connecting to
the destination storage system
-st {md5|text}
Sets the source authentication type to be
used when connecting to the source storage
system
Note: md5 is the default authentication type
used. The md5 authentication exchanges the
user name and password in encrypted form.
The text authentication exchanges the user
name and password in clear text.
-dt {md5|text}
Sets the destination authentication type to be
used when connecting to the destination
storage system
-l
Sets the dump level used for the transfer to
the specified value of level
Valid values for level are 0, 1, and 2, where
0 indicates a full transfer and 1 or 2 an
incremental transfer. The default is 0.
-d
Enables generation of ndmpcopy debug log
messages
ndmpcopy debug log files appear in the root
volume /etc/log directory. The ndmpcopy
debug log file names are in the form
ndmpcopy.yyyymmdd.
-f
Enables forced mode
This mode enables overwriting system files
in the /etc directory on the root volume.
-h
Prints the help message
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Option
Description
-p
Prompts you to enter the password for
source and destination authorization
This password overrides the password
specified for -sa and -da options.
Note: You can use this option only when
the command is running in an interactive
console.
-exclude
Excludes specified files or directories from
the path specified for data transfer
The value can be a comma-separated list of
directory or file names such as "*.pst" or
"*.txt".
v source_filer and destination_filer can be host names or IP addresses.
The ndmpcopy command determines the address mode for control connections as
follows:
– When an IP address (IPv4 or IPv6) is specified instead of the host name, the
addressing mode for the control connection is the corresponding IP address
type.
– When a host name is specified and it resolves to both IPv6 and IPv4
addresses, IPv6 addressing mode is used.
You can override these rules by using the -mcs and -mcd options.
v source_path and destination_path are the absolute path names of the directories to
be used during the data transfer.
v -mcs specifies the preferred addressing mode for the control connection to the
source storage system.
inet indicates an IPv4 address mode and inet6 indicates an IPv6 address mode.
v -mcd specifies the preferred addressing mode for the control connection to the
destination storage system.
inet indicates an IPv4 address mode and inet6 indicates an IPv6 address mode.
v -md specifies the preferred addressing mode for communication between the
source and the destination storage systems.
inet indicates an IPv4 address mode and inet6 indicates an IPv6 address mode.
If you do not use the -md option in the ndmpcopy command, the addressing mode
for the data connection is determined as follows:
– If either of the addresses specified for the control connections is an IPv6
address, the address mode for the data connection is IPv6.
– If both the addresses specified for the control connections are IPv4 addresses,
the ndmpcopy command first attempts an IPv6 address mode for the data
connection.
If that fails, the command uses an IPv4 address mode.
– When a DNS name is specified for the control connections, the ndmpcopy
command attempts an IPv6 DNS lookup followed by an IPv4 DNS lookup.
The address mode for the data connection is determined by the outcome of
the DNS lookup.
Note: An IPv6 address, if specified, must be enclosed within square brackets.
Related tasks:
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“Generating an NDMP-specific password for non-root administrators” on page 30
Related reference:
“Use cases for ndmpcopy”
Use cases for ndmpcopy
You can migrate data from the source path to a destination path on the same
storage system or to a different destination path on a remote host. You can also
migrate data from a source path on a remote host to a destination path on the
same host or to a destination path on a remote host.
In these examples, myhost is used for a local storage system and remotehost1 and
remotehost2 are used for remote storage systems. If you specify host names when
you use the ndmpcopy command, the storage system running the ndmpcopy
command should be able to resolve these names to their IP addresses.
Example of migrating data from a source path to a different destination
path on the same storage system
This sample command migrates data from a source path (source_path) to a different
destination path (destination_path) on the same storage system (myhost).
myhost>ndmpcopy -sa username:password -da username:password
myhost:/vol/vol0/source_path myhost:/vol/vol0/destination_path
The following shorter form of the command achieves the same purpose:
myhost>ndmpcopy /vol/vol0/source_path
/vol/vol0/destination_path
Because you are running the ndmpcopy command on myhost and the source and
destination storage system are the same as myhost, you can omit the source and
destination storage system names on the ndmpcopy command line. When your
ndmpcopy command is running on the same storage system as the source storage
system or destination storage system, you can also omit the -sa or -da options.
Example of migrating data from a source path to a different destination
path on a remote host
This sample command migrates data from a source path (source_path) to a different
destination path (destination_path) on remotehost1.
myhost>ndmpcopy -da username:password /vol/vol0/source_path
remotehost1:/vol/vol0/destination_path
The destination storage system must be specified in this case, because it is a
remote storage system. The destination authorization is needed, but not the source
authorization.
Example of migrating data from a source path on remote host to a
destination path on the local storage system
This sample command migrates data from a source path (source_path) on
remotehost2 to a destination path (destination_path) on myhost.
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myhost>ndmpcopy -sa username:password -st text
remotehost2:/vol/vol0/source_path /vol/vol0/destination_path
The source authentication type specified by -st is text. The ndmpcopy command tool
running on myhost will authenticate with the source storage system by using text
authentication.
Example of migrating data from a source path on a remote host to a
destination path on another remote host
This sample command migrates data from a source path (source_path) on
remotehost1 to a destination path (destination_path) on remotehost2.
myhost>ndmpcopy -sa username:password -da username:password -l 1
remotehost1:/vol/vol0/source_path
remotehost2:/vol/vol0/destination_path
The -l 1 option is used to do a level 1 transfer.
Example of overwriting the /etc directory during the root volume
migration
Without the -f option, the /etc directory and its contents on the root volume of
remotehost1 are protected from being overwritten with the/etc directory from
myhost. This helps prevent unintentional changing of the system characteristics
after the root volume migration is completed.
myhost>ndmpcopy -da username:password /vol/rootvol
remotehost1:/vol/rootvol
To intentionally overwrite the/etc directory during the root volume migration, use
the -f flag as shown in the following example.
myhost>ndmpcopy -da username:password -f /vol/rootvol
remotehost1:/vol/rootvol
Example of the ndmpcopy command where the address modes are
explicitly set to IPv6
This sample command explicitly sets the control connections and the data
connection to use IPv6 address mode. In this command remotehost1 is the host
name that resolves to an IPv6 address.
myhost>ndmpcopy -sa username:password -da username:password
-l 0 -mcs inet6 -mcd inet6 -md inet6 remotehost1:/vol/vol0/source_path
[2001:0db8::10]:/vol/vol0/destination_path
Displaying file history statistics
You can view detailed statistics about file history performance of currently active
dump sessions using the stats show ndmp command. SMTape does not support file
history and therefore SMTape initiated backups do not have any file history
statistics associated with them.
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Procedure
Enter the following command:
stats show ndmp
The output of the stats show ndmp command includes the following statistics:
v Total number of directory file history entries generated
v Total number of normal file history entries generated
v Total number of messages sent to the file history thread
v Minimum, maximum, and average delay times for adding file history entries
v Minimum, maximum, and average delay times for the file history thread to send
messages to the NDMP thread
v Total number of file history flush calls
v Minimum, maximum, and average flush times
v Total number of times the dump thread had to block because of slow processing
by the file history thread
v Maximum number of outstanding buffers to the file history thread
Sample output of the stat show ndmp command
filer*> stats show ndmp
ndmp:Session 01:dir_buffers_sent:19
ndmp:Session 01:node_buffers_sent:0
ndmp:Session 01:dir_send_was_blocked:2
ndmp:Session 01:node_send_was_blocked:0
ndmp:Session 01:dir_flush_calls:0
ndmp:Session 01:node_flush_calls:0
ndmp:Session 01:num_node_entries:2731
ndmp:Session 01:num_dir_entries:104362
ndmp:Session 01:num_dir_entries_2fh:104362
ndmp:Session 01:dir_entry_2fh_min_latency:0ms
ndmp:Session 01:dir_entry_2fh_max_latency:200ms
ndmp:Session 01:dir_entry_2fh_ave_latency:0ms
ndmp:Session 01:dir_entry_2fh_tot_latency:419ms
ndmp:Session 01:num_node_entries_2fh:2731
ndmp:Session 01:node_entry_2fh_min_latency:0ms
ndmp:Session 01:node_entry_2fh_max_latency:1ms
ndmp:Session 01:node_entry_2fh_ave_latency:0ms
ndmp:Session 01:node_entry_2fh_tot_latency:1ms
ndmp:Session 01:num_dir_entries_2ndmp:36
ndmp:Session 01:dir_entry_2ndmp_min_latency:19ms
ndmp:Session 01:dir_entry_2ndmp_max_latency:212ms
ndmp:Session 01:dir_entry_2ndmp_ave_latency:61ms
ndmp:Session 01:dir_entry_2ndmp_tot_latency:2598ms
ndmp:Session 01:num_node_entries_2ndmp:0
ndmp:Session 01:node_entry_2ndmp_min_latency:0ms
ndmp:Session 01:node_entry_2ndmp_max_latency:0ms
ndmp:Session 01:node_entry_2ndmp_ave_latency:0ms
ndmp:Session 01:node_entry_2ndmp_tot_latency:0ms
ndmp:Session 01:max_queue_depth:16
ndmp:Session 01:fh_queue_full_cnt:2
At the end of the backup session, the file history statistics is updated in the
etc/log/backup file.
How to perform a dump backup using the CLI
You can perform a file system backup of your data to tape by using the dump
command.
What the dump command syntax is
The Data ONTAP dump command has a defined syntax that consists of a set of
options.
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You can enter the dump command any time the tape devices you want to use are
free to back up data in a specified path. After the dump command is finished, the
data in the path is written to the tape.
You can run up to eight dump commands (depending on the hardware you are
using) in parallel on up to eight tape drives, one command per drive. Parallel
backups increase throughput.
The dump command syntax is as follows:
dump options parameters dump_path
The following list describes the various dump command options:
backup level
Level 0 is a full backup; levels 1 through 9 are for incremental backups.
A
Does not back up ACLs.
b
The blocking factor.
Parameter: The number of 1-KB blocks in each write operation. For a
storage system, the range is 4 through 256, and the default is 63.
B
Specifies the number of tape blocks to be written to a tape file before
starting a new tape file.
Parameter: The number of tape blocks in a tape file.
f
Specifies the tape device for the backup. (mandatory)
Parameter: At least one tape device name as a parameter. Separate
additional tape device names with commas.
l
Backs up only specific files and directories in the dump path. You must use
the n option when using the l option.
n
Specifies to provide a name for the backup to be recorded in the
/etc/dumpdates file. It takes a string as a parameter. It is required if you
use the l option.
Q
Backs up all data in the specified volume that does not reside in a qtree.
u
Updates the /etc/dumpdates file. You must use this option if you plan to
perform incremental backups in the future.
X
Excludes specified files from the backup.
Parameter: A string that specifies the exclusion prefixes or suffixes.
Note: Not all options are mandatory, and some do not have any parameters.
The following list describes the rules for entering the dump command:
v You can list one or more options.
You must list all options together; do not separate the options by commas or
spaces.
v You can list the options in any order.
v You must include a backup level and a tape file in the options.
v parameters can be one parameter or a list of parameters, each of which is
associated with an option.
v List all parameters in the same order as their corresponding options.
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v Separate each parameter with one or more spaces.
v If the parameter is a list, use commas to separate the items in the list.
v dump_path is the complete path name of the volume, directory, or qtree batch
file to be backed up by the dump command.
v Always precede the volume name by /vol/ even if the volume is a root volume,
because between different levels of backups, you could have changed the root
volume.
Example of a dump command
dump 0fb rst0a 63 /vol/vol0/
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0 Does a full backup.
f Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line. Its parameter is
rst0a.
b Specifies that a blocking factor is supplied in the command line.
63 The blocking factor.
/vol/vol0/ The dump path. This command backs up to tape all files and directories
in the vol0 volume.
Related concepts:
“What increment chains are” on page 45
“How to specify tape devices for the backup” on page 46
Related tasks:
“Specifying the backup level” on page 66
“Omitting ACLs from a backup” on page 73
“Specifying a blocking factor” on page 74
“Specifying the tape file size” on page 75
“Specifying a list of files for backup” on page 70
“Specifying a name for a backup” on page 74
“Backing up all data that is not in a qtree” on page 71
“Updating the /etc/dumpdates file” on page 67
“Excluding specified files and directories” on page 72
Where to enter the dump command
You can enter the dump command through a Remote Shell connection, such as
through the rsh command, through a Telnet session accessing the storage system
console, or through the storage system console directly.
Note: Other than potential problems associated with any remote connection,
console access through a Telnet session and direct console connection to the storage
system behave the same way.
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Benefits of entering the dump command through a Remote Shell
connection
Entering the dump command through a Remote Shell connection gives you these
benefits:
v When the dump command is in progress, you can still use the console to manage
the storage system.
If the dump command entered on the console is backing up a large number of
files, you cannot use the console for a long time.
v You can start multiple dump commands using the rsh command.
v Data ONTAP is less likely to inadvertently terminate the dump command,
especially if it is run in the background from a Solaris system.
If you enter a dump command on the storage system console, it could be
terminated by pressing Ctrl-C entered on a host connected to the storage system
using a Telnet session.
v You can automate storage system backups through shell scripts and crontab
entries.
Benefits of entering the dump command at the console
If you enter the dump command at the console, you can read and respond to screen
messages and prompts displayed by the command. For example, the command
might prompt you for another tape to complete the backup, whereas a dump
command entered through a Remote Shell connection does not generate any
messages when the command needs user intervention, and terminates instead.
Specifying the backup level
You can specify a backup level for your dump command, based on which all files or
only the most recently changed files are to be backed up to tape.
About this task
A level-0 backup is a full backup. A full backup backs up all the data in the dump
path.
Backups at levels from 1 through 9 are incremental backups. An incremental
backup backs up only the items in the dump path that have been created or
changed since the most recent backup of a lower level.
Procedure
To specify the backup level, include the level number as an option. The range is 0
through 9.
Example
The following command performs a full backup of the /vol/vol1/users/tom/specs
directory. After the dump command finishes, the tape drive rewinds the tape.
dump 0uf rst0a /vol/vol1/users/tom/specs
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0 Does a full backup.
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u Records the backup in the /etc/dumpdates file.
f Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
rst0a The tape drive rewinds the tape.
/vol/vol1/users/tom/specs The directory to be backed up.
Note: Incremental updates do not run unless the baseline transfer has updated the
dumpdates file.
Related tasks:
“Updating the /etc/dumpdates file”
“Backing up all data that is not in a qtree” on page 71
Improving incremental dump performance
Data ONTAP 7.3 and later provide an improved incremental dump performance, if
you enable the i2p option on the volume to be backed up. You can accomplish this
by setting the volume option no_i2p to off.
Procedure
To enable the i2p option on a particular volume, enter the following command:
vol options volume_name no_i2p off
volume_name is the name of the volume being backed up.
Note: By default, i2p is enabled.
Updating the /etc/dumpdates file
To keep track of the backups, update the /etc/dumpdates file.
Procedure
To update the /etc/dumpdates file, include the u option in the dump command line.
Example
The following command backs up the /vol/vol0 volume and adds the backup
information to the /etc/dumpdates file:
dump 0fu rst0a /vol/vol0
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0 Does a full backup.
f Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
u Updates the /etc/dumpdates file.
rst0a The tape drive rewinds the tape.
/vol/vol0 The directory to be backed up.
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If the command is issued on Monday, April 16, 2001, at 45 seconds after 1:12 p.m.,
the following line is added to the /etc/dumpdates file:
/vol/vol0/ 0 Mon Apr 16 13:12:45 2001
Related reference:
“What the /etc/dumpdates file is” on page 46
Specifying a local tape device
You can use a local tape device to back up the data.
Procedure
To specify local tape devices for a backup, use the f option and provide one or
more tape devices, separated by commas, as a parameter to the f option.
Note: You cannot combine local and remote tape devices in a single command,
and you can write to only one remote machine in a command.
Example
The following command specifies to write one tape file with one device:
dump 0f rst0a /vol/vol0
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0 Does a full backup.
f Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
rst0a The tape device.
/vol/vol0 The dump path.
Specifying a tape device on a remote storage system
You can use tape devices attached to a remote storage systems for a backup.
Procedure
To use a tape device on a remote storage system for the backup, use the f option
and provide one or more tape devices, separated by commas, as a parameter to the
f option. Do not repeat the remote machine name.
Note: You cannot combine local and remote tape devices in a single command,
and you can write to only one remote machine in a command.
Example
The following command performs a backup to a tape drive attached to a remote
storage system named sales1. The tape drive does not rewind the tape.
dump 0f sales1:nrst0a /vol/vol1
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
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0 Does a full backup.
f Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
sales1 The name of the storage system that the tape drive is attached to.
nrst0a The tape drive does not rewind the tape.
/vol/vol1 The volume to be backed up.
Example: Tape drive attached to a remote storage system having
an IPv6 address
You can back up data to a tape device attached to a remote storage system having
an IPv6 address.
This sample command performs a level 0 dump of the voltest volume to a remote
tape device using an IPv6 address:
dump 0f [2001:0db8::10]:nrst01 /vol/voltest
In this example, 2001:0db8::10 indicates the IPv6 address of the storage system to
which the remote tape device is attached.
Examples: Tape drive attached to a Solaris system
You can perform a backup to a tape drive attached to a Solaris system.
The following command performs a backup to a tape drive on a Solaris system.
The tape drive rewinds the tape.
dump 0f ritchie:/dev/rmt/0 /vol/vol1
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0 Does a full backup.
f Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
ritchie The name of the Solaris machine to which the tape drive is connected.
/dev/rmt/0 The name of the tape drive. Tape drive names vary according to the
type of Solaris system you use.
/vol/vol1 The volume to be backed up.
The following command performs a backup to a tape drive on a Solaris system
with a 2-GB limit. The size of the backup is greater than 2 GB but less than 4 GB,
so the backup must be broken up into two tape files.
dump 0fB thompson:/dev/rmt/0n,/dev/rmt/0n 2097151 /vol/vol1
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0 Does a full backup.
f A tape device is supplied in the command line.
B Specifies that the maximum tape file size allowed is supplied in the command
line.
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thompson The name of the Solaris machine to which the tape drive is connected.
/dev/rmt/0n The name of the remote tape drive.
2097151 The maximum tape file size allowed. This is equal to 2 GB.
/vol/vol1 The volume to be backed up.
Specifying the dump path
The dump path specifies one volume, qtree, or subtree to back up. (A subtree is a
directory in a volume or qtree.)
About this task
You can specify a dump path by specifying a volume, qtree, or subtree to back up
all the data in it. The volume, qtree, or subtree can be in either of the following
locations:
v The active file system—for example, /vol/volname/home
v A Snapshot copy—for example, /vol/volname/.snapshot/weekly.0/home
Procedure
To specify a single dump path, put the path name of the volume, qtree, or subtree
that you want to back up at the end of the dump command.
Example
The following command contains the dump path /vol/vol0:
dump 0f rst0a /vol/vol0
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0 Does a full backup.
f Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
rst0a The tape drive rewinds the tape.
/vol/vol0 The dump path.
Specifying a list of files for backup
You can back up some, but not all, subdirectories or files in the dump path using a
single dump command.
About this task
You can specify for backup a list of one or more files. However, the files must all
be in the same dump path. It is easier to specify a list rather than using a dump
command for each subdirectory or file. It also helps you avoid starting multiple
dump commands.
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Procedure
1. Use the n and l options in the command line.
2. Include a name for the backup as a parameter to the n option.
3. Put the path name of the volume, qtree, or subtree that you want to back up at
the end of the dump command.
4. Enter the dump command line.
5. In response to prompts, enter each name as a path name relative to the dump
path in the dump command.
Note: Do not specify a parent directory (..) or a directory that is a symbolic
link.
6. To end the list, press the Enter key.
Example
The following example shows the prompts and path name entry when you back
up a list of files or directories. The example ends the list of path names with a
blank line.
dump 0ufnl rst0a user.1.3.5 /vol/vol1/home
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0 Does a full backup.
u Records the backup in the /etc/dumpdates file.
f Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
n Specifies that a name for the backup is supplied.
l Specifies that the names of individual files and directories to be backed up will
be entered interactively.
rst0a The tape drive rewinds the tape.
user.1.3.5 The name of the backup.
/vol/vol1/home The directory that contains the files to be backed up.
The output of the preceding dump command is as follows:
DUMP: creating "snapshot_for_backup.0" snapshot.
creating....................................................
DUMP: Date of this level 0 dump: Tue Jun 4 12:47:14 2001
DUMP: Date of last level 0 dump: Tue May 28 4 12:45:51 2001
DUMP: Dumping /vol/vol0/home to nrst0a
DUMP: mapping (Pass I) [regular files]
DUMP: Reading file names from standard input
user1
user3/jdoe
user5/rroe/src
Backing up all data that is not in a qtree
You can back up all data in a specified volume that is not in a qtree. The specified
volume is the dump path. You use this method if you back up on a qtree basis and
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want to back up the remaining data in a volume. Usually, the data in qtrees
changes frequently, while the remaining data, such as configuration files, changes
rarely.
About this task
You cannot perform incremental backups by using this method.
Procedure
To back up all non-qtree data in a specified volume, use the Q option in the
command line.
Example
The following command backs up all items in /vol/vol0 that are not in a qtree:
dump 0fQ rst0a /vol/vol0
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0 Does a full backup.
f Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
Q Excludes items in qtrees.
rst0a The tape drive rewinds the tape.
/vol/vol0 The dump path.
Excluding specified files and directories
You can exclude a list of files and directories from a backup. You can also specify a
pattern based on which you can exclude files and directories from a backup. For
example, you can exclude the files that end with .core.
About this task
The rules for constructing a string for excluding files are as follows:
v A string can be a file name.
v You can use the asterisk (*) as a wildcard character.
v The wildcard character must be the first or last character of the string.
Each string can contain up to two wildcard characters. For example, you can
specify *.core, core.*, or *core.*, but not core*.1.
v If you have more than one string, you must separate the strings with a comma.
v You cannot have a comma in the file name or pattern.
v You can specify up to 32 strings.
Procedure
1. To exclude files from a backup, use the X option in the command line.
2. Include a string or comma-separated list of strings as a parameter for the X
option.
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Example
The following command performs a level-0 backup of the /vol/vol1 volume, but
excludes the files that meet certain requirements:
dump 0ufX rst0a tmp,*.o,core*,*backup*, /vol/vol1
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0 Does a full backup.
u Records the backup in the /etc/dumpdates file.
f Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
X Specifies that an exclude list is specified.
rst0a The tape drive rewinds the tape.
tmp,*.o,core*,*backup* The exclude list specifies files as follows:
v tmp specifies that the file name is tmp.
v *.o specifies that the file name ends in .o (for example, program.o).
v core* specifies that the file name begins with the core string (for example,
core.small).
v *backup* specifies that the file name contains the backup string (for example,
spec.backup.1).
/vol/vol1 The volume to be backed up.
Omitting ACLs from a backup
You can omit ACLs from a backup. This provides a slight performance
enhancement.
About this task
You omit ACLs in two situations:
v You plan to restore to a volume in an environment that does not support ACLs.
v You are backing up files or directories that do not contain ACLs.
Procedure
To omit ACLs from a backup, include the A option in the dump command line.
Note: This option does not take a parameter.
Example
The following command performs a level-0 backup of the /vol/vol1 volume. The A
option means that the backup does not include any ACL information.
dump 0Af rst0a /vol/vol1
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
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0 Does a full backup.
A Specifies not to back up ACLs.
f Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
rst0a The tape drive rewinds the tape.
/vol/vol1 The volume to be backed up.
Specifying a name for a backup
You can name a backup using the n. You can record this backup name in the
/etc/dumpdates using the u option.
About this task
You specify a name for a backup in two situations:
v You are specifying a list of directories or files in the backup with the l option.
v You want to monitor the backup history.
Procedure
1. To specify a name for the backup, include the n option in the dump command
line.
2. Include a name for the backup as a parameter to the n option.
Example
The following command gives the name thisbackup to a backup:
dump 0fn rst0a thisbackup /vol/vol0
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0 Does a full backup.
f Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
n Specifies to name this backup.
rst0a The tape drive rewinds the tape.
thisbackup The name of the backup.
/vol/vol0 The dump path.
An output similar to the following appears in the/etc/dumpdates file:
thisbackup 0 Tue Jul 24 20:40:09 2001
Specifying a blocking factor
You can specify a blocking factor using the b option in the dump command line.
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Procedure
To specify a blocking factor for a backup, include the b option in the dump
command line.
Example
The following command performs a level-0 backup of the /vol/vol1 volume. This
command writes 32 KB of data at a time, enabling you to restore the data from
systems that limit each write to 32 KB.
dump 0ufb rst0a 32 /vol/vol1
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0 Does a full backup.
u Records the backup in the/etc/dumpdates file.
f Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
b Specifies that a blocking factor is provided.
rst0a The tape drive rewinds the tape.
32 The blocking factor is 32, so writes 32 KB of data at a time.
/vol/vol1 The volume to be backed up.
Specifying the tape file size
You can specify the maximum size of the tape file in terms of tape blocks in a dump
command. If you do a remote backup or plan to restore the backup on a system
other than the storage system that was backed up, you might need to specify a
tape file size.
About this task
Suppose you want the maximum tape file to be 2 GB; you must specify 2,097,151.
This implies that the largest tape file can contain 2,097,151 tape blocks, which are 1
kilobyte each. The tape file size must be equal to or greater than the blocking
factor; otherwise, the dump process terminates.
Some systems support only tape files of a limited size; for example, some Solaris
systems do not support tape files larger than 2 GB.
Procedure
1. To specify a tape file size, include the B option in the dump command line.
2. Include the tape file size, in KB, in the dump command as a parameter to the B
option. The size applies to all tape files in the backup.
Example
The following command backs up the /vol/vol0 volume using a tape file size of
2,097,151, so that a tape file is no larger than 2 GB:
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dump 0fB rst0a 2097151 /vol/vol0
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
0 Does a full backup.
f Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
B Specifies that the file size is given in the command line.
rst0a The tape drive rewinds the tape.
2097151 The file size is 2,097,151 KB.
/vol/vol1 The volume to be backed up.
Appending backups to tapes
If you are backing up small volumes, qtrees, or files, you can put several backups
on one tape to conserve tapes. Also, adding each backup to the tape after the
previous backup ensures that backups are sequential.
Procedure
1. To append a backup to a tape, move the tape to the desired location using the
mt command.
2. Execute the dump command.
Attention: Use no-rewind device names to ensure that the tape is not
rewound and that previous backups are not overwritten.
Related reference:
“Controlling tape drives” on page 16
Verifying the files backed up by a dump command backup
You can verify a backup initiated by the dump command to ensure that all the files
you wanted to back up are on the tape.
Procedure
1. From your client, preserve the output to the console by using a utility such as a
script.
2. List all the files in a backup by entering the following command:
restore tf rst0a
3. Compare the list to what you intended to back up.
4. For more detailed verification, use the N option of the restore command.
Checking the status of a dump backup
During a lengthy dump session, you are advised to monitor the progress and
check the status of the session. This helps you to determine if the backup is
proceeding as expected.
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Procedure
To check the status of a dump command, enter the following command:
stat show dump
The output of the stat show dump command displays the following statistics about
the data set and progress:
v The number of directories that will be dumped
v The number of files that will be dumped
v The number of NT STREAMS
v The number of ACLs
v The average directory size
v The average file size
The following are the progress statistics listed by the command:
v The number of directories dumped in Phase 3
v The amount of directory data, in KB, currently written to tape in Phase 3
v The number of inodes dumped in Phase 4
v The amount of inode data, in KB, currently written to tape in Phase 4
The following is an example of the stat show dump command output:
filer1>stat show dump
dump:id_0:p1-ino:6097
dump:id_0:p1-dir:412
dump:id_0:p1-str-ino:0
dump:id_0:p1-str-dir:0
dump:id_0:p1-acl:0
dump:id_0:p3-dir:413
dump:id_0:p3-write:487
dump:id_0:p4-ino:1962
dump:id_0:p4-write:135043
Statistics shown in the preceding example are as follows:
v id_0 is the instance name for dump statistics.
The number part of the instance name specifies the dump ID.
p1-ino shows the total number of regular inodes that will be dumped.
p1-dir shows the total number of directory inodes that will be dumped.
p1-str-ino shows the total number of NT stream inodes that will be dumped.
p1-str-dir shows the total number of NT stream directories that will be dumped.
p1-acl shows the total number of ACL inodes that will be dumped.
p3-dir shows the total number of directory inodes that have been written in
Phase 3.
v p3-write shows the total number of kilobytes (KB) of directory tape data that
have been written in Phase 3.
v p4-ino shows the total number of inodes that have been dumped in Phase 4.
v p4-write shows the total number of kilobytes (KB) of inode tape data that have
been written in Phase 4.
v
v
v
v
v
v
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Example
The following is an example of statistics shown in the backup log:
dmp
...
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
dmp
... /vol/compat/(3) Start (Level 0)
... /vol/compat/(3) End (126 MB)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (reg inodes: 1574 other inodes: 1061 dirs: 200 nt dirs: 54 nt inodes: 204 acls: 49)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Phase 1 time: 261)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Phase 3: directories dumped: 255)
.. /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Phase 3: wafl directory blocks read: 291)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Phase 3: average wafl directory blocks per inode: 1)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Phase 3: average tape blocks per inode: 2)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Phase 3 throughput (MB sec): read 0 write 0)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Percent of phase3 time spent for: reading inos 0% dumping ino 93%)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Percent of phase3 dump time spent for: convert-wafl-dirs 4% lev0-ra 1%)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Phase 3 averages (usec): wafl load buf time 27 level 0 ra time 62)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Phase 4: inodes dumped: 2839)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Phase 4: wafl data blocks read: 55502)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Phase 4: average wafl data blocks per inode: 19)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Phase 4: average tape data blocks per inode: 75)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Phase 4 throughput (MB sec): read 51 write 50)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Percent of phase4 time spent for: reading inos 3% dumping inos 94%)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Tape write times (msec): average: 0 max: 1863)
... /vol/compat/(3) Log_msg (Tape changes: 1)
Statistics shown in the backup log example are as follows:
v reg inodes, other inodes, dirs, nt dirs, nt inodes, acls—The total
number of regular inodes, other inodes such as symlinks or char devices,
directory inodes, NT STREAMS inodes, and ACL inodes that will be dumped.
v Phase 3:directories dumped —The total number of directory inodes dumped in
Phase 3.
v Phase 3: wafl directory blocks read—The total number of WAFL directory
blocks read.
v Phase 3: average wafl directory block per inode—The average size of
directories that were dumped.
v Phase 3: average tape blocks per inode—The average number of dump tape
blocks (1K) for each directory inode.
v Phase 3 throughput (MB sec) —The read and write throughputs, in MBps, for
Phase 3.
v Percent of phase3 time spent for: reading inos and dumping inos—An
indication of where time is spent in Phase 3.
v Percent of phase3 dump time spent for: convert-wafl-dirs and lev0-ra—An
indication of where time is spent in Phase 3.
v Phase 3 averages (usec): wafl load buf time and level 0 ra time—An
indication of how long it takes to read a WAFL directory block and how long it
took to read ahead for these blocks.
v Phase 4: inodes dumped—The total number of inodes dumped in Phase 4.
v Phase 4: wafl data blocks read—The total number of WAFL data blocks read.
v Phase 4: average wafl data blocks per inode—An indication of the average
size of files that were dumped.
v Phase 4: average tape data blocks per inode—The average number of dump
tape blocks (1K) for each inode.
v Phase 4 throughput (MB sec)—The read and write throughputs, in MBps, for
Phase 4.
v Percent of phase4 time spent for: reading inos and dumping inos—An
indication of where time is spent in Phase 4.
v Percent of phase4 dump time spent for:wafl read iovec and lev0-ra—An
indication of where time is spent in Phase 4.
v Phase 4 averages (usec): wafl read iovec time and level 0 ra time—An
indication of how long it takes to read a file block and how long it took to read
ahead for these blocks.
v Tape write times (msec): average and max—An indication of how long it took
to write out a tape block.
v Tape changes—The number of tape changes.
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Finding out whether a backup has to be restarted
To find out whether a backup initiated by the dump command is proceeding as
expected or has aborted, you can run the backup status command.
Procedure
To know the status of a backup, enter the following command:
backup status
Example
Following is an example of the backup status command's output:
filer1>backup status
ID State
Type
-- -------1 ACTIVE
dump
2 ACTIVE
dump
4 ACTIVE
NDMP
6 RESTARTABLE dump
Device Start Date
------ ---------nrst0a Nov 28 00:22
nrst0a Nov 28 00:22
urst1a Nov 28 00:22
Nov 27 00:22
Level
----0
3
1
3
Path
---/vol/vol0
/vol/vol1
/vol/vol0
/vol/vol1
The following list describes the elements of the dump table:
ID The unique ID assigned to the dump and the index in the software’s internal
dump table. As soon as a dump completes, its ID number is deallocated and
returned to the pool of available slots. The total number of entries in the dump
table is limited to 32.
State The state of the dump: ACTIVE or RESTARTABLE.
Type The type of invocation of dump: CLI or NDMP.
Device The current device to which the dump is writing.
Start Date The date on which the backup began.
Level The level of the dump (0 through 9).
Path The dump path.
How to get details about a specific backup
To get more detailed information about a specific backup initiated by the dump
command, you can supply the dump ID at the end of the backup status
command.
Following are the examples of the backup status command.
Example 1
filer> backup status 2
State:
ACTIVE
Path:
/vol/vol0/src
Options:
b=63, u
Devices:
rst1a,rst2a,rst3a
Completed:
3 tape files
Last Update: Mon Nov 26 00:14:35 2001
Type:
Level:
dump
0
Data backup to tape using the dump engine
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The following list describes the output of the command:
Options
All the options specified for the backup and their respective parameters.
Completed
The number of tape files that have already been copied.
Last Update
The time and date of the last completed update.
Example 2
filer> backup status 2
State:
RESTARTABLE
Type:
ndmp
Path:
/vol/vol1
Level: 0
Snapshot:
filer(0101184236)_vol1_filer_svp-dst.0
Snapshot:
snapshot_for_backup.9 [Dec 27 00:41]
Options:
b=63, X
Devices:
[none]
Completed:
1 tapefile(s)
Last Update: Thu Dec 27 00:41:23 2007
The preceding example displays the following additional information:
Snapshot
The Snapshot copies of the path that is being backed up.
Restarting a dump command backup
To restart an aborted backup, you must use the R option in the dump command.
Procedure
To restart a dump process that has been shown to be restartable, enter the
following command from the storage system:
dump R[f comma-separated_device-list] {path |ID}
f is an option that enables you to supply a device list.
comma-separated_device-list lets you direct the dump stream to output devices other
than those originally designated in the failed dump. A restarted dump process uses
this device list in the same way a regular dump would. Any device list that is
valid to a regular dump will be valid in this case.
If a device list is not specified, the command defaults to the remainder of the
devices listed but not yet consumed by the failed dump.
For example, suppose the following device list was supplied to the previous dump,
which failed while writing to rst2a: rst0a,rst1a,rst2a,rst3a,rst4a.
The command will use rst3a,rst4a to complete the backup. However, if the original
device list contained any non-rewinding (nrst) devices or any devices not
supported, users are required to supply a new device list at the restart of the
dump.
path is the path that is listed in the dump table (the output of the backup status
command). If there are multiple entries (that is, entries with exactly the same path)
the command prompts you to use the ID to restart the backup.
ID is the unique ID displayed by the backup status command.
You can use either path or ID in most cases.
Results
The command starts rewriting the dump stream from the beginning of the tape file
in which the previous dump was interrupted.
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Related tasks:
“Checking the status of a dump backup” on page 76
Deleting restartable dump command backups
You can delete a restartable dump using the dump ID. If you have performed
restartable backup operations on an asynchronous SnapMirror destination volume,
then you must ensure that you delete the restartable backup contexts before the
volume changes state from read-only to read/write or read/write to read-only.
Procedure
To delete a restartable backup, enter the following command:
backup terminate ID
ID is the unique ID in the dump table that the backup status command displays.
To prevent restartable backups from accumulating on a storage system and taking
up unreasonable amount of disk space, the dump command automatically checks
the snap reserve every 10 minutes. If the snap reserve is over 100 percent, the
oldest restartable backups are deleted until snap reserve usage drops below 100
percent or until there are no more restartable backups to delete.
How to perform a dump restore using the CLI
You can use the restore command to restore data backed up to tape using the
dump backup.
Restore command syntax
The restore command consists of a set of options that include the restore types
and the modifiers.
There are a set of rules that you have to follow when you enter the restore
command:
v Specify only one restore type.
v Specify multiple options without intervening spaces.
v Enter the parameters for each option in the order that you specify the options.
Separate each parameter from the next with a space.
v If the destination for each file is the same as the location from which it was
backed up, you do not need to explicitly specify a destination.
The restore command syntax is as follows:
restore options [parameters] [files ...]
options can be one restore type with modifiers.
What restore types are
A restore type specifies the type of restore you are performing.
For a restore from tape, you must specify only one restore type. The following
table summarizes the restore types:
Restore type
Description
Option
Restart
Restarts data recovery after
an interruption.
R
Data backup to tape using the dump engine
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Restore type
Description
Option
Qtree table of contents
Lists qtree names and qtree
information in a restore.
T
Full
Rebuilds the file system or
subtree. If you are applying
incrementals, you must
specify this option.
r
File table of contents
Lists file names in a restore.
t
File
Extracts an individual file or
subtree from the backup.
x
Related tasks:
“Specifying a resume restore” on page 86
“Specifying table-of-contents restores” on page 86
“Specifying a full restore” on page 85
“Restoring individual files and directories” on page 84
What modifiers are
Modifiers specify optional actions.
The following list describes the various modifiers:
A
Specifies not to restore ACLs.
D
Specifies the directory into which the files are restored.
Parameter: The directory into which you are restoring files. Without a
parameter, the files are restored to the directory from which they were
backed up.
F
Forces restore to continue regardless of inode limitations.
N
Reads backup tapes without writing to the storage system.
Q
Ignores qtree information.
b
Specifies the blocking factor.
Parameter: The blocking factor that you used in the backup that you are
restoring
f
Specifies the tape device for each tape file.
Parameter: The name of one or more tape devices, separated by commas
s
Specifies the relative position of a tape file if multiple tape files exist on a
tape. File numbering starts at 1 from the current tape position.
Parameter: The tape file number
v
Specifies that the restore will display the inode number of each file
restored.
y
Specifies that the restore will not prompt the user if it encounters an error.
Related tasks:
“Specifying no ACLs to be restored” on page 92
“Specifying the restore destination” on page 88
“Ignoring inode limitations” on page 90
“Specifying a test restore” on page 93
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“Specifying not to restore qtree information” on page 92
“Specifying the blocking factor during restore” on page 89
“Specifying tape devices in the restore command” on page 87
“Specifying a single tape file on a multifile tape” on page 88
“Displaying detailed status output” on page 90
“Specifying automatic confirmations” on page 91
Where to enter the restore command
You can enter the restore command through a Remote Shell connection, such as
RSH, or on the console.
Benefits of entering the restore command through a Remote
Shell
Entering the restore command through a Remote Shell connection gives you the
following benefits:
v When the restore command is in progress, you can still use the console to
manage the storage system.
v You can start multiple restore commands through a Remote Shell connection if
other tape drives are available.
v It is less likely that someone will inadvertently terminate the restore command,
especially if it is run in the background from a UNIX system.
However, if you enter the restore command on the console, it could be
terminated by pressing Ctrl-C on a host connected to the storage system using
Telnet.
Benefit of entering the restore command on the console
The benefit of entering the restore command on the console is that you can read
and respond to screen messages displayed by the command. For example, the
command might prompt you for another tape to complete the recovery.
Executing a restore command
You have to perform a series of steps to execute a restore command.
Procedure
1. Place the tape containing the first tape file of the backup in the tape drive that
you specify.
2. Enter the restore command.
3. If prompted, insert the next tape of the backup that you are restoring into the
appropriate tape drive.
4. Repeat Step 3 until the restore is complete.
Restoring incremental backups
Incremental restores build on each other the way incremental backups build on the
initial level-0 backup. Therefore, to restore an incremental backup, you need all the
backup tapes from the level-0 backup through the last backup that you want to
restore.
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Procedure
1. Restore the level-0 backup.
2. Follow the prompts. You might be asked to remove or insert tapes.
3. Restore each incremental backup in the increment chain that you want to
restore, starting with the lowest-level backup and going to the last backup that
you want to restore.
Attention: During an incremental restore operation, a temporary directory
labeled .restore_do_not_touch_xxxxxxx will appear in the active file system.
Do not edit or delete this directory. The system will delete this directory after
the current incremental restore operation is completed.
4. After all the incremental restores are completed, delete the
restore_symboltable file from the root of the destination directory.
Note: The restore_symboltable file contains information required to perform
incremental restores. If you intend to perform incremental restores, ensure that
this file is not deleted until all the incremental restores are completed.
Related concepts:
“What increment chains are” on page 45
Related tasks:
“Specifying the backup level” on page 66
Restoring each volume backed up as separate subtrees or
qtrees
You can restore an entire storage system even if you used separate dump commands
to back up files, directories, and qtrees that make up each volume.
Procedure
1. To restore each volume backed up as separate subtrees or qtrees, create the
desired volumes.
2. Restore each backup to the appropriate volume.
Restoring individual files and directories
You can restore one or more directories or files from a backup.
Procedure
1. Use the X option in the restore command line.
2. At the end of the command line, include the path names relative to the dump
path of the files or directories that you want to restore. Separate path names
with a space.
Note: If you do not have a path in the command line, the restore command
restores all data on the tape.
Example
The following command restores the /src directory and puts it in the location from
which it was backed up:
restore Xf rst0a /src
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
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X
Restores a specified file.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
rst0a
The tape device.
/src
The directory to be restored.
Specifying a full restore
A full restore rebuilds the file system, qtree, or subtree that was in the backup that
a tape file contains.
Procedure
To specify a full restore, use the r option in the restore command line.
Example
The following command performs a full restore to the original location.
restore rf rst0a
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r
Performs a full restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
rst0a
The tape device.
What a table-of-contents restore is
You can display a table of contents of the files or qtrees in a tape file for a tape
restore. This is useful in determining what files or qtrees exist on a tape and their
locations. For qtrees, the restore lists the qtree properties.
A table-of-contents restore takes much less time than a full restore because only the
list of files in the backup is read. However, it uses a lot of CPU time because of the
extensive output produced.
Why Remote Shell is preferred for a table-of-contents restore
In general, you should run a table-of-contents restore from a Remote Shell
connection because an enormous output is generated. Usually, you can control the
output more easily when it is sent to a client console rather than to the storage
system console. Also, client consoles are more flexible and enable you to save the
output.
Also, you rarely need to change tapes with a table-of-contents restore. The
command needs to read only the directory information from the tape and none of
the files or qtrees. Because directory information tends to constitute a small part of
a backup, it is almost always located on one tape. Also, table-of-contents restores
work with multiple tape files specified on the command line.
Types of table-of-contents restore
You can specify two types of tables of contents: file and qtree. These are explained
in the following table.
Data backup to tape using the dump engine
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Type
Description
Option
File
Lists all the file names in a
backup.
t
If you specify path names,
only the files in the path
names are listed.
Qtree
Lists qtrees and their settings T
for security style and
Windows NT oplocks for all
qtrees.
If you specify qtree names,
the information for only
those qtrees is listed if they
are in the backup.
You cannot combine the two types in a single command.
Specifying table-of-contents restores
Use the t or T option in the restore command to specify a table-of-contents restore.
Procedure
To specify a table-of-contents restore, use the T or t option in the restore
command line, with files as parameter. If there is no parameter, the entire content
of a backup is listed.
Example
The following command lists all files in a backup:
restore tf rst0a
The following list describes the elements of this command line:
t
Lists all the files.
Note: Option T lists all qtree names.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
rst0a
The tape device.
Specifying a resume restore
If an entire tape file restore is stopped, you can resume the restore and avoid
restoring again what has already been restored. However, there are some
restrictions on this operation.
About this task
You must consider the following restrictions on resuming a restore:
v You can resume only restores that you started with the r or R options.
v You can resume a restore command only if the backup consists of multiple tape
files.
v You can resume a restore command only if the command is for a full restore.
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If the restore command is for extracting an individual file or subtree from a
backup (that is, if you use the x option), or for a table-of-contents restore, you
cannot resume the restore.
v You can resume a restore only if you received a message similar to the following
during the restore:
RESTORE: Fri Aug 31 22:22:35 2001: Writing data to files.
Procedure
1. In the restore command line, use the R option first instead of the r option. It
does not take a parameter.
2. Enter the rest of the same restore command that was interrupted. However,
include only the tape files that were not restored.
3. Follow the prompts.
Example
The following command resumes a restore:
restore Rf rst0a
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
R
Resumes a restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
rst0a
The tape device.
Specifying tape devices in the restore command
When you performed a backup, you specified one or more tape devices. The files
written by these devices can be on one or more tapes. When restoring, you have to
list the tape devices in the same order that you used in the backup.
About this task
You must use the same compression type to restore a backup as you did to
perform the backup; however, you can use a different rewind type and device
number. For example, you can use rst1a and tape drive 1 to restore a backup done
on nrst0a, provided that the two tape drives use the same kind of tape.
Procedure
1. To specify the tape devices for restores, use the f option in the restore
command line.
2. List the tape devices as a parameter to the f option in the same order that you
used in the backup. Separate multiple tape devices with a comma.
Note: If you do not specify at least one tape device, the restore command
terminates.
The restore command restores from tape files consecutively, using the tape
devices in the order that they appear in the command line.
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Example
The following command specifies the rst0a device for a backup:
restore rf rst0a
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r
Performs a full restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
rst0a
The tape device.
Specifying a single tape file on a multifile tape
You can have more than one tape file on a tape. Tape files do not have names. You
can restore a single tape file on a tape that contains more than one tape file. You
do this by moving the tape to the beginning of the file that is to be restored.
Procedure
1. Use the f option in the restore command line.
2. Use the same tape compression type as a parameter to the f option that you
used in the backup.
3. Use the s option in the restore command line to select the appropriate backup.
4. Include the relative position of the tape file that you are restoring as a
parameter to the s option in the command line.
Note: Count the relative position from the current tape position. It is best to
rewind the tape and start from its beginning.
Example
From a tape that has been rewound, the following command restores the third tape
file from the beginning of that tape. It then rewinds the tape.
restore rfs rst0a 3
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r
Performs a full restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
s
Selects a tape file.
rst0a
The tape device.
3
Specifies to use the third tape file.
Specifying the restore destination
The destination acts as the root of the backup that you are restoring. You specify a
different restore destination if you are restoring the backed up data to a different
location.
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About this task
For example, if you created a backup and then installed multiple volumes on the
storage system, you might specify a different volume or directory when you
perform a restore.
If you do not specify a restore destination, the files are restored to the locations
from which they were backed up.
Note: You should specify a restore destination even if you are restoring to the
same destination from which you backed up. This ensures the files are restored
where you want them to go and are traceable to that location.
Procedure
1. To specify the restore destination, use the D option in the restore command
line.
2. Include the absolute path name of the restore destination as a parameter to the
D option.
Example
The following command restores a backup and puts it in the/vol/destination
volume:
restore rfD rst0a /vol/destination
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r Performs a full restore.
f Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
D Specifies that a destination is supplied in the command line.
rst0a The tape device.
/vol/destination The destination is the /vol/destination volume.
Specifying the blocking factor during restore
The blocking factor specifies the number of tape blocks that are transferred in each
write operation. A tape block is 1 kilobyte of data. When you restore, you must use
the same blocking factor that you used for the backup. The default blocking factor
is 63.
Procedure
1. To specify the blocking factor, use the b option in the restore command line.
2. Include the blocking factor as a parameter to that option.
Example
The following command restores a backup and puts it in the /vol/destination
volume:
restore rfb rst0a 63 /vol/destination
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The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r Performs a full restore.
f Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
b Specifies that a blocking factor is supplied in the command line.
rst0a The tape device.
63 The blocking factor.
/vol/destination The restore destination.
Displaying detailed status output
You can get information about the progress of a restore on a file-by-file basis. If
you have a restore problem, this output can be useful for your own diagnostics, as
well as for technical support. Because of the volume of information that needs to
be processed by a console, getting detailed output can slow down a restore
considerably.
Procedure
To get status information about each file recovered, use the v option in the restore
command line.
Note: This option does not take a parameter.
Example
The following command restores a backup and produces status information about
each file recovered:
restore rfv rst0a
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r
Performs a full restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
v
Produces information about each file recovered.
rst0a
The tape device.
The elements of this command line are described in the following table.
Ignoring inode limitations
If the restore consists mostly of files to be updated rather than new files, you can
instruct the storage system to ignore the inode limitations.
About this task
What inodes are: Inodes are data structures that contain information about files.
The number of files, and therefore the number of inodes per volume, is determined
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by the maxfiles command. For information about setting the maximum number of
files per volume and displaying inode information, see the Data ONTAP Storage
Management Guide for 7-Mode.
How the restore command handles inodes: The restore command assumes that
the files being restored are added to the number of files on the storage system,
and, therefore, that the inodes are added to the storage system. When the total of
inodes in the restore and on a storage system exceeds the number of inodes that
are allowed on a storage system, the restore is terminated.
However, if a restore updates an existing file, the inode count remains the same.
Therefore, if you are sure that the restore consists mostly of files to be updated
rather than new files, you can instruct the storage system to ignore the calculations
of the restore command.
Note: During a restore, if the inode count exceeds the maximum number of inodes
allowed, the restore is terminated.
Procedure
To specify a restore to ignore inode limitations, use the F option in the restore
command line.
Note: This option does not take a parameter.
Example
The following command restores a backup and ignores the inode limitations:
restore rfF rst0a
r performs a full restore.
f specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
F specifies that you can ignore inode limitations.
rst0a is the tape device.
Specifying automatic confirmations
An automatic confirmation automatically answers all restore questions with a
"yes." You usually use this mode on restores that are run using a Remote Shell
connection.
About this task
A Remote Shell connection does not let you interact with the restore command;
therefore, if the restore command requires user input and is run using a Remote
Shell connection, it usually terminates. Specifying confirmation mode enables such
restores to be completed in most cases. Even with the y option, however, the
restore command fails if it encounters hard media errors or unclean drives.
Attention: This option is not advisable for critical restores because it can cause
silent failure.
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Procedure
To specify automatic confirmations, use the y option in the restore command line.
Note: This option does not take a parameter.
Example
The following command restores a backup with automatic confirmations:
restore rfy rst0a
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r
Performs a full restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
y
Specifies automatic confirmations.
rst0a
The tape device.
Specifying no ACLs to be restored
You can exclude ACLs from a restore. This provides a slight performance
enhancement.
About this task
You can exclude ACLs in two situations:
v You plan to restore to an environment that does not support ACLs.
v The backup has no files or directories that contain ACLs.
Procedure
To exclude ACLs from a restore, include the A option in the restore command line.
Note: This option does not take a parameter.
Example
The following command restores a backup, but does not restore ACLs:
restore rfA rst0a
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r
Performs a full restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
A
Specifies not to restore ACLs.
rst0a
The tape device.
Specifying not to restore qtree information
You can omit qtree information from a restore. In such cases, the qtrees are
restored as ordinary directories.
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Procedure
To omit qtree information from a restore, include the Q option in the restore
command line.
Note: This option does not take a parameter.
Example
The following command restores a backup, but does not restore the qtree
information:
restore rfQ rst0a
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r
Performs a full restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
Q
Specifies not to restore qtrees.
rst0a
The tape device.
Specifying a test restore
You can test a restore by performing a restore that reads the tape, but does not
write to the storage system.
About this task
You can do a test restore in the following situations:
v To verify a backup tape that is old and might have deteriorated
v To verify that the set of tapes you have is complete
v To verify a backup tape that you believe was not written properly
v To quickly ensure that a block size works, if the block size is unknown
Note: Because a test restore depends on the speed of reading from tape, it takes
almost the same time as an actual restore.
Procedure
To specify a test restore, include the N option in the restore command line.
Note: This option does not take a parameter.
Example
The following command performs a test restore of a backup:
restore rfN rst0a
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r
Performs a full restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
N
Specifies a test restore.
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rst0a
The tape device.
Restore examples: Restoring using a remote tape drive
You can perform a storage system restore using a tape drive attached to a remote
storage system or a tape drive attached to a Solaris system.
Example of a storage system restore using a tape drive attached
to a remote storage system
Assume you have performed a backup using the following dump command:
dump 0f sales1:rst0a /vol/vol1
The following command performs a restore from a tape drive attached to a remote
storage system named sales1. The tape drive then rewinds the tape.
restore rf sales1:rst0a
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r Performs a full restore.
f Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
sales1 The name of the storage system.
rst0a The restore is done using the rst0a tape device.
Example of a storage system restore using a tape drive attached
to a Solaris system
Assume you have performed a backup using the following dump command:
dump 0f ritchie:/dev/rmt/0 /vol/vol1
The following command performs a restore from a tape drive on a Solaris system:
restore rf ritchie:/dev/rmt/0
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r Performs a full restore.
f Indicates that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
ritchie The name of the Solaris machine to which the tape drive is connected.
/dev/rmt/0 The name of the tape device.
Example of restoring data from a tape drive attached to a remote
storage system having an IPv6 address
The following sample command restores data from a tape device attached to a
storage system having an IPv6 address. Data is restored to the voltest volume.
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restore rfD [2001:0db8::10]:nrst01 /vol/voltest
Restore examples: Multiple tape restores
There are different types of multiple tape restores, such as multiple tapes on a
single-tape drive, multiple tapes on two single-tape drives, and multiple tapes on a
tape library.
Example of restore from multiple tapes on a single-tape drive
Assume you have performed a backup using the following dump command:
dump 0f rst0a /vol/vol
The following command restores the /vol/vol1 volume from the two tapes it took
to back it up. You are prompted for the next tape when the first tape is restored.
restore rf rst0a
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r
Performs a full restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
rst0a
The restore is done using the rst0a tape device; the restore command
prompts for the second tape.
Example of restore from multiple tapes on two single-tape drives
Assume you have performed a backup using the following dump command:
dump 0f rst0a,rst1a /vol/vol1
The first tape is in tape drive 0 and the second tape is in tape drive 1.
The following command restores the /vol/vol1 volume from the two tapes it took
to back it up. It uses the tape in the second tape drive when the first tape is
restored.
restore rf rst0a,rst1a
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r
Performs a full restore.
f
Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
rst0a
The restore is done using the rst0a tape device for the first tape.
rst1a
The restore is done using the rst1a tape device for the second tape.
Example of a restore from multiple tapes on a tape library
Assume you have performed a backup using the following dump command:
dump 0f urst0a,urst0a /vol/vol1
The following command restores the /vol/vol1 volume from the two tapes used to
back it up. It unloads the first tape and loads the second tape.
Data backup to tape using the dump engine
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restore rf urst0a,urst0a /vol/vol
The following list describes the elements of the command line:
r Performs a full restore.
f Specifies that a tape device is supplied in the command line.
urst0a, urst0a The tape drive unloads and loads each tape.
How dump works when volume access type changes
Whenever an asynchronous SnapMirror destination volume changes state from
read/write to read-only or from read-only to read/write, you must perform a
baseline tape backup or restore operation.
SnapMirror destination volumes are read-only volumes. If you perform tape
backup and restore operations on such volumes in an asynchronous SnapMirror
relationship, you must perform a baseline backup or restore operation whenever
the volume changes state from read-only to read/write or read/write to read-only.
Note: If you have performed restartable backup operations on an asynchronous
SnapMirror destination volume, then ensure that you delete the restartable backup
contexts before the volume changes state from read-only to read/write or
read/write to read-only.
For more information about when a SnapMirror destination volume changes state,
see the Data ONTAP Data Protection Online Backup and Recovery Guide for 7-Mode.
Related tasks:
“Deleting restartable dump command backups” on page 81
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Data backup to tape using the SMTape engine
SMTape is a high performance disaster recovery solution from Data ONTAP that
backs up blocks of data to tape. It is a Snapshot copy-based backup to tape feature.
In releases earlier than Data ONTAP 8.0 operating in 7-Mode, SMTape is referred
to as SM2T.
You can use SMTape to perform volume backups to tapes. However, you cannot
perform a backup at the qtree or subtree level. SMTape supports level-0,
differential, and incremental backups. Using SMTape, you can back up 255
Snapshot copies. For subsequent baseline, incremental, or differential backups, you
must delete older backed up Snapshot copies.
When you perform an SMTape level-0 backup, you can specify the name of the
Snapshot copy to be backed up to tape. When you specify a Snapshot copy for the
backup, all the Snapshot copies older than the specified Snapshot copy are also
backed up to tape.
If you do not specify a Snapshot copy for the backup, the following happens:
v If the volume is read-writeable, a Snapshot copy is created automatically.
The Snapshot copy that is created and all older Snapshot copies are backed up
to tape.
v If the volume is read-only, all the Snapshot copies till the latest Snapshot copy
are backed up to tape.
Any new Snapshot copies created after the backup has started is not backed up.
When you perform an SMTape incremental or differential backup, the
NDMP-compliant backup applications create and manage Snapshot copies.
You can perform an SMTape backup and restore by using NDMP-compliant
backup applications or by using the smtape backup and smtape restore Data
ONTAP CLI commands operating in 7-Mode. However, if you want to perform an
incremental backup, you must perform both baseline and incremental backups by
using only the NDMP-compliant backup applications.
These commands replace the snapmirror store and snapmirror retrieve
commands in releases earlier than Data ONTAP 8.0 operating in 7-Mode.
How SMTape backup works
SMTape backup writes blocks of data to tape in a predefined process.
The following table describes the process that SMTape uses to back up data to
tape:
Stage
Action
1
Data ONTAP creates a base Snapshot copy
for the backup.
If a Snapshot copy name is provided, Data
ONTAP uses this Snapshot copy as the base
Snapshot copy.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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Stage
Action
2
Data ONTAP begins transferring blocks of
data to tape.
What tape seeding is
Tape seeding is an SMTape functionality that helps you initialize the destination
storage system in a volume SnapMirror relationship.
Tape seeding enables you to establish a SnapMirror relationship between a storage
system and a destination system over a low-bandwidth connection. Incremental
mirroring of Snapshot copies from the source to the destination is feasible over a
low bandwidth connection. However, an initial mirroring of the base Snapshot
copy would take a long time over a low-bandwidth connection. In such a case, you
can perform an SMTape backup of the source volume to a tape and use the tape to
transfer the initial base Snapshot copy to the destination. You can then set up
incremental SnapMirror updates to the destination system using the
low-bandwidth connection.
Features of SMTape
SMTape features such as tape seeding, backup of Snapshot copies, incremental and
differential backups, and preservation of deduplication and compression features
on restored volumes help you optimize your tape backup and restore operations.
The following are the features of SMTape:
v Provides a high performance disaster recovery solution.
v Does not require a license.
v Storage systems support only 32 concurrent backup and restore sessions.
Even if another node is taken over, the storage system allows only 32 sessions
instead of 64 sessions.
v Supported only on NDMP v4.
v Supports restore of backup images that were created across up to two major
Data ONTAP releases.
For example, on a storage system running Data ONTAP 8.1.x, you can restore
data backed up from Data ONTAP 7.3.x and Data ONTAP 8.0.x.
v Supports restore of an incremental backup in Data ONTAP 8.1.1.
v Supports restore of data backed up in Data ONTAP 8.0.x from 32-bit or 64-bit
aggregates to volumes in 64-bit aggregates in Data ONTAP 8.1.x and later.
Note: You can restore data to volumes created across up to two major
consecutive Data ONTAP releases only.
For example, if you back up data in Data ONTAP 8.0.x from either a 32-bit or a
64-bit aggregate, then you can restore this data to volumes in 64-bit aggregates
in Data ONTAP 8.1.x and the next major Data ONTAP release.
v Supports tape seeding.
v Supports concurrent volume SnapMirror and SMTape backup operations when
backing up SnapMirror destination to tape.
v Supports backup of Snapshot copies.
v Supports deduplicated volumes and preserves deduplication on the restored
volumes.
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v Supports blocking factor in multiples of 4 KB, in the range of 4 KB to 256 KB.
v Supports backup of large aggregate volumes.
v Supports backup of compressed volumes and preserves compression on the
restored volumes.
v Supports incremental and differential backups.
Features not supported in SMTape
There are certain features that are not supported in SMTape, such as SnapLock and
FlexCache volume, remote tape backup using CLI commands, and restartable
backup.
The following features are not supported in SMTape:
v Remote tape backup using the CLI
v SnapLock volume and FlexCache volume
v Restartable backup
v Multiple backups on a single tape
v Backup or restore of selected files or directories
v Verification of files backed up
Maximum number of SMTape backup and restore sessions
The maximum number of SMTape backup and restore sessions supported by a
storage system over a TCP/IP network is 32.
Note: The number of SMTape backup and restore sessions indicate backup and
restore operations initiated by NDMP as well as the smtape backup and smtape
restore commands.
How to perform an SMTape backup and restore using NDMP services
You can perform an SMTape-based backup and restore by using NDMP-compliant
backup applications.
Data ONTAP provides a set of environment variables that enable you to perform a
block-level tape backup and restore using NDMP services. However, SMTape does
not support DAR and file system data transfer between storage systems.
Environment variables supported for SMTape
Data ONTAP supports a set of environment variables for SMTape. These variables
are used to communicate information about a SMTape backup or restore operation
between an NDMP-enabled backup application and a storage system.
The following table lists the environment variables supported by Data ONTAP for
SMTape backup and recovery, their valid values, default value, and description:
Data backup to tape using the SMTape engine
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Environment variable
Valid values
Default value
Description
DUMP_DATE
return_value
none
At the end of an SMTape backup,
DUMP_DATE contains a string
identifier that identifies the
reference Snapshot copy for the
next incremental backup. The
resulting value of DUMP_DATE is
used as the BASE_DATE value for
subsequent incremental backups.
BASE_DATE
DUMP_DATE
none
FILESYSTEM
string
none
Specifies the path name of the root
of the data that is being backed up.
For example, /vol/vol0/etc.
SMTAPE_BACKUP_SET_ID
string
none
Specifies the backup set ID for the
baseline backup and subsequent
incremental backups. Backup set ID
is a 128-bit unique ID that identifies
the sequence of incremental
backups with respect to baseline
backup.
SMTAPE_SNAPSHOT_NAME
Any valid
Invalid
Snapshot copy that
is available in the
volume
When the
SMTAPE_SNAPSHOT_NAME
variable is set to a Snapshot copy,
that Snapshot copy and its older
Snapshot copies are backed up to
tape. This variable is available only
in the SMTape backup context.
SMTAPE_DELETE_SNAPSHOT
Y or N
When the
SMTAPE_DELETE_SNAPSHOT
variable is set to Y , SMTape deletes
the auto-Snapshot copy after the
backup operation is complete.
N
BASE_DATE specifies the start date
for incremental backups.
BASE_DATE is a string
representation of the reference
Snapshot identifiers. Using the
BASE_DATE string, SMTape locates
the reference Snapshot copy.
Subsequent to the initial backup,
the value of the DUMP_DATE
variable from the previous
incremental backup is assigned to
the BASE_DATE variable.
If you specify a Snapshot copy
name for the backup, this Snapshot
copy is not deleted, but the softlock
on this Snapshot copy is removed.
Note: When the variable is set to N
, SMTape does not delete the
auto-Snapshot copy and leaves the
softlock on this Snapshot copy.
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Environment variable
Valid values
Default value
Description
SMTAPE_BREAK_MIRROR
Y or N
N
When the
SMTAPE_BREAK_MIRROR variable
is set to Y , it ensures that the
SnapMirror relationship established
by the restore operation is broken
after the operation is complete. This
variable is available only in the
SMTape restore context.
Note: After a successful restore, the
restored volume is in the restricted
state and does not become writable
unless the
SMTAPE_BREAK_MIRROR variable
is set to Y.
How to back up and restore using the SMTape commands
You can perform an SMTape backup and restore by using the Data ONTAP CLI
commands. You can also manage your SMTape-initiated backup and restore by
using the CLI commands.
You can back up and restore data by using the smtape backup and smtape restore
commands. You can also display the volume geometry of a traditional volume and
the image header of a tape, abort or continue a backup or restore operation, and
display the status of a backup or restore operation by using the SMTape CLI
commands.
Backing up data to tape using SMTape
You can perform an SMTape backup by using the smtape backup command. You
can specify a Snapshot copy name for the backup, in which case the specified
Snapshot copy is used as the base Snapshot copy for the backup. When you do not
specify a Snapshot copy for the backup, a base Snapshot copy is created and
backed up.
Procedure
Enter the following command:
smtape backup [-g volume_geometry] [-b block_size] [-s snapshot_name] path
tape_device
g specifies that the geometry of the backup image is supplied in the command line.
This option optimizes the tape for a particular traditional volume destination and
increases the restore performance. This option is applicable only to traditional
volumes.
Note: The geometry of a FlexVol volume is always 1.
volume geometry is the volume geometry of the traditional volume. You can
determine the geometry by using the smtape restore -g command on that
traditional volume. b specifies that a blocking factor for the backup is supplied in
the command line. It can be in multiples of 4 KB, in the range of 4 KB to 256 KB.
The default tape record size is 240 KB. block_size is the blocking factor for the
backup. s specifies that the base Snapshot copy is supplied in the command line.
snapshot_name is the base Snapshot copy that must be used for the backup. path is
the path of the data to be backed up. tape_device is the tape device to be used for
the backup.
Data backup to tape using the SMTape engine
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If the storage system crashes during the backup session, the auto-Snapshot copy of
the volume being backed up continues to remain in the storage system. This stale
Snapshot copy is deleted when you perform an SMTape backup of the volume
again.
A unique job ID in the range of 1 to 99999 is assigned to this backup operation.
You can subsequently use this job ID to check the backup status or to abort the
backup operation. Also, an entry is made in the /etc/log/backup file.
Example
In the following example, the data in /vol/testdata is backed up to the rst0a tape
device in blocks of 256 KB:
filer>smtape backup -b 256 /vol/testdata rst0a
Job 9 started
Related tasks:
“Displaying the volume geometry of a traditional volume”
Displaying the volume geometry of a traditional volume
You can view the volume geometry of a specific traditional volume by using the
smtape restore command.
Procedure
To display the volume geometry of a traditional volume, enter the following
command:
smtape restore -g path
g is the volume geometry of the traditional volume that is to be displayed. path is
the path of the traditional volume. You get an improved restore performance if you
use the output of this command while backing up the data by using the smtape
backup -g command.
Displaying the image header of a tape
You can display the image header of a tape in a specific tape device by using the
smtape restore command.
Procedure
To display the image header of a tape in a tape device, enter the following
command:
smtape restore -h tape_device
h is the image header of a tape that is to be displayed. tape_device is the tape device
that has the tape for which the image header is to be displayed.
Note: The image header of tape backups created by using the snapmirror store
command in releases earlier than Data ONTAP 7.3 can be read by using the smtape
restore -h command.
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Example
The following example displays the header image of a tape in the tape drive rst1a:
filer> smtape restore -h rst1a
Tape Number
: 1
WAFL Version
: 21054
BareMetal Version
: 9
Source Filer
: filer
Source Volume
: testdata
Source Volume Capacity
: 51200MB
Source Volume Used Size
: 3407MB
Source Snapshot
: snapshot_for_smtape.db6bb83a-0b99-11de-a2dc-00a980de1c2.0
Volume Type
: Flexible
Is Aggregate
: no
Is SIS Volume
: no
Backup Set ID
: d7b1812a-0f90-11de-a2dc-00a0980de1c2
Backup Version
: 0:0
Backup Sequence No.
: 0
Backup Mode
: dw-data
Time of Backup
: Wed Mar 11 05:36:12 GMT 2009
Time of Previous Backup
: None
Volume Total Inodes
: 1638399
Volume Used Inodes
: 102
Volume Attributes
:/
Number of Snapshots
: 1
Snapshot ID
: 76
Snapshot Time
: Fri Mar 6 04:30:31 GMT 2009
Snapshot Name
: snapshot_for_smtape.db6bb83a-0b99-11de-a2dc-00a980de1c2.0
Restoring data from tape using SMTape
You can perform a level-0 restore of a backup image in a specific tape device to a
destination volume by using the smtape restore command.
Before you begin
Prior to a restore operation, the volume must be in restricted mode.
About this task
The smtape restore command works the same way as the SnapMirror to Tape
restore and provides users with the ability to initialize a volume SnapMirror
destination volume by using backup images from tapes. After the restore, a volume
SnapMirror relationship can be established between the source volume and the
destination volume through the snapmirror commands. Any existing data on the
volume is overwritten during the restore. The volume stays restricted during the
restore operation and the restored volume is in the read-only state after a
successful restore.
Note: Tape backups created by using the snapmirror store command in releases
earlier than Data ONTAP 8.0 can be restored by using the smtape restore
command.
Procedure
To restore data from tape to a destination volume, enter the following command:
smtape restore [-b block_size] path tape_device
b specifies that the tape record size to be used is supplied in the command line.
block_size is the blocking factor that was used during the backup. path is the path to
which the data has to be restored to. tape_device contains the data to be restored. A
unique job ID in the range of 1 to 99999 is assigned to this restore operation. You
Data backup to tape using the SMTape engine
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can subsequently use this job ID to check the restore status or to abort the restore
operation. Also, an entry is made in the /etc/log/backup file.
Example
The following example shows how to restore the data in rst1a tape drive to the
/vol/testdata volume:
filer>smtape restore /vol/testdata rst1a
Job 10 started
Related tasks:
“Backing up data to tape using SMTape” on page 101
Aborting a backup or restore operation using smtape abort
command
You can abort a backup or restore operation using the smtape abort command. To
abort a backup or restore operation, you must know its job ID.
Procedure
To abort a backup or restore operation, enter the following command:
smtape abort job_id
Note: To abort an SMTape backup or restore operation initiated through NDMP,
you must also terminate the associated NDMP session.
The specified job is aborted and an entry is made in the /etc/log/backup file.
Example
The following example aborts the SMTape operation with job ID 9.
filer>smtape abort 9
Job 9 aborted
Related tasks:
“Terminating an NDMP session” on page 35
Continuing a backup or restore after reaching the end of tape
You can continue a backup or restore operation after it has reached the end of
current tape and is in the wait state to write output to or accept input from a new
tape.
About this task
When an SMTape backup or restore operation reaches the end of tape, and the
backup or restore operation requires more than one tape to complete, one of the
following messages is displayed on the console:
Change tape for smtape backup with job id <job ID>
Change tape for smtape restore with job id <job ID>
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To continue your backup or restore operation, you must change the tape and use
the smtape continue command.
Procedure
To continue your backup or restore operation after changing the tape, enter the
following command:
smtape continue job_id [tape_device]
job_id is the job ID of the backup or restore operation to be continued.
tape_device is the tape device to be used to continue with the backup or restore
operation. If you do not specify a tape device, the current tape device is used.
Displaying the status of SMTape backup and restore
operations
You can display the status of backup and restore operations using the smtape
status command. You can display the status for a specific job ID or for a specific
backup or restore path.
Procedure
To display the status of backup and restore operations, enter the following
command:
smtape status [-l] [[-p path] | [job_id]]
l displays a detailed status. p displays the status of a specific path. path is the path
for which the status must be displayed. job_id is the job ID for which the status
must be displayed.
Example
The following example displays the status of current backup and restore jobs:
filer>smtape status
Job ID Seq No Type
Status Path
Device
1
0 Backup Active /vol/vol0/ urst0a
2
0 Restore Active /vol/vol1/ urst1a
Progress
240 MB
201 MB
The following example displays a detailed status for the backup job ID 3 :
filer>smtape status -l 3
Job ID:
3
Sequence No:
0
Type:
Backup
Status:
Active
Path:
/vol/testdata
Device:
rst1a
Progress:
1243360 KB
Job Begin:
Wed Mar 11 06:08:01 GMT 2009
Job End:
Last Update Time:
Wed Mar 11 06:08:14 GMT 2009
Removing the SnapMirror status entries
When you perform an SMTape backup or restore, a SnapMirror status entry is
created in the storage system. If you do not want to use SMTape backup for tape
seeding, you must remove the SnapMirror status entries after the backup or restore
completes.
Data backup to tape using the SMTape engine
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How to remove the SnapMirror status entries created during
backup
After a successful SMTape backup, the base Snapshot copy and the SnapMirror
status entry are retained in the volume, which can be used to initialize a volume
SnapMirror relationship.
Note: In case of a failed backup, the base Snapshot copy is automatically deleted.
However, the SnapMirror status entry is retained.
You can delete a SnapMirror status entry by using the snapmirror release
command or by deleting the Snapshot copy.
How to remove the SnapMirror status entries created during
restore
After a successful SMTape restore, a SnapMirror status entry is created in the
storage system. This SnapMirror status entry lists the restored volume and the base
Snapshot copy name that is used to synchronize the SnapMirror source and
destination volumes during tape seeding. To remove this SnapMirror status entry,
you must make the restored volume writable, and then delete the base Snapshot
copy. After the Snapshot copy is deleted, the SnapMirror status entry is
automatically removed.
Removing the SnapMirror status entry after an SMTape backup
You can remove the SnapMirror status entry corresponding to the volume you
backed up.
Procedure
1. To list the SnapMirror status entries, enter the following command:
snapmirror status vol_name
vol_name is the name of the volume that you backed up. The SnapMirror status
of the volume is displayed. In case of a successful SMTape backup, the source
is the volume being backed up and the destination is a Snapshot copy. This
Snapshot copy has a name in the snapmirror_tape_hexchar format, in which
hexchar is a set of hexadecimal characters specific to the Snapshot copy. In case
of a failed SMTape backup, the source is the volume being backed up and the
destination is a tape name.
2. To remove the SnapMirror status entry by releasing the SnapMirror
relationship, enter one of the following commands:
If the backup...
Then enter the following commands:
Is successful
snapmirror release vol_name
snapmirror_tape_hexadecimal_char
fails
snapmirror release vol_name
filer_name:tape_device
vol_name is the volume being backed up.
filer_name is the name of the storage system to which the tape device is
attached.
tape_device is the tape device to which the volume is backed up. When the
backup is successful and the SnapMirror status entry is removed by using the
snapmirror release command, SMTape deletes the auto-Snapshot copy. If you
specify a Snapshot copy name for the backup, this Snapshot copy is not
deleted, but the softlock on this Snapshot copy is removed.
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Example
The following example removes the SnapMirror status entry for the testdata
volume that was successfully backed up:
filer1>snapmirror status testdata
Snapmirror is on.
Source
Destination
State Lag
Status
filer1:testdata snapmirror_tape_2b8da4a4-1fa9-11de-842e-000c29d658dc Source 0:02:31 Idle
filer1>snapmirror release testdata snapmirror_tape_2b8da4a4-1fa9-11de-842e-000c29d658dc
The following example removes the SnapMirror status entry for the testdata2
volume that failed during the backup:
filer1>snapmirror status testdata2
Snapmirror is on.
Source
Destination
filer1:testdata2
filer1:rst1a
State
Source
Lag
-
Status
Idle
filer1>snapmirror release testdata2 filer1:rst1a
In case of a failed backup, though the SnapMirror status entry is deleted, the
SnapMirror release command displays an error message as follows:
snapmirror release: testdata2 filer1:rst1a: No release-able destination found that matches those parameters.
Use ’snapmirror destinations’ to see a list of release-able destinations.
Removing the SnapMirror status entry after an SMTape restore
You can remove the SnapMirror status entry corresponding to the volume you
restored.
Procedure
1. To list the SnapMirror status entries, enter the following command:
snapmirror status vol_name
vol_name is the name of the volume that you restored.
The SnapMirror status of the volume is displayed. In case of a successful
SMTape restore, the source is a Snapshot copy with a name in the format
snapshot_for_smtape.hexchar and the destination is the restored volume. The
hexchar in the Snapshot copy name is a set of hexadecimal characters specific to
that Snapshot copy. In case of a failed SMTape restore, the source is a tape
device name and the destination is the volume that failed to restore.
2. To remove the SnapMirror status entry by releasing the SnapMirror
relationship, enter one of the following commands:
If the restore...
Then...
Succeeded
1. To break the SnapMirror relationship,
enter the following command:
snapmirror break vol_name
2. To remove the SnapMirror status entry,
enter the following command:
snap delete vol_name
snapshot_for_smtape.hexadecimal_char
Failed
Destroy the volume.
Note: It is safe to destroy the volume
because it is not useful due to the failed
restore.
Data backup to tape using the SMTape engine
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Example
The following example removes the SnapMirror status entry for the testdata
volume that was successfully restored:
filer1>snapmirror status testdata
Snapmirror is on.
Source
Destination
State
Lag
Status
snapshot_for_smtape.3fde069c-2639-11de-90f6-00a0980c225b.0 filer1:testdata Snapmirrored 00:15:12 Idle
filer1>snapmirror break testdata
snapmirror break: Destination testdata is now writable.
Volume size is being retained for potential snapmirror resync.
If you would like to grow the volume and do not expect to resync,
set vol option fs_size_fixed to off.
filer1>snap delete testdata snapshot_for_smtape.3fde069c-2639-11de-90f6-00a0980c225b.0
Wed Apr 8 18:57:41 PDT [fsr-u29: wafl.snap.delete:info]: Snapshot copy snapshot_for_smtape.3fde069c-2639-11de-90f6-00a0980c225b.0
on volume testdata was deleted by the Data ONTAP function snapcmd_delete. The unique ID for this Snapshot copy is (1, 11).
Enabling or disabling concurrent volume SnapMirror and SMTape
backup operations
Starting with Data ONTAP 8.1, you can make an SMTape backup of a volume
SnapMirror destination when SnapMirror transfers are in progress. You can run
volume SnapMirror and SMTape backup operations concurrently by enabling the
vsm.smtape.concurrent.cascade.support option on a volume SnapMirror
destination system.
About this task
v The default value for the vsm.smtape.concurrent.cascade.support option is off.
Any change in the option takes effect in the next volume SnapMirror or SMTape
backup operation. It does not affect the operations that are in progress.
v When the vsm.smtape.concurrent.cascade.support option is enabled, SMTape
backup locks only the base and incremental Snapshot copies.
Any of the intermediate Snapshot copies (Snapshot copies between the base
Snapshot copy and incremental Snapshot copy) can be deleted and deleted
Snapshot copies are not backed up to tape.
Note: The smtape restore -h command lists the Snapshot copies that are
present at the start of SMTape backup. Therefore, the list might include the
Snapshot copies that are deleted by the SnapMirror update.
v The first SnapMirror update after a SnapMirror resync operation and SMTape
backup operation cannot run concurrently.
v Concurrent volume SnapMirror and SMTape backup operations are supported
only on FlexVol volumes and not on traditional volumes.
Procedure
To enable or disable concurrent volume SnapMirror and SMTape backup
operations, enter the following command:
options vsm.smtape.concurrent.cascade.support {on|off}
on enables volume SnapMirror and SMTape backup operations to run concurrently.
off disables volume SnapMirror and SMTape backup operations to run
concurrently.
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Performing SMTape restores
You can perform baseline and incremental restores by using the SMTape engine to
restore data on a volume from tape. You must follow a certain workflow to
perform baseline and incremental restores.
Performing a baseline restore
You can perform a baseline restore if you want to restore the entire data set that
has been backed up. You must follow a workflow to perform a baseline restore of
data on a volume from tape.
Procedure
1. Restrict the volume.
2. Restore the volume from tape. After restore is complete, the volume is in a
read-only state.
3. Make the volume writeable by either using the snapmirror break command or
Data ONTAP APIs.
Performing an incremental restore
Incremental restores build on each other the way incremental backups build on the
baseline backup. Therefore, to restore an incremental backup, you need all the
backup tapes from the baseline backup through the last incremental backup that
you want to restore.
Procedure
1. Restrict the volume.
2. Perform a baseline restore of the volume from tape. The volume is in a
read-only state.
Note: You must not change the state of the volume or use the snapmirror
break command on the volume.
3. Perform incremental restores of the volume from tape in a chronological order.
4. After completing the required number of incremental restores, you can make
the volume writeable by either using the snapmirror break command or Data
ONTAP APIs.
Data backup to tape using the SMTape engine
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What event logging is
Data ONTAP automatically logs significant events and the times at which they
occur during dump and restore operations. All dump and restore events are
recorded in a log file named backup in the /etc/log/ directory. By default, event
logging is set to on.
You might want to view event log files for the following reasons:
v To find out whether a nightly backup was successful
v To gather statistics on backup operations
v To use information contained in past event log files to help diagnose problems
with dump and restore operations
Once every week, the event log files are rotated. The /etc/log/backup file is
renamed to /etc/log/backup.0, the /etc/log/backup.0 file is renamed to
/etc/log/backup.1, and so on. The system saves the log files for up to six weeks;
therefore, you can have up to seven message files (/etc/log/backup.[0-5] and the
current /etc/log/backup file).
If a takeover occurs in an High Availability (HA) pair , the set of backup log files
for the takeover storage system remains separate from the backup log files for the
failed storage system.
Accessing the event log files
You can access the event log files for tape backup and restore operations at the
/etc/log/ directory by using the rdfile command. You can view these event log
files to monitor tape backup and restore operations.
Procedure
You can access the event log files for tape backup and restore operations by
entering the following command:
rdfile /etc/log/backup
With additional configurations, you can also use a web browser to access these log
files. For more information about accessing a node's log files by using a web
browser, see the Data ONTAP System Administration Guide for 7-Mode.
What the dump and restore event log message format is
For each dump and restore event, a message is written to the backup log file.
The format of the dump and restore event log message is as follows:
type timestamp identifier event (event_info)
The following list describes the fields in the event log message format:
v Each log message begins with one of the type indicators described in the
following table:
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Type
Description
log
Logging event
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Type
Description
dmp
Dump event
rst
Restore event
v timestamp shows the date and time of the event.
v The identifier field for a dump event includes the dump path and the unique ID
for the dump. The identifier field for a restore event uses only the restore
destination path name as a unique identifier. Logging-related event messages do
not include an identifier field.
What logging events are
The event field of a message that begins with a log specifies the beginning of a
logging or the end of a logging.
It contains one of the events shown in the following table:
Event
Description
Start_Logging
Indicates the beginning of logging or that
logging has been turned back on after being
disabled.
Stop_Logging
Indicates that logging has been turned off.
What dump events are
The event field for a dump event contains an event type followed by event-specific
information within parentheses.
The following table describes the events, their descriptions, and the related event
information that might be recorded for a dump operation:
112
Event
Description
Event information
Start
A dump or NDMP dump is
started
Dump level and the type of
dump
Restart
A dump restarts
Dump level
End
Dumps completed
successfully
Amount of data processed
Abort
The operation is cancelled
Amount of data processed
Options
Specified options are listed
All options and their
associated values, including
NDMP options
Tape_open
The tape is open for
read/write
The new tape device name
Tape_close
The tape is closed for
read/write
The tape device name
Phase-change
A dump is entering a new
processing phase
The new phase name
Error
A dump has encountered an
unexpected event
Error message
Snapshot
A Snapshot copy is created
or located
The name and time of the
Snapshot copy
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Event
Description
Event information
Base_dump
A base dump entry in the
/etc/dumpdates file has been
located
The level and time of the
base dump (for incremental
dumps only)
Example of a dump output
The following is an example of the output for a dump operation:
dmp Thu Sep 20 01:11:22 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) Start (Level 0)
dmp Thu Sep 20 01:11:22 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) Options (b=63, B=1000000, u)
dmp Thu Sep 20 01:11:22 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) Snapshot (snapshot_for_backup.6,
Sep 20 01:11:21 GMT)
dmp Sep 20 01:11:22 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) Tape_open (nrst0a)
dmp Sep 20 01:11:22 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) Phase_change (I)
dmp Sep 20 01:11:24 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) Phase_change (II)
dmp Sep 20 01:11:24 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) Phase_change (III)
dmp Sep 20 01:11:26 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) Phase_change (IV)
dmp Sep 20 01:14:19 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) Tape_close (nrst0a)
dmp Sep 20 01:14:20 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) Tape_open (nrst0a)
dmp Sep 20 01:14:54 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) Phase_change (V)
dmp Sep 20 01:14:54 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) Tape_close (nrst0a)
dmp Sep 20 01:14:54 GMT /vol/vol0/(1) End (1224 MB)
There are five phases in a dump operation (map files, map directories, dump
directories, dump files, and dump ACLs).
The log file for a dump operation begins with either a Start or Restart event and
ends with either an End or Abort event.
What restore events are
The event field for a restore event contains an event type followed by
event-specific information in parentheses.
The following table provides information about the events, their descriptions, and
the related event information that can be recorded for a restore operation:
Event
Description
Event information
Start
A restore or NDMP restore is Restore level and the type of
started
restore
Restart
A restore restarts
Restore level
End
Restores completed
successfully
Number of files and amount
of data processed
Abort
The operation is cancelled
Number of files and amount
of data processed
What event logging is
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Event
Description
Event information
Options
Specified options are listed
All options and their
associated values, including
NDMP options
Tape_open
The tape is open for
read/write
The new tape device name
Tape_close
The tape is closed for
read/write
The tape device name
Phase-change
Restore is entering a new
processing phase
The new phase name
Error
Restore encounters an
unexpected event
Error message
Example
The following is an example of the output for a restore operation:
rst Thu Sep 20 02:24:22 GMT /vol/rst_vol/ Start (level 0)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:24:22 GMT /vol/rst_vol/ Options (r)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:24:22 GMT /vol/rst_vol/ Tape_open (nrst0a)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:24:23 GMT /vol/rst_vol/ Phase_change (Dirs)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:24:24 GMT /vol/rst_vol/ Phase_change (Files)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:39:33 GMT /vol/rst_vol/ Tape_close (nrst0a)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:39:33 GMT /vol/rst_vol/ Tape_open (nrst0a)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:44:22 GMT /vol/rst_vol/ Tape_close (nrst0a)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:44:22 GMT /vol/rst_vol/ End (3516 files, 1224 MB)
There are two phases in a restore operation (restore directories and restore files).
The log file for a restore operation begins with either a Start or Restart event and
ends with either an End or Abort event.
Example
The following is an example of the output of a cancelled restore operation:
rst Thu Sep 20 02:13:54 GMT /rst_vol/ Start (Level 0)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:13:54 GMT /rst_vol/ Options (r)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:13:54 GMT /rst_vol/ Tape_open (nrst0a)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:13:55 GMT /rst_vol/ Phase_change (Dirs)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:13:56 GMT /rst_vol/ Phase_change (Files)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:23:40 GMT /vol/rst_vol/ Error (Interrupted)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:23:40 GMT /vol/rst_vol/ Tape_close (nrst0a)
rst Thu Sep 20 02:23:40 GMT /vol/rst_vol/ Abort (3516 files, 598 MB)
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What the SMTape event log message format is
For each SMTape event, a message is written to the backup log file in a specified
format.
The format of the SMTape event log message is as follows:
job_id time_stamp vol_path event(event_info)
The following list describes the fields in the event log message format.
v The job_id field shows the unique ID allocated to the SMTape backup or restore
job.
v The time_stamp field shows the date and time at which SMTape backup or
restore event occurred.
v The vol_path is the volume path associated with the SMTape backup or restore
job.
v The eventfield shows the event name.
v The event_info field shows the event specific information.
What SMTape CLI backup and restore events are
The event field for an SMTape backup or restore event begins with a CLI event
type followed by event-specific information within parentheses.
The following table describes the CLI events and their descriptions recorded for an
SMTape backup and restore operation initiated from the CLI. The event
information for these events is the tape device name.
Event
Description
CLI-Backup
The SMTape backup operation is initiated by
using the smtape backup command.
CLI-Restore
The SMTape restore operation is initiated by
using the smtape restore command.
CLI-Abort
The SMTape backup or restore operation is
aborted by using the smtape abort
command.
CLI-Continue
The SMTape backup or restore operation is
continued after a tape change by using the
smtape continue command.
What SMTape backup events are
The event field for an SMTape backup event contains an event type followed by
event-specific information within parentheses.
The following table describes the events, their descriptions, and the related event
information that are recorded for an SMTape backup operation.
Event
Description
Event information
BKP-Start
An SMTape CLI or NDMP
backup begins
The level of backup and the
backup set ID that identifies
the backup session.
What event logging is
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Event
Description
Event information
BKP-Params
The parameters for the
backup job
Parameters of the backup
operation, such as the origin
of the command that
specifies whether the
command was initiated from
NDMP or CLI, the tape
record size used in the
backup, and the tape device
name.
BKP-DW-Start
Data warehouse begins for
the backup job
Does not have any event
information.
BKP-DW-End
Data warehouse ends for the
backup job
Time taken to complete the
backup job and the number
of blocks backed up to tape.
BKP-Tape-Stats
The tape statistics for the
backup job
The backup statistics, such as
the wait time, the wait count,
total count, and the available
count.
BKP-End
The backup job ends
The amount of data backed
up to tape, the time taken for
the backup, and the
performance in GB/hour.
BKP-Abort
The backup job aborts
A message indicating the
reason for aborting the
backup job.
BKP-Tape-Chg
The backup job is waiting for The job ID of the backup
a tape change
operation that waits for a
tape change.
BKP-Continue
The backup operation
The job ID of the backup
continues after a tape change operation that continues after
a tape change.
BKP-Warning
The backup operation has
encountered an unexpected
event
The reason for the
unexpected event.
Example of an SMTape backup output
The following is an example of the output for an SMTape backup operation:
(null) Tue May 5 11:15:00 PDT /vol/testdata CLI-Backup (rst9a)
1 Tue May 5 11:15:00 PDT /vol/testdata BKP-Start (level 0 backup of Backup Set ID f99f17ac-3b32-11de-9682-00a0980c225b)
1 Tue May 5 11:15:00 PDT /vol/testdata BKP-Params (originator=CLI mode=dw-data tape_record_size=240KB tape=rst9a all_snapshots
tape_seeding)
1 Tue May 5 11:15:00 PDT /vol/testdata BKP-DW-Start
1 Tue May 5 11:27:04 PDT /vol/testdata BKP-DW-End (phase completed in 0:12:04; 9214285 blocks moved)
1 Tue May 5 11:27:04 PDT /vol/testdata BKP-Tape-Stats (wait_time=684s wait_count=128990 total_count=153951
avail_count=130809/17974/4906/262)
1 Tue May 5 11:27:04 PDT /vol/testdata BKP-End (backed up 36.857 GB bytes in 0:12:04; performance=183.267 GB/hour)
What SMTape restore events are
The event field for an SMTape restore event contains an event type followed by
event-specific information within parentheses.
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The following table describes the SMTape restore events, their descriptions, and the
related event information that are recorded for an SMTape restore operation:
Event
Description
Event information
RST-Start
An SMTape CLI or NDMP
restore begins
The restore set ID that
identifies the restore session.
RST-Params
The parameters for the
restore job
Parameters of the restore
operation, such as the origin
of the command that
specifies whether the
command was initiated from
NDMP or CLI, the tape
record size for the restore,
and the tape device name.
RST-End
A restore job completed
successfully
The amount of data restored
from tape, the time taken for
the restore, and the
performance in GB/hour.
RST-Tape-Chg
The restore job is waiting for The job ID of the restore
a tape change
operation that waits for a
tape change.
RST-Continue
The restore job continues
after a tape change
The job ID of the restore
operation that continues after
a tape change.
RST-Abort
The restore job aborts
A message indicating the
reason for aborting the
restore job.
Example of an SMTape restore output
The following is an example of the output for an SMTape restore operation:
(null) Thu May 7 18:41:52 PDT /vol/testdata CLI-Restore (rst8a)
29 Thu May 7 18:41:52 PDT /vol/testdata RST-Start (Restore Set ID bc24cbb0-3d03-11de-bef3-00a0980c225b)
29 Thu May 7 18:41:52 PDT /vol/testdata RST-Params (originator=CLI mode=image tape_record_size=240KB tape=rst8a)
29 Thu May 7 18:42:01 PDT /vol/testdata RST-End (restored 399.840 MB bytes in 0:00:09; performance=159.936 GB/hour)
Enabling or disabling event logging
You can turn the event logging on or off.
Procedure
To enable or disable event logging, enter the following command:
options backup.log.enable {on | off}
on turns event logging on.
off turns event logging off.
Note: Event logging is turned on by default.
What event logging is
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Error messages for tape backup and restore
You might encounter an error message when performing a dump or SMTape-based
backup or restore operation due to various reasons.
Backup and restore error messages
You might encounter an error message while performing a tape backup or restore
using SMTape or dump.
Resource limitation: no available thread
Message Resource limitation: no available thread
Cause The maximum number of active local tape I/O threads is currently in use.
You can have a maximum of 16 active local tape drives
Corrective action Wait for some tape jobs to finish before starting a new backup or
restore job.
Duplicated tape drive (tape_drive) specified in the tape
argument list
Message Duplicated tape drive (tape_drive) specified in the tape argument
list
Cause You have specified a tape drive name twice in the argument list of the
backup or restore command.
If a tape drive name is duplicated in the dump or smtape backup command, data is
backed up twice to the tape attached to that tape drive. If the tape drive name is
duplicated in the restore or smtape restore command, data is restored twice to
the destination.
Corrective action Retry the job without specifying the same tape drive more than
once in the tape argument list.
Invalid tape drive tape_drive in tape argument list
Message Invalid tape drive tape_drive in tape argument list
Cause The tape drive specified for the backup or restore operation is not valid.
Corrective action Use a valid tape drive and retry the operation.
Use the sysconfig -t command to get a list of valid tape drives.
Tape reservation preempted
Message Tape reservation preempted
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Cause The tape drive is in use by another operation or the tape has been closed
prematurely.
Corrective action Ensure that the tape drive is not in use by another operation and
that the DMA application has not aborted the job and then retry.
Could not initialize media
Message Could not initialize media
Cause You might get this error for one of the following reasons:
v The tape drive used for the backup is corrupt or damaged.
v The tape does not contain the complete backup or is corrupt.
v The maximum number of active local tape I/O threads is currently in use.
You can have a maximum of 16 active local tape drives.
Corrective action
v If the tape drive is corrupt or damaged, retry the operation with a valid tape
drive.
v If the tape does not contain the complete backup or is corrupt, you cannot
perform the restore operation.
v If tape resources are not available, wait for some of the backup or restore jobs to
finish and then retry the operation.
Too many active dumps/restores currently in progress
Message Too many active dumps/restores currently in progress
Cause A maximum number of backup and/or restore jobs are already running.
Corrective action Retry the operation after some of the currently running jobs have
finished.
Media error on tape write
Message Media error on tape write
Cause The tape used for the backup is corrupted.
Corrective action Replace the tape and retry the backup job.
Tape write failed
Message Tape write failed
Cause The tape used for the backup is corrupted.
Corrective action Replace the tape and retry the backup job.
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Tape write failed - new tape encountered media error
Message Tape write failed - new tape encountered media error
Cause The tape used for the backup is corrupted.
Corrective action Replace the tape and retry the backup.
Tape write failed - new tape is broken or write protected
Message Tape write failed - new tape is broken or write protected
Cause The tape used for the backup is corrupted or write-protected.
Corrective action Replace the tape and retry the backup.
Tape write failed - new tape is already at the end of media
Message Tape write failed - new tape is already at the end of media
Cause There is not enough space on the tape to complete the backup.
Corrective action Replace the tape and retry the backup.
Tape write error
Message Tape write error - The previous tape had less than the required
minimum capacity, size MB, for this tape operation, The operation should be
restarted from the beginning
Cause The tape capacity is insufficient to contain the backup data.
Corrective action Use tapes with larger capacity and retry the backup job.
Media error on tape read
Message Media error on tape read
Cause The tape from which data is being restored is corrupted and might not
contain the complete backup data.
Corrective action If you are sure that the tape has the complete backup, retry the
restore operation. If the tape does not contain the complete backup, you cannot
perform the restore operation.
Tape read error
Message Tape read error
Cause The tape drive is damaged or the tape does not contain the complete
backup.
Corrective action If the tape drive is damaged, use another tape drive. If the tape
does not contain the complete backup, you cannot restore the data.
Error messages for tape backup and restore
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Already at the end of tape
Message Already at the end of tape
Cause The tape does not contain any data or must be rewound.
Corrective action If the tape does not contain data, use the tape that contains the
backup and retry the restore job. Otherwise, rewind the tape and retry the restore
job.
Tape record size is too small. Try a larger size.
Message Tape record size is too small. Try a larger size.
Cause The blocking factor specified for the restore operation is smaller than the
blocking factor that was used during the backup.
Corrective action Use the same blocking factor that was specified during the
backup.
In case of an SMTape restore operation, use the smtape restore -h tape_drive
command to determine the correct blocking factor.
Tape record size should be block_size1 and not block_size2
Message Tape record size should be block_size1 and not block_size2
Cause The blocking factor specified for the local restore is incorrect.
Corrective action Retry the restore job with block_size1 as the blocking factor.
Tape record size must be in the range between 4KB and
256KB
Message Tape record size must be in the range between 4KB and 256KB
Cause The blocking factor specified for the backup or restore operation is not
within the permitted range.
Corrective action Specify a blocking factor in the range of 4 KB to 256 KB.
NDMP error messages
You might encounter an error message while performing a tape backup or restore
using NDMP-enabled commercial backup applications.
Network communication error
Message Network communication error
Cause Communication to a remote tape in an NDMP three-way connection has
failed.
Corrective action Check the network connection to the remote mover.
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Message from Read Socket: error_string
Message Message from Read Socket: error_string
Cause Restore communication from the remote tape in NDMP 3-way connection
has errors.
Corrective action Check the network connection to the remote mover.
Message from Write Dirnet: error_string
Message Message from Write Dirnet: error_string
Cause Backup communication to a remote tape in an NDMP three-way connection
has an error.
Corrective action Check the network connection to the remote mover.
Read Socket received EOF
Message Read Socket received EOF
Cause Attempt to communicate with a remote tape in an NDMP three-way
connection has reached the End Of File mark. You might be attempting a
three-way restore from a backup image with a larger block size.
Corrective action Specify the correct block size and retry the restore operation.
ndmpd invalid version number: version_number
Message ndmpd invalid version number: version_number
Cause The NDMP version specified is not supported by the storage system.
Corrective action Specify NDMP version 4.
Error: Unable to retrieve session information
Message Error: Unable to retrieve session information
Cause The system is probably overloaded.
Corrective action Retry the operation.
ndmpd session session_ID not active
Message ndmpd session session_ID not active
Cause The NDMP session might not exist.
Corrective action Use the ndmpd status command to view the active NDMP
sessions.
Error messages for tape backup and restore
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No such user user_name
Message No such user user_name
Cause The specified user might not exist.
Corrective action Use the useradmin command to list the valid users of the system.
Cannot generate NDMP password
Message Cannot generate NDMP password
Cause The user might not have the login-ndmp capability.
Corrective action Ensure that the user has the proper capabilities to access NDMP.
The specified operation could not be completed as the volume
is moving
Message The specified operation could not be completed as the volume is
moving
Cause The volume is under migration.
Corrective action Retry the operation after the volume migration is complete.
Could not obtain vol ref for Volume volume_name
Message Could not obtain vol ref for Volume vol_name
Cause The volume reference could not be obtained because the volume might be
in use by other operations.
Corrective action Retry the operation later.
ndmpcopy error messages
You might encounter an error message while transferring data between storage
systems using the ndmpcopy command.
Ndmpcopy: Socket connection to host_name failed
Message Ndmpcopy: Socket connection to host_name failed
Cause Unable to create a socket connection from the storage system to the
host_name.
Corrective action Ensure that you can ping the host_name from the storage system.
Ensure that the NDMP server is up and running by using the ndmpd status
command. If the NDMP server is not running, enable NDMP service. Ensure that
the firewall settings for NDMP are configured on both the network and the storage
system. Check whether the option ndmpd.access is set correctly.
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Ndmpcopy: Error opening NDMP connection
Message Ndmpcopy: Error opening NDMP connection
Cause Unable to create a socket connection from the storage system to the host
name.
Corrective action Ensure that you can ping the host_name from the storage system.
Ensure that the NDMP server is up and running by using the ndmpd status
command. If the NDMP server is not running, enable NDMP service. Ensure that
the firewall settings for NDMP are configured on both the network and the storage
system. Check whether the option ndmpd.access is set correctly.
Ndmpcopy: Client authentication request failed
Message Ndmpcopy: Client authentication request failed
Cause Authentication parameters might be incorrect.
Corrective action Ensure that the authentication parameters are correct. Verify the
authentication type (plaintext or md5) by using the options ndmpd.authtype
command on the source and destination storage systems.
Ndmpcopy: Authentication failed for source
Message Ndmpcopy: Authentication failed for source
Cause Authentication parameters might be incorrect for the source.
Corrective action Ensure that the authentication parameters are correct. Verify the
authentication type (plaintext or md5) by using the options.ndmpd.authtype
command on the source storage system.
Ndmpcopy: Authentication failed for destination
Message Ndmpcopy: Authentication failed for destination
Cause Authentication parameters might be incorrect for the destination.
Corrective action Ensure that the authentication parameters are correct. Verify the
authentication type (plaintext or md5) by using the options.ndmpd.authtype
command on the destination storage system.
Ndmpcopy: Failed to start dump on source
Message Ndmpcopy: Failed to start dump on source
Cause Could not establish a data connection to the NDMP server.
Corrective action Ensure that the network connectivity between the source and the
destination is appropriate. Also, ensure that the firewall settings for NDMP are
configured on both the network and the storage system.
Error messages for tape backup and restore
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Ndmpcopy: Failed to start restore on destination
Message Ndmpcopy: Failed to start restore on destination
Cause Could not establish a data connection to the NDMP server.
Corrective action Ensure that the network connectivity between the source and the
destination is appropriate. Also, ensure that the firewall settings for NDMP are
configured on both the network and the storage system
Ndmpcopy: Error in getting extension list
Message Ndmpcopy: Error in getting extension list
Cause Either the source or the destination does not support IPv6.
Corrective action Retry the operation using IPv4.
Error getting local hostname
Message Error getting local hostname
Cause Local machine might not have a valid host name.
Corrective action Ensure that the local machine has a valid host name.
Ndmpcopy: Connection setup for transfer failed
Message Ndmpcopy: Connection setup for transfer failed
Cause The ndmpcopy command failed to establish a data connection between the
source and the destination.
Corrective action Ensure that the network connectivity between the source and the
destination is appropriate. Also, ensure that the firewall settings for NDMP are
configured on both the network and the storage system.
CONNECT: Connection refused
Message CONNECT: Connection refused
Cause The NDMP server refuses connections in the following scenarios:
v The NDMP connections running on the server has reached the maximum limit.
v The NDMP server is shutting down.
Corrective action Retry the NDMP connection later.
Invalid name. Source filer name does not resolve to the
specified address mode
Message Invalid name. Source filer name does not resolve to the specified
address mode
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Cause The storage system name does not resolve to the specified address mode
(IPv4 or IPv6).
Corrective action Retry the operation using the appropriate address mode.
Invalid name. Destination filer name does not resolve to the
specified address mode
Message Invalid name. Destination filer name does not resolve to the
specified address mode
Cause The storage system name does not resolve to the specified address mode
(IPv4 or IPv6).
Corrective action Retry the operation using the appropriate address mode.
Dump error messages
You might encounter an error message while performing a tape backup or restore
using the dump engine.
No default tape device list
Message No default tape device list
Cause The tape device list specified in the dump command is incorrect.
Corrective action Specify a valid tape device list in the dump command and retry
the backup.
Invalid/offline volume
Message Invalid/offline volume
Cause The volume specified in the dump command is offline or has been deleted.
Corrective action If the volume is offline, bring the volume back online and make
the volume writable and then perform the backup. If the volume has been deleted,
you cannot perform the backup.
Unable to lock a snapshot needed by dump
Message Unable to lock a snapshot needed by dump
Cause The snapshot copy specified for the backup is not available.
Corrective action Retry the backup with a different snapshot copy.
Failed to determine snapshot type
Message Failed to determine snapshot type
Cause The snapshot copy specified for the backup is not available.
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Corrective action Retry the backup with a different snapshot copy.
Use the snap list command to see the list of available snapshot copies.
Volume is temporarily in a transitional state
Message Volume is temporarily in a transitional state
Cause The volume being backed up is temporarily in an unmounted state.
Corrective action Wait for some time and perform the backup again.
Unable to locate bitmap files
Message Unable to locate bitmap files
Cause The bitmap files required for the backup operation might have been deleted.
In this case, the backup cannot be restarted.
Corrective action Perform the backup again.
Failed to locate the specified restartable dump
Message Failed to locate the specified restartable dump
Cause The dump ID specified for restarting the failed backup is invalid.
Corrective action Restart the backup with the correct dump ID.
Use the backup status command to determine the dump ID of the failed backup
that you are trying to restart.
Dump context created from NDMP. Cannot restart dump
Message Dump context created from NDMP. Cannot restart dump.
Cause The dump operation was initiated through NDMP, but you are attempting
to restart it from CLI.
Corrective action Restart the dump operation through NDMP.
Unable to locate snapshot
Message Unable to locate snapshot
Cause The Snapshot copies required for restarting the backup are not available.
Corrective action Backup cannot be restarted. Perform the backup again.
Invalid inode specified on restart
Message Invalid inode specified on restart
Cause The inode specified for the NDMP-initiated backup is invalid.
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Corrective action Try to restart the backup with a valid inode number and offset.
Invalid restart context. Cannot restart dump
Message Invalid restart context. Cannot restart dump.
Cause The registry might be corrupt.
Corrective action Restart the backup again. If it fails, you must redo the backup.
Failed to retrieve saved info for the restartable dump
Message Failed to retrieve saved info for the restartable dump.
Cause The registry might be corrupt.
Corrective action Restart the backup again. If it fails, you must redo the backup.
Destination volume is read-only
Message Destination volume is read-only
Cause The path to which the restore operation is attempted to is read-only.
Corrective action Try restoring the data to a different location.
Destination qtree is read-only
Message Destination qtree is read-only
Cause The qtree to which the restore is attempted to is read-only.
Corrective action Try restoring the data to a different location.
IB restore in progress
Message IB restore in progress
Cause An SMTape restore is currently running. You cannot perform a dump-based
restore when an SMTape restore is running.
Corrective action Retry the restore operation after the SMTape restore operation
finishes.
Could not access volume in path: volume_name
Message Could not access volume in path: volume_name
Cause The destination volume specified in the restore command does not exist.
Corrective action Try to restore the data to a different volume or create a new
volume with the specified name.
Error messages for tape backup and restore
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No files were created
Message No files were created
Cause A directory DAR was attempted without enabling the enhanced DAR
functionality.
Corrective action Enable the enhanced DAR functionality and retry the DAR.
Restore of the file <file name> failed
Message Restore of the file file name failed
Cause When a DAR (Direct Access Recovery) of a file whose file name is the same
as that of a LUN on the destination volume is performed, then the DAR fails.
Corrective action Retry DAR of the file.
Truncation failed for src inode <inode number>...
Message Truncation failed for src inode <inode number>. Error <error
number>. Skipping inode.
Cause Inode of a file is deleted when the file is being restored.
Corrective action Wait for the restore operation on a volume to complete before
using that volume.
SMTape error messages
You might encounter an error message while performing a tape backup or restore
using SMTape.
Internal assertion
Message Internal assertion
Cause There is an internal SMTape error.
Corrective action Report the error and send the etc/log/backup file to technical
support.
Job aborted due to shutdown
Message Job aborted due to shutdown
Cause The storage system is being rebooted.
Corrective action Retry the job after the storage system reboots.
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Job not found
Message Job not found
Cause The backup or restore job is not active.
Corrective action Check the job number and retry the job.
Job aborted due to Snapshot autodelete
Message Job aborted due to Snapshot autodelete
Cause The volume does not have enough space and has triggered the autodeletion
of Snapshot copies.
Corrective action Free up space in the volume and retry the job.
Invalid volume path
Message Invalid volume path
Cause The specified volume for the backup or restore operation is not found.
Corrective action Retry the job with a valid volume path and volume name.
UNIX style RMT tape drive is not supported
Message UNIX style RMT tape drive is not supported
Cause A remote tape drive was specified for the backup or restore job.
Corrective action SMTape does not support remote tapes. Use a local tape drive
for the job.
Volume is currently in use by other operations
Message Volume is currently in use by other operations
Cause The volume is currently in use by another SnapMirror operation. You
cannot perform an SMTape operation when another SnapMirror operation is using
the volume.
Corrective action Retry the job after the SnapMirror operation finishes.
Volume offline
Message Volume offline
Cause The volume being backed up is offline.
Corrective action Bring the volume online and retry the backup.
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Volume not restricted
Message Volume not restricted
Cause The destination volume to which data is being restored is not restricted.
Corrective action Restrict the volume and retry the restore operation.
Tape is currently in use by other operations
Message Tape is currently in use by other operations
Cause The tape drive is in use by another job.
Corrective action Retry the backup after the currently active job is finished.
Invalid input tape
Message Invalid input tape
Cause The signature of the backup image is not valid in the tape header. The tape
has corrupted data or does not contain a valid backup image.
Corrective action Retry the restore job with a valid backup image.
Too many active jobs
Message Too many active jobs
Cause A maximum number of SMTape jobs are already running. You can have a
maximum of 32 SMTape jobs running simultaneously.
Corrective action Retry the operation after some of the SMTape jobs have finished.
Failed to allocate memory
Message Failed to allocate memory
Cause The system has run out of memory.
Corrective action Retry the job later when the system is not too busy.
Failed to get data buffer
Message Failed to get data buffer
Cause The storage system ran out of buffers.
Corrective action Wait for some storage system operations to finish and then retry
the job.
Failed to create job UUID
Message Failed to create job UUID
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Cause The storage system could not create an UUID because the system is too
busy.
Corrective action Reduce the system load and then retry the job.
Failed to create snapshot
Message Failed to create snapshot
Cause The volume already contains the maximum number of Snapshot copies.
Corrective action Delete some Snapshot copies and then retry the backup
operation.
Failed to find snapshot
Message Failed to find snapshot
Cause The Snapshot copy specified for the backup is unavailable.
Corrective action Check if the specified Snapshot copy is available. If not, retry
with the correct Snapshot copy.
Failed to lock snapshot
Message Failed to lock snapshot
Cause The Snapshot copy is either in use or has been deleted.
Corrective action If the Snapshot copy is in use by another operation, wait for that
operation to finish and then retry the backup. If the Snapshot copy has been
deleted, you cannot perform the backup.
Failed to access the named snapshot
Message Failed to access the named snapshot
Cause The Snapshot copy might have been deleted.
Corrective action If the Snapshot copy was deleted, you cannot perform the
backup operation. If the Snapshot copy exists, retry the job.
Failed to softlock qtree snapshots
Message Failed to softlock qtree snapshots
Cause The Snapshot copy might have been deleted.
Corrective action If the Snapshot copy is in use by another operation, wait for that
operation to finish and then retry the job. If the Snapshot copy has been deleted,
you cannot perform the backup operation.
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Failed to delete softlock
Message Failed to delete softlock
Cause The system could not remove the softlock for a Snapshot.
Corrective action If the Snapshot is no longer required, delete the softlock
manually by using the registry command.
Failed to delete snapshot
Message Failed to delete snapshot
Cause The auto-Snapshot copy could not be deleted because it is in use by other
operations.
Corrective action Use the snap command to determine the status of the Snapshot
copy. If the Snapshot copy is not required, delete it manually.
Image header missing or corrupted
Message Image header missing or corrupted
Cause The tape does not contain a valid SMTape backup.
Corrective action Retry with a tape containing a valid backup.
Chunks out of order
Message Chunks out of order
Cause The backup tapes are not being restored in the correct sequence.
Corrective action Retry the restore operation and load the tapes in the correct
sequence.
Tapes out of order
Message Tapes out of order
Cause The first tape of the tape sequence for the restore operation does not have
the image header.
Corrective action Load the tape with the image header and retry the job.
Already read volume_name tape_number
Message Already read volume_name tape_number
Cause The tape has already been processed.
Corrective action Be sure to load the correct tape when changing tapes.
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Mismatch in backup set ID
Message Mismatch in backup set ID
Cause The tape loaded during a tape change is not a part of the backup set.
Corrective action Load the correct tape and retry the job.
Aborting: Destination volume, volume_name, is too small
Message Aborting: Destination volume, volume_name, is too small
Cause The destination volume for the restore is not large enough for the backed
up data.
Corrective action Create a larger volume for the restore job.
Use the smtape restore -h tape_drive command to determine the volume size of
the backup image.
Aborting: Destination volume, volume_name, is a clone
Message Aborting: Destination volume, volume_name, is a clone
Cause You might be trying to restore an SMTape backup to a FlexClone volume.
SMTape does not support data restoration to a FlexClone volume.
Corrective action Try to restore the data to a regular FlexVol volume.
Source volume size is greater than maximum supported SIS
volume size on this platform. Aborting
Message Source volume size is greater than maximum supported SIS volume
size on this platform. Aborting
Cause The backup image is from a SIS volume (deduplication-enabled volume)
that is larger than the maximum size supported by the restore volume. The
maximum volume size when deduplication is enabled depends on the platform
that you are using.
For more information about the maximum volume size supported for different
storage systems when deduplication is enabled, see Data ONTAP Data Protection
Online Backup and Recovery Guide for 7-Mode.
Corrective action Restore the backup image on a platform that allows larger
deduplication-enabled volumes.
Incompatible SnapMirror or copy source Version. Aborting
Message Incompatible SnapMirror or copy source Version. Aborting
Cause The tape contains an incompatible backup image. The backup image is
generated from a newer version of Data ONTAP.
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Corrective action Use the correct Data ONTAP.
Transfers from volume volume_name are temporarily disabled
Message Transfers from volume volume_name are temporarily disabled
Cause The volume is currently in use by other operations.
Corrective action Wait for other operations to finish and then retry the job.
Too many active transfers at once, aborting
Message Too many active transfers at once, aborting
Cause A maximum number of SMTape and SnapMirror transfers are already
running.
Corrective action Retry the operation after some of the SMTape and SnapMirror
transfers have finished.
Invalid contents in destination volume geometry string
volume_geometry_string, aborting
Message Invalid contents in destination volume geometry string
volume_geometry_string, aborting
Cause The format of the destination volume geometry string might be incorrect.
Corrective action Use the smtape restore -g destination_volume_path command to
identify the destination geometry.
Cannot init input, aborting
Message Cannot init input, aborting
Cause Tape read/write operation fails or the tape is not connected properly to the
storage system.
Corrective action Ensure that you can perform tape read/write operation using the
dump or restore command.
Source volume is not a flexible volume. Aborting
Message Source volume is not a flexible volume. Aborting
Cause The tape contains the backup of a traditional volume and you might be
trying to restore the backup image to a flexible volume.
Corrective action Try restoring the backup image to a traditional volume. Use the
smtape restore -h tape_device command and see the Volume Type field to
determine the type of volume.
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Source volume is a flexible volume. Aborting
Message Source volume is a flexible volume. Aborting
Cause The tape contains the backup of a flexible volume and you might be trying
to restore the backup image to a traditional volume.
Corrective action Try restoring the backup image to a flexible volume. Use the
smtape restore -h tape_device command and see the Volume Type field to
determine the type of volume.
Destination is not an aggregate. Aborting
Message Destination is not an aggregate. Aborting
Cause The tape contains the backup of an aggregate and you might be trying to
restore the backup image to a volume.
Corrective action Try restoring the backup image to an aggregate. Use the smtape
restore -h tape_device command and see the Volume Type field to determine the
type of volume
Source is not an aggregate. Aborting
Message Source is not an aggregate. Aborting
Cause The tape contains the backup of a volume and you might be trying to
restore the backup image to an aggregate.
Corrective action Try restoring the backup image to a volume. Use the smtape
restore -h tape_device command and see the Volume Type field to determine the
type of volume.
Source is not a hybrid aggregate. Aborting
Message Source is not a hybrid aggregate. Aborting
Cause The backup image might not be of a hybrid aggregate and you are trying to
restore to a hybrid aggregate.
Corrective action Use the smtape restore -h tape_device command and see the
volume. Type field to determine the type of volume.
Invalid checksum for the chunk descriptor
Message Invalid checksum for the chunk descriptor
Cause You might get this error message for one of the following reasons:
v The tape is not positioned at the location of the backup image.
v The tape is corrupt or damaged.
v The wrong tape is loaded for restore.
Corrective action
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v If the tape is not positioned correctly, position the tape at the location of the
backup image and retry the operation.
v If the tape is corrupt, you cannot perform the restore operation.
v If the wrong tape is loaded, retry the operation with the correct tape.
Received VBN header with invalid checksum error_string,
aborting transfer on volume volume_name
Message Received VBN header with invalid checksum error_string, aborting
transfer on volume volume_name
Cause You might get this error message for one of the following reasons:
v The tape is not positioned at the location of the backup image.
v The tape is corrupt or damaged.
v The wrong tape is loaded for restore.
Corrective action
v If the tape is not positioned correctly, position the tape at the location of the
backup image and retry the operation.
v If the tape is corrupt, you cannot perform the restore operation.
v If the wrong tape is loaded, retry the operation with the correct tape.
Duplicate VBN VBN_number received for volume
volume_name, aborting transfer
Message Duplicate VBN VBN_number received for volume volume_name, aborting
transfer
Cause
v The
v The
v The
You might get this error message for one of the following reasons:
tape is not positioned at the location of the backup image.
tape is corrupt or damaged.
wrong tape is loaded for restore.
Corrective action
v If the tape is not positioned correctly, position the tape at the location of the
backup image and retry the operation.
v If the tape is corrupt, you cannot perform the restore operation.
v If the wrong tape is loaded, retry the operation with the correct tape.
Bad block in read stream. VBN = VBN_number, max_VBN =
max_VBN_number
Message Bad block in read stream. VBN = VBN_number, max_VBN =
max_VBN_number
Cause You might get this error message for one of the following reasons:
v The tape is not positioned at the location of the backup image.
v The tape is corrupt or damaged.
v The wrong tape is loaded for restore.
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Corrective action
v If the tape is not positioned correctly, position the tape at the location of the
backup image and retry the operation.
v If the tape is corrupt, you cannot perform the restore operation.
v If the wrong tape is loaded, retry the operation with the correct tape.
Invalid checksum found for one of the data block, where VBN
number is VBN_number
Message Invalid checksum found for one of the data block, where VBN number
is VBN_number
Cause You might get this error message for one of the following reasons:
v The tape is not positioned at the location of the backup image.
v The tape is corrupt or damaged.
v The wrong tape is loaded for restore.
Corrective action
v If the tape is not positioned correctly, position the tape at the location of the
backup image and retry the operation.
v If the tape is corrupt, you cannot perform the restore operation.
v If the wrong tape is loaded, retry the operation with the correct tape.
Block for VBN VBN_number failed checksum verification,
aborting the current transfer on volume volume_name
Message Block for VBN VBN_number failed checksum verification, aborting the
current transfer on volume volume_name
Cause You might get this error message for one of the following reasons:
v The tape is not positioned at the location of the backup image.
v The tape is corrupt or damaged.
v The wrong tape is loaded for restore.
Corrective action
v If the tape is not positioned correctly, position the tape at the location of the
backup image and retry the operation.
v If the tape is corrupt, you cannot perform the restore operation.
v If the wrong tape is loaded, retry the operation with the correct tape.
Language setting for the Snapshot is not found
Message Language setting for the Snapshot is not found
Cause Cannot get the language setting from the Snapshot ID.
Corrective action It is a warning message; the backup or restore operation
continues.
Error messages for tape backup and restore
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Volume is currently under migration
Message Volume is currently under migration
Cause Volume migration and SMTape backup cannot run simultaneously.
Corrective action Retry the backup job after the volume migration is complete.
Failed to get latest snapshot
Message Failed to get latest snapshot
Cause The latest Snapshot copy might not exist because the volume is being
initialized by SnapMirror.
Corrective action Retry after initialization is complete.
Failed to load new tape
Message Failed to load new tape
Cause Error in tape drive or media.
Corrective action Replace the tape and retry the operation.
Remote tape not supported
Message Remote tape not supported
Cause A remote tape drive is specified for the backup or restore job.
Corrective action SMTape does not support remote tapes. Use a local tape drive
for the job.
Failed to initialize tape
Message Failed to initialize tape
Cause You might get this error message for one of the following reasons:
v The backup image is not of SMTape.
v The tape blocking factor specified is incorrect.
v The tape is corrupt or damaged.
v The wrong tape is loaded for restore.
Corrective action
v If the backup image is not of SMTape, retry the operation with a tape that has
SMTape backup.
v If the blocking factor is incorrect, specify the correct blocking factor and retry the
operation.
v If the tape is corrupt, you cannot perform the restore operation.
v If the wrong tape is loaded, retry the operation with the correct tape.
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Failed to initialize restore stream
Message Failed to initialize restore stream
Cause You might get this error message for one of the following reasons:
v
v
v
v
The
The
The
The
backup image is not of SMTape.
tape blocking factor specified is incorrect.
tape is corrupt or damaged.
wrong tape is loaded for restore.
Corrective action
v If the backup image is not of SMTape, retry the operation with a tape that has
the SMTape backup.
v If the blocking factor is incorrect, specify the correct blocking factor and retry the
operation.
v If the tape is corrupt, you cannot perform the restore operation.
v If the wrong tape is loaded, retry the operation with the correct tape.
Failed to read backup image
Message Failed to read backup image
Cause The tape is corrupt.
Corrective action If the tape is corrupt, you cannot perform the restore operation.
Invalid backup image magic number
Message Invalid backup image magic number
Cause The backup image is not of SMTape.
Corrective action If the backup image is not of SMTape, retry the operation with a
tape that has the SMTape backup.
Chunk format not supported
Message Chunk format not supported
Cause The backup image is not of SMTape.
Corrective action If the backup image is not of SMTape, retry the operation with a
tape that has the SMTape backup.
Invalid backup image checksum
Message Invalid backup image checksum
Cause The tape is corrupt.
Corrective action If the tape is corrupt, you cannot perform the restore operation.
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Mismatch in backup level number
Message Mismatch in backup level number
Cause The tape loaded during a tape change is not a part of the backup set.
Corrective action Use the smtape restore -h command to verify the header
information of a tape.
Mismatch in backup time stamp
Message Mismatch in backup time stamp
Cause The tape loaded during a tape change is not a part of the backup set.
Corrective action Use the smtape restore -h command to verify the header
information of a tape.
Volume read-only
Message Volume read-only
Cause You cannot restore to a read-only volume.
Corrective action Use a read/write volume for SMTape restore.
Invalid source path: /vol/newvol/
Message Invalid source path: /vol/newvol/
Cause The specified volume path is invalid.
Corrective action Volume path should not be terminating with the "/" character;
use /vol/newvol.
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Copyright information
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Portions copyright © 2014 IBM Corporation. All rights reserved.
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No part of this document covered by copyright may be reproduced in any form or
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recording, taping, or storage in an electronic retrieval system—without prior
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References in this documentation to IBM products, programs, or services do not
imply that IBM intends to make these available in all countries in which IBM
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IBM's or NetApp's intellectual property rights may be used instead of the IBM or
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No part of this document covered by copyright may be reproduced in any form or
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Index
A
ACLs (access control lists)
excluding from tape restores 92
aliases, tape
on multiple storage systems 13
appending backups to tapes 76
B
backup and restore using NDMP services
dump 51
SMTape 99
backups
copying from tape with restore command
parallel 64
backups to tape (dump command)
benefits of entering at console 65
benefits of using Remote Shell 65
estimating tapes required for 48
rules for excluding files from 72
syntax 64
unattended 48
where to enter the command 65
baseline and incremental restores
workflow of 109
baseline restores
performing 109
blocking factor
about 47
C
change in volume access type
dump behavior during 96
compression type
specifying in restores from tape 87
concurrent operations
volume SnapMirror and SMTape backup
enabling or disabling 108
considerations
before choosing a tape backup method 2
before using the dump command 47
copyright and trademark information 143
copyright information 143
D
data
transferring 61
data backup
using SMTape 101
data restore
using dump engine for 50
using SMTape 103
dump
about 43
backing up directories using
backing up files using 43
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
83
dump and restore events
viewing log messages for 112
dump and SMTape backup
differences 2
dump backup
how it works 43
dump backup and restore sessions
scalability limits for 48
dump command
backup levels, defined 66
maximum tape blocks per tape file 75
order of tape devices specified by 46
specifying a blocking factor 75
specifying a dump path 70
specifying backup names 74
specifying files and directories 71
specifying local tape device names 68
specifying tape blocks per tape file 75
specifying to omit ACLs 73
dump engine
See also dump
using environment variables for 52
dump error messages
could not access volume in path: volume_name 129
destination qtree is read-only 129
destination volume is read-only 129
dump context created from NDMP. Cannot restart
dump. 128
failed to determine snapshot type 127
failed to locate the specified restartable dump 128
failed to retrieve saved info for the restartable dump. 129
IB restore in progress 129
invalid inode specified on restart 128
invalid restart context. Cannot restart dump. 129
invalid/offline volume 127
no default tape device list 127
no files were created 130
restore of the file <file name> failed 130
truncation failed for src inode <inode number>... 130
unable to locate bitmap files 128
unable to locate snapshot 128
unable to lock a snapshot needed by dump 127
volume is temporarily in a transitional state 128
dump events
about 112
dump restart command (restarts interrupted backup) 80
dump restores
about 50
dumpdates file
principles applying to dumpdates file 46
purpose 46
reasons to update 46
E
43
enhanced DAR functionality
disabling 58
enabling 58
environment variables
BASE_DATE 99
DUMP_DATE 99
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environment variables (continued)
FILESYSTEM 99
SMTAPE_BACKUP_SET_ID 99
SMTAPE_BREAK_MIRROR 99
SMTAPE_DELETE_SNAPSHOT 99
SMTAPE_SNAPSHOT_NAME 99
uses 40
environment variables for dump
understanding 52
event logging
enabling or disabling 117
events during dump and restore operations
logging 111
events in takeover mode
log files 111
examples
event log
SMTape backup 115
SMTape restore 117
existing aliases of tape drives and medium changers
determining 12
F
files
excluding data from backup 72
excluding from dump command 72
files and data backup
using dump engine for 44
format of dump and restore event log messages
about 111
format of SMTape event log messages
about 115
I
ignore inode limitations
during restore operation 90
image header of a tape
displaying 102
increment chains
understanding 45
incremental restores
performing 109
information about tape drives and medium changers
displaying 12
initiate a tape backup
how to 2
inode limitations
ignoring 90
L
latest NDMP version
displaying 35
levels of backups 66
levels of incremental backup
specifying 45
M
manage NDMP
how to 31
multipath tape access
about 14
148
multipath tape access (continued)
considerations for 14
understanding 14
N
NDMP
ndmpcopy command 38
about 27
advantages of 27
considerations 38
disabling preferred network interface 33
displaying file history performance 63
enabling or disabling service (ndmpd on|off) 31
firewall policy 38
killing sessions (ndmpd kill command) 35
options 36
range of ports for data connections, designating 32
session information
displaying detailed status (ndmpd probe) 33
displaying status (ndmpd status command) 33
setting preferred network interface 31
tape backup topologies
Storage system-to-data server-to-tape 37
Storage system-to-local-tape 37
Storage system-to-network attached tape library 37
Storage system-to-tape attached to another storage
system 37
tape devices used with 38
using with tape libraries 38
NDMP backup application management
preparing a storage system for 39
NDMP commands
ndmp on 31
ndmpd kill (terminates NDMP session) 35
ndmpd on|off (enabling or disabling service) 31
ndmpd probe (displays detailed status) 33
ndmpd status (displays status) 33
NDMP error messages
cannot generate NDMP password 124
could not obtain vol ref for Volume volume_name 124
error: Unable to retrieve session information 123
message from Read Socket: error_string 123
message from Write Dirnet: error_string 123
ndmpd invalid version number: version_number 123
ndmpd session session_ID not active. 123
network communication error 122
no such user user_name 124
read Socket received EOF 123
the specified operation could not be completed as the
volume is moving 124
NDMP sessions
scalability limits for 38
ndmpcopy
about 58
performing backup and restore operations using 58
syntax of 59
transferring data using 58, 59
understanding 58
use case for 61
using 61
ndmpcopy error messages
CONNECT: Connection refused 126
error getting local hostname 126
invalid name. Destination filer name does not resolve to
the specified address mode 127
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ndmpcopy error messages (continued)
invalid name. Source filer name does not resolve to the
specified address mode 126
ndmpcopy: Authentication failed for destination 125
ndmpcopy: Authentication failed for source 125
ndmpcopy: Client authentication request failed 125
ndmpcopy: Connection setup for transfer failed 126
ndmpcopy: Error in getting extension list 126
ndmpcopy: Error opening NDMP connection 125
ndmpcopy: Failed to start dump on source 125
ndmpcopy: Failed to start restore on destination 126
ndmpcopy: Socket connection to host_name failed 124
nonqualified tape drives
using 23
notices 145
Notices 145
O
online migration
tape backup during 3
options
backup.log.enable (turns event logging on or off) 117
ndmp.preferred_interface (sets preferred network) 31
ndmpd.data_port_range 32
vsm.smtape.concurrent.cascade.support 108
P
physical path names (PPNs)
about 10
Q
qtrees
excluding data from backup 72
omitting data from dump command 72
omitting information from tape restores 93
qualified tape drives
about 19
emulating 23
R
restartable backups
qualifications 49
restartable dump command backups
deleting 81
restore
incremental backups 84
restore command
disk space required for 51
information required for using 51
options 82
restoring individual files 84
specifying a full restore 85
specifying a resume restore 86
specifying a single tape file on a multifile tape
specifying a test restore 93
specifying automatic confirmations 91
specifying no qtree information 93
specifying table-of-contents restore 86
specifying tape devices 87
specifying the blocking factor 89
specifying to exclude ACLs 92
88
restore command (continued)
syntax 81
using with Remote Shell 83
restore command, executing 83
restore events
about 113
restore types
understanding 81
restores
performing baseline and incremental
rules
for restore command 81
for specifying a resume restore 86
109
S
serial numbers
about 11
simultaneous backup or restore sessions
supported number of 7
SMTape
aborting a backup or restore job 104
about 97
backing up data using 101
backing up files using 97
backup and restore using CLI commands 101
continuing a backup or restore 104
features not supported 99
features of 98
performing restores using 109
removing the snapmirror status entry
after a backup operation 106
after a restore operation 107
restoring data 103
SMTape backup
how it works 97
using Snapshot copies 101
SMTape backup and restore operations
displaying status of 105
SMTape backup and restore sessions
maximum number of 99
smtape commands
smtape abort 104
smtape backup 101
smtape continue 104
smtape restore 102, 103
smtape status 105
SMTape engine
See SMTape
SMTape error messages
aborting: Destination volume, volume_name, is a clone 135
aborting: Destination volume, volume_name, is too
small 135
already read volume_name tape_number 134
bad block in read stream. VBN = VBN_number, max_VBN
= max_VBN_number 138
block for VBN VBN_number failed checksum verification,
aborting the current transfer on volume
volume_name 139
cannot init input, aborting 136
chunk format not supported 141
chunks out of order 134
destination is not an aggregate. Aborting 137
duplicate VBN VBN_number received for volume
volume_name, aborting transfer 138
failed to access the named snapshot 133
failed to allocate memory 132
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SMTape error messages (continued)
failed to create job UUID 132
failed to create snapshot 133
failed to delete snapshot 134
failed to delete softlock 134
failed to find snapshot 133
failed to get data buffer 132
failed to get latest snapshot 140
failed to initialize restore stream 141
failed to initialize tape 140
failed to load new tape 140
failed to lock snapshot 133
failed to read backup image 141
failed to softlock qtree snapshots 133
image header missing or corrupted 134
incompatible SnapMirror or copy source Version.
Aborting 135
internal assertion 130
invalid backup image checksum 141
invalid backup image magic number 141
invalid checksum for the chunk descriptor 137
invalid checksum found for one of the data block, where
VBN number is VBN_number 139
invalid contents in destination volume geometry string
volume_geometry_string, aborting 136
invalid input tape 132
invalid source path: /vol/newvol/ 142
invalid volume path 131
job aborted due to shutdown 130
job aborted due to Snapshot autodelete 131
job not found 131
language setting for the Snapshot is not found 139
mismatch in backup level number 142
mismatch in backup set ID 135
mismatch in backup time stamp 142
received VBN header with invalid checksum error_string,
aborting transfer on volume volume_name 138
remote tape not supported 140
source is not a hybrid aggregate. Aborting 137
source is not an aggregate. Aborting 137
source volume is a flexible volume. Aborting 137
source volume is not a flexible volume. Aborting 136
source volume size is greater than maximum supported SIS
volume size on this platform. Aborting 135
tape is currently in use by other operations 132
tapes out of order 134
too many active jobs 132
too many active transfers at once, aborting 136
transfers from volume volume_name are temporarily
disabled 136
UNIX style RMT tape drive is not supported 131
volume is currently in use by other operations 131
volume is currently under migration 140
volume not restricted 132
volume offline 131
volume read-only 142
SMTape events
backup events 115
CLI backup and restore 115
restore events 117
SnapMirror status entries
removing 106
removing entries
after a backup 106
after a restore 107
storage systems
adding Fiber Channel-attached drives dynamically to 14
150
storage systems (continued)
displaying information about tape drive connections to
dynamically adding tape drives and libraries to 14
subtrees, defined 70
supported NDMP extensions
about 37
sysconfig -m command (shows information about tape
medium changers) 15
sysconfig -v command (shows tape drive connections to
storage system) 16
16
T
table-of-contents for tape restores
about 85
table-of-contents restore display
using remote shell connection for 85
tape aliases
assigning 13
definition 9
removing 13
using serial numbers for 11
tape backup
using NDMP 27
tape backup and recovery
using NDMP 27
using the dump engine 43
using the SMTape engine 97
tape backup and restore error messages
already at the end of tape 122
could not initialize media 120
duplicated tape drive (tape_drive) specified in the tape
argument list 119
invalid tape drive tape_drive in tape argument list 119
media error on tape read 121
media error on tape write 120
resource limitation: no available thread 119
tape read error 121
tape record size is too small 122
tape record size must be in the range between 4KB and
256KB 122
tape record size should be block_size1 and not
block_size2 122
tape reservation preempted 119
tape write error 121
tape write failed 120
tape write failed - new tape encountered media error 121
tape write failed - new tape is already at the end of
media 121
tape write failed - new tape is broken or write
protected 121
too many active dumps/restores currently in progress 120
tape backup and restore event log files
accessing 111
tape backup and restore operations
accessing the event log files for 111
tape configuration files
accessing 19
format of 20
tape device name
format 5
tape devices
about 5
types of 5
tape drive connections
supported number of 7
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tape drive information
displaying 15
tape drives
controlling 16
managing 5
nonqualified
using 23
rewinding tape (mt -rewind) 18
showing status (mt -status) 19
tape medium changers, displaying information about
unloading tape after rewind (mt -offline) 18
tape drives and libraries to storage systems
dynamically adding 14
tape drives dynamically
qualifying 22
tape drives to storage systems
dynamically adding 14
tape libraries
showing names assigned to 39
tape libraries to storage systems
dynamically adding 14
tape reservations
what are 24
tape restores
displaying a table of contents for 85
displaying detailed status output 90
running a test restore 93
specifying a restore destination 89
specifying automatic confirmations 91
specifying tape devices 87
tape seeding 98
tapes
displaying the image header of 102
trademark information 144
traditional volumes
displaying the volume geometry of 102
types of tape backup 1
15
V
volume access type change
performing baseline tape backup and restore operations
during 96
volume move operations
performing tape operations during 3
Index
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