Ethernet in Substation Automation Applications – Issues and

Ethernet in Substation Automation Applications – Issues and
Requirements
Marzio P. Pozzuoli
RuggedCom Inc. – Industrial Strength Networks
Woodbridge, Ontario, Canada
Introduction
Trends in electric utility automation, specifically substation automation, have
converged upon a common communications architecture with the goal of having
interoperability between a variety of Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs) found
in the substation. This initiative was begun back in the late 1980s driven by the
major North American utilities under the technical auspices of EPRI (Electric
Power Research Institute). The resulting standard that emerged is known as the
Utility Communications Architecture 2.0 (UCA2.0) and is now becoming an
international standard as IEC 61850. This architecture, which is now being
adopted worldwide by utilities and IED vendors alike, has as its underlying
network technology - Ethernet.
This paper looks at the key issues and requirements for Ethernet in the substation
environment and for substation automation applications requiring real-time
performance. Specific topics addressed are: EMI phenomena and atmospheric
conditions in substations which can affect network performance, new standards
introduced by the IEC and IEEE that establish new EMI and environmental
requirements specifically for communications networks (i.e. Ethernet) in
substations, critical Layer-2 features of modern Ethernet switching hubs (i.e.
switches) which enhance real-time deterministic performance as well as fault
tolerant loop architectures and network redundancy.
EMI Immunity Requirements
The proliferation of Ethernet capable IEDs used for substation automation has
increased markedly in the past several years. There are currently nine vendors of
protective relaying devices alone offering Ethernet communications with their
IEDs. Vendors of meters, RTUs and PLCs used for substation automation, also
mirror this trend. A key requirement of most substations IEDs such as protection
relays is that they must operate properly (i.e. not ‘misoperate’) under the influence
of a variety of EMI phenomena commonly found in the substation. Standards
such as IEEE C37.90.x and IEC 60255 define a variety of type withstands tests
designed to simulate EMI phenomena such as inductive load switching, lightening
strikes, electrostatic discharges from human contact, radio frequency interference
due to personnel using portable radio handsets, ground potential rise resulting
from high current fault conditions within the substation and a variety of other
EMI phenomena commonly encountered in the substation. This will also be true
of the substation LAN equipment (i.e. the Ethernet switches). Often the Ethernet
switches will be installed in the same compartment or even on the same rack as
protective relaying IEDs. Therefore, it has become necessary that the Ethernet
1
equipment become “substation hardened”, from an EMI immunity perspective, to
the same level as protective relaying IEDs.
IEC 61850-3 Communications Networks and Systems in Substations
In recognition of the above requirements the IEC (International Electrotechnical
Commission) issued a new standard in January 2002 entitled: IEC 61850-3
Communications Networks and Systems in Substations – Part 3: General
Requirements. Section 5.7 of the standard outlines the EMI immunity
requirements for communications equipment installed in substations. In general, it
sets a higher standard than the immunity requirements for equipment in industrial
environments stating that: “The general immunity requirements for the industrial
environment are considered not sufficient for substations.
requirements are defined in IEC 61000-6-5…” [1]
Therefore, dedicated
The IEC 61000-6-5: “Generic Standards – Immunity for power station and
substation environments” outlines the EMI immunity requirements. The details
of these requirements and type test procedures are given in the parts of the IEC
61000-4-x series. Figure 1 shows the relationship between IEC 61850-3, IEC
IEC 61850-3 (2002-01)
(2002-01)
Communications
Communications Networks
Networks and
and Systems
Systems in
in Substations
Substations –– Part
Part 3:
3:
General
General Requirements
Requirements
IEC TS 61000-6-5
61000-6-5 (2001-07)
(2001-07)
IEC
IEC 870-2-2
870-2-2 (1996-08)
(1996-08)
Electromagnetic
Electromagnetic Compatibility
Compatibility (EMC)
(EMC) ––
Part
Part 6-5:
6-5: Generic
Generic Standards
Standards –– Immunity
Immunity for
for Power
Power Station
Station and
and
Substation
Substation Environments
Environments
Telecontrol
Telecontrol Equipment
Equipment and
and Systems
Systems ––
Part
Part 2:
2: Operating
Operating Conditions
Conditions –– Section
Section 2:
2: Environmental
Environmental
Conditions
Conditions (Climatic,
(Climatic, Mechanical
Mechanical and
and Other
Other Non-Electrical
Non-Electrical
Influences)
Influences)
IEC 61000-4-x Series
Basic
Basic Immunity
Immunity Standards
Standards
•• 61000-4-2
61000-4-2 (ESD)
(ESD)
•• 61000-4-3
61000-4-3 (Radiated
(Radiated RFI)
RFI)
•• 61000-4-4
61000-4-4 (Electrical
(Electrical Burst
Burst Fast
Fast Transients)
Transients)
•• 61000-4-5
61000-4-5 (Surge)
(Surge)
•• 61000-4-6
61000-4-6 (Conducted
(Conducted RFI)
RFI)
•• 61000-4-8
61000-4-8 (Power
(Power Frequency
Frequency Magnetic
Magnetic Field)
Field)
•• 61000-4-11
61000-4-11 (Voltage
(Voltage Dips
Dips –– a.c.
a.c. Power
Power Supplies)
Supplies)
•• 61000-4-12
61000-4-12 (Damped
(Damped Oscillatory
Oscillatory Transients)
Transients)
•• 61000-4-16
61000-4-16 (Mains
(Mains Frequency
Frequency Voltage)
Voltage)
•• 61000-4-17
61000-4-17 (Ripple
(Ripple on
on d.c.
d.c. Power
Power Supplies)
Supplies)
•• 61000-4-29
61000-4-29 (Voltage
(Voltage Dips
Dips –– d.c.
d.c. Power
Power Supplies)
Supplies)
Figure 1: IEC 61850-3 Referenced
Standards
61000-6-5, the IEC 61000-4-x series and other referenced standards.
IEC 61000-6-5 defines port categories.
A ‘port’ is defined as a “particular
interface of the specified equipment with the external electromagnetic environment”[2].
There are five port categories defined:
1. Enclosure Port (typically the device enclosure)
2. Signal Port (a connection to local, field, high voltage, or telecom equipment)
3. Low Voltage a.c. Input Power and Output Power Ports
2
4. Low Voltage d.c. Input Power and Output Power Ports
5. Functional Earth Port
In addition to ‘port’ definitions IEC 61000-6-5 also defines categories of
locations:
G = power stations and MV substations
H = HV substations
P = “protected” areas if any
Also defined are Signal Port connections:
L = local connections
f = field connections
h = connections to HV equipment
t = telecom
p = connections within a protected area if any
Figure 2 shows a typical substation defined in terms of Locations and Signal Port
G = power station and MV substations
CONTROL BUILDING
(Switch Yard)
High Voltage
Equipment
SHIELDED AREA
(if any)
TELECOM
ROOM
Power
Line
Carrier
(t)
Remote Earth
(l)
PROTECTION
IED KIOSK
(l)
(p)
(f)
(h)
(f)
(f)
Earth Network
Signal Port Connection
Types
• Local (l)
• Field (f)
• HV Equipment (h)
• Telecom – Power Line Carrier (t)
• Protected (p)
Ethernet Sw itch
Ethernet Sw itch
Typical Locations of
Substation Ethernet Equipment
Figure 2: MV Substation Location and Signal
Port Connection Types
connections. Specific IEC 61000-4-x Tests and corresponding test levels are
assigned to each port type (e.g. enclosure, power, signal) based on device location
(e.g. H = HV Substations, G = Power Stations or MV substations) and signal port
connection types (e.g. local, field, HV, telecom, protection) in the case of signal
port types. Table 1 lists the resultant type test profile and corresponding test levels
for network equipment located in the Protection Kiosk in MV substation shown
in Figure 2.
3
UTILITY IEC 61850-3 (61000-6-5) Communications Networks and Systems In Substations (Jan 2002)
Description
TEST
IEC 61000-4-2
ESD
IEC 61000-4-3
Radiated RFI
IEC 61000-4-4
Burst (Fast Transient)
IEC 61000-4-5
Surge
IEC 61000-4-6
Induced (Conducted) RFI
IEC 61000-4-8
IEC 61000-4-29
Magnetic Field
Voltage Dips & Interrupts
IEC 61000-4-11
IEC 61000-4-12
Damped Oscillatory
IEC 61000-4-16
Mains Frequency Voltage
IEC 61000-4-17
Ripple on D.C. Power Supply
Enclosure Contact
Enclosure Air
Enclosure ports
Signal ports
D.C. Power ports
A.C. Power ports
3
Earth ground ports
Signal ports
D.C. Power ports
A.C. Power ports
Signal ports
D.C Power ports
A.C. Power ports
3
Earth ground ports
Enclosure ports
D.C. Power ports
A.C. Power ports
Signal ports
D.C. Power ports
A.C. Power ports
Signal ports
D.C. Power ports
D.C. Power ports
Test Levels
Severity Levels
+/- 6kV
3
+/- 8kV
3
10 V/m
3
+/- 4kV @ 2.5kHz
x
+/- 4kV
4
+/- 4kV
4
+/- 4kV
4
+/- 4kV line-to-earth, +/- 2kV line-to-line
4
+/- 2kV line-to-earth, +/- 1kV line-to-line
3
+/- 4kV line-to-earth, +/- 2kV line-to-line
4
10V
3
10V
3
10V
3
10V
3
40 A/m continuous, 1000 A/m for 1 s
N/A
30% for 0.1s, 60% for 0.1s, 100% for 0.05s
N/A
30% for 1 period, 60% for 50 periods
N/A
2
100% for 5 periods, 100% for 50 periods
N/A
3
2.5kV common, 1kV differential mode @ 1MHz
3
2.5kV common, 1kV differential mode @ 1MHz
3
2.5kV common, 1kV differential mode @ 1MHz
30V Continous, 300V for 1s
4
30V Continous, 300V for 1s
4
10%
3
Table 1: Typical EMI Immunity Type Test Profile for Network Equipment Located in the Protection
IED Kiosk of Figure 2
IEEE P1613 - Draft Standard Environmental and Testing Requirements for
Communications Networking Devices in Electric Power Substations
Expected to be released later this year (2003) is the IEEE P1613 standard for
networking devices in substations. P1613 specifically adopts and adapts the EMI
immunity type tests applied to protective relaying IEDs as defined by the familiar
IEEE C37.90.x standards. Table 2 below summarizes the tests and test levels
required in accordance with IEEE P1613.
IEEE P1613 – Draft Standard Environmental Requirements for Communications Devices Installed in Electric
Power Substations
TEST
Description
IEEE C37.90.3
ESD
IEEE C37.90.2
Radiated RFI
IEEE C37.90.1
Fast Transient
IEEE C37.90.1
Oscillatory
IEEE C37.90
Dielectric Strength
Enclosure Contact
Enclosure Air
Enclosure ports
Signal ports
D.C. Power ports
A.C. Power ports
3
Earth ground ports
Signal ports
D.C. Power ports
A.C. Power ports
Signal ports
D.C. Power ports
A.C. Power ports
Test Levels
+/- 8kV
+/- 15kV
35 V/m
+/- 4kV @ 2.5kHz
+/- 4kV
+/- 4kV
+/- 4kV
2.5kV common mode @ 1MHz
2.5kV common & differential mode @ 1MHz
2.5kV common & differential mode @ 1MHz
2kVac
2kVac
2kVac
Severity Levels
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Table 2: P1613 EMI Immunity Requirements based on IEEE C37.90.x Type Tests
P1613 also defines two different classes of communications devices: Class 1
devices must withstand the type tests defined in Table 2 without sustaining
damage or resetting but may incur communications errors during the applications
of the type tests, Class 2 devices however must meet the same requirements as
Class 1 devices with the exception that no communications errors, delays or
4
interruptions occur during the application of the type tests defined in Table 2.
Class 2 network equipment is intended to provide the same level of performance
as protective relaying devices during periods of high EMI stress as would be
occur during a power system fault.
Environmental Requirements
Both the IEC 61850-3 standard and the IEEE P1613 standard define atmospheric
environmental requirements for network communications devices such as
Ethernet switches in substations.
IEC 61850-3 Environmental Requirements
IEC 61850-3 refers to IEC 870-2-2 “Telecontrol equipment and systems – Part 2:
Operating conditions – Section 2: Environmental conditions (climatic,
mechanical and other non-electrical influences)”. IEC 870-2-2 addresses the
atmospheric environment which defines four classes of locations:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Class A: air-conditioned locations (indoor)
Class B: heated and/or cooled enclosed conditions
Class C: sheltered locations
Class D: outdoor locations
The majority of IEDs in substations will be in “Class C” locations. Class C
locations are further sub-divided into four classes: C1, C2, C3 and Cx. Operating
temperature ranges for each of the classes are as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Class C1: -5 to 45°C
Class C2: -25 to 55°C
Class C3: -40 to 70°C
Class Cx: Special
For IEDs in substations classes C2, C3 or Cx (-40 to 85°C) will be required.
IEEE P1613 Environmental Requirements
IEEE P1613 defines four temperature ranges: [3]
a)
-40 ˚C to +70 ˚C.
b)
–30 ˚C to +65 ˚C.
c)
–20 ˚C to +55 ˚C (the default range if no other range is specified).
d)
Range defined by the manufacturer
Furthermore clause 4 of the standard requires that not fans be used for cooling in
the communications networking equipment.
Real-time Control Requirements
Modern managed Ethernet switches offer advanced Layer 2 and Layer 3 features
that are critical for real-time control and substation automation. These include: [4]
5
‰
IEEE 802.3x Full-Duplex operation on all ports ensures that no collisions
occur and thereby makes Ethernet much more deterministic. There are
absolutely zero collisions in connections that both support IEEE 802.3x FullDuplex operation. This eliminates one the biggest “bugaboos” about Ethernet
and deterministic operation.
‰
IEEE 802.1p Priority Queuing which allows frames to be tagged with
different priority levels in order to ensure that real-time critical traffic always
makes it through the network even during high periods of congestion.
‰
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN which allows for the segregation and grouping of IED’s
into virtual LAN’s in order to isolate real-time IED’s from data collection or
less critical IED’s.
‰
IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol which allows for the creation
of fault tolerant ring network architectures that will reconfigure in
milliseconds as opposed to tens of seconds as was the case for the original
Spanning Tree Protocol 802.1D.
‰
IGMP Snooping / Multicast Filtering that allows for multicast data frames,
such as GOOSE frames, to be filtered and assigned only to those IED’s which
request to listen to them.
It is important to note that the above features are based on standards thereby
ensuring interoperability amongst different vendors.
Network Architecture Requirements
There are three basic network architectures (i.e. Cascading, Ring, and Star) that
are commonly implemented with Ethernet Switches in substations with numerous
variations and hybrids of the three. Each of the three basic architectures offers
various performance vs. cost tradeoffs.
6
Cascading (or Bus) Architecture
A typical cascading architecture is illustrated in Figure 3. Each switch is connected to
CASCADING ARCHITECTURE
1
2
SWITCH
SWITCH
IED IED
IED
IED IED
IED
IED
3
SWITCH
IED IED
IED
IED
4
N
SWITCH
SWITCH
IED IED
IED
IED
IED IED
IED
IED
IED
Figure 3: Cascading Network Architecture
the previous switch or next switch in the cascade via one of its ports. These ports are
sometimes referred to as uplink ports and are often operating at a higher speed than
the ports connected to the IED’s. The maximum number of switches, N, which can be
cascaded depends on the worst case delay (latency) which can be tolerated by the
system. For example, consider the case where an IED connected to Switch 1 sends a
frame to an IED on Switch 4. The frame must endure the retransmission delays of
Switch 1, Switch 2, and Switch 3 of the cascade or three ‘hops’. Furthermore it will
also be delayed by the internal processing time of each switch; a parameter
commonly specified as the Switch Latency. Let’s workout this example for a 64 Byte
message frame assuming the following:
‰ Message Frame size = 64 Bytes
‰ Speed of Uplink ports (i.e. the ports forming the cascade) = 100Mbps
‰ Internal Switch Latency = 5us (typical for 100Mbps ports)
Therefore:
‰ The frame transmission time = 64 Bytes * 8Bits/Byte * 1/100Mbps = 5.12 us.
‰ The total delay from Switch 1 to Switch 4 = (Frame Transmission Time +
Internal Switch Latency) * (# of ‘Hops’) = (5.12us + 5us) * 3 = 30.36us
‰ The total delay from Switch 1 to Switch N = (5.12us + 5us) * N = N*10.12us
7
Advantages:
‰ Cost effective - allows for shorter wiring runs vs. bringing all connections to
a central point.
Disadvantages:
‰ No Redundancy – if one of the cascade connections is lost every IED
downstream of that connection is also lost.
‰ Latency – worst case delays across the cascading backbone have to be
considered if the application is very time sensitive
Ring Architecture
A typical ring architecture is shown in Figure 4. It is very similar to the Cascading
RING ARCHITECTURE
N
Path 1
IED IED
1
2
SWITCH
SWITCH
IED IED
IED
IED IED
IED
Path 2
SWITCH
IED
IED
3
4
SWITCH
IED IED
IED
IED
IED
N-1
SWITCH
IED IED
IED
IED
SWITCH
IED IED
IED
IED
IED
Figure 4: Ring Network Architecture
architecture except that the loop is closed from Switch N back to Switch 1. This
provides some level of redundancy if any of the ring connections should fail.
Normally, Ethernet Switches don’t like “loops” since messages would circulated
indefinitely in a loop and eventually eat up all of the available bandwidth.
However, ‘managed’ switches (i.e. those with a management processor inside)
take into consideration the potential for loops and implement an algorithm called
the Spanning Tree Protocol which is defined in the IEEE 802.1D standard.
Spanning Tree allows switches to detect loops and internally block messages from
circulating in the loop. As a result managed switches with Spanning Tree actually
logically break the ring by blocking internally. This results in the equivalent of a
cascading architecture with the advantage that if one the links should break the
8
managed switches in the network will reconfigure themselves to span out via two
paths.
Consider the following example:
‰ Switches 1 to N are physically connected in a ring as shown in Figure 4 and
all are managed switches supporting the IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree
protocol.
‰ Typically, network traffic will flow in accordance with Path 1 as shown in
Figure 4. Switch N will block message frames as they come full circle thereby
logically preventing a message loop.
‰ Now, assume a physical break in the Ring occurs, let’s say between Switch 3
and 4.
‰ The switches on the network will now reconfigure themselves via the
Spanning Tree Protocol to utilize two paths: Path 1 and Path 2 as shown in
Figure 4 thereby maintaining communications with all the switches. If the
network had been a simple cascading architecture the physical break between
switches 3 and 4 would have resulted in two isolated network segments.
While Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D) is useful and a must for Ring
architectures or in resolving inadvertent message loops it has one disadvantage when
it comes to real-time control. Time! It simply takes too long; anywhere from tens of
seconds to minutes depending on the size of the network. In order to address this
shortcoming the IEEE developed Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w) that
allows for sub-second reconfiguration of the network.
Advantages:
‰ Rings offer redundancy in the form of immunity to physical breaks in the
network.
‰ IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol allows sub-second network
reconfiguration.
‰ Cost effective cabling/wiring allowed. Similar to Cascaded architecture.
Disadvantages:
‰ Latency – worst case delays across the cascading backbone have to be
considered if the application is very time sensitive (similar to Cascading)
‰ All switches should be Managed Switches. This is not necessarily a
disadvantage per se but simply an added complexity. Although, the
advantages of Managed Switches often far outweigh the added complexity.
9
Star Architecture
A typical Star architecture is shown in Figure 4. Switch N is referred to as the
STAR ARCHITECTURE
N
SWITCH
1
2
SWITCH
SWITCH
IED IED
IED
IED IED
IED
3
IED
4
SWITCH
IED IED
IED
IED
N-1
SWITCH
IED IED
IED
IED
SWITCH
IED IED
IED
IED
IED
Figure 4: Star Network Architecture
‘backbone’ switch since all of the other switches uplink to it in order to form a star
configuration. This type of configuration offers the least amount of latency (i.e.
delay) since it can be seen that communication between IED’s connected to any two
switches, say Switch 1 and N-1, only requires the message frames to make two
‘hops’ (i.e. from Switch 1 to Switch N and then from Switch N to Switch N-1.
Advantages:
‰ Lowest Latency - allows for lowest number of ‘hops’ between any two
switches connected to the backbone switch N.
Disadvantages:
‰ No Redundancy – if the backbone switch fails all switches are isolated or if
one of the uplink connections fails then all IED’s connected to that switch are
lost.
10
Fault Tolerant Hybrid Star-Ring Architecture
A hybrid fault tolerant architecture, combining star and ring architectures is
Fault Tolerant Hybrid (Star/Ring) ARCHITECTURE
N
N-1
SWITCH
1
2
SWITCH
SWITCH
IED IED
IED
IED IED
IED
SWITCH
3
IED
4
SWITCH
IED IED
IED
IED
N-2
SWITCH
IED IED
IED
IED
SWITCH
IED IED
IED
IED
IED
Figure 5: Fault Tolerant Hybrid Network
shown in Figure 5. This architecture can withstand anyone of the fault types
shown in Figure 6 and not lose communications between any of the IED’s on the
Fault Tolerant Hybrid (Star/Ring) ARCHITECTURE
Fault
Fault
Fault
Fault
N
N-1
SWITCH
SWITCH
Fault
Fault
1
2
SWITCH
SWITCH
IED IED
IED
IED IED
IED
IED
3
4
SWITCH
IED IED
IED
IED
N-2
SWITCH
IED IED
IED
IED
Figure 6: Fault Types Handled
network.
11
SWITCH
IED IED
IED
IED
IED
Fault Tolerant Architecture For IED’s With Dual Ethernet Ports
A fault tolerant architecture is shown in Figure 7 when IED’s with dual Ethernet
ports are used. This architecture provides a high level of availability (i.e. uptime)
High Redundancy Architecture via
IED’s with Dual Ethernet Ports
SWITCH
SWITCH
IED IED
IED IED
IED IED
IED
IED
Figure 7
SWITCH
SWITCH
IED
IED
SWITCH
SWITCH
IED
IED
SWITCH
SWITCH
IED
IED
SWITCH
IED IED
SWITCH
SWITCH
SWITCH
and is immune to numerous types of faults as shown in Figure 8.
High Redundancy Architecture via
IED’s with Dual Ethernet Ports
Fault
Fault
Fault
Fault
SWITCH
SWITCH
SWITCH
IED IED
IED
IED IED
IED
IED
SWITCH
SWITCH
IED
Fault
Fault
SWITCH
SWITCH
Fault
Fault
IED IED
IED
IED IED
IED
IED
SWITCH
Figure 8
SWITCH
IED
SWITCH
SWITCH
Fault
Fault
12
SWITCH
Conclusions
1. Ethernet switches used in substation automation applications should comply
with either
‰ IEC 61850-3 or
‰ IEEE P1613
standards for EMI immunity and environmental requirements to ensure
reliable operation of networking equipment in substation environments.
2. For applications where the Ethernet network will be involved in critical
protection functions the Ethernet switches should comply with the Class 2
device definition given in IEEE P1613 (i.e. error free communications during
the application EMI immunity type tests )
3. Managed Ethernet switches with advanced Layer 2 and Layer 3 features such
as:
‰ IEEE 802.3 Full-Duplex operation (no collisions)
‰ IEEE 802.1p Priority Queuing
‰ IEEE 802.1Q VLAN
‰ IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree
‰ IGMP Snooping / Multicast Filtering
should be used to ensure real-time deterministic performance.
4. A variety of flexible network architectures offering different levels of
performance, cost and redundancy are achievable using managed Ethernet
switches.
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About the author:
Marzio Pozzuoli is the founder and president of RuggedCom Inc., which designs and
manufactures industrially hardened networking and communications equipment for harsh
environments. Prior to founding RuggedCom Mr. Pozzuoli developed advanced
numerical protective relaying systems and substation automation technology. Mr.
Pozzuoli graduated from Ryerson Polytechnical Institute, Toronto, Ontario in 1986 with a
Bachelor of Electrical Engineering Technology. He holds multiple patents related to
advances in communications, protective relaying technology, and automation technology.
He is also an active member of the IEEE and is involved standards work as a member of
the IEEE Power Engineering Society Substations Committee task force C2TF1 working
on developing a standard for communications networking devices in substations.
References:
[1] IEC 61850-3: “Communications networks and systems in substations – Part 3:
General Requirements” (Section 5.7 EMI Immunity)
[2] IEC 61000-6-5 “Generic Standards – Immunity for power station and substation
environments”
[3] IEEE P1613 “Draft Standard Environmental and Testing Requirements for
Communications Networking Devices in Electric Power Substations”
[4] IEEE PSRC H6 PAPER - “Application Considerations of UCA 2 for Substation
Ethernet Local Area Network Communication for Protection and Control”
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