Static Routing
Routing Protocols and
Concepts – Chapter 2
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Objectives

Define the general role a router plays in networks.

Describe the directly connected networks, different
router interfaces

Examine directly connected networks in the routing
table and use the CDP protocol

Describe static routes with exit interfaces

Describe summary and default route

Examine how packets get forwarded when using
static routes

Identify how to manage and troubleshoot static routes
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General Role of the Router
 Functions of a Router
Best Path Selections
Forwarding packets to destination
 Introducing the Topology
3 1800 series routers connected via WAN links
Each router connected to a LAN represented by a switch and a PC
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General Role of the Router
 Connections of a Router for WAN
-A router has a DB-60 port that can support 5 different cabling
standards
 Connections of a Router for Ethernet
-2 types of connectors can be used: Straight through and Cross-
over
Straight through used to connect:
-Switch-to-Router, Switch-to-PC, Router-to-Server, Hub-toPC, Hub-to-Server
Cross-over used to connect:
-Switch-to-Switch, PC-to-PC, Switch-to-Hub, Hub-to-Hub,
Router-to-Router
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Interfaces
 Examining Router Interfaces
-Show IP router command – used to view routing table
-Show Interfaces command – used to show status of an
interface
-Show IP Interface brief command – used to show a portion of
the interface information
-Show running-config command – used to show configuration
file in RAM
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Interfaces
 Configuring an Ethernet interface
-By default all serial and Ethernet interfaces are down
-To enable an interface use the No Shutdown command
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Interfaces
 Verifying Ethernet interface
-Show interfaces for fastEthernet 0/0 – command used to show
status of fast Ethernet
port
-Show ip interface brief
-Show running-config
 Ethernet interfaces participate in ARP
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Interfaces
 Configuring a Serial interface
-Enter interface configuration mode
-Enter in the ip address and subnet mask
-Enter in the no shutdown command
 Example:
-R1(config)#interface serial 0/0
-R1(config-if)#ip address 172.16.2.1 255.255.255.0
-R1(config-if)#no shutdown
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Interfaces
 Examining Router Interfaces
-Physically connecting a WAN Interface.
-A WAN Physical Layer connection has sides:
Data Circuit-terminating Equipment (DCE) – This is the
service provider. CSU/DSU is a DCE device.
Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) – Typically the router is the
DTE device.
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Interfaces
 Configuring serial links in a lab environment
One side of a serial connection must be considered a DCE
This requires placing a clocking signal – use the clock rate
command.
Example:
-R1(config)#interface serial 0/0
-R1(config-if)#clockrate 64000
Serial Interfaces require a clock signal to control the timing of
the communcations.
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Routing Table and CDP Protocol
 Purpose of the debug ip routing command
Allows you to view changes that the router performs when
adding or removing routes
Example:
-R2#debug ip routing
-IP routing debugging is on
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Routing Table and CDP Protocol
 To configure an Ethernet interface
Example:
-R2(config)#interface fastethernet 0/0
-R2(config-if)#ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0
-R2(config-if)#no shutdown
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Routing Table and CDP Protocol
 When a router only has its interfaces configured & no
other routing protocols are configured then:
-The routing table contains only the directly connected networks
-Only devices on the directly connected networks are reachable
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Routing Table and CDP Protocol
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Routing Table and CDP Protocol
 Checking each
route in turn
The ping
command is
used to check
end to end
connectivity
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Routing Table and CDP Protocol
 Purpose of CDP
A layer 2 cisco proprietary tool used to gather information about
other directly connected Cisco devices.
 Concept of neighbors
-2 types of neighbors
Layer 3 neighbors
Layer 2 neighbors
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Routing Table and CDP Protocol
 CDP show commands
Show cdp neighbors command
-Displays the following information:
Neighbor device ID
Local interface
Holdtime value, in seconds
Neighbor device capability code
Neighbor hardware platform
Neighbor remote port ID
Show cdp neighbors detail command
-Useful in determining if an IP address configuration error
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Routing Table and CDP Protocol
 Disabling CDP
To disable CDP globally use the following command
Router(config)#no cdp run
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Static Routes with Exit Interfaces
 Purpose of a static route
A manually configured route used when routing from a network
to a stub network
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Static Routes with Exit Interfaces
 IP route command
To configure a static route use the following command: ip route
Example:
-Router(config)# ip route network-address subnet-mask {ipaddress | exit-interface }
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Static Routes with Exit Interfaces
 Dissecting static route syntax
ip route - Static route command
172.16.1.0 – Destination network address
255.255.255.0 - Subnet mask of destination network
172.16.2.2 - Serial 0/0/0 interface IP address on R2, which is
the "next-hop" to this network
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Static Routes with Exit Interfaces
 Configuring routes to 2 or more remote networks
Use the following commands for R1
-R1(config)#ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.2.2
-R1(config)#ip route 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.2.2
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Static Routes with Exit Interfaces
 Zinin’s 3 routing principles
Principle 1: "Every router makes its decision alone, based on
the information it has in its own routing table.“
Principle 2: "The fact that one router has certain information in
its routing table does not mean that other routers have the same
information.“
Principle 3: "Routing information about a path from one
network to another does not provide routing information about
the reverse, or return path."
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Static Routes with Exit Interfaces

Using Zinin’s 3 routing principles, how would you
answer the following?
-Would packets from PC1 reach their destination?
Yes, packets destined for 172.16.1.0/24 and 192.168.1.0/24
networks would reach their destination.
-Does this mean that any packets from these networks destined
for 172.16.3.0/24 network will reach their destination?
No, because neither R2 nor R3 router has a route to the
172.16.3.0/24 network.
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Static Routes with Exit Interfaces
 Resolving to an Exit Interface
-Recursive route lookup - Occurs when the router has to perform
multiple lookups in the routing table before forwarding a packet. A
static route that forwards all packets to the next-hop IP address
goes through the following process (reclusive route lookup)
The router first must match static route’s destination IP
address with the Next hop address
The next hop address is then matched to an exit interface
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Static Routes with Exit Interfaces
 Configuring a Static route with an Exit Interface
-Static routes configured with an exit interface are more efficient
because the routing
–The routing table can resolve the exit interface in a single
search instead of 2 searches
-Example of syntax require to configure a static route with an
exit interface
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Static Routes with Exit Interfaces
 Modifying Static routes
Existing static routes cannot be modified. The old static route
must be deleted by placing no in front of the ip route
Example:
-no ip route 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.2.2
A new static route must be rewritten in the configuration
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Static Routes with Exit Interfaces
 Verifying the Static Route Configuration
-Use the following commands
Step 1 show running-config
Step 2 verify static route has been entered correctly
Step 3 show ip route
Step 4 verify route was configured in routing table
Step 5 issue ping command to verify packets can reach
destination and that Return path is working
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Static Routes with Exit Interfaces
 Ethernet interfaces and ARP.
– If
a static route is configured on an Ethernet link
-If the packet is sent to the next-hop router then…
the destination MAC address will be the
address of the next hop’s Ethernet interface
This is found by the router consulting the
ARP table.
If an entry isn’t found then an ARP
request will be sent out
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Summary and Default Route
 Summarizing routes reduces the size of the routing
table.
 Route summarization is the process of combining a
number of static routes into a single static route.
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Summary and Default Route
 Configuring a summary route
Step 1: Delete the current static route
Step 2: Configure the summary static route
Step 3: Verify the new static route
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Summary and Default Route
 Default Static Route
This is a route that will match all packets. Stub routers that
have a number of static routes all exiting the same interface are
good candidates for a default route.
-Like route summarization this will help reduce the size of the
routing table
 Configuring a default static route
Similar to configuring a static route. Except that destination IP
address and subnet mask are all zeros
Example:
-Router(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 [exit-interface | ipaddress ]
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Summary and Default Route
 Static routes and subnet masks
The routing table lookup process will use the most specific
match when comparing destination IP address and subnet
mask
 Default static routes and subnet masks
Since the subnet mask used on a default static route is 0.0.0.0
all packets will match.
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Static Routes and Packet Forwarding
 Packet forwarding
with static routes.
(recall Zinin’s 3
routing principles)
 Router 1
Packet arrives on R1’s
Fastethernet 0/0
interface
R1 does not have a
route to the
destination
network,
192.168.2.0/24
R1 uses the default
static route.
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Static Routes and Packet Forwarding
 Packet forwarding with static routes. (recall Zinin’s 3
routing principles)
 Router 2
The packet arrives on the Serial 0/0/0 interface on R2.
R2 has a static route to 192.168.2.0/24 out Serial0/0/1.
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Static Routes and Packet Forwarding
 Packet forwarding with static routes. (recall Zinin’s 3
routing principles)
 Router 3
The packet arrives on the Serial0/0/1 interface on R3.
R3 has a connected route to 192.168.2.0/24 out Fastethernet
0/1.
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Static Routes and Packet Forwarding
 Troubleshooting a Missing Route
 Tools that can be used to isolate routing problems
include:
-Ping– tests end to end connectivity
-Traceroute– used to discover all of the hops (routers) along the
path between 2 points
-Show IP route– used to display routing table & ascertain
forwarding process
-Show ip interface brief- used to show status of router interfaces
-Show cdp neighbors detail– used to gather configuration
information about directly connected neighbors
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Static Routes and Packet Forwarding
 Solving a Missing Route
 Finding a missing or mis-configured route requires
methodically using the correct tools
-Start with PING. If ping fails then use traceroute to determine
where packets are failing to arrive
 Issue: show ip route to examine routing table.
-If there is a problem with a mis-configured static route remove
the static route then reconfigure the new static route
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Static Routes and Packet Forwarding
 Solving a Missing Route
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Static Routes and Packet Forwarding
 Solving a Missing Route
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Summary
 Routers
-Operate at layer 3
-Functions include best path selection & forwarding packets
 Connecting Networks
WANs
Serial cables are connected to router serial ports.
In the lab environment clock rates must be configured for DCE
LANs
Straight through cables or cross over cables are used to
connect to fastethernet port. (The type of cable used depends
on what devices are being connected)
 Cisco Discovery Protocol
A layer 2 proprietary protocol
Used to discover information about directly connected Cisco
devices
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Summary
 Static Routes
-This is a manually configured path that specifies how the router
will get to a certain point using a certain path.
 Summary static routes
-This is several static routes that have been condensed into a
single static route.
 Default route
-It is the route packets use if there is no other possible match for
their destination in the routing table.
 Forwarding of packets when static route is used
-Zinin’s 3 routing principles describe how packets are forwarded
 Troubleshooting static routes may require some of the following
commands:
-Ping
-Traceroute
-Show IP route
-Show ip interface brief
-Show cdp neighbors detail
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