EVALUATION KIT AVAILABLE
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
General Description
The MAX16927 is a highly integrated power
supply for automotive TFT-LCD applications. The device
integrates one buck converter, one boost converter, one Cuk
converter, two gate-voltage controllers, and two VCOM
buffers, one of which supports negative output voltages.
The device is designed to operate from a supply voltage
between 4.5V and 16V, making it ideal for automotive TFTLCD applications. Alternatively, the device can operate
from an available 3V to 5.5V supply.
The device uses an integrated SPI interface for control
and diagnostics. The SPI interface adjusts the VCOM
buffer output through an internal 7-bit DAC up to +1V.
The startup and shutdown sequences can be controlled
through SPI or using one of the three preset stand-alone
modes.
The device is optimized for low EMI. Peak interference is
reduced by using the spread-spectrum feature. Spread
spectrum is always enabled for the buck converter, but
enabled through an external input (SSEN) for the boost
and Cuk converters. Additional EMI enhancement is
achieved by running the boost and Cuk converters 180°
out-of-phase.
The device includes a control output for an nMOS switch
to enable flexible sequencing of the negative VSL output.
A drive output is also included for a series pMOS switch
for the boost converter allowing True Shutdown™.
Benefits and Features
●● Operating Voltage Range of 4.5V to 16V (IN3) or 3V
to 5.5V (INA)
●● 16V Input, 2A Buck Converter Provides 3.3V Output
to TFT Bias-Supply Circuitry and/or Other External
Circuitry
●● Flexible Configuration Allows Single High-Power
Positive Output (18V/200mA) or Positive Output
(18V, 100mA) and Negative Output (-12V/100mA)
●● One Positive Gate-Voltage Regulator
●● One Negative Gate-Voltage Controller
●● DAC-Controlled VCOM Buffers with Offset of
0V to +1V
●● High-Frequency Operation
• 2.1MHz (Buck Converter)
• 1.2MHz (Boost and Cuk Converters)
●● Converters Run Out-of-Phase for Lower EMI
●● Externally Controlled Spread-Spectrum Switching for
Boost and Cuk
●● Very Flexible Sequencing in Both Stand-Alone and
SPI-Controlled Modes
●● True Shutdown Boost Converter
●● Low-Current Shutdown Mode (< 10μA)
●● SPI Control Interface
The device is available in a 48-lead TQFN package with
an exposed pad, and operates over the -40°C to +105°C
temperature range.
●● Internal Soft-Start
Applications
●● AEC-Q100 Qualified
●● Automotive Dashboards
●● Automotive Central Information Displays
●● Automotive Navigation Systems
●● Overtemperature Shutdown
●● -40°C to +105°C Operation
Ordering Information
PART
TEMP RANGE
PIN-PACKAGE
MAX16927GTM/V+
-40°C to +105°C
48 TQFN-EP*
+Denotes a lead(Pb)-free/RoHS-compliant package.
/V denotes an automotive qualified part.
*EP = Exposed pad.
True Shutdown is a trademark of Maxim Integrated Products,
Inc.
19-5571; Rev 4; 1/18
Block Diagram and Typical Operating Circuits appear at
end of data sheet..
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Absolute Maximum Ratings
IN3, LXN, LXP, LX3, VCOMP, EN3 to GND...........-0.3V to +20V
BST to GND............................................................-0.3V to +26V
BST to LX3................................................................-0.3V to +6V
VCP, VGH to GND..................................................-0.3V to +24V
DRVN to GND.........................................................-25V to +0.3V
FLT, INA to GND......................................................-0.3V to +6V
CS, CLK, DIN, EN1, EN2, ENP, REF, FBP,
FBGH, GATE to GND...........................-0.3V to (VINA + 0.3V)
FBGL, FBN, DOUT, SSEN, COMPP,
COMPN to GND…………….................-0.3V to (VINA + 0.3V)
FB3 to GND............................................................-0.3V to +12V
VCOMH, VCINH to GND........................................-0.3V to +20V
VCOML, VCINL to GND (Note 1)..........................-1.5V to +1.5V
VCOMN to GND....................................................-7.5V to +0.3V
VCOMP to GND......................................................-0.3V to +20V
VSLS to GND..........................................................-20V to +0.3V
PGOOD, SYNC, AVL to GND...................................-0.3V to +6V
GND to PGND3, PGNDP, PGNDN........................-0.3V to +0.3V
Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C)
TQFN (derate 38.5mW/°C above +70°C)...................3076mW
Operating Temperature Range...........................-40°C to +105°C
Junction Temperature Range............................ -40°C to +150°C
Storage Temperature Range..............................-65°C to +150°C
Lead Temperature (soldering, 10s)...................................+300°C
Soldering Temperature (reflow)........................................+260°C
Note 1: Pin protection is temperature dependent. Temperature behavior TJ = -40°C, ±1.8V; TJ = +150°C, ±0.9V.
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these
or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect
device reliability.
Package Thermal Characteristics (Note 2)
TQFN
Junction-to-Ambient Thermal Resistance (θJA)...........26°C/W
Junction-to-Case Thermal Resistance (θJC)..................1°C/W
Note 2: Package thermal resistances were obtained using the method described in JEDEC specification JESD51-7, using a four-layer
board. For detailed information on package thermal considerations, refer to www.maximintegrated.com/thermal-tutorial.
Electrical Characteristics
(VIN3 = 12V, VINA = 3.3V, TA = TJ = -40°C to +105°C, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = TJ = +25°C.) (Note 3)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
BUCK CONVERTER
Supply Voltage Range
Supply Current
VIN3
IIN3
Undervoltage Lockout (UVLO)
AVL Voltage
Output Voltage
High-Side DMOS On-Resistance
fSW
VOUT3
RDS_ON(3)
Guaranteed Output Current
Duty-Cycle Range
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tSS
IOUT3(MIN)
V
µA
VEN3 = VIN3, no load
5.3
mA
AVL rising
2.7
Hysteresis
0.1
Internally generated
4.75V ≤ VIN3 ≤ 16V,
ILOAD < 2A
V
5
V
V
6
1.925
%
2.1
2.275
MHz
2.6
MHz
Continuous mode
3.2%
3.3
3.36%
Skip mode (Note 4)
3.17%
3.3
3.43%
ILX = 1000mA, VIN3 = VAVL = 5V
4.75V ≤ VIN3 ≤ 16V
3
3.3
1.8
DMOS Current-Limit Threshold
Soft-Start Ramp Time
16
10
6V ≤ VIN3 ≤ 16V, VSYNC = 0V, ILOAD = 0A
Spread-Spectrum Range
SYNC Input Frequency Range
4.5
VEN3 = 0V
6V ≤ VIN3 ≤ 16V
AVL Voltage (Skip Mode)
Switching Frequency
VOUT = 3.3V
V
100
250
mΩ
2.72
3.4
4.08
A
0.25
0.419
0.65
ms
99
%
2
15
A
Maxim Integrated │ 2
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Electrical Characteristics (continued)
(VIN3 = 12V, VINA = 3.3V, TA = TJ = -40°C to +105°C, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = TJ = +25°C.) (Note 3)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
POWER GOOD (PGOOD)
Rising
PGOOD Threshold
Falling
92
88
PGOOD Debounce Time
90
92
10
PGOOD High-Leakage Current
TA = +25°C
PGOOD Low Level
Sinking 1mA
%
µs
0.2
µA
0.4
V
EN3/SYNC
EN3 Threshold High
2.4
V
EN3 Threshold Low
0.6
EN3 Internal Pulldown
Resistance Value
500
SYNC High-Switching Threshold
kΩ
1.4
V
SYNC Low-Switching Threshold
0.4
SYNC Internal Pulldown
Resistor Value
V
200
V
kΩ
INA POWER INPUT
INA Input-Supply Range
3
INA Undervoltage-Lockout
Threshold
5.5
V
2.7
2.9
V
VFBP = VFBGH = 1.3V, VFBN = VFBGL = 0V,
LXN and LXP not switching, VCOMH/L = OFF
0.6
3.0
mA
VENP = 0V
1.2
µA
VFBP, VFBN, VFBGH, or VFBGL below their
PGOOD thresholds
218
ms
VINA rising, hysteresis = 200mV
INA Supply Current
IINA
INA Supply Current,
Shutdown Mode
IINA_SHDN
Duration-to-Trigger Fault
Condition
2.5
REFERENCE
REF Output Voltage
REF Load Regulation
VREF
REF Undervoltage-Lockout
Threshold
No load
0 < ILOAD < 80µA (load sink)
1.238
1.25
-0.6
Rising edge, hysteresis = 200mV
1.262
V
+0.3
%
1.15
V
5280
kHz
OSCILLATOR
Frequency
Spread-Spectrum Modulation
Frequency
Spread-Spectrum Factor
fOSC
4320
fSS
SSR
As a percentage of fOSC
4800
1200
kHz
+8
%
fOSC/4
kHz
93
%
BOOST AND CUK CONVERTERS—COMMON PARAMETERS
Switching Frequency
Switching Frequency Maximum
Duty Cycle
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fSW
Maxim Integrated │ 3
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Electrical Characteristics (continued)
(VIN3 = 12V, VINA = 3.3V, TA = TJ = -40°C to +105°C, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = TJ = +25°C.) (Note 3)
PARAMETER
LXP, LXN Current Limit
SYMBOL
ILIM
CONDITIONS
VVSH = 16V, VVSL = -12V, VSHLIM[1:0]
= VSLLIM[1:0] = 00, default; see the
Applications Information section for SPI
programming of other values
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
1.3
1.56
1.87
A
LXP, LXN On-Resistance
RDS_ON
ILX_ = 100mA
340
500
mΩ
LXP, LXN Leakage Current
ILEAK_LX
VLX_ = 20V, TA = +25°C
10
20
µA
1.56
1.87
A
VVSH = 16V, VVSL = -12V, VSHLIM66 =
VSLLIM66 = 0, default; see the Applications
Information section for SPI programming of
other values
Soft-Start Current
1.3
Soft-Start Voltage Ramp Time
FBP/FBN to COMPP/COMPN
Transconductance
∆I = ±2.5µA at COMPP/COMPN
Internal Slope Compensation
13.5
ms
400
µS
1.5
A/µs
BOOST CONVERTER (VSH)
Output Voltage Range
VVSH
FBP Regulation Voltage
VFBP
VINA = 3V to 5.5V
PGTSH
Measured on FBP
PGOOD Threshold
FBP Load Regulation
VINA
0.98
VINA = 3V to 5.5V
FBP Input-Bias Current
VSL Output Voltage Range
VVSL
Using Cuk topology
-12
FBN Regulation Voltage
VFBN
Voltage that appears across feedback
resistors connected between REF and FBN,
VINA = 3V to 5.5V
0.98
PGOOD Threshold
PGTSL
1.02
V
mV
-1
%
0.1
%/V
VFBP = 1V, TA = +25°C
CUK CONVERTER (VSL)
V
850
0 < ILOAD < full load
FBP Line Regulation
1
18
1
1
µA
-4.5
V
1.02
V
Measured on FBN, value referred to GND
400
1
%
VINA = 3V to 5.5V
0.3
%/V
VFBN
LXN and LXP connected together for 2x
output current capability
2.5
VVGH
VVCP = 23V, ILOAD = 20mA
FBGH Regulation Voltage
VFBGH
IVGH = 1mA
PGOOD Threshold
PGTGH
Measured on FBGH, VVGH rising
FBN Load Regulation
FBN Line Regulation
FBN Input-Bias Current
FBN Threshold Voltage for
High-Power Boost Mode
VFBN = 0.25V, TA = +25°C
mV
±1
µA
V
VGH LINEAR REGULATOR
Output-Voltage Range
VGH Output Current
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IVGH
VVCP - VVGH = 2V
5
21
20
0.77 x
VREF
V
mA
0.80 x
VREF
850
0.83 x
VREF
V
mV
Maxim Integrated │ 4
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Electrical Characteristics (continued)
(VIN3 = 12V, VINA = 3.3V, TA = TJ = -40°C to +105°C, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = TJ = +25°C.) (Note 3)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
FBGH Line Regulation
VVCP = 12V to 20V at VVGH = 10V,
IVGH = 10mA
2
%
FBGH Load Regulation
IVGH = 0 to 20mA
2
%
FBGH Input-Bias Current
VGH Current Limit
ILIMVGH
VGH Soft-Start Time
VFBGH = 1V, TA = +25°C
TA = +25°C
1
25
40
VGHSTT[1:0] = 00, default
6.78
VGHSTT[1:0] = 10
13.6
VGHSTT[1:0] = 01
27.1
VGHSTT[1:0] = 11
54.3
µA
mA
ms
VGL LINEAR REGULATOR
FBGL Regulation Voltage
VFBGL
Output Voltage Range
DRVN
FBGL PGOOD Threshold
PGTGL
FBGL Input-Bias Current
DRVN Source Current
DRVN Source Current Limit
VGL Soft-Start Time
Voltage that appears across feedback
resistors connected between REF and
FBGL, IDRVN = 100µA
0.77 x
VREF
0.8 x
VREF
-21
Measured on FBGL, value referred to GND
VFBGL = 0.25V, TA= +25°C
VFBGL = 0.5V, VDRVN = -10V
TA= +25°C
0.83
x
VREF
-2
400
V
mV
±1
2
2.5
V
µA
mA
4
VGLSTT[1:0] = 00, default
6.78
VGLSTT[1:0] = 10
13.6
VGLSTT[1:0] = 01
27.1
VGLSTT[1:0] = 11
54.3
mA
ms
VCOMH BUFFER
VCOMP Supply Range
6
VCOMP Supply Current
Buffer configuration, no load, no input,
TA = +25°C
VCINH Resistive Divider Value
Internal 1MΩ pullup to VCOMP and 1MΩ
pulldown to ground
Input/Output Voltage Range
Large-Signal Voltage Gain
Slew Rate
-3dB Bandwidth
Current Limit
VCOML BUFFER
VVCOMH = 2V to VVSH - 2V
VVSH = 12V, CL < 30pF
VVSH = 12V, CL < 30pF
Sourcing, TA = +25°C
Sinking, TA = +25°C
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5
mA
kΩ
VVCOMP
- 2V
V
80
dB
45
V/µs
20
MHz
90
mA
90
-7
Buffer configuration, no input, no load,
TA = +25°C
V
500
2
VCOMN Supply Range
VCOMN Supply Current
3
18
3
-4.5
V
5
mA
Maxim Integrated │ 5
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Electrical Characteristics (continued)
(VIN3 = 12V, VINA = 3.3V, TA = TJ = -40°C to +105°C, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = TJ = +25°C.) (Note 3)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
±1
±1.25
MAX
VCINL Resistance
Resistor internally connected to ground
Input Common-Mode Voltage
Range
TA = -40°C to +85°C
Large-Signal Voltage Gain
VCOML = -1V to +1V
80
28
V/µs
CL < 30pF
20
MHz
TA = +85°C to +105°C
Slew Rate
1000
UNITS
V
±0.8
CL < 30pF
-3dB Bandwidth
kΩ
dB
Sourcing
11
mA
Sinking
11
mA
Differential Nonlinearity
Monotonic over temperature (Note 5)
-1
+1
LSB
Zero-Scale Error
Includes VCOMH or VCOML buffer input
offset voltage
-2
+2
LSB
+12
LSB
Current Limit
VCOM DAC
Voltage Resolution
7
Full-Scale Error
-12
VCOM Voltage Step Size
Bits
7.8
mV
INPUT AND OUTPUT SERIES SWITCH CONTROL
p-Channel FET Gate-Driver Sink
Current
VGATE = VINA
p-Channel Gate-Driver Voltage
Threshold
Measured at GATE; below this voltage, the
external p-channel FET is conducting
VSLS Gate-Driver Source Current
VVSLS = -5V
36
53
70
1.25
38
50
µA
V
58
µA
DIGITAL INPUTS
CS Input Pullup Resistor Value
RPU
500
kΩ
SSEN, ENP Input Pulldown
Resistor Value
RPD
500
kΩ
ENP, EN1, EN2, CLK, CS, DIN,
SSEN Input Voltage Low
VIL
ENP, EN1, EN2, CLK, CS, DIN,
SSEN Input Voltage High
VIH
0.8
2.4
V
V
DIGITAL OUTPUTS
DOUT Output Voltage Low
0.4
DOUT Output Voltage High
FLT Output Voltage Low
SPI INTERFACE (Note 6)
2.8
VFLT
ISINK = 2mA
V
V
0.4
V
4
MHz
Clock Frequency
fCLK
Falling Edge of CS to Rising Edge
of CLK Required Setup Time
tLEAD
Input rise/fall time < 10ns
100
ns
Falling Edge of CLK to Rising
Edge of CS Required Hold Time
tLAG
Input rise/fall time < 10ns
100
ns
www.maximintegrated.com
Maxim Integrated │ 6
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Electrical Characteristics (continued)
(VIN3 = 12V, VINA = 3.3V, TA = TJ = -40°C to +105°C, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = TJ = +25°C.) (Note 3)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
Setup Time DIN-to-CLK Falling
Edge
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
tDIN(SU)
30
ns
DIN Hold Time after Falling Edge
of CLK
tDIN(HOLD)
20
ns
Time from Rising Edge of CLK-toDOUT Data Valid
tVALID
CDOUT = 50pF
70
ns
Time from Falling Edge of CS to
DOUT Low
tDOUT(EN)
55
ns
Time from Rising Edge of CS to
DOUT High Impedance
tDOUT(DIS)
55
ns
DOUT Leakage Current in HighImpedance State
IDOUT(HI-Z)
VCS = VINA, VDOUT = VINA/2, TA = +25°C
1
µA
FLT Leakage Current in HighImpedance State
IFLT(HI-Z)
VFLT = 5V, TA = +25°C
1
µA
EN1/EN2/CLK Leakage Current
IIN_LEAK
3.3V < VINA ≤ 5.0V, TA = +25°C
1
µA
DIN Input Pulldown Resistor
Value
RPD,DIN
50
kΩ
165
°C
15
°C
THERMAL SHUTDOWN
Thermal-Shutdown Temperature
Temperature rising
Thermal-Shutdown Hysteresis
Note
Note
Note
Note
3: All devices are 100% tested at TA = +25°C. Limits over temperature are guaranteed by design.
4: Guaranteed by design; not production tested.
5: Design guaranteed by ATE characterization. Limits are not production tested.
6: Guaranteed by design. Figure 1 shows the SPI timing characteristics.
CS
tLEAD
tLAG
CLK
tDIN(SU) tDIN(HOLD)
DIN
MSB IN
tDOUT(EN)
DOUT
tVALID
MSB OUT
tDOUT(DIS)
LSB OUT
Figure 1. SPI Timing Characteristics
www.maximintegrated.com
Maxim Integrated │ 7
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Typical Operating Characteristics
(VIN3 = 12V, VINA = 3.3V, VVGH = 12V, VVGL = -12V, VVSH = 6.9V, VVSL = -6.9V, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
80
8
6
0
4
6
8
10
12
14
0.8
60
0.4
40
2
-0.8
20
-1.2
10
-1.6
0
16
0
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
2.0
-2.0
4
LOAD REGULATION
(BUCK)
6
8
10
14
16
STARTUP BEHAVIOR (BUCK)
MAX16927 toc04
MAX16927 toc05
3
VEN3
5V/V
2
1
VLX3
10V/V
0
-1
-2
VOUT3
2V/V
-3
-4
-5
-6
12
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
LOAD CURRENT (A)
5
4
ERROR (%)
0
-0.4
30
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
6
1.2
70
50
4
1.6
ERROR (%)
EFFICIENCY (%)
10
90
LINE REGULATION (BUCK)
2.0
MAX16927 toc02
12
SUPPLY CURRENT (µA)
100
MAX16927 toc01
14
EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD CURRENT
(BUCK)
MAX16927 toc03
SHUTDOWN SUPPLY CURRENT
(BUCK)
IOUT3
2A/div
0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
100µs/div
LOAD CURRENT (A)
100mA TO 2A LOAD TRANSIENT RESPONSE
(BUCK)
MAX16927 toc06
10V TO 16V LINE TRANSIENT RESPONSE
(BUCK)
MAX16927 toc07
VIN3
5V/div
IOUT3
1A/div
VOUT3 (AC-COUPLED)
50mV/div
20µs/div
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VOUT3 (AC-COUPLED)
50mV/div
20µs/div
Maxim Integrated │ 8
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
(VIN3 = 12V, VINA = 3.3V, VVGH = 12V, VVGL = -12V, VVSH = 6.9V, VVSL = -6.9V, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
SHORT-CIRCUIT BEHAVIOR
(BUCK)
MAX16927 toc08
INA SHUTDOWN SUPPLY CURRENT
SUPPLY CURRENT (µA)
VOUT3
2V/div
ILX3
2A/div
VPG00D3
5V/div
MAX16927 toc09
5
4
3
2
1
0
1ms/div
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
-30
-40
-50
1.0
0.5
-70
3.0
4.0
4.5
5.0
-80
5.5
MAX16927 toc12
-50
LXP NODE
MEASUREMENT BANDWIDTH = 1kHz
VSSEN = 0V
-70
-80
100
1
10
100
FREQUENCY (MHz)
EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD CURRENT
(BOOST)
LOAD REGULATION
(BOOST)
LINE REGULATION
(BOOST)
80
VINA = 3.3V
0.5
0.4
0.3
VINA = 5V
ERROR (%)
60
50
40
0.2
-0.1
-0.2
-0.3
10
-0.4
0
-0.5
LOAD CURRENT (mA)
www.maximintegrated.com
0.6
0.1
0
VINA = 3.3V
ILOAD = 200mA
0.8
0.4
20
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
VINA = 5V
1.0
0.2
30
0
10
-40
FREQUENCY (MHz)
90
70
1
-30
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
MAX16927 toc13
100
3.5
-20
-60
LXP NODE
MEASUREMENT BANDWIDTH = 1kHz
VSSEN = VINA
ERROR (%)
0
EFFICIENCY (%)
-20
-60
0
-10
MAGNITUDE (dBV)
MAGNITUDE (dBV)
ERROR (%)
3.5
0
-10
MAX16927 toc14
4.0
SPECTRUM
(FIXED-FREQUENCY MODE)
10
MAX16927 toc11
BOOST AND CUK
fSW = 1.2MHz
4.5
10
MAX16927 toc10
5.0
SPECTRUM
(SPREAD-SPECTRUM MODE)
MAX16927 toc15
SWITCHING FREQUENCY
vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
0
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
LOAD CURRENT (mA)
-1.0
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
Maxim Integrated │ 9
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
(VIN3 = 12V, VINA = 3.3V, VVGH = 12V, VVGL = -12V, VVSH = 6.9V, VVSL = -6.9V, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
100mA TO 500mA LOAD
TRANSIENT RESPONSE
STARTUP BEHAVIOR (BOOST)
MAX16927 toc16
MAX16927 toc17
IVSH
200mA/div
VINA
5V/div
VLXP
5V/div
VVSH
5V/div
VVSH (AC-COUPLED)
100mV/div
IVSH
200mA/div
10ms/div
20µs/div
0.6
ERROR (%)
70
60
VINA = 3.3V
50
VINA = 5V
40
VINA = 5V
1.0
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.2
VINA = 3.3V
-0.2
0
-0.2
30
-0.4
-0.4
20
-0.6
-0.6
10
-0.8
-0.8
0
-1.0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0
LOAD CURRENT (mA)
100
200
300
400
500
600
ILOAD = 200mA
0.8
0.4
0
LINE REGULATION
(CUK)
MAX16927 toc20
80
0.8
ERROR (%)
90
EFFICIENCY (%)
1.0
MAX16927 toc18
100
LOAD REGULATION
(CUK)
MAX16927 toc19
EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD CURRENT
(CUK)
-1.0
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
LOAD CURRENT (mA)
100mA TO 450mA LOAD TRANSIENT
RESPONSE
STARTUP BEHAVIOR (CUK)
MAX16927 toc21
MAX16927 toc22
VINA
5V/div
IVSL
200mA/div
VLXN
10V/div
VVSL
5V/div
VVSL (AC-COUPLED)
200mV/div
IVSL
200mA/div
4ms/div
www.maximintegrated.com
100µs/div
Maxim Integrated │ 10
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
(VIN3 = 12V, VINA = 3.3V, VVGH = 12V, VVGL = -12V, VVSH = 6.9V, VVSL = -6.9V, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
3.2
0.6
ERROR (%)
ERROR (%)
2.8
2.4
2.0
ILOAD = 20mA
1.6
VVCP = VVGH + 2V
0.8
0
-0.02
-0.04
0.4
-0.06
0.2
-0.08
ERROR (%)
3.6
0
-0.2
-0.12
-0.14
-0.6
-0.16
0.4
-0.8
-0.18
0
-1.0
0.8
ILOAD = 10mA
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
0
2
VCP VOLTAGE (V)
LOAD REGULATION
(VGL LINEAR REGULATOR)
VVCN = VVGL - 2V
0.8
0.6
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
LOAD CURRENT (mA)
-0.20
-20
-19
-18
-17
-16
-14
-13
-12
MAX16927 toc27
VEN1 = 0V, VEN2 = VINA
VVGH
5V/div
0.4
ERROR (%)
-15
VCN VOLTAGE (V)
SUPPLY SEQUENCING
(STAND-ALONE MODE 0)
MAX16927 toc26
1.0
4
ILOAD = 20mA
ILOAD = 10mA
-0.10
-0.4
1.2
LINE REGULATION
(VGL LINEAR REGULATOR)
MAX16927 toc25
1.0
MAX16927 toc23
4.0
LOAD REGULATION
(VGH LINEAR REGULATOR)
MAX16927 toc24
LINE REGULATION
(VGH LINEAR REGULATOR)
VVSH
5V/div
0.2
0
-0.2
VVSL
5V/div
VVGL
5V/div
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1.0
0
2
4
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
LOAD CURRENT (mA)
10ms/div
SUPPLY SEQUENCING
(STAND-ALONE MODE 2)
SUPPLY SEQUENCING
(STAND-ALONE MODE 1)
MAX16927 toc29
MAX16927 toc28
VEN1 = VINA, VEN2 = VINA
VEN1 = VINA, VEN2 = 0V
10ms/div
www.maximintegrated.com
VVGH
5V/div
VVSH
5V/div
VVGH
5V/div
VVSH
5V/div
VVSL
5V/div
VVGL
5V/div
VVSL_SW
5V/div
VVSL
5V/div
VVGL
5V/div
10ms/div
Maxim Integrated │ 11
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
(VIN3 = 12V, VINA = 3.3V, VVGH = 12V, VVGL = -12V, VVSH = 6.9V, VVSL = -6.9V, TA = +25°C, unless otherwise noted.)
20
10
MAGNITUDE (dB)
VCOML TRANSIENT RESPONSE
MAX16927 toc31
MAX16927 toc30
30
MAGNITUDE RESPONSE vs. FREQUENCY
(VCOM BUFFER)
0
VVCOML
500mV/div
-10
VCOML
-20
VCOMH
-30
-40
-50
ZL = 1kΩ + 220nF
1
0.1
10
100
10ms/div
FREQUENCY (MHz)
RAMPED DAC RESPONSE
MAX16927 toc32
REFERENCE LOAD REGULATION
MAX16927 toc33
1.0
0.8
0.6
VVCOML
500mV/div
ERROR (%)
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
20ms/div
-1.0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
LOAD CURRENT (µA)
www.maximintegrated.com
Maxim Integrated │ 12
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
REF
FBGH
FBGL
GND
VCINL
VCOML
VCOMN
VSLS
VCINH
VCOMP
VCOMH
TOP VIEW
DRVN
Pin Configuration
36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25
VGH 37
24 EN2
VCP 38
23 EN1
GATE 39
22 ENP
PGNDP 40
21 CLK
LXP 41
20 CS
LXP 42
19 DOUT
MAX16927
LXN 43
18 DIN
LXN 44
17 FLT
PGNDN 45
16 SSEN
FBP 46
15 GND
EP
+
COMPP 47
14 PGOOD
FBN 48
GND
BST
8
9
10 11 12
SYNC
AVL
7
PGND3
INA
6
EN3
5
IN3
4
LX3
3
LX3
2
IN3
1
COMPN
13 FB3
TQFN
Pin Description
PIN
NAME
1
COMPN
Cuk Converter Error-Amplifier Compensation. Connect the compensation network from COMPN to GND.
2
INA
Boost and Cuk Power Supply. Connect to the output of the buck converter or to a supply between 3V and
5.5V.
3
AVL
Buck Converter Internal 5V Regulator. Connect a 1µF capacitor between AVL and PGND3. Do not use AVL
to power external circuitry.
4, 15, 28
GND
Analog Ground
5
BST
Buck Converter Bootstrap Capacitor Connection. Connect a 0.1µF capacitor between BST and LX3.
6, 9
IN3
Buck Converter Power Supply. Connect to a 4.5V to 16V supply. Connect a 1µF or larger ceramic capacitor
in parallel with a 47µF capacitor from IN3 to PGND3. Connect both IN3 power inputs together.
7, 8
LX3
Buck Converter Inductor Connection. Connect the inductor, boost capacitor, and catch diode at this node.
10
EN3
Buck Converter Enable Input. EN3 is a high-voltage, 5V- and 3.3V-compatible input. Connect to IN3 for
normal operation and connect to PGND3 to disable the buck converter.
11
PGND3
12
SYNC
www.maximintegrated.com
FUNCTION
Buck Converter Power Ground
Buck Converter Sync Input. SYNC allows the buck converter to be synchronized to other DC-DC
converters. When connected to an external clock source, the buck converter is synchronized. When SYNC
is not used, connect to GND.
Maxim Integrated │ 13
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Pin Description (continued)
PIN
NAME
13
FB3
14
PGOOD
16
SSEN
17
FLT
Open-Drain Fault Output. When low, FLT indicates that one or more of the output voltages (except the
buck-converter output) are less than 85% of their regulated values. Connect a 10kΩ pullup resistor from
FLT to INA. The FLT output is cleared on the rising edge of the CS signal or when ENP is toggled.
18
DIN
SPI Interface Data Input. Data is clocked in on the falling edge of the CLK input. DIN has an internal 50mΩ
(typ) pulldown resistor.
19
DOUT
20
CS
SPI Interface Active-Low Chip-Select Input. Pull CS low to enable the SPI interface. A new 32-bit data word
is latched into the input register on the rising edge of CS. When CS is high, DOUT is high impedance. CS
has an internal pullup resistor of value of 500kΩ.
21
CLK
SPI Interface Clock Input
22
ENP
Active-High Enable Input. ENP enables the device, with the exception of the buck converter, which is
controlled by EN3. ENP has an internal 500kΩ pulldown resistor. To enable the boost converter, take ENP
high when INA > 2.9V. Connect ENP to GND to place everything in shutdown except the buck converter.
23
EN1
Enable Input 1. EN1 and EN2 determine the supply sequencing of the regulators. When EN1 and EN2
are low, the SPI interface is enabled. See the Soft-Start and Supply Sequencing (EN3, ENP, EN1, EN2)
section.
24
EN2
Enable Input 2
25
REF
1.25V Reference Output. Connect a 100nF capacitor between REF and GND.
26
FBGH
Positive Gate-Voltage Linear Regulator-Feedback Input. FBGH is regulated to 1V.
27
FBGL
Negative Gate-Voltage Linear Regulator-Controller-Feedback Input. FBGL is regulated to 0.25V.
29
VCINL
VCOML Adder Input. The voltage on VCINL is added to the VCOM DAC voltage and buffered to the
VCOML output.
30
VCOML
Low-Range VCOM Buffer Output. The output range of this buffer can be DAC from 0V to 1V around the
VCINL voltage.
31
VCOMN
VCOML Buffer Negative Supply. The positive supply for this buffer is INA. If VVSL is set lower than -7V, an
external regulator is needed to limit VVCOMN to -7V.
32
VSLS
External n-Channel FET Gate Drive. VSLS sources a current to turn on the external FET when the
ENVSLS bit is set to 1 through SPI.
33
VCINH
VCOMH Adder Input. The voltage on VCINH is added to the VCOM DAC voltage and buffered to the
VCOMH output.
34
VCOMH
High-Range VCOM Buffer Output. The output range of this buffer can be DAC from 0V to 1V around the
VCINH voltage.
35
VCOMP
VCOMH Buffer Positive Supply. The negative supply for this buffer is GND. Connect VCOMP to the output
of the boost converter even if the VCOMH buffer is unused.
www.maximintegrated.com
FUNCTION
Buck Converter Feedback Input. Connect FB3 to the output-voltage node, OUT3, as shown in the Typical
Operating Circuits.
Buck Converter Open-Drain Power-Good Output. Connect a 10kΩ pullup resistor to any low-voltage
supply.
Spread-Spectrum Enable Input. Connect SSEN to INA to place the boost and Cuk in spread-spectrum
mode. Connect SSEN to GND for fixed-frequency PWM operation. SSEN has an internal 500kΩ pulldown
resistor.
SPI Interface Data Output. Data is stable on the falling edge of the CLK input.
Maxim Integrated │ 14
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Pin Description (continued)
PIN
NAME
FUNCTION
36
DRVN
37
VGH
Positive Gate-Voltage Linear Regulator Output
38
VCP
Positive Gate-Voltage Linear Regulator Power Input. Connect VCP to the positive output of the external
charge pump.
39
GATE
Negative Gate-Voltage Linear Regulator Base Drive Output. Open drain of an internal n-channel FET.
Connect DRVN to the base of an external npn pass transistor.
External p-Channel FET Gate Drive. GATE sinks a current to turn on the external FET when the boost
converter is enabled and goes into high impedance during a fault condition or when the boost is disabled.
40
PGNDP
41, 42
LXP
Boost Converter Power Ground
Boost Converter Switching Node. Connect the inductor and diode to this node.
43, 44
LXN
Cuk Converter Switching Node. Connect the inductor and coupling capacitor to this node.
45
PGNDN
46
FBP
47
COMPP
48
FBN
Cuk Converter Feedback Input. FBN is regulated to 0.25V. Connect FBN to INA when LXN and LXP are
connected together to double the output power of the boost.
—
EP
Exposed Pad. Connect the exposed pad to the ground plane for optimal heat dissipation. Do not use the
exposed pad as the only electrical ground connection.
Cuk Converter Power Ground
Boost Converter Feedback Input. FBP is regulated to 1V.
Boost Converter Error-Amplifier Compensation. Connect the compensation network from COMPP to GND.
Detailed Description
3.3V Buck Converter
The MAX16927 is a highly integrated power supply for
automotive TFT-LCD applications. The device integrates
one buck converter to generate 3.3V from a 4.5V to 16V
supply, one boost converter, one Cuk converter, two gatevoltage controllers, and two VCOM buffers, one of which
supports an active ±1V drive referred to GND. An SPI
interface provides diagnostics and host control.
The device features a current-mode buck converter with
an integrated high-side FET, which requires no external
compensation network. The device regulates the output
voltage to 3.3V. The buck converter delivers a minimum
of 2A of output current. The high 2.1MHz (typ) switching
frequency allows for small external components, reduced
output ripple, and guarantees no AM interference.
The buck converter operates independently from the
boost and Cuk converters and the linear regulators. Use
the buck converter to generate a 3.3V output to power
the other four regulators from a 4.5V to 16V supply.
Alternatively, power the four regulators from an available
3V to 5.5V supply and ground all pins for the buck converter: BST, IN3, LX3, FB3, EN3, AVL, PGOOD, SYNC,
and PGND3.
A power-good (PGOOD) indicator is available to monitor
output-voltage quality. Shutting down the buck converter
reduces the supply current to 10μA.
www.maximintegrated.com
Enable (EN3)
The buck converter is activated by driving EN3 high. EN3
is compatible with +3.3V logic levels but is also highvoltage compatible up to 20V. The EN3 input has a 500kΩ
pulldown resistor.
Maxim Integrated │ 15
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Undervoltage Lockout (UVLO)
When the device is enabled, an internal bias generator
turns on. LX begins switching after VAVL has exceeded
the internal UVLO level VUVLO = 2.7V (typ).
Soft-Start
The buck converter goes into soft-start after four currentlimit events have been detected. Upon detecting the
fourth current-limit event, the device starts the soft-start
timer and attempts to ramp the output to its final value
in 1024 clock cycles (tSS = 0.49ms typ). If the output
does not reach its final value before the soft-start timer
expires, the buck converter stops switching for 576 clock
cycles before reattempting to regulate the output. The
process repeats until the source of output undervoltage
is removed.
Oscillator/Synchronization (SYNC)
The buck converter has an integrated oscillator that
provides a switching frequency of 2.1MHz (typ). The
SYNC pin can be used to synchronize the internal clock
with an external source. Use an external clock frequency
range between 1.8MHz and 2.6MHz. Connect SYNC to
GND if not used.
Spread-Spectrum Mode
The buck converter features spread-spectrum operation,
which varies the internal operating frequency of the buck
converter by +6% relative to the internally generated
operating frequency of 2.1MHz (typ). This function does
not apply to an externally applied clock signal.
Power-Good (PGOOD)
The buck converter features an open-drain power-good
output. PGOOD is an active-high output that pulls low
when the buck output voltage is below 90% of its nominal
value and is high impedance when the output voltage is
above 92% of its nominal value. Connect a 10kΩ pullup
resistor from PGOOD to any low-voltage supply.
Overcurrent Protection
The buck converter limits its output current to IMAX =
2.72A (min). If a short-circuit condition is detected for four
clock cycles, the controller stops switching for 512 clock
cycles and attempts to soft-start the output. This process
is repeated until the short-circuit condition is removed. In
the event the internal FET overheats, the device enters
thermal-overload protection.
www.maximintegrated.com
Internal 5V Regulator (AVL)
The device features a 5V regulator whose function is to
charge the boost capacitor through the internal boost
diode and to power the circuitry of the buck converter.
Bypass AVL to GND with a 1μF capacitor. Do not use AVL
to power external circuitry.
Oscillator and Spread-Spectrum Mode
(Boost and Cuk)
The boost and Cuk converters run from a 1.2MHz
oscillator. Connect SSEN to INA to enable spreadspectrum clocking, in which the clock frequency varies
+8% above 1.2MHz. Connect SSEN to GND for fixedfrequency 1.2MHz clocking.
Boost Converter
The boost converter employs a current-mode, fixedfrequency PWM architecture to maximize loop bandwidth
and provide fast-transient response to pulsed loads typical
of TFT-LCD panel source drivers. The 1.2MHz switching frequency allows the use of low-profile inductors and
ceramic capacitors to minimize the thickness of LCD panel
designs. The integrated high-efficiency MOSFET and the
IC’s built-in digital soft-start functions reduce the number
of external components required while controlling inrush
currents. The output voltage can be set from VINA to 18V
with an external resistive voltage-divider. The regulator
controls the output voltage by modulating the duty cycle (D)
of the internal power MOSFET in each switching cycle. The
duty cycle of the MOSFET is approximated by:
D=
V VSH - VINA
V VSH
Figure 2 shows the functional diagram of the boost
regulator. An error amplifier compares the signal at FBP
to 1V and changes the COMPP output. The voltage at
COMPP sets the peak inductor current. As the load varies,
the error amplifier sources or sinks current to the COMPP
output accordingly to produce the inductor peak current
necessary to service the load. To maintain stability at
high duty cycles, a slope-compensation signal is summed
with the current-sense signal. On the rising edge of the
internal clock, the controller sets a flip-flop, turning on the
n-channel MOSFET and applying the input voltage across
the inductor. The current through the inductor ramps up
linearly, storing energy in its magnetic field. Once the sum
Maxim Integrated │ 16
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Cuk Converter
LXP
CLOCK
LOGIC AND
DRIVER
PGNDP
ILIM
COMPARATOR
SOFTSTART
VC1
1
=
VINA 1- D
VLIMIT
During the on-time, energy is stored in LN1 and during
the off-time it is released to storage capacitor C1. The
network—C1, Schottky diode, LN2, and C2—performs
the inverting function. Ignoring parasitic voltage drops, the
relationship between the output of the Cuk converter and
VC1 is given by:
SLOPE
COMP
PWM
COMPARATOR
CURRENT
SENSE
1.2MHz
OSCILLATOR
The Cuk converter produces a negative output using a
controller architecture similar to that of the boost. The
network—LN1, C1, and Schottky diode—allow a boosted
voltage to be stored on C1 (see Figure 3). Ignoring
parasitic voltage drops, the relationship between VC1 and
VINA is given by:
V VSL
= -D
VC1
ERROR
AMP
TO FAULT
LOGIC
FAULT
COMPARATOR
FBP
0.85V
1V
COMPP
Figure 2. Boost Converter Functional Diagram
of the current-feedback signal and the slope compensation exceeds the COMPP voltage, the controller resets the
flip-flop and turns off the MOSFET. The inductor current
then flows through the diode to the output. The MOSFET
remains off for the rest of the clock cycle.
The external p-channel FET controlled by GATE protects
the output during fault conditions and makes possible true
shutdown of the converter. During startup, VSH is slightly
prebiased to detect any shorts on the boost output. Under
normal operation, the p-channel FET is turned on, connecting the supply to the input of the boost converter. Under
a fault condition or in shutdown, the FET is turned off,
disconnecting the supply from the input and preventing
current from charging the output through the inductor and
diode from the supply.
www.maximintegrated.com
During the on-time, C1 delivers energy to C2, the load,
and LN1. During the off-time, LN1 releases the energy
stored during the on-time to C2 and the load. The relationship between input and output voltages is:
V VSL
D
=VINA
1- D
During startup, depending on the configuration of EN1
and EN2, the n-channel FET gating the Cuk output is
turned off to allow the charge-pump voltages to settle to
their final values. The charge pumps power the positive
and negative gate-voltage regulators, VGH and VGL.
Turn on the n-channel FET and connect the Cuk output to
VSL by setting the EN_VSLS bit to 1.
When VCOMN is connected to the output of the Cuk
converter, VVSL must be limited to -7V. If VVSL is set
lower than -7V, an external regulator is needed to limit the
voltage on VCOMN to -7V.
High-Power Boost Converter
Figure 10 shows an alternative use of the Cuk converter
power stage. Disabling the Cuk by connecting FBN
to INA and using the boost and Cuk power stages in
parallel provides a boost converter output capable of twice
the power by doubling the inductor current limit. In this
application, connect LXN and LXP together and leave
VSLS unconnected.
Maxim Integrated │ 17
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Current Limit (Boost and Cuk)
The effective current limit is reduced by the internally
injected slope compensation by an amount dependent on
the duty cycle of the converter. The effective current limit
is given by:
=
ILIM(EFF)
ILIM_DC_0% - 1.16 ×
EMI Reduction
D
93%
for ILIM_DC_0%, dependence on SPI bits VSxLIM<66,1,0>
(Table 1). The VSxLIM[66] bit determines whether during
soft-start the current limit is reduced one level down. After
soft-start is finished, the VSxLIM[66] bit has no influence.
The Cuk converter exhibits a similar reduction in current
limit dependent on its duty cycle. With the Cuk converter
current limit bits set to 0 (i.e., VSLLIM1 = VSLLIM0 = 0),
the effective current limit is given by the same equation
LN2
VSL
C1
where D is the duty cycle of the Cuk converter in percent. Estimate the duty cycle of each converter using the
formulas shown in the Design Procedure section. Figure
4 shows the dependence of the current limit on the duty
cycle of the boost and Cuk converters.
The device reduces the EMI of the boost and Cuk
converters in two ways. In spread-spectrum mode, the
switching frequency of the boost and Cuk converters
varies randomly to +8% of 1.2MHz.
Additional EMI reduction is achieved by running the
boost and Cuk converters 180 degrees out of phase. In a
high-power boost converter as described in the previous
section, the boost and Cuk converters run in phase. Table
2 summarizes the phase relationship between the boost
and Cuk converters.
LN1
EFFECTIVE CURRENT LIMIT
vs. DUTY CYCLE
C2
LXN
VSLS
COMPN
INA
-4.5V TO -12V
CUK
PGNDN
FBN
EFFECTIVE CURRENT LIMIT (A)
3.0
A
2.5
2.0
A: VSxLIM<66,1,0> = 000
B: VSxLIM<66,1,0> = 001 or 100
C: VSxLIM<66,1,0> = 010 or 101
D: VSxLIM<66,1,0> = 011 or 110
E: VSxLIM<66,1,0> = 111
B
1.5
C
1.0
D
E
0.5
0
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
DUTY CYCLE (%)
REF
Figure 3. Cuk Converter
Figure 4. Effective Current Limit vs. Duty Cycle
Table 1. Boost and Cuk Current Limit
Settings
Table 2. Phase Relationship Between
Converters
SPI BITS VSxLIM<66,1,0>
ILIM_DC_0% (A)
000
2.66
001 or 100
1.78
010 or 101
1.11
011 or 110
0.79
111
0.46
Note: Codes with bit <66> high are applicable in soft-start only.
www.maximintegrated.com
APPLICATION
PHASE RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN BOOST AND CUK
CONVERTERS
One positive output,
one negative output
180 degrees out of phase
One higher power
positive output
In phase
Maxim Integrated │ 18
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Positive Gate-Voltage Linear Regulator (VGH)
The positive gate-voltage linear-regulator includes a
p-channel FET output stage to generate a regulated
+5V to +22V output. The regulator maintains accuracy
over wide line and load conditions. It is capable of at
least 20mA of output current and includes current-limit
protection. VGH is typically used to provide the TFT LCD
gate drivers’ gate-on voltage.
The VGH linear regulator derives its positive supply voltage from a noninverting charge pump, a single-stage
example of which is shown in the Typical Operating
Circuits (Figure 9 and Figure 10). A higher voltage using
a multistage charge pump is possible as described in the
Charge Pumps section.
Negative Gate-Voltage Linear-Regulator
Controller (VGL)
The negative gate-voltage linear-regulator controller is an
analog gain block with an open-drain p-channel output. It
drives an external npn pass transistor with a 6.8kΩ baseto-emitter resistor (see the Pass Transistor Selection
section). Its guaranteed base drive-source current is at
least 2mA. VGL is typically used to provide the TFT LCD
gate-drivers’ gate-off voltage.
The VGL linear regulator derives its negative supply
voltage from an inverting charge pump, a single-stage
example of which is shown in the Typical Operating Circuits.
A more negative voltage using a multistage charge pump is
possible as described in the Charge Pumps section.
VCOM Buffers
The VCOM buffers, VCOMH and VCOML, hold their
output voltage stable while providing the ability to source
and sink a high current quickly into a capacitive load such
as the backplane of a TFT LCD panel.
In stand-alone mode, the SPI interface is not used.
The VCOMH and VCOML output voltages are set by
applying voltages to the VCINH and VCINL inputs.
VCINH is internally biased to midrail (VVCOMP/2) using
internal 1MΩ pullup and pulldown resistors. VCINL is
internally pulled to ground through a 1MΩ resistor. Its
voltage is adjustable using a single external resistor typically
connected to VCOMN. Alternatively, to avoid drift in
the voltage due to the difference in thermal coefficients
between the internal and external resistors, set the voltage
on VCINL using two lower value external resistors.
Only one VCOM buffer is active at a time. The VCOML
buffer is active only when the Cuk converter is running
while the VCOMH buffer is active only when the Cuk
converter is disabled or paralleled with the boost
converter to provide a high-power boosted output (i.e.,
www.maximintegrated.com
FBN is connected to INA). Always connect VCOMP to
the output of the boost converter, even when the VCOMH
buffer is inactive.
The MAX16927 features a +7-bit VCOM digital-to-analog
converter (DAC) whose output polarity and magnitude
is controlled through SPI (see the VCOM DAC section).
The resolution of the DAC is 7.8mV for a 0V to +1V
output range. The output of the DAC is buffered to the
VCOMH and VCOML outputs. Further offset is possible by
applying a voltage to VCINH or VCINL. The VCOMH buffer is
powered between VCOMP and GND while the VCOML
buffer is powered between INA and VCOMN. Always
connect VCOMP to the output of the boost converter
even when the VCOMH buffer is inactive. Ensure that the
voltage on VCOMN never falls below -7V.
Driving Purely Capacitive Loads
In general, the LCD backplane (VCOM) consists of
a distributed series capacitance and resistance,
a load that can be easily driven by the operational
amplifier. However, if the operational amplifier is used in an
application with a purely capacitive load, steps must be
taken to ensure stable operation.
As the operational amplifier’s capacitive load increases,
the amplifier’s bandwidth decreases and gain peaking increases. A 5Ω to 50Ω resistor placed between the
buffer output and the capacitive load reduces
peaking but also reduces the gain. An alternative method of
reducing peaking is to place a series RC network
(snubber) in parallel with the capacitive load. The RC
network does not continuously load the output or reduce
the gain. Typical values of the resistor are between 100Ω
and 200Ω, and the typical value of the capacitor is 10nF.
Soft-Start and Supply Sequencing (EN3, ENP,
EN1, EN2)
The device provides flexible supply-sequencing schemes.
The order in which the switching and linear regulators
turn on is determined either by the external enable inputs
(ENP, EN3, EN1, and EN2) or through SPI. Table 3 shows
the various supply-sequencing options available on the
device. Do not connect ENP directly to INA; ENP should
not transition from low to high until INA > 2.9V.
When enabled, the regulator ramps the output voltage
toward its set voltage. The soft-start period of the boost
and Cuk converters is a fixed 13.56ms. The soft-start
period of the linear regulators is SPI controlled and is
6.784ms by default. Each regulator turns on immediately
after the previous regulator’s internal PGOOD indicator
signals that its output is within regulation (i.e., within 85%
of its set voltage). For the boost and Cuk converters after
Maxim Integrated │ 19
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Table 3. Supply Sequencing
ENABLE INPUT
SUPPLY-SEQUENCING ORDER
EN3
ENP
EN1
EN2
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
0
0
X
X
1
0
X
X
Buck converter is outputting 3.3V. All other blocks are in shutdown.
0
1
X
X
Buck converter is in shutdown. An external 3.3V to 5V supply powers INA.
X
1
0
0
X
1
0
1
VSH
VSL
VGH
VGL
—
X
1
1
0
VSL
VSH
VGL
VGH
—
x
1
1
1
VSL
VGL
VSH
VGH
VSL switch
Device is in shutdown.
SPI determines which regulator is on.
CS
CLK
DIN
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DOUT
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Figure 5. SPI Timing Diagram (CPOL = 0, CPHA = 1)
the ramp-up time of 13.56ms, there is a further 13.56ms
delay before other regulators are enabled.
Fault Indicator (FLT)
The active-low fault indicator pulls low when any of the
switching or linear regulator output voltages (except for
the buck converter) are out of regulation. An internal
voltage monitor is available for each regulator. When
the output voltage falls and stays below 85% of the set
voltage for a duration of 218ms, FLT asserts. The faultblanking time of 218ms prevents false triggering. There
are PGOOD indicators for each regulator than can be
read out through SPI so that the fault can be traced back
to the failing supply.
An overvoltage condition on either LXN, LXP, the Cuk output, or the boost output causes FLT to assert immediately
and the device to shut down. Once this fault condition is
cleared, toggle ENP low for 1ms and then high to return
the device to reinitiate the startup sequence. The device
turns on the switching and linear regulators in the order
shown in Table 3.
In the event of a thermal fault (i.e., the junction temperature TJ exceeds +165°C), FLT asserts immediately and
the device shuts down. Once the device cools by 15°C,
the device turns on the switching and linear regulators in
the order shown in Table 3.
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SPI-Compatible Serial Interface
The device has an SPI interface consisting of three inputs
and one output: the clock signal (CLK), data input (DIN),
chip-select input (CS), and data output (DOUT). Use a
clock frequency of 4MHz or less to communicate with the
device. The serial interface works with the clock polarity
(CPOL) set to 0 and the clock phase (CPHA) set to 1
(Figure 5). The device may also be used without the SPI
interface (see the Stand-Alone Mode section).
Initiate a write to the device by pulling CS low and setting
the MSB bit to 0. Data is written MSB first and is clocked
in on the falling edge of each clock pulse. Each write to
the device consists of 32 bits (1 word). Pull CS high after
the 32nd bit has been clocked in to latch the data. The
internal register is not updated if CS is pulled high before
the falling edge of the 32nd clock pulse. The SPI interface
only accepts data inputs of 32 bits or a multiple of 32 bits.
To read from the SPI register, write a word to the SPI
interface with the MSB bit set to 1. The 31 remaining bits
are don’t cares. Data output is available on the falling edge
of each clock pulse. DOUT goes into a high-impedance
state as soon as CS is pulled high.
Table 5 and Table 6 show the formats of the write and
read words, respectively. As shown in Table 5, some of
the bits written to the SPI register are ignored and can
be set to either 0 or 1. The bit description table (Table 7)
Maxim Integrated │ 20
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
describes each bit in the data input and output and indicates whether it is a read-only or read/write bit.
of the switching and linear regulators fall below 85% of
their set values.
Enable
Soft-Start
When ENP is pulled high with EN1 and EN2 low, the
device allows SPI to independently enable and disable
each switching and linear regulator.
The soft-start time of the linear regulators, defined as the
amount of time it takes for the regulator output to ramp
from 0V to the set voltage, is programmable between
6.78ms, 13.6ms, 27.1ms, and 54.3ms.
Status and Power-Good Indicators
Current Limit (Boost and Cuk)
A number of status-monitoring circuits detect and indicate irregular conditions. The SPI output data includes
information about the device thermal shutdown status
and undervoltage conditions on the switching and linear
regulator outputs.
The current limit (ILIM) of the switching converters is
programmable based on Table 1.
Current Limit During Soft-Start
The current limit of the switching converters during softstart is programmable based on Table 1. After the softstart period, the current limit is reset to the programmed
current limit.
Specifically, flags are set to indicate if the device junction
temperature exceeds +165°C and if the output voltages
Table 4. VCOM DAC Offset
SPI CONTROL BITS
FOR DAC
DACU
VCOM DAC
An integrated 7-bit DAC provides offset to the VCINH
and VCINL inputs in increments of 7.8mV in a positive
direction. The size of the offset is given as:
VCOM DAC OFFSET
(mV)
DAC[6:0]
1
111 1111
+998.4
1
100 0000
+499.2
1
000 0000
0
VCOM Offset = N x 7.8mV
where N is the numeric value of the digital code stored
in DAC[6:0]. Table 4 shows the relationship of the VCOM
DAC offset and selected digital codes.
—
DACU
DAC6
DAC5
DAC4
DAC3
DAC2
DAC1
DAC0
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DACU
DAC6
DAC5
DAC4
DAC3
DAC2
DAC1
DAC0
BIT
31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9
NUMBER
PGVIN
VGLSTTI0
VGLSTTI1
—
ENVGL
VGHSTTI0
ENVGH
VGHSTTI1
—
VSLLIM66
VSLLIM0
ENVSL
VSLLIM1
—
VSHLIM0
VSHLIM66
ENVSH
VSHLIM1
ENVSLS
—
—
—
—
BIT
NAME
R/W
Table 5. Write Format (R/W = 0)
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Note: “—” is ignored by the SPI register and can be set to either 0 or 1.
VGLSTTI0
VGLSTTI1
ENVGL
PGVGL
VGHSTTI0
VGHSTTI1
ENVGH
PGVGH
VSLLIM66
VSLLIM0
VSLLIM1
ENVSL
PGVSL
VSHLIM66
VSHLIM0
VSHLIM1
ENVSH
PGVSH
VCOML
VCOMH
T
VSLS_ON
BIT
NAME
X
Table 6. Read Format (R/W = 1)
BIT
31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9
NUMBER
Note: “X” reflects the R/W bit from the previous write sequence.
www.maximintegrated.com
Maxim Integrated │ 21
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Table 7. Bit Description
BIT
NUMBER
BIT
NAME
READ/
WRITE
31
R/W
W
0 = Write to the SPI register and read out the current contents.
1 = Read out the contents of the SPI register. The remaining 31 bits are don’t cares
and are not written to the register.
30
VSLS_ON
R
VSL Switch Status:
0 = VSL switch is off.
1 = VSL switch is on.
29
T
R
Thermal-Shutdown Indicator:
0 = Die temperature is not over +165°C.
1 = Die temperature exceeds +165°C.
28
VCOMH
R
Positive VCOM Buffer Status:
0 = Positive VCOM buffer is inactive.
1 = Positive VCOM buffer is active.
27
VCOML
R
Negative VCOM Buffer Status:
0 = Negative VCOM buffer is inactive.
1 = Negative VCOM buffer is active.
PGVSH
R
VSH Boost Converter Power-Good Indicator:
0 = VSH is out of regulation.
1 = VSH is within regulation.
ENVSLS
W
VSL Switch Enable:
0 = Turn off VSL switch.
1 = Turn on VSL switch.
25
ENVSH
R/W
24
VSHLIM1
R/W
23
VSHLIM0
R/W
22
VSHLIM66
R/W
21
PGVSL
R
20
ENVSL
R/W
Cuk Converter Enable:
0 = Disable the converter (default).
1 = Enable converter.
19
VSLLIM1
R/W
18
VSLLIM0
Cuk Converter Current Limit:
00 = See Table 1 and the current-limit equation.
01 = See Table 1 and the current-limit equation.
10 = See Table 1 and the current-limit equation.
11 = See Table 1 and the current-limit equation.
26
www.maximintegrated.com
FUNCTION
Boost Converter Enable:
0 = Disable the converter (default).
1 = Enable converter.
Boost Converter Current Limit:
00 = See Table 1 and the current-limit equation.
01 = See Table 1 and the current-limit equation.
10 = See Table 1 and the current-limit equation.
11 = See Table 1 and the current-limit equation.
Boost Converter Startup Current Limit:
0 = Set the current limit during startup to ILIM (default).
1 = Reduce the current limit during soft-start.
VSL Cuk Converter Power-Good Indicator:
0 = VSL is out of regulation.
1 = VSL is within regulation.
Maxim Integrated │ 22
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Table 7. Bit Description (continued)
BIT
NUMBER
BIT
NAME
READ/
WRITE
17
VSLLIM66
R/W
16
PGVGH
R
15
ENVGH
R/W
14
VGHSTTI1
R/W
13
VGHSTTI0
R/W
12
PGVGL
R
11
ENVGL
R/W
VGL Negative Voltage-Linear Regulator Enable:
0 = Disable the regulator (default).
1 = Enable the regulator.
10
VGLSTTI1
R/W
VGL Linear Regulator Soft-Start Timing:
00 = Set the soft-start time to 6.78ms (default).
10 = Set the soft-start time to 13.6ms.
01 = Set the soft-start time to 27.1ms.
11 = Set the soft-start time to 54.3ms.
9
VGLSTTI0
8
PGVIN
R
7
DACU
R/W
6
DAC6
R/W
5
DAC5
R/W
4
DAC4
R/W
3
DAC3
R/W
2
DAC2
R/W
1
DAC1
R/W
0
DAC0
R/W
FUNCTION
Cuk Converter Startup Current Limit:
0 = Set the current limit during startup to ILIM (default).
1 = Reduce the current limit during soft-start.
VGH Positive Voltage-Linear Regulator Power-Good Indicator:
0 = VGH is out of regulation.
1 = VGH is within regulation.
VGH Positive Voltage-Linear Regulator Enable:
0 = Disable the regulator (default).
1 = Enable the regulator.
VGH Linear Regulator Soft-Start Timing:
00 = Set the soft-start time to 6.78ms (default).
10 = Set the soft-start time to 13.6ms.
01 = Set the soft-start time to 27.1ms.
11 = Set the soft-start time to 54.3ms.
VGL Negative Voltage-Linear Regulator Power-Good Indicator:
0 = VGL is out of regulation.
1 = VGL is within regulation.
INA Input Supply Power-Good Indicator:
0 = VINA is below UVLO.
1 = VINA is above UVLO.
Reserved bit: always set to 1.
VCOM DAC Digital Input Bits. Use DAC[6:0] to adjust the VCOM DAC output from 0 to
±1V in 7.8mV increments. See the VCOM DAC section to determine the relationship
between the output voltage and digital input.
Stand-Alone Mode
The device can be used in stand-alone mode without the
SPI interface. When unused, connect the data and clock
inputs, DIN and CLK, to GND. The chip-select input,
CS, is internally pulled up to INA and can either be left
unconnected or connected to INA. In this mode, the default
www.maximintegrated.com
current-limit and soft-start values are used and sequencing
is controlled using the EN1 and EN2 inputs as illustrated
in Table 3. Since the DAC value cannot be changed, use
the VCINH and VCINL inputs to set the VCOMH or VCOML
output levels.
Maxim Integrated │ 23
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Design Procedure
Buck Converter
Inductor Selection
Three key inductor parameters must be specified for
operation with the device: inductance value (L), inductor
saturation current (ISAT), and DC resistance (RDC). To
determine the inductance value, select the ratio of inductor
peak-to-peak AC current to DC average current (LIR) first.
For LIR values that are too high, the RMS currents are
high, and therefore I2R losses are high. Use high-valued
inductors to achieve low LIR values. Typically, inductance
is proportional to resistance for a given package type,
which again makes I2R losses high for very low LIR values.
A good compromise between size and loss is to select a
30% to 60% peak-to-peak ripple current to average-current
ratio. If extremely thin high-resistance inductors are used,
as is common for LCD-panel applications, the best LIR can
increase between 0.5 and 1.0. The value of the inductor is
determined as follows:
L=
(VIN3 -VOUT3 ) × D
LIR × I OUT3 × f SW
Capacitor Selection
The input and output filter capacitors should be of a low
ESR type (tantalum, ceramic, or low-ESR electrolytic) and
should have IRMS ratings greater than:
IIN(RMS) = I O D × (1-D +
for the input capacitor:
I OUT(RMS) =
where VIN3 is the input voltage, VOUT3 is the output voltage, IOUT3 is the output current, η is the efficiency of the
buck converter, D is the duty cycle, and fSW is 2.1MHz
(the switching frequency of the buck converter). The
efficiency of the buck converter can be estimated from
the Typical Operating Characteristics and accounts for
losses in the internal switch, catch diode, inductor RDC,
and capacitor ESR.
The exact inductor value is not critical and can be adjusted
to make trade-offs among size, cost, and efficiency.
Lower inductor values minimize size and cost, but also
improve transient response and reduce efficiency due to
higher peak currents. On the other hand, higher inductance
increases efficiency by reducing the RMS current.
Find a low-loss inductor having the lowest possible
DC resistance that fits in the allotted dimensions. The
saturation current rating (ISAT) must be high enough to
ensure that saturation can occur only above the maximum
current-limit value. If the buck output must withstand shortcircuit conditions, an inductor with saturation current of 6A
must be used.
www.maximintegrated.com
LIR × I O
12
for the output capacitor where D is the duty cycle given
above.
The output voltage contains a ripple component whose
peak-to-peak value depends on the value of the ESR and
capacitance of the output capacitor, and is approximately
given by:
∆VRIPPLE = ∆VESR + ∆VCAP
∆VESR = LIR x IO x RESR
LIR × I
∆VCAP = O
8 × C × f SW
and:
V
D = OUT3
η × VIN3
LIR 2
)
12
Diode Selection
The catch diode should be a Schottky type to minimize
its voltage drop and maximize efficiency. The diode must
be capable of withstanding a reverse voltage of at least
VIN3(MAX), the maximum value of the input voltage. The
diode should have an average forward-current rating
greater than:
ID = IO x (1-D)
where D is the duty cycle given above. In addition, ensure
that the peak-current rating of the diode is greater than:
 LIR 
I OUT × 1 +
2 

Boost Converter
Inductor Selection
Considerations used in selecting an inductor for the buck
converter are equally applicable in selecting an inductor
for the boost converter. Use the following equations to
determine an appropriate inductor value:
LP =
VIN × D
LIR × IIN × f SW
Maxim Integrated │ 24
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Rectifier Diode
and:
IIN =
The catch diode should be a Schottky type to minimize
its voltage drop and maximize efficiency. The diode must
be capable of withstanding a reverse voltage of at least
VVSH. The diode should have an average forward current
rating greater than:
VO × I O
ηVIN
D= 1 −
ηVIN
VO
ID = IIN x (1 - D)
where VIN is the input voltage, VO is the output voltage, IO is the output current, η is the efficiency of the
boost converter, D is the duty cycle, and fSW is 1.2MHz
(the switching frequency of the boost converter). The
efficiency of the boost converter can be estimated from
the Typical Operating Characteristics and accounts for
losses in the internal switch, catch diode, inductor RDC,
and capacitor ESR.
Capacitor Selection
The input and output filter capacitors should be of a low
ESR type (tantalum, ceramic, or low-ESR electrolytic) and
should have IRMS ratings greater than:
IIN(RMS) =
LIR × IIN
12
for the input capacitor:
I OUT(RMS) = I O
LIR 2
12
1- D
D+
for the output capacitor, where IIN and D are the input
current and duty cycle given above.
The output voltage contains a ripple component whose
peak-to-peak value depends on the value of the ESR and
capacitance of the output capacitor, and is approximately
given by:
∆VRIPPLE = ∆VESR + ∆VCAP
LIR
∆VESR = IIN × (1 +
) × R ESR
2
IO × D
∆VCAP =
C × f SW
where IIN and D are the input current and duty cycle given
above.
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where IIN and D are the input current and duty cycle given
above. In addition, ensure that the peak-current rating of
the diode is greater than:
 LIR 
IIN × 1 +
2 

Output-Voltage Selection
The output voltage of the boost converter can be adjusted
by using a resistive voltage-divider formed by RTOP and
RBOTTOM. Connect RTOP between the output and FBP
and connect RBOTTOM between FBP and GND. Select
RBOTTOM in the 10kΩ to 50kΩ range. Calculate RTOP
with the following equation:
V
=
R TOP R BOTTOM × ( VSH - 1)
VFBP
where VFBP, the boost converter’s feedback set point,
is 1V. Place both resistors as close to the device as
possible. Connect RBOTTOM to the analog ground plane
and route this connection away from the power traces.
Loop Compensation
Choose RCOMP to set the high-frequency integrator gain
for fast-transient response. Choose CCOMP to set the
integrator pole to maintain loop stability. For low-ESR
output capacitors, use Table 8 to select initial values for
RCOMP and CCOMP. Use a 15pF capacitor in parallel to
RCOMP and CCOMP.
Table 8. Boost Example Compensation
Values
VVSH (V)
5
7
13
15
IVSH (A)
0.6
0.6
0.1
0.3
POUT (W)
3
4.2
1.3
4.5
Inductor value (µH)
3.3
3.3
15
4.7
RCOMP (kΩ)
47
56
31
56
CCOMP (pF)
220
270
680
390
Maxim Integrated │ 25
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
To further optimize transient response, vary RCOMP in
20% steps and CCOMP in 50% steps while observing
transient-response waveforms. The ideal transient
response is achieved when the output settles quickly with
little or no overshoot. Connect the compensation network
to the analog ground plane and route this connection
away from the power traces.
Capacitor Selection
p-Channel FET Selection
where CVR is the capacitor voltage-ripple ratio and is the
ratio of the capacitor’s voltage ripple to the average voltage across the coupling capacitor. A good starting value
for CVR is 0.05. It is important that a low-ESR type is
used as all the output power flows through this capacitor.
The voltage rating of the coupling capacitor must be at
least VINA + |VVSL|.
The p-channel FET used to gate the boost-converter’s
input should have low on-resistance as it affects overall
efficiency of the boost converter. The FET must be rated
to the full current rating of boost inductor. Connect a
resistor (RSG) between the source and gate of the FET.
Under normal operation, RSG carries a gate drive current
of 53μA (typ) and 36μA (min) and the resulting gatesource voltage (VGS) turns on the FET. When the gate
drive is removed under a fault condition or in shutdown,
RSG bleeds off charge to turn off the FET. Size RSG to
produce the VGS needed to turn on the FET.
Cuk Converter
Considerations used in selecting an inductor for the buck
converter are equally applicable in selecting an inductor
for the Cuk converter. Use the same value and type of
inductor for LN1 and LN2. Use the following equation to
determine their value:
VINA × D
LIR × IIN × f SW
The input current and duty cycle are calculated as follows:
|V
| × | IO |
IIN = VSL
ηVINA
D=
|V VSL | + VSCHOTTKY
VINA + | V VSL | + VSCHOTTKY
In the equations above, VINA is the input voltage, VVSL
is the output voltage, IIN is the input current, IO is the
output current, η is the efficiency of the Cuk converter,
D is the duty cycle, and fSW is 1.2MHz (the switching
frequency of the Cuk converter). The efficiency of the Cuk
converter can be estimated from the Typical Operating
Characteristics and accounts for losses in the internal
switch, catch diode, inductor RDC, and capacitor ESR.
www.maximintegrated.com
C1 =
|I O| × D
CVR × (VIN +|V VSL |) × f SW
The input and output filter capacitors should be of a lowESR type (tantalum, ceramic, or low-ESR electrolytic) and
should have IRMS ratings greater than:
IIN(RMS) =
LIR × IIN
12
for the input capacitor:
Inductor Selection
LN1
= LN2
=
The value of the Cuk coupling capacitor, C1, can be
calculated as follows:
I OUT(RMS) =
LIR× | I O |
12
for the output capacitor, where IIN is the input current
given above.
The output voltage contains a ripple component whose
peak-to-peak value depends on the value of the ESR and
capacitance of the output capacitor, and is approximately
given by:
∆VRIPPLE = ∆VESR + ∆VCAP
∆VESR = LIR x |IO | x RESR
Rectifier Diode
The catch diode should be a Schottky type to minimize its
voltage drop and maximize efficiency. The diode must be
capable of withstanding a reverse voltage of at least (VINA
+ |VVSL|). The diode should have an average forward
current rating greater than:
ID = (IIN + |IO|) x (1 - D)
where IIN and D are the input current and duty cycle given
above. In addition, ensure that the peak-current rating of
the diode exceeds IIN + |IO|.
Maxim Integrated │ 26
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Output-Voltage Selection
The output voltage of the Cuk converter can be adjusted
by using a resistive voltage-divider formed by RTOP and
RBOTTOM. Connect RTOP between REF and FBGL and
connect RBOTTOM between FBGL and the output of the
Cuk converter. Select RTOP greater than 20kΩ to avoid
loading down the reference output. Calculate RBOTTOM
with the following equation:
V
+ | V VSL |
R BOTTOM
= R TOP × FBN
VREF - VFBN
where VVSL is the desired output voltage, VREF = 1.25V,
and VFBN = 0.2 x VREF = 0.25V (the regulated feedback
voltage of the converter). Note that REF can only source
up to 80μA total (for Cuk and VGL feedback).
capacitor can be connected to either LXN or LXP. In the
LXN case, the output voltages are:
VVCP = VINA + |VVSL| + VSCHOTTKY + VVSH - 2 x VD
VVCN = - (VINA + 2 x |VVSL| + VSCHOTTKY - 2 x VD)
In the LXP case, the output voltages are:
VVCP = 2 x VVSH - VSCHOTTKY - 2 x VD
VVCN = - (|VVSL| + VVSH - VSCHOTTKY - 2 x VD)
The equations above assume that the inverting charge
pump is connected to the Cuk output (Figure 9). In the
case where the Cuk converter is unused or operates in
parallel with the boost converter, connect the inverting
charge pump to ground (Figure 10), make LXP the switching node, use the equations for the LXP case, and set
|VVSL| to 0V in those equations.
Loop Compensation
VSH
See Table 9 to select the compensation components for
the Cuk converter.
Selection of the n-Channel FET for VSL Output
An n-channel FET can be used to delay the on switch
of the VSL output when the charge pumps use the VSL
output voltage and VGH and/or VGL are required to be
present before VSL (see Table 3 and specifically the
mode for EN1 = EN2 = 1). The n-channel FET, connected
in series with the Cuk converter’s output, should have
low on-resistance. Connect a resistor (RGS) between the
gate and source of the FET. Under normal operation, RGS
carries a gate-drive current of 50μA, typ (38μA min) and
the resulting gate-source voltage (VGS) turns on the FET.
Size RGS to produce the VGS needed to turn on the FET.
VCP
LXP OR LXN
Figure 6. Multistage Noninverting Charge Pump for Positive
Output (Cuk is Active; If Cuk is Inactive, Make LXP the
Switching Node)
VCN
When this FET is not used, leave VSLS unconnected.
Charge Pumps
LXP OR LXN
VSL
Selecting the Number of Charge-Pump Stages
For most applications, a single-stage charge pump suffices as shown in the Typical Operating Circuits. The flying
Table 9. Cuk Example Compensation
Values
VCN
VVSL (V)
-5
-7
-12
IVSL (A)
+0.6
+0.6
+0.1
POUT (W)
+3
+4.2
+1.2
Inductor value (µH)
+3.3
+3.3
+15
RCOMPN (kΩ)
+47
+56
+31
CCOMPN (pF)
+220
+270
+680
www.maximintegrated.com
Figure 7. Multistage Inverting Charge Pump for Negative
Output (Cuk is Active)
LXP
Figure 8. Multistage Inverting Charge Pump for Negative
Output (Cuk is Inactive)
Maxim Integrated │ 27
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
If larger output voltages are needed, use multistage
charge pumps (however, the maximum charge-pump voltage is limited by the absolute maximum ratings of VCP
and DRVN). Figure 6, Figure 7, and Figure 8 show the
configuration of a multistage charge pump for both positive and negative outputs.
For multistage charge pumps with LXN as the switching
node, the output voltages are given by:
VVCP = n x (VINA + |VVSL| + VSCHOTTKY +
VVSH - 2 x VD)
VVCN = -n x (VINA + 2 x |VVSL| + VSCHOTTKY - 2 x VD)
For those with LXP as the switching node, the output voltages are:
VVCP = n x (2xVVSH - VSCHOTTKY - 2 x VD)
VVCN = -n x (|VVSL| + VVSH - VSCHOTTKY - 2 x VD)
The equations above assume that the inverting charge
pump is connected to the Cuk output (Figure 6 and Figure
7). In the case where the Cuk converter is unused or
operates in parallel with the boost converter, connect the
inverting charge pump to ground (Figure 8), make LXP
the switching node, use the equations for the LXP case,
and set |VVSL| to 0V in those equations.
Flying Capacitors
Increasing the flying-capacitor value lowers the
effective source impedance and increases the output-current
capability. However, increasing the capacitance
indefinitely has a negligible effect on output-current capability because the internal switch resistance and the diode
impedance place a lower limit on the source impedance.
A 0.1μF ceramic capacitor works well in most low-current
applications. The voltage rating of the flying capacitors for
the noninverting charge pump should exceed VCP while
that for the negative-charge pump should exceed the
magnitude of VCN.
Charge-Pump Output Capacitor
Increasing the output capacitance or decreasing the ESR
reduces the output-ripple voltage and the peak-to-peak
transient voltage. With ceramic capacitors, the outputvoltage ripple is dominated by the capacitance value. Use
the following equation to approximate the required output
capacitance for the noninverting charge pump connected
to VCP:
C OUT_VCP ≥
D × ILOAD_VCP
f SW × VRIPPLE_VCP
where D is the duty cycle of the switching node to which
the flying capacitor is connected, COUT_VCP is the output
www.maximintegrated.com
capacitor of the noninverting charge pump, ILOAD_VCP is
the load current of the noninverting charge pump, fSW is
the switching frequency of the boost and Cuk converters,
and VRIPPLE_VCP is the peak-to-peak value of the output
ripple.
For the inverting charge pump connected to VCN, use
the following equation to approximate the required output
capacitance:
C OUT_VCN ≥
(1-D) × ILOAD_VCN
f SW × VRIPPLE_VCN
where D is the duty cycle of the switching node to which
the flying capacitor is connected, COUT_VCN is the output capacitor of the inverting charge pump, ILOAD_VCN
is the load current of the inverting charge pump, fSW is
the switching frequency of the boost and Cuk converters,
and VRIPPLE_VCN is the peak-to-peak value of the output
ripple.
Charge-Pump Rectifier Diodes
Use high-speed silicon switching diodes with a current
rating equal to or greater than two times the average
charge-pump input current. If it helps to avoid an extra
stage, some or all of the diodes can be replaced with
Schottky diodes with an equivalent current rating.
Positive Gate-Voltage Linear Regulator
Output-Voltage Selection
The output voltage of the positive gate-voltage linear
regulator can be adjusted by using a resistive voltagedivider formed by RTOP and RBOTTOM. Connect RTOP
between the output and FBGH and connect RBOTTOM
between FBGH and GND. Select RBOTTOM in the 10kΩ to
50kΩ range. Calculate RTOP with the following equation:
=
R TOP R BOTTOM × (
V VGH
- 1)
VFBGH
where VVGH is the desired output voltage and VFBGH
= 1V (the regulated feedback voltage for the regulator).
Place both resistors as close to the device as possible.
Avoid excessive power dissipation within the internal
pMOS device of the linear regulator by paying attention to
the voltage drop across the drain and source. The amount
of power dissipation is given by:
PDISS = (VVCP - VVGH) x ILOAD(MAX)
where VVCP is the noninverting charge-pump output voltage applied to the drain, VVGH is the regulated output
voltage, as well as the source voltage, and ILOAD(MAX) is
the maximum load current.
Maxim Integrated │ 28
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Stability Requirements
The positive gate-voltage linear regulator (VGH) requires
a minimum output capacitance for stability. For an output
voltage of 5V to 22V and an output current of 10mA to
15mA, use a minimum capacitance of 0.47μF.
Negative Gate-Voltage Linear-Regulator
Controller
Output-Voltage Selection
The output voltage of the negative gate-voltage linear
regulator can be adjusted by using a resistive voltagedivider formed by RTOP and RBOTTOM. Connect RTOP
between REF and FBGL and connect RBOTTOM between
FBGL and the collector of the external npn transistor.
Select RTOP greater than 20kΩ to avoid loading down the
reference output: Calculate RBOTTOM with the following
equation:
V
- V V GL
R BOTTOM
= R TOP × FBGL
VREF - VFBGL
where VVGL is the desired output voltage, VREF = 1.25V,
and VFBGL = 0.8 x VREF = 1V (the regulated feedback
voltage of the regulator).
Pass Transistor Selection
The pass transistor must meet specifications for current
gain (hFE), input capacitance, collector-emitter saturation
voltage, and power dissipation. The transistor’s current
gain limits the guaranteed maximum output current to:
=
ILOAD(MAX) (IDRVN -
VBE
) × h FE(MIN)
R BE
where IDRVN is the minimum guaranteed base-drive
current, VBE is the transistor’s base-to-emitter forwardvoltage drop, and RBE is the pulldown resistor connected
between the transistor’s base and emitter. Furthermore,
the transistor’s current gain increases the linear regulator’s
DC loop gain (see the Stability Requirements section), so
excessive gain destabilizes the output.
The transistor’s saturation voltage at the maximum output
current determines the minimum input-to-output voltage
differential that the linear regulator can support. Also, the
package’s power dissipation limits the usable maximum
input-to-output voltage differential. The maximum powerdissipation capability of the transistor’s package and
mounting must exceed the actual power dissipated in the
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device. The power dissipated equals the maximum load
current (ILOAD(MAX)_LR) multiplied by the maximum
input-to-output voltage differential:
PDISS = (VVGL - VVCN) x ILOAD(MAX)
where VVGL is the regulated output voltage on the
collector of the transistor, VVCN is the inverting chargepump output voltage applied to the emitter of the transistor,
and ILOAD(MAX) is the maximum load current.
Stability Requirements
The VGL linear-regulator controller uses an internal transconductance amplifier to drive an external pass transistor.
The transconductance amplifier, the pass transistor, the
base-emitter resistor, and the output capacitor determine
the loop stability.
The transconductance amplifier regulates the output voltage by controlling the pass transistor’s base current. The
total DC loop gain is approximately:
A V_LR ≅ (
I
× h FE
4
) × (1 + BIAS
) × VREF
VT
ILOAD
where VT is 26mV at room temperature, and IBIAS is the
current through the base-to-emitter resistor (RBE). For
the device, the bias current for the negative voltage-linear
regulator is 0.1mA. Therefore, the base-to-emitter resistor
should be chosen to set 0.1mA bias current:
=
R BE
VBE
0.7V
=
= 6.8kΩ
0.1mA 0.1mA
The output capacitor and the load resistance create
the dominant pole in the system. However, the internal
amplifier delay, pass transistor’s input capacitance,
and the stray capacitance at the feedback node create
additional poles in the system, and the output capacitor’s ESR
generates a zero. For proper operation, use the following equations to verify the linear regulator is properly
compensated:
1)First, determine the dominant pole set by the linear
regulator’s output capacitor and the load resistor:
f POLE_LR =
ILOAD(MAX)_LR
2π × C OUT_LR × VOUT_LR
The unity-gain crossover of the linear regulator is:
fCROSSOVER = AV_LR x fPOLE_LR
Maxim Integrated │ 29
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
2)The pole created by the internal amplifier delay is
approximately 1MHz:
fPOLE_AMP = 1MHz
3)Next, calculate the pole set by the transistor’s input
capacitance, the transistor’s input resistance, and the
base-to-emitter pullup resistor:
f POLE_IN =
1
2π × C IN × (R BE //R IN )
where:
=
C IN
gm
h FE
=
, R IN
2πf T
gm
gm is the transconductance of the pass transistor, and
fT is the transition frequency. Both parameters can be
found in the transistor’s data sheet. Because RBE is
much greater than RIN, the above equation can be
simplified:
f POLE_IN =
1
2π × C IN × R IN
f
f POLE = T
h FE
4)Next, calculate the pole set by the linear regulator’s
feedback resistance and the capacitance between FB
and AGND (including stray capacitance):
f POLE_FB =
1
2π × C FB × (R TOP //R BOTTOM )
where CFB is the capacitance between FBGL node
and GND (approximately 30pF), RTOP is the upper
resistor of the linear regulator’s feedback divider, and
RBOTTOM is the lower resistor of the divider.
5)Next, calculate the zero caused by the output
capacitor’s ESR:
f ZERO_ESR =
1
2π × C OUT_LR × R ESR
where RESR is the ESR of COUT_LR. To ensure
stability, make COUT_LR large enough so the crossover
www.maximintegrated.com
OUTPUT VOLTAGE
RANGE (V)
MINIMUM OUTPUT
CAPACITANCE (µF)
-2 ≥ VVGL ≥ -4
2.2
-8 ≥ VVGL ≥ -13
1
-5 ≥ VVGL ≥ -7
1.5
occurs well before the poles and zero calculated in
steps 2 to 5. The poles in steps 3 and 4 generally occur
at several megahertz, and using ceramic capacitors
ensures the ESR zero occurs at several megahertz as
well. Placing the crossover below 500kHz is sufficient
to avoid the amplifier-delay pole and generally works
well, unless unusual component choices or extra
capacitances move one of the other poles or the zero
below 1MHz.
Table 10 is a list of recommended minimum output
capacitances for the VGL linear regulator and are
applicable for output currents in the 10mA to 15mA range.
Applications Information
Power Dissipation
Substituting for CIN and RIN yields:
Table 10. Minimum Output Capacitance
vs. Output Voltage Range for VGL Linear
Regulator (IOUT = 10mA to 15mA)
An IC’s maximum power dissipation depends on the
thermal resistance from the die to the ambient
environment and the ambient temperature. The thermal
resistance depends on the IC package, PCB copper
area, other thermal mass, and airflow. More PCB copper,
cooler ambient air, and more airflow increase the possible
dissipation, while less copper or warmer air decreases the
IC’s dissipation capability. The major components of power
dissipation are the power dissipated in the buck converter,
boost converter, Cuk converter, VGH linear regulator, VGL
linear regulator controller, and the power dissipated by the
VCOM buffers.
Buck Converter
In the buck converter, conduction and switching losses
in the internal MOSFET are dominant. Estimate these
losses using the following formula:
PLX3 ≈  (IIN(DC, MAX) × D) 2 × R DS_ON



+ 0.5 × VIN3 × IIN(DC,MAX) × (t R + t F ) × f SW 
where RDS_ON is the on-resistance of the buck converter’s internal FET, tR = 5ns, tF = 5ns, and fSW = 2.1MHz.
Maxim Integrated │ 30
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Boost Converter
In the boost converter, conduction and switching losses
in the internal MOSFET are dominant. Estimate these
losses using the following formula:
PLXP ≈ (IIN(DC,MAX) × D) 2 × R DS_ON


+ 0.5 × V VSH × IIN(DC,MAX) × (t R + t F ) × f SW 
where RDS_ON is on-resistance of the boost converter’s
internal FET, tR = 7ns, tF = 16ns, and fSW = 1.2MHz.
Cuk Converter
A similar analysis applies to the Cuk converter. The power
dissipation in the integrated low-side FET is:
PLXN ≈ (IIN(DC,MAX) × D) 2 × R DS_ON



+ (0.5 × |V VSL | + VINA ) × IIN(DC,MAX) × (t R + t F ) × f SW 
PVCOMH(SINK) = VCOMH x IOUT_SINK
where IOUT_SOURCE is the output current sourced by the
buffer and IOUT_SINK is the output current that the buffer
sinks. Similarly, the power dissipated in the VCOML buffer
is given by:
PVCOML(SOURCE) = (VINA - VCOML) x IOUT_SOURCE
PVCOML(SINK) = (VCOML - VVCOMN) x IOUT_SINK
Total Power Dissipation
The total power dissipated in the package is the sum
of the losses calculated above and the power due to
the quiescent current consumed in the device (IIN3 in
continuous mode for the buck converter and IINA for the
rest of the device). Therefore, total power dissipation can
be estimated as follows:
PT = PLX3 + PLXP + PLXN + PVGH + PVGL + PVCOMH
+ PVCOML + (VIN3 x IIN3) + (VINA x IINA)
where RDS_ON is on-resistance of the boost converter’s
internal FET, tR = 7ns, tF = 16ns, and fSW = 1.2MHz.
Achieve maximum heat transfer by connecting the
exposed pad to a thermal landing pad and connecting
the thermal landing pad to a large ground plane through
thermal vias.
Positive Gate-Voltage Linear Regulator
Layout Considerations
Use the lowest number of charge-pump stages
possible in supplying power to the positive-voltage linear
regulator. Doing so minimizes the drain-source voltage of
the integrated pMOS switch and power dissipation. The
power dissipated in the switch is given as:
PVGH = (VVCP - VVGH) ×ILOAD(MAX)
Negative Gate-Voltage Linear-Regulator Controller
Use the lowest number of charge-pump states possible to
provide the negative voltage to the VGL linear regulator.
Estimate the power dissipated in the VGL linear-regulator
controller using the following:
PVGL = (VINA + |VVCN| - VBE) x IDRVN
where VBE is the base-emitter voltage of the external
npn bipolar transistor and IDRVN is the current sourced
from DRVN to the RBE bias resistor and to the base of
the transistor.
VCOM Buffers
The power dissipated in the VCOM buffers depends on
the output current, the output voltage, and the supply
voltages. The two VCOM buffers, VCOMH and VCOML,
use separate supply rails. VCOMH is powered between
VCOMP and GND while VCOML is powered between
INA and VCOMN. The power dissipated in VCOMH is
given by:
Careful PCB layout is critical in achieving stable and optimized performance. Follow the following guidelines for
good PCB layout:
• Place decoupling capacitors as close to the IC as
possible. Connect the power ground planes and the
analog ground plane together at one point close to the
device.
• Connect input and output capacitors to the power
ground planes; connect all other capacitors to the
signal ground plane.
• Keep the high-current paths as short and wide as
possible. Keep the path of switching currents short.
• Place the feedback resistors as close to the IC as
possible. Connect the negative end of the resistive
divider, as well as compensation RC, to the analog
ground plane and keep the center tap away from
switching nodes.
• Route digital I/Os and high-speed switching nodes
(LX3, LXN, and LXP) away from sensitive analog
nodes (FB3, FBP, FBN, COMPP, COMPN, and REF).
Refer to the MAX16927 Evaluation Kit data sheet for a
recommended PCB layout.
PVCOMH(SOURCE) = (VVCOMP - VCOMH)
x IOUT_SOURCE
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Maxim Integrated │ 31
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Block Diagram
LXN
COMPN
INA
COMPP
GATE
LXP
VSLS
PGNDN
4.5V TO 18V
BOOST
-4.5V TO -12V
CUK
PGNDP
FBN
FBP
OSCILLATOR
MAX16927
POSITIVE
GATEVOLTAGE
LINEAR
REGULATOR
NEGATIVE
GATEVOLTAGE
LINEAR
REGULATOR
CONTROLLER
VCP
VGH
FBGH
BST
FBGL
REF
BANDGAP
REFERENCE
IN3
LX3
DRVN
GND
SSEN
3.3V
BUCK
FLT
FB3
EN3
DAC
AVL
DIN
SPI
AND
LOGIC
7
DOUT
CS
CLK
ENP
PGOOD
SYNC
EN1
CONTROL
EN2
PGND3
VCOMP
+
+
VCOML
VCOMH
VCINH
www.maximintegrated.com
VCINL
VCOMN
Maxim Integrated │ 32
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Typical Operating Circuits
1 POSITIVE OUTPUT
1 NEGATIVE OUTPUT
VCP
VCN
VSH
VSL
VSL_SW
C1
LN2
TO OUT3 OR SEPARATE 3V TO 5V SUPPLY
LN1
LXN
COMPN
INA
COMPP
GATE
LP
MAX16927
LXP
VSLS
PGNDN
4.5V TO 18V
BOOST
-4.5V TO -12V
CUK
VSH
PGNDP
FBP
FBN
VCN
OSCILLATOR
VCP
DRVN
REF
VGH
VGH
FBGH
NEGATIVE
GATEVOLTAGE
LINEAR
REGULATOR
CONTROLLER
POSITIVE
GATEVOLTAGE
LINEAR
REGULATOR
OUT3
L
BANDGAP
REFERENCE
IN3
LX3
FBGL
REF
BST
6V TO 16V
VGL
GND
3.3V
BUCK
SSEN
FLT
EN3
DAC
AVL
DIN
SPI
AND
LOGIC
FB3
7
DOUT
CS
CLK
ENP
PGOOD
SYNC
EN1
CONTROL
PGND3
EN2
VCOMP
+
+
VCOML
VCOMH
VCINH
VCINL
VCOMN
Figure 9. Typical Operating Circuit
www.maximintegrated.com
Maxim Integrated │ 33
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Typical Operating Circuits (continued)
TO OUT3 OR SEPARATE 3V TO 5V SUPPLY
HIGH-POWER POSITIVE OUTPUT
VCP
VCN
VSH
LP
VSLS
LXN
PGNDN
INA
COMPN
INA
COMPP
GATE
4.5V TO 18V
BOOST
-4.5V TO -12V
CUK
LXP
VSH
PGNDP
FBP
FBN
OSCILLATOR
MAX16927
POSITIVE
GATEVOLTAGE
LINEAR
REGULATOR
NEGATIVE
GATEVOLTAGE
LINEAR
REGULATOR
CONTROLLER
VCN
VCP
DRVN
VGH
VGH
FBGH
OUT3
L
BANDGAP
REFERENCE
IN3
LX3
FBGL
REF
BST
6V TO 16V
VGL
GND
3.3V
BUCK
SSEN
FLT
EN3
DAC
AVL
DIN
SPI
AND
LOGIC
FB3
7
DOUT
CS
CLK
ENP
PGOOD
SYNC
EN1
CONTROL
PGND3
EN2
VCOMP
+
DAC
+
VCOML
VCOMH
VCINH
VCINL
VCOMN
Figure 10. Typical High-Power Operating Circuit
www.maximintegrated.com
Maxim Integrated │ 34
MAX16927
Chip Information
PROCESS: BiCMOS
www.maximintegrated.com
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Package Information
For the latest package outline information and land patterns
(footprints), go to www.maximintegrated.com/packages. Note
that a “+”, “#”, or “-” in the package code indicates RoHS status
only. Package drawings may show a different suffix character, but
the drawing pertains to the package regardless of RoHS status.
PACKAGE
TYPE
PACKAGE
CODE
OUTLINE
NO.
LAND
PATTERN NO.
48 TQFN-EP
T4877+7
21-0144
90-0133
Maxim Integrated │ 35
MAX16927
Automotive TFT-LCD Power Supply
with Boost, Buck, and Cuk Converters,
VCOM Buffers, Gate Drivers, and SPI Interface
Revision History
REVISION
NUMBER
REVISION
DATE
PAGES
CHANGED
0
9/10
Initial release
—
1
12/10
Added “Measurement Bandwidth = 1kHz” to TOC 11 and TOC 12
9
2
9/13
Removed short INA to ENP, added description on how to enable boost converter,
clarified INA > 2.9V then EN from low to go high
3
10/14
Updated General Description, Benefits and Features, Pin Description, VCOM Buffers,
VCOM DAC sections, and TOC 32, Table 4, and Table 7 to match VCOML buffer
performance, and updated VGH and VGL soft-start time
4
1/18
Updated FBP regulation voltage in Electrical Characteristics table
DESCRIPTION
14, 19
1, 5, 12, 14,
19, 21, 23
4
For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim Direct at 1-888-629-4642, or visit Maxim Integrated’s website at www.maximintegrated.com.
Maxim Integrated cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim Integrated product. No circuit patent licenses
are implied. Maxim Integrated reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time. The parametric values (min and max limits)
shown in the Electrical Characteristics table are guaranteed. Other parametric values quoted in this data sheet are provided for guidance.
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