Network installation and testing - Scholar@UC

Design and Cost /Benefit Analysis of WLAN vs. TLAN
in a Manufacturing Environment
By
Dale M. Eppert
Submitted to
the Faculty of the Information Engineering Technology Program
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for
the Degree of Bachelor of Science
in Information Engineering Technology
University of Cincinnati
College of Applied Science
June 2001
Design and Cost/Benefit Analysis of a WLAN vs. TLAN in a
Manufacturing Environment
By
Dale M. Eppert
Submitted to
the Faculty of the Information Engineering Technology Program
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for
the Degree of Bachelor of Science
in Information Engineering Technology
© Copyright 2003 Dale M. Eppert
The author grants to the Information Engineering Technology Program permission
to reproduce and distribute copies of this document in whole or in part.
___________________________________________________
Dale M. Eppert
__________________
Date
___________________________________________________
Mark Stockman, Faculty Advisor
__________________
Date
___________________________________________________
James F. Sullivan, Department Head
__________________
Date
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Acknowledgements
I would like to thank the faculty of the College of Applied Science, without
whose support and guidance this project would not have been possible. I would like to
thank Marilyn Bourquien and her Information Services staff at Cincinnati Incorporated
for providing facilities, hardware and timely instruction. I would like to thank Enterasys
Networks, particularly Chris Rosen for his vision and David Schardine for his time and
patience. I would especially like to thank my family for providing support and keeping
me focused on what is really important.
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Table of Contents
Section
Acknowledgements
Table of Contents
List of Illustrations
Abstract
Page
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ii
iv
v
1. Introduction
1
2. Problem Statement
2
3.Problem Solution, Project Description and Intended Use
3.1 User Profiles
3.2 Design Protocols
3
4
5
4. Project Design and Development
5
5. Deliverables
7
6. Project Identification
6.1 Project Planning
6.2 Preliminary Layout
6.3 Estimating Costs and Bill of Materials
7
8
9
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7. The Working Prototype
7.1 Hardware Acquisition
7.2 The Site Survey
7.3 Configure the Access Point
7.4 Configure the Client Adapters
7.5 Installation and Tools
7.6 Testing
7.7 Conclusions from the Working Prototype
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20
22
23
24
24
25
27
8. Proof of Design
8.1 Network Installation and Testing
8.1.1 Determining Coverage Area and Users
8.2 Securing the Network
8.2.1 Wired Equivalency Protocol (WEP)
8.2.2 Why WEP Won’t Work
8.2.3 802.1x Security Protocols
8.3 Implementing Network Security
8.3.1 Physical Security
8.3.2 Securing User Access to Network Resources
28
29
30
31
31
32
32
34
35
35
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Table of Contents (cont.)
8.3.3 Securing the Air Waves
37
9. Testing the Network
9.1 Wireless network coverage
9.2 Network Security Testing
41
41
42
10. Cost/Benefit Analysis of WLAN vs. TLAN
10.1 Pros and Cons of the TLAN
10.1.1 BOM for TLAN Installation
10.2 Pros and Cons of the WLAN
10.2.1 BOM for WLAN Installation
10.3 Obstacle to installing a WLAN in a manufacturing environment
10.4 Mitigating WLAN installation obstacles at Cincinnati Incorporated
10.5 Potential Return on Investment of the WLAN
43
43
11. Conclusions
48
12. Recommendations
50
Appendix A: Project Budget
51
Appendix B: Project Timeline
52
Appendix C: Bill of Materials: Enterasys Networks
53
Appendix D: Bill of Materials: Cisco Systems
55
Appendix E: Bill of Materials: Tethered LAN Installation
56
Appendix F: Test Protocols
57
Notes
58
References
59
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List of Illustrations
Page
Figure 1: Project organization chart
6
Figure 2: 3-D Layout of manufacturing floor
9
Figure 3: Fiber optic wiring diagram
10
Figure 4: Existing terminal locations
11
Figure 5: TLAN wiring routes
12
Figure6: Shop floor model with interference generators
13
Figure 7: Preliminary access point locations and coverage areas
14
Figure 8: Access point wiring runs
15
Figure 9: Aironet AP express set-up page
24
Figure 10: Screen shot of client utilities statistics page
26
Figure 11: How 802.1x authentication works
33
Figure 12: Group policy steps and screen shots
36
Figure 13: AP Manager Wireless Parameters
38
Figure 14: MAC address filtering
39
Figure 15: AP Manager encryption key settings
34
Figure 16: Enterasys client utility encryption screen
41
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Abstract
Upgrading a manufacturing floor network requires a cost/benefit analysis between
extending the network by hard wiring to each client, or installing a wireless local area
network. These are the options Cincinnati Incorporated faced when determining the best
method for replacing an aging token ring network and forty workstations on the
manufacturing floor. This project determines the costs of extending the corporate
Ethernet backbone by hardwiring to each workstation throughout the shop floor, to the
cost of installing a wireless local area network. A wired or tethered local area network
will provide a fast, secure method of transferring data to and from the shop floor
workstations. A wireless local area network can provide a flexible network that easily
extends the range of the network throughout the shop, and take advantage of new tools
being developed for wireless mobile computing. While the costs and issues of installing a
tethered local area network are well known, wireless computing is a relatively new
technology that has some security issues. This project details some of the security and
installation issues involved with wireless local area networks, and provides a basis for
determining which local area network will have the greatest return on investment.
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1. Introduction
Current procedures for delivering information to the manufacturing floor at
Cincinnati Incorporated are time consuming and create confusing paper trails that are
hard to follow. For instance, to replace an existing part on a new machine requires new
manufacturing drawings, new assembly drawings and an Engineering Change report. The
new manufacturing drawings are created in CAD and printed on a plotter in another part
of the building. The drawings are collected from the plotter and either picked up by
someone or dropped into the inter-office mail system to be sent back to the engineer. The
engineer then reviews the drawing for errors, verifies the accuracy of the drawing and
sends it back to the reproduction facility where it will stay until enough drawings are
collected for microfilming. Once microfilmed, the drawing is then ready to be published
for programming, routing and manufacturing. Meanwhile, the engineer requests pertinent
assembly drawings from reproduction so they are kept from being sent to the assembly
floor for use. The engineer alters these drawings to include the new part and the
reproduction process begins again. After these changes an Engineering Change Report
(ECO) is written and distributed through the inter-office mail to the appropriate
department heads. The department heads distribute that information to the people in their
department to act upon the proposed changes. The whole information delivery process
primarily occurs via a ‘sneaker net’ and can take weeks to be finalized.
Upgrades to the document storage system and improved network performance
have changed this. Manufacturing floor electronic information access has been primarily
limited to inventory tracking and control. With new Electronic Job Ticket (EJT) software
1
recently purchased by the Information Services (IS) department, drawings will be
released by the engineer into the Project Data Management (PDM) database, then
immediately copied from the database and converted into a .pdf format. These drawings
will then be immediately viewable over the new EJT web page. With this new software
the information that is now readily available to shop floor personnel has been increased.
Not only is the current information database available, but so too are current engineering
drawings, engineering changes and procedures in .pdf format. This information is now
stored on the company intranet and is accessible from the manufacturing floor.
Impending drawing changes can be noted on assembly drawings before the change will
even take place. Assembly department heads know of assembly changes immediately so
they can react accordingly. Engineering procedures are now available to assembly
personnel in electronic format to be printed out along with pertinent drawing files.
2. Problem Statement
The infrastructure for providing this information, however, was not in place.
There is a fiber optic Ethernet backbone on the manufacturing floor that provides
connectivity to the various CNC machines via their DataLink™ control system, and to
employee time clocks. There is also a token ring network that connects the AS-400
Materials Requirements Planning (MAC-PAC) software that is displayed on ‘green
screen’ monitors. The token ring terminals are 14 years old, and need to be replaced by
terminals that can process greater information at a higher rate. In a meeting with Marilyn
Bourquien, Manager of Information Services at Cincinnati Incorporated (2), she
suggested that a wireless network could possibly provide greater flexibility and cost
benefit than could a tethered Ethernet connection. Even if the initial cost of the Wireless
2
Local Area Network (WLAN) was greater than that of a Tethered Local Area Network
(TLAN), the initial expense could be made up in network flexibility, addition of a
growing array of wireless technologies and ease of management. The project is to
identify the initial cost of both the WLAN and the TLAN, and to identify the future cost
advantages of the wireless technology.
With a slumping economy and tight budgets everywhere, the decision to provide
the shop with a new network structure is not taken lightly, and the solution must provide
a reliable, secure network infrastructure. In order to demonstrate a sound proposal to
obtain funding for the project, a complete cost benefit analysis was performed. To this
end, it was necessary to design and budget both a wireless and a tethered shop floor
network. The design and budget process includes the layout and design of both
competing topologies, the cost analysis of the various topologies, specifications of the
proposed networks, a site survey, installation and testing of a WLAN and a report on
potential future growth.
3. Problem Solution, Project Description and Intended Use
This networking project had two goals. The first was to complete a cost/benefit
analysis of a wired Ethernet versus a wireless Ethernet deployment in a manufacturing
environment. To this end, a shop floor layout has been created of both a proposed wired
and a proposed wireless network. These layouts were used to illustrate the network
structure and to develop a bill of materials for each topology. The second goal was to
verify that a WLAN is a feasible option to the TLAN. I did this by installing and testing a
wireless local area network on the manufacturing environment. The installation of the
WLAN replaces an existing token ring network and extends coverage of the “fast”
3
Ethernet backbone to the entire manufacturing floor. The WLAN will connect new thin
client terminals that will replace AS-400 “green screen” terminals currently located on a
token ring network. The new terminals will allow users to access the ‘Materials
Requirements and Planning’ database, engineering drawings, procedures and the
company intranet.
The wireless network needs to be a robust network capable of providing access to
the entire shop floor. The network must also be cost effective and secure. Testing was
done with various Windows operating systems and security protocols. To provide full
coverage to the manufacturing floor a site survey was used to locate and properly
configure the APs. The WLAN eliminates the need to hardwire each terminal and will
facilitate future upgrades and changes to the network.
3.1 User Profiles
The primary users of the wireless network are network managers who administer
the network, shop floor assemblers and machinists. Network management will be through
Information Services (IS) engineers that maintain and administer the network.
Information Services is responsible for assigning IP addresses and setting up users rights
and roles. Manufacturing floor personnel have varying degrees of computer literacy, but
all are familiar with basic functions, such as opening files, browsing the network and
navigating the graphical user interface (GUI). The AS-400 system has been in place for
over 20 years. The shop floor personnel use it on a daily basis for tracking parts and
logging work orders. I provided training for the use of the new terminals and software.
The wireless network is invisible to them and no networking expertise is required of
them.
4
3.2 Design Protocols
This networking project involved the use of XP, Windows 2000, Windows 2000
Advanced Server and Windows 98 operating systems. Cisco Systems and Enterasys
Networks provided the wireless hardware I used. This hardware included a Cisco Aironet
site survey kit and a multi access point wireless network provided by Enterasys. The
Enterasys products consisted of three RoamAbout wireless access platforms, six wireless
network interface cards (nics) and three Range Extender antenna kits.
4. Project Design and Development
The project was completed in phases. (For a complete Timeline, refer to appendix
A.) In the first phase, Senior Design I, the problem was identified and the determination
of the solution, a cost benefit/analysis of a wireless versus a tethered LAN, was decided
upon. Each network topology then was laid out on the shop floor plans and a preliminary
bill of materials was created. In Senior Design II, a site survey for the WLAN was
performed and the feasibility of installing a WLAN on the manufacturing floor was
determined. The original WLAN layout was then adjusted according to the site survey
findings. Senior Design III consisted of installing, tracking the performance of and
instituting various security protocols on the wireless network. For a complete project
flow chart, refer to figure 1.
5
PROBLEM
DEFINITION
PROBLEM
SOLUTIONS
WIRELESS
WIRED
LAYOUT &
DESIGN
PRELIMINARY
BOM
FINAL
BOM
SITE SURVEY
NETWORK
SECURITY
PROTOCOLS
LAYOUT &
DESIGN
BOM
COST
TESTING
NETWORK
PERFORMANCE
TRACKING
Figure 1: Project organization chart
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5. Deliverables
The goal of this project was to determine the feasibility of installing a WLAN in a
manufacturing environment, compare the costs associated with installing both a WLAN
and a TLAN and to determine the benefits associated with each Ethernet topology. The
result allows the IS department at Cincinnati Incorporated to make an educated choice,
and have a turnkey solution, for extending the corporate Ethernet to the manufacturing
floor. To that end I completed the following tasks:
1. Wired network
a. Layout of shop floor showing:
i. Proposed wiring runs – cable lengths
ii. Upgrades to equipment racks as needed
b. Bill of materials listing equipment and installation costs
2. Wireless network
a. Layout of shop floor in 3-D showing building structures and sources of RF
interference
b. 2-D Layout of shop floor showing:
i. Existing terminals
ii. Proposed locations of Access Points (APs)
iii. Coverage area of APs
iv. Wiring runs to APs
c. Site survey
i. 2-D layout listing results of site survey
ii. Show actual AP coverage
iii. Show AP statistics such as signal strength and signal to noise ratio
d. Bill of materials listing costs and specifications of hardware and
installation
e. Network installation
i. Install multi access point wireless network on the shop floor
ii. Test and configure network for optimal performance and roaming
clients
iii. Institute security protocol
3. Report on benefits of wireless network and potential areas of growth for Return
On Investment
6. Project Identification
In Senior Design I, I set a project plan in place and developed the preliminary
layout and Bill of Materials for both the WLAN and the TLAN.
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6.1 Project Planning
According to Matthew Gast in 802.11 Wireless Networks: The Definitive Guide
(5), there are two components to network planning. The first is physical planning, and the
second is planning changes to the logical network. The first step in the design of the
network was to obtain floor plans. Floor plans should not only include the actual building
map, but also the existing physical network. Physical planning for a TLAN is fairly
straightforward. For a TLAN, the floor plan is used for locating the existing terminals
that need to be replaced along with the existing wiring cabinets and any additional
terminals that may be needed. Once the terminals are located, wiring routes will be
planned and any additional hardware such as switches, routers and patch panels can be
added.
Physical planning for a WLAN is more involved. A complete site survey will
need to be done. A site survey ensures the system will fulfill the necessary requirements,
defines Access Point (AP) layout and identifies potential sources of interference. It will
be important to gather specific network requirements before considering the wireless
system. Some of the pertinent issues that need to be addressed are:

What is the number of terminals in the shop that will need to be replaced
or added?

What does the network coverage area need to be?

What is the maximum number of users?

What types of data will need to be transferred across the network and what
type of throughput is needed?

How much mobility is needed and what type of future growth is needed?
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After the first meeting with Marilyn Bourquien, I planned another meeting to determine
these issues. In that meeting it was determined that the network should plan for:

40 shop terminals need to be replaced.

Coverage area will include the entire shop floor. Areas that will not be
covered include outside receiving or storage areas, the new Customer
Productivity Center, or offices other than those that exist on the shop floor.

The number of users on the shop floor is currently 250 employees, but the
network should plan for twice that with only approximately twenty-five or
fifty considered frequent users.

The types of data to be transferred will be the MAC-PAC user interface,
Intranet access and, primarily, drawings and engineering procedures (EPs)
in .pdf format.

Throughput will be low, with the typical file size approximately 125 – 250
Kb.

Mobility is not currently an issue beyond the ability to relocate terminals
and move CNC machining centers, but will be important for future
growth, such as hand held inventory control units.
6.2 Preliminary layout
For each topology, I used shop floor plans and created 3-D models of the
manufacturing floor using Solid Edge solid modeling software. For the TLAN, I modeled
the entire shop floor (Figure 2) and laid out existing equipment racks and the fiber optic
Ethernet backbone (Figure 3).
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Figure 2: 3-D Layout of manufacturing floor
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Figure 3: Fiber optic wiring diagram
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I then designated the locations of all the existing terminals that needed to be replaced
(figure 4).
Figure 4: Existing terminal locations
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After determining the locations of the existing terminals, I then laid out measured wiring
routes to each terminal (figure 5).
Figure 5: TLAN wiring routes
Some of these wiring routes were longer than the 100 meters that CAT5 cable can
reliably deliver information, so I designated the areas where additional hubs, switches
and upgrades to existing wiring cabinets were needed. Due to the size and height of the
fab shop, the entire 100 meters of CAT5 cable length would be used before spanning the
distance of the ceiling rafters. This resulted in the need to add an additional optic fiber
run from the equipment rack across the rafters to the location of the existing MAC-PAC
terminals.
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For the WLAN, I used the same floor plans to map out possible sources of RF
interference, the preliminary locations of the APs and their coverage areas. Any large
storage racks, large overhead cranes, and high noise generators such as machinery,
microwave ovens and cell phones on the 2.4 GHz range were identified and isolated
(figure 6).
Figure 6: Shop floor model with interference generators
The preliminary locations of the APs and cell design were then mapped out on the
floor plans (figure 7).
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Figure 7: Preliminary access point locations and coverage areas
The cell designs show the coverage area of each AP. Adding the location of the
client terminals shows the potential usage and throughput needed for each cell location.
The logical configuration of the cells is also illustrated to avoid matching the frequencies
of adjoining cells. After the cell layout was completed, a preliminary estimate of the
hardware needed was drafted. This estimate covers antennas, switches, cabling runs
(Figure 8) and the layout of the equipment racks with the existing and additional
hardware as needed.
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Figure 8: Access point wiring runs
The second component of planning for an enterprise network, the logical changes
to the network, deal with the management of IP addresses. The TLAN will need to have
sufficient IP addresses allocated to handle all the new terminals. The WLAN will need to
be set up on a single subnet, if given enough available space, so as to allow mobility
throughout the plant. Managing the network will require software for trouble shooting
and diagnostics of the network. At this point security considerations are taken into
account and may take the form of MAC addressing, WEP encryption, IEEE 802.1x
standards, Virtual Private Network (VPN) technology or RADIUS (Remote
Authentication Dial-In User).
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6.3 Estimating Costs and Bill of Materials
With marked up floor plans in hand, the next step was to develop a rough estimate
of the cost of each type of topology. Because the site survey is such an important part of
the WLAN deployment, the cost associated with the site survey was also taken into
account. Many vendors will provide site surveys for a fee that can then be credited to the
installation of the WLAN. Costs associated with a site survey include man-hours and
equipment needed to do the site survey. As a rule of thumb, a site survey may take from
thirty to sixty minutes per AP. The equipment needed to do a site survey can be found in
a site survey kit. The kit I used contained one Access Point, RP-TNC connectors (for
external antennas), four PC card adapters with several different types of ceiling and wall
mounted antennas and mounting hardware for the APs. One or two laptop computers are
typically used, but not provided with most kits. For an in depth analysis of RF
interference, it may be necessary to use a spectrum analyzer. A spectrum analyzer
determines RF interference that may degrade the performance of the WLAN, and costs
from $3,000.00 to $20,000.00.
For most enterprise deployments the choice of IEEE standards will, as of this
writing, be 802.11b or 802.11a. (1) 802.11b will deliver up to 11 Mbps data rate in the 2.4
GHz band (half-duplex, so actual throughput is up to 5.5 Mbps)i, whereas 802.11a will
deliver up to 54 Mbps in the 5 GHz band. The tradeoff between 802.11b and 802.11a is
that 802.11a will avoid interference in the busy 2.4 GHz bandwidth and deliver higher
throughput, but the cell coverage is typically smaller thereby effectively doubling the
number of APs. Work is currently being conducted on 802.11g wireless standards that
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will boost throughput in the 2.4 GHz bandwidth to 54 Mbps. The cost analysis quotes
prices and vendors for each WLAN standard.
In addition to the Ethernet backbone that already exists, hardware includes new
terminals for accessing information. This requirement will be common to each topology
and consists of fully functional PCs and network computers. Network computers are thin
clients that borrow all the operating system, application programs and data from a central
network server. (4) Network computers cost from $500.00 to $1000.00 and can
significantly decrease the cost of a network deployment such as this. For the WLAN
network, hardware costs include AP hardware and any upgrades to existing switches and
patch panels that were required. AP hardware may include not only the antennas, but also
any power drops that are necessary to run them. Instead of running new power drops to
each AP, a better investment was to purchase line-powered enabled devices. To include
line-powered enabled devices to the network, existing switches, patch panels and cabling
may need to be replaced with line-powered compliant hardware or used in conjunction
with power injectors that can be installed in-line. Power injectors are in-line devices that
allow enough amperage to run through the CAT5 cable to power the AP. Power injectors
can be placed after the hardware in equipment racks to prevent having to purchase line
powered enabled hubs and switches.
On the administrative side of the network, additional software and hardware will
be needed for managing the network. This may include a RADIUS server and WLAN
specific security software. Since there already exists an Ethernet backbone throughout the
shop, a TLAN will not need any new administrative tools to operate it.
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The costs associated with a TLAN include the costs of installing additional wiring
and possible upgrades to existing Ethernet hardware. The costs associated with running
new CAT5 wiring to each terminal includes the manpower for pulling the new wire, any
shop modifications that may be needed to pull the wire, and Ethernet connectors.
Depending on anticipated growth, additional equipment racks may be needed to service
less accessible terminals. In this case it will be necessary to run additional optic fiber to
those equipment racks. The Bill of Materials (BOM) for each topology can be found in
appendix D, E and F.
7. The Working Prototype
In Senior Design II, I acquired enough wireless hardware to perform a site survey
and verify that a wireless network is a feasible alternative to a TLAN on the
manufacturing floor.
The site survey
The site survey verifies the preliminary layout and confirms coverage area and
sources of interference. The site survey consists of placing APs in various locations and
checking their coverage area. Site survey statistics such as data rates within the coverage
areas, signal strength and signal to noise ratio, packet error rate and latency caused by
multi-path were recorded and documented. Tools used for the site survey include portable
laptop computers loaded with Cisco Aironet PCMCIA network cards, Cisco Aironet 350
Access Point, Netgear 8 port dual channel hubs and various patch cords and power strips.
Installation and configuration of APs and clients
The deployment of the wireless network included the installation of the APs as
determined in the design and the installation of the client adapter cards. All APs and
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clients are configured for optimal performance and security settings. Configuration of the
APs and clients means setting AP MAC addresses, IP addresses and SSID’s and
configuring the APs for client roaming. Security settings include MAC address filtering,
WEP encryption and EAP technology.
Vendor comparisons
To ensure a fair comparison and competitive pricing, multiple vendors were invited to
demonstrate their products. I used Cisco products for the first site survey and network
testing. Enterasys came in to demonstrate site survey capabilities and are currently in use
for the longer term network testing. A bill of materials for the final network design
includes multiple vendors and product specifications.
7.1 Hardware Acquisition
After the initial problem definition and solution was proposed in Senior
Design I, I learned from the IS department at Cincinnati Incorporated that due to poor
sales, the budget for continuing with testing and installation of the wireless network at
Cincinnati Incorporated has been withdrawn. This development left me without any
resources for acquiring hardware for the project. Therefore, the initial step in creating a
working prototype was to acquire hardware on my own. The Information Services (IS)
department at Cincinnati Inc. was able to supply me with four laptop computers, these
were old laptops returned by sales and services, and two Netgear 8 port hubs for
extending the network farther from the existing equipment racks. IS also provided me
with their network hardware contact, Perry Buffington, President, Protocol
Communications.
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The search for WLAN hardware began with searching the Internet for WLAN
equipment manufacturers. I contacted Cisco, Intermec and Symbol Technologies for
help in acquiring the necessary hardware. Cisco looked to be the most promising. Their
website featured corporate grant programs such as a community Grant Program and
Network Hardware Grant program that provided start-up network equipment for different
organizations. I contracted several people at Cisco and their third party Grant provides
about how to submit my grant information. Cisco’s program is set up to provide lowincome communities and non-profit organizations with Grant proceeds. I was told I did
not qualify, as they do not supply to Universities, for-profit and institutions or
individuals.
My next attempt for funding was to investigate Professor Said’s suggestion that I
install the network at OCAS. I had tried to use this tact while requesting grants from the
aforementioned companies, that the hardware would be used at UC-OCAS, to no avail. I
hoped that some type of real monies could be obtained from the University for
purchasing WLAN equipment. This angle also proved fruitless for lack of money and/or
interest.
Perry Buffington, the IS contact, finally located a site survey kit that I could
borrow for a period of (10) days. Mr. Buffington was an invaluable resource, not only
for obtaining the site survey kit, but he also made himself available to answer any
questions I had and provided real world background into network installations. The site
survey kit he provided contained:

Cisco 350 Access Point width (2) dual diversity antennas

(1) Inline power injector
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
(2) 2.2 dBi yagi omni directional antennas

(1) 5.5 dBi wall mount patch antenna

(4) PCMCIA 350 network client adaptor cards

(1) 9-pin serial port adaptor, (2) 8’ patch cords and software for loading the
client adapter and AP firmware.
With this equipment in hand, my working prototype was successfully tested and
demonstrated.
7.2 The Site Survey
The heart of the WLAN deployment project is the site survey. The purpose of the
site survey is to refine the preliminary design, to redesign the network to any sources of
RF interference, and report on these findings. The site survey report:

Assessed and charted actual coverage of the APs

Determined actual bit rates (throughput) throughout the coverage area

Recorded the Packet Error Rate (PER), or the number of frames received in
error. (5, p. 287)
There are tools available that can measure the amount of multi-path dispersion, that is,
how much the signals bounce off obstructions that were not used in this site survey. The
site survey was used to determine optimal AP locations and sources of RF interference in
the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bandwidth that may need to be eliminated. Dedicated hardware
devices such as a spectrum analyzer, or software running on a laptop can provide signal
quality measurements. Some hardware vendors will supply a site survey kit with all the
tools necessary. The site survey also evaluated the types of antennas that can be used.
For different parts of the shop additional range extender antennas were needed to ensure
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adequate coverage. Once the optimal location of the APs was determined, the proper
configuration of the AP was set. The configuration of the AP included the AP name, its
operating channel, coverage area, IP configuration and antenna type and configuration.(1)
7.3 Configure the Access Point
The initial set-up of the working prototype began with initializing the AP with the
client adapter software and drivers. Equipment needed for configuring the AP consists
of:

A computer connected to the same network as the AP

A CAT 5e patch cable for connecting to the inline power injector, then
another from the injector to the network

Loading the IPSU (IP setup utility) software onto the network computer

Connecting a 9-Pin straight thru serial connection cable from the network
computer to the AP

Using a terminal emulator such as HyperTerminal to connect the COM1 or
COM2 port and the computer to the RS-232 serial port on the access point.

Port settings 9600 Baud, 8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop but, Xon/Xoff

Using IPSU setup screen to input the AP MAC address

Clicking GET IP add to resolve AP IP address assigned by network DHCP
server

SSID factory default is “Tsunami”
Once the AP was configured, I removed the serial port connection. The AP now has
system parameters accessed through a web browser using TCP/IP. To open Access Point
Management Pages, the user opens an Internet browser and types in the AP’s IP address.
At this point, the Summary status home screen, or the express setup screen appears
(Figure8).
23
Figure 9: Aironet AP express set-up page
7.4 Configure the Client Adapter
Installation of the Client adapters consisted of downloading the latest firmware
and drivers for the specific operating system, installing the PCMCIA card and loading the
drivers. Once installed, the client adapter could be configured with the Cisco Aironet
Client Utilities (ACU) software. The ACU contains properties screens to configure the
parameters for each property.
7.5 Installation and Tools
The installation of the working prototype consisted of locating the Access Point in
various locations in the shop as specified by the initial layout of the Access Point
24
Coverage Chart, then using the laptop computers to map Actual AP coverage.
Equipment needed for installation of the AP included

Power strip and 100’ extension cord – for extending power to remote locations
for the on-line power injector

200’ CAT 5e patch cable for extending network coverage from the various
equipment racks to cat walks located above the shop floor

Netgear hub for increasing distances that the network could be extended for
remote AP locations too far from existing equipment racks.
The access point was located in three main areas of the shop to get a baseline for
coverage areas in these distinct locations. Each location presented different coverage
problems. The first location had high ceilings with large floor to ceiling steel storage
racks. The 2nd location was an area of high ceilings with low-level storage racks and high
concentrations of RF interference from heavy machinery. The 3rd location represented an
area of low ceilings crowded with offices and storage racks. Each location had high
amounts of overhead crane traffic.
7.6 Testing
After configuring the client adapters and AP, the AP was installed in each one of
the previously described locations. I then took a laptop client to each location where a
terminal currently exists on the shop floor. Using the site survey tools included with the
ACU, I documented the Signal quality, Signal strength, noise level, data rate and signal to
noise ratio at each location. Most testing was done during off-production hours to get a
baseline for the noise level.ii These measures define the quality of the connection between
the client and the AP.
At various locations, I cleared the statistics page then downloaded a large file
from the network. During the download, I noted the data transfer rate and time it took to
25
download the file. After each download, I checked the ACU statistics page and noted the
received and transmit statistics there. Noting the packet error rate gives an indication of
the level of multi-path interferenceiii at each site (Figure 9).
Figure 10: Screen shot of client utilities statistics page
Crane operation is a constant at Cincinnati Incorporated. The need to locate the
AP as high as possible for increased coverage means that these cranes will move back
and forth between the AP and the client antennas. To test the affect of the cranes on
network performance, I performed a link test and watched performance as someone
moved the cranes back and forth between the client and AP.
Various security protocols can impact network performance. Due to the nature of
various authentication protocols, the amount of traffic the network experiences can
increase as the AP and the clients “speak” to one another to verify they are who they say
26
they are. An example of this is Shared Key Authentication. Before even transmitting
data, the client and AP greet each other:

Client requests packet

AP sends a challenge text packet

Client sends encrypted challenge text packet

The AP then sends an Authentication Response packet
To test the affect of the additional traffic associated with increased security levels,
I instituted 128 bit shared key authentication on the AP and client, then compared
network performance to non-secure network performance.
To emulate a normal “busy” network, I located all four clients at various locations
within the AP coverage. I implemented 128 bit shared key authentication on each client,
then started a link test on each of three clients. The link test sends packets of a specified
size to the AP to test connection performance. While three of the clients were performing
the link test, I moved the fourth client to previous test locations and compared network
performance against previous test results.
7.7 Conclusions from the Working Prototype
The installation and testing of the WLAN provided some interesting results. The
initial layout of the APs and their coverage areas were based on published results of RF
interferences and rules of thumb for adequate coverage. The actual coverage of the APs
has been significantly greater. One reason for this is that multi-path effects of signals
reflecting off of material racks can actually accelerate the signals, thereby effectively
increasing the signal range. With one AP located in one of the more open areas of the
shop, adequate coverage extended to the entire shop floor except some of the offices
27
located farthest from the AP. With increased traffic on the network, coverage area of the
AP did decrease, but still far exceeded expectations. The preliminary results of this
testing suggests that the number of APs needed for complete shop floor coverage will
decrease from (24) to (10). The added coverage also means there will be no additional
fiber breaks or additional switches/hubs needed.
Early discussion with Enterasys to provide additional WLAN equipment seemed
to be going nowhere. Enterasys did provide a limited site survey and product
demonstrations at Cincinnati Inc. After negotiating with Chris Rosen from Enterasys
Networks, Enterasys provided enough hardware to add the finishing touches to the end
product. Namely, the network installation and testing that included:

A multi Access Point network installation

Test and configure the network for optimal performance and roaming clients

Institute and test security protocol.
8. Proof of Design
In Senior Design III the proof of design was needed to complete the project and
consisted of installing and testing an actual wireless network. The network installation
included determining which users would be used for network testing, determining the
needed coverage area, testing for client roaming and securing the network. After
performing the site survey and demonstrating the feasibility of installing a wireless local
area network on the shop floor at Cincinnati Incorporated, I then installed and tested the
larger wireless network.
The site survey at Cincinnati Incorporated was performed using Cisco Aironet
wireless hardware. The Cisco hardware was also used to test the feasibility of installing a
28
wireless network and to demonstrate a limited wireless network. To more fully test a
wireless implementation, Enterasys Networks provided me with enough hardware to
evaluate the usefulness and functionality of a wireless network over a period of three
months.
8.1 Network Installation and Testing
The installation of the network began with configuring the laptops for use on the
shop floor, determining the personnel that would be testing the wireless network, then
locating and installing the Access Points (AP). Testing the network consisted of
performing another site survey to determine the best location of the APs for the test
network, monitoring network traffic and uptime over a longer period of time and logging
user comments of the wireless network. Due to the short time that the evaluation
hardware is to be installed at Cincinnati Incorporated, securing the network was a matter
of limiting access to the company network from the shop floor and physically securing
the hardware. To test the security requirements of an actual enterprise wireless
deployment, I installed Windows 2000 Advanced Server on a laptop and used it to
implement various security protocols. The security protocols implemented were:

IEEE 802.1x

SSL/TLS Security Authentication

Public Key Infrastructure

Rapid Re-Keying
The following report focuses on deployment and monitoring of the Enterasys wireless
network, implementation and testing of various WI-FI security protocols, discussion of
29
emerging wireless tools for the manufacturing sector and a final cost/benefit analysis of
the wireless LAN vs. a TLAN in a manufacturing environment.
8.1.1 Determining the Coverage Area and Users
For testing the installation of the wireless network, I chose to deploy wireless
laptops to shop personnel that fit specific requirements:
1) They have a use for a mobile computing platform
2) They have a need to access MAC-PAC or the OCE CAD drawing software
3) They could physically secure the laptops
4) They were located within the proposed wireless coverage area
The personnel I chose consisted of the maintenance supervisor, Quality Control manager,
stockroom manager and the laser assembly manager. Keith, the maintenance supervisor,
already uses a laptop in his day-to-day functions. The applications he needed access to
included email and web surfing. This made Keith more of a power user and an excellent
source of network performance and coverage area monitoring. Keith also had an office to
lock up and recharge his laptop each evening. Keith’s office was located in an area that is
on the fringe of the AP coverage and was useful in showing that a wireless network could
provide entire shop floor coverage, including offices. John, in quality control, often uses
MAC-PAC functions for logging work done, inspection results and cycle count
adjustments for any parts he may have to scrap. John is centrally located within the
wireless coverage area and does not need a roaming platform, but he can lock up the
laptop each night along with the rest of his inspection tools. Fred, Stockroom facilitator,
has no need of CAD files, however, his day is spent tracking and stocking parts in several
stockroom locations. Fred represents a roaming user with a need to access MAC-PAC in
30
places that will present coverage problems for a wireless network. Tom, Laser Assembly
supervisor, will need the laptop for accessing and displaying engineering drawings on the
shop floor. Tom is now able to show his assemblers current drawings in a format that can
be enlarged for viewing small details. All these users were chosen for specific attributes
concerning their use of the laptops, and their ability to secure them. They were also
willing to carefully monitor network coverage and performance.
8.2 Securing the Network
The reason for an improved network is to supply the shop floor with more reliable
access to the Materials and Planning Requirements AS-400 database (MAC-PAC) and
access to electronic CAD files.
8.2.1 Wired Equivalency Protocol
By their very nature, wireless networks must broadcast their existence to the
world with data frames, called beacons. These beacons contain information about the
MAC address of the transmitting AP and the network name also called the SSID or the
service set identifier. The challenge is to keep the data that is being broadcast from being
passively collected, keep rogue access points and clients from disrupting communication
channels and keep hackers from actively accessing the company network.
WEP or the wired equivalent Privacy standard is the standard method for securing
wireless networks. WEP uses an encryption key, based on an RC4 algorithm, to protect
the data being sent across the network. The way it works, the AP transmits a challenge
beacon to a client. The client encrypts the challenge with an encryption key that is shared
by both the AP and the client. The client then resends the beacon in encrypted form, if the
AP decrypts the key successfully, then communication can take place between the client
31
and AP. This is known as “shared key authentication.” An AP that uses a specific WEP
key cannot communicate with a client that does not have this key, and the client cannot
gain access to the AP or the network behind it. The original WEP standard uses 40-bit
encryption, but most vendors now offer 128-bit encryption to offer more secure data
transmission.
8.2.2 Why WEP Won’t Work
Security experts have already determined that the WEP standard is easily
compromised. Various network analyzer tools such as Netstumbler and Airsnort are
available to “sniff” out wireless network information. MAC addresses and SSID’s that
are broadcast by a WEP based network can be detected to directly access the network or
“spoof,” or imitate, the client or AP. WEP authentication is only a one way transaction.
That is, the AP only verifies that the client has the correct key, the client does not verify
the AP is a valid AP. Wireless networks are vulnerable to active and passive attacks.
Some of these types of attacks are:

Client Impersonation – A MAC address is stolen or “spoofed” and used to
authenticate intruders

Access Point Impersonation – A rogue access point diverts legitimate users

Undetected Modification of Data – Once the encryption key is compromised, data
being sent can be stolen or modified.

Denial of Service – Association/disassociation messages are unencrypted and can
be forged to disassociate legitimate clients
Another drawback to WEP encryption is that the encryption key is static, and for network
administrators to change the keys they must physically or electronically ‘touch’ each AP
and client.
32
8.2.3 802.1x Security Protocol
Recognizing that the WEP protocol has limitations, the IEEE has adopted 802.1x
as the standard for authentication on wireless networks. 802.1x couples WEP encryption
with mutual authentication between a client and an authentication server. Man-in-themiddle attacks occur when authentication messages between the client and AP are
intercepted to gain access to network resources or to derive information about the
network and users.(3) With 802.1x mutual authentication, only legitimate clients can
access with legitimate APs. A client requesting access to the network first challenges the
AP for credentials, which can only be given if that particular AP has the authority to
communicate with a trusted certificate authority or RADIUS server that owns those
credentials (figure 10)
Figure 11: How 802.1x authentication works.
802.1x authentication coupled with WEP encryption allows for mutual
authentication of the client and AP. Through WEP, a client computer will request
communication with an AP only if they share the same WEP encryption key and SSID.
The AP will only communicate with those clients whose MAC addresses are specifically
33
listed in the AP’s MAC address filter. Once the client authentication has occurred will the
client ask the AP for its credentials. The AP will request those credentials, in the form of
certificates, from a RADIUS server on the network. If the Access Point is listed in the
RADIUS server’s list of valid addresses, credentials will be given to the AP to pass on to
the client. Once these credentials are passed onto the client, the client can communicate
directly with the network. If a hacker were to identify the SSID and spoof a client or AP
MAC address, communication would still not be possible with the network because the
that client or AP would not posses the credentials, in the, form of certificates, to access
the authentication server. 802.1x specifies a generic EAP or Extensible Authentication
Protocol to be used. EAP can take several forms:

MD5 – Challenge –based password, one-way authentication

TLS – Certificate-based two-way, mutual authentication

TTLS – Server authentication via certificates, client via another method
8.3 Implementing Network Security
Since I was installing the wireless network as part of an established corporate
network, I was responsible for securing the wireless network, without actually accessing
the corporate network itself. In other words, the IS department was not going to allow me
access to their servers to implement 802.1x-type authentication. Securing the wireless
network, took three forms: The first was physical, making sure laptops would be locked
up each night and that APs were located in positions that were difficult to access. The
second aspect of security was to limit access from the shop floor to only those resources
that were specifically needed. To do this, I implemented security policies on each laptop
that would prevent users from accessing denied resources. Policies were implemented
34
through Group Policy. The goal was to allow users access to two buttons: One for MACPAC, and one for the OCE Electronic Job Ticket (EJT) where CAD files could be
viewed. The third aspect was to secure the wireless network from being hacked into.
8.3.1 Physical Security
Physically securing network resources meant protecting hardware from theft and
damage. The Access Points are inherently difficult to access by their very nature. To
achieve the best coverage area, the APs were located above the shop floor along the
rafters. These locations made theft difficult, but clearance for the AP when the overhead
cranes passed by needed to be addressed to prevent damage to the APs and range
extender antennas. Securing the laptops and the wireless nics within them was my top
priority. Stealing a nic would make accessing the corporate network much easier. To
secure the laptops I only distributed them to users that could physically lock the laptops
in desks or closets after using them.
8.3.2 Securing User Access to Network Resources
The keys to providing a secure network is to make sure users have access to
allowed resources, and are denied access to disallowed resources. To accomplish this on
the Windows 98 platforms, I used the Poledit.exe policy editor tool. To use this tool, I
created a user, SFUSER, on the local computer. I then logged in as SFUSER, ran the
poledit utility and set the user restrictions as necessary for the local user. For example, to
restrict the users from being able to browse the network I removed access to Windows
Explorer, removed all menus from the Start menu and reconfigured the ‘F5’ key
(typically set to Find) to run only the MAC-PAC program. I set the wallpaper to the
official Cincinnati Incorporated wallpaper and put two icons on the Start Menu task bar.
35
One icon ran the MAC-PAC utility the other was a direct link to the EJT site on the
company Intranet.
For Windows 2000 and XP platform clients, I used Group Policy and the
GPEDIT.MSC utility to limit users access. The use of GPEDIT.MSC is similar the poledit
utility. To use, click Start, Run then type in gpedit.msc. The Group Policy console will
appear. There are two main branches, User Configuration and Computer Configuration.
Changes made to the User Configuration only affect the current user, changes to the
Computer Configuration apply to the computer and affect all users on that computer. To
control access to Start Menu and Desktop items I went to User\ configuration\
Administrative\Templates\Start Menu and Taskbar or User\configuration\Administrative\
Templates\ Desktop and set the items I wanted (Figure 11).
36
Figure 12: Group policy steps and screen shots
Implementing group policy on each machine secured the network from internal
attacks and abuse.
8.3.3 Securing the Air Waves
To secure the WLAN from detection through the use of common wireless
network sniffing tools, I used the AP and Client Manager utilities that come with the
Enterasys RoamAbout wireless products. The first step was to prevent the SSID or
network name from being broadcast. Start the AP Manager utilities used to configure the
Access Points, select the list of Access Points to be configured then select the Wireless
Parameters tab. From this location various wireless parameters can be set, to prevent the
37
Wireless Network Name or SSID from being broadcast I set Secure Access to enabled
(Figure 12).
Figure 13: AP Manager wireless parameters
To prevent just anyone from walking into the factory and being able to access the
wireless network with any wireless nic, I only allowed clients with specific MAC
addresses to associate with each AP. The Filtering tab in the AP Manager lists allowed or
disallowed MAC addresses (Figure 13).
38
Figure 14: MAC address filtering
To prevent passive monitoring of network traffic, and to verify authentication of
the clients I implemented 128-bit key encryption. The AP and Client can each list four (4)
encryption keys that can be used to encrypt and transmit or decrypt and receive data. As
long as the list on the AP matches the list on the client exactly, the two will be able to
associate. Any deviation in any one of these keys will end communication (Figure 14).
39
Figure 15: Enterasys AP Manager encryption key settings
Once the AP was configured I had to configure each client computer. The
RoamAbout client utility required that the Network Name be entered into the client
adapter and then on the Security page the same 128 bit encryption keys were entered as
on the AP. Any one of the four keys can be used for encrypting data, as long as they
match exactly what the AP has listed (Figure 15)
40
Figure 16: Enterasys client utility encryption screen
9. Testing the Network
Once the network was installed I tested various aspects of the wireless network.
Testing took the form of performing another site survey to verify and record AP
coverage, testing the network security I had implemented, tracking usage of the network
and recording user feedback.
9.1 Wireless network coverage
After installing the APs on the manufacturing floor, I used the Enterasys site
survey tools to record the actual coverage area of the wireless network. The site survey
was conducted in the same fashion as the earlier site survey. I walked around the shop
with a floor layout and marked the areas where the wireless connection was poor or
41
unreliable. I also listed the areas of the shop where roaming from one AP to another took
place (Figure 16).
9.2 Network security Testing
To test the security settings, I first used another client computer to verify that the
encryption keys were working. By changing the user parameters from encrypted to
unencrypted, I would associate and disassociate from the wireless network accordingly.
When I removed the client MAC address from the MAC address filter of the one of the
APs, I was unable to log back onto the network until I moved into the range of an AP that
had the client MAC address listed within its filter list.
The next step was to employ “NetStumbler” wireless network analysis tool to try
to determine network information. When I installed NetStumbler on a client computer
without any security parameters set, all the network information was readily viewable,
including MAC addresses of all active clients and APs, the SSID, the channels the access
points were broadcasting on and the type of hardware being used. On the locked down
network, NetStumbler was able to detect the AP hardware type, channels that the APs
were broadcasting on and the type of encryption being used. However, with Secure
Access enabled the SSID of the network was not available. The AP MAC addresses were
no longer detectable and no other clients were listed. It is interesting to note that when I
implemented 802.1x security protocols on a test network, the Network Stumbler
application was not able to register the type of encryption being used. This may be
because the 802.1x protocol employs multiple security strategies to thwart would be
hackers.
42
The next test was to verify that no other wireless laptops brought into the shop
could access the network. Professor Stockman provided his laptop for this test. Upon
arrival within the coverage area, the visiting laptop did not detect the wireless network
signal until encryption was removed from the AP. Even then, the SSID of the network
was not being broadcast to the visitor’s computer. Not until I listed the MAC address of
the visiting computer into the filter lists of the APs was the SSID broadcast to the visiting
computer and access to the network granted.
10. Cost/Benefit Analysis of WLAN vs. TLAN
The total cost of a network deployment includes life-of-network costs associated
with upgrades or expansions to the network. The following sections compare and contrast
the benefits of each topology and expand on the future of Wireless Local Area Networks.
10.1 Pros and Cons of the TLAN
The benefits of the wired Ethernet are its proven reliability and virtually unlimited
throughput. For Cincinnati Incorporated extending the corporate Ethernet is only a matter
of tapping into the fiber optic Ethernet backbone that already exists in the shop and
extending its reach via CAT5 cable, or where necessary, fiber optic cable. Extending the
tethered LAN requires no additional management tools and provides the bandwidth
necessary to handle even the most demanding applications.
The drawbacks to a TLAN are its inflexibility, the expense associated with
running Ethernet cable and the additional hardware needed for extending the Ethernet to
remote shop locations. Every time a new client terminal or PC enabled machine tool is
installed or moved, the cable must move with it thereby incurring the wiring cost again.
Running Ethernet cable down to and across the shop floor exposes the cable to damage
43
and increased bandwidth loss due to higher RF interference. Access to network resources
is as easy as plugging into an available RJ45 wall jack.
10.2 Pros and Cons of the WLAN
Extending the existing Ethernet backbone by installing a wireless LAN opens up
new opportunities to employ the ever-increasing tools available for mobile computing.
The benefits of a WLAN are:

Fast and Easy to install

Mobility

Scalable

Flexibility
For Cincinnati Incorporated, installing the APs means mounting the APs in rafters that
are secure from unintentional damage, require shorter wiring runs and are easily
accessible. Installing a wireless LAN opens the network to the use of PDAs, hand held
inventory tracking and control devices and wireless sensors for remote monitoring. A
WLAN is scalable meaning additional clients can be easily added to the network or
additional bandwidth can be provided by adding additional access points. No longer will
network resources be locked in a room or on the other side of the building, with wireless
computing personal computers and printers can be placed anywhere within the coverage
area. The drawbacks to installing a WLAN are:

Limited bandwidth

Inherent security risks

Difficulty of management

High initial installation costs.
44
Additional management tools are needed to secure and manage the wireless network.
Without centralized management software, each AP or client may need to be physically
accessed by a network administrator when new firmware upgrades are needed or
problems arise. An additional authentication server is needed to implement 802.1x
security protocols. The initial cost of the wireless hardware may exceed the cost of the
initial installation of its tethered counterpart.
10.3 Obstacle to installing a WLAN in a manufacturing environment
Known obstacles to installing WLANs in manufacturing environments include:

Material and supply racks cause multi-path interference

High levels of electromagnetic and RF interference

Limited bandwidth
Metal, tinted windows, cardboard and even people can all have some affect on signal
power. High concentrations of metal racks can cause signals to be slowed or accelerated
and cause ‘dead spots’ in coverage areas. Microwave ovens, 2.4 GHz portable phones
and poorly maintained electrical equipment can all add to RF interference and signal
degradation. Wireless is a shared medium, not switched. Bandwidth diminishes as the
number of users increase. High bandwidth intensive applications can significantly
degrade the effectiveness of WLANs.
10.4 Mitigating WLAN installation obstacles at Cincinnati Incorporated
The layout of the manufacturing floor at Cincinnati Incorporated allows for the
placement of the APs, in most bays, to be placed over forty feet into the rafters of the
ceiling. The higher an AP is placed, the greater its coverage area. The bays are expansive
and the signals bouncing off of metal structures were found to actually accelerate the
45
signals, effectively increasing the coverage areas. By strategically placing APs in areas
that are in line with equipment rack aisles, I was able to provide coverage to stock rooms
and equipment rack areas. By monitoring the RF noise levels of the manufacturing floor
over a period of eight months, I determined that the actual RF noise levels within the
shop are rather low. The difference in RF noise levels between peak and off-peak
production hours was minimal. By placing the AP in locations that balance the client
usage amongst several access points, bandwidth can easily be shared by many users. The
rule of thumb for clients per AP is twenty. In only one area of the shop did I exceed ten
users per AP. The types of applications that will be used over the wireless network are
small; transferring cnc programs and viewing PDF files are typical.
10.5 Potential Return on Investment of the WLAN
The total cost of a network deployment includes life-of-network costs associated
with upgrades or expansions. One of the benefits of a WLAN is the ease with which
future growth or changes to the network can be implemented. Potential growth of and
changes to the network may justify the higher initial cost of installing a wireless network
rather than a tethered network. Changes to the network may include:

Upgrades to machine tools with PC controls and TCP/IP connectivity

Hand held inventory control devices

Parts tracking through the shop using existing bar code technology already in
place

Remote testing and diagnostics for manufacturing equipment and production
machine on the assembly floor.

Addition of new machine tools or relocation of factory assets.
46
In a white paper released by Cisco Systems titled, “Wireless LAN Benefits study”
(Conducted by NOP World-Technology on behalf of Cisco Systems, Fall 2001) pointed
to two major benefits of WLANs. The first was cost savings associated with installation
and flexibility. These included costs associated with:

Cabling costs

Flexibility for adds, moves

Labor costs for adds, moves

Reduction in time to set-up and install

Reduced support and maintenance time
The next benefit of the WLAN was increased productivity due to:

Mobility within buildings

Convenience (no need to plug in)

Time savings

Improved accuracy, reducing errors by replacing paper with digital
The conclusion of the report, based on input from corporations where WLANs were
installed or being tested, was that, on average the financial benefit of installing a WLAN
was $450.00 per user, per year.
Another benefit of a wireless network is the growing number of tools available for
wireless connectivity. These tools include PLCs for remote monitoring of machines,
processes and adverse environments. PDAs and handheld barcode readers will replace the
count and log stock tracking procedures that are currently in place.
47
11. Conclusions
The network installation went well. The feedback I received was positive. The
shop floor managers using the network were excited about being part of cutting edge
technology. They were eager to get new tools to help increase their productivity. Keith,
the maintenance supervisor I used as a test subject is all for the wireless network. He is
responsible for wiring new terminals and maintaining the Ethernet infrastructure. Pulling
cable for new client installations is difficult. The time and manpower needed to run
Ethernet cables saps resources away from his main task of maintaining the company
infrastructure and machinery. Information Services realized gains in productivity also. To
add the wireless clients to the network Duane, the network administrator, configured the
client laptops at his desk in between other tasks. He then handed the laptops to me to
install the wireless nics and give the laptop to the users. There was no need to carry entire
desktop workstations to the users, attach them to the network and configure them there. A
suggestion was made that he could configure several laptops and have them in his office.
Whenever a new client computer was needed on the shop floor, he could just hand the
user a laptop, wireless nic and a power cord.
To satisfy the deliverables of this project I used a shop floor layout to create 3-D
models of the shop. These models I used to illustrate possible sources of RF interference,
position the APs for optimal performance and coverage, and layout measured wiring
diagrams for both the TLAN and WLAN. I performed a wireless site survey and set up a
working prototype to demonstrate the feasibility of installing a wireless network on the
manufacturing floor. I then installed a multi-user, multi-access point wireless network
and monitored that network over an extended period of time. I monitored the network for
48
performance and any unforeseen problems that may occur with a wireless network. I
implemented WEP based security on the network and group policy based security on the
client computers. I set-up a small server-based network to implement 802.1x security
protocols and tested the effectiveness of 802.1x security against various network analyzer
tools such as NetStumbler. I provided a Bill of Materials for each topology and multiple
wireless vendors. I compared the pros and cons of a WLAN vs. a TLAN so that IS could
make an informed decision about the best way to extend Ethernet connectivity to the shop
floor. Finally, I reported on future uses of the wireless network and the potential return on
investment.
There were five considerations required of a networking project. These were:
1. To combine some aspects of networking I, II, III
2. Learn some kind of new technology
3. Problem should be real world
4. Could solve a problem existing in a current network
5. Show depth as well as breadth of networking techniques
I fulfilled these considerations by:
a) Setting up Windows 2000 Server with DNS, DHCP, Active Directory and
Certificate Authority for the 802.1x test platform. I also used group policy for
instituting local user settings on the client computers.
b) I fully explored the concept of Wireless LANs.
c) This project was actually implemented at Cincinnati Incorporated and used to
determine the best way of extending the enterprise network to the manufacturing
floor.
49
d) I provided a cost efficient alternative to a Tethered LAN.
e) I showed a breadth of networking techniques by administering APs and clients
across the network. I implemented various physical and network security policies.
I installed the wireless network hardware. This included the access points, hubs,
power injectors and I made up and installed all my own cable runs.
Recommendations
There are several recommendations I would like to make to anyone considering a
network project. The first is to fully explore sources of funding for the network project
prior to delving into it and be flexible in the initial proposal. Network projects can be
hardware intensive and therefore expensive. When funding for this project was pulled I
spent months trying to find new sources of funding.
The next recommendation I would make is to be proactive and flexible in
scheduling. Networking projects typically involve a lot of other people: such as network
administrators and the network users. My schedule depended very much upon the
schedules of a diverse group of other people. I spent a lot of early morning, late nights
and weekends on the manufacturing floor installing, testing and managing the network.
Along these same lines, I recommend scheduling and preparing for the learning curve.
New technologies can take time to research and learn. There were a lot of stops and starts
associated with learning each vendor’s hardware and software and implementing new
security techniques. I also strongly recommend using corporate sponsors. They can be an
invaluable source of guidance and resources.
50
Appendix A.
Project Budget
Budget
Budget
Man hours
Site Survey
Foot work
40
Desk Work
44
Cost Analysis
Installation
80
48
12
Equipment Cost
Qty.
Unit Cost
Total
Laptop Computer
4
$
1,400.00
$
5,600.00
Enterasys R2 RoamAbout Access point
3
$
1,200.00
$
3,600.00
3
$
250.00
$
750.00
R2 11 Mb PCMCIA client adapter
Add Mezzanine card
3
$
250.00
$
750.00
R2 54 Mb PCMCIA client adapter
3
$
375.00
$
1,125.00
Cisco Site survey Kit
$
1,500.00
$
1,500.00
Desktop Computer and monitor
$
1,500.00
$
1,500.00
200' patch cord w/RJ-45 connectors
$
36.00
$
36.00
8' patch cords w/RJ-45 connectors
2
$
5.00
$
10.00
Netgear 8-port hub
2
$
180.00
$
360.00
$
7,000.00
$
7,000.00
$
22,231.00
Other Costs:
1 seat Solid Edge CAD software
Budget totals:
Total man hours
224 hours
Hardware components are to be supplied by
Cincinnati Inc, Protocol Communications and
Enterasys Networks.
51
Appendix B.
Project Timeline
Time Line
Project
Shop Floor Layout
Sept. 22, 2002 - Dec. 8, 2002
Preliminary layout of WLAN
Nov. 10, 2002 - Dec. 15 2002
Preliminary Layout of TLAN
Nov. 10, 2002 - Dec. 15 2002
Preliminary Cost of each topology
Dec. 8, 2002 - Jan. 19, 2003
Site survey - Build Prototype
Re-calculation of WLAN cost based on site
survey results
Set-up 2000 server for demonstrating network
Receive wireless equipment from Enterasys
Feb. 10, 2003 - Feb. 24, 2003
Feb. 24, 2003 - Feb. 27, 2003
Installation of terminals, network verification
April 15, 2003 - June 8, 2003
Demonstrate wireless project at Tech Expo
May 15-16, 2003
Mar. 28, 2003 – April 10
April 15, 2003
School
Problem Description
Sept. 22, 2003
First Meeting
Oct. 7, 2002
First draft of Proposal
Oct. 27, 2002 - Nov. 11, 2002
2nd Meeting
Nov. 14, 2002
Timeline
Oct. 29, 2002 - Feb. 20, 2003
Budget
Oct. 13, 2003 - Feb. 20, 2003
Final draft of Proposal
Nov. 24, 2002 - Dec. 8, 2002
PowerPoint Presentation
Dec. 15, 2002
Q2
Draft of Project Description, Use and User Profile
Jan. 30, 2003
Progress Report 1
Feb. 6, 2003
Draft of Design Freeze
Feb. 19, 2003
Deliverables
Feb. 19, 2003
Progress Report 2
Mar. 6, 2003
Design Freeze
Mar. 13, 2003
Design Freeze Presentation
Mar.20, 2003
Final Presentation
05-Jun-03
52
Appendix C.
Bill of Materials: Enterasys Networks
Enterasys Networks
Product
RBTR2-AZ
CSIES_AB 350
CSIES_AB C50
CSIBD-AA-128
CSIBD-PC-128
Installation
Qty
11
11
11
11
40
Description
RoamAbout AP w/mezzanine slot
Cable Kit
Range Extender Antenna
802.11b NIC W/128 BIT encryption
802.11b PC adapter W/128 BIT encryp.
11 Includes labor and hardware
Unit Price
$ 1,249.00
$ 175.00
$
85.00
$
80.00
$ 280.00
Extended Price
$ 13,739.00
$ 1,925.00
$
935.00
$
880.00
$ 11,200.00
$
$ 4,400.00
400.00
Total Installation cost
$ 33,079.00
With additional .11a
cards
RBTR2-AZ
CSIES_AB 350
CSIES_AB C50
CSIBD-AA-128
RBTBF-AX
CSIBD-PC-128
CSIBD-PC-128
11
11
11
11
11
20
20
Installation
11 Includes labor and hardware
Total Installation cost
RoamAbout AP w/mezzanine slot
Cable Kit
Range Extender Antenna
802.11b NIC W/128 BIT encryption
802.11a NIC W/128 BIT encryption
802.11b PC adapter W/128 BIT encrypt.
802.11a PC adapter W/128 BIT encrypt.
$ 1,249.00
$ 175.00
$
85.00
$
80.00
$ 190.00
$ 280.00
$ 480.00
$ 13,739.00
$ 1,925.00
$
935.00
$
880.00
$ 2,090.00
$ 5,600.00
$ 9,600.00
$
$
400.00
4,400.00
$ 39,169.00
53
Appendix D.
Bill of Materials: Cisco Systems
Cisco Systems
Product
AP352
AIR-352
AIR-PSINJSYS1200
AIR-ANT 4941
Installation
Qty Description
8
40
11
16
802.11 b wireless Access Point
802.11b NIC W/128 BIT encryption
In-line power injector
2.2dbi dipole antennas (included)
8 Includes labor and hardware
Unit Price
$ 580.00
$ 80.00
$ 42.00
$
0.00
$
Extended Price
$
$
$
$
4,640.00
3,200.00
462.00
0.00
400.00 $
3,200.00
$
11,502.00
Total Installation costs
Cisco 802.11a
Product
Qty Description
AIR-1200
AIR-PCM1200
AIR-PSINJSYS1200
AIR-ANT 4941
10
40
10
20
Installation
10 Includes labor and hardware
Total Installation costs
Dual slot Access Point
802.11a NIC W/128 BIT encryption
In-line power injector
2.2dbi dipole antennas
Unit Price
Extended Price
$
$
$
$
890.00
130.00
42.00
70.00
$
$
$
$
8,900.00
5,200.00
420.00
1,400.00
$
400.00 $
4,000.00
$
19,920.00
54
Appendix E.
Bill of Materials: Tethered LAN Installation
Tethered LAN
Product
Description
Qty
Cable and Installation
Includes cable,
manpower and terminus
block
23
$
1,000.00
$
23,000.00
3COM Office Connect
3 COM Superstack 3
8-port Hub
Switch
6
1
$
$
60.00
600.00
$
$
360.00
600.00
$
23,960.00
Total installation Cost
Unit Price
55
Appendix F.
Test Protocols
Test Protocols – working prototype






Install access point and map coverage and throughput in the coverage area
Create baseline performance numbers and RF noise during production and nonproduction hours.
Map signal to noise ratio, Packet Error Rate (PER), latency due to multi-path
affects, and lost packets.
Document affects of crane operation and other sources of RF interference to
network performance.
Determine how the implementation of various security protocols impacts network
performance.
Emulate live network traffic and document affects on network performance.
Test Protocols – Multi- Access Point Network




Check for roaming hand-off delay as clients move from one AP to the next.
Measure efficiency of clients to seek out least busy AP on different channels
Test network security
Monitor and log network performance over a period of time
56
NOTES
i
A half-duplex data transmission means that data can be transmitted in both directions on
a signal carrier, but not at the same time
ii
Noise level – the amount of RF signals the AP receives when no clients are transmitting
a level of RF interference
iii
Multi-Path interference – the affect of RF signals bouncing off of objects. Signals take
more than one path from transmit antenna to another than combine in the receiving
antenna to cause signal distortion
57
References
1. Alexander, Bruce and Snow, Stephen. “Preparing for Wireless LANS Secrets to
Successful Wireless Deployment.” Packet Magazine. April, 2002. 36-40
2. Bourquien, Marilyn. Manager, Information Services Department, Cincinnati Inc.
Personal Interview. Oct. 24, 2002.
3. Cisco Systems. “Cisco Aironet Wireless LAN Security Overview.”
http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/cc/pd/witc/ao350ap/prodlit/a350w_ov.htm.
03/13/2003.
4. Curran, John. “The Network Computer a.k.a Thin Client.”
http://www.networkbuyersguide.com/search/306002.htm. 1997
5.
Gast,
Matthew. 802.11 Wireless Networks: The Definitive Guide. Sebastopol, Ca.
O’Reilly. 2002.
58