22 Cleaning Hints from Web

Check to make sure the rifle is unloaded and the magazine is empty.
in the wrong direction ("muzzle to breech") you will bring powder residue and
abrasive dirt from the barrel into the chamber and neck. This causes stuck cases
and other malfunctions of the action. The next bullet down the barrel will drag
this dirt and erode the bore.
Small Caliber Cleaning - from Otis site
It is absolutely essential to clean in the direction of the projectile.
Assemble the cleaning rod place "T" handle end into the receiver. Run the rod
the length of the barrel in the direction of the bullet.
Place 2 to 4 drops of cleaner on the front end of the swab only.
Pull the rod and the patch will enter the chamber. On 22 rim-fire it is
important to turn the rod and swab to scrub the chamber and shoulder.
Pull the rod and patch in the direction of the bullet. This pulls the powder
residue, lead and airborne dirt out of the bore in the shortest distance away
from the chamber and receiver.
Always use a new clean patch surface each time you go down the bore.
22 rim-fire semi autos require special chamber attention. The wax from the lead
bullet mixes with the powder residue and causes most of the problems associated
with extraction and loading. By keeping the shoulder clean and by always pulling
the powder residue away from the chamber, semi-autos perform as well as bolt
From: bartb@hpfcla.fc.hp.com (Bart Bobbitt)
Newsgroups: rec.guns
Subject: Cleaning .22 LR Rimfire Barrels
Date: 7 Mar 1994 18:32:52 -0500
There's a really neat thing on the market for removing lead from
barrels. Sold by Kleen Bore, they're 1-in. square cotton patches
impregnated with some chemicals. Sold in boxes of 25 for about
$2.40, I got a box and tried them.
My smallbore match rifle had been cleaned quite well with Hoppe's
No. 9 solvent, then the bore wiped dry with patches. Leaving a
film of No. 9 in the barrel for an hour did not dissolve any more
lead that could be picked up by a cleaning patch. So, it appeared
squeaky clean.
I usually run a benchrest bronze brush through the barrel from
breach to muzzle direction only a couple of times about every
500 rounds. I had done this in the cleaning process used.
Then I takes one of these Kleen Bore lead removing patches, puts
it on my nylon jag, and slowly pushes it through the bore.
To my surprise, it came out black! I reversed the lead removing
patch on the jag, then pushed it through again. This time, it
came out gray in color. It must have removed something that the
standard procedures did not get. I then put another one through
but it didn't show any discoloration indicating the bore was more
or like the fuels most cars use these days; unleaded.
To verify the blackening was not due to chemical reaction with
the blued bore, I took another lead removing patch and rubbed in
on the barrel's outside; no color change. Seems to prove that
the one that went through the bore did remove the last microinches
of fouling.
I would guess these Kleen Bore lead removal patches would work in
any barrel to remove all the lead.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------From: bartb@hpfcla.fc.hp.com (Bart Bobbitt)
Subject: Re: Cleaning .22 LR Rimfire Barrels
Organization: Hewlett-Packard Fort Collins Site
Mike Beck - Leeds University Rifle Coach (bmb5meb@bpxtal.leeds.ac.uk) wrote:
: We clean our .22 match rifles at the end of
: every term (3 times a year) so that they're
: clean when they're not being used
: over the holidays.
My smallbore rifle has about 2000 rounds of test-fired shots through it. In
a local, 100-yard indoor range, many tests were done to determine the rounds
to be fired to foul the bore enough to start opening up the groups. I used
Tenex, Temp, Olimp-R and R50 ammo. With each ammo type after about 120
shots, 100-yard groups would start opening up about 1/4th to 3/8ths of an inch
at 150 shots. Then the barrel was cleaned. About 3 to 5 fouling shots were
needed before the groups would go back to their 5/10ths to 7/10ths inch
size. 15-shot groups were used for each test. After this scenerio was
repeated dozens of times, that convinced me that the barrel should be cleaned
after about 100 shots if peak accuracy is desired.
In tests at 25 and 50 yards, increases in test group sizes were barely
noticed. Groups at 50 yards would increase in size just enough to be seen.
At 25 yards, I could not tell any difference after firing 300 shots. I would
hazard a guess that at 50 feet (or less), accuracy degradation may never
be noticed even after thousands of rounds are fired. Which makes sense to
me as the bullet is in flight only about 1/8th as long as it is enroute to
100 yards; there's not enough time for an unbalanced bullet to move any
significant amount at right angles to its flight path in only 50 feet.
At first, I would use a bronze bore brush after about every 500 shots. When
I started using Kleen Bore lead removing patches after 500 shots or so, my
test groups were a tad smaller than before. I stopped using these patches
and went back to using bore brushes; test groups got about 1/8th of an inch
bigger at 100 yards. After going back to using Kleen Bore patches, test
groups got smaller again.
After talking with some of the top smallbore shooters in the USA, they
told me my test data was very normal with what they have noticed. Frequent
cleaning is more important at the longer ranges. At ranges less than 50
yards, it may take thousands of rounds test fired from machine rested rifles
to note group sizes increasing after 100 to 150 shots are fired.
Gun Cleaning
By Chuck Hawks
After the fun of shooting comes the drudgery of cleaning one's guns. For this
purpose most shooters acquire a cleaning kit. If you are starting out, the
basics can be acquired as a package deal, the kit from Outers being typical.
Cleaning kits typically include a three section aluminum cleaning rod of
appropriate diameter for the caliber purchased (one section if it is a pistol
cleaning kit), two tips to hold patches, cloth cleaning patches, a bore brush, a
bottle of liquid powder solvent, and a bottle of gun oil. Some kits include a
small tube of gun grease, and if it is a shotgun cleaning kit it usually
includes a bore swab. To use one of these kits, merely follow the directions
that come with the cleaning kit.
After purchasing the basic kit, you will need to add patches, tips, and brushes
in all the calibers for which you own guns. You may also need to purchase
additional cleaning rods. Cleaning rods are generally available in diameters for
.22 rifles (and pistols), centerfire rifles (and pistols), and shotguns. Some
shooters prefer to purchase one-piece steel cleaning rods, which are better but
more expensive and less portable than the jointed aluminum kind.
In addition to the basic cleaning kit I recommend the purchase of a silicone
cloth. This is used to wipe fingerprints off the gun after handling and replaces
the traditional oily rag. Silicon cloths are excellent protection against "rust
There are also silicon-based sprays for external use on firearms (which are then
wiped down). I have never used silicon sprays myself, but those that do report
favorably on them.
Prolix total gun care product is a proprietary cleaner, lubricant, and
preservative that can replace both traditional powder solvent and gun oil. It
comes in 16 ounce plastic bottles with "trigger squeeze" tops, or bulk jugs.
Prolix is a one step gun cleaner that will not harm wooden stocks, but you
should test it on plastics before use. (It does not attack the polymer used in
Glock pistols.) I first read about Prolix in Peter Kasler's book GLOCK: The new
Wave in Combat Handguns. Prolix is the chosen cleaning product of Glock
armorers. It contains industrial grade solvents that penetrate and remove
I spray Prolix down the barrel to remove fouling, let it sit for a short time,
and clean the barrel as I would if using a normal powder solvent. Prolix is the
only cleaner/lubricant I will spray into an action. After cleaning, wipe off all
the Prolix you can. Prolix has a dry solid lubricant/protectant base that leaves
a residue at the molecular level on gun parts that is very long lasting. It
completely eliminates the use of gun oil.
An accessory I use to clean my gun barrels is the "Bore Snake." This is a
Hoppe's product that pretty much replaces the tiresome chore of running patch
after patch through the bore. It is a synthetic cord several feet long and
slightly larger than the bore size for which it is intended. At the front of the
Bore Snake is the first floss area, designed to remove foreign particles prior
to the scrubbing action of the brush. A bore brush is embedded in the next
couple of inches of the cord to loosen hard deposits. The rest of the Bore Snake
is the main floss, with 160 times more surface area than an ordinary patch. A
length of small diameter cord, considerably smaller than the bore size, is
attached to the leading end of the Bore Snake; it has a skinny brass weight at
its tip.
When I use a Bore Snake I generally saturate the first floss area with Hoppe's
#9 bore solvent. Then I drop the Bore Snake's brass weight into the breech of
the gun and let it carry the small diameter cord through the barrel and out the
muzzle. Next I grab the cord and slowly pull the body of the Bore Snake
completely thorough the barrel. Just to make sure, I pull the Bore Snake through
the barrel a second time (without adding Hoppe's). That's it, the barrel is
cleaned. Bore Snakes are made for all common rifle, pistol, and shotgun
A handy accessory for quickly wiping a shotgun barrel is the Tico Tool from
Silencio (the ear protector people). The Tico Tool looks like a very long, very
skinny "duster" (of the sort your mother used to dust bookshelves) that mated
with a shotgun cleaning rod. Like Bore Snakes, they are made to fit specific
gauges. The Tico Tool is merely pushed back and forth through the shotgun's
bore, exactly like a cleaning rod. Because it fits tightly, it removes the bulk
of the loose powder residue, just like a feather duster carries off dust. An
accessory tip (supplied with the Tico Tool) is used to oil the shotgun barrel
after the Tico Tool has done its work. A Tico Tool is a handy accessory at the
range, but it cannot be said to actually clean the gun.
A good accessory to keep with your cleaning kit is a bore light. These are
basically penlight flashlights with a light conducting plastic tip that is bent
at an angle. The plastic tip can be inserted into the breech of a firearm so
that the light shines down the bore. A bore light makes it easy to see the
inside of a gun barrel.
While I am most likely to spend my money on products that speed-up gun cleaning,
like Bore Snakes and Tico Tools, there are also products designed to do a better
job than the ordinary cleaning kit. One of these, used by a good friend who
praises it extravagantly, is the Outers Foul Out kit. This is an Electrochemical process basically consisting of an electrode rod that goes in the bore,
a liquid electrolyte, a bore plug, connecting wires, and an electronic "black
box." When assembled per the instructions, the system is plugged in and cleans
the bore Electro-chemically. An LED on the black box comes on to indicate when
the core is clean. The length of time it takes for the LED to come on depends on
the amount of fouling in the bore. Typically this process takes from 1/2 to
several hours. Foul Out is the ultimate bore cleaner and works with handguns or
One thing worth noting on the subject of gun cleaning is to go very easy with
the gun oil. Keep excessive oil out of the bore and action of any firearm. Very,
very little oil is required to lubricate the action, and none is necessary in
the bore unless the gun is to be stored for an extended period of time. Excess
oil collects dust and dirt and accelerates wear. It can also gum up an action,
and it will attack and soften a wooden stock. (Regular gun oil is completely
different from the kind of oils used to finish stocks.) If you use Prolix to
clean and lubricate, and a silicone cloth to wipe down, you can omit gun oil
altogether and your guns will be better for it.
Rifle Cleaning from www.otisgun.com ( Otis Products Inc.)
Check to make sure the rifle is unloaded and the magazine is empty.
The most important rule of gun cleaning is to always clean from breech to muzzle
in the direction of the bullet. There are no exceptions to this rule. If you go
in the wrong direction ("muzzle to breech") you will bring powder residue and
abrasive dirt from the barrel into the chamber and neck. This causes stuck cases
and other malfunctions of the action. The next bullet down the barrel will drag
this dirt and erode the bore.
Pull a patch with solvent through the bore to mop out any loose residue and
Pull a brush. Turn it to clean the neck and shoulder of the neck.
Pull a new swab to mop the residue the brush loosened.
Otis All-Caliber Swab
The All-Caliber swab will clean from 22 to 45 caliber rifles. The swab is a
significant break through in gun cleaning. This one swab replaces five different
size patches. Each swab can be used 6 times offering 6 new clean surfaces
Slot "A" is used with the smallest brass #2 tip. This cleans 22 to 30 caliber
Slot "B" is used with the middle size #3 tip to clean 30 to 45 caliber. Refer to
Chart B for detailed pinch locations.
1. Take a pinch on the swab. Pinch the swab upward as illustrated.
2. Feed the tip of the fold through the slot in the brass tip.
3. Pull the fold through tightly to lock the swab on the tip. This will make a
knot that will scrub deep into the rifling.
You have now created a cone that will give 360 degree coverage.
By pinching in different locations you can vary the size of the swab.
4. Apply 3 to 5 drops of solvent to the front end of the knot in the swab.
Do not dip the swab or brush into solvent. This will allow excess solvent to
wash residue into the trigger group.
The solvent will be squeezed out of the swab when it enters the shoulder of the
chamber. The solvent will flush ahead of the swab knot and lubricate any
abrasive dirt in the bore.
It is not necessary to disassemble the rifle. Just open the action as if you
were inserting a cartridge.
5. Run the cleaning rod down the bore in the natural direction of the bullet.
If the rifle has limited breech access (22 rim-fire semi automatics etc.),
place the tip with swab into the chamber as you would insert a shell. Run the
rod into the barrel and turn to attach the tip. Pull the residue and dirt from
the barrel in the direction of the bullet.
6. Turn the rod as you enter the locking lugs. This is the most important area
of the rifle.
Use your finger to force the turning swab into the recess in front of the lugs.
Continue turning the swab as it enter the chamber. This will mop out the gummy
buildup at the shoulder.
Continue to turn the swab as you enter the neck to clean and lubricate this
Now that you have cleaned the loose residue out of the receiver, locking lugs,
chamber, shoulder, and neck, we will clean the bore. Do not worry about swivels,
for the rod rotates within itself. Use the "T" handle if you desire. Pull the
rod and swab in the direction of the bullet.
7. Turn the swab over and use a new surface for your next cleaning cycle.
Using Chamber and Bore Brushes
1. Attach the brush to the end of the flexible rod.
2. Turn the brush to first loosen the residue in the neck.
3. After scrubbing the neck pull the brush in the direction of the bullet
"breech to muzzle"
4. Now run the swab as we described earlier. This will mop out residue you have
loosened with the brush.
NOTE: The neck is critical to the accuracy of the rifle. When the new round is
inserted the brass case is a few thousands of an inch from the throat or start
of the bore. The new bullet rests at the start of the throat. When the rifle is
fired the case elongates to the shoulder of the neck. If dirt is present the
bullet gets trapped and has a later release time. The bore brush is made
oversize to scrub this critical area.
If the chamber is not maintained properly fired cases may get stuck in the
chamber. This will also occur in cold weather situations.
To remove the case, run the flexible cleaning rod into the bore, and with rapid
taps hit the base of the case. Eventually, the stuck case will be removed.
Cleaning Procedure For All Firearms
It is very important to understand and develop a comfortable and rewarding gun
cleaning program for your valuable firearms.
Many times people think that a collector firearm is your neighbor's engraved
rifle or an expensive shotgun. This is very far from the real truth. A collector
grade firearm is your dad's old shotgun or rifle; the one that he used when he
taught you your first hunting or shooting skills. This firearm becomes more
valuable as each day passes.
Those who do not clean and take care of their family heirlooms soon learn that
they have nothing more than a wall hanger to pass on to their children. If you
inherit your dad's or grandfather's rifle and have an excellent bore, hang onto
it! Many people will want to buy your barrel or parts to repair their own
rifles. Manufacturers no longer make many of these parts, and because they
don't, they become more valuable every day.
So don't let the sun set on a dirty gun! You will pay a dear price for not
maintaining your investment.
Some facts you may not be aware of:
Firearms are a better investment than money in the bank. When you sell a good
firearm you will get a better return on your investment.
Firearms are the most stable commodity that you can invest in. Look at the ups
and downs in the gold and metals markets. During economic chaos, he who has the
guns has the gold! If you take care and clean correctly, your lever actions and
auto loaders will outperform most single action firearms. This is especially
true in 22 rim-fire semi-autos that are almost always cleaned incorrectly
(muzzle to breech).
To clean, open the action as if you were going to insert a cartridge. Run the
cleaning rod down the bore in the natural direction of the bullet. Pull the
patch and the powder residue out of the barrel. It is this easy to clean any
rifle in less than one minute. You can be assured that you are doing it properly
to maintain the firearm.
When you clean, it is best to put an obstruction remover on one end of the rod
this, facilitates cleaning and protects the threads of the rod. Using the proper
size patch and the Otis method of attachment you can turn the rod in a clockwise
direction in the receiver. The patch turns into a cone and cleans the entire
circumference. Pull the turning patch into the chamber and clean the locking
lugs. It is best to invest a few seconds cleaning the chamber. This will prevent
stuck cases and guarantee you a second shot. As you continue to turn you will
clean the most important areas of your rifle, the shoulder and the neck. This is
shell space. If you keep this clean you will prolong the life of your firearm,
and the bullet will leave the shell at a constant velocity. Continue to turn
until the patch is in the bore. The solvent has been squeezed out of the patch
and flows ahead of the patch and down the bore. This solvent will lubricate and
remove powder residue or abrasive dirt that is in the bore. Continue to pull the
rod out of the barrel in the natural direction of the bullet.
It is very important to note that you never run a brush down the barrel first.
This will always damage the firearm. If you have dirt or moisture in the barrel,
it will get into the bristle on the brush. The next time the brush is in the
neck, it will deposit some of the dirt. This is the exact equivalent of cleaning
in the wrong direction.
It is important that if you have any dirt in the bore that you do not run the
same patch surface down the barrel again. If you do, the dirt that was picked up
on the patch may scratch the lead to the throat. Take advantage of the six
position patch and use a clean surface each time you pull the patch down the
It is important to put the patch on correctly to give the tightest possible
patch. This allows the patch to mold itself to the inside configuration of the
bore and scrub deep into the corners of the rifling.
Run successive patches down the barrel until the patch comes out clean. For long
term storage, run a loose patch and let the oil stay in the bore.
If you are going to use the firearm, run a tight dry patch. Target shooters have
learned that this tight dry patch will eliminate a fouling shot. Their first
shot will be close to every succeeding shot. Many people need a fouling shot
because they left solvent or oil in the barrel. This oil causes increased
pressure behind the bullet, thus it goes in a slightly different position. As a
hunter or military sniper, you will appreciate this as you do not have a fouling
shot. Your first shot is usually your only and most important shot.
After you run the first patch down the barrel, you can now use a brush.
Remember: Only run the brush from breech to muzzle. Otis produces short, heavy,
brass bore brushes that can easily be inserted from the chamber to the muzzle.
The brush of the proper size should always be used. You can consult the brush
chart for a reference size. The Otis brushes are oversized. They clean the neck
as you pull them down the barrel. It is recommended that when the brush is in
the chamber that you turn the rod and brush in a clockwise direction. This will
scrub the corner of the neck. This is important. If powder residue builds up in
this corner, the case will pinch on the bullet and you will get random release
times. Anyone who reloads knows this is the same problem if you do not trim the
case length properly. The case will be too long for the neck and pinch the
It is recommended that you clean the rod and components with a used swab before
putting them in the case
If you purchase a used firearm, pull one of the Otis brushes down the bore. The
brush is so precise that any bore wear or rusty spots can be felt in the rod.
The most important rust problem you will pick up is near the muzzle. Many rifles
have rust deep in the corners of the rifling. This is caused by a rifle that had
rain or moisture in the muzzle. Most people do not clean this moisture out of
the bore. In a matter of hours, the raw fired barrel will start to rust. You can
prevent this condition by always having your cleaning equipment with you in the
field where you are using the firearm. When you are hunting in the wet weather,
just run a tight patch with solvent down the barrel and get this moisture out.
Obviously, you would want to go from breech to muzzle. Just think about going in
the wrong direction and pushing all of this water into the chamber. The next day
a stuck case is the result.
You will find that the Otis brushes will give you many if not at least 20 times
the life of an ordinary brush. The main reason is you do not have the ability to
reverse this brush in the bore. You can only pull the brush from breech to
muzzle. Many people with solid rods have the tendency to go back and forth with
the brush. This is equivalent to bending a wire back and forth until it breaks.
Reversing a brush in the bore always damages the brush, and many times damages
the bore. This must never be allowed to happen on any valuable firearm. You may
notice that when you pull a brush out of the bore, the bristles throw the powder
residue away from the firearm. Placing a patch over the rod and muzzle will
illustrate how the brush catapults the dirt. This is necessary to clean the
brush so that you do not drag this abrasive dirt back through the chamber and
neck. Can you imagine someone going in the wrong direction? We have all done
this with the old conventional equipment. This catapults the dirt right into the
chamber, locking lugs and receiver. In fact this is the number one cause of
firearm malfunctions.
You may notice that each tool has a compartment in the soft-pak case.
Professionals never work out of a bucket. If you throw your tools into a box the
tool you need the most is back on the last job. With a tool compartment like the
soft-pale all your equipment is in one place and accounted for.
The Otis bore solvent has a rust inhibitor and preservative added. It is also
recommended for the outside of the barrel. Put a few drops on a patch and rub
into the surface until dry.
Limited Breech access
On some rifles (such as 22 rim-fire semi automatics and small frame revolvers)
you may not be able to get the tip into the chamber because it is too long when
assembled on the rod. Take the tip off and put the patch on as you normally
would. Put the tip into the chamber just as if you were inserting a shell. Turn
the cleaning rod in a clockwise direction and reattach the tip. Pull the powder
residue and debris out of the barrel in the natural direction of the bullet. The
same procedure will be needed for the brush. In some rare cases the brush cannot
be used. Repeat this step each time until the firearm is clean. You may want to
try the small caliber equipment on the 22 rim-fire.
Otis produces a solvent, lubricant, and rust inhibitor in one product. The
important rule is not to overuse any cleaning product. Only a few drops on the
front of the patch is necessary. If you use too much solvent, it will wash dirt
into the trigger mechanism. This is the cause of a sticky trigger. If you let
the firearm stand with the muzzle up, the solvent will drip into the receiver
and cause premature failure of the stock.
Fouling Shots
Some target shooters must take a fouling shot. One of the reasons for this is
that they have left oil or solvent in the corners of the rifling. This will
increase the pressure by causing an abnormal seal on the bullet. You can
increase the accuracy of your first shot by making sure no oils are left in the
corners of the rifling. Simply run a dry tight patch through the bore before you
intend to use the firearm. This is a must for hunters or snipers who are not
afforded the luxury of a fouling shat
Rusted Bores
This is simply a condition that exists with many firearms. When you go to
purchase a firearm clean the bore and run a brush from the breach to the muzzle.
Pull slowly and choke up on the cleaning rod. You will be able to feel the
inside of the rifling as you pull. Sometimes the brush will start to pull with
less resistance, and this is an indication of an oversized bore.
If this occurs at the throat, the firearm may have been fired many times. If the
bore is oversized near the muzzle, someone allowed water to lay in the bore.
This is common occurrence and exists in over 1/3 of the used firearms. The above
condition greatly effects the accuracy of the firearm and a new barrel is
usually the only cure.
Barrel Condition
When you purchase a firearm, remember that all firearms record their history
form the breech to the muzzle. Look down the barrel of the firearm. You can tell
about how many shots have been fired, and the cleaning method (solid sectional
rods leave marks in the muzzle and rifling). Shot out barrel and rusted barrels
can sometimes be detected.
Aluminum Cleaning Rods
Aluminum rods will damage most firearms if they are allowed to rub extensively
in the barrel. You may believe that aluminum is soft and will not damage the
firearm. Aluminum creates an oxide on its outer surface. This oxide is similar
if not identical to the aluminum oxide used in grinding wheels and knife
sharpening equipment. This oxide will lap the bore and make it oversized and
uneven. Any oversized condition allows gas to escape ahead of the bullet, thus
random velocities occur.
Tight Patch
Many cleaning instructions recommended that you do not run a tight patch. This
is because the rod is so cheap it will break or bend. Run as tight a patch as
possible, as this will mold the patch into the corners of the rifling. One tight
patch will do the work of 20 or more times with a loose patch