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i4.25
Link 10
Owner's Manual
Xantrex
Link 10
Battery Monitor
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Notice of Copyright
Xantrex Link 10 Battery Monitor © November 2002 Xantrex
International. All rights reserved.
Xantrex is a registered trademark of Xantrex International.
© 2002 Xantrex International. All rights reserved.
Disclaimer
UNLESS SPECIFICALLY AGREED TO IN WRITING, XANTREX
TECHNOLOGY INC. (“XANTREX”)
(a) MAKES NO WARRANTY AS TO THE ACCURACY,
SUFFICIENCY OR SUITABILITY OF ANY TECHNICAL OR
OTHER INFORMATION PROVIDED IN ITS MANUALS OR
OTHER DOCUMENTATION.
(b) ASSUMES NO RESPONSIBILITY OR LIABILITY FOR LOSS
OR DAMAGE, WHETHER DIRECT, INDIRECT,
CONSEQUENTIAL OR INCIDENTAL, WHICH MIGHT ARISE
OUT OF THE USE OF SUCH INFORMATION. THE USE OF ANY
SUCH INFORMATION WILL BE ENTIRELY AT THE USER’S
RISK.
Date and Revision November 2002, Revision 1
Part Number 445-0195-01-01
Contact Information
Web: www.xantrex.com
Email: CustomerService@xantrex.com
Phone: 1 800 670 0707 (toll free in North America)
1 604 422 2777 (direct)
Fax: 1 604 420 2145
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Table of Contents
DO NOT INSTALL OR USE THIS PRODUCT UNTIL YOU HAVE READ THE ENTIRE
OWNER’S MANUAL. IMPROPER INSTALLATION OF THIS UNIT MAY BE HAZARDOUS AND VOIDS YOUR WARRANTY.
Quick Reference Guide..................................................................................................5–6
Introduction.........................................................................................................................7
Battery Basics.....................................................................................................................8
Installation......................................................................................................................9–15
Startup................................................................................................................................16
Synchronizing the Link 10................................................................................................17
Operation......................................................................................................................18–24
Setting Battery Capacity....................................................................................................21
Temperature Sensor (optional)...........................................................................................25
Setting Peukert's Exponent...............................................................................................26
Low Battery Alarm.................................................................................................27, 35–38
Reset and Lock...................................................................................................................28
Historical Data...................................................................................................................29
Advanced Functions.....................................................................................................30–34
Peukert’s Equation.......................................................................................................39–42
Troubleshooting.................................................................................................................43
Options and Versions.........................................................................................................44
High Voltage Prescaler (optional)......................................................................................45
Electric Vehicles...........................................................................................................46–47
Lift Truck Installations......................................................................................................48
Serial Port, RS-232 (optional)............................................................................................49
High Voltage Notes............................................................................................................50
CE Declaration of Conformity..........................................................................................51
Limited Warranty..........................................................................................................52–54
Index...................................................................................................................................58
Specifications.....................................................................................................................59
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Basic Wiring Diagram
+OSITIVE
P
EM
T
VE
S
I
Y
T
S
+
EGA
N
M
The Xantrex Link 10
works with flooded or
gel lead-acid batteries
TE
S
Y
S
The 500 A 50 mV
shunt senses current
in or out of your
battery.
2 amp
Fuses
1234567
1234567
1234567
1234567
1234567
1234567
Twisted pair wire is used for shunt
sensing leads for noise immunity.
Battery Compartment
Meter Location
Top Rear View of Meter
4
-DC Meter Negative (BLACK)
Shunt Sense Lead Load Side (GREEN)
Shunt Sense Lead Battery Side (ORANGE)
Battery Volt Sense (0–50 V DC1) (BLUE)
+DC Meter Power (9.5–40 V DC) (RED)
Optional Temperature Sensor Input
Optional Low Battery Alarm
Optional Temperature Sensor Ground
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
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Quick Reference
The Light Bar
The light bar shows state-of-charge at a glance.
Here's what the lights mean:
EMPTY
FULL
Full
80–99%+
60–79%+
40–59%+
20–39%+
0–19%+
Status Lights
Shows what number is
being displayed
The
Button
When you press the
button, you
SELect a numeric display. In normal
operation, each press illuminates a status light. The light indicates volts are
light indicates
being displayed, the
amps,
indicates amp hours, and
indicates time. We’ll explain these terms
on the next page.
For shortest charging times,
lead acid battery in marine or
RV service is normally discharged 50% then recharged
to 85–90% of full. Restoring
the last 10–15% of a full charge
requires a long time—typically
2–3 hours. This means only
35–40% of your battery capacity is actually available
for normal use. Occasionally
discharging a battery more
deeply is perfectly acceptable.
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Quick Reference
Amps
Amp hours
Amps is the present flow
of current in or out of your
battery. For example, a refrigerator may draw 6.2
amps of current. This is
displayed as -06.2 (6.2
amps are being consumed).
Amp hours consumed
represents the amount
of energy removed
from the battery. If you
run a 10-amp load for
one hour, the Link 10
will show -10.0 in the
display.
Volts
Volts is electricity’s potential to do work. Voltage
helps assess approximate
state-of-charge and to
check for proper charging.
A 12 V battery is considered 100% discharged
when it drops below 10.5 V.
Setup Features
Locks front
panel.
6
Time
Advanced Functions
Press and hold the
SET button for 3 seconds to enter the Setup
and Advanced Functions mode. SEL
appears in the display.
Advanced
Functions:
Customizes the
Shows charging
Link 10's functions.
efficiency and
For details read
historical data.
AH
AH) or pages 29–30 and
Resets amp hours (AH
pages 34–37.
ALL
(ALL
ALL) defaults.
Time is an estimate of
how long your battery
will sustain a load. A
Time display of 3.7
hours means you have
approximately 3 hours
42 minutes of operating
time remaining.
Key Advanced Functions
F01
F02
F09
F15
F17
Scanning
Sleep Mode
Discharge Floor
S/WVersion
Test Lights
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Introduction
Congratulations! The Xantrex Link 10 is the most advanced (Patents
Pending) DC power measurement instrument available. It shows you:
Battery State-of-Charge on a multicolor light bar.
System voltage accurate to 1/20th of a volt (<20 VDC).
System current accurate to 1/10th of an amp (<40 amps).
Amp hours removed from, or put into, your battery.
Time of operation remaining until recharging is required.
For installation and operation questions, please contact Xantrex at 1-800670-0707 (toll free) or 1-604-422-2777 (direct). You can also email Xantrex
at CustomerService@xantrex.com. For warranty and technical support
please follow the process outlined on page 52.
If you wish the Link 10 to support an external Low Battery Alarm, such as
a bell or buzzer, or if you need the Link 10 to report data to a computer or
data logging unit, these options must be included at the time of manufacture and cannot be retrofitted in the field.
The installation of the Link 10 is simple, as is its operation. However, there
are many advanced features and functions, so please take the time to read
and thoroughly understand this manual.
Installer's Note: This manual contains operating
instructions. Please leave it with the meter!
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Battery Basics
Why monitor a battery?
Batteries can be ruined by excessive discharge. They may also be damaged by under-charging. A battery (or bank of batteries) may be storing
less energy than you think. The Link 10 provides all the key data you, or
your technician, need to make decisions about battery use and charging.
How does the Link 10 work?
The Link 10 uses sophisticated microprocessor technology to report all
significant battery information. The Link 10 monitors battery voltage and
current over time to report amp hours consumed and time remaining—
precisely the information necessary to maximize system performance.
What's an amp hour?
Batteries are rated by amp hour capacity. A battery that delivers one amp
for one hour has delivered one amp hour. Marine and RV deep-cycle battery capacity is based on their 20-hour discharge rate. A battery that delivers
10 amps to a load for 20 hours before battery voltage drops to 10.5 volts,
is considered a "200 amp hour" battery. 10 amps times 20 hours equals 200
amp hours (200 Ah).
For maximum life you should never discharge more than half the rated
capacity of a battery. Therefore, if you have a 200 amp hour battery, you
should recharge when the Link 10 shows -100 in the amp hour display. The
-100 means 100 amp hours have been removed from your battery.
FOR MAXIMUM BATTERY LIFE, RECHARGE YOUR
BATTERIES WHEN YOU HAVE DISCHARGED 50%
OF THEIR AMP HOUR CAPACITY.
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Installation
Basic installation of the Link 10 on a 12 or 24 volt system involves only
five wires. Because the Link 10 will work on systems up to 500 volts,
special high voltage installation techniques are discussed beginning on page
44. You need to read this section if you're working on an electric vehicle or
system where more than 50 volts is encountered. If your installation is on
a 12 or 24 volt system, let's get to work!
Installation Planning
First, gather all the tools you'll need for installation. We recommend:
*
*
*
*
A 2" or 2 1/16" (52 mm) hole saw to make the panel cutout.
A 3/8" drill with bits to run power and shunt wiring.
An adjustable 9/16" wrench for shunt bolt connections.
Wire stripper/crimper and a small flat blade screwdriver.
Make sure you have all the parts you'll need to complete the job:
*
*
*
A 500 A–50 mV shunt (included)
#18 or #16 twisted pair shunt wire long enough to reach
from the battery to the meter location. Ask your dealer for
Xantrex Technology PN 84-2014-00 - 25' 4 twisted pair cable
or PN 84-2015-00 - 50' 4 twisted pair cable (not included).
2 in-line fuse holders with 2-amp fuses.
CAUTION: DO NOT INSTALL FUSES UNTIL YOU
COMPLETE INSTRUCTIONS ON PAGES 10–15.
*
*
A short heavy-duty battery cable to run from one shunt bolt
to the battery. Cable is available at auto and marine shops.
Assorted small-gauge crimp type terminals for connecting
the power, shunt, fuses, and voltage sense leads.
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Mounting
Our Patent Pending "Ratchet Ring" makes mounting easy and fast.
TIP: When installing from the front of a
panel or dashboard slide the Ratchet Ring
onto cable with correct orientation
CAUTION!
and then connnect
Orient ring so the ratchet
the wires.
teeth will engage properly.
Practice installing and removing ring before final
assembly. Considerable
force is required—this
ensures the ring will not
loosen over time.
12345
12345
12345
12345
12345
12345
12345
12345
12345
Push Ratchet Ring on
until firmly in contact
with panel.
TED
EN
PAT
10
Install the meter from the front of your
panel. The panel thickness may range from
1/16" to 1 1/2". Slip the locking ring on
from the rear and press forward until its
teeth hold the meter securely in place.
The gasket around the ring
of the Link 10 should provide an adequate seal
against moisture. If a sealant
is used be sure it is silicone
so that the Link 10 may be
removed without damage.
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Removing
Removing the Link 10 is the reverse of mounting with a
TWIST as shown in the following diagrams.
Twist 1/8th turn to
unlock teeth.
Then pull lock ring
straight back as shown
below.
PAT
ENT
PEN
DIN
G
Pull both
sides of
the lock
ring equally
Patented
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Wiring Overview
This drawing is for 12 V & 24 V systems.
For higher voltages see Prescaler use on page 44.
+
DC+
-
Fuses
Shunt
Twisted pair cable
See Detail page 13
Terminal Strip
Connections
See Detail page 14
Mounting Page 10
Removing page 11
DC(system ground)
INSTALLATION TIP:
Use appropriate strain relief to
avoid damage to the connector
and terminal strip on the rear of
the Link 10.
TIP: For a neat and professional looking installation use plenty of:
*
Nylon wire wraps
*
Wire wrap anchor points.
NOTE: To limit Voltage measurement error do not exceed wire lengths shown
below. Error assumes 16 AWG wire and max. power consumption.
0.5% Error
72 Feet Maximum
1.0% Error
150 Feet Maximum
3.0% Error
450 Feet Maximum
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Shunt & Battery Wires
The shunt is the current sensor for the Link 10. Its 500 A, 50 mV rating
means that when 500 amps flows through it there is 50 mV generated
across it. The millivolt signal is translated into an amps display in the Link
10. For example: a 50 A load would generate 5 mV across the shunt and
would be displayed as 50 amps. Caution: in the diagram below, the darker
wires represent primary wiring and should be able to carry full battery
load current. Size appropriately!
Connect NO
other wires directly to battery
negative! All
current must
flow through the
shunt!
-
+
500 A 50 mV
BATTERY SHUNT
SIDE
These wires ORANGE
must be a
twisted pair!! GREEN
4 Twisted pair
cable. See page 14
for part numbers.
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123456789012345678901234567890121234
123456789012345678901234567890121234
123456789012345678901234567890121234
123456789012345678901234567890121234
123456789012345678901234567890121234
123456789012345678901234567890121234
123456789012345678901234567890121234
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123456789012345678901234567890121234
123456789012345678901234567890121234
123456789012345678901234567890121234
123456789012345678901234567890121234
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VE
I
T
I
OS
P
M
E
VE
T
I
S
T
SY
GA
E
N DE
M
TE AD SI
S
SY LO
LOAD
SIDE
BLACK
1234
1234
12345678
1234
12345678
1234
12345678
12345678
123456789
123456789
123456789
12345
12345
12345
12345
12345
1234
1234
123456789
1234
123456789
1234
123456789
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123456789
1234
1234
1234
1234
1234
RED
BLUE
2 amp Fuses
(mount within 7"
of battery)
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Meter Wiring Detail
Make the necessary wire connections to the Link 10 as
shown in the following diagram:
Color code shown for
Xantrex 4 twisted pair
cable. P/Ns below:
P/N 84-2014-00 -25'
P/N 84-2015-00 -50'
CAUTION
Top Rear View
Use correct sized screwdriver for
terminal screws. Tighten firmly
but do not over-tighten to avoid
damage
DC - Meter Negative (BLACK)
Shunt Sense Lead Load Side (GREEN)
Shunt Sense Lead Battery Side (ORANGE)
Battery Volt Sense (0–50 V DC1)(BLUE)
DC + Meter Power (9.5–40 V DC) (RED)
Optional Temperature Sensor Input
Optional Low Battery Alarm
Optional Temperature Sensor Ground
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
1) For Voltages above 50 V a Prescaler must be used. See page 44.
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Wire by Wire Check
Most failures and problems are due to wiring errors. Please double check
the wiring. (Color code shown is for Xantrex wire P/Ns on page 14.)
#1
- DC Power (Black Wire). Start at terminal #1 of the Link 10 and
follow it to the big bolt on the Load side of the shunt. Do not connect this
wire to the small screw terminal with the Green shunt sense lead.
#2
Shunt Sense Lead Load Side (Green Wire). This wire connects to
the small screw on the Load side of the shunt. This wire must be a
twisted pair with the Orange wire described below. To check this wire
start at terminal #2 and follow it to the small screw on the Load side of
the shunt. There should be no other wires connected to this screw.
NOTE: Also check the primary wiring from the shunt to the battery.
There should be only one heavy cable from the Battery side of the shunt to
the battery. All loads and sources must be connected on the other side of
the shunt. Only the shunt may be connected directly to battery negative!
#3
Battery Side of Shunt (Orange Wire). This wire must be a twisted
pair with the Green wire described above. To check this wire start at
terminal #3 and follow it to the small screw on the Battery side of the
shunt. There should be no other wires connected to this screw.
#4
Voltage Sense Wire (Bat.+) (Blue Wire). From terminal #4 this wire
should run to a 2 amp fuse holder, located within 7" of the battery. The
other side of the fuse holder should go to the positive (+) battery post.
If Voltage is greater than 50 V, see High Voltage Prescaler, page 44.
#5
+ DC Power (Red Wire). This wire should run from terminal #5 to a
2 amp fuse holder located within 7" of the battery. The fuse should not
yet be installed. The other side of the fuse holder goes to the battery. If
power supply voltage is above 24 V, see the Electric Vehicles section,
page 46.
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Startup
Once you have completed ALL instructions on page 15, insert the voltage
sense wire fuse, then the meter power fuse. (BLUE wire fuse first, RED
wire fuse last!) The fuse should be in a fuse holder and should be connected in a smooth motion. A "ragged" power-up may cause a meter lockup.
Both the bar graph and digital display should come on.
Factory Default Settings
The Link 10 comes on in the
(Volts) mode with the display flashing to
indicate that it has been powered up from the de-powered state (see page
26). Left untouched for 10 minutes, the Link 10 will go to "sleep," turning
off the digital display leaving only the bar graph on. (This is a powersaving feature.) Touching either the SEL or SET buttons will return the
Link 10 to the function the Link 10 was in when it went to "sleep."
The Link 10 is designed to work "out of the box." The factory default
values are appropriate for a moderate capacity 12 V liquid lead acid battery and a typical user display and function setup. Often the only change
that must be made is setting the battery capacity. You may also have to
set the appropriate Peukert's exponent for your battery (see page 26).
Special functions and display options are described beginning on page 27.
The Link 10's Factory Default Settings Are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
16
Automatic Scanning of V, A, amp hours, and time will be OFF.
Sleep Mode is ON. Turns digital display off after 10 minutes.
Charge Efficiency Factor (CEF) equals 90% and learn CEF mode is on.
Charged Parameters: Voltage =13.2, Charged Current =2%. The
battery must exceed 13.2 V and the current must be less, in amps,
than 2% of declared capacity for five minutes for the Link 10 to consider
the battery full.
Battery capacity set to 200 amp hours.
Peukert Exponent = 1.25.
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Synchronizing the Link 10
Synchronize the Link 10 to a Full Battery
After installing the Link 10, charge the battery until the far right Green
LED begins flashing, which indicates the Charged Parameters have been
met. Amp hours will have started at 0 and counted up as a positive number. As you begin discharging the battery, the LED will stop flashing and
the numeric amp hour display resets to 0. The Link 10 is shipped from the
factory assuming a 200 amp hour battery. Your battery may be a different
size. To change battery size, see page 21.
StayinginSync,RemovingAccumulatedNegativeAmp Hours
Should the Link 10 ever become out of sync with the battery state-ofcharge simply charge until the far right LED flashes Green. You may also
get back in sync by charging until the battery is full and then resetting the
amp hours to zero through the RESET function.
If the Link 10 should accumulate a negative number in the amp hour display you will have to charge until you meet the conditions for a recalculation
of the Charging Efficiency (CEF) as described on pages 22 & 23. If you do
not meet all five of the conditions listed below you will not get a recalculation of the CEF and a reset to zero amp hours consumed.
CONDITIONS TO RESET TO ZERO
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Discharge 10% of declared battery capacity to trigger algorithm.
Recharge until 100% of the kWh removed have been returned.
The voltage must be above the Charged Voltage Parameter.
The current must be below the Charge Current Parameter.
Conditions 3 & 4 must be met for 5 minutes (1 min. for AE default)
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Operation
Although the Link 10 is a very sophisticated device, obtaining basic battery
information from it is simple. With the unit turned on and the
(Volts) LED on,
let's learn how to display the four most important DC system parameters.
When you touch the
button, you
are SELecting the display you wish.
Each time you touch SEL in normal
operation, you will toggle to the next
item to the right
(volts) goes to
(amps) to (amp hours) to (time).
i4.25
Now press SEL to bring up these functions.
Volts is the electric potential to do work. Voltage is useful to assess the
approximate state-of-charge and to check for proper charging. Examples:
An at-rest, fully charged battery will show about 12.8 V. A 12 V battery
is 100% discharged when it reaches 10.5 volts with a 20-hour rated load
applied. A typical charging voltage would be 14.2 V.
Amps is the present flow of current in or out of the battery. For example,
a refrigerator may draw 6 amps of current. This is displayed as - 6.0 (6
amps are being consumed). Discharge is shown as a negative number and
charging is shown as a positive number (unsigned).
Amp hours consumed represents the amount of energy removed from
the battery. If you run a 10-amp load for one hour then ten amp hours are
consumed. The Link 10 will show -I0 in the display. During charging
the Link 10 will compensate for charging efficiency and count back up
toward 0.
18
Time is an estimate of how long (in hours) the battery will sustain a load.
It is based on a selectable, time averaged, rate of discharge. Default is the
average of the last four minutes of use (see page 24).
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Reading the Bar Graph
Above the digital display are four LEDs. They tell you the battery's stateof-charge at a glance. Four green LEDs means your battery is full. One
flashing red light means it is nearly discharged. The table below shows the
six different displays indicating battery state-of-charge. Under certain light
conditions green may appear yellow.
BATTERY STATE-OF-CHARGE
EMPTY
FULL
Full (Charged Parameters Met)
80–99%+
60–79%+
40–59%+
20–39%+
0–19%+
Under the LED bar graph are the words RESET
RESET, DA
DAT
OCK, and
TA, LOCK
FUNC
FUNC. These words are ignored during normal operation. They are used
to indicate programming and advanced function modes which are explained
beginning on page 28.
Setting Battery Capacity is Important
The LED bar graph display shows how much of your battery has been consumed. If you do not set your battery capacity correctly, your bar graph will not
give you an accurate indication of battery state-of-charge. The Link 10 also
uses declared capacity to calculate the Time Remaining, the charged current for
Charge Efficiency Factor calculations, and other control functions.
Setting capacity correctly is very important—see page 21
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Using the
Buttons
Pressing and holding the SET button for three seconds enters the Setup and
Advanced Functions mode. The word SEL apppears in the display, prompting you
to press the SEL button to choose what function you want to SELect.
Pressing SEL chooses a variable or function. The SETUP mode always begins
at the
(Volts) function. Each press of the SEL button scrolls to the next item.
When a variable or function is selected, its LED is on and its present value is
displayed. To change an item press the SET button until the value appears that
you wish. The order displayed and brief descriptions are below.
LIGHT
DESCRIPTION
Charged Voltage (the voltage above which the battery must rise to be full)
Charged Current % (charging current must be below this percentage times
the battery capacity to be considered full. See page 22–23)
Battery Capacity in amp hours
Time interval over which current is averaged for time remaining function.
Each LED is lit in sequence to indicate function.
Advanced Functions. See page 30.
Locks out SET button & Advanced Functions. See
page 28.
Displays: CEF, # CEF Recalcs, Average Depth of
Discharge, Deepest Discharge, Average Rate of
Discharge. See page 29.
20
Resets A-hrs & allows Reset to Factory values. See
page 28.
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Setting Battery Capacity
The first time you use the Link 10, it assumes you have 200 amp-hour lead acid
batteries. If your battery capacity is different you must change the declared
battery capacity. Follow these instructions to declare a new capacity:
1) Press and hold the SET button for three seconds to enter SETUP (and
Advanced Functions) menu. SEL appears in the display. Press SEL and notice
that the green
LED is on.
light comes on. Press again and now
2) Press SEL again and note that the
the
LED is on and 200 appears in the display. This is the default battery
capacity.
3) Now press and hold the SET button to scroll through battery size options.
The display will show 1 amp-hour increments from 20–40 amp hours of capacity, 5 amp-hour steps from 40–100 amp hours capacity and 20 amp-hour steps
over 100 amp hours of capacity. If you continue to hold SET, after four increments the display scrolls faster. When the value you want appears, release the
SET button. If you overshoot your capacity you will have to scroll all the way
to 1980 amp hours, after which the display will roll over and begin scrolling up
starting from 10 amp hours. NOTE: Versions of the Link 10 prior to serial
number 05000 increment only in 20 amp-hour steps from 20–1980 amp hours.
4) After 10 seconds the meter exits the Setup mode and the selected value is
stored as the new battery capacity and the display returns to
(Volts).
TIP: All SETUP and ADVANCED FUNCTIONS begin with the SET button.
SETUP is normally done at installation. The SET button may be LOCKed to
prevent unauthorized personnel from tampering with the SET functions. See
"LOCK" on page 28.
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The Charged Parameters
The Link 10 depends on the Charged Parameters to stay in sync with the
battery state-of-charge, to automatically reset to zero, and to automatically
calculate the CEF. The default settings are for 12 V lead acid (liquid or
gelled) batteries. They have been carefully chosen to work on most
systems, including constant voltage and multiple step charging systems.
The factory Charged Parameters are 13.2 volts and 2% of battery capacity
as a charged current. (2% of the default battery capacity of 200 Ah equals
4 amps). Several conditions must be met for a recalculation of the CEF and
a reset to zero: First 100% of the energy removed from the battery must be
returned, additionally the battery must be above 13.2 volts and the current
must fall below 4 amps for five minutes. When all these conditions are met
the battery is considered full.
CAUTION: If your battery voltage is other than 12 V you MUST set up
an appropriate Charged Voltage.
If the charged parameters are not set correctly,
The Link 10 will never recalculate the CEF!
Please consider changing only the battery capacity unless your system falls
into one of the following categories:
1)
Battery chemistry other than lead acid.
12 Volt NiCad (and NiFe) systems would normally use 15.5 to 15.7 as the
Charged Voltage. See your battery specifications for guidance. The Charged
Current % can probably stay at 2% of declared battery capacity.
2)
Charging normally ends before current drops below 2%.
If the charging system is normally shut down before charging current
drops below 2%, the Charged Current % will have to be changed.
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Charged Parameters & CEF
If you change the Charged Parameters please use the following rules:
1)
The Charged Voltage Parameter MUST BE AT LEAST 0.1V
BELOW the voltage at which the charging system finishes charging.
Example: If your charging system finishes the battery at 13.8 volts, a
Charged Voltage Parameter of 14.0 volts will not work. Lower the
Charged Voltage Parameter to 13.7 volts or less.
2)
The Charged Current % times declared Battery Capacity MUST
be GREATER than the minimum current at which the charging
system maintains the battery, or turns off.
If the Charged Current % times the Battery Capacity is less than the
current at which the charging system switches off, the Charged
Current Parameter cannot be met. For example, if the charging system
shuts off when the current is 10 amps, using the factory default value of
4 amps (2% of 200 Ah), will not work. Changing the Charged Current
% to 6% would give a Charged Current of 12 amps, which would work.
WHY THE CHARGE EFFICIENCY FACTOR (CEF) IS IMPORTANT:
The CEF determines the rate at which the meter counts back up during
charging to compensate for the inefficiency of the charging process. The
CEF has a factory default value of 90%. This means that you must return
10.0 amp hours to store 9.0 Ah in the battery.
If you have a charging system that cannot satisfy the Charged Parameters,
the CEF will not be recalculated and the meter will use the default CEF of
90%. This will work fine in most systems. You may notice an accumulation
of negative amp hours. If so, set up appropriate Charged Parameters or
resynchronize periodically.
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Setting Up
Five different displays are available in the Time function. You may select
present consumption level, a 4-minute average, a 16-minute, or a 32-minute
average, or display the percent of rate compensated capacity remaining.
Which method is best for you depends on your installation. Most installations
follow the
will find four-minute averaging appropriate. To SET UP
procedure outlined on page 20. As you press the SET button the following
values will appear. Use the table below to choose the appropriate averaging period.
Instantaneous:
4-Minute Average:
16-Minute Average:
32-Minute Average:
Percent Remaining:
Time Remaining Setup Display:
Time Remaining Setup Display:
Time Remaining Setup Display:
Time Remaining Setup Display:
Time Remaining Setup Display:
000
00I
002
003
04P
Operating Tips: Use the longest period of time you can to ensure long-term load
variations are considered. For instant feedback, use the 000 (no averaging) display. Time is in hours and 1/10ths of hours. In the Percent of Capacity Remaining
mode, a full battery is displayed as 100P and counts down as your discharge. The
Percent of Battery Capacity Remaining is referenced to the selected discharge
floor and uses the instantaneous (not averaged) rate of discharge. The percent of
capacity remaining display shows the percent number which drives the Bar
Graph. This function is very useful on electric vehicles.
CAUTION: Time displays are an estimate of how long your battery will
sustain a load (to your selected discharge floor; default: 100% discharge).
Variations in discharge current, incorrectly set battery capacity, Peukert's
exponent, temperature, and prior battery history may affect the accuracy of
this estimate. Please use Time displays only as a guide. Use all displays
(volts, amps, amp hours, and time) to make an informed decision about
battery state-of-charge. Do not rely on a single value!
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(optional)
Temperature Sensor
The Link 10 may support an optional two wire temperature sensor. The
temperature sensor is activated by turning Advanced Function F16 ON.
With F16 ON, F03 shows battery temperature in degrees Celsius. When
activated, F03 will continue to display temperature after exiting the Setup
mode until one of the two front panel buttons, SET or SEL, is pressed.
The limits of the temperature sensor are 0 °C (32 °F) to 99 °C (210 °F).
Versions of the Link 10 prior to Serial Number 005000 do not support this
function.
Introduction to Peukert Exponent
The Link 10 shows true amp hours consumed in the amp hour display.
However, the light bar shows how much of the available battery has been
consumed. In 1897 a scientist named Peukert demonstrated that as you
discharge a battery more quickly, its effective size temporarily decreases.
A battery is considered fully discharged when it is no longer able to maintain 10.5 volts under load. As you'll see in the following table showing the
effect on a typical liquid cell battery, the faster the discharge rate, the
smaller its effective capacity:
Hours to Discharge
Capacity as percent of 20 hr rating
20
100%
10
84%
5
67%
2
56%
1
47%
In other words, a 100 amp-hour battery, discharged completely in one hour
will only supply 47 amp hours before dropping below 10.5 V!
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Puekert's Exponent
Peukert's Exponent is a number which describes how battery capacity
shrinks as the rate of discharge is increased. The Link 10 uses a number
between 1.00 and 1.50 to describe how fast a particular battery will "shrink"
when a heavy load is connected. A more complete technical discussion of
the Peukert Exponent, and typical value tables is included on pages 39–41.
The Peukert Exponent set at the factory, 1.25, will be satisfactory for
many liquid cell batteries. Gel cell batteries, or liquid cells with atypical
plate structures, may require a different Peukert Exponent. To change the
Peukert Exponent, proceed as follows:
1) Press and hold the SET button for three seconds to enter SETUP
(and Advanced Functions) menu. SEL appears in the display. Press SEL
and notice that the green
LED is on.
2) Press SEL again and note that the
light comes on. Continue to
press the SEL button until F8 appears in the display. This will require 18
presses of the SEL button. The FUNC LED will be lit.
3) Now press and hold the SET button. The default value of 1.25 (or the
previously programed value) will appear in the display. The range of values
is from 1.0 to 1.50. Holding down the SET button will cause the display to
increment in 0.01 steps, after four increments the display scrolls faster.
When the value you want appears, release the SET button. If you overshoot your capacity you will have to scroll all the way to 1.50 after which
the display will roll over to 1.00 and continue incrementing. You also have
to scroll all the way through to declare exponents between 1.00 and 1.25.
4) After 10 seconds the meter exits the Setup mode and the selected
value is stored as the new Peukert's exponent and the display returns to
(Volts).
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Alarms
Two Types of Alarms
The Link 10 is equipped with both a visual Power Loss Alarm and a visual
Low Battery Alarm. It is important that you understand the difference
between these functions.
Power Loss Alarm: Shows when power being supplied to the Link 10 has
dropped to an unsafe level. Certain display features are turned off as meter
power drops below internally set levels.
Low Battery Alarm: Shows when the battery being monitored has reached
either a predetermined depth of discharge or has encountered at least 15
seconds of continuous low voltage below a settable level. The Low Battery Alarm is controlled by functions F10, F11 and F12 in the Advanced
Functions Section.
Power Loss Alarm & Reset Annunciation
If the voltage-supplying terminal #5 falls too low an automatic shutdown
occurs. This voltage varies from a low of 7.2 V to about 9.2 volts depending
on how fast the voltage drops. When power is restored, the display defaults
to the
function and the digital display flashes. Pressing either the SEL
or SET buttons cancels the flashing display. If the meter is in the sleep
mode when power loss occurs, the display will flash for 10 minutes and
then go to sleep if no buttons are pressed. Once asleep, the first button
press will wake the display in the flashing mode to annunciate the power
loss. The second button press will cancel the flashing display.
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Reset and Lock
In addition to reporting primary system values, the Link 10 is capable of
many other front panel functions and will also display important historical
battery data. The words below the bar graph display indicate which of
these functions you are accessing. To use these functions you must read
and understand the following section of this manual.
RESET
DATA
LOCK
FUNC
Resetting the Link 10
RESET Resets amp hours to zero and resets the Link 10 to factory values.
To RESET the amp-hour display to zero, SELect the RESET function as
previously described. The letters AH will appear in the display. Press and
hold the SET button. After five seconds the amp-hour display will be reset
to zero and the letters ALL will appear. If you continue to hold down the
SET for another five seconds all variables and functions are reset to the
factory defaults.
RESET
LOCK
DATA
LOCK
FUNC
Front Panel Locking
Prevents user access to Set Up and Advanced Functions.
To LOCK the Link 10, SELect the LOCK function as previously described.
The letters LOC will appear in the display, indicating you are in the LOCK
function. Press SET and the letters off appear, indicating the front panel
is not locked. Press SET again and the letters on will appear, indicating the
front panel is locked. Repeating this procedure toggles the lock off and on.
The display will report off or on
on, indicating Lock off or on.
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Historical Data
RESET
DATA
LOCK
FUNC
Key Battery Data Displayed
DATA Key historical battery information is available through this function.
Each time the SEL button is pressed while in the DATA mode the next
piece of data is displayed. To see DATA, select DATA as previously
described.
CEF (Displayed as E99): The Charging Efficiency Factor (CEF) is
displayed. A display of E99 indicates a 99% CEF. This number sets the
rate at which amp hours are counted back up during charging. This is an
amp-hour CEF, not kWh efficiency. The Default setting is 90%. NOTE: If
the CEF display has a u in front of it, this means the CEF has been
selected by the user. See Advanced Function F06 for details.
#CEF Recalculations (Displayed as +I999): This is the number of times
that the battery has been discharged more than 10% and then recharged
until the Charged Parameters have been met. May be considered as the
number of charge/discharge cycles the battery has experienced.
Deepest Discharge (Displayed as -i999): Shows the deepest discharge
in amp hours recorded by the meter since its last RESET to factory
defaults.
Average Discharge (Displayed as i999): The running average of all
discharges as an amp-hour value since last RESET to factory defaults.
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Advanced Functions
RESET
FUNC
DATA
LOCK
FUNC
Advanced Functions
Allows setup of Advanced Functions.
To access the FUNC mode, SELect the FUNC mode as previously described. The letters F0i will appear in the display and the FUNC LED will
be lit, indicating you are in the FUNC mode. Continue pressing the SEL
button until the function you wish to set up appears. Now press SET until
the desired value or mode appears. Repeat this procedure until you have set
up all of the desired advanced functions. Whatever functions you have set
up will become active when the display reverts to its normal mode.
F01 AUTO DISPLAY SCANNING
Automatically scans V, A, Ah, and T. Each value is displayed for four
seconds. DEFAULT: OFF RANGE: OFF or ON
F02 ENHANCED SLEEP MODES
DEFAULT: ON
RANGE: ON, OFF, AU (AUTOMATIC)
When the Sleep Mode is ON, the Link 10's numeric display turns off
after 10 minutes in order to reduce power consumption. Pressing either
SET or SEL buttons returns the numeric display to operation.
When the Sleep Mode is OFF, the numeric display stays on at all times.
In the special automatic sleep mode (displayed as Au), the numerics are
on whenever charging or discharging exceeds 1 amp. When the rate of
charge or discharge remains less than 1 amp for 10 minutes, the numeric
display is turned off to conserve power. When asleep, pressing either
SET or SEL reactivates the numeric display. The numeric display
automatically wakes up when the rate of charge or discharge exceeds
1 amp. The Automatic Sleep Mode is ideal for electric vehicles.
DEFAULT: ON
RANGE: OFF or ON
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Advanced Functions
F03 DISPLAY OR SET BATTERY TEMPERATURE
If there is no external temp sensor and F16 is OFF (factory default),
this function sets ambient battery temperature used to caluculate rate
corrected battery capacity which drives the LED bar graph and the
Time remaining display. Feature not available on units with serial
numbers prior to 05000.
DEFAULT: 20 °C
RANGE: 0–40 °C
STEP: 1 °C
If F16 is ON and an optional external temperature sensor is connected
between Pin 6 and Pin 8 (ground), F03 will display temperature
(0–99 °C). Temperature will continue to be displayed until one of the
two front panel buttons is pressed. Active Temperature display is
annunciated by the absence of front panel status indicators. If 0 is
displayed at normal (~ 20 °C) temperatures, an open temperature
probe should be assumed. If >99 is displayed at normal temperatures,
a shorted probe should be suspected.
F04 TURN ON KWHRS DISPLAY
Kilowatt hours are displayed in the Ah mode. (Note: The kWh display
does not take into account Charging Efficiency. As a condition for a
recalculation of the CEF and an automatic reset of amp hours to zero,
100% of the energy removed from the battery must be returned. The
number in the kWh display must be zero or positive to allow a
recalculation of the CEF and an automatic reset to zero. You may use
this function to verify that this condition has been met.)
DEFAULT: OFF RANGE: OFF or ON
F05 USE ALTERNATIVE ENERGY (AE) DEFAULTS
Changes time to meet Charged Parameters to one minute from the
normal five minutes. (Also consider changing Charged Current to 4%.)
DEFAULT: OFF RANGE: OFF or ON
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Advanced Functions
F06 MANUALLY SET CEF (Not Recommended)
Allows manual setup of CEF. Displayed as two digits. Default display
A90 indicates automatic CEF recalculation feature active. Returning
to A90 from a user CEF turns the automatic CEF feature back on. A
user-set CEF will appear as a UXX in the DATA mode. See page 29.
DEFAULT: A90
RANGE: 65–99
STEP: 1
F07 SET TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT
Compensates for capacity change with temp. ~ 0.5% Cap/°C. This
coefficient must be supplied by the battery manufacturer. The default
value is typical for lead acid liquid or gelled batteries.
DEFAULT: 0.5
RANGE: 0.1–0.9
STEP: 0.1
F08 SET PEUKERT EXPONENT
Sets exponent for Peukert’s equation. A setting of 1.0 defeats Peukert's
calculation. See pages 39–42 for a discussion of Peukert's equation and
typical values for various batteries.
F09 SET DISCHARGE FLOOR
Sets the discharge floor used to calculate bar graph status and time of
operation remaining functions. The factory default is to calculate time
remaining, and bar graph based on a rate-corrected discharge of 100%
of declared amp-hour capacity. In other words, the bar graph will flash
red when less than 20% of your rate-corrected (Peukert amp hour)
capacity remains. Default time remaining is essentially "time till
dead battery."
To ensure a margin of safety you may wish to set a different discharge
floor. You may wish to set 80% or some other discharge floor for your
bar graph.
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Advanced Functions
CAUTION: If you set the discharge floor high, such as 50%, and
continue to discharge well beyond this point, you will notice that the
bar graph does not "fill up" until you have charged the battery above
the discharge floor. In other words, if you set the discharge floor at
50% and discharge 75%, you must recharge back up to the 50% level
before your bar graph and time of operation will again give you
meaningful information.
DEFAULT: 100%
RANGE: 50–100%
Step: 5%
F10–F12 SEE LOW BATTERY ALARM, PAGES 35–38
F13 SEE HIGH VOLTAGE NOTES, PAGE 50
F14 ENABLE LOW BATTERY ALARM
In versions of the Link 10 equipped with the Low Alarm Switch, this
function allows the Low Battery Alarm to be disabled.
DEFAULT: OFF
RANGE: ON, OFF
F15 SOFTWARE REVISION
Displays revision of software.
Please note that the software enhancements to the Link 10 may not be
retrofitted into earlier versions of this product. If the Link 10 has serial
number 005000 or larger, it will come with software version E1.3 or
greater installed. Earlier versions of the Link 10 do not support
temperature sensing, small amp-hour increments, separate alarms for
meter power and low battery conditions. Early versions display 255
instead of CCC when the battery is being charged.
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Advanced Functions
F16 TEMPERATURE SENSOR ON/OFF
This function turns the optional external temperature sensor on or off.
This feature is only operable when a temperature sensor has been
connected between Pin 6 and Pin 8 of the Link 10.
To fully understand this feature, please refer to F03 on page 31. Not
available prior to Serial Number 005000.
DEFAULT: OFF RANGE: ON, OFF
F17 LIGHT TEST
This function confirms proper operation of the Link 10's front panel
display. When the SET button is pressed in the F17 mode, the two top
left lights on the Light Bar will display orange/yellow color, the
numeric display will read 188.8 and all four status lights will be on. The
display returns to normal when the SET button is released. Operation
of the two top-right green lights on the Light Bar is confirmed when
power is initially applied to the Link 10.
DEFAULT: OFF RANGE: ON only while F17 is active.
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Low Battery Alarm
Units with serial numbers greater than 005000 allow access to an enhanced
Low Battery Alarm feature. To activate this feature, change Function F14
to ON. When F14 is ON, the Link 10 displays a visual alarm when the
monitored battery meets either of two conditions:
1) A settable rated compensated (Peukert) amp-hour depth of
discharge is exceeded or,
2) Voltage remains below a settable level for 15 seconds or longer.
When operating the Link 10 with the visual Low Battery Alarm function
ON, three additional software functions are active. Two of these functions,
F11 and F12, set the low amp-hours and low voltage levels which turn the
visual alarm ON. Function F10 is the Low Battery Alarm OFF (Recharge)
Set Point.
Visual Alarm Indication
There are two levels of visual alarm.
Level 1: The normal display alternates with a blank Bar Graph and LO
appears in the numeric display.
Level 2: Once the Level 1 alarm display is acknowledged by the operator
by pressing either SET or SEL once, the Level 2 Alarm flashes the amphours function light while dimming the presently displayed function light.
In the event amp hours are displayed, the amp-hours light will go off at
half-second intervals. Once the battery alarm feature is activated, a visual
alarm display (Level 1 or Level 2) will continue until amp hours are above
the Low Battery Alarm OFF (Recharge) Set Point (F10) and voltage is
above the Low Voltage Alarm Threshold F12 for at least 15 seconds.
Alarm Circuit
Special versions of the Link 10 close a circuit to ground when either Visual
Alarm level is active. This circuit may be used for audible alarms, generator
staring, and so forth. Because additional internal circuitry is included, this
option may not be retrofitted to the Link 10 in the field.
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Alarm Functions
Refer to F14 in the Owner's Manual
Functions F10, F11, and F12 define operation of the Visual Low Battery
Alarm as follows:
F11
TURNS ON Low Battery
Alarm at a set % of ratecompensated amp hours
discharged
Amp-Hour
Capacity of
Battery
E.G. 100 Ah
10% Discharged
ALARM ON
Settable Range
F10
TURNS OFF Low
Battery Alarm when
amp hours are restored
0% Discharged
ALARM OFF
Settable Range
70% Discharged
80% Discharged
F10 LOW BATTERY ALARM OFF (RECHARGE) SET POINT
Once the Low Battery Alarm is activated, recharging the battery to
this point turns the alarm OFF. This recharged point must always be at
least 10% higher than Low Battery Line closure point.
DEFAULT: 70% RANGE: 0%–70%
STEP: 5%
F11 LOW BATTERY ALARM ON SET POINT
Sets when the Low Battery Alarm goes ON point based on percent of
amp hours discharged. F11 is displayed as a percentage: i.e. 10 is 10%
discharged. F11 may set anywhere in its range but at least 10% below
the F10 Low Battery Alarm OFF Set Point set point.
DEFAULT: 80% RANGE: 10%–80%
STEP: 5%
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NOTE: The Low Battery Alarm ON and OFF points operate
on rate compensated (Peukert) amp hours consumed. Once the
alarm is activated, the battery must be charged until Alarm OFF Set
Point is reached to turn the alarm off.
F12 LOW VOLTAGE ALARM THRESHOLD
F12 sets the voltage below which the Low Battery Alarm is activated.
But the voltage must remain below this set point for a full 15 seconds
before the Low Battery Alarm goes ON. Dropping below the Low
Voltage Alarm Threshold for less than a full 15 seconds will not
activate the alarm.
If low voltage activates the alarm while the battery is above the Alarm
OFF (amp hour) Set Point, the alarm goes OFF as soon as voltage
remains above the low voltage threshold for 15 seconds. If the battery
is below the Alarm OFF (amp hour) Set Point when low voltages
turn the Alarm ON, the alarm stays on until the battery is recharged to
above the Alarm OFF (amp hour) Set Point.
RANGE: 5.0–40 V (0–50 V Scaling) STEP: 0.1 V Default 10.5 V
RANGE: 5.0–80 V (0–100 V Scaling) STEP: 0.1 V Default 10.5 V
RANGE: 50–400 V (0–500 V Scaling) STEP: 1.0 V Default 105 V
1)
2)
3)
THINGS TO REMEMBER:
The Low Battery Alarm may be activated by either a low Voltage OR
a low amp-hour condition.
There must be a 10% difference between the Low Battery Alarm ON
set point and Low Battery Alarm OFF (Recharge) Set Point.
Because Low Battery Alarm ON may be triggered by rated compensated (Peukert) amp hours, you may see fewer amp hours removed in
the numeric display than expected. The more rapidly you have
discharged your battery, the more pronounced this variance will be.
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Optional Alarm Switch
Special versions of the Link 10 are available, for additional charge, which
include a solid state Alarm Switch to ground via rear panel terminal strip
Pin #7. This option is used in a variety of settings such as lift pump lock out
on fork lifts, two wire generator start/stop, audible low battery alarms, and
charge controllers. The additional circuitry of the switch may not be retrofitted
to the Link 10 in the field. It must be included at the time of manufacture.
The Low Battery Alarm Switch goes low to meter ground when the alarm
is activated. In other words, a sinking FET switch to the meter's negative
power lead is completed while the alarm is active. This lead is protected
against polarity reversal so the "switch" connection has about 1 ohm of
resistance. This should be taken into account when sizing relays or
designing logic interfaces. The maximum amount of current that may be
controlled by this circuit is 150 mA (0.150 A) at no more than 50 V. Below
are two typical applications for the optional Low Battery Alarm Switch:
RELAY DRIVER DIAGRAM
RELAY COIL
+ - > To Pin 7, the Link 10
rear panel term. strip.
+ DC Relay Power (<50 V). Negative must be common to the Link 10.
38
+
DC Alarm Power.
Negative must be common
to the Link 10.
12 V or 24 V
Piezo alarm
<150 mA.
^
>
Controlled Circuit
AUDIBLE ALARM
12
12
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
Alarm Defeat
Switch On-Off
> To Pin #7
The Link 10
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Peukert's Equation
Peukert's Equation describes the effect of different discharge rates on battery
capacity. As the discharge rate increases, the available battery capacity
decreases. The table and examples on the following page illustrate this
effect and how to use the table to estimate the exponent "n". The tables on
pages 40 and 41 have typical values of "n" for common batteries.
Making two discharge tests, one at a high discharge rate and one at a low
rate, that bracket your normal range of operation, allows you to calculate
an "n" that will describe this varying effect. The Link 10 uses an "n" equal
to 1.25, which is typical for many batteries.
At some low to moderate discharge rate, typically a battery's 20-hour rate,
the logrithmic effect of Peukert's Equation is greatly reduced. The effect
of discharge rates smaller than this is nearly linear. Battery manufacturer
specifications of battery capacity in amp hours is typically given at the 20hour rate. From this description, if a battery is discharged at this rate for
the period of time called out, you will be able to remove the rated capacity.
The equation for Peukert's Capacity (Cp ) is:
C p = I n t where
n=
log t2 - log t1
log I1 - log I2
By doing two discharge tests and knowing I1 & I2 (discharge current in
amps of the two tests), and t1 & t2 (time in hours for the two tests) you can
calculate n (the Peukert coefficient). You will need a calculator that has a
Log function to solve the equation above. See example on page 42. After
you solve for your Peukert's coefficient you may enter it using Advanced
Function F8.
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Peukert's Equation
The table below may be used to understand the effect of high rates of
discharge on available battery capacity. It may also be used to estimate the
exponent "n" for a battery after a single discharge test. The table is based
on a 100-Ah battery but may be used for any capacity battery by using an
appropriately scaled current. See the examples below:
EXPONENT
PERCENTAGE OF AVAILABLE CAPACITY FROM A
100 Ah BATTERY AT DIFFERENT DISCHARGE RATES
USING DIFFERENT PEUKERT'S EXPONENTS
n
1
1.1
1.2
1.25
1.3
1.4
1.5
5 10 16.7
100 100 100
100 93 88
100 87 78
100 84 74
100 81 69
100 76 61
100 71 55
DISCHARGE RATE IN AMPS
25 50 75 100 150 200 250 300 400 500
100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
85 79 76 74 71 69 67 66 64 63
72 63 58 55 51 48 46 44 42 40
67 56 51 47 42 40 37 36 33 32
62 50 44 41 36 33 31 30 27 25
52 40 34 30 26 23 21 20 17 16
45 32 26 22 18 16 14 13 11 10
Example #1: Suppose you have a 200 Ah
battery. Now discharge at a 50-amp
rate until the battery reaches 1.75 V
per cell (10.5 V for a 12 V battery).
This would be equivalent to a discharge
rate of 25 A for a 100 Ah battery. If the
battery delivered 67% (134 Ah) the
appropriate Peukert's exponent would
be 1.25.
40
Example #2: A 100 Ah battery
with a Peukert's exponent of 1.3
will deliver only 41% of its
capacity when supplying a 100amp load.
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Peukert's Exponent
Typical Values for Peukert's Exponent "n"
This table contains values for the exponent "n" for various batteries and
manufacturers. They are calculated from the 20-hour rating and the
Reserve Minutes @ 25 A as supplied by the manufacturer. They should be
considered only a guide for selecting "n."
Prevailer & SeaGel Batteries
Model Volts Res. Min. 20-Hr. rating "n"
8GGC
8GU1
8GU24
8GU27
8GU30H
84D
8G8D
6
12
12
12
12
12
12
375
43
130
167
188
388
500
180
43
70
86
95
180
225
1.14
1.20
1.13
1.12
1.12
1.11
1.10
Trojan Batteries
Model Volts Res. Min. 20-Hr. rating "n"
T-105
T-125
T-145
J250
J305
L16
24TM
27TM
30XHS
SCS225
EV8D
6
6
6
6
6
6
12
12
12
12
12
447
488
530
535
660
760
135
160
225
225
450
225
235
244
250
305
350
85
105
130
130
216
1.24
1.19
1.14
1.17
1.21
1.28
1.23
1.28
1.27
1.27
1.17
Peukert's Equation
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Peukert's Exponent
Surrette and Rolls Batteries
Model Volts Res. Min. 20-Hr. rating "n"
EHG-208
EIG-225
EIG-262
24/90
27/12M
30H/108
HT/4D
HT/8D
6
345
208
6
350
225
6
395
262
12
165
90
12
190
112
12
230
108
12
348
170
12
450
221
*Use Max allowed "n" of 1.50
1.42
1.54*
1.72*
1.16
1.23
1.08
1.15
1.20
Example of using Reserve Minutes @ 25 amps
and the 20-hour rate to calculate "n".
First convert Reserve Minutes to hours, then find the discharge current at
for the 20-hour rating. Finally, use a calculator to solve the arithmetic.
Trojan T-105:
Reserve Minutes = 447 min @ 25 amps.
t1 = 447 min = 447/60 = 7.45 hrs
I1 = 25 amps
20-hour rating = 225 Ah
t2 = 20 hours
n=
42
log t2 - log t1
log I1 - log I2
I1 =
=
225 amp hours/20 hours = 11.25 amps
log 20 - log 7.45
log 25 - log 11.25
=
1.301 - 0.872
1.398 - 1.051
= 1.24
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Troubleshooting
Problem
Suggestion
No lights or display
Check Power Connections
Reset meter (page 28)
Check Lock is not invoked
Reset meter (page 28)
Check Battery Capacity (page 21)
Check Temperature Coefficient (page 32)
Check Peukert Exponent (page 26)
Clean front panel photo-sensor
(Between A and Ah lights)
Current Shunt leads reversed (page 13)
Corrosion or loose wires. Loosen and
reconnect all rear panel connections.
Check voltage sense and shunt wiring
at battery location.
Charge Parameters not met. Check
Charged Parameter values—has 100% of
kWh been returned? Charging Current is
not passing through shunt (pages 13, 22,
23, and Function F04).
No keyboard response
Time Remaining Not
Accurate
Digital Display Dim
Current Polarity Reversed
Intermittent Operation
Accumulates Negative
Amp-hour reading
Xantrex Technology, Inc. warrants that the Link 10 will measure voltage,
amperage, and amp hours within the published specifications. The Time
Remaining and LED bar graph functions are complicated and require
appropriate user setup and are therefore beyond the control of Xantrex
and are not covered by warranty. Similarly, installation wiring and specific
applications are beyond our control and are not covered by warranty.
See page 52.
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Options & Versions
User-installable OPTIONS available include:
Prescalers:
Extend the voltage range covered by the Link 10
to either 0–100 V (Xantrex P/N 84-6000-0) or
0–500 V (Xantrex P/N 84-6000-05).
Temperature Sensor: Reports battery temperature in Degrees Celsius
(Xantrex P/N 84-2024-00)
All other options must be installed at the time the Link 10 is manufactured,
as additional circuitry is involved.
Special order VERSIONS of the Link 10
RS-232
(9600, 8, N, 1 ASCII computer port)
Alarm Switch
Switch closure when Low Battery Alarm is active.
RS-232 + Alarm Switch
44
(Both options above)
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High Voltage Prescaler
CAUTION!
1.
2.
Installation of the Prescaler Option involves work with potentially fatal voltages. NEVER work alone—have at least one person
present who can render assistance and CPR in the event of an
accident. If you have any doubt about your qualifications to
work on a high-voltage system, DON'T DO IT!
When working with any DC system, even so-called ungrounded
("floating") systems with no planned chassis connection, disconnect
the negative battery terminal first.
Use a Prescaler if system voltage EVER exceeds 50 V!
Then set voltage scaling with F13 (see page 50).
2 A Fuse. Above 250 V
use 500 V rated fuse.
+
+
HV
Battery
Red
(Tagged)
Prescaler
Black
Shunt
-
To Link 10
Prescaler Part Numbers:
0–100 V
84-6000-00
0–500 V
84-6000-05
Black
To Link 10
Red
(Tagged)
Warning: Reversing input
voltage destroys Prescaler
and voids warranty.
Note: Black wires are common within Prescaler. 45
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Electric Vehicles (EVs)
The Link 10 is the ideal energy meter for EV instrumentation. It not only
provides volts, amps, amp hours and time remaining, it adds two important
bonuses: kilowatt hours and optional serial computer output.
If you design or work with electric vehicles or battery-powered equipment
of any type, you should realize that kilowatt hours are a more accurate
measure of energy used than are amp hours. Here's why:
The term "amp hour" defines current (amps) multiplied by time (hours).
Amp hours is one way to state battery capacity. Amp hours is not a measure
of energy consumed by a vehicle. Energy is defined as:
Energy in watt hours = voltage x amperage x time.
Consider two examples: First, assume we have a 120-volt battery that
supplies a 100-amp load for 1 hour. At the end of one hour, 12,000 watthours (12.00 kWh) will have been consumed. In the same period of time,
100 amp hours will be used.
But now suppose we have a 240-volt battery supplying a 100-amp load
for one hour. What happens to the math? Well, 24,000 watt hours (24.00
kWh) of power have been consumed. The amp hours consumed is the
same as the first example, 100 amp hours, but twice the energy has been
consumed!
That's why electric vehicle efficiency is judged on kilowatt hours. A kilowatt hour is a 1,000-watt load for a period of one hour. You buy kilowatt
hours from the power company (to keep the lights on in your home) at a
typical cost of $0.05 to $0.15 per kWh. By comparing the cost of kilowatt
hours from the electric company with kilowatt-hour consumption of an
electric vehicle, you can accurately judge EV operating costs.
Refer to the Owner's Manual for instructions on use of the kWh display.
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EV Installations
The negative of the Link 10's power supply must be common to the negative of the battery (motive pack) which you are measuring. This may pose
difficulty if your electric vehicle uses an "unbonded" or "floating" (no
connection to the chassis) motive pack and a "bonded" (connected to the
chassis) accessory battery. In these instances, the use of a DC-DC converter, or a separate battery with a common negative with the motive
battery is required. This device provides power for the Link 10 without
electrically connecting the motive battery negative to the chassis. The
diagram shown is for a typical DC-DC converter. If you use a different
DC-DC converter, the pin-out may be different:
+
+
HV
Battery
Red (Tagged)
Black
-
Prescaler
Black
-
Red
(Tagged)
Shunt
Link 10
DC - DC
Converter
-
12V Acces.
Battery
+
Warning: Reversing
input voltage destroys
Prescaler and voids
warranty.
2 A Fuse. Above 250 V
use 500 V rated fuse.
4
3
2
1
5
6
1
5678
234
+HV scaled
voltages goes
to Pin #4
+12 V Meter
power goes
to Pin #5
7
8
DC-DC Converter pin outs vary.
47
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Lift Truck Installations
Installation of the Link 10 in lift trucks, which have the motive pack bonded
to the chassis and also have a 12 V accessory battery bonded to the chassis,
may use the diagram below for proper wiring of the appropriate Prescaler.
The 0–100 V Prescaler is used where system voltage does not exceed
100 V at any time, including during onboard charging. In any other instance,
a 500 V Prescaler must be used. If possible, install separate Anderson (SMH)
connector so pack can be charged in truck if batteries are not changed.
This way, battery cycles will be counted.
TO ANDERSON CONNECTOR
+
2 A fuse. Above 250 V
use 500 V rated fuse.
+
HV
Battery
Red
(Tagged)
Black
Prescaler
-
Warning: Reversing input
voltage destroys Prescaler
and voids warranty.
Red
(Tagged)
Black
Shunt
Link 10
12 V Acces.
or
Battery
24 V +
(-)
Optional
DC-DC
Converter
This line is not used
48
1
5678
234
(-)
(+)
if DC-DC converter is installed.
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(optional)
Serial Port, RS-232
The Link 10 may be equipped to transmit serial communications data to a
personal computer or a data logging device. When equipped with the
optional RS-232 port, the Link 10 will transmit a data message once a
second. The structure of this data is as follows:
Data Rate:
Stop Bits:
Word:
9600
Data Bits:
8
1
Parity Bits: None
ASCII Characters, comma delimited
Output Format:
Time, kWh, amps, volts, amp hours, Peukert amp hours, Peukert amps,
time remaining, bar graph state, temperature (degrees C).
Time is elapsed seconds since last amp hour reset. Kilowatt hours are signed
+ or -, amp hours are signed + or -, amps are signed + or -, volts are
positive, time remaining is in hours or tenths of hours.
Peukert amps and Peukert amp hours are compensated for Peukert's equation. These numbers are primarily intended for our development and troubleshooting. Please do not attempt to interpret these numbers.
The Bar Graph state is indicated by the following integers:
1<20%, 2<40%, 3<60%, 4<80%, 5<100%, 6 = Full (Charged Params met)
If the Low Battery Output is activated, the Bar Graph state is indicated as:
A<20%, B<40%, C<60%, D<80%, E<100%, F = Full (Charged Params met)
Pin Out:
The serial connection is via the DB-9 connector on the rear deck of the
Link 10. See additional notes on page 11. The pin connections are as follows:
Pin 2Receive Data line
Pin 3Transmit Data line
Pin 5Ground. This is connected to battery pack (-).
The shell of the DB-9 is NOT grounded.
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High Voltage Notes
HOW TO SET VOLTAGE SCALING WHEN
USING A HIGH VOLTAGE PRESCALER
F13 SET VOLTAGE SCALING
Sets proper voltage scaling when used with an external Voltage
Prescaler. NOTE: If you use a Prescaler, you need to change the
Charged Voltage to an appropriate value for your application. See
"Charged Parameters" on pages 22 and 23.
DEFAULT: 0= 0–50 V. Options: 1= 0–100 V, 2= 0–500 V
IF YOU USE MOTIVE BATTERIES TO POWER
THE LINK 10:
If the HV battery is "tapped" to provide meter power, it is recommended
that a 24 V tap, not a 12 V tap, be used. The reason for this is that under
heavy acceleration under low battery conditions, voltage may fall to levels
low enough to cause the meter display to turn off momentarily. Under
extreme circumstances, historical data may also be lost.
AVOID DATA LINE SHOCK HAZARD:
If you have a floating ground system and the Link 10 is equipped with the
RS-232 Serial Computer Port option and is being used to record data into a
laptop computer, we strongly recommend use of an optical isolator such as
Omega Cat #268 to eliminate danger of a HV short to ground or personal
shock hazard. Use caution in connecting wires to the DB-9 on the rear of
the Link 10 as Pin #5 is connected directly to motive battery (-).
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EC Declaration of
Conformity
CE
Manufacturer:
XANTREX TECHNOLOGY, INC.
Address:
Xantrex Technology, Inc.
8999 Nelson Way
Burnaby, BC
Canada V5A 4B5
Herewith declares that the Xantrex Link 10 is in conformity with
the provision of the EEC Directive EMC 89/336/EEC and amendments 92/31/EEC, 93/68/EEC.
The following harmonized standards have been applied:
EN 50081-1: 1992
EN 50082-1: 1992
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Limited Warranty
What does this warranty cover?
This Limited Warranty is provided by Xantrex Technology, Inc. (“Xantrex”) and covers defects in workmanship and materials in your Xantrex Link
10 Battery Monitor. This warranty lasts for a Warranty Period of 12 months from the date of purchase at point of sale to you, the original end user
customer.
This Limited Warranty is transferable to subsequent owners but only for the unexpired portion of the Warranty Period.
What will Xantrex do?
Xantrex will, at its option, repair or replace the defective product free of charge, provided that you notify Xantrex of the product defect within the
Warranty Period, and provided that Xantrex through inspection establishes the existence of such a defect and that it is covered by this Limited
Warranty.
Xantrex will, at its option, use new and/or reconditioned parts in performing warranty repair and building replacement products. Xantrex reserves the
right to use parts or products of original or improved design in the repair or replacement. If Xantrex repairs or replaces a product, its warranty
continues for the remaining portion of the original Warranty Period or 90 days from the date of the return shipment to the customer, whichever is
greater. All replaced products and all parts removed from repaired products become the property of Xantrex.
Xantrex covers both parts and labor necessary to repair the product, and return shipment to the customer via a Xantrex-selected non-expedited surface
freight within the contiguous United States and Canada. Alaska and Hawaii are excluded. Contact Xantrex Customer Service for details on freight
policy for return shipments outside of the contiguous United States and Canada.
How do you get service?
If your product requires troubleshooting or warranty service, contact your merchant. If you are unable to contact your merchant, or the merchant is
unable to provide service, contact Xantrex directly at:
Phone: 1-800-670-0707 (toll free in North America) 1-604-422-2777 (direct)
Fax: 1-604-420-2145
Email: CustomerService@xantrex.com
Direct returns may be performed according to the Xantrex Return Material Authorization Policy described in your product manual. For some
products, Xantrex maintains a network of regional Authorized Service Centers. Call Xantrex or check our website to see if your product can be
repaired at one of these facilities.
In any warranty claim, dated proof of purchase must accompany the product and the product must not have been disassembled or modified without
prior written authorization by Xantrex.
Proof of purchase may be in any one of the following forms:
•
•
•
The dated purchase receipt from the original purchase of the product at point of sale to the end user, or
The dated dealer invoice or purchase receipt showing original equipment manufacturer (OEM) status, or
The dated invoice or purchase receipt showing the product exchanged under warranty
What does this warranty not cover?
This Limited Warranty does not cover normal wear and tear of the product or costs related to the removal, installation, or troubleshooting of the
customer’s electrical systems. This warranty does not apply to and Xantrex will not be responsible for any defect in or damage to:
a)
b)
c)
d)
the product if it has been misused, neglected, improperly installed, physically damaged or altered, either internally or externally, or damaged
from improper use or use in an unsuitable environment;
the product if it has been subjected to fire, water, generalized corrosion, biological infestations, or input voltage that creates operating
conditions beyond the maximum or minimum limits listed in the Xantrex product specifications including high input voltage from
generators and lightning strikes;
the product if repairs have been done to it other than by Xantrex or its authorized service centers (hereafter “ASCs”);
the product if it is used as a component part of a product expressly warranted by another manufacturer;
the product if its original identification (trade-mark, serial number) markings have been defaced, altered, or removed.
Disclaimer
Product
THIS LIMITED WARRANTY IS THE SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE WARRANTY PROVIDED BY XANTREX IN CONNECTION WITH YOUR
XANTREX PRODUCT AND IS, WHERE PERMITTED BY LAW, IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, CONDITIONS, GUARANTEES,
REPRESENTATIONS, OBLIGATIONS AND LIABILITIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE IN CONNECTION WITH
THE PRODUCT, HOWEVER ARISING (WHETHER BY CONTRACT, TORT, NEGLIGENCE, PRINCIPLES OF MANUFACTURER’S LIABILITY,
OPERATION OF LAW, CONDUCT, STATEMENT OR OTHERWISE), INCLUDING WITHOUT RESTRICTION ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OR
CONDITION OF QUALITY, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF
MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE TO THE EXTENT REQUIRED UNDER APPLICABLE LAW TO APPLY TO
THE PRODUCT SHALL BE LIMITED IN DURATION TO THE PERIOD STIPULATED UNDER THIS LIMITED WARRANTY.
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Limited Warranty
IN NO EVENT WILL XANTREX BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES,
LOSSES, COSTS OR EXPENSES HOWEVER ARISING WHETHER IN CONTRACT OR TORT INCLUDING WITHOUT RESTRICTION ANY
ECONOMIC LOSSES OF ANY KIND, ANY LOSS OR DAMAGE TO PROPERTY, ANY PERSONAL INJURY, ANY DAMAGE OR INJURY
ARISING FROM OR AS A RESULT OF MISUSE OR ABUSE, OR THE INCORRECT INSTALLATION, INTEGRATION OR OPERATION OF
THE PRODUCT.
Exclusions
If this product is a consumer product, federal law does not allow an exclusion of implied warranties. To the extent you are entitled to implied
warranties under federal law, to the extent permitted by applicable law they are limited to the duration of this Limited Warranty. Some states and
provinces do not allow limitations or exclusions on implied warranties or on the duration of an implied warranty or on the limitation or exclusion of
incidental or consequential damages, so the above limitation(s) or exclusion(s) may not apply to you. This Limited Warranty gives you specific legal
rights. You may have other rights which may vary from state to state or province to province.
Warning: Limitations On Use
Please refer to your product user manual for limitations on uses of the product. Specifically, please note that the Xantrex Link 10 Battery Monitor is
not intended for use in connection with life support systems and Xantrex makes no warranty or representation in connection with any use of the
product for such purposes.
Return Material Authorization Policy
Before returning a product directly to Xantrex you must obtain a Return Material Authorization (RMA) number and the correct factory “Ship To”
address. Products must also be shipped prepaid. Product shipments will be refused and returned at your expense if they are unauthorized, returned
without an RMA number clearly marked on the outside of the shipping box, if they are shipped collect, or if they are shipped to the wrong location.
When you contact Xantrex to obtain service, please have your instruction manual ready for reference and be prepared to supply:
•
•
•
•
The serial number of your product
Information about the installation and use of the unit
Information about the failure and/or reason for the return
A copy of your dated proof of purchase
Return Procedure
1.
2.
•
•
•
•
3.
Package the unit safely, preferably using the original box and packing materials. Please ensure that your product is shipped fully insured in the
original packaging or equivalent. This warranty will not apply where the product is damaged due to improper packaging.
Include the following:
The RMA number supplied by Xantrex Technology Inc clearly marked on the outside of the box.
A return address where the unit can be shipped. Post office boxes are not acceptable.
A contact telephone number where you can be reached during work hours
A brief description of the problem
Ship the unit prepaid to the address provided by your Xantrex customer service representative.
If you are returning a product from outside of the USA or Canada
In addition to the above, you MUST include return freight funds and are fully responsible for all documents, duties, tariffs, and deposits.
If you are returning a product to a Xantrex Authorized Service Center (ASC)
A Xantrex return material authorization (RMA) number is not required. However, you must contact the ASC prior to returning the product or
presenting the unit to verify any return procedures that may apply to that particular facility.
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RS-232 Warning
When using an RS-232-equipped version of the Link 10 in an electric
vehicle which has a floating motive battery negative, remember that Pin
#5 of the DB-9 connector coming out of the back of the Link 10 is connected to the motive battery negative.
This normally causes no problem when used with laptop computers.
However, if you plug the DB-9 RS-232 output into a computer with a
metal chassis then motive battery negative will be connected to the
chassis of the computer.
THIS EXPOSED BATTERY NEGATIVE MAY BE
HAZARDOUS, AND POSSIBLY FATAL IF YOU HAVE A
HIGH SIDE MOTIVE PACK FAULT.
We strongly recommend that when using a computer to log data, you
minimize the hazard by installing an RS-232 Opto-Isolation Module. One
such module is available through Omega Engineering, Inc. (Model 268
costs $126). Call 1-800-872-9436 (phone), 1-800-848-4271 (fax), or
visit www.omega.com
Please note you will also have to purchase DB-25 to DB-9 adapters as
the Model 268 uses DB-25 connectors. Be certain you purchase straightthrough adapters, not the null modem type!
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Software History
Software Enhancement Rev. E 1.5
The Link 10 now includes the following additional functions:
F02 - ENHANCED SLEEP MODES
DEFAULT: ON
Range: ON, OFF, AUTOMATIC
When the Sleep Mode is ON, the Link 10's numeric display turns off
after 10 minutes in order to reduce power consumption. Pressing either
SET or SEL buttons returns the numeric display to operation.
When the Sleep Mode is OFF, the numeric display stays on at all times.
In the AUTOMATIC sleep mode (displayed as AUt), the numerics are
on whenever charging or discharging exceeds 1 amp. When the rate of
charge or discharge remains less than 1 amp for 10 minutes, the numeric
display is turned off to conserve power. When asleep, pressing either
SET or SEL reactivates the numeric display. The numeric display
automatically wakes up when the rate of charge or discharge exceeds
1 amp. The Automatic Sleep Mode is ideal for electric vehicles.
TIME REMAINING DISPLAY
Range: 000, 001, 002, 003, P
DEFAULT: 001
When P is selected, an averaged Time Remaining number is not
displayed. Instead, the Link 10 reports rate compensated percent of
(declared) Battery Capacity Remaining. A full battery is displayed as
100P and the display decrements during discharge to 00P.
If you have selected a discharge floor other than 100%, the percent of
battery capacity remaining is referenced to the selected discharge floor
and uses the instantaneous (not averaged) rate of discharge.
This function is useful on electric vehicles where time remaining
numbers are of little value. NOTE: This display shows the rate compensated capacity percentage which drives the bar graph.
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Software Addendum
Software Enhancement
This version of the Link 10 includes special software.
F18 - SMALL BATTERY SENSING
DEFAULT: OFF
Range: OFF, ON
When this function is OFF, the meter operates as described elsewhere
in this manual. When this function is ON, the amp-hour capacity range
allows capacities as low as 2 amp-hours to be declared. When ON,
capacity may be set from 2–200 amp hours, and small capacity
increments are allowed as follows:
From 2–40 amp hours, 1 amp-hour capacity increments are permitted.
Above 40 (to 198 amp hours), 2 amp-hour capacity increments are
permitted.
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Index
Advanced Functions, 30–34
Reading the Bar Graph, 19
Battery Basics, 8
Removing, 11
CE Declaration of Conformity, 51 Reset and Lock, 28
Charge Efficiency Factor, 23
Serial Port, RS-232 (optional), 49
Setting Battery Capacity, 21
Charged Parameters, 22–23
High Voltage Notes, 50
Setting Peukert's Exponent, 26
Historical Data, 29
Setting Up t , 24
Installation (General), 9–15
Shunt & Battery Wires, 13
Introduction, 7
Specifications, 59
Low Battery Alarm, 27, 35–38
Startup, 16
Low Voltage, 27
Synchronizing the Link 10, 17
Meter Wiring Detail, 14
Temperature Sensor (optional), 25
Mounting, 10
Troubleshooting, 43
Operation (Basic), 18–24
Using the
Options and Versions, 44
Warranty Support, 52
Peukert’s Equation, 26, 39–42
Wire by Wire Check, 15
Prescaler (optional), 45
Wiring Overview, 12
Quick Reference Guide, 5–6
58
Buttons, 20
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Specifications
Voltage: For 12 V–24 V systems. Optional Prescalers extend voltage range.
Standard Model: Two Auto-ranges: 0 to 19.95 V (0.05 V resolution)
V
20.0 to 50.0 V (0.1 V resolution)
Optional Prescalers: 0–100 V, 0–500 V (Used with standard model)
Amperage:
Low Range: + 0–40.0 amps (0.1 amp resolution)
A
High Range: + 500 amps (1 amp resolution)
Amp-hours:
Low Range: +0–199.9 amp hours (0.1 amp hour resolution)
Ah
High Range: + 200–1999 amp hours (1 amp hour resolution)
Time Remaining:
Low Range: 0 to 199.9 hours (0.1 hour resolution)
t
High Range: 0 to 255 hours (1.0 hour resolution)
Power Requirements:
9.5–40 volts DC
Current: 50–150 mA (Depends on ambient light. Display auto dims.)
28 mA (Sleep Mode—Bar Graph Display Only)
Shunt type required: 50 mV @ 500 amp
Accuracy:
Voltage: + (0.6% of reading + 1 least count of resolution)
Amperage: + (0.8% of reading + 1 least count of resolution)
Amp hours: Ah Error ~ (Time of measurement x current error)
Physical:
Max. Outer Bezel Diameter: 2.5'' (63.5 mm)
Max. Barrel diameter: 1.95" (50 mm)
Max. Depth: (from back of bezel) 3.15'' (80 mm)
Hole Cutout Size: Use 2" or 2 1/16" hole saw (52 mm)
Water Resistance: Splashproof front panel.
Weight: 8 Ounces (227 g)
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Xantrex Technology Inc.
Toll free 1 800 670 0707
Direct 1 604 422 2777
Fax 1 604 420 2145
CustomerService@xantrex.com
www.xantrex.com
445-0195-01-01 Rev. 1
Printed in the U.S.A.