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Information in this document is subject to change without notice. Reproduction of this document in any manner whatsoever without the written
permission of D-Link Corporation is strictly forbidden.
Trademarks used in this text: D-Link and the D-LINK logo are trademarks of D-Link Corporation; Microsoft and Windows are registered trademarks
of Microsoft Corporation.
Other trademarks and trade names may be used in this document to refer to either the entities claiming the marks and names or their products. DLink Corporation disclaims any proprietary interest in trademarks and trade names other than its own.
© 2011 D-Link Corporation. All rights reserved.
Oct. 2011 P/N 651ES3810035G
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Table of Contents
Intended Readers ......................................................................................................................................................... 11
Typographical Conventions .......................................................................................................................................... 11
Notes, Notices, and Cautions ....................................................................................................................................... 11
Safety Instructions ........................................................................................................................................................ 11
Safety Cautions ....................................................................................................................................................... 12
General Precautions for Rack-Mountable Products ..................................................................................................... 13
Protecting Against Electrostatic Discharge .................................................................................................................. 14
Chapter 1
Web-based Switch Configuration .......................................................................................................... 15
Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................... 15
Logging in to the Web Manager ................................................................................................................................... 15
Web-based User Interface............................................................................................................................................ 16
Areas of the User Interface ..................................................................................................................................... 16
Web Pages ................................................................................................................................................................... 17
Chapter 2
System Configuration ............................................................................................................................. 18
Device Information ........................................................................................................................................................ 18
System Information Settings......................................................................................................................................... 19
Port Configuration ......................................................................................................................................................... 20
Port Settings ............................................................................................................................................................ 20
Port Description Settings ......................................................................................................................................... 21
Port Error Disabled .................................................................................................................................................. 22
Jumbo Frame Settings ............................................................................................................................................ 22
Serial Port Settings ....................................................................................................................................................... 23
Warning Temperature Settings..................................................................................................................................... 23
System Log Configuration ............................................................................................................................................ 24
System Log Settings ............................................................................................................................................... 24
System Log Server Settings .................................................................................................................................... 24
System Log.............................................................................................................................................................. 25
System Log & Trap Settings.................................................................................................................................... 26
System Severity Settings ........................................................................................................................................ 27
Time Range Settings .................................................................................................................................................... 28
Time Settings ................................................................................................................................................................ 28
User Account Settings .................................................................................................................................................. 29
SRM (EI Mode Only) .................................................................................................................................................... 30
SRM Settings........................................................................................................................................................... 30
Chapter 3
Management............................................................................................................................................. 31
ARP .............................................................................................................................................................................. 31
Static ARP Settings ................................................................................................................................................. 31
Proxy ARP Settings ................................................................................................................................................. 32
ARP Table ............................................................................................................................................................... 32
Gratuitous ARP ............................................................................................................................................................. 33
Gratuitous ARP Global Settings .............................................................................................................................. 33
Gratuitous ARP Settings ......................................................................................................................................... 33
IPv6 Neighbor Settings ................................................................................................................................................. 34
IP Interface ................................................................................................................................................................... 36
System IP Address Settings .................................................................................................................................... 36
Interface Settings .................................................................................................................................................... 37
Loopback Interface Settings .................................................................................................................................... 41
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Management Settings ................................................................................................................................................... 42
Out of Band Management Settings .............................................................................................................................. 43
Session Table ............................................................................................................................................................... 44
Single IP Management ................................................................................................................................................. 44
Single IP Settings .................................................................................................................................................... 46
Topology .................................................................................................................................................................. 47
Firmware Upgrade ................................................................................................................................................... 52
Configuration File Backup/Restore ......................................................................................................................... 52
Upload Log File ....................................................................................................................................................... 53
SNMP Settings ............................................................................................................................................................. 53
SNMP Global Settings ............................................................................................................................................. 54
SNMP Traps Settings .............................................................................................................................................. 55
SNMP Link Change Traps Settings ........................................................................................................................ 55
SNMP View Table Settings ..................................................................................................................................... 56
SNMP Community Table Settings ........................................................................................................................... 56
SNMP Group Table Settings ................................................................................................................................... 57
SNMP Engine ID Settings ....................................................................................................................................... 59
SNMP User Table Settings ..................................................................................................................................... 59
SNMP Host Table Settings...................................................................................................................................... 60
SNMP v6Host Table Settings .................................................................................................................................. 61
RMON Settings ....................................................................................................................................................... 61
Telnet Settings .............................................................................................................................................................. 62
Web Settings ................................................................................................................................................................ 62
Power Saving................................................................................................................................................................ 63
Port LED State Settings .......................................................................................................................................... 63
Power Saving Settings ............................................................................................................................................ 63
Power Saving LED Settings .................................................................................................................................... 64
Power Saving Port Settings..................................................................................................................................... 64
Chapter 4
VPN (EI Mode Only) ................................................................................................................................. 66
MPLS ............................................................................................................................................................................ 66
LDP .......................................................................................................................................................................... 68
MPLS Settings ......................................................................................................................................................... 74
MPLS Static LSP Settings ....................................................................................................................................... 74
MPLS Dynamic LSP Table ...................................................................................................................................... 75
MPLS FTN Table ..................................................................................................................................................... 76
MPLS Interface Settings .......................................................................................................................................... 77
MPLS Class Map Settings....................................................................................................................................... 77
MPLS FEC EXP Settings ........................................................................................................................................ 78
VPWS ........................................................................................................................................................................... 78
VPWS Settings ........................................................................................................................................................ 79
Chapter 5
L2 Features .............................................................................................................................................. 82
VLAN ............................................................................................................................................................................ 82
802.1Q VLAN Settings ............................................................................................................................................ 87
802.1v Protocol Group Settings .............................................................................................................................. 90
GVRP ...................................................................................................................................................................... 92
MAC-based VLAN Settings ..................................................................................................................................... 94
Private VLAN Settings ............................................................................................................................................. 94
PVID Auto Assign Settings ...................................................................................................................................... 96
Subnet VLAN ........................................................................................................................................................... 96
VLAN Counter Settings ........................................................................................................................................... 97
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Voice VLAN ............................................................................................................................................................. 98
VLAN Trunk Settings ............................................................................................................................................. 101
Browse VLAN ........................................................................................................................................................ 102
Show VLAN Ports .................................................................................................................................................. 102
QinQ ........................................................................................................................................................................... 103
QinQ Settings ........................................................................................................................................................ 103
VLAN Translation Settings .................................................................................................................................... 105
Double Tagged VLAN Translation Settings .......................................................................................................... 105
VLAN Translation Port Mapping Settings .............................................................................................................. 106
VLAN Translation Profile List ................................................................................................................................ 107
Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling Settings .......................................................................................................................... 109
Spanning Tree ............................................................................................................................................................ 110
STP Bridge Global Settings................................................................................................................................... 111
STP Port Settings .................................................................................................................................................. 113
MST Configuration Identification ........................................................................................................................... 114
STP Instance Settings ........................................................................................................................................... 115
MSTP Port Information .......................................................................................................................................... 116
Link Aggregation ......................................................................................................................................................... 117
Port Trunking Settings ........................................................................................................................................... 117
LACP Port Settings ............................................................................................................................................... 119
FDB ............................................................................................................................................................................. 119
Static FDB Settings ............................................................................................................................................... 119
MAC Notification Settings ...................................................................................................................................... 121
MAC Address Aging Time Settings ....................................................................................................................... 122
MAC Address Table .............................................................................................................................................. 122
ARP & FDB Table ................................................................................................................................................. 123
L2 Multicast Control .................................................................................................................................................... 123
IGMP Proxy ........................................................................................................................................................... 123
IGMP Snooping ..................................................................................................................................................... 125
MLD Proxy ............................................................................................................................................................. 135
MLD Snooping ....................................................................................................................................................... 136
Multicast VLAN ...................................................................................................................................................... 146
IP Multicast VLAN Replication............................................................................................................................... 153
Multicast Filtering ........................................................................................................................................................ 155
IPv4 Multicast Filtering .......................................................................................................................................... 155
IPv6 Multicast Filtering .......................................................................................................................................... 158
Multicast Filtering Mode ........................................................................................................................................ 161
ERPS Settings ............................................................................................................................................................ 162
Local Loopback Port Settings ..................................................................................................................................... 165
LLDP ........................................................................................................................................................................... 166
LLDP ...................................................................................................................................................................... 166
LLDP-MED ............................................................................................................................................................ 174
NLB FDB Settings ...................................................................................................................................................... 176
Chapter 6
L3 Features ............................................................................................................................................ 178
IPv4 Static/Default Route Settings ............................................................................................................................. 178
IPv4 Route Table ........................................................................................................................................................ 179
IPv6 Static/Default Route Settings ............................................................................................................................. 179
IPv6 Route Table ........................................................................................................................................................ 180
Policy Route Settings ................................................................................................................................................. 181
IP Forwarding Table ................................................................................................................................................... 182
IP Multicast Forwarding Table .................................................................................................................................... 183
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IP Multicast Interface Table ........................................................................................................................................ 183
Route Preference Settings ......................................................................................................................................... 184
ECMP Algorithm Settings ........................................................................................................................................... 185
Route Redistribution Settings ..................................................................................................................................... 185
IP Tunnel .................................................................................................................................................................... 186
IP Tunnel Settings ................................................................................................................................................. 186
IP Tunnel GRE Settings ........................................................................................................................................ 187
OSPF .......................................................................................................................................................................... 188
OSPFv2 ................................................................................................................................................................. 207
RIP .............................................................................................................................................................................. 215
RIP Settings........................................................................................................................................................... 217
IP Multicast Routing Protocol ..................................................................................................................................... 219
IGMP ..................................................................................................................................................................... 219
DVMRP.................................................................................................................................................................. 222
PIM ........................................................................................................................................................................ 225
VRRP .......................................................................................................................................................................... 233
VRRP Global Settings ........................................................................................................................................... 233
VRRP Virtual Router Settings ............................................................................................................................... 234
VRRP Authentication Settings............................................................................................................................... 236
MD5 Settings .............................................................................................................................................................. 236
Chapter 7
QoS ......................................................................................................................................................... 238
802.1p Settings ........................................................................................................................................................... 239
802.1p Default Priority Settings ............................................................................................................................. 239
802.1p User Priority Settings................................................................................................................................. 240
Bandwidth Control ...................................................................................................................................................... 241
Bandwidth Control Settings ................................................................................................................................... 241
Queue Bandwidth Control Settings ....................................................................................................................... 242
Traffic Control Settings ............................................................................................................................................... 243
DSCP .......................................................................................................................................................................... 245
DSCP Trust Settings ............................................................................................................................................. 245
DSCP Map Settings .............................................................................................................................................. 246
HOL Blocking Prevention ........................................................................................................................................... 247
Scheduling Settings .................................................................................................................................................... 247
Scheduling Profile Settings ................................................................................................................................... 247
Scheduling Group Settings.................................................................................................................................... 248
Chapter 8
ACL ......................................................................................................................................................... 250
ACL Configuration Wizard .......................................................................................................................................... 250
Access Profile List ...................................................................................................................................................... 251
CPU Access Profile List .............................................................................................................................................. 269
ACL Finder.................................................................................................................................................................. 285
ACL Flow Meter .......................................................................................................................................................... 285
Egress Access Profile List .......................................................................................................................................... 289
Adding an Ethernet ACL Profile ............................................................................................................................ 289
Adding an IPv4 Egress ACL Profile ...................................................................................................................... 293
Adding an IPv6 Egress ACL Profile ...................................................................................................................... 298
Egress ACL Flow Meter .............................................................................................................................................. 301
Chapter 9
Security .................................................................................................................................................. 304
802.1X ........................................................................................................................................................................ 304
802.1X Global Settings .......................................................................................................................................... 307
802.1X Port Settings ............................................................................................................................................. 307
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802.1X User Settings ............................................................................................................................................ 309
Guest VLAN Settings ............................................................................................................................................ 310
Authenticator State ................................................................................................................................................ 311
Authenticator Statistics .......................................................................................................................................... 311
Authenticator Session Statistics ............................................................................................................................ 312
Authenticator Diagnostics...................................................................................................................................... 313
Initialize Port(s) ...................................................................................................................................................... 314
Reauthenticate Port(s) .......................................................................................................................................... 315
RADIUS ...................................................................................................................................................................... 316
Authentication RADIUS Server Settings ............................................................................................................... 316
RADIUS Accounting Settings ................................................................................................................................ 317
RADIUS Authentication ......................................................................................................................................... 317
RADIUS Account Client ......................................................................................................................................... 319
IP-MAC-Port Binding (IMPB) ...................................................................................................................................... 320
IMPB Global Settings ............................................................................................................................................ 320
IMPB Port Settings ................................................................................................................................................ 321
IMPB Entry Settings .............................................................................................................................................. 322
MAC Block List ...................................................................................................................................................... 323
DHCP Snooping .................................................................................................................................................... 324
ND Snooping ......................................................................................................................................................... 325
MAC-based Access Control (MAC) ............................................................................................................................ 326
MAC-based Access Control Settings .................................................................................................................... 327
MAC-based Access Control Local Settings .......................................................................................................... 328
MAC-based Access Control Authentication State ................................................................................................. 329
Web-based Access Control (WAC) ............................................................................................................................ 329
WAC Global Settings ............................................................................................................................................. 331
WAC User Settings ............................................................................................................................................... 332
WAC Port Settings ................................................................................................................................................ 333
WAC Authentication State ..................................................................................................................................... 333
Japanese Web-based Access Control (JWAC).......................................................................................................... 334
JWAC Global Settings ........................................................................................................................................... 334
JWAC Port Settings ............................................................................................................................................... 336
JWAC User Settings .............................................................................................................................................. 337
JWAC Authentication State ................................................................................................................................... 338
JWAC Customize Page Language ........................................................................................................................ 339
JWAC Customize Page ......................................................................................................................................... 339
Compound Authentication .......................................................................................................................................... 340
Compound Authentication Settings ....................................................................................................................... 343
Compound Authentication Guest VLAN Settings .................................................................................................. 344
Port Security ............................................................................................................................................................... 345
Port Security Settings ............................................................................................................................................ 345
Port Security VLAN Settings ................................................................................................................................. 346
Port Security Entries .............................................................................................................................................. 347
ARP Spoofing Prevention Settings ............................................................................................................................. 348
BPDU Attack Protection ............................................................................................................................................. 348
Loopback Detection Settings ...................................................................................................................................... 350
Traffic Segmentation Settings .................................................................................................................................... 351
NetBIOS Filtering Settings .......................................................................................................................................... 351
DHCP Server Screening ............................................................................................................................................. 352
DHCP Server Screening Port Settings .................................................................................................................. 352
DHCP Offer Permit Entry Settings ........................................................................................................................ 353
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Access Authentication Control.................................................................................................................................... 354
Enable Admin ........................................................................................................................................................ 355
Authentication Policy Settings ............................................................................................................................... 355
Application Authentication Settings ....................................................................................................................... 356
Authentication Server Group Settings ................................................................................................................... 356
Authentication Server Settings .............................................................................................................................. 358
Login Method Lists Settings .................................................................................................................................. 359
Enable Method Lists Settings ................................................................................................................................ 360
Local Enable Password Settings ........................................................................................................................... 361
SSL Settings ............................................................................................................................................................... 362
SSH ............................................................................................................................................................................ 364
SSH Settings ......................................................................................................................................................... 364
SSH Authentication Method and Algorithm Settings ............................................................................................. 365
SSH User Authentication Lists .............................................................................................................................. 367
Trusted Host Settings ................................................................................................................................................. 368
Safeguard Engine Settings ......................................................................................................................................... 370
Chapter 10
Network Application ......................................................................................................................... 372
DHCP .......................................................................................................................................................................... 372
DHCP Relay .......................................................................................................................................................... 372
DHCP Server ......................................................................................................................................................... 377
DHCP Local Relay Settings .................................................................................................................................. 382
DHCPv6 Relay ...................................................................................................................................................... 382
DNS ............................................................................................................................................................................ 384
DNS Relay ............................................................................................................................................................. 384
PPPoE Circuit ID Insertion Settings ........................................................................................................................... 386
RCP Server Settings .................................................................................................................................................. 386
SMTP Settings ............................................................................................................................................................ 386
SNTP .......................................................................................................................................................................... 388
SNTP Settings ....................................................................................................................................................... 389
Time Zone Settings ............................................................................................................................................... 389
Flash File System Settings ......................................................................................................................................... 391
Chapter 11
OAM .................................................................................................................................................... 394
CFM ............................................................................................................................................................................ 394
CFM Settings ......................................................................................................................................................... 396
CFM Port Settings ................................................................................................................................................. 402
CFM MIPCCM Table ............................................................................................................................................. 403
CFM Loopback Settings ........................................................................................................................................ 403
CFM Link Trace Settings ....................................................................................................................................... 404
CFM Packet Counter ............................................................................................................................................. 404
CFM Fault Table .................................................................................................................................................... 405
CFM MP Table ...................................................................................................................................................... 405
Ethernet OAM ............................................................................................................................................................. 406
Ethernet OAM Settings .......................................................................................................................................... 406
Ethernet OAM Configuration Settings ................................................................................................................... 407
Ethernet OAM Event Log ...................................................................................................................................... 409
Ethernet OAM Statistics ........................................................................................................................................ 409
DULD Settings ............................................................................................................................................................ 410
Cable Diagnostics ....................................................................................................................................................... 411
Chapter 12
Monitoring .......................................................................................................................................... 413
Utilization .................................................................................................................................................................... 413
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CPU Utilization ...................................................................................................................................................... 413
DRAM & Flash Utilization ...................................................................................................................................... 414
Port Utilization ....................................................................................................................................................... 414
Statistics ..................................................................................................................................................................... 415
Packet Statistics .................................................................................................................................................... 415
Packet Size............................................................................................................................................................ 424
VLAN Counter Statistics ........................................................................................................................................ 426
Historical Counter & Utilization .............................................................................................................................. 427
Mirror .......................................................................................................................................................................... 428
Port Mirror Settings ............................................................................................................................................... 428
RSPAN Settings .................................................................................................................................................... 429
sFlow .......................................................................................................................................................................... 431
sFlow Global Settings ............................................................................................................................................ 431
sFlow Analyzer Server Settings ............................................................................................................................ 431
sFlow Flow Sampler Settings ................................................................................................................................ 432
sFlow Counter Poller Settings ............................................................................................................................... 433
Ping Test..................................................................................................................................................................... 434
Trace Route ................................................................................................................................................................ 435
Device Environment ................................................................................................................................................... 436
Chapter 13
Save and Tools .................................................................................................................................. 438
Save Configuration / Log ............................................................................................................................................ 438
Download Firmware .................................................................................................................................................... 438
Download Firmware From TFTP ........................................................................................................................... 439
Download Firmware From FTP ............................................................................................................................. 439
Download Firmware From HTTP .......................................................................................................................... 440
Download Firmware From RCP ............................................................................................................................ 440
Upload Firmware ........................................................................................................................................................ 441
Upload Firmware To TFTP .................................................................................................................................... 441
Upload Firmware To FTP ...................................................................................................................................... 442
Upload Firmware To RCP ..................................................................................................................................... 442
Download Configuration ............................................................................................................................................. 443
Download Configuration From TFTP .................................................................................................................... 443
Download Configuration From FTP ....................................................................................................................... 444
Download Configuration From HTTP .................................................................................................................... 444
Download Configuration From RCP ...................................................................................................................... 445
Upload Configuration .................................................................................................................................................. 446
Upload Configuration To TFTP ............................................................................................................................. 446
Upload Configuration To FTP................................................................................................................................ 446
Upload Configuration To HTTP ............................................................................................................................. 447
Upload Configuration To RCP ............................................................................................................................... 448
Upload Log File .......................................................................................................................................................... 448
Upload Log To TFTP ............................................................................................................................................. 448
Upload Log To FTP ............................................................................................................................................... 449
Upload Log To HTTP ............................................................................................................................................ 450
Upload Log To RCP .............................................................................................................................................. 450
Reset .......................................................................................................................................................................... 451
Reboot System ........................................................................................................................................................... 451
Appendix A
Mitigating ARP Spoofing Attacks Using Packet Content ACL ..................................................... 453
How Address Resolution Protocol works .............................................................................................................. 453
How ARP Spoofing Attacks a Network ................................................................................................................. 456
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Prevent ARP Spoofing using Packet Content ACL ............................................................................................... 457
Configuration ......................................................................................................................................................... 458
Appendix B
Password Recovery Procedure ....................................................................................................... 460
Appendix C
System Log Entries........................................................................................................................... 461
Appendix D
Trap Entries ....................................................................................................................................... 478
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xStack DES-3810 Series Layer 3 Managed Ethernet Switch Web UI Reference Guide
Intended Readers
Intended Readers
Typographical Conventions
Notes, Notices, and Cautions
Safety Instructions
General Precautions for Rack-Mountable Products
Protecting Against Electrostatic Discharge
The DES-3810 Series Web UI Reference Guide contains information for setup and management of the Switch. This
manual is intended for network managers familiar with network management concepts and terminology.
Typographical Conventions
Convention
Description
[]
In a command line, square brackets indicate an optional entry. For example: [copy
filename] means that optionally you can type copy followed by the name of the file. Do
not type the brackets.
Bold font
Indicates a button, a toolbar icon, menu, or menu item. For example: Open the File
menu and choose Cancel. Used for emphasis. May also indicate system messages or
prompts appearing on screen. For example: You have mail. Bold font is also used to
represent filenames, program names and commands. For example: use the copy
command.
Boldface Typewriter
Font
Indicates commands and responses to prompts that must be typed exactly as printed in
the manual.
Initial capital letter
Indicates a window name. Names of keys on the keyboard have initial capitals. For
example: Click Enter.
Italics
Indicates a window name or a field. Also can indicate a variables or parameter that is
replaced with an appropriate word or string. For example: type filename means that the
actual filename should be typed instead of the word shown in italic.
Menu Name > Menu
Option
Menu Name > Menu Option Indicates the menu structure. Device > Port > Port
Properties means the Port Properties menu option under the Port menu option that is
located under the Device menu.
Table 1. Typographical Conventions
Notes, Notices, and Cautions
A NOTE indicates important information that helps make better use of the device.
A NOTICE indicates either potential damage to hardware or loss of data and tells how to avoid the
problem.
A CAUTION indicates a potential for property damage, personal injury, or death.
Safety Instructions
Use the following safety guidelines to ensure your own personal safety and to help protect your system from potential
damage. Throughout this safety section, the caution icon (
to be reviewed and followed.
) is used to indicate cautions and precautions that need
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Safety Cautions
To reduce the risk of bodily injury, electrical shock, fire, and damage to the equipment observe the following
precautions:
•
Observe and follow service markings.
o Do not service any product except as explained in the system documentation.
o Opening or removing covers that are marked with the triangular symbol with a lightning bolt may
expose the user to electrical shock.
o Only a trained service technician should service components inside these compartments.
•
If any of the following conditions occur, unplug the product from the electrical outlet and replace the part or
contact your trained service provider:
o Damage to the power cable, extension cable, or plug.
o An object has fallen into the product.
o The product has been exposed to water.
o The product has been dropped or damaged.
o The product does not operate correctly when the operating instructions are correctly followed.
•
Keep your system away from radiators and heat sources. Also, do not block cooling vents.
•
Do not spill food or liquids on system components, and never operate the product in a wet environment. If the
system gets wet, see the appropriate section in the troubleshooting guide or contact your trained service
provider.
•
Do not push any objects into the openings of the system. Doing so can cause fire or electric shock by shorting
out interior components.
•
Use the product only with approved equipment.
•
Allow the product to cool before removing covers or touching internal components.
•
Operate the product only from the type of external power source indicated on the electrical ratings label. If
unsure of the type of power source required, consult your service provider or local power company.
•
To help avoid damaging the system, be sure the voltage selection switch (if provided) on the power supply is
set to match the power available at the Switch’s location:
o 115 volts (V)/60 hertz (Hz) in most of North and South America and some Far Eastern countries such
as South Korea and Taiwan
o 100 V/50 Hz in eastern Japan and 100 V/60 Hz in western Japan
o 230 V/50 Hz in most of Europe, the Middle East, and the Far East
•
Also, be sure that attached devices are electrically rated to operate with the power available in your location.
•
Use only approved power cable(s). If you have not been provided with a power cable for your system or for
any AC-powered option intended for your system, purchase a power cable that is approved for use in your
country. The power cable must be rated for the product and for the voltage and current marked on the
product's electrical ratings label. The voltage and current rating of the cable should be greater than the ratings
marked on the product.
•
To help prevent electric shock, plug the system and peripheral power cables into properly grounded electrical
outlets. These cables are equipped with three-prong plugs to help ensure proper grounding. Do not use
adapter plugs or remove the grounding prong from a cable. If using an extension cable is necessary, use a 3wire cable with properly grounded plugs.
•
Observe extension cable and power strip ratings. Make sure that the total ampere rating of all products
plugged into the extension cable or power strip does not exceed 80 percent of the ampere ratings limit for the
extension cable or power strip.
•
To help protect the system from sudden, transient increases and decreases in electrical power, use a surge
suppressor, line conditioner, or uninterruptible power supply (UPS).
•
Position system cables and power cables carefully; route cables so that they cannot be stepped on or tripped
over. Be sure that nothing rests on any cables.
•
Do not modify power cables or plugs. Consult a licensed electrician or your power company for site
modifications. Always follow your local/national wiring rules.
•
When connecting or disconnecting power to hot-pluggable power supplies, if offered with your system,
observe the following guidelines:
o Install the power supply before connecting the power cable to the power supply.
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o
o
•
Unplug the power cable before removing the power supply.
If the system has multiple sources of power, disconnect power from the system by unplugging all
power cables from the power supplies.
Move products with care; ensure that all casters and/or stabilizers are firmly connected to the system. Avoid
sudden stops and uneven surfaces.
General Precautions for Rack-Mountable Products
Observe the following precautions for rack stability and safety. Also, refer to the rack installation documentation
accompanying the system and the rack for specific caution statements and procedures.
•
Systems are considered to be components in a rack. Thus, "component" refers to any system as well as to
various peripherals or supporting hardware.
CAUTION: Installing systems in a rack without the front and side stabilizers installed could cause the rack
to tip over, potentially resulting in bodily injury under certain circumstances. Therefore, always install the
stabilizers before installing components in the rack. After installing system/components in a rack, never
pull more than one component out of the rack on its slide assemblies at one time. The weight of more than
one extended component could cause the rack to tip over and may result in serious injury.
•
Before working on the rack, make sure that the stabilizers are secured to the rack, extended to the floor, and
that the full weight of the rack rests on the floor. Install front and side stabilizers on a single rack or front
stabilizers for joined multiple racks before working on the rack.
•
Always load the rack from the bottom up, and load the heaviest item in the rack first.
•
Make sure that the rack is level and stable before extending a component from the rack.
•
Use caution when pressing the component rail release latches and sliding a component into or out of a rack;
the slide rails can pinch your fingers.
•
After a component is inserted into the rack, carefully extend the rail into a locking position, and then slide the
component into the rack.
•
Do not overload the AC supply branch circuit that provides power to the rack. The total rack load should not
exceed 80 percent of the branch circuit rating.
•
Ensure that proper airflow is provided to components in the rack.
•
Do not step on or stand on any component when servicing other components in a rack.
NOTE: A qualified electrician must perform all connections to DC power and to safety grounds. All
electrical wiring must comply with applicable local or national codes and practices.
CAUTION: Never defeat the ground conductor or operate the equipment in the absence of a suitably
installed ground conductor. Contact the appropriate electrical inspection authority or an electrician if
uncertain that suitable grounding is available.
CAUTION: The system chassis must be positively grounded to the rack cabinet frame. Do not attempt to
connect power to the system until grounding cables are connected. Completed power and safety ground
wiring must be inspected by a qualified electrical inspector. An energy hazard will exist if the safety
ground cable is omitted or disconnected.
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Protecting Against Electrostatic Discharge
Static electricity can harm delicate components inside the system. To prevent static damage, discharge static
electricity from your body before touching any of the electronic components, such as the microprocessor. This can be
done by periodically touching an unpainted metal surface on the chassis.
The following steps can also be taken prevent damage from electrostatic discharge (ESD):
1. When unpacking a static-sensitive component from its shipping carton, do not remove the component from
the antistatic packing material until ready to install the component in the system. Just before unwrapping the
antistatic packaging, be sure to discharge static electricity from your body.
2. When transporting a sensitive component, first place it in an antistatic container or packaging.
3. Handle all sensitive components in a static-safe area. If possible, use antistatic floor pads, workbench pads
and an antistatic grounding strap.
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Chapter 1
Web-based Switch Configuration
Introduction
Logging in to the Web Manager
Web-based User Interface
Web Pages
Introduction
All software functions of the DES-3810 Series Switch can be managed, configured and monitored via the embedded
web-based (HTML) interface. Manage the Switch from remote stations anywhere on the network through a standard
browser. The browser acts as a universal access tool and can communicate directly with the Switch using the HTTP
protocol.
The Web-based management module and the Console program (and Telnet) are different ways to access the same
internal switching software and configure it. Thus, all settings encountered in web-based management are the same
as those found in the console program.
Logging in to the Web Manager
To begin managing the Switch, simply run the browser installed on your computer and point it to the IP address you
have defined for the device. The URL in the address bar should read something like: http://123.123.123.123, where
the numbers 123 represent the IP address of the Switch.
NOTE: The factory default IP address is 10.90.90.90.
This opens the management module's user authentication window, as seen below.
Figure 1–1 Enter Network Password Window
Leave both the User Name field and the Password field blank and click OK. This will open the Web-based user
interface. The Switch management features available in the web-based manager are explained below.
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Web-based User Interface
The user interface provides access to various Switch configuration and management screens, allows the user to view
performance statistics, and permits graphical monitoring of the system status.
Areas of the User Interface
The figure below shows the user interface. Three distinct areas divide the user interface, as described in the table.
AREA 2
AREA 3
AREA 1
Figure 1–2. Main Web-Manager Screen
Area Number
Function
Area 1
Select the menu or window to display. Open folders and click the hyperlinked menu buttons
and subfolders contained within them to display menus. Click the D-Link logo to go to the DLink website.
Area 2
Presents a graphical near real-time image of the front panel of the Switch. This area displays
the Switch's ports, console and management port, showing port activity.
Some management functions, including save, reboot, download and upload are accessible
here.
Area 3
Presents switch information based on user selection and the entry of configuration data.
Table 2. Areas of the User Interface
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Web Pages
When connecting to the management mode of the Switch with a web browser, a login screen is displayed. Enter a
user name and password to access the Switch's management mode.
Below is a list of the main folders available in the Web interface:
System Configuration - In this section the user will be able to configure features regarding the Switch’s configuration.
Management - In this section the user will be able to configure features regarding the Switch’s management.
L2 Features - In this section the user will be able to configure features regarding the Layer 2 functionality of the
Switch.
L3 Features - In this section the user will be able to configure features regarding the Layer 3 functionality of the
Switch.
QoS - In this section the user will be able to configure features regarding the Quality of Service functionality of the
Switch.
ACL - In this section the user will be able to configure features regarding the Access Control List functionality of the
Switch.
Security - In this section the user will be able to configure features regarding the Switch’s security.
Network Application - In this section the user will be able to configure features regarding network applications
handled by the Switch.
OAM - In this section the user will be able to configure features regarding the Switch’s operations, administration and
maintenance (OAM).
Monitoring - In this section the user will be able to monitor the Switch’s configuration and statistics.
NOTE: Be sure to configure the user name and password in the User Accounts menu before
connecting the Switch to the greater network.
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Chapter 2
System Configuration
Device Information
System Information Settings
Port Configuration
Serial Port Settings
Warning Temperature Settings
System Log Configuration
Time Range Settings
Time Settings
User Account Settings
SRM (EI Mode Only)
Device Information
This window contains the main settings for all the major functions for the Switch. It appears automatically when
you log on to the Switch. To return to the Device Information window after viewing other windows, click the DES3810-28 link.
The Device Information window shows the Switch’s MAC Address (assigned by the factory and unchangeable),
the Boot PROM Version, Firmware Version, Hardware Version, and many other important types of information.
This is helpful to keep track of PROM and firmware updates and to obtain the Switch’s MAC address for entry into
another network device’s address table, if necessary. In addition, this window displays the status of functions on
the Switch to quickly assess their current global status.
Many functions are hyper-linked for easy access to enable quick configuration from this window.
Figure 2–1 Device Information Window (EI Only Mode)
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Figure 2–2 Device Information Window (SI Only Mode)
Click on the Settings link to navigate to the appropriate feature page for configuration.
System Information Settings
The user can enter a System Name, System Location, and System Contact to aid in defining the Switch.
To view the following window, click System Configuration > System Information Settings, as shown below:
Figure 2–3 System Information Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
System Name:
Enter a system name for the Switch, if so desired. This name will identify it in the
Switch network.
System Location:
Enter the location of the Switch, if so desired.
System Contact:
Enter a contact name for the Switch, if so desired.
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Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Port Configuration
Port Settings
This page used to configure the details of the switch ports.
To view the following window, click System Configuration > Port Configuration > Port Settings, as shown
below:
Figure 2–4 Port Settings Window
To configure switch ports:
1. Choose the port or sequential range of ports using the From Port and To Port pull-down menus.
2. Use the remaining pull-down menus to configure the parameters described below:
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port – To Port:
Select the appropriate port range used for the configuration here.
State:
Toggle the State field to either enable or disable a given port or group of ports.
Speed/Duplex:
Toggle the Speed/Duplex field to either select the speed and duplex/half-duplex state
of the port. Auto denotes auto-negotiation between 10 and 100 Mbps devices, in fullor half-duplex. The Auto setting allows the port to automatically determine the fastest
settings the device the port is connected to can handle, and then to use those settings.
The other options are 10M Half, 10M Full, 100M Half, 100M Full, 1000M Full_Master,
1000M Full_Slave, and 1000M Full. There is no automatic adjustment of port settings
with any option other than Auto.
The Switch allows the user to configure three types of gigabit connections; 1000M
Full_Master, 1000M Full_Slave, and 1000M Full. Gigabit connections only support full
duplex connections and take on certain characteristics that are different from the other
choices listed.
The 1000M Full_Master and 1000M Full_Slave parameters refer to connections
running a 1000BASE-T cable for connection between the Switch port and other device
capable of a gigabit connection. The master setting (1000M Full_Master) will allow the
port to advertise capabilities related to duplex, speed and physical layer type. The
master setting will also determine the master and slave relationship between the two
connected physical layers. This relationship is necessary for establishing the timing
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control between the two physical layers. The timing control is set on a master physical
layer by a local source. The slave setting (1000M Full_Slave) uses loop timing, where
the timing comes from a data stream received from the master. If one connection is
set for 1000M Full_Master, the other side of the connection must be set for 1000M
Full_Slave. Any other configuration will result in a link down status for both ports.
Flow Control:
Displays the flow control scheme used for the various port configurations. Ports
configured for full-duplex use 802.3x flow control, half-duplex ports use backpressure
flow control, and Auto ports use an automatic selection of the two. The default is
Disabled.
Connection:
Here the current connection speed will be displayed.
MDIX:
auto - Select auto for auto sensing of the optimal type of cabling.
normal - Select normal for normal cabling. If set to normal state, the port is in MDI
mode and can be connected to a PC NIC using a straight-through cable or a port (in
MDI mode) on another switch through a cross-over cable.
cross - Select cross for cross cabling. If set to cross state, the port is in MDIX mode,
and can be connected to a port (in MDI mode) on another switch through a straight
cable.
Address Learning:
Enable or disable MAC address learning for the selected ports. When Enabled,
destination and source MAC addresses are automatically listed in the forwarding table.
When address learning is Disabled, MAC addresses must be manually entered into
the forwarding table. This is sometimes done for reasons of security or efficiency. See
the section on Forwarding/Filtering for information on entering MAC addresses into the
forwarding table. The default setting is Enabled.
Medium:
If configuring the Combo ports, this defines the type of transport medium to be used,
whether Copper or Fiber.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Refresh button to refresh the display section of this page.
Port Description Settings
The Switch supports a port description feature where the user may name various ports.
To view the following window, click System Configuration > Port Configuration > Port Description Settings,
as shown below:
Figure 2–5 Port Description Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
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From Port – To Port:
Select the appropriate port range used for the configuration here.
Medium Type:
Specify the medium type for the selected ports. If configuring the Combo ports, the
Medium Type defines the type of transport medium to be used, whether Copper or
Fiber.
Description:
Users may then enter a description for the chosen port(s).
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Port Error Disabled
The following window will display the information about ports that have had their connection status disabled
automatically by switch, for reasons such as when a packet storm occurs or when a loop was detected.
To view the following window, click System Configuration > Port Configuration > Port Error Disabled, as
shown below:
Figure 2–6 Port Error Disabled Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port:
Displays the port that has been error disabled.
Port State:
Describes the current running state of the port, whether enabled or disabled.
Connection Status:
This field will read the uplink status of the individual ports, whether enabled or
disabled.
Reason:
Describes the reason why the port has been error-disabled, such as it has become a
shutdown port for storm control.
Jumbo Frame Settings
The Switch supports jumbo frames. Jumbo frames are Ethernet frames with more than 1,500 bytes of payload.
The Switch supports jumbo frames with a maximum frame size of up to 10240 bytes.
To view the following window, click System Configuration > Port Configuration > Jumbo Frame Settings, as
shown below:
Figure 2–7 Jumbo Frame Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Jumbo Frame:
This field will enable or disable the Jumbo Frame function on the Switch. The default is
Disabled. The maximum frame size is 1536 bytes.
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Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Serial Port Settings
Here the user can adjust the Baud Rate and the Auto Logout values.
To view the following window, click System Configuration > Serial Port Settings, as shown below:
Figure 2–8 Serial Port Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Baud Rate:
This field specifies the baud rate for the serial port on the Switch. There are four
possible baud rates to choose from, 9600, 19200, 38400 and 115200. For a
connection to the Switch using the console port, the baud rate must be set to 115200,
which is the default setting.
Auto Logout:
Select the logout time used for the console interface. This automatically logs the user
out after an idle period of time, as defined. Choose from the following options: 2, 5, 10,
15 minutes or Never. The default setting is 10 minutes.
Data Bits:
Displays the data bits used for the serial port connection.
Parity Bits:
Displays the parity bits used for the serial port connection.
Stop Bits:
Displays the stop bits used for the serial port connection.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Warning Temperature Settings
On this page the user can configure the system warning temperature parameters.
To view the following window, click System Configuration > Warning Temperature Settings, as shown below:
Figure 2–9 Warning Temperature Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
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Parameter
Description
Traps State:
Here the user can enable or disable the traps state option of the warning temperature
setting.
Log State:
Here the user can enable or disable the log state option of the warning temperature
setting.
High Threshold:
Here the user can enter the high threshold value of the warning temperature setting.
Low Threshold:
Here the user can enter the low threshold value of the warning temperature setting.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
System Log Configuration
System Log Settings
The Switch allows users to choose a method for which to save the switch log to the flash memory of the Switch.
To view the following window, click System Configuration > System Log Configuration > System Log
Settings, as shown below:
Figure 2–10 System Log Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
System Log:
Here the user can enable or disable the system log settings. Select Enable or Disable
and click to Apply button to accept the changes made.
Save Mode:
Use the pull-down menu to choose the method for saving the switch log to the flash
memory. The user has three options:
Time Interval – Users who choose this method can configure a time interval by which
the Switch will save the log files, in the box adjacent to this configuration field. The
user may set a time between 1 and 65535 minutes.
On Demand – Users who choose this method will only save log files when they
manually tell the Switch to do so, either using the Save Log link in the Save folder or
clicking the Save Log Now button on this window.
Log Trigger – Users who choose this method will have log files saved to the Switch
every time a log event occurs on the Switch.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
System Log Server Settings
The Switch can send Syslog messages to up to four designated servers using the System Log Server.
To view the following window, click System Configuration > System Log Configuration > System Log Server
Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 2–11 System Log Server Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Server ID:
Syslog server settings index (1 to 4).
Server IPv4 Address:
The IPv4 address of the Syslog server.
Severity:
This drop-down menu allows you to select the higher level of messages that will be
sent. All messages which level is higher than selecting level will be sent. The options
are Emergency, Alert, Critical, Error, Warning, Notice, Informational and Debug.
Server IPv6 Address:
The IPv6 address of the Syslog server.
Facility:
Use the drop-down menu to select Local 0, Local 1, Local 2, Local 3, Local 4, Local 5,
Local 6, or Local 7.
UDP Port:
Type the UDP port number used for sending Syslog messages. The default is 514.
Status:
Choose Enabled or Disabled to activate or deactivate.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete All button to remove all servers configured.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specified entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specified entry.
System Log
Users can view and delete the local history log as compiled by the Switch's management agent.
To view the following window, click System Configuration > System Log Configuration > System Log, as
shown below:
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Figure 2–12 System Log Window
The Switch can record event information in its own log. Click Go to go to the next page of the System Log
window.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Log Type:
In the drop-down menu the user can select the log type that will be displayed.
Severity - When the user selects Severity then a secondary tick must be made.
Secondary ticks are Emergency, Alert, Critical, Error, Warning, Notice,
Informational and Debug. To view all information in the log simply select the All
option.
Module List – When the user selects Module List, the module name must be
manually entered like MSTP or ERPS.
Attack Log – When the user selects Attack Log all attacks will be listed.
Index:
A counter incremented whenever an entry to the Switch's history log is made. The
table displays the last entry (highest sequence number) first.
Time:
Displays the time in days, hours, minutes, and seconds since the Switch was last
restarted.
Level:
Here the level of the log entry is displayed.
Log Text:
Displays text describing the event that triggered the history log entry.
Click the Find button to display the log in the display section according to the selection made.
Click the Clear Log button to clear the entries from the log in the display section.
Click the Clear Attack Log button to clear the entries from the attack log in the display section.
System Log & Trap Settings
The Switch allows users to configure the system log source IP interface addresses here.
To view the following window, click System Configuration > System Log Configuration > System Log & Trap
Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 2–13 System Log & Trap Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IP Interface:
Here the user can enter the IP interface name used.
IPv4 Address:
Here the user can enter the IPv4 address used
IPv6 Address:
Here the user can enter the IPv6 address used
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Clear button to clear all the information entered in the fields.
System Severity Settings
The Switch can be configured to allow alerts be logged or sent as a trap to an SNMP agent or both. The level at
which the alert triggers either a log entry or a trap message can be set as well. Use the System Severity
Settings window to set the criteria for alerts. The current settings are displayed below the System Severity Table.
To view the following window, click System Configuration > System Log Configuration > System Severity
Settings, as shown below:
Figure 2–14 System Severity Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
System Severity:
Choose how the alerts are used from the drop-down menu. Select Log to send the
alert of the Severity Type configured to the Switch’s log for analysis. Choose Trap to
send it to an SNMP agent for analysis, or select All to send the chosen alert type to an
SNMP agent and the Switch’s log for analysis.
Severity Level:
This drop-down menu allows you to select the level of messages that will be sent. The
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options are Emergency, Alert, Critical, Error, Warning, Notice, Informational and
Debug.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Time Range Settings
Time range is a time period that the respective function will take an effect on, such as ACL. For example, the
administrator can configure the time based ACL to allow users to surf the Internet on every Saturday and every
Sunday, meanwhile to deny users to surf the Internet on weekdays.
The user may enter up to 64 time range entries on the Switch.
To view the following window, click System Configuration > Time Range Settings, as shown below:
Figure 2–15 Time Range Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Range Name:
Enter a name of no more than 32 alphanumeric characters that will be used to identify
this time range on the Switch. This range name will be used in the Access Profile table
to identify the access profile and associated rule to be enabled during this time range.
Hours:
This parameter is used to set the time in the day that this time range is to be enabled
using the following parameters:
Start Time - Use this parameter to identify the starting time of the time range, in
hours, minutes and seconds, based on the 24-hour time system.
End Time - Use this parameter to identify the ending time of the time range, in
hours, minutes and seconds, based on the 24-hour time system.
Weekdays:
Use the check boxes to select the corresponding days of the week that this time range
is to be enabled. Tick the Select All Days check box to configure this time range for
every day of the week.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made. Current configured entries will be displayed in the Time
Range Information table in the bottom half of the window shown above.
Click the Delete button to remove the specified entry.
Time Settings
Users can configure the time settings for the Switch.
To view the following window, click System Configuration > Time Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 2–16 Time Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Date (DD/MM/YYYY):
Enter the current day, month, and year to update the system clock.
Time (HH:MM:SS):
Enter the current time in hours, minutes, and seconds.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
User Account Settings
The Switch allows the control of user privileges.
To view the following window, click System Configuration > User Account Settings, as shown below:
Figure 2–17 User Account Settings Window
To add a new user, type in a User Name and New Password and retype the same password in the Confirm New
Password field. Choose the level of privilege (Admin, Operator or User) from the Access Right drop-down menu.
Management
Admin
Operator
User
Configuration
Read/Write
Read/Write–partly
No
Network Monitoring
Read/Write
Read/Write
Read-only
Community Strings and Trap Stations
Read/Write
Read-only
Read-only
Update Firmware and Configuration Files
Read/Write
No
No
System Utilities
Read/Write
No
No
Factory Reset
Read/Write
No
No
Add/Update/Delete User Accounts
Read/Write
No
No
View User Accounts
Read/Write
No
No
User Account Management
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
User Name:
Here the user can type in a new user name for the switch.
Password:
Here the user can type in a new password for the switch.
Confirm Password:
Here the user can re-type in a new password for the switch.
Access Right:
Here the user can specify the access right for this user.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specified entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specified entry.
NOTICE: In case of lost passwords or password corruption, please refer to the appendix chapter
entitled, “Password Recovery Procedure,” which will guide you through the steps necessary to
resolve this issue.
NOTE: The username and password should be less than 16 characters.
SRM (EI Mode Only)
SRM Settings
This window is used to configure the Switch Resource Management (SRM) configured mode. Only after the
Switch has been rebooted, will this configuration take effect.
To view this window, click System Configuration > SRM > SRM Settings as shown below:
Figure 2–18 SRM Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
SRM Configured Mode
Select the Routing option to specify that more hardware resources will be assigned to
the L3 routing functions. Select the VPWS option to specify that more hardware
resources will be assigned to MPLS functions.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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Chapter 3
Management
ARP
Gratuitous ARP
IPv6 Neighbor Settings
IP Interface
Management Settings
Out of Band Management Settings
Session Table
Single IP Management
SNMP Settings
Telnet Settings
Web Settings
Power Saving
ARP
Static ARP Settings
The Address Resolution Protocol is a TCP/IP protocol that converts IP addresses into physical addresses. This table
allows network managers to view, define, modify, and delete ARP information for specific devices. Static entries can
be defined in the ARP table. When static entries are defined, a permanent entry is entered and is used to translate IP
addresses to MAC addresses.
To view the following window, click Management > ARP > Static ARP Settings, as shown below:
Figure 3–1 Static ARP Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
ARP Aging Time (065535)
The ARP entry age-out time, in minutes. The default is 20 minutes.
IP Address:
The IP address of the ARP entry.
MAC Address:
The MAC address of the ARP entry.
Click the Apply button, located in the Global Settings section to accept the changes made in this section.
Click the Apply button, located in the Add Static ARP Entry section to accept the changes made in this section.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specified entry.
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Click the Delete button to remove the specified entry.
Proxy ARP Settings
On this page the user can view and edit basic settings concerning the Proxy ARP feature.
The Proxy ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) feature of the Switch will allow the Switch to reply to ARP requests
destined for another device by faking its identity (IP and MAC Address) as the original ARP responder. Therefore, the
Switch can then route packets to the intended destination without configuring static routing or a default gateway.
The host, usually a layer 3 switch, will respond to packets destined for another device. For example, if hosts A and B
are on different physical networks, B will not receive ARP broadcast requests from A and therefore cannot respond.
Yet, if the physical network of A is connected by a router or layer 3 switch to B, the router or Layer 3 switch will see
the ARP request from A.
This local proxy ARP function allows the Switch to respond to the proxy ARP, if the source IP and destination IP are in
the same interface.
To view the following window, click Management > ARP > Proxy ARP Settings, as shown below:
Figure 3–2 Proxy ARP Settings Window
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry and select the proxy ARP state of the IP interface. By default,
both the Proxy ARP State and Local Proxy ARP State are disabled.
ARP Table
Users can display current ARP entries on the Switch.
To view the following window, click Management > ARP > ARP Table, as shown below:
Figure 3–3 ARP Table Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Interface Name:
Here the user can enter or view the Interface name used.
IP Address:
Here the user can enter or view the IP Address used.
MAC Address:
Here the user can enter or view the MAC Address used.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
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Click the Show Static button to display only the static entries in the display table.
Click the Clear All button to remove all the entries listed in the table.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
Gratuitous ARP
Gratuitous ARP Global Settings
The user can enable or disable the gratuitous ARP global settings here.
To view the following window, click Management > Gratuitous ARP > Gratuitous ARP Global Settings, as shown
below:
Figure 3–4 Gratuitous ARP Global Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Send On IP Interface
Status Up:
The command is used to enable/disable sending of gratuitous ARP request packet while
the IPIF interface become up. This is used to automatically announce the interface’s IP
address to other nodes. By default, the state is disabled, and only one gratuitous ARP
packet will be broadcast.
Send On Duplicate IP
Detected:
The command is used to enable/disable the sending of gratuitous ARP request packet
while a duplicate IP is detected. By default, the state is disabled. For this command, the
duplicate IP detected means that the system received an ARP request packet that is sent
by an IP address that match the system’s own IP address. In this case, the system knows
that somebody out there uses an IP address that is conflict with the system. In order to
reclaim the correct host of this IP address, the system can send out the gratuitous ARP
request packets for this duplicate IP address.
Gratuitous ARP
Learning:
Normally, the system will only learn the ARP reply packet or a normal ARP request packet
that asks for the MAC address that corresponds to the system’s IP address. The
command is used to enable/disable learning of ARP entry in ARP cache based on the
received gratuitous ARP packet. The gratuitous ARP packet is sent by a source IP
address that is identical to the IP that the packet is queries for. By default, the state is
Disabled status.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
NOTE: With the gratuitous ARP learning, the system will not learn new entry but only do the update on
the ARP table based on the received gratuitous ARP packet.
Gratuitous ARP Settings
The user can configure the IP interface’s gratuitous ARP parameter.
To view the following window, click Management > Gratuitous ARP > Gratuitous ARP Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 3–5 Gratuitous ARP Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Trap:
Here the user can enable or disable the trap option. By default the trap is disabled.
Log:
Here the user can enable or disable the logging option. By default the event log is
enabled.
IP Interface Name:
Here the user can enter the interface name of the Layer 3 interface. Select All to enable
or disable gratuitous ARP trap or log on all interfaces.
Interval Time:
Here the user can enter the periodically send gratuitous ARP interval time in seconds. 0
means that gratuitous ARP request will not be sent periodically. By default the interval
time is 0.
Click the Apply button, located in the Gratuitous ARP Trap/Log section to accept the changes made in this section.
Click the Apply button, located in the Gratuitous ARP Periodical Send Interval section to accept the changes made
in this section.
IPv6 Neighbor Settings
The user can configure the Switch’s IPv6 neighbor settings. The Switch’s current IPv6 neighbor settings will be
displayed in the table at the bottom of this window.
To view the following window, click Management > IPv6 Neighbor Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 3–6 IPv6 Neighbor Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Interface Name:
Enter the interface name of the IPv6 neighbor.
Neighbor IPv6 Address:
Enter the neighbor IPv6 address.
Link Layer MAC
Address:
Enter the link layer MAC address.
Interface Name:
Enter the name of the IPv6 neighbor. To search for all the current interfaces on the
Switch, go to the second Interface Name field in the middle part of the window, tick the All
check box. Select the Hardware option to display all the neighbor cache entries which
were written into the hardware table.
State:
Use the drop-down menu to select All, Address, Static, or Dynamic. When the user
selects address from the drop-down menu, the user will be able to enter an IP address in
the space provided next to the state option.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Clear button to clear all the information entered in the fields.
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IP Interface
System IP Address Settings
The IP address may initially be set using the console interface prior to connecting to it through the Ethernet. The Web
manager will display the Switch’s current IP settings.
NOTE: The Switch’s factory default IP address is 10.90.90.90 with a subnet mask of 255.0.0.0 and a
default gateway of 0.0.0.0.
To view the following window, click Management > IP Interface > System IP Address Settings, as shown below:
Figure 3–7 System IP Address Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Static:
Allows the entry of an IP address, subnet mask, and a default gateway for the Switch.
These fields should be of the form xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx, where each xxx is a number
(represented in decimal form) between 0 and 255. This address should be a unique
address on the network assigned for use by the network administrator.
DHCP:
The Switch will send out a DHCP broadcast request when it is powered up. The DHCP
protocol allows IP addresses, network masks, and default gateways to be assigned by a
DHCP server. If this option is set, the Switch will first look for a DHCP server to provide it
with this information before using the default or previously entered settings.
BOOTP:
The Switch will send out a BOOTP broadcast request when it is powered up. The BOOTP
protocol allows IP addresses, network masks, and default gateways to be assigned by a
central BOOTP server. If this option is set, the Switch will first look for a BOOTP server to
provide it with this information before using the default or previously entered settings.
The following table will describe the fields that are about the System Interface.
Parameter
Description
IP Interface:
Here the System interface name will be displayed.
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Management VLAN
Name:
This allows the entry of a VLAN name from which a management station will be allowed
to manage the Switch using TCP/IP (in-band via Web manager or Telnet). Management
stations that are on VLANs other than the one entered here will not be able to manage the
Switch in-band unless their IP addresses are entered in the Trusted Host window
(Security > Trusted Host). If VLANs have not yet been configured for the Switch, the
default VLAN contains all of the Switch’s ports. There are no entries in the Trusted Host
table, by default, so any management station that can connect to the Switch can access
the Switch until a management VLAN is specified or Management Station IP addresses
are assigned.
Interface Admin State:
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the configuration on this interface.
IP Address:
This field allows the entry of an IPv4 address to be assigned to this IP interface.
Subnet Mask:
A Bitmask that determines the extent of the subnet that the Switch is on. Should be of the
form xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx, where each xxx is a number (represented in decimal) between 0
and 255. The value should be 255.0.0.0 for a Class A network, 255.255.0.0 for a Class B
network, and 255.255.255.0 for a Class C network, but custom subnet masks are allowed.
Gateway:
IP address that determines where packets with a destination address outside the current
subnet should be sent. This is usually the address of a router or a host acting as an IP
gateway. If your network is not part of an intranet, or you do not want the Switch to be
accessible outside your local network, you can leave this field unchanged.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
The following table will describe the fields that are about the Management Interface. The management interface can
be accessed by connecting to the Management port.
Parameter
Description
IP Interface:
Here the management interface name will be displayed.
IP Address:
This field allows the entry of an IPv4 address to be assigned to this IP interface.
Subnet Mask:
A Bitmask that determines the extent of the subnet that the Switch is on. Should be of the
form xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx, where each xxx is a number (represented in decimal) between 0
and 255. The value should be 255.0.0.0 for a Class A network, 255.255.0.0 for a Class B
network, and 255.255.255.0 for a Class C network, but custom subnet masks are allowed.
Gateway:
IP address that determines where packets with a destination address outside the current
subnet should be sent. This is usually the address of a router or a host acting as an IP
gateway. If your network is not part of an intranet, or you do not want the Switch to be
accessible outside your local network, you can leave this field unchanged.
Status:
Specifies whether the management port is enabled or disabled.
Link Status:
Specifies whether a physical connection is made to the Management Port.
Interface Settings
Users can display the Switch’s current IP interface settings.
To view the following window, click Management > IP Interface > Interface Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 3–8 Interface Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IP Interface Name:
Here the user can enter the name of the IP interface to search for.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the IPv4 Edit button to edit the IPv4 settings for the specific entry.
Click the IPv6 Edit button to edit the IPv6 settings for the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
NOTE: To create IPv6 interfaces, the user has to create an IPv4 interface then edit it to IPv6.
After clicking the Add button, the following page will appear:
Figure 3–9 IPv4 Interface Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IP Interface Name:
Here the user can enter the name of the IP interface being created.
IPv4 Address:
Here the user can enter the IPv4 address used.
Subnet Mask:
Here the user can enter the IPv4 subnet mask used.
VLAN Name:
Here the user can enter the VLAN Name used.
Interface Admin State:
Here the user can select to enable or disable the Interface Admin State.
Secondary Interface:
The user can select this option to use this Interface as a Secondary Interface. When the
primary IP is not available, the VLAN will switch to the secondary interface. It will switch
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back when the primary IP was recovered.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the IPv4 Edit button, the following page will appear:
Figure 3–10 IPv4 Interface Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Get IP From:
Here the user can specify the method this Interface will use to acquire an IP Address.
IP Interface Name:
Here the user can enter the name of the IP interface being configured.
IPv4 Address:
Here the user can enter the IPv4 address used.
Subnet Mask:
Here the user can enter the IPv4 subnet mask used.
VLAN Name:
Here the user can enter the VLAN Name used.
IPv4 State:
Here the user can select to enable or disable IPv4 State.
Interface Admin State:
Here the user can select to enable or disable the Interface Admin State.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the IPv6 Edit button, the following page will appear:
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Figure 3–11 IPv6 Interface Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IP Interface Name:
Here the IPv6 interface name is displayed
IPv6 State:
Here the user can select to enable or disable IPv6 State.
Interface Admin State:
Here the user can select to enable or disable the Interface Admin State.
IPv6 Network Address:
Here the user can enter the neighbor’s global or local link address.
NS Retransmit Time:
Enter the Neighbor solicitation’s retransmit timer in millisecond here. It has the same
value as the RA retransmit time in the configuration of the IPv6 ND RA command. If this
field is configure, it will duplicate the enter into the RA field.
Automatic Link Local
Address:
Here the user can select to enable or disable the Automatic Link Local Address.
State:
Here the user can enable or disable the router advertisement state.
Lifetime:
Here the user can enter the lifetime value of the router as the default router in second.
Reachable Time:
Here the user can enter the amount of time that a node can consider a neighboring node
reachable after receiving a reachable confirmation in millisecond.
Retransmit Time:
Here the user can enter the amount of time between retransmissions of the router
advertisement message in millisecond, and the router advertisement packet will take it to
the host.
Hop Limit:
Here the user can enter the default value of the hop limit field in the IPv6 header for
packets sent by hosts that will receive this RA message.
Managed Flag:
When set to enable, it indicates that hosts receiving this RA must use a stateful address
configuration protocol to obtain an address in the addition to the addresses derived from
the stateless address configuration.
Other Config Flag:
When set to enable, it indicates that hosts receiving this RA must use a stateful address
configuration protocol to obtain the address configuration information.
Min Router Advinterval:
The minimum time allowed between sending unsolicited multicast router advertisements
from the interface, in seconds. This value must be no less than 3 seconds and no greater
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than .75 times the maximum router advertisement interval. The default value for this field
is 198 seconds.
Max Router
Advinterval:
The maximum time allowed between sending unsolicited multicast router advertisements
from the interface, in seconds. This value must be no less than 4 seconds and no greater
than 1800 seconds. The default value for this field is 600 seconds.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Click the View All IPv6 Address link to view all the current IPv6 address
Click the View Neighbor Discover link to view all the neighbor discovery information entries.
After clicking the View All IPv6 Address link, the following page will appear:
Figure 3–12 IPv6 Interface Settings Window
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
After clicking the View Neighbor Discover link, the following page will appear:
Figure 3–13 IPv6 Interface Settings Window
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
Loopback Interface Settings
This window is used to configure loopback interfaces. A loopback interface is a logical IP interface which is always
active, until a user disables or deletes it. It is independent of the state of any physical interfaces.
To view this window, click Management > IP Interface > Loopback Interface Settings, as show below:
Figure 3-14 Loopback Interface Settings
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Interface Name
Enter an interface name.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
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Click the Add button to create a new entry.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed in the table.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Click the Add or Edit button to see the following window.
Figure 3-15 Loopback Interface Settings - Add/Edit window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Interface Name
The name of the loopback interface. The loopback interface has the same name
domain space as the regular interface. So the name can’t be a duplicate of any of the
regular interfaces.
IPv4 Address
Enter a 32-bit IPv4 address for the loopback interface.
Subnet Mask
Enter a subnet mask to be applied to the loopback interface.
Interface Admin State
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the loopback interface.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Management Settings
Users can stop the scrolling of multiple pages beyond the limits of the console when using the Command Line
Interface.
This window is also used to enable the DHCP auto configuration feature on the Switch. When enabled, the Switch is
instructed to receive a configuration file from a TFTP server, which will set the Switch to become a DHCP client
automatically on boot-up. To employ this method, the DHCP server must be set up to deliver the TFTP server IP
address and configuration file name information in the DHCP reply packet. The TFTP server must be up and running
and hold the necessary configuration file stored in its base directory when the request is received from the Switch. For
more information about loading a configuration file for use by a client, see the DHCP server and/or TFTP server
software instructions. The user may also consult the Upload Log File window description located in the Tools section
of this manual.
If the Switch is unable to complete the DHCP auto configuration, the previously saved configuration file present in the
Switch’s memory will be used.
This window also allows the user to implement the Switch’s built-in power saving feature. When power saving is
Enabled, a port which has a link down status will be turned off to save power to the Switch. This will not affect the
port’s capabilities when the port status is link up.
Users can also configure Password Encryption on the Switch.
To view the following window, click Management > Management Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 3–16 Management Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
CLI Paging State:
Command Line Interface paging stops each page at the end of the console. This allows
you to stop the scrolling of multiple pages of text beyond the limits of the console. CLI
Paging is Enabled by default. To disable it, click the Disabled radio button.
DHCP Auto
Configuration State:
Enable or disable the Switch’s DHCP auto configuration feature. When enabled, the
Switch is instructed to receive a configuration file from a TFTP server, which will set the
Switch to become a DHCP client automatically on boot-up. To employ this method, the
DHCP server must be set up to deliver the TFTP server IP address and configuration file
name information in the DHCP reply packet. The TFTP server must be up and running
and hold the necessary configuration file stored in its base directory when the request is
received from the Switch.
Password Encryption
State:
Password encryption will encrypt the password configuration in configuration files.
Password encryption is Disabled by default. To enable password encryption, click the
Enabled radio button.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
To learn more about the D-Link Green Technologies, go to http://green.dlink.com/ for more details.
Out of Band Management Settings
On this page the user can configure the details of the RJ-45 out of band management port.
To view the following window, click Management > Out of Band Management Settings, as shown below:
Figure 3–17 Out of Band Management Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IP Address:
The user can enter the IP address used here.
Subnet Mask:
The user can enter the subnet mask used here.
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Gateway:
The user can enter the Gateway IP address used here.
Status:
The user can enable or disable the out of band management status here.
Link Status:
The user can view the link status here.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Session Table
Users can display the management sessions since the Switch was last rebooted.
To view the following window, click Management > Session Table, as shown below:
Figure 3–18 Session Table Window
Click the Refresh button to refresh the display table so that new entries will appear.
Single IP Management
Simply put, D-Link Single IP Management is a concept that will stack switches together over Ethernet instead of using
stacking ports or modules. There are some advantages in implementing the “Single IP Management” feature:
1. SIM can simplify management of small workgroups or wiring closets while scaling the network to handle
increased bandwidth demand.
2. SIM can reduce the number of IP address needed in your network.
3. SIM can eliminate any specialized cables for stacking connectivity and remove the distance barriers that
typically limit your topology options when using other stacking technology.
Switches using D-Link Single IP Management (labeled here as SIM) must conform to the following rules:
•
SIM is an optional feature on the Switch and can easily be enabled or disabled through the Command Line
Interface or Web Interface. SIM grouping has no effect on the normal operation of the Switch in the user’s
network.
•
There are three classifications for switches using SIM. The Commander Switch (CS), which is the master
switch of the group, Member Switch (MS), which is a switch that is recognized by the CS a member of a
SIM group, and a Candidate Switch (CaS), which is a Switch that has a physical link to the SIM group but
has not been recognized by the CS as a member of the SIM group.
•
A SIM group can only have one Commander Switch (CS).
•
All switches in a particular SIM group must be in the same IP subnet (broadcast domain). Members of a
SIM group cannot cross a router.
•
A SIM group accepts up to 32 switches (numbered 1-32), not including the Commander Switch (numbered
0).
•
There is no limit to the number of SIM groups in the same IP subnet (broadcast domain); however a single
switch can only belong to one group.
•
If multiple VLANs are configured, the SIM group will only utilize the default VLAN on any switch.
•
SIM allows intermediate devices that do not support SIM. This enables the user to manage switches that
are more than one hop away from the CS.
The SIM group is a group of switches that are managed as a single entity. The Switch may take on three different
roles:
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1. Commander Switch (CS) – This is a switch that has been manually configured as the controlling device for a
group, and takes on the following characteristics:
a. It has an IP Address.
b. It is not a command switch or member switch of another Single IP group.
c. It is connected to the member switches through its management VLAN.
2. Member Switch (MS) – This is a switch that has joined a single IP group and is accessible from the CS, and it
takes on the following characteristics:
a. It is not a CS or MS of another IP group.
b. It is connected to the CS through the CS management VLAN.
3. Candidate Switch (CaS) – This is a switch that is ready to join a SIM group but is not yet a member of the
SIM group. The Candidate Switch may join the SIM group of the Switch by manually configuring it to be a MS
of a SIM group. A switch configured as a CaS is not a member of a SIM group and will take on the following
characteristics:
a. It is not a CS or MS of another Single IP group.
b. It is connected to the CS through the CS management VLAN
The following rules also apply to the above roles:
•
Each device begins in a Candidate state.
•
CSs must change their role to CaS and then to MS, to become a MS of a SIM group. Thus, the CS cannot
directly be converted to a MS.
•
The user can manually configure a CS to become a CaS.
•
A MS can become a CaS by:
•
Being configured as a CaS through the CS.
•
If report packets from the CS to the MS time out.
•
The user can manually configure a CaS to become a CS
•
The CaS can be configured through the CS to become a MS.
After configuring one switch to operate as the CS of a SIM group, additional DES-3810-28 Series switches may join
the group by manually configuring the Switch to be a MS. The CS will then serve as the in band entry point for access
to the MS. The CS’s IP address will become the path to all MS’s of the group and the CS’s Administrator’s password,
and/or authentication will control access to all MS’s of the SIM group.
With SIM enabled, the applications in the CS will redirect the packet instead of executing the packets. The
applications will decode the packet from the administrator, modify some data, and then send it to the MS. After
execution, the CS may receive a response packet from the MS, which it will encode and send it back to the
administrator.
When a CaS becomes a MS, it automatically becomes a member of the first SNMP community (includes read/write
and read only) to which the CS belongs. However, if a MS has its own IP address, it can belong to SNMP
communities to which other switches in the group, including the CS, do not belong.
Upgrade to v1.61
To better improve SIM management, the DES-3810-28 Series switches have been upgraded to version 1.61 in this
release. Many improvements have been made, including:
1. The Commander Switch (CS) now has the capability to automatically rediscover member switches that have
left the SIM group, either through a reboot or web malfunction. This feature is accomplished through the use
of Discover packets and Maintenance packets that previously set SIM members will emit after a reboot. Once
a MS has had its MAC address and password saved to the CS’s database, if a reboot occurs in the MS, the
CS will keep this MS information in its database and when a MS has been rediscovered, it will add the MS
back into the SIM tree automatically. No configuration will be necessary to rediscover these switches.
There are some instances where pre-saved MS switches cannot be rediscovered. For example, if the Switch is still
powered down, if it has become the member of another group, or if it has been configured to be a Commander Switch,
the rediscovery process cannot occur.
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2. The topology map now includes new features for connections that are a member of a port trunking group. It
will display the speed and number of Ethernet connections creating this port trunk group, as shown in the
adjacent picture.
3. This version will support switch upload and
downloads for firmware, configuration files and log
files, as follows:
a. Firmware – The switch now supports MS
firmware downloads from a TFTP server.
b. Configuration Files – This switch now
supports downloading and uploading of
configuration files both to (for configuration
restoration) and from (for configuration
backup) MS’s, using a TFTP server.
c. Log – The Switch now supports uploading
MS log files to a TFTP server.
4. The user may zoom in and zoom out when utilizing
the topology window to get a better, more defined
view of the configurations.
Single IP Settings
The Switch is set as a Candidate (CaS) as the factory default configuration and Single IP Management is disabled.
To view the following window, click Management > Single IP Management > Single IP Settings, as shown below:
Figure 3–19 Single IP Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
SIM State:
Use the pull-down menu to either enable or disable the SIM state on the Switch. Disabled
will render all SIM functions on the Switch inoperable.
Role State:
Use the pull-down menu to change the SIM role of the Switch. The two choices are:
Candidate – A Candidate Switch (CaS) is not the member of a SIM group but is
connected to a Commander Switch. This is the default setting for the SIM role of the
Switch.
Commander – Choosing this parameter will make the Switch a Commander Switch (CS).
The user may join other switches to this Switch, over Ethernet, to be part of its SIM group.
Choosing this option will also enable the Switch to be configured for SIM.
Group Name:
Enter a Group Name in this textbox. This is optional. This name is used to segment
switches into different SIM groups.
Discovery Interval (3090):
The user may set the discovery protocol interval, in seconds that the Switch will send out
discovery packets. Returning information to a Commander Switch will include information
about other switches connected to it. (Ex. MS, CaS). The user may set the Discovery
Interval from 30 to 90 seconds. The default value is 30 seconds.
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Hold Time Count (100255):
This parameter may be set for the time, in seconds; the Switch will hold information sent
to it from other switches, utilizing the Discovery Interval. The user may set the hold time
from 100 to 255 seconds. The default value is 100 seconds.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
After enabling the Switch to be a Commander Switch (CS), the Single IP Management folder will then contain four
added links to aid the user in configuring SIM through the web, including Topology, Firmware Upgrade,
Configuration Backup/Restore and Upload Log.
Topology
This window will be used to configure and manage the Switch within the SIM group and requires Java script to
function properly on your computer.
To view the following window, click Management > Single IP Management > Topology, as shown below:
The Java Runtime Environment on your server should initiate and lead you to the Topology window, as seen below.
Figure 3–20 Topology Window
The Topology window holds the following information on the Data tab:
Parameter
Description
Device Name:
This field will display the Device Name of the switches in the SIM group configured by the
user. If no device is configured by the name, it will be given the name default and tagged
with the last six digits of the MAC Address to identify it.
Local Port:
Displays the number of the physical port on the CS that the MS or CaS is connected to.
The CS will have no entry in this field.
Speed:
Displays the connection speed between the CS and the MS or CaS.
Remote Port:
Displays the number of the physical port on the MS or CaS to which the CS is connected.
The CS will have no entry in this field.
MAC Address:
Displays the MAC Address of the corresponding Switch.
Model Name:
Displays the full Model Name of the corresponding Switch.
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To view the Topology View window, open the View drop-down menu in the toolbar and then click Topology, which
will open the following Topology Map. This window will refresh itself periodically (20 seconds by default).
Figure 3–21 Topology View Window
This window will display how the devices within the Single IP Management Group connect to other groups and
devices. Possible icons on this window are as follows:
Icon
Description
Icon
Description
Group
Layer 3 member switch
Layer 2 commander switch
Member switch of other group
Layer 3 commander switch
Layer 2 candidate switch
Commander switch of other group
Layer 3 candidate switch
Layer 2 member switch.
Unknown device
Non-SIM devices
Tool Tips
In the Topology view window, the mouse plays an important role in configuration and in viewing device information.
Setting the mouse cursor over a specific device in the topology window (tool tip) will display the same information
about a specific device as the Tree view does. See the window below for an example.
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Figure 3–22 Tool Tips Window
Setting the mouse cursor over a line between two devices will display the connection speed between the two devices,
as shown below.
Figure 3–23 Connection Speed Window
Right-Click
Right-clicking on a device will allow the user to perform various functions, depending on the role of the Switch in the
SIM group and the icon associated with it.
Group Icon
Figure 3–24 Group Icon Window
The following options may appear for the user to configure:
•
Collapse – To collapse the group that will be represented by a single icon.
•
Expand – To expand the SIM group, in detail.
•
Property – To pop up a window to display the group information.
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Figure 3–25 Properties Window
Parameter
Description
Device Name:
This field will display the Device Name of the switches in the SIM group configured by the
user. If no Device Name is configured by the name, it will be given the name default and
tagged with the last six digits of the MAC Address to identify it.
Module Name:
Displays the full module name of the switch that was right-clicked.
MAC Address:
Displays the MAC Address of the corresponding Switch.
Remote Port No:
Displays the number of the physical port on the MS or CaS that the CS is connected to.
The CS will have no entry in this field.
Local Port No:
Displays the number of the physical port on the CS that the MS or CaS is connected to.
The CS will have no entry in this field.
Port Speed:
Displays the connection speed between the CS and the MS or CaS
Click the Close button to close the property window.
Commander Switch Icon
Figure 3–26 Commander Switch Icon Window
The following options may appear for the user to configure:
•
Collapse – To collapse the group that will be represented by a single icon.
•
Expand – To expand the SIM group, in detail.
•
Property – To pop up a window to display the group information.
Member Switch Icon
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Figure 3–27 Member Switch Icon Window
The following options may appear for the user to configure:
•
Collapse – To collapse the group that will be represented by a single icon.
•
Expand – To expand the SIM group, in detail.
•
Remove from group – Remove a member from a group.
•
Configure – Launch the web management to configure the Switch.
•
Property – To pop up a window to display the device information.
Candidate Switch Icon
Figure 3–28 Candidate Switch Icon Window
The following options may appear for the user to configure:
•
Collapse – To collapse the group that will be represented by a single icon.
•
Expand – To expand the SIM group, in detail.
•
Add to group – Add a candidate to a group. Clicking this option will reveal the following dialog box for the
user to enter a password for authentication from the Candidate Switch before being added to the SIM
group. Click OK to enter the password or Cancel to exit the dialog box.
Figure 3–29 Input Password Window
•
Property – To pop up a window to display the device information.
Menu Bar
The Single IP Management window contains a menu bar for device configurations, as seen below.
Figure 3–30 Menu Bar Window
File
•
Print Setup – Will view the image to be printed.
•
Print Topology – Will print the topology map.
•
Preference – Will set display properties, such as polling interval, and the views to open at SIM startup.
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Group
•
Add to group – Add a candidate to a group. Clicking this option will reveal the following dialog box for the
user to enter a password for authentication from the Candidate Switch before being added to the SIM
group. Click OK to enter the password or Cancel to exit the dialog box.
Figure 3–31 Input Password Window
•
Remove from Group – Remove an MS from the group.
•
Configure – Will open the Web manager for the specific device.
•
Refresh – Update the views with the latest status.
•
Topology – Display the Topology view.
•
About – Will display the SIM information, including the current SIM version.
Device
View
Help
Firmware Upgrade
This screen is used to upgrade firmware from the Commander Switch to the Member Switch. Member Switches will be
listed in the table and will be specified by Port (port on the CS where the MS resides), MAC Address, Model Name
and Version. To specify a certain Switch for firmware download, click its corresponding check box under the Port
heading. To update the firmware, enter the Server IP Address where the firmware resides and enter the
Path/Filename of the firmware. Click Download to initiate the file transfer.
To view the following window, click Management > Single IP Management > Firmware Upgrade, as show below:
Figure 3–32 Firmware Upgrade Window
Configuration File Backup/Restore
This screen is used to upgrade configuration files from the Commander Switch to the Member Switch using a TFTP
server. Member Switches will be listed in the table and will be specified by ID, Port (port on the CS where the MS
resides), MAC Address, Model Name and Firmware Version. To update the configuration file, enter the Server IP
Address where the file resides and enter the Path/Filename of the configuration file. Click Restore to initiate the file
transfer from a TFTP server to the Switch. Click Backup to backup the configuration file to a TFTP server.
To view the following window, click Management > Single IP Management > Configuration File Backup/Restore,
as show below:
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Figure 3–33 Configuration File Backup/Restore Window
Upload Log File
The following window is used to upload log files from SIM member switches to a specified PC. To upload a log file,
enter the Server IP address of the SIM member switch and then enter a Path\Filename on your PC where you wish to
save this file. Click Upload to initiate the file transfer.
To view the following window, click Management > Single IP Management > Upload Log File, as show below:
Figure 3–34 Upload Log File Window
SNMP Settings
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an OSI Layer 7 (Application Layer) designed specifically for
managing and monitoring network devices. SNMP enables network management stations to read and modify the
settings of gateways, routers, switches, and other network devices. Use SNMP to configure system features for proper
operation, monitor performance and detect potential problems in the Switch, switch group or network.
Managed devices that support SNMP include software (referred to as an agent), which runs locally on the device. A
defined set of variables (managed objects) is maintained by the SNMP agent and used to manage the device. These
objects are defined in a Management Information Base (MIB), which provides a standard presentation of the
information controlled by the on-board SNMP agent. SNMP defines both the format of the MIB specifications and the
protocol used to access this information over the network.
The Switch supports the SNMP versions 1, 2c, and 3. The three versions of SNMP vary in the level of security
provided between the management station and the network device.
In SNMP v.1 and v.2, user authentication is accomplished using ‘community strings’, which function like passwords.
The remote user SNMP application and the Switch SNMP must use the same community string. SNMP packets from
any station that has not been authenticated are ignored (dropped).
The default community strings for the Switch used for SNMP v.1 and v.2 management access are:
•
public – Allows authorized management stations to retrieve MIB objects.
•
private – Allows authorized management stations to retrieve and modify MIB objects.
SNMPv3 uses a more sophisticated authentication process that is separated into two parts. The first part is to
maintain a list of users and their attributes that are allowed to act as SNMP managers. The second part describes
what each user on that list can do as an SNMP manager.
The Switch allows groups of users to be listed and configured with a shared set of privileges. The SNMP version may
also be set for a listed group of SNMP managers. Thus, you may create a group of SNMP managers that are allowed
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to view read-only information or receive traps using SNMPv1 while assigning a higher level of security to another
group, granting read/write privileges using SNMPv3.
Using SNMPv3 individual users or groups of SNMP managers can be allowed to perform or be restricted from
performing specific SNMP management functions. The functions allowed or restricted are defined using the Object
Identifier (OID) associated with a specific MIB. An additional layer of security is available for SNMPv3 in that SNMP
messages may be encrypted. To read more about how to configure SNMPv3 settings for the Switch read the next
section.
Traps
Traps are messages that alert network personnel of events that occur on the Switch. The events can be as serious as
a reboot (someone accidentally turned OFF the Switch), or less serious like a port status change. The Switch
generates traps and sends them to the trap recipient (or network manager). Typical traps include trap messages for
Authentication Failure, Topology Change and Broadcast\Multicast Storm.
MIBs
The Switch in the Management Information Base (MIB) stores management and counter information. The Switch uses
the standard MIB-II Management Information Base module. Consequently, values for MIB objects can be retrieved
from any SNMP-based network management software. In addition to the standard MIB-II, the Switch also supports its
own proprietary enterprise MIB as an extended Management Information Base. Specifying the MIB Object Identifier
may also retrieve the proprietary MIB. MIB values can be either read-only or read-write.
The Switch incorporates a flexible SNMP management for the switching environment. SNMP management can be
customized to suit the needs of the networks and the preferences of the network administrator. Use the SNMP V3
menus to select the SNMP version used for specific tasks.
The Switch supports the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) versions 1, 2c, and 3. The administrator can
specify the SNMP version used to monitor and control the Switch. The three versions of SNMP vary in the level of
security provided between the management station and the network device.
SNMP settings are configured using the menus located on the SNMP V3 folder of the Web manager. Workstations on
the network that are allowed SNMP privileged access to the Switch can be restricted with the Management Station IP
Address menu.
SNMP Global Settings
SNMP global state settings can be enabled or disabled.
To view the following window, click Management > SNMP Settings > SNMP Global Settings, as shown below:
Figure 3–35 SNMP Global Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
SNMP State:
Enable this option to use the SNMP feature.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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SNMP Traps Settings
Users can enable and disable the SNMP trap support function of the switch and SNMP authentication failure trap
support, respectively.
To view the following window, click Management > SNMP Settings > SNMP Traps Settings, as shown below:
Figure 3–36 SNMP Traps Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
SNMP Traps:
Enable this option to use the SNMP Traps feature.
SNMP Authentication
Trap:
Enable this option to use the SNMP Authentication Traps feature.
Linkchange Traps:
Enable this option to use the SNMP Link Change Traps feature.
Coldstart Traps:
Enable this option to use the SNMP Cold Start Traps feature.
Warmstart Traps:
Enable this option to use the SNMP Warm Start Traps feature.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
SNMP Link Change Traps Settings
On this page the user can configure the SNMP link change trap settings.
To view the following window, click Management > SNMP Settings > SNMP Link Change Traps Settings, as
shown below:
Figure 3–37 SNMP Link Change Traps Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
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Parameter
Description
From Port – To Port:
Here the user can select the starting and ending ports to use.
State:
Here the user can enable or disable the SNMP link change Trap.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
SNMP View Table Settings
Users can assign views to community strings that define which MIB objects can be accessed by a remote SNMP
manager. The SNMP Group created with this table maps SNMP users (identified in the SNMP User Table) to the
views created in the previous window.
To view the following window, click Management > SNMP Settings > SNMP View Table Settings, as shown below:
Figure 3–38 SNMP View Table Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
View Name:
Type an alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters. This is used to identify the new
SNMP view being created.
Subtree OID:
Type the Object Identifier (OID) Subtree for the view. The OID identifies an object tree
(MIB tree) that will be included or excluded from access by an SNMP manager.
View Type:
Select Included to include this object in the list of objects that an SNMP manager can
access. Select Excluded to exclude this object from the list of objects that an SNMP
manager can access.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
SNMP Community Table Settings
Users can create an SNMP community string to define the relationship between the SNMP manager and an agent.
The community string acts like a password to permit access to the agent on the Switch. One or more of the following
characteristics can be associated with the community string:
•
An Access List of IP addresses of SNMP managers that are permitted to use the community string to gain
access to the Switch’s SNMP agent.
•
Any MIB view that defines the subset of all MIB objects will be accessible to the SNMP community.
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•
Read/write or read-only level permission for the MIB objects accessible to the SNMP community.
To view the following window, click Management > SNMP Settings > SNMP Community Table Settings, as shown
below:
Figure 3–39 SNMP Community Table Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Community Name:
Type an alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters that is used to identify members of an
SNMP community. This string is used like a password to give remote SNMP managers
access to MIB objects in the Switch’s SNMP agent.
View Name:
Type an alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters that is used to identify the group of
MIB objects that a remote SNMP manager is allowed to access on the Switch. The view
name must exist in the SNMP View Table.
Access Right:
Read Only – Specifies that SNMP community members using the community string
created can only read the contents of the MIBs on the Switch.
Read Write – Specifies that SNMP community members using the community string
created can read from, and write to the contents of the MIBs on the Switch.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
SNMP Group Table Settings
An SNMP Group created with this table maps SNMP users (identified in the SNMP User Table) to the views created in
the previous window.
To view the following window, click Management > SNMP Settings > SNMP Group Table Settings, as shown
below:
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Figure 3–40 SNMP Group Table Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Group Name:
Type an alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters. This is used to identify the new
SNMP group of SNMP users.
Read View Name:
This name is used to specify the SNMP group created can request SNMP messages.
Write View Name:
Specify a SNMP group name for users that are allowed SNMP write privileges to the
Switch’s SNMP agent.
Notify View Name:
Specify a SNMP group name for users that can receive SNMP trap messages generated
by the Switch’s SNMP agent.
User-based Security
Model:
SNMPv1 – Specifies that SNMP version 1 will be used.
SNMPv2 – Specifies that SNMP version 2c will be used. The SNMPv2 supports both
centralized and distributed network management strategies. It includes improvements in
the Structure of Management Information (SMI) and adds some security features.
SNMPv3 – Specifies that the SNMP version 3 will be used. SNMPv3 provides secure
access to devices through a combination of authentication and encrypting packets over
the network.
Security Level:
The Security Level settings only apply to SNMPv3.
NoAuthNoPriv – Specifies that there will be no authorization and no encryption of packets
sent between the Switch and a remote SNMP manager.
AuthNoPriv – Specifies that authorization will be required, but there will be no encryption
of packets sent between the Switch and a remote SNMP manager.
AuthPriv – Specifies that authorization will be required, and that packets sent between the
Switch and a remote SNMP manger will be encrypted.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
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SNMP Engine ID Settings
The Engine ID is a unique identifier used for SNMP V3 implementations on the Switch.
To view the following window, click Management > SNMP Settings > SNMP Engine ID Settings, as shown below:
Figure 3–41 SNMP Engine ID Settings Window
To change the Engine ID, type the new Engine ID value in the space provided.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Engine ID:
The SNMP engine ID displays the identification of the SNMP engine on the Switch. The
default value is suggested in RFC2271. The very first bit is 1, and the first four octets are
set to the binary equivalent of the agent’s SNMP management private enterprise number
as assigned by IANA (D-Link is 171). The fifth octet is 03 to indicate the rest is the MAC
address of this device. The sixth to eleventh octets is the MAC address.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
NOTE: The Engine ID length is 10-64 and accepted characters can range from 0 to F.
SNMP User Table Settings
This window displays all of the SNMP User’s currently configured on the Switch.
To view the following window, click Management > SNMP Settings > SNMP User Table Settings, as shown below:
Figure 3–42 SNMP User Table Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
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User Name:
An alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters. This is used to identify the SNMP users.
Group Name:
This name is used to specify the SNMP group created can request SNMP messages.
SNMP Version:
V3 – Indicates that SNMP version 3 is in use.
SNMP V3 Encryption:
Use the drop-down menu to enable encryption for SNMP V3. This is only operable in
SNMP V3 mode. The choices are None, Password, or Key.
Auth-Protocol:
MD5 – Specifies that the HMAC-MD5-96 authentication level will be used. This field is
only operable when V3 is selected in the SNMP Version field and the Encryption field has
been checked. This field will require the user to enter a password.
SHA – Specifies that the HMAC-SHA authentication protocol will be used. This field is
only operable when V3 is selected in the SNMP Version field and the Encryption field has
been checked. This field will require the user to enter a password.
Priv-Protocol:
None – Specifies that no authorization protocol is in use.
DES – Specifies that DES 56-bit encryption is in use, based on the CBC-DES (DES-56)
standard. This field is only operable when V3 is selected in the SNMP Version field and
the Encryption field has been checked. This field will require the user to enter a password.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
SNMP Host Table Settings
Users can set up SNMP trap recipients for IPv4.
To view the following window, click Management > SNMP Settings > SNMP Host Table Settings, as shown below:
Figure 3–43 SNMP Host Table Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Host IP Address:
Type the IP address of the remote management station that will serve as the SNMP host
for the Switch.
User-based Security
Model:
SNMPv1 – Specifies that SNMP version 1 will be used.
SNMPv2 – Specifies that SNMP version 2 will be used.
SNMPv3 – Specifies that SNMP version 3 will be used.
Security Level:
NoAuthNoPriv – To specify that the SNMP version 3 will be used, with a NoAuth-NoPriv
security level.
AuthNoPriv – To specify that the SNMP version 3 will be used, with an Auth-NoPriv
security level.
AuthPriv – To specify that the SNMP version 3 will be used, with an Auth-Priv security
level.
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Community String /
SNMP V3 User Name:
Type in the community string or SNMP V3 user name as appropriate.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
SNMP v6Host Table Settings
Users can set up SNMP trap recipients for IPv6.
To view the following window, click Management > SNMP Settings > SNMP v6Host Table Settings, as shown
below:
Figure 3–44 SNMPv6 Host Table Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Host IPv6 Address:
Type the IPv6 address of the remote management station that will serve as the SNMP
host for the Switch.
User-based Security
Model:
SNMPv1 – Specifies that SNMP version 1 will be used.
SNMPv2 – Specifies that SNMP version 2 will be used.
SNMPv3 – Specifies that SNMP version 3 will be used.
Security Level:
NoAuthNoPriv – To specify that the SNMP version 3 will be used, with a NoAuth-NoPriv
security level.
AuthNoPriv – To specify that the SNMP version 3 will be used, with an Auth-NoPriv
security level.
AuthPriv – To specify that the SNMP version 3 will be used, with an Auth-Priv security
level.
Community String /
SNMP V3 User Name:
Type in the community string or SNMP V3 user name as appropriate.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
RMON Settings
On this page the user can enable or disable remote monitoring (RMON) for the rising and falling alarm trap feature for
the SNMP function on the Switch.
To view the following window, click Management > SNMP Settings > RMON Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 3–45 RMON Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
RMON Rising Alarm
Trap:
Enable this option to use the RMON Rising Alarm Trap Feature.
RMON Falling Alarm
Trap:
Enable this option to use the RMON Falling Alarm Trap Feature.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Telnet Settings
Users can configure Telnet Settings on the Switch.
To view the following window, click Management > Telnet Settings, as shown below:
Figure 3–46 Telnet Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Telnet State:
Telnet configuration is Enabled by default. If you do not want to allow configuration of the
system through Telnet choose Disabled.
Port (1-65535):
The TCP port number used for Telnet management of the Switch. The “well-known” TCP
port for the Telnet protocol is 23.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Web Settings
Users can configure the Web settings on the Switch.
To view the following window, click Management > Web Settings, as shown below:
Figure 3–47 Web Settings Window
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Web Status:
Web-based management is Enabled by default. If you choose to disable this by clicking
Disabled, you will lose the ability to configure the system through the web interface as
soon as these settings are applied.
Port (1-65535):
The TCP port number used for web-based management of the Switch. The “well-known”
TCP port for the Web protocol is 80.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Power Saving
Port LED State Settings
This window allows the user to configure the port LED state.
To view this window, click Management > Power Saving > LED State Settings as shown below:
Figure 3–48 Port LED State Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port LED State
This option can be used to enable or disable the port LED state.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Power Saving Settings
This window allows the user to implement the Switch’s built-in power saving features and set the schedule to enforce
the settings.
To view this window, click Management > Power Saving > Power Saving Settings as shown below:
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Figure 3–49 Power Saving Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Link Detection State
When the Power Saving Mode Link Detection State is enabled, a port which has a link
down status will be turned off to save power to the Switch. This will not affect the port’s
capabilities when the port status is link up.
Length Detection State
When the Power Saving Mode Length Detection State is enabled, the Switch will
automatically determine the length of the cable and adjust the power flow accordingly.
LED State
When Power Saving Mode LED State is enabled, the LED’s state of ports will be turned
off during the configured time range.
Port State
When Power Saving Mode Port State is enabled, the ports will be shut down during the
configured time range.
Hibernation State
When Power Saving Mode Hibernation State is enabled, the Switch will go into a low
power state and be idle during the configured time range. It will shut down all the ports, all
network function (telnet, ping, etc.) will not work, and only the console connection will
work via the RS232 port. If the Switch is an endpoint type PSE (Power Sourcing
Equipment), it will not provide power to the port.
Action
Use the drop down menu to add or delete the schedule.
Time Range Name
Specify the name of the schedule.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Clear Time Range button to remove all the time ranges configured.
Power Saving LED Settings
This window is used to add or delete the power saving schedule on the LED of all ports.
To view this window, click Management > Power Saving > Power Saving LED Settings as shown below:
Figure 3–50 Power Saving LED Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Action
Use the drop down menu to add or delete the schedule.
Time Range Name
Enter the name of the schedule used here.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Clear Time Range button to remove all the time ranges configured.
Power Saving Port Settings
This window is used to add or delete the power saving schedule on the ports.
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To view this window, click Management > Power Saving > Power Saving Port Settings as shown below:
Figure 3–51 Power Saving Port Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port ~ To Port
Select the list of ports, used for this configuration, here.
Action
Use the drop down menu to add or delete the schedule.
Time Range Name
Enter the name of the schedule used here.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Clear Time Range button to remove all the time ranges configured.
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Chapter 4
VPN (EI Mode Only)
MPLS
VPWS
MPLS
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a protocol that works between the network layer and the data link layer of
the TCP/IP protocol stack and is used to replace conventional IP forwarding with label switching. The most powerful
feature of MPLS is that it is not limited by any specific protocol in the data link layer and can use any Layer 2 media to
transfer packets.
Figure 4–1 MPLS Network Structure
In an MPLS network, the most important node is called a Label Switching Router (LSR). An LSR that is located on
the edge of the MPLS domain is known as a Label Edge Router (LER). An LSR that is located within the MPLS
domain is known as a Core LSR. When a packet is received by a LSR, from another LSR, the sending LSR is known
as the upstream LSR. The receiving LSR is known as the downstream LSR of the sending LSR. Consider the
following example. When packets travel from LSR A, through LSR B, to LSR C, LSR A is the upstream LSR of LSR B
and LSR C is the downstream LSR of LSR B.
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Figure 4–2 MPLS Descriptive Diagram
When a packet enters the MPLS domain, the LER is responsible for adding a label to the packet. Also when a packet
leaves the MPLS domain, the LER is responsible for removing the label. Inside the MPLS domain, packets will be
transferred based on their label. The path that a packet follows, in and out of an MPLS domain, is known as a Label
Switch Path (LSP). The LSP, under normal circumstances, is unidirectional. The first LER, in the LSP, is known as
the LSP’s ingress and the last LER, in the LSP, is known as the LSP’s egress. There can be only one ingress and
egress in an LSP.
When an unlabeled packet enters the ingress router and needs to be passed on to an LSP, the ingress LER first
determines the Forwarding Equivalence Class (FEC) the packet should be in, and then inserts one or more labels in
the packet's MPLS header. The packet is then passed on to the next LSR.
Labels are distributed between LERs and LSRs using the Label Distribution Protocol (LDP). The LDP defines the
bi-directional communication between the ingress and the egress LERs of a specific MPLS tunnel, through the MPLS
domain. LERs, using LDP, will build and maintain an LSP database that will be used to forward traffic through the
MPLS network. Thus, the two peer LERs will constantly exchange this information to effectively control the traffic flow.
Labels are always distributed, through the LSP, in the opposite direction of the dataflow. In other words, the label
distribution takes place in an upstream direction. The main function of LDP is to classify FECs, distribute labels, and
create and maintain LSPs.
Static LSP – Users can configure the LSP manually by physically defining the outgoing labels of upstream LSRs and
incoming labels of downstream LSRs. Static LSPs are configured without the need for LDP or exchange
control packets. This configuration has very little data overhead and is suitable for small-scale networks
only, where the network layout is simple and static.
Dynamic LSP – Users can configure the LSP to initiate automatically with the use of LDP. Additionally, the Interior
Gateway Protocol (IGP), the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), and the Resource Reservation
Protocol (RSVP) can also be extended to distribute MPLS labels adding the routing functionality. This
configuration is suitable for large-scale networks and is also used for VPN services.
Structure of an MPLS packet header:
Figure 4–3 MPLS packet header
The label contains the following fields:
Parameter
Description
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Label
This indicates the value field of the label. The length is 20 bits.
EXP
This indicates the bits used for extension. The length is 3 bits. Normally this field is used
for the Class of Service (CoS) service.
S
This indicates the bottom of the label stack value. The length is 1 bit. When this value is
set, in other words configured as ‘1’, it means that this entry is at the bottom of the label
stack.
TTL
This indicates the time-to-live (TTL) value. The length is 8 bits. This field is similar to the
TTL in IP packets.
Labels are always encapsulated between the data link layer and the networking layer. This means that encapsulation
labels support all protocols available in the data link layer.
LDP
LDP Settings
This window is used to configure the LDP Settings used on this Switch
To view this window, click VPN > MPLS > LDP > LDP Settings as shown below:
Figure 4–4 LDP Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
LDP State
Specifies the state of LDP on the specified interface. Take note that MPLS must be
enabled otherwise LDP will be inactive.
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LDP Log State
Enable or disable the LDP log state here.
LDP Trap State
Enable or disable the LDP trap state here.
LDP Max Backoff
Enter the maximum back-off time used here. The LDP back-off mechanism prevents two
incompatibly configured LSRs from engaging in an endless sequence of session setup
failures. If a session setup attempt fails due to an incompatibility, the active LSR delays its
next attempt and then retries the session establishment. The delay begins at 15 seconds,
and it is increased exponentially with each successive failure until the maximum back-off
delay is reached. If a session cannot be established and the trap or log state is enabled,
LDP will send a trap or a log to the SNMP server to notify the session establishment
failure. This value must be between 120 and 65535 seconds.
LDP Keep Alive Time
Enter the LDP session keep-alive time here. LDP maintains a keep-alive timer for each
peer session. If the keep-alive timer expires without the receipt of an LDP PDU from the
peer, LDP will conclude that the peer has failed and will terminate the LDP session. Each
LSR sends keep-alive messages at regular intervals to its LDP peers to keep the
sessions active. This value must be between 15 and 65535 seconds.
LDP Transport Address
Select the LDP transport address mode used here. The transport address is used to
establish the LDP TCP connection. By default, the LSR ID is used as the transport
address by all of the interfaces. If you select the transport address to a specific IP
address, this address is used as the transport address by all the interfaces. If you
configure the transport address to Interface, the IP address of each interface is used as
the transport address. Selecting LSR ID specifies that the LSR ID will be used as the
transport address.
LDP Control Mode
Select the LSP control mode used here. In Independent LSP Control, each LSR
independently binds a label to a FEC and distributes the binding to its label distribution
peers. In Ordered LSP Control, an LSR only binds a label to a FEC if it is the egress LSR
for that FEC, or if it has already received a label binding for that FEC from its next hop for
that FEC.
LDP Label Retention
Select the LDP label retention mode here. If the label distribution method is DownstreamUnsolicited and the label retention mode is Conservative, it will discard the bindings once
the LSR have received label bindings from the LSRs, which are not its next hop for that
FEC. If the label retention mode is Liberal, it will maintain the bindings. This helps to
speed up the setup of LSP in case there is a change in the next hop.
LDP Loop Detection
Enable or disable the LDP loop detection mode here. The LDP loop detection mechanism
makes use of the Path Vector and Hop Count TLVs carried by the label request and
labeling mapping messages to detect looping LSPs.
Path Vector Limit
Enter the path vector limit value used here. This value must be between 1 and 255.
Hop Count Limit
Enter the hop count limit used here. This value must be between 1 and 255.
LDP Authentication
Enable or disable the LDP authentication option here. If the authentication is enabled, the
LSR applies the MD5 algorithm to compute the MD5 digest for the TCP segment that will
be sent to the peer. This computation makes use of the peer password as well as the
TCP segment. When the LSR receives a TCP segment with an MD5 digest, it validates
the segment by calculating the MD5 digest, using its own record of the password, and
comparing the computed digest with the received digest. If the comparison fails, the
segment is dropped without any response to the sender. The LSR ignores LDP Hellos
from any LSR of which a password has not been configured.
LDP LSR ID
Select the LDP LSR ID mode used here. The LSR ID is used to identify the LSR in the
MPLS network and is the IPv4 address of an interface. The recommended interface for
the LSR ID is the loopback interface. If the LSR ID is set to Auto, this decision will be
based on the following rule. If a loopback interface is configured, the LSR ID is set to the
IP address of the loopback interface. If multiple loopback interfaces are configured, the
loopback with the highest IP address will be used. If no loopback interface is configured,
the LSR ID is set to the highest IP address of the physical interfaces. Select and enter IP
Interface to specify whose IP Interface is used as the LSR ID.
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LDP PHP
Select the LDP Penultimate Hop Popping (PHP) behavior used here. If the LSR is set as
egress and the PHP is configured to Implicit NULL, it will distribute an implicit NULL label
to the upstream (Penultimate Hop). The upstream will then do Penultimate Hop Popping.
If the label distributed to Penultimate Hop is set as Explicit NULL, the Penultimate Hop
won’t pop it.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
LDP Statistic Table
This window is used to clear the LDP statistics.
To view this window, click VPN > MPLS > LDP > LDP Statistic Table as shown below:
Figure 4–5 LDP Statistic Table Window
Click the Clear button to clear all the information listed.
LDP IP Interface Settings
This window is used to configure the LDP parameters for a specified interface.
To view this window, click VPN > MPLS > LDP > LDP IP Interface Settings as shown below:
Figure 4–6 LDP IP Interface Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Interface
Enter the IP interface name used here. This name can be up to 12 characters long.
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Admin State
Enable or disable the admin state of LDP on the specified interface. Take note that MPLS
must be enabled otherwise LDP will be inactive.
Target Hello Accept
Specifies to accept or deny targeted hello messages. If a targeted hello message is
acceptable, the interface will respond to received targeted hello messages. Otherwise the
received targeted hello message will be ignored.
Hold Time
Enter the link hold time value here. LDP sends link hello message periodically to discover
directly connected neighbors. LDP will then maintain a hold timer for each discovered
neighbor. If the timer expires without the receipt of a hello message from the neighbor,
LDP will conclude that the neighbor has failed. This value must be between 5 and 65535
seconds.
Interval
Enter the interval value used here. This value must be between 1 and 65535 seconds.
Distribution Method
Select the LDP label distribution method used here. Selecting DU specifies that the
distribution mode will be set to Downstream-Unsolicited. Selecting DoD specifies that the
distribution mode will be set to Downstream-on-Demand.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
LDP Targeted Peer Settings
This window is used to configure the LDP targeted peer.
To view this window, click VPN > MPLS > LDP > LDP Targeted Peer Settings as shown below:
Figure 4–7 LDP Targeted Peer Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IP Address
Enter the targeted peer's IP address used here. It must be the targeted peer’s LSR ID.
Hello Interval
Click the Edit button and enter the targeted hello sending interval value used here. This
value must be between 5 and 65535 seconds.
Hold Time
Click the Edit button and enter the targeted hello hold time used here. This value must be
between 15 and 65535 seconds.
Click the Add button to add a new entry.
Click the Delete All button to remove entries in the list.
Click the Delete button to remove the specified entry.
LDP Neighbor Table
This window is used to display all adjacencies discovered by LDP.
To view this window, click VPN > MPLS > LDP > LDP Neighbor Table as shown below:
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Figure 4–8 LDP Neighbor Table Window
LDP Peer Table
This window is used to display LDP peer information.
To view this window, click VPN > MPLS > LDP > LDP Peer Table as shown below:
Figure 4–9 LDP Peer Table Window
LDP Peer Password Settings
This window is used to configure a LDP peer password.
To view this window, click VPN > MPLS > LDP > LDP Peer Password Settings as shown below:
Figure 4–10 LDP Peer Password Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IP Address
Enter the peer IP address used here. The IP address shall be the peer’s LSR ID.
Password
Select and enter the peer password used here. This password can be up to 32 characters
long.
No Password
Specifies that the peer password will be set to no password.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
LDP Session Table
This window is used to display all LDP sessions.
To view this window, click VPN > MPLS > LDP > LDP Session Table as shown below:
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Figure 4–11 LDP Session Table Window
Click the View Detail link to navigate to a new window containing more detailed information about the entry.
Click the View Statistic link to navigate to a new window containing more detailed statistic information about the entry.
After click the View Detail link, the following page will be displayed.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
After click the View Statistic link, the following page will be displayed.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
LDP Binding Table
This window is used to display all LDP label binding information.
To view this window, click VPN > MPLS > LDP > LDP Binding Table as shown below:
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Figure 4–12 LDP Binding Table Window
MPLS Settings
This window is used to enable or disable the MPLS function globally. Also on this page the user can configure the
Trust EXP, MPLS Log, and MPLS Trap’s state.
To view this window, click VPN > MPLS > MPLS Settings as shown below:
Figure 4–13 MPLS Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MPLS State
Enable or disable the MPLS function globally here.
Trust EXP
Enable or disable the MPLS trust EXP option here. If the EXP is trusted, the EXP value of
the incoming label will be used as the QoS of the incoming packet. Otherwise, the EXP
value will not be used for QoS.
Log
Enable or disable the MPLS log state here.
Trap
Enable or disable the MPLS trap state here.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
MPLS Static LSP Settings
This window is used to configure the MPLS static LSP settings.
To view this window, click VPN > MPLS > MPLS Static LSP Settings as shown below:
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Figure 4–14 MPLS Static LSP Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
LSP Type
Select to establish a static Egress LSP or a static Ingress LSP here.
LSP Name
Enter the LSP name used here. This name can be up to 16 characters long.
IP Prefix
Enter the IP prefix FEC address of the LSP here. The specified FEC will map to the LSP.
In Label
Enter the incoming label value used here.
In Interface
Enter the incoming interface name used here. This name can be up to 12 characters long.
Nexthop
Enter the next hop IP address used here.
Out Label
Enter the outbound label value used here.
EXP
Enter the EXP value used here. By default the EXP is set according to the QoS of the
incoming packet. If the EXP is specified, the EXP of the outbound label will be set
according to specified value. This value must be between 0 and 7.
Click the Add button to add a new entry.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the configure entries.
Click the Delete All button to remove entries in the list.
Click the View Detail link to navigate to a new window containing more detailed information about the entry.
After click the View Detail link, the following page will be displayed.
Figure 4–15 MPLS LSP Detail Window
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
MPLS Dynamic LSP Table
This window is used to locate and display dynamic MPLS LSP entries.
To view this window, click VPN > MPLS > MPLS Dynamic LSP Table as shown below:
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Figure 4–16 MPLS Dynamic LSP Table Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IP Prefix
Enter the IP prefix FEC address of the LSP here.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the configure entries.
Click the View Detail link to navigate to a new window containing more detailed information about the entry.
After click the View Detail link, the following page will be displayed.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
MPLS FTN Table
The Next-Hop Label Forwarding Entry (NHLFE) is used to guide the MPLS packet forwarding. The NHLFE contains
the following information: Tunnel ID, outgoing interface, next hop, outgoing label, and the label operation.
To view this window, click VPN > MPLS > MPLS FTN Table as shown below:
Figure 4–17 MPLS FTN Table Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IP Prefix
Enter the IP prefix FEC address of the LSP here.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the configure entries.
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MPLS Interface Settings
This window enables or disables MPLS on the specified interface.
To view this window, click VPN > MPLS > MPLS Interface Settings as shown below:
Figure 4–18 MPLS Interface Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IP Interface Name
Enter the IP interface name used here. This name can be up to 12 characters long.
State
Enabled or disabled the MPLS IP interface. By default, the state is disabled on all
interfaces.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
MPLS Class Map Settings
This window is used to configure the mapping between the EXP and CoS. CoS 7 is reserved for the system.
The following table shows the default mapping between EXP and CoS.
EXP
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
CoS
2
0
1
3
4
5
6
6
To view this window, click VPN > MPLS > MPLS Class Map Settings as shown below:
Figure 4–19 MPLS Class Map Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
EXP
Enter the EXP value, that will be mapped to the CoS, here. This value must be between 0
and 7.
CoS
Enter the CoS value used here. This value must be between 0 and 7.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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MPLS FEC EXP Settings
This window is used to configure the EXP assignment of FEC. If the EXP is not explicitly assigned by creating an LSP,
the outbound EXP of the specified FECs will be set according to the configured EXP value. By default, the EXP value
in outbound label for all FECs is set according to the incoming packet’s QoS.
To view this window, click VPN > MPLS > MPLS FEC EXP Settings as shown below:
Figure 4–20 MPLS FEC EXP Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IP Prefix
Enter the IP prefix FEC address used here.
EXP
Enter the EXP value in the outbound label for the FEC here. This value must be between
0 and 7. Selecting Default specifies that the EXP value will be set according to the
incoming packet’s QoS. Otherwise, it is set according to the specified value.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
VPWS
The Virtual Private Wire Service (VPWS) is a L2VPN solution that provides Layer 2 point-to-point virtual circuit
connectivity between customer sites over a provider network. VPWS enables the sharing of a provider’s core network
infrastructure between IP and L2VPN services, reducing the cost of providing those services. The tunneling
mechanism of the VPWS can use any tunneling protocol, like MPLS for the transport layer.
Figure 4–21 MPLS-based VPWS Illustration
In above figure, the MPLS network is a packet switched network (PSN). Each Customer Edge (CE) device is
connected to the Provider Edge (PE) via an Attachment Circuit (AC). The PE does a one-to-one mapping between the
Pseudo-Wire (PW) and AC based on local information. A PW is an emulated point-to-point connection over a packet
switched network that allows the interconnection of two nodes with any Layer 2 technology.
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The required functions of PWs include encapsulating service-specific bit streams, cells, or PDUs arriving at an ingress
port and carrying them across an IP path or MPLS tunnel. PWs provide the following functions in order to emulate the
behavior and characteristics of the native service.
•
Encapsulation of service-specific PDUs or circuit data arriving at the PE-bound port (logical or physical).
•
Carriage of the encapsulated data across a PSN tunnel.
•
Establishment of the PW, including the exchange and/or distribution of the PW identifiers used by the PSN
tunnel endpoints.
•
Managing the signaling, timing, order, or other aspects of the service at the boundaries of the PW. Servicespecific status and alarm management.
One or more PWs are carried in an MPLS tunnel from one PE to another. Any given frame travels first on its ingress
AC, then on a PW, and then on its egress AC. This particular combination forms a virtual circuit between two CE
devices.
Virtual Private Network (VPN) - A VPN is the extension of a private network that encompasses links across public
networks like the Internet. A VPN enables you to send data between two computers across a public network in a
manner that emulates the properties of a point-to-point private link.
Virtual Private Wire Service (VPWS) - A VPWS is a VPN service that provides Layer 2 point-to-point virtual circuit
connectivity between customer sites over a provider network.
Packet Switched Network (PSN) - The PSN is the network through which the tunnels supporting the VPN services
are set up. On this Switch, the PSN is a MPLS network.
Customer Edge Device (CE) - The CE resides on a customer network and has one or more interfaces directly
connected to provider networks.
Provider Edge (PE) - The PE resides on a service provider network and connects one or more CEs to the network.
Provider Router (PR) - The PR resides on a service provider network and provides fast packet switching.
Attachment Circuit (AC) – The AC is the physical or virtual circuit attaching a CE to a PE. The Ethernet port, VLAN
or (port, VLAN) pair can be used to identify the AC.
Pseudo-Wire (PW) – The PW is a mechanism that carries the essential elements of an emulated circuit from one PE
to another PE over a PSN. The PW-ID and PW-type are used to identify a Pseudo-Wire. The PW-ID is a non-zero, 32bit, connection ID. The PW-ID and PW-type must be the same at both endpoints.
Tunnel Label - The Tunnel Label is used to allow encapsulated Ethernet packets to cross the MPLS network through
the tunnel LSP.
VC Label – The VC Label is used as a de-multiplexer field so that multiple PWs can be carried in a single tunnel. A
particular VC Label value must be agreed upon by the ingress and egress PEs, either by using LDP signaling or by
using a static configuration. The VC Label must be at the bottom label of an MPLS label stack. The EXP field in the
VC Label can be used to carry QoS information. The ingress PE must configure the TTL value of the VC Label to 2.
VPWS Settings
This window is used to configure the VPWS settings.
To view this window, click VPN > VPWS > VPWS Settings as shown below:
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Figure 4–22 VPWS Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VPWS Type
Select the VPWS type used here. VPWS types are used to distinguish between different
VPWS services. There are two VPWS types defined for Ethernet service; one is Ethernet
Raw; and the other is Ethernet Tagged. The VPWS type is globally configured. All PWs
will operate in Ethernet raw mode, and S-tags are never sent over the PWs for the
Ethernet raw type VPWS. The other alternative is all PWs will operate in Ethernet tagged
mode, and every frame sent on the PWs must then have an S-tag for the Ethernet tagged
type VPWS. The VPWS type must be the same at both sides of the VPWS ends.
VPWS Trap
Enable or disable VPWS trap state here.
PW Updown State
If enabled, a trap will be sent when the PW is in an up or down event. If disabled, then no
traps will be sent regarding the PW up or down events.
PW Delete State
If enabled, a trap will be sent when a delete PW event occurs. If disabled, then no traps
will be sent regarding a delete PW event.
VPWS Log State
Enable or disable VPWS log state here.
VC ID
Enter the VC ID used here. This value must be between 1 and 4294967295.
Peer
Enter the peer IP address of the PW here. The peer IP address must be its LSR ID.
MTU
Enter the local CE-PE link's MTU value that will be advertised to the remote peer here. If
the MTU is specified as 0, the LDP will not be advertised to the local MTU. The MTU must
be same at both local and remote otherwise the PW will not succeed. If not specified, the
default MTU will be used. The default MTU value is 1500. This value must be between 0
and 65535.
Local AC
Select the Local AC method used here. Options to choose from are All, Port, and VLAN.
Port
Enter the AC’s ingress port number of the PW here, if the Local AC is identified by Port or
by All (Port, VLAN).
VLAN
Enter the AC’s ingress VLAN ID of the PW here, if the Local AC is identified by VLAN or
by All (Port, VLAN).
Inbound
Enter the inbound VC label used here. This value must be between 16 and 1048575.
Outbound
Enter the outbound VC label used here. This value must be between 16 and 1048575.
EXP
Enter the EXP value for the VC used here. If not specified, the EXP value in the outbound
label for the VC is set according to the incoming packet’s QoS.
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Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Add button to add a new entry.
Click the Delete All button to remove entries in the list.
Click the View Detail link to navigate to a new window containing more detailed information about the entry.
After click the View Detail link, the following page will be displayed.
Figure 4–23 VPWS VC Detail Window
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
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Chapter 5
L2 Features
VLAN
QinQ
Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling Settings
Spanning Tree
Link Aggregation
FDB
L2 Multicast Control
Multicast Filtering
ERPS Settings
Local Loopback Port Settings
LLDP
NLB FDB Settings
VLAN
Understanding IEEE 802.1p Priority
Priority tagging is a function defined by the IEEE 802.1p standard designed to provide a means of managing traffic on
a network where many different types of data may be transmitted simultaneously. It is intended to alleviate problems
associated with the delivery of time critical data over congested networks. The quality of applications that are
dependent on such time critical data, such as video conferencing, can be severely and adversely affected by even
very small delays in transmission.
Network devices that are in compliance with the IEEE 802.1p standard have the ability to recognize the priority level of
data packets. These devices can also assign a priority label or tag to packets. Compliant devices can also strip priority
tags from packets. This priority tag determines the packet’s degree of expeditiousness and determines the queue to
which it will be assigned.
Priority tags are given values from 0 to 7 with 0 being assigned to the lowest priority data and 7 assigned to the
highest. The highest priority tag 7 is generally only used for data associated with video or audio applications, which
are sensitive to even slight delays, or for data from specified end users whose data transmissions warrant special
consideration.
The Switch allows you to further tailor how priority tagged data packets are handled on your network. Using queues to
manage priority tagged data allows you to specify its relative priority to suit the needs of your network. There may be
circumstances where it would be advantageous to group two or more differently tagged packets into the same queue.
Generally, however, it is recommended that the highest priority queue, Queue 7, be reserved for data packets with a
priority value of 7. Packets that have not been given any priority value are placed in Queue 0 and thus given the
lowest priority for delivery.
Strict mode and weighted round robin system are employed on the Switch to determine the rate at which the queues
are emptied of packets. The ratio used for clearing the queues is 4:1. This means that the highest priority queue,
Queue 7, will clear 4 packets for every 1 packet cleared from Queue 0.
Remember, the priority queue settings on the Switch are for all ports, and all devices connected to the Switch will be
affected. This priority queuing system will be especially beneficial if your network employs switches with the capability
of assigning priority tags.
VLAN Description
A Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) is a network topology configured according to a logical scheme rather than the
physical layout. VLANs can be used to combine any collection of LAN segments into an autonomous user group that
appears as a single LAN. VLANs also logically segment the network into different broadcast domains so that packets
are forwarded only between ports within the VLAN. Typically, a VLAN corresponds to a particular subnet, although not
necessarily.
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VLANs can enhance performance by conserving bandwidth, and improve security by limiting traffic to specific
domains.
A VLAN is a collection of end nodes grouped by logic instead of physical location. End nodes that frequently
communicate with each other are assigned to the same VLAN, regardless of where they are physically on the
network. Logically, a VLAN can be equated to a broadcast domain, because broadcast packets are forwarded to only
members of the VLAN on which the broadcast was initiated.
Notes about VLANs on the Switch
•
No matter what basis is used to uniquely identify end nodes and assign these nodes VLAN membership,
packets cannot cross VLANs without a network device performing a routing function between the VLANs.
•
The Switch supports IEEE 802.1Q VLANs. The port untagging function can be used to remove the 802.1Q
tag from packet headers to maintain compatibility with devices that are tag-unaware.
•
The Switch’s default is to assign all ports to a single 802.1Q VLAN named “default.”
•
The “default” VLAN has a VID = 1.
•
The member ports of Port-based VLANs may overlap, if desired.
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
Some relevant terms:
•
Tagging – The act of putting 802.1Q VLAN information into the header of a packet.
•
Untagging – The act of stripping 802.1Q VLAN information out of the packet header.
•
Ingress port – A port on a switch where packets are flowing into the Switch and VLAN decisions must be
made.
•
Egress port – A port on a switch where packets are flowing out of the Switch, either to another switch or to
an end station, and tagging decisions must be made.
IEEE 802.1Q (tagged) VLANs are implemented on the Switch. 802.1Q VLANs require tagging, which enables them to
span the entire network (assuming all switches on the network are IEEE 802.1Q-compliant).
VLANs allow a network to be segmented in order to reduce the size of broadcast domains. All packets entering a
VLAN will only be forwarded to the stations (over IEEE 802.1Q enabled switches) that are members of that VLAN, and
this includes broadcast, multicast and unicast packets from unknown sources.
VLANs can also provide a level of security to your network. IEEE 802.1Q VLANs will only deliver packets between
stations that are members of the VLAN.
Any port can be configured as either tagging or untagging. The untagging feature of IEEE 802.1Q VLANs allows
VLANs to work with legacy switches that don’t recognize VLAN tags in packet headers. The tagging feature allows
VLANs to span multiple 802.1Q-compliant switches through a single physical connection and allows Spanning Tree to
be enabled on all ports and work normally.
The IEEE 802.1Q standard restricts the forwarding of untagged packets to the VLAN the receiving port is a member
of.
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The main characteristics of IEEE 802.1Q are as follows:
•
Assigns packets to VLANs by filtering.
•
Assumes the presence of a single global
spanning tree.
•
Uses an explicit tagging scheme with onelevel tagging.
•
802.1Q VLAN Packet Forwarding
•
Packet forwarding decisions are made based
upon the following three types of rules:
•
Ingress rules – rules relevant to the
classification of received frames belonging to
a VLAN.
•
Forwarding rules between ports – decides
whether to filter or forward the packet.
•
Egress rules – determines if the packet must
be sent tagged or untagged.
Figure 5–1 Packet Forwarding Window
802.1Q VLAN Tags
The figure below shows the 802.1Q VLAN tag. There are four additional octets inserted after the source MAC
address. Their presence is indicated by a value of 0x8100 in the EtherType field. When a packet’s EtherType field is
equal to 0x8100, the packet carries the IEEE 802.1Q/802.1p tag. The tag is contained in the following two octets and
consists of 3 bits of user priority, 1 bit of Canonical Format Identifier (CFI – used for encapsulating Token Ring
packets so they can be carried across Ethernet backbones), and 12 bits of VLAN ID (VID). The 3 bits of user priority
are used by 802.1p. The VID is the VLAN identifier and is used by the 802.1Q standard. Because the VID is 12 bits
long, 4094 unique VLANs can be identified.
The tag is inserted into the packet header making the
entire packet longer by 4 octets. All of the information
originally contained in the packet is retained.
Figure 5–2 802.1Q VLAN Tags Window
The EtherType and VLAN ID are inserted after the MAC
source address, but before the original
EtherType/Length or Logical Link Control. Because the
packet is now a bit longer than it was originally, the
Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) must be recalculated.
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Figure 5–3 802.1Q VLAN Tags Window
Port VLAN ID
Packets that are tagged (are carrying the 802.1Q VID information) can be transmitted from one 802.1Q compliant
network device to another with the VLAN information intact. This allows 802.1Q VLANs to span network devices (and
indeed, the entire network, if all network devices are 802.1Q compliant).
Unfortunately, not all network devices are 802.1Q compliant. These devices are referred to as tag-unaware. 802.1Q
devices are referred to as tag-aware.
Prior to the adoption of 802.1Q VLANs, port-based and MAC-based VLANs were in common use. These VLANs relied
upon a Port VLAN ID (PVID) to forward packets. A packet received on a given port would be assigned that port’s PVID
and then be forwarded to the port that corresponded to the packet’s destination address (found in the Switch’s
forwarding table). If the PVID of the port that received the packet is different from the PVID of the port that is to
transmit the packet, the Switch will drop the packet.
Within the Switch, different PVIDs mean different VLANs (remember that two VLANs cannot communicate without an
external router). So, VLAN identification based upon the PVIDs cannot create VLANs that extend outside a given
switch (or switch stack).
Every physical port on a switch has a PVID. 802.1Q ports are also assigned a PVID, for use within the Switch. If no
VLANs are defined on the Switch, all ports are then assigned to a default VLAN with a PVID equal to 1. Untagged
packets are assigned the PVID of the port on which they were received. Forwarding decisions are based upon this
PVID, in so far as VLANs are concerned. Tagged packets are forwarded according to the VID contained within the
tag. Tagged packets are also assigned a PVID, but the PVID is not used to make packet-forwarding decisions, the
VID is.
Tag-aware switches must keep a table to relate PVIDs within the Switch to VIDs on the network. The Switch will
compare the VID of a packet to be transmitted to the VID of the port that is to transmit the packet. If the two VIDs are
different, the Switch will drop the packet. Because of the existence of the PVID for untagged packets and the VID for
tagged packets, tag-aware and tag-unaware network devices can coexist on the same network.
A switch port can have only one PVID, but can have as many VIDs as the Switch has memory in its VLAN table to
store them.
Because some devices on a network may be tag-unaware, a decision must be made at each port on a tag-aware
device before packets are transmitted – should the packet to be transmitted have a tag or not? If the transmitting port
is connected to a tag-unaware device, the packet should be untagged. If the transmitting port is connected to a tagaware device, the packet should be tagged.
Tagging and Untagging
Every port on an 802.1Q compliant switch can be configured as tagging or untagging.
Ports with tagging enabled will put the VID number, priority and other VLAN information into the header of all packets
that flow into and out of it.
If a packet has previously been tagged, the port will not alter the packet, thus keeping the VLAN information intact.
Other 802.1Q compliant devices on the network to make packet-forwarding decisions can then use the VLAN
information in the tag.
Ports with untagging enabled will strip the 802.1Q tag from all packets that flow into and out of those ports. If the
packet doesn’t have an 802.1Q VLAN tag, the port will not alter the packet. Thus, all packets received by and
forwarded by an untagging port will have no 802.1Q VLAN information. (Remember that the PVID is only used
internally within the Switch). Untagging is used to send packets from an 802.1Q-compliant network device to a noncompliant network device.
Ingress Filtering
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A port on a switch where packets are flowing into the Switch and VLAN decisions must be made is referred to as an
ingress port. If ingress filtering is enabled for a port, the Switch will examine the VLAN information in the packet
header (if present) and decide whether or not to forward the packet.
If the packet is tagged with VLAN information, the ingress port will first determine if the ingress port itself is a member
of the tagged VLAN. If it is not, the packet will be dropped. If the ingress port is a member of the 802.1Q VLAN, the
Switch then determines if the destination port is a member of the 802.1Q VLAN. If it is not, the packet is dropped. If
the destination port is a member of the 802.1Q VLAN, the packet is forwarded and the destination port transmits it to
its attached network segment.
If the packet is not tagged with VLAN information, the ingress port will tag the packet with its own PVID as a VID (if the
port is a tagging port). The switch then determines if the destination port is a member of the same VLAN (has the
same VID) as the ingress port. If it does not, the packet is dropped. If it has the same VID, the packet is forwarded and
the destination port transmits it on its attached network segment.
This process is referred to as ingress filtering and is used to conserve bandwidth within the Switch by dropping
packets that are not on the same VLAN as the ingress port at the point of reception. This eliminates the subsequent
processing of packets that will just be dropped by the destination port.
Default VLANs
The Switch initially configures one VLAN, VID = 1, called “default.” The factory default setting assigns all ports on the
Switch to the “default.” As new VLANs are configured in Port-based mode, their respective member ports are removed
from the “default.”
Packets cannot cross VLANs. If a member of one VLAN wants to connect to another VLAN, the link must be through
an external router.
NOTE: If no VLANs are configured on the Switch, then all packets will be forwarded to any destination
port. Packets with unknown source addresses will be flooded to all ports. Broadcast and multicast
packets will also be flooded to all ports.
An example is presented below:
VLAN Name
VID
Switch Ports
System (default)
1
5, 6, 7
Engineering
2
9, 10
Sales
5
1, 2, 3, 4
Port-based VLANs
Port-based VLANs limit traffic that flows into and out of switch ports. Thus, all devices connected to a port are
members of the VLAN(s) the port belongs to, whether there is a single computer directly connected to a switch, or an
entire department.
On port-based VLANs, NICs do not need to be able to identify 802.1Q tags in packet headers. NICs send and receive
normal Ethernet packets. If the packet’s destination lies on the same segment, communications take place using
normal Ethernet protocols. Even though this is always the case, when the destination for a packet lies on another
switch port, VLAN considerations come into play to decide if the packet gets dropped by the Switch or delivered.
VLAN Segmentation
Take for example a packet that is transmitted by a machine on Port 1 that is a member of VLAN 2. If the destination
lies on another port (found through a normal forwarding table lookup), the Switch then looks to see if the other port
(Port 10) is a member of VLAN 2 (and can therefore receive VLAN 2 packets). If Port 10 is not a member of VLAN 2,
then the packet will be dropped by the Switch and will not reach its destination. If Port 10 is a member of VLAN 2, the
packet will go through. This selective forwarding feature based on VLAN criteria is how VLANs segment networks.
The key point being that Port 1 will only transmit on VLAN 2.
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The members of a trunk group have the same VLAN setting. Any VLAN setting on the members of a trunk group will
apply to the other member ports.
NOTE: In order to use VLAN segmentation in conjunction with port trunk groups, first set the port trunk
group(s), and then configure the VLAN settings. To change the port trunk grouping with VLANs already in
place it is unnecessary to reconfigure the VLAN settings after changing the port trunk group settings.
VLAN settings will automatically change in conjunction with the change of the port trunk group settings.
802.1Q VLAN Settings
The VLAN List tab lists all previously configured VLANs by VLAN ID and VLAN Name.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > 802.1Q VLAN Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–4 802.1Q VLAN Settings Window
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
To create a new 802.1Q VLAN or modify an existing 802.1Q VLAN, click the Add/Edit VLAN tab.
A new tab will appear, as shown below, to configure the port settings and to assign a unique name and number to the
new VLAN.
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Figure 5–5 802.1Q VLAN Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VID (VLAN ID):
Allows the entry of a VLAN ID or displays the VLAN ID of an existing VLAN in the
Add/Edit VLAN tab. VLANs can be identified by either the VID or the VLAN name.
VLAN Name:
Allows the entry of a name for the new VLAN or for editing the VLAN name in the
Add/Edit VLAN tab.
Advertisement:
Enabling this function will allow the Switch to send out GVRP packets to outside sources,
notifying that they may join the existing VLAN.
Port:
Shows all ports of the Switch for the configuration option.
Tagged:
Specifies the port as 802.1Q tagging. Clicking the radio button will designate the port as
tagged. Click the All button to select all ports.
Untagged:
Specifies the port as 802.1Q untagged. Clicking the radio button will designate the port as
untagged. Click the All button to select all ports.
Forbidden:
Click the radio button to specify the port as not being a member of the VLAN and that the
port is forbidden from becoming a member of the VLAN dynamically. Click the All button
to select all ports.
Not Member
Click the radio button to allow an individual port to be specified as a non-VLAN member.
Click the All button to select all ports.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
To search for a VLAN, click the Find VLAN tab. A new tab will appear, as shown below.
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Figure 5–6 802.1Q VLAN Settings Window
Enter the VLAN ID number in the field offered and then click the Find button. You will be redirected to the VLAN List
tab.
To create, delete and configure a VLAN Batch entry click the VLAN Batch Settings tab, as shown below.
Figure 5–7 802.1Q VLAN Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VID List (e.g.: 2-5):
Enter a VLAN ID List that can be added, deleted or configured.
Advertisement:
Enabling this function will allow the Switch to send out GVRP packets to outside sources,
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notifying that they may join the existing VLAN.
Port List (e.g.: 1-5):
Allows an individual port list to be added or deleted as a member of the VLAN.
Tagged:
Specifies the port as 802.1Q tagged. Use the drop-down menu to designate the port as
tagged.
Untagged:
Specifies the port as 802.1Q untagged. Use the drop-down menu to designate the port as
untagged.
Forbidden:
Specifies the port as not being a member of the VLAN and that the port is forbidden from
becoming a member of the VLAN dynamically. Use the drop-down menu to designate the
port as forbidden.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
NOTE: The Switch supports up to 4k static VLAN entries.
802.1v Protocol Group Settings
802.1v Protocol Group Settings
The user can create Protocol VLAN groups and add protocols to that group. The 802.1v Protocol VLAN Group
Settings support multiple VLANs for each protocol and allows the user to configure the untagged ports of different
protocols on the same physical port. For example, it allows the user to configure an 802.1Q and 802.1v untagged port
on the same physical port. The lower half of the table displays any previously created groups.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > 802.1v Protocol Group Settings > 802.1v Protocol
Group Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–8 802.1v Protocol Group Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Group ID:
Select an ID number for the group, between 1 and 8.
Group Name:
This is used to identify the new Protocol VLAN group. Type an alphanumeric string of up
to 33 characters.
Protocol:
This function maps packets to protocol-defined VLANs by examining the type octet within
the packet header to discover the type of protocol associated with it. Use the drop-down
menu to toggle between Ethernet II, IEEE802.3 LLC, and IEEE802.3 SNAP.
Protocol Value:
Enter a value for the Group. The protocol value is used to identify a protocol of the frame
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type specified. The form of the input is 0x0 to 0xffff. Depending on the frame type, the
octet string will have one of the following values: For Ethernet II, this is a 16-bit (2-octet)
hex value. For example, IPv4 is 800, IPv6 is 86dd, ARP is 806, etc. For IEEE802.3 SNAP,
this is this is a 16-bit (2-octet) hex value. For IEEE802.3 LLC, this is the 2-octet IEEE
802.2 Link Service Access Point (LSAP) pair. The first octet is for Destination Service
Access Point (DSAP) and the second octet is for Source.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries based on the information entered.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete Settings button to remove the Protocol for the Protocol VLAN Group information for the specific
entry.
Click the Delete Group button to remove the entry completely.
NOTE: The Group name value should be less than 33 characters.
802.1v Protocol VLAN Settings
The user can configure Protocol VLAN settings. The lower half of the table displays any previously created settings.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > 802.1v Protocol Group Settings > 802.1v Protocol
VLAN Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–9 802.1v Protocol VLAN Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Group ID:
Select a previously configured Group ID from the drop-down menu.
Group Name:
Select a previously configured Group Name from the drop-down menu.
VID (1-4094):
This is the VLAN ID that, along with the VLAN Name, identifies the VLAN the user wishes
to create.
VLAN Name:
This is the VLAN Name that, along with the VLAN ID, identifies the VLAN the user wishes
to create.
802.1P Priority:
This parameter is specified if you want to re-write the 802.1p default priority previously set
in the Switch, which is used to determine the CoS queue to which packets are forwarded
to. Once this field is specified, packets accepted by the Switch that match this priority are
forwarded to the CoS queue specified previously by the user.
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Click the corresponding box if you want to set the 802.1p default priority of a packet to the
value entered in the Priority (0-7) field, which meets the criteria specified previously in this
command, before forwarding it on to the specified CoS queue. Otherwise, a packet will
have its incoming 802.1p user priority re-written to its original value before being
forwarded by the Switch.
For more information on priority queues, CoS queues and mapping for 802.1p, see the
QoS section of this manual.
Port List:
Select the specified ports you wish to configure by entering the port number in this field,
or tick the Select All Ports check box.
Search Port List:
This function allows the user to search all previously configured port list settings and
display them on the lower half of the table. To search for a port list enter the port number
you wish to view and click Find. To display all previously configured port lists on the
bottom half of the screen click the Show All button, to clear all previously configured lists
click the Delete All button.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Show All button to display all the Protocol VLANs configured.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specified entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specified entry.
GVRP
GVRP Global Settings
Users can determine whether the Switch will share its VLAN configuration information with other GARP VLAN
Registration Protocol (GVRP) enabled switches. In addition, Ingress Checking can be used to limit traffic by filtering
incoming packets whose PVID does not match the PVID of the port. Results can be seen in the table under the
configuration settings.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > GVRP > GVRP Global Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–10 GVRP Global Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
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GVRP State:
Here the user can enable or disable the GVRP State.
Join Time:
Here the user can enter the Join Time value in milliseconds.
Leave Time:
Here the user can enter the Leave Time value in milliseconds.
Leave All Time:
Here the user can enter the Leave All Time value in milliseconds.
NNI BPDU Address:
Used to determine the BPDU protocol address for GVRP in service provide site. It can
use an 802.1d GVRP address, 802.1ad service provider GVRP address or a user defined
multicast address.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
NOTE: The Leave Time value should be greater than twice the Join Time value. The Leave All Time
value should be greater than the Leave Time value.
GVRP Port Settings
On this page the user can configure the GVRP port parameters.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > GVRP > GVRP Port Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–11 GVRP Port Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port:
This drop-down menu allows the selection of the beginning port for a range of ports that
will be included in the Port-based VLAN.
To Port:
This drop-down menu allows the selection of the ending port for a range of ports that will
be included in the Port-based VLAN.
PVID:
This field is used to manually assign a PVID to a VLAN. The Switch's default is to assign
all ports to the default VLAN with a VID of 1.The PVID is used by the port to tag outgoing,
untagged packets, and to make filtering decisions about incoming packets. If the port is
specified to accept only tagged frames - as tagging, and an untagged packet is forwarded
to the port for transmission, the port will add an 802.1Q tag using the PVID to write the
VID in the tag. When the packet arrives at its destination, the receiving device will use the
PVID to make VLAN forwarding decisions. If the port receives a packet, and Ingress
filtering is Enabled, the port will compare the VID of the incoming packet to its PVID. If the
two are unequal, the port will drop the packet. If the two are equal, the port will receive the
packet.
GVRP:
The GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) enables the port to dynamically become a
member of a VLAN. GVRP is Disabled by default.
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Ingress Checking:
This drop-down menu allows the user to enable the port to compare the VID tag of an
incoming packet with the PVID number assigned to the port. If the two are different, the
port filters (drops) the packet. Disabled disables ingress filtering. Ingress checking is
Enabled by default.
Acceptable Frame
Type:
This field denotes the type of frame that will be accepted by the port. The user may
choose between Tagged Only, which means only VLAN tagged frames will be accepted,
and All, which mean both tagged and untagged frames will be accepted. All is enabled by
default.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
MAC-based VLAN Settings
Users can create new MAC-based VLAN entries, search and delete existing entries. When a static MAC-based VLAN
entry is created for a user, the traffic from this user will be able to be serviced under the specified VLAN regardless of
the authentication function operating on this port.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > MAC-based VLAN Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–12 MAC-based VLAN Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MAC Address:
Specify the MAC address to be re-authenticated by entering it into the MAC Address field.
VLAN Name:
Select this option and enter the VLAN name of a previously configured VLAN.
VLAN ID:
Select this option and enter the VLAN ID.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Delete button to remove the specified entry.
Private VLAN Settings
A private VLAN is comprised of a primary VLAN, up to one isolated VLAN, and a number of community VLANs. A
private VLAN ID is presented by the VLAN ID of the primary VLAN. The command used to associate or de-associate a
secondary VLAN with a primary VLAN.
A secondary VLAN cannot be associated with multiple primary VLANs. The untagged member port of the primary
VLAN is named as the promiscuous port. The tagged member port of the primary VLAN is named as the trunk port. A
promiscuous port of a private VLAN cannot be promiscuous port of other private VLANs. The primary VLAN member
port cannot be a secondary VLAN member at the same time, or vice versa. A secondary VLAN can only have the
untagged member port. The member port of a secondary VLAN cannot be member port of other secondary VLAN at
the same time. When a VLAN is associated with a primary VLAN as the secondary VLAN, the promiscuous port of the
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primary VLAN will behave as the untagged member of the secondary VLAN, and the trunk port of the primary VLAN
will behave as the tagged member of the secondary VLAN. A secondary VLAN cannot be specified with
advertisement. Only the primary VLAN can be configured as a layer 3 interface. The private VLAN member port
cannot be configured with the traffic segmentation function.
On this page the user can configure the private VLAN parameters.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > Private VLAN Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–13 Private VLAN Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name:
The user can enter a VLAN Name here.
VID (2-4094):
The user can enter a VID value here.
VLAN List:
The user can enter a VLAN List here.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specified entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specified entry.
Click the Edit button to see the following window.
Figure 5-14 Private VLAN Settings - Edit window
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Secondary VLAN Type
Use the drop-down menu to select secondary VLAN type between Isolated or
Community.
Secondary VLAN Name
Enter a secondary VLAN name.
Secondary VLAN List
Enter a list of secondary VLAN ID.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the View Private VLAN List link to view all the private VLAN.
Click the Delete button to remove the specified entry.
PVID Auto Assign Settings
Users can enable or disable PVID Auto Assign Status. The default setting is enabled.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > PVID Auto Assign Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–15 PVID Auto Assign Settings Window
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Subnet VLAN
Subnet VLAN Settings
A subnet VLAN entry is an IP subnet-based VLAN classification rule. If an untagged or priority-tagged IP packet is
received on a port, its source IP address will be used to match the subnet VLAN entries. If the source IP is in the
subnet of an entry, the packet will be classified to the VLAN defined for this subnet.
On this page the user can configure the subnet VLAN parameters.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > Subnet VLAN > Subnet VLAN Settings, as shown
below:
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Figure 5–16 Subnet VLAN Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name:
The user can enter a VLAN Name here.
VID:
The user can enter a VID value here.
IPv4 Network Address:
The user can enter the IPv4 address used in here. Remember to include the subnet mask
using the / notation.
IPv6 Network Address:
The user can enter the IPv6 address used in here. Remember to include the subnet mask
using the / notation.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Show All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Delete button to remove the specified entry.
VLAN Counter Settings
The user can create control entry to count statistics for a specific VLAN, or to count statistics for a specific port on a
specific VLAN. The statistics can be either byte count or packet count. The statistics can be counted for different
frame types.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > VLAN Counter Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 5–17 VLAN Counter Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VID List:
Specifies a list of VLANs by VLAN ID.
VLAN Name:
Specifies the VLAN name.
Ports:
To enable to count statistics by specific port on specific VLAN.
Packet Type:
This option specifies the Packet Type:
Broadcast - Specifies to count broadcast packets.
Multicast - Specifies to count multicast packets.
Unicast – Specifies to count unicast packets.
All - The statistics will be counted for all packets.
Counter Type:
This option specifies the Counter Type:
Packet - Specifies to count at packet level.
Byte - Specifies to count at byte level.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Voice VLAN
Voice VLAN Global Settings
Voice VLAN is a VLAN used to carry voice traffic from IP phone. Because the sound quality of an IP phone call will be
deteriorated if the data is unevenly sent, the quality of service (QoS) for voice traffic shall be configured to ensure the
transmission priority of voice packet is higher than normal traffic.
The switches determine whether a received packet is a voice packet by checking its source MAC address. If the
source MAC addresses of packets comply with the organizationally unique identifier (OUI) addresses configured by
the system, the packets are determined as voice packets and transmitted in voice VLAN.
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To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > Voice VLAN > Voice VLAN Global Settings, as shown
below:
Figure 5–18 Voice VLAN Global Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Voice VLAN State:
The state of the voice VLAN.
Voice VLAN Name:
The name of the voice VLAN.
Voice VID:
The VLAN ID of the voice VLAN.
Priority:
The priority of the voice VLAN, the range is 0 – 7. The default priority is 5.
Aging Time:
The aging time to set, the range is 1 – 65535 minutes. The default value is 720 minutes.
The aging time is used to remove a port from voice VLAN if the port is an automatic VLAN
member. When the last voice device stops sending traffic and the MAC address of this
voice device is aged out, the voice VLAN aging timer will be started. The port will be
removed from the voice VLAN after expiration of voice VLAN aging timer. If the voice
traffic resumes during the aging time, the aging timer will be reset and stop.
Log State:
Used to enable/disable sending of issue of voice VLAN log.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Voice VLAN Port Settings
This page is used to show the ports voice VLAN information.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > Voice VLAN > Voice VLAN Port Settings, as shown
below:
Figure 5–19 Voice VLAN Port Settings Window
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port – To Port:
Here the user can select a range of port to display.
State:
Here the user can configure the state of the port.
Mode:
Here the user can configure the mode of the port.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Voice VLAN OUI Settings
This page is used to configure the user-defined voice traffic’s OUI. The OUI is used to identify the voice traffic. There
are a number of pre-defined OUIs. The user can further define the user-defined OUIs if needed. The user-defined OUI
cannot be the same as the pre-defined OUI.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > Voice VLAN > Voice VLAN OUI Settings, as shown
below:
Figure 5–20 Voice VLAN OUI Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
OUI Address:
User defined OUI MAC address.
Mask:
User defined OUI MAC address mask.
Description:
The description for the user defined OUI.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Voice VLAN Device
This page is used to show voice devices that are connected to the ports. The start time is the time when the device is
detected on this port, the activate time is the latest time saw the device sending the traffic.
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To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > Voice VLAN > Voice VLAN Device, as shown below:
Figure 5–21 Voice VLAN Device Window
VLAN Trunk Settings
Enable VLAN on a port to allow frames belonging to
unknown VLAN groups to pass through that port. This is
useful if you want to set up VLAN groups on end
devices without having to configure the same VLAN
groups on intermediary devices.
Refer to the following figure for an illustrated example.
Suppose you want to create VLAN groups 1 and 2 (V1 and V2) on devices A and B. Without a VLAN Trunk, you
must first configure VLAN groups 1 and 2 on all intermediary switches C, D and E; otherwise they will drop frames
with unknown VLAN group tags. However, with VLAN Trunk enabled on a port(s) in each intermediary switch, you
only need to create VLAN groups in the end devices (A and B). C, D and E automatically allow frames with VLAN
group tags 1 and 2 (VLAN groups that are unknown to those switches) to pass through their VLAN trunking port(s).
Users can combine a number of VLAN ports together to create VLAN trunks.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > VLAN Trunk Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–22 VLAN Trunk Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Trunk State:
Enable or disable the VLAN trunking global state.
Ports:
The ports to be configured. By clicking the Select All button, all the ports will be included.
By clicking the Clear All button, all the ports will not be included.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Clear All button to clear all the selections made.
Click the Select All button to select all the available options in the section.
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Browse VLAN
Users can display the VLAN status for each of the Switch's ports viewed by VLAN. Enter a VID (VLAN ID) in the field
at the top of the window and click the Find button.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > Browse VLAN, as shown below:
Figure 5–23 Browse VLAN Window
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
NOTE: The abbreviations used on this page are, Tagged Port (T), Untagged Port (U) and Forbidden
Port (F).
Show VLAN Ports
Users can display the VLAN ports of the Switch's viewed by VID. Enter a Port or a Port List in the field at the top of
the window and click the Find button.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > VLAN > Show VLAN Ports, as shown below:
Figure 5–24 Show VLAN Ports Window
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
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QinQ
QinQ Settings
Double or Q-in-Q VLANs allow network providers to expand their VLAN configurations to place customer VLANs
within a larger inclusive VLAN, which adds a new layer to the VLAN configuration. This basically lets large ISP's
create L2 Virtual Private Networks and also create transparent LANs for their customers, which will connect two or
more customer LAN points without over-complicating configurations on the client's side. Not only will overcomplication be avoided, but also now the administrator has over 4000 VLANs in which over 4000 VLANs can be
placed, therefore greatly expanding the VLAN network and enabling greater support of customers utilizing multiple
VLANs on the network.
Double VLANs are basically VLAN tags placed within existing IEEE 802.1Q VLANs which we will call SPVIDs (Service
Provider VLAN IDs). These VLANs are marked by a TPID (Tagged Protocol ID), configured in hex form to be
encapsulated within the VLAN tag of the packet. This identifies the packet as double-tagged and segregates it from
other VLANs on the network, therefore creating a hierarchy of VLANs within a single packet.
Here is an example Double VLAN tagged packet.
Destination
Address
Source Address
SPVLAN (TPID
+ Service
Provider VLAN
Tag)
802.1Q CEVLAN
Tag (TPID +
Customer VLAN
Tag)
Ether Type
Payload
Consider the example below:
Figure 5–25 QinQ Example Window
In this example, the Service Provider Access Network switch (Provider edge switch) is the device creating and
configuring Double VLANs. Both CEVLANs (Customer VLANs), 10 and 11, are tagged with the SPVID 100 on the
Service Provider Access Network and therefore belong to one VLAN on the Service Provider’s network, thus being a
member of two VLANs. In this way, the Customer can retain its normal VLAN and the Service Provider can
congregate multiple Customer VLANs within one SPVLAN, thus greatly regulating traffic and routing on the Service
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Provider switch. This information is then routed to the Service Provider’s main network and regarded there as one
VLAN, with one set of protocols and one routing behavior.
Regulations for Double VLANs
Some rules and regulations apply with the implementation of the Double VLAN procedure.
1. All ports must be configured for the SPVID and its corresponding TPID on the Service Provider’s edge
switch.
2. All ports must be configured as Access Ports or Uplink ports. Access ports can only be Ethernet ports
while Uplink ports must be Gigabit ports.
3. Provider Edge switches must allow frames of at least 1522 bytes or more, due to the addition of the SPVID
tag.
4. Access Ports must be an un-tagged port of the service provider VLANs. Uplink Ports must be a tagged port
of the service provider VLANs.
5. The switch cannot have both double and normal VLANs co-existing. Once the change of VLAN is made, all
Access Control lists are cleared and must be reconfigured.
6. Once Double VLANs are enabled, GVRP must be disabled.
7. All packets sent from the CPU to the Access ports must be untagged.
8. The following functions will not operate when the switch is in Double VLAN mode:
•
Guest VLANs.
•
Web-based Access Control.
•
IP Multicast Routing.
•
GVRP.
•
All Regular 802.1Q VLAN functions.
On this page the user can configure the QinQ parameters.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > QinQ > QinQ Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–26 QinQ Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
QinQ State:
Selecting this option enable the QinQ feature.
From Port – To Port:
Here the user can select a range of ports to use in the configuration.
Role:
Port role in QinQ mode, it can be UNI port or NNI port
Missdrop:
This option enables or disables C-VLAN based SP-VLAN assignment miss drop. If
Missdrop is enabled, the packet that does not match any assignment rule in the QinQ
profile will be dropped. If disabled, then the packet will be forwarded and will be assigned
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to the PVID of the received port.
Outer TPID:
Enter an Outer TPID in SP-VLAN tag here.
Inner TPID:
Enter an Inner TPID in SP-VLAN tag here.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
VLAN Translation Settings
This page can be used to add translation relationship between C-VLAN and SP-VLAN. On ingress at UNI port, the CVLAN tagged packets will be translated to SP-VLAN tagged packets by adding or replacing according the configured
rule. On egress at this port, the SP-VLAN tag will be recovered to C-VLAN tag or be striped. The priority will be the
priority in the SP-VLAN tag if the inner priority flag is disabled for the receipt port.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > QinQ > VLAN Translation Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–27 VLAN Translation Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port – To Port:
Here the user can select a range of ports to use in the configuration.
CVID:
Here the user can enter the C-VLAN ID to match.
Action:
The action indicates to add an S-tag before a C-tag or to replace the original C-tag by an
S-tag.
SVID:
Here the user can enter the SP-VLAN ID.
Priority:
Here the user can select the priority of the s-tag.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specified entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specified entry.
Double Tagged VLAN Translation Settings
On this page the user can configure the double tagged VLAN translation parameters.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > QinQ > Double Tagged VLAN Translation Settings, as shown
below:
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Figure 5–28 Double Tagged VLAN Translation Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port – To Port:
Here the user can select a range of ports to use in the configuration.
CVID:
Here the user can enter the C-VLAN ID to match.
SVID:
Here the user can enter the S-VLAN ID to match.
New SVID:
When both SVID and CVID are matched, replace original SVID with the new SVID
Priority:
Here the user can select the priority of the s-tag.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specified entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specified entry.
VLAN Translation Port Mapping Settings
This page can be used to configure the port’s QinQ S-VLAN assignment rules. These rules are contained in a QinQ
profile. Up to one QinQ profile can be added to a port. This setting will not be effective when QinQ mode is disabled.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > QinQ > VLAN Translation Port Mapping Settings, as shown
below:
Figure 5–29 VLAN Translation Port Mapping Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port – To Port:
Here the user can select a range of ports to use in the configuration.
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VLAN Translation
Profile:
Here the user can enter the VLAN translation profile number.
Action:
Here the user can select the action to take. Action that can be selected are Add, or
Delete.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
VLAN Translation Profile List
This page is used to create a QinQ profile and to assign the SP-VLAN. Multiple rules can be specified for a QinQ
profile. Outer tags to frames can be added or replaced to match the translation profiles.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > QinQ > VLAN Translation Profile Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–30 VLAN Translation Profile List Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile:
Here the user can enter the number of the profile
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Add QinQ Profile button to add a new QinQ profile.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
After clicking the Add QinQ Profile button, the following page will appear:
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Figure 5–31 VLAN Translation Profile List Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID:
Here the user can specify the profile ID number to be configured
Rule ID:
Here the user can specify the rule ID to be added to the profile
Action:
Here the user can select the action to add a tag for the assigned SP-VLAN before the CVLAN tag. If there is an S-TAG in the packet, this rule will not take effect. The user can
also select the action that indicates to replace the C-VLAN in the tag by the SP VLAN. If
there is no C-TAG in the packet, this rule will not take effect.
SVID:
Here the user can specify the SP-VLAN ID to be assigned to the matched packet.
Priority:
Here the user can specify the priority of the SP-VLAN. If priority is not specified, the value
is default to the port default priority.
Source MAC:
Here the user can specify the source MAC address.
Source Mask:
Here the user can specify the source MAC address mask.
Destination MAC:
Here the user can specify the destination MAC address.
Destination Mask:
Here the user can specify the destination MAC address mask.
Source IP:
Here the user can specify the source IPv4 address or IPv4 subnet.
Source IP Mask:
Here the user can specify the source IPv4 address mask.
Destination IP:
Here the user can specify the destination IPv4 address or IPv4 subnet.
Destination IP Mask:
Here the user can specify the destination IPv4 address mask.
L4 Source Port:
Here the user can specifies the L4 source port ID.
L4 Destination Port:
Here the user can specifies the L4 destination port ID.
Outer VID List:
Here the user can specify the packet’s outer VID range.
802.1p:
Here the user can specify the packet’s 802.1p priority.
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IP Protocol:
Here the user can specify the IP Protocol used.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling Settings
With the QinQ double VLAN function, the subscriber’s layer 2 traffic is transparent to ISP networks. However, QinQ
cannot handle those layer 2 control protocols that makes the network a bit risky and inconvenient. The Layer 2
Protocol Tunneling (L2PT) function resolves the problem by tunneling L2 control protocols to each remote site and
makes the central management possible for a company.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–32 Layer 2 Protocol Tunneling Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Layer 2 Protocol
Tunneling State
Use the radio buttons to enable or disable the layer 2 protocol tunneling function globally
on the Switch.
From Port / To Port
Select a range of ports to use in the configuration.
Type
Use the drop-down menu to select the type of the ports. Available choices are UNI, NNI
and None. The default type is None.
Tunneled Protocol
When UNI is selected in the Type drop-down menu, this drop-down menu shows the
following options:
STP- Specify the BPDU received on these UNI will be tunneled.
GVRP - Specify the GVRP PDU received on these UNI will be tunneled.
Protocol MAC - Specify the destination MAC address of the L2 protocol packets that will
tunneled on these UNI ports. At present, the MAC address can be 01-00-0C-CC-CC-CC
or 01-00-0C-CC-CC-CD.
All - Specify all supported.
Threshold (0-65535)
Enter the drop threshold for packets-per-second accepted on this UNI port. The port drops
the PDU if the protocol’s threshold is exceeded. The range of the threshold value is 0 to
65535 (packet/second). The value 0 means unlimited. By default, the value is 0.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
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Spanning Tree
This Switch supports three versions of the Spanning Tree Protocol: 802.1D-1998 STP, 802.1D-2004 Rapid STP, and
802.1Q-2005 MSTP. 802.1D-1998 STP will be familiar to most networking professionals. However, since 802.1D-2004
RSTP and 802.1Q-2005 MSTP have been recently introduced to D-Link managed Ethernet switches, a brief
introduction to the technology is provided below followed by a description of how to set up 802.1D-1998 STP, 802.1D2004 RSTP, and 802.1Q-2005 MSTP.
802.1Q-2005 MSTP
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol, or MSTP, is a standard defined by the IEEE community that allows multiple VLANs
to be mapped to a single spanning tree instance, which will provide multiple pathways across the network. Therefore,
these MSTP configurations will balance the traffic load, preventing wide scale disruptions when a single spanning tree
instance fails. This will allow for faster convergences of new topologies for the failed instance. Frames designated for
these VLANs will be processed quickly and completely throughout interconnected bridges utilizing any of the three
spanning tree protocols (STP, RSTP or MSTP).
This protocol will also tag BDPU packets so receiving devices can distinguish spanning tree instances, spanning tree
regions and the VLANs associated with them. An MSTI ID will classify these instances. MSTP will connect multiple
spanning trees with a Common and Internal Spanning Tree (CIST). The CIST will automatically determine each MSTP
region, its maximum possible extent and will appear as one virtual bridge that runs a single spanning tree.
Consequentially, frames assigned to different VLANs will follow different data routes within administratively
established regions on the network, continuing to allow simple and full processing of frames, regardless of administrative errors in defining VLANs and their respective spanning trees.
Each switch utilizing the MSTP on a network will have a single MSTP configuration that will have the following three
attributes:
1. A configuration name defined by an alphanumeric string of up to 32 characters (defined in the MST
Configuration Identification window in the Configuration Name field).
2. A configuration revision number (named here as a Revision Level and found in the MST Configuration
Identification window) and;
3. A 4094-element table (defined here as a VID List in the MST Configuration Identification window), which
will associate each of the possible 4094 VLANs supported by the Switch for a given instance.
To utilize the MSTP function on the Switch, three steps need to be taken:
1. The Switch must be set to the MSTP setting (found in the STP Bridge Global Settings window in the STP
Version field)
2. The correct spanning tree priority for the MSTP instance must be entered (defined here as a Priority in the
MSTI Config Information window when configuring MSTI ID settings).
3. VLANs that will be shared must be added to the MSTP Instance ID (defined here as a VID List in the MST
Configuration Identification window when configuring an MSTI ID settings).
802.1D-2004 Rapid Spanning Tree
The Switch implements three versions of the Spanning Tree Protocol, the Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) as
defined by the IEEE 802.1Q-2005, the Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) as defined by the IEEE 802.1D-2004
specification and a version compatible with the IEEE 802.1D-1998 STP. RSTP can operate with legacy equipment
implementing IEEE 802.1D-1998; however the advantages of using RSTP will be lost.
The IEEE 802.1D-2004 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) evolved from the 802.1D-1998 STP standard. RSTP
was developed in order to overcome some limitations of STP that impede the function of some recent switching
innovations, in particular, certain Layer 3 functions that are increasingly handled by Ethernet switches. The basic
function and much of the terminology is the same as STP. Most of the settings configured for STP are also used for
RSTP. This section introduces some new Spanning Tree concepts and illustrates the main differences between the
two protocols.
Port Transition States
An essential difference between the three protocols is in the way ports transition to a forwarding state and in the way
this transition relates to the role of the port (forwarding or not forwarding) in the topology. MSTP and RSTP combine
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the transition states disabled, blocking and listening used in 802.1D-1998 and creates a single state Discarding. In
either case, ports do not forward packets. In the STP port transition states disabled, blocking or listening or in the
RSTP/MSTP port state discarding, there is no functional difference, the port is not active in the network topology.
Table 7-3 below compares how the three protocols differ regarding the port state transition.
All three protocols calculate a stable topology in the same way. Every segment will have a single path to the root
bridge. All bridges listen for BPDU packets. However, BPDU packets are sent more frequently - with every Hello
packet. BPDU packets are sent even if a BPDU packet was not received. Therefore, each link between bridges is
sensitive to the status of the link. Ultimately this difference results in faster detection of failed links, and thus faster
topology adjustment. A drawback of 802.1D-1998 is this absence of immediate feedback from adjacent bridges.
802.1Q-2005 MSTP
802.1D-2004 RSTP
802.1D-1998 STP
Forwarding
Learning
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
No
No
Discarding
Discarding
Blocking
No
No
Discarding
Discarding
Listening
No
No
Learning
Learning
Listening
No
Yes
Forwarding
Forwarding
Forwarding
Yes
Yes
RSTP is capable of a more rapid transition to a forwarding state - it no longer relies on timer configurations - RSTP
compliant bridges are sensitive to feedback from other RSTP compliant bridge links. Ports do not need to wait for the
topology to stabilize before transitioning to a forwarding state. In order to allow this rapid transition, the protocol
introduces two new variables: the edge port and the point-to-point (P2P) port.
Edge Port
The edge port is a configurable designation used for a port that is directly connected to a segment where a loop
cannot be created. An example would be a port connected directly to a single workstation. Ports that are designated
as edge ports transition to a forwarding state immediately without going through the listening and learning states. An
edge port loses its status if it receives a BPDU packet, immediately becoming a normal spanning tree port.
P2P Port
A P2P port is also capable of rapid transition. P2P ports may be used to connect to other bridges. Under RSTP/MSTP,
all ports operating in full-duplex mode are considered to be P2P ports, unless manually overridden through
configuration.
802.1D-1998/802.1D-2004/802.1Q-2005 Compatibility
MSTP or RSTP can interoperate with legacy equipment and is capable of automatically adjusting BPDU packets to
802.1D-1998 format when necessary. However, any segment using 802.1D-1998 STP will not benefit from the rapid
transition and rapid topology change detection of MSTP or RSTP. The protocol also provides for a variable used for
migration in the event that legacy equipment on a segment is updated to use RSTP or MSTP.
The Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) operates on two levels:
1. On the switch level, the settings are globally implemented.
2. On the port level, the settings are implemented on a per-user-defined group of ports basis.
STP Bridge Global Settings
On this page the user can configure the STP bridge global parameters.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Spanning Tree > STP Bridge Global Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 5–33 STP Bridge Global Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
STP Status:
Use the radio button to globally enable or disable STP.
STP Version:
Use the pull-down menu to choose the desired version of STP:
STP - Select this parameter to set the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) globally on the
switch.
RSTP - Select this parameter to set the Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) globally on
the Switch.
MSTP - Select this parameter to set the Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) globally
on the Switch.
Forwarding BPDU:
This field can be Enabled or Disabled. When Enabled, it allows the forwarding of STP
BPDU packets from other network devices. The default is Disabled.
Bridge Max Age (6 –
40):
The Max Age may be set to ensure that old information does not endlessly circulate
through redundant paths in the network, preventing the effective propagation of the new
information. Set by the Root Bridge, this value will aid in determining that the Switch has
spanning tree configuration values consistent with other devices on the bridged LAN. The
user may choose a time between 6 and 40 seconds. The default value is 20 seconds.
Bridge Hello Time (1 –
2):
The Hello Time can be set from 1 to 2 seconds. This is the interval between two
transmissions of BPDU packets sent by the Root Bridge to tell all other switches that it is
indeed the Root Bridge. This field will only appear here when STP or RSTP is selected for
the STP Version. For MSTP, the Hello Time must be set on a port per port basis. The
default is 2 seconds.
Bridge Forward Delay
(4 – 30):
The Forward Delay can be from 4 to 30 seconds. Any port on the Switch spends this time
in the listening state while moving from the blocking state to the forwarding state. The
default is 15 seconds
Tx Hold Count (1-10):
Used to set the maximum number of Hello packets transmitted per interval. The count can
be specified from 1 to 10. The default is 6.
Max Hops (6-40):
Used to set the number of hops between devices in a spanning tree region before the
BPDU (bridge protocol data unit) packet sent by the Switch will be discarded. Each switch
on the hop count will reduce the hop count by one until the value reaches zero. The
Switch will then discard the BDPU packet and the information held for the port will age
out. The user may set a hop count from 6 to 40. The default is 20.
NNI BPDU Address:
Here the user can enter the NNI BPDU Address used. Among the options, the user can
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select either Dot1d or Dot1ad.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
STP Port Settings
STP can be set up on a port per port basis.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Spanning Tree > STP Port Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–34 STP Port Settings Window
It is advisable to define an STP Group to correspond to a VLAN group of ports.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port:
The beginning port in a consecutive group of ports to be configured.
To Port:
The ending port in a consecutive group of ports to be configured.
External Cost (0=Auto):
This defines a metric that indicates the relative cost of forwarding packets to the specified
port list. Port cost can be set automatically or as a metric value. The default value is 0
(auto). Setting 0 for the external cost will automatically set the speed for forwarding
packets to the specified port(s) in the list for optimal efficiency. The default port cost for a
100Mbps port is 200000 and the default port cost for a Gigabit port is 20000. Enter a
value between 1 and 200000000 to determine the External Cost. The lower the number,
the greater the probability the port will be chosen to forward packets.
P2P:
Choosing the True parameter indicates a point-to-point (P2P) shared link. P2P ports are
similar to edge ports; however they are restricted in that a P2P port must operate in full
duplex. Like edge ports, P2P ports transition to a forwarding state rapidly thus benefiting
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from RSTP. A P2P value of False indicates that the port cannot have P2P status. Auto
allows the port to have P2P status whenever possible and operate as if the P2P status
were True. If the port cannot maintain this status, (for example if the port is forced to halfduplex operation) the P2P status changes to operate as if the P2P value were False. The
default setting for this parameter is Auto.
Restricted TCN:
Topology Change Notification is a simple BPDU that a bridge sends out to its root port to
signal a topology change. Restricted TCN can be toggled between True and False. If set
to True, this stops the port from propagating received topology change notifications and
topology changes to other ports. The default is False.
Migrate:
When operating in RSTP mode, selecting Yes forces the port that has been selected to
transmit RSTP BPDUs.
Port STP:
This drop-down menu allows you to enable or disable STP for the selected group of ports.
The default is Enabled.
Forward BPDU:
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable the flooding of BPDU packets when STP is
disabled.
Edge:
Choosing the True parameter designates the port as an edge port. Edge ports cannot
create loops, however an edge port can lose edge port status if a topology change
creates a potential for a loop. An edge port normally should not receive BPDU packets. If
a BPDU packet is received, it automatically loses edge port status. Choosing the False
parameter indicates that the port does not have edge port status. Alternatively, the Auto
option is available.
Restricted Role:
Use the drop-down menu to toggle Restricted Role between True and False. If set to
True, the port will never be selected to be the Root port. The default is False.
Hello Time (sec):
This is a per-Bridge parameter in RSTP, but it becomes a per-Port parameter in MSTP.
The default value is 2 seconds.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
MST Configuration Identification
This window allows the user to configure a MSTI instance on the Switch. These settings will uniquely identify a
multiple spanning tree instance set on the Switch. The Switch initially possesses one CIST, or Common Internal Spanning Tree, of which the user may modify the parameters for but cannot change the MSTI ID for, and cannot be
deleted.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Spanning Tree > MST Configuration Identification, as shown
below:
Figure 5–35 MST Configuration Identification Window
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Configuration Name:
This name uniquely identifies the MSTI (Multiple Spanning Tree Instance). If a
Configuration Name is not set, this field will show the MAC address to the device running
MSTP.
Revision Level (065535):
This value, along with the Configuration Name, identifies the MSTP region configured on
the Switch.
MSTI ID:
Enter a number between 1 and 15 to set a new MSTI on the Switch.
Type:
This field allows the user to choose a desired method for altering the MSTI settings. The
user has two choices:
Add VID - Select this parameter to add VIDs to the MSTI ID, in conjunction with the VID
List parameter.
Remove VID - Select this parameter to remove VIDs from the MSTI ID, in conjunction with
the VID List parameter.
VID List (1-4094):
This field is used to specify the VID range from configured VLANs set on the Switch.
Supported VIDs on the Switch range from ID number 1 to 4094.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
STP Instance Settings
This window displays MSTIs currently set on the Switch and allows users to change the Priority of the MSTIs.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Spanning Tree > STP Instance Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–36 STP Instance Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MSTI ID:
Enter the MSTI ID in this field. An entry of 0 denotes the CIST (default MSTI).
Priority:
Enter the priority in this field. The available range of values is from 0 to 61440.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
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Click the View button to display the information of the specific entry.
MSTP Port Information
This window displays the current MSTI configuration information and can be used to update the port configuration for
an MSTI ID. If a loop occurs, the MSTP function will use the port priority to select an interface to put into the
forwarding state. Set a higher priority value for interfaces to be selected for forwarding first. In instances where the
priority value is identical, the MSTP function will implement the lowest MAC address into the forwarding state and
other interfaces will be blocked. Remember that lower priority values mean higher priorities for forwarding packets.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Spanning Tree > MSTP Port Information, as shown below:
Figure 5–37 MSTP Port Information Window
To view the MSTI settings for a particular port, use the drop-down menu to select the Port number. To modify the
settings for a particular MSTI instance, enter a value in the Instance ID field, an Internal Path Cost, and use the dropdown menu to select a Priority.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Instance ID:
The MSTI ID of the instance to be configured. Enter a value between 0 and 15. An entry
of 0 in this field denotes the CIST (default MSTI).
Internal Path Cost:
This parameter is set to represent the relative cost of forwarding packets to specified
ports when an interface is selected within an STP instance. Selecting this parameter with
a value in the range of 1 to 200000000 will set the quickest route when a loop occurs. A
lower Internal cost represents a quicker transmission. Selecting 0 (zero) for this
parameter will set the quickest route automatically and optimally for an interface.
Priority:
Enter a value between 0 and 240 to set the priority for the port interface. A higher priority
will designate the interface to forward packets first. A lower number denotes a higher
priority.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
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Link Aggregation
Understanding Port Trunk Groups
Port trunk groups are used to combine a number of
ports together to make a single high-bandwidth data
pipeline. The Switch supports up to fourteen port trunk
groups with two to eight ports in each group. A potential
bit rate of 800 Mbps can be achieved.
The Switch treats all ports in a trunk group as a single
port. Data transmitted to a specific host (destination
address) will always be transmitted over the same port
in a trunk group. This allows packets in a data stream to
arrive in the same order they were sent.
Link aggregation allows several ports to be grouped
together and to act as a single link. This gives a
bandwidth that is a multiple of a single link's bandwidth.
Link aggregation is most commonly used to link a
bandwidth intensive network device or devices, such as
a server, to the backbone of a network.
The Switch allows the creation of up to fourteen link
aggregation groups, each group consisting of 2 to 8
links (ports). The (optional) Gigabit ports can only
belong to a single link aggregation group.
Figure 5–38 Link Aggregation Example Window
All of the ports in the group must be members of the same VLAN, and their STP status, static multicast, traffic
control; traffic segmentation and 802.1p default priority configurations must be identical. Port locking, port mirroring
and 802.1X must not be enabled on the trunk group. Further, the LACP aggregated links must all be of the same
speed and should be configured as full duplex.
The Master Port of the group is to be configured by the user, and all configuration options, including the VLAN
configuration that can be applied to the Master Port, are applied to the entire link aggregation group.
Load balancing is automatically applied to the ports in the aggregated group, and a link failure within the group
causes the network traffic to be directed to the remaining links in the group.
The Spanning Tree Protocol will treat a link aggregation group as a single link, on the switch level. On the port level,
the STP will use the port parameters of the Master Port in the calculation of port cost and in determining the state of
the link aggregation group. If two redundant link aggregation groups are configured on the Switch, STP will block
one entire group; in the same way STP will block a single port that has a redundant link.
NOTE: If any ports within the trunk group become disconnected, packets intended for the disconnected
port will be load shared among the other linked ports of the link aggregation group.
Port Trunking Settings
On this page the user can configure the port trunk settings for the switch.
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To view the following window, click L2 Features > Link Aggregation > Port Trunking Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–39 Port Trunking Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Algorithm:
This is the traffic hash algorithm among the ports of the link aggregation group. Options to
choose from are MAC Source Dest, IP Source Dest and Lay4 Source Dest.
Group ID (1-14):
Select an ID number for the group, between 1 and 14.
Type:
This pull-down menu allows users to select between Static and LACP (Link Aggregation
Control Protocol). LACP allows for the automatic detection of links in a Port Trunking
Group.
Master Port:
Choose the Master Port for the trunk group using the pull-down menu.
State:
Use the drop-down menu to toggle between Enabled and Disabled. This is used to turn a
port trunking group on or off. This is useful for diagnostics, to quickly isolate a bandwidth
intensive network device or to have an absolute backup aggregation group that is not
under automatic control.
Member Ports:
Choose the members of a trunked group. Up to eight ports per group can be assigned to
a group.
Active Ports:
Shows the ports that are currently forwarding packets.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Clear All button to clear out all the information entered.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
NOTE: The maximum number of ports that can be configured in one Static Trunk or LACP Group are 8
ports.
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LACP Port Settings
In conjunction with the Trunking window, users can create port trunking groups on the Switch. Using the following
window, the user may set which ports will be active and passive in processing and sending LACP control frames.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Link Aggregation > LACP Port Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–40 LACP Port Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port:
The beginning port of a consecutive group of ports may be configured starting with the
selected port.
To Port:
The ending port of a consecutive group of ports may be configured ending with the
selected port.
Activity:
Active - Active LACP ports are capable of processing and sending LACP control frames.
This allows LACP compliant devices to negotiate the aggregated link so the group may be
changed dynamically as needs require. In order to utilize the ability to change an
aggregated port group, that is, to add or subtract ports from the group, at least one of the
participating devices must designate LACP ports as active. Both devices must support
LACP.
Passive - LACP ports that are designated as passive cannot initially send LACP control
frames. In order to allow the linked port group to negotiate adjustments and make
changes dynamically, one end of the connection must have "active" LACP ports (see
above).
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
FDB
Static FDB Settings
Unicast Static FDB Settings
Users can set up static unicast forwarding on the Switch.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > FDB > Static FDB Settings > Unicast Static FDB Settings, as
shown below:
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Figure 5–41 Unicast Static FDB Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name:
The VLAN name of the VLAN on which the associated unicast MAC address resides.
MAC Address:
The MAC address to which packets will be statically forwarded. This must be a unicast
MAC address.
Port/Drop:
Allows the selection of the port number on which the MAC address entered above resides
This option could also drop the MAC address from the unicast static FDB.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Multicast Static FDB Settings
Users can set up static multicast forwarding on the Switch.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > FDB > Static FDB Settings > Multicast Static FDB Settings, as
shown below:
Figure 5–42 Multicast Static FDB Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VID:
The VLAN ID of the VLAN the corresponding MAC address belongs to.
Multicast MAC
Address:
The static destination MAC address of the multicast packets. This must be a multicast
MAC address.
Port:
Allows the selection of ports that will be members of the static multicast group and ports
that are either forbidden from joining dynamically, or that can join the multicast group
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dynamically, using GMRP. The options are:
None - No restrictions on the port dynamically joining the multicast group. When None is
chosen, the port will not be a member of the Static Multicast Group. Click the All button to
select all the ports.
Egress - The port is a static member of the multicast group. Click the All button to select
all the ports.
Click the Clear All button to clear out all the information entered.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specified entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specified entry.
MAC Notification Settings
MAC Notification is used to monitor MAC addresses learned and entered into the forwarding database. This window
allows you to globally set MAC notification on the Switch. Users can set MAC notification for individual ports on the
Switch.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > FDB > MAC Notification Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–43 MAC Notification Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
State:
Enable or disable MAC notification globally on the Switch
Interval:
The time in seconds between notifications. Value range to use is 1 to 2147483647.
History Size:
The maximum number of entries listed in the history log used for notification. Up to 500
entries can be specified.
From Port:
Select a beginning port to enable for MAC notification using the pull-down menu.
To Port:
Select an ending port to enable for MAC notification using the pull-down menu.
State:
Enable MAC Notification for the ports selected using the pull-down menu.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
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MAC Address Aging Time Settings
Users can configure the MAC Address aging time on the Switch.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > FDB > MAC Address Aging Time Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–44 MAC Address Aging Time Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MAC Address Aging
Time (10-1260):
This field specifies the length of time a learned MAC Address will remain in the forwarding
table without being accessed (that is, how long a learned MAC Address is allowed to
remain idle). To change this option, type in a different value representing the MAC
address’ age-out time in seconds. The MAC Address Aging Time can be set to any value
between 10 and 1260 seconds. The default setting is 300 seconds.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
MAC Address Table
This allows the Switch's MAC address forwarding table to be viewed. When the Switch learns an association between
a MAC address, VLAN and a port number, it makes an entry into its forwarding table. These entries are then used to
forward packets through the Switch.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > FDB > MAC Address Table, as shown below:
Figure 5–45 MAC Address Table Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port:
The port to which the MAC address below corresponds.
VLAN Name:
Enter a VLAN Name for the forwarding table to be browsed by.
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MAC Address:
Enter a MAC address for the forwarding table to be browsed by.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Clear Dynamic Entries button to delete all dynamic entries of the address table.
Click the View All Entries button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Clear All Entries button to remove all the entries listed in the table.
Click the Add to Static MAC table button to add the specific entry to the Static MAC table.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
ARP & FDB Table
On this page the user can find the ARP and FDB table parameters.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > FDB > ARP & FDB Table, as shown below:
Figure 5–46 ARP & FDB Table Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port:
Here the user can select the port number to use for this configuration.
MAC Address:
Here the user can enter the MAC address to use for this configuration.
IP Address:
Here the user can enter the IP address the use for this configuration.
Click the Find by Port button to locate a specific entry based on the port number selected.
Click the Find by MAC button to locate a specific entry based on the MAC address entered.
Click the Find by IP Address button to locate a specific entry based on the IP address entered.
Click the View All Entries button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Add to IP MAC Port Binding Table to add the specific entry to the IP MAC Port Binding Table.
L2 Multicast Control
IGMP Proxy
Based on IGMP forwarding, the IGMP proxy runs the host part of IGMP on the upstream and router part of IGMP on
the downstream, and replicates multicast traffic across VLANs on devices such as the edge boxes. It reduces the
number of the IGMP control packets transmitted to the core network.
IGMP Proxy Settings
Users can configure the IGMP proxy state and IGMP proxy upstream interface in this page.
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To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > IGMP Proxy > IGMP Proxy Settings, as
shown below:
Figure 5–47 IGMP Proxy Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IGMP Proxy State:
Here the user can enable or disable the IGMP Proxy Global State.
VLAN Name:
The VLAN name for the interface.
VID:
The VID for the interface.
Source IP Address:
Enter the source IP address of the upstream protocol packet here. If it is not specified, the
zero IP address will be used as the protocol source IP address.
Unsolicited Report
Interval:
The Unsolicited report interval. It is the time between repetitions of the host's initial report
of membership in a group. Default is 10 seconds. If set to 0, it means to send only one
report packet.
Port(s):
Here the user can select the port that will be included in this configuration.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Select All button to select all the ports for configuration.
Click the Clear All button to unselect all the ports for configuration.
IGMP Proxy Downstream Settings
Users can configure the IGMP proxy downstream interface in this page. The IGMP proxy downstream interface must
be an IGMP snooping enabled VLAN.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > IGMP Proxy > IGMP Proxy Downstream
Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–48 IGMP Proxy Downstream Settings Window
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name:
Specify the VLAN Name which belongs to the IGMP proxy downstream interface.
VID List:
Specify a list of VLANs which belong to the IGMP proxy downstream interface.
Downstream Action:
Here the user can Add or Delete a downstream interface.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
IGMP Proxy Group
On this page the user can view the IGMP Proxy Group settings.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > IGMP Proxy > IGMP Proxy Group, as
shown below:
Figure 5–49 IGMP Proxy Group Window
Click the Member Ports link to view the IGMP proxy member port information.
After clicking the Member Ports option, the following window will appear.
Figure 5–50 IGMP Proxy Group Window
IGMP Snooping
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) snooping allows the Switch to recognize IGMP queries and reports sent
between network stations or devices and an IGMP host. When enabled for IGMP snooping, the Switch can open or
close a port to a specific device based on IGMP messages passing through the Switch.
IGMP Snooping Settings
In order to use IGMP Snooping it must first be enabled for the entire Switch under IGMP Global Settings at the top of
the window. You may then fine-tune the settings for each VLAN by clicking the corresponding Edit button. When
enabled for IGMP snooping, the Switch can open or close a port to a specific multicast group member based on IGMP
messages sent from the device to the IGMP host or vice versa. The Switch monitors IGMP messages and
discontinues forwarding multicast packets when there are no longer hosts requesting that they continue.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > IGMP Snooping > IGMP Snooping
Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 5–51 IGMP Snooping Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IGMP Snooping State:
Here the user can enable or disable the IGMP Snooping state.
Max Learning Entry
Value:
Here the user can enter the maximum learning entry value.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Edit button to configure the IGMP Snooping Parameters Settings.
Click the Modify Router Port link to configure the IGMP Snooping Router Port Settings.
After clicking the Edit button, the following page will appear:
Figure 5–52 IGMP Snooping Parameters Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VID:
Specify the name of the VLAN ID.
VLAN Name:
Specify the name of the VLAN for which IGMP snooping querier is to be configured.
Rate Limit:
Here is displayed the rate of IGMP control packets that the switch can process on a
specific port/VLAN. The rate is specified in packet per second. The packets that exceed
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the limited rate will be dropped.
Querier IP:
Displays the querier IP address
Querier Expiry Time:
Displays the querier expiry time.
Query Interval:
Specify the amount of time in seconds between general query transmissions. The default
setting is 125 seconds..
Max Response Time:
Specify the maximum time in seconds to wait for reports from members. The default
setting is 10 seconds.
Robustness Value:
Provides fine-tuning to allow for expected packet loss on a subnet. The value of the
robustness value is used in calculating the following IGMP message intervals: By default,
the robustness variable is set to 2.
Last Member Query
Interval:
Specify the maximum amount of time between group-specific query messages, including
those sent in response to leave-group messages. You might lower this interval to reduce
the amount of time it takes a router to detect the loss of the last member of a group.
Data Drive Group
Expiry Time:
Specify the data driven group lifetime in seconds.
Querier State:
Specify to enable or disable the querier state.
Fast Leave:
Enable or disable the IGMP snooping fast leave function. If enabled, the membership is
immediately removed when the system receive the IGMP leave message.
State:
If the state is enable, it allows the switch to be selected as a IGMP Querier (sends IGMP
query packets). It the state is disabled, then the switch can not play the role as a querier.
NOTE: that if the Layer 3 router connected to the switch provides only the IGMP proxy
function but does not provide the multicast routing function, then this state must be
configured as disabled. Otherwise, if the Layer 3 router is not selected as the querier, it
will not send the IGMP query packet. Since it will not also send the multicast-routing
protocol packet, the port will be timed out as a router port.
Report Suppression:
When enabled, multiple IGMP reports or leave for a specific (S, G) will be integrated into
one report only before sending to the router port.
Data Driven Learning
State:
Specify to enable or disable the data driven learning state.
Data Drive Learning
Aged Out:
Specify to enable or disable the data drive learning aged out option.
Version:
Specify the version of IGMP packet that will be sent by this port. If an IGMP packet
received by the interface has a version higher than the specified version, this packet will
be forwarded from the router ports or VLAN flooding.
Querier Role:
Displays the querier role.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Modify Router Port link, the following page will appear:
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Figure 5–53 IGMP Snooping Router Port Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Static Router Port:
This section is used to designate a range of ports as being connected to multicastenabled routers. This will ensure that all packets with such a router as its destination will
reach the multicast-enabled router regardless of the protocol.
Forbidden Router Port:
This section is used to designate a range of ports as being not connected to multicastenabled routers. This ensures that the forbidden router port will not propagate routing
packets out.
Dynamic Router Port:
Displays router ports that have been dynamically configured.
Ports:
Select the appropriate ports individually to include them in the Router Port configuration.
Click the Select All button to select all the ports for configuration.
Click the Clear All button to unselect all the ports for configuration.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
IGMP Snooping Rate Limit Settings
On this page the user can configure the IGMP snooping rate limit parameters.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > IGMP Snooping > IGMP Snooping Rate
Limit Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 5–54 IGMP Snooping Rate Limit Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port List:
Here the user can enter the port list used for this configuration.
VID List:
Here the user can enter the VID list used for this configuration.
Rate Limit:
Here the user can enter the IGMP snooping rate limit used. By selecting the No Limit
option, the rate limit for the entered port(s) will be ignored.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
IGMP Snooping Static Group Settings
Users can view the Switch’s IGMP Snooping Group Table. IGMP Snooping allows the Switch to read the Multicast
Group IP address and the corresponding MAC address from IGMP packets that pass through the Switch.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > IGMP Snooping > IGMP Snooping Static
Group Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–55 IGMP Snooping Static Group Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
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VLAN Name:
The VLAN Name of the multicast group.
VID List:
The VID List or of the multicast group.
IPv4 Address:
Enter the IPv4 address.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Create button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
After clicking the Edit button, the following page will appear:
Figure 5–56 IGMP Snooping Static Group Settings Window
Click the Select All button to select all the ports for configuration.
Click the Clear All button to unselect all the ports for configuration.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
IGMP Router Port
Users can display which of the Switch’s ports are currently configured as router ports. A router port configured by a
user (using the console or Web-based management interfaces) is displayed as a static router port, designated by S. A
router port that is dynamically configured by the Switch is designated by D, while a Forbidden port is designated by F.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > IGMP Snooping > IGMP Router Port, as
shown below:
Figure 5–57 IGMP Router Port Window
Enter a VID (VLAN ID) in the field at the top of the window.
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Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
NOTE: The abbreviations used on this page are Static Router Port (S), Dynamic Router Port (D) and
Forbidden Router Port (F).
IGMP Snooping Group
Users can view the Switch’s IGMP Snooping Group Table. IGMP Snooping allows the Switch to read the Multicast
Group IP address and the corresponding MAC address from IGMP packets that pass through the Switch.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > IGMP Snooping > IGMP Snooping
Group, as shown below:
Figure 5–58 IGMP Snooping Group Window
The user may search the IGMP Snooping Group Table by either VLAN Name or VID List by entering it in the top left
hand corner and clicking Find.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name:
The VLAN Name of the multicast group.
VID List:
The VLAN ID list of the multicast group.
Port List:
Specifies the port number(s) used to find a multicast group.
Group IPv4 Address:
Enter the IPv4 address.
Data Driven:
If Data Drive is selected, only data driven groups will be displayed.
Click the Clear Data Driven button to delete the specific IGMP snooping group which is learned by the Data Driven
feature of the specified VLAN.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Clear All Data Driven button to delete all IGMP snooping groups which are learned by the Data Driven
feature.
IGMP Snooping Forwarding Table
This page displays the switch’s current IGMP snooping forwarding table. It provides an easy way for user to check the
list of ports that the multicast group comes from and specific sources that it will be forwarded to. The packet comes
from the source VLAN. They will be forwarded to the forwarding VLAN. The IGMP snooping further restricts the
forwarding ports.
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To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > IGMP Snooping > IGMP Snooping
Forwarding Table, as shown below:
Figure 5–59 IGMP Snooping Forwarding Table Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name:
The VLAN Name of the multicast group.
VID List:
The VLAN ID list of the multicast group.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
IGMP Snooping Counter
Users can view the switch’s IGMP Snooping counter table.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > IGMP Snooping > IGMP Snooping
Counter, as shown below:
Figure 5–60 IGMP Snooping Counter Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name:
The VLAN Name of the multicast group.
VID List:
The VLAN ID list of the multicast group.
Port List:
The Port List of the multicast group.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Packet Statistics link to view the IGMP Snooping Counter Table.
After clicking the Packet Statistics link, the following page will appear:
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Figure 5–61 Browse IGMP Snooping Counter Window
Click the Clear Counter button to clear all the information displayed in the fields.
Click the Refresh button to refresh the display table so that new information will appear.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
IGMP Host Table
On this page the user can view the IGMP host table.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > IGMP Snooping > IGMP Host Table, as
shown below:
Figure 5–62 IGMP Host Table Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name:
The VLAN Name of the multicast group.
VID List:
The VLAN ID list of the multicast group.
Port List:
The Port List of the multicast group.
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Group Address:
The Group Address of the multicast group.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
CPU Filter L3 Control Packet Settings
Some Denial of Service (DoS) attacks are preceded by broadcasting bulk network control protocols. By default, the
switch’s CPU will process these protocols and update local databases. However, if hackers send faked or bulk control
packets, switch CPU will overload and will not able to process the normal traffic.
The L3 control packet filtering will force the switch to drop those abnormal control packets received from the ports that
shouldn’t have them. (eg, UNI ports)
Users can enable or disable the port state for the layer 3 control packet filter. If enabled, the layer 3 control packet will
be dropped.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > IGMP Snooping > CPU Filter L3 Control
Packet Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–63 CPU Filter L3 Control Packet Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port – To Port:
Here the user can select the port range to use for the CPU Filter configuration.
State:
Here the user can enable or disable the CPU Filtering.
IGMP Query:
Select this option to include IGMP Query in the CPU Filtering.
DVMRP:
Select this option to include DVMRP in the CPU Filtering.
PIM:
Select this option to include PIM in the CPU Filtering.
OSPF:
Select this option to include OSPF in the CPU Filtering.
RIP:
Select this option to include RIP in the CPU Filtering.
VRRP:
Select this option to include VRRP in the CPU Filtering.
All:
Select this option to include all the information in the CPU Filtering.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
NOTE: It’s only recommended to enable these features when the CPU load is too high. An incorrect
filtering rule might cause the system to behave abnormal.
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MLD Proxy
MLD proxy plays the host role on the upstream interface. It will send MLD report packet to the router port. MLD proxy
plays the router role on the downstream interfaces. It reduces the number of the MLD control packets transmitted to
the core network.
MLD Proxy Settings
Users can configure the MLD proxy state and MLD proxy upstream interface in this page.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > MLD Proxy > MLD Proxy Settings, as
shown below:
Figure 5–64 MLD Proxy Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MLD Proxy State:
Here the user can enable or disable the MLD Proxy Global State.
VLAN Name:
The VLAN name for the interface.
VID:
The VID for the interface.
Source IP Address:
The Source IP of the protocol packet. If it is unspecified, the zero IP will be used.
Unsolicited Report
Interval:
The unsolicited report interval. It is the time between repetitions of the host's initial report
of membership in a group. Default is 10 seconds. If set to 0, it means to send only one
report packet.
Static Router Port:
Select the static router ports that will be included in the configuration.
Dynamic Router Port:
Display a list of ports that are connected to multicast-enabled routers.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Select All button to select all the ports for configuration.
Click the Clear All button to unselect all the ports for configuration.
MLD Proxy Downstream Settings
Users can configure the MLD proxy downstream interface in this page. The MLD proxy downstream interface must be
a MLD snooping enabled VLAN.
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To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > MLD Proxy > MLD Proxy Downstream
Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–65 MLD Proxy Downstream Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name:
The VLAN name for the interface.
VID List:
The VID List for the interface.
Downstream Action:
Here the user can select the appropriate action. Selecting Add will add a downstream
interface. Selecting Delete will remove a downstream interface.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
MLD Proxy Group
On this page the user can view the MLD Proxy Group.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > MLD Proxy > MLD Proxy Group, as
shown below:
Figure 5–66 MLD Proxy Group Window
Click the Member Ports link to view the MLD proxy member port information.
After clicking the Member Ports option, the following window will appear.
Figure 5–67 MLD Proxy Group Window
MLD Snooping
Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) Snooping is an IPv6 function used similarly to IGMP snooping in IPv4. It is used to
discover ports on a VLAN that are requesting multicast data. Instead of flooding all ports on a selected VLAN with
multicast traffic, MLD snooping will only forward multicast data to ports that wish to receive this data through the use
of queries and reports produced by the requesting ports and the source of the multicast traffic.
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MLD snooping is accomplished through the examination of the layer 3 part of an MLD control packet transferred
between end nodes and a MLD router. When the Switch discovers that this route is requesting multicast traffic, it adds
the port directly attached to it into the correct IPv6 multicast table, and begins the process of forwarding multicast
traffic to that port. This entry in the multicast routing table records the port, the VLAN ID, and the associated multicast
IPv6 multicast group address, and then considers this port to be an active listening port. The active listening ports are
the only ones to receive multicast group data.
MLD Control Messages
Three types of messages are transferred between devices using MLD snooping. These three messages are all
defined by four ICMPv6 packet headers, labeled 130, 131, 132, and 143.
1. Multicast Listener Query – Similar to the IGMPv2 Host Membership Query for IPv4, and labeled as 130
in the ICMPv6 packet header, this message is sent by the router to ask if any link is requesting multicast
data. There are two types of MLD query messages emitted by the router. The General Query is used to
advertise all multicast addresses that are ready to send multicast data to all listening ports, and the
Multicast Specific query, which advertises a specific multicast address that is also ready. These two types
of messages are distinguished by a multicast destination address located in the IPv6 header and a
multicast address in the Multicast Listener Query Message.
2. Multicast Listener Report, Version 1 – Comparable to the Host Membership Report in IGMPv2, and
labeled as 131 in the ICMP packet header, this message is sent by the listening port to the Switch stating
that it is interested in receiving multicast data from a multicast address in response to the Multicast
Listener Query message.
3. Multicast Listener Done – Akin to the Leave Group Message in IGMPv2, and labeled as 132 in the
ICMPv6 packet header, this message is sent by the multicast listening port stating that it is no longer
interested in receiving multicast data from a specific multicast group address, therefore stating that it is
“done” with the multicast data from this address. Once this message is received by the Switch, it will no
longer forward multicast traffic from a specific multicast group address to this listening port.
4. Multicast Listener Report, Version 2 - Comparable to the Host Membership Report in IGMPv3, and
labeled as 143 in the ICMP packet header, this message is sent by the listening port to the Switch stating
that it is interested in receiving multicast data from a multicast address in response to the Multicast
Listener Query message.
Data Driven Learning
The Switch allows you to implement data driven learning for MLD snooping groups. If data-driven learning, also known
as dynamic IP multicast learning, is enabled for a VLAN, when the Switch receives IP multicast traffic on the VLAN, an
MLD snooping group is created. Learning of an entry is not activated by MLD membership registration, but activated
by the traffic. For an ordinary MLD snooping entry, the MLD protocol will take care of the aging out of the entry. For a
data-driven entry, the entry can be specified not to age out or to age out by a timer.
When the data driven learning State is enabled, the multicast filtering mode for all ports is ignored. This means
multicast packets will be flooded as a forwarding table.
NOTE: If a data-driven group is created and MLD member ports are learned later, the entry will become
an ordinary MLD snooping entry. In other words, the aging out mechanism will follow the conditions of an
ordinary MLD snooping entry.
Data driven learning is useful on a network which has video cameras connected to a Layer 2 switch that is recording
and sending IP multicast data. The switch needs to forward IP data to a data centre without dropping or flooding any
packets. Since video cameras do not have the capability to run MLD protocols, the IP multicast data will be dropped
with the original MLD snooping function.
MLD Snooping Settings
Users can configure the settings for MLD snooping.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > MLD Snooping > MLD Snooping
Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 5–68 MLD Snooping Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MLD Snooping State:
Here the user can enable or disable the MLD snooping state.
Max Learning Entry
Value:
Here the user can enter the maximum learning entry value.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Edit button to configure the MLD Snooping Parameters Settings for a specific entry.
Click the Modify Router Port link to configure the MLD Snooping Router Port Settings for a specific entry.
After clicking the Edit button, the following page will appear:
Figure 5–69 MLD Snooping Parameters Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Query Interval:
Specifies the amount of time in seconds between general query transmissions. The
default setting is 125 seconds.
Max Response Time:
The maximum time in seconds to wait for reports from listeners. The default setting is
10 seconds.
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Robustness Value:
Provides fine-tuning to allow for expected packet loss on a subnet. The value of the
robustness variable is used in calculating the following MLD message intervals:
•
Group listener interval - Amount of time that must pass before a multicast
router decides there are no more listeners of a group on a network. This
interval is calculated as follows: (robustness variable x query interval) + (1 x
query response interval). The default value is 260 seconds.
•
Other Querier present interval - Amount of time that must pass before a
multicast router decides that there is no longer another multicast router that is
the Querier. This interval is calculated as follows: (robustness variable x query
interval) + (0.5 x query response interval). The default is 255 seconds.
•
Last listener query count - Number of group-specific queries sent before the
router assumes there are no local listeners of a group. The default number is
the value of the robustness variable.
•
By default, the robustness variable is set to 2. You might want to increase this
value if you expect a subnet to be loosely.
Last Listener Query
Interval:
The maximum amount of time between group-specific query messages, including those
sent in response to done-group messages. You might lower this interval to reduce the
amount of time it takes a router to detect the loss of the last listener of a group. This
interval is calculated as follows: (last listener query interval * robustness variable).
Data Driven Group
Expiry Time:
Here the user can enter the data driven group expiry time value.
Querier State:
This allows the switch to be specified as an MLD Querier (sends MLD query packets)
or a Non-Querier (does not send MLD query packets). Set to enable or disable.
Fast Done:
Here the user can enable or disable the fast done feature.
State:
Used to enable or disable MLD snooping for the specified VLAN. This field is Disabled
by default.
Report Suppression:
Here the user can enable or disable the report suppression features. This feature
prevents duplicate reports from being sent to the multicast devices. If you disable MLD
report suppression, all MLD reports are forwarded to the multicast routers.
Data Driven Learning
State:
Enable or disable data driven learning of MLD snooping groups.
Data Driven Learning
Aged Out:
Enable or disable the age out function for data driven entries.
Version:
Specifies the version of MLD packet that will be sent by this port. If a MLD packet
received by the interface has a version higher than the specified version, this packet
will be forwarded from the router ports or VLAN flooding.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Modify Router Port link, the following page will appear:
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Figure 5–70 MLD Snooping Router Port Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Static Router Port:
This section is used to designate a range of ports as being connected to multicastenabled routers. This will ensure that all packets with such a router as its destination will
reach the multicast-enabled router regardless of the protocol.
Forbidden Router Port:
This section is used to designate a range of ports as being not connected to multicastenabled routers. This ensures that the forbidden router port will not propagate routing
packets out.
Dynamic Router Port:
Displays router ports that have been dynamically configured.
Ports:
Select the appropriate ports individually to include them in the Router Port configuration.
Click the Select All button to select all the ports for configuration.
Click the Clear All button to unselect all the ports for configuration.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
MLD Snooping Rate Limit Settings
Users can configure the rate limit of the MLD control packet that the switch can process on a specific port or VLAN in
this page. This configuration is used to limit the maximum packet number within a port or a VLAN per second.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > MLD Snooping > MLD Snooping Rate
Limit Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 5–71 MLD Snooping Rate Limit Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port List:
Enter the Port List here.
VID List:
Enter the VID List value here.
Rate Limit:
Configure the rate limit of MLD control packet that the switch can process on a specific
port/VLAN. The rate is specified in packet per second. The packet that exceeds the
limited rate will be dropped. Selecting the No Limit option lifts the rate limit requirement.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
MLD Snooping Static Group Settings
This page used to configure the MLD snooping multicast group static members.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > MLD Snooping > MLD Snooping Static
Group Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–72 MLD Snooping Static Group Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name:
The name of the VLAN on which the static group resides.
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VID List:
The ID of the VLAN on which the static group resides.
IPv6 Address:
Specifies the multicast group IPv6 address.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Create button to add a static group.
Click the Delete button to delete a static group.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
After clicking the Edit button, the following page will appear:
Figure 5–73 MLD Snooping Static Group Settings Window
Click the Select All button to select all the ports for configuration.
Click the Clear All button to unselect all the ports for configuration.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
MLD Router Port
Users can display which of the Switch’s ports are currently configured as router ports in IPv6. A router port configured
by a user (using the console or Web-based management interfaces) is displayed as a static router port, designated by
S. A router port that is dynamically configured by the Switch is designated by D, while a Forbidden port is designated
by F.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > MLD Snooping > MLD Router Port, as
shown below:
Figure 5–74 MLD Router Port Window
Enter a VID (VLAN ID) in the field at the top of the window.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
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Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
NOTE: The abbreviations used on this page are Static Router Port (S), Dynamic Router Port (D) and
Forbidden Router Port (F).
MLD Snooping Group
Users can view MLD Snooping Groups present on the Switch. MLD Snooping is an IPv6 function comparable to IGMP
Snooping for IPv4.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > MLD Snooping > MLD Snooping Group,
as shown below:
Figure 5–75 MLD Snooping Group Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VID List/VLAN Name:
The VID List or VLAN Name of the multicast group.
Port List:
Specifies the port number(s) used to find a multicast group.
Group IPv6 Address:
Enter the group IPv6 address used here. Select the Data Driven option to enable the
data driven feature for this MLD snooping group.
Data Driven:
If Data Drive is selected, only data driven groups will be displayed.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Clear Data Driven button to delete the specific MLD snooping group which is learned by the Data Driven
feature of the specified VLAN.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Clear All Data Driven button to delete all MLD snooping groups which is learned by the Data Driven feature
of specified VLANs.
MLD Snooping Forwarding Table
This page displays the switch’s current MLD snooping forwarding table. It provides an easy way for user to check the
list of ports that the multicast group comes from and specific sources that it will be forwarded to. The packet comes
from the source VLAN. They will be forwarded to the forwarding VLAN. The MLD snooping further restricts the
forwarding ports.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > MLD Snooping > MLD Snooping
Forwarding Table, as shown below:
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Figure 5–76 MLD Snooping Forwarding Table Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name:
The name of the VLAN for which you want to view MLD snooping forwarding table
information.
VID List:
The ID of the VLAN for which you want to view MLD snooping forwarding table
information.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
MLD Snooping Counter
This page displays the statistics counter for MLD protocol packets that are received by the switch since MLD
Snooping is enabled.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > MLD Snooping > MLD Snooping
Counter, as shown below:
Figure 5–77 MLD Snooping Counter Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name:
Specifies a VLAN name to be displayed.
VID List:
Specifies a list of VLANs to be displayed.
Port List:
Specifies a list of ports to be displayed.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Packet Statistics link to view the MLD Snooping Counter Settings for the specific entry.
After clicking the Packet Statistics link, the following page will appear:
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Figure 5–78 Browse MLD Snooping Counter Window
Click the Clear Counter button to clear all the information displayed in the fields.
Click the Refresh button to refresh the display table so that new information will appear.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
MLD Host Table
This page displays the current host of VLAN, port or group on the switch. The hosts only take effect when fast leave is
enabled. If no parameter is specified, it will display all hosts in the switch.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > MLD Snooping > MLD Host Table, as
shown below:
Figure 5–79 MLD Host Table Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name:
Specifies VLAN name, belong to which hosts information is to be displayed.
VID List:
Specifies VLAN ID, belong to which hosts information is to be displayed.
Port List:
Specifies ports range, belong to which hosts information is to be displayed.
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Group Address:
Specifies the group’s IPv6 address, belong to which hosts information is to be displayed.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Multicast VLAN
In a switching environment, multiple VLANs may exist. Every time a multicast query passes through the Switch, the
switch must forward separate different copies of the data to each VLAN on the system, which, in turn, increases data
traffic and may clog up the traffic path. To lighten the traffic load, multicast VLANs may be incorporated. These
multicast VLANs will allow the Switch to forward this multicast traffic as one copy to recipients of the multicast VLAN,
instead of multiple copies.
Regardless of other normal VLANs that are incorporated on the Switch, users may add any ports to the multicast
VLAN where they wish multicast traffic to be sent. Users are to set up a source port, where the multicast traffic is
entering the switch, and then set the ports where the incoming multicast traffic is to be sent. The source port cannot
be a recipient port and if configured to do so, will cause error messages to be produced by the switch. Once properly
configured, the stream of multicast data will be relayed to the receiver ports in a much more timely and reliable
fashion.
Restrictions and Provisos:
The Multicast VLAN feature of this Switch does have some restrictions and limitations, such as:
1. Multicast VLANs can be implemented on edge and non-edge switches.
2. Member ports and source ports can be used in multiple ISM VLANs. But member ports and source ports
cannot be the same port in a specific ISM VLAN.
3. The Multicast VLAN is exclusive with normal 802.1q VLANs, which means that VLAN IDs (VIDs) and VLAN
Names of 802.1q VLANs and ISM VLANs cannot be the same. Once a VID or VLAN Name is chosen for
any VLAN, it cannot be used for any other VLAN.
4. The normal display of configured VLANs will not display configured Multicast VLANs.
5. Once an ISM VLAN is enabled, the corresponding IGMP snooping state of this VLAN will also be enabled.
Users cannot disable the IGMP feature for an enabled ISM VLAN.
6. One IP multicast address cannot be added to multiple ISM VLANs, yet multiple Ranges can be added to
one ISM VLAN.
IGMP Multicast Group Profile Settings
Users can add a profile to which multicast address reports are to be received on specified ports on the Switch. This
function will therefore limit the number of reports received and the number of multicast groups configured on the
Switch. The user may set an IP Multicast address or range of IP Multicast addresses to accept reports (Permit) or
deny reports (Deny) coming into the specified switch ports.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > Multicast VLAN > IGMP Multicast Group
Profile Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–80 IGMP Multicast Group Profile Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
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Parameter
Description
Profile Name:
Enter a name for the IP Multicast Profile.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Group List link to configure the Multicast Group Profile Address Settings for the specific entry.
After clicking the Group List link, the following page will appear:
Figure 5–81 Multicast Group Profile Multicast Address Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Multicast Address List:
Here the user can enter the multicast address list value.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
IGMP Snooping Multicast VLAN Settings
On this page the user can configure the IGMP snooping multicast VLAN parameters.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > Multicast VLAN > IGMP Snooping
Multicast VLAN Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–82 IGMP Snooping Multicast VLAN Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IGMP Multicast VLAN
Here the user can enable or disable the IGMP Multicast VLAN state.
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State:
IGMP Multicast VLAN
Forward:
Here the user can enable or disable the IGMP Multicast VLAN Forwarding state.
VLAN Name:
Here the user can enter the VLAN Name used.
VID:
Here the user can enter the VID used.
Remap Priority:
0-7 – The remap priority value (0 to 7) to be associated with the data traffic to be
forwarded on the multicast VLAN.
None – If None is specified, the packet’s original priority is used. The default setting is
None.
Replace Priority:
Specify that the packet’s priority will be changed by the switch, based on the remap
priority. This flag will only take effect when the remap priority is set.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Edit button to configure the IGMP Snooping Multicast VLAN Settings for the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Click the Profile List link to configure the IGMP Snooping Multicast VLAN Settings for the specific entry.
After clicking the Edit button, the following page will appear:
Figure 5–83 IGMP Snooping Multicast VLAN Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name:
This option will display the VLAN name of the VLAN configured.
State:
Here the user can enable or disable the state.
Replace Source IP:
With the IGMP snooping function, the IGMP report packet sent by the host will be
forwarded to the source port. Before forwarding of the packet, the source IP address in
the join packet needs to be replaced by this IP address. If none is specified, the source IP
address will be replaced by “0”.
Remap Priority:
0-7 – The remap priority value (0 to 7) to be associated with the data traffic to be
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forwarded on the multicast VLAN.
None – If None is specified, the packet’s original priority is used. The default setting is
None.
Replace Priority:
Specify that the packet’s priority will be changed by the switch, based on the remap
priority. This flag will only take effect when the remap priority is set.
Untagged Member
Ports:
Specify the untagged member port of the multicast VLAN. Click the Select All button to
select all the ports or click the Clear All button to unselect all the ports.
Tagged Member Ports:
Specify the tagged member port of the multicast VLAN. Click the Select All button to
select all the ports or click the Clear All button to unselect all the ports.
Untagged Source
Ports:
Specify the source port or range of source ports as untagged members of the multicast
VLAN. The PVID of the untagged source port is automatically changed to the multicast
VLAN. Source ports must be either tagged or untagged for any single multicast VLAN, i.e.
both types cannot be members of the same multicast VLAN. Click the Select All button to
select all the ports or click the Clear All button to unselect all the ports.
Tagged Source Ports:
Specify the source port or range of source ports as tagged members of the multicast
VLAN. Click the Select All button to select all the ports or click the Clear All button to
unselect all the ports.
Click the Select All button to select all the ports for configuration.
Click the Clear All button to unselect all the ports for configuration.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Profile List link, the following page will appear:
Figure 5–84 IGMP Snooping Multicast VLAN Group List Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VID:
Here the VLAN ID will be displayed.
VLAN Name:
Here the VLAN name will be displayed.
Profile Name:
Here the user can select the IGMP Snooping Multicast VLAN Group Profile name.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Click the Show IGMP Snooping Multicast VLAN Entries link to view the IGMP Snooping Multicast VLAN Settings.
MLD Multicast Group Profile Settings
Users can add, delete, or configure the MLD multicast group profile on this page.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > Multicast VLAN > MLD Multicast Group
Profile Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 5–85 MLD Multicast Group Profile Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile Name:
Here the user can enter the MLD Multicast Group Profile name.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Group List link to configure the Multicast Group Profile Multicast Address Settings for the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
After clicking the Group List link, the following page will appear:
Figure 5–86 Multicast Group Profile Multicast Address Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Multicast Address List
Here the user can enter the multicast address list.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
MLD Snooping Multicast VLAN Settings
Users can add, delete, or configure the MLD snooping multicast VLAN on this page.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > Multicast VLAN > MLD Snooping
Multicast VLAN Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 5–87 MLD Snooping Multicast VLAN Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MLD Multicast VLAN
State:
Here user can enable or disable the MLD multicast VLAN state.
MLD Multicast VLAN
Forward Unmatched:
Here user can enable or disable the MLD multicast VLAN Forward Unmatched state.
VLAN Name:
Here the user can enter the VLAN name used.
VID:
Here the user can enter the VID value used.
Remap Priority:
The user can select this option to enable the Remap Priority feature.
Specify the remap priority (0 to 7) to be associated with the data traffic to be forwarded on
the multicast VLAN. If None is specified, the packet’s original priority will be used. The
default setting is None.
Replace Priority:
Specify that the packet’s priority will be changed by the switch, based on the remap
priority. This flag will only take effect when the remap priority is set.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Edit button to configure the MLD Snooping Multicast VLAN Settings for the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Click the Profile List link to configure the MLD Snooping Multicast VLAN Settings for the specific entry.
After clicking the Edit button, the following page will appear:
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Figure 5–88 MLD Snooping Multicast VLAN Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name:
This option will display the VLAN name of the VLAN configured.
State:
Here the user can enable or disable the state.
Replace Source IP:
With the MLD snooping function, the MLD report packet sent by the host will be forwarded
to the source port. Before forwarding of the packet, the source IP address in the join
packet needs to be replaced by this IP address. If none is specified, the source IP
address will be replaced by “::”.
Remap Priority:
0-7 – The remap priority value (0 to 7) to be associated with the data traffic to be
forwarded on the multicast VLAN.
None – If None is specified, the packet’s original priority is used. The default setting is
None.
Replace Priority:
Specify that the packet’s priority will be changed by the switch, based on the remap
priority. This flag will only take effect when the remap priority is set.
Untagged Member
Ports:
Specify the untagged member port of the multicast VLAN. Click the Select All button to
select all the ports or click the Clear All button to unselect all the ports.
Tagged Member Ports:
Specify the tagged member port of the multicast VLAN. Click the Select All button to
select all the ports or click the Clear All button to unselect all the ports.
Untagged Source
Ports:
Specify the source port or range of source ports as untagged members of the multicast
VLAN. The PVID of the untagged source port is automatically changed to the multicast
VLAN. Source ports must be either tagged or untagged for any single multicast VLAN, i.e.
both types cannot be members of the same multicast VLAN
Tagged Source Ports:
Specify the source port or range of source ports as tagged members of the multicast
VLAN.
Click the Select All button to select all the ports for configuration.
Click the Clear All button to unselect all the ports for configuration.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
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After clicking the Profile List link, the following page will appear:
Figure 5–89 MLD Snooping Multicast VLAN Group List Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VID:
Here the VLAN ID will be displayed.
VLAN Name:
Here the VLAN name will be displayed.
Profile Name:
Here the user can select the MLD Snooping Multicast VLAN Group Profile name.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Click the Show MLD Snooping Multicast VLAN Entries link to view the MLD Snooping Multicast VLAN Settings.
IP Multicast VLAN Replication
IP Multicast VLAN Replication Global Settings
On this page the user can configure the IP multicast VLAN replication parameters.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > IP Multicast VLAN Replication > IP
Multicast VLAN Replication Global Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–90 IP Multicast VLAN Replication Global Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Global State:
Here the user can enable or disable the global state feature.
TTL:
Here the user can select to decrease or no decrease the Time to live (TTL) value in the
packets.
Source MAC Address:
Here the user can select to replace or not to replace the Source MAC Address of the
packet.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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IP Multicast VLAN Replication Settings
On this page the user can add and view the IP multicast VLAN replication table.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > L2 Multicast Control > IP Multicast VLAN Replication > IP
Multicast VLAN Replication Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–91 IP Multicast VLAN Replication Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Entry Name:
Here the user can enter a Multicast VLAN Replication entry name.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Find by Hardware the find an entry based on the hardware.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Edit button under Source to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Edit button under Destination to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
After clicking the Edit button under Source, the following page will appear:
Figure 5–92 IP Multicast VLAN Replication Source Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Entry Name:
Here the IP Multicast VLAN Replication Source entry name will be displayed.
VID / VLAN Name:
Here the user can choose to enter a VLAN Name, VID value or Group value.
Action:
Here the user can select the action to be taken.
Multicast Address List:
Here the user can enter the multicast address list.
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Source Address:
Here the user can enter the source address.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Edit button under Destination, the following page will appear:
Figure 5–93 IP Multicast VLAN Replication Destination Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Entry Name:
Here the IP Multicast VLAN Replication Destination entry name will be displayed.
VID / VLAN Name:
Here the user can choose to enter a VLAN Name, VID value or Group value.
Action:
Here the user can select the action to be taken.
Port List
Here the user can enter the port list.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Multicast Filtering
IPv4 Multicast Filtering
IPv4 Multicast Profile Settings
Users can add a profile to which multicast address(s) reports are to be received on specified ports on the Switch. This
function will therefore limit the number of reports received and the number of multicast groups configured on the
Switch. The user may set an IPv4 Multicast address or range of IPv4 Multicast addresses to accept reports (Permit) or
deny reports (Deny) coming into the specified switch ports.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Multicast Filtering > IPv4 Multicast Filtering > IPv4 Multicast
Profile Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 5–94 IPv4 Multicast Profile Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID:
Enter a Profile ID between 1 and 60.
Profile Name:
Enter a name for the IP Multicast Profile.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Group List link to configure the multicast address group list settings for the specific entry.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
After clicking the Group List link, the following page will appear:
Figure 5–95 Multicast Address Group List Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID:
Here the profile ID will be displayed.
Profile Name:
Here the profile name will be displayed.
Multicast Address List:
Enter the multicast address list here.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
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IPv4 Limited Multicast Range Settings
Users can configure the ports and VLANs on the Switch that will be involved in the Limited IPv4 Multicast Range. The
user can configure the range of multicast ports that will be accepted by the source ports to be forwarded to the
receiver ports.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Multicast Filtering > IPv4 Multicast Filtering > IPv4 Limited
Multicast Range Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–96 IPv4 Limited Multicast Range Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Ports/VID List:
Please select the appropriate port(s) or VLAN IDs used for the configuration here.
Access:
Here the user can assign access permissions to the ports selected. Options listed are
Permit and Deny.
ID/Profile Name:
Here the user can select the profile ID or profile name used and then assign Permit or
Deny access to them.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
IPv4 Max Multicast Group Settings
Users can configure the ports and VLANs on the switch that will be a part of the maximum filter group, up to a
maximum of 1024.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Multicast Filtering > IPv4 Multicast Filtering > IPv4 Max
Multicast Group Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 5–97 IPv4 Max Multicast Group Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Ports/VID List:
Please select the appropriate port(s) or VLAN IDs used for the configuration here.
Max Group:
If the checkbox Infinite is not selected the user can enter a Max Group value in here.
Infinite:
Here the user can enable or disable the use of the Infinite value.
Action:
Here the user can select the appropriate action for this rule. The user can select Drop to
initiate the drop action or the user can select Replace to initiate the replace action.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
IPv6 Multicast Filtering
Users can add a profile to which multicast address(s) reports are to be received on specified ports on the Switch. This
function will therefore limit the number of reports received and the number of multicast groups configured on the
Switch. The user may set an IPv6 Multicast address or range of IPv6 Multicast addresses to accept reports (Permit) or
deny reports (Deny) coming into the specified switch ports.
IPv6 Multicast Profile Settings
Users can add, delete, and configure the IPv6 multicast profile on this page.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Multicast Filtering > IPv6 Multicast Filtering > IPv6 Multicast
Profile Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–98 IPv6 Multicast Profile Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
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Parameter
Description
Profile ID:
Enter a Profile ID between 1 and 60.
Profile Name:
Enter a name for the IP Multicast Profile.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Group List link to configure the multicast address group list settings for the specific entry.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
After clicking the Group List link, the following page will appear:
Figure 5–99 Multicast Address Group List Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID:
Here the profile ID will be displayed.
Profile Name:
Here the profile name will be displayed.
Multicast Address List:
Enter the multicast address list here.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
IPv6 Limited Multicast Range Settings
Users can configure the ports and VLANs on the Switch that will be involved in the Limited IPv6 Multicast Range.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Multicast Filtering > IPv6 Multicast Filtering > IPv6 Limited
Multicast Range Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 5–100 IPv6 Limited Multicast Range Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Ports/VID List:
Please select the appropriate port(s) or VLAN IDs used for the configuration here.
Access:
Here the user can assign access permissions to the ports selected. Options listed are
Permit and Deny.
ID/Profile Name:
Here the user can select the profile ID or profile name used and then assign Permit or
Deny access to them.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
IPv6 Max Multicast Group Settings
Users can configure the ports and VLANs on the switch that will be a part of the maximum filter group, up to a
maximum of 1024.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Multicast Filtering > IPv6 Multicast Filtering > IPv6 Max
Multicast Group Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–101 IPv6 Max Multicast Group Settings Window
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Ports/VID List:
Please select the appropriate port(s) or VLAN IDs used for the configuration here.
Max Group:
If the checkbox Infinite is not selected the user can enter a Max Group value in here.
Infinite:
Here the user can enable or disable the use of the Infinite value.
Action:
Here the user can select the appropriate action for this rule. The user can select Drop to
initiate the drop action or the user can select Replace to initiate the replace action.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
Multicast Filtering Mode
Users can configure the multicast filtering mode.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Multicast Filtering > Multicast Filtering Mode, as shown below:
Figure 5–102 Multicast Filtering Mode Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name/VID List:
The VLAN to which the specified filtering action applies. Tick the All option to apply this
feature to all the VLANs.
Multicast Filtering
Mode:
This drop-down menu allows you to select the action the Switch will take when it receives
a multicast packet that requires forwarding to a port in the specified VLAN.
Forward Unregistered Groups – This will instruct the Switch to forward a multicast packet
whose destination is an unregistered multicast group residing within the range of ports
specified above.
Filter Unregistered Groups – This will instruct the Switch to filter any multicast packets
whose destination is an unregistered multicast group residing within the range of ports
specified above.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
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ERPS Settings
The first industry standard is called ITU-T G.8032 for Ethernet Ring Protection Switching (ERPS). It is achieved by
integrating mature Ethernet operations, administration, and maintenance (OAM) functions and a simple automatic
protection switching (APS) protocol for Ethernet ring networks. ERPS provides sub-50ms protection for Ethernet traffic
in a ring topology. It ensures that there are no loops formed at the Ethernet layer.
One link within a ring will be blocked to avoid Loop (RPL, Ring Protection Link). When the failure happens, protection
switching blocks the failed link and unblocks the RPL. When the failure clears, protection switching blocks the RPL
again and unblocks the link on which the failure is cleared.
G.8032 Terms and Concepts
RPL (Ring Protection Link) – Link designated by mechanism that is blocked during Idle state to prevent loop on
Bridged ring
RPL Owner – Node connected to RPL that blocks traffic on RPL during Idle state and unblocks during Protected state
R-APS (Ring – Automatic Protection Switching) - Protocol messages defined in Y.1731 and G.8032 used to
coordinate the protection actions over the ring through RAPS VLAN (R-APS Channel).
RAPS VLAN (R-APS Channel) – A separate ring-wide VLAN for transmission of R-APS messages
Protected VLAN – The service traffic VLANs for transmission of normal network traffic
This page is used to enable the ERPS function on the switch.
NOTE: STP and LBD should be disabled on the ring ports before enabling ERPS. The ERPS cannot be
enabled before the R-APS VLAN is created, and ring ports, RPL port, RPL owner, are configured. Note
that these parameters cannot be changed when ERPS is enabled.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > ERPS Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–103 ERPS Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
ERPS State
Here the user can enable or disable the ERPS State.
ERPS Log
Here the user can enable or disable the ERPS Log.
ERPS Trap
Here the user can enable or disable the ERPS Trap.
R-APS VLAN (1-4094)
Specifies the VLAN which will be the R-APS VLAN.
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Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Find button to find a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to view all the entries configured.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Click the Detail Information link to view detailed information of the R-APS entry.
Click the Sub-Ring Information link to view the Sub-Ring information of the R-APS entry.
After clicking the Detail Information link, the following window will appear:
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the <<Back button to return to the ERPS settings page.
After click the Edit button, the following window will appear:
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The fields that can be configured or displayed are described below:
Parameter
Description
R-APS VLAN
Display the R-APS VLAN ID.
Ring Status
Tick the check box and use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the specified ring.
Admin West Port
Tick the check box and use the drop-down menu to specify the port as the west ring port
and also the virtual port channel used.
Operational West Port
The operational west port value is displayed.
Admin East Port
Tick the check box and use the drop-down menu to specify the port as the east ring port
and also the virtual port channel used.
Operational East Port
Display the operational east port value.
Admin RPL Port
Tick the check box and use the drop-down menu to specify the RPL port used. Options
to choose from are West Port, East Port, and None.
Operational RPL Port
Display the operational RPL port value.
Admin RPL Owner
Tick the check box and use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the RPL owner
node.
Operational RPL Owner
Display the operational RPL owner value.
Protected VLAN(s)
Tick the check box, click the Add or Delete radio button, and enter the protected VLAN
group.
Ring MEL (0-7)
Tick the check box and enter the ring MEL of the R-APS function. The default ring MEL
is 1.
Holdoff Time (0-10000)
Tick the check box and enter the hold-off time of the R-APS function. The default hold-off
time is 0 milliseconds.
Guard Time (10-2000)
Tick the check box and enter the guard time of the R-APS function. The default guard
time is 500 milliseconds.
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WTR Time (5-12)
Tick the check box and enter the WTR time of the R-APS function.
Revertive
Tick the check box and use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the state of the RAPS revertive option.
Current Ring State
Display the current Ring state.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous window.
After clicking the Sub-Ring Information link, the following window will appear:
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Sub-Ring R-APS VLAN
(1-4094)
Enter the Sub-Ring R-APS VLAN ID used here.
State
Tick the check box and use the drop-down menu to add or delete the ERPS Sub-Ring
state.
TC Propagation State
Tick the check box and use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the TC
Propagation state.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous window.
Local Loopback Port Settings
On this page the user can configure the local loopback port parameters.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > Local Loopback Port Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 5–104 Local Loopback Port Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port – To Port:
Here the user can select the port range to use for this configuration.
Loopback Mode:
Here the user can select the Loopback mode used. Modes to choose from are MAC
Internal, MAC External, PHY Internal and PHY External. When the user chooses to use
the physical (PHY) mode then the user will be able to set the Medium Type.
State:
Here the user can choose to enable or disable the state.
Medium Type:
Here the user can set the medium type to Copper or to Fiber.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
LLDP
The Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) allows stations attached to an IEEE 802 LAN to advertise, to other stations
attached to the same IEEE 802 LAN. The major capabilities provided by this system is that it incorporates the station,
the management address or addresses of the entity or entities that provide management of those capabilities, and the
identification of the station’s point of attachment to the IEEE 802 LAN required by those management entity or entities.
The information distributed via this protocol is stored by its recipients in a standard Management Information Base
(MIB), making it possible for the information to be accessed by a Network Management System (NMS) through a
management protocol such as the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
LLDP
LLDP Global Settings
On this page the user can configure the LLDP global parameters.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > LLDP > LLDP > LLDP Global Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 5–105 LLDP Global Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
LLDP State:
Here the user can enable or disable the LLDP feature.
LLDP Forward
Message:
When LLDP is disabled this function controls the LLDP packet forwarding message based
on individual ports. If LLDP is enabled on a port it will flood the LLDP packet to all ports
that have the same port VLAN and will advertise to other stations attached to the same
IEEE 802 LAN.
Message TX Interval:
This interval controls how often active ports retransmit advertisements to their neighbors.
To change the packet transmission interval, enter a value in seconds (5 to 32768).
Message TX Hold
Multiplier:
This function calculates the Time-to-Live for creating and transmitting the LLDP
advertisements to LLDP neighbors by changing the multiplier used by an LLDP Switch.
When the Time-to-Live for an advertisement expires the advertised data is then deleted
from the neighbor Switch’s MIB.
LLDP ReInit Delay:
The LLDP re-initialization delay interval is the minimum time that an LLDP port will wait
before reinitializing after receiving an LLDP disable command. To change the LLDP re-init
delay, enter a value in seconds (1 to 10).
LLDP TX Delay:
LLDP TX Delay allows the user to change the minimum time delay interval for any LLDP
port which will delay advertising any successive LLDP advertisements due to change in
the LLDP MIB content. To change the LLDP TX Delay, enter a value in seconds (1 to
8192).
LLDP Notification
interval:
LLDP Notification Interval is used to send notifications to configured SNMP trap
receiver(s) when an LLDP change is detected in an advertisement received on the port
from an LLDP neighbor. To set the LLDP Notification Interval, enter a value in seconds (5
to 3600).
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
LLDP Port Settings
On this page the user can configure the LLDP port parameters.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > LLDP > LLDP > LLDP Port Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 5–106 LLDP Port Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port – To Port:
Here the user can select the ports used for this configuration.
Notification:
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable the status of the LLDP notification. This
function controls the SNMP trap however it cannot implement traps on SNMP when the
notification is disabled.
Admin Status:
This function controls the local LLDP agent and allows it to send and receive LLDP
frames on the ports. This option contains TX, RX, TX And RX or Disabled.
TX: the local LLDP agent can only transmit LLDP frames.
RX: the local LLDP agent can only receive LLDP frames.
TX And RX: the local LLDP agent can both transmit and receive LLDP frames.
Disabled: the local LLDP agent can neither transmit nor receive LLDP frames.
The default value is TX And RX.
Subtype:
Here the user can select the type of the IP address information will be sent.
Action:
Here the user can enable or disable the action field.
Address:
Here the user can enter the IP address will that be sent.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
NOTE: The IPv4 or IPv6 address entered here should be an existing LLDP management IP address.
LLDP Management Address List
On this page the user can view the LLDP management address list.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > LLDP > LLDP > LLDP Management Address List, as shown
below:
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Figure 5–107 LLDP Management Address List Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IPv4/IPv6:
Here the user can select either IPv4 or IPv6.
Address:
Enter the management IP address or the IP address of the entity you wish to advertise to
here. The IPv4 address is a management IP address, so the IP information will be sent
with the frame when the management address configuration is enabled.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
LLDP Basic TLVs Settings
TLV stands for Type-length-value, which allows the specific sending information as a TLV element within LLDP
packets. This window is used to enable the settings for the Basic TLVs Settings. An active LLDP port on the Switch
always included mandatory data in its outbound advertisements. There are four optional data types that can be
configured for an individual port or group of ports to exclude one or more of these data types from outbound LLDP
advertisements. The mandatory data type includes four basic types of information (end of LLDPDU TLV, chassis ID
TLV, port ID TLV, and Time to Live TLV). The mandatory data types cannot be disabled. There are also four data
types which can be optionally selected. These include Port Description, System Name, System Description and
System Capability.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > LLDP > LLDP > LLDP Basic TLVs Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–108 LLDP Basic TLVs Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port – To Port:
Here the user can enter the port range to use for this configuration.
Port Description:
Here the user can enable or disable the Port Description option.
System Name:
Here the user can enable or disable the System Name option.
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System Description:
Here the user can enable or disable the System Description option.
System Capabilities:
Here the user can enable or disable the System Capabilities option.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
LLDP Dot1 TLVs Settings
LLDP Dot1 TLVs are organizationally specific TLVs which are defined in IEEE 802.1 and used to configure an
individual port or group of ports to exclude one or more of the IEEE 802.1 organizational port VLAN ID TLV data types
from outbound LLDP advertisements.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > LLDP > LLDP > LLDP Dot1 TLVs Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–109 LLDP Dot1 TLVs Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port – To Port:
Here the user can enter the port range to use for this configuration.
Dot1 TLV PVID:
Here the user can enable or disable and configure the Dot1 TLV PVID option.
Dot1 TLV Protocol
VLAN:
Here the user can enable or disable and configure the Dot1 TLV Protocol VLAN option.
After enabling this option to the user can select to use either VLAN Name, VID List or All
in the next drop-down menu. After selecting this, the user can enter either the VLAN
Name or VID List value in the space provided.
Dot1 TLV VLAN:
Here the user can enable or disable and configure the Dot1 TLV VLAN option. After
enabling this option to the user can select to use either VLAN Name, VID List or All in
the next drop-down menu. After selecting this, the user can enter either the VLAN Name
or VID List value in the space provided.
Dot1 TLV Protocol
Identity:
Here the user can enable or disable and configure the Dot1 TLV Protocol Identity option.
After enabling this option the user can select to either use EAPOL, LACP, GVRP, STP, or
All.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
LLDP Dot3 TLVs Settings
This window is used to configure an individual port or group of ports to exclude one or more IEEE 802.3 organizational
specific TLV data type from outbound LLDP advertisements.
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To view the following window, click L2 Features > LLDP > LLDP > LLDP Dot3 TLVs Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–110 LLDP Dot3 TLVs Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port – To Port:
Here the user can enter the port range to use for this configuration.
MAC / PHY
Configuration Status:
This TLV optional data type indicates that the LLDP agent should transmit the MAC/PHY
configuration/status TLV. This indicates it is possible for two ends of an IEEE 802.3 link to
be configured with different duplex and/or speed settings and still establish some limited
network connectivity. More precisely, the information includes whether the port supports
the auto-negotiation function, whether the function is enabled, whether it has autonegotiated advertised capability, and what is the operational MAU type. The default state
is Disabled.
Link Aggregation:
The Link Aggregation option indicates that LLDP agents should transmit 'Link Aggregation
TLV'. This indicates the current link aggregation status of IEEE 802.3 MACs. More
precisely, the information should include whether the port is capable of doing link
aggregation, whether the port is aggregated in an aggregated link, and what is the
aggregated port ID. The default state is Disabled.
Maximum Frame Size:
The Maximum Frame Size indicates that LLDP agent should transmit 'Maximum-framesize TLV. The default state is Disabled.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
LLDP Statistics System
The LLDP Statistics System page allows you an overview of the neighbor detection activity, LLDP Statistics and the
settings for individual ports on the Switch. Select a Port number and click the Find button to view statistics for a
certain port.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > LLDP > LLDP > LLDP Statistics System, as shown below:
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Figure 5–111 LLDP Statistics System Window
LLDP Local Port Information
The LLDP Local Port Information page displays the information on a per port basis currently available for populating
outbound LLDP advertisements in the local port brief table shown below.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > LLDP > LLDP > LLDP Local Port Information, as shown below:
Figure 5–112 LLDP Local Port Information Window
To view the normal LLDP Local Port information page per port, click the Show Normal button.
To view the brief LLDP Local Port information page per port, click the Show Brief button.
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Figure 5–113 LLDP Local Port Information Window
Select a Port number and click the Find button to locate a specific entry.
To view more details about, for example, the Management Address Count, click on the Show Detail hyperlink.
Figure 5–114 LLDP Local Port Information Window
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
LLDP Remote Port Information
This page displays port information learned from the neighbors. The switch receives packets from a remote station but
is able to store the information as local.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > LLDP > LLDP > LLDP Remote Port Information, as shown
below:
Figure 5–115 LLDP Remote Port Information Window
Select a Port number and click the Find button to locate a specific entry.
To view the normal LLDP Remote Port information page per port, click the Show Normal button.
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Figure 5–116 LLDP Remote Port Information Window
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
LLDP-MED
LLDP-MED (Media-Endpoint-Discovery) extends the LLDP industry standard to support advanced features on the
network edges with specialized capabilities and LLDP-MED standards-based functionality.
LLDP-MED System Settings
On this page the user can configure the fast start repeat count.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > LLDP > LLDP-MED > LLDP-MED System Settings, as shown
below:
Figure 5–117 LLDP-MED System Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
LLDP-MED Log State:
Here the user can enable or disable the LLDP-MED Log State.
Fast Start Repeat
Count:
The repeat count range is from 1 to 10. The default value is 4.
LLDP-MED System
Information:
Here a list of information regarding the LLDP-MED system will be displayed.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
LLDP-MED Port Settings
On this page the user can enable or disable transmit LLDP-MED TLVs. Setting non-supported capability shall have no
functional effect and will result in an inconsistent value error returned to the management application. It effectively
disables LLDP-MED on a per-port basis by disabling transmission of capabilities TLV. In this case the remote table’s
objects in the LLDP-MED MIB corresponding to the respective port will not be populated.
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To view the following window, click L2 Features > LLDP > LLDP-MED > LLDP-MED Port Settings, as shown below:
Figure 5–118 LLDP-MED Port Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port – To Port:
Specified a range of ports to be configured.
NTCS:
Here the user can enable or disable the notification topology change status.
State:
Here the user can enable or disable TLVs.
Capabilities:
This TLV type indicates that LLDP agent should transmit 'LLDP-MED capabilities TLV'.
If user wants to transmit LLDP-MED PDU, this TLV type should be enabled. Otherwise,
this port cannot transmit LLDP-MED PDU.
Network Policy:
This TLV type indicates that LLDP agent should transmit 'LLDP-MED network policy TLV'.
Inventory:
This TLV type indicates that LLDP agent should transmit 'LLDP-MED inventory TLV'.
All:
Select this option to include Capabilities, Network Policy and Inventory in the
configuration.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
LLDP-MED Local Port Information
On this page the LLDP-MED local port information will be displayed per port.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > LLDP > LLDP-MED > LLDP-MED Local Port Information, as
shown below:
Figure 5–119 LLDP-MED Local Port Information Window
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Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
LLDP-MED Remote Port Information
On this page the LLDP-MED Remote Port Information will be displayed.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > LLDP > LLDP-MED > LLDP-MED Remote Port Information, as
shown below:
Figure 5–120 LLDP-MED Remote Port Information Window
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Show Normal button to view the normal layout of the Remote Port Information.
Figure 5–121 LLDP-MED Remote Port Information Window
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
NLB FDB Settings
The Switch supports Network Load Balancing (NLB). This is a MAC forwarding control for supporting the Microsoft
server load balancing application where multiple servers can share the same IP address and MAC address. The
requests from clients will be forwarded to all servers, but will only be processed by one of them. In multicast mode, the
client uses a multicast MAC address as the destination MAC to reach the server. Regardless of the mode, the
destination MAC is the shared MAC. The server uses its own MAC address (rather than the shared MAC) as the
source MAC address of the reply packet. The NLB multicast FDB entry will be mutually exclusive with the L2 multicast
entry.
To view the following window, click L2 Features > NLD FDB Settings, as shown below:
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name
Click the radio button and enter the VLAN name of the NLB multicast FDB entry to be
created.
VID
Click the radio button and enter the VLAN by the VLAN ID.
MAC Address
Enter the MAC address of the NLB multicast FDB entry to be created.
Port
Choose the forwarding ports for the specified NLB multicast FDB entry.
None – The port is not the forwarding port. Click the All button to select all the ports.
Egress - The port is the forwarding port. Click the All button to select all the ports.
Click the Clear All button to clear out all the information entered.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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Chapter 6
L3 Features
IPv4 Static/Default Route Settings
IPv4 Route Table
IPv6 Static/Default Route Settings
IPv6 Route Table
Policy Route Settings
IP Forwarding Table
IP Multicast Forwarding Table
IP Multicast Interface Table
Route Preference Settings
ECMP Algorithm Settings
Route Redistribution Settings
IP Tunnel
OSPF
RIP
IP Multicast Routing Protocol
VRRP
MD5 Settings
IPv4 Static/Default Route Settings
The Switch supports static routing for IPv4 and IPv6 formatted addressing. Users can create up to 256 static route
entries for IPv4 and 128 static route entries for IPv6. For IPv4 static routes, once a static route has been set, the
Switch will send an ARP request packet to the next hop router that has been set by the user. Once an ARP response
has been retrieved by the switch from that next hop, the route becomes enabled. However, if the ARP entry already
exists, an ARP response will not be sent.
The Switch also supports a floating static route, which means that the user may create an alternative static route to a
different next hop. This secondary next hop device route is considered as a backup static route for when the primary
static route is down. If the primary route is lost, the backup route will uplink and its status will become Active.
Entries into the Switch’s forwarding table can be made using both an IP address subnet mask and a gateway.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IPv4 Static/Default Route Settings, as shown below:
Figure 6–1 IPv4 Static/Default Route Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IP Address:
This field allows the entry of an IPv4 address to be assigned to the Static or Default route.
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Netmask:
This field allows the entry of a subnet mask to be applied to the corresponding subnet
mask of the IP address.
Gateway:
This field allows the entry of a Gateway IP Address to be applied to the corresponding
gateway of the IP address.
Metric:
Represents the metric value of the IP interface entered into the table. This field may read
a number between 1 and 65535.
Backup State:
Each IP address can only have one primary route, while other routes should be assigned
to the backup state. When the primary route failed, switch will try the backup routes
according to the order learnt by the routing table until route success. The field represents
the Backup state that the Static and Default Route is configured for.
NULL Interface:
Specify to enable or disable the NULL function for the routes. The null interface provides
an alternative method of filtering traffic. Packets send to null interface will be dropped by
the switch.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete button to remove the specified entry.
IPv4 Route Table
The IPv4 routing table stores all the external routes information of the switch. On this page the user can view all the
external route information on the switch.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IPv4 Route Table, as shown below:
Figure 6–2 IPv4 Route Table Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Network Address:
Specifies the IPv4 network address used for this search. The network address should be
followed by the CIDR notation for the subnet mask used.
IP Address:
Specifies the specific IPv4 address used for this search without the CIDR notation.
RIP:
Specifies to display routes that are related to RIP.
OSPF:
Specifies to display routes that are related to OSPF.
Hardware:
Select the Hardware option to display only the routes that have been written into the chip.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
IPv6 Static/Default Route Settings
A static entry of an IPv6 address can be entered into the Switch’s routing table for IPv6 formatted addresses.
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To view the following window, click L3 Features > IPv6 Static/Default Route Settings, as shown below:
Figure 6–3 IPv6 Static/Default Route Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IPv6 Address/Prefix
Length:
The IPv6 address and corresponding Prefix Length of the IPv6 Static or Default Route
entry.
IP Tunnel Name:
Tick the IP Tunnel option and enter the IP tunnel name used here.
Interface Name:
The IP Interface where the static IPv6 route is created.
Nexthop Address:
The corresponding IPv6 address for the next hop Gateway address in IPv6 format.
Metric:
The metric of the IPv6 interface entered into the table representing the number of routers
between the Switch and the IPv6 address above. Metric values allowed are between 1
and 65535.
Backup State:
Each IP address can only have one primary route, while other routes should be assigned
to the backup state. When the primary route failed, the switch will try the backup routes
according to the order learnt by the routing table until route success. This field represents
the backup state for the IPv6 configured. This field may be Primary or Backup.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
IPv6 Route Table
The IPv6 routing table stores all the external routes information of the switch. On this page the user can view all the
external route information on the switch.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IPv6 Route Table, as shown below:
Figure 6–4 IPv6 Route Table Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
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Parameter
Description
Network Address:
Specifies the IPv6 network address used for this search. The network address should be
followed by the CDIR notation for the subnet mask used.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Policy Route Settings
Policy Based routing is a method used by the Switch to
give specified devices a cleaner path to the Internet.
Used in conjunction with the Access Profile feature, the
Switch will identify traffic originating from a device
using the Access Profile feature and forward it on to a
next hop router that has a more direct connection to
the Internet than the normal routing scheme of your
network.
Take the example adjacent picture. Let’s say that the
PC with IP address 10.1.1.1 belongs to the manager of
a company while the other PCs belong to employees.
The network administrator hopes to circumvent
network traffic by configuring the Policy Routing Switch
to make a more direct connection to the Internet using
a next hop router (10.2.2.2) that is directly attached to
a Gateway router (10.3.3.3), thus totally avoiding the
normal network and its related traffic. To accomplish
this, the user must configure the Access Profile feature
of the Switch to have the PC, with IP address 10.1.1.1
as the Source IP address and the Internet address as
the destination IP address (learned through routing
protocols), along with other pertinent information. Next,
the administrator must configure the Policy Route
window to be enabled for this Access Profile and its
associated rule, and the Next Hop Router’s IP address
(10.2.2.2) must be set. Finally, this Policy Route entry
must be enabled.
Figure 6–5 Policy Base Routing Example Window
Once completed, the Switch will identify the IP address using the Access Profile function, recognize that is has a
Policy Based route, and then forward the information on to the specified next hop router, that will, in turn, relay
packets to the gateway router. Thus, the new, cleaner path to the Internet has been formed.
There are some restrictions and cautions when implementing this feature:
1. The access profile must first be created, along with the accompanying rule. If the administrator attempts to
enable this feature without the access profile, an error message will be produced.
2. If the access profile is configured as Deny, the packet will be dropped and not forwarded to the next hop
destination.
3. If the administrator deletes a rule or profile that is directly linked to a configured policy route, and error
message will be prompted to the administrator.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > Policy Route Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 6–6 Policy Route Settings Window
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
After clicking the Edit button, the following page will appear:
Figure 6–7 Policy Route Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Policy Route Name:
Enter a name of no more than 32 alphanumeric characters that will be used to identify this
policy route.
Profile ID:
Enter the Profile ID number of the Access Profile, previously created, which will be used
to identify packets as following this Policy Route. This access profile, along with the
access rule, must first be constructed before this policy route can be created.
Access ID:
Enter the Access ID number of the Access Rule, previously created, which will be used to
identify packets as following this Policy Route. This access rule, along with the access
profile, must first be constructed before this policy route can be created.
Next Hop IPv4 Address:
This is the IP address of the Next Hop router that will have a direct connection to the
Gateway router connected to the Internet.
State:
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable this Policy Route.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
IP Forwarding Table
The IP forwarding table stores all the direct connected IP information. On this page the user can view all the direct
connected IP information.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IP Forwarding Table, as shown below:
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Figure 6–8 IP Forwarding Table Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IP Address
Enter the IP address of the Interface here.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
IP Multicast Forwarding Table
This window will show current IP multicasting information on the Switch.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IP Multicast Forwarding Table, as shown below:
Figure 6–9 IP Multicast Forwarding Table Window
Enter a Group Address and Network Address, and click Find to search for the information.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
IP Multicast Interface Table
This window displays the current IP multicasting interfaces located on the Switch. To search for a specific entry, enter
a multicast interface name into the Interface Name field and click Find. To search for entries using the same
Multicast Routing, choose Protocol from the drop down list and click Find.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IP Multicast Interface Table, as shown below:
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Figure 6–10 IP Multicast Interface Table Window
Enter an Interface Name, select a Protocol, and click Find to search for the information.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Route Preference Settings
This page is used to configure the route preference settings for this Switch.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > Route Preference Settings, as shown below:
Figure 6–11 Route Preference Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Static:
Configure the preference of static route. The default value is 60.
Default:
Configure the preference of default route. The default value is 1.
RIP:
Configure the preference of RIP route. The default value is 100.
OSPF Intra:
Configure the preference of OSPF intra-area route. The default value is 80.
OSPF Inter:
Configure the preference of OSPF inter-area route. The default value is 90.
OSPF ExtT1:
Configure the preference of OSPF external type-1 route. The default value is 110.
OSPF ExtT2:
Configure the preference of OSPF external type-2 route. The default value is 115.
Local:
Displays the preference of the Local value.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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ECMP Algorithm Settings
This page is used to configure the ECMP OSPF state for this Switch.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > ECMP Algorithm Settings, as shown below:
Figure 6–12 ECMP Algorithm Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
ECMP OSPF State:
Specifies whether the ECMP OSPF State is enable or disabled.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Route Redistribution Settings
This page is used to configure redistribute routing information from one routing protocols to another.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > Route Redistribution Settings, as shown below:
Figure 6–13 Route Redistribution Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Destination Protocol:
Specifies the destination protocol. Options to choose from are RIP and OSPF.
Source Protocol:
Specifies the source protocol. Options to choose from are RIP, OSPF, Static and Local.
Type:
Specifies the type of route to be redistributed. Options to choose from are All, Internal,
External, Ext Type1, Ext Type2, Inter-E1 and Inter-E2. To redistribute all types of route
select the All option.
Metric:
Specifies the metric value for the redistributed routes.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specified entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specified entry.
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IP Tunnel
IP Tunnel Settings
This window is used to configure IP Tunnel Settings.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IP Tunnel > IP Tunnel Settings, as shown below:
Figure 6–14 IP Tunnel Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Interface Name
Enter the IP tunnel interface name.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Click the Edit button to see the following window.
Figure 6–15 IP Tunnel Settings (Edit) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Interface Admin State
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the interface admin state.
Tunnel Mode
Use the drop-down menu to select the tunnel modes. Available selections are None,
Manual, 6to4, and ISATAP.
IPv6 Address/Prefix
Length
Enter the IPv6 network address.
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Source IP Address
Enter the source IP address.
Destination IP Address
Enter the destination IP address.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous window.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
IP Tunnel GRE Settings
This window is used to configure an existing tunnel as a GRE tunnel (IPv6-in-IPv4) on the Switch. If this tunnel has
been configured in another mode before, the tunnel’s information will still exist in the database. However, whether the
tunnel’s former information is valid or not, it depends on the current mode.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IP Tunnel > IP Tunnel GRE Settings, as shown below:
Figure 6–16 IP Tunnel GRE Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Interface Name
Enter the IP tunnel interface name.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Edit button to see the following window.
Figure 6–17 IP Tunnel GRE Settings (Edit) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Network Address
Enter the IPv4 network address assigned to the GRE tunnel interface. IPv4 processing
will be enabled on the IPv4 tunnel interface when an IPv4 address is configured. This
IPv4 address is not connected with the tunnel source or destination IPv4 address.
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IPv6 Address/Prefix
Length
Enter the IPv6 network address assigned to the GRE tunnel interface. IPv6 processing
will be enabled on the IPv6 tunnel interface when an IPv6 address is configured. This
IPv6 address is not connected with the tunnel source or destination IPv4 address.
Source IPv4 Address
Click the radio button and enter the source IPv4 address of the GRE tunnel interface. It is
used as the source address for packets in the tunnel.
Destination IPv4
Address
Click the radio button and enter the destination IPv4 address of the GRE tunnel interface.
It is used as the destination address for packets in the tunnel.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous window.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
OSPF
The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol uses a link-state algorithm to determine routes to network
destinations. A “link” is an interface on a router and the “state” is a description of that interface and its relationship to
neighboring routers. The state contains information such as the IP address, subnet mask, type of network the
interface is attached to, other routers attached to the network, etc. The collection of link-states is then collected in a
link-state database that is maintained by routers running OSPF.
OSPF specifies how routers will communicate to maintain their link-state database and defines several concepts
about the topology of networks that use OSPF.
To limit the extent of link-state update traffic between routers, OSPF defines the concept of Area. All routers within an
area share the exact same link-state database, and a change to this database once one router triggers an update to
the link-state database of all other routers in that area. Routers that have interfaces connected to more than one area
are called Border Routers and take the responsibility of distributing routing information between areas.
One area is defined as Area 0 or the Backbone. This area is central to the rest of the network in that all other areas
have a connection (through a router) to the backbone. Only routers have connections to the backbone and OSPF is
structured such that routing information changes in other areas will be introduced into the backbone, and then
propagated to the rest of the network.
When constructing a network to use OSPF, it is generally advisable to begin with the backbone (area 0) and work
outward
Link-State Algorithm
An OSPF router uses a link-state algorithm to build a shortest path tree to all destinations known to the router. The
following is a simplified description of the algorithm’s steps:
1. When OSPF is started, or when a change in the routing information changes, the router generates a linkstate advertisement. This advertisement is a specially formatted packet that contains information about all
the link-states on the router.
2. This link-state advertisement is flooded to all routers in the area. Each router that receives the link-state
advertisement will store the advertisement and then forward a copy to other routers.
3. When the link-state database of each router is updated, the individual routers will calculate a Shortest Path
Tree to all destinations  with the individual router as the root. The IP routing table will then be made up of
the destination address, associated cost, and the address of the next hop to reach each destination.
4. Once the link-state databases are updated, Shortest Path Trees calculated, and the IP routing tables
written  if there are no subsequent changes in the OSPF network (such as a network link going down)
there is very little OSPF traffic.
Shortest Path Algorithm
The Shortest Path to a destination is calculated using the Dijkstra algorithm. Each router is placed at the root of a tree
and then calculates the shortest path to each destination based on the cumulative cost to reach that destination over
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multiple possible routes. Each router will then have its own Shortest Path Tree (from the perspective of its location in
the network area) even though every router in the area will have and use the exact same link-state database.
The following sections describe the information used to build the Shortest Path Tree.
OSPF Cost
Each OSPF interface has an associated cost (also called “metric”) that is representative of the overhead required to
send packets over that interface. This cost is inversely proportional to the bandwidth of the interface (i.e. a higher
bandwidth interface has a lower cost). There is then a higher cost (and longer time delays) in sending packets over a
56 Kbps dial-up connection than over a 10 Mbps Ethernet connection. The formula used to calculate the OSPF cost
is as follows:
Cost = 100,000,000 / bandwidth in bps
As an example, the cost of a 10 Mbps Ethernet line will be 10 and the cost to cross a 1.544 Mbps T1 line will be 64.
Shortest Path Tree
To build Router A’s shortest path tree for the network diagramed below, Router A is put at the root of the tree and the
smallest cost link to each destination network is calculated.
Figure 6–18 Constructing a Shortest Path Tree
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Figure 6–19 Constructing a Shortest Path Tree
The diagram above shows the network from the viewpoint of Router A. Router A can reach 192.213.11.0 through
Router B with a cost of 10 + 5 = 15. Router A can reach 222.211.10.0 through Router C with a cost of 10 + 10 = 20.
Router A can also reach 222.211.10.0 through Router B and Router D with a cost of 10 + 5 + 10 = 25, but the cost is
higher than the route through Router C. This higher-cost route will not be included in the Router A’s shortest path tree.
The resulting tree will look like this:
Router A
0
128.213.0.0
10
Router B
10
Router C
10
5
192.213.11.0
222.211.10.0
Figure 6–20 Constructing a Shortest Path Tree - Completed
Note that this shortest path tree is only from the viewpoint of Router A. The cost of the link from Router B to Router A,
for instance is not important to constructing Router A’s shortest path tree, but is very important when Router B is
constructing its shortest path tree.
Note also that directly connected networks are reached at a cost of zero, while other networks are reached at the cost
calculated in the shortest path tree.
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Router A can now build its routing table using the network addresses and costs calculated in building the above
shortest path tree.
Areas and Border Routers
OSPF link-state updates are forwarded to other routers by flooding to all routers on the network. OSPF uses the
concept of areas to define where on the network routers that need to receive particular link-state updates are located.
This helps ensure that routing updates are not flooded throughout the entire network and will reduce the amount of
bandwidth consumed by updating the various router’s routing tables.
Areas establish boundaries beyond which link-state updates do not need to be flooded. So the exchange of link-state
updates and the calculation of the shortest path tree are limited to the area that the router is connected to.
Routers that have connections to more than one area are called Border Routers (BR). The Border Routers have the
responsibility of distributing necessary routing information and changes between areas.
Areas are specific to the router interface. A router that has all of its interfaces in the same area is called an Internal
Router. A router that has interfaces in multiple areas is called a Border Router. Routers that act as gateways to other
networks (possibly using other routing protocols) are called Autonomous System Border Routers (ASBRs).
Link-State Packets
There are a number of different types of link-state packets, four of which are illustrated below:
1. Router Link-State Updates - These describe a router’s links to destinations within an area.
2. Summary Link-State Updates - Issued by Border Routers and describe links to networks outside the area
but within the Autonomous System (AS).
3. Network Link-State Updates - Issued by multi-access areas that have more than one attached router.
One router is elected as the Designated Router (DR) and this router issues the network link-state updates
describing every router on the segment.
4. External Link-State Updates - Issued by an Autonomous System Border Router and describes routes to
destinations outside the AS or a default route to the outside AS.
The format of these link-state updates is described in more detail below.
Router link-state updates are flooded to all routers in the current area. These updates describe the destinations
reachable through all of the router’s interfaces.
Summary link-state updates are generated by Border Routers to distribute routing information about other networks
within the AS. Normally, all Summary link-state updates are forwarded to the backbone (area 0) and are then
forwarded to all other areas in the network. Border Routers also have the responsibility of distributing routing
information from the Autonomous System Border Router in order for routers in the network to get and maintain routes
to other Autonomous Systems.
Network link-state updates are generated by a router elected as the Designated Router on a multi-access segment
(with more than one attached router). These updates describe all of the routers on the segment and their network
connections.
External link-state updates carry routing information to networks outside the Autonomous System. The Autonomous
System Border Router is responsible for generating and distributing these updates.
OSPF Authentication
OSPF packets can be authenticated as coming from trusted routers by the use of predefined passwords. The default
for routers is to use no authentication.
There are two other authentication methods: Simple Password Authentication (key) and Message Digest
authentication (MD-5).
Simple Password Authentication
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A password (or key) can be configured on a per-area basis. Routers in the same area that participate in the routing
domain must be configured with the same key. This method is possibly vulnerable to passive attacks where a link
analyzer is used to obtain the password.
Message Digest Authentication (MD-5)
MD-5 authentication is a cryptographic method. A key and a key-ID are configured on each router. The router then
uses an algorithm to generate a mathematical “message digest” that is derived from the OSPF packet, the key and the
key-ID. This message digest (a number) is then appended to the packet. The key is not exchanged over the wire and
a non-decreasing sequence number is included to prevent replay attacks.
Backbone and Area 0
OSPF limits the number of link-state updates required between routers by defining areas within which a given router
operates. When more than one area is configured, one area is designated as area 0, also called the backbone.
The backbone is at the center of all other areas, all areas of the network have a physical (or virtual) connection to the
backbone through a router. OSPF allows routing information to be distributed by forwarding it into area 0, from which
the information can be forwarded to all other areas (and all other routers) on the network.
In situations where an area is required, but is not possible to provide a physical connection to the backbone, a virtual
link can be configured.
Virtual Links
Virtual links accomplish two purposes:
1. Linking an area that does not have a physical connection to the backbone.
2. Patching the backbone in case there is a discontinuity in area 0.
Areas Not Physically Connected to Area 0
All areas of an OSPF network should have a physical connection to the backbone, but in some cases it is not possible
to physically connect a remote area to the backbone. In these cases, a virtual link is configured to connect the remote
area to the backbone. A virtual path is a logical path between two border routers that have a common area, with one
border router connected to the backbone.
Partitioning the Backbone
OSPF also allows virtual links to be configured to connect the parts of the backbone that are discontinuous. This is the
equivalent to linking different area 0s together using a logical path between each area 0. Virtual links can also be
added for redundancy to protect against a router failure. A virtual link is configured between two border routers that
both have a connection to their respective area 0s.
Neighbors
Routers that are connected to the same area or segment become neighbors in that area. Neighbors are elected via
the Hello protocol. IP multicast is used to send out Hello packets to other routers on the segment. Routers become
neighbors when they see themselves listed in a Hello packet sent by another router on the same segment. In this way,
two-way communication is guaranteed to be possible between any two neighbor routers.
Any two routers must meet the following conditions before they become neighbors:
1. Area ID - Two routers having a common segment  their interfaces have to belong to the same area on
that segment. Of course, the interfaces should belong to the same subnet and have the same subnet
mask.
2. Authentication - OSPF allows for the configuration of a password for a specific area. Two routers on the
same segment and belonging to the same area must also have the same OSPF password before they can
become neighbors.
3. Hello and Dead Intervals - The Hello interval specifies the length of time, in seconds, between the hello
packets that a router sends on an OSPF interface. The dead interval is the number of seconds that a
router’s Hello packets have not been seen before its neighbors declare the OSPF router down. OSPF
routers exchange Hello packets on each segment in order to acknowledge each other’s existence on a
segment and to elect a Designated Router on multi-access segments. OSPF requires these intervals to be
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exactly the same between any two neighbors. If any of these intervals are different, these routers will not
become neighbors on a particular segment.
4. Stub Area Flag - Any two routers also must have the same stub area flag in their Hello packets in order to
become neighbors.
Adjacencies
Adjacent routers go beyond the simple Hello exchange and participate in the link-state database exchange process.
OSPF elects one router as the Designated Router (DR) and a second router as the Backup Designated Router (BDR)
on each multi-access segment (the BDR is a backup in case of a DR failure). All other routers on the segment will
then contact the DR for link-state database updates and exchanges. This limits the bandwidth required for link-state
database updates.
Designated Router Election
The election of the DR and BDR is accomplished using the Hello protocol. The router with the highest OSPF priority
on a given multi-access segment will become the DR for that segment. In case of a tie, the router with the highest
Router ID wins. The default OSPF priority is 1. A priority of zero indicates a router that cannot be elected as the DR.
Building Adjacency
Two routers undergo a multi-step process in building the adjacency relationship. The following is a simplified
description of the steps required:
•
Down - No information has been received from any router on the segment.
•
Attempt - On non-broadcast multi-access networks (such as Frame Relay or X.25), this state indicates
that no recent information has been received from the neighbor. An effort should be made to contact the
neighbor by sending Hello packets at the reduced rate set by the Poll Interval.
•
Init - The interface has detected a Hello packet coming from a neighbor but bi-directional communication
has not yet been established.
•
Two-way - Bi-directional communication with a neighbor has been established. The router has seen its
address in the Hello packets coming from a neighbor. At the end of this stage the DR and BDR election
would have been done. At the end of the Two-way stage, routers will decide whether to proceed in building
an adjacency or not. The decision is based on whether one of the routers is a DR or a BDR or the link is a
point-to-point or virtual link.
•
Exstart - (Exchange Start) Routers establish the initial sequence number that is going to be used in the
information exchange packets. The sequence number insures that routers always get the most recent
information. One router will become the primary and the other will become secondary. The primary router
will poll the secondary for information.
•
Exchange - Routers will describe their entire link-state database by sending database description packets.
•
Loading - The routers are finalizing the information exchange. Routers have link-state request list and a
link-state retransmission list. Any information that looks incomplete or outdated will be put on the request
list. Any update that is sent will be put on the retransmission list until it gets acknowledged.
•
Full - The adjacency is now complete. The neighboring routers are fully adjacent. Adjacent routers will
have the same link-state database.
Adjacencies on Point-to-Point Interfaces
OSPF Routers that are linked using point-to-point interfaces (such as serial links) will always form adjacencies. The
concepts of DR and BDR are unnecessary.
OSPF Packet Formats
All OSPF packet types begin with a standard 24-byte header and there are five packet types. The header is described
first, and each packet type is described in a subsequent section.
All OSPF packets (except for Hello packets) forward link-state advertisements. Link-State Update packets, for
example, flood advertisements throughout the OSPF routing domain.
•
OSPF packet header
•
Hello packet
•
Database Description packet
•
Link-State Request packet
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•
Link-State Update packet
•
Link-State Acknowledgment packet
OSPF Packet Header
Every OSPF packet is preceded by a common 24-byte header. This header contains the information necessary for a
receiving router to determine if the packet should be accepted for further processing.
The format of the OSPP packet header is shown below:
OSPF Packet Header
Type
Version No.
Packet Length
Router ID
Area ID
Checksum
Authentication Type
Authentication
Authentication
Figure 6–21 OSPF Packet Header Format
Parameter
Description
Version No.
The OSPF version number.
Type
The OSPF packet type. The OSPF packet types are as follows: Type Description Hello
Database Description Link-State Request Link-State Update Link-State Acknowledgment.
Packet Length
The length of the packet in bytes. This length includes the 24-byte header.
Router ID
The Router ID of the packet’s source.
Area ID
A 32-bit number identifying the area that this packet belongs to. All OSPF packets are
associated with a single area. Packets traversing a virtual link are assigned the backbone
Area ID of 0.0.0.0
Checksum
A standard IP checksum that includes all of the packet’s contents except for the 64-bit
authentication field.
Authentication Type
The type of authentication to be used for the packet.
Authentication
A 64-bit field used by the authentication scheme.
Hello Packet
Hello packets are OSPF packet type 1. They are sent periodically on all interfaces, including virtual links, in order to
establish and maintain neighbor relationships. In addition, Hello Packets are multicast on those physical networks
having a multicast or broadcast capability, enabling dynamic discovery of neighboring routers.
All routers connected to a common network must agree on certain parameters such as the Network Mask, the Hello
Interval, and the Router Dead Interval. These parameters are included in the hello packets, so that differences can
inhibit the forming of neighbor relationships. A detailed explanation of the receive process for Hello packets is
necessary so that differences cannot inhibit the forming of neighbor relationships.
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The format of the Hello packet is shown below:
Hello Packet
Version No.
1
Packet Length
Router ID
Area ID
Checksum
Authentication Type
Authentication
Authentication
Network Mask
Hello Interval
Options
Router Priority
Router Dead Interval
Designated Router
Backup Designated Router
Neighbor
Figure 6–22 Hello Packet
Parameter
Description
Network Mask
The network mask associated with this interface.
Options
The optional capabilities supported by the router.
Hello Interval
The number of seconds between this router’s Hello packets.
Router Priority
This router’s Router Priority. The Router Priority is used in the election of the DR and
BDR. If this field is set to 0, the router is ineligible to become the DR or the BDR.
Router Dead Interval
The number of seconds that must pass before declaring a silent router as down.
Designated Router
The identity of the DR for this network, in the view of the advertising router. The DR is
identified here by its IP interface address on the network.
Backup Designated
Router
The identity of the Backup Designated Router (BDR) for this network. The BDR is
identified here by its IP interface address on the network. This field is set to 0.0.0.0 if
there is no BDR.
Neighbor
The Router IDs of each router from whom valid Hello packets have been seen within the
Router Dead Interval on the network.
Database Description Packet
Database Description packets are OSPF packet type 2. These packets are exchanged when an adjacency is being
initialized. They describe the contents of the topological database. Multiple packets may be used to describe the
database. For this purpose, a poll-response procedure is used. One of the routers is designated to be master, the
other a slave. The master seconds Database Description packets (polls) that are acknowledged by Database
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Description packets sent by the slave (responses). The responses are linked to the polls via the packets’ DD
sequence numbers.
Database Description Packet
2
Version No.
Packet Length
Router ID
Area ID
Checksum
Authentication Type
Authentication
Authentication
Reserved
I M MS
Reserved
Options
DD Sequence No.
Link-State Advertisement Header ...
Figure 6–23 Database Description Packet
Parameter
Description
Options
The optional capabilities supported by the router.
I-bit
The Initial bit. When set to 1, this packet is the first in the sequence of Database
Description packets.
M-bit
The More bit. When set to 1, this indicates that more Database Description packets will
follow.
MS-bit
The Master Slave bit. When set to 1, this indicates that the router is the master during the
Database Exchange process. A zero indicates the opposite.
DD Sequence Number
User to sequence the collection of Database Description Packets. The initial value
(indicated by the Initial bit being set) should be unique. The DD sequence number then
increments until the complete database description has been sent.
The rest of the packet consists of a list of the topological database’s pieces. Each link state advertisement in the
database is described by its link state advertisement header.
Link-State Request Packet
Link-State Request packets are OSPF packet type 3. After exchanging Database Description packets with a
neighboring router, a router may find that parts of its topological database are out of date. The Link-State Request
packet is used to request the pieces of the neighbor’s database that are more up to date. Multiple Link-State Request
packets may need to be used. The sending of Link-State Request packets is the last step in bringing up an adjacency.
A router that sends a Link-State Request packet has in mind the precise instance of the database pieces it is
requesting, defined by LS sequence number, LS checksum, and LS age, although these fields are not specified in the
Link-State Request packet itself. The router may receive even more recent instances in response.
The format of the Link-State Request packet is shown below:
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Link-State Request Packet
3
Version No.
Packet Length
Router ID
Area ID
Checksum
Authentication Type
Authentication
Authentication
Link-State Type
Link-State ID
Advertising Router
Figure 6–24 Link-State Request Packet
Each advertisement requested is specified by its Link-State Type, Link-State ID, and Advertising Router. This uniquely
identifies the advertisement, but not its instance. Link-State Request packets are understood to be requests for the
most recent instance.
Link-State Update Packet
Link-State Update packets are OSPF packet type 4. These packets implement the flooding of link-state
advertisements. Each Link-State Update packet carries a collection of link-state advertisements one hop further from
its origin. Several link-state advertisements may be included in a single packet.
Link-State Update packets are multicast on those physical networks that support multicast/broadcast. In order to make
the flooding procedure reliable, flooded advertisements are acknowledged in Link-State Acknowledgment packets. If
retransmission of certain advertisements is necessary, the retransmitted advertisements are always carried by unicast
Link-State Update packets.
The format of the Link-State Update packet is shown below:
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Link-State Update Packet
4
Version No.
Packet Length
Router ID
Area ID
Checksum
Authentication Type
Authentication
Authentication
Number of Advertisements
Link-State Advertisements ...
Figure 6–25 Link-State Update Packet
The body of the Link-State Update packet consists of a list of link-state advertisements. Each advertisement begins
with a common 20-byte header, the link-state advertisement header. Otherwise, the format of each of the five types of
link-state advertisements is different.
Link-State Acknowledgment Packet
Link-State Acknowledgment packets are OSPF packet type 5. To make the folding of link-state advertisements
reliable, flooded advertisements are explicitly acknowledged. This acknowledgment is accomplished through the
sending and receiving of Link-State Acknowledgment packets. Multiple link-state advertisements can be
acknowledged in a single Link-State Acknowledgment packet.
Depending on the state of the sending interface and the source of the advertisements being acknowledged, a LinkState Acknowledgment packet is sent either to the multicast address AllSPFRouters, to the multicast address
AllDRouters, or as a unicast packet.
The format of this packet is similar to that of the Data Description packet. The body of both packets is simply a list of
link-state advertisement headers.
The format of the Link-State Acknowledgment packet is shown below:
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Link-State Acknowledgment Packet
Packet Length
5
Version No.
Router ID
Area ID
Checksum
Authentication Type
Authentication
Authentication
Link-State Advertisement Header ...
Figure 6–26 Link State Acknowledge Packet
Each acknowledged link-state advertisement is described by its link-state advertisement header. It contains all the
information required to uniquely identify both the advertisement and the advertisement’s current instance.
Link-State Advertisement Formats
There are five distinct types of link-state advertisements. Each link-state advertisement begins with a standard 20-byte
link-state advertisement header. Succeeding sections then diagram the separate link-state advertisement types.
Each link-state advertisement describes a piece of the OSPF routing domain. Every router originates a router links
advertisement. In addition, whenever the router is elected as the Designated Router, it originates a network links
advertisement. Other types of link-state advertisements may also be originated. The flooding algorithm is reliable,
ensuring that all routers have the same collection of link-state advertisements. The collection of advertisements is
called the link-state (or topological) database.
From the link-state database, each router constructs a shortest path tree with itself as root. This yields a routing table.
There are four types of link state advertisements, each using a common link state header. These are:
1. Router Links Advertisements
2. Network Links Advertisements
3. Summary Link Advertisements
4. Autonomous System Link Advertisements
Link State Advertisement Header
All link state advertisements begin with a common 20-byte header. This header contains enough information to
uniquely identify the advertisements (Link State Type, Link State ID, and Advertising Router). Multiple instances of the
link state advertisement may exist in the routing domain at the same time. It is then necessary to determine which
instance is more recent. This is accomplished by examining the link state age, link state sequence number and link
state checksum fields that are also contained in the link state advertisement header.
The format of the Link State Advertisement Header is shown below:
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Link-State Advertisement Header
Link-State Age
Options
Link-State Type
Link-State ID
Advertising Router
Link-State Sequence Number
Link-State Checksum
Length
Figure 6–27 Link State Advertisement Header
Parameter
Description
Link State Age
The time is seconds since the link state advertisement was originated.
Options
The optional capabilities supported by the described portion of the routing domain.
Link State Type
The type of the link state advertisement. Each link state type has a separate
advertisement format. The link state types are as follows: Router Links, Network Links,
Summary Link (IP Network), Summary Link (ASBR), AS External Link.
Link State ID
This field identifies the portion of the internet environment that is being described by the
advertisement. The contents of this field depend on the advertisement’s Link State Type.
Advertising Router
The Router ID of the router that originated the Link State Advertisement. For example, in
network links advertisements this field is set to the Router ID of the network’s Designated
Router.
Link State Sequence
Number
Detects old or duplicate link state advertisements. Successive instances of a link state
advertisement are given successive Link State Sequence numbers.
Link State Checksum
The Fletcher checksum of the complete contents of the link state advertisement, including
the link state advertisement header by accepting the Link State Age field.
Length
The length in bytes of the link state advertisement. This includes the 20-byte link state
advertisement header.
Router Links Advertisements
Router links advertisements are type 1 link state advertisements. Each router in an area originates a routers links
advertisement. The advertisement describes the state and cost of the router’s links to the area. All of the router’s links
to the area must be described in a single router links advertisement.
The format of the Router Links Advertisement is shown below:
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Routers Links Advertisements
Link-State Age
Options
Link-State Type
Link-State ID
Advertising Router
Link-State Sequence Number
Link-State Checksum
Reserved
V E B
Length
Reserved
Number of Links
Link ID
Link Data
Type
TOS
No. Of TOS
TOS 0 Metric
0
Metric
...
TOS
0
Metric
...
Link ID
Link Data
Figure 6–28 Routers Links Advertisements
In router links advertisements, the Link State ID field is set to the router’s OSPF Router ID. The T-bit is set in the
advertisement’s Option field if and only if the router is able to calculate a separate set of routes for each IP Type of
Service (TOS). Router links advertisements are flooded throughout a single area only.
Parameter
Description
V-bit
When set, the router is an endpoint of an active virtual link that is using the described
area as a Transit area (V is for Virtual link endpoint).
E-bit
When set, the router is an Autonomous System (AS) boundary router (E is for External).
B-bit
When set, the router is an area border router (B is for Border).
Number of Links
The number of router links described by this advertisement. This must be the total
collection of router links to the area.
The following fields are used to describe each router link. Each router link is typed. The Type field indicates the kind of
link being described. It may be a link to a transit network, to another router or to a stub network. The values of all the
other fields describing a router link depend on the link’s Type. For example, each link has an associated 32-bit data
field. For links to stub networks, this field specifies the network’s IP address mask. For other link types, the Link Data
specifies the router’s associated IP interface address.
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Parameter
Description
Type
A quick classification of the router link. One of the following: Type Description: Point-topoint connection to another router. Connection to a transit network. Connection to a stub
network. Virtual link.
Link ID
Identifies the object that this router link connects to. Value depends on the link’s Type.
When connecting to an object that also originates a link state advertisement (i.e. another
router or a transit network) the Link ID is equal to the neighboring advertisement’s Link
State ID. This provides the key for looking up an advertisement in the link state database.
Type Link ID: Neighboring router’s Router ID. IP address of Designated Router. IP
network/subnet number. Neighboring router’s Router ID
Link Data
Contents again depend on the link’s Type field. For connections to stub networks, it
specifies the network’s IP address mask. For unnumbered point-to-point connection, it
specifies the interface’s MIB-II ifIndex value. For other link types it specifies the router’s
associated IP interface address. This latter piece of information is needed during the
routing table build process, when calculating the IP address of the next hop.
No. of TOS
The number of different Type of Service (TOS) metrics given for this link, not counting the
required metric for TOS 0. If no additional TOS metrics are given, this field should be set
to 0.
TOS 0 Metric
The cost of using this router link for TOS 0.
For each link, separate metrics may be specified for each Type of Service (ToS). The metric for ToS 0 must always be
included, and was discussed above. Metrics for non-zero TOS are described below. Note that the cost for non-zero
ToS values that are not specified defaults to the ToS 0 cost. Metrics must be listed in order of increasing TOS
encoding. For example, the metric for ToS 16 must always follow the metric for ToS 8 when both are specified.
Parameter
Description
ToS
IP Type of Service that this metric refers to.
Metric
The cost of using this outbound router link, for traffic of the specified TOS.
Network Links Advertisements
Network links advertisements are Type 2 link state advertisements. A network links advertisement is originated for
each transit network in the area. A transit network is a multi-access network that has more than one attached router.
The network links advertisement is originated by the network’s Designated Router. The advertisement describes all
routers attached to the network, including the Designated Router itself. The advertisement’s Link State ID field lists the
IP interface address of the Designated Router.
The distance from the network to all attached routers is zero, for all ToS. This is why the ToS and metric fields need
not be specified in the network links advertisement.
The format of the Network Links Advertisement is shown below:
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Network Link Advertisements
Link-State Age
2
Options
Link-State ID
Advertising Router
Link-State Sequence Number
Link-State Checksum
Length
Network Mask
Attached Router
Figure 6–29 Network Link Advertisements
Parameter
Description
Network Mask
The IP address mask for the network.
Attached Router
The Router IDs of each of the routers attached to the network. Only those routers that are
fully adjacent to the Designated Router (DR) are listed. The DR includes itself in this list.
Summary Link Advertisements
Summary link advertisements are Type 3 and 4 link state advertisements. These advertisements are originated by
Area Border routers. A separate summary link advertisement is made for each destination known to the router that
belongs to the Autonomous System (AS), yet is outside the area.
Type 3 link state advertisements are used when the destination is an IP network. In this case, the advertisement’s Link
State ID field is an IP network number. When the destination is an AS boundary router, a Type 4 advertisement is
used, and the Link State ID field is the AS boundary router’s OSPF Router ID. Other that the difference in the Link
State ID field, the format of Type 3 and 4 link state advertisements are identical.
Summary Link Advertisements
Link-State Age
2
Options
Link-State ID
Advertising Router
Link-State Sequence Number
Link-State Checksum
Length
Network Mask
TOS
Metric
Figure 6–30 Summary Link Advertisements
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For stub area, Type 3 summary link advertisements can also be used to describe a default route on a per-area basis.
Default summary routes are used in stub area instead of flooding a complete set of external routes. When describing a
default summary route, the advertisement’s Link State ID is always set to the Default Destination  0.0.0.0, and the
Network Mask is set to 0.0.0.0.
Separate costs may be advertised for each IP Type of Service. Note that the cost for ToS 0 must be included, and is
always listed first. If the T-bit is reset in the advertisement’s Option field, only a route for ToS 0 is described by the
advertisement. Otherwise, routes for the other ToS values are also described. If a cost for a certain ToS is not
included, its cost defaults to that specified for ToS 0.
Parameter
Description
Network Mask
For Type 3 link state advertisements, this indicates the destination network’s IP address
mask. For example, when advertising the location of a class A network the value
0xff000000.
ToS
The Type of Service that the following cost is relevant to.
Metric
The cost of this route. Expressed in the same units as the interface costs in the router
links advertisements.
Autonomous Systems External Link Advertisements
Autonomous Systems (AS) link advertisements are Type 5 link state advertisements. These advertisements are
originated by AS boundary routers. A separate advertisement is made for each destination known to the router that is
external to the AS.
AS external link advertisements usually describe a particular external destination. For these advertisements the Link
State ID field specifies an IP network number. AS external link advertisements are also used to describe a default
route. Default routes are used when no specific route exists to the destination. When describing a default route, the
Link State ID is always set with the Default Destination address (0.0.0.0) and the Network Mask is set to 0.0.0.0.
The format of the AS External Link Advertisement is shown below:
AS External Link Advertisements
Link-State Age
5
Options
Link-State ID
Advertising Router
Link-State Sequence Number
Link-State Checksum
Length
Network Mask
E
TOS
Metric
Forwarding Address
External Route Tag
Figure 6–31 AS External Link Advertisements
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Parameter
Description
Network Mask
The IP address mask for the advertised destination.
E-bit
The type of external metric. If the E-bit is set, the metric specified is a Type 2 external
metric. This means the metric is considered larger than any link state path. If the E-bit is
zero, the specified metric is a Type 1 external metric. This means that is comparable
directly to the link state metric.
Forwarding Address
Data traffic for the advertised destination will be forwarded to this address. If the
Forwarding Address is set to 0.0.0.0, data traffic will be forwarded instead to the
advertisement’s originator.
TOS
The Type of Service that the following cost is relevant to.
Metric
The cost of this route. The interpretation of this metric depends on the external type
indication (the E - bit above).
External Route Tag
A 32-bit field attached to each external route. This is not used by the OSPF protocol itself.
Including the NSSA
The NSSA or Not So Stubby Area is a feature that has been added to OSPF so external routes from ASs
(Autonomous Systems) can be imported into the OSPF area. As an extension of stub areas, the NSSA feature uses a
packet translation system used by BRs (Border Routers) to translate outside routes into the OSPF area.
Consider the following example:
Figure 6–32 NSSA Area example
The NSSA ASBR (Not So Stubby Area Autonomous System Border Router) is receiving External Route information
and translating it as an LSA Type-7 packet that will be distributed ONLY to switches within the NSSA (Area 2 in the
example above). For this route’s information to enter another area, the LSA Type-7 packet has to be translated into an
LSA Type-5 packet by the NSSA ABR (Area Border Router) and then is distributed to other switches within the other
OSPF areas (Area 1 and 2 in the example above). Once completed, new routes are learned and new shortest routes
will be determined.
To alleviate any problems with OSPF summary routing due to new routes and packets, all NSSA area border routers
(ABR) must support optional importing of LSA type-3 summary packets into the NSSA.
Type-7 LSA Packets
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Type-7 LSA (Link State Advertisement) packets are
used to import external routes into the NSSA. These
packets can originate from NSSA ASBRs or NSSA
ABRs and are defined by setting the P-Bit in the LSA
type-7 packet header. Each destination network
learned from external routes is converted into Type-7
LSA packets. These packets are specific for NSSA
switches and the route information contained in these
packets cannot leave the area unless translated into
Type-5 LSA packets by Area Border Routers. See the
following table for a better description of the LSA type7 packet seen here.
Figure 6–33 LSA Type-7 Packet
Parameter
Description
Link State Packet
Header
This field will hold information concerning information regarding the LS Checksum, length,
LS sequence number, Advertising Router, Link State ID, LS age, the packet type (Type7), and the options field. The Options byte contains information regarding the N-Bit and
the P-Bit, which will be described later in this section.
Network Mask
The IP address mask for the advertised destination.
E-bit
The type of external metric. If the E-bit is set, the metric specified is a Type 2 external
metric. This means the metric is considered larger than any link state path. If the E-bit is
zero, the specified metric is a Type 1 external metric. This means that is comparable
directly to the link state metric.
Forwarding Address
Data traffic for the advertised destination will be forwarded to this address. If the
Forwarding Address is set to 0.0.0.0, data traffic will be forwarded instead to the
advertisement’s originator.
Yet, if the network between the NSSA ASBR and the adjacent AS is advertised in the
area as an internal OSFP route, this address will be the next hop address. Conversely, if
the network is not advertised as internal, this field should be any of the router’s active
OSPF interfaces.
TOS
The Type of Service that the following cost is relevant to.
Metric
The cost of this route. The interpretation of this metric depends on the external type
indication (the E-bit above).
External Route Tag
A 32-bit field attached to each external route. This is not used by the OSPF protocol itself.
The N-Bit
Contained in the options field of the Link State Packet header, the N-Bit is used to ensure that all members of an
NSSA agree on the area configurations. Used in conjunction with the E-Bit, these two bits represent the flooding
capability of an external LSA. Because type-5 LSAs cannot be flooded into the NSSA, the N-Bit will contain
information for sending and receiving LSA type-7 packets, while the E-bit is to be cleared. An additional check must be
created for the function that accepts these packets to verify these two bits (N and E-Bit). Bits matching the checking
feature will be accepted, while other bit combinations will be dropped.
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The P-Bit
Also included in the Options field of the LSA type-7 packet, the P-Bit (propagate) is used to define whether or not to
translate the LSA type-7 packet into an LSA type-5 packet for distribution outside the NSSA.
LSA Type-7 Packet Features
•
LSA Type-7 address ranges for OSPF areas are defined as a pair, consisting of an IP address and a
mask. The packet will also state whether or not to advertise and it will also contain an external route tag.
•
The NSSA ASBR will translate external routes into type-7 LSAs to be distributed on the NSSA. NSSA
ABRs will optionally translate these type-7 packets into type-5 packets to be distributed among other OSPF
areas. These type-5 packets are indiscernible from other type-5 packets. The NSSA does not support type5 LSAs.
•
Once border routers of the NSSA have finished translating or grouping type-7 LSAs into type-5 LSAs, type5 LSAs should be flushed or reset as a translation or an aggregation of other type-7 LSAs.
•
The forwarding addresses contained in translated type-5 LSAs must be set, with the exception of an LSA
address range match.
OSPFv2
OSPF Global Settings
This page is used to configure the OSPF Global settings for this Switch.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > OSPF > OSPFv2 > OSPF Global Settings, as shown below:
Figure 6–34 OSPF Global Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
OSPF State:
Specifies to enable or disable the OSPF global state.
OSPF Router ID:
A 32-bit number (in the same format as an IP address - xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx) that uniquely
identifies the Switch in the OSPF domain. It is common to assign the highest IP address
assigned to the Switch (router).
Current Router ID:
Displays the OSPF Route ID currently in use by the Switch. This Route ID is displayed as
a convenience to the user when changing the Switch’s OSPF Route ID.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
OSPF Area Settings
This page is used to configure the OSPF Area settings for this Switch. OSPF allows collections of contiguous
networks and hosts to be grouped together. Such a group, together with the routers having interfaces to any one of
the included networks, is called an area.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > OSPF > OSPFv2 > OSPF Area Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 6–35 OSPF Area Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Area ID:
A 32-bit number in the form of an IP address (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx) that uniquely identifies the
OSPF area in the OSPF domain.
Type:
OSPF area operation Normal, Stub, or NSSA.. In some Autonomous Systems, the
majority of the topological database may consist of AS external advertisements. An OSPF
AS external advertisement is usually flooded throughout the entire AS. However, OSPF
allows certain areas to be configured as "stub areas". AS external advertisements are not
flooded into or throughout stub areas. Routing to AS external destinations in these areas
is based on a (per-area) default only. This reduces the topological database size, and
therefore the memory requirements, for a stub area's internal routers.
Translate:
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable the translating of Type-7 LSAs into Type-5
LSAs, so that they can be distributed outside of the NSSA. The default is Disabled. This
field can only be configured if NSSA is chosen in the Type field.
Stub Summary:
Displays whether or not the selected Area will allow Summary Link-State Advertisements
(Summary LSAs) to be imported into the area from other areas.
Metric:
Enter the metric (1 - 65535; 0 for auto cost) of this area. For NSSA areas, the metric field
determines the cost of traffic entering the NSSA area.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the View Detail link to view a display of the OSPF Area settings.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the selected entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the selected entry.
After click the View Detail link, the following page will be displayed.
Figure 6–36 OSPF Area Settings Window
This page is used to display the OSPF Area settings.
Click on the <<Back button to return to the previous window.
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OSPF Interface Settings
This page is used to configure the OSPF Interface settings for this Switch.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > OSPF > OSPFv2 > OSPF Interface Settings, as shown below:
Figure 6–37 OSPF Interface Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Interface Name:
Enter the name of the IP interface here
Click the Find button to find the interface entered.
Click the View All button to view all the interfaces configured on this switch.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the selected entry.
After clicking the Edit button, the following page with be displayed.
Figure 6–38 OSPF Interface Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
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Parameter
Description
Interface Name:
Displays the name of the IP interface.
Priority:
Specifies the priority for the Designated Router election. If a Router Priority of 0 is set, the
Switch cannot be elected as the DR for the network.
Metric:
Specifies the interface metric used.
Authentication:
Select the authentication used. Options to choose from are None, Simple and MD5.
When choosing Simple authentication, a password must be entered. When choosing
MD5 authentication, a Key ID must be entered.
Administrative State:
Specifies whether to enable or disable the administrative state.
Area ID:
Specifies the area to which the interface is assigned. An Area ID is a 32-bit number in the
form of an IP address (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx) that uniquely identifies the OSPF area in the
OSPF domain.
Hello Interval:
Allows the specification of the interval between the transmissions of OSPF Hello packets,
in seconds. The Hello Interval, Dead Interval, Authorization Type, and Authorization Key
should be the same for all routers on the same network.
Dead Interval:
Allows the specification of the length of time between the receipts of Hello packets from a
neighbor router before the selected area declares that router down. The Dead Interval
must be evenly divisible by the Hello Interval.
Passive:
Assign the designated entry to be a passive interface. A passive interface will not
advertise to any other routers than those within its OSPF intranet.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click on the <<Back button to return to the previous window.
OSPF Virtual Link Settings
This page is used to configure the OSPF virtual interface settings for this Switch.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > OSPF > OSPFv2 > OSPF Virtual Link Settings, as shown below:
Figure 6–39 OSPF Virtual Link Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Transit Area ID:
A 32-bit number in the form of an IP address (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx) that uniquely identifies the
OSPF area in the OSPF domain.
Hello Interval:
Allows the specification of the interval between the transmissions of OSPF Hello packets,
in seconds. The Hello Interval, Dead Interval, Authorization Type, and Authorization Key
should be the same for all routers on the same network.
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Authentication:
Select the authentication used. Options to choose from are None, Simple and MD5.
When choosing Simple authentication, a password must be entered. When choosing
MD5 authentication, a Key ID must be entered.
Neighbor Router ID:
The OSPF router ID for the remote area. This is a 32-bit number in the form of an IP
address (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx) that uniquely identifies the remote area’s Area Border Router.
This is the router ID of the neighbor router.
Dead Interval:
Allows the specification of the length of time between the receipts of Hello packets from a
neighbor router before the selected area declares that router down. The Dead Interval
must be evenly divisible by the Hello Interval.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the selected entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the selected entry.
After clicking the Edit button, the following page with be displayed.
Figure 6–40 OSPF Virtual Link Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Transit Area ID:
A 32-bit number in the form of an IP address (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx) that uniquely identifies the
OSPF area in the OSPF domain.
Hello Interval:
Allows the specification of the interval between the transmissions of OSPF Hello packets,
in seconds. The Hello Interval, Dead Interval, Authorization Type, and Authorization Key
should be the same for all routers on the same network.
Authentication:
Select the authentication used. Options to choose from are None, Simple and MD5.
When choosing Simple authentication, a password must be entered. When choosing
MD5 authentication, a Key ID must be entered.
Neighbor Router ID:
The OSPF router ID for the remote area. This is a 32-bit number in the form of an IP
address (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx) that uniquely identifies the remote area’s Area Border Router.
This is the router ID of the neighbor router.
Dead Interval:
Allows the specification of the length of time between the receipts of Hello packets from a
neighbor router before the selected area declares that router down. The Dead Interval
must be evenly divisible by the Hello Interval.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click on the <<Back button to return to the previous window.
OSPF Area Aggregation Settings
This page is used to configure the OSPF area aggregation settings.
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To view the following window, click L3 Features > OSPF > OSPFv2 > OSPF Area Aggregation Settings, as shown
below:
Figure 6–41 OSPF Area Aggregation Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Area ID:
A 32-bit number in the form of an IP address (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx) that uniquely identifies the
OSPF area in the OSPF domain.
IP Address:
The IP address that uniquely identifies the network that corresponds to the OSPF Area.
Network Mask:
The network mask that uniquely identifies the network that corresponds to the OSPF
Area.
LSDB Type:
The type of address aggregation. Options to choose from are NSSA Ext and Summary.
Advertise:
Allows for the advertisement trigger to be enabled or disabled.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the selected entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the selected entry.
OSPF Host Router Settings
This page is used to configure OSPF host route settings.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > OSPF > OSPFv2 > OSPF Host Router Settings, as shown below:
Figure 6–42 OSPF Host Router Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Host Address:
Specifies the host’s IP address used.
Metric:
Enter a metric between 1 and 65535, which will be advertised.
Area ID:
Enter a 32-bit number in the form of an IP address (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx) that uniquely
identifies the OSPF area in the OSPF domain.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the selected entry.
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Click the Delete button to remove the selected entry.
OSPF Default Information Originate Settings
This window will change the status of the originating OSPF default external route.
To view this window, click L3 Features > OSPF > OSPFv2 > OSPF Default Information Originate Settings as
shown below:
Figure 6–43 OSPF Default Information Originate Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Originate
Select the status of the originating default information here. Selecting Default specifies
that the external default route will be originated only when one default route already
exists. Selecting Always specifies that the external default route will be originated,
whether a default route exists or not. Selecting None specifies that the external default
route will never be originated. This is the default option.
Metric Type
Select the type of LSA that contains the default external route imported into OSPF.
Selecting Type-1 specifies that this default external route will be calculated using the
metric by adding the interface cost to the metric entered in the metric field. Selecting
Type-2 specifies that this default external route will be calculated using the metric entered
in the metric field without change. This is the default option.
Metric
Enter the metric value used by the originating default external route here. This value must
be between 1 and 65535.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
OSPF LSDB Table
This page is used to display the OSPF Link State Database (LSDB).
To view the following window, click L3 Features > OSPF > OSPFv2 > OSPF LSDB Table, as shown below:
Figure 6–44 OSPF LSDB Table Window
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Area ID:
Enter a 32-bit number in the form of an IP address (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx) that uniquely
identifies the OSPF area in the OSPF domain.
Advertise Router ID:
Enter the router ID of the advertising router.
LSDB Type:
Specifies the LSDB type to be displayed. Options to choose from are None, RTRLink,
NETLink, Summary, ASSummary, ASExtLink, NSSA Ext and Stub.
Click the Find button to find the specified entry.
Click the View All button to view all the OSPF Link State Database entries.
Click the View Detail link to view the OSPF LSDB details of the specific entry.
After clicking the View Detail link, the following window will appear:
Figure 6–45 OSPF LSDB Table Window (View Detail)
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous window.
OSPF Neighbor Table
This page is used to display OSPF-neighbor information on a per-interface basis.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > OSPF > OSPFv2 > OSPF Neighbor Table, as shown below:
Figure 6–46 OSPF Neighbor Table Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Neighbor IP Address:
Enter the IP address of the neighbor router.
Click the Find button to find the specified entry.
Click the View All button to view all the entries.
OSPF Virtual Neighbor Table
This page is used to display OSPF-neighbor information of OSPF virtual links.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > OSPF > OSPFv2 > OSPF Virtual Neighbor Table, as shown
below:
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Figure 6–47 OSPF Virtual Neighbor Table Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Transit Area ID:
A 32-bit number in the form of an IP address (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx) that uniquely identifies the
OSPF area in the OSPF domain.
Virtual Neighbor Router
ID:
The OSPF router ID for the remote area. This is a 32-bit number in the form of an IP
address (xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx) that uniquely identifies the remote area’s Area Border Router.
Click the Find button to find the specified entry.
Click the View All button to view all the entries.
RIP
The Routing Information Protocol is a distance-vector routing protocol. There are two types of network devices running
RIP - active and passive. Active devices advertise their routes to others through RIP messages, while passive devices
listen to these messages. Both active and passive routers update their routing tables based upon RIP messages that
active routers exchange. Only routers can run RIP in the active mode.
Every 30 seconds, a router running RIP broadcasts a routing update containing a set of pairs of network addresses
and a distance (represented by the number of hops or routers between the advertising router and the remote
network). So, the vector is the network address and the distance is measured by the number of routers between the
local router and the remote network.
RIP measures distance by an integer count of the number of hops from one network to another. A router is one hop
from a directly connected network, two hops from a network that can be reached through a router, etc. The more
routers between a source and a destination, the greater the RIP distance (or hop count).
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There are a few rules to the routing table update process that help to improve performance and stability. A router will
not replace a route with a newly learned one if the new route has the same hop count (sometimes referred to as
‘cost’). So learned routes are retained until a new route with a lower hop count is learned.
When learned routes are entered into the routing table, a timer is started. This timer is restarted every time this route
is advertised. If the route is not advertised for a period of time (usually 180 seconds), the route is removed from the
routing table.
RIP does not have an explicit method to detect routing loops. Many RIP implementations include an authorization
mechanism (a password) to prevent a router from learning erroneous routes from unauthorized routers.
To maximize stability, the hop count RIP uses to measure distance must have a low maximum value. Infinity (that is,
the network is unreachable) is defined as 16 hops. In other words, if a network is more than 16 routers from the
source, the local router will consider the network unreachable.
RIP can also be slow to converge (to remove inconsistent, unreachable or looped routes from the routing table)
because RIP messages propagate relatively slowly through a network.
Slow convergence can be solved by using split horizon update, where a router does not propagate information about a
route back to the interface on which it was received. This reduces the probability of forming transient routing loops.
Hold down can be used to force a router to ignore new route updates for a period of time (usually 60 seconds) after a
new route update has been received. This allows all routers on the network to receive the message.
A router can ‘poison reverse’ a route by adding an infinite (16) hop count to a route’s advertisement. This is usually
used in conjunction with triggered updates, which force a router to send an immediate broadcast when an update of
an unreachable network is received.
RIP Version 1 Message Format
There are two types of RIP messages: routing information messages and information requests. Both types use the
same format.
The Command field specifies an operation according the following table:
Command
Description
1
Request for partial or full routing information.
2
Response containing network-distance pairs from sender’s routing table.
3
Turn on trace mode.
4
Turn off trace mode.
5
Reserved for Sun Microsystems internal use.
9
Update Request.
10
Update Response.
11
Update Acknowledgement
RIP Command Codes
The field VERSION contains the protocol version number (1 in this case), and is used by the receiver to verify which
version of RIP the packet was sent.
RIP 1 Message
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RIP is not limited to TCP/IP. Its address format can support up to 14 octets (when using IP, the remaining 10 octets
must be zeros). Other network protocol suites can be specified in the Family of Source Network field (IP has a value
of 2). This will determine how the address field is interpreted.
RIP specifies that the IP address, 0.0.0.0, denotes a default route.
The distances, measured in router hops are entered in the Distance to Source Network, and Distance to Destination
Network fields.
RIP 1 Route Interpretation
RIP was designed to be used with classed address schemes, and does not include an explicit subnet mask. An
extension to version 1 does allow routers to exchange subnet addresses, but only if the subnet mask used by the
network is the same as the subnet mask used by the address. This means the RIP version 1 cannot be used to
propagate classless addresses.
Routers running RIP version 1 must send different update messages for each IP interface to which it is connected.
Interfaces that use the same subnet mask as the router’s network can contain subnet routes, other interfaces cannot.
The router will then advertise only a single route to the network.
RIP Version 2 Extensions
RIP version 2 includes an explicit subnet mask entry, so RIP version 2 can be used to propagate variable length
subnet addresses or CIDR classless addresses. RIP version 2 also adds an explicit next hop entry, which speeds
convergence and helps prevent the formation of routing loops.
RIP2 Message Format
The message format used with RIP2 is an extension of the RIP1 format. RIP version 2 also adds a 16-bit route tag
that is retained and sent with router updates. It can be used to identify the origin of the route. Because the version
number in RIP2 occupies the same octet as in RIP1, both versions of the protocols can be used on a given router
simultaneously without interference.
RIP Settings
This page is used to configure the RIP settings for one or more IP interfaces.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > RIP > RIP Settings, as shown below:
Figure 6–48 RIP Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
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Parameter
Description
RIP State:
Specifies that the RIP state will be enabled or disabled. If the state is disabled, then RIP
packets will not be either transmitted or received by the interface. The network configured
on this interface will not be in the RIP database.
Interface Name:
Specifies the IP interface name used for this configuration.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Find button to find the specified entry.
Click the View All button to view all the entries.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the selected entry.
After clicking the Edit button, the following page with be displayed.
Figure 6–49 RIP Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Interface Name:
Specifies the IP interface name used for this configuration.
TX Mode:
Specifies the RIP transmission mode. Options to choose from are v1 Only, v1
Compatible and v2 Only. Select Disable to disable this option.
RX Mode:
Specifies the RIP receive mode Options to choose from are v1 Only, v2 Only and v1 or
v2. Select Disable to disable this option.
State:
Specifies that the RIP state will be enabled or disabled. If the state is disabled, then RIP
packets will not be either transmitted or received by the interface. The network configured
on this interface will not be in the RIP database.
Authentication:
Specifies to set the state of authentication. When the authentication state is enabled,
enter the password used in the space provided.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click on the <<Back button to return to the previous window.
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IP Multicast Routing Protocol
IGMP
IGMP Interface Settings
The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) can be configured on the Switch on a per-IP interface basis. Each
IP interface configured on the Switch is displayed in the below IGMP Interface Settings window.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IP Multicast Routing Protocol > IGMP > IGMP Interface
Settings, as shown below:
Figure 6–50 IGMP Interface Settings Window
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Edit button to see the following window.
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Figure 6–51 IGMP Interface Settings (Edit) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Version
Use the drop-down menu to select the IGMP version that will be used to interpret IGMP
queries on the interface.
State
Use the drop-down menu to enables or disables IGMP for the IP interface. The default is
Disabled.
Query Interval (1-31744)
Enter a value between 1 and 31744 seconds, with a default of 125 seconds. This
specifies the length of time between sending IGMP queries.
Max Response Time (125)
Enter a value between 1 and 25 to specify the maximum amount of time allowed before
sending an IGMP response report. The default time is 10 seconds.
Robustness Variable (17)
A tuning variable to allow for subnetworks that are expected to lose a large number of
packets. A value between 1 and 7 can be entered, with larger values being specified for
subnetworks that are expected to lose larger numbers of packets. The default setting is 2.
Last Member Query
Interval (1-25)
Enter a value between 1 and 25 to specify the maximum amount of time between groupspecific query messages, including those sent in response to leave group messages. The
default is 1 second.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous window.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
IGMP Check Subscriber Source Network Settings
This window is used to configure the flag that determines whether or not to check the subscriber source IP when an
IGMP report or leave message is received. When this option is enabled on an interface, any IGMP report or leave
messages received by the interface will be checked to determine whether its source IP is in the same network as the
interface. If the check failed for a received report or leave message, the message won’t be processed by IGMP
protocol. If the check is disabled, the IGMP report or leave message with any source IP will be processed by the IGMP
protocol.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IP Multicast Routing Protocol > IGMP > IGMP Check
Subscriber Source Network Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 6–52 IGMP Check Subscriber Source Network Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Interface Name:
Enter the IP interface name, used for this search, here.
Subscriber Source
Network Check
Click the Edit button and choose to enable or disable the flag that determines whether or
not to check the subscriber source IP when an IGMP report or leave message is received.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the configure entries.
IGMP Group Table
The window is used to display the dynamic IGMP groups on the Switch.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IP Multicast Routing Protocol > IGMP > IGMP Group Table, as
shown below:
Figure 6-53 IGMP Group Table window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Interface Name
Enter the IP interface name used for this configuration.
Multicast Group
Enter the multicast group IP address.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to view all the interfaces configured on this switch.
Click the View Detail link to view more information regarding the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
Click the View Detail link to see the following window.
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Figure 6-54 IGMP Group Detail Information window
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous window.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
IGMP Static Group Settings
This window is used to create an IGMP static group on the switch.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IP Multicast Routing Protocol > IGMP > IGMP Static Group
Settings, as shown below:
Figure 6-55 IGMP Static Group Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Interface
Enter the IP interface on which the IGMP static group resides. The IP interface must be the
primary IP interface.
Multicast Group
Enter the multicast IP address.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete button to remove a specific entry listed.
Click the Find button to find the information entered.
Click the View All button to view all the entries.
DVMRP
The Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP) is a hop-based method of building multicast delivery trees
from multicast sources to all nodes of a network. Because the delivery trees are ‘pruned’ and ‘shortest path’, DVMRP
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is relatively efficient. Because multicast group membership information is forwarded by a distance-vector algorithm,
propagation is slow. DVMRP is optimized for high delay (high latency) relatively low bandwidth networks, and can be
considered as a ‘best-effort’ multicasting protocol.
DVMRP resembles the Routing Information Protocol (RIP), but is extended for multicast delivery. DVMRP builds a
routing table to calculate ‘shortest paths’ back to the source of a multicast message, but defines a ‘route cost’ (similar
to the hop count in RIP) as a relative number that represents the real cost of using this route in the construction of a
multicast delivery tree to be ‘pruned’ - once the delivery tree has been established.
When a sender initiates a multicast, DVMRP initially assumes that all users on the network will want to receive the
multicast message. When an adjacent router receives the message, it checks its routing table to determine the
interface that gives the shortest path (lowest cost) back to the source. If the multicast was received over the shortest
path, then the adjacent router enters the information into its tables and forwards the message. If the message is not
received on the shortest path back to the source, the message is dropped.
Route cost is a relative number that is used by DVMRP to calculate which branches of a multicast delivery tree should
be ‘pruned’. The ‘cost’ is relative to other costs assigned to other DVMRP routes throughout the network.
The higher the route cost, the lower the probability that the current route will be chosen to be an active branch of the
multicast delivery tree (not ‘pruned’) - if there is an alternative route.
DVMRP Interface Settings
This window is used to configure the DVMRP global state and allow the DVMRP to be configured for each IP interface
defined on the Switch. Each IP interface configured on the Switch is displayed in the below DVMRP Interface Settings
window.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IP Multicast Routing Protocol > DVMRP > DVMRP Interface
Settings, as shown below:
Figure 6-56 DVMRP Interface Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
DVMRP State
Click the radio buttons to enable or disable the DVMRP state.
Interface Name
Enter the IP interface name of DVMRP to search for a specific entry. This must be a previously
defined IP interface.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Find button to find the interface entered.
Click the View All button to view all the interfaces configured on this switch.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
DVMRP Routing Table
This window is used to display DVMRP routing table on the Switch.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IP Multicast Routing Protocol > DVMRP > DVMRP Routing
Table, as shown below:
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Figure 6-57 DVMRP Routing Table window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Source IP Address
Enter the IP address of the Source.
Source Netmask
Enter the Netmask of the Source IP address.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to view all the interfaces configured on this switch.
DVMRP Neighbor Table
This window is used to display DVMRP neighbor table on the Switch.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IP Multicast Routing Protocol > DVMRP > DVMRP Neighbor
Table, as shown below:
Figure 6-58 DVMRP Neighbor Table window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Interface Name
Enter the name of the interface.
Source IP Address
Enter the IP address of the Source.
Source Netmask
Enter the Netmask of the Source IP address.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to view all the interfaces configured on this switch.
DVMRP Routing Next Hop Table
This window is used to display DVMRP routing next hop table on the Switch.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IP Multicast Routing Protocol > DVMRP > DVMRP Routing
Next Hop Table, as shown below:
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Figure 6-59 DVMRP Routing Next Hop Table window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Interface Name
Enter the name of the interface.
Source IP Address
Enter the IP address of the Source IP Address.
Source Netmask
Enter the netmask of the Source IP Address.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to view all the interfaces configured on this switch.
PIM
Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) is a family of multicast routing protocols for Internet Protocol (IP) networks that
provide one-to-many and many-to-many distribution of data over a LAN, WAN or the Internet. PIM is protocolindependent as it does not include its own topology discovery mechanism, but uses routing information supplied by
other traditional routing protocols, such as RIP or OSPF. The Switch supports four types of PIM, Dense Mode (PIMDM), Sparse Mode (PIM-SM), PIM Source Specific multicast (PIM-SSM), and Sparse-Dense Mode (PIM-DM-SM).
PIM-SM
Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM) is a multicast routing protocol that can use the underlying
unicast routing information base or a separate multicast-capable routing information base. It builds unidirectional
shared trees rooted at a Rendezvous Point (RP) per group, and optionally creates shortest-path trees per source.
Unlike most multicast routing protocols which flood the network with multicast packets, PIM-SM will forward traffic to
routers who are explicitly a part of the multicast group through the use of a Rendezvous Point (RP). This RP will take
all requests from PIM-SM enabled routers, analyze the information and then returns multicast information it receives
from the source, to requesting routers within its configured network. Through this method, a distribution tree is
created, with the RP as the root. This distribution tree holds all PIM-SM enabled routers within which information
collected from these routers are stored by the RP.
When many routers are a part of a multiple access network, a Designated Router (DR) will be elected. The DR’s
primary function is to send Join/Prune messages to the RP. The router with the highest priority on the LAN will be
selected as the DR. If there is a tie for the highest priority, the router with the higher IP address will be chosen.
The third type of router created in the PIM-SM configuration is the Boot Strap Router (BSR). The goal of the Boot
Strap Router is to collect and relay RP information to PIM-SM enabled routers on the LAN. Although the RP can be
statically set, the BSR mechanism can also determine the RP. Multiple Candidate BSRs (C-BSR) can be set on the
network but only one BSR will be elected to process RP information. If it is not explicitly apparent which C-BSR is to
be the BSR, all C-BSRs will emit Boot Strap Messages (BSM) out on the PIM-SM enabled network to determine which
C-BSR has the higher priority and once determined, will be elected as the BSR. Once determined, the BSR will collect
RP data emanating from candidate RPs on the PIM-SM network, compile it and then send it out on the land using
periodic Boot Strap Messages (BSM). All PIM-SM Routers will get the RP information from the Boot Strap Mechanism
and then store it in their database.
Discovering and Joining the Multicast Group
Although Hello packets discover PIM-SM routers, these routers can only join or be “pruned” from a multicast group
through the use of Join/Prune Messages exchanged between the DR and RP. Join/Prune Messages are packets
relayed between routers that effectively state which interfaces are, or are not to be receiving multicast data. These
messages can be configured for their frequency to be sent out on the network and are only valid to routers if a Hello
packet has first been received. A Hello packet will simply state that the router is present and ready to become a part of
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the RP’s distribution tree. Once a router has accepted a member of the IGMP group and it is PIM-SM enabled, the
interested router will then send an explicit Join/Prune message to the RP, which will in turn route multicast data from
the source to the interested router, resulting in a unidirectional distribution tree for the group. Multicast packets are
then sent out to all nodes on this tree. Once a prune message has been received for a router that is a member of the
RP’s distribution tree, the router will drop the interface from its distribution tree.
Distribution Trees
Two types of distribution trees can exist within the PIM-SM protocol, a Rendezvous-Point Tree (RPT) and a Shortest
Path Tree (SPT). The RP will send out specific multicast data that it receives from the source to all outgoing interfaces
enabled to receive multicast data. Yet, once a router has determined the location of its source, an SPT can be
created, eliminating hops between the source and the destination, such as the RP. This can be configured by the
switch administrator by setting the multicast data rate threshold. Once the threshold has been passed, the data path
will switch to the SPT. Therefore, a closer link can be created between the source and destination, eliminating hops
previously used and shortening the time a multicast packet is sent from the source to its final destination.
Register and Register-stop Messages
Multicast sources do not always join the intended receiver group. The first hop router (DR) can send multicast data
without being the member of a group or having a designated source, which essentially means it has no information
about how to relay this information to the RP distribution tree. This problem is alleviated through Register and
Register-Stop messages. The first multicast packet received by the DR is encapsulated and sent on to the RP, which
in turn removes the encapsulation and sends the packet on down the RP distribution tree. When the route has been
established, a SPT can be created to directly connect routers to the source, or the multicast traffic flow can begin,
traveling from the DR to the RP. When the latter occurs, the same packet may be sent twice, one type encapsulated,
one not. The RP will detect this flaw and then return a Register-stop message to the DR requesting it to discontinue
sending encapsulated packets.
Assert Messages
At times on the PIM-SM enabled network, parallel paths are created from source to receiver, meaning some receivers
will receive the same multicast packets twice. To improve this situation, Assert messages are sent from the receiving
device to both multicast sources to determine which single router will send the receiver the necessary multicast data.
The source with the shortest metric (hop count) will be elected as the primary multicast source. This metric value is
included within the Assert message.
PIM-SSM
The Source Specific Multicast (SSM) feature is an extension of IP multicast where datagram traffic is forwarded to
receivers from only those multicast sources to which the receivers have explicitly joined. For multicast groups in SSM
range, only source-specific multicast distribution trees (no shared trees) are created.
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the address range from 232.0.0.0 to 232.255.255.255
for SSM applications and protocols. The Switch allows SSM configuration for an arbitrary subset of the IP multicast
address range from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255.
PIM-DM
The Protocol Independent Multicast - Dense Mode (PIM-DM) protocol should be used in networks with a low delay
(low latency) and high bandwidth as PIM-DM is optimized to guarantee delivery of multicast packets, not to reduce
overhead.
The PIM-DM multicast routing protocol is assumes that all downstream routers want to receive multicast messages
and relies upon explicit prune messages from downstream routers to remove branches from the multicast delivery tree
that do not contain multicast group members.
PIM-DM has no explicit ‘join’ messages. It relies upon periodic flooding of multicast messages to all interfaces and
then either waiting for a timer to expire (the Join/Prune Interval) or for the downstream routers to transmit explicit
‘prune’ messages indicating that there are no multicast members on their respective branches. PIM-DM then removes
these branches (‘prunes’ them) from the multicast delivery tree.
Because a member of a pruned branch of a multicast delivery tree may want to join a multicast delivery group (at
some point in the future), the protocol periodically removes the ‘prune’ information from its database and floods
multicast messages to all interfaces on that branch. The interval for removing ‘prune’ information is the Join/Prune
Interval.
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PIM-SM-DM
In the PIM-SM, RP is a key point for the first hop of the sender. If the first hop does not have RP information when the
sender sends data out, it will drop the packet and do nothing. Sparse-Dense mode will be useful in this condition. In
Sparse-Dense mode, the packets can be flooded to all the outgoing interfaces and pruning/joining (prune/graft) can be
used to control the outgoing interface list if RP is not found. In other words, the PIM Sparse-Dense mode is treated in
either the sparse mode or dense mode of the operation; it depends on which mode the multicast group operates.
When an interface receives multicast traffic, if there is a known RP for the group, then the current operation mode on
the interface is sparse mode, otherwise the current operation mode on the interface will be dense mode.
PIM for IPv4
PIM Global Settings
This window is used to configure PIM global state and the parameter settings for the PIM distribution tree on the
Switch.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IP Multicast Routing Protocol > PIM > PIM for IPv4 > PIM
Global Settings, as shown below:
Figure 6-60 PIM Global Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
PIM Global State
Click the radio buttons to enable or disable PIM global state.
Register Probe Time
(1-127)
Enter a time to send a NULL register message from the DR to the RP before the Register
Suppression time expires. If a Register Stop message is received by the DR, the Register
Suppression Time will be restarted. If no Register Stop message is received within the
probe time, Register Packets will be resent to the RP. The user may configure a time
between 1 and 127 seconds with a default setting of 5 seconds.
Register Suppression
Time
(3-255)
This field is to be configured for the first hop router from the source. After this router sends
out a Register message to the RP, and the RP replies with a Register stop message, it will
wait for the time configured here to send out another register message to the RP. The user
may set a time between 3 and 255 with a default setting of 60 seconds.
Last Hop SPT
Switchover
The drop-down menu is used by the last hop router to decide whether to receive multicast
data from the shared tree or switch over to the shortest path tree. When the switchover
mode is set to never, the last hope router will always receive multicast data from the shared
tree. When the mode is set to immediately, the last hop router will always receive data from
the shortest path tree.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
PIM Interface Settings
This window is used to configure the settings for the PIM protocol per IP interface.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IP Multicast Routing Protocol > PIM > PIM for IPv4 > PIM
Interface Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 6-61 PIM Interface Settings window
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Edit button to see the following window.
Figure 6-62 PIM Interface Settings (Edit) window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Hello Interval (1-18724)
This field will set the interval time between the sending of Hello Packets from this IP
interface to neighboring routers one hop away. These Hello packets are used to discover
other PIM enabled routers and state their priority as the Designated Router (DR) on the
PIM enabled network. The user may enter an interval time between 1 and 18724 seconds
with a default interval time of 30 seconds.
Join/Prune Interval
(1-18724)
This field will set the interval time between the sending of Join/Prune packets stating
which multicast groups are to join the PIM enabled network and which are to be removed
or “pruned” from that group. The user may enter an interval time between 1 and 18724
seconds with a default interval time of 60 seconds.
DR Priority
(0-4294967294)
Enter the priority of this IP interface to become the Designated Router for the multiple
access network. The user may enter a DR priority between 0 and 4,294,967,294 with a
default setting of 1.
Mode
Use the drop-down menu to select the type of PIM protocol to use, Sparse Mode (SM),
Dense Mode (DM), or Sparse-Dense Mode (SM-DM). The default setting is DM.
State
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable PIM for this IP interface. The default is
Disabled.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous window.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
PIM Candidate BSR Settings
The following windows are used to configure the Candidate Boot Strap Router settings for the switch and the priority
of the selected IP interface to become the Boot Strap Router (BSR) for the PIM enabled network. The Boot Strap
Router holds the information which determines which router on the network is to be elected as the RP for the multicast
group and then to gather and distribute RP information to other PIM-SM enabled routers.
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To view the following window, click L3 Features > IP Multicast Routing Protocol > PIM > PIM for IPv4 > PIM
Candidate BSR Settings, as shown below:
Figure 6-63 PIM Candidate BSR Settings
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Candidate BSR Hash
Mask Len (0-32)
Enter a hash mask length, which will be used with the IP address of the candidate RP
and the multicast group address, to calculate the hash algorithm used by the router to
determine which C-RP on the PIM-SM enabled network will be the RP. The user may
select a length between 0 and 32 with a default setting of 30.
Candidate BSR
Bootstrap Period
(1-255)
Enter a time period between 1 and 255 to determine the interval the Switch will send out
Boot Strap Messages (BSM) to the PIM enabled network. The default setting is 60
seconds.
Interface name
Enter the interface name.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to view all the interfaces configured on this switch.
Click the Edit button to configure the specific BSR priority.
Click the Edit button to see the following window.
Figure 6-64 PIM Candidate BSR Settings (Edit) window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Priority
Enter a value -1 or from 0 to 255. The default value is -1 which means the BSR state is
disabled.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
PIM Candidate RP Settings
The following window is used to set the Parameters for this Switch to become a candidate RP.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IP Multicast Routing Protocol > PIM > PIM for IPv4 > PIM
Candidate RP Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 6-65 PIM Candidate RP Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Candidate RP Hold
Time (0-255)
This field is used to set the time Candidate RP (CRP) advertisements are valid on the
PIM-SM enabled network. If CRP advertisements are not received by the BSR within this
time frame, the CRP is removed from the list of candidates. The user may set a time
between 0 and 255 seconds with a default setting of 150 seconds. An entry of 0 will send
out one advertisement that states to the BSR that it should be immediately removed from
CRP status on the PIM-SM network.
Candidate RP Priority
(0-255)
Enter a priority value to determine which CRP will become the RP for the distribution tree.
This priority value will be included in the router’s CRP advertisements. A lower value
means a higher priority, yet, if there is a tie for the highest priority, the router having the
higher IP address will become the RP. The user may set a priority between 0 and 255
with a default setting of 192.
Candidate RP Wildcard
Prefix Count (0-1)
The user may set the Prefix Count value of the wildcard group address here by choosing
a value between 0 and 1 with a default setting of 0.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of the device to be added as a Candidate RP.
Subnet mask
Enter the corresponding subnet mask of the device to be added as a Candidate RP.
Interface Name
Enter the IP interface where this device is located.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
PIM Static RP Settings
The following window will allow the user to configure and display the parameters for the Switch to become a static RP.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IP Multicast Routing Protocol > PIM > PIM for IPv4 > PIM Static
RP Settings, as shown below:
Figure 6-66 PIM Static RP Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
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Parameter
Description
Group Address
Enter the multicast group address for this Static RP. This address must be a class D
address.
Group Mask
Enter the mask for the multicast group address stated above.
RP Address
Enter the IP address of the Rendezvous Point.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
PIM Register Checksum Settings
This window is used to configure the IP address of the RP, for which the data part will be included when calculating
the checksum for registering packets to the RP. The data part is included when calculating the checksum for a PIM
register message to the RP on the first hop router.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IP Multicast Routing Protocol > PIM > PIM for IPv4 > PIM
Register Checksum Settings, as shown below:
Figure 6-67 PIM Register Checksum Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
RP Address
Enter the IP address of the RP for which the data part will be included when calculating
checksum for registering packets to the RP.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
PIM Neighbor Table
This window is used to display the current PIM neighbor router table.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IP Multicast Routing Protocol > PIM > PIM for IPv4 > PIM
Neighbor Table, as shown below:
Figure 6-68 PIM Neighbor Table window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
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Interface Name
Enter the name of the IP interface for which you want to display the current PIM neighbor
routing table.
Neighbor IP Address
Enter the IP address of the destination.
Neighbor Netmask
Enter the netmask of the destination.
Click the Find button to find the interface entered.
Click the View All button to view all the interfaces configured on this switch.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
PIM Multicast Route Table
This window is used to display the current PIM multicast route table.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IP Multicast Routing Protocol > PIM > PIM for IPv4 > PIM
Multicast Route Table, as shown below:
Figure 6-69 PIM Multicast Route Table window
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
PIM RP-Set Table
This window is used to display a list of all the RP-Set information.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IP Multicast Routing Protocol > PIM > PIM for IPv4 > PIM RPSet Table, as shown below:
Figure 6-70 PIM RP-Set Table window
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
PIM SSM Settings
This window is used to enable the SSM (Source-Specific Multicast) service model in PIM-SM on the Switch. The PIMSSM function will take active only when SSM service model and PIM-SM state both enabled.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > IP Multicast Routing Protocol > PIM > PIM for IPv4 > PIM SSM
Settings, as shown below:
Figure 6-71 PIM SSM Settings window
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
SSM Service Model
State
Click the radio buttons to enable or disable the SSM service model on the Switch.
SSM Group Address
Enter the group address range for the SSM service in IPv4. Tick the Default check box to
indicate that the group address range is 232.0.0.0/8.
SSM Group Mask
Enter the netmask of the SSM group.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
VRRP
VRRP or Virtual Routing Redundancy Protocol is a function on the Switch that dynamically assigns responsibility for a
virtual router to one of the VRRP routers on a LAN. The VRRP router that controls the IP address associated with a
virtual router is called the Master, and will forward packets sent to this IP address. This will allow any Virtual Router IP
address on the LAN to be used as the default first hop router by end hosts. Utilizing VRRP, the administrator can
achieve a higher available default path cost without needing to configure every end host for dynamic routing or routing
discovery protocols.
Statically configured default routes on the LAN are prone to a single point of failure. VRRP is designed to eliminate
these failures by setting an election protocol that will assign a responsibility for a virtual router to one of the VRRP
routers on the LAN. When a virtual router fails, the election protocol will select a virtual router with the highest priority
to be the Master router on the LAN. This retains the link and the connection is kept alive, regardless of the point of
failure.
To configure VRRP for virtual routers on the Switch, an IP interface must be present on the system and it must be a
part of a VLAN. VRRP IP interfaces may be assigned to every VLAN, and therefore IP interface, on the Switch. VRRP
routers within the same VRRP group must be consistent in configuration settings for this protocol to function optimally.
VRRP Global Settings
This page is used to configure the VRRP Global settings for this switch.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > VRRP > VRRP Global Settings, as shown below:
Figure 6–72 VRRP Global Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VRRP State:
Specifies whether the VRRP Global state is enabled or disabled.
Non-owner Response
Ping:
Specifies that the virtual IP address is allowed to be pinged from other host end nodes to
verify connectivity.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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VRRP Virtual Router Settings
This page is used to configure the VRRP virtual router settings.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > VRRP > VRRP Virtual Router Settings, as shown below:
Figure 6–73 VRRP Virtual Router Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Interface Name:
Specifies the IP interface name used to create a VRRP entry.
State:
Specifies the state of the virtual router function of the interface.
Preempt Mode:
This entry will determine the behavior of backup routers within the VRRP group by
controlling whether a higher priority backup router will preempt a lower priority Master
router. A True entry, along with having the backup router’s priority set higher than the
masters priority, will set the backup router as the Master router. A False entry will disable
the backup router from becoming the Master router. This setting must be consistent with
all routers participating within the same VRRP group.
VRID:
Specifies the ID of the Virtual Router used. All routers participating in this group must be
assigned the same VRID value. This value must be different from other VRRP groups set
on the Switch.
Priority:
Specifies the priority to be used for the Virtual Router Master election process. The VRRP
Priority value may determine if a higher priority VRRP router overrides a lower priority
VRRP router. A higher priority will increase the probability that this router will become the
Master router of the group. A lower priority will increase the probability that this router will
become the backup router. VRRP routers that are assigned the same priority value will
elect the highest physical IP address as the Master router.
Critical IP Address:
Specifies an IP address of the physical device that will provide the most direct route to the
Internet or other critical network connections from this virtual router. This must be a real
IP address of a real device on the network. If the connection from the virtual router to this
IP address fails, the virtual router will automatically disabled. A new Master will be elected
from the backup routers participating in the VRRP group. Different critical IP addresses
may be assigned to different routers participating in the VRRP group, and can therefore
define multiple routes to the Internet or other critical network connections.
IP Address:
Specifies the virtual router’s IP address used. This IP address is also the default gateway
that will be statically assigned to end hosts and must be set for all routers that participate
in this group.
Advertisement Interval:
Specifies the time interval used between sending advertisement messages.
Checking Critical IP:
Specifies the state of checking the status (active or inactive) of a critical IP address.
Options to choose from are Enabled and Disabled.
Click the Add button to add a new entry.
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Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Delete button to remove a specific entry listed.
Click the Edit button to re-configure a specific entry listed.
After clicking the Edit button, the following page with be displayed.
Figure 6–74 VRRP Virtual Router Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Interface Name:
Displays the IP interface used to create a VRRP entry.
IP Address:
Specifies the virtual router’s IP address used. This IP address is also the default gateway
that will be statically assigned to end hosts and must be set for all routers that participate
in this group.
Priority:
Specifies the priority to be used for the Virtual Router Master election process
Preempt Mode:
This entry will determine the behavior of backup routers within the VRRP group by
controlling whether a higher priority backup router will preempt a lower priority Master
router. A True entry, along with having the backup router’s priority set higher than the
masters priority, will set the backup router as the Master router. A False entry will disable
the backup router from becoming the Master router. This setting must be consistent with
all routers participating within the same VRRP group.
Checking Critical IP:
Specifies the state of checking the status (active or inactive) of a critical IP address.
Options to choose from are Enabled and Disabled.
VRID:
Specifies the ID of the Virtual Router used. All routers participating in this group must be
assigned the same VRID value. This value must be different from other VRRP groups set
on the Switch.
State:
Specifies the state of the virtual router function of the interface.
Advertisement Interval:
Specifies the time interval used between sending advertisement messages.
Critical IP Address:
Specifies an IP address of the physical device that will provide the most direct route to the
Internet or other critical network connections from this virtual router. This must be a real
IP address of a real device on the network. If the connection from the virtual router to this
IP address fails, the virtual router will automatically disabled. A new Master will be elected
from the backup routers participating in the VRRP group. Different critical IP addresses
may be assigned to different routers participating in the VRRP group, and can therefore
define multiple routes to the Internet or other critical network connections.
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Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click on the <<Back button to return to the previous window.
VRRP Authentication Settings
This page is used to configure a virtual router authentication type on an interface.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > VRRP > VRRP Authentication Settings, as shown below:
Figure 6–75 VRRP Authentication Settings Window
Click the Edit button to re-configure a specific entry listed.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Authentication Type:
Specifies the VRRP’s authentication type. Options to choose from are None, Simple and
IP.
None - Selecting this parameter indicates that VRRP protocol exchanges will not be
authenticated.
Simple - Selecting this parameter will require the user to set a simple password in the
Auth. Data field for comparing VRRP message packets received by a router. If the two
passwords are not exactly the same, the packet will be dropped.
IP - Selecting this parameter will require the user to set an IP for authentication in
comparing VRRP messages received by the router. If the two values are inconsistent, the
packet will be dropped.
Authentication Data:
Specifies the authentication data used in the Simple and IP authentication algorithm. This
entry must be consistent with all routers participating in the same IP interface.
Simple - Simple will require the user to enter an alphanumeric string of no more than
eight characters to identify VRRP packets received by a router.
IP - IP will require the user to enter an alphanumeric string of no more than sixteen
characters to identify VRRP packets received by a router.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
MD5 Settings
The MD5 Configuration allows the entry of a 16 character Message Digest version 5 (MD5) key which can be used to
authenticate every packet exchanged between OSPF routers. It is used as a security mechanism to limit the exchange
of network topology information to the OSPF routing domain. This page is used to configure an MD5 key and
password.
To view the following window, click L3 Features > MD5 Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 6–76 MD5 Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Key ID:
Specifies a number from 1 to 255 used to identify the MD5 Key.
Password:
Specifies an alphanumeric string of between 1 and 16 case-sensitive characters used to
generate the Message Digest which is in turn, used to authenticate OSPF packets within
the OSPF routing domain.
Click the Add button to add a new Key ID with its corresponding password.
Click the Find button to search for the Key ID entered.
Click the View All button to view all the entries.
Click the Edit button to re-configure a specific entry listed.
Click the Delete button to remove a specific entry listed.
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Chapter 7
QoS
802.1p Settings
Bandwidth Control
Traffic Control Settings
DSCP
HOL Blocking Prevention
Scheduling Settings
QoS is an implementation of the IEEE 802.1p standard that allows network administrators a method of reserving
bandwidth for important functions that require a large bandwidth or have a high priority, such as VoIP (voice-over
Internet Protocol), web browsing applications, file server applications or video conferencing. Not only can a larger
bandwidth be created, but other less critical traffic can be limited, so excessive bandwidth can be saved. The Switch
has separate hardware queues on every physical port to which packets from various applications can be mapped to,
and, in turn prioritized. View the following map to see how the Switch implements basic 802.1P priority queuing.
Figure 7–1 Implementation of QoS 802.1p Priority Tagging Window
The picture above shows the default priority setting for the Switch. Class-7 has the highest priority of the seven priority
classes of service on the Switch. In order to implement QoS, the user is required to instruct the Switch to examine the
header of a packet to see if it has the proper identifying tag. Then the user may forward these tagged packets to
designated classes of service on the Switch where they will be emptied, based on priority.
For example, let’s say a user wishes to have a video conference between two remotely set computers. The
administrator can add priority tags to the video packets being sent out, utilizing the Access Profile commands. Then,
on the receiving end, the administrator instructs the Switch to examine packets for this tag, acquires the tagged
packets and maps them to a class queue on the Switch. Then in turn, the administrator will set a priority for this queue
so that will be emptied before any other packet is forwarded. This result in the end user receiving all packets sent as
quickly as possible, thus prioritizing the queue and allowing for an uninterrupted stream of packets, which optimizes
the use of bandwidth available for the video conference.
Understanding QoS
The Switch supports 802.1p priority queuing. The Switch has eight priority queues. These priority queues are
numbered from 7 (Class 7) — the highest priority queue — to 0 (Class 0) — the lowest priority queue. The eight
priority tags specified in IEEE 802.1p (p0 to p7) are mapped to the Switch’s priority queues as follows:
•
Priority 0 is assigned to the Switch’s Q2 queue.
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•
Priority 1 is assigned to the Switch’s Q0 queue.
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Priority 2 is assigned to the Switch’s Q1 queue.
•
Priority 3 is assigned to the Switch’s Q3 queue.
•
Priority 4 is assigned to the Switch’s Q4 queue.
•
Priority 5 is assigned to the Switch’s Q5 queue.
•
Priority 6 is assigned to the Switch’s Q6 queue.
•
Priority 7 is assigned to the Switch’s Q7 queue.
For strict priority-based scheduling, any packets residing in the higher priority classes of service are transmitted first.
Multiple strict priority classes of service are emptied based on their priority tags. Only when these classes are empty,
are packets of lower priority transmitted.
For weighted round-robin queuing, the number of packets sent from each priority queue depends upon the assigned
weight. For a configuration of eight CoS queues, A~H with their respective weight value: 8~1, the packets are sent in
the following sequence: A1, B1, C1, D1, E1, F1, G1, H1, A2, B2, C2, D2, E2, F2, G2, A3, B3, C3, D3, E3, F3, A4, B4,
C4, D4, E4, A5, B5, C5, D5, A6, B6, C6, A7, B7, A8, A1, B1, C1, D1, E1, F1, G1, H1.
For weighted round-robin queuing, if each CoS queue has the same weight value, then each CoS queue has an equal
opportunity to send packets just like round-robin queuing.
For weighted round-robin queuing, if the weight for a CoS is set to 0, then it will continue processing the packets from
this CoS until there are no more packets for this CoS. The other CoS queues that have been given a nonzero value,
and depending upon the weight, will follow a common weighted round-robin scheme.
Remember that the Switch has eight configurable priority queues (and eight Classes of Service) for each port on the
Switch.
NOTICE: The Switch contains eight classes of service for each port on the Switch. One of these classes
is reserved for internal use on the Switch and is therefore not configurable. All references in the following
section regarding classes of service will refer to only the eight classes of service that may be used and
configured by the administrator.
802.1p Settings
802.1p Default Priority Settings
The Switch allows the assignment of a default 802.1p priority to each port on the Switch. This page allows the user to
assign a default 802.1p priority to any given port on the switch that will insert the 802.1p priority tag to untagged
packets received. The priority and effective priority tags are numbered from 0, the lowest priority, to 7, the highest
priority. The effective priority indicates the actual priority assigned by RADIUS. If the RADIUS assigned value exceeds
the specified limit, the value will be set at the default priority. For example, if the RADIUS assigns a limit of 8 and the
default priority is 0, the effective priority will be 0.
To view the following window, click QoS > 802.1p Settings > 802.1p Default Priority Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 7–2 802.1p Default Priority Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port ~ To Port
Specifies the list of ports, to be used for this configuration, here.
Priority
Specifies the priority value that will be applied to the selected ports. Options to choose
from are between 0 and 7.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
802.1p User Priority Settings
The Switch allows the assignment of a class of service to each of the 802.1p priorities.
To view the following window, click QoS > 802.1p Settings > 802.1p User Priority Settings, as shown below:
Figure 7–3 802.1p User Priority Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Priority
Specifies the priority value that will be applied to the selected Class ID.
Class ID
Specifies the Class ID used here. Once a priority has been assigned to the port groups on
the Switch, then a Class may be assigned to each of the eight levels of 802.1p priorities.
User priority mapping is not only for the default priority configured in the last page, but
also for all the incoming tagged packets with 802.1p tag.
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Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Bandwidth Control
The bandwidth control settings are used to place a ceiling on the transmitting and receiving data rates for any selected
port.
Bandwidth Control Settings
The Effective RX/TX Rate refers to the actual bandwidth of the switch port, if it does not match the configured rate.
This usually means that the bandwidth has been assigned by a higher priority resource, such as a RADIUS server.
To view the following window, click QoS > Bandwidth Control > Bandwidth Control Settings, as shown below:
Figure 7–4 Bandwidth Control Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port:
The beginning port of a consecutive group of ports to be configured.
To Port:
The ending port of a consecutive group of ports to be configured.
Type:
This drop-down menu allows a selection between RX (receive), TX (transmit), and Both.
This setting will determine whether the bandwidth ceiling is applied to receiving,
transmitting, or both receiving and transmitting packets.
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No Limit:
This drop-down menu allows the user to specify that the selected port will have no
bandwidth limit or not.
NOTE: If the configured number is larger than the port speed, it means no bandwidth
limit.
Rate (64-1024000):
This field allows the input of the data rate that will be the limit for the selected port. The
user may choose a rate between 64 and 1024000 Kbits per second.
Effective RX:
If a RADIUS server has assigned the RX bandwidth, then it will be the effective RX
bandwidth. The authentication with the RADIUS sever can be per port or per user. For per
user authentication, there may be multiple RX bandwidths assigned if there are multiple
users attached to this specific port. The final RX bandwidth will be the largest one among
these multiple RX bandwidths.
Effective TX:
If a RADIUS server has assigned the TX bandwidth, then it will be the effective TX
bandwidth. The authentication with the RADIUS sever can be per port or per user. For per
user authentication, there may be multiple TX bandwidths assigned if there are multiple
users attached to this specific port. The final TX bandwidth will be the largest one among
these multiple TX bandwidths.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Queue Bandwidth Control Settings
To view the following window, click QoS > Bandwidth Control > Queue Bandwidth Control Settings, as shown
below:
Figure 7–5 Queue Bandwidth Control Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port – To Port:
Here the user can select the port range to use for this configuration.
From CoS – To CoS:
Here the user can select the queue range to use for this configuration.
Max Rate:
Here the user can enter the maximum rate for the queue. For no limit select the No Limit
option.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
NOTE: The minimum granularity of queue bandwidth control is 1.85MBps. The system will adjust the
number to the multiple of 1850 automatically.
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Traffic Control Settings
On a computer network, packets such as Multicast packets and Broadcast packets continually flood the network as
normal procedure. At times, this traffic may increase due to a malicious end station on the network or a malfunctioning
device, such as a faulty network card. Thus, switch throughput problems will arise and consequently affect the overall
performance of the switch network. To help rectify this packet storm, the Switch will monitor and control the situation.
Packet storms are monitored to determine if too many packets are flooding the network based on threshold levels
provided by the user. Once a packet storm has been detected, the Switch will drop packets coming into the Switch
until the storm has subsided. This method can be utilized by selecting the Drop option of the Action parameter in the
window below.
The Switch will also scan and monitor packets coming into the Switch by monitoring the Switch’s chip counter. This
method is only viable for Broadcast and Multicast storms because the chip only has counters for these two types of
packets. Once a storm has been detected (that is, once the packet threshold set below has been exceeded), the
Switch will shut down the port to all incoming traffic, with the exception of STP BPDU packets, for a time period
specified using the Count Down parameter.
If a Time Interval parameter times-out for a port configured for traffic control and a packet storm continues, that port
will be placed in Shutdown Forever mode, which will cause a warning message to be sent to the Trap Receiver. Once
in Shutdown Forever mode, the method of recovering the port is to manually recoup it using the Port Settings window
in the Configuration folder or automatic recovering after 5 minutes. Select the disabled port and return its State to
Enabled status. To utilize this method of Storm Control, choose the Shutdown option of the Action parameter in the
window below.
Use this window to enable or disable storm control and adjust the threshold for multicast and broadcast storms.
To view the following window, click QoS > Traffic Control Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 7–6 Traffic Control Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port:
Select the beginning port of the range of port(s) to be configured.
To Port:
Select the ending port of the range of port(s) to be configured.
Action:
Select the method of traffic control from the pull-down menu. The choices are:
Drop – Utilizes the hardware Traffic Control mechanism, which means the Switch’s
hardware will determine the Packet Storm based on the Threshold value stated and drop
packets until the issue is resolved.
Shutdown – Utilizes the Switch’s software Traffic Control mechanism to determine the
Packet Storm occurring. Once detected, the port will deny all incoming traffic to the port
except STP BPDU packets, which are essential in keeping the Spanning Tree operational
on the Switch. If the Count Down timer has expired and yet the Packet Storm continues,
the port will be placed in Shutdown Forever mode and is no longer operational until the
port recovers after 5 minutes automatically or the user manually resets the port using the
Port Settings window (Configuration> Port Configuration> Port Settings). Choosing
this option obligates the user to configure the Time Interval setting as well, which will
provide packet count samplings from the Switch’s chip to determine if a Packet Storm is
occurring.
Count Down (0 or 5-30):
The Count Down timer is set to determine the amount of time, in minutes, that the Switch
will wait before shutting down the port that is experiencing a traffic storm. This parameter
is only useful for ports configured as Shutdown in their Action field and therefore will not
operate for hardware-based Traffic Control implementations. The possible time settings
for this field are 0 and 5 to 30 minutes.
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Time Interval (5-30):
The Time Interval will set the time between Multicast and Broadcast packet counts sent
from the Switch’s chip to the Traffic Control function. These packet counts are the
determining factor in deciding when incoming packets exceed the Threshold value. The
Time Interval may be set between 5 and 30 seconds, with a default setting of 5 seconds.
Threshold (0-255000):
Specifies the maximum number of packets per second that will trigger the Traffic Control
function to commence. The configurable threshold range is from 0-255000 with a default
setting of 130560 packets per second.
Storm Control Type:
Specifies the desired Storm Control Type: None, Broadcast, Multicast, Unknown Unicast,
Broadcast + Multicast, Broadcast + Unknown Unicast, Multicast + Unknown Unicast, and
Broadcast + Multicast + Unknown Unicast.
Traffic Trap Settings:
Enable sending of Storm Trap messages when the type of action taken by the Traffic
Control function in handling a Traffic Storm is one of the following:
None – Will send no Storm trap warning messages regardless of action taken by the
Traffic Control mechanism.
Storm Occurred – Will send Storm Trap warning messages upon the occurrence of a
Traffic Storm only.
Storm Cleared – Will send Storm Trap messages when a Traffic Storm has been
cleared by the Switch only.
Both – Will send Storm Trap messages when a Traffic Storm has been both detected
and cleared by the Switch.
This function cannot be implemented in the hardware mode. (When Drop is chosen for
the Action parameter)
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
NOTE: Traffic Control cannot be implemented on ports that are set for Link Aggregation (Port Trunking).
NOTE: Ports that are in the Shutdown Forever mode will be seen as Discarding in Spanning Tree
windows and implementations though these ports will still be forwarding BPDUs to the Switch’s CPU.
NOTE: Ports that are in Shutdown Forever mode will be seen as link down in all windows and screens
until the user recovers these ports.
NOTE: The minimum storm control threshold granularity: FE port 500pps, GE port 640pps.
DSCP
DSCP Trust Settings
This page is to configure the DSCP trust state of ports. When ports are under the DSCP trust mode, the switch will
insert the priority tag to untagged packets by using the DSCP Map settings instead of the default port priority.
To view the following window, click QoS > DSCP > DSCP Trust Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 7–7 DSCP Trust Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port – To Port:
Here the user can select a range of port to configure.
State:
Enable/disable to trust DSCP. By default, DSCP trust is disabled.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
DSCP Map Settings
The mapping of DSCP to queue will be used to determine the priority of the packet (which will be then used to
determine the scheduling queue) when the port is in DSCP trust state.
The DSCP-to-DSCP mapping is used in the swap of DSCP of the packet when the packet is ingresses to the port. The
remaining processing of the packet will base on the new DSCP. By default, the DSCP is mapped to the same DSCP.
To view the following window, click QoS > DSCP > DSCP Map Settings, as shown below:
Figure 7–8 DSCP Map Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
DSCP Map:
Here the user can select one of two options:
DSCP Priority – Specifies a list of DSCP values to be mapped to a specific priority.
DSCP DSCP – Specifies a list of DSCP value to be mapped to a specific DSCP.
DSCP List:
Here the user can enter a DSCP List value.
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Priority:
Here the user can select a Priority value.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
HOL Blocking Prevention
HOL (Head of Line) Blocking happens when one of the destination ports of a broadcast or multicast packet are busy.
The switch will hold this packet in the buffer while the other destination port will not transmit the packet even they are
not busy. The HOL Blocking Prevention will ignore the busy port and forward the packet directly to have lower latency
and better performance.
On this page the user can enable or disable HOL Blocking Prevention.
To view the following window, click QoS > HOL Blocking Prevention, as shown below:
Figure 7–9 HOL Blocking Prevention Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
HOL Blocking
Prevention Global
Settings:
Here the user can enable of disable the HOL blocking prevention global settings.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Scheduling Settings
Scheduling Profile Settings
Changing the output scheduling used for the hardware queues in the Switch can customize the QoS. As with any
changes to the QoS implementation, careful consideration should be given to how network traffic in lower priority
queues are affected. Changes in scheduling may result in unacceptable levels of packet loss or significant
transmission delays. If you choose to customize this setting, it is important to the monitor network performance,
especially during peak demand, as bottlenecks can quickly develop if the QoS settings are not suitable.
To view the following window, click QoS > Scheduling Settings > Scheduling Profile Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 7–10 Scheduling Profile Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID:
Here the user can select the profile ID to configure.
From CoS – To CoS:
Here the user can select the range on CoS to configure.
Scheduling
Mechanism:
Here the user can select one of two Scheduling Mechanisms:
Strict – The queue will operate in strict mode. The highest class of service is the first to
process traffic. That is, the highest class of service will finish before other queues empty.
Weight – Specifies the weights for weighted round robin. A value between 1 and n can be
specified. The queue will operate in WRR mode if port mode is WRR. It will operate in
strict mode if port mode is strict.
Determination of n is project dependent.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Scheduling Group Settings
On this page the user can configure the scheduling group parameters.
To view the following window, click QoS > Scheduling Settings > Scheduling Group Settings, as shown below:
Figure 7–11 Scheduling Group Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
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Parameter
Description
Profile ID:
Here the user can select the profile ID to configure.
Port List:
Here the user can enter the port range to configure.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry based on the information entered.
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Chapter 8
ACL
ACL Configuration Wizard
Access Profile List
CPU Access Profile List
ACL Finder
ACL Flow Meter
Egress Access Profile List
Egress ACL Flow Meter
ACL Configuration Wizard
The ACL Configuration Wizard will aid the user in the creation of access profiles and ACL Rules automatically by
simply inputting the address or service type and the action needed. It saves administrators a lot of time.
To view the following window, click ACL > ACL Configuration Wizard, as shown below:
Figure 8–1 ACL Configuration Wizard Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Type:
Here the user can select one of three general ACL Rule types:
Normal – Selecting this option will create a Normal ACL Rule.
CPU – Selecting this option will create a CPU ACL Rule.
Egress - Selecting this option will create an Egress ACL Rule.
Profile Name:
After selecting to configure a Normal or Egress type rule, the user can enter the Profile
Name for the new rule here.
Profile ID:
Here the user can enter the Profile ID for the new rule.
Access ID:
Here the user can enter the Access ID for the new rule. Selecting the Auto Assign option
will allow the switch to automatically assign an unused access ID to this rule.
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From – To:
This rule can be created to apply to four different categories:
Any – Selecting this option will include any starting category to this rule.
MAC Address – Selecting this option will allow the user to enter a range of MAC
addresses for this rule.
IPv4 Address – Selecting this option will allow the user to enter a range of IPv4 addresses
for this rule.
IPv6 – Selecting this option will allow the user to enter a range of IPv6 addresses for this
rule.
Service Type:
After selecting a subject in the From – To field the user can select one of the following
services:
Any – Selecting this option will apply this rule to all service types.
ICMP All – Selecting this option will apply this rule to all ICMP traffic used in this rule.
IGMP – Selecting this option will apply this rule to IGMP traffic used in this rule.
TCP All – Selecting this option will apply this rule to all TCP traffic used in this rule.
TCP Source Port – Selecting this option will apply this rule to TCP traffic used in this rule
from the source port only.
TCP Destination Port – Selecting this option will apply this rule to TCP traffic used in this
rule from the destination port only.
UDP All – Selecting this option will apply this rule to all UDP traffic used in this rule.
UDP Source Port – Selecting this option will apply this rule to UDP traffic used in this rule
from the source port only.
UDP Destination Port – Selecting this option will apply this rule to UDP traffic used in this
rule from the destination port only.
VLAN Mask (Name) – Selecting this option will apply this rule to the VLAN name used in
this rule.
Action:
Select Permit to specify that the packets that match the access profile are forwarded by
the Switch, according to any additional rule added (see below).
Select Deny to specify that the packets that match the access profile are not forwarded by
the Switch and will be filtered.
Select Mirror to specify that packets that match the access profile are mirrored to a port
defined in the mirror port section. Port Mirroring must be enabled and a target port must
be set.
Option:
After selecting the Permit action, the user can select one of the following options:
Change 1p Priority – Here the user can enter the 1p priority value.
Replace DSCP – Here the user can enter the DSCP value.
Replace ToS Precedence – Here the user can enter the ToS Precedence value.
Apply To:
Here the user can select and enter the object that this rule will be applied to.
Ports – Here the user can enter a port number or a port range.
VLAN Name – Here the user can enter the VLAN name.
VLAN ID – Here the user can enter the VID.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
NOTE: The Switch will use one minimum mask to cover all the terms that user input, however, some
extra bits may also be masked at the same time. To optimize the ACL profile and rules, please use
manual configuration.
Access Profile List
Access profiles allow you to establish criteria to determine whether the Switch will forward packets based on the
information contained in each packet's header.
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The Switch supports four Profile Types, Ethernet ACL, IPv4 ACL, IPv6 ACL, and Packet Content ACL.
Creating an access profile is divided into two basic parts. The first is to specify which part or parts of a frame the
Switch will examine, such as the MAC source address or the IP destination address. The second part is entering the
criteria the Switch will use to determine what to do with the frame. The entire process is described below in two parts.
Users can display the currently configured Access Profiles on the Switch.
To view the following window, click ACL > Access Profile List, as shown below:
Figure 8–2 Access Profile List Window
Click the Add ACL Profile button to add an entry to the Access Profile List.
Click the Delete All button to remove all access profiles from this table.
Click the Show Details button to display the information of the specific profile ID entry.
Click the Add/View Rules button to view or add ACL rules within the specified profile ID.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Click the Show Total Entries button to view the total amount of consumed hardware entries.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
There are four Add Access Profile windows;
•
one for Ethernet (or MAC address-based) profile configuration,
•
one for IPv6 address-based profile configuration,
•
one for IPv4 address-based profile configuration, and
•
one for packet content profile configuration.
Adding an Ethernet ACL Profile
The window shown below is the Add ACL Profile window for Ethernet. To use specific filtering masks in this ACL
profile, click on the packet filtering mask field to highlight it red. This will add more filed to the mask.
After clicking the Add ACL Profile button, the following page will appear:
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Figure 8–3 Adding an Ethernet ACL Profile (Ethernet) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
Here the user can enter a unique identifier number for this profile set. This value can be
set from 1 to 1024
Profile Name
Here the user can enter a profile name for the profile created.
Select ACL Type
Select Ethernet ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the layer 2 part of each packet
header.
Source MAC Mask
Enter a MAC address mask for the source MAC address.
Destination MAC Mask
Enter a MAC address mask for the destination MAC address.
802.1Q VLAN
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the 802.1Q VLAN identifier of each
packet header and use this as the full or partial criterion for forwarding.
802.1p
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the 802.1p priority value of each
packet header and use this as the, or part of the criterion for forwarding.
Ethernet Type
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the Ethernet type value in each
frame's header.
Click the Select button to select an ACL type. Click the Create button to create a profile.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button, the following page will appear:
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Figure 8–4 Access Profile Detail Information (Ethernet) Window
Click the Show All Profiles button to navigate back to the Access Profile List Page.
After clicking the Add/View Rules button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8–5 Access Rule List (Ethernet) Window
Click the Add Rule button to create a new ACL rule in this profile.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
Click the Show Details button to view more information about the specific rule created.
Click the Delete Rules button to remove the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
After clicking the Add Rule button, the following page will appear:
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Figure 8–6 Add Access Rule (Ethernet) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Access ID
Enter the access ID for this rule here. This ID must be between 1 and 1024.
Auto Assign – Select this option to instruct the Switch to automatically assign an Access
ID for the rule being created.
VLAN Name
Enter the VLAN name used here.
VLAN ID
Enter the VLAN ID used here.
VLAN Mask
Select and enter the VLAN mask value used here.
Source MAC Address
Enter the source MAC address used here.
Source MAC Address
Mask
Select and enter the source MAC address mask used here.
Destination MAC
Address
Enter the destination MAC address used here.
Destination MAC
Address Mask
Select and enter the destination MAC address mask used here.
802.1p
Enter the 802.1p priority tag value used here. This value must be between 0 and 7.
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Ethernet Type
Enter the Ethernet type value used here.
Action
Select Permit to specify that the packets that match the access profile are forwarded by
the Switch, according to any additional rule added (see below).
Select Deny to specify that the packets that match the access profile are not forwarded by
the Switch and will be filtered.
Select Mirror to specify that packets that match the access profile are mirrored to a port
defined in the port mirror section. Port Mirroring must be enabled and a target port must
be set.
Priority
Tick the corresponding check box if you want to re-write the 802.1p default priority of a
packet to the value entered in the Priority field, which meets the criteria specified
previously in this command, before forwarding it on to the specified CoS queue.
Otherwise, a packet will have its incoming 802.1p user priority re-written to its original
value before being forwarded by the Switch.
Replace Priority
Select and enter the replace priority value used here.
Replace DSCP
Select this option to instruct the Switch to replace the DSCP value (in a packet that meets
the selected criteria) with the value entered in the adjacent field. When an ACL rule is
added to change both the priority and DSCP of an IPv4 packet, only one of them can be
modified due to a chip limitation. Currently the priority is changed when both the priority
and DSCP are set to be modified. This value must be between 0 and 63.
Replace ToS
Precedence
Specifies that the IP precedence of the outgoing packet is changed with the new value. If
used without an action priority, the packet is sent to the default TC. This value must be
between 0 and 7.
Time Range Name
Tick the check box and enter the name of the Time Range settings that has been
previously configured in the Time Range Settings window. This will set specific times
when this access rule will be implemented on the Switch.
Counter
Here the user can select the counter. By checking the counter, the administrator can see
how many times that the rule was hit.
Ports
Enter the list of ports, used for this rule, here.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button in the Access Rule List, the following page will appear:
Figure 8–7 Access Rule Detail Information (Ethernet) Window
Click the Show All Rules button to navigate back to the Access Rule List.
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Adding an IPv4 ACL Profile
The window shown below is the Add ACL Profile window for IPv4. To use specific filtering masks in this ACL profile,
click on the packet filtering mask field to highlight it red. This will add more filed to the mask.
After clicking the Add ACL Profile button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8–8 Adding an IPv4 ACL Profile Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
Here the user can enter a unique identifier number for this profile set. This value can be
set from 1 to 1024.
Select ACL Type
Select IPv4 ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the IPv4 address in each frame's
header.
802.1Q VLAN
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the 802.1Q VLAN identifier of each
packet header and use this as the full or partial criterion for forwarding.
IPv4 DSCP
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the DiffServ Code part of each
packet header and use this as the, or part of the criterion for forwarding.
IPv4 Source IP Mask
Enter an IP address mask for the source IP address.
IPv4 Destination IP
Mask
Enter an IP address mask for the destination IP address.
Protocol
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the protocol type value in each
frame's header. Then the user must specify what protocol(s) to include according to the
following guidelines:
Select ICMP to instruct the Switch to examine the Internet Control Message Protocol
(ICMP) field in each frame's header.
Select Type to further specify that the access profile will apply an ICMP type value, or
specify Code to further specify that the access profile will apply an ICMP code value.
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Select IGMP to instruct the Switch to examine the Internet Group Management Protocol
(IGMP) field in each frame's header.
Select Type to further specify that the access profile will apply an IGMP type value.
Select TCP to use the TCP port number contained in an incoming packet as the
forwarding criterion. Selecting TCP requires that you specify a source port mask and/or a
destination port mask.
src port mask - Specify a TCP port mask for the source port in hex form (hex 0x0-0xffff),
which you wish to filter.
dst port mask - Specify a TCP port mask for the destination port in hex form (hex 0x00xffff) which you wish to filter.
flag bit - The user may also identify which flag bits to filter. Flag bits are parts of a packet
that determine what to do with the packet. The user may filter packets by filtering certain
flag bits within the packets, by checking the boxes corresponding to the flag bits of the
TCP field. The user may choose between urg (urgent), ack (acknowledgement), psh
(push), rst (reset), syn (synchronize), fin (finish).
Select UDP to use the UDP port number contained in an incoming packet as the
forwarding criterion. Selecting UDP requires that you specify a source port mask and/or a
destination port mask.
src port mask - Specify a UDP port mask for the source port in hex form (hex 0x0-0xffff).
dst port mask - Specify a UDP port mask for the destination port in hex form (hex 0x00xffff).
Select Protocol ID - Enter a value defining the protocol ID in the packet header to mask.
Specify the protocol ID mask in hex form (hex 0x0-0xff.
Protocol ID Mask - Specify that the rule applies to the IP protocol ID traffic.
User Define - Specify the Layer 4 part mask
Click the Select button to select an ACL type. Click the Create button to create a profile.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8–9 Access Profile Detail Information (IPv4) Window
Click the Show All Profiles button to navigate back to the Access Profile List Page.
After clicking the Add/View Rules button, the following page will appear:
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Figure 8–10 Access Rule List (IPv4) Window
Click the Add Rule button to create a new ACL rule in this profile.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
Click the Show Details button to view more information about the specific rule created.
Click the Delete Rules button to remove the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
After clicking the Add Rule button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8–11 Add Access Rule (IPv4) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Access ID
Enter the access ID for this rule here. This ID must be between 1 and 1024.
Auto Assign – Select this option to instruct the Switch to automatically assign an Access
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ID for the rule being created.
VLAN Name
Enter the VLAN name used here.
VLAN ID
Enter the VLAN ID used here.
VLAN Mask
Select and enter the VLAN mask value used here.
Source IP Address
Enter the source IP address used here.
Source IP Address
Mask
Select and enter the source IP address mask used here.
Destination IP Address
Enter the destination IP address used here.
Destination IP Address
Mask
Select and enter the destination IP address mask used here.
DSCP
Enter the DSCP value used here.
ICMP
Select this option to specify that the rule will be applied to ICMP traffic.
Type – Enter the ICMP packet type value used here.
Code – Enter the ICMP code value used here.
Action:
Select Permit to specify that the packets that match the access profile are forwarded by
the Switch, according to any additional rule added (see below).
Select Deny to specify that the packets that match the access profile are not forwarded by
the Switch and will be filtered.
Select Mirror to specify that packets that match the access profile are mirrored to a port
defined in the config mirror port command. Port Mirroring must be enabled and a target
port must be set.
Priority (0-7):
Tick the corresponding check box if you want to re-write the 802.1p default priority of a
packet to the value entered in the Priority field, which meets the criteria specified
previously in this command, before forwarding it on to the specified CoS queue.
Otherwise, a packet will have its incoming 802.1p user priority re-written to its original
value before being forwarded by the Switch.
For more information on priority queues, CoS queues and mapping for 802.1p, see the
QoS section of this manual.
Replace Priority:
Tick this check box to replace the Priority value in the adjacent field.
Replace DSCP (0-63):
Select this option to instruct the Switch to replace the DSCP value (in a packet that meets
the selected criteria) with the value entered in the adjacent field. When an ACL rule is
added to change both the priority and DSCP of an IPv4 packet, only one of them can be
modified due to a chip limitation. Currently the priority is changed when both the priority
and DSCP are set to be modified.
Replace ToS
Precedence (0-7):
Specify that the IP precedence of the outgoing packet is changed with the new value. If
used without an action priority, the packet is sent to the default TC.
Time Range Name:
Tick the check box and enter the name of the Time Range settings that has been
previously configured in the Time Range Settings window. This will set specific times
when this access rule will be implemented on the Switch.
Counter:
Here the user can select the counter. By checking the counter, the administrator can see
how many times that the rule was hit.
Ports:
Enter the list of ports, used for this configuration, here.
VLAN Name:
Specify the VLAN name to apply to the access rule.
VLAN ID:
Specify the VLAN ID to apply to the access rule.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
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After clicking the Show Details button in the Access Rule List, the following page will appear:
Figure 8–12 Access Rule Detail Information (IPv4) Window
Click the Show All Rules button to navigate back to the Access Rule List.
Adding an IPv6 ACL Profile
The window shown below is the Add ACL Profile window for IPv6. To use specific filtering masks in this ACL profile,
click on the packet filtering mask field to highlight it red. This will add more filed to the mask.
After clicking the Add ACL Profile button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8–13 Adding an IPv6 ACL Profile Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
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Parameter
Description
Profile ID:
Here the user can enter a unique identifier number for this profile set. This value can
be set from 1 to 1024.
Select ACL Type:
Select IPv6 ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the IPv6 address in each frame's
header.
IPv6 Class:
Ticking this check box will instruct the Switch to examine the class field of the IPv6
header. This class field is a part of the packet header that is similar to the Type of
Service (ToS) or Precedence bits field in IPv4.
IPv6 Flow Label:
Ticking this check box will instruct the Switch to examine the flow label field of the
IPv6 header. This flow label field is used by a source to label sequences of packets
such as non-default quality of service or real time service packets.
IPv6 TCP:
Source Port Mask – Specify that the rule applies to the range of TCP source ports.
Destination Port Mask – Specify the range of the TCP destination port range.
IPv6 UDP:
Source Port Mask – Specify the range of the TCP source port range.
Destination Port Mask – Specify the range of the TCP destination port mask.
IPv6 Source Address:
The user may specify an IP address mask for the source IPv6 address by ticking the
corresponding check box and entering the IP address mask.
IPv6 Destination Address:
The user may specify an IP address mask for the destination IPv6 address by ticking
the corresponding check box and entering the IP address mask.
Click the Select button to select an ACL type. Click the Create button to create a profile.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8–14 Access Profile Detail Information (IPv6) Window
Click the Show All Profiles button to navigate back to the Access Profile List Page.
After clicking the Add/View Rules button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8–15 Access Rule List (IPv6) Window
Click the Add Rule button to create a new ACL rule in this profile.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
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Click the Show Details button to view more information about the specific rule created.
Click the Delete Rules button to remove the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
After clicking the Add Rule button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8–16 Add Access Rule (IPv6) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Access ID (1-1024):
Enter the access ID for this rule here. This ID must be between 1 and 1024.
Auto Assign – Select this option to instruct the Switch to automatically assign an Access
ID for the rule being created.
Class
Enter the IPv6 class mask value used here.
Flow Label
Enter the IPv6 flow label mask value used here.
TCP
Select this option to specify that the rule will be applied to TCP traffic.
TCP Source Port
Enter the TCP source port value used here.
TCP Source Port Mask
Enter the TCP source port mask value used here.
TCP Destination Port
Enter the TCP destination port value used here.
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TCP Destination Port
Mask
Enter the TCP destination port mask value used here.
Action:
Select Permit to specify that the packets that match the access profile are forwarded by
the Switch, according to any additional rule added (see below).
Select Deny to specify that packets that match the access profile are not forwarded by the
Switch and will be filtered.
Select Mirror to specify that packets that match the access profile are mirrored to a port
defined in the config mirror port command. Port Mirroring must be enabled and a target
port must be set.
Priority (0-7):
Tick the corresponding check box to re-write the 802.1p default priority of a packet to the
value entered in the Priority field, which meets the criteria specified previously in this
command, before forwarding it on to the specified CoS queue. Otherwise, a packet will
have its incoming 802.1p user priority re-written to its original value before being
forwarded by the Switch.
For more information on priority queues, CoS queues and mapping for 802.1p, see the
QoS section of this manual.
Replace Priority:
Tick this check box to replace the Priority value in the adjacent field.
Replace DSCP (0-63):
Select this option to instruct the Switch to replace the DSCP value (in a packet that meets
the selected criteria) with the value entered in the adjacent field. When an ACL rule is
added to change both the priority and DSCP of an IPv6 packet, only one of them can be
modified due to a chip limitation. Currently the priority is changed when both the priority
and DSCP are set to be modified.
Replace ToS
Precedence (0-7):
Specify that the IP precedence of the outgoing packet is changed with the new value. If
used without an action priority, the packet is sent to the default TC.
Time Range Name:
Tick the check box and enter the name of the Time Range settings that has been
previously configured in the Time Range Settings window. This will set specific times
when this access rule will be implemented on the Switch.
Counter:
Here the user can select the counter. By checking the counter, the administrator can see
how many times that the rule was hit.
Ports:
Enter the list of ports, used for this configuration, here.
VLAN Name:
Specify the VLAN name to apply to the access rule.
VLAN ID:
Specify the VLAN ID to apply to the access rule.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button in the Access Rule List, the following page will appear:
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Figure 8–17 Access Rule Detail Information (IPv6) Window
Click the Show All Rules button to navigate back to the Access Rule List.
Adding a Packet Content ACL Profile
The window shown below is the Add ACL Profile window for Packet Content: To use specific filtering masks in this
ACL profile, click on the packet filtering mask field to highlight it red. This will add more filed to the mask.
After clicking the Add ACL Profile button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8–18 Adding a Packet Content ACL Profile Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID:
Here the user can enter a unique identifier number for this profile set. This value can be
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set from 1 to 1024.
Select ACL Type:
Select Packet Content to instruct the Switch to examine the packet content in each
frame’s header.
Packet Content:
Source MAC - Specifies the source MAC mask.
Destination MAC - Specifies the destination MAC mask.
Outer Tag - Specifies the outer VLAN tag of the packet to mask. This constitutes only the
12-bit VID fields.
Offset1, Offset2, Offset3, Offset4, Offset5, Offset6 - Defines the UDF fields that the device
filters.
Each UDF field consists of 1-byte of data, which is n bytes away from the offset reference
(where n is the offset value).
The offset ranges are from 0 to 127.
The offset reference can be one of the following:
L2 – The offset starts counting from the byte after the end of the VLAN tags (start of ether
type).
L3 – The offset starts counting right after the ether type field. The packet must have a
valid L2 header and a recognizable ether type in order to be recognized.
L4 – The offset starts counting right after the end of the IP header. The packet must have
a valid IP header in order to be recognized.
Click the Select button to select an ACL type. Click the Create button to create a profile.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8–19 Access Profile Detail Information (Packet Content) Window
Click the Show All Profiles button to navigate back to the Access Profile List Page.
NOTE: Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is the standard for finding a host’s hardware address (MAC
address). However, ARP is vulnerable as it can be easily spoofed and utilized to attack a LAN (i.e. an
ARP spoofing attack). For a more detailed explanation on how ARP protocol works and how to employ DLink’s unique Packet Content ACL to prevent ARP spoofing attack, please see Appendix E at the end of
this manual.
After clicking the Add/View Rules button, the following page will appear:
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Figure 8–20 Access Rule List (Packet Content) Window
Click the Add Rule button to create a new ACL rule in this profile.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
Click the Show Details button to view more information about the specific rule created.
Click the Delete Rules button to remove the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
After clicking the Add Rule button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8–21 Add Access Rule (Packet Content) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Access ID (1-1024):
Enter the access ID for this rule here. This ID must be between 1 and 1024.
Auto Assign – Select this option to instruct the Switch to automatically assign an
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Access ID for the rule being created.
Source MAC Address
Enter the source MAC address used here.
Mask – Enter the source MAC address mask used here.
Destination MAC Address
Enter the destination MAC address used here.
Mask – Enter the destination MAC address mask used here.
Outer Tag
Enter the outer VLAN tag of the packet to mask. This constitutes only the 12-bit VID
fields. Mask – Enter the outer tag mask value used here.
Offset1-6
Enter the data to match for each UDF data field defined in the profile here.
Mask – Enter the offset mask value used here.
Action:
Select Permit to specify that the packets that match the access profile are forwarded
by the Switch, according to any additional rule added (see below).
Select Deny to specify that the packets that match the access profile are not
forwarded by the Switch and will be filtered.
Select Mirror to specify that packets that match the access profile are mirrored to a
port defined in the config mirror port command. Port Mirroring must be enabled and a
target port must be set.
Priority (0-7):
Tick the corresponding check box if you want to re-write the 802.1p default priority of
a packet to the value entered in the Priority field, which meets the criteria specified
previously in this command, before forwarding it on to the specified CoS queue.
Otherwise, a packet will have its incoming 802.1p user priority re-written to its original
value before being forwarded by the Switch.
For more information on priority queues, CoS queues and mapping for 802.1p, see
the QoS section of this manual.
Replace Priority:
Tick this check box to replace the Priority value in the adjacent field.
Replace DSCP (0-63):
Select this option to instruct the Switch to replace the DSCP value (in a packet that
meets the selected criteria) with the value entered in the adjacent field. When an
ACL rule is added to change both the priority and DSCP of an IPv4 packet, only one
of them can be modified due to a chip limitation. Currently the priority is changed
when both the priority and DSCP are set to be modified.
Replace ToS Precedence (07):
Specify that the IP precedence of the outgoing packet is changed with the new value.
If used without an action priority, the packet is sent to the default TC.
Time Range Name:
Tick the check box and enter the name of the Time Range settings that has been
previously configured in the Time Range Settings window. This will set specific
times when this access rule will be implemented on the Switch.
Counter:
Here the user can select the counter. By checking the counter, the administrator can
see how many times that the rule was hit.
Ports:
Enter the list of ports, used for this configuration, here.
VLAN Name:
Specify the VLAN name to apply to the access rule.
VLAN ID:
Specify the VLAN ID to apply to the access rule.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button in the Access Rule List, the following page will appear:
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Figure 8–22 Access Rule Detail Information (Packet Content) Window
Click the Show All Rules button to navigate back to the Access Rule List.
CPU Access Profile List
Due to a chipset limitation and needed extra switch security, the Switch incorporates CPU Interface filtering. This
added feature increases the running security of the Switch by enabling the user to create a list of access rules for
packets destined for the Switch’s CPU interface. Employed similarly to the Access Profile feature previously
mentioned, CPU interface filtering examines Ethernet, IP and Packet Content Mask packet headers destined for the
CPU and will either forward them or filter them, based on the user’s implementation. As an added feature for the CPU
Filtering, the Switch allows the CPU filtering mechanism to be enabled or disabled globally, permitting the user to
create various lists of rules without immediately enabling them.
NOTE: CPU Interface Filtering is used to control traffic access to the switch directly such as protocols
transition or management access. A CPU interface filtering rule won’t impact normal L2/3 traffic
forwarding. However, a improper CPU interface filtering rule may cause the network to become unstable.
Creating an access profile for the CPU is divided into two basic parts. The first is to specify which part or parts of a
frame the Switch will examine, such as the MAC source address or the IP destination address. The second part is
entering the criteria the Switch will use to determine what to do with the frame. The entire process is described below.
Users may globally enable or disable the CPU Interface Filtering State mechanism by using the radio buttons to
change the running state. Choose Enabled to enable CPU packets to be scrutinized by the Switch and Disabled to
disallow this scrutiny.
To view the following window, click ACL > CPU Access Profile List, as shown below:
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Figure 8–23 CPU Access Profile List Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
CPU Interface Filtering
State:
Here the user can enable or disable the CPU interface filtering state.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Add CPU ACL Profile button to add an entry to the CPU ACL Profile List.
Click the Delete All button to remove all access profiles from this table.
Click the Show Details button to display the information of the specific profile ID entry.
Click the Add/View Rules button to view or add CPU ACL rules within the specified profile ID.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
There are four Add CPU ACL Profile windows;
•
one for Ethernet (or MAC address-based) profile configuration,
•
one for IPv6 address-based profile configuration,
•
one for IPv4 address-based profile configuration, and
•
one for packet content profile configuration.
Adding a CPU Ethernet ACL Profile
The window shown below is the Add CPU ACL Profile window for Ethernet. To use specific filtering masks in this
ACL profile, click on the packet filtering mask field to highlight it red. This will add more filed to the mask.
After clicking the Add CPU ACL Profile button, the following page will appear:
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Figure 8–24 Adding an CPU Ethernet ACL Profile Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID (1-6):
Here the user can enter a unique identifier number for this profile set. This value can be
set from 1 to 6.
Select ACL Type:
Select profile based on Ethernet (MAC Address), IPv4 address, IPv6 address, or packet
content mask. This will change the window according to the requirements for the type of
profile.
Select Ethernet to instruct the Switch to examine the layer 2 part of each packet header.
Select IPv4 to instruct the Switch to examine the IP address in each frame's header.
Select IPv6 to instruct the Switch to examine the IP address in each frame's header.
Select Packet Content Mask to specify a mask to hide the content of the packet header.
Source MAC Mask:
Enter a MAC address mask for the source MAC address.
Destination MAC Mask:
Enter a MAC address mask for the destination MAC address.
802.1Q VLAN:
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the VLAN identifier of each packet
header and use this as the full or partial criterion for forwarding.
802.1p:
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to specify that the access profile will apply only
to packets with this 802.1p priority value.
Ethernet Type:
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the Ethernet type value in each
frame's header.
Click the Select button to select an CPU ACL type. Click the Create button to create a profile.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button, the following page will appear:
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Figure 8–25 CPU Access Profile Detail Information (Ethernet) Window
Click the Show All Profiles button to navigate back to the CPU ACL Profile List Page.
After clicking the Add/View Rules button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8–26 CPU Access Rule List (Ethernet) Window
Click the Add Rule button to create a new CPU ACL rule in this profile.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
Click the Show Details button to view more information about the specific rule created.
Click the Delete Rules button to remove the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
After clicking the Add Rule button, the following page will appear:
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Figure 8–27 Add CPU Access Rule (Ethernet) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Access ID (1-100):
Type in a unique identifier number for this access. This value can be set from 1 to 100.
VLAN Name
Enter the VLAN name used here.
VLAN ID
Enter the VLAN ID used here.
VLAN Mask
Select and enter the VLAN mask value used here.
Source MAC Address
Enter the source MAC address used here.
Source MAC Address
Mask
Select and enter the source MAC address mask used here.
Destination MAC
Address
Enter the destination MAC address used here.
Destination MAC
Address Mask
Select and enter the destination MAC address mask used here.
802.1p
Enter the 802.1p priority tag value used here. This value must be between 0 and 7.
Ethernet Type
Enter the Ethernet type value used here.
Action:
Select Permit to specify that the packets that match the access profile are forwarded by
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the Switch, according to any additional rule added (see below).
Select Deny to specify that the packets that match the access profile are not forwarded by
the Switch and will be filtered.
Ethernet Type (0-FFFF):
Enter the appropriate Ethernet Type information.
Time Range Name:
Tick the check box and enter the name of the Time Range settings that has been
previously configured in the Time Range Settings window. This will set specific times
when this access rule will be implemented on the Switch.
Ports:
Enter the list of ports, used for this configuration, here.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button in the CPU Access Rule List, the following page will appear:
Figure 8–28 CPU Access Rule Detail Information (Ethernet) Window
Click the Show All Rules button to navigate back to the CPU Access Rule List.
Adding a CPU IPv4 ACL Profile
The window shown below is the Add CPU ACL Profile window for IP (IPv4). To use specific filtering masks in this
ACL profile, click on the packet filtering mask field to highlight it red. This will add more filed to the mask.
After clicking the Add CPU ACL Profile button, the following page will appear:
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Figure 8–29 Adding an CPU IPv4 ACL Profile Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID:
Here the user can enter a unique identifier number for this profile set. This value can be
set from 1 to 6.
Select ACL Type:
Select profile based on Ethernet (MAC Address), IPv4 address, IPv6 address, or packet
content mask. This will change the menu according to the requirements for the type of
profile.
Select Ethernet to instruct the Switch to examine the layer 2 part of each packet header.
Select IPv4 to instruct the Switch to examine the IP address in each frame's header.
Select IPv6 to instruct the Switch to examine the IP address in each frame's header.
Select Packet Content Mask to specify a mask to hide the content of the packet header.
802.1Q VLAN:
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the VLAN part of each packet header
and use this as the, or part of the criterion for forwarding.
IPv4 DSCP:
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the DiffServ Code part of each
packet header and use this as the, or part of the criterion for forwarding.
Source IP Mask:
Enter an IP address mask for the source IP address.
Destination IP Mask:
Enter an IP address mask for the destination IP address.
Protocol:
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the protocol type value in each
frame's header. You must then specify what protocol(s) to include according to the
following guidelines:
Select ICMP to instruct the Switch to examine the Internet Control Message Protocol
(ICMP) field in each frame's header.
Select Type to further specify that the access profile will apply an ICMP type value, or
specify Code to further specify that the access profile will apply an ICMP code value.
Select IGMP to instruct the Switch to examine the Internet Group Management Protocol
(IGMP) field in each frame's header.
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Select Type to further specify that the access profile will apply an IGMP type value.
Select TCP to use the TCP port number contained in an incoming packet as the
forwarding criterion. Selecting TCP requires a source port mask and/or a destination port
mask is to be specified. The user may also identify which flag bits to filter. Flag bits are
parts of a packet that determine what to do with the packet. The user may filter packets by
filtering certain flag bits within the packets, by checking the boxes corresponding to the
flag bits of the TCP field. The user may choose between urg (urgent), ack
(acknowledgement), psh (push), rst (reset), syn (synchronize), fin (finish).
src port mask - Specify a TCP port mask for the source port in hex form (hex 0x0-0xffff),
which you wish to filter.
dst port mask - Specify a TCP port mask for the destination port in hex form (hex 0x00xffff) which you wish to filter.
Select UDP to use the UDP port number contained in an incoming packet as the
forwarding criterion. Selecting UDP requires that you specify a source port mask and/or a
destination port mask.
src port mask - Specify a UDP port mask for the source port in hex form (hex 0x0-0xffff).
dst port mask - Specify a UDP port mask for the destination port in hex form (hex 0x00xffff).
Select Protocol ID - Enter a value defining the protocol ID in the packet header to mask.
Specify the protocol ID mask in hex form (hex 0x0-0xff).
Protocol ID Mask – Specify that the rule applies to the IP Protocol ID Traffic.
User Define – Specify the L4 part mask.
Click the Select button to select an CPU ACL type. Click the Create button to create a profile.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8–30 CPU Access Profile Detail Information (IPv4) Window
Click the Show All Profiles button to navigate back to the CPU ACL Profile List Page.
After clicking the Add/View Rules button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8–31 CPU Access Rule List (IPv4) Window
Click the Add Rule button to create a new CPU ACL rule in this profile.
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Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
Click the Show Details button to view more information about the specific rule created.
Click the Delete Rules button to remove the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
After clicking the Add Rule button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8–32 Add CPU Access Rule (IPv4) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Access ID (1-100):
Type in a unique identifier number for this access. This value can be set from 1 to 100.
VLAN Name
Enter the VLAN name used here.
VLAN ID
Enter the VLAN ID used here.
VLAN Mask
Select and enter the VLAN mask value used here.
Source IP Address
Enter the source IP address used here.
Source IP Address
Mask
Select and enter the source IP address mask used here.
Destination IP Address
Enter the destination IP address used here.
Destination IP Address
Select and enter the destination IP address mask used here.
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Mask
DSCP
Enter the DSCP value used here.
ICMP
Select this option to specify that the rule will be applied to ICMP traffic.
Type – Enter the ICMP packet type value used here.
Code – Enter the ICMP code value used here.
Action:
Select Permit to specify that the packets that match the access profile are forwarded by
the Switch, according to any additional rule added (see below).
Select Deny to specify that the packets that match the access profile are not forwarded by
the Switch and will be filtered.
Time Range Name:
Tick the check box and enter the name of the Time Range settings that has been
previously configured in the Time Range Settings window. This will set specific times
when this access rule will be implemented on the Switch.
Ports:
Enter the list of ports, used for this configuration, here.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button in the CPU Access Rule List, the following page will appear:
Figure 8–33 CPU Access Rule Detail Information (IPv4) Window
Click the Show All Rules button to navigate back to the CPU Access Rule List.
Adding a CPU IPv6 ACL Profile
The window shown below is the Add CPU ACL Profile window for IPv6. To use specific filtering masks in this ACL
profile, click on the packet filtering mask field to highlight it red. This will add more filed to the mask.
After clicking the Add CPU ACL Profile button, the following page will appear:
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Figure 8–34 Adding an CPU IPv6 ACL Profile Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID:
Here the user can enter a unique identifier number for this profile set. This value can
be set from 1 to 6.
Select ACL Type:
Select profile based on Ethernet (MAC Address), IPv4 address, IPv6 address, or
packet content mask. This will change the menu according to the requirements for
the type of profile.
Select Ethernet to instruct the Switch to examine the layer 2 part of each packet
header.
Select IPv4 to instruct the Switch to examine the IP address in each frame's header.
Select IPv6 to instruct the Switch to examine the IP address in each frame's header.
Select Packet Content Mask to specify a mask to hide the content of the packet
header.
IPv6 Class:
Checking this field will instruct the Switch to examine the class field of the IPv6
header. This class field is a part of the packet header that is similar to the Type of
Service (ToS) or Precedence bits field in IPv4.
IPv6 Flow Label:
Checking this field will instruct the Switch to examine the flow label field of the IPv6
header. This flow label field is used by a source to label sequences of packets such
as non-default quality of service or real time service packets.
IPv6 TCP:
Source Port Mask – Specify that the rule applies to the range of TCP source ports.
Destination Port Mask – Specify the range of the TCP destination port range.
IPv6 UDP:
Source Port Mask – Specify the range of the TCP source port range.
Destination Port Mask – Specify the range of the TCP destination port mask.
IPv6 Source Address:
The user may specify an IP address mask for the source IPv6 address by checking
the corresponding box and entering the IP address mask.
IPv6 Destination Address:
The user may specify an IP address mask for the destination IPv6 address by
checking the corresponding box and entering the IP address mask.
Click the Select button to select an CPU ACL type. Click the Create button to create a profile.
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Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8–35 CPU Access Profile Detail Information (IPv6) Window
Click the Show All Profiles button to navigate back to the CPU ACL Profile List Page.
After clicking the Add/View Rules button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8–36 CPU Access Rule List (IPv6) Window
Click the Add Rule button to create a new CPU ACL rule in this profile.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
Click the Show Details button to view more information about the specific rule created.
Click the Delete Rules button to remove the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
After clicking the Add Rule button, the following page will appear:
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Figure 8–37 Add CPU Access Rule (IPv6) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Access ID
Type in a unique identifier number for this access. This value can be set from 1 to 100.
Class
Enter the IPv6 class mask value used here.
Flow Label
Enter the IPv6 flow label mask value used here.
Action:
Select Permit to specify that the packets that match the access profile are forwarded by
the Switch, according to any additional rule added (see below).
Select Deny to specify that the packets that match the access profile are not forwarded by
the Switch and will be filtered.
Flow Label:
Configuring this field, in hex form, will instruct the Switch to examine the flow label field of
the IPv6 header. This flow label field is used by a source to label sequences of packets
such as non-default quality of service or real time service packets.
Time Range Name:
Tick the check box and enter the name of the Time Range settings that has been
previously configured in the Time Range Settings window. This will set specific times
when this access rule will be implemented on the Switch.
Ports:
Enter the list of ports, used for this configuration, here.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button in the CPU Access Rule List, the following page will appear:
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Figure 8–38 CPU Access Rule Detail Information (IPv6) Window
Click the Show All Rules button to navigate back to the CPU Access Rule List.
Adding a CPU Packet Content ACL Profile
The window shown below is the Add CPU ACL Profile window for Packet Content. To use specific filtering masks in
this ACL profile, click on the packet filtering mask field to highlight it red. This will add more filed to the mask.
After clicking the Add CPU ACL Profile button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8–39 Adding an CPU Packet Content ACL Profile Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID:
Here the user can enter a unique identifier number for this profile set. This value can be
set from 1 to6.
Select ACL Type:
Select profile based on Ethernet (MAC Address), IPv4 address, IPv6 address, or packet
content mask. This will change the menu according to the requirements for the type of
profile.
Select Ethernet to instruct the Switch to examine the layer 2 part of each packet header.
Select IPv4 to instruct the Switch to examine the IP address in each frame's header.
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Select IPv6 to instruct the Switch to examine the IP address in each frame's header.
Select Packet Content Mask to specify a mask to hide the content of the packet header.
Offset:
This field will instruct the Switch to mask the packet header beginning with the offset
value specified:
0-15 - Enter a value in hex form to mask the packet from the beginning of the packet to
the 15th byte.
16-31 – Enter a value in hex form to mask the packet from byte 16 to byte 31.
32-47 – Enter a value in hex form to mask the packet from byte 32 to byte 47.
48-63 – Enter a value in hex form to mask the packet from byte 48 to byte 63.
64-79 – Enter a value in hex form to mask the packet from byte 64 to byte 79.
Click the Select button to select an CPU ACL type. Click the Create button to create a profile.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8–40 CPU Access Profile Detail Information (Packet Content) Window
Click the Show All Profiles button to navigate back to the CPU ACL Profile List Page.
After clicking the Add/View Rules button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8–41 CPU Access Rule List (Packet Content) Window
Click the Add Rule button to create a new CPU ACL rule in this profile.
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
Click the Show Details button to view more information about the specific rule created.
Click the Delete Rules button to remove the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
After clicking the Add Rule button, the following page will appear:
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Figure 8–42 Add CPU Access Rule (Packet Content) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Access ID
Type in a unique identifier number for this access. This value can be set from 1 to 100.
Offset:
This field will instruct the Switch to mask the packet header beginning with the offset
value specified:
Offset 0-15 - Enter a value in hex form to mask the packet from the beginning of the
packet to the 15th byte.
Offset 16-31 - Enter a value in hex form to mask the packet from byte 16 to byte 31.
Offset 32-47 - Enter a value in hex form to mask the packet from byte 32 to byte 47.
Offset 48-63 - Enter a value in hex form to mask the packet from byte 48 to byte 63.
Offset 64-79 - Enter a value in hex form to mask the packet from byte 64 to byte 79.
Action:
Select Permit to specify that the packets that match the access profile are forwarded by
the Switch, according to any additional rule added (see below).
Select Deny to specify that the packets that match the access profile are not forwarded by
the Switch and will be filtered.
Time Range Name:
Tick the check box and enter the name of the Time Range settings that has been
previously configured in the Time Range Settings window. This will set specific times
when this access rule will be implemented on the Switch.
Ports:
Enter the list of ports, used for this configuration, here.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Show Details button in the CPU Access Rule List, the following page will appear:
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Figure 8–43 CPU Access Rule Detail Information (Packet Content) Window
Click the Show All Rules button to navigate back to the CPU Access Rule List.
ACL Finder
The ACL rule finder helps you to identify any rules that have been assigned to a specific port and edit existing rules
quickly.
To view the following window, click ACL > ACL Finder, as shown below:
Figure 8–44 ACL Finder Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID:
Here the user can select the Profile ID for the ACL rule finder to identify the rule.
Port:
Here the user can enter the port number for the ACL rule finder to identify the rule.
State:
Here the user can select the state. If the state is set to Normal then it will allows the user
to find normal ACL rules. If the state is set to CPU then it allows the user to find CPU ACL
rules. If the state is set to Egress then it will allow the user to find Egress ACL rules.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry selected.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
ACL Flow Meter
Before configuring the ACL Flow Meter, here is a list of acronyms and terms users will need to know.
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trTCM – Two Rate Three Color Marker. This, along with the srTCM, are two methods available on the switch for
metering and marking packet flow. The trTCM meters and IP flow and marks it as a color based on the flow’s
surpassing of two rates, the CIR and the PIR.
CIR – Committed Information Rate. Common to both the trTCM and the srTCM, the CIR is measured in bytes of IP
packets. IP packet bytes are measured by taking the size of the IP header but not the link specific headers. For the
trTCM, the packet flow is marked green if it doesn’t exceed the CIR and yellow if it does. The configured rate of the
CIR must not exceed that of the PIR. The CIR can also be configured for unexpected packet bursts using the CBS
and PBS fields.
CBS – Committed Burst Size. Measured in bytes, the CBS is associated with the CIR and is used to identify packets
that exceed the normal boundaries of packet size. The CBS should be configured to accept the biggest IP packet that
is expected in the IP flow.
PIR – Peak Information Rate. This rate is measured in bytes of IP packets. IP packet bytes are measured by taking
the size of the IP header but not the link specific headers. If the packet flow exceeds the PIR, that packet flow is
marked red. The PIR must be configured to be equal or more than that of the CIR.
PBS – Peak Burst Size. Measured in bytes, the PBS is associated with the PIR and is used to identify packets that
exceed the normal boundaries of packet size. The PBS should be configured to accept the biggest IP packet that is
expected in the IP flow.
srTCM – Single Rate Three Color Marker. This, along with the trTCM, are two methods available on the switch for
metering and marking packet flow. The srTCM marks its IP packet flow based on the configured CBS and EBS. A
packet flow that does not reach the CBS is marked green, if it exceeds the CBS but not the EBS its marked yellow,
and if it exceeds the EBS its marked red.
CBS – Committed Burst Size. Measured in bytes, the CBS is associated with the CIR and is used to identify packets
that exceed the normal boundaries of packet size. The CBS should be configured to accept the biggest IP packet that
is expected in the IP flow.
EBS – Excess Burst Size. Measured in bytes, the EBS is associated with the CIR and is used to identify packets that
exceed the boundaries of the CBS packet size. The EBS is to be configured for an equal or larger rate than the CBS.
DSCP – Differentiated Services Code Point. The part of the packet header where the color will be added. Users may
change the DSCP field of incoming packets.
The ACL Flow Meter function will allow users to color code IP packet flows based on the rate of incoming packets.
Users have two types of Flow metering to choose from, trTCM and srTCM, as explained previously. When a packet
flow is placed in a color code, the user can choose what to do with packets that have exceeded that color-coded rate.
Green – When an IP flow is in the green mode, its configurable parameters can be set in the Conform field, where the
packets can have their DSCP field changed. This is an acceptable flow rate for the ACL Flow Meter function.
Yellow – When an IP flow is in the yellow mode, its configurable parameters can be set in the Exceed field. Users
may choose to either Permit or Drop exceeded packets. Users may also choose to change the DSCP field of the
packets.
Red – When an IP flow is in the red mode, its configurable parameters can be set in the Exceed field. Users may
choose to either Permit or Drop exceeded packets. Users may also choose to change the DSCP field of the packets.
Users may also choose to count exceeded packets by clicking the Counter check box. If the counter is enabled, the
counter setting in the access profile will be disabled. Users may only enable two counters for one flow meter at any
given time.
To view this window, click ACL > ACL Flow Meter, as shown below.
Figure 8–45 ACL Flow Meter Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
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Parameter
Description
Profile ID:
Here the user can enter the Profile ID for the flow meter.
Profile Name:
Here the user can enter the Profile Name for the flow meter.
Access ID:
Here the user can enter the Access ID for the flow meter.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Modify button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the View button to display the information of the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
After clicking the Add or the Modify button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8–46 ACL Flow Meter Configuration Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID:
Here the user can enter the Profile ID for the flow meter.
Profile Name:
Here the user can enter the Profile Name for the flow meter.
Access ID:
Here the user can enter the Access ID for the flow meter.
Mode:
Rate – Specify the rate for single rate two color mode.
Rate – Specify the committed bandwidth in Kbps for the flow.
Burst Size – Specify the burst size for the single rate two color mode. The unit is in
kilobyte.
Rate Exceeded – Specify the action for packets that exceed the committed rate in
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single rate two color mode. The action can be specified as one of the following:
Drop Packet – Drop the packet immediately.
Remark DSCP – Mark the packet with a specified DSCP. The packet is set to drop
for packets with a high precedence.
trTCM – Specify the “two-rate three-color mode.”
CIR – Specify the Committed information Rate. The unit is Kbps. CIR should always
be equal or less than PIR.
PIR – Specify the Peak information Rate. The unit is Kbps. PIR should always be
equal to or greater than CIR.
CBS – Specify the Committed Burst Size. The unit is in kilobyte.
PBS – Specify the Peak Burst Size. The unit is in kilobyte.
srTCM – Specify the “single-rate three-color mode”.
CIR – Specify the Committed Information Rate. The unit is in Kbps.
CBS – Specify the Committed Burst Size. The unit is in kilobyte.
EBS – Specify the Excess Burst Size. The unit is in kilobyte.
Action:
Conform – This field denotes the green packet flow. Green packet flows may have their
DSCP field rewritten to a value stated in this field. Users may also choose to count green
packets by using counter parameter.
Replace DSCP – Packets that are in the green flow may have their DSCP field
rewritten using this parameter and entering the DSCP value to replace.
Counter – Use this parameter to enable or disable the packet counter for the specified
ACL entry in the green flow.
Un-conform – This changes the DSCP of an un-conforming (yellow or red) packet.
Replace DSCP – Packets that are in the yellow and red flow may have their DSCP
field rewritten using this parameter and entering the DSCP value to replace.
Exceed – This field denotes the yellow packet flow. Yellow packet flows may have excess
packets permitted through or dropped. Users may replace the DSCP field of these
packets by checking its radio button and entering a new DSCP value in the allotted field.
Counter – Use this parameter to enable or disable the packet counter for the specified
ACL entry in the yellow flow.
Violate – This field denotes the red packet flow. Red packet flows may have excess
packets permitted through or dropped. Users may replace the DSCP field of these
packets by checking its radio button and entering a new DSCP value in the allotted field.
Counter – Use this parameter to enable or disable the packet counter for the specified
ACL entry in the red flow.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
After clicking the View button, the following page will appear:
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Figure 8–47 ACL Flow Meter Display Window
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
Egress Access Profile List
Egress ACL performs per-flow processing of packets when they egress from the Switch ports. The Switch supports
three Profile Types, Ethernet ACL, IPv4 ACL, and IPv6 ACL.
To view this window, click ACL > Egress Access Profile List as shown below:
Figure 8-48 Egress Access Profile List window
Adding an Ethernet ACL Profile
The window shown below is the Add Egress ACL Profile window for Ethernet. To use specific filtering masks in this
egress ACL profile, click the packet filtering mask field to highlight it red. This will add more filed to the mask.
After clicking the Add Egress ACL button, the following page will appear:
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Figure 8-49 Add Egress ACL Profile window (Ethernet ACL)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
Enter a unique identifier number for this profile set. This value can be set from 1 to 500.
Profile Name
Enter a profile name for the profile created.
Select ACL Type
Select profile based on Ethernet (MAC Address), IPv4 address, or IPv6 address. This will
change the window according to the requirements for the type of profile.
Select Ethernet ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the layer 2 part of each packet
header.
Select IPv4 ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the IPv4 address in each frame's
header.
Select IPv6 ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the IPv6 address in each frame's
header.
Source MAC Mask
Enter a MAC address mask for the source MAC address.
Destination MAC Mask
Enter a MAC address mask for the destination MAC address.
802.1Q VLAN
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the 802.1Q VLAN identifier of each
packet header and use this as the full or partial criterion for forwarding.
802.1p
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the 802.1p priority value of each
packet header and use this as the, or part of the criterion for forwarding.
Ethernet Type
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the Ethernet type value in each
frame's header.
Click the Select button to select an ACL type.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Click the Create button to create a profile.
After clicking the Show Details button, the following page will appear:
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Figure 8-50 Egress Access Profile Detail Information window (Ethernet ACL)
Click the Show All Profiles button to navigate back to the Egress Access Profile List window.
After clicking the Add/View Rules button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8-51 Egress Access Rule List window (Ethernet ACL)
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
Click the Add Rule button to create a new ACL rule in this profile.
Click the Show Details button to view more information about the specific rule created.
Click the Delete Rules button to remove the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
After clicking the Add Rule button, the following page will appear:
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Figure 8-52 Add Egress Access Rule window (Ethernet ACL)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Access ID
Type in a unique identifier number for this access. This value can be set from 1 to 500.
Auto Assign – Tick the check box will instruct the Switch to automatically assign an
Access ID for the rule being created.
VLAN Name
Enter the VLAN name used here.
VLAN ID
Enter the VLAN ID used here.
VLAN Mask
Select and enter the VLAN mask value used here.
Source MAC Address
Enter the source MAC address used here.
Source MAC Address
Mask
Select and enter the source MAC address mask used here.
Destination MAC
Address
Enter the destination MAC address used here.
Destination MAC
Address Mask
Select and enter the destination MAC address mask used here.
802.1p
Enter the 802.1p priority tag value used here. This value must be between 0 and 7.
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Ethernet Type
Enter the Ethernet type value used here.
Action
Select Permit to specify that the packets that match the access profile are forwarded by
the Switch, according to any additional rule added (see below).
Select Deny to specify that the packets that match the access profile are not forwarded by
the Switch and will be filtered.
Priority (0-7)
Tick the corresponding check box if you want to re-write the 802.1p default priority of a
packet to the value entered in the Priority field, which meets the criteria specified
previously in this command, before forwarding it on to the specified CoS queue.
Otherwise, a packet will have its incoming 802.1p user priority re-written to its original
value before being forwarded by the Switch.
Replace DSCP (0-63)
Select this option to instruct the Switch to replace the DSCP value (in a packet that meets
the selected criteria) with the value entered in the adjacent field. When an ACL rule is
added to change both the priority and DSCP of an IPv4 packet, only one of them can be
modified due to a chip limitation. Currently the priority is changed when both the priority
and DSCP are set to be modified.
Time Range Name
Tick the check box and enter the name of the Time Range settings that has been
previously configured in the Time Range Settings window. This will set specific times
when this access rule will be implemented on the Switch.
Counter
Here the user can select the counter. By checking the counter, the administrator can see
how many times that the rule was hit.
Port
Specify a port number to apply to the access rule.
VLAN Name
Specify the VLAN name to apply to the access rule.
VLAN ID
Specify the VLAN ID to apply to the access rule.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
After clicking the Show Details button in the Egress Access Rule List, the following page will appear:
Figure 8-53 Egress Access Rule Detail Information window (Ethernet ACL)
Click the Show All Rules button to navigate back to the Access Rule List.
Adding an IPv4 Egress ACL Profile
The window shown below is the Add Egress ACL Profile window for IPv4. To use specific filtering masks in this egress
ACL profile, click the packet filtering mask field to highlight it red. This will add more filed to the mask.
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After clicking the Add Egress ACL button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8-54 Add Egress ACL Profile window (IPv4 ACL)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
Enter a unique identifier number for this profile set. This value can be set from 1 to 500.
Profile Name
Enter a profile name for the profile created.
Select ACL Type
Select profile based on Ethernet (MAC Address), IPv4 address, or IPv6 address. This
will change the window according to the requirements for the type of profile.
Select Ethernet ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the layer 2 part of each packet
header.
Select IPv4 ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the IPv4 address in each frame's
header.
Select IPv6 ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the IPv6 address in each frame's
header.
802.1Q VLAN
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the 802.1Q VLAN identifier of each
packet header and use this as the full or partial criterion for forwarding.
IPv4 DSCP
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the DiffServ Code part of each
packet header and use this as the, or part of the criterion for forwarding.
IPv4 Source IP Mask
Enter an IP address mask for the source IP address.
IPv4 Destination IP Mask
Enter an IP address mask for the destination IP address.
Protocol
Selecting this option instructs the Switch to examine the protocol type value in each
frame's header. Then the user must specify what protocol(s) to include according to the
following guidelines:
Select ICMP to instruct the Switch to examine the Internet Control Message Protocol
(ICMP) field in each frame's header.
Select Type to further specify that the access profile will apply an ICMP type value, or
specify Code to further specify that the access profile will apply an ICMP code value.
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Select IGMP to instruct the Switch to examine the Internet Group Management Protocol
(IGMP) field in each frame's header.
Select Type to further specify that the access profile will apply an IGMP type value.
Select TCP to use the TCP port number contained in an incoming packet as the
forwarding criterion. Selecting TCP requires that you specify a source port mask and/or a
destination port mask.
src port mask - Specify a TCP port mask for the source port in hex form (hex 0x0-0xffff),
which you wish to filter.
dst port mask - Specify a TCP port mask for the destination port in hex form (hex 0x00xffff) which you wish to filter.
flag bit - The user may also identify which flag bits to filter. Flag bits are parts of a packet
that determine what to do with the packet. The user may filter packets by filtering certain
flag bits within the packets, by checking the boxes corresponding to the flag bits of the
TCP field. The user may choose between urg (urgent), ack (acknowledgement), psh
(push), rst (reset), syn (synchronize), fin (finish).
Select UDP to use the UDP port number contained in an incoming packet as the
forwarding criterion. Selecting UDP requires that you specify a source port mask and/or
a destination port mask.
src port mask - Specify a UDP port mask for the source port in hex form (hex 0x0-0xffff).
dst port mask - Specify a UDP port mask for the destination port in hex form (hex 0x00xffff).
Select Protocol ID - Enter a value defining the protocol ID in the packet header to mask.
Specify the protocol ID mask in hex form (hex 0x0-0xff.
Protocol ID Mask - Specify that the rule applies to the IP protocol ID traffic.
User Define - Specify the Layer 4 part mask
Click the Select button to select an ACL type.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Click the Create button to create a profile.
After clicking the Show Details button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8-55 Egress Access Profile Detail Information window (IPv4 ACL)
Click the Show All Profiles button to navigate back to the Egress Access Profile List window.
After clicking the Add/View Rules button, the following page will appear:
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Figure 8-56 Egress Access Rule List window (IPv4 ACL)
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
Click the Add Rule button to create a new ACL rule in this profile.
Click the Show Details button to view more information about the specific rule created.
Click the Delete Rules button to remove the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
After clicking the Add Rule button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8-57 Add Egress Access Rule (IPv4 ACL)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Access ID
Type in a unique identifier number for this access. This value can be set from 1 to 500.
Auto Assign – Tick the check box will instruct the Switch to automatically assign an
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Access ID for the rule being created.
VLAN Name
Enter the VLAN name used here.
VLAN ID
Enter the VLAN ID used here.
VLAN Mask
Select and enter the VLAN mask value used here.
Source IP Address
Enter the source IP address used here.
Source IP Address
Mask
Select and enter the source IP address mask used here.
Destination IP
Address
Enter the destination IP address used here.
Destination IP
Address Mask
Select and enter the destination IP address mask used here.
DSCP
Enter the DSCP value used here.
ICMP
Select this option to specify that the rule will be applied to ICMP traffic.
Type – Enter the ICMP packet type value used here.
Code – Enter the ICMP code value used here.
Action
Select Permit to specify that the packets that match the access profile are forwarded by the
Switch, according to any additional rule added (see below).
Select Deny to specify that the packets that match the access profile are not forwarded by
the Switch and will be filtered.
Priority (0-7)
Tick the corresponding check box if you want to re-write the 802.1p default priority of a
packet to the value entered in the Priority field, which meets the criteria specified previously
in this command, before forwarding it on to the specified CoS queue. Otherwise, a packet
will have its incoming 802.1p user priority re-written to its original value before being
forwarded by the Switch.
For more information on priority queues, CoS queues and mapping for 802.1p, see the
QoS section of this manual.
Replace DSCP (0-63)
Select this option to instruct the Switch to replace the DSCP value (in a packet that meets
the selected criteria) with the value entered in the adjacent field. When an ACL rule is
added to change both the priority and DSCP of an IPv4 packet, only one of them can be
modified due to a chip limitation. Currently the priority is changed when both the priority
and DSCP are set to be modified.
Time Range Name
Tick the check box and enter the name of the Time Range settings that has been
previously configured in the Time Range Settings window. This will set specific times
when this access rule will be implemented on the Switch.
Counter
Here the user can select the counter. By checking the counter, the administrator can see
how many times that the rule was hit.
Ports
Specify a port number to apply to the access rule.
VLAN Name
Specify the VLAN name to apply to the access rule.
VLAN ID
Specify the VLAN ID to apply to the access rule.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
After clicking the Show Details button in the Egress Access Rule List, the following page will appear:
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Figure 8-58 Egress Access Rule Detail Information (IPv4 ACL)
Click the Show All Rules button to navigate back to the Access Rule List.
Adding an IPv6 Egress ACL Profile
The window shown below is the Add Egress ACL Profile window for IPv6. To use specific filtering masks in this egress
ACL profile, click the packet filtering mask field to highlight it red. This will add more filed to the mask.
After clicking the Add Egress ACL button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8-59 Add Egress ACL Profile window (IPv6 ACL)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
Enter a unique identifier number for this profile set. This value can be set from 1 to 500.
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Profile Name
Enter a profile name for the profile created.
Select ACL Type
Select profile based on Ethernet (MAC Address), IPv4 address, or IPv6 address. This
will change the window according to the requirements for the type of profile.
Select Ethernet ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the layer 2 part of each packet
header.
Select IPv4 ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the IPv4 address in each frame's
header.
Select IPv6 ACL to instruct the Switch to examine the IPv6 address in each frame's
header.
IPv6 TCP
Source Port Mask – Specify that the rule applies to the range of TCP source ports.
Destination Port Mask – Specify the range of the TCP destination port range.
IPv6 UDP
Source Port Mask – Specify the range of the UDP source port range.
Destination Port Mask – Specify the range of the UDP destination port mask.
IPv6 Source Mask
The user may specify an IPv6 address mask for the source IPv6 address by ticking the
corresponding check box and entering the IPv6 address mask, e.g. FFFF:FFFF::FFFF.
IPv6 Destination Mask
The user may specify an IPv6 address mask for the destination IPv6 address by ticking
the corresponding check box and entering the IPv6 address mask, e.g.
FFFF:FFFF::FFFF.
Click the Select button to select an ACL type.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Click the Create button to create a profile.
After clicking the Show Details button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8-60 Egress Access Profile Detail Information window (IPv6 ACL)
Click the Show All Profiles button to navigate back to the Egress Access Profile List window.
After clicking the Add/View Rules button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8-61 Egress Access Rule List window (IPv6 ACL)
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
Click the Add Rule button to create a new ACL rule in this profile.
Click the Show Details button to view more information about the specific rule created.
Click the Delete Rules button to remove the specific entry.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
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After clicking the Add Rule button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8-62 Add Egress Access Rule (IPv6 ACL)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Access ID
Type in a unique identifier number for this access. This value can be set from 1 to 500.
Auto Assign – Tick the check box will instruct the Switch to automatically assign an
Access ID for the rule being created.
TCP
Select this option to enable the TCP protocol.
TCP Source Port
Enter the value of the IPv6 layer 4 TCP source port here.
TCP Source Port Mask
Enter the IPv6 TCP source port mask here.
TCP Destination Port
Enter the value of the IPv6 layer 4 TCP destination port.
TCP Destination Port
Mask
Enter the IPv6 TCP destination port mask here.
Action
Select Permit to specify that the packets that match the access profile are forwarded by the
Switch, according to any additional rule added (see below).
Select Deny to specify that packets that match the access profile are not forwarded by the
Switch and will be filtered.
Priority (0-7)
Tick the corresponding check box to re-write the 802.1p default priority of a packet to the
value entered in the Priority field, which meets the criteria specified previously in this
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command, before forwarding it on to the specified CoS queue. Otherwise, a packet will
have its incoming 802.1p user priority re-written to its original value before being forwarded
by the Switch.
For more information on priority queues, CoS queues and mapping for 802.1p, see the
QoS section of this manual.
Replace DSCP (0-63)
Select this option to instruct the Switch to replace the DSCP value (in a packet that meets
the selected criteria) with the value entered in the adjacent field. When an ACL rule is
added to change both the priority and DSCP of an IPv6 packet, only one of them can be
modified due to a chip limitation. Currently the priority is changed when both the priority
and DSCP are set to be modified.
Time Range Name
Tick the check box and enter the name of the Time Range settings that has been
previously configured in the Time Range Settings window. This will set specific times
when this access rule will be implemented on the Switch.
Counter
Here the user can select the counter. By checking the counter, the administrator can see
how many times that the rule was hit.
Ports
Specify a port number to apply to the access rule.
VLAN Name
Specify the VLAN name to apply to the access rule.
VLAN ID
Specify the VLAN ID to apply to the access rule.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
After clicking the Show Details button in the Egress Access Rule List, the following page will appear:
Figure 8-63 Egress Access Rule Detail Information (IPv6 ACL)
Click the Show All Rules button to navigate back to the Access Rule List.
Egress ACL Flow Meter
This window is used to configure the packet flow-based metering based on an egress access profile and rule.
To view this window, click ACL > Egress ACL Flow Meter as shown below:
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Figure 8-64 Egress ACL Flow Meter window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
Here the user can enter the Profile ID for the flow meter.
Profile Name
Here the user can enter the Profile Name for the flow meter.
Access ID (1-128)
Here the user can enter the Access ID for the flow meter.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Modify button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the View button to display the information of the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
After clicking the Add or Modify button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8-65 Egress ACL Flow Meter Configuration window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Profile ID
Enter the Profile ID for the flow meter.
Profile Name
Enter the Profile Name for the flow meter.
Access ID
Enter the Access ID for the flow meter.
Mode
Rate – Specify the rate for single rate two color mode.
Rate – Specify the committed bandwidth in Kbps for the flow.
Burst Size – Specify the burst size for the single rate two color mode. The unit is in kilobyte.
Rate Exceeded – Specify the action for packets that exceed the committed rate in single rate two
color mode. The action can be specified as the following:
Drop Packet – Drop the packet immediately.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
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Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
After clicking the View button, the following page will appear:
Figure 8-66 Egress ACL Flow meter Display window
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
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Chapter 9
Security
802.1X
RADIUS
IP-MAC-Port Binding (IMPB)
MAC-based Access Control (MAC)
Web-based Access Control (WAC)
Japanese Web-based Access Control (JWAC)
Compound Authentication
Port Security
ARP Spoofing Prevention Settings
BPDU Attack Protection
Loopback Detection Settings
Traffic Segmentation Settings
NetBIOS Filtering Settings
DHCP Server Screening
Access Authentication Control
SSL Settings
SSH
Trusted Host Settings
Safeguard Engine Settings
802.1X
802.1X (Port-Based and Host-Based Access Control)
The IEEE 802.1X standard is a security measure for
authorizing and authenticating users to gain access to
various wired or wireless devices on a specified Local
Area Network by using a Client and Server based
access control model. This is accomplished by using a
RADIUS server to authenticate users trying to access a
network by relaying Extensible Authentication Protocol
over LAN (EAPOL) packets between the Client and the
Server. The following figure represents a basic EAPOL
packet:
Figure 9–1 EAPOL Packet Window
Utilizing this method, unauthorized devices are
restricted from connecting to a LAN through a port to
which the user is connected. EAPOL packets are the
only traffic that can be transmitted through the specific
port until authorization is granted. The 802.1X Access
Control method has three roles, each of which are vital
to creating and up keeping a stable and working Access
Control security method.
Figure 9–2 Authenticator Window
The following section will explain the three roles of Client, Authenticator and Authentication Server in greater detail.
Authentication Server
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The Authentication Server is a remote device that is
connected to the same network as the Client and
Authenticator, must be running a RADIUS Server
program and must be configured properly on the
Authenticator (Switch). Clients connected to a port on
the Switch must be authenticated by the Authentication
Server (RADIUS) before attaining any services offered
by the Switch on the LAN. The role of the Authentication
Server is to certify the identity of the Client attempting to
access the network by exchanging secure information
between the RADIUS server and the Client through
EAPOL packets and, in turn, informs the Switch whether
or not the Client is granted access to the LAN and/or
switches services.
Figure 9–3 Authentication Server Window
Authenticator
The Authenticator (the Switch) is an intermediary
between the Authentication Server and the Client. The
Authenticator serves two purposes when utilizing the
802.1X function. The first purpose is to request
certification information from the Client through EAPOL
packets, which is the only information allowed to pass
through the Authenticator before access is granted to
the Client. The second purpose of the Authenticator is
to verify the information gathered from the Client with
the Authentication Server, and to then relay that
information back to the Client.
Figure 9–4 Authenticator Window
Three steps must be implemented on the Switch to properly configure the Authenticator.
1. The 802.1X State must be Enabled. (Security / 802.1X /802.1X Settings)
2. The 802.1X settings must be implemented by port (Security / 802.1X / 802.1X Settings)
3. A RADIUS server must be configured on the Switch. (Security / 802.1X / Authentic RADIUS Server)
Client
The Client is simply the end station that wishes to gain
access to the LAN or switch services. All end stations
must be running software that is compliant with the
802.1X protocol. For users running Windows XP and
Windows Vista, that software is included within the
operating system. All other users are required to attain
802.1X client software from an outside source. The
Client will request access to the LAN and or Switch
through EAPOL packets and, in turn will respond to
requests from the Switch.
Figure 9–5 Client Window
Authentication Process
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Utilizing the three roles stated above, the 802.1X
protocol provides a stable and secure way of authorizing
and authenticating users attempting to access the
network. Only EAPOL traffic is allowed to pass through
the specified port before a successful authentication is
made. This port is “locked” until the point when a Client
with the correct username and password (and MAC
address if 802.1X is enabled by MAC address) is
granted access and therefore successfully “unlocks” the
port. Once unlocked, normal traffic is allowed to pass
through the port. The following figure displays a more
detailed explanation of how the authentication process
is completed between the three roles stated above.
Figure 9–6 Authentication Process Window
The D-Link implementation of 802.1X allows network administrators to choose between two types of Access Control
used on the Switch, which are:
1. Port-Based Access Control – This method requires only one user to be authenticated per port by a remote
RADIUS server to allow the remaining users on the same port access to the network.
2. Host-Based Access Control – Using this method, the Switch will automatically learn up to a maximum of 16
MAC addresses by port and set them in a list. Each MAC address must be authenticated by the Switch
using a remote RADIUS server before being allowed access to the Network.
Understanding 802.1X Port-based and Host-based Network Access Control
The original intent behind the development of 802.1X was to leverage the characteristics of point-to-point in LANs. As
any single LAN segment in such infrastructures has no more than two devices attached to it, one of which is a Bridge
Port. The Bridge Port detects events that indicate the attachment of an active device at the remote end of the link, or
an active device becoming inactive. These events can be used to control the authorization state of the Port and initiate
the process of authenticating the attached device if the Port is unauthorized. This is the Port-Based Network Access
Control.
Port-Based Network Access Control
Once the connected device has successfully been
authenticated, the Port then becomes Authorized,
and all subsequent traffic on the Port is not subject to
access control restriction until an event occurs that
causes the Port to become Unauthorized. Hence, if
the Port is actually connected to a shared media LAN
segment with more than one attached device,
successfully authenticating one of the attached
devices effectively provides access to the LAN for all
devices on the shared segment. Clearly, the security
offered in this situation is open to attack.
Figure 9–7 Port-Based Network Access Control Window
Host-Based Network Access Control
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In order to successfully make use of 802.1X in a
shared media LAN segment, it would be necessary
to create “logical” Ports, one for each attached
device that required access to the LAN. The Switch
would regard the single physical Port connecting it to
the shared media segment as consisting of a number
of distinct logical Ports, each logical Port being
independently controlled from the point of view of
EAPOL exchanges and authorization state. The
Switch learns each attached devices’ individual MAC
addresses, and effectively creates a logical Port that
the attached device can then use to communicate
with the LAN via the Switch.
Figure 9–8 Host-Based Network Access Control Window
802.1X Global Settings
Users can configure the 802.1X global parameter.
To view the following window, click Security > 802.1X > 802.1X Global Settings, as shown below:
Figure 9–9 802.1X Global Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Authentication Mode:
Choose the 802.1X authenticator mode, Disabled, Port-based, or MAC-based.
Authentication
Protocol:
Choose the authenticator protocol, Local or RADIUS EAP.
Forward EAPOL PDU:
This is a global setting to control the forwarding of EAPOL PDU. When 802.1X
functionality is disabled globally or for a port, and if 802.1X forward PDU is enabled both
globally and for the port, a received EAPOL packet on the port will be flooded in the same
VLAN to those ports for which 802.1X forward PDU is enabled and 802.1X is disabled
(globally or just for the port). The default state is disabled.
Max Users:
Specifies the maximum number of users. The limit on the maximum users is 1792 users.
RADIUS Authorization:
This option is used to enable or disable acceptation of authorized configuration. When the
authorization is enabled for 802.1X’s RADIUS, the authorized data assigned by the
RADIUS server will be accepted if the global authorization network is enabled.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
802.1X Port Settings
Users can configure the 802.1X authenticator port settings.
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To view the following window, click Security > 802.1X > 802.1X Port Settings, as shown below:
Figure 9–10 802.1X Port Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port:
Enter the beginning port of the range of ports to be set.
To Port:
Enter the ending port of the range of ports to be set.
QuietPeriod:
This allows the user to set the number of seconds that the Switch remains in the quiet
state following a failed authentication exchange with the client. The default setting is 60
seconds.
SuppTimeout:
This value determines timeout conditions in the exchanges between the Authenticator and
the client. The default setting is 30 seconds.
ServerTimeout:
This value determines timeout conditions in the exchanges between the Authenticator and
the authentication server. The default setting is 30 seconds.
MaxReq:
The maximum number of times that the Switch will retransmit an EAP Request to the
client before it times out of the authentication sessions. The default setting is 2.
TxPeriod:
This sets the TxPeriod of time for the authenticator PAE state machine. This value
determines the period of an EAP Request/Identity packet transmitted to the client. The
default setting is 30 seconds.
ReAuthPeriod:
A constant that defines a nonzero number of seconds between periodic re-authentication
of the client. The default setting is 3600 seconds.
ReAuthentication:
Determines whether regular re-authentication will take place on this port. The default
setting is Disabled.
Port Control:
This allows the user to control the port authorization state.
Select ForceAuthorized to disable 802.1X and cause the port to transition to the
authorized state without any authentication exchange required. This means the port
transmits and receives normal traffic without 802.1X-based authentication of the client.
If ForceUnauthorized is selected, the port will remain in the unauthorized state, ignoring
all attempts by the client to authenticate. The Switch cannot provide authentication
services to the client through the interface.
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If Auto is selected, it will enable 802.1X and cause the port to begin in the unauthorized
state, allowing only EAPOL frames to be sent and received through the port. The
authentication process begins when the link state of the port transitions from down to up,
or when an EAPOL-start frame is received. The Switch then requests the identity of the
client and begins relaying authentication messages between the client and the
authentication server.
The default setting is Auto.
Capability:
This allows the 802.1X Authenticator settings to be applied on a per-port basis. Select
Authenticator to apply the settings to the port. When the setting is activated, a user must
pass the authentication process to gain access to the network. Select None disable
802.1X functions on the port.
Direction:
Sets the administrative-controlled direction to Both or In. If Both is selected, control is
exerted over both incoming and outgoing traffic through the controlled port selected in the
first field. If In is selected, the control is only exerted over incoming traffic through the port
the user selected in the first field.
Forward EAPOL PDU:
This is a global setting to control the forwarding of EAPOL PDU. When 802.1X
functionality is disabled globally or for a port, and if 802.1X forward PDU is enabled both
globally and for the port, a received EAPOL packet on the port will be flooded in the same
VLAN to those ports for which 802.1X forward PDU is enabled and 802.1X is disabled
(globally or just for the port). The default state is disabled.
Max Users:
Specifies the maximum number of users. The maximum user limit is 1792 users. By
default, the maximum value is selected.
Click the Refresh button to refresh the display table so that new entries will appear.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
802.1X User Settings
Users can set different 802.1X users in switch’s local database.
To view the following window, click Security > 802.1X > 802.1X User Settings, as shown below:
Figure 9–11 802.1X User Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
802.1X User:
The user can enter an 802.1X user’s username in here.
Password:
The user can enter an 802.1X user’s password in here.
Confirm Password:
The user can re-enter an 802.1X user’s password in here.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
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NOTE: The 802.1X User and Password values should be less than 16 characters.
Guest VLAN Settings
On 802.1X security-enabled networks, there is a need
for non- 802.1X supported devices to gain limited
access to the network, due to lack of the proper 802.1X
software or incompatible devices, such as computers
running Windows 98 or older operating systems, or the
need for guests to gain access to the network without
full authorization or local authentication on the Switch.
To supplement these circumstances, this switch now
implements 802.1X Guest VLANs. These VLANs should
have limited access rights and features separate from
other VLANs on the network.
To implement 802.1X Guest VLANs, the user must first
create a VLAN on the network with limited rights and
then enable it as an 802.1X guest VLAN. Then the
administrator must configure the guest accounts
accessing the Switch to be placed in a Guest VLAN
when trying to access the Switch. Upon initial entry to
the Switch, the client wishing services on the Switch will
need to be authenticated by a remote RADIUS Server
or local authentication on the Switch to be placed in a
fully operational VLAN.
Figure 9–12 Guest VLAN Window
If authenticated and the authenticator possess the VLAN placement information, that client will be accepted into the
fully operational target VLAN and normal switch functions will be open to the client. If the authenticator does not
have target VLAN placement information, the client will be returned to its originating VLAN. Yet, if the client is denied
authentication by the authenticator, it will be placed in the Guest VLAN where it has limited rights and access. The
adjacent figure should give the user a better understanding of the Guest VLAN process.
Limitations Using the Guest VLAN
1. Ports supporting Guest VLANs cannot be GVRP enabled and vice versa.
2. A port cannot be a member of a Guest VLAN and a static VLAN simultaneously.
3. Once a client has been accepted into the target VLAN, it can no longer access the Guest VLAN.
Remember, to set an 802.1X guest VLAN, the user must first configure a normal VLAN, which can be enabled here for
guest VLAN status. Only one VLAN may be assigned as the 802.1X guest VLAN.
To view the following window, click Security > 802.1X > Guest VLAN Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 9–13 Guest VLAN Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name:
Enter the pre-configured VLAN name to create as an 802.1X guest VLAN.
Port:
Set the ports to be enabled for the 802.1X guest VLAN. Click the All button to select all
the ports.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry based on the information entered.
Authenticator State
This window is used to display the authenticator state.
This window appears when the Authentication State is enabled in 802.1X Global Settings window.
To view this window, click Security > 802.1X > Authenticator State as shown below:
Figure 9–14 Authenticator State Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port
Use the drop-down menu to select a port to display.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Refresh button to refresh the display table so that new entries will appear.
Authenticator Statistics
This window is used to display the authenticator statistics information.
This window appears when the Authentication State is enabled in 802.1X Global Settings window.
To view this window, click Security > 802.1X > Authenticator Statistics as shown below:
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Figure 9–15 Authenticator Statistics (Port-based) Window
Figure 9–16 Authenticator Statistics (MAC-based) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port
Use the drop-down menu to select a port to display.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Authenticator Session Statistics
This window is used to display the authenticator session statistics information.
This window appears when the Authentication State is enabled in 802.1X Global Settings window.
To view this window, click Security > 802.1X > Authenticator Session Statistics as shown below:
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Figure 9–17 Authenticator Session Statistics (Port-based) Window
Figure 9–18 Authenticator Session Statistics (MAC-based) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port
Use the drop-down menu to select a port to display.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Authenticator Diagnostics
This window is used to display the authenticator diagnostics information.
This window appears when the Authentication State is enabled in 802.1X Global Settings window.
To view this window, click Security > 802.1X > Authenticator Diagnostics as shown below:
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Figure 9–19 Authenticator Diagnostics (Port-based) Window
Figure 9–20 Authenticator Diagnostics (MAC-based) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port
Use the drop-down menu to select a port to display.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Initialize Port(s)
This window is used to initialize the 802.1X authentication state machine of ports and displays the current initialized
ports.
This window appears when the Authentication State is enabled in 802.1X Global Settings window.
To view this window, click Security > 802.1X > Initialize Port(s) as shown below:
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Figure 9–21 Initialize Port(s) (Port-based) Window
Figure 9–22 Initialize Port(s) (MAC-based) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Use the drop-down menus to select a range of ports to initialize.
MAC Address:
Select and enter the appropriate MAC address used here. This option is only available
when the Authentication Mode has been set to MAC-based in the 802.1X Global
Settings window.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Reauthenticate Port(s)
This window is used to re-authenticate the device connected with the ports and display the current status of the reauthenticated port-based port(s).
This window appears when the Authentication State is enabled in 802.1X Global Settings window.
To view this window, click Security > 802.1X > Reauthenticate Port(s) as shown below:
Figure 9–23 Reauthenticate Port(s) (Port-based) Window
Figure 9–24 Reauthenticate Port(s) (MAC-based) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Use the drop-down menus to select a range of ports to re-authenticate.
MAC Address:
Select and enter the appropriate MAC address used here. This option is only available
when the Authentication Mode has been set to MAC-based in the 802.1X Global
Settings window.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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RADIUS
Authentication RADIUS Server Settings
The RADIUS feature of the Switch allows the user to facilitate centralized user administration as well as providing
protection against a sniffing, active hacker.
To view the following window, click Security > RADIUS > Authentication RADIUS Server Settings, as shown
below:
Figure 9–25 Authentication RADIUS Server Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Index:
Choose the desired RADIUS server to configure: 1, 2 or 3 and select the IPv4 Address or
IPv6 Address.
IPv4 Address
Set the RADIUS server IPv4 address.
IPv6 Address
Set the RADIUS server IPv6 address.
Authentication Port (165535)
Set the RADIUS authentication server(s) UDP port which is used to transmit RADIUS
data between the Switch and the RADIUS server.
Accounting Port (165535)
Set the RADIUS account server(s) UDP port which is used to transmit RADIUS
accounting statistics between the Switch and the RADIUS server.
Timeout (1-255)
Set the RADIUS server age-out, in seconds.
Retransmit (1-20)
Set the RADIUS server retransmit time, in times.
Key
Set the key the same as that of the RADIUS server.
Confirm Key
Confirm the key the same as that of the RADIUS server.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specified entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specified entry.
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RADIUS Accounting Settings
Users can configure the state of the specified RADIUS accounting service.
To view the following window, click Security > RADIUS > RADIUS Accounting Settings, as shown below:
Figure 9–26 RADIUS Accounting Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Network:
When enabled, the Switch will send informational packets to a remote RADIUS server
when 802.1X, WAC and JWAC port access control events occur on the Switch.
Shell:
When enabled, the Switch will send informational packets to a remote RADIUS server
when a user either logs in, logs out or times out on the Switch, using the console, Telnet,
or SSH.
System:
When enabled, the Switch will send informational packets to a remote RADIUS server
when system events occur on the Switch, such as a system reset or system boot.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
RADIUS Authentication
Users can display information concerning the activity of the RADIUS authentication client on the client side of the
RADIUS authentication protocol.
To view the following window, click Security > RADIUS > RADIUS Authentication, as shown below:
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Figure 9–27 RADIUS Authentication Window
The user may also select the desired time interval to update the statistics, between 1s and 60s, where “s” stands for
seconds. The default value is one second.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
ServerIndex:
The identification number assigned to each RADIUS Authentication server that the
client shares a secret with.
InvalidServerAddresses:
The number of RADIUS Access-Response packets received from unknown addresses.
Identifier:
The NAS-Identifier of the RADIUS authentication client.
AuthServerAddress:
The (conceptual) table listing the RADIUS authentication servers with which the client
shares a secret.
ServerPortNumber:
The UDP port the client is using to send requests to this server.
RoundTripTime:
The time interval (in hundredths of a second) between the most recent AccessReply/Access-Challenge and the Access-Request that matched it from this RADIUS
authentication server.
AccessRequests:
The number of RADIUS Access-Request packets sent to this server. This does not
include retransmissions.
AccessRetransmissions:
The number of RADIUS Access-Request packets retransmitted to this RADIUS
authentication server.
AccessAccepts:
The number of RADIUS Access-Accept packets (valid or invalid) received from this
server.
AccessRejects:
The number of RADIUS Access-Reject packets (valid or invalid) received from this
server.
AccessChallenges:
The number of RADIUS Access-Challenge packets (valid or invalid) received from this
server.
AccessResponses:
The number of malformed RADIUS Access-Response packets received from this
server. Malformed packets include packets with an invalid length. Bad authenticators or
Signature attributes or known types are not included as malformed access responses.
BadAuthenticators:
The number of RADIUS Access-Response packets containing invalid authenticators or
Signature attributes received from this server.
PendingRequests:
The number of RADIUS Access-Request packets destined for this server that have not
yet timed out or received a response. This variable is incremented when an Access318
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Request is sent and decremented due to receipt of an Access-Accept, Access-Reject or
Access-Challenge, a timeout or retransmission.
Timeouts:
The number of authentication timeouts to this server. After a timeout the client may retry
to the same server, send to a different server, or give up. A retry to the same server is
counted as a retransmit as well as a timeout. A send to a different server is counted as
a Request as well as a timeout.
UnknownTypes:
The number of RADIUS packets of unknown type which were received from this server
on the authentication port
PacketsDropped:
The number of RADIUS packets of which were received from this server on the
authentication port and dropped for some other reason.
Click the Clear button to clear the current statistics shown.
RADIUS Account Client
Users can display managed objects used for managing RADIUS accounting clients, and the current statistics
associated with them.
To view the following window, click Security > RADIUS > RADIUS Account Client, as shown below:
Figure 9–28 RADIUS Account Client Window
The user may also select the desired time interval to update the statistics, between 1s and 60s, where “s” stands for
seconds. The default value is one second.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
ServerIndex:
The identification number assigned to each RADIUS Accounting server that the client
shares a secret with.
InvalidServerAddr:
The number of RADIUS Accounting-Response packets received from unknown
addresses.
Identifier:
The NAS-Identifier of the RADIUS accounting client.
ServerAddr:
The (conceptual) table listing the RADIUS accounting servers with which the client shares
a secret.
ServerPortNumber:
The UDP port the client is using to send requests to this server.
RoundTripTime:
The time interval between the most recent Accounting-Response and the AccountingRequest that matched it from this RADIUS accounting server.
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Requests:
The number of RADIUS Accounting-Request packets sent. This does not include
retransmissions.
Retransmissions:
The number of RADIUS Accounting-Request packets retransmitted to this RADIUS
accounting server. Retransmissions include retries where the Identifier and Acct-Delay
have been updated, as well as those in which they remain the same.
Responses:
The number of RADIUS packets received on the accounting port from this server.
MalformedResponses:
The number of malformed RADIUS Accounting-Response packets received from this
server. Malformed packets include packets with an invalid length. Bad authenticators and
unknown types are not included as malformed accounting responses.
BadAuthenticators:
The number of RADIUS Accounting-Response packets, which contained invalid
authenticators, received from this server.
PendingRequests:
The number of RADIUS Accounting-Request packets sent to this server that have not yet
timed out or received a response. This variable is incremented when an AccountingRequest is sent and decremented due to receipt of an Accounting-Response, a timeout or
a retransmission.
Timeouts:
The number of accounting timeouts to this server. After a timeout the client may retry to
the same server, send to a different server, or give up. A retry to the same server is
counted as a retransmit as well as a timeout. A send to a different server is counted as an
Accounting-Request as well as a timeout.
UnknownTypes:
The number of RADIUS packets of unknown type which were received from this server on
the accounting port.
PacketsDropped:
The number of RADIUS packets, which were received from this server on the accounting
port and dropped for some other reason.
Click the Clear button to clear the current statistics shown.
IP-MAC-Port Binding (IMPB)
The IP network layer uses a four-byte address. The Ethernet link layer uses a six-byte MAC address. Binding these
two address types together allows the transmission of data between the layers. The primary purpose of IP-MAC-port
binding is to restrict the access to a switch to a number of authorized users. Authorized clients can access a switch’s
port by either checking the pair of IP-MAC addresses with the pre-configured database or if DHCP snooping has been
enabled in which case the switch will automatically learn the IP/MAC pairs by snooping DHCP packets and saving
them to the IMPB white list. If an unauthorized user tries to access an IP-MAC binding enabled port, the system will
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block the access by dropping its packet. For the xStack DES-3810-28 series of switches, active and inactive entries
use the same database. The maximum number of entries is 511. The creation of authorized users can be manually
configured by CLI or Web. The function is port-based, meaning a user can enable or disable the function on the
individual port.
IMPB Global Settings
Users can enable or disable the Trap/Log State and DHCP Snoop state on the Switch. The Trap/Log field will enable
and disable the sending of trap/log messages for IP-MAC-port binding. When enabled, the Switch will send a trap
message to the SNMP agent and the Switch log when an ARP packet is received that doesn’t match the IP-MAC-port
binding configuration set on the Switch.
To view the following window, click Security > IP-MAC-Port Binding (IMPB) > IMPB Global Settings, as shown
below:
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Figure 9–29 IMPB Global Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Trap / Log
Click the radio buttons to enable or disable the sending of trap/log messages for IPMAC-port binding. When Enabled, the Switch will send a trap message to the SNMP
agent and the Switch log when an ARP/IP packet is received that doesn’t match the IPMAC-port binding configuration set on the Switch. The default is Disabled.
DHCP Snooping (IPv4)
Click the radio buttons to enable or disable DHCP snooping (IPv4) for IP-MAC-port
binding. The default is Disabled.
DHCP Snooping (IPv6)
Click the radio buttons to enable or disable DHCP snooping (IPv6) for IP-MAC-port
binding. The default is Disabled.
ND Snooping
Click the radio buttons to enable or disable enable ND snooping on the Switch. The
default is Disabled.
Recover Learning Ports
Enter the port numbers used to recover the learning port state. Tick the All check box to
apply to all ports.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
IMPB Port Settings
Select a port or a range of ports with the From Port and To Port fields. Enable or disable the port with the State, Allow
Zero IP and Forward DHCP Packet field, and configure the port’s Max Entry.
To view the following window, click Security > IP-MAC-Port Binding (IMPB) > IMPB Port Settings, as shown below:
Figure 9–30 IMPB Port Settings Window
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port:
Select a starting port to set for IP-MAC-port binding.
To Port:
Select an ending port to set for IP-MAC-port binding.
IPv4 State:
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable these ports for IPv4 binding.
IPv6 State:
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable these ports for IPv6 binding.
Enabled (Strict):
This mode provides a stricter method of control. If the user selects this mode, all packets
will be sent to the CPU, thus all packets will not be forwarded by the hardware until the
S/W learns the entries for the ports. The port will check ARP packets and IP packets by
IP-MAC-port binding entries. When the packet is found by the entry, the MAC address will
be set to dynamic state. If the packet is not found by the entry, the MAC address will be
set to block. Other packets will be dropped. The default mode is strict if not specified. The
ports with strict mode will capture unicast DHCP packets through the ACL module. If
configuring IP-MAC-port binding in strict mode when IP-MAC-port binding DHCP
snooping is enabled, it will create an ACL profile and the rules according to the ports. If
there is not enough profile or rule space for an ACL profile or rule table, it will return a
warning message and will not create an ACL profile and rules to capture unicast DHCP
packets.
Enabled (Loose):
This mode provides a looser way of control. If the user selects loose mode, ARP packets
and IP broadcast packets will be sent to the CPU. The packets will still be forwarded by
the hardware until a specific source MAC address is blocked by the software. The port will
check ARP packets and IP broadcast packets by IP-MAC-port binding entries. When the
packet is found by the entry, the MAC address will be set to dynamic state. If the packet is
not found by the entry, the MAC address will be set to block. Other packets will be
bypassed.
Zero IP:
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable this feature. Allow zero IP configures the
state which allows ARP packets with 0.0.0.0 source IP to bypass.
DHCP Packet:
By default, the DHCP packet with broadcast DA will be flooded. When set to disable, the
broadcast DHCP packet received by the specified port will not be forwarded in strict
mode. This setting is effective when DHCP snooping is enabled, in the case when a
DHCP packet which has been trapped by the CPU needs to be forwarded by the
software. This setting controls the forwarding behavior in this situation.
Mode:
Toggle between ARP and ACL. When configuring the port mode to ACL, the Switch will
create an ACL access entry corresponding to the entries of this port. If the port changes
to ARP, all the ACL access entries will be deleted automatically. The default mode is
ARP.
Stop Learning
Threshold:
Here is displayed the number of blocked entries on the port. The default value is 500.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
IMPB Entry Settings
This table is used to create static IP-MAC-binding port entries and view all IMPB entries on the Switch.
To view the following window, click Security > IP-MAC-Port Binding (IMPB) > IMPB Entry Settings, as shown
below:
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Figure 9–31 IMPB Entry Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IPv4 Address:
Enter the IPv4 address to bind to the MAC address set below.
IPv6 Address:
Enter the IPv6 address to bind to the MAC address set below.
MAC Address:
Enter the MAC address to bind to the IP Address set above.
Ports:
Specify the switch ports for which to configure this IP-MAC binding entry (IP Address +
MAC Address). Click the All Ports check box to configure this entry for all ports on the
Switch.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specified entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specified entry.
MAC Block List
This table is used to view unauthorized devices that have been blocked by IP-MAC binding restrictions.
To view the following window, click Security > IP-MAC-Port Binding (IMPB) > MAC Block List, as shown below:
Figure 9–32 MAC Block List Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name:
Enter a VLAN Name.
MAC Address:
Enter a MAC address.
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Click the Find button to find an unauthorized device that has been blocked by the IP-MAC binding restrictions
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
DHCP Snooping
DHCP Snooping Maximum Entry Settings
Users can configure the maximum DHCP snooping entry for ports on this page.
To view the following window, click Security > IP-MAC-Port Binding (IMPB) > DHCP Snooping > DHCP Snooping
Maximum Entry Settings, as shown below:
Figure 9–33 DHCP Snooping Max Entry Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port – To Port
Here the user can select a range of ports to use.
Maximum Entry (1-50)
Enter the maximum entry value. Tick the No Limit check box to have unlimited maximum
number of the learned entries.
Maximum IPv6 Entry (150)
Enter the maximum entry value for IPv6 DHCP Snooping. Tick the No Limit check box to
have unlimited maximum number of the learned entries.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
DHCP Snooping Entry
This table is used to view dynamic entries on specific ports. To view particular port settings, enter the port number and
click Find. To view all entries click View All, and to delete an entry, click Clear.
To view the following window, click Security > IP-MAC-Port Binding (IMPB) > DHCP Snooping > DHCP Snooping
Entry, as shown below:
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Figure 9–34 DHCP Snooping Entries Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port
Use the drop-down menu to select the desired port.
Ports
Specify the ports for DHCP snooping entries. Tick the All Ports check box to select all
entries for all ports. Tick the IPv4 check box to select IPv4 DHCP snooping learned
entries. Tick the IPv6 check box to select IPv6 DHCP snooping learned entries..
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the port number selected.
Click the Clear button to clear all the information entered in the fields.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
ND Snooping
ND Snooping Maximum Entry Settings
Users can configure the maximum ND Snooping entry for ports on this page.
To view this window, click Security > IP-MAC-Port Binding (IMPB) > ND Snooping > ND Snooping Maximum
Entry Settings as shown below:
Figure 9-35 ND Snooping Maximum Entry Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Use the drop-down menus to select a range of ports that require a restriction on the
maximum number of entries that can be learned with ND snooping.
Maximum Entry (1-50)
Enter the maximum entry value. Tick the No Limit check box to have unlimited maximum
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number of the learned entries.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
ND Snooping Entry
This window is used to view dynamic entries on specific ports.
To view this window, click Security > IP-MAC-Port Binding (IMPB) > ND Snooping > ND Snooping Entry as
shown below:
Figure 9-36 ND Snooping Entry window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port
Use the drop-down menu to select the desired port.
Ports
Specify the ports for ND snooping entries. Tick the All Ports check box to select all entries
for all ports.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the port number selected.
Click the Clear button to clear all the information entered in the fields.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
MAC-based Access Control (MAC)
MAC-based access control is a method to authenticate and authorize access using either a port or host. For portbased MAC, the method decides port access rights, while for host-based MAC, the method determines the MAC
access rights.
A MAC user must be authenticated before being granted access to a network. Both local authentication and remote
RADIUS server authentication methods are supported. In MAC-based access control, MAC user information in a local
database or a RADIUS server database is searched for authentication. Following the authentication result, users
achieve different levels of authorization.
Notes about MAC-based access control
There are certain limitations and regulations regarding MAC-based access control:
1. Once this feature is enabled for a port, the Switch will clear the FDB of that port.
2. If a port is granted clearance for a MAC address in a VLAN that is not a Guest VLAN, other MAC
addresses on that port must be authenticated for access and otherwise will be blocked by the Switch.
3. Ports that have been enabled for Link Aggregation, Port Security, or GVRP authentication cannot be
enabled for MAC-based Authentication.
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MAC-based Access Control Settings
This window is used to set the parameters for the MAC-based access control function on the Switch. The user can set
the running state, method of authentication, RADIUS password, view the Guest VLAN configuration to be associated
with the MAC-based access control function of the Switch, and configure ports to be enabled or disabled for the MACbased access control feature of the Switch. Please remember, ports enabled for certain other features, listed
previously, and cannot be enabled for MAC-based access control.
To view the following window, click Security > MAC-based Access Control (MAC) > MAC-based Access Control
Settings, as shown below:
Figure 9–37 MAC-based Access Control Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MAC-based access
control State:
Toggle to globally enable or disable the MAC-based access control function on the
Switch.
Method:
Use this drop-down menu to choose the type of authentication to be used when
authentication MAC addresses on a given port. The user may choose between the
following methods:
Local – Use this method to utilize the locally set MAC address database as the
authenticator for MAC-based access control. This MAC address list can be configured in
the MAC-based access control Local Database Settings window.
RADIUS – Use this method to utilize a remote RADIUS server as the authenticator for
MAC-based access control. Remember, the MAC list must be previously set on the
RADIUS server.
Password:
Enter the password for the RADIUS server, which is to be used for packets being sent
requesting authentication. The default password is “default”.
RADIUS Authorization:
Here the user can enable or disable the use of RADIUS Authorization.
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Local Authorization:
Here the user can enable or disable the use of Local Authorization.
Max User:
Here the user can specify the maximum amount of users of the switch.
VLAN Name:
Enter the name of the previously configured Guest VLAN being used for this function.
VLAN ID:
Click the button and enter a Guest VLAN ID.
Member Ports:
Enter the list of ports that have been configured for the Guest VLAN.
From Port:
The beginning port of a range of ports to be configured for MAC-based access control.
To Port:
The ending port of a range of ports to be configured for MAC-based access control.
State:
Use this drop-down menu to enable or disable MAC-based access control on the port or
range of ports selected in the Port Settings section of this window.
Mode:
Toggle between Port Based and Host Based.
Aging Time (1-1440):
Enter a value between 1 and 1440 minutes. The default is 1440.
Block Time (0-300):
Enter a value between 1 and 300 seconds. The default is 300.
Max User (1-1000):
Here the user can enter the maximum user used for this configuration. When No Limit is
selected, there will be no user limit applied to this rule.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry based on the information entered.
MAC-based Access Control Local Settings
Users can set a list of MAC addresses, along with their corresponding target VLAN, which will be authenticated for the
Switch. Once a queried MAC address is matched in this window, it will be placed in the VLAN associated with it here.
The Switch administrator may enter up to 128 MAC addresses to be authenticated using the local method configured
here.
To view the following window, click Security > MAC-based Access Control (MAC) > MAC-based Access Control
Local Settings, as shown below:
Figure 9–38 MAC-based Access Control Local Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MAC address:
The user can enter the MAC address that will be added to the local authentication list
here.
VLAN Name:
The user can enter the VLAN name of the corresponding MAC address here.
VID (1-4094):
The user can enter the VLAN ID of the corresponding MAC address here.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete by MAC button to remove the specific entry based on the MAC address entered.
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Click the Delete by VLAN button to remove the specific entry based on the VLAN name or ID entered.
Click the Find by MAC button to locate a specific entry based on the MAC address entered.
Click the Find by VLAN button to locate a specific entry based on the VLAN name or ID entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
To change the selected MAC address’ VLAN Name, the user can click the Edit by Name button.
Figure 9–39 Edit by VLAN Name Window
To change the selected MAC address’ VID value, the user can click the Edit by ID button.
Figure 9–40 Edit by VID Window
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
MAC-based Access Control Authentication State
Users can display MAC-based access control Authentication State information.
To view the following window, click Security > MAC-based Access Control (MAC) > MAC-based Access Control
Authentication State, as shown below:
Figure 9–41 MAC-based Access Control Authentication State Window
To display MAC-based access control Authentication State information, enter a port number in the space provided and
then click the Find button.
Click the Clear by Port button to clear all the information linked to the port number entered.
Click the View All Hosts button to display all the existing hosts.
Click the Clear All hosts button to clear out all the existing hosts.
Web-based Access Control (WAC)
Web-based Authentication Login is a feature designed to authenticate a user when the user is trying to access the
Internet via the Switch. The authentication process uses the HTTP protocol. The Switch enters the authenticating
stage when users attempt to browse Web pages (e.g., http://www.dlink.com) through a Web browser. When the
Switch detects HTTP packets and this port is un-authenticated, the Switch will launch a pop-up user name and
password window to query users. Users are not able to access the Internet until the authentication process is passed.
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The Switch can be the authentication server itself and do the authentication based on a local database, or be a
RADIUS client and perform the authentication process via the RADIUS protocol with a remote RADIUS server. The
client user initiates the authentication process of WAC by attempting to gain Web access.
D-Link’s implementation of WAC uses a virtual IP that is exclusively used by the WAC function and is not known by
any other modules of the Switch. In fact, to avoid affecting a Switch’s other features, WAC will only use a virtual IP
address to communicate with hosts. Thus, all authentication requests must be sent to a virtual IP address but not to
the IP address of the Switch’s physical interface.
Virtual IP works like this, when a host PC communicates with the WAC Switch through a virtual IP, the virtual IP is
transformed into the physical IPIF (IP interface) address of the Switch to make the communication possible. The host
PC and other servers’ IP configurations do not depend on the virtual IP of WAC. The virtual IP does not respond to
any ICMP packets or ARP requests, which means it is not allowed to configure a virtual IP on the same subnet as the
Switch’s IPIF (IP interface) or the same subnet as the host PCs’ subnet.
As all packets to a virtual IP from authenticated and authenticating hosts will be trapped to the Switch’s CPU, if the
virtual IP is the same as other servers or PCs, the hosts on the WAC-enabled ports cannot communicate with the
server or PC which really own the IP address. If the hosts need to access the server or PC, the virtual IP cannot be
the same as the one of the server or PC. If a host PC uses a proxy to access the Web, to make the authentication
work properly the user of the PC should add the virtual IP to the exception of the proxy configuration. Whether or not a
virtual IP is specified, users can access the WAC pages through the Switch’s system IP. When a virtual IP is not
specified, the authenticating Web request will be redirected to the Switch’s system IP.
The Switch’s implementation of WAC features a user-defined port number that allows the configuration of the TCP
port for either the HTTP or HTTPS protocols. This TCP port for HTTP or HTTPs is used to identify the HTTP or HTTPs
packets that will be trapped to the CPU for authentication processing, or to access the login page. If not specified, the
default port number for HTTP is 80 and the default port number for HTTPS is 443. If no protocol is specified, the
default protocol is HTTP.
The following diagram illustrates the basic six steps all parties go through in a successful Web Authentication process:
Figure 9–42 Web Authentication Process Window
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Conditions and Limitations
1. If the client is utilizing DHCP to attain an IP address, the authentication VLAN must provide a DHCP server
or a DHCP relay function so that client may obtain an IP address.
2. Certain functions exist on the Switch that will filter HTTP packets, such as the Access Profile function. The
user needs to be very careful when setting filter functions for the target VLAN, so that these HTTP packets
are not denied by the Switch.
3. If a RADIUS server is to be used for authentication, the user must first establish a RADIUS Server with the
appropriate parameters, including the target VLAN, before enabling Web Authentication on the Switch.
WAC Global Settings
Users can configure the Switch for the Web-based access control function.
To view the following window, click Security > Web-based Access Control (WAC) > WAC Global Settings, as
shown below:
Figure 9–43 WAC Global Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
WAC Global State:
Use this selection menu to either enable or disable the Web Authentication on the Switch.
Virtual IP:
Enter a virtual IP address. This address is only used by WAC and is not known by any
other modules of the Switch.
Method:
Use this drop-down menu to choose the authenticator for Web-based Access Control.
The user may choose:
Local – Choose this parameter to use the local authentication method of the Switch as the
authenticating method for users trying to access the network via the switch. This is, in
fact, the username and password to access the Switch configured using the WAC User
Settings window (Security > Web-based Access Control > WAC User Settings) seen
below.
RADIUS – Choose this parameter to use a remote RADIUS server as the authenticating
method for users trying to access the network via the switch. This RADIUS server must
have already been pre-assigned by the administrator using the Authentication RADIUS
Server Settings window (Security > RADIUS > Authentication RADIUS Server
Settings).
Redirection Path:
Enter the URL of the website that authenticated users placed in the VLAN are directed to
once authenticated.
Clear Redirection Path:
The user can enable or disable this option to clear the redirection path.
RADIUS Authorization:
The user can enable or disable this option to enable RADIUS Authorization or not.
Local Authorization:
The user can enable or disable this option to enable Local Authorization or not.
HTTP(S) Port (1-65535):
Enter a HTTP port number. Port 80 is the default.
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HTTP – Specifies that the TCP port will run the WAC HTTP protocol. The default value is
80. HTTP port cannot run at TCP port 443.
HTTPS – Specifies that the TCP port will run the WAC HTTPS protocol. The default value
is 443. HTTPS cannot run at TCP port 80.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
NOTE: A successful authentication should direct the client to the stated web page. If the client does not
reach this web page, yet does not receive a Fail! Message, the client will already be authenticated and
therefore should refresh the current browser window or attempt to open a different web page.
WAC User Settings
Users can view and set local database user accounts for Web authentication.
To view the following window, click Security > Web-based Access Control (WAC) > WAC User Settings, as shown
below:
Figure 9–44 WAC User Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
User Name:
Enter the user name of up to 15 alphanumeric characters of the guest wishing to access
the Web through this process. This field is for administrators who have selected Local as
their Web-based authenticator.
VLAN Name:
Click the button and enter a VLAN Name in this field.
VLAN ID (1-4094):
Click the button and enter a VID in this field.
Password:
Enter the password the administrator has chosen for the selected user. This field is casesensitive and must be a complete alphanumeric string. This field is for administrators who
have selected Local as their Web-based authenticator.
Confirm Password:
Retype the password entered in the previous field.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Edit VLAN Name button to re-configure the specific entry’s VLAN Name.
Click the Edit VID button to re-configure the specific entry’s VLAN ID.
Click the Clear VLAN button to remove the VLAN information from the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
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NOTE: WAC Usernames and Passwords should be less than 16 characters.
WAC Port Settings
Users can view and set port configurations for Web authentication.
To view the following window, click Security > Web-based Access Control (WAC) > WAC Port Settings, as shown
below:
Figure 9–45 WAC Port Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port:
Use this drop-down menu to select the beginning port of a range of ports to be enabled as
WAC ports.
To Port:
Use this drop-down menu to select the ending port of a range of ports to be enabled as
WAC ports.
Aging Time (1-1440):
This parameter specifies the time period during which an authenticated host will remain in
the authenticated state. Enter a value between 0 and 1440 minutes. A value of 0 indicates
the authenticated host will never age out on the port. The default value is 1440 minutes
(24 hours).
State:
Use this drop-down menu to enable the configured ports as WAC ports.
Idle Time (1-1440):
If there is no traffic during the Idle Time parameter, the host will be moved back to the
unauthenticated state. Enter a value between 0 and 1440 minutes. A value of 0 indicates
the Idle state of the authenticated host on the port will never be checked. The default
value is infinite.
Block Time (0-300):
This parameter is the period of time a host will be blocked if it fails to pass authentication.
Enter a value between 0 and 300 seconds. The default value is 60 seconds.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
WAC Authentication State
Users can view and delete the hosts for Web authentication.
To view the following window, click Security > Web-based Access Control (WAC) > WAC Authentication State, as
shown below:
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Figure 9–46 WAC Authentication State Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port List:
Use the drop-down menus to select the desired range of ports and tick the appropriate
check box(s), Authenticated, Authenticating, and Blocked.
Authenticated:
Tick this check box to clear all authenticated users for a port.
Authenticating:
Tick this check box to clear all authenticating users for a port.
Blocked:
Tick this check box to clear all blocked users for a port.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Clear by Port button to remove entry based on the port list entered.
Click the View All Hosts button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Clear All Hosts button to remove all the entries listed.
Japanese Web-based Access Control (JWAC)
JWAC Global Settings
Users can enable and configure Japanese Web-based Access Control on the Switch. JWAC and Web Authentication
are mutually exclusive functions. That is, they cannot be enabled at the same time. To use the JWAC feature,
computer users need to pass through two stages of authentication. The first stage is to do the authentication with the
quarantine server and the second stage is the authentication with the Switch. For the second stage, the authentication
is similar to Web Authentication, except that there is no port VLAN membership change by JWAC after a host passes
authentication. JWAC and WAC can share the same RADIUS server.
To view the following window, click Security > Japanese Web-based Access Control (JWAC) > JWAC Global
Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 9–47 JWAC Global Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
JWAC State:
Use this selection menu to either enable or disable JWAC on the Switch.
Virtual IP:
This parameter specifies the JWAC Virtual IP address that is used to accept
authentication requests from an unauthenticated host. The Virtual IP address of JWAC is
used to accept authentication requests from an unauthenticated host. Only requests sent
to this IP will get a correct response.
NOTE: This IP does not respond to ARP requests or ICMP packets.
Virtual URL:
Here the user can enter the Virtual URL used.
UDP Filtering:
This parameter enables or disables JWAC UDP Filtering. When UDP Filtering is Enabled,
all UDP and ICMP packets except DHCP and DNS packets from unauthenticated hosts
will be dropped.
Port Number:
This parameter specifies the TCP port that the JWAC Switch listens to and uses to finish
the authenticating process.
Forcible Logout:
This parameter enables or disables JWAC Forcible Logout. When Forcible Logout is
Enabled, a Ping packet from an authenticated host to the JWAC Switch with TTL=1 will be
regarded as a logout request, and the host will move back to the unauthenticated state.
Authentication
Protocol:
This parameter specifies the RADIUS protocol used by JWAC to complete a RADIUS
authentication. The options include Local, EAP MD5, PAP, CHAP, MS CHAP, and MS
CHAPv2.
Redirect State:
This parameter enables or disables JWAC Redirect. When the redirect quarantine server
is enabled, the unauthenticated host will be redirected to the quarantine server when it
tries to access a random URL. When the redirect JWAC login page is enabled, the
unauthenticated host will be redirected to the JWAC login page in the Switch to finish
authentication. When redirect is disabled, only access to the quarantine server and the
JWAC login page from the unauthenticated host are allowed, all other web access will be
denied.
NOTE: When enabling redirect to the quarantine server, a quarantine server must be
configured first.
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Redirect Destination:
This parameter specifies the destination before an unauthenticated host is redirected to
either the Quarantine Server or the JWAC Login Page.
Redirect Delay Time:
This parameter specifies the Delay Time before an unauthenticated host is redirected to
the Quarantine Server or JWAC Login Page. Enter a value between 0 and 10 seconds. A
value of 0 indicates no delay in the redirect.
RADIUS Authorization:
The user can enable or disable this option to enable RADIUS Authorization or not.
Local Authorization:
The user can enable or disable this option to enable Local Authorization or not.
Error Timeout:
This parameter is used to set the Quarantine Server Error Timeout. When the Quarantine
Server Monitor is enabled, the JWAC Switch will periodically check if the Quarantine
works okay. If the Switch does not receive any response from the Quarantine Server
during the configured Error Timeout, the Switch then regards it as not working properly.
Enter a value between 5 and 300 seconds.
Monitor:
This parameter enables or disables the JWAC Quarantine Server Monitor. When
Enabled, the JWAC Switch will monitor the Quarantine Server to ensure the server is
okay. If the Switch detects no Quarantine Server, it will redirect all unauthenticated HTTP
access attempts to the JWAC Login Page forcibly if the Redirect is enabled and the
Redirect Destination is configured to be a Quarantine Server.
URL:
This parameter specifies the JWAC Quarantine Server URL. If the Redirect is enabled
and the Redirect Destination is the Quarantine Server, when an unauthenticated host
sends the HTTP request packets to a random Web server, the Switch will handle this
HTTP packet and send back a message to the host to allow it access to the Quarantine
Server with the configured URL. When a computer is connected to the specified URL, the
quarantine server will request the computer user to input the user name and password to
complete the authentication process.
Update Server IP:
This parameter specifies the Update Server IP address.
Mask:
This parameter specifies the Server IP net mask.
Port:
Here the user can enter the port number used by the Update Server.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Add button to add a new entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specified entry.
JWAC Port Settings
Users can configure JWAC port settings for the Switch.
To view the following window, click Security > Japanese Web-based Access Control (JWAC) > JWAC Port
Settings, as shown below:
Figure 9–48 JWAC Port Settings Window
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port:
Use this drop-down menu to select the beginning port of a range of ports to be enabled as
JWAC ports.
To Port:
Use this drop-down menu to select the ending port of a range of ports to be enabled as
JWAC ports.
State:
Use this drop-down menu to enable the configured ports as JWAC ports.
Max Authenticating
Host:
This parameter specifies the maximum number of host process authentication attempts
allowed on each port at the same time. The default value is 50. Enter a value between 0
and 50 attempts.
Aging Time:
This parameter specifies the time period during which an authenticated host will remain in
the authenticated state. Enter a value between 0 and 1440 minutes or tick the Infinite
check box. The default value is 1440. A value of 0 indicates the authenticated host will
never age out on the port.
Block Time:
This parameter is the period of time a host will be blocked if it fails to pass authentication.
Enter a value between 0 and 300 seconds. The default value is 60.
Idle Time:
If there is no traffic during the Idle Time parameter, the host will be moved back to the
unauthenticated state. The default value is infinite. To change this value, first un-tick the
Infinite check box and then enter a value between 0 and 1440 minutes. A value of 0
indicates the Idle state of the authenticated host on the port will never be checked.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
JWAC User Settings
On this page the user can configure a JWAC user of the switch’s local database.
To view the following window, click Security > Japanese Web-based Access Control (JWAC) > JWAC User
Settings, as shown below:
Figure 9–49 JWAC User Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
User Name:
Enter a username of up to 15 alphanumeric characters.
Password:
Enter the password the administrator has chosen for the selected user. This field is casesensitive and must be a complete alphanumeric string.
Confirm Password:
Retype the password entered in the previous field.
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VID(1-4094):
Enter a VLAN ID number between 1 and 4094.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
NOTE: The Username and Password values should be less than 16 characters.
JWAC Authentication State
Users can display Japanese Web-based Access Control Host Table information.
To view the following window, click Security > Japanese Web-based Access Control (JWAC) > JWAC
Authentication State, as shown below:
Figure 9–50 JWAC Authentication State Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port List:
Enter a port or range of ports.
Find:
Click this button to initiate the search function.
Clear:
Click this button to delete the Port List data at the top of the window.
View All Hosts:
Click this button to view all the JWAC hosts.
Clear All Hosts:
Click this button to delete all the JWAC hosts.
Authenticated:
Tick this check box to only clear authenticated client hosts.
Authenticating:
Tick this check box to only clear client hosts in the authenticating process.
Blocked:
Tick this check box to only clear client hosts being temporarily blocked because of the
failure of authentication.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Clear button to remove entry based on the port list entered.
Click the View All Hosts button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Clear All Hosts button to remove all the entries listed.
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JWAC Customize Page Language
Users can configure JWAC page and language settings for the Switch. The current firmware supports either English or
Japanese.
To view the following window, click Security > Japanese Web-based Access Control (JWAC) > JWAC Customize
Page Language, as shown below:
Figure 9–51 JWAC Customize Page Language Window
To set the language used on the JWAC page, click the radio button for either English or Japanese.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
JWAC Customize Page
Users can configure JWAC page settings for the Switch.
To view the following window, click Security > Japanese Web-based Access Control (JWAC) > JWAC Customize
Page, as shown below:
Figure 9–52 JWAC Login Window
Figure 9–53 JWAC Login Window
Complete the JWAC authentication information on this window to set the JWAC page settings. Enter a name for the
Authentication in the first field and then click the Apply button. Next, enter a User Name and a Password and then
click the Enter button.
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Compound Authentication
Compound Authentication
Modern networks employ many authentication methods. The Compound Authentication methods supported by this
Switch include 802.1X, MAC-based access control (MAC), Web-based Access Control (WAC), Japan Web-based
Access Control (JWAC), and IP-MAC-Port Binding (IMPB). The Compound Authentication feature allows clients
running different authentication methods to connect to the network using the same switch port.
The Compound Authentication feature can be implemented using one of the following modes:
Any (MAC, 802.1X or WAC) Mode
In the diagram below the Switch port has been configured to allow clients to authenticate using 802.1X, MAC, or
WAC. When a client tries to connect to the network, the Switch will try to authenticate the client using one of these
methods and if the client passes they will be granted access to the network.
Figure 9–54 Any (MAC, 802.1X or WAC) Mode Window
Any (MAC, 802.1X or JWAC) Mode
In the diagram below the Switch port has been configured to allow clients to authenticate using 802.1X, MAC, or
JWAC. When a client tries to connect to the network, the Switch will try to authenticate the client using one of these
methods and if the client passes they will be granted access to the network.
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Figure 9–55 Any (MAC, 802.1X or JWAC) Mode Window
802.1X & IMPB Mode
This mode adds an extra layer of security by checking the IP MAC-Binding Port Binding (IMPB) table after trying one
of the supported authentication methods. The IMPB Table is used to create a ‘white list’ that checks if the IP streams
being sent by authorized hosts have been granted or not. In the above diagram the Switch port has been configured to
allow clients to authenticate using 802.1X. If the client is in the IMPB table and tries to connect to the network using
this authentication method and the client is listed in the white list for legal IP/MAC/port checking, access will be
granted. If a client fails one of the authentication methods, access will be denied.
Figure 9–56 802.1X & IMPB Mode Window
IMPB & WAC/JWAC Mode
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This mode adds an extra layer of security by checking the IP MAC-Binding Port Binding (IMPB) table after trying one
of the supported authentication methods. The IMPB Table is used to create a ‘white-list’ that checks if the IP streams
being sent by authorized hosts have been granted or not. In the above diagram, the Switch port has been configured
to allow clients to authenticate using either WAC or JWAC. If the client is in the IMPB table and tries to connect to the
network using either of these supported authentication methods and the client is listed in the white list for legal
IP/MAC/port checking, access will be granted. If a client fails one of the authentication methods, access will be denied.
Figure 9–57 IMPB & WAC/JWAC Mode Window
MAC & IMPB Mode
This mode adds an extra layer of security by checking the IP MAC-Binding Port Binding (IMPB) table after trying one
of the supported authentication methods. The IMPB Table is used to create a ‘white list’ that checks if the IP streams
being sent by authorized hosts have been granted or not. In the above diagram the Switch port has been configured to
allow clients to authenticate using MAC. If the client is in the IMPB table and tries to connect to the network using this
authentication method and the client is listed in the white list for legal IP/MAC/port checking, access will be granted. If
a client fails one of the authentication methods, access will be denied.
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Figure 9–58 MAC & IMPB Mode Window
The Compound Authentication folder contains two windows: Compound Authentication Settings, Compound
Authentication Guest VLAN Settings.
Compound Authentication Settings
Users can configure Authorization Network State Settings and compound authentication methods for a port or ports on
the Switch.
To view the following window, click Security > Compound Authentication > Compound Authentication Settings,
as shown below:
Figure 9–59 Compound Authentication Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
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Authorization
Attributes State:
Here the user can enable of disable the Authorization Network State.
Authentication Server
Failover:
Here the user can configure the authentication server failover function.
Local. The switch will resort to using the local database to authenticate the client. If the
client fails on local authentication, the client is regarded as un-authenticated, otherwise, it
authenticated.
Permit. The client is always regarded as authenticated. If guest VLAN is enabled, clients
will stay on the guest VLAN, otherwise, they will stay on the original VLAN.
Block (default setting). The client is always regarded as un-authenticated.
From Port:
Use this drop-down menu to select the beginning port of a range of ports to be enabled as
compound authentication ports.
To Port:
Use this drop-down menu to select the ending port of a range of ports to be enabled as
compound authentication ports.
Security Mode:
The compound authentication method options include: None, Any (MAC, 802.1X or
WAC/JWAC), 802.1X+IMPB, IMPB+JWAC, IMPB+WAC, and MAC+IMPB.
None means all compound authentication methods are disabled.
Any (MAC, 802.1X or WAC/JWAC) means if any of the authentication methods pass, then
access will be granted. In this mode, MAC, 802.1X and WAC/JWAC) can be enabled on a
port at the same time. In Any (MAC, 802.1X or WAC/JWAC mode, whether an individual
security module is active on a port depends on its system state. As system states of WAC
and JWAC are mutually exclusive, only one of them will active on a port at the same time.
802.1X+IMPB means 802.1X will be verified first, and then IMPB will be verified. Both
authentication methods need to be passed.
IMPB+JWAC means JWAC will be verified first, and then IMPB will be verified. Both
authentication methods need to be passed.
IMPB+WAC means WAC will be verified first, and then IMPB will be verified. Both
authentication methods need to be passed.
MAC+IMPB means that MAC will be verified first, and then IMPB will be verified. Both
authentication methods need to be passed.
Authorized Mode:
Toggle between Host Based and Port Based. When Port Based is selected, if one of the
attached hosts passes the authentication, all hosts on the same port will be granted
access to the network. If the user fails the authorization, this port will keep trying the next
authentication method. When Host Based is selected, users are authenticated
individually.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Compound Authentication Guest VLAN Settings
Users can assign ports to or remove ports from a guest VLAN.
To view the following window, click Security > Compound Authentication > Compound Authentication Guest
VLAN Settings, as shown below:
Figure 9–60 Compound Authentication Guest VLAN Settings Window
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name:
Click the button and assign a VLAN as a Guest VLAN. The VLAN must be an existing
static VLAN.
VID (1-4094):
Click the button and assign a VLAN ID for a Guest VLAN. The VLAN must be an existing
static VLAN before this VID can be configured.
Port List (e.g:1, 6-9):
The list of ports to be configured. Alternatively, tick the All check box to set every port at
once.
Action:
Use the drop-down menu to choose the desired operation: Create VLAN, Add Ports, or
Delete Ports.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Once properly configured, the Guest VLAN and associated ports will be listed in the lower part of the window.
Port Security
Port Security Settings
A given port’s (or a range of ports') dynamic MAC address learning can be locked such that the current source MAC
addresses entered into the MAC address forwarding table cannot be changed once the port lock is enabled. The port
can be locked by changing the Admin State pull-down menu to Enabled and clicking Apply.
Port Security is a security feature that prevents unauthorized computers (with source MAC addresses) unknown to the
Switch prior to locking the port (or ports) from connecting to the Switch's locked ports and gaining access to the
network.
To view the following window, click Security > Port Security > Port Security Settings, as shown below:
Figure 9–61 Port Security Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port Security Trap/Log
Use the radio button to enable or disable Port Security Traps and Log Settings on the
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Settings:
Switch.
System Max Address:
Here the user can enter the system maximum address.
From Port:
The beginning port of a consecutive group of ports to be configured.
To Port:
The ending port of a consecutive group of ports to be configured.
Admin State:
This pull-down menu allows the user to enable or disable Port Security (locked MAC
address table for the selected ports).
Lock Address Mode:
This pull-down menu allows the option of how the MAC address table locking will be
implemented on the Switch, for the selected group of ports. The options are:
Permanent – The locked addresses will only age out after the Switch has been reset.
DeleteOnTimeout – The locked addresses will age out after the aging timer expires.
DeleteOnReset – The locked addresses will not age out until the Switch has been reset or
rebooted.
Max Learning Address:
Specifies the maximum value of port security entries that can be learned on this port.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the View Detail button to display the information of the specific entry.
After clicking the View Detail button, the following page will appear:
Figure 9–62 Port Security Port-VLAN Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name
Select and enter the VLAN name for this configuration here.
VLAN List
Select and enter the VLAN ID for this configuration here.
Max Learning Address:
Enter the maximum value of port security entries that can be learned on this port.
Selecting the option No Limit will assign a no limit value to this field.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Port Security VLAN Settings
Users can configure the maximum number of port-security entries that can be learned on a specific VLAN.
To view the following window, click Security > Port Security > Port Security VLAN Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 9–63 Port Security VLAN Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name:
Here the user can enter the VLAN Name.
VID List:
Specifies a list of the VLAN be VLAN ID.
Max Learning Address:
Specifies the maximum number of port-security entries that can be learned by this VLAN.
Selecting the option No Limit will assign a no limit value to this field.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Port Security Entries
Users can remove an entry from the port security entries learned by the Switch and entered into the forwarding
database.
To view the following window, click Security > Port Security > Port Security Entries, as shown below:
Figure 9–64 Port Security Entries Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VLAN Name:
The VLAN Name of the entry in the forwarding database table that has been permanently
learned by the Switch.
VID List:
The VLAN ID of the entry in the forwarding database table that has been permanently
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learned by the Switch.
Port List:
Enter the port number or list here to be used for the port security entry search. When All
is selected, all the ports configured will be displayed.
MAC Address:
The MAC address of the entry in the forwarding database table that has been
permanently learned by the Switch.
Lock Mode:
The type of MAC address in the forwarding database table. Only entries marked
Permanent or Delete on Reset can be deleted.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Clear button to clear all the entries based on the information entered.
Click the Show All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Clear All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
ARP Spoofing Prevention Settings
The user can configure the spoofing prevention entry to prevent spoofing of MAC for the protected gateway. When an
entry is created, those ARP packets whose sender IP matches the gateway IP of an entry, but either its sender MAC
field or source MAC field does not match the gateway MAC of the entry will be dropped by the system.
To view the following window, click Security > ARP Spoofing Prevention Settings, as shown below:
Figure 9–65 ARP Spoofing Prevention Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Gateway IP Address:
Here the user can enter the gateway IP address to help prevent ARP Spoofing.
Gateway MAC Address:
Here the user can enter the gateway MAC address to help prevent ARP Spoofing.
Ports:
Here the user can enter the port numbers that this feature applies to. Alternatively the
user can select All Port to apply this feature to all the ports of the switch.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
BPDU Attack Protection
This page is used to configure the BPDP protection function for the ports on the switch. In generally, there are two
states in BPDU protection function. One is normal state, and another is under attack state. The under attack state
have three modes: drop, block, and shutdown. A BPDU protection enabled port will enter an under attack state when it
receives one STP BPDU packet. And it will take action based on the configuration. Thus, BPDU protection can only be
enabled on the STP-disabled port.
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BPDU protection has a higher priority than the FBPDU setting configured by configure STP command in the
determination of BPDU handling. That is, when FBPDU is configured to forward STP BPDU but BPDU protection is
enabled, then the port will not forward STP BPDU.
BPDU protection also has a higher priority than the BPDU tunnel port setting in determination of BPDU handling. That
is, when a port is configured as BPDU tunnel port for STP, it will forward STP BPDU. But if the port is BPDU
protection enabled. Then the port will not forward STP BPDU
To view the following window, click Security > BPDU Attack Protection, as shown below:
Figure 9–66 BPDU Attack Protection Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
BPDU Attack
Protection State:
Here the user can enable or disable the BPDU Attack Protection state.
Trap State:
Here the user can specify when a trap will be sent. Options to choose from are None,
Attack Detected, Attack Cleared or Both.
Log State:
Here the user can specify when a log entry will be sent. Options to choose from are
None, Attack Detected, Attack Cleared or Both.
Recover Time:
Specified the BPDU protection Auto-Recovery timer. The default value of the recovery
timer is 60.
From Port – To Port:
Here the user can select a range of ports to use for this configuration.
State:
Here the user can enable or disable the protection mode for a specific port.
Mode:
Specified the BPDU protection mode. The default mode is shutdown.
Drop – Drop all received BPDU packets when the port enters under attack state.
Block – Drop all packets (include BPDU and normal packets) when the port enters under
attack state.
Shutdown – Shut down the port when the port enters under attack state.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
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Loopback Detection Settings
The Loopback Detection (LBD) function is used to detect the loop created by a specific port. This feature is used to
temporarily shut down a port on the Switch when a CTP (Configuration Testing Protocol) packet has been looped
back to the Switch. When the Switch detects CTP packets received from a port or a VLAN, this signifies a loop on the
network. The Switch will automatically block the port or the VLAN and send an alert to the administrator. The
Loopback Detection port will restart (change to discarding state) when the Loopback Detection Recover Time times
out. The Loopback Detection function can be implemented on a range of ports at a time. The user may enable or
disable this function using the pull-down menu.
To view the following window, click Security > Loopback Detection Settings, as shown below:
Figure 9–67 Loopback Detection Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
LBD State:
Use the radio button to enable or disable loopback detection. The default is Disabled.
Mode:
Use the drop-down menu to toggle between Port Based and VLAN Based.
Trap Status:
Set the desired trap status: None, Loop Detected, Loop Cleared, or Both.
Interval (1-32767):
Set a Loopdetect Interval between 1 and 32767 seconds. The default is 10 seconds.
Recover Time (0 or 601000000):
Time allowed (in seconds) for recovery when a Loopback is detected. The Loopdetect
Recover Time can be set at 0 seconds, or 60 to 1000000 seconds. Entering 0 will disable
the Loopdetect Recover Time. The default is 60 seconds.
From Port:
Use the drop-down menu to select a beginning port number.
To Port:
Use the drop-down menu to select an ending port number.
State:
Use the drop-down menu to toggle between Enabled and Disabled.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
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Traffic Segmentation Settings
Traffic segmentation is used to limit traffic flow from a single or group of ports, to a group of ports. This method of
segmenting the flow of traffic is similar to using VLANs to limit traffic, but is more restrictive. It provides a method of
directing traffic that does not increase the overhead of the master switch CPU.
To view the following window, click Security > Traffic Segmentation Settings, as shown below:
Figure 9–68 Traffic Segmentation Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port List:
Here the user can enter the ports to be included in the traffic segmentation setup. Select
the All Ports button to select all the ports for the configuration.
Forward Port List:
Here the user can enter the ports to be included in the traffic segmentation setup Select
the All Ports button to select all the ports for the configuration.
Ports:
Here the ports that have been selected to be included in the traffic segmentation setup
will be displayed.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
NetBIOS Filtering Settings
NetBIOS is an application programming interface, providing a set of functions that applications use to communicate
across networks. NetBEUI, the NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface, was created as a data-link-layer frame structure for
NetBIOS. A simple mechanism to carry NetBIOS traffic, NetBEUI has been the protocol of choice for small MS-DOSand Windows-based workgroups. NetBIOS no longer lives strictly inside of the NetBEUI protocol. Microsoft worked to
create the international standards described in RFC 1001 and RFC 1002, NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT).
If the network administrator wants to block the network communication on more than two computers which use
NETBUEI protocol, it can use NETBIOS filtering to filter these kinds of packets.
If the user enables the NETBIOS filter, the switch will create one access profile and three access rules automatically.
If the user enables the extensive NETBIOS filter, the switch will create one more access profile and one more access
rule.
To view the following window, click Security > NetBIOS Filtering Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 9–69 NetBIOS Filtering Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
NetBIOS Filtering
Ports:
Here the user can select the appropriate port to include in the NetBIOS filtering
configuration.
Ports:
Here the user can simply tick the appropriate ports that will be included in the NetBIOS
filtering configuration.
Extensive NetBIOS
Filtering Ports:
Here the user can select the appropriate port to include in the Extensive NetBIOS filtering
configuration.
Ports:
Here the user can simply tick the appropriate ports that will be included in the Extensive
NetBIOS filtering configuration.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
DHCP Server Screening
This function allows the user to not only to restrict all DHCP Server packets but also to receive any specified DHCP
server packet by any specified DHCP client, it is useful when one or more DHCP servers are present on the network
and both provide DHCP services to different distinct groups of clients.
The first time the DHCP filter is enabled it will create both an access profile entry and an access rule per port entry, it
will also create other access rules. These rules are used to block all DHCP server packets. In addition to a permit
DHCP entry it will also create one access profile and one access rule entry the first time the DHCP client MAC
address is used as the client MAC address. The Source IP address is the same as the DHCP server’s IP address
(UDP port number 67). These rules are used to permit the DHCP server packets with specific fields, which the user
has configured.
When DHCP Server filter function is enabled all DHCP Server packets will be filtered from a specific port.
DHCP Server Screening Port Settings
The Switch supports DHCP Server Screening, a feature that denies access to rogue DHCP servers. When the DHCP
server filter function is enabled, all DHCP server packets will be filtered from a specific port.
To view the following window, click Security > DHCP Server Screening > DHCP Server Screening Port Settings,
as shown below:
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Figure 9–70 DHCP Server Screening Port Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Filter DHCP Server
Trap Log State:
Enable or disable this feature.
Illegal Server Log
Suppress Duration:
Choose an illegal server log suppress duration of 1 minute, 5 minutes, or 30 minutes.
From Port/To Port:
A consecutive group of ports may be configured starting with the selected port.
State:
Choose Enabled to enable the DHCP server screening or Disabled to disable it. The
default is Disabled.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
DHCP Offer Permit Entry Settings
Users can add or delete permit entries on this page.
To view the following window, click Security > DHCP Server Screening > DHCP Offer Permit Entry Settings, as
shown below:
Figure 9–71 DHCP Offer Permit Entry Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Server IP Address:
The IP address of the DHCP server to be permitted.
Client’s MAC Address:
The MAC address of the DHCP client.
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Ports:
The port numbers of the filter DHCP server. Select the All Ports option to include all the
ports on this switch for this configuration.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry based on the information entered.
Access Authentication Control
The TACACS / XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS commands allow users to secure access to the Switch using the
TACACS / XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS protocols. When a user logs in to the Switch or tries to access the
administrator level privilege, he or she is prompted for a password. If TACACS / XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS
authentication is enabled on the Switch, it will contact a TACACS / XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS server to verify
the user. If the user is verified, he or she is granted access to the Switch.
There are currently three versions of the TACACS security protocol, each a separate entity. The Switch's software
supports the following versions of TACACS:
•
TACACS (Terminal Access Controller Access Control System) - Provides password checking and
authentication, and notification of user actions for security purposes utilizing via one or more centralized
TACACS servers, utilizing the UDP protocol for packet transmission.
•
Extended TACACS (XTACACS) - An extension of the TACACS protocol with the ability to provide more
types of authentication requests and more types of response codes than TACACS. This protocol also uses
UDP to transmit packets.
•
TACACS+ (Terminal Access Controller Access Control System plus) - Provides detailed access
control for authentication for network devices. TACACS+ is facilitated through Authentication commands
via one or more centralized servers. The TACACS+ protocol encrypts all traffic between the Switch and the
TACACS+ daemon, using the TCP protocol to ensure reliable delivery
In order for the TACACS / XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS security function to work properly, a TACACS /
XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS server must be configured on a device other than the Switch, called an
Authentication Server Host and it must include usernames and passwords for authentication. When the user is
prompted by the Switch to enter usernames and passwords for authentication, the Switch contacts the TACACS /
XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS server to verify, and the server will respond with one of three messages:
The server verifies the username and password, and the user is granted normal user privileges on the Switch.
The server will not accept the username and password and the user is denied access to the Switch.
The server doesn't respond to the verification query. At this point, the Switch receives the timeout from the server and
then moves to the next method of verification configured in the method list.
The Switch has four built-in Authentication Server Groups, one for each of the TACACS, XTACACS, TACACS+ and
RADIUS protocols. These built-in Authentication Server Groups are used to authenticate users trying to access the
Switch. The users will set Authentication Server Hosts in a preferable order in the built-in Authentication Server
Groups and when a user tries to gain access to the Switch, the Switch will ask the first Authentication Server Hosts for
authentication. If no authentication is made, the second server host in the list will be queried, and so on. The built-in
Authentication Server Groups can only have hosts that are running the specified protocol. For example, the TACACS
Authentication Server Groups can only have TACACS Authentication Server Hosts.
The administrator for the Switch may set up six different authentication techniques per user-defined method list
(TACACS / XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS / local / none) for authentication. These techniques will be listed in an
order preferable, and defined by the user for normal user authentication on the Switch, and may contain up to eight
authentication techniques. When a user attempts to access the Switch, the Switch will select the first technique listed
for authentication. If the first technique goes through its Authentication Server Hosts and no authentication is returned,
the Switch will then go to the next technique listed in the server group for authentication, until the authentication has
been verified or denied, or the list is exhausted.
Users granted access to the Switch will be granted normal user privileges on the Switch. To gain access to
administrator level privileges, the user must access the Enable Admin window and then enter a password, which was
previously configured by the administrator of the Switch.
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NOTE: TACACS, XTACACS and TACACS+ are separate entities and are not compatible. The Switch
and the server must be configured exactly the same, using the same protocol. (For example, if the Switch
is set up for TACACS authentication, so must be the host server.)
Enable Admin
Users who have logged on to the Switch on the normal user level and wish to be promoted to the administrator level
can use this window. After logging on to the Switch, users will have only user level privileges. To gain access to
administrator level privileges, the user will open this window and will have to enter an authentication password.
Possible authentication methods for this function include TACACS/XTACACS/TACACS+/RADIUS, user defined server
groups, local enable (local account on the Switch), or no authentication (none). Because XTACACS and TACACS do
not support the enable function, the user must create a special account on the server host, which has the username
"enable", and a password configured by the administrator that will support the "enable" function. This function
becomes inoperable when the authentication policy is disabled.
To view the following window, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Enable Admin, as shown below:
Figure 9–72 Enable Admin Window
When this window appears, click the Enable Admin button revealing a window for the user to enter authentication
(password, username), as seen below. A successful entry will promote the user to Administrator level privileges on the
Switch.
Authentication Policy Settings
Users can enable an administrator-defined authentication policy for users trying to access the Switch. When enabled,
the device will check the Login Method List and choose a technique for user authentication upon login.
To view the following window, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Authentication Policy Settings,
as shown below:
Figure 9–73 Authentication Policy Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Authentication Policy:
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable the Authentication Policy on the Switch.
Response Timeout (0255):
This field will set the time the Switch will wait for a response of authentication from the
user. The user may set a time between 0 and 255 seconds. The default setting is 30
seconds.
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User Attempts (1-255):
This command will configure the maximum number of times the Switch will accept
authentication attempts. Users failing to be authenticated after the set amount of attempts
will be denied access to the Switch and will be locked out of further authentication
attempts. Command line interface users will have to wait 60 seconds before another
authentication attempt. Telnet and web users will be disconnected from the Switch. The
user may set the number of attempts from 1 to 255. The default setting is 3.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Application Authentication Settings
Users can configure Switch configuration applications (console, Telnet, SSH, web) for login at the user level and at the
administration level (Enable Admin) utilizing a previously configured method list.
To view the following window, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Application Authentication
Settings, as shown below:
Figure 9–74 Application Authentication Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Application:
Lists the configuration applications on the Switch. The user may configure the Login
Method List and Enable Method List for authentication for users utilizing the Console
(Command Line Interface) application, the Telnet application, SSH, and the Web (HTTP)
application.
Login Method List:
Using the pull-down menu, configure an application for normal login on the user level,
utilizing a previously configured method list. The user may use the default Method List or
other Method List configured by the user. See the Login Method Lists window, in this
section, for more information.
Enable Method List:
Using the pull-down menu, configure an application to promote user level to admin-level
users utilizing a previously configured method list. The user may use the default Method
List or other Method List configured by the user. See the Enable Method Lists window,
in this section, for more information
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Authentication Server Group Settings
Users can set up Authentication Server Groups on the Switch. A server group is a technique used to group
TACACS/XTACACS/TACACS+/RADIUS server hosts into user-defined categories for authentication using method
lists. The user may define the type of server group by protocol or by previously defined server group. The Switch has
four built-in Authentication Server Groups that cannot be removed but can be modified. Up to eight authentication
server hosts may be added to any particular group.
To view the following window, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Authentication Server Group
Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 9–75 Authentication Server Group Settings Window
This window displays the Authentication Server Groups on the Switch. The Switch has four built-in Authentication
Server Groups that cannot be removed but can be modified. To add a new Server Group, enter a name in the Group
Name field and then click the Add button. To modify a particular group, click the Edit button (or the Edit Server
Group tab), which will then display the following Edit Server Group tab:
Figure 9–76 Authentication Server Group Settings (Edit) Window
To add an Authentication Server Host to the list, enter its name in the Group Name field, IP address in the IP
Address field, use the drop-down menu to choose the Protocol associated with the IP address of the Authentication
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Server Host, and then click Add to add this Authentication Server Host to the group. The entry should appear in the
Host List at the bottom of this tab.
NOTE: The user must configure Authentication Server Hosts using the Authentication Server Hosts
window before adding hosts to the list. Authentication Server Hosts must be configured for their specific
protocol on a remote centralized server before this function can work properly.
NOTE: The three built-in server groups can only have server hosts running the same TACACS daemon.
TACACS/XTACACS/TACACS+ protocols are separate entities and are not compatible with each other.
Authentication Server Settings
User-defined Authentication Server Hosts for the TACACS / XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS security protocols can
be set on the Switch. When a user attempts to access the Switch with Authentication Policy enabled, the Switch will
send authentication packets to a remote TACACS / XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS server host on a remote host.
The TACACS / XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS server host will then verify or deny the request and return the
appropriate message to the Switch. More than one authentication protocol can be run on the same physical server
host but, remember that TACACS / XTACACS / TACACS+ / RADIUS are separate entities and are not compatible
with each other. The maximum supported number of server hosts is 16.
To view the following window, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Authentication Server Settings,
as shown below:
Figure 9–77 Authentication Server Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IP Address:
The IP address of the remote server host to add.
Protocol:
The protocol used by the server host. The user may choose one of the following:
TACACS - Enter this parameter if the server host utilizes the TACACS protocol.
XTACACS - Enter this parameter if the server host utilizes the XTACACS protocol.
TACACS+ - Enter this parameter if the server host utilizes the TACACS+ protocol.
RADIUS - Enter this parameter if the server host utilizes the RADIUS protocol.
Key:
Authentication key to be shared with a configured TACACS+ or RADIUS servers only.
Specify an alphanumeric string up to 254 characters.
Port (1-65535):
Enter a number between 1 and 65535 to define the virtual port number of the
authentication protocol on a server host. The default port number is 49 for
TACACS/XTACACS/TACACS+ servers and 1813 for RADIUS servers but the user may
set a unique port number for higher security.
Timeout (1-255 sec):
Enter the time in seconds the Switch will wait for the server host to reply to an
authentication request. The default value is 5 seconds.
Retransmit (1-255
Enter the value in the retransmit field to change how many times the device will resend an
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times):
authentication request when the TACACS server does not respond.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specified entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specified entry.
NOTE: More than one authentication protocol can be run on the same physical server host but,
remember that TACACS/XTACACS/TACACS+ are separate entities and are not compatible with each
other.
Login Method Lists Settings
User-defined or default Login Method List of authentication techniques can be configured for users logging on to the
Switch. The sequence of techniques implemented in this command will affect the authentication result. For example, if
a user enters a sequence of techniques, for example TACACS - XTACACS- local, the Switch will send an
authentication request to the first TACACS host in the server group. If no response comes from the server host, the
Switch will send an authentication request to the second TACACS host in the server group and so on, until the list is
exhausted. At that point, the Switch will restart the same sequence with the following protocol listed, XTACACS. If no
authentication takes place using the XTACACS list, the local account database set in the Switch is used to
authenticate the user. When the local method is used, the privilege level will be dependent on the local account
privilege configured on the Switch.
Successful login using any of these techniques will give the user a "User" privilege only. If the user wishes to upgrade
his or her status to the administrator level, the user must use the Enable Admin window, in which the user must enter
a previously configured password, set by the administrator.
To view the following window, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Login Method Lists Settings, as
shown below:
Figure 9–78 Login Method Lists Settings Window
The Switch contains one Method List that is set and cannot be removed, yet can be modified. To delete a Login
Method List defined by the user, click the Delete button corresponding to the entry desired to be deleted. To modify a
Login Method List, click on its corresponding Edit button.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Method List Name:
Enter a method list name defined by the user of up to 15 characters.
Priority 1, 2, 3, 4:
The user may add one, or a combination of up to four of the following authentication
methods to this method list:
tacacs - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using the
TACACS protocol from a remote TACACS server.
xtacacs - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using the
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XTACACS protocol from a remote XTACACS server.
tacacs+ - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using the
TACACS+ protocol from a remote TACACS+ server.
radius - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using the RADIUS
protocol from a remote RADIUS server.
local - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using the local user
account database on the Switch.
none - Adding this parameter will require no authentication needed to access the Switch.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Enable Method Lists Settings
Users can set up Method Lists to promote users with user level privileges to Administrator (Admin) level privileges
using authentication methods on the Switch. Once a user acquires normal user level privileges on the Switch, he or
she must be authenticated by a method on the Switch to gain administrator privileges on the Switch, which is defined
by the Administrator. A maximum of eight Enable Method Lists can be implemented on the Switch, one of which is a
default Enable Method List. This default Enable Method List cannot be deleted but can be configured.
The sequence of methods implemented in this command will affect the authentication result. For example, if a user
enters a sequence of methods like TACACS - XTACACS - Local Enable, the Switch will send an authentication
request to the first TACACS host in the server group. If no verification is found, the Switch will send an authentication
request to the second TACACS host in the server group and so on, until the list is exhausted. At that point, the Switch
will restart the same sequence with the following protocol listed, XTACACS. If no authentication takes place using the
XTACACS list, the Local Enable password set in the Switch is used to authenticate the user.
Successful authentication using any of these methods will give the user an "Admin" privilege.
NOTE: To set the Local Enable Password, see the next section, entitled Local Enable Password.
To view the following window, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Enable Method Lists Settings, as
shown below:
Figure 9–79 Enable Method Lists Settings Window
To delete an Enable Method List defined by the user, click the Delete button corresponding to the entry desired to be
deleted. To modify an Enable Method List, click on its corresponding Edit button.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
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Parameter
Description
Method List Name:
Enter a method list name defined by the user of up to 15 characters.
Priority 1, 2, 3, 4:
The user may add one, or a combination of up to four of the following authentication
methods to this method list:
local_enable - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using the
local enable password database on the Switch. The local enable password must be set by
the user in the next section entitled Local Enable Password.
none - Adding this parameter will require no authentication needed to access the Switch.
radius - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using the RADIUS
protocol from a remote RADIUS server.
tacacs - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using the
TACACS protocol from a remote TACACS server.
xtacacs - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using the
XTACACS protocol from a remote XTACACS server.
tacacs+ - Adding this parameter will require the user to be authenticated using the
TACACS protocol from a remote TACACS server.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Local Enable Password Settings
Users can configure the locally enabled password for Enable Admin. When a user chooses the "local_enable" method
to promote user level privileges to administrator privileges, he or she will be prompted to enter the password
configured here that is locally set on the Switch.
To view the following window, click Security > Access Authentication Control > Local Enable Password Settings,
as shown below:
Figure 9–80 Local Enable Password Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Old Local Enable
Password:
If a password was previously configured for this entry, enter it here in order to change it to
a new password
New Local Enable
Password:
Enter the new password that you wish to set on the Switch to authenticate users
attempting to access Administrator Level privileges on the Switch. The user may set a
password of up to 15 characters.
Confirm Local Enable
Password:
Confirm the new password entered above. Entering a different password here from the
one set in the New Local Enabled field will result in a fail message.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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SSL Settings
Secure Sockets Layer, or SSL, is a security feature that will provide a secure communication path between a host and
client through the use of authentication, digital signatures and encryption. These security functions are implemented
through the use of a cipher suite, which is a security string that determines the exact cryptographic parameters,
specific encryption algorithms and key sizes to be used for an authentication session and consists of three levels:
1. Key Exchange: The first part of the Cipher suite string specifies the public key algorithm to be used. This
switch utilizes the Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA) public key algorithm and the Digital Signature Algorithm
(DSA), specified here as the DHE DSS Diffie-Hellman (DHE) public key algorithm. This is the first
authentication process between client and host as they “exchange keys” in looking for a match and
therefore authentication to be accepted to negotiate encryptions on the following level.
2. Encryption: The second part of the cipher suite that includes the encryption used for encrypting the
messages sent between client and host. The Switch supports two types of cryptology algorithms:
Stream Ciphers – There are two types of stream ciphers on the Switch, RC4 with 40-bit keys and RC4 with 128-bit
keys. These keys are used to encrypt messages and need to be consistent between client and host for optimal use.
CBC Block Ciphers – CBC refers to Cipher Block Chaining, which means that a portion of the previously encrypted
block of encrypted text is used in the encryption of the current block. The Switch supports the 3DES EDE encryption
code defined by the Data Encryption Standard (DES) to create the encrypted text.
1. Hash Algorithm: This part of the cipher suite allows the user to choose a message digest function which
will determine a Message Authentication Code. This Message Authentication Code will be encrypted with a
sent message to provide integrity and prevent against replay attacks. The Switch supports two hash
algorithms, MD5 (Message Digest 5) and SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm).
These three parameters are uniquely assembled in four choices on the Switch to create a three-layered encryption
code for secure communication between the server and the host. The user may implement any one or combination of
the cipher suites available, yet different cipher suites will affect the security level and the performance of the secured
connection. The information included in the cipher suites is not included with the Switch and requires downloading
from a third source in a file form called a certificate. This function of the Switch cannot be executed without the
presence and implementation of the certificate file and can be downloaded to the Switch by utilizing a TFTP server.
The Switch supports SSLv3. Other versions of SSL may not be compatible with this Switch and may cause problems
upon authentication and transfer of messages from client to host.
The SSL Settings window located on the next page will allow the user to enable SSL on the Switch and implement
any one or combination of listed cipher suites on the Switch. A cipher suite is a security string that determines the
exact cryptographic parameters, specific encryption algorithms and key sizes to be used for an authentication session.
The Switch possesses four possible cipher suites for the SSL function, which are all enabled by default. To utilize a
particular cipher suite, disable the unwanted cipher suites, leaving the desired one for authentication.
When the SSL function has been enabled, the web will become disabled. To manage the Switch through the web
based management while utilizing the SSL function, the web browser must support SSL encryption and the header of
the URL must begin with https://. (Ex. https://xx.xx.xx.xx) Any other method will result in an error and no access can
be authorized for the web-based management.
Users can download a certificate file for the SSL function on the Switch from a TFTP server. The certificate file is a
data record used for authenticating devices on the network. It contains information on the owner, keys for
authentication and digital signatures. Both the server and the client must have consistent certificate files for optimal
use of the SSL function. The Switch only supports certificate files with .der file extensions. Currently, the Switch
comes with a certificate pre-loaded though the user may need to download more, depending on user circumstances.
To view the following window, click Security > SSL Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 9–81 SSL Settings Window
To set up the SSL function on the Switch, configure the parameters in the SSL Settings section described.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
SSL Status:
Use the radio buttons to enable or disable the SSL status on the Switch. The default is
Disabled.
Cache Timeout (6086400):
This field will set the time between a new key exchange between a client and a host using
the SSL function. A new SSL session is established every time the client and host go
through a key exchange. Specifying a longer timeout will allow the SSL session to reuse
the master key on future connections with that particular host, therefore speeding up the
negotiation process. The default setting is 600 seconds.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
To set up the SSL cipher suite function on the Switch, configure the parameters in the SSL Cipher suite Settings
section described below:
Parameter
Description
RSA with
RC4_128_MD5:
This cipher suite combines the RSA key exchange, stream cipher RC4 encryption with
128-bit keys and the MD5 Hash Algorithm. Use the radio buttons to enable or disable this
cipher suite. This field is Enabled by default.
RSA with 3DES EDE
CBC SHA:
This cipher suite combines the RSA key exchange, CBC Block Cipher 3DES_EDE
encryption and the SHA Hash Algorithm. Use the radio buttons to enable or disable this
cipher suite. This field is Enabled by default.
DHS DSS with 3DES
EDE CBC SHA:
This cipher suite combines the DSA Diffie Hellman key exchange, CBC Block Cipher
3DES_EDE encryption and SHA Hash Algorithm. Use the radio buttons to enable or
disable this cipher suite. This field is Enabled by default.
RSA EXPORT with RC4
40 MD5:
This cipher suite combines the RSA Export key exchange and stream cipher RC4
encryption with 40-bit keys. Use the radio buttons to enable or disable this cipher suite.
This field is Enabled by default.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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To download SSL certificates, configure the parameters in the SSL Certificate Download section described below.
Parameter
Description
Server IP Address:
Enter the IPv4 address of the TFTP server where the certificate files are located.
Certificate File Name:
Enter the path and the filename of the certificate file to download. This file must have a
.der extension. (Ex. c:/cert.der)
Key File Name:
Enter the path and the filename of the key file to download. This file must have a .der
extension (Ex. c:/pkey.der)
Click the Download button to download the SSL certificate based on the information entered.
NOTE: Certain implementations concerning the function and configuration of SSL are not available on
the web-based management of this Switch and need to be configured using the command line interface.
NOTE: Enabling the SSL command will disable the web-based switch management. To log on to the
Switch again, the header of the URL must begin with https://. Entering anything else into the address field
of the web browser will result in an error and no authentication will be granted.
SSH
SSH is an abbreviation of Secure Shell, which is a program allowing secure remote login and secure network services
over an insecure network. It allows a secure login to remote host computers, a safe method of executing commands
on a remote end node, and will provide secure encrypted and authenticated communication between two non-trusted
hosts. SSH, with its array of unmatched security features is an essential tool in today’s networking environment. It is a
powerful guardian against numerous existing security hazards that now threaten network communications.
The steps required to use the SSH protocol for secure communication between a remote PC (the SSH client) and the
Switch (the SSH server) are as follows:
1. Create a user account with admin-level access using the User Accounts window. This is identical to
creating any other admin-level User Account on the Switch, including specifying a password. This
password is used to logon to the Switch, once a secure communication path has been established using
the SSH protocol.
2. Configure the User Account to use a specified authorization method to identify users that are allowed to
establish SSH connections with the Switch using the SSH User Authentication Mode window. There are
three choices as to the method SSH will use to authorize the user, which are Host Based, Password, and
Public Key.
3. Configure the encryption algorithm that SSH will use to encrypt and decrypt messages sent between the
SSH client and the SSH server, using the SSH Authmode and Algorithm Settings window.
4. Finally, enable SSH on the Switch using the SSH Configuration window.
After completing the preceding steps, a SSH Client on a remote PC can be configured to manage the Switch using a
secure, in band connection.
SSH Settings
Users can configure and view settings for the SSH server.
To view the following window, click Security > SSH > SSH Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 9–82 SSH Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
SSH Server State:
Use the radio buttons to enable or disable SSH on the Switch. The default is Disabled.
Max. Session:
Enter a value between 1 and 8 to set the number of users that may simultaneously
access the Switch. The default setting is 8.
Connection Timeout:
Allows the user to set the connection timeout. The user may set a time between 120 and
600 seconds. The default setting is 120 seconds.
Authfail Attempts:
Allows the Administrator to set the maximum number of attempts that a user may try to
log on to the SSH Server utilizing the SSH authentication. After the maximum number of
attempts has been exceeded, the Switch will be disconnected and the user must
reconnect to the Switch to attempt another login. The number of maximum attempts may
be set between 2 and 20. The default setting is 2.
Rekey Timeout:
This field is used to set the time period that the Switch will change the security shell
encryptions by using the pull-down menu. The available options are Never, 10 min, 30
min, and 60 min. The default setting is Never.
TCP Port Number:
Here the user can enter the TCP Port Number used for SSH. The default value is 22.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
SSH Authentication Method and Algorithm Settings
Users can configure the desired types of SSH algorithms used for authentication encryption. There are three
categories of algorithms listed and specific algorithms of each may be enabled or disabled by ticking their
corresponding check boxes. All algorithms are enabled by default.
To view the following window, click Security > SSH > SSH Authentication Method and Algorithm Settings, as
shown below:
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Figure 9–83 SSH Authentication Method and Algorithm Settings Window
The fields that can be configured for SSH Authentication Mode are described below:
Parameter
Description
Password:
This may be enabled or disabled to choose if the administrator wishes to use a locally
configured password for authentication on the Switch. This parameter is enabled by
default.
Public Key:
This may be enabled or disabled to choose if the administrator wishes to use a public key
configuration set on a SSH server, for authentication. This parameter is enabled by
default.
Host Based:
This may be enabled or disabled to choose if the administrator wishes to use a host
computer for authentication. This parameter is intended for Linux users requiring SSH
authentication techniques and the host computer is running the Linux operating system
with a SSH program previously installed. This parameter is enabled by default.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
The fields that can be configured for the Encryption Algorithm are described below:
Parameter
Description
3DES-CBC:
Use the check box to enable or disable the Triple Data Encryption Standard encryption
algorithm with Cipher Block Chaining. The default is enabled.
Blow-fish CBC:
Use the check box to enable or disable the Blowfish encryption algorithm with Cipher
Block Chaining. The default is enabled.
AES128-CBC:
Use the check box to enable or disable the Advanced Encryption Standard AES128
encryption algorithm with Cipher Block Chaining. The default is enabled.
AES192-CBC:
Use the check box to enable or disable the Advanced Encryption Standard AES192
encryption algorithm with Cipher Block Chaining. The default is enabled.
AES256-CBC:
Use the check box to enable or disable the Advanced Encryption Standard AES-256
encryption algorithm with Cipher Block Chaining. The default is enabled.
ARC4:
Use the check box to enable or disable the Arcfour encryption algorithm with Cipher Block
Chaining. The default is enabled.
Cast128-CBC:
Use the check box to enable or disable the Cast128 encryption algorithm with Cipher
Block Chaining. The default is enabled.
Twofish128:
Use the check box to enable or disable the twofish128 encryption algorithm. The default is
enabled.
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Twofish192:
Use the check box to enable or disable the twofish192 encryption algorithm. The default is
enabled.
Twofish256:
Use the check box to enable or disable the twofish256 encryption algorithm. The default is
enabled.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
The fields that can be configured for the Data Integrity Algorithm are described below:
Parameter
Description
HMAC-SHA1:
Use the check box to enable or disable the HMAC (Hash for Message Authentication
Code) mechanism utilizing the Secure Hash algorithm. The default is enabled.
HMAC-MD5:
Use the check box to enable or disable the HMAC (Hash for Message Authentication
Code) mechanism utilizing the MD5 Message Digest encryption algorithm. The default is
enabled.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
The fields that can be configured for the Public Key Algorithm are described below:
Parameter
Description
HMAC-RSA:
Use the check box to enable or disable the HMAC (Hash for Message Authentication
Code) mechanism utilizing the RSA encryption algorithm. The default is enabled.
HMAC-DSA:
Use the check box to enable or disable the HMAC (Hash for Message Authentication
Code) mechanism utilizing the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) encryption. The default
is enabled.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
SSH User Authentication Lists
Users can configure parameters for users attempting to access the Switch through SSH. In the window above, the
User Account “username” has been previously set using the User Accounts window in the Configuration folder. A
User Account MUST be set in order to set the parameters for the SSH user.
To view the following window, click Security > SSH > SSH User Authentication Lists, as shown below:
Figure 9–84 SSH User Authentication Lists Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
User Name:
A name of no more than 15 characters to identify the SSH user. This User Name must be
a previously configured user account on the Switch.
Auth. Mode:
The administrator may choose one of the following to set the authorization for users
attempting to access the Switch.
Host Based – This parameter should be chosen if the administrator wishes to use a
remote SSH server for authentication purposes. Choosing this parameter requires the
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user to input the following information to identify the SSH user.
Password – This parameter should be chosen if the administrator wishes to use an
administrator-defined password for authentication. Upon entry of this parameter, the
Switch will prompt the administrator for a password, and then to re-type the password for
confirmation.
Public Key – This parameter should be chosen if the administrator wishes to use the
public key on a SSH server for authentication.
Host Name:
Enter an alphanumeric string of no more than 32 characters to identify the remote SSH
user. This parameter is only used in conjunction with the Host Based choice in the Auth.
Mode field.
Host IP:
Enter the corresponding IP address of the SSH user. This parameter is only used in
conjunction with the Host Based choice in the Auth. Mode field.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
NOTE: To set the SSH User Authentication Mode parameters on the Switch, a User Account must be
previously configured.
Trusted Host Settings
Up to ten trusted host secure IP addresses or ranges may be configured and used for remote Switch management. It
should be noted that if one or more trusted hosts are enabled, the Switch will immediately accept remote instructions
from only the specified IP address or addresses. If you enable this feature, be sure to first enter the IP address of the
station you are currently using.
To view the following window, click Security > Trusted Host Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 9–85 Trusted Host Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IPv4 Address:
Here the user can enter an IPv4 address to add to the trusted host list.
Net Mask:
Here the user can enter a IPv4 Net Mask address to add to the trusted host list.
IPv6 Address:
Here the user can enter an IPv6 address to add to the trusted host list.
Net Mask:
Here the user can enter a IPv6 Net Mask address to add to the trusted host list.
Access Interface:
Here the user can select services that will be allowed to the trusted host.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specified entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specified entry.
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Safeguard Engine Settings
Periodically, malicious hosts on the network will attack the Switch by utilizing packet flooding (ARP Storm) or other
methods. These attacks may increase the switch load beyond its capability. To alleviate this problem, the Safeguard
Engine function was added to the Switch’s software.
The Safeguard Engine can help the overall operability of the Switch by minimizing the workload of the Switch while the
attack is ongoing, thus making it capable to forward essential packets over its network in a limited bandwidth. The
Safeguard Engine has two operating modes that can be configured by the user, Strict and Fuzzy. In Strict mode, when
the Switch either (a) receives too many packets to process or (b) exerts too much memory, it will enter the Exhausted
mode. When in this mode, the Switch will drop all ARP and IP broadcast packets and packets from un-trusted IP
addresses for a calculated time interval. Every five seconds, the Safeguard Engine will check to see if there are too
many packets flooding the Switch. If the threshold has been crossed, the Switch will initially stop all ingress ARP and
IP broadcast packets and packets from un-trusted IP addresses for five seconds. After another five-second checking
interval arrives, the Switch will again check the ingress flow of packets. If the flooding has stopped, the Switch will
again begin accepting all packets. Yet, if the checking shows that there continues to be too many packets flooding the
Switch, it will stop accepting all ARP and IP broadcast packets and packets from un-trusted IP addresses for double
the time of the previous stop period. This doubling of time for stopping these packets will continue until the maximum
time has been reached, which is 320 seconds and every stop from this point until a return to normal ingress flow
would be 320 seconds. For a better understanding, please examine the following example of the Safeguard Engine.
Figure 9–86 Safeguard Engine Window
For every consecutive checking interval that reveals a packet flooding issue, the Switch will double the time it will
discard ingress ARP and IP broadcast packets and packets from the illegal IP addresses. In the example above, the
Switch doubled the time for dropping ARP and IP broadcast packets when consecutive flooding issues were detected
at 5-second intervals. (First stop = 5 seconds, second stop = 10 seconds, third stop = 20 seconds) Once the flooding
is no longer detected, the wait period for dropping ARP and IP broadcast packets will return to 5 seconds and the
process will resume.
In Fuzzy mode, once the Safeguard Engine has entered the Exhausted mode, the Safeguard Engine will decrease the
packet flow by half. After returning to Normal mode, the packet flow will be increased by 25%. The switch will then
return to its interval checking and dynamically adjust the packet flow to avoid overload of the Switch.
NOTICE: When Safeguard Engine is enabled, the Switch will allot bandwidth to various traffic flows
(ARP, IP) using the FFP (Fast Filter Processor) metering table to control the CPU utilization and limit
traffic. This may limit the speed of routing traffic over the network.
Users can enable the Safeguard Engine or configure advanced Safeguard Engine settings for the Switch.
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To view the following window, click Security > Safeguard Engine Settings, as shown below:
Figure 9–87 Safeguard Engine Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Safeguard Engine
State:
Use the radio button to globally enable or disable Safeguard Engine settings for the
Switch.
Rising Threshold (20%
- 100%):
Used to configure the acceptable level of CPU utilization before the Safeguard Engine
mechanism is enabled. Once the CPU utilization reaches this percentage level, the
Switch will move into Exhausted mode, based on the parameters provided in this window.
Falling Threshold (20%
- 100%):
Used to configure the acceptable level of CPU utilization as a percentage, where the
Switch leaves the Safeguard Engine state and returns to normal mode.
Trap / Log:
Use the pull-down menu to enable or disable the sending of messages to the device’s
SNMP agent and switch log once the Safeguard Engine has been activated by a high
CPU utilization rate.
Mode:
Used to select the type of Safeguard Engine to be activated by the Switch when the CPU
utilization reaches a high rate. The user may select:
Fuzzy – If selected, this function will instruct the Switch to minimize the IP and ARP traffic
flow to the CPU by dynamically allotting an even bandwidth to all traffic flows.
Strict – If selected, this function will stop accepting all ARP packets not intended for the
Switch, and will stop receiving all unnecessary broadcast IP packets, until the storm has
subsided.
The default setting is Fuzzy mode.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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Chapter 10
Network Application
DHCP
DNS
PPPoE Circuit ID Insertion Settings
RCP Server Settings
SMTP Settings
SNTP
Flash File System Settings
DHCP
DHCP Relay
DHCP Relay Global Settings
Users can enable and configure DHCP Relay Global Settings. The relay hops count limit allows the maximum number
of hops (routers) that the DHCP messages can be relayed through to be set. If a packet’s hop count is equal to or
greater than the hop count limit, the packet is dropped. The range is between 1 and 16 hops, with a default value of 4.
The relay time threshold sets the minimum time (in seconds) that the Switch will wait before forwarding a DHCP
request packet. If the value in the seconds’ field of the packet is less than the relay time threshold, the packet will be
dropped. The range is between 0 and 65,535 seconds, with a default value of 0 seconds.
To view the following window, click Network Application > DHCP > DHCP Relay > DHCP Relay Global Settings,
as shown below:
Figure 10–1 DHCP Relay Global Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
DHCP Relay State:
This field can be toggled between Enabled and Disabled using the pull-down menu. It is
used to enable or disable the DHCP Relay service on the Switch. The default is Disabled.
DHCP Relay Hops
Count Limit (1-16):
This field allows an entry between 1 and 16 to define the maximum number of router hops
DHCP messages can be forwarded. The default hop count is 4.
DHCP Relay Time
Threshold (0-65535):
Allows an entry between 0 and 65535 seconds, and defines the minimum time limit for
routing a DHCP packet. If a value of 0 is entered, the Switch will not process the value in
the seconds’ field of the DHCP packet. If a non-zero value is entered, the Switch will use
that value, along with the hop count to determine whether to forward a given DHCP
packet.
DHCP Relay Option 82
This field can be toggled between Enabled and Disabled using the pull-down menu. It is
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State:
used to enable or disable the DHCP Relay Agent Information Option 82 on the Switch.
The default is Disabled.
Enabled –When this field is toggled to Enabled, the relay agent will insert and remove
DHCP relay information (option 82 field) in messages between DHCP servers and clients.
When the relay agent receives the DHCP request, it adds the option 82 information, and
the IP address of the relay agent (if the relay agent is configured), to the packet. Once the
option 82 information has been added to the packet it is sent on to the DHCP server.
When the DHCP server receives the packet, if the server is capable of option 82, it can
implement policies like restricting the number of IP addresses that can be assigned to a
single remote ID or circuit ID. Then the DHCP server echoes the option 82 field in the
DHCP reply. The DHCP server unicasts the reply back to the relay agent if the request
was relayed to the server by the relay agent. The switch verifies that it originally inserted
the option 82 data. Finally, the relay agent removes the option 82 field and forwards the
packet to the switch port that connects to the DHCP client that sent the DHCP request.
Disabled- When the field is toggled to Disabled, the relay agent will not insert and remove
DHCP relay information (option 82 field) in messages between DHCP servers and clients,
and the check and policy settings will have no effect.
DHCP Relay Agent
Information Option 82
Check:
This field can be toggled between Enabled and Disabled using the pull-down menu. It is
used to enable or disable the Switches ability to check the validity of the packet’s option
82 field.
Enabled – When the field is toggled to Enabled, the relay agent will check the validity of
the packet’s option 82 field. If the switch receives a packet that contains the option 82
field from a DHCP client, the switch drops the packet because it is invalid. In packets
received from DHCP servers, the relay agent will drop invalid messages.
Disabled – When the field is toggled to Disabled, the relay agent will not check the validity
of the packet’s option 82 field.
DHCP Relay Agent
Information Option 82
Policy:
This field can be toggled between Replace, Drop, and Keep by using the pull-down menu.
It is used to set the Switches policy for handling packets when the DHCP Relay Agent
Information Option 82 Check is set to
Disabled. The default is Replace.
Replace – The option 82 field will be replaced if the option 82 field already exists in the
packet received from the DHCP client.
Drop – The packet will be dropped if the option 82 field already exists in the packet
received from the DHCP client.
Keep – The option 82 field will be retained if the option 82 field already exists in the
packet received from the DHCP client.
DHCP Relay Agent
Information Option 82
Remote ID:
Here the user can enter the DHCP Relay Agent Information Option 82 Remote ID.
DHCP Relay Option 60
State:
Here the user can enable or disable the use of the DHCP Relay Option 60 State feature.
DHCP Relay Option 61
State:
Here the user can enable or disable the use of the DHCP Relay Option 61 State feature.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
NOTE: If the Switch receives a packet that contains the option 82 field from a DHCP client and the
information-checking feature is enabled, the Switch drops the packet because it is invalid. However, in
some instances, users may configure a client with the option 82 field. In this situation, disable the
information check feature so that the Switch does not drop the packet. Users may configure the action
that the Switch takes when it receives a packet with existing option 82 information by configuring the
DHCP Agent Information Option 82 Policy.
The Implementation of DHCP Relay Agent Information Option 82
The DHCP Relay Option 82 command configures the DHCP relay agent information option 82 setting of the Switch.
The formats for the circuit ID sub-option and the remote ID sub-option are as follows:
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NOTE: For the circuit ID sub-option of a standalone switch, the module field is always zero.
Circuit ID sub-option format:
Figure 10–2 Circuit ID sub-option format
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Sub-option type
Length
Circuit ID type
Length
VLAN: the incoming VLAN ID of DHCP client packet.
Module: For a standalone switch, the Module is always 0; for a stackable switch, the Module is the Unit ID.
Port: The incoming port number of the DHCP client packet, the port number starts from 1.
Remote ID sub-option format:
Figure 10–3 Remote ID sub-option format
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Sub-option type
Length
Remote ID type
Length
MAC address: The Switch’s system MAC address.
DHCP Relay Interface Settings
Users can set up a server, by IP address, for relaying DHCP information to the DHCP Server. The user may enter a
previously configured IP interface on the Switch that will be connected directly to the DHCP client using this window.
Properly configured settings will be displayed in the DHCP Relay Interface Table at the bottom of the window, once
the user clicks the Apply button. The user may add up to four server IP addresses per IP interface on the Switch.
Entries may be deleted by clicking the corresponding Delete button.
To view the following window, click Network Application > DHCP > DHCP Relay > DHCP Relay Interface Settings,
as shown below:
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Figure 10–4 DHCP Relay Interface Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Interface:
The IP interface on the Switch that will be connected directly to the client.
Server IP:
Enter the IP address of the DHCP server. Up to four server IPs can be configured per IP
Interface.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
DHCP Relay Option 60 Server Settings
On this page the user can configure the DHCP relay option 60 server parameters.
To view the following window, click Network Application > DHCP > DHCP Relay > DHCP Relay Option 60 Server
Settings, as shown below:
Figure 10–5 DHCP Relay Option 60 Server Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Relay IP Address:
Here the user can enter the Relay IP Address.
Mode:
Here the user can choose the DHCP Relay Option 60 Server mode.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
NOTE: When there is no matching server found for the packet based on option 60, the relay servers will
be determined by the default relay server setting.
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DHCP Relay Option 60 Settings
This option decides whether the DHCP Relay will process the DHCP option 60 or not
To view the following window, click Network Application > DHCP > DHCP Relay > DHCP Relay Option 60
Settings, as shown below:
Figure 10–6 DHCP Relay Option 60 Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
String:
Here the user can enter the DHCP Relay Option 60 String value. Different strings can be
specified for the same relay server, and the same string can be specified with multiple
relay servers. The system will relay the packet to all the matching servers.
Server IP:
Here the user can enter the DHCP Relay Option 60 Server IP address.
Match Type:
Here the user can enter the DHCP Relay Option 60 Match Type value.
Exact Match – The option 60 string in the packet must full match with the specified string.
Partial Match – The option 60 string in the packet only need partial match with the
specified string.
IP Address:
Here the user can enter the DHCP Relay Option 60 IP address.
String:
Here the user can enter the DHCP Relay Option 60 String value.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Show All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
DHCP Relay Option 61 Settings
On this page the user can configure, add and delete DHCP relay option 61 parameters.
To view the following window, click Network Application > DHCP > DHCP Relay > DHCP Relay Option 61
Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 10–7 DHCP Relay Option 61 Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
DHCP Relay Option 61
Default:
Here the user can select the DHCP Relay Option 61 default action.
Drop – Specify to drop the packet.
Relay – Specify to relay the packet to an IP address. Enter the IP Address of the default
relay server. When there is no matching server found for the packet based on option 61,
the relay servers will be determined by this default relay server setting.
Client ID:
MAC Address – The client’s client-ID which is the hardware address of client.
String – The client’s client-ID, which is specified by administrator.
Relay Rule:
Drop – Specify to drop the packet.
Relay – Specify to relay the packet to an IP address.
Client ID:
MAC Address – The client’s client-ID which is the hardware address of client.
String – The client’s client-ID, which is specified by administrator.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
DHCP Server
DHCP, or Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, allows the switch to delegate IP addresses, subnet masks, default
gateways and other IP parameters to devices that request this information. This occurs when a DHCP enabled device
is booted on or attached to the locally attached network. This device is known as the DHCP client and when enabled,
it will emit query messages on the network before any IP parameters are set. When the DHCP server receives this
request, it returns a response to the client, containing the previously mentioned IP information that the DHCP client
then utilizes and sets on its local configurations.
The user can configure many DHCP related parameters that it will utilize on its locally attached network, to control and
limit the IP settings of clients desiring an automatic IP configuration, such as the lease time of the allotted IP address,
the range of IP addresses that will be allowed in its DHCP pool, the ability to exclude various IP addresses within the
pool so as not to make identical entries on its network, or to assign the IP address of an important device (such as a
DNS server or the IP address of the default route) to another device on the network.
Users also have the ability to bind IP addresses within the DHCP pool to specific MAC addresses in order to keep
consistent the IP addresses of devices that may be important to the upkeep of the network that require a static IP
address.
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DHCP Server Global Settings
On this page the user can configure the DHCP server global parameters.
To view the following window, click Network Application > DHCP > DHCP Server > DHCP Server Global Settings,
as shown below:
Figure 10–8 DHCP Server Global Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
DHCP Server State:
Here the user can enable or disable the DHCP Server State.
Ping Packets:
Here the user can choose the numbers of ping packet that the Switch will send out on the
network containing the IP address to be allotted. If the ping request is not returned, the IP
address is considered unique to the local network and then allotted to the requesting
client. 0 means there is no ping test. The default value is 2.
Ping Timeout:
Here the user can choose the amount of time the DHCP server must waits before timing
out a ping packet. The default value is 100.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
DHCP Server Exclude Address Settings
The DHCP server assumes that all IP addresses in a DHCP pool subnet are available for assigning to DHCP clients.
You must use this page to specify the IP address that the DHCP server should not assign to clients. This command
can be used multiple times in order to define multiple groups of excluded addresses.
To view the following window, click Network Application > DHCP > DHCP Server > DHCP Server Exclude
Address Settings, as shown below:
Figure 10–9 DHCP Server Exclude Address Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Begin Address:
Here the user can enter the starting IP Address.
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End Address:
Here the user can enter the ending IP Address.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
DHCP Server Pool Settings
On this page the user can add and delete the DHCP server pool.
To view the following window, click Network Application > DHCP > DHCP Server > DHCP Server Pool Settings, as
shown below:
Figure 10–10 DHCP Server Pool Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Pool Name:
Here the user can enter the DHCP Server Pool name.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
After clicking the Edit button, the following page will appear:
Figure 10–11 DHCP Server Pool Settings (Edit) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
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Parameter
Description
IP Address:
Here the user can enter the network address of the pool.
Netmask:
Here the user can enter the Netmask for the network address.
NetBIOS Node Type:
NetBIOS node type for a Microsoft DHCP client.
Domain Name:
Domain name of client. The domain name configured here will be used as the default
domain name by the client.
Boot File:
File name of boot image. The boot file is used to store the boot image for the client. The
boot image is generally the operating system the client uses to load. If this option is input
twice for the same pool, the second command will overwrite the first command. If the boot
file is not specified, the boot file information will not be provided to the client.
Next Server:
Here the user can enter the next server IP address.
DNS Server Address:
IP address of DNS server. Specifies the IP address of a DNS server that is available to a
DHCP client. Up to three IP addresses can be specified in one command line.
NetBIOS Name Server:
IP address of WINS server. Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) is a name
resolution service that Microsoft DHCP clients use to correlate host names to IP
addresses within a general grouping of networks. Up to three IP addresses can be
specified in one command line.
Default Router:
IP address of default router. Specifies the IP address of the default router for a DHCP
client. Up to three IP addresses can be specified in one command line.
Pool Lease:
By default, each IP address assigned by a DHCP server comes with a one-day lease,
which is the amount of time that the address is valid.
Days – Days of lease.
Hours – Hours of lease.
Minutes – Minutes of lease
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
DHCP Server Manual Binding
An address binding is a mapping between the IP address and MAC address of a client. The IP address of a client can
be assigned manually by an administrator or assigned automatically from a pool by a DHCP server. The dynamic
binding entry will be created when an IP address is assigned to the client from the pool network’s address.
To view the following window, click Network Application > DHCP > DHCP Server > DHCP Server Manual Binding,
as shown below:
Figure 10–12 DHCP Server Manual Binding Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
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Parameter
Description
Pool Name:
Here the user can enter the DHCP Server Pool name.
IP Address:
IP address which will be assigned to specified client.
Hardware Address:
Here the user can enter the hardware address.
Type:
Either Ethernet or IEEE802 can be specified.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
DHCP Server Dynamic Binding
On this page the user can delete the DHCP server dynamic binding table.
To view the following window, click Network Application > DHCP > DHCP Server > DHCP Server Dynamic
Binding, as shown below:
Figure 10–13 DHCP Server Dynamic Binding Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Pool Name:
Here the user can enter the DHCP Server Pool name.
Click the Clear button to clear all the information entered in the fields.
Click the Clear All button to remove all the entries listed in the table.
DHCP Conflict IP
The DHCP server will use PING packet to determine whether an IP address is conflict with other host before binding
this IP. The IP address which has been identified conflict will be moved to the conflict IP database. The system will not
attempt to bind the IP address in the conflict IP database unless the user clears it from the conflict IP database.
To view the following window, click Network Application > DHCP > DHCP Server > DHCP Conflict IP, as shown
below:
Figure 10–14 DHCP Conflict IP Window
Click the Clear All button to remove all the entries listed in the table.
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DHCP Local Relay Settings
The DHCP local relay settings allows the user to add option 82 into DHCP request packets when the DHCP local relay
is enabled in the VLAN which received the DHCP request. If the DHCP local relay settings are not configured, the
Switch will flood the packets to the VLAN. In order to add option 82 into the DHCP request packets, the DHCP local
relay settings and the state of the Global VLAN need to be enabled.
To view the following window, click Network Application > DHCP > DHCP Local Relay Settings, as shown below:
Figure 10–15 DHCP Local Relay Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
DHCP Local Relay
Global State:
Enable or disable the DHCP Local Relay Global State. The default is Disabled.
VLAN Name:
This is the VLAN Name that identifies the VLAN the user wishes to apply the DHCP Local
Relay operation.
State:
Enable or disable the configure DHCP Local Relay for VLAN state.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
DHCPv6 Relay
DHCPv6 Relay Global Settings
This window is used to configure the DHCPv6 relay function on the Switch.
To view this window, click Network Application > DHCP > DHCPv6 Relay > DHCPv6 Relay Global Settings as
shown below:
Figure 10-16 DHCPv6 Relay Global Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
DHCPv6 Relay Global
Settings
Click the radio buttons to enable or disable the DHCPv6 relay function.
DHCPv6 Relay Hops
Enter the number of relay agents that have to be relayed in this message. The default
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Count Settings
value is 4.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
DHCPv6 Relay Settings
This window is used to configure the DHCPv6 relay state of one or all of the specified interfaces, and add or display a
destination IPv6 address to or from the switch’s DHCPv6 relay table.
To view this window, click Network Application > DHCP > DHCPv6 Relay > DHCPv6 Relay Settings as shown
below:
Figure 10-17 DHCPv6 Relay Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Interface Name
Enter the name of the IPv6 interface. Tick the All check box to select all IPv6 interfaces.
DHCPv6 Relay State
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the DHCPv6 relay state of the interface.
DHCPv6 Server
Address
Enter the DHCPv6 server IPv6 address.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the View Detail link to view more information regarding the specific entry.
After clicking the View Detail link, the following page will appear:
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
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DNS
Computer users usually prefer to use text names for computers for which they may want to open a connection.
Computers themselves, require 32 bit IP addresses. Somewhere, a database of network devices’ text names and their
corresponding IP addresses must be maintained.
The Domain Name System (DNS) is used to map names to IP addresses throughout the Internet and has been
adapted for use within intranets. For two DNS servers to communicate across different subnets, the DNS Relay of the
Switch must be used. The DNS servers are identified by IP addresses.
Mapping Domain Names to Addresses
Name-to-address translation is performed by a program called a Name server. The client program is called a Name
resolver. A Name resolver may need to contact several Name servers to translate a name to an address.
The Domain Name System (DNS) servers are organized in a somewhat hierarchical fashion. A single server often
holds names for a single network, which is connected to a root DNS server - usually maintained by an ISP.
Domain Name Resolution
The domain name system can be used by contacting the name servers one at a time, or by asking the domain name
system to do the complete name translation. The client makes a query containing the name, the type of answer
required, and a code specifying whether the domain name system should do the entire name translation, or simply
return the address of the next DNS server if the server receiving the query cannot resolve the name.
When a DNS server receives a query, it checks to see if the name is in its sub domain. If it is, the server translates the
name and appends the answer to the query, and sends it back to the client. If the DNS server cannot translate the
name, it determines what type of name resolution the client requested. A complete translation is called recursive
resolution and requires the server to contact other DNS servers until the name is resolved. Iterative resolution
specifies that if the DNS server cannot supply an answer, it returns the address of the next DNS server the client
should contact.
Each client must be able to contact at least one DNS server, and each DNS server must be able to contact at least
one root server.
The address of the machine that supplies domain name service is often supplied by a DHCP or BOOTP server, or can
be entered manually and configured into the operating system at startup.
DNS Relay
DNS Relay Global Settings
On this page the user can configure the DNS Relay global parameters.
To view the following window, click Network Application > DNS > DNS Relay > DNS Relay Global Settings, as
shown below:
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Figure 10–18 DNS Relay Global Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
DNS Relay State:
Here the user can enable or disable the DNS relay state.
Primary Name Server:
Here the user can enter the primary DNS server IP address.
Secondary Name
Server:
Here the user can enter the secondary DNS server IP address.
DNS Relay Cache
State:
Here the user can enable or disable the DNS relay cache state.
DNS Relay Static Table
State:
Here the user can enable or disable the DNS relay static table state.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
DNS Relay Static Settings
Users can add or delete static entries into the switch’s DNS resolution table.
To view the following window, click Network Application > DNS > DNS Relay > DNS Relay Static Settings, as
shown below:
Figure 10–19 DNS Relay Static Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Domain Name:
Here the user can enter the domain name.
IP Address:
Here the user can enter the DNS Relay IP Address.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
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PPPoE Circuit ID Insertion Settings
When the setting is enabled, the system will insert the circuit ID tag to the received PPPoE discover and request
packet if the tag is absent, and remove the circuit ID tag from the received PPPoE offer and session confirmation
packet. The insert circuit ID will contain the following information: Client MAC address, Device ID and Port number.
By default, Switch IP address is used as the device ID to encode the circuit ID option.
To view the following window, click Network Application > PPPoE Circuit ID Insertion Settings, as shown below:
Figure 10–20 PPPoE Circuit ID Insertion Settings Window
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
RCP Server Settings
This page is used to configure global RCP server information. This global RCP Server setting can be used when the
Server or remote user name is not specified. Only ONE RCP server can be configured per system. If user does not
specify the RCP Server in the CLI command, and global RCP Server was not configured, the Switch will ask user to
input the Server IP address or remote user name while executing the RCP commands.
To view the following window, click Network Application > RCP Server Settings, as shown below:
Figure 10–21 RCP Server Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IP Address:
The IP address of global RCP Server. By default, the server is unspecified.
User Name:
The remote user name for logon into global RCP Server. By default, global server’s
remote user name is unspecified.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
SMTP Settings
SMTP or Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is a function of the Switch that will send switch events to mail recipients based
on e-mail addresses entered in the window below. The Switch is to be configured as a client of SMTP while the server
is a remote device that will receive messages from the Switch, place the appropriate information into an e-mail and
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deliver it to recipients configured on the Switch. This can benefit the Switch administrator by simplifying the
management of small workgroups or wiring closets, increasing the speed of handling emergency Switch events, and
enhancing security by recording questionable events occurring on the Switch.
Users can set up the SMTP server for the Switch, along with setting e-mail addresses to which switch log files can be
sent when a problem arises on the Switch.
The Switch will send out e-mail to recipients when one or more of the following events occur:
•
When a cold start occurs on the Switch.
•
When a port enters a link down status.
•
When a port enters a link up status.
•
When SNMP authentication has been denied by the Switch.
•
When a switch configuration entry has been saved to the NVRAM by the Switch.
•
When an abnormality occurs on TFTP during a firmware download event. This includes in-process, invalidfile, violation, file-not-found, complete and time-out messages from the TFTP server.
•
When a system reset occurs on the Switch.
Information within the e-mail from the SMTP server regarding switch events includes:
•
The source device name and IP address.
•
A timestamp denoting the identity of the SMTP server and the client that sent the message, as well as the
time and date of the message received from the Switch. Messages that have been relayed will have
timestamps for each relay.
•
The event that occurred on the Switch, prompting the e-mail message to be sent.
•
When an event is processed by a user, such as save or firmware upgrade, the IP address, MAC address
and User Name of the user completing the task will be sent along with the system message of the event
occurred.
•
When the same event occurs more than once, the second mail message and every repeating mail
message following will have the system’s error message placed in the subject line of the mail message.
The following details events occurring during the Delivery Process.
•
Urgent mail will have high priority and be immediately dispatched to recipients while normal mail will be
placed in a queue for future transmission.
•
The maximum number of un-transmitted mail messages placed in the queue cannot exceed 30 messages.
Any new messages will be discarded if the queue is full.
•
If the initial message sent to a mail recipient is not delivered, it will be placed in the waiting queue until its
place in the queue has been reached, and then another attempt to transmit the message is made.• The
maximum attempts for delivering mail to recipients is three. Mail message delivery attempts will be tried
every five minutes until the maximum number of attempts is reached. Once reached and the message has
not been successfully delivered, the message will be dropped and not received by the mail recipient.
•
If the Switch shuts down or reboots, mail messages in the waiting queue will be lost.
To view the following window, click Network Application > SMTP Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 10–22 SMTP Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
SMTP State:
Use the radio button to enable or disable the SMTP service on this device.
SMTP Server Address:
Enter the IP address of the SMTP server on a remote device. This will be the device that
sends out the mail for you.
SMTP Server Port:
Enter the virtual port number that the Switch will connect with on the SMTP server. The
common port number for SMTP is 25, yet a value between 1 and 65535 can be chosen.
Self Mail Address:
Enter the e-mail address from which mail messages will be sent. This address will be the
“from” address on the e-mail message sent to a recipient. Only one self-mail address can
be configured for this Switch. This string can be no more that 64 alphanumeric characters.
Add a Mail Receiver:
Enter an e-mail address and click the Add button. Up to eight e-mail addresses can be
added per Switch. To delete these addresses from the Switch, click the corresponding
Delete button in the SMTP Mail Receiver Address table at the bottom of the window.
Send a Test Mail to All:
Here the user can send a test mail to all the addresses listed.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
SNTP
The Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) is a protocol for synchronizing computer clocks through the Internet. It
provides comprehensive mechanisms to access national time and frequency dissemination services, organize the
SNTP subnet of servers and clients, and adjust the system clock in each participant.
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SNTP Settings
Users can configure the time settings for the Switch.
To view the following window, click Network Application > SNTP > SNTP Settings, as shown below:
Figure 10–23 SNTP Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
SNTP State:
Use this radio button to enable or disable SNTP.
Current Time:
Displays the Current Time.
Time Source:
Displays the time source for the system.
SNTP First Server:
The IP address of the primary server from which the SNTP information will be taken.
SNTP Second Server:
The IP address of the secondary server from which the SNTP information will be taken.
SNTP Poll Interval In
Seconds (30-99999):
The interval, in seconds, between requests for updated SNTP information.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Time Zone Settings
Users can configure time zones and Daylight Savings Time settings for SNTP.
To view the following window, click Network Application > SNTP > Time Zone Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 10–24 Time Zone Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Daylight Saving Time
State:
Use this pull-down menu to enable or disable the DST Settings.
Daylight Saving Time
Offset In Minutes:
Use this pull-down menu to specify the amount of time that will constitute your local DST
offset – 30, 60, 90, or 120 minutes.
Time Zone Offset From
GMT In +/- HH:MM:
Use these pull-down menus to specify your local time zone’s offset from Greenwich Mean
Time (GMT).
Parameter
Description
DST Repeating
Settings:
Using repeating mode will enable DST seasonal time adjustment. Repeating mode
requires that the DST beginning and ending date be specified using a formula. For
example, specify to begin DST on Saturday during the second week of April and end DST
on Sunday during the last week of October.
From: Which Week Of
The Month:
Enter the week of the month that DST will start.
From: Day Of Week:
Enter the day of the week that DST will start on.
From: Month:
Enter the month DST will start on.
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From: Time In HH:MM:
Enter the time of day that DST will start on.
To: Which Week Of The
Month:
Enter the week of the month the DST will end.
To: Day Of Week:
Enter the day of the week that DST will end.
To: Month:
Enter the month that DST will end.
To: Time In HH:MM:
Enter the time DST will end.
Parameter
Description
DST Annual Settings:
Using annual mode will enable DST seasonal time adjustment. Annual mode requires that
the DST beginning and ending date be specified concisely. For example, specify to begin
DST on April 3 and end DST on October 14.
From: Month:
Enter the month DST will start on, each year.
From: Day:
Enter the day of the month DST will start on, each year.
From: Time In HH:MM:
Enter the time of day DST will start on, each year.
To: Month:
Enter the month DST will end on, each year.
To: Day:
Enter the day of the month DST will end on, each year.
To: Time In HH:MM:
Enter the time of day that DST will end on, each year.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Flash File System Settings
Why use flash file system:
In old switch system, the firmware, configuration and log information are saved in a flash with fixed addresses and
size. This means that the maximum configuration file can only be 2Mb, and even if the current configuration is only
40Kb, it will still take up 2Mb of flash storage space. The configuration file number and firmware numbers are also
fixed. A compatible issue will occur in the event that the configuration file or firmware size exceeds the originally
designed size.
Flash File System in our system:
The Flash File System is used to provide the user with flexible file operation on the Flash. All the firmware,
configuration information and system log information are stored in the Flash as files. This means that the Flash space
taken up by all the files are not fixed, it is the real file size. If the Flash space is enough, the user could download more
configuration files or firmware files and use commands to display Flash file information, rename file names, and delete
it. Furthermore, the user can also configure the boot up runtime image or the running configuration file if needed.
In case the file system gets corrupted, Z-modem can be used to download the backup files directly to the system.
To view the following window, click Network Application > Flash File System Settings, as shown below:
Figure 10–25 Flash File System Settings Window
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Enter the Current Path string and click the Go button to navigate to the path entered.
Click the C: link to navigate the C: drive
After clicking the C: link button, the following page will appear:
Figure 10–26 Flash File System Settings Window
Click the Previous button to return to the previous page.
Click the Create Directory to create a new directory within the file system of the switch.
Click the Copy button to copy a specific file to the switch.
Click the Move button to move a specific file within the switch.
Tick the List Boot Up Files Only option to display only the boot up files.
Click the Active button to set a specific config file as the active runtime configuration.
Click the Boot Up button to set a specific runtime image as the boot up image.
Click the Rename button to rename a specific file’s name.
Click the Delete button to remove a specific file from the file system.
After clicking the Copy button, the following page will appear:
Figure 10–27 Flash File System Settings Window
When copying a file to the file system of this switch, the user must enter the Source and Destination path.
Click the Apply button to initiate the copy.
Click the Cancel button the discard the process.
After clicking the Move button, the following page will appear:
Figure 10–28 Flash File System Settings Window
When copying a file to the file system of this switch, the user must enter the Source and Destination path.
Click the Apply button to initiate the copy. Click the Cancel button the discard the process.
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Chapter 11
OAM
CFM
Ethernet OAM
DULD Settings
Cable Diagnostics
CFM
Connectivity Fault Management (CFM) or Ethernet Connectivity Fault Management is an end-to-end Ethernet layer
OAM protocol. CFM is defined by IEEE 802.1ag and includes connectivity monitoring, fault notification and means of
isolating faults on large Ethernet metropolitan-area networks (MANs) and WANs.
Ethernet has traditionally operated on isolated enterprise LANs. As Ethernet has been expanded to operate on the
much larger scale carrier networks that encompass multiple administrative domains, the demands of the much larger
and more complex networks required a new set of OAM capabilities. Since these larger scale networks have a very
large user base, carry more diversified network applications and typically span a much larger geographical area than
traditional enterprise Ethernet LANs where link uptime is crucial, a means of dealing with connectivity faults able to
operate in Ethernet became necessary. Since none of the existing OAM protocols could adequately address this new
circumstance, Ethernet Connectivity Fault Management has been developed in order to meet the new operational
management needs created by the application of Ethernet technologies to MANs and WANs.
Ethernet CFM provides Ethernet network service providers with various benefits such as end-to-end service-level
OAM and lower operating expenses, all operated on top of a familiar Ethernet platform.
CFM introduces some new terms and concepts to Ethernet, these are briefly described below.
Maintenance Domain
A maintenance domain is generic term referring to a management area created for the purpose of managing and
administering a network. A maintenance domain is operated by a single entity or “owner” and defined by a boundary
with a set of ports internal to this boundary.
An Ethernet CFM maintenance domain, referred to in this manual simply as an MD, exists in a hierarchical
relationship to other MDs. Typically a large MAN or WAN can be partitioned into a hierarchy based on the size of
domain that mirrors the structural relationship of customers, service providers and operators. The service providers
have end-to-end service responsibility while operators provide service transport across sub-networks. The hierarchy is
defined by a maintenance level value ranging from 0 to 7 where 7 is the highest level and 0 the lowest level. The
larger the MD is, the higher its maintenance level will be. For example, if the customer domain is the largest MD, it
should be assigned a maintenance level of 7, the operator MD being the smallest, receives a maintenance level of 0
with the service provider domain being in between these values. Maintenance levels are manually assigned by the
network administrator. All levels of the MD hierarchy must operate together.
Nesting of MDs is allowed, however they cannot intersect since this violates the requirement that management of MDs
be done by a single owner. If two or more domains are nested, the outer domain must be assigned a higher
maintenance level than the nested domains.
CFM operations and message exchanges are conducted on a per-domain basis. This means for example, that CFM
operating at level 3 does not allow discovery of the level 3 network by higher levels.
Maintenance Association
A maintenance association (MA) in CFM is a set of MEPs that have been configured with the same management
domain level and maintenance association identifier (MAID).
Different MAs in an MD must have different MA Names. Different MAs in different MDs may have the same MA Name.
The MEP list specified for a MA can be located in different devices. MEPs must be created on ports of these devices
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explicitly. A MEP will transmit CCM packets periodically across the MA. The receiving MEP will verify these received
CCM packets from other MEPs against this MEP list for configuration integrity check.
Maintenance Point
A maintenance point in CFM is a point of demarcation on a port within a maintenance domain. Maintenance points
filter CFM frames within the boundaries of an MD by dropping frames that do not belong to the correct maintenance
level. There are two types of maintenance points, Maintenance Endpoints (MEPs) and Maintenance Intermediate
Points (MIPs). MEPS and MIP are manually configured by a network administrator.
A MEP exists at the edge of a maintenance domain, defining the boundary of the MD. MEP functions include filtering
CFM messages so that they are confined to the MD. A MEP can be configured to transmit Connectivity Check
Messages (CCMs) and will transmit traceroute and loopback messages if configured to do so. A MEP can be Inward
facing or Outward facing.
An Inward facing MEP source CFM frames toward the bridge relay function, not through the bridge port on which the
MEP is configured. An Inward facing MEP drops all CFM frames at its level or lower that are received from the Inward
side; and forwards all CFM frames at a higher level regardless of the origin of the frame, Inward or Outward. If the port
on which the inward MEP is configured is blocked by Spanning-Tree Protocol, the MEP can no longer transmit or
receive CFM messages.
An Outward facing MEP source frames toward the bridge port and can only be configured on routed ports. An
Outward facing port drops all CFM frames at it level or lower coming from the bridge relay function side. It processes
all CFM frames at its level, and drops all CFM frames at a lower level, coming from the bridge port. An Outward facing
port forwards all CFM frames at higher levels regardless of which direction the frames come in. If the port on which the
outward MEP is configured is blocked by Spanning-Tree Protocol, the MEP can still transmit and receive CFM
messages through the bridge port.
A MIP is a maintenance point that is internal to an MD, not at the boundary. A MIP receives CFM frames from other
MIPs and from MEPs. These frames are cataloged and forwarded using the bridge relay function and bridge port. All
CFM frames at a lower level than the MIP are blocked and dropped regardless of the origin. All CFM frames at a
higher level are forwarded regardless of the origin. If the port on which a MIP is configured is blocked by SpanningTree Protocol, the MIP cannot receive CFM messages or relay them toward the bridge relay function side. The MIP
can, however, receive and respond to CFM messages from the bridge port.
CFM messages include Continuity Check Messages (CCMs), Loopback Messages (LBMs) and Link Trace Messages
(LTMs). CFM uses standard Ethernet frames that can be sourced, terminated, processed and relayed by bridges.
Routers support limited CFM functions.
Continuity Check Messages (CCMs) are multicast messages exchanged among MEPs. CCMs allow discovery of
MEPs for other MEPs within a domain and allow MIPs to discover MEPs. CCMs are confined to a maintenance
domain. CCMs are cataloged by MIPs are the same maintenance level and terminated by remote MEPs at the same
maintenance level. They are unidirectional (no response solicitation) and carry the status of the port on which the MEP
is configured. LBMs are similar to Ping or ICMP messages in that they indicate only whether a destination is reachable
and do not allow discovery of each hop.
Link Trace Messages (LTMs) are multicast CFM frames sent by MEPs to identify adjacency relationships with
remote MEPs and MIPs at the same maintenance level. The message body of an LTM includes a destination MAC
address of a target MEP that terminates the linktrace. When a MIP or MEP receives an LTM, it generates a unicast
Link Trace Reply (LTR) to the initiating MEP. It also forwards the LTM to the target MEP destination MAC address. An
LTM effectively traces the path to the target MEP or MIP.
Loopback Messages (LBMs) are similar to Ping or ICMP messages in that they indicate only whether a destination is
reachable and do not allow the discovery of each hop.
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Figure 11–1 OAM Domain Architecture
•
Maintenance Association (MA) – Boundaries of an Administrator’s scope of monitoring part of the network
•
Maintenance Domain (MD) – A level of monitoring within the hierarchy
•
Maintenance End Points (MEP) – End Points of the MA or MD
•
Maintenance Intermediate Points (MIP) – Intermediate Points within MA or MD
•
Customer Equipment (CE).
CFM Settings
On this page the user can configure the CFM parameters.
To view the following window, click OAM > CFM > CFM Settings, as shown below:
Figure 11–2 CFM Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
CFM State:
Here the user can enable or disable the CFM feature.
All MPs Reply LTRs:
Here the user can enable or disable all MPs to reply LTRs.
CCM PDUs Forwarding
Select the CCM PDU Forwarding mode that will be used. Options to choose from are
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Mode:
Software and Hardware.
MD:
Here the user can enter the maintenance domain name.
Level:
Here the user can select the maintenance domain level.
MIP:
This is the control creations of MIPs.
None – Don’t create MIPs. This is the default value.
Auto – MIPs can always be created on any ports in this MD, if that port is not configured
with a MEP of this MD. For the intermediate switch in a MA, the setting must be auto in
order for the MIPs to be created on this device.
Explicit – MIPs can be created on any ports in this MD, only if the next existent lower level
has a MEP configured on that port, and that port is not configured with a MEP of this MD.
SenderID TLV:
This is the control transmission of the SenderID TLV.
None – Don’t transmit sender ID TLV. This is the default value.
Chassis – Transmit sender ID TLV with chassis ID information.
Manage – Transmit sender ID TLV with managed address information.
Chassis Manage – Transmit sender ID TLV with chassis ID information and manage
address information.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
NOTE: The MD Name value should be less than 22 characters.
To add a maintenance association (MA), click on the Add MA button.
After clicking the Add MA button, the following page will appear:
Figure 11–3 CFM MA Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MA:
Here the user can enter the maintenance association name.
VID:
VLAN Identifier. Different MA must be associated with different VLANs.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Click the MIP Port Table button to view the CFM MIP Table.
Click the Add MEP button to add a Maintenance End Point entry.
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MIP:
This is the control creation of MIPs.
None - Don’t create MIPs.
Auto - MIPs can always be created on any ports in this MA, if that port is not configured
with a MEP of that MA.
Explicit - MIP can be created on any ports in this MA, only if the next existent lower level
has a MEP configured on that port, and that port is not configured with a MEP of this MA.
Defer - Inherit the setting configured for the maintenance domain that this MA is
associated with. This is the default value.
SenderID:
This is the control transmission of the sender ID TLV.
None - Don’t transmit sender ID TLV. This is the default value.
Chassis - Transmit sender ID TLV with chassis ID information.
Manage - Transmit sender ID TLV with manage address information.
Chassis Manage - Transmit sender ID TLV with chassis ID information and manage
address information.
Defer - Inherit the setting configured for the maintenance domain that this MA is
associated with. This is the default value.
CCM:
This is the CCM interval.
10ms - 10 milliseconds. Not recommended. For test purpose.
100ms - 100 milliseconds. Not recommended. For test purpose.
1sec - One second.
10sec - Ten seconds. This is the default value.
1min - One minute.
10min - Ten minutes.
MEP ID(s):
This is to specify the MEP IDs contained in the maintenance association. The range of the
MEP ID is 1-8191.
Add - Add MEP ID(s).
Delete - Delete MEP ID(s).
By default, there is no MEP ID in a newly created maintenance association.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
After clicking the MIP Port Table button, the following page will appear:
Figure 11–4 CFM MIP Table Window
Click the <<Back button to return to the previous page.
After clicking the Add MEP button, the following page will appear:
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Figure 11–5 CFM MEP Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MEP Name:
Enter the MEP name here. It is unique among all MEPs configured on the device.
MEP ID:
Enter the MEP Identifier here. It should be configured in the MA’s MEP ID list.
Port:
Enter the port number used here. This port should be a member of the MA’s associated
VLAN.
MEP Direction:
This is the MEP direction.
Inward - Inward facing (up) MEP.
Outward - Outward facing (down) MEP.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Click the View Detail link to view more information regarding the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
NOTE: The MEP Name value should be less than 32 characters.
After clicking the View Detail link, the following page will appear:
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Figure 11–6 CFM MEP Information Window
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
After clicking the Edit button, the following page will appear:
Figure 11–7 CFM MEP Information Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MEP State:
This is the MEP administrative state.
Enable - MEP is enabled.
Disable - MEP is disabled. This is the default value.
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CCM State:
This is the CCM transmission state.
Enable - CCM transmission enabled.
Disable - CCM transmission disabled. This is the default value.
PDU Priority:
The 802.1p priority is set in the CCMs and the LTMs messages transmitted by the MEP.
The default value is 7.
Fault Alarm:
This is the control types of the fault alarms sent by the MEP.
All - All types of fault alarms will be sent.
Mac Status - Only the fault alarms whose priority is equal to or higher than “Some Remote
MEP MAC Status Error” are sent.
Remote CCM - Only the fault alarms whose priority is equal to or higher than “Some
Remote MEP Down” are sent.
Errors CCM - Only the fault alarms whose priority is equal to or higher than “Error CCM
Received” are sent.
Xcon CCM - Only the fault alarms whose priority is equal to or higher than “Cross-connect
CCM Received” are sent.
None - No fault alarm is sent. This is the default value.
Alarm Time:
This is the time that a defect must exceed before the fault alarm can be sent. The unit is
in centiseconds, the range is 250-1000. The default value is 250.
Alarm Reset Time:
This is the dormant duration time before a defect is triggered before the fault can be realarmed. The unit is in centiseconds, the range is 250-1000. The default value is 1000
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
Click the Edit AIS button to configure the AIS settings.
Click the Edit LCK button to configure the LCK settings.
After clicking the Edit AIS button, the following window will appear:
Figure 11-8 CFM Extension AIS (Edit) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
State
Tick the check box and use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the AIS function.
Period
Tick the check box and use the drop-down menu to select the transmitting interval of AIS
PDU.
Level
Tick the check box and use the drop-down menu to select the client level ID to which the
MEP sends AIS PDU. The default client MD level is MD level at which the most immediate
client layer MIPs and MEPs exist. Options to choose from are values between 0 and 7.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
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After click the Edit LCK button, the following window will appear:
Figure 11-9 CFM Extension LCK Settings (Edit) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
State
Tick the check box and use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the LCK function.
Period
Tick the check box and use the drop-down menu to select the transmitting interval of LCK
PDU.
Level
Tick the check box and use the drop-down menu to select the client level ID to which the
MEP sends LCK PDU. The default client MD level is MD level at which the most immediate
client layer MIPs and MEPs exist. Options to choose from are values between 0 and 7.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
CFM Port Settings
On this page the user can enable and disable the CFM port state.
To view the following window, click OAM > CFM > CFM Port Settings, as shown below:
Figure 11–10 CFM Port Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port – To Port:
Here the user can select the port range used for this configuration.
State:
Here the user can enable or disable the state of specific port regarding the CFM
configuration.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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CFM MIPCCM Table
On this page the user can view MIP CCM database entries.
To view the following window, click OAM > CFM > CFM MIPCCM Table, as shown below:
Figure 11–11 CFM MIPCCM Table Window
CFM Loopback Settings
On this page the user can configure the CFM loopback parameters.
To view the following window, click OAM > CFM > CFM Loopback Settings, as shown below:
Figure 11–12 CFM Loopback Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MEP Name:
Here the user can enter the MEP name.
MEP ID:
Here the user can enter the MEP ID.
MD:
Here the user can enter the maintenance domain name.
MA:
Here the user can enter the maintenance association name.
MAC Address:
Here the user can enter the destination MAC address.
LBMs Number:
Number of LBMs to be sent. The default value is 4.
LBM Payload Length:
The payload length of LBM to be sent. The default is 0.
LBM Payload Pattern:
An arbitrary amount of data to be included in a Data TLV, along with an indication whether
the Data TLV is to be included.
LBMs Priority:
The 802.1p priority to be set in the transmitted LBMs. If not specified, it uses the same
priority as CCMs and LTMs sent by the MA.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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CFM Link Trace Settings
On this page the user can configure the CFM link track message.
To view the following window, click OAM > CFM > CFM Link Trace Settings, as shown below:
Figure 11–13 CFM Link Trace Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MEP Name:
Here the user can enter the MEP name.
MEP ID:
Here the user can enter the MEP ID.
MD Name:
Here the user can enter the maintenance domain name.
MA Name:
Here the user can enter the maintenance association name.
MAC Address:
Here the user can enter the destination MAC address.
TTL:
Link-trace message TTL value. The default value is 64.
PDU Priority:
The 802.1p priority to be set in the transmitted LTM. If not specified, it uses the same
priority as CCMs sent by the MA.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
CFM Packet Counter
On this page the user can view the CFM packet’s RX and TX counters.
To view the following window, click OAM > CFM > CFM Packet Counter, as shown below:
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Figure 11–14 CFM Packet Counter Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port List:
Which ports’ counter to show. If not specified, all ports will be shown.
Type:
Transmit – Selecting this option will display all the CFM packets transmitted.
Receive – Selecting this option will display all the CFM packets received.
CCM – Selecting this option will display all the CFM packets transmitted and received.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Clear button to clear all the information entered in the fields.
CFM Fault Table
On this page the user can find the CFM fault table.
To view the following window, click OAM > CFM > CFM Fault Table, as shown below:
Figure 11–15 CFM Fault Table Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
MD Name:
Here the user can enter the maintenance domain name.
MA Name:
Here the user can enter the maintenance association name.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
CFM MP Table
On this page the user can find the CFM MP table.
To view the following window, click OAM > CFM > CFM MP Table, as shown below:
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Figure 11–16 CFM MP Table Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port:
Here the user can select the port number to view.
Level:
Here the user can enter the level to view.
Direction:
Here the user can enter the direction to view.
Inward - Inward facing (up) MP.
Outward - Outward facing (down) MP.
VID:
Here the user can enter the VID to view.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Ethernet OAM
Ethernet OAM (Operations, Administration, and Maintenance) is a data link layer protocol which provides network
operators the ability to monitor the health of the network and quickly determine the location of failing links or fault
conditions on point-to-point and emulated point-to-point Ethernet link.
OAMPDUs (OAM Protocol Data Units) contain the control and status information used to monitor, and also test and
troubleshoots OAM-enabled links. OAMPDUs traverse a single link being passed between peer OAM entities, and as
a result, are not forwarded by switches. OAM is a slow protocol, i.e. OAMPDU frame transmission rate is limited to a
maximum of 10 frames per second.
The major features of Ethernet OAM are: OAM discovery, link monitoring, remote fault indication and remote
loopbacks.
Ethernet OAM Settings
This window is used to configure the ports Ethernet OAM mode. In Active mode the ports can initiate OAM discovery
and start or stop remote loopback. When a port in OAM enabled, any change to the OAM mode will cause the OAM
discovery to be restarted.
To view the following window, click OAM > Ethernet OAM > Ethernet OAM Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 11–17 Ethernet OAM Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port – To Port:
Specified a range of ports to be configured.
Mode:
Specify to operate in either active mode or passive mode. The default mode is active.
State:
Specify to enable or disable the OAM function. The default state is disabled.
Remote Loopback:
If start is specified, it will request the peer to change to the remote loopback mode. If stop
is specified, it will request the peer to change to the normal operation mode.
Received Remote
Loopback:
Specify whether to process or to ignore the received Ethernet OAM remote loopback
command. The default method is ignore.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Ethernet OAM Configuration Settings
On this page the user can configure the Ethernet OAM parameters.
To view the following window, click OAM > Ethernet OAM > Ethernet OAM Configuration Settings, as shown
below:
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Figure 11–18 Ethernet OAM Configuration Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port – To Port:
Specified a range of ports to be configured.
Link Event:
The option used to configure the capability of Ethernet OAM critical link event. If the
capability for an event is disabled, the port will never send out the corresponding critical
link event.
Link Monitor:
The option is used to configure ports Ethernet OAM link monitoring error symbols. Link
monitoring function provides a mechanism to detect and indicate link faults under a
variety of conditions. OAM monitors the statistics on the number of frame errors as well as
the number of coding symbol errors. When the number of symbol errors is equal to or
greater than the specified threshold in a period and the event notification state is enabled,
it generates an error symbol period event to notify the remote OAM peer.
Critical Link Event:
The option used to configure the capability of Ethernet OAM critical link event. If the
capability for an event is disabled, the port will never send out the corresponding critical
link event.
Threshold:
Specify the number of symbol errors in the period that is required to be equal to or greater
than in order for the event to be generated. The default value of threshold is 1 symbol
error.
Window:
The range is 1000 to 60000ms. The default value is 1000ms.
Notify:
Specify to enable or disable the event notification. The default state is enable.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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Ethernet OAM Event Log
The page is used to show ports Ethernet OAM event log information. The switch can buffer 1000 event logs. The
event log is different from sys-log. It provides more detailed information than the system log. Each OAM event will be
recorded in both OAM event log and in the system log.
To view the following window, click OAM > Ethernet OAM > Ethernet OAM Event Log, as shown below:
Figure 11–19 Ethernet OAM Event Log Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port:
Here the user can select a specific port to view.
Port List:
Here the user can enter a range of ports to view. Alternatively the user can select the All
Ports option to view information of all the ports.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the Clear button to clear all the information entered in the fields.
Ethernet OAM Statistics
The page is used to show ports Ethernet OAM statistics information.
To view the following window, click OAM > Ethernet OAM > Ethernet OAM Statistics, as shown below:
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Figure 11–20 Ethernet OAM Statistics Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port List:
Here the user can enter a range of ports to view. Alternatively the user can select the All
Ports option to view information of all the ports.
Click the Clear button to clear all the information entered in the fields.
DULD Settings
The Switch features a D-Link Unidirectional Link Detection (DULD) module. The unidirectional link detection provides
a mechanism that can be used to detect unidirectional link for Ethernet switches whose PHYs do not support
unidirectional OAM operation. This function is established based on OAM, so OAM should be enabled before starting
detection.
To view this window, click OAM > DULD Settings as shown below:
Figure 11-21 DULD Settings window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port / To Port
Select a range of ports you wish to configure.
Admin State
Use the drop-down menu to enable or disable the selected ports unidirectional link
detection status.
Mode
Use the drop-down menu to select Mode between Shutdown and Normal.
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Shutdown – If any unidirectional link is detected, disable the port and log an event.
Normal - Only log an event when a unidirectional link is detected.
Discovery Time (565535)
Enter these ports neighbor discovery time. If the discovery is timeout, the unidirectional
link detection will start.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Cable Diagnostics
The cable diagnostics feature is designed primarily for administrators or customer service representatives to verify and
test copper cables; it can rapidly determine the quality of the cables and the types of error.
To view the following window, click OAM > Cable Diagnostics, as shown below:
Figure 11–22 Cable Diagnostics Window
To view the cable diagnostics for a particular port, use the drop-down menu to choose the port and click Test The
information will be displayed in this window.
NOTE: Cable diagnostic function limitations. Cable length detection is only supported on GE ports. Ports
must be linked up and running at 1000M speed. Cross-talk errors detection is not supported on FE ports.
NOTE: The available cable diagnosis length is 10 meter ~ 120 meters.
NOTE: The deviation of cable length detection is +/- 10M for GE ports.
Fault messages:
•
Open - This pair is left open.
•
Short - Two lines of this pair is shorted.
•
CrossTalk - Lines of this pair is short with lines in other pairs.
•
Unknown - The diagnosis does not obtain the cable status, please try again.
•
NA - No cable was found, maybe it's because cable is out of diagnosis specification or the quality is too
bad.
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Chapter 12
Monitoring
Utilization
Statistics
Mirror
sFlow
Ping Test
Trace Route
Device Environment
NOTE: The real time monitoring engine requires the JAVA runtime v1.6 or above platform. Please
download the software from http://www.java.com/getjava
Utilization
CPU Utilization
Users can display the percentage of the CPU being used, expressed as an integer percentage and calculated as a
simple average by time interval.
To view the following window, click Monitoring > Utilization > CPU Utilization, as shown below:
Figure 12–1 CPU Utilization Window
To view the CPU utilization by port, use the real-time graphic of the Switch and/or switch stack at the top of the web
page by simply clicking on a port. Click Apply to implement the configured settings. The window will automatically
refresh with new updated statistics.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
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Time Interval:
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where "s" stands for seconds. The default
value is one second.
Record Number:
Select number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The default value is
200.
Show/Hide:
Check whether or not to display Five Seconds, One Minute, and Five Minutes.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
DRAM & Flash Utilization
On this page the user can view information regarding the DRAM and Flash utilization.
To view the following window, click Monitoring > Utilization > DRAM & Flash Utilization, as shown below:
Figure 12–2 DRAM & Flash Utilization Window
Port Utilization
Users can display the percentage of the total available bandwidth being used on the port.
To view the following window, click Monitoring > Utilization > Port Utilization, as shown below:
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Figure 12–3 Port Utilization Window
To select a port to view these statistics for, select the port by using the Port pull-down menu. The user may also use
the real-time graphic of the Switch at the top of the web page by simply clicking on a port.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port:
Use the drop-down menu to choose the port that will display statistics.
Time Interval:
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where "s" stands for seconds. The default
value is one second.
Record Number:
Select number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The default value is
200.
Show/Hide:
Check whether or not to display Port Utilization.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Statistics
Packet Statistics
Packets
The Web manager allows various packet statistics to be viewed as either a line graph or a table. Six windows are
offered.
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Received (RX)
To select a port to view these statistics for, select the port by using the Port pull-down menu. The user may also use
the real-time graphic of the Switch at the top of the web page by simply clicking on a port.
To view the following window, click Monitoring > Statistics > Packet Statistics > Packets > Received (RX), as
shown below:
Figure 12–4 Received (RX) Window
Click the View Table link to display the information in a table rather than a line graph.
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Figure 12-5 RX Packets Analysis Table window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port:
Use the drop-down menu to choose the port that will display statistics.
Time Interval:
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where "s" stands for seconds. The default
value is one second.
Record Number:
Select number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The default value is
200.
Bytes:
Counts the number of bytes received on the port.
Packets:
Counts the number of packets received on the port.
Unicast:
Counts the total number of good packets that were received by a unicast address.
Multicast:
Counts the total number of good packets that were received by a multicast address.
Broadcast:
Counts the total number of good packets that were received by a broadcast address.
Show/Hide:
Check whether to display Bytes and Packets.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Clear button to clear all statistics counters on this window.
Click the View Table link to display the information in a table rather than a line graph.
Click the View Graphic link to display the information in a line graph rather than a table.
UMB_Cast (RX)
To select a port to view these statistics for, select the port by using the Port pull-down menu. The user may also use
the real-time graphic of the Switch at the top of the web page by simply clicking on a port.
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To view the following window, click Monitoring > Statistics > Packet Statistics > Packets > UMB_Cast (RX), as
shown below:
Figure 12–6 UMB_Cast (RX) Window
Click the View Table link to display the information in a table rather than a line graph.
Figure 12-7 RX Packets Analysis window (table for Unicast, Multicast, and Broadcast Packets)
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port:
Use the drop-down menu to choose the port that will display statistics.
Time Interval:
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where "s" stands for seconds. The default
value is one second.
Record Number:
Select number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The default value is
200.
Unicast:
Counts the total number of good packets that were received by a unicast address.
Multicast:
Counts the total number of good packets that were received by a multicast address.
Broadcast:
Counts the total number of good packets that were received by a broadcast address.
Show/Hide:
Check whether or not to display Multicast, Broadcast, and Unicast Packets.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Clear button to clear all statistics counters on this window.
Click the View Table link to display the information in a table rather than a line graph.
Click the View Graphic link to display the information in a line graph rather than a table.
Transmitted (TX)
To select a port to view these statistics for, select the port by using the Port pull-down menu. The user may also use
the real-time graphic of the Switch at the top of the web page by simply clicking on a port.
To view the following window, click Monitoring > Statistics > Packet Statistics > Packets > Transmitted (TX), as
shown below:
Figure 12–8 Transmitted (TX) Window
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Click the View Table link to display the information in a table rather than a line graph.
Figure 12-9 TX Packets Analysis window (table for Bytes and Packets)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port:
Use the drop-down menu to choose the port that will display statistics.
Time Interval:
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where "s" stands for seconds. The default
value is one second.
Record Number:
Select number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The default value is
200.
Bytes:
Counts the number of bytes successfully sent on the port.
Packets:
Counts the number of packets successfully sent on the port.
Unicast:
Counts the total number of good packets that were transmitted by a unicast address.
Multicast:
Counts the total number of good packets that were transmitted by a multicast address.
Broadcast:
Counts the total number of good packets that were transmitted by a broadcast address.
Show/Hide:
Check whether or not to display Bytes and Packets.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Clear button to clear all statistics counters on this window.
Click the View Table link to display the information in a table rather than a line graph.
Click the View Graphic link to display the information in a line graph rather than a table.
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Errors
The Web manager allows port error statistics compiled by the Switch's management agent to be viewed as either a
line graph or a table. Four windows are offered.
Received (RX)
To select a port to view these statistics for, select the port by using the Port pull-down menu. The user may also use
the real-time graphic of the Switch at the top of the web page by simply clicking on a port.
To view the following window, click Monitoring > Statistics > Packet Statistics > Errors > Received (RX), as shown
below:
Figure 12–10 Received (RX) Window
Click the View Table link to display the information in a table rather than a line graph.
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Figure 12-11 RX Error Analysis window (table)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port:
Use the drop-down menu to choose the port that will display statistics.
Time Interval:
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where "s" stands for seconds. The default
value is one second.
Record Number:
Select number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The default value is
200.
CRCError:
Counts otherwise valid packets that did not end on a byte (octet) boundary.
UnderSize:
The number of packets detected that are less than the minimum permitted packets size of
64 bytes and have a good CRC. Undersize packets usually indicate collision fragments, a
normal network occurrence.
OverSize:
Counts valid packets received that were longer than 1518 octets and less than the
MAX_PKT_LEN. Internally, MAX_PKT_LEN is equal to 1536.
Fragment:
The number of packets less than 64 bytes with either bad framing or an invalid CRC.
These are normally the result of collisions.
Jabber:
Counts invalid packets received that were longer than 1518 octets and less than the
MAX_PKT_LEN. Internally, MAX_PKT_LEN is equal to 1536.
Drop:
The number of packets that are dropped by this port since the last Switch reboot.
Symbol:
Counts the number of packets received that have errors received in the symbol on the
physical labor.
Show/Hide:
Check whether or not to display CRCError, UnderSize, OverSize, Fragment, Jabber,
Drop, and SymbolErr errors.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Clear button to clear all statistics counters on this window.
Click the View Table link to display the information in a table rather than a line graph.
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Click the View Graphic link to display the information in a line graph rather than a table.
Transmitted (TX)
To select a port to view these statistics for, select the port by using the Port pull-down menu. The user may also use
the real-time graphic of the Switch at the top of the web page by simply clicking on a port.
To view the following window, click Monitoring > Statistics > Packet Statistics > Errors > Transmitted (TX), as
shown below:
Figure 12–12 Transmitted (TX) Window
Click the View Table link to display the information in a table rather than a line graph.
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Figure 12-13 TX Error Analysis window (table)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port:
Use the drop-down menu to choose the port that will display statistics.
Time Interval:
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where "s" stands for seconds. The default
value is one second.
Record Number:
Select number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The default value is
200.
LateColl:
Counts the number of times that a collision is detected later than 512 bit-times into the
transmission of a packet.
ExColl:
Excessive Collisions. The number of packets for which transmission failed due to excessive collisions.
Collision:
An estimate of the total number of collisions on this network segment.
Show/Hide:
Check whether or not to display LateColl, ExColl, and Collision errors.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Clear button to clear all statistics counters on this window.
Click the View Table link to display the information in a table rather than a line graph.
Click the View Graphic link to display the information in a line graph rather than a table.
Packet Size
Users can display packets received by the Switch, arranged in six groups and classed by size, as either a line graph
or a table. Two windows are offered. To select a port to view these statistics for, select the port by using the Port pulldown menu. The user may also use the real-time graphic of the Switch at the top of the web page by simply clicking
on a port.
To view the following window, click Monitoring > Statistics > Packet Size, as shown below:
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Figure 12–14 Packet Size Window
Click the View Table link to display the information in a table rather than a line graph.
Figure 12-15 RX Size Analysis window (table)
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
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Port:
Use the drop-down menu to choose the port that will display statistics.
Time Interval:
Select the desired setting between 1s and 60s, where "s" stands for seconds. The default
value is one second.
Record Number:
Select number of times the Switch will be polled between 20 and 200. The default value is
200.
64:
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were 64 octets in length
(excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
65-127:
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between 65 and
127 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
128-255:
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between 128 and
255 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
256-511:
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between 256 and
511 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
512-1023:
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between 512 and
1023 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
1024-1518:
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received that were between 1024
and 1518 octets in length inclusive (excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
Show/Hide:
Check whether or not to display 64, 65-127, 128-255, 256-511, 512-1023, and 1024-1518
packets received.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made for each individual section.
Click the Clear button to clear all statistics counters on this window.
Click the View Table link to display the information in a table rather than a line graph.
Click the View Graphic link to display the information in a line graph rather than a table.
VLAN Counter Statistics
On this page the user can view VLAN counter statistics.
To view the following window, click Monitoring > Statistics > VLAN Counter Statistics, as shown below:
Figure 12–16 VLAN Counter Statistics Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
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VID List:
Here the user can enter a VID list to view.
VLAN Name:
Here the user can enter VLAN Name to view.
Port List:
Here the user can enter the appropriate port(s) to view.
Click the Clear button to clear all the information entered in the fields.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Click the View All button to display all the existing entries.
Click the Clear All button to remove all the entries listed in the table.
Historical Counter & Utilization
Historical Counter
On this page the user can view information regarding the historical counter.
To view the following window, click Monitoring > Statistics > Historical Counter & Utilization > Historical
Counter, as shown below:
Figure 12–17 Historical Counter Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Port:
Here the user can select the appropriate port to view.
Packet:
Selecting this option will display a frame count based on the packets send and received.
Error:
Selecting this option will display a frame count based on the packet errors send and
received.
Time:
Here the user can select the time slot of how much information should be displayed based
on the given time elapsed. Options to choose from are 15 Minute and 1 Day.
Slot:
Here the user can enter the slot number.
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Enter a page number and click the Go button to navigate to a specific page when multiple pages exist.
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Historical Utilization
On this page the user can view information regarding the historical utilization.
To view the following window, click Monitoring > Statistics > Historical Counter & Utilization > Historical
Utilization, as shown below:
Figure 12–18 Historical Utilization (CPU) Window
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Figure 12–19 Historical Utilization (Memory) Window
Click the Find button to locate a specific entry based on the information entered.
Mirror
The Switch allows you to copy frames transmitted and received on a port and redirect the copies to another port. You
can attach a monitoring device to the mirrored port, such as a sniffer or an RMON probe, to view details about the
packets passing through the first port. This is useful for network monitoring and troubleshooting purposes.
Port Mirror Settings
To view the following window, click Monitoring > Mirror > Port Mirror Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 12–20 Port Mirror Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
State:
Here the user can enable or disable the Port Mirroring feature.
Target Port:
Here the user can select the Target Port used for Port Mirroring.
TX (Egress):
Here the user can select whether the port should include outgoing traffic.
RX (Ingress):
Here the user can select whether the port should include incoming traffic.
Both:
Here the user can select whether the port should include both incoming and outgoing
traffic.
None:
Here the user can select whether the port should not include any traffic.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
NOTE: You cannot mirror a fast port onto a slower port. For example, if you try to mirror the traffic from a
100 Mbps port onto a 10 Mbps port, this can cause throughput problems. The port you are copying
frames from should always support an equal or lower speed than the port to which you are sending the
copies. Please note a target port and a source port cannot be the same port.
RSPAN Settings
This page controls the RSPAN function. The purpose of the RSPAN function is to mirror packets to a remote switch. A
packet travels from the switch where the monitored packet is received, passing through the intermediate switch, and
then to the switch where the sniffer is attached. The first switch is also named the source switch.
To make the RSPAN function work, the RSPAN VLAN source setting must be configured on the source switch. For
the intermediate and the last switch, the RSPAN VLAN redirect setting must be configured.
NOTE: RSPAN VLAN mirroring will only work when RSPAN is enabled (when one RSPAN VLAN has
been configured with a source port). The RSPAN redirect function will work when RSPAN is enabled and
at least one RSPAN VLAN has been configured with redirect ports.
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To view the following window, click Monitoring > Mirror > RSPAN Settings, as shown below:
Figure 12–21 RSPAN Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
RSPAN State:
Here the user can enable or disable the RSPAN feature.
VLAN Name:
Create the RSPAN VLAN by VLAN name.
VID:
Create the RSPAN VLAN by VLAN ID.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Add button to add a new entry based on the information entered.
Click the Modify button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
After clicking the Modify button, the following page will appear:
Figure 12–22 RSPAN Settings (Modify) Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
VID:
Displays the RSPAN VLAN by VLAN ID.
VLAN Name:
Displays the RSPAN VLAN by VLAN name.
Source Ports:
If the ports are not specified by option, the source of RSPAN will come from the source
specified by the mirror command or the flow-based source specified by an ACL. If no
parameter is specified for source, it deletes the configured source parameters.
Select RX, TX or Both to specify in which direction the packets will be monitored. Tick
Add or Delete to add or delete source ports.
Redirect Port List:
Specify the output port list for the RSPAN VLAN packets. If the redirect port is a Link
Aggregation port, the Link Aggregation behavior will apply to the RSPAN packets. Tick
Add or Delete to add or delete redirect ports.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
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Click the <<Back button to discard the changes made and return to the previous page.
sFlow
sFlow (RFC3176) is a technology for monitoring traffic in data networks containing switches and routers. The sFlow
monitoring system consists of an sFlow Agent (embedded in a switch or router or in a standalone probe) and a central
sFlow Collector. The architecture and sampling techniques used in the sFlow monitoring system were designed for
providing continuous site-wide (and enterprise-wide) traffic monitoring of high speed switched and routed networks.
sFlow Global Settings
Here the user can enable or disable the sFlow feature.
To view the following window, click Monitoring > sFlow > sFlow Global Settings, as shown below:
Figure 12–23 sFlow Global Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
sFlow State:
Here the user can enable or disable the sFlow feature.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
sFlow Analyzer Server Settings
On this page the user can configure the sFlow analyzer server parameters.
We can support 4 different Analyzer Servers at the same time and each sampler or poller can select a collector to
send the samples. We can send different samples from different samplers or pollers to different collectors.
To view the following window, click Monitoring > sFlow > sFlow Analyzer Server Settings, as shown below:
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Figure 12–24 sFlow Analyzer Server Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Analyzer Server ID:
The analyzer server ID specifies the ID of a server analyzer where the packet will be
forwarded.
Owner Name:
The entity making use of this sFlow analyzer server. When owner is set or modified, the
timeout value will become 400 automatically.
Timeout:
The length of time before the server times out. When the analyzer server times out, all of
the flow samplers and counter pollers associated with this analyzer server will be deleted.
If not specified, its default value is 400.
Collector Address:
The IP address of the analyzer server. If not specified or set a 0 address, the entry will be
inactive.
Collector Port:
The destination UDP port for sending the sFlow datagrams. If not specified, the default
value is 6343.
Max Datagram Size:
The maximum number of data bytes that can be packed in a single sample datagram. If
not specified, the default value is 1400.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
sFlow Flow Sampler Settings
On this page the user can configure the sFlow flow sampler parameters. By configuring the sampling function for a
port, a sample packet received by this port will be encapsulated and forwarded to the analyzer server at the specified
interval.
NOTE: If the user wants to change the analyze server ID, he needs to delete the flow sampler and
creates a new one.
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To view the following window, click Monitoring > sFlow > sFlow Flow Sampler Settings, as shown below:
Figure 12–25 sFlow Flow Sampler Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port – To Port:
Specifies the list of ports to be configured.
Analyzer Server ID:
The analyzer server ID specifies the ID of a server analyzer where the packet will be
forwarded.
Rate:
The sampling rate for packet Rx sampling. The configured rate value multiplied by 256 is
the actual rate. For example, if the rate is 20, the actual rate 5120. One packet will be
sampled from every 5120 packets. If set to 0, the sampler is disabled. If the rate is not
specified, its default value is 0.
MAX Header Size:
The maximum number of leading bytes in the packet which has been sampled that will be
encapsulated and forwarded to the server. If not specified, the default value is 128.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
sFlow Counter Poller Settings
On this page the user can configure the sFlow counter poller parameters. If the user wants to change the analyzer
server ID, he needs to delete the counter poller and create a new one.
To view the following window, click Monitoring > sFlow > sFlow Counter Poller Settings, as shown below:
Figure 12–26 sFlow Counter Poller Settings Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
From Port – To Port:
Specifies the list of ports to be configured.
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Analyzer Server ID:
The analyzer server ID specifies the ID of a server analyzer where the packet will be
forwarded.
Interval:
The maximum number of seconds between successive samples of the counters.
Click the Apply button to accept the changes made.
Click the Delete All button to remove all the entries listed.
Click the Edit button to re-configure the specific entry.
Click the Delete button to remove the specific entry.
Ping Test
Users can Ping either an IPv4 address or an IPv6 address. Ping is a small program that sends ICMP Echo packets to
the IP address you specify. The destination node then responds to or “echoes” the packets sent from the Switch. This
is very useful to verify connectivity between the Switch and other nodes on the network.
To view the following window, click Monitoring > Ping Test, as shown below:
Figure 12–27 Ping Test Window
The user may click the Infinite times radio button, in the Repeat Pinging for field, which will tell the ping program to
keep sending ICMP Echo packets to the specified IP address until the program is stopped. The user may opt to
choose a specific number of times to ping the Target IP Address by clicking its radio button and entering a number
between 1 and 255.
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Target IP Address:
Enter an IP address to be pinged.
Interface Name:
For IPv6 Link local address only, enter the name of the interface to be Pinged.
Repeat Pinging for:
Enter the number of times desired to attempt to Ping either the IPv4 address or the IPv6
address configured in this window. Users may enter a number of times between 1 and
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255.
Size:
For IPv6 only, enter a value between 1 and 6000. The default is 100.
Timeout:
For IPv4, select a timeout period between 1 and 99 seconds for this Ping message to
reach its destination. For IPv6, select a timeout period between 1 and 10 seconds for this
Ping message to reach its destination. In either case, if the packet fails to find the IP
address in this specified time, the Ping packet will be dropped.
Click the Start button to initiate the Ping Test
After clicking the Start button, the following page will appear:
Figure 12–28 Ping Test (Result) Window
Click the Stop button to halt the Ping Test
Click the Resume button to resume the Ping Test
Trace Route
The trace route page allows the user to trace a route between the switch and a given host on the network.
To view the following window, click Monitoring > Trace Route, as shown below:
Figure 12–29 Trace Route Window
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
IPv4 Address / IPv6
Address
IP address of the destination station.
TTL (1-60)
The time to live value of the trace route request. This is the maximum number of routers
that a trace route packet can pass. The trace route option will cross while seeking the
network path between two devices.
The range for the TTL is 1 to 60 hops.
Port (30000-64900)
The port number. The value range is from 30000 to 64900.
Timeout (1-65535)
Defines the timeout period while waiting for a response from the remote device. A value of
1 to 65535 seconds can be specified. The default is 5 seconds.
Probe (1-9)
The number of probing. The range is from 1 to 9. If unspecified, the default value is 1.
Click the Start button to initiate the Trace Route
After clicking the Start button, the following page will appear:
Figure 12–30 Trace Route (Result) Window
Click the Stop button to halt the Trace Route
Click the Resume button to resume the Trace Route
Device Environment
The device environment feature displays the Switch internal temperature status.
To view the following window, click Monitoring > Device Environment, as shown below:
Figure 12–31 Device Environment Window
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Click the Refresh button to refresh the display table so that new entries will appear.
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Chapter 13
Save and Tools
Save Configuration / Log
Download Firmware
Upload Firmware
Download Configuration
Upload Configuration
Upload Log File
Reset
Reboot System
Save Configuration / Log
Save Configuration allows the user to backup the configuration of the switch to a folder on the computer. Select
Configuration from the Type field and enter the File Path in the space provided and click Apply.
To view the following window, click Save > Save Configuration / Log, as shown below:
Figure 13–1 Save Configuration Window
Save Log allows the user to backup the log file of the switch. Select Log from the Type field and click Apply.
Figure 13–2 Save Log Window
Save All allows the user to permanently save changes made to the configuration. This option will allow the changes to
be kept after the switch has rebooted. Select All from the Type field and click Apply.
Figure 13–3 Save All Window
Download Firmware
The following window is used to download firmware for the Switch.
To view the following window, click Tools > Download Firmware, as shown below:
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Download Firmware From TFTP
This page allows the user to download firmware from a TFTP Server to the Switch and updates the switch.
Figure 13–4 Download Firmware From TFTP Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
TFTP Server IP:
Here the user can enter the TFTP Server IP Address used. The user can select IPv4 to
input an IPv4 address or select IPv6 to input an IPv6 address in the space provided.
Source File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Source File.
Destination File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Destination File.
Click Download to initiate the download.
Download Firmware From FTP
This page allows the user to download firmware from a FTP Server to the Switch and updates the switch.
Figure 13–5 Download Firmware From TFTP Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
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Parameter
Description
FTP Server IP:
Here the user can enter the FTP Server IP Address used.
User Name:
Here the user can enter the appropriate Username used.
Password:
Here the user can enter the appropriate Password used.
TCP Port:
Here the user can enter the TCP Port number used.
Source File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Source File.
Destination File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Destination File.
Boot Up
Select this option to use this firmware as the boot-up firmware.
Click Download to initiate the download.
Download Firmware From HTTP
This page allows the user to download firmware from a computer to the Switch and updates the switch.
Figure 13–6 Download Firmware From HTTP Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Destination File:
Here the user can enter the location of the Destination File.
Source File:
Here the user can enter the location of the Source File. Click on the Browse button to
navigate to the firmware file for the download.
Click Download to initiate the download.
Download Firmware From RCP
This page allows the user to download firmware from a RCP Server to the Switch and updates the switch.
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Figure 13–7 Download Firmware From RCP Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
RCP Server IP:
Here the user can enter the RCP Server IP Address used.
User Name:
Here the user can enter the appropriate Username used.
Source File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Source File.
Destination File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Destination File.
Click Download to initiate the download.
Upload Firmware
The following window is used to upload firmware from the Switch.
To view the following window, click Tools > Upload Firmware, as shown below:
Upload Firmware To TFTP
This page allows the user to upload firmware from the Switch to a TFTP Server.
Figure 13–8 Upload Firmware To TFTP Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
TFTP Server IP:
Here the user can enter the TFTP Server IP Address used. The user can select IPv4 to
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input an IPv4 address or select IPv6 to input an IPv6 address in the space provided.
Destination File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Destination File.
Source File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Source File.
Click Upload to initiate the upload.
Upload Firmware To FTP
This page allows the user to upload firmware from the Switch to a FTP Server.
Figure 13–9 Upload Firmware To FTP Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
FTP Server IP:
Here the user can enter the FTP Server IP Address used.
User Name:
Here the user can enter the appropriate Username used.
Password:
Here the user can enter the appropriate Password used.
TCP Port:
Here the user can enter the TCP Port number used.
Destination File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Destination File.
Source File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Source File.
Click Upload to initiate the upload.
Upload Firmware To RCP
This page allows the user to upload firmware from the Switch to a RCP Server.
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Figure 13–10 Upload Firmware To RCP Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
RCP Server IP:
Here the user can enter the RCP Server IP Address used.
User Name:
Here the user can enter the appropriate Username used.
Destination File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Destination File.
Source File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Source File.
Click Upload to initiate the upload.
Download Configuration
The following window is used to download the configuration file for the Switch.
To view the following window, click Tools > Download Configuration, as shown below:
Download Configuration From TFTP
This page allows the user to download the configuration file from a TFTP Server to the Switch and updates the switch.
Figure 13–11 Download Configuration From TFTP Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
TFTP Server IP:
Here the user can enter the TFTP Server IP Address used. The user can select IPv4 to
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input an IPv4 address or select IPv6 to input an IPv6 address in the space provided.
Destination File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Destination File.
Source File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Source File.
Click Download to initiate the download.
Download Configuration From FTP
This page allows the user to download the configuration file from a FTP Server to the Switch and updates the switch.
Figure 13–12 Download Configuration From FTP Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
FTP Server IP:
Here the user can enter the FTP Server IP Address used.
User Name:
Here the user can enter the appropriate Username used.
Password:
Here the user can enter the appropriate Password used.
TCP Port:
Here the user can enter the TCP Port number used.
Source File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Source File.
Destination File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Destination File.
Click Download to initiate the download.
Download Configuration From HTTP
This page allows the user to download the configuration file from a computer to the Switch and updates the switch.
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Figure 13–13 Download Configuration From HTTP Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Destination File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Destination File.
Source File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Source File. Click on the Browse
button to navigate to the configuration file for the download.
Click Download to initiate the download.
Download Configuration From RCP
This page allows the user to download the configuration file from a RCP Server to the Switch and updates the switch.
Figure 13–14 Download Configuration From RCP Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
RCP Server IP:
Here the user can enter the RCP Server IP Address used.
User Name:
Here the user can enter the appropriate Username used.
Source File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Source File.
Destination File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Destination File.
Click Download to initiate the download.
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Upload Configuration
The following window is used to upload the configuration file from the Switch.
To view the following window, click Tools > Upload Configuration, as shown below:
Upload Configuration To TFTP
This page allows the user to upload the configuration file from the Switch to a TFTP Server.
Figure 13–15 Upload Configuration To TFTP Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
TFTP Server IP:
Here the user can enter the TFTP Server IP Address used. The user can select IPv4 to
input an IPv4 address or select IPv6 to input an IPv6 address in the space provided.
Destination File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Destination File.
Source File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Source File.
Filter:
Here the user can specify to include, begin or exclude a filter like SNMP, VLAN or STP.
Select the appropriate Filter action and enter the service name in the space provided.
Click Upload to initiate the upload.
Upload Configuration To FTP
This page allows the user to upload the configuration file from the Switch to a FTP Server.
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Figure 13–16 Upload Configuration To FTP Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
FTP Server IP:
Here the user can enter the FTP Server IP Address used.
User Name:
Here the user can enter the appropriate Username used.
Password:
Here the user can enter the appropriate Password used.
TCP Port:
Here the user can enter the TCP Port number used.
Destination File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Destination File.
Source File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Source File.
Filter:
Here the user can specify to include, begin or exclude a filter like SNMP, VLAN or STP.
Select the appropriate Filter action and enter the service name in the space provided.
Click Upload to initiate the upload.
Upload Configuration To HTTP
This page allows the user to upload the configuration file from the Switch to a computer.
Figure 13–17 Upload Configuration To HTTP Window
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Destination File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Destination File.
Click Upload to initiate the upload.
Upload Configuration To RCP
This page allows the user to upload the configuration file from the Switch to a RCP Server.
Figure 13–18 Upload Configuration To RCP Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
RCP Server IP:
Here the user can enter the RCP Server IP Address used.
User Name:
Here the user can enter the appropriate Username used.
Destination File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Destination File.
Source File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Source File.
Click Upload to initiate the upload.
Upload Log File
The following window is used to upload the log file from the Switch.
To view the following window, click Tools > Upload Log File, as shown below:
Upload Log To TFTP
This page allows the user to upload the log file from the Switch to a TFTP Server.
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Figure 13–19 Upload Log To TFTP Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
TFTP Server IP:
Here the user can enter the TFTP Server IP Address used. The user can select IPv4 to
input an IPv4 address or select IPv6 to input an IPv6 address in the space provided.
Destination File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Destination File.
Log Type:
Here the user can select the type of log to be transferred. Selecting the Common Log
option here will upload the common log entries. Selecting the Attack Log option here will
upload the log concerning attacks.
Click Upload to initiate the upload.
Upload Log To FTP
This page allows the user to upload the log file from the Switch to a FTP Server.
Figure 13–20 Upload Log To FTP Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
FTP Server IP:
Here the user can enter the FTP Server IP Address used.
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User Name:
Here the user can enter the appropriate Username used.
Password:
Here the user can enter the appropriate Password used.
TCP Port:
Here the user can enter the TCP Port number used.
Destination File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Destination File.
Log Type:
Here the user can select the type of log to be transferred. Selecting the Common Log
option here will upload the common log entries. Selecting the Attack Log option here will
upload the log concerning attacks.
Click Upload to initiate the upload.
Upload Log To HTTP
This page allows the user to upload the log file from the Switch to a computer.
Figure 13–21 Upload Log To HTTP Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Log Type:
Here the user can select the type of log to be transferred. Selecting the Common Log
option here will upload the common log entries. Selecting the Attack Log option here will
upload the log concerning attacks.
Click Upload to initiate the upload.
Upload Log To RCP
This page allows the user to upload the log file from the Switch to a RCP Server.
Figure 13–22 Upload Log To RCP Window
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The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
RCP Server IP:
Here the user can enter the RCP Server IP Address used.
User Name:
Here the user can enter the appropriate Username used.
Destination File:
Here the user can enter the location and name of the Destination File.
Log Type:
Here the user can select the type of log to be transferred. Selecting the Common Log
option here will upload the common log entries. Selecting the Attack Log option here will
upload the log concerning attacks.
Click Upload to initiate the upload.
Reset
The Reset function has several options when resetting the Switch. Some of the current configuration parameters can
be retained while resetting all other configuration parameters to their factory defaults.
NOTE: Only the Reset System option will enter the factory default parameters into the Switch's nonvolatile RAM, and then restart the Switch. All other options enter the factory defaults into the current
configuration, but do not save this configuration. Reset System will return the Switch's configuration to
the state it was when it left the factory
Reset gives the option of retaining the Switch's User Accounts and History Log while resetting all other configuration
parameters to their factory defaults. If the Switch is reset using this window, and Save Changes is not executed, the
Switch will return to the last saved configuration when rebooted.
To view the following window, click Tools > Reset, as shown below:
Figure 13–23 Reset System Window
The fields that can be configured are described below:
Parameter
Description
Reset:
Selecting this option will factory reset the Switch but not the IP Address, log, user account
and the banner.
Reset Config:
Selecting this option will factory reset the Switch but not perform a Reboot.
Reset System:
Selecting this option will factory reset the Switch and perform a Reboot.
Click the Apply button to initiate the Reset action.
Reboot System
The following window is used to restart the Switch.
To view the following window, click Tools > Reboot System, as shown below:
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Figure 13–24 Reboot System Window
Selecting the Yes radio button will instruct the Switch to save the current configuration to non-volatile RAM before
restarting the Switch.
Selecting the No radio button instructs the Switch not to save the current configuration before restarting the Switch. All
of the configuration information entered from the last time Save Changes was executed will be lost.
Click the Reboot button to restart the Switch.
Figure 13–25 System Reboot Window
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Appendix A Mitigating ARP Spoofing Attacks
Using Packet Content ACL
How Address Resolution Protocol works
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is the standard method for finding a host’s hardware address (MAC address)
when only its IP address is known. However, this protocol is vulnerable because crackers can spoof the IP and MAC
information in the ARP packets to attack a LAN (known as ARP spoofing). This document is intended to introduce the
ARP protocol, ARP spoofing attacks, and the countermeasures brought by D-Link’s switches to thwart ARP spoofing
attacks.
Figure 1 - ARP Request
In the process of ARP, PC A will first issue an ARP request to query PC B’s MAC address. The network structure is
shown in Figure 1.
Figure 2 - ARP Payload
The ARP request will be encapsulated into an Ethernet frame and sent out. As can be seen in Figure 3, the “Source
Address” in the Ethernet frame will be PC A’s MAC address. Since an ARP request is sent via broadcast, the
“Destination address” is in a format of Ethernet broadcast (FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF).
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Figure 3 - Ethernet Frame Format
When the switch receives the frame, it will check the “Source Address” in the Ethernet frame’s header. If the address
is not in its Forwarding Table, the switch will learn PC A’s MAC and the associated port into its Forwarding Table.
Figure 4 – Forwarding Table
In addition, when the switch receives the broadcasted ARP request, it will flood the frame to all ports except the
source port, port 1 (see Figure 5).
Figure 5 –Broadcast Request
When PC B replies to the ARP request, its MAC address will be written into “Target H/W Address” in the ARP payload
(see Figure 6). The ARP reply will be then encapsulated into an Ethernet frame again and sent back to the sender.
The ARP reply is in a form of Unicast communication.
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Figure 6 - ARP Payload
When PC B replies to the query, the “Destination Address” in the Ethernet frame will be changed to PC A’s MAC
address. The “Source Address” will be changed to PC B’s MAC address (see Figure 7).
Figure 7 - Ethernet Frame Format
The switch will also examine the “Source Address” of the Ethernet frame and find that the address is not in the
Forwarding Table. The switch will learn PC B’s MAC and update its Forwarding Table.
Figure 8 – Forwarding Table
Figure 9 – Connection Established
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How ARP Spoofing Attacks a Network
ARP spoofing, also known as ARP poisoning, is a method to attack an Ethernet network which may allow an attacker
to sniff data frames on a LAN, modify the traffic, or stop the traffic altogether (known as a Denial of Service – DoS
attack). The principle of ARP spoofing is to send the fake, or spoofed ARP messages to an Ethernet network.
Generally, the aim is to associate the attacker's or random MAC address with the IP address of another node (such as
the default gateway). Any traffic meant for that IP address would be mistakenly re-directed to the node specified by
the attacker.
Figure 10 – ARP Spoofing
The IP spoofing attack is caused by Gratuitous ARP that occurs when a host sends an ARP request to resolve its own
IP address. Figure 10 shows a hacker within a LAN to initiate ARP spoofing attack.
In the Gratuitous ARP packet, the “Sender protocol address” and “Target protocol address” are filled with the same
source IP address itself. The “Sender H/W Address” and “Target H/W address” are filled with the same source MAC
address itself. The destination MAC address is the Ethernet broadcast address (FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF). All nodes within
the network will immediately update their own ARP table in accordance with the sender’s MAC and IP address. The
format of a Gratuitous ARP packet is shown in Figure 11.
Figure 11 – Gratuitous ARP Packet
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A common DoS attack today can be done by associating a nonexistent or any specified MAC address to the IP
address of the network’s default gateway. The malicious attacker only needs to broadcast one Gratuitous ARP to the
network claiming it is the gateway so that the whole network operation will be turned down as all packets to the
Internet will be directed to the wrong node.
Figure 12 – Network Vulnerable
Likewise, the attacker can either choose to forward the traffic to the actual default gateway (passive sniffing) or modify
the data before forwarding it (man-in-the-middle attack). The hacker cheats the victim PC that it is a router and cheats
the router that it is the victim. As can be seen in Figure 12 all traffic will be then sniffed by the hacker but the users will
not discover.
Prevent ARP Spoofing using Packet Content ACL
D-Link managed switches can effectively mitigate common DoS attacks caused by ARP spoofing via a unique
Package Content ACL.
Figure 13 – Network with Packet Content ACL
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For the reason that basic ACL can only filter ARP packets based on packet type, VLAN ID, Source, and Destination
MAC information, there is a need for further inspections of ARP packets. To prevent ARP spoofing attack, we will
demonstrate here via using Packet Content ACL on the Switch to block the invalid ARP packets which contain faked
gateway’s MAC and IP binding.
Configuration
The configuration logic is as follows:
1. Only if the ARP matches Source MAC address in Ethernet, Sender MAC address and Sender IP address in
ARP protocol can pass through the switch. (In this example, it is the gateway’s ARP.)
2. The switch will deny all other ARP packets which claim they are from the gateway’s IP.
The design of Packet Content ACL on the Switch enables users to inspect any offset chunk. An offset chunk is a 4byte block in a HEX format, which is utilized to match the individual field in an Ethernet frame. Each profile is allowed
to contain up to a maximum of four offset chunks. Furthermore, only one single profile of Packet Content ACL can be
supported per switch. In other words, up to 16 bytes of total offset chunks can be applied to each profile and a switch.
Therefore, a careful consideration is needed for planning and configuration of the valuable offset chunks.
In Table 1, you will notice that the Offset_Chunk0 starts from the 127th byte and ends at the 128th byte. It also can be
found that the offset chunk is scratched from 1 but not zero.
Offset
Chunk
Offset
Chunk0
Offset
Chunk1
Offset
Chunk2
Offset
Chunk3
Offset
Chunk4
Offset
Chunk5
Offset
Chunk6
Offset
Chunk7
Offset
Chunk8
Offset
Chunk9
Offset
Chunk10
Offset
Chunk11
Offset
Chunk12
Offset
Chunk13
Offset
Chunk14
Offset
Chunk15
Byte
127
3
7
11
15
19
23
27
31
35
39
43
47
51
55
59
Byte
128
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
40
44
48
52
56
60
Byte
1
5
9
13
17
21
25
29
33
37
41
45
49
53
57
61
Byte
2
6
10
14
18
22
26
30
34
38
42
46
50
54
58
62
Offset
Chunk
Offset
Chunk16
Offset
Chunk17
Offset
Chunk18
Offset
Chunk19
Offset
Chunk20
Offset
Chunk21
Offset
Chunk22
Offset
Chunk23
Offset
Chunk24
Offset
Chunk25
Offset
Chunk26
Offset
Chunk27
Offset
Chunk28
Offset
Chunk29
Offset
Chunk30
Offset
Chunk31
Byte
63
67
71
75
79
83
87
91
95
99
103
107
111
115
119
123
Byte
64
68
72
76
80
84
88
92
96
100
104
108
112
116
120
124
Byte
65
69
73
77
81
85
89
93
97
101
105
109
113
117
121
125
Byte
66
70
74
78
82
86
90
94
98
102
106
110
114
118
122
126
Table 1 - Chunk and Packet Offset
The following figure indicates a completed ARP packet contained in Ethernet frame which is the pattern for the
calculation of packet offset.
Figure 14 - A Completed ARP Packet Contained in an Ethernet Frame
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Command
Description
Step 1:
create access_profile_id 1
profile_name 1 ethernet source_mac
FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF ethernet_type
Create access profile 1 to match Ethernet Type and
Source MAC address.
Step 2:
config access_profile profile_id 1
add access_id 1 ethernet source_mac
01-02-03-04-05-06 ethernet_type
0x806 port 1-12 permit
Configure access profile 1
Only if the gateway’s ARP packet that contains the
correct Source MAC in the Ethernet frame can pass
through the switch.
Step 3:
create access_profile profile_id 2
profile_name 2 packet_content_mask
offset1 l2 0 0xFF offset2 l2 1 0xFF
offset3 l2 16 0xFF offset4 l2 17
0xFF offset5 l2 18 0xFF offset6 l2
19 0xFF
Create access profile 2
The first chunk starts from the offset 1 and offset 2
mask for the Ethernet Type. (Blue in Table 1, 13th and
14th bytes)
The second chunk starts from the offset 3 and offset 4
mask for the Sender IP in the ARP packet. (Green in
Table 1, 29th and 30th bytes)
The third chunk starts from the offset 5 and offset 6
mask for the Sender IP in the ARP packet. (Brown in
Table 1, 31st and 32nd bytes)
Step 4:
config access_profile profile_id 2
add access_id 1 packet_content
offset1 l2 0 0x08 offset2 l2 1 0x06
offset3 l2 16 0x0A offset4 l2 17
0x5A offset5 l2 18 0x5A offset6 l2
19 0x5A port 1-12 deny
Configure access profile 2.
The rest of the ARP packets whose Sender IP claim
they are the gateway’s IP will be dropped.
Step 5:
save
Save configuration.
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Appendix B Password Recovery Procedure
This document describes the procedure for resetting passwords on D-Link Switches.
Authenticating any user who tries to access networks is necessary and important. The basic authentication method
used to accept qualified users is through a local login, utilizing a Username and Password. Sometimes, passwords get
forgotten or destroyed, so network administrators need to reset these passwords. This document will explain how the
Password Recovery feature can help network administrators reach this goal.
The following steps explain how to use the Password Recovery feature on D-Link devices to easily recover
passwords.
Complete these steps to reset the password:
1. For security reasons, the Password Recovery feature requires the user to physically access the device.
Therefore this feature is only applicable when there is a direct connection to the console port of the device.
It is necessary for the user needs to attach a terminal or PC with terminal emulation to the console port of
the switch.
2. Power on the Switch. After the UART init is loaded to 100%, the Switch will allow 2 seconds for the user to
press the hotkey [^] (Shift + 6) to enter the “Password Recovery Mode.” Once the Switch enters the
“Password Recovery Mode,” all ports on the Switch will be disabled.
Boot Procedure
V1.00.013
------------------------------------------------------------------------------Power On Self Test ........................................
MAC Address
H/W Version
100%
: 00-03-38-10-28-01
: A1
Please Wait, Loading V2.00.007 Runtime Image ..............
UART init .................................................
100 %
100 %
Password Recovery Mode
>
3. In the “Password Recovery Mode” only the following commands can be used.
Command
Parameters
reset config
The reset config command resets the whole configuration back to the default values.
reboot
The reboot command exits the Reset Password Recovery Mode and restarts the switch.
A confirmation message will be displayed to allow the user to save the current settings.
reset account
The reset account command deletes all the previously created accounts.
reset password
{<username>}
The reset password command resets the password of the specified user. If a username
is not specified, the passwords of all users will be reset.
show account
The show account command displays all previously created accounts.
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Appendix C System Log Entries
The following table lists all possible entries and their corresponding meanings that will appear in the System Log of
this Switch.
Category
Log Description
Severity
System
Event description: System started up
Log Message: System started up
Event description: Configuration saved to flash
Log Message: Configuration saved to flash (Username: <username>)
Critical
Parameters description:
username: The user name that save the configuration.
Event description: System log saved to flash
Log Message: System log saved to flash(Username: <username>)
Parameters description:
username: The user name that save the configuration.
Event description: Configuration and log saved to flash
Log Message: Configuration and log saved to flash (Username: <username>)
Peripherals
Parameters description:
username: The user name that save the configuration.
Event description: Temperature sensor enters alarm state.
Log Message: Temperature sensor <sensorID> enters alarm state (current
temperature: <temperature>)
Parameters description:
sensorID: The sensor ID.
temperature: The temperature.
Event description: Temperature recovers to normal.
Log Message: Temperature sensor <sensorID> recovers to normal state
(current temperature: <temperature>)
SNMP
Interface
Parameters description:
sensorID: The sensor ID.
temperature: The temperature.
Event description: Internal Power failed.
Log Message: Internal Power failed
Event description: Internal Power is recovered.
Log Message: Internal Power is recovered
Event description: Redundant Power failed.
Log Message: Redundant Power failed
Event description: Redundant Power is working.
Log Message: Redundant Power is working
Event description: SNMP request received with invalid community string
Log Message: SNMP request received from <ipAddress> with invalid
community string!
Parameters description:
ipAddress: IP address.
Event description: Port link up
Log Message: Port <portNum> link up, <link state>
TFTP Client
Informational
Informational
Informational
Informational
Critical
Critical
Critical
Critical
Informational
Informational
Parameters description:
portNum: The port number
link state: port link status, for example: 100Mbps FULL duplex
Event description: Port link down
Log Message: Port <portNum> link down
Debug
Informational
Parameters description:
portNum: The port number.
Event description: System fatal error
Log Message: System re-start reason: system fatal error
Event description: CPU exception
Log Message: System re-start reason: CPU exception
Event description: Firmware upgraded successfully.
Log Message: Firmware upgrade by <session> successfully (Username:
<username>, IP: <ipaddr>, MAC: <macaddr>)
Parameters description:
session: The user’s session.
Username: Represent current login user.
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Informational
Emergency
Emergency
Informational
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Ipaddr: Represent client IP address.
macaddr : Represent client MAC address.
Event description: Firmware upgrade was unsuccessful.
Log Message: Firmware upgrade by <session> was unsuccessful (Username:
<username>, IP: <ipaddr>, MAC: <macaddr>)
Parameters description:
session: The user’s session.
Username: Represent current login user.
Ipaddr: Represent client IP address.
macaddr : Represent client MAC address.
Event description: Firmware successfully uploaded.
Log Message: Firmware successfully uploaded by <session> (Username:
<username>, IP: <ipaddr>, MAC: <macaddr>)
Parameters description:
session: The user’s session.
Username: Represent current login user.
Ipaddr: Represent client IP address.
macaddr : Represent client MAC address.
Event description: Firmware upload was unsuccessful.
Log Message: Firmware upload by <session> was unsuccessful! (Username:
<username>, IP: <ipaddr>, MAC: <macaddr>)
Parameters description:
session: The user’s session.
Username: Represent current login user.
Ipaddr: Represent client IP address.
Event description: Configuration successfully downloaded.
Log Message: Configuration successfully downloaded by <session>
(Username: <username>, IP: <ipaddr>, MAC: <macaddr>)
Parameters description:
session: The user’s session.
Username: Represent current login user.
Ipaddr: Represent client IP address.
macaddr : Represent client MAC address.
Event description: Configuration download was unsuccessful.
Log Message: Configuration download by <session> was unsuccessful!
(Username: <username>, IP: <ipaddr>, MAC: <macaddr>)
Parameters description:
session: The user’s session.
Username: Represent current login user.
Ipaddr: Represent client IP address.
macaddr : Represent client MAC address.
Event description: Configuration successfully uploaded.
Log Message: Configuration successfully uploaded by <session> (Username:
<username>, IP: <ipaddr>, MAC: <macaddr>)
Parameters description:
session: The user’s session.
Username: Represent current login user.
Ipaddr: Represent client IP address.
macaddr : Represent client MAC address.
Event description: Configuration upload was unsuccessful.
Log Message: Configuration upload by <session> was unsuccessful!
(Username: <username>, IP: <ipaddr>, MAC: <macaddr>)
Parameters description:
session: The user’s session.
Username: Represent current login user.
Ipaddr: Represent client IP address.
macaddr : Represent client MAC address.
Event description: Log message successfully uploaded.
Log Message: Log message successfully uploaded by <session> (Username:
<username>, IP: <ipaddr>, MAC: <macaddr>)
Parameters description:
session: The user’s session.
Username: Represent current login user.
Ipaddr: Represent client IP address.
macaddr : Represent client MAC address.
Event description: Log message upload was unsuccessful.
Log Message: Log message upload by <session> was unsuccessful!
(Username: <username>, IP: <ipaddr>, MAC: <macaddr>)
Parameters description:
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Warning
Informational
Warning
Informational
Warning
Informational
Warning
Informational
Warning
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RCP
session: The user’s session.
Username: Represent current login user.
Ipaddr: Represent client IP address.
macaddr : Represent client MAC address.
Event description: Firmware downloaded successfully
Log Message: Firmware download by RCP successfully (Username:
<username>, RCP: <ipaddr> )
Informational
Parameters description:
username: user name.
ipaddr : RCP server address.
Event description: Firmware download fail
Warning
Log Message: Firmware download by RCP fail ! (Username: <username>, RCP:
<ipaddr> )
Parameters description:
username: user name.
ipaddr : RCP server address.
Event description: Firmware uploaded successfully
Informational
Log Message: Firmware upload by RCP successfully (Username: <username>,
RCP: <ipaddr>)
Parameters description:
username: user name.
ipaddr : RCP server address.
Event description: Firmware upload fail
Log Message: Firmware upload by RCP fail ! (Username: <username>, RCP:
<ipaddr>)
Parameters description:
username: user name.
ipaddr : server address.
Event description: Firmware applied successfully
Log Message: Firmware applied successfully (Username: <username>, IP
<ipaddr>)
Parameters description:
username: user name.
ipaddr : RCP server address.
Event description: Firmware apply fail
Log Message: Firmware apply fail ! (Username: <username>, IP <ipaddr>)
Parameters description:
username: user name.
ipaddr : server address.
Event description: CFG downloaded successfully
Log Message: Configuration download by RCP successfully (Username:
<username>, RCP: <ipaddr>)
Parameters description:
username: user name.
ipaddr : RCP server address.
Event description: CFG download fail
Log Message: Configuration download by RCP fail ! (Username: <username>,
RCP: <ipaddr>)
Parameters description:
username: user name.
ipaddr: RCP server address.
Event description: CFG upload successfully
Log Message: Configuration uploaded by RCP successfully (Username:
<username>, RCP: <ipaddr>)
Parameters description:
username: user name.
ipaddr : RCP server address.
Event description: CFG upload fail
Log Message: Configuration upload by RCP fail ! (Username: <username>,
RCP: <ipaddr>)
Parameters description:
username: user name.
ipaddr : RCP server address.
Event description: CFG applied successfully
Log Message: configuration apply successfully (Username: <username>, IP:
<ipaddr>)
Parameters description:
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Warning
Informational
Warning
Informational
Warning
Informational
Warning
Informational
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username: user name.
ipaddr : server address.
Event description: CFG apply fail
Log Message: configuration apply fail ! (Username: <username>, IP: <ipaddr>)
Parameters description:
username: user name.
ipaddr : server address.
Event description: Log upload successfully
Log Message: Log uploaded by RCP successfully (Username: <username>,
RCP: <ipaddr>)
Parameters description:
username: user name.
ipaddr : RCP server address.
Event description: Log upload fail
Log Message: Log upload by RCP fail ! (Username: <username>, RCP:
<ipaddr>)
Parameters description:
username: user name.
ipaddr : RCP server address.
Event description: Attack log uploaded successfully
Log Message: Attack log uploaded by RCP successfully (Username:
<username>, RCP: <ipaddr>)
Parameters description:
username: user name.
ipaddr : RCP server address.
Event description: Attack log upload fail
Log Message: Attack log upload by RCP fail ! (Username: <username>, RCP:
<ipaddr>)
MSTP Debug
Enhancement
Parameters description:
username: user name.
ipaddr : RCP server address.
Event description: Topology changed.
Log Message: Topology changed [( [Instance:<InstanceID> ] ,port:<portNum>
[,MAC: <macaddr>])]
Parameters description:
InstanceID: Instance ID.
portNum:Port ID
macaddr: MAC address
Event description: New Root selected
Log Message: [CIST | CIST Region | MSTI Region] New Root bridge selected
( [Instance: <InstanceID>] MAC:<macaddr>, Priority: <value>)
Parameters description:
InstanceID: Instance ID.
macaddr: root bridge MAC address
value: root bridge priority
Event description: Spanning tree protocol is enabled
Log Message: Spanning Tree Protocol is enabled.
Event description: Spanning tree protocol is disabled
Log Message: Spanning Tree Protocol is disabled.
Event description: Spannnig Tree instance created.
Log Message: Spanning Tree instance create (Instance:<InstanceID>)
Parameters description:
InstanceID: Instance ID.
Event description: Spannnig Tree instance deleted.
Log Message: Spanning Tree instance delete (Instance:<InstanceID>)
Parameters description:
InstanceID: Instance ID.
Event description: Spanning Tree Version changed.
Log Message: Spanning Tree version changed.(new version:<new_version>)
Warning
Informational
Warning
Warning
Warning
Informational
Informational
Informational
Informational
Informational
Informational
Informational
Parameters description:
new_version: New STP version.
Event description: Spanning Tree MST configuration ID name and revision level Informational
changed.
Log Message: Spanning Tree MST configuration ID name and revision level
changed (name:<name> revision level <revision_level>).
Parameters description:
name : New name.
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revision_level:New revision level.
Event description: Spanning Tree MST configuration ID VLAN mapping table
deleted.
Log Message: Spanning Tree MST configuration ID VLAN mapping table
change (Instance: <InstanceID> delete vlan <startvlanid> [- <endvlanid>]).
Parameters description:
InstanceID: Instance ID.
startvlanid- endvlanid:VLANlist
Event description: Spanning Tree MST configuration ID VLAN mapping table
added.
Log Message: Spanning Tree MST configuration ID VLAN mapping table
changed (Instance: <InstanceID> add vlan <startvlanid> [- <endvlanid>]).
Parameters description:
InstanceID: Instance ID.
startvlanid- endvlanid:VLANlist
Event description: New root port
Log Message: New root port selected [( [Instance:<InstanceID> ], port:<
portNum>)]
Parameters description:
InstanceID: Instance ID.
portNum:Port ID
Event description: Spanning Tree port status changed
Log Message: Spanning Tree port status change [( [Instance:<InstanceID> ],
port:<portNum>)] <old_status> -> <new_status>
Parameters description:
InstanceID: Instance ID.
portNum: Port ID
old_status: Old status
new_status: New status
Event description: Spanning Tree port role changed.
Log Message: Spanning Tree port role change [( [Instance:<InstanceID> ],
port:<portNum>)] <old_role> -> <new_role>
ERPS
Parameters description:
InstanceID: Instance ID.
portNum:Port ID
old_role: Old role
new_status:New role
Event description: Signal failure detected
Log Message: Signal fail detected on node <macaddr>
Parameters description:
macaddr: The system MAC of the node
Event description: Signal failure cleared
Log Message: Signal fail cleared on node <macaddr>
Parameters description:
macaddr: The system MAC of the node
Event description: RPL owner conflict
Log Message: RPL owner conflicted on the ring <macaddr>
LLDP-MED
Informational
Informational
Notice
Notice
Informational
Notice
Notice
Warning
Parameters description:
macaddr: The system MAC of the node
Event description: LLDP-MED topology change detected
Notice
Log Message: LLDP-MED topology change detected (on port <portNum>.
chassis id: <chassisType>, <chassisID>, port id: <portType>, <portID>, device
class: <deviceClass>)
Parameters description:
portNum: The port number.
chassisType: chassis ID subtype.
Value list:
1. chassisComponent(1)
2. interfaceAlias(2)
3. portComponent(3)
4. macAddress(4)
5. networkAddress(5)
6. interfaceName(6)
7. local(7)
chassisID: chassis ID.
portType: port ID subtype.
Value list:
1. interfaceAlias(1)
2. portComponent(2)
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3. macAddress(3)
4. networkAddress(4)
5. interfaceName(5)
6. agentCircuitId(6)
7. local(7)
portID: port ID.
deviceClass: LLDP-MED device type.
Event description: Conflict LLDP-MED device type detected
Log Message: Conflict LLDP-MED device type detected ( on port < portNum >,
chassis id: < chassisType>, <chassisID>, port id: < portType>, <portID>,
device class: <deviceClass>)
Parameters description:
portNum: The port number.
chassisType: chassis ID subtype.
Value list:
1. chassisComponent(1)
2. interfaceAlias(2)
3. portComponent(3)
4. macAddress(4)
5. networkAddress(5)
6. interfaceName(6)
7. local(7)
chassisID: chassis ID.
portType: port ID subtype.
Value list:
1. interfaceAlias(1)
2. portComponent(2)
3. macAddress(3)
4. networkAddress(4)
5. interfaceName(5)
6. agentCircuitId(6)
7. local(7)
portID: port ID.
deviceClass: LLDP-MED device type.
Event description: Incompatible LLDP-MED TLV set detected
Log Message: Incompatible LLDP-MED TLV set detected ( on port < portNum
>, chassis id: < chassisType>, <chassisID>, port id: < portType>, <portID>,
device class: <deviceClass>)
CFM
Notice
Notice
Parameters description:
portNum: The port number.
chassisType: chassis ID subtype.
Value list:
1. chassisComponent(1)
2. interfaceAlias(2)
3. portComponent(3)
4. macAddress(4)
5. networkAddress(5)
6. interfaceName(6)
7. local(7)
chassisID: chassis ID.
portType: port ID subtype.
Value list:
1. interfaceAlias(1)
2. portComponent(2)
3. macAddress(3)
4. networkAddress(4)
5. interfaceName(5)
6. agentCircuitId(6)
7. local(7)
portID: port ID.
deviceClass: LLDP-MED device type.
Event description: Cross-connect is detected
Critical
Log Message: CFM cross-connect. VLAN:<vlanid>, Local(MD Level:<mdlevel>,
Port <portNum>, Direction:<mepdirection>) Remote(MEPID:<mepid>,
MAC:<macaddr>)
Parameters description:
vlanid: Represents VLAN identifier of the MEP.
mdlevel: Represents MD level of the MEP.
portNum: Represents the logical port number of the MEP.
mepdirection: Can be "inward" or "outward".
mepid: Represents the MEPID of the MEP.
macaddr: Represents the MAC address of the MEP.
Event description: Error CFM CCM packet is detected
Warning
Log Message: CFM error ccm. MD Level:<mdlevel>, VLAN:<vlanid>, Local(Port
<portNum>, Direction:<mepdirection>) Remote(MEPID:<mepid>,
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MAC:<macaddr>)
Parameters description:
vlanid: Represents VLAN identifier of the MEP.
mdlevel: Represents MD level of the MEP.
portNum: Represents logical port number of the MEP.
mepdirection: Can be "inward" or "outward".
mepid: Represents MEPID of the MEP.
macaddr: Represents MAC address of the MEP.
Event description: Can not receive remote MEP's CCM packet
Log Message: CFM remote down. MD Level:<mdlevel>, VLAN:<vlanid>,
Local(Port <portNum>, Direction:<mepdirection>)
Parameters description:
vlanid: Represents VLAN identifier of the MEP.
mdlevel: Represents MD level of the MEP.
portNum: Represents logical port number of the MEP.
mepdirection: Can be "inward" or "outward".
Event description: Remote MEP's MAC reports an error status
Log Message: CFM remote MAC error. MD Level:<mdlevel>, VLAN:<vlanid>,
Local(Port <portNum>, Direction:<mepdirection>)
Parameters description:
vlanid: Represents VLAN identifier of the MEP.
mdlevel: Represents MD level of the MEP.
portNum: Represents the logical port number of the MEP.
mepdirection: Can be "inward" or "outward".
Event description: Remote MEP detects CFM defects
Log Message: CFM remote detects a defect. MD Level:<mdlevel>,
VLAN:<vlanid>, Local(Port <portNum>, Direction:<mepdirection>)
Voice VLAN
Parameters description:
vlanid: Represents VLAN identifier of the MEP.
mdlevel: Represents MD level of the MEP.
portNum: Represents logical port number of the MEP.
mepdirection: Can be "inward" or "outward".
Event description: When a new voice device is detected in the port.
Log Message: New voice device detected (MAC <macaddr>, Port <portNum>)
Parameters description:
portNum : The port number.
macaddr: Voice device MAC address
Event description: When a port which is in auto voice VLAN mode joins the
voice VLAN
Log Message: Port < portNum > add into voice VLAN <vid >
Warning
Warning
Informational
Informational
Informational
Parameters description:
portNum : The port number.
vid:VLAN ID
Event description: When a port leaves the voice VLAN and at the same time, no Informational
voice device is detected in the aging interval for that port, the log message will
be sent.
Log Message: Port < portNum > remove from voice VLAN <vid >
MAC-based
Access Control
Parameters description:
portNum : The port number.
vid:VLAN ID
Event description: A host fails to pass the authentication
Log Message: MAC-based Access Control unauthenticated host(MAC:
<macaddr>, Port <portNum>, VID: <vid>)
Critical
Parameters description:
macaddr: MAC address
portNum: The port number.
vid: VLAN ID on which the host exists
Event description: The authorized user number on a port reaches the max user Warning
limit.
Log Message: Port <portNum> enters MAC-based Access Control stop learning
state.
Parameters description:
portNum: The port number.
Event description: The authorized user number on a port is below the max user Warning
limit in a time interval (interval is project depended).
Log Message: Port <portNum> recovers from MAC-based Access Control stop
learning state.
Parameters description:
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portNum: The port number.
Event description: The authorized user number on whole device reaches the
max user limit.
Log Message: MAC-based Access Control enters stop learning state.
Parameters description:
None
Event description: The authorized user number on whole device is below the
max user limit in a time interval (interval is project depended).
Log Message: MAC-based Access Control recovers from stop learning state.
Warning
Parameters description:
None
Event description: A host passes the authentication
Log Message: MAC-based Access Control host login successful (MAC:
<macaddr>, port: <portNum>, VID: <vid>)
Informational
Parameters description:
macaddr: MAC address
portNum: The port number.
vid: VLAN ID on which the host exists
Event description: A host is aged out.
Log Message: MAC-based Access Control host aged out (MAC: <macaddr>,
port: <portNum>, VID: <vid>)
802.1X
Parameters description:
macaddr: MAC address
portNum: The port number.
vid: VLAN ID on which the host exists
Event description: 802.1X Authentication failure.
Log Message: 802.1XAuthentication failure [for <reason> ] from (Username:
<username>, Port: <portNum>, MAC: <macaddr> )
Parameters description:
reason: The reason for failed authentication.
username: The user that is being authenticated.
portNum: The port number.
macaddr: the MAC address of authenticated device.
Event description: 802.1X Authentication success.
Log Message: 802.1X Authentication success from (Username: <username>,
Port: <portNum>, MAC: <macaddr>)
AAA and SSH
Warning
Parameters description:
username: The user that being authenticated.
portNum: The port number.
macaddr: the MAC address of authenticated device.
Event description: Successful login through a session.
Log Message: Successful login through <Console | Telnet | Web | Web(SSL) |
SSH>(Username: <username>, IP: <ipaddr | ipv6address>).
Informational
Warning
Informational
Informational
Parameters description:
ipaddr: IP address.
username: user name.
ipv6address: IPv6 address.
Event description: Login failed through a session.
Warning
Log Message: Login failed through <Console | Telnet | Web | Web(SSL) |SSH>
(Username: <username>, IP: <ipaddr | ipv6address>).
Parameters description:
ipaddr: IP address.
username: user name.
ipv6address: IPv6 address.
Event description: Logout through a session.
Log Message: Logout through <Console | Telnet | Web | Web(SSL) | SSH>
(Username: <username>, IP: <ipaddr | ipv6address>).
Parameters description:
ipaddr: IP address.
username: user name.
ipv6address: IPv6 address.
Event description: session timed out.
Log Message: <Console | Telnet | Web | Web(SSL) | SSH> session timed out
(Username: <username>, IP: <ipaddr | ipv6address>).
Parameters description:
ipaddr: IP address.
username: user name.
ipv6address: IPv6 address.
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The IP parameter not for
Console.
The IP parameter not for
Console.
Informational
The IP parameter not for
Console.
Informational
The IP parameter not for
Console session.
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Event description: SSH server is enabled.
Informational
Log Message: SSH server is enabled
Event description: SSH server is disabled.
Informational
Log Message: SSH server is disabled
Event description: Login failed through a session due to AAA server timeout or Warning
improper configuration.
Log Message: Login failed through <Console | Telnet | Web | Web(SSL) | SSH>
[from <ipaddr | ipv6address>] due to AAA server <ipaddr | ipv6address>
timeout or improper configuration (Username: <username>).
Parameters description:
ipaddr: IP address.
ipv6address: IPv6 address.
username: user name.
Event description: Enable Admin failed through a session due to AAA server
timeout or improper configuration.
Log Message: Enable Admin failed through <Console | Telnet | Web |
Web(SSL) | SSH> [from <ipaddr | ipv6address>] due to AAA server <ipaddr |
ipv6address> timeout or improper configuration (Username: <username>)
Warning
Parameters description:
ipaddr: IP address.
ipv6address: IPv6 address.
username: user name.
Event description: Enable Admin failed through a session authenticated by AAA Warning
local or server.
Log Message: Enable Admin failed through <Console | Telnet | Web| Web(SSL)
| SSH> [from <ipaddr | ipv6address>] authenticated by AAA < local | server
<ipaddr | ipv6address>> (Username: <username>).
Parameters description:
local: enable admin by AAA local method.
server: enable admin by AAA server method.
ipaddr: IP address.
ipv6address: IPv6 address.
username: user name.
Event description: Successful Enable Admin through a session authenticated by Informational
AAA local or none or server.
Log Message: Successful Enable Admin through <Console | Telnet | Web |
Web(SSL) | SSH> [from <ipaddr | ipv6address>] authenticated by AAA <local |
none | server <ipaddr | ipv6address>> (Username: <username>).
Parameters description:
local: enable admin by AAA local method.
none: enable admin by AAA none method.
server: enable admin by AAA server method.
ipaddr: IP address.
ipv6address: IPv6 address.
username: user name.
Event description: Login failed through a session authenticated by AAA local or Warning
server.
Log Message: Login failed through <Console | Telnet | Web | Web(SSL) | SSH>
[from <ipaddr | ipv6address>] authenticated by AAA <local | server <ipaddr |
ipv6address>> (Username: <username>).
Parameters description:
local: specify AAA local method.
server: specify AAA server method.
ipaddr: IP address.
ipv6address: IPv6 address.
username: user name.
Event description: Successful login through a session authenticated by AAA
local or none or server.
Log Message: Successful login through <Console | Telnet | Web | Web(SSL) |
SSH> [from < ipaddr | ipv6address >] authenticated by AAA <local | none |
server <ipaddr | ipv6address>> (Username: <username>).
Parameters description:
local: specify AAA local method.
none: specify none method.
server: specify AAA server method.
ipaddr: IP address.
ipv6address: IPv6 address.
username: user name.
Event description: Authentication Policy is enabled
Log Message: Authentication Policy is enabled (Module: AAA)
Event description: Authentication Policy is disabled
Log Message: Authentication Policy is disabled (Module: AAA)
469
Informational
The string “[from <ipaddr |
ipv6address>]” not for
console session.
The string “[from <ipaddr |
ipv6address>]” not for
console session.
The string “[from <ipaddr |
ipv6address>]” not for
console session.
The string “[from <ipaddr |
ipv6address>]” not for
console session.
The string “[from <ipaddr |
ipv6address>]” not for
console session.
The string “[from <ipaddr |
ipv6address>]” not for
console session.
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xStack DES-3810 Series Layer 3 Managed Ethernet Switch Web UI Reference Guide
Port Security
IMPB
Event description: Address full on a port
Log Message: Port security violation [([mac address:<macaddr>] on locking
address full [port:< portNum>])]
Warning
Parameters description:
macaddr: The violation MAC address.
portNum: The port number.
Event description: Dynamic IMPB entry conflicts with static ARP
Warning
Log Message: Dynamic IMPB entry conflicts with static ARP(IP: <ipaddr>, MAC:
<macaddr>, Port <portNum>)
Parameters description:
ipaddr: IP address
macaddr: MAC address
portNum : The port number
Event description: Dynamic IMPB entry conflicts with static FDB.
Log Message: Dynamic IMPB entry conflicts with static FDB(IP: [<ipaddr> |
<ipv6addr>], MAC: <macaddr>, Port <portNum>)
Parameters description:
ipaddr: IP address
ipv6addr: IPv6 address
macaddr: MAC address
portNum : The port number
Event description: Dynamic IMPB entry conflicts with static IMPB.
Log Message: Dynamic IMPB entry conflicts with static IMPB(IP: [<ipaddr> |
<ipv6addr>], MAC: <macaddr>, Port <portNum>).
Warning
Warning
Parameters description:
ipaddr: IP address
ipv6addr: IPv6 address
macaddr: MAC address
portNum : The port number
Event description: Creating IMPB entry failed due to no ACL rule being
Warning
available.
Log Message: Creating IMPB entry failed due to no ACL rule being available(IP:
[<ipaddr> | <ipv6addr>], MAC: <macaddr>, Port <portNum>)
Parameters description:
ipaddr: IP address
ipv6addr: IPv6 address
macaddr: MAC address
portNum : The port number
Event description: IMPB checks a host illegal.
Log Message: Unauthenticated IP-MAC address and discarded by IMPB (IP:
[<ipaddr> | <ipv6addr>]], MAC :< macaddr >, Port <portNum >).
Warning
Parameters description:
ipaddr: IP address
ipv6addr: IPv6 address
macaddr: MAC address
portNum : The port number
Event description: Dynamic IMPB entry conflicts with static NDP
Warning
Log Message: Dynamic IMPB entry conflicts with static NDP (IP: [< ipaddr > | <
ipv6addr >], MAC: <macaddr>, Port <portNum>)
BPDU Attack
Protection
Parameters description:
ipaddr: IP address
ipv6addr: IPv6 address
macaddr: MAC address
portNum : The port number
Event description: BPDU attack happened.
Informational
Log Message: Port <portNum> enter BPDU under protection state (mode: drop |
block | shutdown)
Parameters description:
portNum : The port number
drop / block / shutdown: There only one of they in a log entry.
Event description: BPDU attack automatically recover.
Log Message: Port <portNum > recover from BPDU under protection state
automatically
Parameters description:
portNum : The port number
Event description: BPDU attack manually recover.
Log Message: Port <portNum > recover from BPDU under protection state
manually
470
Informational
Informational
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xStack DES-3810 Series Layer 3 Managed Ethernet Switch Web UI Reference Guide
WAC
JWAC
Parameters description:
portNum : The port number
Event description: When a client host fail to authenticate.
Log Message: WAC unauthenticated user (Username: <string>, IP: <ipaddr>,
MAC: <macaddr>, Port: <portNum>)
Parameters description:
string: Username
ipaddr: IP address
macaddr: MAC address
portNum : The port number
Event description: This log will be triggered when the authorized user number
Warning
reaches the max user limit on whole device.
Log Message: WAC enters stop learning state.
Event description: This log will be triggered when the authorized user number is Warning
below the max user limit on whole device in a time interval (interval is project
depended).
Log Message: WAC recovers from stop learning state.
Event description: When a client host authenticated successful.
Warning
Log Message: JWAC authenticated user (Username: <string>, IP: <ipaddr>,
MAC: <macaddr>, Port: <portNum>)
Parameters description:
string: Username
ipaddr: IP address
macaddr: MAC address
portNum : The port number
Event description: When a client host fail to authenticate.
Log Message: JWAC unauthenticated user (Username: <string>, IP: <ipaddr>,
MAC: <macaddr>, Port: <portNum>).
LBD
Warning
Parameters description:
string: Username
ipaddr: IP address
macaddr: MAC address
portNum : The port number
Event description: This log will be triggered when the authorized user number
Warning
reaches the max user limit on whole device.
Log Message: JWAC enters stop learning state.
Event description: This log will be triggered when the authorized user number is Warning
below the max user limit on whole device in a time interval (interval is project
depended).
Log Message: JWAC recovers from stop learning state.
Critical
Event Description: Loop back is detected under port-based mode.
Log Message: Port < portNum> LBD loop occurred. Port blocked.
Parameters Description:
portNum: The port number.
Event Description: Port recovered from LBD blocked state under port-based
mode.
Log Message: Port< portNum> LBD port recovered. Loop detection restarted
Informational
Parameters Description:
portNum: The port number.
Event Description: Loop back is detected under VLAN-based mode.
Log Message:
Port <portNum> VID <vlanID> LBD loop occurred. Packet discard begun
Critical
Parameters Description:
portNum: The port number.
vlanID: the VLAN ID number.
Event Description: Port recovered from LBD blocked state under VLAN-based
mode.
Log Message: Port < portNum> VID <vlanID> LBD recovered. Loop detection
restarted
Informational
Parameters Description:
portNum: The port number.
vlanID: the VLAN ID number.
Event Description: The number of VLAN in which loop back occurs hit the
specified number.
Log Message: Loop VLAN number overflow.
Traffic Control
Warning
Parameters Description:
None
Event description: Broadcast storm occurrence.
Log Message: Port <portNum> Broadcast storm is occurring.
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Informational
Warning
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xStack DES-3810 Series Layer 3 Managed Ethernet Switch Web UI Reference Guide
Parameters description:
portNum: The port number.
Event description: Broadcast storm cleared.
Log Message: Port <portNum> Broadcast storm has cleared.
Parameters description:
portNum: The port number.
Event description: Multicast storm occurrence.
Log Message: Port <portNum> Multicast storm is occurring.
Parameters description:
portNum: The port number.
Event description: Multicast Storm cleared.
Log Message: Port <portNum> Multicast storm has cleared.
Parameters description:
portNum: The port number.
Event description: Port shut down due to a packet storm
Log Message: Port <portNum> is currently shut down due to a packet storm
Parameters description:
portNum: The port number.
SafeGuard
Event description: Safeguard Engine is in normal mode
Log Message: Safeguard Engine enters NORMAL mode
Event description: Safeguard Engine is in filtering packet mode
Log Message: Safeguard Engine enters EXHAUSTED mode
IP and Password Event description: Password change activity
Changed
Log Message: Password was changed by console (Username: <username>)
DoS Attack
Function
Gratuitous ARP
DHCP Server
Screening
OSPF Debug
Enhancement
Parameters description:
username: user name.
Event description: Spoofing attack:
1. The soure ip is same as switch's interface ip but the source mac is different
2. Source ip is the same as the switch's IP in ARP packet
3. Self IP packet dected
Log Message: Possible spoofing attack from IP: <ipaddr>, MAC: <macaddr>,
port: <portNum>
Parameters description:
ipaddr: IP address
macaddr: MAC address
portNum : The port number
Event description: IP conflict was detected
Log Message: Conflict IP was detected with this device (IP: <ipaddr>, MAC:
<macaddr>, Port <portNum>, Interface: < intf-name>)
Parameters description:
ipaddr: IP address
macaddr: MAC address
portNum : The port number
intf-name: Interface name
Event description: Detected untrusted DHCP server IP address.
Log Message: Detected untrusted DHCP server(IP: <ipaddr>,
Port <portNum> )
Parameters description:
ipaddr: The untrusted IP address which has beenis detected with our device.
portNum : Represent the logic port number of the device.
Event description: OSPF interface link state changed.
Log Message: OSPF interface <intf-name> changed state to <Up | Down>
Informational
Warning
Informational
Warning
Informational
Warning
Informational
Critical
Informational
Informational
Informational
Parameters description:
intf-name: Name of OSPF interface.
Event description: OSPF interface administrator state changed.
Log Message: OSPF protocol on interface <intf-name> changed state to
<Enabled | Disabled>
Informational
Parameters description:
intf-name: Name of OSPF interface.
Event description: One OSPF interface changed from one area to another.
Log Message: OSPF interface <intf-name> changed from area <area-id> to
area <area-id>
Notice
Parameters description:
intf-name: Name of OSPF interface.
area-id: OSPF area ID.
Event description: One OSPF neighbor state changed from Loading to Full.
Notice
Log Message: OSPF nbr <nbr-id> on interface <intf-name> changed state from
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Loading to Full
Parameters description:
intf-name: Name of OSPF interface.
nbr-id: Neighbor's router ID.
Event description: One OSPF neighbor state changed from Full to Down.
Notice
Log Message: OSPF nbr <nbr-id> on interface <intf-name> changed state from
Full to Down
Parameters description:
intf-name: Name of OSPF interface.
nbr-id: Neighbor's router ID.
Event description: One OSPF neighbor state’s dead timer expired.
Log Message: OSPF nbr <nbr-id> on interface <intf-name> dead timer expired
Notice
Parameters description:
intf-name: Name of OSPF interface.
nbr-id: Neighbor's router ID.
Event description: One OSPF virtual neighbor state changed from Loading to
Notice
Full.
Log Message: OSPF nbr <nbr-id> on virtual link changed state from Loading to
Full
Parameters description:
nbr-id: Neighbor's router ID.
Event description: One OSPF virtual neighbor state changed from Full to Down. Notice
Log Message: OSPF nbr <nbr-id> on virtual link changed state from Full to
Down
Parameters description:
nbr-id: Neighbor's router ID.
Event description: OSPF router ID was changed.
Log Message: OSPF router ID changed to <router-id>
VRRP Debug
Enhancement
Parameters description:
router-id: OSPF router ID.
Event description: Enable OSPF.
Log Message: OSPF state changed to Enabled
Event description: Disable OSPF.
Log Message: OSPF state changed to Disabled
Event description: One virtual router state becomes Master.
Log Message: VR <vr-id> at interface <intf-name> switch to Master
Parameters description:
vr-id: VRRP virtual router ID.
intf-name: Interface name on which virtual router is based.
Event description: One virtual router state becomes Backup.
Log Message: VR <vr-id> at interface <intf-name> switch to Backup
Parameters description:
vr-id: VRRP virtual router ID.
intf-name: Interface name on which virtual router is based.
Event description: One virtual router state becomes Init.
Log Message: VR <vr-id> at interface <intf-name> switch to Init.
Informational
Informational
Informational
Informational
Informational
Informational
Parameters description:
vr-id: VRRP virtual router ID.
intf-name: Interface name on which virtual router is based.
Event description: Authentication type mismatch of one received VRRP
advertisement message.
Log Message: Authentication type mismatch on VR <vr-id> at interface <intfname>.
Warning
Parameters description:
vr-id: VRRP virtual router ID.
intf-name: Interface name on which virtual router is based.
Event description: Authentication checking fail of one received VRRP
advertisement message.
Log Message: Authentication fail on VR <vr-id> at interface <intf-name>. Auth
type <auth-type>.
Warning
Parameters description:
vr-id: VRRP virtual router ID.
intf-name: Interface name on which virtual router is based.
Auth-type: VRRP interface authentication type.
Event description: Checksum error of one received VRRP advertisement
Warning
message.
Log Message: Received an ADV msg with incorrect checksum on VR <vr-id> at
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interface <intf-name>.
Parameters description:
vr-id: VRRP virtual router ID.
intf-name: Interface name on which virtual router is based.
Event description: Virtual router ID mismatch of one received VRRP
advertisement message.
Log Message: Received ADV msg virtual router ID mismatch. VR <vr-id> at
interface <intf-name>.
Warning
Parameters description:
vr-id: VRRP virtual router ID.
intf-name: Interface name on which virtual router is based.
Event description: Advertisement interval mismatch of one received VRRP
advertisement message.
Log Message: Received ADV msg adv interval mismatch. VR <vr-id> at
interface <intf-name>.
Warning
Parameters description:
vr-id: VRRP virtual router ID.
intf-name: Interface name on which virtual router is based.
Event description: A virtual MAC address is added into switch L2 table
Log Message: Added a virtual MAC <vrrp-mac-addr> into L2 table.
Parameters description:
vrrp-mac-addr: VRRP virtual MAC address
Event description: A virtual MAC address is deleted from switch L2 table.
Log Message: Deleted a virtual MAC <vrrp-mac-addr> from L2 table.
Parameters description:
vrrp-mac-addr: VRRP virtual MAC address
Event description: A virtual MAC address is adding into switch L3 table.
Log Message: Added a virtual IP <vrrp-ip-addr> MAC <vrrp-mac-addr> into L3
table.
Parameters description:
vrrp-ip-addr: VRRP virtual IP address
vrrp-mac-addr: VRRP virtual MAC address
Event description: A virtual MAC address is deleting from switch L3 table.
Log Message: Deleted a virtual IP <vrrp-ip-addr> MAC <vrrp-mac-addr> from
L3 table.
Parameters description:
vrrp-ip-addr: VRRP virtual IP address
vrrp-mac-addr: VRRP virtual MAC address
Event description: Failed when adding a virtual MAC into switch chip L2 table.
Log Message: Failed to add virtual MAC <vrrp-mac-addr> into chip L2 table.
Errcode <vrrp-errcode>.
Notice
Notice
Notice
Notice
Error
Parameters description:
vrrp-mac-addr: VRRP virtual MAC address
vrrp-errcode: Errcode of VRRP protocol behavior.
Event description: Failed when deleting a virtual MAC from switch chip L2 table. Error
Log Message: Failed to delete virtual MAC <vrrp-mac-addr> from chip L2 table.
Errcode <vrrp-errcode>.
Parameters description:
vrrp-mac-addr: VRRP virtual MAC address
vrrp-errcode: Errcode of VRRP protocol behavior.
Event description: Failed when adding a virtual MAC into switch L3 table. The
Error
L3 table is full.
Log Message: Failed to add virtual IP <vrrp-ip-addr> MAC <vrrp-mac-addr> into
L3 table. L3 table is full.
Parameters description:
vrrp-ip-addr: VRRP virtual IP address
vrrp-mac-addr: VRRP virtual MAC address
Event description: Failed when adding a virtual MAC into switch L3 table. The
Error
port where the MAC is learned from is invalid.
Log Message: Failed to add virtual IP <vrrp-ip-addr> MAC <vrrp-mac-addr> into
L3 table. Port <mac-port> is invalid.
Parameters description:
vrrp-ip-addr: VRRP virtual IP address
vrrp-mac-addr: VRRP virtual MAC address
mac-port: port number of VRRP virtual MAC.
Event description: Failed when adding a virtual MAC into switch L3 table. The
interface where the MAC is learned from is invalid.
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Log Message: Failed to add virtual IP <vrrp-ip-addr> MAC <vrrp-mac-addr> into
L3 table. Interface <mac-intf> is invalid.
Parameters description:
vrrp-ip-addr: VRRP virtual IP address
vrrp-mac-addr: VRRP virtual MAC address
mac-intf: interface id on which VRRP virtual MAC address is based.
Event description: Failed when adding a virtual MAC into switch L3 table. The
Error
box where the MAC is learned from is invalid.
Log Message: Failed to add virtual IP <vrrp-ip-addr> MAC <vrrp-mac-addr> into
L3 table. Box id <mac-box> is invalid.
Parameters description:
vrrp-ip-addr: VRRP virtual IP address
vrrp-mac-addr: VRRP virtual MAC address
mac-box: stacking box number of VRRP virtual MAC.
Event description: Failed when adding a virtual MAC into switch chip’s L3 table. Error
Log Message: Failed to add virtual IP <vrrp-ip-addr> MAC <vrrp-mac-addr> into
chip L3 table. Errcode <vrrp-errcode>
Parameters description:
vrrp-ip-addr: VRRP virtual IP address
vrrp-mac-addr: VRRP virtual MAC address
vrrp-errcode: Err code of VRRP protocol behavior.
Event description: Failed when deleting a virtual MAC from switch chip’s L3
table.
Log Message: Failed to delete virtual IP <vrrp-ip-addr> MAC <vrrp-mac-addr>
from chip L3 table. Errcode <vrrp-errcode>.
CFM Extension
Parameters description:
vrrp-ip-addr: VRRP virtual IP address
vrrp-mac-addr: VRRP virtual MAC address
vrrp-errcode: Err code of VRRP protocol behavior.
Event description: AIS condition detected
Log Message: [CFM_EXT(1):]AIS condition detected. MD Level:<mdlevel>,
VLAN:<vlanid>, Local(Port <portNum>, Direction:<mepdirection>,
MEPID:<mepid>)
Parameters description:
vlanid: Represents the VLAN identifier of the MEP.
mdlevel: Represents the MD level of the MEP.
portNum: Represents the logical port number of the MEP.
mepdirection: Represents the direction of the MEP. This can be "inward" or
"outward".
mepid: Represents the MEPID of the MEP.
Event description: AIS condition cleared
Log Message: [CFM_EXT(2):]AIS condition cleared. MD Level:<mdlevel>,
VLAN:<vlanid>, Local(Port <portNum>, Direction:<mepdirection>,
MEPID:<mepid>)
Parameters description:
vlanid: Represents the VLAN identifier of the MEP.
mdlevel: Represents the MD level of the MEP.
portNum: Represents the logical port number of the MEP.
mepdirection: Represents the direction of the MEP. This can be "inward" or
"outward".
mepid: Represents the MEPID of the MEP.
Event description: LCK condition detected
Log Message: [CFM_EXT(3):]LCK condition detected. MD Level:<mdlevel>,
VLAN:<vlanid>, Local(Port <portNum>, Direction:<mepdirection>,
MEPID:<mepid>)
Parameters description:
vlanid: Represents the VLAN identifier of the MEP.
mdlevel: Represents the MD level of the MEP.
portNum: Represents the logical port number of the MEP.
mepdirection: Represents the direction of the MEP. This can be "inward" or
"outward".
mepid: Represents the MEPID of the MEP.
Event description: LCK condition cleared
Log Message: [CFM_EXT(4):]LCK condition cleared. MD Level:<mdlevel>,
VLAN:<vlanid>, Local(Port <portNum>, Direction:<mepdirection>,
MEPID:<mepid>)
Parameters description:
vlanid: Represents the VLAN identifier of the MEP.
mdlevel: Represents the MD level of the MEP.
portNum: Represents the logical port number of the MEP.
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Error
Notice
Notice
Notice
Notice
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DULD
SRM
RADIUS
mepdirection: Represents the direction of the MEP. This can be "inward" or
"outward".
mepid: Represents the MEPID of the MEP.
Event description: A unidirectional link has been detected on this port
Log Message: Port: <portNum> is unidirectional.
Parameters description:
portNum: port number
Event Description: SRM mode change
Log Message: The SRM mode has been changed to <srm_mode>
Parameters description:
ipaddr: The IP address of the RADIUS server.
ingressBandwidth: The ingress bandwidth of RADIUS assign.
portNum: The port number.
Username: The user that is being authenticated.
Event description: Egress bandwidth assigned from RADIUS server after
RADIUS client is authenticated by RADIUS server successfully .This egress
bandwidth will be assigned to the port.
Log Message: RADIUS server <ipaddr> assigned egress
bandwith :<egressBandwidth> to port <portNum> (account: <username>)
Parameters description:
ipaddr: The IP address of the RADIUS server.
egressBandwidth: The egress bandwidth of RADIUS assign.
portNum: The port number.
Username: The user that is being authenticated.
Event description: 802.1p default priority assigned from RADIUS server after
RADIUS client is authenticated by RADIUS server successfully. This 802.1p
default priority will be assigned to the port.
Log Message: RADIUS server <ipaddr> assigned 802.1p default
priority:<priority> to port <portNum> (account : <username>)
Parameters description:
ipaddr: The IP address of the RADIUS server.
priority: Priority of RADIUS assign.
portNum: The port number.
Username: The user that is being authenticated.
Event description: Failed to assign ACL profiles/rules from RADIUS server.
Log Message: RADIUS server <ipaddr> assigns <username> ACL failure at
port <portNum> (<string>)
VPWS
Informational
Parameters Description:
srm_mode: the SRM mode, could be Routing or VPWS
Event description: VID assigned from RADIUS server after RADIUS client is
Informational
authenticated by RADIUS server successfully .This VID will be assigned to the
port and this port will be the VLAN untagged port member.
Log Message: RADIUS server <ipaddr> assigned VID :<vlanID> to port
<portNum> (account :<username> )
Parameters description:
ipaddr: The IP address of the RADIUS server.
vlanID: The VID of RADIUS assigned VLAN.
portNum: The port number.
Username: The user that is being authenticated.
Event description: Ingress bandwidth assigned from RADIUS server after
RADIUS client is authenticated by RADIUS server successfully .This Ingress
bandwidth will be assigned to the port.
Log Message: RADIUS server <ipaddr> assigned ingress
bandwith :<ingressBandwidth> to port <portNum> (account : <username>)
DHCPv6 Relay
Informational
Parameters description:
ipaddr: The IP address of the RADIUS server.
portNum: The port number.
Username: The user that is being authenticated.
string: The failed RADIUS ACL command string.
Event description: DHCPv6 relay on a specific interface’s administrator state
changed.
Log Message: [DHCPv6_RELAY(1):]DHCPv6 relay on interface <intf-name>
changed state to <enabled | disabled>
Parameters description:
intf-name: Name of the DHCPv6 relay agent interface.
Event description: Pseudowire link down
Log Message: Pseudowire <vc_id> link down.
Parameters description:
vc_id: the link down pseudowire ID
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Informational
Informational
Informational
Warning
Informational
Informational
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Event description: Pseudowire link up
Log Message: Pseudowire <vc_id> link up.
Informational
Parameters description:
vc_id: the link up pseudowire ID
Event description: Pseudowire is deleted
Log Message: Pseudowire <vc_id> is deleted.
LDP
Informational
Parameters description:
vc_id: the deleted pseudowire ID
Event description: the number of Session Initialization messages exceeds the
value of the 'mplsLdpEntityInitSessionThreshold'
Log Message: Session of peer <lsrid> initialization exceeded threshold <
threshold >
Parameters description:
lsrid: LSR ID of peer
threshold: LDP session initialization threshold.
Event description: Path vector limit mismatch
Log Message: LDP entity path vector limit <value> does not match the peer
<lsrid> path vector limit <value>
Parameters description:
lsrid: LSR ID of peer
value: Path Vector limit
Event description: LDP session state enters the operational state
Log Message: LDP session of peer <lsrid> is operational
Parameters description:
lsrid: LSR ID of peer
Event description: LDP session state restart
Log Message: LDP session of peer <lsrid> restart
MPLS
Informational
Informational
Informational
Informational
Parameters description:
lsrid: LSR ID of peer
Event description: LSP is up
Log Message: LSP <lsp_id> is up
Informational
Parameters description:
lsp_id: The established LSP ID
Event description: LSP is down
Log Message: LSP <lsp_id> is down
Informational
Parameters description:
lsp_id: The deleted LSP ID
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Appendix D Trap Entries
This table lists the trap logs found on the Switch.
Category
Trap Name
SNMP
coldStart/1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.1
BRIDGE-MIB
Description
Note
A coldStart trap signifies that the SNMP entity, supporting a notification
originator application, is reinitializing itself and that its configuration may
have been altered.
warmStart/1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.2
A warmStart trap signifies that the SNMP entity, supporting a notification
originator application, is initializing itself such that its configuration is
unaltered.
linkDown/1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.3
A linkDown trap signifies that the SNMP entity, acting in an agent role, has
detected that the ifOperStatus object for one of its communication links is
about to enter the down state from some other state. This other state is
indicated by the included value of ifOperStatus.
Binding objects:
(1)ifIndex
(2)ifAdminStatus
(3)ifOperStatus
linkUp/1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.4
A linkUp trap signifies that the SNMP entity, acting in an agent role, has
detected that the ifOperStatus object for one of its communication links
left the down state and transitioned into some other state. This other
state is indicated by the included value of ifOperStatus.
Binding objects:
(1)ifIndex
(2)ifAdminStatus
(3)ifOperStatus
authenticationFailure/1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5 An authenticationFailure trap signifies that the SNMP entity has received a
.5
protocol message that is not properly authenticated.
newRoot/1.3.6.1.2.1.17.0.1
topologyChange/1.3.6.1.2.1.17.0.2
OAM
dot3OamNonThresholdEvent/1.3.6.1.
2.1.158.0.2
MAC-based
Access
Control
swMacBasedAccessControlLoggedS
uccess/
1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.35.11.1.0.1
swMacBasedAccessControlLoggedFa
il/ 1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.35.11.1.0.2
swMacBasedAccessControlAgesOut/
1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.35.11.1.0.3
RMON
risingAlarm/1.3.6.1.2.1.16.0.1
(RFC2819.mi
b)
fallingAlarm/1.3.6.1.2.1.16.0.2
(RFC1907
SNMPv2MIB)
(RFC1907
SNMPv2MIB)
(RFC2233 IFMIB)
(RFC2233 IFMIB)
(RFC1907
SNMPv2MIB)
The newRoot trap indicates that the sending agent has become the new
root of the Spanning Tree
A topologyChange trap is sent by a bridge when any of its configured ports
transitions from the learning state to the forwarding state, or from the
forwarding state to the blocking state.
A dot3OamNonThresholdEvent notification is sent when a local or remote (ie8023ah.mib)
non-threshold crossing event is detected. A local event is detected by the
local entity, while a remote event is detected by the reception of an
Ethernet OAM Event Notification OAMPDU that indicates a non-threshold
crossing event.
Binding objects:
(1)dot3OamEventLogTimestamp
(2)dot3OamEventLogOui
(3)dot3OamEventLogType(olny support the value: dyingGaspEvent(257))
(4)dot3OamEventLogLocation
(5)dot3OamEventLogEventTotal
The trap is sent when a MAC-based Access Control host is successfully
logged in.
Binding objects:
(1) swMacBasedAuthInfoMacIndex
(2) swMacBasedAuthInfoPortIndex
(3) swMacBasedAuthVID
The trap is sent when a MAC-based Access Control host login fails.
Binding objects:
(1) swMacBasedAuthInfoMacIndex
(2) swMacBasedAuthInfoPortIndex
(3) swMacBasedAuthVID
The trap is sent when a MAC-based Access Control host ages out.
Binding objects:
(1) swMacBasedAuthInfoMacIndex
(2) swMacBasedAuthInfoPortIndex
(3) swMacBasedAuthVID
The SNMP trap that is generated when an alarm entry crosses its rising
threshold and generates an event that is configured for sending SNMP
traps.
Binding objects:
(1)alarmIndex,
(2)alarmVariable
(3)alarmSampleType,
(4)alarmValue,
(5)alarmRisingThreshold
The SNMP trap that is generated when an alarm entry crosses its falling
threshold and generates an event that is configured for sending SNMP
traps.
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LLDP
(lldp.mib)
lldpRemTablesChange/1.0.8802.1.1.2
.0.0.1
LLDP-MED
lldpXMedTopologyChangeDetected/1.
0.8802.1.1.2.1.5.4795.0.1
Port Security
swL2PortSecurityViolationTrap/1.3.6.
1.4.1.171.11.115.1.2.2.100.1.2.0.2
FDB
swL2macNotification/1.3.6.1.4.1.171.
11.115.1.2.2.100.1.2.0.1
Peripherals
swHighTemperature/
/1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.11.2.2.4.0.1
swHighTemperatureRecover
/1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.11.2.2.4.0.2
swLowTemperature
/1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.11.2.2.4.0.3
swLowTemperatureRecover/
/1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.11.2.2.4.0.4
swPowerStatusChg/
/1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.11.2.2.2.0.1
swPowerFailure
/1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.11.2.2.2.0.2
swPowerRecover
/1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.11.2.2.2.0.3
SafeGuard
swSafeGuardChgToExhausted
/1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.19.4.1.0.1
swSafeGuardChgToNormal
/1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.19.4.1.0.2
Traffic Control swPktStormOccurred/
/1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.25.5.0.1
swPktStormCleared
/1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.25.5.0.2
Binding objects:
(1)alarmIndex,
(2)alarmVariable
(3)alarmSampleType,
(4)alarmValue,
(5)alarmFallingThreshold
A lldpRemTablesChange notification is sent when the value of
lldpStatsRemTableLastChangeTime changes. It can be utilized by an
NMS to trigger LLDP remote systems table maintenance polls.
Binding objects:
(1)lldpStatsRemTablesInserts, (2)lldpStatsRemTablesDeletes,
(3)lldpStatsRemTablesDrops, (4)lldpStatsRemTablesAgeouts
A notification generated by the local device sensing a change in the
topology that indicates that a new remote device attached to a local port,
or a remote device disconnected or moved from one port to another.
Binding objects:
(1) lldpRemChassisIdSubtype
(2) lldpRemChassisId
(3) lldpXMedRemDeviceClass
When the port security trap is enabled, new MAC addresses that violate
the pre-defined port security configuration will trigger trap messages to be
sent out.
Binding objects:
(1)swPortSecPortIndex
(2)swL2PortSecurityViolationMac
This trap indicates the MAC addresses variation in address table
Binding objects:
(1)swL2macNotifyInfo
When Temperature High.
Binding objects:
(1) swTemperatureUnitIndex
(2) swTemperSensorID
(3) swTemperatureCurrent
When Temperature recover from High.
Binding objects:
(1) swTemperatureUnitIndex
(2) swTemperSensorID
(3) swTemperatureCurrent
When Temperature Low.
Binding objects:
(1) swTemperatureUnitIndex
(2) swTemperSensorID
(3) swTemperatureCurrent
When Temperature recover from Low.
Binding objects:
(1) swTemperatureUnitIndex
(2) swTemperSensorID
(3) swTemperatureCurrent
When Power Status Change.
Binding objects:
(1) swPowerUnitIndex
(2) swPowerID
(3) swPowerStatus
When Power Fail.
Binding objects:
(1) swPowerUnitIndex
(2) swPowerID
(3) swPowerStatus
When Power Recover.
Binding objects:
(1) swPowerUnitIndex
(2) swPowerID
(3) swPowerStatus
This trap indicates System change operation mode from normal to
exhausted.
Binding objects:
(1) swSafeGuardCurrentStatus
This trap indicates System change operation mode from exhausted to
normal.
Binding objects:
(1) swSafeGuardCurrentStatus
This trap is sent when a packet storm is detected by a packet storm
mechanism and a shutdown action is taken.
Binding objects:
(1) swPktStormCtrlPortIndex
The trap is sent when the packet storm is cleared by the packet storm
mechanism.
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IMPB
Gratuitous
ARP
DHCP Server
Screening
LBD
BPDU Attack
Protection
ERPS
CFM
CFM
Extension
Binding objects:
(1) swPktStormCtrlPortIndex
swIpMacBindingViolation
When the IMPB trap is enabled, if there’s a new MAC that violates the
Trap/ /1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.23.5.0.1
predefined port security configuration, a trap will be sent out.
Binding objects:
swIpMacBindingPortIndex
swIpMacBindingViolationIP
swIpMacBindingViolationMac
swIpMacBindingIPv6ViolationTrap/
When the IP-MAC Binding trap is enabled, if there's a new MAC that
1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.23.5.0.4
violates the pre-defined IPv6 IMPB configuration, a trap will be sent out.
Binding objects:
(1) swIpMacBindingPortIndex
(2) swIpMacBindingViolationIPv6Addr
(3) swIpMacBindingViolationMac
agentGratuitousARPTrap/1.3.6.1.4.1. This trap is sent when there is an IP address conflict.
171.12.1.7.2.0.5
Binding objects:
(1)agentGratuitousARPIpAddr (2)agentGratuitousARPMacAddr
(3)agentGratuitousARPPortNumber
(4)agentGratuitousARPInterfaceName
swFilterDetectedTrap
Send trap when an illegal DHCP server is detected. The same illegal
/1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.37.100.0.1
DHCP server IP address detected is just sent once to the trap receivers
within the log ceasing unauthorized duration.
Binding objects:
(1) swFilterDetectedIP
(2) swFilterDetectedport
swPortLoopOccurred
The trap is sent when a port loop occurs.
/1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.41.10.0.1
Binding objects:
(1) swLoopDetectPortIndex
swPortLoopRestart
The trap is sent when a port loop restarts after the interval time.
/1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.41.10.0.2
Binding objects:
(1) swLoopDetectPortIndex
swVlanLoopOccurred
The trap is sent when a port loop occurs under LBD VLAN-based mode.
/1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.41.10.0.3
Binding objects:
(1) swLoopDetectPortIndex
(2) swVlanLoopDetectVID
swVlanLoopRestart
The trap is sent when a port loop restarts under LBD VLAN-based mode
/1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.41.10.0.4
after the interval time.
Binding objects:
(1) swLoopDetectPortIndex
(2) swVlanLoopDetectVID
swBpduProtectionUnderAttackingTra When the BPDU Protection trap is enabled, if the specific port changes
p /1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.76.4.0.1
from a normal state to an under attack state, a trap will be sent out.
Binding objects:
(1)swBpduProtectionPortIndex (2)swBpduProtectionPortMode
swBpduProtectionRecoveryTrap
When the BPDU Protection trap is enabled, if the specific port changes
/1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.76.4.0.2
from an under attack state to a normal state, a trap will be sent out.
Binding objects:
(1)swBpduProtectionPortIndex
(2)swBpduProtectionRecoveryMethod
swERPSSFDetectedTrap
When a signal failure occurs, a trap will be generated.
/1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.78.4.0.1
Binding objects:
(1)swERPSNodeId
swERPSSFClearedTrap
When the signal failure clears, a trap will be generated.
/1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.78.4.0.2
Binding objects:
(1)swERPSNodeId
swERPSRPLOwnerConflictTrap
When a conflict occurs, a trap will be generated.
/1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.78.4.0.3
Binding objects:
(1)swERPSNodeId
dot1agCfmFaultAlarm
A MEP has a persistent defect condition. A notification (fault alarm) is sent
/1.3.111.2.802.1.1.8.0.1
to the management entity with the OID of the MEP that has detected the
fault.
Binding objects:
(1)dot1agCfmMepHighestPrDefect
swCFMExtAISOccurred
A notification is generated when local MEP enters AIS status.
/ 1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.86.100.0.1
Binding objects:
(1) dot1agCfmMdIndex
(2) dot1agCfmMaIndex
(3) dot1agCfmMepIdentifier
swCFMExtAISCleared
A notification is generated when local MEP exits AIS status.
/ 1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.86.100.0.2
Binding objects:
(1) dot1agCfmMdIndex
(2) dot1agCfmMaIndex
(3) dot1agCfmMepIdentifier
swCFMExtLockOccurred
A notification is generated when local MEP enters lock status.
/ 1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.86.100.0.3
Binding objects:
(1) dot1agCfmMdIndex
(2) dot1agCfmMaIndex
(3) dot1agCfmMepIdentifier
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swCFMExtLockCleared
/ 1.3.6.1.4.1.171.12.86.100.0.4
MPLS
LDP
VPWS
A notification is generated when local MEP exits lock status.
Binding objects:
(1) dot1agCfmMdIndex
(2) dot1agCfmMaIndex
(3) dot1agCfmMepIdentifier
mplsXCUp
This notification is generated when the mplsXCOperStatus object for one
/1.3.6.1.2.1.10.166.2.0.1
or more contiguous entries in the mplsXCTable is about to enter the up
state from another state.
mplsXCDown
This notification is generated when the mplsXCOperStatus object for one
/1.3.6.1.2.1.10.166.2.0.2
or more contiguous entries in the mplsXCTable is about to enter the up
state from another state.
mplsLdpInitSessionThresholdExceed This notification is generated when the number of Session Initialization
ed
messages exceeds the value of the 'mplsLdpEntityInitSessionThreshold'
/1.3.6.1.2.1.10.166.4.0.1
mplsLdpPathVectorLimitMismatch
This notification is sent when the'mplsLdpEntityPathVectorLimit' does NOT
/1.3.6.1.2.1.10.166.4.0.2
match the value of the 'mplsLdpPeerPathVectorLimit' for a specific Entity.
mplsLdpSessionUp
If this notification is sent when the value of 'mplsLdpSessionState' enters
/1.3.6.1.2.1.10.166.4.0.3
the 'operational(5)' state
mplsLdpSessionDown
This notification is sent when the value of 'mplsLdpSessionState' leaves
/1.3.6.1.2.1.10.166.4.0.4
the 'operational(5)' state
pwUp
This notification is generated when the pwOperStatus object for one or
/1.3.6.1.2.1.10.246.0.1
more contiguous entries in the pwTable which are about to enter the
up(1) state from some other state except the notPresent(5) state and
given that the pwDown notification issued for these entries.
pwDown
This notification is generated when the pwOperStatus object for one or
/1.3.6.1.2.1.10.246.0.2
more contiguous entries in the pwTable which are about to enter the
down(2) or lowerLayerDown(6) state from any other state, except for
transition from the notPresent(5) state.
pwDeleted
This notification is generated when the PW has been deleted, i.e., when
/1.3.6.1.2.1.10.246.0.3
the pwRowStatus has been set destroy(6) or the PW has been deleted by
a non-MIB application or due to an auto-discovery process.
481
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