Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

Automotive and Stationary

(Grid) Technology

FastCAP Systems Corporation

21 Drydock Ave. 8th Floor East

Boston, MA 02210

(857) 239-7500 www.fastcapsystems.com

© FastCAP Systems Corporation. All rights reserved. No portion may be reproduced in any form, by any means, for any purpose, without written permission of FastCAP. The information contained in this document is for reference only. Users must follow all applicable Federal, state and local regulations governing the use of all FastCAP products.

FastCAP reserves the right to change or revise the specifications of any product without notice. All product use is governed by applicable terms and conditions.”

Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

AUTOMOTIVE AND STATI ONARY OVERVIEW

FastCAP’s high performance, harsh environment ultracapacitors enable significant improvements in the way that electrified drivetrains and utility grid systems are designed – reducing weight, volume, and complexity while improving performance and relaxing design constraints on current technologies. Our ultracapacitors provide higher power, require little to no thermal management, withstand high shock and vibration on a component and module level, and are not subject to the volatility associated with chemical batteries. In applications where batteries are currently oversized for power handling, we expect dramatic reductions in total energy storage system weight by complementing those batteries with ultracapacitors. In cases where the battery designer would be forced to trade off energy for power, the ultracapacitor relaxes those design constraints enabling a more optimal solution – longer life, higher performance, lower volume and weight. In applications where pulsed power is routed long distances, we expect dramatic reductions in wire harness weight by providing point of load (POL) power buffering. In some applications, we expect the ultracapacitor to be a complete replacement of less optimal battery technologies.

KEY APPLICATIONS AND BENEFITS

1. Reduce upfront costs with 2-3x higher energy and power performance based on FastCAP’s advanced electrode technology

2. Reduce maintenance costs, eliminate thermal management, place the energy storage “under hood” or in other harsh environments with long-life, high cycle count reliability derived from FastCAP’s harsh environment technology

3. Improve the performance of torque assist, stop-start and cold-cranking features in automotive and heavy transport

4. Reduce the footprint and cost of mixed energy storage systems comprising high energy batteries or fuel cells with ultracapacitors.

5. Provide backup power and ride-through support for renewables and critical power systems in remote or harsh environments

6. Provide distributed brown out and UPS functionality to server farms and data centers without added thermal management

7. Enhance the reliability and reduce the cost of blade pitch actuator systems for wind turbines

COMPANY OVERVIEW

FastCAP Systems is an energy storage company started in 2009 from research conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Initially funded from an ARPA-E grant for advanced energy storage research and also DoE for geothermal technology researcy, FastCAP now operates in Boston, Massachusetts and maintains a workforce of roughly 20 employees. FastCAP specializes in ultracapacitor devices and systems for a variety of markets including energy exploration, aerospace and defense, automotive, and stationary storage. FastCAP's ultracapacitors are a unique form of energy storage that offer unparalleled performance in high reliability and extreme environment applications. They are lithium free, high powered, rechargeable devices which operate in extremely high temperature, shock, and vibration conditions enabling unprecedented performance in some of the most challenging environments found in the oil & gas, aerospace, and defense industry.

FastCAP is ready to engage on projects and partnerships to advance its technology for short-term, near-term and long-term business opportunities. FastCAP’s wealth of experience in developing specialized ultracapacitors and ultracapacitor-based systems opens the door to a suite of technology and potential not seen anywhere else in the energy storage industry. Additionally, FastCAP’s competency in advanced nanomaterials provides opportunities to complement and broaden its wide array technology opportunities.

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Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

TECHNOLOGY: EXTREME ENVIRONMENT ENERGY STORAGE AND SYSTEMS

FastCAP’s line of high-temperature ultracapacitors introduces the first practical rechargeable energy storage available for extreme temperature environments. FastCAP’s technology provides engineers with a new means for down-hole power generation, storage, and delivery enabling higher performance, higher efficiency, safer, and less expensive operations.

Shock and vibration resistance

technology

Engineered internal connections to withstand shock and vibrations

Laser welded & hermetic package

Operation in vacuum and harsh environments

Proprietary electrodes

Low internal resistance (ESR)

Great cycleability •

Proprietary, high performance electrolyte

Wide voltage window

Optimized for high power and extended lifetime

HIGH TEMPERATURE ENE RGY STORAGE TECHNOLO GY

FastCAP’s core exploration technology is an ultracapacitor cell specifically designed for the oil and gas market. Each extreme environment (EE) cell is capable of 150°C operation with 20g vibration and 500g shock survival. There are currently no other capacitors on the market capable of matching the high reliability and high performance of FastCAP extreme environment ultracapacitors.

The EE cell technology was validated in the oilfield throughout an aggressive testing campaign of FastCAP’s Ulyss EM telemetry system (ET) that took place from October 2014 to December

2015. The EM telemetry system consists of an APS DiPole module outfitted with a high energy ultracapacitor module and custom power electronics for charging and signal amplification. By utilizing the ultracapacitors for rechargeable energy storage, the ET system is capable of more than 150W output power without exceeding 40W input power. The results showed a greater signal to noise ratio without diminishing battery lifetime.

Over 20 wells were completed throughout the Eagle Ford, DJ, and Bakken regions over the course of the testing program. The performance of the high power electronics and capacitor modules was validated across a full range of drilling operations. Significant improvements to the surface signal detection hardware and software were also confirmed to mitigate the effects of highly dissipative formations and severe electrical interference.

VERY HIGH TEMPERATURE ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLO GY

FastCAP’s high-temperature ultracapacitors exceed the performance capabilities of any other ultracapacitor on the market, enabling new fields of exploration and development.

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Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

The graph to the right illustrates data gather by Sandia National Laboratory showing 200°C operation over 4000 hours with less than 10% increase in ESR and roughly 20% increase in capacitance over this period. In comparison, traditional ultracapacitors typically have a maximum temperature of 65°C. This technology represents a significant step in hightemperature rechargeable energy storage.

Development so far has brought the technology to TRL 4. Through strategic investment, the technology can be developed further for system-level prototyping and integration.

200%

150%

100%

50%

0%

0

NEXT GENERATION ENER GY STORAGE TECHNOLOG Y

GT_2015042901_01_200C

Capacitance ESR

1000 2000 3000

Time (Hrs.)

4000

200°C

5000

THIRD GENERATION ULTRACAPI CATOR – TRL2

Higher Voltage cells – Semi-rugged for high reliability, higher operating voltage to increase energy density and power density and reduce cost per Joule and per Watt o Broad Operating Temperature o High Voltage o Shock & Vibration Resistant o Hermetically sealed aluminum construction o Proprietary electrode for scale up in manufacturing o Eco-Friendly o Designed and Assembled in the USA

Applications o Automotive drivetrain electrification o Remote pulsed power and actuation for grid and stationary o High reliability rechargeable energy storage for back-up power and ride-through support

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Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION STUDIES

FastCAP is exploring automotive partnerships as the market uptake for drivetrain electrification accelerates. FastCAP’s high energy density (2x) and power density

(3x) relative to competitors will translate directly to cost savings in this market.

Meanwhile, FastCAP has the world’s only ruggedized, wide temperature ultracapacitor and the related IP. With that, our technology can be placed under the hood or under the chassis and no thermal management will be required. This too will translate directly to cost savings. The range of the electric vehicle can be extended by incorporating ultracapacitors in at least two ways. Primarily, with the ultracapacitors dedicated to the pulsed power needs of the vehicle, the design constraints on the battery are relaxed. The designer can choose a much higher energy density battery technology that would be less optimal on its own for power density, e.g. Lithium

Cobalt Oxide vs. Lithium Iron Phosphate. Additionally, the use of ultracapacitors to condition the load allows access to more of the energy in the battery - the “useable energy” - and therefore the range is increased.

Battery cycle life, or the number of charge cycles before a battery’s capacity falls below 80% of its original capacity, is adversely affected by full charge/discharges as well as frequent large power draw cycling. Quickly charging and discharging lithium-ion cells, during events such as high acceleration and deceleration, can result in lithium metal deposition on the anode and ultimately lifetime degradation.

Ultracapacitors exhibit both high power density and exceptional life cycle capabilities. Thus, high charge and discharge events can be buffered by the ultracapacitor bank, essentially filtering and isolating the battery module from such loads. The net effect of which is a battery module that requires less

Figure 1. Lithium-air Mechanics

maintenance and exhibits full range capabilities over an extended battery lifetime ultimately providing greater range and lower vehicle costs.

LITHIUM-OXYGEN BATTERIES WIT H ULTRACAPACITORS

One of the most promising emerging technologies in the field of energy storage is metal-air batteries. Lithium-oxygen batteries have attracted significant attention in recent year due to their enormous implications for the electric vehicle industry. Lithium-oxygen batteries consist of a metal anode, in this case a lithium based anode, and an oxygen cathode. The cathode is typically comprised of a graphene lattice construct to support the particle reactions between the oxygen and lithium. The lithium ions are released from the anode as a redox reaction product and move through the electrolyte to the cathode where they react with oxygen. This process generates the battery’s moving charge

1

. Lithium-oxygen batteries have great potential for the EV market because of their high energy density. As of 2010, lithium-oxygen battery lab tests have provided energy densities of 362Wh/Kg

7

. This metric is 150% of the energy density of the Li-ion batteries used by Tesla Motors today. The theoretical energy density of a fully developed Lithium-air battery could be as much as 5,200-11,140 Wh/kg, reaching comparable energy densities of gasoline

1

.

The greatest draw back to implementing lithium-oxygen batteries in the electric vehicle industry is their poor power density. Current power densities both experimentally and theoretically have been measured in the mW/kg range

2

. Lithium-oxygen batteries must be supplemented with a viable power source in order to be implemented in the electric vehicle industry. Fast charging and highly efficient ultracapacitors are capable of providing the power density that lithium-oxygen batteries lack. FastCAP Systems is currently developing a ruggedized aluminum ultracapacitor with an anticipated power density of 50kW/kg. This capacitor is designed with high vibration environments in mind and is capable of operating within a wide temperature range (-40⁰C to 65⁰C). Release of this product is scheduled for Q4 or 2016.

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Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

FUEL CELL-ULTRACAPACITOR HYBRID POWER SYSTEM

Hydrogen fuel cell powered vehicles are now being commercialized. Toyota’s Mirai boasts a drive range of 312 miles and a refuel time of roughly 5 minutes.

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Mercedes Benz has also committed to developing a fuel cell vehicle with their production of the B-Class F-CELL.

Figure 2. Fuel Cells (green) vs batteries (blue)

Hydrogen fuel cells are capable of reaching energy densities between

275-375Wh/liter. This metric is much higher than average Li-ion energy densities around

200Wh/liter.

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However, Hydrogen fuel cells fall short on providing needed power density metrics for typical vehicle applications. As such, commercialized systems typically use Li-ion batteries as complementary power buffers.

These Li-ion battery packs are frequently sized to accommodate the power requirements of the vehicle during acceleration and regeneration. Since these periods of acceleration and deceleration are relatively short, the Li-ion battery pack is often oversized to meet the power requirements, resulting in inefficient use of energy storage.

To illustrate this point, three different simulations were constructed based on standard driving models used to evaluate vehicle efficiency; FTP-75, LA92, and US06. Each driving model stresses different driving environments such as urban, suburban, and highway driving conditions. The simulation includes important car characteristics such as air drag, wheel friction, power train efficiency, power conversion efficiency, and vehicle mass for accurate real-condition results. A vehicle mass of 2,400 lbs. was utilized with a 50kW fuel cell. The peak power and energy given for the buffer energy storage represents the power and energy needed to augment the existing fuel cell to meet the specified performance levels.

Max. Accel.

Power [kW]

Max. Regen.

Power [kW]

FTP-75 61.7

LA92 86.0

US06 146.0

16.6

59.7

37.9

Avg.

[kW]

6.8

9.8

18.9

Power Peak Buffer

Power [kW]

11.8

36.0

96.0

Buffer Energy

[Wh]

32.1

212.6

342.1

As shown, while the Peak Buffer Power requirements are substantial, the relatively short periods of high power driving cause the buffer energy requirements to be very low. The table below illustrates the resulting buffer packs if they were constructed with all

NiMh batteries versus all ultracapacitors and finally as an optimized hybrid module. NiMh specifications are taken from Toyota’s current NiMh cell used in the Mirai battery back at 2kW/kg and 23.8Wh/kg. Ultracapacitor specifications are taken from FastCAP’s EEx ultracapacitor at 50kW/kg and 6.6Wh/kg.

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Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

Storage Mass Comparison

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

6

4.8

1.4

18

32.1

9.2

48

51.8

15.4

FTP-75 LA92

All Battery All Ucap Hybrid

US06

FTP-75

LA92

US06

All Battery

12kW, 140Wh, 6kg

36kW, 428Wh, 18kg

96kW, 1142Wh, 48kg

All UCap

243kW, 32Wh, 4.8kg

1610kW, 212Wh, 32.1kg

2590kW, 342Wh, 51.8kg

Hybrid

12.3kW, 32.1Wh, 1.49kg

36kW, 212.6Wh, 9.2kg

97.2, 342.1, 15.4kg

The calculations above demonstrate that in each driving model, the NiMh pack is sized for the necessary power requirements while the ultracapacitor pack was sized for energy requirements. Furthermore, the resulting excess energy and power in each case is substantial, providing strong evidence that a battery / ultracapacitor hybrid power buffer will result in both increased performance and higher overall system efficiency. This is shown in the final column, illustrating an optimized hybrid module. Power and energy specifications are met for each profile with significant reductions in mass across each driving model.

Hybrid solutions include some additional complexity in power management as ultracapacitors and batteries must be handled appropriately for best performance. However, an all-ultracapacitor power buffer based on FastCAP’s wide temperature range technology would require little to no thermal management with significantly increased life cycle and would thus represent a lowcomplexity solution compared to an all-battery power buffer.

FastCAP’s ruggedized ultracapacitor has the potential for extraordinary size, weight, and cost savings when paired with fuel cell and battery buffer systems.

MATERIAL HANDLING AN D HEAVY AUTOMOTIVE

Full electrification of drivetrains is increasingly a requirement in closed space, for instance, airport tarmacs and commercial warehouses. Those material handling vehicles may be powered from batteries or fuel cells and will be subject to transient behavior such as frequent stopping and starting and even lift actuation in the case of fork lifts and robotic movers. Coupling ultracapacitors with the primary sources in those applications can enable substantial cost and size reductions and improved performance.

The same concepts transfer to heavy duty and construction equipment where vehiclebased actuators such as lifts, and compactors require short-duration high power not easily provided by the primary source or even a combustion engine. FastCAP’s technology may solve major complexity and cost problems by providing frequent torque or power assist

6

Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology functionality. Generally, these systems may be exposed to harsh conditions, making FastCAP’s semi-rugged design an important valueadd.

In cases where a vehicle is designed for limited range but high power requirements, incorporating ultracapacitors into the energy storage is shown to increase overall vehicle efficiency

5

. This is caused by the necessity to size the battery module for the required power ultimately creating a battery that is oversized for the required energy.

Examples of such vehicles include low range municipal vehicles such as garbage trucks, construction equipment, as well as motorcycle and scooter platforms. Foster City, CA based company Motiv is founded on electrifying heavy vehicles

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. Through the incorporation of ultracapacitors, the hybrid power train can be optimized for the vehicle range and power requirements, ultimately reducing the cost, size, and weight of the vehicle while improving efficiency and market availability.

Figure 3. Chicago's fist E-Garbage Truck by Motive

FastCAP is internally invested in scaling up this technology by way of outsource manufacturing partners and licensing arrangements.

STRUCTURAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR AUTOMOTIVE

Structural energy storage can be implemented in vehicular systems with benefits in weight and mass reduction or “dual-use.”

Figure 4

1

illustrates the replacement of inactive vehicle materials such as car body paneling to address these performance metrics.

This reconfiguration can provide additional power and energy to the electric powertrain as well as auxiliary electrical systems. As indicated, this reconfiguration may also lower the overall weight of the vehicle through replacement of some of the steel paneling with composite materials.

Due to the logistics regarding servicing car body paneling, incorporation of the energy storage into the physical structure of the vehicle necessitates both a mechanically and electrically durable solution. From an electrical perspective, the structural energy storage should exhibit a long cycle life, accommodating a large number of charges and discharges without appreciable degradation.

Figure 4 Automotive structural energy storage concept

Ultracapacitors are a suitable technology that can address the power requirements associated with the automotive environment.

An alternative energy storage solution is Lithium-ion. Although

Lithium chemistries tend to have a much higher energy density than ultracapacitors, their cycle lives are generally much shorter. Lithiumion batteries have a typical cycle life on the order of 500 cycles, whereas ultracapacitors have a cycle life on the order of 500,000 cycles. As such, Lithium-ion technology would be a less attractive solution for structural energy storage in its current state.

Ultracapacitor Structural Storage

Long Life Cycle (>1M cycle lifetime)

High Power

Stable, High Safety Factor

Lithium Ion Structural Storage

Short Life Cycle (500-2000 cycles)

High Energy

Volatile, Low Safety Factor

1

http://arpa-e.energy.gov/sites/default/files/documents/files/CSESS%20Asp.pdf

7

Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

Table 1 lists several ultracapacitor manufacturers and compares their respective technological level with respect to a common form

factor.

Parameter

Maximum Cell Voltage (V)

Cell ESR (mΩ)

Cell Capacitance (F)

FastCAP Ioxus

3.0

1

460

2.7

2.5

400

Table 1 Comparison of ultracapacitor technologies

Maxwell

2.5

3.2

350

MICROHYBRIDS AND UND ER-THE-HOOD

In 2015, over 560,000 plug-in electric vehicles were sold world-wide [1], amounting to roughly 6.4% percent of the 87.5 million cars sold according to IHS Automotive [2] With electric plug-in vehicles still relatively small combined to traditional gasoline and gasoline hybrid vehicles, manufacturers are turning to new technologies to increase efficiency while keeping vehicle costs low. Such technology includes start-stop systems and electric turbochargers. Both of these applications require electric energy storage in order to operate.

Traditional car batteries cannot offer the lifetime, energy, and power required for efficiency operation. As such, new energy storage technology suitable for the under-the-hood environment is required.

Supercapacitors can be used as a high power, wide temperature range energy buffer in a variety of automotive architectures and applications to support heavy pulsed loads and extreme or cold temperatures. Examples of these use-cases include start-stop, DC buss voltage stabilization and cold-cranking.

Traditional electric vehicles contain large battery packs that often carry with them complex and high performance thermal management systems (TMS) to accommodate the narrow operating range of the battery modules. Without the incumbent battery TMS, gasoline vehicles designers must consider the environment in which to place electric energy storage. Placing storage closest to the point of power delivery, be it a starter motor, turbocharger, or cabin electronics, provides incentives of increased efficiency, smaller and lighter wiring harnesses, easier repair and maintenance, and overall lower complexity. In this case, placing electric storage under the hood is the ideal solution but the environment brings challenges to traditional energy storage.

A primary concern of the under-the-hood environment is temperature. A conservative rule of thumb for maximum under-the-hood temperature is roughly ambient temperature plus 100°C with typical estimates falling around 60°C higher than ambient. On a warm day, this could exceed 90°C. Conversely, cold starts on winter days can occur below 0°C. Automotive electronics are rated from -40°C to

125°C to accommodate these extreme temperatures.

Cooling systems can be effectively utilized to reduce energy storage temperatures but this often comes at the expense of complexity in the cooling system and/or increased complexity of the energy storage system.

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Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON ENERGY STORAGE

Nearly all energy storage will see a reduction in lifetime as temperature increases. A typical automotive lead-acid battery is rated to

55°C with an expected lifetime of roughly 3.5 years [3]. Primary modes of degradation due to temperature include corrosion of the cathode. For every 15°C, the cycle lifetime will roughly halve. [4]

Ultracapacitors are also susceptible to damage from over-heating. Typical ultracapacitors are rated from -40°C to +65°C. While cyclability of ultracapacitors is very high, lifetime at high voltage and temperature is typically only rated for 1500 hours [5]. Similarly, supercapacitors see an expontential decrease in lifetime at temperature; typically every increase of 10°C results in a halving of expected lifetime in hours at high voltage and temperature.

Operating above the maximum rated temperature can result in rapid irrecoverable performance degredation including significantly reduced capacitance, increased resistance, as well as violent venting of the cells. Repeated high power loads, commonly seen in microhybrid applications, cause additional internal cell heating to further reduce the temperature ceiling. Maxwell Technologies recommends keeping the ambient temperature below 40°C to reduce the risk of over-heating. [6]

FastCAP ultracapacitors, on the other hand, are designed to accommodate much higher operating temperatures enabling longer lasting and higher performance systems.

The above plot shows FastCAP’s range of high temperature energy storage solutions. Considering an under-the-hood temperature of

65°C (150°F), typical ultracapacitors will already have reached their maximum operating temperature without any additional internal heating. At this operating point, severe damage to the storage is likely with high potential for cell venting. On the other hand, 65°C is well within the operating range of FastCAP’s EE ultracapacitor line, enabling safer and higher performance systems.

START-STOP

Start-stop technology turns off the engine while the vehicle is at rest to avoid excessive inefficient idle operation. It is estimated that

70% of all vehicles in North America will incorporate start-stop technology [7]. Driving studies have shown that typical driving patterns can result in more than 250 start/stop events per day, with 95% of drivers experiencing less than 73 start/stop sequences per day.

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Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

Additionally, 95 percent of cars will require less than 56Wh of energy at roughly 6kW peak power to drive the start motor. [7] Hence, vehicle designs are targeting 200,000 to 300,000 start/stops over the course of the vehicle lifetime.

For such applications, Advanced Lead-Acid Batteries (AGM) as well as Li-Ion batteries are suitable but AGM batteries show relatively short lifetimes and the stress of cold-starting and repeated cycles may require more expensive lithium technology, such as Lithium

Titanium Oxide. However, the high power and low energy profile of the start/stop load is favorable to a supercapacitor technology or battery / supercapacitor hybrid technology.

BUSS STABILIZATION, AND COLD-CRANKING

A number of hybrid architectures make use of chemical batteries for traction and recovery, but tradeoffs in the design may lead to insufficient performance at very low temperature, repetitive high power pulsed load profiles, or interaction among coincident but unrelated power draw from the drive train and hotel loads. Supercapacitors can relax the design constraints on an otherwise overconstrained system design and ultimately provide the reliability and performance that the end-user expects. For example, a traditional lead acid battery would support DC loads, such as air conditioning, radio, power electronics, etc. while the capacitor bank support high power start/stop applications. Meanwhile, the supercapacitor can provide power at low temperature (<-30°C) where the battery performance may suffer substantially.

ELECTRIC TURBOCHARGE RS AND SUPERCHARGERS

Turbocharger technology is making a comeback in the automotive market for its ability to reduce the size and weight of the engine while maintaining the high power and torque of a larger engine. One of the primary issues with turbochargers is that the power gain comes at higher RPMs, leaving the engine struggling at lower RPMs. The supercharger gets around this issue by being driven directly from the engine but the net result is an overall reduction in fuel efficiency.

A possible solution to both issues is the electric turbocharger or electric supercharger. The basic premise is to use an electric motor to assist the turbocharger at the lower RPMs effectively removing turbo lag and relieving the engine from needing to drive a traditional supercharger. Regeneration can be used to augment electric generation to prevent additional engine alternator loading.

Similar to the start/stop profile, electric turbochargers and superchargers would be used frequently throughout the normal drive cycle with a high peak power and relatively low energy requirements making them suitable candidates for capacitive energy storage.

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Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

STATIONARY (GRID) AP PLICATION STUDIES

SERVER FARMS AND DATA CENTERS

Costs associated with server farms can be primarily categorized into downtime, power consumption, and maintenance. To prevent downtime, server farms employ a UPS system that turns on in the event of a brown out or complete power outage. Brown outs and power outages, while already present today, will be aggravated as renewables increasingly penetrate the grid. Ultracapacitors are generally well-suited for these applications compared to chemical batteries as the time scale of spurious power loss is typically 0.1 to 10’s of seconds. For server farms and other stationary applications,

FastCAP’s technology can be deployed for “ride-through” support during the changeover between power sources. FastCAP’s technology can also serve as a distributed “micro UPS” for instance, per server blade or per chip to enhance reliability in brown out ride through or power glitch conditions. In both cases, the peak power capability is key quickly providing the necessary power to enable volatile information backup while energy sources are transferred.

The table below shows the peak power capability of modern NiMH chemistry, known for high reliability and power capabilities over

Lithium-Ion technology, compared to FastCAP’s ultracapacitor portfolio.

NiMH

1

FastCAP EE UCAP

2

Peak Power [W]

14.4 40

1. Panasonic BK70AAH Back-up High Temperature AA NiMH Cell

2. FastCAP EE100-035 High Temperature AA Ultracapacitor

3. FastCAP EEx100-035 High Temperature Aluminum AA Ultracapacitor

FastCAP EEx UCAP

100

3

The key advantage of FastCAP’s ultracapacitor technology compared to other ultracapacitor technology is that they’ve been ruggedized over a wide range of temperature enabling less maintenance and higher performance. To decrease costs for cooling, server farms may be run at a higher ambient temperature thereby reducing typical cooling requirements. The effect of which is that each server will run hotter, especially on-board where local board level and chip level backup supplies are best utilized. As higher power servers are employed with less ambient cooling, board level temperature can exceed 65°C. Typical ultracapacitors show significant degradation in both capacity and lifetime at high temperature. FastCAP’s ultracapacitors maintain high capacity and long lifetime at temperatures well in excess of 100°C. The result is less maintenance and higher performance backup energy storage in the increasingly demanding high temperature server environment.

Operating

Temperature

*

Maxwell BC Ucap

-40°C – 65°C

1

Ioxus Titan

2

-40°C – 85°C

FastCAP EE100

-40°C – 100°C

FastCAP EE150

-40°C - 150°C

*Rated operating temperature. Rated lifetime 1,500 at maximum operating temperature and nominal

operating voltage.

1. Maxwell BC Capacitor Specification

2. Ioxus Titan Capacitor Specification

The table above represents the operating temperatures of modern ultracapacitors from two prominent manufacturers. As listed in the specification sheet, when operated at the maximum temperature and nominal voltage levels, lifetime of the ultracapacitor is rated at 1,500 hours. Significant lifetime extensions are possible by operating the ultracapacitor well below its maximum temperature, justifying capacitors rated for higher temperature.

11

Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

The plot below shows lifetimes at maximum voltage over operating temperature. Thus, the effect on ultracapacitor lifetime can mean the difference between a <1 year or >10 year maintenance schedule.

WIND TURBINE BLADE PITCH ACTUATORS

FastCAP’s ultracapacitors are can provide the pulsed power needed to pitch wind turbine blades under high-wind conditions. This is a necessary feature to make wind turbines practical and safe. In this instance, the cost to maintain the power system is very high as these systems are remote and difficult to access. FastCAP’s semi-rugged, high performance technology reduces cost of ownership in this application by virtue of its high reliability, long cycle life, and ruggedization inherited from aerospace and defense technologies.

RIDE-THROUGH SUPPORT

Power providers have to will increasingly look for methods for changing hands among multiple power source as renewables increasingly penetrate the grid and they must contend with intermittency associated with wind and solar. Ultracapacitors are generally well-suited for supporting short time-scale highly transient ride through events either between multiple baseload sources or between baseload and reserve. In the case of spinning reserves, the generator can take seconds to minutes to respond. In the case of fuel cells, transient response can be tenths of seconds to seconds to reach full capacity. FastCAP’s ultracapacitors are particularly well-suited when these systems are remote and difficult or expensive to maintain. When they are exposed to harsh conditions, FastCAP’s solution further reduces cost of ownership by virtue of its semi-rugged design.

Microgrids are becoming increasingly popular to support remote operations in energy, military, and residential applications. Industrial microgrids often must contend with large transient loads and intermittent power supplies. Storage technology is advancing to support microgrids as an energy buffer, supplying needed power to the grid and filtering variations and in the energy supply and demand.

12

Automotive and Stationary (Grid) Technology

Ultracaps have their place in microgrids by enabling higher power transients and extending battery lifetimes through absorbing damaging high power transients. Such hybrid storage modules enable long lasting, high-performance storage to support microgrid operations for years without service or degradation. FastCAP’s ultracapacitors offer the performance, harsh environment, and high reliability necessary to keep storage and maintenance costs low for practical implementation.

REFERENCES

[1] "Energy.gov," Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://energy.gov/eere/vehicles/fact-

918-march-28-2016-global-plug-light-vehicle-sales-increased-about-80-2015. [Accessed 02 June 2016].

[2] IHS Automotive, "2015 Global Automotive Forecast - What Really Happened?," IHS Automotive, 2016.

[3] Duracell, "Duracell Automotive Technical Guide," Duracell, 2013.

[4] PowerThru, "Lead Acid Battery Working - Lifetime Study," PowerThru.

[5] Maxwell Technologies, "DATASHEET K2 ULTRACAPACITORS - 2.85V/3400F," Maxwell Technologies, San Diego, CA, 2015.

[6] Maxwell Technologies, "Product Guide - BOOSTCAP Ultracapacitors," Maxwell Technologies, San Diego, CA, 2009.

[7] O. G. C. B. B. C. J. B. J. D. J. N. Harshad Tataria, "USABC Development of 12 Volt Battery for Start-Stop Application," in Internal

Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Vehicle Electric Vehicle Symposium, Barcelona, Spain, 2013.

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