Proxicast Support - Glossary of Cellular &amp

Proxicast Support - Glossary of Cellular &amp
Proxicast Support - Glossary of Cellular & Wireless Terms
Wednesday March 11. 2009
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10/100: A term used to indicate
that a device can support both
Ethernet (at a data transfer rate of
10Mbps) and Fast Ethernet (at a
data transfer rate of 100Mbps).
Tech Notes
1G: The original analog, voice-only
cellular telephone standard,
developed in the 1980s. Analog
cellular service is being phased out
in all but the most rural areas in the
United States.
Cellular Carriers
Support Bulletins
Software Updates
Glossary
Proxicast's LAN-Cell 2
3G Cellular Router
1x (1xRTT): A cellular data technology for CDMA networks. RTT stands for Radio Transmission
Technology. 1xRTT has a theoretical maximum of 144 Kbps of bandwidth, but achieves a practical
throughput of only 50 to 70 Kbps in the real world.
1xEV-DO: A third-generation cellular data technology for CDMA networks championed by Verizon
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Proxicast Support - Glossary of Cellular & Wireless Terms
Wireless. EV-DO stands for Evolution Data Optimized (but is sometimes referred to as Evolution
Data Only).
1xEV-DV: A third-generation cellular data technology for CDMA networks in chamioned by Sprint
PCS and AT&T Wireless. EV-DV stands for Evolution Data/Voice.
1xRTT (1x): A cellular data technology for CDMA networks. RTT stands for Radio Transmission
Technology. 1xRTT has a theoretical maximum of 144 Kbps of bandwidth, but achieves a practical
throughput of only 50 to 70 Kbps in the real world.
2G: Second-generation digital cellular service is the most widely used worldwide. It offers digital
voice calling, limited Web-access capability, and Short Message Service (SMS). 2G cell phone
standards include CDMA, TDMA, and GSM.
2.5G: Bridging the gap between 2G and 3G cellular service, 2.5G extends CDMA and GSM
technologies with faster Web access, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), and a change in radio
architecture to handle more bandwidth..
3DES (Triple DES): A block cipher formed from the Data Encryption Standard (DES) cipher by
using it three times. See also DES & AES.
3G: Third-generation mobile communications technology, as defined by the International
Telecommunications Union (ITU), provides a global standard for cellular networks capable of
handling live video calls and data access at broadband speeds. There are several flavors of 3G,
including EDGE, CDMA 2000, 1X, WCDMA, UMTS, EV-DO, HPSDA and HSUPA
3G Modem: (Also known as a Cellular Modem, Mobile Modem, Mobile IP Modem, Wireless
Modem) A wireless adapter that connects a laptop computer or other device to a cellular
telephone system for data transfer. Cellular modems, often contain their own antennas and plug
into a PC Card slot, a serial port or into the USB port of the computer or other device. Cellular
modems can operate on a variety of wireless data services such as GPRS, EDGE, UMTS, HSPDA,
HSPUA, 1x and EV-DO.
3G Router: (Also known as a Cellular Router, Mobile Router, Mobile IP Router, Wireless Router,
Cellular Gateway or Mobile Gateway) 3G routers provide shared Internet access by incorporating
a 3G cellular data modem as a WAN interface (generally, also including Ethernet and Wi-Fi LAN
interfaces). They can be deployed as a primary WAN link to a location where wired connections
are not cost-effective, and can also be used as a secondary or business continuity plan should the
primary cabled link fail. Cellular 3G routers range from simple SOHO network oriented devices
through rugged industrial units with advanced features. See LAN-Cell 2.
4G: Fourth generation mobile communications technology. A somewhat vague term used to
describe wireless mobile radio technologies that offer faster data rates than current 3G (third
generation) technologies. 4G networks are also more data-centric and based on standard Internet
technologies such as IP. Voice service is typically provided using a special form of VoIP. WiMAX
and LTE are examples of 4G technologies.
802.11: A family of IEEE specifications related to wireless networking. See 802.11a, 802.11b,
802.11g and 802.11n.
802.11a: One of three wireless networking specifications under the Wi-Fi rubric. 802.11a uses
the 5 GHz band and runs at 54 Mbps. 802.11a is little used outside specific business situations.
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Proxicast Support - Glossary of Cellular & Wireless Terms
802.11b: The most common of the three wireless networking specifications included in the Wi-Fi
certification mark. 802.11b uses the 2.4 GHz band and runs at 11 Mbps.
802.11e: A wireless standard that provides Quality of Service support for LANs. This is necessary
for delay-sensitive applications such as Voice over Wireless IP.
802.11g: The newest of the three Wi-Fi specifications. 802.11g is backward compatible with
802.11b, thanks in part to its use of the 2.4 GHz band, and it runs at the 54 Mbps speed of
802.11a. Most new equipment uses 802.11g.
802.11h: A supplementary standard to 802.11 to comply with European regulations. It adds
transmission power control and dynamic frequency selection.
802.11n: Not yet ratified, 802.11n offers both increased range and bandwidth, some proposals
work at up to 540Mbps, though the goal of the standard is only 100Mbps. Some companies now
offer products advertised as "Pre-N"
802.16: The technical name for WiMax. 802.16 and a subset, 802.16a, are used for long-haul
and backhaul connections.
802.1X: An authentication specification that allows a client to connect to a wireless access point
or wired switch but prevents the client from gaining access to the Internet until it provides
credentials, like a user name and password, that are verified by a separate server. In 802.1X,
there are three roles: the supplicant (client), authenticator (switch or access point), and
authentication server.
A Carrier: Most areas of the US have two cellular carriers, each of which operates on a different
frequency band. One is designated the "A" carrier (non-wireline carrier) and the other is
designated the "B" carrier. In some markets there may be only one carrier which may be "A" or
"B".
Access Fee: A monthly charge for the ability to connect to a wireless network. This fee is
assessed monthly whether the phone is actually used or not.
Access Point: The hub of a wireless network. Wireless clients connect to the access point, and
traffic between two clients must travel through the access point. Access points are often
abbreviated to AP in industry literature, and you may also see them referred to as "wireless
routers," "wireless gateways," and "base stations." We prefer to use "access point" when
discussing true access points that don't also share Internet connections or bridge between wired
and wireless networks.
Activation: Configuration of a wireless phone so that it is ready to be used to transmit and
receive calls on the wireless network.
Activation Fee: A one-time up-front charge for activation of a wireless phone.
Ad Hoc Connections: Spur-of-the-moment connections made for a specific reason and then shut
down.
AES (Advanced Encryption Standard): An extremely strong encryption standard adopted by
the US government and now widely used worldwide for VPN and other encrypted communications.
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See also DES & 3DES.
Aggregator: A company that resells access to other companies' wireless networks.
Air-Interface: The standard operating system of a wireless network, which is used to
communicate to and from the base stations and the handset; technologies include AMPS, TDMA,
CDMA, and GSM.
Alltel: A popular U.S. CDMA cellular carrier that offers 1x, EVDO Rev(0) and EVDO Rev(A) data
service. Home Page.
ALG: An Application Layer Gateway (ALG) is a device that manages a specific protocol (such as
SIP, H.323 or FTP) at the application layer.
Amplifier: A device you can connect to your antenna to increase the signal strength and amplify
weak incoming signals.
AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service): An analog cellular phone service standard used in
the US and other countries.
Analog: A method of modulating radio signals so that they can carry information such as voice or
data.
Antenna: A device that facilitates the transmission and reception of radio signals.
AT&T (aka Cingular): A popular U.S. GSM cellular carrier that offers GPRS, EDGE, HSDPA and
HSUPA data service. Home Page.
Authentication: A feature used to reduce fraud by confirming the identity of a phone to the
wireless network.
B Carrier: Most areas of the US have two cellular carriers, each of which operates on a different
frequency band. One is designated the "A" carrier and the other is designated the "B" carrier
(wireline carrier). In some markets there may be only one carrier which may be "A" or "B".
Bandwidth: Describes the transmission capacity of a medium in terms of a range of frequencies.
A greater bandwidth indicates the ability to transmit a greater amount of data over a given period
of time.
Bandwidth Class: A bandwidth class defines bandwidth allowed at an interface for an
application, such as VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) or FTP (File Transfer Protocol) and/or a
subnetwork.
Bandwidth Management: Bandwidth management allows you to allocate bandwidth at an
interface according to defined policies.
Bluetooth: A short range wireless protocol meant to allow mobile devices to share information
and applications without the worry of cables or interface incompatibilities. The name refers to a
Viking King who unified Denmark. Operates at 2.4 GHz. See bluetooth.com
Bps / Kbps / Mbps: In telecommunications, "bits per second," "kilobits per second" (thousands
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of bits per second) and "megabits per second" (millions of bits per second); bps is a measure of
the transmission speed of data communications in WANs and LANs.
Bridge: A device that passes traffic between two networks that use different media or are
physically separate, but which use similar network standards. Common uses for bridges include
connecting wired and wireless networks.
Broadband: Describes a communications medium capable of transmitting a relatively large
amount of data over a given period of time. A communications channel of high bandwidth.
Cable Modem: A device that hooks to your cable TV line to allow your computer to receive data
at between 1-8Mbps. The theoretical maximum for downstream transactions is 27 Mbps and 2.5
Mbps upstream.
Call Setup: Activity that occurs in order to establish a call connection between a wireless handset
and the wireless system.
Card Guard: The removable metal cover on Proxicast's LAN-Cell 2 that surrounds the exposed
portion of the PC-Card modem and provides a secure external antenna mounting jack.
Card Lock: The LAN-Cell 2's unique, but simple and highly flexible system for using nylon cable
ties to secure the PC-Card and external antenna leads.
Carrier: A company that provides telecommunications services. Verizon Wireless, Sprint, AT&T,
Alltel, Nextel and T-Mobile are some examples of carriers.
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access): A digital communication technology used by some
carriers to provide PCS service. Also known as IS-95A or cdmaOne. See the CDMA Development
Group.
CDMA2000 1X (Also 1xRTT): A 3G wireless communications standard evolved from CDMA
technology. It has double the voice traffic capacity of CDMA and provides peak data rates of 153
kbps.
CDMA2000 1xEV-DO (and 1xEV-DV): A 3G wireless communications standard further evolved
from CDMA2000 technology. It is a standard optimized for data transmission providing a peak
data rate of 2.4 Mbps with a typical user experience of 300 - 800 kbps. 1xEV-DV is optimized for
both data and voice transmissions.
CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data): An older technology for transmitting data over analog
cellular networks.
Cell: The area surrounding a cell site. The area in which calls are handled by a particular cell site.
Cell Modem: (Also known as a 3G Modem, Mobile Modem, Mobile IP Modem, Wireless Modem)
See Cellular Modem.
Cell Router: (Also known as a 3G Router, Mobile Router, Mobile IP Router, Mobile Broadband
Router, Wireless Router, Cellular Gateway or Mobile Gateway) See Cellular Router.
Cell Sentry: Proxicast's unique "watchdog" application on the LAN-Cell 2 that can alert you via Ehttp://www.proxicast.com/support/glossary.htm (5 of 21) [3/11/2009 1:23:53 AM]
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mail when user defined usage limits are approaching or even stop data transmissions to prevent
costly plan allowance overages.
Cell Site: The transmission and reception equipment, including the base station antenna, that
connects a cellular phone or modem to the network.
Cellular: The type of wireless communication that is most familiar to mobile phones users. Called
'cellular' because the system uses many base stations to divide a service area into multiple 'cells'.
Cellular calls and data sessions are transferred from base station to base station as a user travels
from cell to cell.
Cellular Carrier: A company that provides wireless telecommunications services such as Verizon
Wireless, Sprint, Alltel, AT&T Mobility (Cingular), T-Mobile, Rogers, Telus, Bell Mobility, Telcel,
Orange, Vodafone, O2, Telstra & others
Cellular Gateway: See Cellular Router
Cellular Modem: (Also known as a 3G Modem, Mobile Modem, Mobile IP Modem, Wireless
Modem) A wireless adapter that connects a laptop computer or other device to a cellular
telephone system for data transfer. Cellular modems, often contain their own antennas and plug
into a PC Card slot, a serial port or into the USB port of the computer or other device. Cellular
modems can operate on a variety of wireless data services such as GPRS, EDGE, UMTS, HSPDA,
HSPUA, 1x and EV-DO.
Cellular Routers: (Also known as 3G Routers, Mobile Routers, Mobile IP Routers, Wireless
Routers, Cellular Gateways or Mobile Gateways) Routers that provide shared Internet access by
incorporating a cellular data modem as a WAN interface (generally, also including Ethernet and
Wi-Fi LAN interfaces). They can be deployed as a primary WAN link to a location where wired
connections are not cost-effective, and can also be used as a secondary or business continuity
plan should the primary cabled link fail. Cellular routers range from simple SOHO network
oriented devices through rugged industrial units with advanced features. See LAN-Cell 2.
CHAP : Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol is an alternative protocol that avoids
sending passwords over the wire by using a challenge/response technique. Often used for dial-up
connections.
Cisco 3200 Mobile Router: A ruggedized IOS wireless router for vehicle networks, outdoor
infrastructure,.vehicles, trains, and buses.
CLI (Command Line Interface): In this interface, you can use line commands to configure the
device or perform advanced device diagnostics and troubleshooting.
Clone (Cloning): A wireless phone that has been programmed to mimic another wireless phone.
Often used to defraud a wireless carrier by placing illegal calls without any intention of payment.
CO (Central Office): A connection point between the wireless phone system and the landline
phone system at the PSTN.
Coverage Area: The geographic area served by a wireless system. Same as Service Area.
CPE: (Customer Premises Equipment) CPE is privately-owned telecommunication equipment at an
individual or organization’s site that is attached to the telecommunication network.
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Crossover Cable: Ethernet cable that has the transmit and receive pins switched.
CTIA: Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association, a wireless industry organization. CTIA
holds annual trade shows and serves as the industry's representative in dealings with regulatory
agencies, such as the FCC.
Data: Any transmittable information other than analog voice.
Data Communications: The movement of encoded information by means of electrical
transmission systems.
DCE: Data Communication Equipment (eg: modem).
Decibel (dB): A unit of measure used to express relative difference in power or intensity of
sound.
DES: (Data Encryption Standard) A method for encrypting information selected as an official
Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) for the United States in 1976, and which has
subsequently enjoyed widespread use internationally. See also 3DES & AES.
Device Server: Also know as a terminal server, wireless device server, serial server or serial
ethernet converter. Is device that allows other devices with an RS-232 serial interface to be
connected to an ethernet network.
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol): Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
automatically assigns IP addresses to clients when they log on so users doesn't have to configure
them manually. DHCP centralizes IP address management on central computers that run the
DHCP server program. DHCP leases addresses, for a period of time, which means that past
addresses are “recycled” and made available for future reassignment to other systems.
Digi International: Manufactures a variety of 2.5G and 3G routers (DigiConnect & ConnectPort)
that can connect to electronics using a variety of communication protocols.
Digital: A method of encoding information using a binary code of 0s and 1s. Most newer wireless
phones and networks use digital technology.
DMZ: A feature in a NAT gateway that lets you expose a machine on your internal network to the
outside Internet. DMZ nominally stands for demilitarized zone, and is sometimes also called
"virtual server." It's basically port mapping for all available ports.
DNS (Domain Name Service): An Internet protocol for mapping cryptic IP addresses (like
198.65.100.241) to human-readable domain names.
DoCoMo: Japan's largest mobile service provider. Its claim to fame is i-mode, a service that gives
subscribers continuous access to the Internet via mobile phones, and it is Japan's largest Internet
access platform.
Domain Name: The unique name that identifies an Internet site. Domain Names always have
two or more parts that are separated by dots. The part on the left is the most specific and the
part on the right is the most general.
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DSL (Digital Subscriber Line): A common form of broadband Internet connection via regular
telephone lines.
DTE: Data Terminal Equipment (eg: printer, computer, terminal, or a router). See also: DCE
DTR: Data Terminal Ready. An acronym used in RS-232 serial communications. The DTR signal is
sent via a dedicated wire from the transmitting computer to the transmission device to indicate
that the computer is ready to receive data.
Dual Band: A feature on some wireless phones that allows the handset to operate using either
the 800 MHz cellular or the 1900 MHz PCS frequencies.
Dynamic DNS (DDNS): A technique that lets people connect a permanent domain name to an
ever-changing IP address. DynDNS is a popular Dynamic DNS service.
EDGE (Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution): A further development of the GSM protocol
designed to handle data at speeds up to 384 Kbps. Considered to be 3G wireless technology.
Encapsulation: Encapsulation is the inclusion of one data structure within another structure so
that the first data structure is hidden for the time being.
Encryption: The process of scrambling data to make it difficult for unauthorized parties to
understand. Pretty Good Privacy is a commonly used encryption scheme employing public and
private keys; a message is encrypted using the recipient's public key and decrypted with the
associated private key. Without the private key, the encrypted message is gibberish.
Enzo 3G Router: A hardware interface module from Cisco for some ISR routers.ESN (Electronic
Serial Number): The unique serial number of a cellular phone that identifies it to the cellular
system for the purpose and placing and receiving calls.
ESP: (Encapsulating Security Payload) (RFC 2406) A protocol that IPSec uses to encrypt data to
ensure confidentiality.
Ethernet: The most common networking standard in the world, formally known as IEEE 802.3.
EV-DO, EVDO or EV (Evolution-Data Optimized or Evolution-Data Only): Is a CDMA cellular
standard for the wireless transmission of data through radio signals, typically for broadband
Internet access. Currently there are two versions of the standard Rev 0 and Rev A.
EV-DO Rev 0: offers downstream data rates up to 2.4 mbps, but averaging 300-700 kbps
downstream and 70-90 Kbps upstream in the real world. Rev 0 is much faster than the 50-80
kbps typically offered by the older 1xRTT technology.
EV-DO Rev A: is a 3G CDMA technology that is an upgrade of traditional EV-DO. Rev A is capable
of slightly faster downlink speeds than is EV-DO Rev 0, at 1.8Mbps, as well as significantly faster
uplink speeds of 3.1Mbps.
ExpressCard: The third generation PC-Card technology from PCMCIA that supersedes the
CardBus. Introduced in 2003 and designed for both desktop and mobile use, ExpressCards use
USB 2.0 or a single lane PCI Express channel. The are 34 mm wide (vs 54 mm for PC-Cards) but
can typically be used in PC-Card slots with an ExpressCard to PC-Card adapter.
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FCC (Federal Communications Commission): A US government agency responsible for
regulating communications industries.
Firewall: A network program that blocks malevolent traffic that might endanger the computers
on your network.
Fixed Wireless: The operation of wireless devices in a specific location, such as an office. This
term is usually reserved for devices that need to be plugged in to operate, such as a desktop
computer.
Foliage Attenuation: Reductions in signal strength or quality due to signal absorptions by trees
or foliage obstructions in the signal's line-sight path. For example, 800 MHz systems are seldom
deployed in forested areas - pine needles (nearly the same length as 800 MHz antennas) can
negatively affect signal reception in that band.
Follow-Me Roaming: The ability of a wireless system to roam outside its home service area
without any pre-notification to the wireless carrier.
FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name): An FQDN consists of a host and domain name and
includes the top-level domain. For example, www.proxicast.com is a fully qualified domain name,
where "www" is the host, "proxicast" is the second-level domain, and ".com" is the top level
domain. "mail.proxicast.com" is also a FQDN, where "mail" is the hostname.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol): A common way of transferring files on the Internet, though it's
primarily used for uploading these days.
GPRS (General Packet Radio Service): A cellular data technology for GSM networks. GPRS
provides between 10 and 50 Kbps of bandwidth.
GPS (Global Positioning System): a technology that uses satellites to pinpoint a device's
location on Earth.
GSM (Global Standard for Mobile): A digital communication technology used by some carriers
to provide PCS service. Other technologies used are CDMA and TDMA.
Handoff: The transfer of a wireless call in progress from one transmission site to another site
without disconnection.
Handshake(ing): Signals between a wireless phone and a wireless system to accomplish call
setup.
Hertz (Hz): A unit of measurement of one cycle per second, or one radio wave passing one point
in one second of time. Named in honor of Heinrich Hertz, the discoverer of the theory of radio
waves.
High-gain Antenna: An antenna that significantly increases signal strength. High-gain antennas
are necessary for long-range wireless networks.
Home Coverage Area: A designated area within which cellular calls are local and do not incur
roaming or long distance charges.
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Hot Spot: A place where you can connect to a public wireless network.
HSDPA (High-Speed Downlink Packet Access): Is the next phase of UMTS, with data
transmission speeds up to 3.6 Mbps, based upon the WCDMA protocol.
HSUPA (High-Speed Uplink Packet Access): Is an upgrade for WCDMA / UMTS / HSDPA
networks that applies HSDPA-like enhancements to the uplink side of the connection, allowing
peak upload data rates of up to 5.8 Mbit/s (million bits per second). HSUPA is both a compliment
and a successor to HSDPA, which offers very fast data rates, but only for the downlink / download
side. Together, HSDPA and HSUPA are sometimes referred to as HSPA.
Huawei Technologies: Is the largest networking and telecommunications equipment supplier in
China and one of world leaders cellular equipment. Home Page.
ICMP: (Internet Control Message Protocol) A message control and error-reporting protocol
between a host server and a gateway to the Internet ICMP uses Internet Protocol (IP) datagrams,
but the messages are processed by the TCP/IP software and are not directly apparent to the
application user. The PING utility uses ICMP.
ID Type: In IPSec, the ID type and ID content identify an individual SA. The ID type can be a
domain name, an IP address or an e-mail address. The ID content is the IP address, domain
name, or e-mail address. When used with aggressive negotiation mode, the ID type and content
allow an IPSec router to distinguish between SAs that connect from IPSec endpoints with dynamic
IP addresses. For example, several telecommuters with dynamic IP addresses can use separate
passwords to simultaneously connect to an IPSec router. With main negotiation mode, the ID type
and content act as an extra level of identification for incoming SAs.
iDEN (Integrated Digital Enhanced Network): A wireless technology from Motorola which
combines digital cellular, paging, two-way radio, and modem capabilities on a single network.
iDEN is used by Nextel.
IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The acronym is pronounced I-triple-ee, and
it is the organization that develops standards for the computer and electronics industry, such as
Wi-Fi.
IKE (Internet Key Exchange): A two-phase security negotiation and key management service
– phase 1 (Authentication) and phase 2 (Key Exchange). A phase 1 exchange establishes an IKE
SA and phase 2 uses that SA to negotiate SAs for IPSec.
IMT2000: A set of proposals for standards defining 3G wireless network performance. An effort
from the ITU (International Telecommunications Union), an organization of the United Nations.
IP (Internet Protocol): The protocol used to break up information into packets, route packets
through the network, and reassemble the packets at the destination.
IP Address: The numeric address (like 192.168.1.1) that identifies each device in a TCP/IP
network.
IPsec (IP security): One of two protocols (with PPTP) used for VPNs.
ISP: (Internet Service Provider) Companies which provide connections into the Internet. Cellular
carriers often perform the role of ISP by linking their radio network to the Internet to provide
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Internet access to mobile devices.
Junxion: Manufacturers a Wi-Fi router that allows a user to insert a cellular data card for an
Internet connection.
Kbps (Kilobits Per Second): Or thousands of bits per second, a measure of bandwidth.
Kyocera: Manufactures the entry-level priced KR1 cellular router for SOHO use.
LAN (Local Area Network): The
computers at your site, connected
via Ethernet or Wi-Fi.
LAN-Cell: The LAN-Cell is a rugged,
enterprise-grade cellular router that
allows multiple PC's, laptops,
webcams, controllers, PLCs, and
other Ethernet-based devices to
simultaneously utilize a single
cellular data account for primary or
backup connectivity. Since its
introduction in 2003, LAN-Cells have
been working around the world as a
cost effective way to communicate
with remote devices and users.
LAN-Cell 2: The LAN-Cell 2
Cellular Ethernet Router utilizes
Proxicast's LAN-Cell 2
user accessible high-speed 3G PCCard (PCMCIA / laptop) modems and
3G Cellular Router
supports all CDMA & GSM standards
including CDMA2000: EV-DO RevA, EV-DO Rev0, 1xRTT; UMTS / W-CDMA: HSUPA, HSDPA,
HSPA, EDGE, and GPRS on all major wireless carriers worldwide including Verizon Wireless,
Sprint, Alltel, AT&T Mobility (Cingular), T-Mobile, Rogers, Telus, Bell Mobility, Telcel, Orange,
Vodafone, MTN, BT, O2, Telstra, etc. The rugged LAN-Cell 2 has advanced enterprise router
features such as multiple IPSec VPN tunnels, NAT/DMZ, SPI firewall, X.509 certificates, bandwidth
management and other functions which are optimized for corporate, financial, industrial, Machineto-Machine (M2M) and SCADA type remote cellular WAN applications.
Landline: Traditional wired telephone service. Also known as POTS.
Latency: The length of time between a packet being sent and the response to that packet being
returned.
LEO (Low Earth Orbit): A mobile communications satellite that is between 700 and 2,000
kilometers above the planet, or Low Earth Orbit. Some LEO Providers are ORBCOMM, Iridium,
Broad Sky & Globalstar
Line Of Sight: A clear line from one antenna to another.
Linksys: Manufactures the WRT54G3G cellular router.
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LMDS (Local Multipoint Distribution System): A fixed, broadband wireless system used for
voice and interactive data. Generally used as a lower cost alternative to landline connections for
businesses and others requiring high bandwidth connections to public networks.
LNP ( Local Number Portability): The capability that allows wireless customers to switch
carriers but retain the same phone number.
Local Service Footprint: Also known as "local service area." The geographical area that a
customer may call without incurring toll charges.
MAC Address: The unique address assigned to every wireless and wired Ethernet network
adapter. MAC stands for Media Access Control. Despite the fact that MAC addresses are all
unique, it's possible to assign one device's MAC address to another device.
Mbps (Megabits per Second): Or millions of bits per second, a measure of bandwidth.
MD5: Message Digest 5, HMAC-MD5 (RFC 2403) is a hash algorithm that is used to authenticate
packet data. It produces a 128-bit message digest. See also Hash and SHA1.
Megahertz (MHz): A measure of electromagnetic wave frequency equal to one million
(1,000,000) hertz and used to specify the radio frequency used by wireless devices.
Mesh Network: A network topology in which every device can communicate with any other
device that's within range. Mesh networking is particularly interesting for bringing wireless
network access to an entire neighborhood.
Microcell / Picocell: A cell having a very small coverage area, such as a lounge in an airport
terminal.
Microwave: Microwave wireless systems operate at less than 500 milli watts power.
MMDS (Multipoint Multichannel Distribution Service): Often referred to as 'wireless cable' as
it is a wireless system used to distribute cable television and other broadband signals to multiple
users by way of a single transmitter.
Mobile IP: A communications protocol designed to allow mobile users to maintain their
permanent IP address while moving from network to network.
Mobile Broadband: (Alsos know as Cellular Broadband, Wireless Broadband or 3G Broadband) Is
the name used to describe the high speed 3G IP data services which are made possible by
HSDPA, HSUPA and also EV-DO RevA.
Modem: Short for modulator/demodulator. A modem modulates outgoing digital data into analog
signals so they can be sent over copper phone lines, and demodulates incoming analog signals
into digital.
MSA (Metropolitan Statistical Area): An area defined by the US government for use in
grouping census data and other statistics. MSAs include a city of at least 50,000 people or an
urbanized area of at least 100,000 people and the counties that include these areas. Not all areas
of the US are in an MSA. There are 306 regions of the US designated as MSAs.
MTSO (Mobile Telephone Switching Office): An office housing switches and computers to
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which all cell sites in an area are connected for the purpose of eventual connection to the PSTN.
The MTSO handles the connection, tracking, status and billing of all wireless call activity in an
assigned area.
NAM (Number Assignment Module): A component of a wireless phone that holds in electronic
memory the telephone number and ESN of the phone.
NAT (Network Address Translation): A network service that makes it possible to share a
single IP address with a network of many computers. Since a NAT gateway exposes only a single
IP address to the outside Internet, it's useful for security, and some manufacturers may call it,
somewhat incorrectly, a "firewall."
NAT Traversal(VPN/IPSec): NAT traversal (NAT-T) allows IPSec tunnels using the ESP protocol
to pass through NAT-enabled routers.
NetBEUI: An older networking standard developed by IBM for LAN Manager and adopted for use
in Microsoft Windows. NetBEUI stands for NetBIOS Extended User Interface.
Network: A collection of interconnected computers and associated devices. Networks can be
characterized by the protocols they use (TCP/IP, for example) or by the geographic area they
cover (LAN and WAN).
Network Adapter: The card or built-in hardware used in a computer or handheld device to
connect to a network, whether wired or wireless.
Network Interface Card (NIC): See Network Adapter
Network Topology: The specific layout of a network.
No Service Indicator: A feature of wireless devices that tells the user that wireless service is
unavailable in a particular location.
North American GSM Alliance: GSM is the Global System for Mobile Communications, a
standard adopted by more than 85 countries around the world. The North American GSM Alliance
is the group of companies in North America who have adopted similar standards applicable to
North American cellular and digital systems.
Novatel: Is a wireless communications equipment designer and manufacturer that makes cellular
modem cards. Home Page.
Off Peak: Any time of day, as determined by a wireless carrier, when there is lower
communications traffic on the system. Carriers make this distinction to offer lower rates during
these periods when demand is low.
Overage: Costs associated with using more than the amount of air-time or data that your cellular
carrier has allotted for your device's service plan. Eliminate overage charges by using
the LAN-Cell 2's Cell Sentry feature.
Packet: A discrete chunk of data, being transferred on a TCP/IP or other addressable network.
Packet-Switched Network: A network in which data is transferred in discrete chunks, called
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packets. The Internet is a packet-switched network. Packet-switched networks are generally
considered more efficient than circuit-switched networks like the telephone system because
multiple connections can use the same network simultaneously.
Panel Antenna: An antenna type that radiates in only a specific direction. Panel antennas are
commonly used for point-to-point situations. You may also see them called "patch antennas."
PAP: A security protocol that requires users to enter a password before accessing a secure
system. The user’s name and password are sent over the wire to a server where they are
compared with a database of user account names and passwords. Sometimes used for dial-up
accounts. See also CHAP.
Parabolic Antenna: An antenna type that radiates a very narrow beam in a specific direction.
Parabolic antennas offer the highest gain for long-range point-to-point situations.
PBX/Wireless PBX: Private Brand eXchange. An internal, privately-owned (by an individual or
an individual company) telephone or telecommunications system. Large companies have had
these for years. Wireless PBX is either cellular (for analog) or digital.
PCIA (Personal Communication Industry Association): A trade group representing PCS,
SMR, private radio, and other wireless users and carriers.
PC-Card (or PCMCIA Card): Removable, credit-card sized devices that may be plugged into
slots in PCs and wireless communication devices to provide fax or modem functions or network
cards. PC-Card is popular form factor cellular modems.
PCMCIA: (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) A non-profit trade
association founded in 1989 to establish technical standards for PC-Card technology including PCCard (PCMCIA) and ExpressCard formats.
PCS (Personal Communication Services): Used to describe a class of wireless communications
services authorized by the FCC. PCS systems use a different radio frequency(the 1.9 GHz band)
than cellular phones (800-900MHz) and generally use all digital technology for transmission and
reception.
PDA (Personal Digital Assistant): A Handheld electronic devices that run a variety of
applications such as calendars, contact lists, and communication functions.
PFS: Perfect Forward Secrecy is an IPSec keying method that uses a brand new key for each new
IPSec SA setup. The keys are created by new key exchanges.
Pigtail: A thin cable that connects an antenna to a wireless network adapter, usually converting
between plug types in the process.
PLC (Programmable Logic Controller): Is a digital computer or controller used for automation
of industrial or commercial processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines.
Point-to-Multipoint: A wireless network in which one point (the access point) serves multiple
other points around it. Indoor wireless networks are all point-to-multipoint, and long-range
wireless networks that serve multiple clients usually employ either a single omnidirectional
antenna or multiple sector antennas.
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Point-to-Point (P2P, PTP): A long-range wireless network between two points. Point-to-point
wireless networks use directional antennas.
Port (H/W): An interface on a computer for connecting peripherals or devices to the computer. A
printer port, for example, is an interface that is designed to have a printer connected to it. Ports
can be defined by specific hardware (such as a keyboard port) or through software.
Port (S/W): An Internet port refers to a number that is part of a URL, appearing after a colon
(:), directly following the domain name. Every service on an Internet server listens on a particular
port number on that server. Most services have standard port numbers, for example, Web servers
normally listen on port 80.
Port Mapping (aka Port Forwarding): The act of mapping a port on an Internet-accessible
NAT gateway to another port on a machine on your internal network. Port mapping enables you
to run a public Internet service on a machine that is otherwise hidden from the Internet by your
NAT gateway. Other names for port mapping include "port forwarding," "pass-through," and
"punch-through."
POTS (Plain-Old-Telephone-Service): Another name for traditional wired, land based
telephone service.
Power over Ethernet (PoE): A wiring scheme that lets you run electrical power to an access
point or wireless bridge over the same Ethernet cable that connects the device to your network.
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol): A network protocol that handles dial-up Internet connections.
PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol): One of two protocols (with IPsec) used for VPNs.
Prepaid Cellular/Wireless: A service plan offered by some wireless carriers that allows
subscribers to pay in advance for wireless service.
Pre-Shared Key: A pre-shared key identifies a communicating party during a phase 1 IKE
negotiation. It is called “pre-shared” because you have to share it with another party before you
can communicate with them over a secure connection.
PRL (Preferred Roaming List): A database in a CDMA based wireless device that tells it how to
find and connect to locally available wireless network(s). The function of the PRL is most
important when a phone is outside its home network and must seek out an alternate network.
Private Key: The key you keep secret in public-key cryptography systems. You use your private
key to decrypt encrypted data sent to you by other people, who used your public key to encrypt
it.
Proxicast: Proxicast manufactures
enterprise-grade, secure wireless
data communications equipment.
Proxicast, LLC is a privately-held
corporation founded in 2000 and
based north of Pittsburgh, PA.
Proxicast LAN-Cell: The LAN-Cell is
a rugged, enterprise-grade cellular
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router that allows multiple PC's,
laptops, webcams, controllers, PLCs,
and other Ethernet-based devices to
simultaneously utilize a single
cellular data account for primary or
backup connectivity. Since its
introduction in 2003, LAN-Cells have
been working around the world as a
cost effective way to communicate
with remote devices and users.
Proxicast LAN-Cell 2: The LANCell 2 Cellular Ethernet 3G
Router utilizes user accessible highspeed 3G PC-Card (PCMCIA / laptop)
modems and supports all CDMA &
GSM standards including CDMA2000:
EV-DO RevA, EV-DO Rev0, 1xRTT;
UMTS / W-CDMA: HSUPA, HSDPA,
HSPA, EDGE, and GPRS on all major
Proxicast's LAN-Cell 2
wireless carriers worldwide including
3G Cellular Router
Verizon Wireless, Sprint, Alltel, AT&T
Mobility (Cingular), T-Mobile,
Rogers, Telus, Bell Mobility, Telcel, Orange, Vodafone, MTN, BT, O2, Telstra, etc. The rugged LANCell 2 has advanced enterprise router features such as multiple IPSec VPN tunnels, NAT/DMZ, SPI
firewall, X.509 certificates, bandwidth management and other functions which are optimized for
corporate, financial, industrial, Machine-to-Machine (M2M) and SCADA type remote cellular WAN
applications.
PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network was put into place many years ago as a voice
telephone call-switching system. The system transmits voice calls as analog signals across copper
twisted cables from homes and businesses to neighborhood COs (central offices); this is often
called the local loop. The PSTN is a circuit-switched system, meaning that an end-to-end private
circuit is established between caller and the person called.
Public Key: The key you give out to the world in public-key cryptography systems. Other people
use your public key when sending you encrypted data, which you can then decrypt with your
private key.
QoS (Quality of Service): Quality of Service is the ability to control the characteristics of
ongoing communication services. Service providers use these control values to offer improved and
possibly contract levels of service. QoS is an end-to-end responsibility that involves clients,
switches, routers, and servers
Quad-Band: Designates a GSM phone that supports all four major GSM frequency bands, making
it compatible with all major GSM networks worldwide. The four bands include the 850 and 1900
MHz bands - used in the Americas - and 900 / 1800, used in most other parts of the world.
RADIUS: A RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service)(RFC2138, 2139) server
performs authentication, authorization and accounting for a network.
RF (Radio Frequency): A radio signal.
RF Noise: Undesired radio signals that alters a radio communications signal causing extraneous
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sounds during transmission and/or reception.
RFI (Radio Frequency Interference): An undesired radio signal that interferes with a radio
communications signal causing extraneous noise and/or signal dropouts.
RIP (Routing Information Protocol): An interior or intra-domain routing protocol that uses
distance-vector routing algorithms. RIP is used on the Internet as a method for exchanging
routing information between routers.
RJ-11: A plug type used by telephones. Don't confuse it with the larger RJ-45 plug type used in
Ethernet networks.
RJ-45: A plug type used in Ethernet networks. Don't confuse it with the smaller RJ-11 plugs used
for phone cables.
RMON: Remote Network Monitoring MIB.
Roaming: Using your wireless phone or device in an area outside its home coverage area. There
is usually an additional charge for roaming.
Router: An intelligent network device that goes one step beyond bridging by converting addressbased protocols that describe how packets move from one place to another. In practice, this
generally comes down to translating between IP addresses and MAC addresses for data flowing
between your local network and the Internet. Many people use the term interchangeably with
"gateway." You must enter the IP address of your router when configuring network settings
manually.
RSA (Rural Service Area): Areas not included in MSAs are divided into RSAs. Generally these
are the rural areas of the US. The FCC used RSAs to license cellular carriers in areas not included
in MSAs. There are 428 RSAs in the US.
RS-232: A standard for serial binary data signals connecting between a DTE (Data terminal
equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuit-terminating Equipment). It is commonly used in computer
serial ports and modem communications.
SA (Security Association): A contract between two parties indicating what security parameters,
such as keys and algorithms they will use.
SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition): SCADA systems are typically used to
perform data collection and control at the supervisory level.
SCEP (Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol): A TCP-based certificate enrollment protocol
that was developed by VeriSign and Cisco.
Secure Gateway IP Address: Secure Gateway IP Address is the WAN IP address of the remote
IPSec router.
Self-signed Certificate: A self-signed certificate is one that you generate on a device. The
device acts as the certification authority and signs the certificate itself.
Service Area: The geographic area served by a wireless system. Same as Coverage Area.
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Service Plan: A contract between a wireless carrier and a wireless subscriber that details the
terms of the wireless service including rates for activation, access and per minute usage.
SHA1: Secure Hash Algorithm HMAC-SHA-1 (RFC 2404) is a hash algorithm that is used to
authenticate packet data. It produces a 160-bit message digest.
Sierra Wireless: Is a wireless communications equipment designer and manufacturer that
makes cellular modem cards. Home Page.
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR): A measure of the power of a signal versus noise. A lower ratio
means there is more noise relative to signal.
SIM (Subscriber Identity Module): A mobile phone network card that holds subscriber
information such as personal account details, address book and security settings. SIM cards are
also used with 3G data modems. The term SIM is generally used for GSM devices; some CDMA
devices use R-UIM (Removeable User Identity Module) cards that function similarly.
SIP (Session Initiated Protocol): An internationally recognized standard for implementing
VoIP. SIP is an application-layer control (signaling) protocol that handles the setting up, altering
and tearing down of voice and multimedia sessions over the Internet.
SMS: Short Messaging Service. Paging-like feature available from digital wireless phone services.
SNMP: SNMP is a popular management protocol defined by the Internet community for TCP/IP
networks. It is a communication protocol for collecting information from devices on the network.
Sprint PCS (Sprint/Nextel): A popular U.S. CDMA cellular carrier that offers 1x, EVDO Rev(0)
and EVDO Rev(A) data service. Home Page.
SSH (Secure Shell): A secure communication protocol that combines authentication and data
encryption to provide secure encrypted communication between two hosts over an unsecured
network.
Static Routing: Static routes tell routing information that a networking device cannot learn
automatically through other means. The need for static routing can arise in cases where RIP is
disabled on the LAN or a remote network is beyond the one that is directly connected to a remote
node.
SUA: (Single User Account) The LAN-Cell's SUA feature allows multiple user Internet access for
the cost of a single ISP account. See also NAT.
Subnet Mask: The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address.
Switch: A specific type of hub that isolates the communications between any two computers from
the rest of the network, thus increasing throughput.
T-Mobile: A popular U.S. GSM cellular carrier that offers GPRS, EDGE, UMTS data service. Home
Page.
TCP: TCP is a connection-oriented transport service that ensures the reliability of message
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delivery. It verifies that messages and data were received.
TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access): A digital communication technology used by some
carriers to provide PCS service. Other technologies used are CDMA and GSM.
Telemetry: is a technology that allows the remote measurement and reporting of information.
Telephony: Originally meaning voice (analog) communication by telephone (land line), this term
has come to encompass virtually all of telecommunications, because virtually all of
telecommunications can be done over or while connected to a telephone line.
Telnet: Telnet is the login and terminal emulation protocol common on the Internet and in UNIX
environments. It operates over TCP/IP networks. Its primary function is to allow users to log into
remote host systems.
Third generation: The current cellular standard that promises to offer increased capacity and
high-speed data applications up to 7.2 megabits. It also will integrate pico-, micro-, and
macrocellular technology, and could allow for global roaming.
TKIP Temporal Key Integrity Protocol: An encryption protocol that uses 128-bit keys that are
dynamically generated and distributed by the authentication server. TKIP regularly changes and
rotates the encryption keys so that the same encryption key is never used twice.
Traffic Redirect: The LAN-Cell's Traffic Redirect feature forwards WAN traffic to a backup
gateway on the LAN when the LAN-Cell cannot connect to the Internet, thus acting as an auxiliary
backup.
Tri-Band: A description of a wireless phone that works on three bands. CDMA and TDMA tri-band
phones work on 1900MHz and 800MHz digital frequencies, and 800MHz analog cellular--popular
standards in the United States. Tri-band GSM phones are all digital, operating on 1900Mhz in the
United States and 1800Mhz and 900Mhz in other countries.
Top Global: Manufactures a variety of cellular routers for different applications.
UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System): An evolution of GSM technology to
3G. The underlying transmission standard is WCDMA.
Verizon Wireless (VZW): A popular U.S. CDMA cellular carrier that offers 1x, EVDO Rev(0) and
EVDO Rev(A) data service. Home Page.
VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network): A VLAN allows a physical network to be partitioned into
multiple logical networks. Only stations within the same group can communicate with each other.
Stations on a logical network can belong to one or more groups.
Voice-Over-IP (VOIP): A way of making telephone calls over a packet-switched network like
the Internet. Voice-over-IP requires special telephones and software. Voice-over-IP is commonly
abbreviated to VoIP.
VPN (Virtual Private Network): A method of creating an encrypted tunnel through which all
traffic passes, preventing anyone from snooping through transmitted and received data.
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VSAT: (Very Small Aperture Terminal) Is a two-way satellite ground station with a dish antenna
that is smaller than 3 meters (most VSAT antennas range from 75 cm to 1.2 m). VSATs are most
commonly used to transmit narrowband data, point of sale transactions such as credit card,
polling or RFID data, SCADA, or broadband data. VSAT technology is used by providers such as
HughesNet, StarBand and WildBlue in the United States; and Bluestream, SatLynx and
Technologie Satelitarne in Europe, among others.
W-CDMA (Wideband CDMA): A 3G wireless communications standard evolved from CDMA. The
standard, often called UMTS, uses wider 5 MHz channels(vs. 1.25 MHz for CDMA) for increased
voice traffic capacity and peak data rates of 384 kbps.
WAAV: Manufacturer of the AirBox line of cellular routers.
WAN (Wide Area Network): A collection of local area networks connected by a variety of
physical means. The Internet is the largest and most well-known wide area network.
WAP (Wireless Application Protocol): A global protocol used in many newer wireless devices
that allows the user to view and interact with data services. Generally used as a means to view
Internet web pages using the limited transmission capacity and small display screens of portable
wireless devices.
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy): An encryption system for preventing eavesdropping on
wireless network traffic. WEP is easily broken, and has been replaced by WPA on newer Wi-Fi
products.
WiDEN: The wideband integrated dispatch enhanced network is an upgrade to iDEN, with
increased data rates up to 100 Kbps. WiDEN four combined channels at the 25 MHz band.
Wi-Fi: A wireless data networking protocol generally used connect PCs and laptops to a
network. Also know as 802.11b and WLAN (Wireless LAN), it is the most common
means of wireless networking and operates at 2.4 GHz.
WiMax: Another name for the 802.16 wireless networking specification used for long-haul and
backhaul connections.
Wireless: Without wires, or any telecommunications that uses broadcast (radio) technology
versus copper wires ("land lines"). Most typically, cellular or digital communications
Wireless ISP (WISP): A company that provides wireless Internet access. The term is often
abbreviated to WISP.
WLL (Wireless Local Loop): A wireless system meant to bypass a local landline telephone
system. A home or businesses phone system is connected to the public network by a wireless
carrier instead of by the traditional local phone company.
WPA: Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a subset of the IEEE 802.11i standard. WPA applies IEEE
802.1x and Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) to authenticate wireless clients using an
external RADIUS database. WPA encrypts data by using Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP),
Message Integrity Check (MIC) and IEEE 802.1x. See also WPA-PSK (WPA -Pre-Shared Key).
WPA-PSK: WPA-PSK (WPA -Pre-Shared Key) requires a single (identical) password entered into
each access point, wireless gateway and wireless client. As long as the passwords match, a client
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will be granted access to a WLAN. See also WPA.
WPA2: WPA2 (IEEE 802.11i) is a wireless security standard that defines stronger encryption,
authentication and key management than WPA. It includes two data encryption algorithms,
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in the Counter
mode with Cipher block chaining Message authentication Code Protocol (CCMP). See also WPA.
WWAN (Wireless Wide Area Network): A WWAN uses cellular network technologies (CDMA or
GSM) such as 1X, EV-DO, GPRS, EDGE, WCMDA, UMTS, HSDPA or HSPUA to transfer data
between other LANs and devices
X.509: X.509 is a recommendation that defines formats for certificates and CRLs. It was issued
by the ITU-T.
X-Auth (Extended Authentication): XAUTH provides added security for VPN by requiring each
VPN client to use a username and password.
Yagi Antenna: An antenna type that radiates in only a specific direction. Yagi antennas are used
only in point-to-point situations.
© Copyright 2000-2009 Proxicast, LLC. All Rights Reserved.
For more information feel free to Contact Us
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