Using Windows 10 &amp

Using Windows 10 &amp
Using Windows 10 &
Microsoft® Office 2016
Computing Fundamentals
Key Applications
Living Online
July 2016
© CCI Learning Solutions Inc.
Preface
About This Courseware
Internet and Computing Core Certification Guide
This courseware is prepared by CCI Learning Solutions Inc. for use by students and instructors in courses on computer use and
software applications. CCI designed these materials to assist students and instructors in making the learning process both
effective and enjoyable.
This courseware is copyrighted and all rights are reserved by CCI Learning Solutions Inc. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, transmitted, stored in a retrieval system, modified, or translated into any language or computer language, in any
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, manual or otherwise without written permission of
CCI Learning Solutions, Canada: 1-800-668-1669.
The information in this courseware is distributed on an “as is” basis, without warranty. While every precaution has been taken in
the preparation of this courseware, neither the author nor CCI Learning Solutions Inc. shall have any liability to any person or
entity with respect to any liability, loss, or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the instructions
contained in this courseware or by the computer software and hardware products described therein.
Courseware Development Team: Irina Heer, Sue Wong, Kelly Hegedus, Kevin Yulo
Copyright © 2016 CCI Learning Solutions Inc.
ISBN: 978-1-55332-463-8
All rights reserved.
Printed in Canada.
CCI Courseware#: 7500-1
Any brand name or product mentioned in this publication is a trademark or registered trademark of their respective companies
and are used for identification purposes only.
Working With the Data Files
The exercises in this courseware require you to use the data files provided for the book. Follow the
instructions shown to download the data files for this courseware.
1.
Launch your browser and navigate to the CCI Web site location http://www.ccilearning.com/data.
2.
Enter: 7500 in the Courseware # box and click Find Data.
3.
Click Run in the File Download – Security Warning window. (Alternatively, you can choose to Save the
4.
In the Internet Explorer – Security Warning window click Run again.
5.
In the WinZip Self-Extractor dialog box, use the Browse button to specify the Windows Desktop as the
file to a location on your computer.)
location to unzip the file and then click Unzip.
The 7500 Student Files folder containing the required student work files has now been downloaded to
your desktop. It is recommended that you rename the folder using your own name before starting the
exercises in this courseware. You can reinstall and use the work files as many times as you like.
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Preface
Table of Contents
About This Courseware
Course Description ......................................................................................................................................................................................... xv
Course Series ................................................................................................................................................................................... xv
Course Prerequisites ..................................................................................................................................................................... xv
System Requirements .................................................................................................................................................................. xv
Classroom Setup ........................................................................................................................................................................... xvi
Course Design ................................................................................................................................................................................................ xvii
Course Objectives ......................................................................................................................................................................................... xvii
Conventions and Graphics.......................................................................................................................................................................... xix
Lesson 1: Operating Systems
Lesson Objectives .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 1
What is an Operating System?..................................................................................................................................................................... 1
Evolution of the Modern OS Interface .................................................................................................................................... 2
Proprietary and Open-Source Operating Systems ............................................................................................................ 2
Desktop Operating Systems ......................................................................................................................................................................... 3
Operating System Versions and Editions............................................................................................................................... 3
Popular Desktop Operating Systems ...................................................................................................................................... 3
Common Operating System Features ....................................................................................................................................................... 5
User Accounts ................................................................................................................................................................................... 5
User Profiles ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Built-In Power Off Procedures .................................................................................................................................................... 7
Understanding Windows Power Options ................................................................................................................................................ 8
Looking at the Windows 10 Desktop ........................................................................................................................................................ 9
Navigating Around the Desktop ............................................................................................................................................ 10
Using the Start Button and Start Menu ............................................................................................................................... 11
Using the Taskbar ......................................................................................................................................................................... 13
Global and Profile-Specific Settings ....................................................................................................................................................... 17
The Settings App .......................................................................................................................................................................... 17
The Windows Control Panel ..................................................................................................................................................... 18
Changing Global Settings ........................................................................................................................................................................... 21
Changing the Screen Resolution ............................................................................................................................................ 21
Changing Password Protection ............................................................................................................................................... 22
Changing Power Management Options.............................................................................................................................. 22
Customizing Profile-Specific Settings .................................................................................................................................................... 23
Customizing the Desktop Display .......................................................................................................................................... 23
Mobile Operating Systems ......................................................................................................................................................................... 28
Touch Screen Navigation on Mobile OS ............................................................................................................................. 28
Power On / Off............................................................................................................................................................................... 29
Lock Screen ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 29
The Home Screen ......................................................................................................................................................................... 30
The Mobile Settings App ........................................................................................................................................................... 31
Virtual Personal Assistants ........................................................................................................................................................ 31
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Operating System Updates ........................................................................................................................................................................ 32
Automatic Updating – Previous Versions of Windows ................................................................................................. 33
Automatic Updating – Windows 10 ...................................................................................................................................... 33
Benefits and Drawbacks of Automatic Updating ............................................................................................................ 34
Updating a Mobile Operating System ................................................................................................................................. 34
Lesson Summary ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 35
Review Questions ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 35
Lesson 2: Hardware
Lesson Objectives ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 37
What Makes Hardware Tick? .................................................................................................................................................................................... 37
Device Drivers .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 37
Firmware ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 38
Platform .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 38
About the Numbers ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 38
Measuring Capacity................................................................................................................................................................................... 39
Measuring Frequency ............................................................................................................................................................................... 39
Measuring Bandwidth .............................................................................................................................................................................. 40
The Basics – What’s Inside? ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 40
Memory and Storage .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 41
Random Access Memory (RAM)w....................................................................................................................................................... 41
Storage ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 42
Identifying Types of Computers ............................................................................................................................................................................. 44
Servers ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 44
Desktop Computers .................................................................................................................................................................................. 45
Laptop (or Notebook) Computers ...................................................................................................................................................... 47
Chromebooks .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 49
Tablets............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 49
Smart Phones ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 50
Keyboards, Mice, and Touch Screens ................................................................................................................................................................... 51
Keyboards...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 51
Pointing Devices ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 52
Touch Screens ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 53
Typical Smart Phone Hardware ............................................................................................................................................................................... 54
Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) ....................................................................................................................................................... 55
Smart Phone Keyboard / Dial Pad ...................................................................................................................................................... 55
Power Plans ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 56
Working with Power Plan Settings ..................................................................................................................................................... 56
Connecting Peripherals .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 59
Video Ports and Connectors.................................................................................................................................................................. 59
Network Ports and Connectors ............................................................................................................................................................ 62
Audio Ports and Connectors ................................................................................................................................................................. 62
USB Ports and Connectors ..................................................................................................................................................................... 63
Wireless Connection Technologies ....................................................................................................................................................................... 66
Bluetooth ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 66
Infrared ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 67
Lesson Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 67
Review Questions.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 67
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Lesson 3: Networks and Mobile Devices
Lesson Objectives ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 69
What is a Network? ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 69
Infrastructure Is Everything .................................................................................................................................................................... 69
Why Network? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 70
Internet Connection Sharing ................................................................................................................................................................. 70
Basic Network Technology ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 71
TCP/IP.............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 71
LANs and WANs ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 71
IP Addresses ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 72
Obtaining Internet Service ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 74
Service Providers ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 74
Which Service Should You Use? .......................................................................................................................................................... 75
Connecting the Internet to Your LAN .................................................................................................................................................................. 78
Broadband Modems ................................................................................................................................................................................. 78
Broadband Routers ................................................................................................................................................................................... 78
Public and Private IP Addresses ........................................................................................................................................................... 79
Wired Connections – Ethernet ................................................................................................................................................................................ 80
Ethernet Standards and Cables ............................................................................................................................................................ 81
Network Interface Card (NIC)................................................................................................................................................................ 81
Advantages and Disadvantages of Wired Connections............................................................................................................. 82
Adding a Shared Printer to the Wired LAN..................................................................................................................................... 83
Wireless Connections – Wi-Fi .................................................................................................................................................................................. 85
Adapters, Signals and Bands ................................................................................................................................................................. 86
Wireless Security ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 87
When Should You Use Wireless Connections? .............................................................................................................................. 87
Connecting Your Computer to a WLAN ........................................................................................................................................... 87
Connecting Your Handheld Device to a WLAN............................................................................................................................. 88
Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) ................................................................................................................................................................ 89
Adding a Network Printer to the WLAN........................................................................................................................................... 89
Cellular Networks .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 90
Cellular Generations – All About the G’s .......................................................................................................................................... 91
Cellular Carriers ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 91
Network Coverage ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 92
How Cellular Service Differs from Internet Service ...................................................................................................................... 92
Obtaining Cell Service ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 92
Contract Services ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 92
Pre-Paid Services ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 93
Cellular Service Plans ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 94
Plan Add-Ons............................................................................................................................................................................................... 94
Cellular Devices.............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 94
Smart Phones ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 95
Basic Cell Phone.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 95
Cellular-Enabled Tablets ......................................................................................................................................................................... 95
Mobile Data .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 96
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Hard-Wired Phones ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 97
Advantages and Disadvantages........................................................................................................................................................... 98
Private Branch Exchange (PBX) ............................................................................................................................................................. 98
Business Telephones ................................................................................................................................................................................. 98
Voice Mail ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 99
Configuring Your Voice Mail ................................................................................................................................................................. 99
Voice Mail on Your Mobile Phone ................................................................................................................................................... 100
Leaving a Clear Voice Mail Message............................................................................................................................................... 100
Lesson Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 101
Review Questions....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 101
Lesson 4: File Management
Lesson Objectives ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 103
Understanding Folders and Directory Structure ........................................................................................................................................... 103
Drive Letters .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 103
Folders and Subfolders ......................................................................................................................................................................... 105
Directories and Paths ............................................................................................................................................................................ 105
Connecting “Smart” Devices............................................................................................................................................................... 105
File and Folder Permissions ................................................................................................................................................................ 106
Understanding Local and Remote Locations .............................................................................................................................. 107
Using File Explorer ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 107
Moving a Window................................................................................................................................................................................... 110
Sizing a Window ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 110
Using Scroll Bars ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 111
Working with Files and Folders ............................................................................................................................................................................ 112
Creating Folders ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 112
Renaming a Folder ................................................................................................................................................................................. 113
Creating a Shortcut to a Folder ......................................................................................................................................................... 113
Working with Folders and Folder Options ................................................................................................................................... 116
Understanding File Types and File Name Extensions .............................................................................................................. 119
Windows 10 and File Extensions ...................................................................................................................................................... 122
Selecting Files and Folders .................................................................................................................................................................. 123
Copying and Moving Files and Folders ......................................................................................................................................... 125
Renaming Files ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 127
Searching for Files................................................................................................................................................................................... 128
Looking at the Recycle Bin .................................................................................................................................................................. 130
Understanding Default Locations ....................................................................................................................................................................... 132
Scanners ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 132
Web Site Items ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 132
Pictures ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 133
Pictures on Smart Phones.................................................................................................................................................................... 133
Managing Electronic Media................................................................................................................................................................................... 134
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Sharing Files ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 135
Removable Media ................................................................................................................................................................................... 135
Public Folders............................................................................................................................................................................................ 135
Shared Folders.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 136
Network Shares ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 137
Email Attachments .................................................................................................................................................................................. 137
Compressing Files ................................................................................................................................................................................... 139
Lesson Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 143
Review Questions....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 144
Lesson 5: Software
Lesson Objectives ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 147
Why Use Software? ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 147
Locally-Installed vs. Cloud-Based Software ................................................................................................................................. 147
Obtaining Software ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 148
Platform Considerations....................................................................................................................................................................... 148
Managing Software ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 149
Installing a New Program .................................................................................................................................................................... 150
Uninstalling Programs ........................................................................................................................................................................... 153
Repairing Software ................................................................................................................................................................................. 154
Reinstalling a Program .......................................................................................................................................................................... 155
Updating Software.................................................................................................................................................................................. 156
Configuring Software ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 156
Customizing Toolbars ........................................................................................................................................................................... 156
Specifying Program Defaults .............................................................................................................................................................. 157
Working with Windows Apps ............................................................................................................................................................................... 159
Operating System App Stores ........................................................................................................................................................... 159
Windows Store ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 159
Finding an App in the Store................................................................................................................................................................ 162
Downloading and Installing an App ............................................................................................................................................... 163
Deleting an App ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 164
Signing out of the Store ....................................................................................................................................................................... 165
Messaging Applications .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 165
Text Messaging ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 166
Chat ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 167
Instant Messaging................................................................................................................................................................................... 170
Lesson Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 177
Review Questions....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 177
Lesson 6: Cloud Computing
Lesson Objectives ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 179
Cloud Computing Concepts .................................................................................................................................................................................. 179
Benefits of Cloud Computing ............................................................................................................................................................ 180
Accessing Hosted Services .................................................................................................................................................................. 180
Cloud Accounts........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 181
Cloud Account Management ............................................................................................................................................................. 182
Cloud Storage on Google Drive ........................................................................................................................................................ 183
Google Drive Mobile Apps .................................................................................................................................................................. 192
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Microsoft OneDrive ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 192
Cloud Storage on OneDrive ............................................................................................................................................................... 192
The Local OneDrive folder ................................................................................................................................................................... 194
OneDrive Web Apps .............................................................................................................................................................................. 198
OneDrive Mobile Apps ......................................................................................................................................................................... 202
iCloud .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 202
iCloud for Windows ............................................................................................................................................................................... 203
Dropbox ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 204
Other Types of Cloud-Based Applications ...................................................................................................................................................... 206
Learning Management System (LMS) ............................................................................................................................................ 206
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Software ........................................................................................................... 207
Mobile Notifications ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 208
Configuring Notifications in the App ............................................................................................................................................. 208
Configuring Notifications through Mobile OS ........................................................................................................................... 209
Lesson Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 210
Review Questions....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 210
Lesson 7: Security and Maintenance
Lesson Objectives ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 213
The Need for Security .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 213
User Names and Passwords .................................................................................................................................................................................. 213
Keeping Your Account Safe ................................................................................................................................................................ 214
Identifying Risks ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 215
Viruses.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 215
Trojans ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 216
Malware (Spyware / Adware) ............................................................................................................................................................. 216
Network Connections ............................................................................................................................................................................ 217
Using Public Computers ....................................................................................................................................................................... 217
Social Engineering .................................................................................................................................................................................. 218
Phishing ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 219
Protecting Yourself .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 220
Antivirus Software ................................................................................................................................................................................... 220
Firewalls ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 222
Monitoring Software.............................................................................................................................................................................. 223
Conducting Safe E-Commerce Transactions ............................................................................................................................... 224
Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) ....................................................................................................................................................... 225
Backup and Restore .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 226
Backing Up Your Personal Files ......................................................................................................................................................... 226
Backing Up PC System Files and Settings ..................................................................................................................................... 231
Backing Up Your Mobile Data ........................................................................................................................................................... 233
Using Factory Reset Options for PC ................................................................................................................................................ 234
Resetting Mobile Devices .................................................................................................................................................................... 234
Troubleshooting ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 235
Is it Hardware or Software? ................................................................................................................................................................. 236
Troubleshooting Connection Issues................................................................................................................................................ 237
Lesson Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 238
Review Questions....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 238
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Lesson 8: Apps and Applications
Lesson Objectives ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 241
Understanding Apps and Applications ............................................................................................................................................................. 241
Application Programs .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 242
Word Processing ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 242
Desktop Publishing ................................................................................................................................................................................ 243
Spreadsheets ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 244
Graphic Design and Image Editing .................................................................................................................................................. 244
Web Development.................................................................................................................................................................................. 245
Video Editing............................................................................................................................................................................................. 246
Presentation .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 246
Web Apps...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 247
Google Drive ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 248
Local Apps..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 250
App Stores.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 250
Accounts and Access ............................................................................................................................................................................. 251
Browsing an App Store ......................................................................................................................................................................... 251
Searching in the App Store ................................................................................................................................................................. 256
Obtaining an App.................................................................................................................................................................................... 256
Deleting an App ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 258
Recovering a Deleted App .................................................................................................................................................................. 259
Limitations .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 260
Lesson Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 261
Review Questions....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 261
Lesson 9: Using Microsoft Word
Lesson Objectives ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 263
Identifying Common Features .............................................................................................................................................................................. 263
Starting an Application ......................................................................................................................................................................... 264
Exiting an Application ........................................................................................................................................................................... 264
Understanding the Backstage View ................................................................................................................................................ 264
Looking at the Edit Screen ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 265
Accessing Commands and Features ............................................................................................................................................... 266
Entering and Editing Text ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 268
Using the Rulers....................................................................................................................................................................................... 268
Selecting Text............................................................................................................................................................................................ 269
Managing Files ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 269
Saving Documents .................................................................................................................................................................................. 269
Starting a New Document ................................................................................................................................................................... 272
Closing a Document .............................................................................................................................................................................. 273
Opening a Document ............................................................................................................................................................................ 273
Manipulating Text ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 280
Customizing the View ........................................................................................................................................................................... 281
Using Undo ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 282
Using Repeat or Redo ........................................................................................................................................................................... 282
Using Cut, Copy, and Paste ................................................................................................................................................................. 282
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Applying Formatting ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 285
Enhancing Text Characters .................................................................................................................................................................. 285
Enhancing Paragraphs .......................................................................................................................................................................... 286
Understanding Tab Settings ............................................................................................................................................................... 287
Formatting the Document ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 289
Changing the Paper Size ...................................................................................................................................................................... 289
Changing the Orientation.................................................................................................................................................................... 289
Changing Margins .................................................................................................................................................................................. 289
Adding Page Numbers ......................................................................................................................................................................... 291
Applying Columns .................................................................................................................................................................................. 292
Preparing the Document for Printing................................................................................................................................................................ 293
Proofing the Document ........................................................................................................................................................................ 293
Finding and Replacing Items .............................................................................................................................................................. 295
Printing the Document ......................................................................................................................................................................... 296
Working with Pictures .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 298
Manipulating Objects ............................................................................................................................................................................ 300
Using Tables ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 303
Inserting a Table ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 303
Formatting Text in the Table .............................................................................................................................................................. 304
Inserting & Deleting Rows/Columns/Cells ................................................................................................................................... 304
Adjusting the Width or Height .......................................................................................................................................................... 305
Merging and Splitting Cells ................................................................................................................................................................ 305
Tracking Changes ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 307
Lesson Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 308
Review Questions....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 308
Lesson 10: Using Microsoft Excel
Lesson Objectives ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 311
Looking at the Excel Screen................................................................................................................................................................................... 311
Understanding Basic Terminology ................................................................................................................................................... 312
Entering Data in the Worksheet........................................................................................................................................................ 313
Moving Around the Worksheet ........................................................................................................................................................ 314
Managing Workbooks ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 314
Creating a New Blank Workbook ..................................................................................................................................................... 314
Creating a New Workbook from a Template .............................................................................................................................. 315
Saving Workbooks .................................................................................................................................................................................. 316
Opening Workbooks ............................................................................................................................................................................. 317
Closing Workbooks ................................................................................................................................................................................ 318
Manipulating the Contents .................................................................................................................................................................................... 320
Selecting Cells........................................................................................................................................................................................... 320
Using Undo or Repeat .......................................................................................................................................................................... 321
Copying and Moving Data .................................................................................................................................................................. 321
Changing the Column Widths ........................................................................................................................................................... 322
Adjusting the Row Height ................................................................................................................................................................... 323
Manipulating Rows, Columns, or Cells........................................................................................................................................... 323
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Creating Simple Formulas ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 325
Using Common Built-In Functions ................................................................................................................................................... 325
Using Absolute and Relative Addresses ........................................................................................................................................ 326
What Does Formatting Mean? ............................................................................................................................................................................. 329
Formatting Numbers and Decimal Digits ..................................................................................................................................... 330
Changing Cell Alignment ..................................................................................................................................................................... 330
Changing Fonts and Sizes ................................................................................................................................................................... 330
Applying Cell Borders ............................................................................................................................................................................ 330
Applying Colors and Patterns ............................................................................................................................................................ 331
Working with Charts ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 333
Selecting Chart Types ............................................................................................................................................................................ 334
Changing the Chart Layout ................................................................................................................................................................. 336
Working with Lists and Databases...................................................................................................................................................................... 338
Sorting Data .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 339
Filtering Information .............................................................................................................................................................................. 339
Understanding Excel Databases........................................................................................................................................................ 342
Working with Tables ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 343
Modifying Table Data ............................................................................................................................................................................ 343
Formatting Table Data .......................................................................................................................................................................... 343
Finalizing the Print Output ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 348
Printing the Worksheet......................................................................................................................................................................... 348
Lesson Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 349
Review Questions....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 350
Lesson 11: Database Concepts
Lesson Objectives ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 353
What is Data?............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 353
What is a Database? ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 353
Spreadsheet Databases ........................................................................................................................................................................ 353
Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS) ............................................................................................................. 354
Multiple, Related Tables ....................................................................................................................................................................... 354
Database Tables ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 356
Table Metadata ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 356
Primary Key ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 357
Table Relationships – Foreign Keys ................................................................................................................................................. 360
Database Metadata (Database Schema) ....................................................................................................................................... 362
Database Queries ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 363
Database Forms .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 364
Where Are Databases Used? ................................................................................................................................................................................. 366
Databases and Web Sites .................................................................................................................................................................... 366
Have I Used Queries on the Web? ................................................................................................................................................... 367
Have I Used Forms on the Web? ...................................................................................................................................................... 368
Lesson Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 369
Review Questions....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 369
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Lesson 12: Using Microsoft PowerPoint
Lesson Objectives ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 371
What is PowerPoint? ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 371
What Does a Presentation Include? ................................................................................................................................................ 371
Looking at the Edit Screen .................................................................................................................................................................. 372
Working with Presentations .................................................................................................................................................................................. 373
Creating Presentations.......................................................................................................................................................................... 373
Saving a Presentation ............................................................................................................................................................................ 375
Closing a Presentation .......................................................................................................................................................................... 376
Opening a Presentation ....................................................................................................................................................................... 377
Displaying Information in the Presentation ................................................................................................................................. 377
Managing the Slides ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 381
Inserting New Slides .............................................................................................................................................................................. 381
Changing the Slide Layout .................................................................................................................................................................. 382
Changing the Slide Background ....................................................................................................................................................... 382
Deleting Slides.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 382
Rearranging the Slides .......................................................................................................................................................................... 383
Managing Slide Objects .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 385
Using Select versus Edit Mode .......................................................................................................................................................... 385
Manipulating Text ................................................................................................................................................................................... 386
Inserting Pictures ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 388
Inserting Media Objects ....................................................................................................................................................................... 390
Animating Objects ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 392
Customizing the Animation ................................................................................................................................................................ 393
Applying Slide Transitions ................................................................................................................................................................... 394
Setting up Slide Shows ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 397
Viewing the Slide Show ........................................................................................................................................................................ 398
Sharing the Presentation ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 400
Using the Share Tab ............................................................................................................................................................................... 400
Using the Export Tab ............................................................................................................................................................................. 401
Create Handouts in Word.................................................................................................................................................................... 402
Publishing the Presentation ................................................................................................................................................................ 402
Printing the Slides ................................................................................................................................................................................... 403
Lesson Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 408
Review Questions....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 409
Lesson 13: Looking at the Internet
Lesson Objectives ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 411
A Connected Community ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 411
Introducing the Internet.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 412
Backbone .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 412
Hardware .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 412
Public Networks ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 413
Private Networks ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 413
Specifying a Network Connection Type ........................................................................................................................................ 414
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Finding Computers on the Internet ................................................................................................................................................................... 415
IP Address Review ................................................................................................................................................................................... 415
DNS ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 415
Understanding Domain Names ........................................................................................................................................................................... 416
DNS Domain Levels ................................................................................................................................................................................ 417
Understanding URLs ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 418
Protocol Identifier ................................................................................................................................................................................... 418
Path and Filenames in URLs................................................................................................................................................................ 419
What is the World Wide Web? ............................................................................................................................................................................. 419
What Exactly is a Web Page? ................................................................................................................................................................................ 419
HTML ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 420
CSS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 420
Hyperlinks................................................................................................................................................................................................... 421
Meet the Browser! ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 422
Getting Where You Want to Go – The Address Bar ................................................................................................................. 422
Browser Scroll Bars ................................................................................................................................................................................. 423
Browser Windows (Tabs) ...................................................................................................................................................................... 424
Hyperlinks in the Browser .................................................................................................................................................................... 425
Popular Browsers..................................................................................................................................................................................... 425
Browser Navigation Tools ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 429
Back, Forward, and Refresh Buttons................................................................................................................................................ 429
Home Page and Start Page ................................................................................................................................................................. 429
Settings........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 430
Browser Functions and Features.......................................................................................................................................................................... 433
Uploading and Downloading ............................................................................................................................................................. 433
Searching from the Address Bar ....................................................................................................................................................... 435
Favorites/Bookmarks ............................................................................................................................................................................. 437
Browser Preferences and Settings ...................................................................................................................................................................... 443
Handling Pop-ups ................................................................................................................................................................................... 443
Cookies ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 444
AutoFill/AutoComplete ......................................................................................................................................................................... 446
Browser Cache .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 446
Browsing History ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 447
Private Browsing ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 449
Extending Browser Functionality ......................................................................................................................................................................... 450
Plug-ins/Add-ons .................................................................................................................................................................................... 450
In-browser Apps ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 450
Web Standards............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 451
Site Home Page ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 451
Navigation Bar .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 453
Widgets ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 453
“Standard” Pages..................................................................................................................................................................................... 454
Using a Mouse on the Web ................................................................................................................................................................ 454
Lesson Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 456
Review Questions....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 456
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Lesson 14: Managing Media Literacy
Lesson Objectives ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 459
Searching for Information ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 459
Using Search Engine Technology........................................................................................................................................................................ 460
Using Search Engines ............................................................................................................................................................................ 461
Narrowing the Search Results............................................................................................................................................................ 463
Searching Social Media Sites ............................................................................................................................................................. 464
Researching Information ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 469
Validating Resources ............................................................................................................................................................................. 471
Understanding Copyrights Issues ....................................................................................................................................................................... 474
Intellectual Property ............................................................................................................................................................................... 474
Copyright .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 475
Licensing ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 476
Piracy ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 478
Censorship and Filtering ...................................................................................................................................................................... 478
Plagiarism ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 479
Lesson Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 481
Review Questions....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 481
Lesson 15: Digital Communication
Lesson Objectives ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 483
Digital Communication Technologies ............................................................................................................................................................... 483
Real-Time (Synchronous) and Delayed (Asynchronous) Communications .................................................................... 483
Asynchronous Communications Tools ............................................................................................................................................................. 484
Electronic Mail (Email) ........................................................................................................................................................................... 484
SMS Text Messages ................................................................................................................................................................................ 484
Real-Time Communication Technologies........................................................................................................................................................ 486
Phone Calls ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 487
Conference Calling ................................................................................................................................................................................. 489
WebEx .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 489
Skype – More than Just IM .................................................................................................................................................................................... 490
Adjusting Your Status ............................................................................................................................................................................ 491
Managing Your Skype Profile ............................................................................................................................................................ 492
Group Conversations ............................................................................................................................................................................. 495
Checking Out Google Hangouts ......................................................................................................................................................................... 499
Online Conferencing................................................................................................................................................................................................. 500
VoIP Conferencing .................................................................................................................................................................................. 500
Video Conferencing ............................................................................................................................................................................... 505
Collaboration Tools ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 508
Office 365 ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 508
SharePoint .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 509
Skype for Business .................................................................................................................................................................................. 510
Distance Learning Technologies.......................................................................................................................................................................... 512
Streaming ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 512
Business Applications ............................................................................................................................................................................ 513
Lesson Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 514
Review Questions....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 514
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Lesson 16: Understanding Email, Contacts, and Calendaring
Lesson Objectives ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 517
Working with Email ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 517
Using an Email Program.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 518
Creating New Messages....................................................................................................................................................................... 520
Receiving and Replying to Messages ............................................................................................................................................. 523
Using Signatures...................................................................................................................................................................................... 527
Working with Attachments ................................................................................................................................................................. 528
Managing Spam ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 531
Archiving Messages ............................................................................................................................................................................... 533
Using Contacts ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 533
Using the Gmail Calendar....................................................................................................................................................................................... 536
Creating an Appointment .................................................................................................................................................................... 537
Working with Multiple Calendars..................................................................................................................................................... 539
Lesson Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 545
Review Questions....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 545
Lesson 17: Your Life Online
Lesson Objectives ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 547
We Are Social Beings................................................................................................................................................................................................ 547
How Do We Share Information? ....................................................................................................................................................... 547
Social Media Networks ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 549
Building the Network ............................................................................................................................................................................ 550
Popular Social Media Networks ........................................................................................................................................................ 551
Open vs Closed Social Media Networks .......................................................................................................................................................... 551
Advantages of Closed Networks ...................................................................................................................................................... 552
Taking a Look at LinkedIn ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 553
Creating a LinkedIn Account .............................................................................................................................................................. 554
Creating Your LinkedIn Profile ........................................................................................................................................................... 554
Inviting Connections .............................................................................................................................................................................. 558
Managing Your Digital Identity ........................................................................................................................................................................... 559
Digital Footprints .................................................................................................................................................................................... 559
Why Is Your Digital Identity Important? ........................................................................................................................................ 560
Personal Identity and Professional Identity ................................................................................................................................. 561
Online Behavior .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 562
Cyber Bullying........................................................................................................................................................................................... 562
Computers and Your Health ................................................................................................................................................................................. 563
Coping with Change .............................................................................................................................................................................. 563
Disengaging .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 564
Ergonomic Best Practices..................................................................................................................................................................... 565
Lesson Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 567
Review Questions....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 567
Appendices
Appendix A: Courseware Mapping...................................................................................................................................................................... A 2
Appendix B: Glossary of Terms ............................................................................................................................................................................. A 8
Appendix C: Index.................................................................................................................................................................................................... A 13
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Preface
About This Courseware
Course Description
This courseware is designed to illustrate what it means to be digitally literate, and to demonstrate what can
be accomplished using a computer. The participant will progress to using popular software application
programs to process typical documents found in a business or school environment. Participants are also
introduced to what the Internet is and what makes it so popular for communicating and sharing information
with others.
This courseware is targeted towards people who are new to computers or who have had limited exposure to
a computer prior to taking this course. The intent of this courseware is to impart knowledge and skill sets
that a participant can apply to tasks he/she may want to perform using a computing device.
Note: To recognize some of the components that make up a computer, it is preferable to have access to
these actual components, wherever possible.
Course Series
This courseware is a composite of three different modules targeting specific skill sets:
•
Computing Fundamentals
•
Key Applications
•
Living Online
The IC3 Global Standard 5 (GS5) courseware contains exercises that students can use to learn each of the
topics and features discussed.
Teacher Resources are available and are produced specifically to assist a teacher in preparing to deliver the
course using the CCI materials. Contact your coordinator or administrator, or call your CCI Account Manager
for information on how to access these resources.
Course Prerequisites
This courseware was designed to provide the essential skills for computer literacy, using application programs
commonly found in school and business environments. It is intended for those who have not used a web
browser, word processor, spreadsheet, presentation, database or email program previously, or for those who
have minimal experience. Some familiarity with using a mouse and keyboard can be helpful.
System Requirements
This courseware was developed using specific software and hardware configurations. In order to complete
this courseware, you will require the following minimum requirements:
Hardware Requirements
•
1GHz or faster 32-bit (x86) or 64-bit (x64) processor
•
4GB RAM
•
DirectX 10 or later graphics card with WDDM 1.0 driver
•
1280 800 screen resolution
•
A hard drive 1GB of free space
•
Ethernet port or wireless adapter for Internet access
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Note: Internet access is required to perform many of the hands-on exercises.
•
Mouse or other compatible pointing device
•
101 enhanced keyboard
•
A headset with a microphone for each student for performing conference call and video conferencing
exercises
•
An integrated (or connected) web cam for each student for performing video conferencing exercises
•
Printer (must have access rights to print)
Software Requirements
•
Microsoft® Windows 10 Professional (Note: Each student should have a user account with administrative
privileges or access to an account name and password that will supply sufficient rights for installing
software and adjusting hardware settings.)
•
Microsoft® Office 2016 Professional
•
Windows® Internet Explorer 11.0, and Microsoft Edge (Note: Google Chrome will be installed as part of
Lesson 5.)
The objectives outlined in each lesson can be achieved by properly using the material and exercises in this
courseware, and by paying close attention to your teacher. You should not hesitate to ask questions if you
have problems in working through the material. To help you understand how some tasks or actions are
performed in a business environment, CCI builds many of the exercises around a fictional company named
Tolano.
All software programs used in this courseware are large and powerful programs, with more features than you
can master in a single course. This courseware presents a tremendous amount of material in a simple, easy-
to-learn format. You should read ahead during the course; you should also reread regularly. This will increase
your retention of important concepts and skills, and will help you cope with the size and power of these
programs as you continue to learn.
Classroom Setup
The explanations in this courseware are based on the default settings established during the installation of
the Microsoft Windows 10 and Microsoft Office 2016 programs on a networked computer. Your computer
(or the computers in the classroom lab) may be configured differently. If so, please check with your teacher
(where applicable), or consult the appropriate User’s Guide to change the setup.
If you are using another version of Word, Excel, or PowerPoint, or a different office suite such as Open Office
or Google Docs, you will find that all of the concepts are the same; there may however be differences in some
of the steps required to accomplish the task.
To assist with the learning process, CCI has designed exercises for a variety of business and personal activities.
All names of people referenced in the exercises are fictional and created for the purpose of the CCI Learning
Solutions only.
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About This Courseware
Course Design
This courseware was developed for instructor-led training and will assist you during class. Together with
comprehensive instructional text and objectives checklists, this courseware provides easy-to-follow hands-
on lab exercises and a glossary of course-specific terms.
This course book is organized in the following manner:

Internet and Computing
Core Certification Guide
 Table of Contents
 Lessons
 Lesson Objectives
 Narrative Text
 Graphics
 Tips and Tricks
 Notes
 Exercises
 Graphics
 Tips and Tricks
 Notes
 Lesson Summary
 Lesson Review
 Appendices
 Courseware Mapping
 Glossary of Terms
 Index
When you return to your home or office, you will find this course book to be a valuable resource for reviewing
exercises and applying the skills you have learned. Each lesson concludes with questions that review the
material. Lesson review questions are provided as a study resource only and in no way guarantee a passing
score on a certification exam. Appendices in the back of this course book provide additional information.
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Course Objectives
Computing Fundamentals
The Computing Fundamentals exam covers subjects needed for a foundational understanding of computing,
including knowledge and use of computer hardware, software, and operating systems. In this module you
will:
•
Learn about the features and functions of modern operating systems and access various operating
system features and settings.
•
Examine different types of computers and learn about various types of computer hardware.
•
Learn about connectors and ports.
•
Learn about telephone, data, and cellular networks and about service subscription and contract
requirements.
•
Learn how to configure and use voice mail and how to manage mobile data usage.
•
Use Windows File Explorer to find, move, open, and manage files; and navigate a directory and follow
a path.
•
Learn about various ways to share files with other users.
•
Install and configure software and Windows apps.
•
Use messaging applications.
•
Create and use cloud accounts.
•
Identify the need for security and describe risks presented by malware, social engineering, and phishing
exploits.
•
Learn methods for protecting yourself against risks.
•
Understand why, how, and when to back up your data.
•
Learn basic troubleshooting techniques.
Key Applications
The Key Applications exam includes questions covering three applications (word processing, spreadsheet,
and presentation,) and includes questions on common features of all applications and questions on basic
database concepts and uses. In this module you will:
•
Learn about a wide variety of apps and applications and identify which types are best suited for particular
tasks.
•
Use an app store and install, delete, and recover apps.
•
Examine the common features shared between the applications in Microsoft Office 2016 and explore
basic techniques for working in an Office application.
•
Learn some of the basic skills required to create simple documents (including letters, reports, and a
brochure) using Word.
•
Be introduced to the basic skills for working with a spreadsheet application, including how to enter and
format text and formulas, navigate and manage worksheets, filter and sort data, create and modify charts
and set printing options.
•
Learn basic database concepts and learn how databases are used on the World Wide Web.
•
Learn basic skills for working with an application designed to manage presentations, set up
presentations, and create and edit slides that include text, images, charts, tables, or multimedia.
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About This Courseware
Living Online
The Living Online exam covers aspects of working in a networked environment and on the Internet. The exam
includes questions on basic knowledge of the Internet, skills in specific applications such as electronic mail
software and web browsers, skills required to find and evaluate information, and understanding issues related
to using the Internet being at work, home or school. In the module you will:
•
Learn about the nature of the Internet and about the role and function of web browsers
•
Learn about how web sites are organized, identify common web page elements, and learn how to
perform basic tasks using a web browser.
•
Conduct research and evaluate the information you find on the Internet.
•
Learn about and use various digital communication technologies
•
Use electronic mail and calendaring and work with contacts.
•
Examine the practices of good digital citizenship and online safety, and learn to manage your online
identity.
•
Recognize and learn to avoid health risks associated with computing.
Conventions and Graphics
The following conventions are used in CCI learning materials.
File Names or Folder
File names or database field names are indicated in italic font style.
Exercise Text
Content to be entered by the student during an exercise appears in Consolas font.
Procedures
Procedures and commands you are instructed to activate are indicated in bold font
Names
style.
Features or Command Menu options and features are listed in the left hand column and corresponding
Options
descriptions are in the right hand column.
Numbered objective from the IC3 GS5 exam being covered in the topic is indicated in bold text. Refer to the
Appendix for a complete listing of exam objectives.
Notes and Tips point out exceptions or special circumstances that you may find when working with a
particular procedure, when there may be another way to perform a task, or as a reminder on how to
complete the task.
Exercise
Exercise graphics signal the start of step-by-step, hands-on exercises or other activities.
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Computing Fundamentals
Lesson 1: Operating Systems
Lesson Objectives
In this lesson, you will learn about the features and functions of modern operating systems. You will also learn
how to start the computer and how to access various features of the operating system. Upon completion of this
lesson, you will be familiar with:

the function of an operating system

using the taskbar

popular desktop operating systems

accessing the Settings app

user accounts and profiles

accessing the Control Panel

power on and power off procedures

customizing the Windows Desktop

power options

the features of mobile operating systems

using the Start button

operating system updates

navigating the Windows Desktop
What is an Operating System?
Throughout this course, you will learn about using computers. A computer is essentially a collection of
electrical and mechanical parts referred to as hardware. Each hardware part performs its own function, and
in order for all the parts to work together, they must be able to communicate. Instead of communicating
directly with one another, the various components communicate via an operating system.
•
The operating system (or OS) is a computer program.
•
A program is a sequence of instructions that guides the computer through the performance of a specific
task or sequence of tasks.
•
•
The individual lines of instruction are referred to as code.
The term software refers to any program that makes a computer run – including operating systems and
application programs.
Note: Software developers write source code for their programs in a human-readable format. In order to
prepare a program to be installed and used on a computer, the source code is converted into an
executable format through a process called compiling. Compiling changes source code into machine code.
Every computer requires an operating system in order to function. Think of an operating system as the central
manager of communication, coordination, and control.
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Application programs, on the other hand, allow you to be productive – to create documents or complete
specific tasks such as creating a budget, removing red-eye from a photograph, searching the Internet or
scheduling a meeting.
Application programs use the operating system to control the hardware functions of the computer, and you,
as a computer user, interact with the operating system whenever you log on to the computer, or type on the
keyboard, tap on a touchscreen, or use an application program such as an email program or a word processor.
It works like this:
As you work in an application program, the program interacts with the operating system behind the scenes.
The operating system:
•
manages hardware devices, and
•
controls communication among hardware devices, and
•
controls communication between application programs and hardware devices, and
•
manages files stored on the computer.
Evolution of the Modern OS Interface
Since the early days of personal computing, operating systems have evolved from simple monochrome text
screens to full-color point-and-click (or tap) interfaces.
An interface is a point where two systems (or people, or networks, or devices) meet and exchange
information. Anytime you use a computer, join a network, or plug in a device, you communicate with it
through an interface.
Today’s modern operating systems communicate with you through a graphical user interface (GUI), or
“gooey.” A GUI lets you use menus and clickable buttons or icons to start programs, move files, or perform
other tasks. This makes it easy for users to work with the operating system and get things done.
Proprietary and Open-Source Operating Systems
Software is sold and/or distributed with a particular type of software license. When you purchase a program,
you are purchasing the right to use it. The ways in which you can legally use it are defined by the license that
comes with it.
Proprietary Software
Most commercial software programs are proprietary. That is, they are owned by an individual or a company,
usually the person or company that created it. The owner sells an executable copy of the software to users
for use on their own systems, and includes a license with the program. The owner also controls how the
software can be used, if and how the source code can be inspected and/or modified, and under which
conditions (if any) it can be redistributed.
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Additionally, most commercial software is closed-source. The software is released only in a compiled form
and the source code is not released or made available. (However, sometimes vendors will release sections of
the source code to third-party developers who create enhancement routines or add-ons.)
When you install software you must agree to the terms of the end user license agreement (EULA). In most
cases the license agreement is quite restrictive. For example, the license determines the number of systems
on which you can install the software, and it usually prohibits you from copying and distributing the software
to other users. You are also restricted from attempting to de-compile or reverse-engineer the code back into
a human-readable format. You are restricted from making changes of any kind to the software.
All versions (including mobile versions) and editions of Windows, Mac OS X and UNIX are proprietary.
Open-Source Software
In contrast to the restrictive licensing terms of proprietary programs, an open-source software license makes
the source code of the software freely available. Users are permitted to study, change, and distribute the
software to anyone for any purpose.
Most open-source software is distributed freely without charge, although open-source software does not
necessarily need to be free. It is considered open-source because the source code is freely available.
Linux, FreeBSD, Open BSD, and ReactOS are examples of open-source operating systems. Mobile operating
systems based on Linux (for example, various versions of Android) are open-source, but are often bundled
with a substantial amount of proprietary software as well.
Desktop Operating Systems
There are many types of operating systems in wide use today because there are many types of devices. In
this course, you will focus on desktop operating systems and mobile operating systems.
A desktop operating system is one that is used on desktop and laptop computers. A desktop operating
system is a large and robust program. It offers many features, and provides a great deal of power and control
over how the computer runs.
Operating System Versions and Editions
Operating systems are released in various versions and editions. An operating system version refers to the
specific code base that was used to develop the operating system. For example, Windows 7 and Windows 8
are different versions of the Windows operating system. An operating system edition determines which
features are available. For example, various versions of the Windows operating system are released in varying
editions such as Home, Professional, or Enterprise.
Popular Desktop Operating Systems
Today, you can choose from several operating systems. You might like Windows, while your friend prefers
Mac OS X, and your teacher or colleague likes Linux.
Almost all operating systems include a Desktop which is the screen that opens once you log on and are ready
to begin working. Operating system Desktops usually include colorful backgrounds, icons or buttons for
accessing commands, and a status bar to show which programs are open and running. The Desktop is the
central place from which a user interacts with the computer.
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Some of the most popular operating systems include:
Windows
Windows operating systems are designed by Microsoft. Recent versions are:
•
Microsoft Windows 10
•
Microsoft Windows 8
•
Microsoft Windows 7
The Windows 8 and Windows 7 Desktops are shown here:
You will see the Windows 10 Desktop later in this lesson.
Mac OS X
Mac OS X is designed by Apple for Macintosh computers. Recent versions are:
•
Version 10.9 – Maverick
•
Version 10.10 – Yosemite
•
Version 10.11 – El Capitan
The Mac OS X Yosemite and Maverick Desktops are shown here:
Linux
Linux is a free and open-source operating system. You can find Linux installed on supercomputers – such as
those used by Google and NASA. But it is also installed on millions of home and business computers. Because
anyone who uses Linux can modify it, it is very popular with programmers.
Versions of Linux are called distributions – or “distros” for short. Some popular distros are:
4
•
Knoppix
•
Ubuntu
•
Gentoo
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The Knoppix and Ubuntu Desktops are shown here:
UNIX
UNIX was one of the earliest operating systems and was first designed for use on large mainframe computers
and servers. Modern versions are available for desktop systems, and include a GUI; however, the GUI is
separate from the operating system.
Common Operating System Features
Objective 1-3.5
No matter which operating system you use, certain features are common among all of them.
User Accounts
In addition to managing communication, devices, and file storage, an operating
system keeps track of who is using the computer. This is accomplished through user
accounts.
You can think of an account as a special area on the computer where you can work and keep your files,
separate from other users. For example, an entire family can share a Windows PC, and each family member
would have a distinct account with his or her own user name, password, and account settings.
An account name (and usually a password) is associated with each account. Before you can run programs,
open files or use the computer to accomplish any type of work, you must log on using a valid user account.
When you first power on a Windows computer, one of two things can happen:
•
If you are the only user on the computer and your user account does not require a password, then you
will be automatically logged on to your account and the Desktop appears.
•
If you are using a computer on which multiple user accounts have been set up, or if your user account
requires a password, then Windows displays an icon and account name for each user account and you
must log on to your account by clicking your account icon and entering your password.
Account Types
Operating systems allow for the creation of different types of user accounts. In Windows, there are two
readily-available account types: standard user accounts and administrator accounts.
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Administrator Enables you to make changes to the system that will affect other users. Administrators can
account
change security settings, install and uninstall software and hardware, and create or make
Standard user
Enables you to use most of the capabilities of the computer. You can use most programs
account
changes to other user accounts on the system.
that are installed on the computer and change settings that affect your user account.
However, you can't install or uninstall some software and hardware, you can't delete files
that are required for the computer to work, you can’t access other users' files stored on the
computer, and you can't change settings that affect other users or the security of the
computer.
Each type of account has a specific level of permission associated with it. Permissions are rules associated
with objects on a computer, such as files, folders and settings. Permissions determine whether you can access
an object and what you can do with it. Everyone has permission to read/write (create, edit, view or print) files
for their own account; however, only someone with an Administrator account can see files created by other
users on the system.
An administrator account is created automatically when Windows is installed on a computer. If you are using
your own computer, the account you create the first time you start up your computer is an administrator
account. You can then create additional administrator and standard user accounts.
If you use a computer at your school or office, the system administrator will likely have already created an
account for you. Your account may be an administrator account or a standard user account.
Note: Computers you use in a school, library, or workplace are usually part of a computer domain. A
domain is a network of computer systems that are controlled by a network administrator. Your ability to
perform certain tasks (such as installing software, changing your password, or installing updates) on a
domain system can be tightly controlled by the administrator, regardless of your account type.
Account Options
It is considered best practice to protect your computer and documents if you are going to be away from the
system for any length of time. Two recommended practices are signing out of your account, or locking your
computer whenever you are away so that other people passing by cannot see or access any of your files.
You can perform either of these tasks by clicking your user icon in the Start menu, and then selecting the
desired option.
If you select Lock, Windows displays an image on the monitor and you
must enter the logon password before you can resume working. Locking
the system is different than logging off (signing out). When you lock the
system, all your programs and files remain open and ready so you can
resume working quickly.
If you select Sign out, all your programs and files are closed and you return to the Windows log on screen.
User Profiles
Each user account is associated with a profile. A profile is a collection of settings that make the computer
look and function in a particular manner. A profile includes settings for elements such as the Desktop
background, lock screen, screen saver, pointer preferences, date and time format, and so on.
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When you log on to a user account, the settings in the associated profile are loaded and affect what is
displayed on the Desktop.
When you make customizations, such as changing the Desktop background or applying a sound scheme,
those changes are saved in your profile so that the next time you log on to your account, all of your
customizations are in effect. You will customize your profile later in this lesson.
Built-In Power Off Procedures
Powering on and powering off a computer are two different processes. When you first power on (start) the
computer, you press the power button. The computer runs a set of self-diagnostic programs to ensure that
critical hardware is working properly, and then it loads the operating system into memory. Once the
operating system is loaded, you are either logged on to your account automatically or you log on manually.
Although you simply press the power button to turn the system on, you should never simply press the power
button to turn the system off. You should always use the operating system's Power Off or Shut Down option.
This option ensures that any changes you have made to the system are properly saved, and that any
temporary files, which are no longer needed, are deleted.
Starting a Windows Computer
On many desktop computers, the power switch is located at the front or top of the
system case. The most commonly used icon for a power button is shown here.
Do not try to feel for the power button the first time you want to start the computer – locate it visually.
1.
Turn on devices that are connected to the computer (such as the monitor, speakers and printer) first.
2.
Press the power button on the computer to turn it on.
The computer performs a start-up test and then loads the operating system files into memory. This process
is also referred to as booting.
When the operating system is loaded, Windows will display either a Welcome screen followed by the Desktop,
or a logon screen from which you must select your account (and perhaps enter your password). After you
log on to your account, the Desktop displays.
Powering Off a Windows Computer
When you are done working, you should save your work, close any open programs, and then power off the
system.
Each operating system includes built-in power-off procedures which you
should use to ensure that files and programs are closed and that internal
services are properly exited before the electrical power is cut off. In
Windows 10, various options are presented in the Power menu.
To properly power off a Windows 10 computer:
1.
Click the Start button then click Power to display the Power menu.
2.
In the Power menu, click Shut down to power off the system. The computer closes all files and programs,
closes the operating system and turns off the power completely.
Note: In Linux, the power off options are named: halt, power off, reboot, and shutdown. In Mac OS X, the
options are named: sleep, restart, and shut down.
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Understanding Windows Power Options
Objective 1-2.6
Power options affect the way your computer uses energy. Because we are often called away from our
computers for various periods of time which fall inside our “regular working hours,” most operating systems
provide options for reducing the amount of power the system uses. For example, if you take an hour for
lunch, you can use one of the power options on your computer to conserve power without having to shut
the system off.
Reducing power consumption is good for the environment, and it prolongs battery life on a system that is
running on battery power.
Windows 10 provides several power options from which to choose. These options include:
Sleep
Clicking Sleep leaves the computer on, but puts it into a mode where it uses less power than
when it is awake. The screen turns off and often the computer fan stops. Windows puts your
work into memory. Sleep mode is similar to pausing a DVD movie. It is useful when you won’t
be using your computer for a short period of time.
When you wake the computer, the screen will look exactly as it did when you put the system to
sleep. On some systems you can wake the computer by moving the mouse or pressing a key
on the keyboard; on others, you must press the Power button. On a desktop computer, the
Sleep command may be listed as Standby.
Hibernate
This option is found on laptops only. When you click Hibernate, the computer writes your open
files and programs to a storage location and then turns off the system. Hibernate mode uses
no power. Hibernate mode is useful if you will not be using your laptop for an extended period
of time, but you do not want to close your documents.
When you press the power button on a laptop in hibernation, the system starts back up and
puts your files and programs back into memory. You can start working again right where you
left off.
By default, the Hibernate option does not appear in the Power menu, but you can customize
the operating system to include this option.
Shut Down The computer closes all files and programs, closes the operating system and turns off the
power.
Restart
Windows closes all open files and programs, exits the operating system and restarts the
computer without turning off the power. Sometimes when a computer starts to behave
strangely or seems to get “lost” or “stuck” restarting it will make it run properly again. Restarting
clears the memory and reloads the operating system, but does not cause the computer to
perform the start-up tests again.
Exercise 1-1: On, In, Out, and Off
In this exercise, you will turn on the computer to start the operating system. You will also log on to Windows
and explore various power options. If you require assistance finding objects on the screen, ask your teacher
for help. Navigating the Desktop will be covered in detail later in this lesson. For now, you will simply explore
power options.
1.
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Identify where the power buttons are located on the computer and monitor.
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2.
Turn on the monitor, then press the power button to turn on the computer.
3.
Watch the monitor to see the messages that display.
4.
If a Windows logon screen appears, click the icon for your user account and enter your password to log
5.
Click the Start button in the lower left corner of the Desktop to open the Start menu.
6.
In the Start menu, click Power to view the power menu, then click Sleep to put the computer to sleep.
7.
Press a key on the keyboard or press the power button to wake the computer. Depending on how the
on to Windows. When you have successfully logged on to Windows, the Desktop displays.
The screen either goes dark or displays a picture or the log on screen.
computer has been set up, you may need to click the icon for your user account and/or enter your
password to return to the Desktop; otherwise you will be returned to the Desktop immediately.
8.
Click the Start button to open the Start menu.
9.
Click Power, then click Restart. Windows shuts down and then starts again without performing the
startup tests that run when you first power on the computer.
10. When the log on screen displays, click the icon for your user account and enter your password to access
the Desktop.
11. Click the Start button, click your user icon at the top of the Start menu, then click Sign out to log out of
Windows and display the log on screen.
12. Click the icon for your user account and enter your password to return to the Desktop.
13. Click the Start button, click Power, then click Shut down to power off the system.
14. Press the power button on the computer to start the system.
15. Log on to Windows.
Looking at the Windows 10 Desktop
The Windows Desktop is the main screen on which program windows, icons, menus, and dialog boxes appear.
Your Windows 10 Desktop should look similar to the following screen. You will notice several objects or icons
on the Desktop: these vary from one system to another, depending on how the computer is configured.
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Desktop
Mouse
pointer
Start
Search box
Taskbar
The Desktop includes several types of objects that you use to move around and get work done.
Desktop icons
The “shortcuts” you can click to open frequently used programs, folders, or files.
Mouse pointer
The arrow that follows the movement of the mouse (or touchpad) and highlights icons on
Start button
Click to start programs, open documents, find items on your computer, and get help. You
Taskbar
The long horizontal bar at the bottom of the screen that includes three main sections: the
the screen when you point to them.
also use the Start button to power down the system.
Start button and search box; the middle section (which displays the buttons for open
programs and files); and the notification area (which includes a clock and icons that
communicate the status of certain programs and settings). The taskbar is an integral part
of Windows’ multitasking feature.
Navigating Around the Desktop
Using a Pointing Device
You use a pointing device such as a mouse or the touchpad to move the mouse pointer:
•
To select an item, move the mouse pointer (arrow) over top the item and then click the left mouse button
once; this is called a single-click.
•
To activate an item, point the arrow at the item and then press the left mouse button twice quickly; this
is called a double-click.
•
To display a shortcut menu with more options, point the arrow at the item and then click the right mouse
button once; this is called a right-click.
Using the Keyboard
A number of features can be accessed through the keyboard. For example, press the WINDOWS button to
open the Start menu, press ESC to cancel an action, or press TAB to move to the next field in a dialog box.
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Using a Touch Screen
If you have a touch screen device, you can:
•
Tap to open, select, or activate an item; similar to a single-click.
•
Double-tap to open a file or folder; similar to a double-click.
•
Press and hold (long press) to show information or open a short-cut menu; similar to a right-click.
Note: Windows 10 has been designed to work with touch screen devices as well as it works with a
traditional mouse and keyboard, and provides the ability for the user to work in Tablet mode. In this
course, however, you will use a mouse and keyboard.
Using the Start Button and Start Menu
To work in Windows 10, you begin at the Start menu. To open the Start menu, you can:
•
Click the Start button, or
•
Press the WINDOWS key.
The Windows 10 Start menu includes a classic pop-up menu on the left, and a panel of application shortcuts
called “tiles” in the middle.
Your user account icon (and name) display at the top left of the Start menu. Click your user name to access
commands to lock the screen, sign out, or change your account settings.
Along the left side of the Start menu are shortcuts to the most used and most common programs, apps, and
settings. Click an item to launch the program or access the setting. Some items display a right-facing arrow.
Click the arrow to open a sub-menu of application-specific tasks or items.
Click All apps at the bottom of the Start menu to see all your apps and programs.
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Click an app or program from this panel to launch it. Some items display a
down-facing arrow. Click the arrow to open a sub-menu of tools or options. To
return to the main Start menu, click Back at the bottom of the All apps pane.
You can also right-click the Start button to display a shortcut menu to various
commands and features.
In the middle of the Start menu, tiles represent apps and programs. The tiles
are movable and sizable. You can drag new tiles in from the All apps pane. Click
a tile to launch an app or a program. You can also right-click a tile or an item
in the left pane to access additional options which allow you to pin or unpin
the item in the Start menu or task bar.
About Apps and Application Programs
Both apps and application programs are software and both can be installed on
various computing devices. An application program is software designed to
perform a variety of functions, whereas an app is software designed to perform
a single function.
Application programs are large and usually require a fair deal of system
resources (such as RAM and processing power). They are designed to be used
with a mouse and keyboard. Apps are small, and light-weight and are designed
primarily for use on mobile touch-screen devices.
Windows 10 refers to application programs as “Desktop apps.” For example, “OneNote 2016 Desktop app”
refers to the installed application program, while “OneNote” refers to the app designed for the touch screen
interface.
You will learn about apps and application programs throughout this course.
Search Box/Cortana
Just to the right of the Start button is the search box.
Click in the search box and begin typing. Windows will display topics and
file names that match what you type.
When you first use Windows 10 the search box may display a circle icon and
the text “Ask me anything.”
These elements are part of Cortana, the Windows 10 personal assistant. If
you click in the box, the Cortana feature will open for initial setup. To use
Cortana, you must sign into the system with a personal Microsoft account.
You can click Not interested to turn the feature off. For this course, you will
not use Cortana.
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Using the Taskbar
The taskbar appears at the bottom of the Windows Desktop (although you can move it to either side or to
the top of the window).
Task View
Taskbar buttons
Action
Center
Show
Desktop
Notification area
It includes the items described below:
Taskbar
buttons
A button displays in the taskbar for each open application program, for some built-in
Windows applications (such as Microsoft Edge or File Explorer), and for any applications
which you have “pinned” to the taskbar. Click a taskbar button to activate a program or
window.
Task View
Task view is a new view in Windows 10 that shows small windows of all your running
applications in the middle of the screen and displays a command for creating virtual
Desktops.
Notification
area
Displays the time and date and provides quick access to items such as the volume control
or a wireless network connection. It can also display information about the status of the
power level of a laptop battery or whether operating system updates are available. You can
also control which icons are visible.
Action Center Click this button to open the Windows Action Center.
Show Desktop Point at this button to make all open windows transparent so you can see the Desktop for
a moment, or click it to instantly minimize all open windows on the Desktop. You can restore
all the windows to their previous state by clicking it again.
Task View
New in Windows 10, Task View shows small windows of your running applications and a New desktop icon.
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You can click a window to bring that particular application to the front of your screen, or you can point the
mouse pointer over a window to display a Close button
. Click the Close button to close the application.
You can also click New desktop to create a virtual Desktop. In computing, the word virtual refers to the way
a particular component or environment appears to a user. For example, a virtual Desktop is a software
implementation of a physical Desktop – it does not exist physically, but you can use it (and organize your
work on it) as if it did exist physically.
Click the virtual Desktop to bring it front and center.
You can launch different applications on this Desktop
and then alternate between your open Desktops to
keep your workspace uncluttered. You can create as
many virtual Desktops as you like, and you can move
applications between Desktops.
When you are finished working with a virtual Desktop, display Task View, point the
mouse pointer over the Desktop you want to close to display a Close button.
Click, the Close button to close the Desktop.
Action Center
When you click the Action Center button in the notification area, the Windows 10 Action Center opens as a
sidebar.
You can read and respond to (or clear) notifications, access system
settings through the Settings app, or turn specific features such as
Bluetooth or Airplane mode on or off. Appointments and alerts you set
in Windows calendar also appear here.
The buttons that appear in the Action Center are called Quick Actions,
and you can control which quick Action buttons display by configuring
the notification settings.
Key Fact: You can also display the Action Center by pressing
WINDOWS+A or by swiping in from the right on a touch screen.
Taskbar Buttons
When you open a program, an underlined button for that application
appears in the taskbar as a visual clue that the program is running. If
you point the mouse pointer over a taskbar button, Windows displays
a preview window for each file that is open within that application.
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Exercise 1-2: Exploring the Start menu and Taskbar
In this exercise, you will explore areas of the Desktop, Start menu, and taskbar.
1.
If necessary, start the computer and log into Windows.
2.
When the Desktop appears, put your hand on the mouse and then slide the mouse along your desk and
3.
On the keyboard, press WINDOWS to open the Start menu.
4.
On the keyboard, press ESC to close the Start menu.
5.
Click the Start button to open the Start menu again.
6.
Click in the search box. If the box displays elements of the Cortana personal assistant, click Not
7.
In the search box, type: notepad. Notice that a list of possible matches for the term you typed displays at
8.
At (or near) the top of the menu, click Notepad Desktop app to open the Notepad application window
9.
Click the Close button at the upper right corner of the Notepad window to close the application.
observe that the mouse pointer follows the movements you make with the mouse.
interested, then click the Start button again. Otherwise, proceed to Step 7.
the top of the menu.
on the Desktop.
10. Click Start, then click All apps to display the All apps pane, then click Calculator to open the calculator
app. Notice that the calculator displays inside its own window. All programs run inside their own
dedicated windows. Notice that a button for the calculator app now displays in the taskbar.
11. In the taskbar, click the File Explorer button (it looks like a yellow file folder) to open a File Explorer
window. You use File Explorer to view and manage files on your computer.
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12. Click the Show Desktop button at the right edge of the taskbar to make the open windows invisible and
display only the Desktop.
13. In the taskbar, point the mouse pointer over the Calculator button to display a preview window of the
app.
14. In the taskbar, point the mouse pointer over the File Explorer button to display a preview window of
the File Explorer application.
15. Move the mouse pointer into the File Explorer preview window until the Close button displays, then click
the Close button to close File Explorer.
16. In the taskbar, click the Calculator button to display the Calculator app on the Desktop again.
17. Click the Close button in the Calculator app window to close it.
18. Right-click the time in the notification area and look at the items on the shortcut menu.
19. Click in an empty area of the Desktop to close the shortcut menu.
20. Click the time in the notification area to open the calendar.
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21. At the bottom of the calendar, click Date and time settings to open a window of date and time settings
in the Settings app.
22. Close the window.
23. In the taskbar, click the Action Center button to open the Action Center.
24. Press ESC to close the action center.
Global and Profile-Specific Settings
Objective 1-3.2, 1-3.8
Operating systems are highly customizable, allowing you to create the type of environment you like to work
in. Some settings are global, meaning they affect all user accounts on the system. Generally, global settings
are related to hardware. For example, settings that affect screen resolution, power management options, date
and time settings, installed printers, or whether to require a password when waking the computer are global
settings.
Profile-specific settings are settings tied to an individual user’s profile. These affect only one user account on
the system. Items such as background pictures, screen savers, themes and sound schemes, or whether to
display file name extensions in File Explorer are examples of profile-specific settings.
There are two main areas from which you can access settings.
The Settings App
You can configure several commonly-accessed settings through the Windows 10 Settings app. Click Start,
and then Settings to open the main window of the Settings app.
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From this window, you can browse the categories or use the search box at the upper right corner to find
what you are looking for, including advanced options on specific pages in the Control Panel.
Note: You can also right-click on the Desktop and click either Display settings or Personalize to open
specific settings windows in the Settings app.
The Windows Control Panel
The Control Panel is the area in Windows where you can access features to customize settings for devices on
your system.
You can access the Control Panel by:
18
•
Right-clicking Start, then clicking Control Panel in the shortcut menu; or
•
selecting an advanced feature in the Settings app.
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The default view for Control Panel topics is Category view. The categories are described below:
System and Security
Provides options for firewall settings, power options and file history (backups).
Network and Internet
Set up or modify how your system connects to a network or the Internet, and to
Hardware and Sound
Set up or modify devices such as printers, speakers and monitors.
Programs
Provides access to system management tasks such as installing and uninstalling
User Accounts
Provides options for setting the computer up to be used by more than one
Appearance and
Customize your screen with screen savers, desktop backgrounds, and so on.
Clock, Language, and
Change the format of dates, times, currency, or numbers to reflect regional
Ease of Access
Provides options for changing accessibility specifications, such as turning on voice
Personalization
Region
share files with others.
programs.
person.
standards or languages.
recognition or altering visual displays.
Clicking a category opens a particular page or window in the Control Panel, and each screen provides links
to other pages. Click various links to drill down to the command or feature you want to access.
Note that in the preceding figure, a small down-facing arrow displays to the right of the word Category. This
arrow denotes that a drop-down list or drop-down menu is available. When you click the arrow, a list opens
and drops down on the screen, allowing you to click an option.
You can use this drop-down menu to change the display in the Control Panel
from Category to view either Large icons or Small icons. The Large icon view is
shown in the following figure.
When you drill down to a page where you configure settings, you can use the various menu options on the
page. The following figure shows a portion of the Power Options > System Settings page in the Control
Panel. This figure features three other types of menu options used in Windows.
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Radio
buttons
Check
boxes
Command buttons
Radio buttons
Force a user to select one option out of a group of options. When you select a radio
button, any previously selected radio button within the same group is automatically
unselected.
Check boxes
Allow users to turn one or more option choices on or off.
Command buttons Enable a user to either save (and apply) or abandon configuration setting choices. For
example, after you select the options you want to enable, you would click Save changes
Dialog Boxes
to keep your changes, or you could click Cancel to discard the changes you made.
In Windows, you often specify settings through dialog boxes. A dialog box is a window that displays on top
of all other windows. It is designed to accept user input, and it remains open until you close it. The following
figure shows a typical Windows dialog box. This dialog box includes several tabs on which you can specify
settings. Notice that the tab shown in the figure includes
radio buttons, check boxes and command buttons.
You cannot access any other items on the Desktop or in a
program while a dialog box is open.
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Changing Global Settings
Objective 1-3.3
You can use the Control Panel or the Settings app to customize many operating system settings, including
global settings.
Some features, specifically those that affect how the computer functions or those that can affect other users,
may not display in the Control Panel if you are using a system that belongs to a company or school domain.
Note that even if you have the ability to change certain settings, the options may not be readily available in
the Control Panel. However, you can make these options available by clicking a link that says Change settings
that are currently unavailable.
Changing the Screen Resolution
Screen resolution refers to the degree of clarity with which text and images appear. Screen resolution is
measured by the number of pixels (or dots) the screen can accommodate, and the measurements are given
as width by height. For example, a resolution of 1024 x 768 displays 1024 pixels horizontally on the screen
and 768 pixels vertically.
Most displays work best at their maximum resolution setting, and most systems are automatically set to use
the highest resolution setting. However, you have the ability to adjust the resolution. If you reduce the
resolution (for example, if you change it from 1024 x 768 to 800 x 600), items displayed on the screen will
appear bigger but you may not be able to see all the items on the screen.
The screen resolution is a global hardware setting (it affects all user accounts on the PC). You can access the
resolution setting on the Advanced Display Settings window in the Settings app:
You can also access it from the Display > Screen Resolution page in the Control Panel.
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Changing Password Protection
By default, Windows 10 systems are configured to require a user to re-enter the log on password when
waking the system from sleep. However, you can reconfigure this option through the Accounts window of
the Settings app.
Alternately, you can change this setting on the Power Options > System Settings page of the Control Panel.
Changing Power Management Options
Hibernate mode, which is available on laptops, is not included in the Power menu by default. You can
however, specify to add this option to the Power menu through the Power Options > System Settings page
in the Control Panel as well.
Exercise 1-3: Working with global settings
In this exercise, you will examine global settings that affect power options and password protection.
Note: Depending on how your system is configured, you may not have the ability to change certain
settings. In such cases, simply read along.
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1.
Right-click Start, then click Control Panel.
2.
At the top right, click the arrow for View by and click Category, if necessary. Then click Hardware and
Sound.
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3.
Under Power Options, click Change what the power buttons do.
4.
At the top of the window, click Change settings that are currently unavailable.
5.
In the Password protection on wakeup section, click the Don’t require a password radio button. Notice
that when you click this option, the option above it (Require a password) becomes de-selected.
6.
At the bottom of the window, in the Shutdown settings section, select the check box for Hibernate. (This
7.
Click Save changes.
8.
Close the Control Panel by clicking its Close button.
9.
Click Start to open the Start menu.
option will be listed only if you are using a laptop. If you are using a desktop PC, skip to Step 7).
10. Click Power. If you selected the Hibernate check box in Step 6, the Hibernate option now appears in the
menu.
11. In the Power menu, click Sleep to put your PC to sleep.
12. Press the power button to wake your computer. Notice that you do not have to enter your password to
resume working right where you left off.
Now, return your system to its original setting.
13. Right-click Start, then click Control Panel, Hardware and Sound.
14. Under Power Options, click Change what the power buttons do.
15. At the top of the window, click Change settings that are currently unavailable.
16. In the Password protection on wakeup section, click the Require a password (recommended) radio
button.
17. At the bottom of the window, in the Shutdown settings section, clear the check box for Hibernate. If
applicable.
18. Click Save changes, then close the Control Panel by clicking its Close button.
Customizing Profile-Specific Settings
Objective 1-3.3
Profile-specific settings allow you to customize the look and feel of your PC to make your working
environment truly yours. Changes that you make to these settings are saved with your profile and do not
affect other users on the same computer.
Customizing the Desktop Display
You can customize your Desktop by changing the background picture, configuring a screen saver, changing
window colors, applying themes and configuring sounds.
To access these customization settings through the Settings app, use one of the following options:
•
Click Start, Settings, Personalization; or
•
right-click an empty area on the Desktop, then click Personalize
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You can use the tabs within the Settings app window to make your customizations. A few of the links for
advanced settings take you to an appropriate page in the Control Panel.
To access these customization settings directly through the Control Panel:
•
Right-click Start, then click Control Panel, Appearance and Personalization, Personalization.
In Windows 10, a theme is a combination of pictures, colors and sounds. Each theme includes a Desktop
background, a window border color, sounds and a screensaver.
My Themes
24
Themes you have customized, saved or downloaded. When you make changes to a
theme, the new settings appear in this section as an unsaved theme.
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Windows Default Themes that are included with Windows 10. The Windows 10 and Flower themes include
a Desktop background slide show. You can go online to Microsoft.com to browse,
Themes
download and install additional themes.
Installed Themes
Themes that are created by computer manufacturers or non-Microsoft providers. Not
every system includes installed themes.
High Contrast
Themes that are designed to improve computer performance or to make items easier
to see. These themes do not include transparency effects.
Themes
Click any theme to select it. For the selected theme, you can change the window color, sounds and screen
saver settings. Simply click the theme component at the bottom of the Personalization window to access the
configuration settings.
To customize the Desktop:
•
Use the Desktop Background option to display the Background tab of the Personalization window in
the Settings app. (This window is shown in a preceding figure.) You can select one of the pictures shown
in the window, or you can browse to a different location on your computer and select a saved picture to
display on the Desktop.
•
Use the Color option to display the Colors tab of the Personalization window in the Settings app. Click
a color square to specify an accent color. You can also tell Windows to automatically select an accent
color based on colors in your background picture.
•
Use the Sounds option to apply a specific sound scheme to the theme. The sound scheme determines
which sounds play when particular Windows events (such as closing a program or minimizing a window)
occur.
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Use the Screen Saver option to select and apply a screen saver. If the screen saver includes configurable
options, you can set those too.
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Exercise 1-4: Customizing the Desktop
In this exercise, you will customize the Desktop and configure and apply a screen saver.
1.
Close any open screen elements, if necessary, then right-click an empty area on the Desktop, and click
Personalize in the shortcut menu to open the Background tab of the Personalization window in the
Settings app. The Background setting should currently be set to Picture.
2.
Click the drop-down arrow for the Background setting, then click Solid color. Notice that the display in
3.
Click a color square in the Background colors section and observe the effects in the Preview area.
4.
the Preview area changes to reflect the current selection.
Display the Background drop-list again and click Slideshow. Notice that options for choosing a picture
album and setting a time interval for changing the background picture become available in the window.
5.
Display the Background drop-down list once more and click Picture.
6.
In the Choose your picture section, click an image that you want to use as your Desktop background.
7.
In the left pane of the window, click Colors to display the Colors tab. You can use this tab to select an
accent color for the tiles and menu options that display in the Start menu.
8.
Click a color square for the color you would like to use as your accent color.
9.
Scroll to the bottom of the window to view the remaining options. You can specify to show your accent
color on the Start button, taskbar, action center and in the title bars of individual windows. You can also
specify whether to make the Start menu, taskbar and action center transparent.
10. In the left pane of the window, click Lock screen. The lock screen is the image that displays when you
lock your system, or when you wake your computer and you require a password upon waking. The
available settings are Windows Spotlight (which features changing images chosen by Microsoft), picture
(which lets you select a picture that does not change), or slide show (which allows you to specify a folder
on your computer where you have images that can be used for a lock screen slide show).
11. In the left pane of the window, click Themes to open the Themes tab, then in the right pane, click Theme
settings to open the Personalization page in the Control Panel.
12. At the bottom of the page, click Screen Saver to open the Screen Saver Settings dialog box.
13. Display the Screen saver drop-down list, then click Ribbons. A preview of the Ribbons screen saver
should display at the top of the dialog box.
14. Ensure that the Wait time is 1 minute, click Apply, and then click OK.
15. Do not touch your mouse or keyboard for at least 1 minute so that you can view the screen saver.
16. Once the screen saver displays, move your mouse slightly and notice that the screen saver disappears.
17. Change the Wait time to 20 minutes.
18. Close the Control Panel.
19. Close the Settings app.
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Lesson 1
Operating Systems
Mobile Operating Systems
Smart phones (and some tablets) use mobile operating systems. Mobile operating systems are optimized for
touch screen technology, small screen size, fast file transfer, and accessing cellular networks. Even though
they run on small devices and are streamlined so that they do not use excessive battery power or system
resources, they can accomplish an amazing array of tasks including phone calling, video calling, streaming
audio and video, Internet browsing, texting, connecting to Wi-Fi, and pairing with Bluetooth devices. Some
of the most widely-installed mobile operating systems are:
•
Android – is from Google, is based on Linux and is open-source. Android releases are named for sweet
confections; for example, version 4.3 is Jelly Bean, 4.4 is KitKat, 5.x is Lollipop, and 6.x is Marshmallow.
Releases prior to 2.0 were used exclusively on mobile phones. Android 2.x releases are used on phones
and some tablets. Android version 3.0 is used on tablets only. At the time of this writing, the current
Android version is 6.0. It has the largest install base in the world and runs on phones manufactured by a
wide variety of vendors including Samsung, HTC, Google, Sony, Motorola and LG.
•
iOS (previously known as iPhone OS) – is from Apple. It is closed-source and proprietary and is derived
from OS X. The Apple iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad, and second-generation Apple TV all use iOS. The more
recent versions allow for the installation of third-party applications. In previous versions, you had to “jail
break” your phone in order to install third-party apps. iOS smart phones are developed by Apple and
manufactured primarily by Apple partners, such as Foxconn.
•
Windows 10 Mobile (formerly called Windows Phone) – is from Microsoft. It is closed-source and
proprietary and it is integrated with Microsoft services such as OneDrive and Office, Xbox Music, Xbox
Video, Xbox Live and Bing. It is also integrated with non-Microsoft services such as Facebook and Google
accounts. Most Windows phone devices are made by Nokia, HTC and Samsung.
•
BlackBerry 10 – is from BlackBerry and is closed-source and proprietary. It runs only on phones and
tablets manufactured by BlackBerry.
Touch Screen Navigation on Mobile OS
Various phones and mobile operating systems recognize specific actions and gestures for navigating and
performing tasks on a touch screen. Generally, you can use the following motions and gestures to interact
with a smart phone or tablet:
•
•
•
28
Tap (lightly tap items with your finger tip)
–
Tap keys on the onscreen keyboard to enter characters and text
–
Tap an item to select it
–
Tap an app icon to launch an application
Touch and Hold (touch an item with your finger and maintain contact)
–
Touch and hold a widget to move
–
Touch and hold a field to display a pop-up menu of options
Swipe or Slide (lightly drag your finger vertically or horizontally across the screen)
–
Swipe the screen to unlock a device
–
Swipe the screen to scroll through Home screen options or menu options
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Lesson 1
Operating Systems
•
•
Drag (touch and hold on an item, and then move it to a new location)
–
Drag a shortcut to add it to a Home screen
–
Drag a widget to place it in a new location on a Home screen
Pinch and Spread (pinch the screen using your thumb and forefinger, or spread by moving your fingers
apart)
–
Pinch or spread to zoom in or out while viewing a picture or a web page
–
Pinch or spread to zoom in or out while taking a picture
Power On / Off
To turn on a smart phone or tablet, press and hold the power button until the device starts up. On most
phones the power key is also the lock key – you can press it to lock the device.
The first time you turn on your device, a welcome screen displays and you are guided through the basic steps
required to set up your phone (such as choosing a default language, connecting to a Wi-Fi network, setting
up accounts associated with the device, and so on).
To turn the phone off, press and hold the power/lock button until the device
options menu displays, then tap the power off option. The figure to the right
shows the options on an Android phone.
The Options menu allows you to put the device into one of several modes. You
can turn the phone off, restart it, put it into airplane mode (in this mode the
phone disconnects from all networks and turns off features for phone calling
and Wi-Fi access) or put it into emergency mode (this mode is designed to
conserve battery power by disabling apps and functions that use a lot of power;
however, you can still send messages, use contacts, and make emergency calls.)
Lock Screen
Mobile operating systems on smart phones and tablets typically use a gesture-
based lock screen. A lock screen on a mobile device is similar to the lock screen in Windows – this screen
displays until the user performs the required gesture, or enters the correct information (similar to entering
your user account password in Windows). The following figure shows an Android
lock screen. Notice that there are no shortcut icons displayed on the lock screen;
you must unlock it before you can access any of the device’s features.
Lock screens protect your devices from unintended access (that is, you can’t
accidentally launch an app or make a call while the phone is in your pocket or
purse), and can also protect your phone from illicit access by others. Until you
unlock the phone, there is very little you can do with it.
By default, most phones lock automatically when the screen times out. You can
also manually lock your phone at any time by pressing the power/lock key.
Generally, a mobile operating system can use the following lock screen types:
•
Swipe – unlock the phone by swiping the screen. This option provides no
security.
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Lesson 1
•
Operating Systems
Pattern – you create a pattern by dragging your finger across a grid of dots, and you re-enter that
pattern to unlock the phone. This is considered a medium-level security setting.
•
PIN – set and then enter a personal identification number (PIN) of at least four digits. This option
provides medium to high security.
•
Password – you create a password for unlocking the screen. This option provides high security.
•
Fingerprint – you can use fingerprint recognition to unlock the screen. This option provides medium to
high security.
•
None – you can set your phone to never use a lock screen.
If you choose one of the secure lock screen options, you can also specify whether to show or hide content
and notifications on the lock screen.
It is always a good practice to lock your phone. Smart phones often contain a lot of private information, such
as account numbers and electronic ID cards and more. Locking the phone can help prevent illicit use even if
your phone is stolen.
The Home Screen
Instead of featuring a Desktop as the place from which to launch programs and perform other tasks, mobile
operating systems are designed around a Home screen. (Some mobile operating systems refer to the Home
screen as the Start screen.)
The Home screen displays links or shortcuts (in the form of icons or buttons) to applications, settings,
features, and notifications, and generally display as much status information as possible within a very small
space.
Home screens differ from one mobile operating system to the next, but for the most part the Home screen
consists of a grid of shortcuts that can be arranged over multiple pages. The following figure shows the
Home screen on an Android phone.
Status icons
Notification
icons
Status bar
Widget
App shortcuts
Home screen
indicator
App folder
Apps screen
Dock
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Lesson 1
Operating Systems
The Home screen shown in the preceding figure includes the following features:
Notification
Displays new messages and emails notification, information about available software
Status icons
Displays information about the state of the phone hardware, including signal strength,
Status bar
Bar across the top of the phone that displays the status icons (on the right side) and
App shortcuts
Shortcuts to installed apps. Tap once to launch the app.
App folder
Several apps can be grouped into a folder.
Widget
Self-contained application (not a shortcut) that runs on the Home screen. There are
icons
updates, and so on.
battery level, the current time, and so on.
notification icons (on the left side).
widgets for clocks, calendars, Internet bookmarks, stock prices, weather, and even those
that display the number of unread messages in your email Inbox.
Home screen
indicator
Indicates which Home screen is currently displayed. In the preceding figure, there are
three Home screen pages (indicated by the three icons). The first Home screen page is
currently displayed. You can tap an indicator icon to move to that Home screen page, or
swipe left or right to access the various Home screen pages.
Dock
An area along the bottom edge of the screen (in the figure, the dock contains icons for
Apps screen
Allows quick access to all the installed apps, including the Settings app.
Phone, Contacts, Chrome, Messages, and Apps) which displays on all Home screen pages.
The Home screen is highly customizable; you can add wallpapers, apply themes, add apps and widgets, create
folders, affect the display of the date and time, and so on.
The Mobile Settings App
The Settings app provides access to basic device settings for a smart phone or tablet. In most mobile
operating systems, the icon for the Settings app is a gear (or set of gears). Tap the Settings app icon to
display the main settings page, which allows you to configure several elements of the phone hardware and
the operating system. The arrangement of the settings may differ from one mobile operating system to
another, but for the most part you will find settings that affect:
•
Wireless and cellular network connections
•
Phone hardware (for example, sounds and notifications, storage, battery)
•
Personalization settings (themes, wall paper, accounts, and so on)
•
System settings (such as date and time, accessibility settings, OS version and system updates)
Notice that these are the same types of settings that you can configure in a desktop operating system.
Virtual Personal Assistants
Many mobile operating systems include virtual personal assistants, which are voice-activated services that
use a natural language user interface to answer questions, make recommendations and perform actions by
delegating requests to a set of web services. You speak natural language voice requests and commands in
order to operate your smart phone and its apps.
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Lesson 1
Operating Systems
For example, you can say, “OK Google, show me some maps of Mesa, Arizona.” Or you can say, “Siri, remind
me to take the turkey out of the freezer tonight at 8pm.”
In order for the virtual assistants to work, they need access to items such as your location, contacts, voice
input, browser history (a history of web sites you have visited), search history, calendar details, information
from text messages and email messages, and so on. The first time you launch the assistant, you will be
prompted to allow access. Note that most of these functions and services require a connection to either a
Wi-Fi or a cellular network.
Popular virtual assistants include:
•
Siri – from Apple. Siri is integrated with services such as Yelp, OpenTable, Google Maps, Taxi Magic,
MovieTickets.com, and so on. Siri is turned on by default. To talk to Siri, hold the Home button until you
hear a prompt and then ask Siri a question or ask Siri to perform a task, such as emailing or texting.
•
Google Now – from Android. You activate Google Now by tapping the microphone in the Google widget
or by saying, “Okay, Google.” You can use Google Now to search the Internet, set alarms, make calls,
take a picture, set reminders and more.
•
Cortana – from Windows. You must turn Cortana on in order to use the feature. Once it is turned on,
Cortana asks questions to learn what is important to you, and you can tell Cortana what name you want
her to call you. Microsoft collects and uses information obtained through Cortana to improve
personalized speech and speech recognition services.
•
BlackBerry Assistant – from BlackBerry. You can tap the icon or activate the assistant by voice.
BlackBerry Assistant displays icons for common tasks, and as you use it, it customizes which tasks it
displays.
Operating System Updates
Objective 1-3.1
Operating systems are routinely updated for the purposes of increasing security, fixing bugs and adapting
to new hardware and technology standards. Updates can be released in various forms. These include:
•
Patches – a patch is a file of programming code that is inserted into an existing program to fix a known
problem, or bug. Patches are designed to provide an immediate solution to a particular programming
problem. Patches are intended to be only temporary solutions until problems can be permanently
repaired.
•
Updates – an update is a file or collection of software tools that resolves security issues and improves
performance. Updates are released when necessary.
•
Service Packs – a service pack is a collection of updates that is typically released after enough updates
have accumulated to warrant the release. Service packs typically contain all previous updates, which
include security patches, bug fixes, and new features.
Microsoft provides updates for the Windows operating system (and web browser) through a service called
Windows Updates. The updates can be downloaded from the Windows Update web site. Apple provides
updates in the Mac App Store and on the Apple Support Downloads site.
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Operating Systems
Lesson 1
There are different kinds of updates. Security updates or critical updates protect against security
vulnerabilities and viruses and spyware. Other updates correct errors that are not related to security, or they
enhance functionality and improve performance.
Automatic Updating – Previous Versions of Windows
The Windows Update web site was first made live when Windows 95 was launched, and users would check
the web site and manually download and install updates. Since that time, Microsoft has continually made the
update process more streamlined and automated.
In Windows 7, Windows 8 and Windows 8.1, Windows Update is a service that continuously checks for
updates automatically. Users can configure the service to run in one of three ways: You can automatically
check for and install the latest updates. You can also set Windows Update to check for and download updates
and then alert you that updates are ready to be installed. You can even set it not to check for updates at all.
Users can also manually check for (and install) available updates at any time.
Update Categories
Users can configure the Windows Update service by specifying actions for different categories of updates.
Updates are categorized based on their importance. There are three categories for updates:
•
Important – these updates include security and critical updates.
•
Recommended – these updates include software updates and new or improved features. Depending on
how you set up Windows Updates, recommended updates can be shown together with important
updates, or with optional updates.
•
Optional – these updates include software that you can install manually, such as new or trial Microsoft
software or optional device drivers from Microsoft partners.
Windows 7 and 8 users often configure their systems to automatically install critical updates and then decide
whether to install feature updates on a case by case basis
Automatic Updating – Windows 10
In Windows 10, Windows Update automatically downloads and installs that latest updates, drivers and
patches released by Microsoft.
On a Windows 10 system, Windows Update will automatically download and install important and critical
updates by default. Optional updates and updates that require you to accept new terms of use are
downloaded, and then Windows Update will let you know that these are ready to be installed.
Windows 10 does not allow you to selectively install updates; you can choose only whether your computer
will reboot automatically to install updates when the system is inactive, or whether you prefer to be notified
to schedule a reboot.
Manually Checking for Updates
Microsoft releases important updates every second Tuesday once per month. However, updates can be
released at any time. You can manually check for and install these updates by opening the Settings app and
clicking Update & security. Windows Update is the first tab in the Update & Security window.
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Operating Systems
The current status of the system is shown in the right pane. In the preceding figure, the current status is “Your
device is up to date.” Notice that the message also shows when Windows Update last checked for available
updates.
Click Check for updates to have Windows Update check for, download, and install any available updates.
Exercise 1-5: Checking your update status
In this exercise, you will see when updates were last installed.
1.
Click Start, then click Settings to open the Settings app.
2.
Click the Update & security category.
3.
Ensure that the Windows Update tab is selected in the left pane. When was the last time Windows Update
4.
At this point, you could click Check for updates to have Windows Update check again for updates right
5.
Close the Settings app.
checked for updates?
now. In this exercise, however, we will not check for updates.
Benefits and Drawbacks of Automatic Updating
Keeping your system updated ensures that you have the latest security schemes and technologies as well as
the latest features.
However, not all updates are necessary, and at times, updates can cause unexpected conflicts and even
failures. This is especially true in workplace or school settings where computer systems must often interact
with old hardware or old applications.
Updating a Mobile Operating System
When mobile phone manufacturers create updates for their devices, they decide when those updates will be
pushed out to their customer base. Users will see a notification on their devices that an update is available
and ready to be installed. You can also check manually for updates.
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Operating Systems
To look for updates for your Android phone:
To look for updates for your iPhone:
1.
Connect to Wi-Fi.
1.
Connect to Wi-Fi.
2.
Tap Settings (or if necessary, tap Apps, then
2.
Tap Settings > General > Software Update.
3.
Tap System updates.
3.
Tap Download and Install.
4.
Tap Check for new system update.
tap Settings).
Note: It is always a good idea to back up your personal data before installing an update. You will learn how
to back up your mobile data in an upcoming lesson.
Lesson Summary
In this lesson, you learned about the features and functions of modern operating systems. You also learned how
to start the computer and how to access various features of the operating system. You should now be familiar
with:

the function of an operating system

using the taskbar

popular desktop operating systems

accessing the Settings app

user accounts and profiles

accessing the Control Panel

power on and power off procedures

customizing the Windows Desktop

power options

the features of mobile operating systems

using the Start button

operating system updates

navigating the Windows Desktop
Review Questions
1.
2.
The ability for different people to use the same computer is made possible through:
a.
Open-source software
c.
User accounts
b.
Desktop elements
d.
Settings app
Which of the following is the collection of stored settings that ensure your customizations are in effect
whenever you log on?
a.
b.
3.
Your user profile
Your domain
c.
d.
Your lock screen
Your permission level
Kelly has several documents open on her laptop, and is working concurrently in each one. She is about
to leave for several hours to attend an off-site social function, but will return to her documents later in
the day. Which option below would save the most power and still ensure that she can pick up right where
she left off?
a.
b.
Hibernating the laptop.
Putting the laptop to sleep.
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c.
d.
Shutting down the laptop.
Displaying the lock screen.
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Lesson 1
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Operating Systems
From which of the following areas in Windows 10 can you access Desktop customization settings?
a.
Desktop drop-down list
c.
Calculator app
b.
Desktop Customization wizard
d.
Control Panel
Which of the following Windows dialog box features allows you to select several options?
a.
Drop-down lists
c.
Check boxes
b.
Radio buttons
d.
Command buttons
Which of the following is an example of a global setting on a Windows system?
a.
Desktop background picture
c.
Accent color
b.
Screen resolution
d.
Screen saver
Which mobile operating system feature helps you avoid accidentally placing a call or taking a picture?
a.
Virtual personal assistant
c.
Dock
b.
Pinch gesture
d.
Lock screen
Which of the following is a function of the operating system?
a.
To compose and send email.
b.
To edit photographs and other high-resolution images.
c.
To control communication and manage files.
d.
All of these are operating system functions.
What is the best way to shut down a computer?
a.
Press the power button on the computer case.
b.
Click Start, Power, Shut down, then let the process complete.
c.
Press CTRL+ALT+DEL twice.
d.
Press ESC.
10. What is a service pack?
36
a.
A collection of software updates.
b.
A form of spyware.
c.
A power mode designed to provide emergency power during a power outage.
d.
A collection of Desktop backgrounds, sounds and themes that you can find online and then
download and install on your system.
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Computing Fundamentals
Lesson 2: Hardware
Lesson Objectives
In this lesson, you will look at different types of computers, learn about various types of computer hardware and
examine ways to connect devices. On completion you should be familiar with:

firmware, and platforms
keyboards, microphones and touch screens

common measurements used in computing
typical smart phone hardware



standard internal computer components
Windows power plans


memory and storage
connecting peripheral devices

identifying different types of computers
wireless connection technologies


the relationships among hardware device drivers,
What Makes Hardware Tick?
Objective 1-2.7, 1-2.8
As you learned in another lesson, a computer is a collection of electrical and mechanical parts referred to as
hardware. Hardware are the pieces you can see and touch; hardware performs the physical work of the
computer.
Software programs (including operating systems, application programs, and device drivers) control the
hardware and make it useful, and within the device itself, firmware provides basic functionality.
Device Drivers
Operating systems use small programs called device drivers to communicate with installed hardware devices.
Device drivers are software that allows your computer to communicate with and control the devices
connected to it. Device drivers actually control the hardware, and the operating system communicates with
the device drivers. Without drivers, devices will not function properly.
Device drivers are developed and released by hardware manufacturers. For any given piece of hardware,
device drivers are developed for use on a specific operating system (and usually, a specific version of that
operating system). Many devices include drivers for numerous operating systems. For example, if you
purchase a printer, the printer most likely will ship with drivers for Windows and Mac OS X.
Some devices include drivers that will work on only one operating system. For example, a particular wireless
network adapter may work on Windows 7, Windows 8, and Windows 8.1, but not support Mac OS X or Linux.
Always read the product labeling before purchasing hardware to make sure that it is compatible with your
operating system.
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Lesson 2
Hardware
Operating systems generally include drivers for various devices that you may want to connect. These generic
drivers will provide basic functionality, but in order to utilize the full features of a device, you should install
the drivers that ship with the device, or download and install drivers from the manufacturer’s web site. As
you update your programs and your operating system over the course of time, you should check periodically
for driver updates.
Firmware
Firmware is built-in programmable logic (software) that is embedded in a piece of hardware and controls
how the device functions. Firmware is device-specific: it is developed for one particular model and release of
a device.
The firmware on a smart phone, for example, is the code needed to control the phone hardware itself and
run the base operating system. Firmware, however, is separate from the operating system. For example, you
may be running the Android version 5.1.1 (Lollipop) mobile operating system on your phone, and be running
firmware build number G920VVRU48OK7.
Smart phone manufacturers decide which phones will receive an update, and send the update to the various
mobile network providers (for example, T-Mobile, Verizon, Vodafone, and so on) who sell their phones. The
mobile provider can then add network-specific elements (such as branding or provider-specific features) and
test the updates to ensure the best user experience. At the proper time (as determined by the mobile
provider) the firmware update is pushed out to the devices that are part of their cellular network.
Different mobile providers push out firmware updates at different times. For example, if you and your Aunt
Mary both own a Samsung Galaxy S5 and you are on the Verizon network and she is on the T-Mobile network,
she might receive a firmware update in October, but you might not receive it until March.
Platform
Software applications (and mobile apps) run on a hardware device within an environment created by the
operating system. This environment is referred to as the platform. The platform is an interface between the
application (or app) and the operating system, and is what makes it possible for apps to run on a device.
Think of a platform as a foundation. The operating system (and device drivers and firmware) work together
to control the basic functionality of the hardware. An application sits on top of this foundation (which is
already in control of the hardware). The application performs its own special functions and then sends specific
requests to the operating system to make sure that the necessary hardware tasks are performed. The
functionality and syntax of these requests is built into the platform.
About the Numbers
Before we examine different types of hardware and how various devices compare to one another, you must
understand how speed and storage capacity are measured.
All the measurements revolve around the binary digit or bit. A bit is the smallest unit of data a computer can
understand. A bit can have one of two values: a 0 or a 1. Bits are grouped in sequences of 0s and 1s to
represent data.
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Lesson 2
Hardware
A group of eight bits is called a byte. The smallest unit of data humans can understand is represented by one
alphanumeric character (‘a’ to ‘z’, or 0 to 9); an alphanumeric character requires a full byte of space in either
the computer memory or a storage device.
Measuring Capacity
Storage capacity (that is, the amount of space available to store data either on disk or in memory) is measured
in bytes. Because a byte represents such a small amount of data, these capacities are measured in thousands,
millions, billions and trillions of bytes. Notice that a byte is indicated by a capital “B” in the abbreviation. The
following table shows standard capacity measurements:
Measurement
Abbreviation
Bit
Equal to …
A single binary digit
Byte
B
Eight bits
Kilobyte
KB
1,024 bytes (a thousand bytes)
Megabyte
MB
1,024 KB (a million bytes)
Gigabyte
GB
1,024 MB (a billion bytes)
Terabyte
TB
1,024 GB (a trillion bytes)
Petabyte
PB
1,024 GB (a quadrillion bytes)
Measuring Frequency
Inside every computer is at least one microprocessor. The microprocessor is a silicon chip that performs
calculations and logical operations in the computer. The microprocessor is also referred to as the Central
Processing Unit (CPU) or simply as the processor.
The CPU controls everything that happens in the computer. All the hardware, all the memory and all the
software send information to and receive commands from the CPU.
Different CPUs process information and instructions at different speeds, and processor speed is measured in
units called hertz. Silicon chips oscillate (or cycle) when electrical current passes through them. One hertz is
equal to 1 cycle (or oscillation) per second. Because processor chips are very fast, this measurement is
commonly used with the prefixes shown in the following table.
Measurement
Abbreviation
Multiplies by
Equal to …
Hertz
Hz
Kilohertz
KHz
One thousand
1,000 cycles per second
Megahertz
MHz
One million
1,000,000 cycles per second
Gigahertz
GHz
One billion
1,000,000,000 cycle per second
Terahertz
THz
One trillion
1,000000,000,000 cycles per second
1 cycle per second
Faster processors give better performance than slower ones, so the higher the hertz, the more powerful the
processor.
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Lesson 2
Hardware
Most desktop systems available today include processors with speeds between 3 and 4 GHz. Most laptops
include processors in the 2 GHz to 3GHz range. When you purchase a computer you will find the processor
speed listed in the product description.
Measuring Bandwidth
Network connections (for example, those in a cellular network or in an IP network such as the Internet) move
data from one location to another at a particular volume per unit of time. The measurement of this volume
is called bandwidth, and it is expressed in bits per second (bps).
Synonyms for bandwidth include: capacity, bit rate, transfer speed, data transfer rate, and throughput. As
with storage capacities, bandwidth is usually expressed in terms of thousands, millions, and even billions of
bits per second, as shown in the following table.
Measurement Equal to …
bps
Bits per second
Kbps
Thousand bits per second
Mbps
Million bits per second
Gbps
Billion bits per second
The greater the bandwidth, the greater the capacity for transferring data, and the greater the network
performance.
Exercise 2-1: Comparing measurements
For each selection of two measurements, circle the one that is larger.
932,000
bytes
or
3 MB
4,000,000
KB
or
2.8 GB
145,000
KB
or
200 MB
bytes
or
900 MB
MB
or
2 GB
8,000,000,000
3,020
The Basics – What’s Inside?
Regardless of whether your computer is a large desktop tower or an ultra-portable tablet, the basic
“anatomy” is the same. Every computer includes at least:
•
a system board – this is a printed circuit board that contains most of the computer's circuitry and
provides pathways for communication among all the components and connected devices. Internal
components are seated on or otherwise attached to the system board. It also provides ports for
connecting external devices, such as a mouse, speakers, a charger, and so on.
•
one or more processors – the silicon chips that control the hardware components and manage the flow
of data and instructions
•
input devices – these allow you to send information to the computer. Examples include a keyboard, or
touchscreen.
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•
Lesson 2
output devices – these allow the computer to send information to you. Examples include a monitor, or
a display screen.
•
storage devices – these include memory chips and other storage media
•
a power supply – converts AC current from a wall outlet into low-voltage DC power for the components.
In portable devices, the DC power is stored in a rechargeable battery.
In the next several sections, you will examine some of these internal components.
Memory and Storage
Objective 1-2.2
In order to run programs and create and use files, a computer needs both memory and storage space. Every
file used by a computer has a specific byte size, and there must be sufficient memory to “hold” the file when
it is in use, and sufficient storage space to store the file when it is not in use.
Random Access Memory (RAM)w
For a computer to process information, it must include a certain amount of installed system memory. This
type of memory is also called Random Access Memory (RAM).
RAM is used for the temporary storage of information. Data and programs are read into memory from a
storage location and then passed from memory to the CPU. Without RAM, a computer could not run
programs or be used to create or edit files.
Note: RAM can store data only while the computer is on. Any information stored in RAM “vanishes” when
the computer is turned off. When you close a program or save and close a file, the information is cleared
from memory, and the memory becomes available to store other information.
Physically, memory consists of chips located inside the system unit. The number of memory chips in the
computer and the capacity of each chip determine the amount of available memory.
How Much RAM Do You Need?
All software (including operating systems) requires RAM, and lists the minimum amount required to run the
program successfully. Some programs use very little memory (for example, Notepad can run with less than
1MB of memory), while some programs require significant amounts. For example, Adobe Photoshop requires
a minimum of 2GB (although 8GB is recommended); AutoCAD 2016 requires a minimum of 4GB (8GB is
recommended).
Determining how much RAM you will need depends on which programs you want to run. The general rule
of thumb is, the more RAM, the better.
Every time you launch a program or open a file, you use RAM. The more files or programs you have running,
the more RAM you are using. Having sufficient (or better still, more than sufficient) memory keeps the system
performing at top speed, and gives you the ability to run several application programs simultaneously, and/or
to have multiple browser windows open without experiencing a slowdown in performance.
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Storage
A computer loads software programs into RAM while you are working; however, the software programs must
be stored on the computer when they are not in use. Additionally, any files that you create using a software
program must also be stored if you want to be able to retrieve them in the future.
Local and Remote Storage Locations
Programs and user files are saved to storage devices. These devices can be internal (inside the computer) or
external (storage devices attached to your computer). All internal storage devices, and all external devices
attached directly to your computer are considered local storage locations.
You can also save your files to remote storage locations. Folders on other computers in your network, or
folders in a cloud storage server are examples of remote locations.
How Much Storage Do You Need?
All software (including operating systems) requires storage space, and lists the minimum amount required
to install the program. Some programs are quite large. Windows 10, for example can require up to 20GB of
storage space. Determining how much space you need depends on which programs you want to install, and
(perhaps more importantly) on the anticipated size and number of the user files you plan to store.
Different types of files require different amounts of storage space. For example, word processing documents
(even long ones) are relatively small files. However, they increase in size if you add media such as images or
audio/video. Image files can be large depending on the file format. Audio files can be quite large, and video
files can be tremendous – for example, a 60-second video saved in Blu-ray format might be 420MB, while a
60-minute video could be 25GB.
If you plan to store and edit videos or high-resolution photographs on your system, you should be sure to
purchase a system with sufficient storage, or you can quickly use up your internal storage space.
The more storage space you have, the less stringent you have to be regarding which files to save.
Common Storage Devices
Commonly-used storage devices include hard disks, external drives, flash drives and memory cards.
Hard Disks
The term “hard disk” and “hard drive” are used to refer to a central storage location inside a computer. Hard
disks are the primary storage location for both data and programs. Software programs must be installed on
a hard disk before you can use them. The operating system must also be installed on a hard disk.
Some computers use magnetic hard disk drives (HDDs), which include moving parts. A magnetic hard drive
stores data on platters, which are metal or plastic disks that are coated with magnetic material. A motor spins
the platters around a spindle, while read/write heads (small recording/playback devices) hover close to the
surface of the platters and read or write data to the magnetic coating.
Some computers use solid state drives (SSDs), which do not have any moving parts. A solid state drive stores
data on a set of interconnected flash memory chips that save the data even when the power is off.
Flash memory chips can be installed directly on the system board, installed on a card that plugs into the
system board, or housed inside a 2.5-inch box that fits into the slot where you would otherwise install a
magnetic hard disk drive.
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External Drives
External drives are hard drives contained in a case and attached to a
computer with a cord as a peripheral device. External drives provide
extra storage capacity for user documents, pictures, video, etc. You do
not, however, install software on external drives.
Flash Memory Storage in Tablets and Phones
Because flash memory chips (the technology used in solid state drives) can be installed directly on the system
board, this type of storage is used in tablets and smartphones. Most portable devices include onboard
storage memory.
Flash Drives
Flash drives (also called jump drives or thumb drives) are portable mass storage devices that use flash
memory chips.
Flash drives are small (averaging between 2½” (60mm) and 2¾” (70mm) long and around ½” (16mm) to ¾”
(20mm) wide), weigh less than 1 oz. (28g) and can store gigabytes of information. They are durable and
reliable because they do not contain moving parts and can last for several years.
While the technology is basically the same, the flash memory chips used in a USB thumb drive are slower
and less reliable than those used in solid state drives. That is the reason solid state drives cost more than
thumb drives of the same capacity.
Secure Digital Cards (SD cards)
SD cards are small, high-capacity flash memory storage devices. You use an SD
card in the same way you would use a flash drive – insert it into the designated
slot on your device. A card reader/writer is integrated into the device that uses
the SD card. You can write (store) data on the card, and then retrieve (read) it. You can also pop the card out
of one device and insert it into a reader on another device for the purpose of transferring files from one
device to another. SD cards are popular storage devices for digital cameras, camcorders, cell phones, tablets,
MP3 players, and GPS systems.
Optical Discs and Drives
Optical disc drives are designed to read Compact Discs (CDs) and Digital Versatile/Video Discs (DVDs). The
drive spins the disc and a laser reads the data stored on the disc.
A CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read Only Memory) or DVD-ROM drive is similar to
a player in an audio/video entertainment system. The information is written (or
burned) onto the surface and retrieved with a laser beam and you can only read
the data.
An optical writer drive, also known as a burner drive, uses special software which
allows you to “burn” or write data onto a disc.
New desktop systems are usually equipped with at least one optical drive, usually a DVD optical drive or a
CD/DVD optical writer drive. Laptops used to include an optical drive, but more and more often newer models
do not. You can, however, use an external optical drive that connects to the laptop through a USB cable.
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Identifying Types of Computers
Objectives 1-1.3, 1-2.1, 1-2.12, 1-2.13
Computers are integrated into our daily lives and are available in a wide variety of forms and types. What
comes to mind when you think of the word computer – a room-sized supercomputer performing millions of
complex calculations for space exploration and satellite launches? A bank of mainframes supporting
hundreds of thousands of simultaneous monetary transactions? Or do you think of the CPU tower sitting on
your desk, or perhaps a laptop instead? What about a tablet or a smartphone? What about embedded system
chips controlling functions in robotized assembly lines or in airliner fuel systems or in medical imaging
equipment? All of these are examples of computers.
In this course, you will focus your attention on the computers readily found in offices, schools and homes.
They are the familiar devices you see and touch every day. Some types of computers are better suited to
certain tasks than are others, but as technology advances and the market responds to the way people use
devices, the lines that distinguish one device from another become less clear.
To provide a baseline for a comparison, imagine that you are writing a novel destined for the best seller
list. As you read about each device, consider how convenient and/or comfortable you might be using
that particular device to work on your story.
Servers
In contrast to the other types of computers (desktops, laptops, tablets, and smart phones) which are used for
personal computing, servers are used to support other computers for business purposes.
A server is a computer that provides files or services to other systems on a network. For example, a server
may provide email services, or host a web site, or store databases or documents for everyone in a school or
business, or provide telecommunications or transaction services. A server runs an operating system designed
specifically for use on a server. Examples of common server operating systems include Windows Server 2012,
Mac OS X Server, or Linux Server.
Servers also run special software for providing services. A web server may run Apache Web Server or IIS
(Internet Information Server) for hosting and serving web pages; a database server may run Microsoft SQL
Server; an email server may run Microsoft Exchange Server, and so on. These programs are very different
from the end-user productivity software you may be used to using because servers are not used for personal
computing.
Systems marketed for use as servers are built differently than standard PCs; they are designed to be highly
reliable and must have a low failure rate. Processor power, memory and hard drive size are the main selling
points. Servers must be able to run continually, and are shut down or restarted only when software or
hardware upgrades are being installed. For this reason, they often include redundant power supplies
Because of their increased power, server systems are considerably more expensive than desktop systems.
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Common Configurations
Servers come in three basic designs or “form factors”:
•
Tower servers – look like desktop PCs. These were the original
model and they require individual monitors, keyboards,
network cards and cabling. Usually found in small businesses
where perhaps only one or two servers are required.
•
Rack servers – designed to be installed into a framework
called a rack, which contains multiple slots into which servers
can be inserted. The server is secured into the rack system using mounting screws. The rack system
enables you to stack multiple servers vertically. These are often accessed via a network connection from
a central control station that includes a monitor and keyboard. When required, however, you can also
connect a monitor and keyboard to a server in a rack. Rack servers are usually found in data centers
housing three to twenty-four servers. (The preceding image shows rack servers in a data center.)
•
Blade servers – are stripped down servers designed to minimize power consumption and to take up
very little physical space. This type of server must be inserted into a blade enclosure which can hold
multiple blade servers, and which provides electrical power, cooling, and networking connections. Blade
servers are accessed via a network connection from a central control station, and are generally found in
data centers housing more than twenty-four servers.
Generally Used By
The people who perform work on server systems are generally IT staff, web designers who upload finished
web pages, scripts, and other elements to a web server, or database administrators who maintain large
databases of customer and product information on dedicated database servers.
Since servers are not used for personal computing, you would not use one to work on your best-seller.
Desktop Computers
Desktop computers are designed to sit on or beneath a desk. They are fairly large, although many are
available in compact configurations so that they require less space.
Desktop computers come in two basic designs:
•
Macs – produced by Apple. These machines feature a sleek design in which the monitor and processing
unit are housed within the same case. Only Apple produces the Mac. Macs are designed to run the Mac
OS X operating system.
•
PCs – produced originally by IBM, and later produced by several manufacturers. Traditionally, in a
desktop PC, the processing unit is housed within a case, and an external monitor, keyboard, and mouse
are attached with cables. The fully assembled combination is sometimes referred to as a work station.
(Today, there are also some all-in-one units available.) You can use a wide variety of operating systems
on a PC, but by far the one most commonly installed on a PC is the Windows operating system.
Both Macs and PCs are available in a wide variety of types and configurations (including desktop models,
laptops, servers, and touch screen devices).
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iMac Desktop
Windows compatible Desktop
Desktop computers are stable and powerful and most include ample storage space (500GB – 1TB on average),
a fair amount of installed memory (4GB - 8GB on average), the ability to read data stored on a wide variety
of storage media, and the ability to play music and video. They include several USB ports for connecting
external devices, and may include one or more slots for reading and writing to SD cards. Many are equipped
with powerful video and sound cards. They usually include a network port for a wired network connection,
and many include built-in wireless networking ability as well.
They are also easily upgradeable – you can pop open the case to access the internal components and there
is generally enough “working room” to easily replace or upgrade components such as a video, audio, or
network card. You can also easily add more storage space.
Common Set-up
A typical desktop setup includes the PC on or under the desk and a keyboard and mouse either on the desk
or on a pull-out tray 4-5 inches below the desktop. The keyboard and mouse may be wired or wireless. Most
people use large flat-screen computer monitors or TVs that can accept PC input; these large displays allow
you to easily work with large spreadsheets, drafting programs or graphics editing programs.
Users often attach speakers for playing sound, and some even opt for a “surround-sound” setup with high
quality speakers and separate sub-woofer for extra bass. Depending on your sound card and the available
space, you have quite a bit of freedom in setting up your system.
A desktop system can be a comfortable place for long work periods and is usually the most
accommodating for working extensively with documents. When you are working on that novel, a desktop
might be just the place for you.
Disadvantages
The primary disadvantage of a desktop system is that it is not portable because it must always be plugged
in to an electrical outlet while you are using it. You can, of course, move them from one location to another;
however, this requires time to “tear down” the workstation at one location and set it up again (plug in the
monitor, mouse, and keyboard) at the new location.
Generally Used By
Traditionally, people who work at one dedicated desk for the duration of the workday (for example, office
workers, secretaries, accountants) have used desktop systems. However, as portable computers have become
more powerful and less expensive, many workers now use laptop systems as their primary computing device.
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More and more often in the workplace, only those who require significant memory, processing power, video
resolution or storage space use desktop systems, while the rest of the employees use laptops for their day-
to-day work. For example, people who use design software (such as AutoCAD or Autodesk Revit) or photo
and video editing software (such as Adobe Photoshop or Adobe Premier) are more likely to use desktop
systems.
Laptop (or Notebook) Computers
Laptop (or notebook) computers are designed to be portable. They are small and light enough to sit on your
lap. They are also self-contained; everything you need (display, keyboard, camera, speakers, pointing device)
is included in one unit.
Laptops run the same operating systems as their desktop counterparts, and include the same internal
components such as a hard drive and installed memory. Laptops also include a rechargeable battery that is
charged from an AC adapter.
Windows Laptop
Apple MacBook
Laptops are very popular with students and business people alike because of their portability. For example,
students can bring a laptop to class and take notes, then take it home to do homework and other
assignments.
Aside from their portability, laptops are popular because:
•
They are available in PC and Mac models.
•
They are powerful enough to run most productivity and entertainment software. That is, they can run
Office and play movies and stream audio, just as well as a desktop system. This makes them well-suited
for the needs of most users.
•
They usually include built-in wireless networking capability.
•
In some cases, the power consumption is considered a “greener” alternative to desktops.
•
You can purchase a number of accessories to enhance your laptop computing experience and make it
more like a desktop computing experience. For example, you can connect to a larger monitor, add an
external full-size keyboard with a number pad, or connect a mouse if you don’t like using the built-in
touchpad.
Disadvantages
•
They generally are not as robust as desktop systems; they come with less storage space, less memory
and lower-power graphics cards. This can make them poorly suited for running specialized software like
graphics manipulation and video-editing programs that require extra computing or graphics power.
However, high-end models can be well suited to running larger programs.
•
Laptops generally have a shorter lifespan than their desktop counterparts.
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•
Hardware
Laptops include many of the same internal components as desktop systems, but these are typically
integrated into the system board. If an integrated component such as a video or audio card fails, it cannot
be replaced. You would need to replace the entire system board – and it is easier and often less expensive
to purchase a new laptop.
•
Because of the extremely tight working space, it is also a complicated process to replace a failed
component that is non-integrated. Repairs or component upgrades must usually be handled by
professionals.
•
For many, laptops are not as comfortable to use as desktop systems.
–
–
The keyboards are smaller and more compact and many do not include a numeric keypad.
On some models the touch pad is very sensitive and users may find that the cursor “jumps around”
on the screen while they are typing because their wrists make contact with the touch pad.
–
Many users prefer using a mouse over using a laptop touch pad.
Common Configurations
While some people actually use a laptop on their laps, sometimes while seated by the pool, many work seated
at a desk and use a laptop in place of a desktop system.
Typically, to make the laptop more comfortable to use, and to make it seem more like a desktop system,
users often attach a separate full-sized keyboard and a mouse.
Laptops range in size from 17 inches to as small as 11 inches, and for some users, the screen is too small for
comfortable viewing. For this reason, many users attach an external monitor to their laptop systems. They
can choose to duplicate the display from the laptop screen onto the external monitor, or they can choose to
extend the display, thereby using the external monitor for “extra screen space.” For example, you can view a
Word document on the laptop screen, and view an Excel workbook on the external monitor at the same time.
Users who connect to external monitors, keyboards and mouse devices at work and then disconnect and
take the laptop home at night often invest in docking stations. A docking station is a device that provides a
simplified way of “plugging in” to peripheral devices. You attach the monitor, mouse, keyboard, speakers,
and so on to the ports on the docking station where the cables can remain plugged in. You can then “dock”
or connect the laptop to the docking station. Because the station is already connected to the peripheral
devices, the laptop has “instant” access to all the attached devices without the need for fumbling with cables.
At the end of the day, you simply “undock” or disconnect the laptop from the docking station and can be on
your way.
It is also quite common to connect an external monitor or projector to a laptop for the purpose of delivering
a presentation to an audience. The user can run and control the slide show from the laptop (and view
speaking notes and the like on the laptop screen) while projecting only the presentation to the large screen
that faces the audience.
Regardless of which configuration you use, a laptop might also be a good choice for working on that
novel. They usually run the same software programs as their desktop counterparts, provide ample
storage space, and include good integrated tools for working in long documents and typing text. Their
portability also allows you to select an inspiring location in which to work.
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Chromebooks
A Chromebook is a specialized laptop designed primarily to run cloud-based applications instead of
programs that are installed on the hard drive. Instead of running the Windows or Mac OS X operating system,
these portables run the Chrome OS operating system, which is easy on system resources and streamlined for
accessing the Internet. They can be set up in minutes and will boot up in two to three seconds (much faster
than Windows or Mac operating systems).
The devices themselves are lightweight, durable, and draw less power than their standard counterparts. A
Chromebook battery generally provides 7 to 9 hours of continuous use before needing to be recharged. A
Chromebook also provides a full size screen (11.6 inches up to 15 inches), built-in keyboard, and fairly
powerful processors. Although designed for running cloud-based applications, they include provisions for
working offline too.
Chromebooks are considerably less expensive than standard laptops, and are being deployed widely for use
in high school, middle school, and even elementary school classrooms. Their use is not limited to classrooms,
however; anyone who can accomplish what they need to do using web-based/cloud-based applications can
benefit from using a Chromebook.
Tablets
A tablet is a portable computer small enough to hold in your hands. The computer circuitry, a battery, and a
flat touch screen display are all rolled into a single hand-held device. Tablets come with a microphone,
speakers, and sensors that let the tablet “sense” which direction is up. All tablets have “touch screen”
capability, enabling you to use your finger or a specialized pen called a stylus to touch an item on the screen
to select it. You move your finger or stylus around the screen as you would a mouse, and you can "type"
input using an onscreen virtual keyboard instead of using a physical keyboard.
Often, tablets include physical buttons for powering on and adjusting the volume, and may include a USB
port for charging the tablet and for data transfer. All include at least one camera (many provide a front-facing
and a rear-facing camera), and provide an option for connecting devices such as headphones or external
speakers.
Instead of hard drives, tablets use onboard flash memory for data storage and usually include a slot for
removable storage devices, such as SD cards.
Two types of operating systems are used in tablets – desktop-based and mobile-based.
•
Tablets that run a desktop-based operating system are thicker and heavier than the other type. They
require more cooling and they have a shorter battery life. However, they also have more connection
ports and can run applications such as the Microsoft Office suite in addition to mobile apps. They also
feature the familiar desktop operating system interface.
•
Tablets that run a mobile-based operating system are lighter, run cooler, and offer much longer battery
life. However, these tablets run only mobile apps. (Mobile-based operating systems are also used on
smart phones.) Instead of a desktop interface, mobile-based operating systems feature a “Home” screen
from which users tap an icon for the app they want to run.
Tablets are light, ultra-portable, and well-suited for entertainment and online activities. Most feature high-
resolution high-definition screens and fast wireless networking capabilities. Many come Bluetooth-enabled
so that you can use external speakers without connecting them through a standard audio port. Popular
models include the Apple iPad, Samsung Galaxy, or Windows Surface.
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Working on your novel on a tablet might be a little more taxing than using a desktop or laptop. The
screens are smaller and use different illumination technologies, and your eyes may become fatigued if
you read documents on them for a long stretch of time. Even though you can attach an external
keyboard, most people do not use their tablets in this fashion. Depending upon the operating system
and the storage space, you might not even be able to open a large Word document on your tablet.
2-in-1s
Tablets have become so popular that many laptops now offer tablet-style features. These 2 in 1 “convertible”
devices are laptops with special touch-screen displays that you can fold all the way back (360 degrees) so
that you can use the laptop like a tablet.
Such devices offer the power, comfort, and document-editing capability of a laptop with the high-definition,
high-speed streaming, touch screen capabilities of a tablet.
Smart Phones
Smart phones are hand-held devices that combine the features of a standard cell phone with those of a
personal computer. They are widely used by people of all ages for a wide variety of purposes. You can use
them to make calls, send text messages, download music or electronic books from the web, take pictures or
video, check your email, browse the Internet, access cloud storage, open and edit documents, use GPS
navigation, make mobile payments and watch movies – all in the palm of your hand.
While you can open email attachments and read documents on a smart phone, you would probably not
want to spend a lot of time doing so. Even though you can install the Microsoft Word app on a smart
phone and use it to edit your document, it would probably become a tiring experience after a relatively
short time. Additionally, internal storage space on a smart phone is limited.
Unlike traditional cell phones, smart phones allow users to install, configure, and run a tremendous variety
of application programs called apps. They run mobile operating systems and are highly customizable.
Smart phones come complete with built-in cameras, video cameras, system memory and support for memory
cards for storing data, and include software for organizing appointments and contact lists, or for writing
notes. Most models incorporate touch screen technology as well as the option to connect to a desktop or
laptop computer and synchronize files (such as photos, music files or contact lists).
You will learn more about smart phone hardware later in this lesson.
Exercise 2-2: Selecting the right device
For each scenario described below, select the most practical device to use from the options shown in the
parentheses.
1.
2.
3.
4.
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Dan is in line at the airport waiting to go through Customs. He has three suitcases with him. Which device
would he most likely use to check his email while is he standing in line? (desktop, laptop, smart phone)
Jamey has to edit three large video files. Which device will she use? (server, desktop, tablet)
Mariette needs to make 127 e-books available for download to students at her school. What will she
use? (server, laptop, smart phone)
Iain and his six-year-old sister are waiting for their mom at the dentist’s office. Which device did Iain
bring with him so that his sister could watch a movie? (server, desktop, tablet)
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Keyboards, Mice, and Touch Screens
Objective 1-2.14
Users interact with a computer through input and output devices. An input device allows you to send
information to the computer; output devices display (or otherwise send) information from the computer to you.
Keyboards and pointing devices are basic input devices. Monitors, printers, and speakers are basic output
devices. Touch screens serve as both input and output devices because you can touch the screen to input
information, and the screen displays the output.
Keyboards
The keyboard is the primary tool for sending information to the computer. You use it to enter data or to run
commands in an application. Keyboards can by physical or virtual. In computing, a virtual device is one that
does not physically exist, but is made to appear and act as if it exists by software. Virtual keyboards (and dial
pads) are presented on screen in touch screen devices; the user “types” or dials by tapping the virtual keys
that appear on the screen.
Physical keyboards can be external devices that connect to a computer, or they can be integrated into a
system.
They come in many sizes and configurations. Some are ergonomically designed to protect against repetitive
strain injuries such as carpal tunnel syndrome. Many include buttons for enhancing your multimedia
experience.
Function
Keys
Escape
Control
Alt
Windows
Numeric
Keypad
Cursor
Movement
The preceding figure shows a standard Windows keyboard, which includes the following types of keys:
Key Type
Used for
Typewriter keys
Use these keys to type text and enter commands.
Modifier/
These keys are used in combination with other keys as shortcuts to commands, menus
Extender keys
or functions. On a Windows keyboard, these include the WINDOWS key, the ALT key
and the CTRL key. On a Mac keyboard, these include the COMMAND key, the OPTION
key and the CONTROL key.
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Function keys
These are located across the top of the keyboard and are labeled F1 through F12. Each
application program assigns a special meaning or function to each key, generally to
provide a shortcut for commonly used commands.
Cursor
movement/
This keypad is located at the far right of the keyboard, and can be toggled on and off
numeric keypad
by pressing the NUMLOCK key in the pad. When the toggle light is on, the pad becomes
a calculator or numeric pad; when off, the pad becomes an arrow or cursor movement
pad. Not all laptops include a numeric keypad – to type numbers, you use the top row
of typewriter keys.
Connections
Keyboards are connected to desktop systems using a USB connection. This connection can be wired or
wireless. Although a keyboard is integrated into laptops, you can also connect a separate keyboard via USB.
You can also purchase Bluetooth keyboards which connect to a system using Bluetooth technology. Most
laptops, tablets and smart phones support Bluetooth.
Some tablets include special connections that allow you to use them with detachable physical keyboards
designed specifically for the tablet. In some models, the keyboard is part of a tablet case that doubles as a
stand so that you can set up the tablet as a viewing screen to work on a document or to watch streaming
media.
Pointing Devices
A pointing device enables you to select or activate items on the screen by placing the pointer arrow on the
item and performing the required action; for example, you can click to select a file or click and drag to select
text. Pointing devices come in many forms but the traditional pointing device is a mouse.
Mouse
A mouse moves the pointer around on the monitor. Sliding or dragging the mouse across a flat surface such
as a desk or a mouse pad causes the mouse pointer on the screen to mirror the movement. The traditional
mouse used a ball that rotated to initiate this movement as you moved the mouse device on the desk. Newer
mouse models use an optical light or diode technology to move the pointer on the screen. A trackball has a
ball on the side where your thumb rests; you rotate the ball to move the pointer.
A mouse usually has two buttons that are used to select and activate features on the screen. Items can be
selected using a single mouse click, or activated using a double-click. You can display a shortcut menu using
a right-click. Additionally, the following actions are available:
Left Drag
Press and hold the left mouse button as you move the mouse to move or select multiple items
on the screen.
Right Drag
Press and hold the right mouse button as you move the mouse to move or copy items. On
release of the mouse button, a shortcut menu appears with further options.
Scroll Wheel Roll the wheel between the buttons to scroll through the contents on the screen. Most
software applications will zoom in or out when you press the CTRL key while rolling the scroll
wheel.
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Thumb Button
An additional button on the side of the device where your thumb would rest. This can be
set to perform specific tasks, such as starting a program or working as an alternate CTRL
key.
To use the mouse pointer to select items, grasp the mouse with your palm down and your index finger gently
resting on the first button. As you slide the mouse flat along the desk, the mouse pointer will move in the
same direction on the screen. If you run out of space on the desk, lift the mouse and place it in a new position
on the desk, and continue moving.
To cancel any option, click the left button anywhere on the screen away from the item being selected.
Mouse devices are available in the traditional (wired) style or as wireless devices. The traditional mouse has
a cord that extends from the base of the mouse to a USB port on the computer. A wireless mouse includes a
separate connector that plugs into the computer and recognizes the commands from the mouse. A Bluetooth
mouse does not require a separate connector. All wireless varieties require batteries, whereas a traditional
mouse needs only to be plugged into a computer.
Touchpad
A touchpad device enables you to use your finger to move the mouse pointer around on the screen. This is
common on a laptop, although these devices can be purchased separately for use with a desktop computer.
A touchpad has two buttons that work in the same manner as the left and right buttons on a mouse.
•
To move the mouse pointer around on the screen, place your finger anywhere on the touchpad and then
glide it around the touchpad in the direction you want to move the mouse pointer.
•
To select an item, position the mouse pointer over the item and then tap the touchpad once or click the
left button below the touchpad.
•
To activate an item, position the mouse pointer over the item and then tap the touchpad twice in quick
succession or double-click the left button below the touchpad.
•
To drag an item, position the mouse pointer over the item, press CTRL, and then glide your finger on the
touchpad to the required location.
•
To display a shortcut menu, position the mouse pointer over the item and then click the right button
below the touchpad.
Stylus
A stylus is an input device that looks similar to a pen and can be used instead of your finger to select or
activate an item on a touch screen. Press the stylus lightly on the option on the screen you want to select or
activate. For example, on a smart phone or a tablet you may use the stylus to “dial” the digits of a phone
number, start an application, or write text. Depending on the system and the programs available for that
device, you can also use the stylus to draw shapes or diagrams.
Pointing devices of this type are typically designed in a pen format but are also available in various designs
and can also be referred to as a digital writer.
Touch Screens
A touch screen is a display device that allows you to interact with a computing device by touching areas on
the screen. Tablets and smart phones rely on touch screens for receiving user input. These devices present
virtual keyboards and dial pads to the user, and the user “types” by tapping the appropriate on-screen keys.
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Some laptops feature touch screen displays, and you can also purchase standalone monitors with touch
screen functionality.
Typically, you interact with a touch screen using your finger or a stylus. You can move your finger or the
stylus around on the screen as you would a mouse, and you can touch or tap an item on the screen to select
it. Touch screens detect where your finger or stylus is touching the screen, and translate your on-screen
actions into key presses or mouse actions. They work well enough to be popular; however, they do not
provide the same fine control and precision that you can achieve using a mouse and keyboard.
Limitations
Entering text by “typing” on a touch screen is time-consuming and can become uncomfortable after working
for a while. Often it is difficult to select text, and it can be frustrating looking for commands on a touch screen
when you may be accustomed to using keyboard short cuts to accomplish certain tasks.
Because touch screens are typically found on smaller devices, it may be difficult to select the specific objects
or keys you want. For example, it can be difficult to type text accurately because the keyboard keys are close
together, or it can be difficult to select a particular tab in a browser session when you have multiple tabs
open.
Typical Smart Phone Hardware
While there are a vast variety of models, smart phones generally have a similar structure to one another, and
function in the same way, regardless of manufacturer or model. The following figure (taken from the Samsung
Galaxy S6 User Manual) points out the typical hardware found on a smart phone.
Proximity and
light sensors
Earpiece
Front camera
Status light
Microphone
Rear camera
Infrared transmitter
Flash
Heart rate sensor
Volume keys
Power/
Lock key
Recent apps
Back
Home/Finger Scanner key
SIM Tray
Speaker
Microphone
Headset jack
USB charger/
Accessory port
There are only four physical buttons on this smart phone – the Volume Up and Volume Down buttons, the
Home button, and the Power/Lock button. All the other “buttons,” icons, shortcuts, and settings are
represented on the touch screen.
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The Recent apps and Back buttons, which are not part of the Home screen, are also virtual (touch screen)
buttons that appear near the bottom of the phone. These are shown in the following figure:
Recent apps
Back
The proximity and light sensors allow the phone to detech whether you are holding your phone near your
face. Many phones respond to the proximity of your face by turning on the screen.
Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)
Mobile phones use one of two technologies for connecting to a cellular network – GSM (Global System for
Mobile communication) or CDMA (Code Division for Multiple Access).
GSM phones all contain a Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card which identifies the phone to the carrier
(cellular provider). CDMA phones are identified to the carrier through information that is “hard-wired” into
the handset.
The SIM card is a small circuit board that contains a chip encoded with requisite details, including the phone
number, voice plan, data plan, security data, billing and account information. The SIM identifies your phone
to the carrier’s network. A GSM phone must have a SIM card installed in order to connect to the network.
SIMs are easily accessible and you can take them out of one phone and pop them into another (asumming
that the SIM is compatible), and use that other phone as if it were yours. Your phone number, voice plan,
data plan and so on become instantly available on the “new” phone.
Smart Phone Keyboard / Dial Pad
Smart phones make extensive use of virtual onscreen keyboards and dial pads. The
following figure shows a typical onscreen dial pad.
Smart phone touch screen keyboards (typically used for entering information and
for creating text and email messages) are presented in a series of screens. For
example, the figure to the right shows the touch screen keyboard on an Android
phone.
Tap the SHIFT key
to alternate between
upper and lower case keyboards.
Tap the BACKSPACE key
to delete
characters to left of the cursor. Tap the
LINEFEED key
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Tap the SYMBOL key
Tap 1/2 key
to view symbols.
to view the second set of
symbols or the 2/2 key
first set.
Tap the ATTACH key
to go back to the
to open a menu that
will allow you to add an attachment.
Tap the SMILEY key
to display a palette of emoticons.
Tap the SEND key
to send a completed message.
Power Plans
Objective 1-2.6
Every computer has a power supply that converts the AC power from an outlet into DC power that the
computer can use. The computer receives power using a power cord that is plugged into a standard electrical
outlet. All portable computing devices include an internal or additional battery that allows you to use the
computer without plugging it into an electrical outlet.
In Lesson 1, you learned how to manually put your computer into sleep or hibernation mode. In this section,
you will learn how to use Windows power plans to specify how power is used. Power plans primarily affect
battery life in laptops; however, using them on your desktop system can help you conserve energy and take
a “greener” approach to computing.
Working with Power Plan Settings
You can easily change a power plan’s settings. The operating system allows you to customize how much
power is used for specific tasks. That is, you can configure and apply power plans that will automatically turn
off the display and put a computer into sleep after a specified amount of time.
A Windows power plan is a collection of hardware and system settings that manage how your computer uses
power. Power plans will automatically adjust the screen brightness, turn off the display, or put the computer
to sleep after a specified amount of time. Advanced settings in a power plan may also turn off the wireless
networking card or hard disk after a certain period of inactivity.
To access power plans, open the Control Panel, then click Hardware and Sound.
To view all configurable options, click Power Options. Be aware that if you are connected to a domain or do
not have full administrative rights, some options may be restricted to you. You will then need to work with
your network administrator to assist with the power options.
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Windows includes three customizable built-in power plans:
•
•
Balanced – provides full performance when you need it and saves power during periods of inactivity.
Power saver – saves power by reducing screen brightness and system performance. You might use this
plan to get the most from a single battery charge.
•
High performance – this plan maximizes screen brightness and may increase system performance. This
plan uses a lot more energy than the other plans, and will put a strain on a laptop battery.
Many laptops also include an installed power plan from the computer manufacturer. For example, the
preceding figure shows that the computer also includes a built-in power plan by Dell, the manufacturer.
To view or change the settings for a power plan, click Change plan settings to open the Edit Settings window.
If you are working on a laptop, you can specify when to take actions when the computer is running on battery
power and when it is plugged in. You can also adjust the brightness of the display.
If you are working on a desktop system, you may see options only for turning off the display and putting the
computer to sleep.
Click Change advanced power settings to open the Power Options dialog box.
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To choose what the power buttons do or what happens when you close the lid of the laptop, click the Choose
what the power buttons do or Choose what closing the lid does option from the panel at the left of the
main Power Options window. Options set here determine what happens with the power for Standby/Sleep,
Hibernation, or Shut Down mode.
Exercise 2-3: Examining power plan settings
In this exercise, you will examine power plan settings.
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1.
Right-click Start, then click Control Panel.
2.
Click Hardware and Sound, then click Power Options.
3.
If necessary, click the arrow for Show additional plans.
4.
Review the power plans on your system. Is there a plan from the computer manufacturer?
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5.
Click Change plan settings for the Power saver plan.
6.
Display a few of the drop-down lists to see the available settings, but do not change any settings.
7.
Click Change advanced power settings to open the Power Options dialog box.
8.
Scroll through the box to examine the settings categories.
9.
Double-click an item to view its options.
10. Click Cancel to close the Power Options dialog box.
11. Click Cancel to exit the Edit Plan Settings page.
12. Close the Control Panel.
Connecting Peripherals
Objective 1-2.3, 1-2.4
Peripheral devices are connected to a computer system by a cable or by using wireless technology.
Cables are attached to the devices at one end, and the “free” end is terminated in a specialized connector
designed to attach to the system unit through a special socket called a port. Most computer systems include
(at least some of) the following ports:
•
Video ports – these allow you to connect monitors, projectors, and even televisions to the computer for
the purpose of displaying output.
•
Network ports – these allow your computer to connect to various networks.
•
Audio ports – deliver sound from the sound card to external speakers or headphones. These ports are
sometimes called jacks.
•
Universal Serial Bus (USB) ports– these allow you to attach a wide variety of devices (printers, scanners,
cameras, flash drives, keyboards, mouse devices, and so on) to the computer. Because USB ports also
deliver electrical power, they can be used to power peripheral devices or to re-charge the batteries of
connected devices.
Video Ports and Connectors
Video ports allow you to connect a monitor, projector, or television to a computer in order to display video
output. Most desktop systems include at least two video ports. High performance systems and gaming
systems often include more. Standard computer video ports include:
•
Video Graphics Adapter (VGA)
•
Digital Video Interface (DVI)
•
High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI)
An HDMI port and cable are shown here.
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To attach a monitor, check the ports on the computer and the ports on the monitor and use an appropriate
cable. That is, use a VGA cable if you will be using VGA ports, or an HDMI cable if you will be using HDMI.
Insert each connector firmly into the appropriate port on the computer and on the monitor.
If your monitor’s input ports do not match any of the video output ports on your computer, you can use an
adapter to convert signals from one format to another.
Laptops, tablets, and phones all incorporate the display (monitor) into the device itself. However, most
laptops and some tablets include video out ports that allow you to send output to a second display device.
Tablets often include mini display ports, which require a mini version of one of the standard video connectors,
and you can purchase specialized video cables that include a mini connector on one end and a standard size
connector on the other. You can also use a standard video cable with a standard-to-mini connection adapter.
Note: Many smartphones and high-end tablets include screen casting software, which enables you to
wirelessly project your device’s screen to a suitably-equipped display device.
Monitors
The monitor is an output device that enables you to view information the computer displays. All monitors
include a power switch and a power cord, as well as brightness and contrast controls to adjust the screen
image. Most include two types of video input ports.
Monitors come in a wide variety of sizes, resolutions, and types; the larger the screen, the larger the image
will be on the screen and the more expensive the monitor will be. Resolution, or the monitor’s ability to
display images, is a measurement based on particular mathematical levels of sharpness and clarity, and is
also a factor in the price. Some monitors include touch screen technology.
Connecting a Second Display Device
Physically connecting a second display device to a laptop or desktop system is a simple matter of connecting
the correct video cable. After the physical connection is in place, the operating system detects the second
display. You can then configure the appropriate settings for how you want to use the additional display. In
Windows 10, you can use the Settings app or the Control Panel.
In the following figure, the Display window of the Settings app show two display devices are connected to
the system.
If you connect a second display and it does not appear in this window, click Detect to force the operating
system to re-examine its current connections. Once the second display appears in the window, you can
proceed.
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If you click Identify, Windows will display a number “1” on the first display, and a number “2” on the second
one so that you know precisely which display each number refers to.
Scroll further down to access the Multiple displays drop-down list.
The choices include:
•
Duplicate these displays – this option sends the same output to monitor 1 and monitor 2.
•
Extend these displays – this option allows you to show different output on each monitor. For example,
you can look at your email on monitor 1, and work on a spreadsheet on monitor 2. Or you can display a
large spreadsheet across both monitors.
•
Show only on 1 – this option shows output only on the monitor designated as number 1. Monitor 2
goes blank.
•
Show only on 2 – this option shows output only on the monitor designated as number 2. Monitor 1
goes blank.
When you have configured your desired settings, click Apply and then close the Settings app.
You can access these same settings on the Screen Resolution page in the Control Panel.
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Network Ports and Connectors
A network port on a computer allows you to connect to a local area network (LAN) using a network cable.
The port (technically an RJ-45 jack) is known by several names, including: Ethernet port, network port, and
LAN port. An Ethernet port (which looks like an over-sized telephone jack) and an Ethernet cable are shown
in the following figure.
A network port allows you to connect to a wired network using a network cable (also called an Ethernet
cable). You connect one end of the cable into the port on your computer, and the other end into a LAN port
in a wall jack or into a LAN port on a networking device such as a network switch or network router.
Audio Ports and Connectors
Dedicated audio ports on a computer sound card allow you to connect audio devices, such as speakers,
headphones, or microphones to your computer.
A typical sound card for a desktop system includes 3.5mm audio ports called “jacks” for various types of
audio devices and game adapters (joysticks). Audio jacks may be marked with an icon, or are identified by
color coding:
•
Pink – Microphone
•
Light blue – Line In (for example, a tape player or CD player)
•
Lime green – Line Out (speakers or headphones)
Laptops, tablets, and smart phones include one 3.5mm audio jack. You can connect
headphones, ear buds, or external speakers using a wire connected to the device or
using a standard auxiliary “aux” cord. The male connector is shown here:
Note: Many audio devices such as headsets, speakers and microphones can also be attached to a
computer through a USB connection, or a wireless Bluetooth connection.
Microphones
Microphones allow you to record sounds and convert them into a digital format for use on the computer.
Specialized software can even recognize your voice as you speak into a microphone and convert what you
say into text characters that appear on the screen. Specialized software of this type is very beneficial for users
with special needs.
Microphones are not usually included with a desktop computer, but you can purchase microphones that will
connect to an audio port on the computer’s sound card or through a USB port. You can also purchase
headsets with an integrated microphone. Most laptops include a built-in microphone, and tablets and phones
include a built-in microphone as well.
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Speakers
Speakers play sounds saved as digital files on the computer. Desktop systems require external speakers in
order for you to hear the sounds being played back by the sound card. Standard desktop speakers come
with a 3.5mm audio jack that you plug into the sound card (or into a headphone jack). External speakers
require power and include a power cord which must be plugged into an AC outlet.
There are also a wide number of USB speakers available. These receive both signals and power from the USB
port.
Note: It is also possible to purchase a monitor that includes built-in speakers. In order to hear sound
through the monitor speakers, the monitor must be connected to the desktop via an HDMI connection.
Laptops, tablets, and phones include internally integrated speakers. Newer smart phones and tablets feature
high-quality speakers suitable for playing music and videos. Older laptops, however, are not known for their
high-quality sound systems, and many users attach external speakers or headphones to their laptops. These
can be connected through a headphone jack, or via a USB port or by using Bluetooth or infrared connections.
USB Ports and Connectors
Universal Serial Bus (USB) connections make it possible to connect a wide array of peripheral devices to a
computer. USB is used for mass storage (such as in flash drives), and for connecting human interface devices
(such as mice, keyboards, joysticks, tablets, etc.). Because it also delivers power, it is used as a charging
standard for devices with re-chargeable batteries. The following figure shows two USB 3.0 ports.
The USB standard has been in use for several years, with versions 2.0 and 3.0 in widespread use today, and
version 3.1 (Generation 1 and 2) breaking onto the scene.
•
Version 2.0 can transfer data at a top speed of 480Mbps. The usual color coding for USB 2.0 ports and
connectors is black or white.
•
Version 3.0 (called SuperSpeed USB) has a theoretical top speed of 5Gbps (although this speed is seldom
realized in real-world use). Version 3.1 Generation 1 is almost identical to USB 3.0, except that it supports
new connectors. The usual color coding for USB 3.0 ports and connectors is blue.
•
Version 3.1 Generation 2 promises speeds of up to 10Gbps. The usual color coding for USB 3.1 ports and
connectors is teal blue.
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Most desktop systems sold today include several USB 2.0 and 3.0 ports.
Laptops generally include only 2 or 3 USB ports. If you want to connect several USB devices to a laptop, you
can increase the number of available ports by connecting a USB hub. The hub uses one USB port on the
computer, and provides, four, six, or eight open ports for connecting devices.
Connector Types
As portable devices have become smaller, the USB standard has adopted different sized connectors. Type-A
connectors are the flat rectangular connectors you are probably most familiar with. Mini and Micro
connectors are commonly found on devices with a slim profile. If your device ships with a USB cable, it will
include the correct connector type.
USB Flash Drives
A USB flash drive is a flash memory data storage device integrated with a
USB connector. The drive consists of a small circuit board and a standard
type-A USB connector, tucked inside a plastic or rubberized case. The
connector may include a protective cap, or may retract into the case.
The USB mass storage standard used by flash drives is supported by modern operating systems such as
Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux. Flash drives with USB 2.0 support can store more data and transfer data
faster than optical drives, and they are easier to use. When you plug the drive into a USB port, the operating
system automatically recognizes it and assigns it a drive letter.
It is recommended that you right-click the drive icon and click Eject before removing a flash drive. You should
also ensure that the activity light on the flash drive itself is not blinking when you remove the drive. Removing
the flash drive while the activity light is blinking may cause the data to be lost or damaged.
Printers
Printers convert what is on the screen into printed pages. All applications allow you to choose different print
options, such as landscape or portrait orientation, paper size, and manual or automatic feed.
In the not-too-distant past, printers connected to computers using dedicated printer ports and print cables.
Today, printers are connected using USB connections or network connections.
To connect a printer directly to your computer, you use a USB cable. Windows comes pre-loaded with
hundreds of drivers for various printers, and will automatically load drivers when it detects that a printer is
connected. The following figures show Windows detecting a USB device, and installing the drivers.
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When connecting a printer, you should always read the manufacturer documentation before making any
connections. Often printers ship with a “quick start” flyer and a software installation DVD. In many cases, you
will be directed to run the installation program on the DVD before you connect the printer to the system.
Installing the manufacturer's drivers first ensures that Windows does not install and use a generic device
driver for the printer instead of using the feature-rich drivers supplied by the manufacturer. Once a printer is
connected, you should always print a test page to be sure it is functioning properly.
Installed printers (that is, printers that your computer can send print output to) are listed in the Printers &
scanners window of the Settings app, in the Printers section of the Devices and Printers page in the Control
Panel, and in the Print menu of installed applications programs. For example, the following figure shows
available printers in the Print dialog box in the Notepad application.
Simply select the printer in the Print dialog
box in order to connect to it. Note that in
many cases, you will find entries such as
Microsoft
Print
to
PDF,
Microsoft
XPS
Document Writer, or Send to OneNote in the
printers list. Even though these are not
hardware print devices, you can send print
output to them.
In addition to sending output to a printer
directly attached to your computer, you can send output to a shared printer attached to another computer,
or you can send output to a printer that is attached directly to a network. You will explore these types of
connections in an upcoming lesson.
Exercise 2-4: Viewing installed printers
In this exercise, you will view the printers installed your computer.
1.
Click Start, then click Settings to open the Settings app.
2.
Click Devices, then in the left pane click Printers & scanners if necessary. The installed printers and
scanners display in the right pane. How many are installed? Are all of them in your immediate vicinity?
Are there any options listed that are not hardware print devices?
3.
Scroll to the bottom of the window, then click Devices and printers to open the Devices and printers
page of the Control Panel. It may take a moment for the page to populate because Windows polls all
connected devices each time you open this page.
4.
Do you see the same devices as you saw in the Settings app? The printer marked with a green check
5.
Close the Control Panel and close the Settings app window.
6.
Click Start, type: notepad, then click Notepad Desktop app at the top of the start menu to open the
7.
In the Notepad window, type: This is a printer test.
8.
In the Notepad window, click File, then click Print to open the Print dialog box. Do you see the same
mark is currently set as the default printer.
Notepad application.
printers listed here as you did in the Control Panel?
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Hardware
If your teacher says it is okay to print, click Print, otherwise click Cancel.
10. Click the Close button in the Notepad window and click Don’t Save to discard your changes.
Digital Cameras
Digital cameras encode images and video into digital files that are stored and can later be edited and played
back. Files are stored on an SD card.
Many digital cameras can connect directly to a computer for the purpose of transferring captured images
and video.
USB is the most commonly used connection for this type of file transfer. When you connect a camera to a PC
via USB, the camera’s internal storage system is treated as an accessible storage location. The PC will assign
it a drive letter, and you can navigate it as you would any storage device.
Newer cameras also commonly include wireless capabilities and can use Wi-Fi or Bluetooth or infrared
connections to transfer pictures and video to a PC or to smart phones. Smart phones can use cellular networks
to transfer and share photos, and many mobile operating systems provide for automatic uploading to cloud
storage.
Another alternative for transferring image and video files from a camera to a computer is to remove the SD
card from the camera and insert it into a card reader slot on the computer. In this manner, you are using the
SD card like a flash drive.
Wireless Connection Technologies
Objective 1-2.7
Wireless connections use radio waves and free space instead of physical wires or cables. The short-range
wireless connections discussed in this section (Bluetooth and infrared) are used to connect devices (such as
computers and phones) to accessories (such as headsets, mice, keyboards, and so on.) These technologies
are not related to Wi-Fi. Wi-Fi connections will be discussed in an upcoming lesson.
Bluetooth
Bluetooth is a wireless technology used to allow devices (such as computers and phones) to work with
Bluetooth-enabled accessories (such as headsets, mice, keyboards, and so on).
Bluetooth devices and accessories must be “paired” with each other before they can communicate. You can
pair devices by following these steps:
1.
2.
Turn Bluetooth ON on your device. (Bluetooth requires quite a bit of energy, and accordingly, most
people keep Bluetooth turned off on their battery-powered devices until they need it.)
Put your accessory into discovery mode; this allows your accessory to broadcast its availability and other
Bluetooth devices within range can discover it. The specific steps required to change to discovery mode
depend on the accessory. On many accessories, you hold down a button for several seconds until a light
starts flashing. A device will remain discoverable for only a few minutes in order to save power.
3.
On the device that you want to connect the accessory to, view the Bluetooth settings screen to see a list
of nearby devices that are in discovery mode. (This screen also shows accessories that are already paired
to the device.)
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4.
Pair the devices by selecting the accessory in the list. You may be prompted to enter a PIN code to pair
the devices. The required code will be displayed on the device’s screen. For example, if you are pairing
your phone with your computer, you will see a PIN on the phone’s screen and you will type it into your
computer. After Bluetooth devices are paired they should automatically see each other and communicate
when they are both powered on and have Bluetooth enabled.
Note: Bluetooth is also commonly used to enable hands-free phone calling by using a car’s stereo system
to make or receive calls without touching the phone, and to transfer files between devices that are in close
proximity to each other.
Compatibility Considerations
It is important to understand that devices and accessories must be compatible. In other words, just because
a device and an accessory are Bluetooth-enabled, it does not necessarily mean that they will work together.
For example, iPads and iPhones support an array of Bluetooth accessories such as headsets, remote controls,
and keyboards; however, they do not support Bluetooth mice.
Infrared
Infrared wireless (or IR wireless) technology uses a beam of invisible light to transmit information. The
sending and receiving devices must both contain infrared ports, and must be within fairly close proximity (for
example, in the same room) in order for a connection to succeed.
Infrared technology is used in TV remotes, cordless microphones, wireless mice, cameras and audio devices.
Infrared transmitters on smart phones allow you to use your smart phone as a TV or Set Top Box remote
control.
Lesson Summary
In this lesson, you learned about various types of computers and computer hardware, and you examined ways to
connect devices. You should now be familiar with:
the relationships among hardware device drivers,

firmware, and platforms
keyboards, microphones and touch screens

common measurements used in computing
typical smart phone hardware



standard internal computer components
Windows power plans


memory and storage
connecting peripheral devices

identifying different types of computers
wireless connection technologies


Review Questions
1.
Which internal component performs calculations and logical operations?
a.
Microprocessor
c.
System board
b.
RAM chips
d.
Power supply
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Hardware
Why is RAM used for temporary storage?
a.
It is not big enough to be used for permanent storage.
b.
It disappears when the computer is turned off.
c.
It is too slow to be used for permanent storage.
d.
It wears out after a few uses.
Which of the following is likely to have the greatest internal storage capacity?
a.
Chromebook
c.
Server
b.
Tablet
d.
Smart phone
Which of the following is a disadvantage of using a desktop PC?
a.
It is not portable.
b.
It probably does not have a lot of storage capacity.
c.
It probably does not have a lot of RAM.
d.
All of these are disadvantages of using a desktop PC.
Which of the following is a disadvantage of using a touch screen keyboard?
a.
It becomes uncomfortable after a period of time.
b.
It does not include symbols.
c.
It does not include numbers.
d.
All of these are disadvantages of using a touch screen keyboard.
Madge is going to connect a printer to her laptop computer. Which type of port is she likely to use?
a.
A video port
c.
A USB port
b.
An audio port
d.
There is no way to tell
Adam stores video files on a 1TB hard disk. Which computing device is he most likely using?
a.
A desktop
c.
A Chromebook
b.
A tablet
d.
A smart phone
Which piece of smart phone hardware identifies a GSM phone to its carrier network?
a.
The lock screen
c.
The SIM card
b.
The widget
d.
The infrared transmitter
Gary is going to connect an external monitor to his laptop. Which of the following ports is he most likely
to use?
a.
Ethernet port
c.
USB port
b.
HDMI port
d.
Line In port
10. Harlene wants to pair her Bluetooth headset to her laptop. Which of the following is a step she must
take?
68
a.
Connect the headset to a USB port.
b.
Change power plan on her laptop to High Performance.
c.
Put the headset into discovery mode.
d.
Turn off the wireless networking card because it interferes with Bluetooth.
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Computing Fundamentals
Lesson 3: Networks and
Mobile Devices
Lesson Objectives
In this lesson, you will examine different types of networks, explore subscription and contract costs, and examine
connection technologies and hardware. You will also learn how to configure and use voice mail and how to
manage mobile data usage. On completion you should be familiar with:

the benefits of networking

Wi-Fi connections and wireless security

basic data network concepts

basic cellular network concepts

how to obtain Internet service

how to obtain cellular service

broadband technologies and speeds

how smart phones and tablets connect to the Internet

LAN hardware and addressing

basic telephone network concepts

Ethernet connections

how to configure and use voice mail
What is a Network?
There are networks all around us – transportation networks, cellular networks, data networks, cable television
networks, and the telephone network. At its very simplest definition, a network is a system for moving objects
or information.
In computing, a network is simply an arrangement of computers (and additional computing devices) that are
connected in such a way that they can communicate and share information. Individual networks can also be
connected to other networks, and this practice is referred to as internetworking.
A network can consist of two or three computers in a single room, while an internetwork can consist of
millions of computers connected across the globe.
Infrastructure Is Everything
Networking technologies have been in a state of constant development and improvement since the late
1960s. However, networking becomes practical and desirable and adopted into widespread use only when
the proper infrastructure is in place.
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Infrastructure is the basic underlying physical structure or framework needed for the operation of a service
or an enterprise. In the case of networking, infrastructure is the hardware that supports high-speed
communications and data transfer. Infrastructure is millions of miles of fiber-optic cable, high-powered cell
relay towers dotting the landscape, over a thousand communication satellites in orbit around the earth, highspeed routers and servers and exchange points strategically positioned along the Internet, and consumer
devices capable of participating in modern networks.
It has taken over fifty years and billions of dollars to build the infrastructure that our modern networks rely
on today. And today, modern networking technologies and networks evolve and expand at an amazing rate
because now (finally) there is sufficient infrastructure in place to support that type of growth.
Connectedness is Key
In this lesson, you will learn about different types of networks. Even though these networks are distinct from
one another, they also inter-connect with each other. Cellular networks, the telephone network, and the
Internet all inter-connect, and since our private (within our homes or schools or businesses) networks and
computers and computing devices tap into these large networks, we are all inter-connected.
Why Network?
Networks are in wide use today because they are practical and useful. They enable users to share many
things, including:
•
Files – for example, Betty can create and store a file on her computer, and her fellow network user Barney
can open and work with Betty’s file without having to obtain a copy of the file.
•
Resources – printers and scanners are commonly shared on a network. An entire office can share one or
two printers, eliminating the need to purchase and attach a printer to each computer.
•
Internet connections – networks within a home or office allow several users to share an Internet
connection.
Internet Connection Sharing
Multiple computers in your home or office can share an Internet connection – but what about all those other
familiar Internet-enabled devices we use daily? Smart phones, tablets, video game consoles, Blu-ray players
and widescreen TVs all connect to the Internet as well. All these devices can share in that single Internet
connection too.
For this reason, even a single person living alone can benefit from creating a small home network that is
connected to the Internet. With a simple home network, you can:
•
Stream audio and video to various devices.
•
Share stored media (such as audio files, or photographs) among your devices.
•
Share and backup files (including documents, pictures, scans, and so on.)
•
Play games online.
Even though your devices are sharing a connection, each device can access the Internet independently. That
means, the laptop in the kitchen might be surfing the Internet, while a tablet in the next room is streaming a
video, and the Xbox 360 in the living room is being used for multi-player gaming.
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About Streaming and Downloading
Before getting too far into our networking discussion, you should have a clear understanding of the
difference between streaming and downloading. When most people talk about downloading and streaming
they are usually talking about audio and video files accessed through sites like YouTube or Netflix, or songs
and movies that they have purchased from an online store.
Downloading is the process of copying a file (any type of file) from a server on the Internet to your device.
When you download a file, you can access it (play it) any time you like, even when you do not have an Internet
connection.
Downloading, however, takes time. Video files can be quite large, and high-definition (HD) or ultra-high
definition (UHD) movies border on tremendous, weighing in at several gigabytes. Depending on your Internet
connection, files of this size can take hours to download. You also must have sufficient storage space on your
device for the downloaded file.
Streaming is the process of having a file delivered to your device in a constant and steady stream. Streaming
is like listening to a song on the radio – you can listen to it as soon as the stream starts (no waiting), but once
the song is over, the task is complete. The file is not copied to (and stored) on your device. That is, you cannot
save streamed content. Streaming requires an Internet connection.
Basic Network Technology
Objective 1-3.11
Home networks, school networks, business networks, and even the Internet are data networks. They transport
data from one location (computing device) to another. This data is prepared for transport through a process
called packetization – that is, the data is broken down into multiple pieces called packets. These individual
packets are sent across the network, and when they arrive at their destination, they are re-assembled into
their original form.
TCP/IP
The mechanism that controls the process of breaking data down into packets, sending it across the network,
and re-assembling it when it reaches its destination is a networking protocol called Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol or TCP/IP.
Don’t let the word protocol intimidate you. A protocol is simply a set of rules that enable devices to
communicate with one another in an agreed-upon manner.
All major operating systems (Windows, Mac OS X, Linux and UNIX) use TCP/IP as their networking protocol.
TCP/IP is the international standard protocol for both local and wide area networking, and it is the networking
protocol used on the Internet.
LANs and WANs
There are two basic types of networks relevant to our discussion – local area networks (LANs) and wide area
networks (WANs).
Local Area Networks (LANs)
A local area network (LAN) is a private, local set-up. Your home network, or a small office or school network
is a LAN. LANs are private networks. LANs come in different sizes, but are generally confined to one
geographic location.
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Wide Area Networks (WANs)
Wide area networks (WANs) are networks that connect computers in multiple locations using communication
lines owned by a public carrier (such as the phone company or an Internet Service Provider).
For example, XYZ Company might own a LAN in their Boston office and a LAN in their Philadelphia office. In
order to connect these two LANs, XYZ Company might lease high-speed lines from the phone company. Or,
XYZ Company might use the Internet to connect their two LANs.
Whenever LANs are connected to one another using the lines of a public carrier, a WAN is formed. The
Internet is the largest WAN in the world – it connects individuals and networks from around the world to one
another using public communication lines. WANs are public networks.
IP Addresses
In order for the computers connected to a network to communicate with one another, each computer
requires a unique address. This address is called an Internet Protocol (IP) address. Each computer on the local
network (and each computer on the Internet) has an IP address that distinguishes it from all other computers
on the network.
A typical LAN IP address looks like this:
192.168.1.104
On the Internet, each web site has its own IP address which is associated with an easy to remember text
address called a URL. For example, the URL www.yahoo.com is associated with the IP address 98.138.252.30.
IPv4 and IPv6
There are two versions of Internet Protocol (IP)—version 4 (IPv4) and version 6 (IPv6). IPv4 is used
predominantly in North America and Europe, while IPv6 is used in Asia and other countries. Because the
number of available IPv4 addresses is rapidly running out, support for IPv6 (even in countries where IPv4 is
currently used) is a requirement.
IPv4 addresses are written in decimal form as a series of four decimal numbers, separated by periods. The
LAN IP address shown previously is an IPv4 address.
IPv6 addresses are written in hexadecimal form as a series of 8 hexadecimal numbers separated by colons. A
typical IPv6 address looks like this:
805B:2D9D:DC28:0000:0000:FC57:D4C8:1FFF
Since 2011, all major operating systems for personal computers and servers include built-in support for IPv6.
Cellular providers use IPv6 addresses in all their 4G networks, which means that all cell phones (and other
computing devices) with 4G capability, operate using IPv6 addressing (with optional support for IPv4).
Finding Your IP Address
If you are having connection difficulties and need to request help from your IT department or from your ISP,
you may need to find your IP address.
An easy way to find your computer’s private IP address is to use a command line tool called ipconfig. This
tool (run within a command prompt window), displays a wealth of information about your system’s network
settings. The following figure shows a computer that has two network connections – one is a wired (Ethernet)
connection, and the other is a wireless (Wi-Fi) connection.
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IP address
IP address
You can also view your IP address from the Windows Network and Sharing Center. Right-click Start, Control
Panel, then click View network status and tasks to open the Network and Sharing Center. Your
connection(s) display in the right side of the screen.
Click a connection to open a connection status dialog box.
Click the Details button to view specifics about the connection, including the IP address.
Ethernet
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Exercise 3-1: Finding your IP address
In this exercise, you will view your IP address.
1.
Click Start, and click Control Panel. Then click View network status and tasks to open the Network
and Sharing Center. Your connection(s) will be listed in the right side of the window, under the View your
active networks heading.
2.
Click your connection to open a connection status dialog box.
3.
Click the Details button to view your IP address. Write down your IP address.
4.
Click Close twice to close the open dialog boxes.
5.
Close the Control Panel.
6.
As a class, list your IP addresses on the board. Are they similar to one another?
Obtaining Internet Service
Objective 1-2.11
Accessing the Internet from your school or office is easy because the Internet service is already running, and
you can access it either through Ethernet or Wi-Fi. However, at some point, someone at your school or office
had to decide which service to purchase, and then arrange to have it set up.
If you want to add Internet service to your home, you will need to decide which type of service you want,
how fast you need that service to be, and how much you would be willing to pay for it.
Service Providers
If you want to access the Internet from within your home, you must obtain Internet service from an Internet
Service Provider (ISP). An ISP is a company that provides Internet connections to the public for a fee. Typical
service providers include:
•
phone companies
•
cable TV companies
•
satellite TV companies
These telecommunications companies provide an Internet connection, usually for a monthly subscription
rate, and generally through a broadband connection.
The term “broadband” is used to describe a fast Internet connection (technically, at speeds of 1.544 Mbps or
higher). A broadband connection is considered a permanent network connection. That is, a broadband
connection is always “on.” (This is in contrast to old-style dial-up connections, which require a user to
establish a connection each time he or she wants to access the network. Dial-up connections are very slow
and are no longer in wide use.)
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Typical broadband technologies in wide use today include:
•
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) – provided by the phone company. This service runs over copper
telephone wiring and provides speeds of up to 3Mbps. You must live a certain distance from a phone
company switch in order to use DSL, and for this reason, the service is not available in all areas. Most
providers offer DSL service of $30-$50 USD per month, and may offer special “package” rates for
combining with landline phone service.
•
Broadband Cable – provided by cable TV companies. This service runs over the copper coaxial cable
that is part of the cable TV (CATAV) system. Cable provides speeds up to 30Mbps, depending on the
provider, and monthly subscription rates hover between $30-$50 USD. Many providers offer discounts
for subscribing to multiple services such as cable TV, Internet, and Internet-based phone services.
Subscribers in the same neighborhood share a connection with their neighbors, and often experience a
slowdown in service when other subscribers connect to the network.
•
Fiber Optic Service (FiOS) – provided by several telecom companies (such as Verizon FiOS, AT&T and
CenturyLink). This technology runs over fiber optic cable. This service is also called Fiber to the Home
(FTTH) and is just starting to become available. FiOS offers speeds of 3Mbps up to 50Mbps, and pricing
from $30 USD to up to about $100 USD per month, depending on the provider and the package. In your
home, the fiber optic line connects to an optical network terminal (ONT), which can split the signal to
provide services for Internet, television and telephone. (The function of the ONT is the same as the
function of a broadband modem.)
•
Satellite Internet – this technology is provided by satellite communications providers such as
HughesNet and ViaSat, Inc. This technology involves three satellite dishes; one at the service provider’s
hub, one in space, and one attached to your home. Wireless signals are sent from the ISP to outer space
to you; or from you to outer space to the ISP. Satellite providers offer speeds from 5Mbps to 15Mbps,
and cost from $50 USD to $100 USD per month depending on which tier of service you choose.
–
Satellite connections are useful if you live in an area where you do not have another broadband
choice. However, satellite connections do not support VPN and satellite plans must adhere to a
monthly data allowance. If you exceed the monthly allowance (for example, if you stream a lot of
HD video), the provider will slow down your service.
Blurred Lines
At one time, there was a clear-cut distinction between service providers; you got phone service from the
phone company, and television service from the cable company, and so on.
Today, however, partnerships among TV, Internet and phone providers makes it possible to bundle services
that provide one-stop-shopping. For example, you can purchase television, Internet and phone services from
DirecTV (a satellite television provider), or from Cox Communications (a cable TV provider), or from
CenturyLink (a phone company).
Which Service Should You Use?
It would be great to be able to simply purchase the fastest Internet service available. However, Internet service
can be expensive, and sometimes you need to find a balance between what you want and what you need.
Additionally, not all types of services may be available in your area.
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In order to make an intelligent choice about finding a suitable Internet service package, you should
understand a few things about broadband speeds, and about determining how much speed you actually
need.
Upload Speed and Download Speed
The terms uploading and downloading refer to the process of sending information from your computer to a
server (uploading), and the process of receiving information from a server (downloading). Most users
download much more information than they upload. Accordingly, most service providers offer service with
two speeds:
•
Downstream (download) – Data moves downstream as it reaches you from a web server. When your
browser loads a web page, or when you stream a movie to your laptop, you are downloading.
Downstream services are usually tremendously faster than upstream services.
•
Upstream (upload) – Data moves upstream when you send or upload information. When you enter a
URL into your browser address bar or you fill in and then submit an online form, you are uploading.
Typical Broadband Speeds
Broadband providers advertise their top download speed with the words “up to.” This is because the top
speed is almost never experienced by subscribers. Even though each broadband technology is defined by a
specification that lists its top speed, that speed is theoretical, meaning, if all network conditions were perfect,
the technology could operate at the cited top speed.
Several factors affect network performance. The conditions of the wires in your neighborhood affect the
speed, as does the network equipment you are using in your home. If you subscribe to a shared service, such
as broadband cable or satellite, you will experience slower network response time when more subscribers
access the network.
The following table summarizes typical broadband speeds and general monthly subscription costs.
Remember that pricing can vary widely and that you can often achieve more affordable rates if you bundle
services.
Technology Speeds
Pricing
Comments
DSL
Up to 3Mbps
$30-$50USD per month
Not available in all areas
Cable
Up to 30Mbps
$30-$50USD per month
Shared service
FiOS
3Mbps – 50Mbps
$30-$100USD per month
Not widely available
Satellite
5Mbps – 15Mbps
$50-$100USD per month
Data allowance enforced by provider
How Much Speed Do You Need?
Determining how much speed you need is really about considering what you want to do. Do you want to
play online games? Do you want to stream audio and watch streaming HD video through Netflix and Hulu?
Or are you more the type to send a few emails and play Solitaire and Mine Sweeper?
If you want to stream HD movies from Netflix, for example, Netflix recommends that you use a 5Mbps
connection for a good quality 1080-pixel stream. This amount of bandwidth is sufficient for one user;
however, if you have multiple users streaming video to different devices, then you need more. If you want to
stream ultra-high-definition (UHD) videos, then you need a 25Mbps connection.
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The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the United States suggests that a 10Mbps – 25Mbps
connection is reasonable for households that stream video. If you are a heavy data user, you may want to
increase your connection to 50Mbps.
Choosing a Provider
When it is time to choose a provider, there are several things you can do to ensure you make a good choice:
•
Determine your service requirements. If you know how much bandwidth you really need, you know which
services you can rule out. For example, if you don’t plan to simultaneously stream three UHD movies to
three separate devices in your house, then you probably don’t need to pay the extra money for a FiOS
connection.
•
Find out which services are available in your area.
•
Do some homework:
–
Look at various provider web sites to view their pricing plans, or call and talk to a representative.
–
Investigate whether bundling different types of services can save you money.
–
Most plans are on a subscription basis, but some may have contract requirements. That is, you may
be required to maintain service for a set amount of time (such as a year or two years), and may have
to pay a fee for breaking the contract early.
–
Watch for data caps – a data cap is a limit on monthly broadband usage. While satellite providers
have capped usage for quite a while, some cable and DSL providers have begun imposing caps
(some as low as 50GB per month) on their plans. If you stream a lot of video, you may exceed the
cap, and you may be charged an overage fee.
Testing Your Connection Speed
Once you have subscribed to a broadband Internet service, you can check the speed of your connection at
any time. Most providers maintain tools on their web sites that test and report connection speed. You can
also go to a third party connection speed testing site such as speedtest.xfinity.com or testmy.net.
Exercise 3-2: Testing your Internet connection
In this exercise, you will test your connection speed.
(Microsoft Edge) to open the Microsoft Edge browser.
1.
In the taskbar, click
2.
In the Search or enter web address box, type: testmy.net and press ENTER to navigate to the Testmy.net
Internet speed test web site.
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Near the top-right of the web page, click Test My Internet+ to reveal the test options. You can test your
download speed, your upload speed, or both.
4.
Click Combined to test both upload and download speed, then let the test run. It may take a few minutes.
5.
What is your download speed? What is your upload speed? Are they significantly different from one
6.
If time permits, click the Result Details tab and the Understanding the Results tabs.
7.
Close your browser.
another?
Connecting the Internet to Your LAN
Objective 1-2.11, 1-3.11
Regardless of the technology used to get the Internet connection to your premises, the setup inside your
home is pretty standard: you use a modem to connect to the service provider’s network.
Broadband Modems
A broadband modem converts the incoming signal (from your phone line, cable line, fiber optic line, or
satellite dish) into a digital signal that can be sent to a computer (if you do not have a home network), or to
a broadband router (if you have set up a home network).
The modem is the place where the private LAN connects to the public WAN. The modem is a connection
point which has two sides or “faces.”
Modem
The WAN side of the modem faces your provider’s network. The LAN side of the modem faces your private
network, and you connect your LAN systems to the modem using Ethernet cable.
In many implementations, a modem includes only a single Ethernet port, which allows you to connect only
one computer system to the Internet service.
However, in other implementations, a modem may also include wireless functionality – allowing other
systems within your LAN to connect. Sometimes these devices are referred to as wireless gateways. These
types of modems include built-in routing functions (and are actually modem/router combinations). You will
learn about this type of functionality in the next section.
Broadband Routers
If your broadband modem provides only a single Ethernet port (and does not support wireless connections),
and you want to share your Internet connection among multiple systems in your LAN, then you must add a
broadband router to your network.
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Most broadband routers include at least four Ethernet ports for wired connections, and they have built-in
wireless functionality, allowing additional systems to connect wirelessly. In setups where you use a broadband
router, you would plug the router into the Ethernet port on the modem, and then connect the computer
systems to the router.
Router
Notice that in this configuration, the router comes between the modem (which provides the link to the public
network – the Internet) and the computer systems/devices on the private LAN. Part of a router’s function is
to connect different networks.
Broadband routers come in wired-only and wired/wireless versions. Wired-only routers function as a hub for
the devices in your wired network but cannot provide services for wireless devices.
Wireless routers, on the other hand, combine a wired network router with a wireless access point. These
devices include four or more Ethernet ports for wired connections, and they have a built-in Wi-Fi
transmitter/receiver, which enable them to serve as wireless access points to the network for wireless devices.
Public and Private IP Addresses
There are two types of IP addresses. A public IP address (also called an Internet-addressable address) is one
that will be unique on the Internet. You must use a public IP address to participate on the Internet.
A private IP address is one that is used within the LAN. There are three ranges of IPv4 addresses that are
reserved for private use. The most commonly-used range is 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255.
Private addresses within a LAN must be unique – but only within the LAN itself. That means, any network can
use these addresses. Systems within your private LAN may use the exact same addresses as those in your
next-door neighbor’s private LAN without causing any problem because these are not the addresses that
your network actually uses to access the Internet.
I Have a Private Address – How do I Connect to the Internet?
When you purchase Internet service from an ISP, you get one Internet-addressable (public) IP address
included with the purchased service. The Internet service comes into your home through your broadband
modem or modem/router combination.
Remember that broadband modems/routers have two faces. One face connects to the Internet and the other
face connects to your private LAN. The broadband modem/router also has two IP addresses: one for the
external or wide area network (WAN) Internet connection, and one for local devices to connect to across the
local area network (LAN).
On the WAN side, the modem/router gets the public WAN-IP address when it connects to the ISP. (You can
find your public IP address by visiting a Web-based IP address lookup service, such as
WhatIsMyIPAddress.com.)
On the LAN side, the modem/router performs several functions, including (but not limited to) the following:
•
It assigns private network addresses to the systems connected to it (usually 192.168.1.x), thus establishing
an internal LAN.
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It uses a technology called network address translation (NAT) to replace the private IP address used by
a system on the LAN with the Internet-addressable IP address that was provided with the purchase of
Internet service.
Private network addresses are also commonly used inside corporate LANs. A corporation may lease several
public IP addresses that can be used on the Internet, and then translate private network addresses into public
ones when Internet access is required. Network address translation occurs in the same way as it does on a
home network, although a corporate LAN might use different hardware (proxy servers, firewalls, etc.).
Viewing Your Public IP Address
If you want to view the public IP addresses your system uses while on the Internet, there are several web sites
that will report your IP address to you. For example, you can visit http://get-site-ip.com or you can visit
www.myipaddress.com.
Exercise 3-3: Viewing your public IP address
In this exercise, you will view your public IP address.
1.
Open a browser and navigate to www.myipaddress.com.
2.
What is your public IP address?
3.
Compare your results with your classmates. Do you all have the same public IP address?
4.
Close your browser.
Important Points about IP Addresses
These are the important things to understand about IP addresses:
•
An IP address is not permanent; IP addresses are assigned to computers on the network for a specified
period of time. In other words, an IP address is leased to a computer. If you were to move a computer
from one network to another, its IP address would change.
•
An IP address provides information about the computer it is leased to and about the network that the
computer is participating in.
•
A computer must have an IP address to connect to the Internet.
•
An IP address must be unique within the network. When a system is connected to the Internet, its IP
address must be unique on the Internet.
Wired Connections – Ethernet
Objective 1-2.4, 1-2.9, 1-2.10, 1-2.11
A wired connection to a LAN is called an Ethernet connection because it uses a networking cable called an
Ethernet cable. Using a wired connection provides the fastest, and most secure connection possible within
the LAN.
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Ethernet Standards and Cables
Ethernet is a network-cabling protocol for transmitting data across a LAN. You use Ethernet cables to connect
computers and other devices to wired connection points in your network, such as LAN ports in a wall plate,
or on a router.
An Ethernet connection can transmit data at one of three standard speeds:
•
Gigabit Ethernet moves data at 1Gbps
•
Fast Ethernet moves data at 100Mbps
•
10Base-T Ethernet moves data at 10Mbps
Except for the older 10-Mbps Ethernet standard, Ethernet networks are faster than most wireless networks,
and they are more stable (because you do not have to worry about signal interference), and more secure
(because the signals are not sent through the air where they can be intercepted).
Ethernet connections are recommended for transmitting important and sensitive data. They are also ideal for
high-volume streaming, such as streaming high-definition video from the Internet.
Cables
Ethernet cables are manufactured in different numbered grades or categories. Each cable grade is referred
to by its category and number, for example, Category 5 or “Cat” 5. Ethernet cables can reliably transmit
signals over a cable length of about 300 feet (100 meters). If you need to cover more distance, you can use
two cables with an Ethernet switch in between them. The following cables are most commonly used:
•
Cat 5 – supports data transfer at 10Mbps, and 100Mbps
•
Cat 5e – supports data transfer at 10Mbps, 100Mbps, and 1Gbps
•
Cat 6 – supports data transfer at 10Mbps, 100Mbps, 1Gbps, and 10Gbps
•
Cat 6a – same as Cat 6 but designed for reduced signal interference
Network Interface Card (NIC)
In order to make an Ethernet connection between your computer and your home, school, or company wired
LAN, your computer must include a network interface card (NIC). A NIC sends and receives data back and
forth between your computer and the network, and it includes its own Ethernet port.
NICs are manufactured to support various data transfer rates, such as 10Mbps, 100Mbps, and 1Gbps. The
faster NICs are backward-compatible meaning that they can slow down to match the speed of other
equipment on the network.
Note: The speed of a single network connection is only as fast as its slowest link. This means that if you
have 50Mbps Internet service, a high-speed router and Cat 5e cable, but your NIC is an ancient 10Mbps
version, your connection speed will be 10Mbps.
A NIC may be built into a device (as it is in most desktop computers and some laptops), or it can be added
to a device (either internally or externally).
•
You can add an internal NIC to a desktop system by
opening the case and inserting the NIC into a slot
on the system board.
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You can add an external NIC to a computer by
connecting one to an available USB port.
Connecting to the wired network is as easy as plugging in the cable. Most devices you connect via Ethernet
automatically detect the network connection and will perform any necessary configuration (such as obtaining
an IP address) automatically.
When you use a wired connection, a wired network icon
will display in the Windows 10 taskbar.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Wired Connections
On the plus side, wired connections are faster than wireless connections, they are secure, and they are reliable.
Wired connections are ideal for handling a large volume of traffic.
The main drawbacks to using wired connections are that they require cabling – and cabling can get messy
and can get in the way. Stringing cables across the middle of the floor is never a good idea because you can
trip over them and pull them out of their connection ports. This makes it necessary to run cables behind walls
or under the carpet, or through the attic. These are tasks most home owners are reluctant to undertake on
their own.
Additionally, wired connections are not portable. For example, if you must connect your laptop to a port on
the router in your living room, you will not be able to take your laptop to another room or out to the patio
to work if you want to maintain your network connection.
In short, Ethernet connections are not convenient.
When Should You Use an Ethernet Connection?
Although Ethernet connections are not convenient, there are times when using this type of connection makes
sense:
•
If your computer (or other Internet-enabled device) does not include wireless capability, then the only
way you can participate in a network is to use a wired connection. Even if the router is a wireless router,
it will still have Ethernet ports on the back.
•
If you require the fastest speed possible, wired connections are faster. A Gigabit Ethernet connection is
more than twice as fast as the fastest wireless connection. This makes wired connections a good choice
for:
–
Streaming video – if you want to stream HD videos to your Internet-enabled wide screen TV, a wired
connection will give you better performance.
•
–
Downloading or uploading large files, such as digital photos, or video files.
–
Playing high-performance real-time online games.
If you require guaranteed reliability, wired connections are not subject to the type of interference that
wireless signals encounter.
•
If you require security for transmitting sensitive and/or private information, wired connections are secure.
Even though you can take steps to secure a wireless network, they are inherently insecure, and financial
institutions and large corporations usually do not allow wireless connections in their networks.
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Exercise 3-4: Examining your network connection
In this exercise you will locate the hardware that connects your system to the Internet, and view your data
transfer speed.
First, determine whether you use an Ethernet connection.
1.
If the physical location of your computer permits, try to locate your network interface card (NIC). Ask
2.
If your connection uses a wire, where does the wire connect to the network? Is there a box with
your teacher for assistance if necessary. Does your system use a wired connection for networking?
connection ports near your desk? Do you plug into a wall jack?
If your computer uses a wireless adapter and connects wirelessly, can you see the wireless broadband
router or modem? If not, how far away do you think it might be located?
3.
If your computer uses a wired connection, look at your NIC. Does it include a light that flashes on and
off periodically? Most NICs include an indicator light to let you know that the device is sending and
receiving data.
Next, examine the properties of your connection.
4.
Right-click the network icon in the Windows taskbar, then click Open Network and Sharing Center.
Your connection(s) will be listed in the right side of the window, under the View your active networks
heading.
5.
Click your connection to open a connection status dialog box. Your current connection speed is listed in
6.
What is the speed of your network connection?
7.
Close any open dialog boxes, then close the Control Panel.
the dialog box.
Adding a Shared Printer to the Wired LAN
Within a LAN, a shared printer is one that is directly connected to one of the computers in the LAN. For
example, if you have a printer connected via USB to your desktop PC, you can share that printer with the
other computers on the LAN, regardless of whether those other computers connect via Ethernet or via Wi-Fi.
Any computer on the LAN that shares a resource, such as a connected printer, or a file storage location, is
referred to as a host.
Sharing a printer is a simple matter of enabling printer sharing on the host computer. To activate printer
sharing in Windows 10, navigate to the Network and Sharing Center, then click the Change advanced
sharing settings link.
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The advanced sharing page provides access to different network profiles on your computer. Click the arrow
to display the options for the Private network profile. Scroll to the File and printer sharing section and select
Turn on file and printer sharing.
Click the Save changes button at the bottom of the dialog box to save the settings.
Next, navigate to the Control Panel home page, then click View devices and printers to open the Devices
and Printers page, which allows you to view and configure the devices connected to your computer. Rightclick the printer you want to share, then click Printer properties to open the printer Properties dialog box.
Click the Sharing tab, then click the Share this printer check box.
When you elect to share a printer, you may choose to install additional printer drivers on your system. Doing
so makes the drivers available to other users who want to connect to your printer. Click Apply, and then click
OK to save your settings.
You should understand that when you share a printer, other computers connect to that printer through your
computer. Your computer must be turned on and logged in to the network in order for anyone else to use
the printer.
You can clear the Share this printer check box at any time to stop sharing the printer.
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Connecting to a Shared Printer
To connect to a shared printer, open the Devices and Printers page of the Control Panel and click Add a
printer. Windows will look for printers on the network. Select the printer to which you want to connect, then
click Next. Windows connects to the printer and installs the required drivers. When a successful connection
is made, Windows displays a success message, allows you to specify this printer as your default printer, and
gives you the option of printing a test page.
Click Finish.
Once you have successfully connected to a shared printer, the printer will appear in the Print dialog box in
any application that you use.
Disconnecting a Shared Printer
To disconnect a printer (that is, to remove it as an option on your PC), open the Devices and Printers page,
click the printer you want to remove, click Remove device in the in the toolbar at the top of the page, then
confirm that you want to remove the printer by clicking Yes.
Wireless Connections – Wi-Fi
Objective 1-2.5, 1-2.9, 1-2.10, 1-2.11
Wireless networking is a form of networking wherein systems use their Wi-Fi capability to send and receive
radio transmissions over the air instead of over wired cabling. Wireless networking occurs in two distinct
modes:
•
Ad-hoc – systems communicate with one another directly using their Wi-Fi capability. This mode is highly
insecure, and it does not provide access to the Internet.
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Infrastructure – systems connect to the network through a wireless router (or access point), and
communicate with each other and with other systems on a wired Ethernet network through the router.
This mode of communication can be secured, and it provides Internet access.
Most modern broadband routers include wireless capability, which means they can be used to create wireless
networks. These are infrastructure mode networks: all wireless devices that join the network communicate
with the router, not directly with one another.
Because the router is also a central connection point in the LAN, this type of network is called a Wireless LAN
(WLAN). Devices connected to the WLAN can communicate (through the router) with one another and with
systems that are connected to the LAN via Ethernet.
Additionally, because the router is connected to the broadband modem, the WLAN has access to the Internet.
Adapters, Signals and Bands
Devices that participate on WLANs must include a wireless adapter, which is the device that transmits and
receives the radio signals. When you power on a wireless device, it picks up signals from all the wireless
networks within the vicinity and displays the name of each available network.
Most handheld devices like smart phones and tablets have a wireless adapter built in.
For computers and laptops that do not contain one, you can either install one in a slot
on the system board, or you can connect one through a USB port.
A USB wireless adapter looks almost like a flash drive.
Devices on WLANs use one of two different radio frequency bands: the 2.4GHz band or the 5GHz band. The
2.4GHZ band is also used by many other types of wireless devices (such as cordless phones and baby
monitors), and these devices can sometimes cause interference with WLAN signals.
Radio signals also weaken as they get farther away from the transmitter. As you move near the edge of a
transmission range, your wireless networking connection will get slower. Objects (such as walls or floors)
through which a signal must pass can also reduce its range.
Wireless Standards
Wi-Fi (short for wireless fidelity) is the consumer-friendly name we use to refer to a family of standards for
wireless equipment and transmission technologies. These standards are part of the 802.11 wireless
networking standard.
There are several Wi-Fi standards, and each offers a different level of performance.
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Wi-Fi Standard
Top Speed
Frequency Band
802.11a
54Mbps
5-GHz
802.11b
11Mbps
2.4-GHz
802.11g
54Mbps
2.4-GHz
802.11n
450Mbps
2.4-GHz and 5-GHz
802.11ac
1.3Gbps
5-GHz
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Wireless equipment that is compatible with multiple Wi-Fi standards is often identified by multiple suffixes.
For example, you might see a laptop ad that includes the spec “802.11b/g/n wireless.” This means that the
built-in Wi-Fi adapter will work with 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11n.
As is the case with advertised broadband speeds, the top speeds are theoretical maximum rates. The
throughput rates you experience will be lower than the maximum rates.
Wireless Security
Because wireless networks use radio waves to send and receive information, they are susceptible to
eavesdropping, interception, and unauthorized access. For this reason, it is highly recommended that you
secure your wireless transmissions and use secure wireless networks whenever possible.
Wireless transmissions are secured using the following mechanisms:
Wired Equivalent
The was the first security mechanism available for wireless networks. It does not offer
64-bit
hardware will not support more advanced security schemes, and so WEP is the only
Privacy (WEP)
strong protection and today is considered obsolete. However, some very old wireless
option.
Wi-Fi Protected
This was the first phase of improved wireless security and it works with many older
Wi-Fi Protected
WPA2 provides the most secure wireless transmissions, but it requires modern wireless
Access (WPA)
Access 2 (WPA2)
wireless devices.
equipment. All new wireless networking hardware supports WPA2 (and some older
hardware supports it as well).
You should always use the strongest level of wireless security supported by your wireless hardware.
Whenever you connect to a secure wireless network, you must provide a passkey (also called a pass phrase
or a network security key). This is the wireless equivalent of a password.
When Should You Use Wireless Connections?
The beauty of wireless connections is that they are so convenient – there is no cable to string through a room
or route behind a desk, and wireless connections allow you to work anywhere you like – on the sofa, in your
bedroom, or out in the back yard (assuming the signal is strong enough). In most instances, using a wireless
connection is a matter of choice.
The only time you might find yourself forced to use a wireless connection is when you have a device that
includes wireless capability, but does not include an Ethernet port, and does not include a connection port
(such as a USB) port where you can attach an external NIC. Most tablets fit this description.
Connecting Your Computer to a WLAN
Your wireless adapter will scan the area for nearby wireless networks. In Windows 10, available wireless
networks display in a pop-up window when you click the available networks icon
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Click a network to select it, and then click the Connect button to connect to
the network.
If the network is secured, you will be
prompted to enter the passkey
(network security key).
Type the network security key in the box, then click Next to have your system authenticate with the wireless
router. When you have successfully connected to a wireless network, the network icon in the taskbar displays
like this:
.
Once you connect to a WLAN, Windows keeps the settings and configures the connection to connect
automatically whenever the network is in range. You will not be prompted to enter the passkey again, unless
the network administrator changes the passkey, or you specifically tell Windows to forget the connection
settings.
To connect to a WLAN on a Mac, follow these steps:
1.
Click the Wi-Fi symbol on the toolbar at the top of the screen to display a list of available networks.
2.
Select your network from the list.
3.
When prompted, enter the passkey for your network, and click OK.
Connecting Your Handheld Device to a WLAN
Tablets and smart phones include a built-in wireless adapter that allows them to connect to a Wi-Fi network
when one is in range. Connecting your device is as easy as turning Wi-Fi on, selecting the desired network in
the list of available networks, and then entering the appropriate passkey if the network is secured.
Public Wi-Fi hotspots are generally not secured, which means that you can connect to them without entering
a passkey. Complimentary wireless service at a hotel often requires a passkey, which is provided to you by
the hotel staff when you check in.
To connect an Android device, follow these steps:
1.
Tap Apps, tap Settings, then tap Wi-Fi. The available networks should display on your screen. (Secure
networks display a lock icon
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. You must enter a passkey to connect to a secure network.)
2.
Tap the network you want to connect to and enter the passkey if prompted.
3.
After you type the passkey, tap Connect.
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Once you have been authenticated, “Connected” displays below the network name.
To connect an iOS device, follow these steps:
1.
From your Home screen, go to Settings > Wi-Fi.
2.
Turn on Wi-Fi. Your device will automatically search for available Wi-Fi networks. Secure networks display
a lock icon
.
3.
Tap the name of the Wi-Fi network that you want to join and enter the passkey if prompted.
4.
Tap Join.
After you join the network, you'll see a check mark
in the upper-left corner of the display.
next to the network and Wi-Fi connected indicator
Smart phones and tablets remember your WLAN connections and their associated security keys. The next
time the same WLAN is in range, your handheld device will be able to connect automatically.
Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS)
Most wireless routers include setup capability through Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS). WPS is a wireless
networking standard that used to connect wireless devices to your WLAN by pressing a button on the router.
The WPS button is usually designated by two opposite-facing arrows, such as the
ones shown in this image.
WPS works only on WLANs that use WPA or WPA2 for security. Both the router and
the device must be WPS-enabled for the process to work.
Press the WPS button on the router, and then press the WPS button on the device. They identify each other
and make all necessary configuration settings automatically. This is especially useful for adding devices such
as network printers to a WLAN – it is not always a straight-forward process to advance through the
configuration screens on a printer in order to enter a WLAN passkey. WPS makes the process fast and easy.
Adding a Network Printer to the WLAN
Unlike a shared printer (which is directly connected to a host computer on the network), a network printer is
connected to the router. All systems on the network can connect to the network printer through the router.
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In order to be set up as a network printer, the printer itself must include either a wireless adapter or an
Ethernet port (or both). Most printers sold today have wireless capability built in.
With most newer printers, the setup is very simple: you take the new printer out of the box, turn it on and
perform the normal first-time setup steps such as removing any internal packaging and inserting ink or toner,
and then wait for the printer to automatically detect and connect to the WLAN.
Some older printers may require that you first connect via USB to one of the network computers and run an
installation utility, and enter the printer’s IP address and enter the network security password. If both your
printer and your router support WPS, then you can press the WPS button on the router and press the WPS
button on the printer and wait for them to establish a connection automatically. Once the printer has
successfully joined the WLAN, you can disconnect the USB cable.
Connecting to a Network Printer
Once the printer has joined the wireless network, it should appear as a printing option for all computers on
the network.
For some older models, it may be necessary to manually install the drivers that shipped with the printer on
each computer that will use the printer.
Cellular Networks
Objective 1-1.1, 1-2.10
Cellular networks carry voice, text, and digital data through the transmitting and receiving of radio frequency
(RF) signals. At its heart, a mobile phone is a two-way radio, and it sends and receives signals as it moves
through a network of transmitters and receivers. Think of all the cell towers you see as you travel to and from
work or school each day. These towers are part of the cellular network infrastructure. Cellular carriers (or
providers) own and operate these towers and the networks they form.
Each cellular network is divided into thousands of overlapping geographic areas
called cells. You can think of it as a mesh of hexagonal cells (like honeycomb).
Each cell has its own base station at the center and the cells overlap at the edges
to ensure that users always remain within range of a base station.
This layout makes it possible to maintain a call as you travel out of one cell and
into another.
The base station at the center of each cell acts as a network hub only for that cell – not for the entire network.
Radio signals transmitted by a phone are received by the base station, where they are then re-transmitted
from the base station to another mobile phone. The base stations are connected to one another and calls
are automatically transferred from one base station to another as callers move between cells.
Each base station is also connected to the landline telephone network, and can relay mobile calls to landline
phones. Cellular networks are also connected to the Internet at various points where different large networks
exchange traffic, enabling you to access the Internet on your smart phone through your cellular provider.
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Cellular Generations – All About the G’s
In almost any discussion about mobile phones, you hear “G.” G stands for generation. Mobile phone
technology is continually evolving as more cell towers and relay stations are put into place (providing the
required infrastructure to support newer standards and faster speeds) and as more sophisticated phones are
developed and put into widespread use.
Modern generation cellular networks are:
•
3G – third generation. 3G networks transfer data at up to 2Mbps (almost as fast as DSL), which makes it
practical to use a mobile phone to surf the Internet and use web-based applications. 3G is considered
the minimum requirement for using a smart phone today. That is, if you want to use your smart phone
for anything other than voice calls and text messages, you must be on a 3G network.
•
4G – fourth generation. Things start to get a little sticky here. The 4G standard promises speeds in excess
of 1Gbps when you are stationary and 100Mbps when you are highly mobile (such as when you are using
your phone while traveling in a car). However, at the time of the release of the 4G specification, these
speeds were unheard of. At the time of this writing, there are no true 4G cellular networks.
•
LTE / 4G LTE – fourth generation. LTE stands for Long Term Evolution. LTE devices were originally
marketed as 4G technology, but they delivered nowhere near the promised 4G speeds. They are,
however, significantly faster than 3G, and the telecommunications governing body (the International
Telecommunication Union or ITU), determined that LTE products could be marketed as “4G.” LTE is the
fastest cellular technology currently available, and the average speed of today’s 4G LTE networks in the
USA is around 24Mbps (nearly as fast as cable), which is fast enough to stream audio and video and give
a satisfactory user experience. Note that 4G LTE coverage is available in large metropolitan areas, but
outside the coverage area, a 4G LTE phone falls back to 3G.
Cellular Carriers
A cellular carrier is a cell phone company that provides cellular service to mobile phone users. In the USA,
the four biggest cell carriers are AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, and Verizon. There are, of course, numerous others
in the states, and worldwide there are over 30 large carriers who each service hundreds of thousands of
subscribers.
A carrier uses either the Global System for Communication (GSM) radio system or the Code Division Multiple
Access (CDMA) radio system for its cellular network. These systems differ in technology, but offer the same
services.
Carrier Types
There are different types of cell carriers:
•
GSM Carriers – these cell companies use GSM networks, and their phones identify with the carrier
network through the use of a SIM card. This makes it easy for users to swap GSM phones and retain their
phone number and account information. AT&T and T-Mobile are GSM carriers.
•
CDMA Carriers – these cell companies use CDMA networks, and CDMA phones use an ESN (Electronic
Serial Number) to identify with the carrier network. If a user wants to change to another CDMA phone,
he or she must contact the carrier and perform an ESN change. Sprint and Verizon are CDMA carriers.
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Pre-Paid Carriers – these are carriers that charge an up-front fee for services, and are run by either a
CDMA or GSM carrier, or by a third party carrier who “piggybacks” services off a major carrier network.
TracFone is a well-known pre-paid carrier. Popular pre-paid carriers in the US include Cricket, Virgin
Mobile, and Straight Talk Wireless.
Note that GSM and CDMA are not inter-operable. Most phones designed to work on one type of network
cannot operate on the other. Some newer phones include circuitry that will accommodate crossover. For
example, this could allow you to use a CDMA network in the US and also connect to a GSM network while
you are traveling in Canada.
Network Coverage
One of the factors you might take into consideration when trying to decide which carrier to use is network
coverage. Different carriers have different coverage areas, depending on how (and where) they have built
their cell tower infrastructure.
Coverage area is important for service. That is, you can’t get service on your cell network if there are none of
your carrier’s cell towers in the area. Now, cell carriers make arrangements with each other so that when you
wander outside of your carrier’s cell coverage area, you can obtain service on another carrier’s network.
However, you will have to pay a special fee called a roaming charge whenever this happens.
Do some research when you are selecting a carrier. Most of them show coverage maps on their web sites
and in their advertising materials.
How Cellular Service Differs from Internet Service
In these days when you can make phone calls over the Internet, and surf the Internet on your phone, you
may ask how cellular service differs from Internet service. The primary difference is a matter of mobility:
•
Internet service comes to your home (or school or office) and that is where it stays. You may connect to
it from different areas of your house or office or campus, but the service comes to your premises at one
location, and you must be on the premises to use it. For all intents and purposes, Internet service is
stationary.
•
Cellular service, by its very design, travels with you and is available anywhere your provider has a cell
network. When you wander outside of your carrier’s cell coverage area, your phone can roam and use
services from another carrier. Cellular service is truly mobile.
Obtaining Cell Service
Objective 1-1.1
When you want to purchase cell service, you are faced with a dizzying number of options. Do you want to
sign a contract or go month-to-month? What type of service plan do you need? Will you use add-on services?
Let’s explore some of the options.
Contract Services
Large cell providers usually provide coverage on a contract basis and require you to honor the contract (that
is, to continue paying for service) for a specific length of time, usually 24 months.
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Contracts are per line of service. That is, if you want service for two phones (one for you, and one for your
significant other), you must purchase two lines of service and therefore sign two contracts – one for each
line. When you open a new line of service, you often have to pay an activation fee.
Early Termination Fee
If you cancel a contract before the 24-month period has been reached, you are required to pay a substantial
early termination fee.
In one carrier’s plan, for example, if you cancel any time during the first seven months of the contract, the
early termination fee is $350 USD. The fee is reduced by $10 per month between months 8-18, reduced by
$20 per month between months 19-23, and reduced $60 in the final month of the contract term.
Benefits of Contracts
The benefit to signing a contract for service is that carriers often make the latest model phones available at
little or no up-front cost to you when you sign up for a line of service. The cost of the phone is then rolled
into the monthly service charge; however, carriers generally apply discounts to your contract so that you pay
a substantially reduced price for your phone.
Additionally, once the contract period ends for a particular line of service, you are free to upgrade to a new
phone (again, for little or no up-front cost and at a substantial discount) as long as you renew the line of
service contract for another 24 months.
Contracts Vary Widely
Carriers offer widely different contract plans. It is important to do a little homework and investigate what is
available. Get clear answers on contract terms and conditions before you sign any paperwork.
Pre-Paid Services
Pre-paid carriers provide cellular service on a month-to-month basis and do not require users to sign a
contract that obligates them to continue to pay for service for a certain number of months.
Pre-paid plans are good for people with no credit history (or with poor credit history) because no credit check
is required. There is usually no activation fee required either. Additionally, you may find a pre-paid plan
attractive because:
•
There are no overage fees – you buy your minutes, and when you use them up, you cannot make any
more calls (except for emergency services calls) or send/receive any more texts until you purchase more
minutes.
•
Leftover minutes from one month (usually) roll over to the next month. You should check the details of
your plan carefully to see how leftover minutes are handled.
•
If you use a cell phone only occasionally, you do not need to purchase a large quantity of minutes. You
should, however, check to see if there is a time limit imposed on unused minutes. For example, do unused
minutes expire after 3 months?
Some carriers offer pre-paid plans that offer unlimited minutes. On these types of plan, you pay a set amount
every month on a month-to-month basis instead of buying minutes as you need them.
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Cellular Service Plans
Because cellular service provides for voice, text and data, service plans include these three elements in their
pricing points, depending on which plan you choose. Generally, these are referred to as:
•
Talk – refers to sending and receiving voice calls. Some plans allot a certain number of free talk minutes
per month, and then charge a specific amount per minute for every minute that exceeds the allotted
number of minutes. Other plans allow for an unlimited number of voice calls every month.
•
Text – refers to the sending and receiving of text messages (SMS) and picture and video messages
(MMS). Some plans allow for a certain number of text messages per month, and charge a fee for each
text message that exceeds the allotment. Other plans allow for unlimited text messaging every month.
•
Data – refers to information that you upload and download to and from the Internet. This includes app
updates, notifications, GPS information, as well as email, uploading or downloading large files, streaming
audio and streaming video. Most carriers provide several options for data plans, each allowing a certain
amount of data (measured in GB) per month for a per-month fee. If you download more than your
allotment, you will be charged for each additional GB of data. Some carriers also offer plans that allow
for unlimited data usage.
Note: If you use a basic cell phone as opposed to a smart phone, you are not required to purchase a data
plan. However, if you use a smart phone, you must buy a data plan as part of your service package, unless
you sign up for a “Wi-Fi Only” smart phone plan. On this type of plan, you will pay for ANY and ALL data
that you download over the cellular network.
You can purchase a plan for each phone, or you can purchase one of many family plans that allows all the
lines of service on a particular account to share plan minutes, text and data.
Most carriers offer plans for smart phones, basic phones, and data devices such as cellular-enabled tablets.
These devices can access the cellular network (because they have their own line of service) but cannot be
used to make phone calls.
Plan Add-Ons
Many carriers also offer add-on features that you can purchase for each line of service, including international
calling plans, extra data, insurance plans that protect against theft and damage, and the ability to use your
phone as a mobile hotspot.
Cellular Devices
Objective 1-1.2, 1-1.3
Cellular devices connect to your carrier’s cellular network. Each device must be recognized by the carrier
network (either through a SIM card or an ESN number programmed into the device).
Devices include basic cell phones, smart phones, and cellular-enabled tablets.
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Smart Phones
We have already discussed smart phones to a certain extent in a previous lesson. In this lesson, the thing to
consider about smart phones is that they are designed to keep you connected – 24/7. An average user installs
and enables apps on a smart phone that broadcast location and GPS information, receive notifications night
and day from email and Instagram and Facebook, look for Wi-Fi networks, look for Bluetooth devices and so
on. They are active devices, and usually need to be recharged every night.
We use them for doing work. We use them for communication. We use them to “carry” our insurance cards
and coupons and address books and phone books. We use them for entertainment. We use them for social
activities like taking pictures and video. We use them for shopping, and we use them to pay at the cash
register.
It can be argued that smart phones are more like computers with voice call capability than they are like
phones with computing capability. They are complex, expensive, and, if we are not vigilant, they can consume
enormous quantities of our time precisely because they keep us connected. They bring an endless stream of
information to our hands and sometimes they are difficult to put down. They can make it difficult for us to
disengage.
Basic Cell Phone
The basic cell phone (think of the old model flip phone) is designed primarily for making and receiving voice
calls. The call quality is sometimes better than what you can find on a smart phone. The basic phone is also
less expensive, more durable (they can survive quite a few falls without becoming unusable or cracking a
screen), and a single charge can last from three days to a week.
Additionally, they are smaller than smart phones, simple to use because you need only flip it open to answer
it, and flip it closed to hang up., and secure because they cannot be used to store a lot of personal information
(like banking account and credit card information) the way smart phones can.
Although you can use a basic phone to access the Internet, the functionality is quite limited since they are
not designed with large color displays and touch screen capability. To check your email, you can use the
phone’s built-in email client (if it has one) or you can use a web browser and navigate to a web-based email
site such as Gmail, Yahoo, or Hotmail.
For people who do not wish to be connected all the time, a basic phone is a viable choice.
Cellular-Enabled Tablets
A cellular-enabled tablet looks and feels like a standard tablet, and it can even connect to Wi-Fi just like a
“regular” tablet. But it has the extra capability of connecting to your carrier’s cellular network.
A cellular-enabled tablet includes a SIM (or is programmed with an ESN) so that it can connect to the carrier
network. To use a cellular-enabled tablet you must purchase a separate line of service for the tablet and a
data plan. In some cases, you may be able to share a data plan between your tablet and your phone; it
depends on your carrier. The tablet will be assigned a phone number for identification purposes (although
you won’t be able to use it to make voice calls).
Cellular-enabled tablets run a mobile operating system, such as Android or iOS, and can run the same apps
they run while they are using Wi-Fi.
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Having a tablet with cell service allows you to use the tablet for Internet-related tasks anywhere – you are no
longer limited to areas where you can get a Wi-Fi signal. And most cell tablets have LTE capabilities, which
makes them ideal for streaming movies and music.
Mobile Data
When a smart phone, cell phone, or cellular-enabled tablet access the Internet using the cell carrier’s network,
all data that is uploaded and downloaded is referred to as mobile data. Any time you download an app, look
at your email, surf the Internet, or check up on friends on Facebook, you are using mobile data.
Cell carriers allow you only so much mobile data per month, as dictated by the terms of your data plan. If
you go over your limit, you have to pay a fairly hefty price for the overage. For example, on the Verizon
network, you must pay $15 USD for each GB of data over your allowance – and whether it is a full GB or not,
you pay for the entire GB. If you are more than 1GB over, then you pay $30, and so on.
Mobile data can be very expensive (even though it is the same data that you can access on Wi-Fi for no
charge).
Note: On some plans, if you exceed your data allowance, your carrier will slow down your connection
speed for the remainder of the month, and you may not be able to use all of your phone’s features, like
visual voice mail.
Enabling Wi-Fi on your Mobile Device
Smart phones and tablets have built-in Wi-Fi capability, and on many smart phones, Wi-Fi is turned on by
default. This is convenient because Wi-Fi is faster than 3G data connections. When you perform Internet-
related tasks over Wi-Fi, the uploading and downloading of files takes place through the WLAN instead of
through mobile data. That is, tasks performed over Wi-Fi do not impact your data plan allowances.
Using Wi-Fi whenever possible makes a lot of sense, especially if you consume a lot of online media. Viewing
photos on web pages and streaming music and video will quickly eat up your available data. If you use your
phone or tablet to watch a lot of streaming movies or television shows, it is much more cost-effective to use
Wi-Fi.
If there is no available Wi-Fi, then the phone switches to the cellular data network.
To enable Wi-Fi on your Android device:
1.
Tap Apps, then tap Settings, then tap Wi-Fi.
2.
Tap the button at the top of the screen to toggle Wi-Fi on.
3.
Select and connect to a WLAN.
To enable Wi-Fi on your iOS device:
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1.
Tap Settings, then tap Wi-Fi.
2.
Tap the button at the top of the screen to toggle Wi-Fi on.
3.
Select and connect to a WLAN.
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Lesson 3
Turning Off Mobile Data
Additionally, smart phones and cellular-enabled tablets measure your data
usage and include mobile data settings. This figure shows the Data usage screen
on an Android phone. Notice that you can enable or disable settings to limit
mobile data usage and to generate alerts concerning mobile data usage.
You can temporarily turn off mobile data to prevent apps from using the cellular
network to send or receive data. Turning off mobile data forces data services like
email, web browsing and push notifications to use Wi-Fi.
You can also scroll down the page and view the amount of data used by each
app.
To turn off mobile data on your Android device:
1.
Tap Apps, tap Settings, then tap Data usage.
2.
Tap the Mobile data button to turn mobile data off.
3.
Confirm that you want to turn off mobile data by tapping OK.
To turn off mobile data on your iOS device:
1.
Tap Settings, then tap Cellular.
2.
Tap the Cellular Data button to turn mobile data off.
Exercise 3-5: Viewing your mobile data usage
In this optional exercise, you will view your mobile data usage on your smart phone or tablet. Note that you
can perform the steps of this exercise only if you have a smart phone or cellular-enabled tablet.
1.
On your mobile device, open the Settings menu and then view your mobile data usage. Do you use more
2.
If possible, view the amount of data used by each app. Which ones use the most data? Which use the
3.
What are some ways you can limit or control your mobile data consumption?
or less mobile data than you expected?
least?
Hard-Wired Phones
Objective 1-1.4
A hard-wired phone (or “landline” phone) is connected to a telephone jack in the wall using a standard
telephone line (copper wiring). The telephone jack is connected to a local telephone switch, which is
connected to the rest of the telephone network. The phone may be fixed or cordless. (A cordless phone is
different than a mobile phone – a cordless phone handset sends and receives wireless signals from the
cordless phone base station, but the base station itself is connected by a wire to a telephone jack.)
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For a set monthly service fee, you can call anyone in your calling area without additional charge. Calls outside
your local calling area are considered long-distance and usually incur an extra charge based on the duration
of the call.
Advantages and Disadvantages
Landline phones require voltage for ringing and dialing, and this power is delivered from the telephone
network through the phone line itself. For this reason, you can use a landline phone to place a call even
during a power outage. VoIP phones, which use the Internet, are dependent upon routers and modems
(which all require AC power). You cannot use a VoIP phone during a power outage.
Another advantage of landline service is that the service is extremely reliable and provides excellent sound
quality. In fact, landlines are so reliable, residential and business alarm systems are tied in to a landline and
place a call to the alarm company and/or to emergency services when a break-in is detected.
An obvious limitation of a landline phone is that the service is not portable. The phone must be connected
to the telephone jack.
Private Branch Exchange (PBX)
To save money on leasing public telephone lines for each employee, many businesses lease a few lines from
the phone company for making out-going calls, and use a private branch exchange (PBX) to manage internal
calls among their telephones. A PBX is a private telephone switch; it allows businesses to create their own
internal telephone-numbering scheme and to keep all internal calls separate from the telephone network.
Businesses can also save money on phone lines using an IP version of a PBX; this is called an IP PBX and
performs the same functions as a PBX, except that it is designed to work with IP phones.
If your business, school, or organization uses a PBX, then you (may):
•
Use short code dialing (that is, you dial only the extension) to reach anyone within your office or campus
•
Dial an access code (such 9 or 0) to access an outside line to make a call outside your office or campus
Business Telephones
Because businesses typically use more advanced phone features than home users, business phones have a
different design and appearance from residential phones.
The buttons and specific key press sequences for performing certain tasks differ from one make and model
to another, but for the most part you can perform the following functions by taking the described actions:
•
Put a call on hold – press the Hold button. When you are ready to resume the call, press the Hold button
again.
•
Transfer a call – On most business phones you can transfer a call by selecting the line you want to
transfer, pressing the Transfer button (this puts the caller on hold), waiting for a dial tone and then dialing
an internal extension. You would then wait for the party to answer, then press Transfer again, and then
hang up.)
On phones that do not include a Transfer button, you press the Flash button, wait for a recall dial tone
(3 beeps and then a dial tone), dial the number to which you want to transfer the call, wait for the party
to answer, and then hang up. If the person you are trying to reach does not answer, you can press the
Flash button again to return to the caller.
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•
Lesson 3
Create a conference call – a conference call involves at least three parties. While you are on an active
call, press the Conference button, dial the number of a party you want to add to the call, then press
Conference again so that all three of you can converse on the call.
Voice Mail
Objective 1-1.4
A voicemail system is a centralized system used in businesses for sending, storing, and retrieving audio
messages. Residential and cell phone service plans also often include voice mail capabilities.
In a business phone system, each extension is usually linked to a voice mailbox. When a party calls a number
and the line is not answered or is busy, the call is sent over to the voice mailbox. The caller will hear a greeting
message previously recorded by the user. This message can give instructions to the caller to leave a voice
message, or may provide other options, such as paging the user or being transferred to another extension
or to a receptionist.
Voice mail systems also provide notifications to the user to alert them when they have received new voice
mail messages. Most systems provide multiple ways for users to check their voice mail, including accessing
the voice mailbox through a PC, or from a landline phone or even a mobile phone.
Configuring Your Voice Mail
Voice mail systems guide you through a menu of options and choices. Listen to the voice prompts and follow
the instructions. At various points you will be asked to record information, after which you are usually given
the options to keep your recording, or to discard and record again. You indicate your choice by pressing a
specific key on the dial pad, for example, you might be instructed to press 1 to keep your recording, or 2 to
discard it and record again.
The first time you configure your voice mail, you may be prompted to state your name slowly and clearly,
and to create and confirm a PIN code that you will use later to access your messages, and configure your
greeting messages.
Follow the voice prompts to record a general greeting, and any supplemental greetings, such as an out of
office message. The voice mail configuration program will guide you through setting up greeting messages
and turning specific ones on or off.
A suitable business voice mail greeting should include the following information:
•
Your name, department, and company name
•
A brief apology that you cannot take a call right now
•
An invitation to leave a message
•
An indication of when the caller can expect a return call
•
Any additional options that might be available to a customer, such as your web site address or the name
and number of an associate within your company.
Retrieving Your Messages
Most phones show a notification when you have new, unheard voice mail messages. On some phones, a red
light illuminates, on others a voice mail message icon displays.
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You may need to dial a specific number, or press a button to call the voice mail system. You may then be
required to enter a PIN to access your messages.
Follow the voice prompts to play your messages. After you have listened to a message you are usually given
the option to erase the message or save it in the message archive. You can retrieve and replay archived
messages at any time.
Voice Mail on Your Mobile Phone
Cellular plans also include voice mail. The voice mail phone number is usually included in the default list of
contacts. You can access your voice mail through the Contacts list or by dialing the number directly. (Often,
this is a shortcut number, such as *86.)
As with business phone systems, the voice mail system on a mobile phone uses voice prompts to guide you
through the menu options. The first time you call the voice mail system, you will be prompted to create and
confirm a numeric password, and to record a greeting.
If a caller cannot reach you on your mobile phone, he or she is sent to your voice mailbox. However, if you
have not set up your voice mailbox, the caller will be informed that the mailbox has not been set up, and the
caller will be unable to leave you a voice mail message.
Many cellular providers offer a form of visual voice mail, which lets you see and manipulate your voice mail
messages on the screen. However, there is often a monthly fee associated with using visual voice mail.
Personal or Business
Obviously, a voice mail greeting for a personal phone number can be less formal than one that you use for
a business number. However, if you use your mobile phone for both business and personal calls, you should
ensure that your greeting is suitable for both types of callers.
Retrieving Messages
Your mobile phone will display an icon when you have new, unheard voice messages waiting for you. You
must call the voice mail system and log in (enter your password) to access your mailbox. You can play your
unheard messages, discard them, or archive them. You can also record greetings, and configure pager
settings from within the voice mail system.
Mailbox Full
If you receive a high quantity of voice mail messages and do not clear out your voice mailbox, the mailbox
will become full and callers will not be able to leave new messages. The mailbox will remain full until you
listen to and clear out the existing messages.
Leaving a Clear Voice Mail Message
Many people freeze up when prompted to leave a voice mail message (especially when making a business
call), and hang up the phone instead! A little preparation can help alleviate this issue.
Before you place your call, prepare in advance a sentence or two that summarizes the nature and purpose of
your call. A clear and understandable voice mail message is much more likely to get a response than one
that rambles on and on.
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Additionally, plan to include the following items in your voice mail message:
•
Identify yourself by first and last name, and if appropriate, state the name of your company.
•
State the number (or numbers) at which you can be reached, and if appropriate, during which time
frames. You might also provide your email address if you are willing to accept a response via email.
•
Mention the date and time you are calling.
•
Briefly describe the nature and purpose of your call.
•
Ask the person to call you back at their earliest convenience (or in whatever time frame is required).
•
Repeat the number at which you can be reached.
•
Thank them for their time.
It is not difficult to leave a clear, concise message, and it is usually greatly appreciated.
Lesson Summary
In this lesson, you examined different types of networks, explored subscription and contract costs, examined
connection technologies and hardware. You also learned how to configure and use voice mail and how to manage
mobile data usage. You should now be familiar with:

the benefits of networking

Wi-Fi connections and wireless security

basic data network concepts

basic cellular network concepts

how to obtain Internet service

how to obtain cellular service

broadband technologies and speeds

how smart phones and tablets connect to the Internet

LAN hardware and addressing

basic telephone network concepts

Ethernet connections

how to configure and use voice mail
Review Questions
1.
2.
3.
Which protocol is required to access the Internet?
a.
802.11a
c.
802.11ac
b.
TCP/IP
d.
TKIP
Which of the following is an example of a private network?
a.
The Internet.
b.
The telephone network.
c.
Your carrier’s cell network.
d.
Your company’s LAN.
Which of the following broadband technologies is the fastest?
a.
DSL
c.
Broadband cable
b.
Satellite
d.
3G cellular
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Ann’s cable modem has only one Ethernet port and does not support wireless connections. What must
she add to her network in order to share her Internet connection with her laptop, tablet and smart
phone?
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
a.
A wireless broadband router.
b.
A network printer.
c.
An optical network terminal.
d.
A satellite dish.
How fast is Fast Ethernet?
a.
10 Mbps
c.
1,000 Mbps
b.
100 Mbps
d.
10,000 Mbps
Which two frequency bands are used by wireless LANs?
a.
The 88MHz band and the 206MHz band.
b.
The 800MHz band and the 1.2GHz band.
c.
The 2.4GHz band and the 5GHz band.
d.
The 54MHz band and the 300GHz band.
Which Wi-Fi standard is the fastest?
a.
802.11a
c.
802.11g
b.
802.11ac
d.
802.11n
Which wireless standard simplifies the process of adding a device to a WLAN?
a.
WPA
c.
WEP
b.
WPA2
d.
WPS
Which cellular network is fastest?
a.
1G
c.
3G
b.
2G
d.
LTE
10. Sue made a big bowl of popcorn and is planning to stream four hours of Disney movies to her cellenabled tablet. Why has she opted to use Wi-Fi for her movie night?
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a.
Wi-Fi gives a clearer picture.
b.
Using Wi-Fi won’t impact her data plan.
c.
Wi-Fi provides for true surround-sound.
d.
No special reason; Sue is just being whimsical.
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Computing Fundamentals
Lesson 4: File Management
Lesson Objectives
In this lesson, you will learn to use Windows File Explorer to find, move, open, and manage files. You will work
with windows, learn about default locations, learn about file types and file permissions. Upon completion of this
lesson, you should be able to:

navigate a directory and follow paths

work with the Recycle Bin

understand rights and permissions

describe default file locations

use File Explorer

share pictures on a smart phone

work with windows

manage electronic media

recognize different types of files

share files with other users

work with files and folders

zip and unzip files

find files
Understanding Folders and Directory
Structure
Objective 1-3.6
Computers are designed to store and manage information. In order to do that successfully, they must provide
a logical storage methodology and an interface that allows a user to see and work with the stored data.
All computer storage devices are arranged into a logical, hierarchical structure that makes it possible to store
and retrieve data. It does not matter if you are working with a hard disk inside your PC, a flash drive connected
to a USB port on your laptop, an SD card inserted into a card reader slot, or a storage location on a server
somewhere in cyberspace – all storage locations can be traced through a logical, hierarchical path.
Drive Letters
On a personal computer, each storage device (or location) is referred to by a drive letter. This applies to
internal storage devices, mapped network folders, and externally connected storage devices as well.
The hard drive in a PC is drive C. This is where the operating system and application programs are installed.
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Note: In the early days of personal computing, the letters A and B were reserved
for disk drives that accommodated removable storage media called floppy disks.
Hard drives did not become available until sometime later, and when they did,
the letter C became the standard drive letter for hard disk drives.
When you write a designation for a drive letter, you follow the letter with a colon (:). For example, you would
write C: to refer to drive C.
Additional Internal Storage Devices
Computers can accommodate multiple internal storage devices, and each is assigned a drive letter when it is
installed. Usually, the next available alphabet letter is used. Consider the following examples:
•
if your PC has two hard drives: the primary hard drive is drive C and the secondary hard drive is drive D.
•
if your PC has one hard drive and an internal DVD drive, the hard drive is drive C and the DVD drive is
drive D.
•
if your PC has two hard drives and a DVD drive, the primary hard drive is drive C, the secondary hard
drive is drive D, and the DVD drive is drive E.
The drive designation of an internal storage device does not change unless you manually change it.
Mapped Network Locations
If you have access to shared network locations, you can create
shortcuts to these locations by “mapping” a particular location and
assigning it a drive letter. The process of drive mapping is simply a
matter of tracing the path to a particular network location and telling
the operating system that you want to refer to this location using a
particular drive letter. The process is manual, and you can select
whichever available letter you want to use.
The following figure shows a graphical representation of a PC with one
internal hard drive (C:), and two mapped network locations (H: and L:).
Connected Storage Devices
When you connect an external storage device to your PC (for example, through a USB port or an SD card
slot), the operating system automatically assigns the next available drive letter to that device. The following
figure shows a PC with one hard drive, two mapped network drives, and two connected flash drives (D: and
F:) and an inserted SD card (E:).
Because external storage devices are constantly connected and then disconnected, drive designations for
these devices are assigned each time a device is connected. A particular flash drive may be drive E on Monday,
and drive G on Wednesday, depending on whether other external devices are connected on Wednesday
before the flash drive is connected.
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Folders and Subfolders
You can store files in the root folder of a drive; however, it is more efficient to store files in folders. A folder
is a container for files and provides a method for organizing information; it’s something like a hanging folder
in a file cabinet within which you can organize other folders and files. A subfolder is simply a folder contained
within another folder, and the terms folder and subfolder are often used interchangeably.
A folder that you create is represented by a yellow icon that looks like a file folder
using Windows or an application program.
. You can create folders
Additionally, Windows provides a feature called libraries to help you access files quickly. A library is a
collection of items, such as files and folders, assembled from various locations and presented in one central
location. A library looks and acts like a folder, and they are often referred to as folders. For example, the
Documents library is often called the “Documents folder.” The libraries in Windows 10 are: Camera Roll,
Documents, Music, Pictures, Saved Pictures, and Videos.
Directories and Paths
The organization of files and folders on a disk is called a directory or a directory tree. The highest level of any
directory on a disk is the root folder, or root directory. The root directory is always represented by the drive
letter and a colon, followed by a backslash (\). For example, the root directory of the hard drive is represented
as C:\.
Every file on a computer is stored in a particular location on a disk, and that location is described by its path.
A path indicates the exact route to follow to get to the location of a file. When you write a path, you separate
each folder level with a backslash.
Consider the directory structure shown at the right:
•
The structure shows the Documents library with two folders: one called 7500
Student Files, and another called Annual Reports.
•
The Annual Reports folder contains two subfolders; one called 2015 and one
called 2016.
•
Stored within the 2016 folder are four files named: Balance Sheet, Budget
2016, ComputerSales, and Meeting Minutes 4-26-16.
If you were to verbally describe how to find the Balance Sheet file, you could say, "Go to Documents, then
Annual Reports, then the Balance Sheet document is inside the 2016 folder."
If you were to write your description of how to find the file in "path notation", it would appear as follows:
Documents\Annual Reports\2016\Balance Sheet.
Connecting “Smart” Devices
Objective 1-3.6
When you connect a smart device to a PC, the device appears as a location/folder. A smart device is one that
includes its own operating system. Smart phones, tablets, and eReaders are examples of smart devices. You
can connect a smart device to your PC using a USB cable, usually for the purpose of copying or moving files
from the device to your computer.
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Once the device is connected, you can navigate its internal storage system just as you can a folder within
your PC. The following figure shows part of the internal storage system of an Android tablet (identified as
QMV7B) connected to a PC.
File and Folder Permissions
Objective 1-3.6, 1-3.10
File permissions are rules that determine whether you can access a file and what you can do with it. Let’s
begin our discussion by defining two basic file permissions:
Read
You can view the names of files and folders on the network, view the contents of files, and execute
application program files.
Write You can view the names and contents of files and folders, and can create new files and folders,
modify the contents of files, and delete files and folders.
As a standard user, you can create, edit, view or print files for your
own user account. You cannot, however, work with files and
folders created by another user on the system. In fact, you will
not be able to access folders stored under another user’s profile
– if you try to navigate to another user’s folder, the operating
system denies you access.
Only a user with an Administrator account can work with files stored under another user’s profile.
Additionally, the operating system may restrict you from saving or altering files in certain locations. For
example, if you want to paste a file into the root directory of the hard drive, administrator level privileges are
required.
Network Access
If you work on a network, for example at your school or within your organization, there may be areas of the
network that you cannot access. The network administrator controls which users can access specific network
resources, such as printers, or servers, or files stored in network folders. One of the primary job roles of a
network administrator to protect an organization’s assets. This is generally accomplished by providing the
least amount of access privileges required for users to perform their daily tasks.
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For example, a user in data entry who spends all day entering customer orders into the company database
does not require access to the company web server, except perhaps to request web pages on the company
intranet. The web server administrator on the other hand, requires access to the web server, but does not
require access to confidential documents handled by the Human Resources department.
By restricting access to resources or folders that contain sensitive information, network administrators keep
the organization’s data secure.
If you need to access files stored in a specific network location, the network administrator will set specific
permissions for those files that control what you can do with them. For example, you might have access to a
document in a network folder, but even though you can read the document, you might not have permissions
to make changes to it.
Additionally, you may be able to view the contents of some network folders, but not be able to create or save
files to those folders. There might also be some folders that you cannot access at all.
If you need to work in a specific file or folder stored in a network location, but do not currently have sufficient
permissions, you should contact the network administrator so that he or she can adjust your rights
accordingly.
Understanding Local and Remote Locations
In terms of computing, a local location is a drive or folder on a storage location within the computer or
immediately attached to the computer (for example, a folder on a connected flash drive or an SD card).
A remote location is one that you access over a network (either wired or wireless). Computers you connect to
over the Internet, storage locations in the cloud, and shared network folders on your organization’s LAN or
on another computer in your private LAN or Windows Homegroup are all examples of remote locations.
Using File Explorer
Objective 1-3.3
The graphical representations of locations, directories and files that you have seen so far in this lesson are
part of the interface of File Explorer. File Explorer is the file management interface of Microsoft Windows. It
provides a GUI for accessing and working with files.
Like any other task you perform on your PC, every interaction you have with File Explorer takes place inside
one or more windows. You use different types of windows depending on what you are doing, but all windows
share similar features.
To open File Explorer:
•
click the File Explorer icon
•
click Start, then click File Explorer; or
•
double-click a folder on the Desktop; or
•
press WINDOWS+E.
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The following figure shows a typical File Explorer window.
Control
Menu
Refresh
Quick Access
Toolbar
Address Bar
Expand/Minimize
Ribbon
Control Buttons
Title Bar
Help
Ribbon Tabs
Previous Locations
Search Box
Navigation
Buttons
Split Bar
Contents Pane
View
Buttons
Navigation Pane
Status Bar
Control Menu
Click to display options to restore, move, size, minimize, maximize, or close the window.
Quick Access
Contains buttons for frequently used commands. By default, it displays the Properties,
Toolbar
New Folder, and Customize Quick Access Toolbar buttons. However, you can add the
Undo, Redo, Delete, and Rename commands to the toolbar. You can also specify to show
the toolbar below the ribbon.
Title Bar
In File Explorer, the title bar displays the name of the currently selected folder. In an
application window, the title bar displays the name of the application and the name of
the active file.
Control Buttons Change the way currently open windows are displayed, as follows:
•
File Menu
(Minimize) Temporarily closes the window, replacing it as a button on the
taskbar. Click the button on the taskbar to open or restore the window.
•
(Maximize) Displays the window full screen.
•
(Restore Down) Restores the window to the size it was before it was maximized.
•
(Close) Closes the window.
Displays options for working in the current folder. For example, you can open another
window that shows the contents of the current folder, or you can open a command
prompt window or a Power Shell Tools window. You can also open a dialog box that
allows you to configure options for the current folder.
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Ribbon Tabs
File Explorer windows include ribbons for working with files. When you click on a tab, the
ribbon expands to display the available commands. When you click a command on the
ribbon, the ribbon minimizes again. The File Explorer ribbon tabs are:
•
•
•
The Home tab includes commands for copying, moving, and renaming files.
The Share tab includes commands for emailing, printing, sharing, or compressing files.
The View tab includes commands for changing the display of the contents in the
current folder.
Some ribbons are contextual and, when appropriate, display on a Manage tab. For
example, if you are working in a folder that contains image files, the Manage tab appears
and displays a Picture Tools ribbon which includes commands for rotating images, setting
an image as a background, or displaying images in a slide show.
Expand or
Minimize the
Ribbon
Click
click a command. When the ribbon is expanded, this button changes to
Ribbon), which you can click to minimize the ribbon at any time.
Help
Click
Navigation
Use
Buttons
(Expand the Ribbon) to expand the ribbon and keep it expanded, even after you
Explorer.
(Minimize the
to open the browser to a page of Help topics related to using Windows 10 File
(Back) or
and folders.
(Forward) to navigate back and forth among previous views of files
Click
(Recent Locations) to display a list of locations recently visited in File Explorer.
Click
(Up One Level) to move up one level in the path.
Click a location in the list to jump to it.
Address Bar
Indicates the current location and facilitates quick and easy navigation. This feature allows
you to click the name of any folder visible in the path so that you can go to that folder, or
click the arrow that appears next to any item and see other items at the same level in the
folder hierarchy. The Address Bar is also known as the Breadcrumb Bar.
Previous
Click
Refresh
Click
Search Box
Use this box to search for a file for folder within the current folder (and its subfolders).
Locations
at the right end of the path to open a drop-down list of previously visited
locations. Click a location in the list to jump to it.
to refresh the display in the Contents pane.
Navigation Pane Displays drives and folders in a tree view. Click a drive or folder in the Navigation pane to
view its contents in the Contents pane. The contents of the Navigation pane are
commonly called the Folder list.
Contents Pane
Displays the contents of the drive or folder currently selected in the Navigation pane.
Split Bar
The split bar separates the Navigation pane from the Contents pane. Click and drag the
Status Bar
Displays properties or details about the item(s) currently selected in the Contents pane.
View Buttons
Affects the display in the Contents pane. Click
Double-click a file or folder in the Contents pane to open it.
split bar to show more or less of the Navigation pane.
or click
to view details about each file or folder;
to view thumbnails of each file or folder.
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Exercise 4-1: Viewing File Explorer windows
In this exercise, you will practice working with File Explorer windows.
1.
In the Window taskbar, click the File Explorer icon.
2.
Click the Maximize button at the top right corner of the window.
3.
Click the Minimize button. The File Explorer window disappears from the screen. Notice that the File
Explorer icon now displays with a line beneath it, indicating that it is a button. You can access the File
Explorer window from its taskbar button.
4.
Click the File Explorer button on the taskbar to redisplay the maximized File Explorer window.
5.
Click the Restore Down button at the top right corner of the window to reduce its size.
6.
In the Navigation pane, under the Quick Access heading, click Desktop to view the contents of the
Desktop in the Contents pane. (It is okay if only the 7500 Student Files folder displays in the File Explorer
window.)
7.
8.
9.
At the bottom right corner of the Contents pane, click each of the two view buttons to compare the
views. Ensure that thumbnails are displayed before proceeding to the next step.
Click the View tab to display the ribbon, then in the Layout group, click List. Now the names of the files
and folders display in a list. Notice that the ribbon minimized as soon as you clicked a command.
Click the Close button to close the File Explorer window. The window is removed from the screen, and
the File Explorer button in the taskbar becomes an icon (without an underline) once again.
Moving a Window
You can move a window anywhere on the desktop using the mouse or keyboard.
•
Position the mouse pointer anywhere on the title bar and then drag the window to a new location.
•
With the keyboard, press ALT+SPACEBAR to open the control menu. Press the
DOWN ARROW key to select the Move command and press ENTER to put the
window into move mode. Using the arrow direction keys, move the window to
the new location and then press ENTER again to exit move mode.
Maximized windows cannot be moved because they occupy the entire screen. You
can only move a restored (that is, not maximized) window.
Sizing a Window
On occasion you may want to change the size of the window so that you can see more or less of the
information inside it, or so that you can view that information in multiple windows. You can use the mouse
or the keyboard to size a window.
•
Position the mouse pointer anywhere on the border (side) to be sized. When you see the mouse cursor
change to a
(vertical double-headed arrow) for the top or bottom border, or
headed arrow) for the left or right border, drag the mouse to the desired size.
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•
To size the vertical and horizontal sides at the same time, position the mouse cursor on any corner of
the window, and then drag to the desired size for the window when you see
headed arrow). Some windows are set to a specific size and cannot be altered.
•
or
(diagonal double-
With the keyboard, press ALT+SPACEBAR to activate the control menu. Press the DOWN ARROW key to
select the Size command and press ENTER. Using the appropriate arrow direction key for the side you
want to size, press that direction key until the window is the size you want, and then press ENTER to exit
resize mode. You will need to repeat this action for every side to be sized.
Using Scroll Bars
If a window is too small to display all its contents, scroll bars will automatically appear vertically on the right
side of a window, and/or horizontally at the bottom.
A scroll bar consists of three parts: an arrow button at each end of the scroll bar,
a scroll box, and the scroll area. The scroll box is also called a thumb or an
elevator. The position of the scroll box within the scroll area provides an
Scroll Box
approximate gauge of where the information currently displayed in the window
is in relation to the entire window’s contents.
Use one of the following methods to move around with the scroll bars:
•
Click in the lighter shaded area above or below the scroll box to display the previous or subsequent
screen of information.
•
Click the arrow at either end of the vertical scroll bar once to display a line of information in that direction.
•
Click the arrow at either end of the horizontal scroll bar once to display a column of information in that
direction.
•
Click and hold down the mouse button on the arrow at either end of the scroll bar to have the screen
scroll in that direction.
•
Drag the scroll box to a specific area in the scroll area to move directly to that location. Depending on
the program, you may also see a tip showing where the cursor will be placed when you release the mouse
button.
Exercise 4-2: Moving and sizing windows
In this exercise, you will move a window around the screen and resize it.
1.
Click the File Explorer icon in the taskbar.
2.
If the window appears full screen, click the Restore Down button.
3.
Position the mouse pointer in the title bar of the window, then click and drag the window to a new
4.
Practice moving the window around to several different locations.
5.
Move the mouse pointer to the right edge of the window and hold the mouse over the border until the
6.
Drag the border to approximately one inch (2.5 cm) from the right side of the screen.
7.
Move the mouse pointer to the lower right corner of the window and drag the corner of the window
position on the desktop.
pointer changes to a horizontal double-headed arrow.
until the window is approximately half the current size.
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8.
Resize the window to approximately the size it was originally.
9.
Click Close to close the File Explorer window.
Working with Files and Folders
Objective 1-2.9, 1-3.6, 1-3.8, 1-3.9
A file is created using a specific program; the type of program determines what type of file it is.
Application File This type of file includes very detailed instructions for the microprocessor on what tasks
to perform (such as read, write, calculate) and is usually stored in a folder named for that
program, which in turn resides in the Program Files folder on your hard drive.
Data File
This type of file contains information you have entered and saved in one of the
applications you have on your computer. For example, you might have created a budget
file in Excel, a letter file in Word, a database in Access, and so on. These files can be stored
anywhere.
System File
This type of file also contains detailed instructions for the microprocessor on what tasks
to perform, except that they are part of the operating system. Many of these files are
hidden to protect them from being changed or deleted.
Regardless of the file type, all files appear with an icon that includes a symbol
of the associated program. Shown are examples of icons that appear beside an
application file (Excel), a data file (Excel workbook), and a system file (Windows).
Files or folders can be saved and displayed anywhere in Windows, including on the Desktop for quick access.
Consider the following when viewing files or folders:
An icon similar to one of these indicates that a data file or folder is saved in this location.
If a file is a data file, the miniature icon in the upper left corner represents the program
needed to view or modify the document. The text below the icon is the file or folder name.
If you delete a file or folder icon, you will delete the actual file or folder.
A similar icon with a small arrow at the lower left corner represents a shortcut to the
location where this data file or folder is saved. The arrow indicates that the icon is a
shortcut only. If you delete a shortcut icon from the desktop, only the shortcut is deleted
not the actual file.
An icon with a program symbol on it indicates that it is a shortcut to an application
program file. If you delete the icon, you are deleting only the shortcut, not the actual file
that starts the program.
Creating Folders
You can create folders at any level, including directly on the Windows Desktop. To create a folder, use one
of the following methods:
•
In a File Explorer window, click
in the Quick Access toolbar, or
•
right-click the location (drive or folder) for the new folder in the Folders list, click New, and then click
Folder, or
•
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right-click a blank area of the Contents pane, click New, and then click Folder.
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Windows creates the new folder and waits for you to give it a name. Type a name for the
folder and press ENTER.
Navigate to the location for the new folder before executing the New Folder command. The Address bar
displays the path or current location as a reminder.
Windows does not restrict where you create folders, or whether another folder shares the same name in
another location. It is recommended, however, that you keep folder names unique to prevent accidental
deletion or replacement of files and folders. You can rename or move any file or folder to another location,
as appropriate.
Renaming a Folder
The name of a folder can be as long or short as required (up to 255 characters), although with longer names,
the entire name may not be visible in certain views.
To change a folder’s name, use one of the following methods:
•
Click the folder icon to select it and then press F2 to activate the Edit mode, or
•
click the folder icon, then click inside the folder name to activate the Edit mode, or
•
right-click the folder and then click Rename from the shortcut menu, or
•
click the folder icon to select it and then on the Home tab, in the Organize group click Rename.
Whenever you see the folder name highlighted as shown here, you are in Edit mode. Once
the name is highlighted, you can type in a new name for the folder. Alternatively, you can
use the mouse pointer or arrow keys to move the cursor to the exact location in the folder
name where you would like to insert or delete characters.
Creating a Shortcut to a Folder
To create a shortcut to a folder, use one of the following methods:
•
Right-click a blank area on the Desktop, click New, and then click Shortcut, or
•
in File Explorer, navigate to a folder or library if necessary, right-click a blank area of the Contents pane
and then click New, and then click Shortcut.
Windows launches a wizard to help you create the shortcut.
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Click Browse to open the Browse for Files or Folders dialog box.
Click locations and folders in the dialog box until you work your way to the folder you want to set as the
target of your shortcut.
Click OK to set the shortcut target. Click Next in the wizard, type a name for your shortcut, then click Finish.
Exercise 4-3: Working with folders
In this exercise, you will create, and rename folders and, create shortcuts to folders.
Note: The following exercise requires that you have downloaded the student data files. If you have not
already done so, please follow the data file instructions in the Preface before proceeding.
1.
On the Desktop, double-click the 7500 Student Files folder.
2.
In the Contents pane, double-click File Mgmt. You are now viewing the files for this lesson.
3.
Click New folder in the Quick Access toolbar to create a new item near the top of the Contents pane.
4.
Type your first and last name for the new folder and press ENTER.
5.
Double-click your new folder to view the contents (it should be empty).
Now, create some subfolders within your folder.
6.
In the Contents pane, right-click to display the shortcut menu, click New, and then click Folder.
7.
Type: Personal and press ENTER. You have created a new folder that resides within the folder with your
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8.
Move up one level by clicking File Mgmt in the Address bar, as shown in the following:
You should now be looking at the contents of the File Mgmt folder. You can use the path in the Address
bar to help you navigate quickly to a specific location.
9.
Double-click the folder with your name once again to move back down one level.
10. In the Contents pane, right-click, click New, and then Folder.
11. Type: Worksheets as the name of the new folder and press ENTER.
12. Repeat steps 10 and 11 to create the Documents, Misc, and Slide Shows folders. When you are finished,
your folders should display as shown:
Tip: When adding new folders, be sure to right-click in a blank area of the Contents
pane. If necessary, make the window larger to show a blank area.
Now, try renaming a folder.
13. In the Contents pane in the File Explorer window, right-click the Documents folder, then click Rename
in the shortcut menu.
14. Type: Docs and press ENTER. The folder is renamed.
Now, try creating a shortcut on the Desktop that will take you to the Personal folder inside the folder with
your name.
15. In the Navigation pane in the File Explorer window, under This PC, click Desktop. The desktop contents
display in the Contents pane.
16. Right-click in a blank area of the Contents pane, click New, and click Shortcut.
17. Click the Browse button.
18. In the Browse for Files or Folders dialog box, click This PC, then click Desktop, then click 7500 Student
Files, then click File Mgmt, then click <your name>, then click Personal and click OK to set the target
for the shortcut.
19. In the Create Shortcut wizard, click Next.
20. Type: JustMe in the Type a name for this shortcut box, to specify a new name for the shortcut.
21. Click Finish. Windows creates the shortcut on the Desktop.
22. Minimize the File Explorer window.
23. On the Desktop, double-click the JustMe shortcut. Windows opens a new File Explorer window and
shows the contents of the 7500 Student Files\File Mgmt\<your name\Personal folder.
24. Close all open File Explorer windows.
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Working with Folders and Folder Options
You can change the appearance of the folder to suit your preferences by changing its properties. You can
also change the way you view folders and files, and display file types or extensions.
Changing Folder Options
To change the properties for a folder, select the folder then click the File menu and then Options to open
the Folder Options dialog box. (Note that sometimes this menu item displays as Change folder and search
options and at other times it displays as Options.) The Folder Options dialog box includes three tabs. The
General tab (shown in the following figure) includes three sections:
Open File Explorer to
Allows you to specify a default location to display within File
Explorer when you first launch it. You can choose Quick
access (default) or This PC.
Browse folders
Specifies whether each folder will open in the same window,
or in a different window so you can switch between the
windows.
Click items as follows
Provides options on whether to use a single- or double-click
to open items.
Privacy
Allows you to specify whether you want to show recently
used files and folders in the Quick access section.
Changing the View
There are different ways to display information for files and folders. Occasionally, you may want to sort files
in a specific order, or see more information for files and folders. Select the view options using one of the
following methods:
•
Click an option in the Layout section of the View
ribbon; or
•
right-click in a blank area of the Contents pane
and then click View:
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Available views are:
Extra Large Icons
Shows files and folders as very large icons, which can be
helpful for visually impaired users; file and folder names
display below the icon.
Large Icons
Displays files and folders as large icons with file or folder
names below the icon. This is helpful when you want to
preview the contents of picture files and have not turned
on the Preview pane.
Medium Icons
Displays files and folders as medium-sized icons with the
names below the icons, and is helpful when you want an
overview of folders or files in a certain location.
Small Icons
Lists files and folders as smaller icons with the names
displayed to the right. Contents are sorted alphabetically in
multiple columns from left to right.
List
Displays the contents of a folder as a list of names preceded
by small icons. Contents are sorted alphabetically from top
to bottom in multiple columns starting with the left-most
column. This view is useful if your folder contains many files
and you want to scan the list for a file name.
Details
Lists the contents of the open folder and provides detailed
information about the files and folders inside it, including
name, type, size, and date modified.
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Tiles
Displays files and folders as medium-sized icons with the
file names to the right of the icon. The file format and file
size also display.
Content
Displays any properties or reference information about the
contents of the file.
You can click the Sort by button in the View tab to arrange files by Name, Date
modified, Type, Size, Date created, Authors, Categories, Tags or Title. You can
specify Ascending or Descending order.
Additionally, whenever you can see the column headings in the Contents pane,
you can use them to sort the contents or to manipulate the view further, as follows:
•
To adjust the width of a column, position the mouse pointer over the vertical
line at the right edge of the column you want to adjust; the mouse pointer
changes to display
narrower or wider.
•
. Click and drag to the left or right to make the column
To sort the contents by item type, click the Type column heading. An
up-
facing arrow symbol indicates the items are sorted in ascending order (that is,
A–Z or 0–9); a
down-facing arrow symbol indicates the items are sorted in
descending order (that is, Z–A or 9–0).
Exercise 4-4: Working with views
In this exercise, you will use different views in File Explorer.
First, you will change the location that is displayed automatically when File Explorer launches.
1.
Click the File Explorer icon in the taskbar to open File Explorer. By default, File Explorer opens to show
Quick access. (Windows keeps track of your recently used files and folders and adds them to the Quick
access list.) You can, however, specify that you want File Explorer to open to This PC.
2.
In the File Explorer window, click the File menu, then click Change folder and search options.
3.
At the top of the General tab of the Folder Options dialog box, display the Open File Explorer to drop-
4.
Click Apply, then click OK.
5.
Close and then re-open File Explorer. Now, File Explorer opens to This PC.
down list and click This PC.
Now, use a shortcut to open a folder in File Explorer.
6.
Close the File Explorer window again.
7.
On the Desktop, double-click the JustMe shortcut to display the folder in File Explorer.
8.
In the Address bar, click File Mgmt to jump to that folder.
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Now, try some different views.
9.
Right-click a blank area in the Contents pane, point to View, then click Tiles to display the contents of
the folder as tiles.
10. Click the View tab, then in the Layout section, click List.
11. Click the View tab, then in the Layout section, click Details.
12. Click the Date modified column heading to sort the contents by date.
13. Click the Type column heading to sort the contents by file type.
14. Try changing the view a few more times to see what you like.
15. Make Name the last heading sort and List the last view style you apply.
Understanding File Types and File Name Extensions
A file name extension is a suffix added to the base name of a computer file, and separated from the base
name by a dot (.). Operating systems and application programs use file name extensions to recognize the
format of a file and to identify which program created the file and which program may be used to open the
file successfully.
Most operating systems automatically recognize common file name extensions, and associate particular
application programs with particular extensions. These associations make it possible for you to double-click
a file to open it. The operating system launches the necessary application and then opens the file within the
application.
Additionally, Windows displays an application icon to the left of the file name, indicating which application
is associated with the file type. In general, the icon is a visual reminder of the software program used to
create or access the file. If Windows displays a generic file icon, then it does not know which application to
use to open the file. In most cases, this is because you do not have an application installed that is capable of
opening and editing the specific type of file.
There are thousands of file types and applications. The following sections introduce a few of the most
common types, and the applications often associated with them.
Audio Files
Audio files are generally produced using specialized applications, but can be played through freely available
applications called "players." Common audio players include Windows Media Player, Windows 10 Groove
music app, Winamp2, Winamp3, and iTunes. When you double-click an audio file, the associated player opens
and begins playback of the file. Common audio types include:
.aiff
Audio Interchange File Format – developed by Apple Computer, but most browsers can play AIFF
files.
.mp3 or Motion Picture Experts Group MPEG – requires a player application such as iTunes, Apple QuickTime
.m4a
or Windows Media Player.
.wav
Waveform Audio File Format – this is the native sound format for Windows. Most browsers include
.wma
Windows Media Audio – developed by Microsoft, this format produces much smaller files than the
built-in support for WAV files. This is also the format used on audio CDs.
.wav format.
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Video Files
Video files are generally produced using specialized applications, but can be played through freely available
applications called "players." Common video players include Windows Media Player, the Windows 10 Movies
& TV app, and Apple QuickTime. When you double-click a video file, the associated player opens and begins
playback of the file. Commonly-used video file formats include:
.avi
Audio Video Interleave – standard video files for Windows. AVI files play in Internet Explorer
.mov or .qt
Standard video formats for Apple QuickTime movies, and the native format for Macintosh
through the Windows Media Player. Apple QuickTime player can also open this format.
operating systems. Opens with Apple QuickTime player.
.mpg, .mpeg, Motion Picture Experts Group – standard format for video files on the Internet. Opens with
and .mp4
MP4 players, Windows Media Player and Apple QuickTime player.
.swf
Animation file created with Adobe Flash and played in web browsers through the Flash Player
.wmv
Windows Media Video – a compressed video file format originally designed for Internet
plug-in.
streaming applications.
Note that not all media types are compatible with all players. For example, if you download a movie clip and
then receive an error message when you try to play it back, it may be due to the fact that the player does not
support that particular video format. You can look online to find which player is required and then download
and install it.
Graphics Files
Graphics files are images. Many graphics formats are supported in web browsers and most operating systems
include built-in graphics viewers. Graphics can be imported to a system from a digital camera or scanner, or
can be created on a computer using a dedicated graphics creation and manipulation program such as
Microsoft Paint, Paintshop Pro or Adobe Illustrator. When you double-click a graphics file, the image displays
in either a dedicated graphics editing program, or in a viewer. If the file is not supported, Windows will
prompt you to select an application to use to open the file. Common graphics formats include:
.gif
Graphics Interchange Format – graphics format used for line drawings and illustrations.
.jpg or .jpeg Joint Photographic Experts Group – graphics format used for photographs and complex
graphics.
.png
Portable Network Graphics – graphics format commonly used on web pages.
.tif or .tiff
Tagged Image File Format – graphics format commonly used for desktop publishing and
medical imaging.
Document Files
Document files can be created using specialized applications, such as those found in the Microsoft Office
suite, in OpenOffice, or in web apps such as those you can access on Google Drive or OneDrive. Some formats
can be opened and edited in simple text editors such as Notepad. Some formats, such as PDF and RTF, are
designed to be cross-platform compatible. That is, you can open them on Windows systems or Apple
systems, or UNIX systems. Double-clicking a document file opens it in an application that can support it (if
one is installed on the system).
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Document file formats include:
.asc
ASCII – a standard text format for all computers, regardless of operating system.
.doc
The default document format for Microsoft Word (prior to version 2007) or Windows
.docx
The default document format for Microsoft Word 2007 and above.
WordPad.
.htm or .html Hypertext Markup Language – the document format used in web pages and supported by all
web browsers.
.one
The default format for Microsoft OneNote
.pdf
Portable Document Format – document format supported on all operating systems through
the use of the Adobe Reader plug-in. A full version of Adobe Acrobat is required to edit a PDF
file. Microsoft Office files and documents created in Google Drive can be saved to PDF format
to make them cross-platform compatible.
.ppt or .pptx
The default presentation formats for Microsoft PowerPoint.
.rtf
Rich Text Format – a document format that supports text and images. This format is supported
.txt or .text
Document format that supports plain text only, without formatting. Double-clicking a .txt file
.xls or .xlsx
The default spreadsheet formats for Microsoft Excel.
by most word processing applications across many operating systems.
on a Windows system will open the file in either NotePad or WordPad.
Executable Files
Executable files are files that launch a program or procedure. Take great care when opening executable files
that you receive via email or that you download from web sites with which you are not familiar. When you
open an executable file, your PC can automatically run any number of operations without your explicit
approval. Executable file formats include:
.bat
Batch file – found on old DOS systems.
.cgi
Common Gateway Interface – script file used to generate web content.
.cmd
Windows command file.
.com
DOS command file.
.dll
Dynamic Link Library – these files are not executables, but are libraries of code that are referred or
.exe
Windows executable program; these files are typically self-extracting compressed files.
.msi
Windows installer file – these executables are used to automate software installation on Windows
.vbs
Visual Basic – script files created in the Visual Basic programming language. VBS scripts have been
called by executable programs.
systems.
used to spread viruses.
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Archive/Compressed File Formats
Archives are compressed file formats. Used primarily on the Internet, the compressed file format reduces the
amount of time necessary to download a file. Archives can contain any type of file – images, documents,
executables, and so on. A compression utility is required to compress and decompress the files. Archived file
formats include:
.bz or .bz2
Archive files used by the Bzip/Bunzip application.
.rar
A compression standard that is platform-neutral (can be used on various operating systems).
On UNIX systems, the RAR application is used. On Windows systems, the WinRAR application
is used.
.tar
Compressed file used on UNIX systems.
.zip
Compressed file used by the PKZIP and WinZip applications.
Exercise 4-5: Recognizing file types
In this exercise, you will match the file type with an appropriate software program that could be used to view
or edit the file.
a.
.docx ---------- _________ iTunes
b. .swf
_________ WinZip
c.
_________ Internet Explorer
.pptx
d. .jpg
_________ Windows Media Player
e.
.mp3
_________ Word
f.
.avi
_________ PowerPoint
g. .htm
_________ Photoshop
h. .zip
_________ Flash Player
Windows 10 and File Extensions
Windows automatically recognizes common file name extensions, and associates particular application
programs with particular extensions. For example, if you are using a file management tool such as File
Explorer, and you double-click a file with a .pdf file name extension, Windows will try to open the file in
Adobe Reader, which is the program used to read PDF files. The operating system launches the necessary
application and then opens the file within the application.
If you try to open a file for which there is no associated application installed, Windows displays a window
similar to the one shown:
Click More apps to display a list of installed apps.
In some cases, you can choose a program that is already
installed on the computer to try and open the file. If you cannot
find an application that will successfully open the file, you can
search in the Windows store for a suitable app.
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Viewing the File Extensions
To keep things simple and keep the display uncluttered, you may want to hide file name extensions in file
Explorer. Displaying file name extensions can be useful, however. For example, you can display extensions to
show which picture files use the .jpg, .gif, or .tiff format.
Viewing file extensions is also useful for differentiating between two files with the same name but different
file formats, such as .xlsx versus .csv. Both of these file types can be opened in a spreadsheet program such
as Microsoft Excel. However, a .csv file is not a native Excel file type and will not appear in a list of available
files when you try to open a file from within Excel.
By viewing the file name extension of audio or video files, you can quickly identify which program you can
use to open the file. Another good reason for displaying the file types is to help you easily identify executable
files. These files are used to launch a program (or other code that will carry out commands). You should take
care before launching any executable file. While in most cases these files launch legitimate programs, they
can also be used to install a virus on your computer.
To display the file extensions at all times, open a File Explorer window, click the File menu, then click Change
folder and search options to open the Folder Options dialog box. Click the View tab and in the Advanced
settings list, uncheck Hide extensions for known file types.
When you need to see hidden files, you can uncheck the Hide protected operating system files
(Recommended) option. Important files such as system files or the data file for your email program are
hidden to prevent them from being deleted or changed inadvertently. Protected system files may be
displayed when a technical support person is working on your computer and needs to view them; it is
recommended that you hide the system files once he/she has finished.
Selecting Files and Folders
Before performing any actions such as copying, moving, or deleting, you must select the file or folder.
Consider the following traditional methods of selecting files or folders. These methods work in all versions
of Windows:
•
To select one file or folder, click it.
•
To select all files and folders within a location, click the Home tab, and click Select all in the ribbon or
press CTRL+A.
•
To select multiple files or folders that are consecutive, point to the first file or folder in the list, press and
hold the SHIFT key, and then point to the last file or folder in the list.
•
To select files using the lasso method, point at the right of the first file or folder to be selected, then click
and drag up or down to select the rest of the files or folders in the selection. A box will appear as
confirmation of the selection, along with the files or folders being highlighted.
•
To select multiple files or folders that are non-consecutive, point to the first file or folder to be selected,
press and hold the CTRL key, and then point at each file or folder to be selected.
•
At any time as files or folders are selected, if you need to change any part of the selection, use either the
SHIFT or CTRL key to deselect specific parts of the selection.
To de-select or turn off the selection of files or folders, click anywhere away from the selection.
Note that in Windows 10, items in File Explorer display a check box when you point at them and display a
check in the check box when they are selected.
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This allows you to select a file, point at another item to display its check box, and then click in the check box
to select that additional file without de-selecting the previously-selected file.
Exercise 4-6: Selecting files
In this exercise, you will use different methods to select files.
1.
Ensure the File Mgmt folder is active. The contents should be sorted by name and displayed in a list
2.
Click the View tab, click the Sort by button, then click Type to rearrange the files. Files are sorted
format.
alphabetically from top to bottom first by type, and then by file name.
3.
In the Contents pane, point the mouse pointer at the logo file and click to select it.
4.
Press and hold SHIFT, then click the Letter to Joan Woods file. This action selects all the files between
5.
Click in a blank area of the Contents pane to de-select the files.
the logo file and the Letter to Joan Woods file.
Now select files in random order.
6.
Click the Letter to Joan Woods file, press and hold CTRL, and then click the History of the Internet
7.
Click in a blank area to de-select the files.
file. Now two non-adjacent files are selected.
Now use the item check boxes.
8.
9.
Click the View tab again, and if necessary, in the Show/hide group, select the check box for Item check
boxes.
Point the mouse pointer at the Budget 2016 file to make its check box visible, then click its check box to
select the file.
10. Point the mouse pointer at the News with RSS file to make its check box visible, then click its check box.
Now two non-adjacent files are selected.
11. Click in a blank area to de-select the files.
Now try the lasso technique to select files.
12. If necessary, resize the window so that the files display in two columns. Position the mouse pointer over
a blank space to the right of one of the files in the second column, and then press the left mouse button
as you drag up and slightly to the left until you have selected four files in the second column. When the
files are selected, release the mouse button.
13. Click anywhere away from the selected files to de-select them.
Now select all the contents in this location.
14. Press CTRL+A.
15. Click anywhere away from the selection to de-select the list.
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Copying and Moving Files and Folders
Files or folders may be copied or moved from one drive location to another, from one folder to another, or
to the desktop. Use the Folders list to view the hierarchical structure of the folders and subfolders, and to
quickly navigate between the different folders or drives.
Copying Files or Folders
When you copy a file or folder, the original remains in the source location and a copy is placed in the
destination location.
To copy a file or folder, first select it and then use one of the following methods:
•
Click the Home tab, then click Copy in the ribbon, navigate to the new location, click the Home tab
again if necessary and then click Paste in the ribbon, or
•
press CTRL+C, move to the new location and then press CTRL+V, or
•
right-click the selection and then click Copy, navigate to the new location, right-click and then click
Paste, or
•
if you are copying files from one drive to another, Windows will automatically copy the selection as you
drag the selection to the new location, or
•
if you are copying files in the same drive, press CTRL as you drag the selected file or folder to the new
location.
As Windows copies the files from the source location to the destination location, it will check to see if there
are files with the same name already in the destination location. If so, you will see a message similar to the
screen shown:
Always double-check whether you want the new file to be copied over the existing file. You can choose to
replace the file in the destination, skip the file that is present in both locations, or compare information. If
you elect to compare information, Windows
will display information pertinent to file size
and date of last update.
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Click the check box for the file you want to keep. If you elect to keep both copies (by selecting the check
boxes for both files) Windows will create a file with a number at the end of the filename to indicate that it is
a copy. In this example, the original file will be named Balance Sheet.xlsx and the copy in the same location
will be named Balance Sheet (2).xlsx
Exercise 4-7: Copying files
In this exercise, you will use the copy and paste features to copy files.
1.
Ensure you are viewing the contents of the File Mgmt folder.
2.
Press CTRL+A to select everything in the folder.
3.
Now press and hold CTRL and click the folder with your name in order to de-select it. Now everything
4.
Click the Home tab, then in the Clipboard group, click Copy.
5.
In the Contents pane, double-click the folder with your name to open it.
6.
except the folder with your name is selected.
Click the Home tab, then in the Clipboard group, click Paste to paste the copied files from the student
files folder to your folder.
Moving Files or Folders
When you move a file or folder, it is cut (deleted) from its original location and copied into the destination
location. When you move a folder, all the contents within that folder (subfolders and files) move as well.
After selecting the files or folders to move, use one of the following methods:
•
Click the Home tab, and then click Cut in the ribbon, move to the new location, click the Home tab again
if necessary, and then click Paste, or
•
press CTRL+X, move to the new location and then press CTRL+V, or
•
right-click the selection and then click Cut, move to the new location, right-click and then click Paste, or
•
drag the selected files or folders to the new location on the same drive. For different drives, Windows
will automatically copy the selection unless you press the SHIFT key as you drag.
If after completing the move action the file or folder is not in the location you intended, it is possible you
may have moved the file or folder to the folder above or below the one you wanted. Click in the folder on
either side to see if the file or folder is there, then move it into the appropriate location.
Exercise 4-8: Moving files
In this exercise, you will move files to various locations.
1.
Ensure you are in your folder.
2.
Change the view to Details, and sort the files by the Type column.
3.
Select all the Microsoft Word files and then press CTRL+X to cut them from the current location.
4.
In the Contents pane, double-click the Docs folder to open it, then press CTRL+V to paste the copied
5.
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files into this location.
Click your folder in the Address bar.
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6.
Repeat steps 3-5 moving the Microsoft Excel files into the Worksheets folder.
7.
Select the Microsoft PowerPoint files, then drag the selected files into the Slide Shows folder.
8.
Move the remaining files into the Misc folder.
Suppose you want to move your folder to another location, such as the Desktop.
9.
Click File Mgmt in the Address bar to move up one level. If necessary, click your folder to select it, then
drag to the left so that it hovers over Desktop in the Navigation pane.
10. Release the mouse button when Desktop is highlighted, as shown in the preceding figure. You have
successfully moved your folder to the Desktop.
Now move your folder back to where it was.
11. In the Navigation pane, click the Desktop folder, then in the Contents pane, click your folder to select it.
12. Press CTRL+X to cut it and remove it from the Desktop.
13. In the Contents pane, double-click 7500 Student Files, then double-click File Mgmt, then press CTRL+V
to paste your folder back into its original location.
Renaming Files
As with folders you can rename a file to make it more descriptive using the Edit mode.
To activate the Rename feature use one of the following methods:
•
Select the file and then press F2, or
•
select the file and then click once in the file name, or
•
right-click the file and then click Rename.
Remember the two limitations of file and folder naming conventions: a maximum of 255 characters; and the
following characters \ / : * ? ” < > | cannot be used in the file or folder name.
Be very careful not to rename any program files or folders, or the application program may not be able to
find them.
Exercise 4-9: Renaming files
In this exercise, you will copy and then rename a file.
1.
In the File Explorer window, navigate to the File Mgmt folder.
2.
Right-click the Letter to Joan Woods file, then click Copy.
3.
Right-click in an empty area of the Contents pane, then click Paste to paste the file into the current
4.
Right-click Letter to Joan Woods – Copy, then click Rename to enter edit mode.
5.
Type: Letter from <your name> and press ENTER to rename the file.
folder. Windows pastes the file and adds “- Copy” to the end of the file name.
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Searching for Files
You can use two methods for finding files and folders on your system. You can use the Windows Search
box/Cortana feature, or you can search from within File Explorer.
Using Windows Search Box/Cortana
The Windows Search box is located in the Windows taskbar, just
to the right of the Start button. When you use the Windows
Search box, Windows displays results from your system and the
Internet. You can use the Search box to find help, apps, files,
images, settings, and so on.
Click in the box and begin typing a search term. Windows will
display suggestions and answers to your questions in a panel
that appears above the search box.
Notice that the results in the previous figure are grouped by
installed apps, store apps, settings, documents, and web.
Windows will group the results it gathers depending on what it
finds. Simply click on a result to access it.
You can also press the WINDOWS key and begin typing to use
the Windows Search box.
Note: On a Mac, you can use the built-in Spotlight feature by
clicking the Spotlight icon or by pressing
COMMAND+SPACEBAR.
Searching within File Explorer
When you search from within File Explorer, you limit the scope of the search to the current folder and any
subfolders below it in the directory hierarchy. Windows will not search folders outside the given path, nor
will it search the Internet.
Click in the Search box within a File Explorer window and begin typing a search term. As you type, documents
that match the search term display in the window.
Windows lists all files that include the search term in the file name and that include the search term within
the file contents. For example, in the preceding figure, the three Excel files contain the word “budget” in the
file name. The word document includes the word budget somewhere within the document text.
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Additionally, the Search Tools ribbon becomes available and you can use it to fine-tune your search.
Notice that you can specify whether to include subfolders, or whether to filter the
results by a variety of characteristics, such as the date the file was modified, or the
approximate file size.
Windows also keeps track of your search history, allowing you to perform a previous
search again. You can also clear the search history.
Exercise 4-10: Finding files
In this exercise, you will search for files.
1.
Ensure that you are viewing your folder in the File Explorer window.
2.
Click in the Search box in the top-right corner of the window and type: budget. Windows displays four
files that match the search term.
Now, refine your search.
3.
4.
Click the Search tab if necessary, then in the Refine group, click Size, then click Tiny (0 - 10KB). Now,
no files display.
Click the Search tab if necessary, then in the Refine group, click Size, then click Small (10 – 100KB).
Now the four files are listed again.
Clear the search criteria and begin a new search.
5.
Click in the Search field and click
at the right end of the search box to clear the search field, then
click the Search tab if necessary and in the Refine group, click Other properties, click Tags, then type:
vintage. Now the US Sailor picture displays in the results list.
6.
Click
to clear the search criteria.
Begin a new search and change the search scope.
7.
Click in the Search field and type: sale. Several results are listed.
8.
In the Search tab, in the Location group, click Current folder. Now, no results are listed.
9.
Clear the Search field.
10. On the Search tab, in the Options group, click Recent searches, then click Clear search history.
11. Close the File Explorer window.
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Looking at the Recycle Bin
The Recycle Bin is a temporary storage area for files and folders that you delete from the local hard disk. Files
and folders deleted from an external disk (such as a flash drive, SD card, or virtual storage device) or from a
network drive are permanently deleted and cannot be restored from the Recycle Bin.
The Recycle Bin has an icon on the desktop for easy access, but is also accessible from File Explorer. Two
icons are used to represent the Recycle Bin:
Indicates there are files in the Recycle Bin that can
be restored or the Recycle Bin can be emptied.
Indicates the Recycle Bin is
empty.
If the computer is shared by multiple users, a separate Recycle Bin exists for each user account on the
computer.
To permanently delete a file and bypass the Recycle Bin, press and hold the SHIFT key while deleting the file.
Deleting Files and Folders
When you no longer need files or folders, you can delete them.
Always check the contents of a folder before you delete the entire folder. This is especially crucial if the folder
is stored on a network drive or external disk, as these are not moved to the Recycle Bin.
To delete a file or folder, select the file or folder and then use one of the following methods:
•
Click the Home tab, and then click Delete, or
•
select the file or folder and then press DELETE, or
•
right-click and click Delete, or
•
drag the item to the Recycle Bin icon on the Desktop.
Restoring a File or Folder
You can restore a deleted file or folder to its original location. Double-click the Recycle Bin on the Desktop
to open it.
You can restore only an entire folder (including all its contents), not individual items that were deleted with
the folder.
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To restore a file or folder from the Recycle Bin, use one of the following methods:
•
Select one or more files or folders to be restored, click the Manage tab, and then click Restore the
selected items, or
•
if you want to restore all items, click the Manage tab, and then click Restore all items, or
•
right-click the selected files or folders, and then click Restore.
Emptying the Recycle Bin
Deleted files remain in the Recycle Bin until you empty it or it becomes full; in the latter case, Windows will
automatically delete older files and folders to free up space for new items. When a file or folder is deleted
from the Recycle Bin, it is permanently deleted.
To empty the Recycle Bin, use one of the following methods:
•
Double-click the Recycle Bin on the desktop to open it, click the Manage tab, and then click Empty
Recycle Bin, or
•
right-click in a blank area of the Recycle Bin window and click Empty Recycle Bin, or
•
right-click the Recycle Bin icon on the desktop and then click Empty Recycle Bin.
Use this option only when you are sure that you will not want to restore anything from the Recycle Bin.
Exercise 4-11: Using the Recycle Bin
In this exercise, you will delete files and folders and work with the Recycle Bin.
First, you will delete a file and a folder.
1.
Ensure that you are viewing your folder in the File Explorer window.
2.
Open the Misc folder, select the IC3 Web Site file, then press DELETE to delete the file and move it to the
3.
Move up one level to your folder, then right-click the Misc folder and click Delete in the shortcut menu
Recycle Bin.
to delete the folder and move it to the Recycle Bin.
Now, restore the folder.
4.
On the Desktop, double-click the Recycle Bin icon to open the Recycle Bin.
5.
Select the Misc folder, then click the Manage tab and click Restore the selected items. The Misc folder
6.
Close the Recycle Bin, then in the File Explorer window, navigate to your folder if necessary to verify that
7.
In the Address bar, click File Mgmt to move up one level.
is restored to its previous location.
the Misc folder has been restored.
Next you will delete your folder and the Desktop shortcut and then empty the Recycle Bin.
8.
Right-click your folder, then click Delete. Your folder is deleted and moved to the Recycle Bin.
9.
On the Desktop, right-click the JustMe shortcut, then click Delete. Your shortcut is deleted and moved
to the Recycle Bin.
10. On the Desktop, right-click the Recycle Bin, then click Empty Recycle Bin. Click Yes to confirm that you
want to permanently delete the contents of the Recycle Bin.
11. Close the File Explorer window.
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Understanding Default Locations
Objective 1-3.7, 1-3.9
Although Windows provides tools to help you locate files on your system, it is helpful to understand that
different types of files have default locations to which they are saved, depending on the program that you
are using.
Generally, it is not difficult to locate documents you are creating because you purposefully save them to a
specific folder when you create them. But have you ever scanned a picture and wondered where it went?
Have you downloaded a user manual from the Internet and then you could not find it? Have you taken a
picture with your integrated laptop or tablet or phone camera and then been unable to find it?
Scanners
A scanner is a device that converts a printed page into an electronic format. Most modern all-in-one printers
include a scanning function that allows you to scan one or more pages and then save them as image files or
as PDF documents.
Some scanners include optical character recognition (OCR) functionality which allows the scanner to convert
the scanned image into editable electronic text and save that editable text as a document. Many also include
functionality that will allow you to scan one or more pages, save the output as an email attachment, and then
send the email message.
Most scanners automatically create a folder for all scanned output within your PC’s Pictures folder. Each time
you scan a page using the scanner’s software, the scanner creates a subfolder within its own folder and names
that new subfolder with the current date. Generic, sequentially-numbered file names are assigned to all
scanned files. In the following figure, the MP Navigator EX folder and its dated subfolder (and its files) were
created by a Canon scanner.
If you use the Windows Fax and Scan utility included in Windows 10, scanned images are automatically saved
to the Documents\Scanned Documents folder.
Web Site Items
Any file that you copy from the Internet and save to your computer is saved in the Downloads folder,
regardless of whether it is an image file, a document, a user manual, or an executable file. In certain situations,
you will be prompted to save a file you want to download and you can specify where you want to save the
file.
However, if you save a file or image from the Internet and are then unable to find it, check the Downloads
folder.
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Pictures
Windows uses the Pictures folder and subfolders for saving picture files. Certain actions save image files in
specific default locations. For example:
•
When you use the Windows 10 Camera app to take pictures on your laptop, those pictures are saved
automatically in the Pictures\Camera Roll folder.
•
If you take screen shots using the WINDOWS+PRINT SCREEN command, these are saved in the
Pictures\Screenshots folder.
•
If you take screen shots using the Windows Snipping tool, these are saved in the Pictures folder.
Additionally, if you use the Windows 10 Photos app to import pictures from a digital camera to your PC (via
a USB cable), these are imported by default into the Pictures folder as well.
Keep in mind that these are default locations. In many situations, you can specify a different location in which
to save your pictures. However, if you take some action that results in the saving of a picture file and you
don’t pay attention to where it is saved, you can check these default locations first.
Pictures on Smart Phones
We all love to take pictures (or even shoot video) using our smart phones – and once we grab that fantastic
shot we want to share it with our friends and family. Usually, we want to share it right then and there.
Fortunately, smart phone apps make it easy to point, click and share.
Photos that you take with your smart phone are stored in a picture gallery. When you access the picture
gallery, you can click any picture to view it full screen. Tap the picture to make the picture options visible.
The following figure shows options for a photo taken on an Android phone:
The icons at the bottom of the screen allow you to adjust, share, edit, or
delete the photo. To share the photo, tap the Share icon to bring up a
menu of apps you can use to share the picture.
There are a wide variety of apps you can use to share pictures. Apps that
appear as sharing options depend on the apps you have installed on your
device and on the types of accounts you have – for example, social media
accounts, email accounts, and so on.
When you use an app to share a photo (or other type of file), the app handles the transfer and will prompt you
to enter any necessary information. For example, if you want to send a photo via email (which you can do as
long as you have an email account configured on your phone), you will be prompted to enter the name or
address of your recipient. You can type a brief message and then click Send to send your picture on its way.
Notice also that you can send the file to a variety of cloud locations (such as Google Drive, Instagram, or
Facebook). Simply tap the appropriate app icon, and then confirm that you want to proceed.
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Using Hardware to Share Photos
You can also share photos with other users using hardware methods for transfer. You can:
•
Save your photos to an SD card, remove the card and give it to another user.
•
Connect to a PC using a USB cable, navigate the phone’s directory structure and then copy the desired
photos. Most smart phones store photos in the DCIM\Camera folder. (DCIM stands for Digital Camera
Images.)
•
Use Bluetooth sharing if both devices support it. Put both devices into discovery mode, then when your
phone detects the device to which you want to send your picture, tap the device in the list of detected
devices and tap the send command. Your recipient will need to accept the file transfer.
Managing Electronic Media
Objective 1-3.6
Electronic media (or digital media) refers to media that is stored and played or viewed electronically. Music,
movies and books are widely available in electronic format, and you play these formats within a player app
designed for the content.
That is, you play movies on your Windows 10 laptop in a movie player app such as 5KPlayer or Movies & TV
player for Windows 10. (On a Mac or iPad, you might use iMovie.) You play music on that same laptop in a
music app such as Groove Music. You read eBooks on an eReader (such as Kindle, Nook, Kobo, or Sony
Reader) or on a device on which an appropriate app has been installed.
These players and player apps are designed to handle digital content that is freely available and re-
distributable as well as content that is protected by digital rights management (DRM) software. DRM is
designed to prevent the unauthorized use, or redistribution of the media to which it is applied. DRM restricts
the way you can copy content that you have purchased.
For this reason, you cannot directly manage digital media using File Explorer or other computer file
management utilities.
In many cases, you cannot even see the digital content using File Explorer; you need to access and manage
your titles using the player or player app.
Consider the following pair of figures. The background image shows eight eBooks that are downloaded to the
PC and read using the Kindle app. The foreground image shows the storage location for the books that have
been downloaded to the PC. The recognizable titles are for free books (and are stored in MOBI format). The
others are for books which were purchased for the Kindle, and they are saved in a format which supports DRM.
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Of the 16 files shown, can you tell which one is for the Wireless Networking book? The app knows how to
interpret the file names and supporting information and display it in a way that is meaningful to you.
Let us go one step further and compare a partial listing of eBooks on an Amazon Kindle Fire (the figure in
the background) to a file listing of the internal storage directory on the same Kindle Fire (the figure in the
foreground). Do you think you could find a particular book by title?
Players and player apps are essential tools for working with and managing digital media. Most include builtin search features that help you find just the file you want.
Sharing Files
Objective 1-3.6, 1-5.1
The available methods for sharing files have evolved over the years. Shortly, we will examine sharing files in
the cloud. In this section, we will review a few “old school” methods for sharing files which are still used today.
Removable Media
Perhaps the oldest method of sharing files with other users to is copy them to removable media (such as a
USB flash drive) and then deliver the media to someone else, who can then plug in the drive and copy the
requisite files from the drive on to their own system.
Public Folders
Although standard users cannot see files created by other users on a given PC, you can place files that you
want to share into one of several public folders located in: This PC\OS (C:)\Users\Public.
All users on a computer system have access to the public
folders.
If you want to make some of your files available to other
user accounts on the computer, save or copy them into one
of the public folders.
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Shared Folders
If you want to share a file or folder only with a specific user (and not everyone else on the system), you can
do so by setting the sharing properties for that file or folder.
In File Explorer, right-click the file or folder you want to share, click Properties to open the Properties dialog
box, then click the Sharing tab.
Click the Share button to access a screen where you can enter the names of users with whom you want to
share.
Type the user’s name and click Add to add the user to the list of people who have access to the shared file.
If applicable, click the Permission Level arrow to adjust the permissions you want to extend to the other
user. The default permission level is Read, but you can change it to Read/Write if you want the user to have
the ability to edit your files or add or delete the contents of a shared folder.
Click the Share button to enable the new settings. Then click Done.
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The user with whom you shared your file or folder will be able to navigate to and access your shared file or
folder using File Explorer the next time he or she logs on to the system.
If you want to share a file or folder with another user on the same network (but not a different user account
on the same system), you can copy the share link that displays in the box and paste it into an email message
and send it to the person with whom you want to share your file or folder. As long as that user is on the same
network as you, he or she can simply click the link and access your file or folder.
Conversely, you can stop sharing a file or folder with a specific user (or with all users) by removing that user’s
name from the share properties, or by turning off sharing.
Note: You must be logged on with an Administrator account to enable sharing. If you try to enable sharing
while logged on with a standard user account, you will be prompted to enter an administrator user name
and password to enable sharing.
Network Shares
Another way to share files or folders is to place them in a network share. A network share (also called a
network drive or a network folder) is simply a location on a server that is available over a network. Network
shares are used within the private confines of a LAN. Network administrators often set up shares so that
students or employees can access files that are stored in a central location.
As you learned earlier, the network administrator controls who can access what, and what they can do with
it once they access it.
Email Attachments
It is easy and convenient to share files with other users by sending those files as attachments to an email
message.
All email programs (whether locally installed or web-based) enable you to attach and send files with a
message. As you are composing a new message, you can click an attachment button (or icon) and a dialog
box will open which you can use to navigate to and select one or more files you want to attach to your email
message. The specific name of the dialog box varies from one email client to the next, but all of them function
in the same way.
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When you attach a file to an email message in Gmail, for example, you use the Choose File to Upload
dialog box.
•
In Outlook.com you use the Open dialog box, and in the Outlook Desktop app, you use the Insert File
dialog box.
When you receive a file as an email attachment, you can save the attachment to your computer and then
access it using File Explorer.
Limitations on Email Attachments
While sending all the files you want to share as email attachments might seem like an easy solution, there
are certain limitations to using email for sharing files.
•
Many email programs limit the size of file attachments – email must traverse networks, and very large
files cause network congestion and can slow network performance. They also occupy a lot of space on
email servers.
–
The maximum attachment size in Gmail is 25MB, in Outlook the limit is 20MB and in Yahoo the limit
is 25MB.
–
Even if your particular email service allows very large attachments, your intended recipient’s email
service might not.
–
If you need to send many files, it might be best to send them in a series of email messages to avoid
hitting the file size limit. You might also want to consider “zipping” the files into a compressed
format. (We will discuss this in the next section.)
•
Many email providers and network administrators restrict certain types of file attachments:
–
Executable files (.exe, .bat, .cmd, .com, and so on), script files, and various file types related to
programming have been used to harbor computer viruses and other types of malicious code.
Messages that contain files of these types will be rejected.
•
–
Database files (.mdb) cannot be sent as email attachments either.
–
Documents that contain macros are also commonly rejected.
In most cases you cannot get around the file type restriction by zipping the files into a compressed
format; however, you may be able to send your file as an attachment if you manually change the file
name extension. (Your recipient will need to change it back to the correct extension after saving the file
to his or her system.)
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Compressing Files
When you need to reduce the size of one or more files, you can use a file compression utility. Compressing
one or more files is also referred to as zipping, much like when you stuff a tote bag as full as possible and
then press everything down to make it fit prior to zipping (closing) the bag.
Some files are larger than others, simply by the nature of the type of file. For example, video files are usually
very large and should be converted to a compressed format (such as .avi) so they can be shared. Music files
in .wav format are generally converted to .mp3 format to make them smaller for sharing. Picture files with a
.tif or .bmp file type tend to be large in size and are compressed to a .png or .jpg format. The image, audio
and video files you encounter on the Internet are already in a compressed format, which reduces the time
required to download them to the temporary storage folders on your hard drive utilized by your web browser.
You are probably already familiar with popular "zip" programs that compress text and images. WinZip and
PKZIP are third-party utilities that have been used to easily and successfully compress and un-compress files
for decades, and a built-in zip utility has been included with Windows since Windows XP.
Zipped files are also called archives. Computers running Windows, Mac OS X, Linux and UNIX can handle
zipped archive files.
To compress (zip) a file or folder:
1.
Locate the file or folder that you want to compress.
2.
Right-click the file or folder, point to Send to, and then click Compressed (zipped) folder.
To extract (unzip) compressed files and folders:
1.
Locate the compressed folder from which you want to extract files or folders.
2.
To extract a single file or folder, double-click the compressed folder to open it. Then drag the file or
folder from the compressed folder to a new location, or
To extract the entire contents of the compressed folder, right-click the folder, click Extract All, specify a
destination folder for the extracted files, then click Extract.
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Note that some types of files, such as JPEG image files, are already highly compressed. If you compress
several JPEG pictures into a folder, the total size of the folder will be about the same as the original collection
of pictures.
Exercise 4-12: Zipping and extracting files
In this exercise, you will zip files and unzip files in File Explorer.
Zip the Excel files into a compressed (zipped) archive.
1.
Open File Explorer and navigate to the 7500 Student Files\File Mgmt folder.
2.
Adjust the view to display Details, then sort the files by Type.
3.
Select all the Microsoft Excel Worksheet files. The status bar indicates that six items are selected, and
4.
5.
that the total file size is around 71KB.
Right-click the selected files, then click Send to, then click Compressed (zipped) folder. Windows
creates a compressed archive folder and highlights the suggested name so that you can rename it.
Type: Money, then press ENTER. Note that the status bar indicates the zipped archive is around 48KB.
Now extract the files into their own folder.
6.
The Compressed Folder Tools ribbon should be displayed. Click the Extract tab if necessary, click the
Extract all button in the ribbon, then in the wizard, click the Extract button. Windows creates a new
Money folder and extracts the compressed files into it.
7.
If necessary, double-click the Money folder to view the extracted files.
8.
Close File Explorer.
Exercise 4-13: Using Gmail to email attachments
Gmail is a free web-based email service hosted by Google.
In this exercise, you will create a Gmail account, and use Gmail to share files by sending them as email
attachments. You will only send and receive messages with attachments in this exercise. You will learn more
about email features in the Living Online module.
For this exercise, we will use the Internet Explorer web browser, so we will begin by adding a tile for the
Internet Explorer desktop app to the Start menu.
1.
Click Start, click All apps, then scroll the menu and click Windows Accessories to open the Accessories
group. Notice that Internet Explorer is listed here. Internet Explorer is a desktop app (remember, in
Windows 10 a desktop app is an installed application).
2.
Right-click Internet Explorer and then click Pin to Start. The Internet Explorer desktop app is added as
3.
In the middle portion of the Start menu, click the Internet Explorer tile to open the browser. If you are
a tile in the middle portion of the Start menu.
prompted to set up Internet Explorer 11, select Use recommended security and compatibility settings,
and then click OK. If any add-in notifications pop up, do not enable them.
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Now, create a Gmail account.
4.
Click in the browser address bar, type: www.gmail.com, then press ENTER. The browser displays the
Google accounts page which provides options for signing in or creating a new account.
5.
If you already have a Gmail account, sign in and skip to Step 11. Otherwise, click the Create an account
6.
Fill in the fields in the form in order to create a Gmail account. You must select a user name that no one
7.
In the Default homepage section, clear the Set Google as my default homepage check box.
8.
In the Prove you’re not a robot section, enter the text that you see in the image in the text box displayed
9.
Set your location if necessary, select the I agree to the Google Terms of Service and Privacy Policy
link to access the Create your Google Account page.
else is using. Ask your teacher for help if necessary. Ensure you record your Gmail address and password.
below the image.
check box, then click Next step. Google displays a welcome page.
10. Click Continue to Gmail to access your Gmail account page. A series of introductory slides may display.
You can click Next on each slide to view them all, or click the close button at the top-right corner of a
slide to exit the introductory material. Your Inbox should include a welcome message.
11. At the top of the page, you may see the message that Gmail works better with Chrome and an option
button that says “Get Chrome now.” We will not be using Chrome in this lesson. Click No, not interested.
12. You may also see an account setup progress indicator in the middle of your screen. Click the Close
button in the upper-right corner to dismiss it. Also, dismiss the tip that appears concerning how to
resume setting up Gmail.
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13. The modern Gmail Inbox is divided into three tabs – Primary, Social, and Promotions. Ensure that you
are on the Primary tab. A welcome message from Andy from Google should appear in your Inbox.
Now, find an exercise partner and send an email message with a file attachment.
14. Exchange Gmail addresses with a person sitting near you. For the sake of this exercise, this person will
be your partner.
15. Click the Compose button to open a New Message window.
16. In the New Message window, in the To field type your partner’s Gmail address.
17. In the New Message window, click in the Subject field and type: A file for you.
18. Click in the empty space below the Subject field and type: Please look this over and tell me what
you think. Thank you!
19. In the toolbar at the bottom of the new message window, click the
Attach files button to open the
Choose File to Upload dialog box. (If a window opens asking you to try inserting files using Google Drive,
click Maybe next time.)
20. Navigate to the 7500 Student Files\File Mgmt folder, click the Letter from <your name> file then click
the Open button to add the file as an attachment to the email message.
21. Click Send to send the message.
Now, retrieve the file attachment you received.
22. When you receive the message from your partner, click it to open it.
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23. Position the mouse pointer over the letter attachment. Notice that three icons appear. You can download
the file, save it to Google Drive, or edit it in Google Docs.
24. Within the attachment, click the Download button, then in the notification bar that appears at the
bottom of the browser window, click Save.
25. When the file has been successfully downloaded, the notification bar presents different options.
26. Click Open folder. File Explorer opens to show the file in its current location. Notice that the file was
automatically saved in your Downloads folder.
27. Close the File Explorer window.
28. At the top of the Gmail window, click your account icon (usually a blue circle with the first letter of your
email address), then click Sign out.
29. Close your browser.
Lesson Summary
In this lesson, you learned to use Windows File Explorer to find, move, open, and manage files. You worked with
windows, learned about default locations, and learned about file types and file permissions. You should now be
able to:

navigate a directory and follow paths

work with the Recycle Bin

understand rights and permissions

describe default file locations

use File Explorer

share pictures on a smart phone

work with windows

manage electronic media

recognize different types of files

share files with other users

work with files and folders

zip and unzip files

find files
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Review Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
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Which letter is commonly used to refer to the storage device where the operating system is installed on
a computer?
a.
A
c.
C
b.
B
d.
D
What happens when you connect a flash drive to a USB port on your computer?
a.
The operating system assigns the next available drive letter to that device.
b.
You are asked to download and install a device driver to handle USB drives.
c.
The operating system asks you which drive letter to assign to the device.
d.
A shortcut to the device is automatically created and added to your Desktop.
What do you call the organization of files and folders on a disk?
a.
Directory or directory tree
c.
File management
b.
Path
d.
Root directory
When you connect your smart phone to your PC using a USB cable, what can you do?
a.
Navigate the device’s internal storage system.
b.
Assign the smart phone a drive letter.
c.
Organize the installed apps on the phone.
d.
Install a mobile operating system update on the phone from your PC.
Who can work with files stored under another user’s profile?
a.
A user with an Administrator account.
b.
A standard user with Read permissions.
c.
A standard user with Write permissions.
d.
A standard user with Read/Write permissions.
Which are the four control buttons you can use to adjust the display of a window on the screen?
a.
Minimize, Maximize, Restore Down, Close
b.
Help, Minimize, Maximize, Close
c.
Program Icon, Minimize, Maximize, Close
d.
Help, Program Icon, Restore Down, Close
Which method would you use to move a window?
a.
Click in the title bar for the window and drag to a new location.
b.
Click at the left or right border of the window and drag to a new location.
c.
Click at the top or bottom border of the window and drag to a new location.
d.
Click in the title bar for the window and press ENTER.
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8.
9.
How can you identify which program you might need to modify a file?
a.
From the icon at the left of a file name.
b.
From the name of the file.
c.
From the arrow at the lower left corner of the file name.
d.
From the folder icon at the left of a file name.
Which key can you use to edit or rename a file or folder?
a.
F2
c.
F1
b.
F4
d.
F9
10. What do you call the suffix added to the base name of a computer file?
a.
File name extension
b.
Program application
c.
File name path
d.
Operating system identifier
11. Which is the default setting for viewing file extensions in File Explorer?
a.
Hide the file name extensions.
b.
Show the file name extensions.
12. Before you can perform any action on a file or folder, what must you do?
a.
Select the file or folder.
b.
Log into the computer again.
c.
Start File Explorer twice.
d.
Create a shortcut for the file or folder.
13. Once a file or folder has been selected, which keyboard shortcut can you use to move it from its original
location?
a.
Press CTRL+X.
c.
Press CTRL+V.
b.
Press CTRL+C.
d.
Press CTRL+W.
14. Which character cannot be used as part of a file name?
a.
\
c.
,
b.
.
d.
-
15. When you use the Windows Search box/Cortana to search for a feature, where do the results appear?
a.
In the panel above the search box.
b.
In a new search window.
c.
Within File Explorer.
d.
In a text file.
16. Which feature allows a scanner to convert a scanned image into editable electronic text?
a.
OCR
c.
GSM
b.
PDF
d.
SCR
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17. By default, in which folder are items you copy from the Internet stored?
a.
Downloads
c.
Desktop
b.
Documents
d.
Libraries
18. Which folder does Windows 10 use as the default folder for images?
a.
Pictures
c.
Scanned Documents
b.
Quick access
d.
Documents
19. What does digital rights management software do?
a.
Prevents unauthorized use or redistribution of media.
b.
Allows you copy content that has been purchased.
c.
Enables others to download the digital content from your device.
d.
Enables you to manage digital media using File Explorer.
20. Which folder would you use to make certain files available to all other user accounts on your computer?
a.
Public
b.
Shared
21. Which of the following file types can be sent as an attachment?
a.
.png
c.
.bat
b.
.exe
d.
.mdb
22. Why might you want to use the Send to Compressed (zipped) folder command before sending four
pictures to a friend via email?
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a.
You need to reduce the size of the picture files for email purposes.
b.
It’s faster to send one file instead of sending four files in the one email.
c.
The friend has a web-based email program.
d.
The picture files are stored on the cloud.
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Computing Fundamentals
Lesson 5: Software
Lesson Objectives
In this lesson you will learn how to obtain, install, manage and configure software. You will also install and manage
Windows apps and use messaging applications. Upon completion of this lesson, you should be able to:

describe the benefits of software

work with Windows apps

install, uninstall, repair and update apps and applications

use messaging applications

set software preferences
Why Use Software?
Objective 1-1.3
While hardware is what makes our computers powerful and capable machines, it is software (programs) that
makes our computing devices useful. The operating system provides an interface with the hardware itself,
and software programs are what we use to get work done.
Software programs enable us to produce documents and charts; solve complex equations; calculate rocket
trajectory; make online purchases; edit digital movies; decode the human genome; and so on. Additionally,
light-weight apps can keep us on schedule, remind us of appointments, or help us find our way to a location
when construction crews block our familiar path. Software and apps keep us productive and empowered.
Important Info: Apps and Applications
These are terms that describe the software we use to accomplish various tasks. The terms are used
loosely, making it difficult to distinguish an app from an application. In this lesson, applications (or
application software) are complex programs you install from removable media or from the Internet.
Apps are small, light-weight programs you obtain from an app store. In Microsoft’s terminology,
applications are “Desktop Apps,” and the light-weight programs are “Windows Apps.”
Locally-Installed vs. Cloud-Based Software
Locally-installed software is installed on a device and runs directly on that device. These programs are
designed to work with specific operating systems and with hardware that meets certain minimum
requirements.
Cloud-based software on the other hand runs on a dedicated server (not on your computer) and is designed
to be accessed over the Internet. You will learn about cloud-based software in an upcoming lesson.
In this lesson, you will work with locally-installed software.
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Obtaining Software
Objective 1-2.8
In the not too distant past, there was only one way to obtain software for your computer – you went to the
store and purchased the software which came packaged with the installable program code on removable
media such as CD or DVD (or even floppy disks) and usually a booklet with instructions on how to install and
use the program.
Today, you have many options for obtaining and installing software. You can:
•
purchase a packaged version at a retail store and install using removable media
•
purchase a license online (usually with a credit card), and then download and install the program
•
lease software on a subscription basis
•
download and install apps from an app store
When you purchase a software program, you are purchasing a license to install and use that program on
your device. Some licenses allow for installation on one device only, while others allow for installation on
multiple devices. It is your responsibility to ensure that you are complying with the licensing rules.
The cost of software often includes future updates to the program.
Platform Considerations
Locally-installed programs are generally released in platform-specific versions. In computing, a platform is
the environment within which a specific piece of software is designed to run. The operating system, installed
drivers and hardware create the platform.
That means, if you want to install a program on your PC, you must find the version of the software that is
designed to run in your operating system. For example, you can install the Microsoft Office suite on your
Windows machine, but you would not be able to install the same version on a Mac; you must purchase Office
for Mac if you want to install it on your Mac. It is up to the software vendor to decide which operating systems
will be supported, so you may or may not be able to find a version of the software you want for your particular
operating system.
Additionally, because microprocessors are designed in 32-bit and 64-bit architectures, operating systems
come in 32-bit and 64-bit versions. A 32-bit version of Windows will run on a system with either a 32-bit or
a 64-bit processor, but it cannot run 64-bit versions of application software. If you are using a 32-bit version
of Windows, you will need to install 32-bit versions of application software.
System Requirements
System requirements identify the type of hardware (and operating system version) required to successfully
run a program. All software, whether operating system software or application program software, is designed
to work with hardware that can be expected to function at a specific speed and capacity. The software vendor
lists these expectations so you can determine whether your computer is compatible and meets (and hopefully
exceeds) all the requirements before purchasing the program.
System requirements always appear on the software package if you purchase it in a retail store; if you
purchase a license or other electronic means such as downloading from the software vendor’s web site, the
system requirements are listed on the site, usually before you click the Download or Purchase button.
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A system requirements checklist may appear similar to the following:
If you are unsure of the type of hardware installed in your computer, check with a technical specialist before
purchasing software.
On a Windows 10 system you can right-click Start, then click System to view the system properties on the
System page in the Control Panel.
Notice that the displayed properties indicate the speed of the processor, the operation system version and
the amount of RAM.
Managing Software
Objective 1-3.12
Once you decide which application program you want to use, you will need to purchase the program and
then install it on the hard disk of your computer before you can use it. Once a program has been installed, it
can be removed (uninstalled), modified, repaired, or reinstalled as required.
Note that a software license generally allows you to make a backup or copy of the original installation
program. For example, you are allowed to make a copy of the installation DVD for backup purposes. You
may even want to use the backup copy to install the software so that you can keep the original media intact
and store it in a safe location. Software can be costly and it makes sense to protect your investment.
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If you are downloading software from the Internet, always save it (if you are given the option) to a designated
location such as the desktop and scan it for viruses prior to installing it. It is rare that software from a
reputable vendor will have problems; however, if you download software from a site that is not the vendor’s
official web site, there could be spyware or viruses included in the download file.
Installing a New Program
You can install programs from a number of different locations such as a network drive, an optical drive, a
USB drive, or the Internet. How you purchase the software will determine the installation process.
One of the more traditional methods for installation is installing from optical media. You insert the installation
CD or DVD and the process either begins automatically, or you can launch the process yourself. Another
“tried-and-true” method is to purchase software over the Internet, and then download and run the
installation program.
A more modern method for installing software is to stream the installation files from a server. For example,
Microsoft has been using a setup and installation technology called “Click-to-Run” or “C2R Installer” for
delivering Office setup files since Microsoft Office 2010. This type of installer streams Office setup files from
Microsoft servers to your system, which allows you to start using Office even before the entire Office suite is
installed on the system.
Regardless of the method of installation, most installation routines lead you step by step through the
installation process. For example, the following sequence of screens shows the installation process for an
open-source application called Notepad++:
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To advance through each stage of the installation process, click Next. When the installation is complete, click
Finish to close the installer.
User Account Control (UAC)
The User Account Control (UAC) is a feature in
Windows that issues notices (called elevation
prompts) when a program is about to make a change
that requires administrator-level permissions. For
example, if you are logged in with an administrator
account, the UAC displays the following prompt
when you install a program.
Click Yes to proceed with the installation.
If you are logged in as a standard user and try to install software, the UAC will prompt you to enter the user
name and password for an administrator account.
Entering an administrator user name and password in this UAC prompt has the same effect as clicking Yes in
UAC prompt that displays when you are logged in as an administrator.
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EULA and Registration
Once the installation process begins, you will be asked to agree to an End User License Agreement (EULA);
depending on the vendor, this may appear in a separate screen or it may be a link you should click in order
to read the contents of the agreement. Typically, you agree not to make illegal copies of the software to
distribute to others, and you agree not to hold the software vendor liable for any damage or expenses that
may occur from misuse or improper use of the software, such as putting incorrect entries into an income tax
preparation program which results in an audit by the tax collector.
When the installation is complete, you will usually be asked to register or activate your copy of the program.
Performing this last step ensures that you will be notified of any updates to the program. It also usually
provides the option to call technical support should you require technical assistance.
Exercise 5-1: Installing software
In this exercise, you will install a program called Notepad++ which is designed to help programmers (coders)
create and keep track of their code. You will also install the Google Chrome browser. This exercise assumes
you have sufficient rights to install software on your system. If not, please read the steps to gain some
familiarity with installing and uninstalling programs on your system or watch a demonstration provided by
your teacher.
First, view some simple web page code in the standard Notepad text editor.
1.
In File Explorer, navigate to the 7500 Student Files\Software folder.
2.
Right-click the hello-world document, click Open with, then click Notepad to open the document in the
3.
Notepad editor. The document contains some simple HTML code for a web page.
Close the Notepad application.
Now start the installer for Notepad++.
4.
In File Explorer, double-click npp.6.9.1.Installer to start the installation program.
5.
In the UAC, click Yes to allow the installer to make changes to the system (or enter an administrator user
6.
Select your language, then click OK to display the first screen of the setup wizard.
7.
Click Next.
8.
Read the EULA, then click I Agree.
9.
Click Next twice.
name and password.)
10. Select the Create Shortcut on Desktop check box, then click Install.
11. Click Finish. Notepad++ opens and displays release notes pertinent to the current version in a document
called change log.
12. Press CTRL+W to close the change log document.
Now, view the web page code in Notepad++.
13. In the Notepad++ window, click File, Open, navigate to the 7500 Student Files\Software folder, then
double-click hello-world. Notice that this editor displays tags in blue and numbers each line of code.
14. Press CTRL+W to close the hello-world document.
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15. Close the Notepad++ application window.
Now, install the free Google Chrome browser.
16. Open the Internet Explorer browser, click in the Address bar and type: www.google.com/chrome/browser
and press ENTER to navigate to the download page for the Chrome browser.
17. Click Download Chrome.
18. Read the Terms of Service, clear the Set Google Chrome as my default browser check box, then click
Accept and Install. Click Run if prompted.
19. Click Yes in the UAC (or enter an administrator user name and password) if prompted. The Chrome
browser installs and then opens.
20. Close the Chrome browser.
21. Close the Internet Explorer browser.
Uninstalling Programs
You can uninstall a program when you no longer need it. Usually, the best way to uninstall a program is to
use the Uninstall a program command on the Programs and Features page in the Control Panel.
Once you select the program you want to uninstall, click the Uninstall/Change button in Control Panel, then
follow the prompts in the uninstall routine as they appear onscreen.
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Alternatively, you can use the program's uninstall option (if one is included). Most antivirus applications are
best uninstalled using the included uninstall routine. Either of these options helps ensure that the program
is properly and completely removed from the system.
You should never simply delete program files using File Explorer. When you install a program, configuration
information is added to the Windows Registry so that the operating system will identify this program. The
Windows Registry is an operating system database that stores settings for installed applications. If you delete
program files improperly, the obsolete configuration information is left behind in the Registry. This can lead
to problems with other software programs or if you try to reinstall this program at a later date, or if you try
to upgrade this program with a new version.
Exercise 5-2: Uninstalling an application
In this exercise, you will uninstall Notepad++.
1.
2.
Right-click Start, then click Control Panel.
With the Control Panel options displayed in Category view, click Uninstall a program beneath the
Programs heading.
3.
Scroll in the list until you see the Notepad++ program and then click to select it.
4.
Click the Uninstall/Change button in the blue toolbar above the listed programs.
5.
If prompted, click Yes in the UAC (or enter an administrator user name and password.)
6.
Click OK in the Installer Language box.
7.
Click Uninstall to begin the uninstallation.
8.
When the Uninstallation Complete message displays, click Close. Notepad++ no longer displays in the
9.
Close the Control Panel.
Control Panel.
Repairing Software
Sometimes an installed application program stops working correctly. Sometimes restarting the program will
fix the problem. If that does not work, you can try repairing it.
The Microsoft Office suite includes a repair utility that you can access through the Programs and Features
page in the Control Panel. Click the suite in the list box and then click Change to access the repair tool.
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You can specify:
•
Quick Repair – this runs faster but only detects and then replaces
corrupted files.
•
Online Repair – does an uninstall and complete reinstall but
takes longer.
Click an option, then click Repair.
The following series of screens shows a repair in progress.
When the repair operation has completed, click Close to exit the utility. Be aware that you may need to restart
the system after running a repair routine.
Reinstalling a Program
Sometimes, a program may not work correctly (or at all) after installation, or it may work for a while and then
stop working. If a repair is not available for the application, you can try uninstalling and then reinstalling the
program.
Most vendors allow you download and install or reinstall a program on the same system numerous times
without any fees. Generally, once you have paid for a software program, you can reinstall it as often as
needed.
Sometimes, Windows detects that a program is running improperly, or detects that a program has been
installed improperly. In such cases, Windows will display the Program Compatibility Assistant, which may give
you the option to reinstall or to verify that the program has been installed correctly.
You can also check online user groups, knowledge bases, blog sites and forums to see if other users have
experienced similar problems and you may find solutions there.
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Updating Software
When you register your copy (license) of a software program, you become entitled to receive notification
about updates or upgrades as they become available.
•
You may receive a CD or other media that you can use to install the upgrade in much the same way as
you installed the program initially.
•
You may receive an email with a link to the web site where you can download the update to your system.
Click the link to access and download installation files for the update.
Many programs are designed to automatically check online for updates and to display alert messages to
indicate when a new update is ready for download and installation. Microsoft and Adobe provide this type
of service for their products. Usually, a pop-up box displays in the Notification area of the taskbar informing
you of an update's availability. You can usually click the box to read more information about the update, or
click the X at the top right corner of the box to close the notification and delay any action.
You can also check manually for updates by:
•
clicking a command, button, or link in the program. (Usually this option links you to the vendor’s web
site; once you are connected to the site, a check for updates begins and a list of update options is
displayed. You can then choose what you want to install.)
•
accessing the Help menu within the program and clicking a command that displays information about
the application, including the version number. Vendors often include a check for updates link with this
information. If updates are available, you can then follow the instructions to update the program.
Often, you can simply install an update and it will integrate itself into the program. However, sometimes an
update is so different from the previous version that you will be directed to uninstall the old version, and
then install the new one.
Always register your software to ensure you receive notices about available updates.
Configuring Software
Objective 1-3.4
Most application software allows you to adjust the working environment to suit your working style and
preferences. For example, the programs in the Microsoft Office suite are highly customizable, allowing you
to change the appearance and arrangement of toolbars and menus, and allowing you to configure settings
for default program behaviors.
Customizing Toolbars
Within the applications of the Microsoft Office suite, a Quick Access toolbar and series of ribbon tabs display
across the top of the application window. The following figure shows the top of the Microsoft OneNote
application window.
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Quick Access Toolbar
Ribbon tabs
As you click each ribbon tab, a series of commands becomes visible on screen, allowing you to perform tasks
such as copying, pasting, formatting, and so on. The Quick Access toolbar contains shortcuts to commonlyused commands.
At the right end of the Quick Access toolbar is the
(Customize Quick Access Toolbar) button. Click it to
open a menu of commands that you can add to the Quick Access toolbar with a single click.
Commands that appear in the menu can be toggled on or off the Quick Access toolbar. Commands that are
currently on the toolbar display a check mark within the menu.
Specifying Program Defaults
In computing, a default setting is a preselected option used by a computer program when no alternative is
specified by the user. Default settings within application programs control (among other things) items such
as file save locations, print settings, the color of the application window, or the typeface of the font.
In Microsoft Office applications, you access these settings on the File tab of the ribbon. The File tab displays
the Office Backstage view, which is the view you use for file and program management tasks. The following
figure shows the Backstage view in OneNote.
Notice the series of headings: Info, New, Open, Print, Share, Export, Send, Account, Options, and Feedback.
These are tabs within the Backstage view, and each provides access to different commands and settings.
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When you click the Options tab, you open the Options dialog box.
The Options dialog box also contains several tabs: General, Display, Proofing, Save & Backup, Send to
OneNote, Audio & Video, Language, Advanced, Customize Ribbon, Quick Access Toolbar, Add-ins, and Trust
Center. These provide access to various settings that control how the program functions on your system.
For example, you can use the General tab to set a default font for all new pages you create in OneNote. Or
you can use the Save & Backup tab to specify how often to back up your OneNote notebooks.
Different commands and settings are available in different programs in the Office suite; however, these
settings are always accessed through the tabs of the Options dialog box.
Exercise 5-3: Setting software preferences
In this exercise, you will open Microsoft Word and explore some of the available customizations.
First, customize the Quick Access toolbar.
1.
Open File Explorer, navigate to the 7500 Student Files\Software folder, then double-click Customizations
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In the Quick Access toolbar, click Customize Quick Access Toolbar, then in the menu, click Quick Print
to add a button to the Quick Access toolbar that sends a document to the default printer with a single
click.
3.
In the Quick Access toolbar, click Customize Quick Access Toolbar, then in the menu, click Print
Preview and Print to add another button to the toolbar. This one opens the Print tab in Backstage view,
allowing you to specify what to print, and which printer to print on.
4.
In the Quick Access toolbar, click Print Preview and Print to preview the document, then at the top of
the Backstage tabs, click the Back button to return to the document.
Now, return the Quick Access toolbar to its original configuration.
5.
6.
In the Quick Access toolbar, click Customize Quick Access Toolbar, then in the menu, click Print
Preview and Print to remove the button.
In the Quick Access toolbar, click Customize Quick Access Toolbar, then in the menu, click Quick Print
to remove the button.
Now, explore some of the options you can set for the application.
7.
In the ribbon, click File to open Backstage view, then in the Backstage tabs, click Options to open the
Options dialog box.
8.
Click each of the tabs in the Options dialog box, read the available settings and note the type of settings
9.
When you have finished examining the tabs, click Cancel to close the dialog box.
you can configure for Microsoft Word. How customizable do you think this application is?
10. Close the Microsoft Word application window.
Working with Windows Apps
Objective 1-2.8, 1-3.12, 1-6.5
In addition to using application software on your system, you can also use apps that you obtain from an app
store. Per our definition at the beginning of this lesson, apps are small and light-weight programs. They are
generally optimized for use on a touch-screen interface.
Operating System App Stores
An app store is a digital platform for distributing software. Just like full-featured application programs, apps
are written for specific operating systems such as iOS, Mac OS X, Windows, or Android. For this reason,
different platforms utilize different apps stores.
An app for accessing the appropriate app store is usually built in to the operating system. For example, the
Windows Store app is built into Windows 10, while the Mac App Store app is built into OS X v10.6.6 or later.
Windows Store
Windows 10 comes with built-in apps including OneNote, Mail, Groove Music, Movies & TV, Photos, Camera,
Games, People, Maps, Calendar, Money, and Alarms, but you can get more at the Windows Store. Click the
(Store) icon in the taskbar to open the Store app and browse the store.
If you want to download and install apps, you will need to sign in with a Microsoft account.
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What is a Microsoft Account?
A Microsoft account is an ID composed of an email address and password. You use a Microsoft account to
log in to Microsoft web sites and services, such as Hotmail, Xbox Live, Outlook.com and OneDrive. A Microsoft
account also gives you access to apps and games from the Windows Store, and lets you see your settings
and personal files across multiple Windows 10 devices.
If you use an email address to sign in to Outlook.com, Hotmail, Windows 10 Mobile (or Windows Phone 8),
or Xbox LIVE, then you already have a Microsoft account. If not, then you can create a free Microsoft account.
Exercise 5-4: Creating a Microsoft Account
In this exercise, you will create a Microsoft account. If you already have a Microsoft account, skip this exercise.
1.
Open the Internet Explorer browser and navigate to https://account.microsoft.com.
2.
Click Sign in, then below the Sign in button, to the right of No account?, click Create one!
3.
Enter your Hotmail or outlook.com email address and password, or click the Get a new email address
link to create a new account/email address. Fill out the rest of the form (ask your teacher for help if you
need to), then tap or click Create account. Your Microsoft account is created and you are signed in. (If
prompted, do not let the browser save your password.)
4.
Be sure to record your Microsoft ID.
5.
Click your user icon in the upper-right corner of the window, then click Sign out.
6.
Close your browser.
Signing in to Store
Once you have created a Microsoft account, you can use your ID to sign into the Store app. Click Store in
the taskbar to open the store app, then click
open the Sign In menu.
Sign In at the upper-right corner of the store window to
In the menu, click Sign In to open the Choose an account screen.
Click Cortana if you want to use your personal Microsoft account. (If you have
a Microsoft account associated with your school or business and you want to
use that account instead, click the Work or school account option.)
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Enter your Microsoft ID, then click Sign in. Windows will prompt you to use this account to sign in to your
device. Signing in to your computer or device using a Microsoft account enables you to sync settings across
your devices. However, in this course, you will not use your Microsoft account for signing on to your
computer.
To sign only into the Store app using your Microsoft account, click Sign in to just this app instead.
Your account icon displays as
when you are signed in.
Exercise 5-5: Signing into the Store App
In this exercise, you will sign into the Store app with your Microsoft account.
1.
In the taskbar, click Store to open the Store app.
2.
In the upper-right corner of the window, click Sign In, then in the menu, click Sign In.
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3.
In the Choose an account screen, click Cortana.
4.
Enter your Microsoft ID and click Sign in.
5.
Click Sign in to just this app instead. You are now signed into the Store app.
6.
Minimize the Store window.
Finding an App in the Store
The Windows Store is your gateway to apps, games, music and TV and movies. Top picks or featured items
are presented on the first page; and you can click or tap options that allow you to browse by category. The
following figure shows some of the categories for apps:
When you click a Category here the results show in the window, and a panel along the left side allows you
to refine which apps are displayed in the window.
In addition to browsing the categories, you can type the name of a
specific app in the Search bar and search for it. The Store will display the
best matches.
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Downloading and Installing an App
When you find an app that you are interested in, click or tap it to open its detail page. The detail page lists
(among other things) ratings and reviews, the price of the app (if any) and similar apps.
Click the price (or “Free”) to begin downloading the app. Windows will download the app and acquire a
license for it automatically. When the download is complete, the app will display an Install button. Click it to
install the app.
When the installation is complete, the app will display an Open
button.
You can click Open to launch the app from within the Store. Note
that some apps require you to accept certain terms and conditions,
and some will ask for permission to access particular features (such
as a built-in camera, or your location information) before they open
for the first time. Once you have accepted the terms and granted
appropriate permissions, the app will run.
You can launch an installed app at any time from the Start menu: click Start, click All apps, then click or tap
the app to launch it.
Exercise 5-6: Obtaining Windows Apps
In this exercise, you will explore the Windows Store and download and install a Windows app.
1.
Restore the Store window.
2.
At the top of the window, click Apps to see the top apps.
3.
4.
Scroll to the bottom of the page, then in the Categories, click News & weather to view news and weather
apps.
In the Refine panel, click Best-rated.
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5.
In the Refine panel, click New and rising.
6.
In the Refine panel, click the X to the right of News & weather to remove the category filter.
7.
In the Refine panel, scroll the category list and click Productivity to view productivity apps.
8.
Near the top of the window, click in the search box and type: color note. The Store app displays a few
9.
In the search results list, click Ephemeral Notes to open the detail page for this particular app.
apps that might be what you are looking for.
10. In the description area, click More to read a little more, then click Less to close up the description.
11. Read the ratings and then scroll to the bottom of the page to read about the app’s approximate size.
12. Scroll back up and click Free to begin downloading the app from the Store. Notice that Windows
automatically downloads the app, and acquires a license for it. Notice that the app displays the text: You
own this product and you can install it on this device.
13. Click Install. When the installation is complete, minimize the Store window.
14. Click Start, click All apps, then click Ephemeral Notes in the Start menu. The app opens in its own
window.
15. At the top of the app window, click the menu icon
at the bottom of the app window.
then click … App commands. An Add icon appears
16. Click Add to create a new, untitled note.
17. Type: check out this new app!
18. At the top of app window, click menu then click … App commands and click Delete to remove the note.
19. Close the app window.
Deleting an App
Apps can be easily removed from your PC. Click Start, All apps, then right-click the app in the Start menu and
click Uninstall. Confirm that you want to uninstall and Windows removes the app.
Recovering a Deleted App
If you accidentally delete an app, or if you delete it on purpose and then change your mind, you can recover
the app without having to pay for it again and without having to download it again.
Sign into the Windows Store, if necessary, and search for the app you deleted. When you click its detail page,
the app will display the message: You own this product and you can install it on this device. The Install button
will also display in the app, allowing you to install it once again.
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Signing out of the Store
If you are using a shared computer, you should sign out of the Windows store. To do so, click the Sign in
icon, then click your account at the top of the menu to open the Account window. In the Account window,
click your account name to make the Sign out link visible. Click Sign out.
Exercise 5-7: Removing Windows Apps
In this exercise, you will delete the app you installed previously.
Delete your app from the Start menu.
1.
Click Start, then click All apps.
2.
Locate the Ephemeral Notes app, then right-click it in the Start menu and click Uninstall.
3.
Click the Uninstall button to confirm, then click away from the Start menu.
Ensure that it has been removed.
4.
Click Start and All apps and look for the Ephemeral Notes app. The app is uninstalled.
5.
Close the Start menu.
Search for the app in the Store.
6.
Restore the Store window.
7.
Use the Search box to find the Ephemeral Notes app, and click it to open the detail page. Notice that
the app displays an Install button.
Sign out of the Store.
8.
In the Store window, click the Sign in icon, then in the menu, click your account to open the Account
9.
In the Account window, click your account name to make the Sign out link visible, then click Sign out.
window.
10. Close the Windows Store.
Messaging Applications
Objective 1-1.3, 1-1.5
Although personal computing might have begun as a means toward increased productivity, social behavior
(connecting with others) has always been part of the evolving process. Message boards, forums, email, and
chat rooms have existed since the early days of the modern Internet. We have always wanted, it seems, to be
able to use our computers to communicate with each other.
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On the cellular side of things, it seems we have always wanted the ability to use our phones for more than
simple communication. We want them to entertain us, and allow us to work, and allow us to share files and
photos, and video, and more.
And today we have choices. We can work on a hand held or on a desktop. And we can communicate from
either place as well. Messaging apps keep us in communication, no matter where we are.
Text Messaging
Text messages (or “texts”) are short strings of text sent over a cellular provider's network using a protocol
called Short Message Service (SMS). Text messages are created and sent from cellular phones (or other similar
mobile devices). As the name of the protocol implies, the number of characters allowed per message is limited
(about 100 to 200 characters per message, depending on the service provider). The original SMS protocol
allowed for a maximum of 160 characters. You can send a text message to one person or to many people.
The figure shows five text messages that form a conversation.
In addition to Short Message Service, many cellular providers offer Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS),
which provides a standard way to send messages that include multimedia content to and from mobile phones
or other suitably equipped mobile devices.
This service allows users to send photographs and video to other users, as well as mobile updates such as
breaking news or weather updates. As with plain text messaging, you can send multimedia messages to one
or more people, but the speed for sending and receiving may be slower depending on the size of the message
or the speed of your cellular provider’s network.
Text messaging can be useful when no other forms of communication are available or when the intended
recipient cannot be reached through a phone call. For example, you can text your boss (who might be at a
concert) to let her know that you will be coming into work later than usual tomorrow.
In order to send a text message, you must know the cell phone number of the person you want to text. It is
easiest if you enter that person into your Contacts list in your phone.
To send a text, open the messaging application on your phone or tablet, specify one or more contacts who
will receive the message, type your message, and then tap the Send button. If your recipient’s phone is turned
off at the time that you send your text message, he or she will receive the message the next time the phone
is powered on.
Depending on your cellular text plan, you may be limited to the number of
text messages you can send and receive before you start incurring charges.
This is especially relevant with pre-paid plans.
Additionally, most providers charge fees for sending/receiving texts to people
who live in other countries. For example, if you live in the United States and
you travel to Canada and use your mobile phone to send text messages, you
will likely find fees assessed on your next mobile bill. Be sure that you
understand the terms and conditions of your cellular contract and know in
advance how much international messages will cost. Many providers offer
special international text packages (for a set fee) that allow for international
texting.
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Most mobile devices come with text messaging apps preinstalled. If you use Android, Google Hangouts is
the default for messaging with other Android users. If you use iOS, the Messages app is built in. However,
not all messaging apps play nicely with others. That is, you may run into difficulty sending/receiving messages
to users on platforms other than your own. Happily, there are thousands and thousands of apps that can be
downloaded to a smart phone – including those that make cross-platform messaging fun and easy.
Non-SMS Messaging Apps
There are many messaging apps today that bypass your cellular carrier’s SMS and MMS service, and use Wi-Fi
or mobile data instead. Exchanges between users who have the same app installed are free. These include:
•
WhatsApp – a cross-platform messaging system that supports Android, iOS, Windows 10 Mobile and
BlackBerry devices. You can send individual and group text, photo, and voice/video messages using
mobile data or Wi-Fi. Messages to any other WhatsApp user are free.
•
Viber – supports Android, iOS, Windows 10 Mobile and BlackBerry, and includes desktop clients for
Windows and OS X, allowing you to send, receive, and manage messages on your computer as well as
on your mobile device. All exchanges with other Viber users are free.
•
Facebook Messenger – allows you to connect with any other Facebook user (there are over one billion
active Facebook users) for free, bypassing traditional SMS and MMS channels. The app supports iOS,
Android, and BlackBerry and also includes a Windows desktop client that allows you to use your
computer for messaging instead of your phone.
Chat
Many social networking sites (such as Facebook or Google+) include built-in “chat” or “messenger” features,
and accordingly, most instant messaging clients allow you to connect to and exchange messages with the
people you know on social networks.
Additionally, many instant messaging and chat clients are associated with online services, such as a web-
based email account (such as a Gmail or Outlook.com account). This association allows you to log into your
email account and launch the web-based chat feature from within your mailbox.
You can type text, copy and paste hyperlinks into messages, and send picture files with your chat messages.
Gmail chat even lets you draw and send freehand images with your chat messages. You can also send chat
messages to a contact who is not currently online. Your recipient will see the message the next time he or
she signs in. In this way, a chat service is similar to email; you can send messages to people who are not
currently online.
Using Gmail Chat
Gmail includes built-in chat features that you can use, and chat sessions take place on the Google Hangouts
platform. The chat “roster” appears on the left side of the page below your name. In order to engage in “real
time” chat, you and the person with whom you want to chat must be logged into Gmail. A green circle in the
chat roster indicates that a contact is logged in. (If your intended recipient is not logged in, you can send a
message to your offline contact, and that message will be seen the next time he or she signs in).
The roster stores previous chat sessions, and you can click one to open it and pick up a conversation where
you left off.
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If you have not used Gmail chat before, the chat roster will be empty. To start a new chat, click the
(Search) button and type the name or email address of the person you want to chat with. The first time
you chat with a particular contact through Gmail, you will need to send a chat invitation.
Depending upon the other person’s prior activity on Google, various options may be presented when you
try to open your first chat session, and you may need to investigate icons on the screen in order to invite
that person to chat with you.
In the following figure, Fred has searched for [email protected] When he clicks her contact info in the
search results, he is prompted to send an invitation.
Fred can simply click Send Invite to invite Ethyl to chat with him on
Google Hangouts. He will receive confirmation that the invitation
was sent, and then he must wait for Ethyl to accept the invitation.
In the meantime, Ethyl will see a notification in her chat roster that Fred has sent a
message.
When she clicks the notification, the invitation displays in the lower-right corner of
the Gmail window. When she clicks Accept, they can begin chatting.
To use the chat window, click in the Send
a message box, type your message, then
press ENTER.
As new messages are sent and received,
previous messages scroll up in the
window
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Exercise 5-8: Using Gmail chat
For this exercise, your teacher should divide the class into teams of two. The other person on your team will
be your partner. Decide who will be Student A and who will be Student B. In this exercise, you will use the
Gmail chat feature to chat with your partner.
This exercise assumes that you have installed the Google Chrome web browser, as Gmail is designed to work
best with Chrome. You can use Internet Explorer or Microsoft Edge, however you may need to adjust the
steps. For example, you will need to navigate to the Gmail sign-in page; these browsers will not display a
Gmail link in the upper-right area of the window.
1.
Double-click the Google Chrome shortcut on the Desktop to open the Chrome browser. Click the Gmail
link that displays in the upper-right region of the browser window to access the Gmail sign in page. Sign
into Gmail. You should be looking at your Gmail Inbox.
2.
Student A: Click the search button that appears to the right of your name in the chat roster to open the
search box.
3.
Student A: Enter your partner’s email address into the search box, and click his or her contact info in the
4.
Student A: When the chat invitation displays at the lower-right corner of the window, click Send Invite.
search results.
You should see a confirmation that your invitation was sent. You must now wait for your partner to
accept the invitation.
5.
Student B: When you see a notification in your chat roster that your partner has sent you a message,
6.
Student B: In the invitation, click Accept.
7.
Student A: Click in the Send a message box, type a brief message, then press ENTER. Your message
click the notification to open the invitation.
appears in your chat window and in your partner’s chat window.
8.
Student B: Type a response, then press ENTER.
9.
Everyone: Exchange several messages.
10. Everyone: Close the chat window.
11. Student B: In your chat roster, click the conversation with your partner to re-open the chat window.
Notice that the entire thread of the conversation is preserved.
12. Student B: Type and send a new message to your partner.
13. Student A: Click the conversation with your partner in your chat roster. Notice that when the window
opens, the new message from your partner displays at the bottom of the window.
14. Everyone: When you are finished using Gmail chat, close the chat window, sign out of Gmail and close
your browser.
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Instant Messaging
Sometimes referred to as IM, this type of electronic communication allows two or more participants to
"converse" with one another in real time by typing messages in the window of an instant messaging program.
Instant messaging programs such as Skype, ICQ, or Yahoo! Messenger enable people to chat with each other,
regardless of where they are located. For example, two participants may be working on different floors of the
same office building, and they can type messages back and forth to one another as a means of real-time
communication.
Most instant messaging programs allow for group conversations, so our two participants could easily add in
a third participant who might be working in an office across town. Instant messaging is a very useful means
of communication to use when an answer is needed quickly.
In order to use an instant messaging program, you must create an account with a username and password.
In the early days of instant messaging, you were required to download and install the program in order to
use it. Today, most instant messaging clients include a web-based version, allowing you to sign in and use
the program from any computer (regardless of whether the client is installed on the computer you are using).
Using Skype
Skype comes in both business and consumer versions. Skype for Business lets you add up to 250 people to
an online meeting and is integrated into Microsoft Office apps, allowing you to schedule online meetings
from Outlook. It costs $2 per month per user. Skype for consumers is free.
Because Microsoft owns Skype, you can sign into Skype using a Microsoft account, and you can open instant
messaging sessions from your Outlook.com inbox and exchange messages with your contacts as long as you
and your contact have Skype accounts.
You can also create a Skype account independent of a Microsoft account, and you can log in to Skype using
your Skype name.
You can download and install the Skype for Windows client from the Skype web site, and then sign in to the
service.
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Exercise 5-9: Creating an account & installing Skype
In this exercise, you will sign up for a Skype account, and then download and install Skype for Windows.
First, create a Skype account.
1.
Open the Internet Explorer browser and navigate to: https;//login.skype.com.
2.
Click Create new account to access an online form for creating a Skype account.
3.
Fill in the required fields along with the security code requirement at the bottom of the page. Then click
I agree - Continue. You should now be viewing your Skype account page, which includes a welcome
message with your first name. Your account has been created.
4.
Be sure to record your Skype name and password.
Next, download and install the Skype client.
Note: Your teacher may have already installed Skype on the classroom systems. If that is the case, press the
Windows key on your keyboard, type: Skype, then click Skype for Desktop in the Search results pane to
open the Skype sign-in window, and then skip to Step 12.
5.
In the welcome page, click Download Skype for Windows. (Notice that you can elect to download
Skype for other devices – there are versions for PCs, mobile phones, tablets, home phones, television,
Xbox, etc.).
6.
In the message bar that appears across the bottom of the window, click Save.
7.
When the message bar changes, click Run.
8.
9.
Click Yes in the User Account Control dialog box to allow the program to be installed. (Or enter an
administrator user name and password.)
When prompted, select your language, then click I agree – next.
10. You can elect to install Skype Click to Call, which is a browser add-in that allows you to click phone
numbers on web pages in order to automatically place a call. For now, clear the Install Skype Click to
Call check box, then click Continue.
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11. You can elect to make Bing your default search engine and make MSN your home page. Clear the check
boxes for these options, then click Continue. It may take a few moments for the installation to proceed,
after which the sign-in screen appears.
Sign in to Skype.
12. Click in the Skype name, email or mobile box and type your Skype name, click in the Password box and
enter your password, then click Sign in.
13. If this is the first time you are signing into Skype, or if you have signed in before but have not configured
your account, you will be presented with a series of configuration dialog boxes. Click Continue to
proceed with the configuration.
14. Click Test sound to make sure you can hear.
15. Speak to check your microphone.
16. You can use the Video drop-down list to select a camera. Make sure you can see yourself in the video
area.
17. Click Continue. You are prompted to add a profile picture. A profile picture displays next to your name
when you are in an instant messaging session or anytime you are engaged in communication and your
video is turned off. A profile picture can also help your friends locate you in the Skype directory. You can
use a web cam or integrated camera to take a picture, or used a stored image file. You can add a profile
picture now, or later.
18. Click Add later. The final setup screen displays:
19. Click Start using Skype to view the Skype home screen.
20. Minimize the Skype window, and close the browser.
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Adding Contacts
To send instant messages in Skype, you need to add people to your Contact list.
In the menu bar in the Skype window, click Contacts, point to Add Contact, then click Search Skype
Directory to open the Search field. Enter the Skype name (or email address or mobile number) of the person
you want to add then click the Search Skype button. The results display below the Search field.
In the Search results, click the contact you want to add. The contact information displays in the central pane
in the Skype window along with information about whether this person is in your Contacts list.
Click Add to Contacts to open an invitation. You must invite your
intended contact before you can add him or her to your Contacts
list.
Notice that you can replace the boilerplate text with a message
of your own. Click Send to send the invitation. A received
invitation (shown in the figure) will appear in your recipient’s
Recent tab.
When you receive an invitation, click it to open it in the
Skype window.
Click Accept to share your contact details. Once you accept,
you are added to the requestor’s Contacts list, and that
person is added to yours. You can now exchange messages.
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Exercise 5-10: Adding Skype contacts
In this exercise, you will add your partner as a contact in Skype. Decide who on your team will be Student A
and who will be Student B.
1.
Everyone: Restore the Skype window.
2.
Student A: In the Skype menu bar, click Contacts, point to Add Contact, then click Search Skype
3.
Student A: Enter the Skype name of your partner, then click the Search Skype button.
4.
Directory to open the Search field.
Student A: In the Search results, click your partner’s Skype name. The contact information displays in
the central pane in the Skype window.
5.
Student A: Click Add to Contacts to open an invitation, then click Send to send the invitation.
6.
Student B: After a few moments, you should receive the invitation your partner sent. If necessary, click
the Recent tab to view your new communications. The pending request should appear in the Recent
pane.
7.
8.
Student B: Click Accept to share your contact details. You are now added to your partner’s Contacts list,
and your partner is added to yours. You can now exchange messages.
Everyone: Minimize the Skype window.
Exchanging Instant Messages with Skype
You use the message area at the bottom of the Skype window to communicate with your contacts.
Click in the box, type your message and press ENTER or click (or tap) the
(Send) button. As with Gmail
chat, as messages are sent and received, they scroll up in the message window.
Notice the via Skype setting above the message box. You can send SMS (text messages) to mobiles from
Skype if you have Skype Credit. Click via Skype and change the selection to SMS. If your contact has not
saved a mobile phone number in their profile, you'll see the option to enter one. Select the country from the
drop-down, type the phone number and click the checkmark.
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Type your text message into the message box and click the Send icon. You'll see the
message when it's been delivered successfully.
icon next to your
You are not limited to sending simple text messages with Skype; you can use Skype to send images,
document files, videos, contact cards, and emoticons and Mojis. (Mojis are short video clips you can use to
express yourself.)
If the
(More) icon displays in the message area, click it to access the additional tool buttons:
Send image
Send file
Send Video Message
Send contacts
Insert emoticon or Moji
When you send a file or image through Skype, you use the Send File to dialog box to navigate to and select
the file you want to include with your message, similar to inserting an attachment to an email message.
The first time you are sent a file, you must specifically accept the file before it will be downloaded to your
system. You accept the file by clicking the download file icon that appears in the Conversation window. A
download file icon for an Excel workbook is shown in the following figure.
When you accept the first file through Skype, you can then specify whether you want to receive files
automatically when they are sent to you.
Although sending files over Skype is safe, you may still want to make a decision on a case by case basis,
depending on who is sending you a file. Additionally, when you accept files on a case by case basis, you can
specify where you want to save them.
Be very careful not to share or give out passwords or credit card numbers in an instant message. Exchanges
made through instant messaging programs travel across the Internet, and these communications are not
always secure.
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Exercise 5-11: Exchanging messages in Skype
In this exercise, you will use Skype to exchange instant messages and files with your partner. Be sure your
partner is included in your Contacts list. If not, add your partner to the list before beginning the exercise.
Decide who will be Student A, and who will be Student B.
1.
Restore the Skype window.
2.
Student A: Click the screen name for Student B in your Contacts list, then click in the Conversation box,
3.
Student B: Your partner’s screen name should appear highlighted in your Contacts list because your
type a short message and press ENTER.
partner has just sent you a message. Click your partner’s name to view the conversation if necessary.
Click in the Conversation box, type a reply and then press ENTER.
4.
Exchange a few messages back and forth.
Now use Skype to send a file.
5.
Student A: Click the Send file button at the bottom of the window (or the More button to expand the
menu options if necessary) to open the Send file to ... dialog box. Navigate to the 7500 Student
Files/Software folder, then double-click Budget 2016 to send the file to your partner.
6.
Students B: Click the download file icon in the Conversation window to download the file.
7.
Student B: Click No, thanks to specify that you do not want to receive files automatically. You are now
asked whether you want to accept this specific file. Click OK. The Save dialog box opens, allowing you
to specify where you want to save the file. Navigate to the desktop, then click Save. Once the file has
finished downloading, the file icon displays in the Conversation window.
8.
Student B: Double-click the file icon in the Conversation window. The spreadsheet file opens in Excel.
9.
Student B: Close Excel.
You can open files directly from the Conversation window.
10. Student B: Right-click the file icon in the Conversation window, then click Show in folder. Skype keeps
track of where you save your received files.
11. Student B: Close the File Explorer window.
Now, send a photo through Skype.
12. Student B: Click the Send image button at the bottom of the window (or the More button to expand
the menu options if necessary) to open the Send file to ... dialog box. By default, the current location is
the Pictures folder. Navigate to the 7500 Student Files/Software folder, then double-click wild violet to
send the file to your partner.
13. Student A: Click the image in the Conversation window to open it in Windows Photo Viewer. Close the
photo viewer window.
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14. Student A: Right-click the image in the Conversation window, then click Save As to open the Save dialog
box.
15. Student A: Navigate to the desktop, then click Save to save the picture file on the desktop.
16. Everyone: Click Skype in the Menu bar, then click Sign Out.
17. Everyone: Right-click the Skype button in the taskbar, then click Quit Skype, then click Quit to confirm.
Lesson Summary
In this lesson, you learned to obtain, install, manage and configure software. You also installed and managed
Windows apps and used messaging applications. You should now be able to:

describe the benefits of software

work with Windows apps

install, uninstall, repair and update apps and applications

use messaging applications

set software preferences
Review Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
Which of the following is true of locally-installed software?
a.
It is installed and runs directly on your device.
b.
It is streamed to your device whenever you use it.
c.
It is hosted in the cloud.
d.
It is automatically updated.
Which of the following defines what you can do with the software you have purchased?
a.
An End User License Agreement (EULA).
b.
The Software Assurance Agreement Services (SAAS) regulation.
c.
The Windows Registry.
d.
The Fair Use Act.
What is the best way to remove a software program from your system?
a.
Use the Uninstall a program command in the Control Panel.
b.
Delete any files related to the software using File Explorer.
c.
Remove the app from the Start menu and tiles.
d.
Use a third-party program to uninstall the program.
Why should you register your software when you install it?
a.
To ensure you receive notification of available updates.
b.
To ensure that you receive marketing materials from the software vendor.
c.
All users are required by law to register any and all installed software.
d.
To ensure that you can get a free version of the next major upgrade.
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5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Software
If you need to repair a Microsoft Office program, which option completely uninstalls and then reinstalls
the software?
a.
Quick Repair
b.
Online Repair
c.
Neither option uninstalls and then reinstalls.
d.
Both options uninstall and then reinstall; one is just faster than the other.
Which of the following is an example of configuring an application program?
a.
Setting a default save location and customizing toolbar buttons.
b.
Making an adjustment in the Control Panel that tells the operating system to run the program in
c.
Making an edit to the Windows Registry so the application starts immediately after the Desktop
d.
Using your Microsoft ID to log in to your computer instead of using a local log in account.
compatibility mode so that the application works smoothly.
displays.
What do you need to do before you can download or install apps from the Windows Store?
a.
Sign in with a Microsoft Account.
b.
Update your operating system.
c.
Open an Outlook.com email account.
d.
Create an account on the Windows Store.
What was the original size limit for messages sent via SMS?
a.
160 characters
c.
160 KB
b.
16 KB
d.
16 MB
Which of the following is true regarding Gmail chat?
a.
Chat sessions take place on Google Hangouts.
b.
You cannot use the chat feature from within Gmail.
c.
You must download and install the G-Chat desktop client before you can use Gmail chat.
d.
Messages that you send in Gmail chat are limited to 160 characters.
10. Which of the following items can you send in a Skype instant message?
178
a.
You can send all of these items via Skype.
b
Document files and images.
c.
Video messages.
d.
Contact cards and Mojis.
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Computing Fundamentals
Lesson 6: Cloud Computing
Lesson Objectives
In this lesson, you will learn about cloud computing. Upon completion of this lesson, you should be able to:

understand the benefits and characteristics of cloud
computing

create and use cloud accounts to store, manage, and

describe different types of cloud applications

configure mobile notifications
share files
Cloud Computing Concepts
Objective 1-6.1, 1-6.2, 1-6.3, 1-6.4, 1-6.5
Cloud computing is a phrase that is used today to refer to a number of different scenarios in which a
computing resource, such as a storage location or software, is delivered as a service over the Internet.
Note: Historically, the Internet has been represented in all manner of diagrams as a cloud. (A cloud is
remote – off in the distance somewhere – and its contents are generally unknown.) The word “cloud” today
refers to almost any type of computing that takes place over the Internet.
In networking, there are client systems (those systems which request services and access to resources) and
there are server systems (those systems that supply services and grant access to resources). In order to
maintain a network on their own premises, organizations typically invest thousands and thousands of dollars
in server systems, server software, and trained IT staff.
However, because high-speed broadband connections are available almost everywhere, network resources
and functionality can be delivered quite efficiently and inexpensively over the Internet. Accordingly,
companies such as Google, Apple, Microsoft and countless others successfully provide hosted services to
millions of users.
A hosted service is provided by a server located outside your own network. That is, for example, instead of
maintaining its own email server, a company can pay for email services hosted on a Microsoft server. Or,
instead of maintaining its own file server, a company can pay for file storage locations hosted on a Google
server. For a monthly fee (subscription) companies can carry on business using modern software and
hardware without having to purchase and maintain the necessary resources.
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Cloud Computing
There are three basic models for hosted services:
Software as a Service (SaaS) – this is the most commonly used model. SaaS is a software delivery model in
which applications are hosted by a provider and made available to customers over a network connection.
Many web applications are delivered in this way: Gmail and Office 365 are examples of consumer-targeted
SaaS. Many organizations use accounting, invoicing, sales, learning management, and customer relationship
management (CRM) software through SaaS.
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) – virtualized computing resources (such as server space, storage space,
network connections and pools of IP addresses) can be leased and accessed as services.
Platform as a Service (PaaS) – an extension of IaaS, PaaS provides developers with environments in which
to build applications. PaaS models include the software and configurations required to create the platform
on which developers can create apps and the platforms on which clients would access those apps.
Benefits of Cloud Computing
Cloud computing provides several benefits for individuals and organizations alike. These benefits include:
•
Reduced hardware costs – in order to use hosted services, you need an Internet connection and a
browser. Organizations can distribute lower-end PCs, laptops or Chromebooks to their workforce and
the employees can remain productive.
•
The latest versions – when you subscribe to a hosted solution for software, you always get the latest
version of the software when you sign in. This is much easier than updating your software each time a
security update or feature enhancement becomes available.
•
24/7 access – hosted services are always available as long as you have access to a live Internet connection.
That means, you can sign in any time from any place on any device that can access the Internet. The only
time a hosted service is not available is when there is a problem at the provider’s end. Hosting providers,
however, aim to be available 99.999 percent of the time. This type of availability (called “five nines”)
equates to less than 5.26 minutes per year of downtime.
•
Scalable storage capacity – cloud services are associated with cloud storage space. That is, you have
access to a certain amount of open storage space on a hosted server. Often, the first several gigabytes
of space are free, but you can lease additional storage capacity as your needs change.
•
Local access to user files – most hosted services make provision for storing a local, synchronized copy of
all your user files stored in the cloud. This ensures that you have access to the latest version of your files
even when Internet service may not be available. (Once Internet service is restored, synchronization can
resume and changes you made to the local copy will be uploaded to the cloud storage location.)
•
Built-in backup – hosted service providers back up their servers continuously. Storing your files on a
hosted server is perhaps the safest method of backup available to consumers.
•
High security – hosted service providers maintain an ultra-high level of security on their systems. As long
as you keep your account and password private, your data is safe and secure in a cloud location.
Accessing Hosted Services
To access a hosted service, you open an app and sign in to the service. Sometimes, you sign in using a local
app (that is, an app which you download and install on your device) and sometimes you sign in using a web
app (which is an app that runs in a browser).
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Lesson 6
One of the things that makes cloud computing so appealing is the ability to access your hosted services
(storage, software, and so on) from a variety of platforms and devices. No matter which device you to use to
access your hosted services, the interface looks similar whether it is presented in an application window or a
browser window on a PC, or in an app window on a mobile device. You can use various types of apps:
Desktop apps – present the user interface within an application window and generally provide the most
complete feature set.
Browser apps (web apps) – present the user interface inside a browser window and may include a little less
functionality than the desktop version of the app. Usually, these provide enough functionality to keep users
productive.
Tablet apps – present the user interface inside an environment designed to harness the features of the tablet
(touchscreen interface and fairly large screen size). You would probably access a service through a tablet app
to check on information, or to make quick, small modifications.
Smart Phone apps – present the user interface inside a relatively small app window. The interface is streamlined and scaled down to offer the most important features.
In most cases, once you sign in through an app, the app will remember your sign in information, making it
faster and easier to access the service the next time.
Connectedness is Key
Perhaps the most key component of cloud computing is the ability to connect multiple devices to a single
account. That is, by downloading and launching the appropriate apps, you can connect your PC, laptop,
phone and tablet to the same cloud account and set your devices to automatically synchronize or “sync” with
the cloud. When devices are synced with a cloud folder, the same data is contained in both locations.
This means, for example, that you can configure your smart phone to automatically upload pictures and video
to a cloud account. The same pictures and video that reside on the smart phone are contained in the cloud
location as well. Not only does this provide an automatic backup of your personal files – it also gives other
connected devices access to those files. For instance, you can take a video on your smart phone and then
play it on your laptop.
You can use cloud computing to keep all your devices connected and synchronized with one another, and
to stay connected with your data any time and from practically any location.
Cloud Accounts
Objective 1-5.1, 1-6.1, 1-6.3
Remember that in cloud computing, resources and services are hosted off-site; they are hosted in the cloud
(on a server somewhere on the Internet). In order to access these hosted resources and services you need an
Internet connection and a cloud account.
All cloud-related services (software, web apps and storage space) are associated with a particular cloud
account. For example, a Google account includes Gmail, storage space on Google Drive, and access to Google
web apps such as Maps, Calendar, YouTube, the Google Play Store, Google Hangouts and more. You can
create one account that is linked to all the related services. Additionally, you can connect several devices to
your account and download and install the associated apps onto those devices. You can also share files
among all your devices using your cloud account.
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Cloud Computing
You must create a cloud account before you can use cloud technology. Once you sign in to your account,
you can access the services and files associated with it.
Most hosting providers offer both consumer and business-grade hosting solutions, and in many cases,
consumer solutions are offered free of charge. Consumer accounts generally provide the same basic features
(regardless of the provider):
•
Cloud storage space
•
Apps to connect multiple devices to your account
•
Apps to keep all your devices synchronized
•
Provision for offline access
•
The ability to share files through web links
•
The ability to upload and download files to your storage location
•
Automatic backup features
•
Automatic photo and video uploading features
•
Web apps to work with documents and folders
•
Ability to collaborate on files
Cloud Account Management
As you can imagine, there are many facets to cloud accounts, and accordingly, most provide a central place
from which you can manage your account. In Google, this central location is the My Account page.
From this page you can manage your account and sign in settings, track your log in activity, control connected
devices, edit your personal information, add account recovery information, see how much of your allotted
storage space you are using, set your account preferences, and more.
To access the My Account page (or any of the Google services) log into a Google service (such as Gmail),
click the
(Apps) icon in the upper right corner of the window to open the Google Apps menu, and click
My Account. You can also log in at: https://accounts.google.com to sign in to the My Account page.
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Exercise 6-1: Managing your Google account
In this exercise, you will explore options associated with your Google account.
Note: This exercise assumes that you created a Gmail account and installed the Chrome web browser as
directed in the previous lesson. If you have not done so already, do so before proceeding.
1.
Open the Chrome browser and navigate to https://accounts.google.com. Enter your Gmail address in
the box provided, click Next, and then enter your password and click Sign in. (If the page already displays
your email address, click in the password box, enter your password, and click Sign in.)
2.
3.
You should be on the My Account page. If you are not, click the Google apps icon, then click My
Account.
Under Personal info & privacy, click Activity controls and scroll the page. Did you have any idea that
you could maintain and research your browsing and search history, your location history, your video
watching history and your video searching history? Did you know you could use voice controls and access
information stored on your devices?
4.
Under Account preferences at the left side of the page, click Your Google Drive storage to view
5.
Under Sign in & security, click Device activity & notifications to see a list of devices you have used to
6.
Spend several minutes exploring the links on this page. Take note of all the facets of your account that
7.
When you are finished, click the My Account link at the upper-left area of the window to return to the
8.
Minimize the browser window.
information on how much of your free cloud storage you are using.
sign in to your account (and when).
you can control, but do not change any settings at this time.
main My Account page.
Cloud Storage on Google Drive
Cloud storage is safe, secure, and accessible from anywhere on any device with an Internet connection.
Different providers offer varying amounts of free storage, and all provide options for purchasing additional
storage.
The cloud storage associated with a Google account is (interchangeably) called “Google Drive” or simply,
“Drive.” Drive currently provides 15GB of free storage.
Accessing Your Cloud Drive
To access Google Drive, sign in to your Google account, click the Google apps icon to display the Google
Apps menu, then click Drive. The first time you access Google Drive, you may be greeted by introductory
information.
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You can click the Close button in the upper-right corner of the introductory PDF to close it, or you can click
to view the introductory information, then click the Take me to Drive button to exit the PDF slide show.
Uploading Content
Because Drive is a cloud location, you copy content into it by uploading files. Uploading is the process of
moving data from your device, across a network, to a server.
Note: Drive includes integrated web apps which you can use to create content directly in the cloud. You
will use these in an upcoming lesson in the Key Applications module.
You can use the built-in commands to upload files and folders. To upload one or more files, click NEW, File
upload and use the Open dialog box to select file(s) to upload. To upload an entire folder, click NEW, Folder
upload, then navigate to and select the folder using the Browse for Folder dialog box.
If you prefer, you can drag and drop files from File Explorer into the Drive window.
Working with Content on Drive
A command bar displays at the top of the Drive window.
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You can use the buttons on the command bar to change the view. You can display items in a list or grid view;
sort by various properties; display details about specific files and folders, or about your recent activity on
Drive; and access the Settings page for Drive.
When you select a file or folder in Drive, a toolbar displays in the command bar.
Use the buttons on the toolbar to generate a link for sharing; share a file with
specific people; preview a file; or remove a file from Drive.
You can also click the
options.
(More actions) button to access a menu of other
Organizing Content on Google Drive
The “root” folder on Google Drive is named My Drive. You can create folders in
My Drive and move files into the folders just as you can in File Explorer. Click the
NEW button, then click Folder. Type a name for the new folder, then press ENTER.
You can then drag and drop files into the folders you create.
You can also use the Move to command to organize your content.
Right-click a file, or select a file and click More actions, then select the
Move to command to open a dialog box you can use to move files into
(or out of) folders.
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Downloading Content
To copy files from Drive to your computer, you download them. Downloading is the process of copying
content from a server, across a network, to your device. To download content from Drive, select the file(s)
you want to download, click More actions, then click Download. In Chrome, a button will appear at the
bottom of the window when the download is complete.
Files are automatically saved in the Downloads folder. Click the button to open the file. Click the arrow at the
right of the button to access options for opening the file, specifying to always open that particular file type
when downloading, or showing the file in its current folder location.
Note: If you are using Internet Explorer instead of Google Chrome, use the buttons in the notification bar
that appears at the bottom of the window to specify whether you want to open or save the file, and to
specify a location for saving the file.
Exercise 6-2: Working with content on Drive
In this exercise, you will upload, organize, and download content on Drive.
1.
Restore the browser window. You should be signed in to your Google account.
2.
Click the Google apps icon, then click Drive. Chrome opens a new tab and displays your My Drive
3.
If necessary, view the introductory information, then click the Take me to Drive button to exit the PDF
4.
storage area.
slide show.
If a Get notifications on your computer message displays, close it.
First, upload files using the built-in commands.
5.
Click the NEW button at the top of the left pane, then click File upload to open the Open dialog box.
6.
In the dialog box, navigate to the 7500 Student Files\Cloud Data folder, select the first six items displayed,
7.
Click the Close button in the 6 uploads complete window to dismiss the message.
8.
Click My Drive at the top of the window, then click Upload files to open the Open dialog box again.
9.
In the Cloud Data folder, double-click Mobile Devices Info to upload the document to Drive.
then click Open to upload those six items to Drive.
10. Close the upload complete window.
Next, drag and drop a file into Drive.
11. If the Chrome window is maximized, click the Restore Down button. Then in File Explorer, navigate to
the 7500 Student Files\Cloud Data folder.
12. Restore the File Explorer window if it is maximized, then position the two windows so that you can see
the contents of both on your screen.
13. In the File Explorer window, click the RockBand file, then drag it into an empty area in the Drive window,
and release the mouse button. The file is uploaded to Drive.
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14. Close the upload complete window, then maximize the Drive window.
Now, create a folder for the slide shows and move a file into it.
15. Click NEW, then click Folder, type: Slides, then press ENTER. You have created a folder on Drive.
16. Click the Embedding Fonts file, drag it over the Slides folder, then release the mouse button. You have
moved the file into the Slides folder.
17. Double-click the Slides folder to move into it. The presentation file is here.
Now move the presentation file back to the My Drive location.
18. Click the Embedding Fonts file, click the More actions button, then click Move to. A dialog box opens
that shows the file’s current position in the Slides folder.
19. Click the Back arrow that displays to the left of Slides to change the displayed location to My Drive, then
click the Move here button. The file is moved back to the My Drive location.
20. Click My Drive in the path that displays at the top of the window to move back out to the My Drive
location.
Delete the Slides folder.
21. Click the Slides folder to select it, then in the toolbar at the top of the window, click Remove. The Slides
folder is removed.
Now download a file.
22. Click Animals.xlsx in My Drive, click the More actions button, then click Download. A button with the
file name displays in the lower left corner of the window when the download is complete.
23. Click the Animals.xlsx button to open the file in Excel.
24. Close Excel.
25. Minimize the browser window.
Apps for a Local Folder
Like most other cloud storage services, Drive includes an app that you can download and install on your PC
that adds a local Google Drive folder to your File Explorer window. This folder is linked to your My Drive
location, and is set for automatic synchronization.
This means that you can simply drag files into the local Google Drive folder on your PC and those files will
be automatically uploaded to your My Drive folder.
You can download apps for your phone and tablet too, which will allow you to get to your files easily from
any device. You can also configure these devices to automatically upload files (such as photos) to My Drive.
You can download and install the app right from the Google Drive window in your browser. The installation
process may add shortcuts for Google Docs, Google Drive, Google Sheets, and Google Slides to your Desktop.
Once you receive a message that the installation is complete, you finish setting up Drive for PC by launching
the Google Drive app. You are greeted by a welcome wizard that will guide you through the setup process.
Google Drive also adds an icon to the notification area in the taskbar. You can click it to see synchronization
status and to access your Google Drive folder.
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The default location for your Drive folder is: This PC\OS (C:)\Users\<your name>\Google Drive. You may also
be able to access your Drive folder from the Quick access area of File Explorer.
Exercise 6-3: Using Drive for PC
In this exercise, you will install the Drive for PC app, then drag files into the local folder to see that they are
automatically uploaded to My Drive in the cloud.
Note: You must be logged on with an administrator account to install apps. If you are logged on as a
standard user, you will be prompted to enter a user name and password for an administrator account. Ask
your teacher for assistance if necessary.
First, you will download and install the app.
1.
Restore the browser window.
2.
In My Drive, in the left pane, click Get Drive for PC to go to the download page.
3.
On the download page, click Download for PC, read the terms of service, then click Accept and Install.
Chrome displays a googledrivesync.exe button in the lower-left corner of the window. Click it to begin
the installation.
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If prompted, click Yes in the UAC (or enter an administrator user name and password), wait as the app
downloads and installs itself, then click the Close button in the Installation complete message.
Minimize the browser window, then click Start, then click All apps. The newly installed Google Drive app
should appear at the top of the Start menu. Click Google Drive and wait a few moments to see the
welcome message.
6.
Click Get Started, then sign in using your Gmail address and password, and click Next as required to
make your way through the introductory information. When you reach the end, click Done. File Explorer
opens to show you the contents of your local Google Drive folder.
7.
Click the Google Drive icon in the notification area of the taskbar. (If the icon does not display, click the
Show hidden icons button, then click the Google Drive icon in the gallery that appears.) A panel
appears showing the synchronization status and file contents of your local drive folder and your My Drive
cloud folder.
Now, add a file to the local folder to have it automatically uploaded to My Drive.
8.
9.
In File Explorer, navigate to the 7500 Student Files\Software folder (from the previous lesson), then copy
the npp.6.9.1.Installer executable file.
Paste the copied file into your local Google Drive folder, and display the synchronization status by
clicking the icon in the notification area. You should be able to watch as the file is uploaded.
10. Restore the browser window. Close the tab for the download page if necessary. You should be looking
at your My Drive page. You should see the executable file in your My Drive folder. Press F5 to refresh the
view if necessary.
11. Sign out of Gmail, then close the browser.
12. Close any open File Explorer windows.
Sharing Cloud Files
A key advantage of using cloud storage is the ability to share files without having to send them. This makes
collaboration with classmates or coworkers easy and convenient. You might have noticed that it took a little
while to upload the Notepad++ executable file, because it is 4MB in size. Many files (such as audio and video
files) are considerably larger, making them problematic to send as email attachments. Additionally,
executables and certain other types of files (such as databases) are blocked as file attachments in most email
programs.
However, if you wanted to share this executable with another user, you could send a sharing link to that user.
A sharing link is a hyperlink you can send in the body of an email message. The recipient clicks the link and
can access the file or folder on your cloud drive that you want to share.
You can share Google Drive files and folders with people and specify whether they can view, edit, or comment
on them. You can specify three levels of access:
•
Can edit – others can make changes to your file and share the file with others. This is the default setting
when you share a file with specific people.
•
Can comment – others can view and comment on a file but not make changes. Note that you cannot
comment on a folder.
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Can view – others can open a file but not change it or comment on it. This is the default setting for link
sharing.
To share with specific people:
1.
2.
Select the file you want to share, then at the top of the window click
(Share).
Under People, type the email address of the person you want to share with. A text box opens below the
address box, allowing you to type a note.
3.
To change the access level, click the down arrow beside the Can edit box and make a selection.
4.
Click Send. The person you shared the file with will get an email letting him or her know that you have
shared a file or folder.
The recipient can click the link in the email message to open the location where the file is stored on your
cloud drive. From there, he or she can access options to open the file, download the file, share the file,
and so on.
To share more than one file, move the files you want to share into a folder and then share the folder.
To share using a sharing link:
You can share a file with multiple people without typing in their individual email addresses in My Drive by
creating a link that allows anyone (who has the link) to open the file.
1.
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Select the file you want to share, then at the top of the window click
(Get shareable link).
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2.
When the green light is on, and the shareable link is selected and underlined, it can be copied to the
3.
Paste the link into an email (or into a chat message or text message) and send it to whomever you like.
Windows clipboard. Press CTRL+C to copy it.
The documents will be “read only” unless the person is signed into a Google account.
To stop sharing, select the file again, click Get shareable link, and click the green light to toggle sharing
off.
To share a file or folder publicly:
When you share files or folders publicly, anyone on the Internet can search for and access your file.
1.
Select the file you want to share, then at the top of the window click
2.
In the top right of the Share with others box, click Get shareable link.
3.
Click the down arrow next to Anyone with the link can view, then click More.
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4.
Select On – Public on the web, then click Save.
5.
Specify the level of access you want to grant, click Save, then click Done.
Google Drive Mobile Apps
You can download and install Google Drive mobile apps for Android and iOS. Installing the apps and signing
in on your mobile device keeps devices synchronized.
You can enable automatic uploading of photos and videos that you take on your device by turning Auto
Backup on. Photos are automatically uploaded to My Drive\Google Photos.
Microsoft OneDrive
Objective 1-6.1, 1-6.3
OneDrive is a cloud storage location as well as a site that provides built-in online office web apps which you
can use to create, edit, share and collaborate on documents. In the following sections, you will use the cloud
storage and productivity apps.
Cloud Storage on OneDrive
OneDrive provides 5GB of free storage space. Because OneDrive is hosted by Microsoft, a local OneDrive
folder is automatically available in File Explorer in Windows 10.
In the cloud, you can access your OneDrive location by navigating to https://onedrive.live.com, and signing
in with your Microsoft account.
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The default location is named Files. You can use the items in the left pane for navigation, just as you do in
File Explorer.
Uploading, Organizing, and Downloading Content
A command bar displays across the top of the content area in the OneDrive window.
As you select files or folders, different commands become available on the command bar. You work with
content in OneDrive in much the same way as you do in Google Drive:
•
To create a new file or folder, click New, then click the appropriate option in the drop-down menu.
•
To upload files, click Upload to open the Choose a File to Upload dialog box. Navigate to and select the
files you want to upload, then click the Open button. You can also drag and drop files from File Explorer
into the OneDrive window.
•
To change the view in the OneDrive window, use the buttons at the right end of the command bar. You
can display items as thumbnails or in a list view; sort by various properties; and display details about
specific files and folders, or about your recent activity on OneDrive.
•
To select a file, point the mouse pointer at the file until a small circle appears in the upper-right corner,
then click the circle. The circle turns blue and a white check mark displays inside it
is selected.
•
to indicate the file
To download a file from OneDrive, select the file, then click Download, then use the buttons in the
notification bar that appears at the bottom of the window to specify whether you want to open or save
the file, and to specify a location for saving the file.
•
To delete a file or folder, select it, and then click Delete in the command bar.
•
To move a file, select it and then drag it into a folder.
•
To open a file in its appropriate web app (if available), click the file.
•
To access other options for working with a selected file, click the
selected items button to display a menu of available options.
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The Local OneDrive folder
A local OneDrive folder is built into Windows 10. Add files to the local folder so that you can access them
from the cloud, and from other devices and still have them on your PC.
The first time you access the local OneDrive folder in File Explorer you are prompted to set up OneDrive by
signing in.
Enter the email address associated with your Microsoft account, then click the Sign in button. Enter your
password when prompted, and click Sign in again.
The default location for your OneDrive folder is C:\Users\<your name>\OneDrive, but you can change it if
you want to.
Click Next to continue.
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The default configuration is to sync all files and folders in OneDrive; however, you can specify to sync only
particular folders if you want to.
Click Next.
Click Open my OneDrive folder to access the local folder. (Note that OneDrive may launch a browser and
display a Getting Started presentation which you can click through.)
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Once you have signed in and configured the options, OneDrive will automatically upload and synchronize
files between your computer and your OneDrive folder in the cloud.
Exercise 6-4: Using OneDrive for storage
In this exercise, you will sign into OneDrive, upload files, and activate the local OneDrive folder.
1.
Open the Internet Explorer browser and navigate to https://onedrive.live.com.
2.
Click Sign in, enter the email address associated with your Microsoft account, click Next, enter your
password, then click Sign in. You are taken to your OneDrive Files folder. You may see a Welcome
message. If so, click the close button. Your OneDrive folder should include a getting started file, a
Documents folder, and a Pictures folder.
Upload a file:
3.
At the top click Upload. The Choose a File to Upload dialog box opens.
4.
In the Choose a File to Upload dialog box, navigate to the 7500 Student Files\Cloud Data folder, then
click Yard Sale and click Open. The file is uploaded to OneDrive and appears in the browser window.
(You may need to refresh the screen by clicking F5 in order to see the uploaded file.)
Move the file into the Documents folder.
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Hold the mouse pointer over the Yard Sale document to display a small circle in the upper-right corner,
then click the circle to select the file. Notice that several options become available at the top of the
window.
6.
Drag the selected file onto the Documents folder, then release the mouse button.
Move the file back again.
7.
8.
9.
Click the Documents folder to move into it.
Select the Yard Sale file, then drag it onto Files in the path that displays at the top of the window, then
release the mouse button.
Click Files in the path to move back out to the Files folder.
Download a file.
10. Select the Yard Sale file, then click Download in the command bar.
11. In the notification bar that appears at the bottom of the window, click the arrow for Save, and select
Save as to open the Save As dialog box.
12. In the Save As dialog box, navigate to the Desktop, then click the Save button to save the file to the
Desktop.
13. In the OneDrive window, close the notification that the download has completed.
Delete a file.
14. Select Yard Sale if necessary, then click Delete in the Command bar.
Upload files into the Documents folder.
15. Click the Documents folder to move into it.
16. Click Upload, then in the Choose a File to Upload dialog box, navigate to the Student Files\Cloud Data
folder, select the first seven files that display in the list, then click Open to upload the files.
17. Minimize the browser window.
Set up your local OneDrive folder.
18. Open a File Explorer window and click OneDrive in the Navigation pane. If prompted, sign in with your
Microsoft account (email address and password), and click Next to make your way through the setup
screens. When the final screen displays, click Open my OneDrive folder. (If your browser opens to
display the Getting Started presentation, minimize it.)
19. Within the OneDrive folder, double-click Documents. The seven files you uploaded online are here.
Now drag a file into the local OneDrive folder and see it online:
20. In File Explorer, navigate to the 7500 Student Files\Cloud Data folder, and click the logo file to select it.
21. Drag and drop the selected file onto the OneDrive\Documents folder, then release the mouse button. A
copy of the logo file is added to the local OneDrive folder.
22. Restore the browser window. You should see the logo file; if you do not, refresh the browser window.
The logo file was automatically uploaded to your OneDrive folder in the cloud.
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Delete another file in the cloud.
23. Select the logo file, then click Delete in the command bar.
24. Minimize the browser window, then check the local OneDrive\Documents folder. The logo file is deleted
from this location as well.
25. Close File Explorer.
26. Minimize the browser window.
OneDrive Web Apps
Web apps are applications that run on the World Wide Web. These apps do not run directly on a device and
are not installed; instead, they are accessed over the Internet and provide some of the same functionality as
installed versions of the software. Microsoft calls these apps “Office Online.”
With only a browser and an Internet connection you can use online versions of Microsoft Excel, OneNote,
PowerPoint and Word to read, edit, and create documents, even if you do not have the Microsoft Office suite
installed on your computer.
You can click the
(Apps) icon to view all the services that are integrated with your Microsoft account:
Click one of the online apps to open a new browser tab and
access templates for specific types of documents.
You can also create and work with web apps directly within OneDrive. Click New to display a menu of
document types that you can create:
Click the app that you want to use to create a new document. As you work in your document, all changes are
automatically saved to OneDrive.
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Integration with Desktop Apps
Even though you can use the office online apps without having the Office suite installed on your system,
these apps are designed to integrate seamlessly with a locally installed version of Office. Each Office online
app provides a command that allows you to open your document in an installed Desktop version of the
application, where you can continue your work. When you save your document, your changes are saved to
OneDrive.
Sharing Documents on OneDrive
As you can with documents on Google Drive, you can share documents on OneDrive by specifying people to
share with or by generating sharing links.
When you select Get a link, you generate a sharing link
that you can copy and paste into email messages, chat
windows and text messages. These links can be
forwarded to other users.
When you select Email, you send an email message
with a sharing link to specific recipients. The recipient
must be logged in to the email service in order to access the shared file. OneDrive will authenticate anyone
trying to access the shared file.
To share via email, select the file, click Share in the command bar. (You can adjust the permissions by clicking
the arrow to the right of Anyone with this link can edit this item and clearing the Allow editing check box.)
Click Email. Enter your recipient’s email address and an optional message, then click the Share button.
When your recipient receives your email message, he or she can click View in OneDrive to open the shared
document on your OneDrive folder.
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Exercise 6-5: Using OneDrive office apps
In this exercise, you will use OneDrive office apps. You will work with your partner from previous lessons.
Exchange email addresses with your partner in preparation for this exercise.
1.
Restore the Internet Explorer browser window.
Begin by creating a new word processing document.
2.
Click New, then click Word document to open a new word processing document named Document1 in
3.
Type: My name is and type your first name.
4.
Press ENTER twice to insert a blank line.
5.
Type one or two sentences about yourself.
6.
Double-click your name, then in the toolbar, click the
7.
At the top of the window, click Document1 to open the field so that you can rename the file.
8.
Select the Document1 text, type: Something About Me, then press ENTER to rename the document.
9.
Close the browser tab for the Something About Me document to return to the OneDrive window. Notice
Word Online.
Underline button.
that the new file is visible in the folder.
Now, create a new spreadsheet.
10. Click New, then click Excel workbook to open a tab with a new, blank worksheet. The rectangle with
the border around it shows that the current position of the cursor is cell A1.
11. Type: Calculus, then press ENTER. Excel Online enters the text in cell A1, and moves the cursor to cell
A2.
12. Type: Political Studies 1, then press ENTER.
13. Type: English Poets, then press ENTER.
14. Type: Business Systems, then press ENTER.
15. Close the browser tab for the worksheet. OneDrive saves the changes and displays the new worksheet
as Book1 in the Documents folder.
16. Right-click the Book1 worksheet, then click Rename in the shortcut menu to open the Rename window.
17. Type: My Classes, then press ENTER to rename the worksheet.
18. Click My Classes.xlsx to open the worksheet again. Notice that all your changes have been saved.
Now open the document in the Excel desktop app.
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19. Click the Edit in Excel command. If you encounter a security warning, click Yes to confirm that you want
to open the document. The workbook opens in the Excel desktop app.
20. In cell A5, type: Chemistry, then press ENTER.
21. Press CTRL+S to save the workbook.
22. Close the Excel application window.
23. Close any open message windows. The Excel Online window refreshes. Notice that the changes you made
in the desktop app are reflected in the workbook in Excel Online.
24. Close the My Classes browser tab to return to the OneDrive page.
Now, share a file with your partner.
25. Select the Something About Me document, then click Share in the command bar.
26. Click Email, then type your partner’s email address (the one associated with his or her Microsoft account).
27. Click in the text box below the email address box, and type: Here is some personal information about
me. Please do not share it with anyone. Thanks!
28. Click Share to send your message.
Access a shared document on your partner’s OneDrive folder.
29. Click the Apps icon to view your Microsoft services, then click Mail to access your Microsoft Inbox. You
should see an email message from your partner.
30. Click the email message to open it, then within the email message, click View in OneDrive. Your partner’s
document should display on your screen in a new browser tab.
31. At the top of the window, click Edit Document, then click Edit in Browser to open your partner’s
document in Word Online.
32. Click at the end of the text your partner has written, press ENTER, and then type a sentence in response.
33. Close the Something About Me browser tab.
34. Close the browser tab with the open sharing message. You should be looking at your OneDrive
Files\Documents folder.
35. Click Something About Me to open the document in Word Online. You should see the text that your
partner added to your document.
36. Close the Something About Me browser tab.
37. Click the account icon at the upper-right corner of the window, then click Sign out to sign out of
OneDrive.
38. Close any open Internet Explorer browser tabs.
Examine your local copy.
39. Open a File Explorer window, then navigate to your local OneDrive\Documents folder and double-click
Something About Me to open the document in Word. Notice that this copy includes the text your
partner added to your document. Your local OneDrive folder is synced to your OneDrive folder in the
cloud.
40. Close the Word application window, then close File Explorer.
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OneDrive Mobile Apps
You can download and install OneDrive mobile apps for Android, iOS and Windows 10 Mobile. Installing the
apps and signing in on your mobile device keeps devices synchronized, and enables automatic uploading of
photos and videos that you take on your device.
Photos are automatically uploaded to the OneDrive\Camera roll folder.
iCloud
Objective 1-6.3
Hosted by Apple, iCloud is integrated with iTunes and other Apple services that are linked to your Apple ID.
iCloud connects you and all your Apple devices (iPad, iPhone, iPod touch, and your Mac) and services.
Advanced sharing features allow you to share photos, videos, documents, and iTunes Store, App Store, and
iBooks Store purchases.
When you set up iCloud on your iOS devices and your Mac, you always have the latest version of your
important documents, photos, notes and contacts on whatever device you’re using.
You can also install iCloud on your iOS devices. iCloud automatically backs up your iOS device daily over
Wi-Fi when your device is turned on, unlocked, and connected to a power source. You can also use your
iCloud backup to restore your iOS device or to set up a new device.
Pages, Numbers, and Keynote are Apple web apps that you can use to create and work with content in your
web browser.
iCloud Drive is the associated cloud storage location.
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Use the icons at the top of the window to create new folders, upload, download, or delete files. You can also
drag and drop files into the iCloud Drive window. 5GB of storage space is associated with iCloud Drive.
A local iCloud folder is built into Mac OS X and iOS devices and becomes available when you set up an iCloud
account. Drag and drop files into the local folder so that they will be automatically uploaded to iCloud Drive.
iCloud for Windows
If you own iOS devices, but use a Windows PC, you can download and install the iCloud for Windows app on
your PC, which will create folders that will sync with your iOS devices. Your photos, videos, mail, files, and
bookmarks will then be accessible on all of your devices. iCloud stores your content and automatically keeps
it up to date on your iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, Mac, and PC.
Web-Only Access
iCloud is designed to work primarily within the Apple universe; however, if you do not have an iOS device or
a Mac, you can still get web-only access to create and share documents using Pages, Numbers, and Keynote
by signing into iCloud. 1GB of storage space is associated with a free account.
Go to www.icloud.com, and use one of your existing email addresses to create an account if you do not have
an iCloud.com address or an Apple ID.
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Click Don’t have an Apple ID? Create yours now.
Fill out the form, making sure you scroll to the bottom.
Select security questions and answers, deselect check boxes for any email items you do not want to receive,
then click Continue. Apple will send an Apple ID email verification message to the email address you used
to create your account. It may take a few minutes for the email message to arrive. When it arrives, open the
message, then enter the code in the verification screen that displays, and click Continue once again. Agree
to the terms and conditions.
Log in using the email address and password, then on the welcome page click Start using iCloud.
If you have web-only access linked to a free iCloud account, the features are a little more primitive. You drag
and drop files into the iCloud window with certain limitations:
•
in the Pages folder, you can drag and drop Pages, TXT, and Word files
•
in the Numbers folder, you can drag and drop Numbers, CSV and Excel files
•
in the Keynote folder, you can drag and drop Keynote and PowerPoint files
Dropbox
Objective 1-6.3
Hosted by Dropbox, Inc., Dropbox is a popular cloud storage provider. As with the other types of cloud
storage, you can store any type of file you want in Dropbox. You can upload and download content in the
web interface, and you can download and install the desktop app which creates a local folder on your hard
drive.
Syncing is automatic between the local folder and the cloud location, and if you install and configure the app
on your other devices and sign in, then content is synced across all your devices.
You can share the files stored in Dropbox in the cloud by creating and distributing sharing links via email,
text messages, or chat. You can also download and install mobile apps for Android and iOS.
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Lesson 6
To create a free Dropbox account, go to www.dropbox.com and fill in your name, email address and
password, agree to the Dropbox terms, and then click the Sign up for free button. The account is set up for
you and you are prompted to download and install the Dropbox app.
Download the app and then run the installer.
When the Dropbox Setup window displays, enter your email address and password, and click Sign In.
When the setup is complete, click the Open my Dropbox button to reach the Welcome screen. Click Get
Started to view some introductory information; click Next to advance through all the screens, then click
Finish to open your local Dropbox folder in File Explorer.
Drag files here for automatic upload to Dropbox in the cloud.
When you are working in Dropbox.com in your web browser, you can drag and drop files into the browser
window, or use the buttons in the web interface to upload, download and work with files and folders.
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The local Dropbox folder provides offline access, so even if you are not connected to the Internet you can
work on your files and save them to your Dropbox folder. The next time you are online, your changes will be
synced to the cloud and across all your devices.
Dropbox includes a 30-day version history; in case you accidentally delete a file or want to restore a previous
version. It also features automatic photo uploading from your Camera roll folder to Dropbox.
Other Types of Cloud-Based Applications
Objective 1-6.4, 1-6.5
The cloud offers much more than simple online storage and online productivity apps. Some of the most
widely-used enterprise-level apps include Learning Management System (LMS) apps and Customer
Relationship Management (CRM) apps.
Learning Management System (LMS)
A Learning Management Systems (LMS) is a software application designed to deliver electronic training
courses (also called eLearning), track student progress, and generate performance reports. It is essentially an
engine that powers eLearning.
An LMS lets you create content and organize it into courses, deliver the content (as training) online, enroll
students, and monitor and assess student performance.
The most common implementation of an LMS includes two parts:
Server component – this is the part that performs the core functions (creates, manages, and delivers courses,
keeps track of users and their progress, and so on.)
User interface component – this is the part that runs inside the browser and it is the interface through which
administrators, teachers and students interact with the LMS.
When organizations and schools use an LMS to deliver training, each student can study the material online
at their own pace. The student signs in to the LMS through a web browser, and reads and interacts with the
training material within the browser. Student progress data (lessons read, quiz and exam scores) is stored on
the server.
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The interface usually includes built-in communication tools such as email, chat and discussion boards.
Students can post assignments, chat with each other and send messages to their teachers. While these tools
are accessed through the browser, they are hosted on the server.
The integrated monitoring and reporting tools that keep track of each student’s progress are also hosted on
the server, and facilitators access these tools through the browser.
In an LMS, most of the application is hosted on a server. Users may need to download and install a sign-in
tool on their local systems to enable quick access; but generally, that access is made through a web browser.
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Software
Customer relationship management (CRM) is the practice of managing and analyzing interactions with
customers. The goal of CRM is to improve business relationships with customers, thereby increasing customer
retention and helping to drive sales growth.
CRM software applications capture customer information across different points of contact, such as the
company’s web site, telephone calls, live chat sessions, direct mailings, marketing materials and social media.
The captured information is consolidated and stored in a CRM database. Sales and marketing staff can then
access the database to view detailed information on customers' personal information, purchase history,
buying preferences and so on.
CRM software can also be used to record customer interactions with staff (over email, phone calls, or social
media for example). It can also automate certain processes. For example, as a sales prospect is entered into
the system, the system might automatically send out marketing materials (via email or social media), with
the goal of turning the sales lead into a customer.
Popular CRM application vendors include:
Salesforce.com – offers a completely cloud-based CRM product.
Oracle – Oracle Corporation has long been known for its sophisticated relational database products, and
they offer several cloud-based CRM products.
Workfront (formerly AtTask) – offers cloud-based CRM Marketing applications and project management
solutions.
Traditional CRM implementations were locally hosted on the premises; but modern implementations are
cloud-based. This keeps the customer data secure, and it enables employees to access the information from
anywhere – thus enabling a mobile or telecommuter workforce.
Who Uses CRM Software?
Almost any business that wants to show their customers that they are a priority can benefit from using CRM
software. However, specifically likely users would be:
•
Any business with a sales team.
•
Any business with a marketing team.
•
Any business that generates quotes or invoices.
Essentially, any business with customers is a candidate for CRM.
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Benefits of Using CRM Software
Benefits of using CRM software include:
•
Increased efficiency – many CRM platforms have the ability to integrate with other business tools, such
as marketing automation tools.
•
Better use of customer data – CRM systems are designed to capture and store data. Their built-in tools
allow for data analysis and reporting.
•
Collaboration – cloud-based CRM platforms allow employees in multiple departments to more
effectively manage their customer relationships and to see “the big picture” at any time.
•
A better customer experience – because CRM systems allow a company to recognize the needs and
preferences of their individual customers, companies can interact more meaningfully with their
customers at the right times. This leads to better sales and higher customer satisfaction.
Mobile Notifications
Objective 1.6.1, 1.6.2
So many apps that we use on our desktop and laptop machines have corresponding mobile apps that allow
us to stay connected with our data and our contacts no matter where we are (or what time it is). When you
work on your desktop or laptop, visual and audio notifications alert you when you receive messages or when
the scheduled time for an upcoming appointment is approaching.
Notifications are updates about certain types of activity – including postings by our friends on social networks,
new instant messages we have received, new email messages hitting our Inbox, or reminders for upcoming
meetings we have scheduled on our calendars.
When you put mobile apps (such as Gmail, or Skype) on your phone, you can configure your device to vibrate
and play a sound and display a visual cue when there is activity. For example, your device can notify you
when you receive a new Gmail email message.
Many mobile apps are configured by default to notify you when there is activity. And for the most part, this
is good. However, there may be times when you do not want to be interrupted by notifications. Fortunately,
you can control notifications through your app’s settings, or through your device’s mobile operating system.
Configuring Notifications in the App
Most apps include notification settings that you can configure. For example, the Gmail app allows you to
configure how you want to be notified in addition to whether you want to receive notifications.
To configure Gmail notifications on Android:
1.
Open the Gmail app.
2.
Tap the Menu key (3 bars icon) in the top left corner.
3.
Scroll to and tap Settings.
4.
Tap your email account.
5.
If you want to turn notifications off, clear the Notifications check box. If you want to fine tune
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Cloud Computing
6.
Lesson 6
Tap the Inbox sound & vibrate option.
Configure the available check boxes to specify whether to include vibration and whether you want to be
notified when each new message arrives.
To configure Gmail notifications on iOS:
1.
Launch the Gmail app.
2.
Tap the Menu key.
3.
Tap Settings.
In the Notifications section, configure the available settings.
Configuring Notifications through Mobile OS
Mobile operating systems include configurable settings that control how apps run on your mobile device,
including whether to allow or block notifications from a particular app.
In Android, these settings can be accessed through the Application Manager:
1.
On the Home screen, tap Apps.
2.
Tap Settings.
3.
Tap Applications.
4.
Tap Application manager.
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Scroll the list of apps, then tap the app you want to configure.
Click Notifications, move the Allow notifications slider on or off. Depending on the app, you may be
able to turn off particular types of notifications (such as sounds or notifications that appear on the lock
screen) as opposed to turning all notifications off for the app.
On iOS, you can use the Notifications Center to turn notifications on or off for a particular app. To access
these settings on iOS:
1.
Tap Settings.
2.
Tap Notifications.
3.
Find and tap the app you want to configure.
Move the Allow Notifications slider on or off. Depending on the app, you
may be able to turn off particular types of notifications (such as sounds or
notifications that appear on the lock screen) as opposed to turning all
notifications off for the app.
Lesson Summary
In this lesson, you learned about cloud computing. You should now be able to:

understand the benefits and characteristics of cloud
computing

create and use cloud accounts to store, manage,

describe different types of cloud applications

configure mobile notification
and share files
Review Questions
1.
210
Which of the following is an example of cloud computing?
a.
Using Gmail.
b.
Using your laptop on an airplane.
c.
Using Wi-Fi to connect to a network printer.
d.
All of these are examples of cloud computing.
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Cloud Computing
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Lesson 6
Which of the following is a benefit of cloud computing?
a.
The ability to make a backup copy of your cloud computing software.
b.
The reliability of locally installed applications.
c.
Reduced hardware costs.
d.
This refers to the number of backups the service will create for your data.
Which type of app generally provides the most complete feature set?
a.
Desktop apps.
b.
Browser apps.
c.
Tablet apps.
d.
Smart phone apps.
Which of the following is a feature found in most cloud accounts?
a.
Automatic backup.
b.
Cloud storage space.
c.
Apps to connect multiple devices to your account.
d.
All of these are features found in most cloud accounts.
How can you upload content to Google Drive?
a.
Click New, File upload.
b.
Click New, Folder upload.
c.
Drag files into the Drive window.
d.
You can use any of these methods to upload files to Google Drive.
How can you download content from Google Drive?
a.
Drag files from Drive into File Explorer.
b.
Select a file, click More actions, then click Download.
c.
Create folder called Local in Drive, then move files into the folder; they will be automatically
d.
You can use any of these methods to download files from Google Drive.
downloaded.
Which of the following is true concerning a local Google Drive folder?
a.
The app for creating a local folder is built into Windows 10.
b.
You create the folder in File Explorer, then configure it to sync with your My Drive location.
c.
It is set for automatic synchronization with your My Drive location.
d.
The app for creating a local folder is built into iOS.
Which of the following are levels of access you can set for files that you share on Google Drive?
a.
Can delete, Can edit, and Can comment.
b.
Can edit, Can comment, and Can view.
c.
Can share, Can edit, and Can view.
d.
Can copy, Can download, and Can comment.
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How do you create a local OneDrive folder on a Windows 10 PC?
a.
A local OneDrive folder is built in.
b.
Download and install an app from OneDrive.com.
c.
Download and install an app from Playstore.
d.
Create the folder in File Explorer, then configure it to sync with your OneDrive location.
10. When working in Excel Online, how do you save your changes?
a.
Click the Save button.
b.
Press CTRL+S.
c.
As you work, all your changes are automatically saved.
d.
You cannot save documents in Excel Online.
11. Which of the following types of files can you upload to the Pages folder on iCloud Drive?
a.
CSV and Excel files.
b.
TXT and Word files.
c.
Keynote and PowerPoint files.
d.
You cannot upload documents to iCloud Drive.
12. How can you upload a file to your Dropbox storage location?
a.
Drag the file into your local Dropbox folder.
b.
Right-click the file in File Explorer, then click Send to Dropbox.
c.
Email the file as an attachment to <your name>@dropbox.com.
d.
You can use any of these methods to upload a file to Dropbox.
13. What are the two major components of a Learning Management System (LMS)?
a.
A content component and an assessment component.
b.
An email component and a content component.
c.
A server component and a user interface component.
d.
An assessment component and an email component.
14. Which of the following is at the heart of a Customer Relationship Management (CRM) application?
a.
A database.
b.
An email server.
c.
An integrated chat feature.
d.
A trend analysis tool.
15. How can you configure Gmail notifications on your smart phone?
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a.
Through the Gmail app’s settings.
b.
Through a third-party “handler” app.
c.
You cannot configure the notifications, but you can turn them off through the mobile operating
d.
Through settings that you access on Google Drive.
system.
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Computing Fundamentals
Lesson 7: Security and
Maintenance
Lesson Objectives
In this lesson, you will learn about the need for computer security, how to identify risks and how to combat them.
You will also learn how to back up and restore files, and to reset devices. You will also learn about the basics of
troubleshooting. On completion you should be able to:

explain the need for security

describe how to keep your user name and


and phishing
password safe

describe methods for protecting against risks
describe the risks presented by viruses, worms,

explain how and why to back up and restore your
describe the risks associated with network

protect your information when using public

describe basic troubleshooting techniques

understand basic troubleshooting techniques
Trojans, and malware

data and your settings
connections

describe the risks presented by social engineering
computers
explain how to reset personal devices to their
factory settings
The Need for Security
As soon as you connect a computer to a network, you expose that system, and the information stored on it,
to the potential risks associated with networking. The information stored on a networked computer can, in
theory, be accessed by any computer connected to the network. If the network provides Internet access, the
risk increases.
Hackers (people who try to gain unauthorized access to computer systems) employ many different methods
to obtain what they want. In response, you must take steps to protect your computer and its data.
User Names and Passwords
Objective 1-7.1
Your user name and password protect your account from unauthorized access. Remember that your user
account is associated with specific rights and permissions – both on your local system and on your school or
organization’s network. Most attacks against networks occur when unauthorized people guess or steal a user
identity that is recognized by the system. By keeping your user name and password confidential, you help to
protect your personal data and the data on the network.
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Security and Maintenance
Passwords protect your accounts. You should take the following steps to create a strong password:
•
Use a minimum of six characters (sometimes a standard is set up by your school or organization); eight
or more characters is even better, with 15 characters considered the most secure.
•
Include a mixture of numbers, letters, symbols and capital letters.
•
Select a password that will be easy for you to remember, but difficult for someone else to guess.
•
Avoid using the names of people close to you such as members of your family, or the names of your
pets. People who know you well enough can try to guess your password using these names first.
•
Avoid using variations of your name or including your name, address, or birthdate in your password.
•
Avoid using a variation of a password that may be easy to guess, such as Password-Jan, Password-Feb,
password001, password_003, DrewJ12, DrewF12, pa$$w0rd, and so on.
Keeping Your Account Safe
Your account protects your files and your reputation. If you allow someone else to log on with your account,
you can be held responsible for actions performed under your account name. For example, if someone sends
threatening email from your account, recipients will think the messages came from you. If someone deletes
important files on the network using your account, that activity will be traced back to you as well.
In order to keep your account secure, you should protect your user name and password and keep them to
yourself. Follow these guidelines:
•
Never share your account information.
•
If you accidentally share your logon information, change it immediately.
•
Do not “hide” your password near your computer. For example, tucking a sticky note under your
keyboard or in a desk drawer is not secure. Do not keep password “cheat sheets.”
•
Do not use the same password for all your accounts – if someone guesses your password, they would
have access to multiple accounts.
Changing Your Password
It is good practice to change your password periodically.
To change your Windows 10 password:
1.
Click Start, then click Settings.
2.
Click Accounts, then click Sign-in options.
3.
Under Password, click Change.
4.
Type your old password, then click Next.
5.
Type your new password, type your new password again as a confirmation, enter a password hint, then
6.
Click Finish.
click Next.
Often, if you are a member of a domain network, you will be required to change your password at regular
intervals. If you are using a domain account, use these steps to change your logon password:
1.
Press CTRL+ALT+DELETE.
2.
Click Change a password.
3.
Type your old password, type your new password, type your new password again as a confirmation, then
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press ENTER.
Security and Maintenance
Lesson 7
Locking the System
Ideally, you should log off your system if you are going to be away from it for any period of time. This practice
protects your computer and your documents. However, a more convenient option is to lock the system while
you are away.
When you lock the system, all your programs and files remain open and ready so you can resume working
quickly. Windows displays an image on the monitor and you must enter the logon password before you can
resume working.
To lock the system, click Start, click your account icon in the upper right corner of the Start menu, then click
Lock.
Identifying Risks
Objective 1-7.2, 1-7.4
You should be aware of the potential risks you face when you connect to a network or to the Internet. These
risks include becoming “infected” with computer viruses and Trojan horses; these are programs designed
with the specific intent of harming computer systems. You should understand how to detect and remove
malicious code on your system before it harms your computer, your data, or data on the network to which
you connect.
Viruses
A virus is a malicious program designed to take control of system operations, and damage or destroy data.
Viruses are loaded onto your computer without your knowledge and run without your consent. All computer
viruses are human made and are often designed to spread to other computer users through networks or
email address books.
Viruses can be transferred via email attachments, program or file downloads, and by using infected disks,
CDs, or flash drives. If you pass an infected drive to a co-worker, that co-worker's system can also be infected.
Similarly, a colleague might inadvertently send you an email attachment infected by a virus. If you attempt
to open or print the file, the virus will engage. Email attachments have long been a favorite way to spread
viruses.
A virus can:
•
Display harmless messages on the screen.
•
Use all available memory, thereby slowing or halting all other processes.
•
Corrupt or destroy data files.
•
Erase the contents of an entire hard disk.
Worms
A worm is a self-replicating program that consumes system and network resources. The difference between
a worm and a virus is that a worm automatically spreads from one computer to another, whereas a virus
requires some form of action; for example, a user must pass an infected disk to someone else, or must forward
an infected email message.
A worm can reside in active memory and replicate on the network. Worms can spread to all computers
connected to a network and are commonly spread over the Internet via email attachments.
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Security and Maintenance
Trojans
A Trojan (or Trojan horse) is a program designed to allow a hacker remote access to a target computer
system. The code for a Trojan is hidden inside seemingly harmless applications, such as games. Trojans are
installed on the target system when the user runs the infected application. Unlike worms and viruses, Trojans
do not replicate themselves or copy themselves to other files and disks.
Once installed on the target system, the Trojan can allow a hacker to take control of the target system, steal
information, install other software (including viruses), download or upload files, or crash the system.
Trojans can be accidentally installed through software downloads (for example, a Trojan might be hidden in
a software application downloaded from a network), through Web sites containing active content (that is, in
the form of an ActiveX control), or through an email attachment.
Malware (Spyware / Adware)
Spyware is a software application that is secretly placed on your system and gathers personal or private
information without your consent or knowledge.
Adware is a software application that automatically displays or downloads advertisements.
Many Internet-based applications contain spyware. Companies with both good and bad reputations have
included spyware code in their software. Spyware can also be placed on your system by a virus or by an
application downloaded from the Internet.
Once installed, spyware monitors your activity on the Internet and conveys the information to the spyware
originator. The originator can then gather Web site usage, email and even password information from your
system, then use it for advertising purposes or malicious activities.
Spyware can consume memory resources and network bandwidth. Spyware has the ability to:
•
Scan files on hard drives.
•
Read cookies.
•
Monitor keystrokes.
•
Install other spyware applications.
•
Change the default home page in Web browsers.
•
Automatically send information to the spyware developer.
A cookie is a small text file placed on your computer by a Web server. Although cookies themselves are not
dangerous, they can be used to store user names and passwords if you click "Yes" when your browser asks
you if you want to store this information. Cookies also track browser activities, such as sites you visit and
options you select.
In a normal Internet transaction, cookies are read only by the server that placed them on your system;
however, a hacker who gains physical access to your system or successfully installs spyware can steal your
cookies, and with them, any stored user names and passwords.
You can download and install freeware spyware/adware applications, or you can use Windows Defender to
monitor your system for spyware. Anti-spyware applications are discussed later in this lesson.
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Security and Maintenance
Lesson 7
Network Connections
Any time you join a network, you open your system up to possible connections from other systems
participating on the same network. Infected systems and/or would-be hackers connected to the network
always present a risk.
Wired Connections
Generally speaking, if you connect to a wired network within your school or business, you are pretty safe.
Network administrators take great pains to ensure that all company/school systems are routinely scanned
for infection, and all users must log on to the network using a valid user name and password.
However, the same guarantee is not in place when you plug into a public wired network. For example, some
hotels still provide Ethernet connections for Internet access to their guests. There is no way to guarantee that
every hotel guest who connects is an honest and upstanding citizen (who would never dream of trying to
hack into someone else’s system or who would never consider trying to unleash a virus); nor is there a way
to guarantee that everyone connecting to the network is using up-to-date antivirus software. You connect
at your own risk.
Wireless Connections
These same risks apply to Wi-Fi connections. Anyone can join a Wi-Fi network provided by a public hotspot.
Even if you connect to a secured network (one that requires a pass phrase) provided by a hotel for example,
you still do not know who else is on the network. No one can guarantee that all the systems connected are
virus-free, and no one can guarantee that there is not a hacker lurking in the background waiting to find a
system he or she can exploit.
Participating in ad-hoc networks (those which do not use an access point) is dangerous. Wireless systems
connect directly to one another in an ad-hoc network; there is no access point at the center to relay signals
among the participants. There is also no authentication required. That means anyone within range can
connect – with or without your knowledge.
Mitigating Risks
Whenever you connect to a public network, always identify the network to the operating system as a Public
network (as opposed to a Work or Home network). Windows automatically limits incoming connections from
a public network while still allowing you access to the Internet.
If you use Wi-Fi, always connect to an infrastructure network. Avoid participating in ad-hoc networks.
Using Public Computers
The risks associated with using public computers (such as those found in a library) have to do with protecting
your privacy and your personal accounts. Remember that anyone who has physical access to a public
computer can access any information stored on it.
Because you do not “log on” to a public computer, all activity is performed under one open account. That
means search history, cookies, and any other information that is stored on the computer is accessible.
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For this reason, you should take the following steps to ensure your safety when you use a public computer.
Log out of online accounts – if you log into an online account (for example, a banking account or a credit
card account, or even a social media account) and then walk away without logging out, anyone who comes
along behind you can access those accounts and take action within those accounts because you are still
logged in. You are leaving yourself wide open to both monetary theft and identify theft.
Clear caches and cookies – browsers store information (such as browsing history and search history) in
storage locations called caches (pronounced “cashes”) which are located on the hard disk. Browsers also store
cookies (small text files that contain information pertaining to web site activity) from sites that you visit. These
entries are stored in plain text, so anyone can navigate to and view them. If you want your online activity to
remain private, use the built-in features in your browser to clear these entries. (You will learn how to work
with browsers in the Living Online module.) Also, do not allow the browser to store your passwords for online
sites/accounts.
Log out of the operating system – if you use a shared computer at school or at work that requires a personal
log on, always log out when you are finished. Logging out prevents other users from using your account to
access personal files stored under your profile. Additionally, logging out prevents an unauthorized user from
gaining illicit access to the network.
Social Engineering
Social engineering is the practice of tricking users into giving out passwords or other types of access
information. Social engineers pose as fellow employees or classmates, technical consultants or cleaning staff,
in order to gain the trust of real employees or students.
Social engineers count on people's desire to be helpful. For example, a social engineer may wait near a
secured door that requires a smartcard for access and wait until a legitimate employee is about to enter. The
social engineer could then approach the door carrying an armload of boxes. Out of courtesy, the real
employee may then hold the door open so the social engineer can enter.
Social engineers also attempt to imitate a legitimate user by confusing a switchboard operator or a security
guard. In several instances, a social engineer has called a company, posing as the systems manager. After
explaining that he had accidentally locked himself out of the computer, he convinced someone in the
company to change administrative access according to his instructions. All the social engineer then had to
do was log on to the machine, and he had full administrative access.
Typical targets of the social engineering strategy include anyone who has access to information about
systems they do not use, including secretaries, janitors, some administrators and even security staff.
Reducing the Risk of Social Engineering
The best way to guard against becoming a victim of social engineering is to recognize common social
engineering practices. Following is a brief list of social engineering strategies:
•
Posing as a technician and using that implied authority to cause employees to divulge information, to
make configuration changes to servers, or to obtain sensitive information.
•
Confusing or intimidating an employee or guard into allowing physical access to a building.
•
Sending official-looking email messages to all employees with instructions that cause them to reveal
sensitive information.
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Phishing
Phishing is the process of trying to gather sensitive information such as a password, or credit card details
from an unsuspecting victim by pretending to be a trustworthy entity. Typically, a phisher sends a legitimate-
looking email message that appears to come from a legitimate source, such as your bank or credit card
company.
The email message generally includes a false alert and instructs you to take a particular action. For example,
you might receive an email message alerting you that suspicious activity has been detected on your credit
card account. The email will include a link and directions that instruct you to click the link to visit the web site
where you will be expected to enter account-specific information. When you click the link, you are taken to
a fraudulent web site made to look just like the legitimate site. When you update your personal information
(such as password, credit card or bank account numbers) on the fraudulent web site, the phisher captures
your information and can then use it for malicious purposes, including identity theft.
To protect yourself against phishing:
•
Enable the anti-phishing features in your browsers.
•
Check an unknown site manually. (In Internet Explorer, click Tools, point to Safety, then click Check This
Website.)
•
Avoid clicking links in email messages. If a message appears to have come from a bank, credit card
company or government agency, call the organization directly to discuss the email message. Often you
will be informing the genuine company that a fraud scheme is in place so they can send appropriate
notices to their clients.
•
Before logging in to a secure site, check the Address bar to be sure the address starts with the legitimate
site name.
Exercise 7-1: Recognizing risks
In this exercise, you will review two scenarios and identify the risks represented by each.
1.
Consider the following scenario:
Alan is the new receptionist at XYZ Company. Most of the management staff has been at an offsite
meeting all day and it is already 4 PM. The phone rings and the conversation proceeds as follows:
Alan: "Dream Pages LLC, this is Alan, can I help you?"
Caller: "Alan! Great. Hey, this is Jim from IT. We've been stuck offsite all day, and it looks like we may be
here several more hours, and I really need to finish getting all the email accounts moved over to the
new server. I can do it remotely, but I left my notes at the office. I can get your account moved over,
but I need your user name and password to do it."
Alan: "You're in the IT department?"
Caller: "Yes, Alan, this is Jim from IT. I’m in charge of the email server."
Alan: "Sorry, I'm still new here …"
Caller: "Oh, hey, no worries, Alan. Anyway, I can get your account moved over if you could just give me
the user name and password. Yours is the last one I need to move, and it would save me a trip all
the way back to the office. Can you help me out?"
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Alan: "Oh, okay."
Alan then gives his user name and password to "Jim." Jim thanks him and says that was all he needed to
know. And then the call ends.
2.
What type of attack is illustrated in this scenario?
3.
What do you think has taken place?
4.
Consider the following scenario:
Minerva is a student. She was disturbed to receive an email message from her bank informing her that
several customer accounts had recently been compromised. The message assured her, however, that
account numbers were being changed to protect the customers. The message included a link to the
fraud prevention page of the bank’s web site. Once there, she would be instructed on how to verify her
old information and activate her new account.
Minerva clicked the link and read all the information on the fraud prevention page of the bank’s web
site. The page included a web form for verifying old information and a link to activate her new account
number. It also included contact phone numbers for speaking with bank agents who were available to
answer any questions. The form required her to enter her old account number, her date of birth and the
last four digits of her social security number.
Instead of filling out the form, Minerva opened a new browser page, entered the URL for the main page
of her bank web site, located a contact phone number and called the bank. She noticed that the contact
number was very similar to the one on the "fraud prevention page," but it was not the same number.
5.
What type of attack is illustrated in this scenario?
6.
Why do you think Minerva did not use the phone number listed on the fraud prevention page?
Protecting Yourself
Objective 1-7.3, 1-7.5, 1-7.6, 1-7.7, 1-7.8
Although there are certain risks associated with computing, there are also several tools and practices
designed to keep you, your computer, and your information safe.
Antivirus Software
An easy way to protect against viruses is to use antivirus software to scan your computer for known viruses,
and to eliminate any viruses that are discovered. Antivirus applications generally include options for
automatically scanning email attachments as they are delivered to your Inbox, scanning downloaded files,
and scanning scripts that are executed within installed browsers. Most antivirus applications include antispyware components as well.
You can manually start a scan on your system, and you can schedule regular scans using the application’s
settings. The following figure shows the scan settings page for avast! antivirus.
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As soon as you install antivirus software, scan the computer for any possible viruses that could already be
resident. You should also schedule regular system scans.
Additionally, you should subscribe immediately for automatic updates (or notices of updates) for the virus
definition files and updates for the program.
All versions of antivirus software include free and frequent updates to the virus definition files that enable
the program to recognize and remove the latest viruses. You can configure the software for automatic
updates through the application’s settings.
Always keep your antivirus program updated.
It is generally a good practice to scan the system again after updates are installed.
Avoiding Viruses
Conducting regularly scheduled scans, keeping your software up to date, and enabling automatic scans of
email and downloaded files will go a long way toward keeping your system virus-free. Others steps you can
take to avoid infection include:
•
Saving and then scanning all files you download from the Internet (before running or opening them).
•
Scanning removable media (CD, DVD, or flash drive) before copying or opening files contained on the
media.
•
If you share files with other people using portable devices, scan any files you plan to give to others to
ensure you do not inadvertently pass a virus on to them.
•
Always configure your antivirus application to scan all incoming and outgoing email messages.
•
Always scan email attachments before opening them (even if they come from people you know).
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Be suspicious of any unexpected attachments you receive with email or instant message transmissions.
If you receive an attachment that you did not expect or do not recognize:
–
Do not open the attachment.
–
Try to contact the message sender (using a method other than email) and determine whether the
attachment is legitimate.
–
If you are unable to contact the sender or the sender is unaware of the attachment, delete the
attachment from the message.
–
Open your Deleted Items folder and delete the attachment from it to permanently remove the
attachment from your system.
The best protection is prevention; however, you should understand that most viruses can be removed without
causing permanent damage to your system.
Removing Viruses
When an antivirus program is running, it will scan the files you select; when it finds a virus or threat, it will
give you the option to quarantine or remove the threat.
•
If you elect to quarantine the infected files, the antivirus program will place the infected file in a
quarantined or vault area where it cannot infect other files. Quarantined files can usually be deleted at
any time.
•
If you elect to remove the file, the antivirus program will permanently delete this file from your system.
You usually do not need to do anything else.
•
If the antivirus finds a virus that cannot be removed, it will still quarantine the infected file. You may be
able to find a removal tool for this virus on the antivirus program's web site. Generally, you will need to
download a file and then follow the instructions for removing the virus from your system. Alternatively,
you may need to research how to remove the infected file manually.
It bears repeating that it is extremely important to keep antivirus software up to date and configured to
automatically download updates. It is equally important to keep the email scanner and resident scanner
portions of the application turned on. Regular system scans are recommended, and these can be scheduled.
You can also manually start a scan at any time.
Firewalls
A firewall is a security barrier that filters and controls the flow of information coming into and out of a private
network. Firewalls protect systems from unauthorized access by filtering the information that comes through
the Internet connection into your LAN or computer system. If an incoming packet of information is flagged
by the firewall filters, it is not allowed through. In this way, firewalls prevent dangerous network traffic from
coming into the LAN.
The filters used by firewalls are simply sets of rules that
define and control which type of traffic to allow and which
type of traffic to block.
In an organization, a network administrator can set up
and implement security rules on a firewall that control how employees connect to web sites, whether instant
messaging applications are allowed, whether files are allowed to leave the company over the network and
so on.
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A firewall protects your network from malicious activity coming from outside your network, and provides a
"door" through which people can communicate between a secured network (the LAN) and the open,
unsecured Internet. A network firewall is placed between a LAN and the Internet.
A firewall can be a dedicated computer system, a specialized firewall appliance, or it can be implemented on
a networking device such as a router. In a home or small office networking environment where a broadband
router is used, a firewall is usually built into the broadband router.
Note: Firewalls keep private data private. They do not, however, encrypt data nor do they protect against
viruses.
Desktop Firewalls
Firewalls can also be implemented through software. Also known as personal firewalls, desktop firewalls offer
protection for an individual system instead of an entire network. Tools such as Norton 360 or AVG can detect
and respond to attacks on a computer system.
Desktop firewalls offer many firewall features, such as inspection of all incoming transmissions for security
threats. When a firewall is used in conjunction with antivirus software, a personal computer is secure, provided
that the user updates these applications frequently.
Many operating systems include built-in (native) desktop firewall software. Windows, for example, includes
Windows Firewall which is enabled by default. Mac OS X also ships with a built-in firewall, which you can
enable from the Security & Privacy tab in System Settings.
Firewall Challenges
Firewalls can present challenges to network users. Sometimes firewall settings block access to particular web
sites, or block streaming audio or video from coming into a network. If your corporate system is behind a
firewall and you have difficulty connecting to specific Internet sites or services, you may need to contact a
network administrator, who can then adjust the firewall configuration.
You may also learn, however, that the service or web site you want to access conflicts with your organization's
security policy.
Monitoring Software
Most network administrators protect their networks through network monitoring software. These programs
track and record network activity such as user logons, server performance and network traffic conditions. If
logon events are tracked, then any time you log on to a network system, that activity is recorded in a server
log. If a hacker logs on using your account, and manages to damage the network, the electronic trail may
lead to you. If you suspect that your account has been compromised, contact the network administrator
immediately so you can change your user name and password.
In some organizations, administrators take monitoring to a whole other level by installing PC surveillance
software. Software of this type records all PC activity, allowing the administrator to capture your keystrokes,
view screenshots, and see your email, instant message conversations, and web activity.
Remember that computers in your school or workplace are not your private property; accordingly, any activity
you perform on those computers may not be private.
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Conducting Safe E-Commerce Transactions
How safe you feel conducting transactions such as banking or making a purchase online will determine how
much e-commerce (electronic commerce) or online shopping you do. Many web sites have taken appropriate
steps to ensure their customers’ security, but there are additional steps you can take to protect yourself.
Be Selective
If you want to shop online, shop from companies that have a good reputation and are well known for
providing:
•
good customer service
•
reliable delivery
•
a fair and easy return policy
Choose e-commerce sites carefully. Legitimate e-commerce sites will display links to their privacy policy and
terms and conditions statements on their web pages. Read these statements and be sure that you understand
the conditions or requirements you will be subject to should you decide to do business with the vendor.
Exercise Skepticism
If a company offers a deal that seems too good to be true, research that deal. Take the same precautions you
would take if someone made that offer offline—would you give a large sum of money to a person without
researching the product or service they are selling?
If the company is not known to you, be sure to research it before purchasing anything online. Call the contact
numbers listed on the site, look for a client list or for customer references/reviews, and research them with
organizations that track good and bad reports about companies, such as the Better Business Bureau (BBB).
Always Use Secured Transactions
While you are browsing the Internet, the Address bar in your browser uses the Hypertext Transfer Protocol
(http). This protocol is used for normal web site activity, such as browsing and navigating. It is not a secure
protocol.
However, anytime you exchange personal information with a web server – such as when you set up an
account, or enter financial information – a secure protocol should be used. To conduct secure transactions
over the Internet, web servers use Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (https). This is a secure version of http;
it encrypts all exchanges between your computer and the web server.
The https protocol and a lock icon in the Address bar indicate that you are in a secure area of the vendor’s
web site and that transactions can be conducted safely. Web transactions are secured using encryption, which
is the process of converting data into an unreadable form. Click the lock icon to view details pertaining to
the security of the connection.
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The web server proves its identity to the browser through a digital certificate. A digital certificate is a small
file that provides the identity of an individual or company over the Internet. A trusted third party, called a
certificate authority (CA), is responsible for verifying the legitimacy of the digital certificate. You can view
details about the digital certificate by clicking an option presented in the web browser.
Always look for the https protocol and the lock icon to ensure that you are conducting secure transactions
over the Internet. Other symbols that may display on the page indicating that you can trust the vendor are
nice to look at but do not guarantee that transactions are secure. Your browser has built-in features to let
you know when transactions are secure. Use them.
Exercise 7-2: Using secure connections
In this exercise, you will use secure connections and view digital certificates.
1.
Open the Google Chrome web browser and navigate to www.amazon.com. Click the Hello Sign in Your
2.
Look at the URL in the Address bar and notice that the protocol is https, indicating a secure connection.
3.
Click the lock icon in the browser address bar, then read the information that displays in a drop-down
4.
Account link near the top right corner.
message. Your connection to the site is private.
Click Details in the drop down message to view details about the security of the connection in a pane
that opens on the right edge of the browser window.
5.
Click the View certificate button to view details about the digital certificate.
6.
Click the various tabs in the Certificate dialog box, then close the dialog box.
7.
Close the Chrome browser.
8.
Open the Internet Explorer browser and navigate to www.amazon.com.
9.
Notice the use of the https protocol in the Address bar. Click the lock icon and read the information that
displays in the drop-down message, then click View certificates.
10. Close the Certificate dialog box, then close the Internet Explorer browser.
Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
Network administrators put a lot of effort into blocking unauthorized connections from the outside into the
LAN. However, they must also provide a method for allowing authorized connections from the outside.
Connecting from outside the network is known as remote access.
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Security is an especially important component of remote access because communication across a public
network (such as the Internet) is vulnerable to interception or eavesdropping. For this reason, remote access
methods must provide for authentication and encryption. Authentication is the process of confirming the
identity of a user or computer system. Encryption is the process of converting data into an unreadable form
of text, which then requires a decryption key in order to be read.
In the past, remote access was provided through remote access servers, modems and dedicated phone lines.
In most modern networks, however, access is obtained using a virtual private network (VPN) connection.
A VPN is an encrypted connection between two computers. VPNs allow secure, private communications
across long distances using the Internet as the pathway for communication instead of using a dedicated
private line.
VPNs make it possible for telecommuters and traveling/remote employees to establish a secure connection
to the company network from outside the company premises. VPNs also make it possible for a company with
several satellite offices to establish secure connections between all their locations.
Using VPN
Telecommuters, remote employees, and traveling employees use VPN to connect to their company networks
from the outside.
In order for a network to support VPN connections, a VPN server must be set up to receive incoming
connections. Any user who wants to make a VPN connection from a remote location (for example, from home
or from a hotel room) must install and then launch VPN client software to open a connection with the VPN
server.
Users must log on using a valid user name and password, just as if they were logging on to the network from
inside the corporate office.
Backup and Restore
Objective 1-4.1, 1-4.2, 1-4.3
A computing device is useful only if the data it contains is valid and accessible. An easy way to protect data
is to schedule regular backups. A backup is a duplicate copy of a program, a disk, or data, made either for
archiving purposes or for safeguarding files from loss if the active copy is damaged or destroyed.
Backups should be written on a storage medium other than the source of the backup. That is, if you are
backing up your hard drive, do not create the backup on the same hard drive. Instead, choose a location such
as a different internal hard drive, an external hard drive, a flash drive, CD or DVD, or a network location (such
as a network server hard disk) or a cloud location (such as OneDrive).
Keeping a current backup of all your important files is essential to ensuring that your data can be recovered
in the event of a failure or loss. Windows includes built-in features that make it easy and convenient to back
up both system data and your personal files.
Backing Up Your Personal Files
The operating system, drivers, personalization settings, apps and other software can be re-installed on a
computer fairly easily should they become damaged or accidentally deleted. Your personal files on the other
hand cannot be easily replaced or re-created.
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Your personal files are your documents, your photos, videos, downloads and so on. Think of how long it took
you to create and refine your Office files. Think of the old photos you may have scanned and saved on your
disk, or the new wedding or graduation day videos you might have transferred to and even edited on your
computer. Would it be easy to replace these if something happened to your hard drive?
Your personal files are the most important items to back up on your computer. You have choices on how
you want to back up your personal files, including:
Copying files to cloud storage – this is as easy as dragging important files to your local OneDrive, Drive,
Dropbox or iCloud folder. You have already learned how to back up files using cloud storage.
Using File History in Windows 10 – this feature configures Windows 10 to automatically create an hourly
backup of your personal files whenever the destination media (for example, an external hard drive or a flash
drive) is connected to the PC.
Using Windows Backup and Restore – this is a feature from Windows 7 that configures Windows to
automatically create a weekly backup of all important files on the computer; this includes your personal files
and the files saved in the default Windows folders (these are operating system files, settings, registry entries
and so on) used by the operating system. Backup and Restore requires significant storage space.
File History
The File History feature is the main backup tool in Windows 10 for backing up your personal files. Additionally,
it automatically stores a version history of your files, allowing you to restore previous versions of a file if
needed.
To use File History, configure it once, and keep the selected backup media connected. To configure the
feature, connect an external drive, open the Settings app and then click Update & security to open the
Update & Security window. In the left pane of the window, click Backup.
Click Add a drive, then select an external drive in the Select a drive window. The Automatically back up my
files option will appear and will be automatically turned on. Windows will back up your files to the drive
whenever you connect it to your computer.
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Click More options to view the Backup Options page.
Use the settings on this page to control how often to backup up, and how often to keep backup files. You
can create a backup immediately by clicking the Back up now button, and you can specify which folders
under your user profile to include in the backup. By default, these folders include: Desktop, Documents,
Downloads, Music, Pictures, Videos and more. You can add or exclude folders as required.
Windows Backup and Restore
You can use Windows Backup and Restore to back up the entire system or only the files and folders you
select. You can allow Windows to choose what to back up or you can select the individual folders, libraries
and drives that you want to back up. By default, backups are created on a regular schedule. You can change
the schedule, and you can create a backup manually at any time. Once you set up Windows Backup, Windows
keeps track of the files and folders that are new or modified and adds them to your backup (assuming that
your specified backup storage media is connected to the system at the time of the scheduled backup).
If you have never used Windows Backup before, you need to set it up first by following the steps in the
wizard. Open the Control Panel and navigate to System and Security, click Backup and Restore (Windows
7) page, then click Set up backup.
Select the destination for the backup file, then click Next. By default, Windows will back up data saved in
libraries, on the Desktop, and in default Windows folders. Windows will also create a system image, which
can be used to restore your computer if it stops working. Click Next if you want to accept the default settings,
or click Let me choose to specify custom settings.
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You are given an opportunity to review the current backup settings.
Click Change schedule if you want to adjust the backup schedule. By default, Windows runs a backup every
Sunday at 7:00 PM. However, you can configure Windows to run a daily, weekly, or monthly backup. You can
also specify not to schedule any further backups.
Click Save settings and run backup to create a backup.
Restoring Personal Files
If you accidentally delete a file that you need, or if one of your files becomes corrupted, you can easily restore
it to your hard drive from the saved backup media.
•
If you backed up using OneDrive, simply copy the required files or folders from the OneDrive folder and
paste them to your hard drive using File Explorer.
•
If you backed up using File History, open the Settings app, click Update & security, click Backup in the
left pane, click More options, scroll to the bottom of the window and click Restore files from a current
backup. Select the files or folders you want, then click the green button to restore them to your
computer.
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If you backed up using Backup and Restore, open the Control Panel and navigate to System and
Security, click Backup and Restore (Windows 7) page, then click the Restore my files button to open
the Restore Files window. Use the Browse for files and Browse for folders buttons to select the specific
files and folders you want to restore.
When you have selected all the files and folders you want to restore, click Next. Specify whether you
want to restore the files to their original location or to a different location, then click Restore. When the
restoration is complete, click Finish.
Secure Backups
As an individual user, you may not give much thought to backing up. You have complete control over how
often you back up your files, or whether you even back them up at all. However, the people responsible for
protecting an organization’s data must adhere to well-defined (and usually quite stringent) backup policies
and procedures.
Businesses which handle other peoples’ personal information (for example, financial information or medical
information) are required by law to maintain and secure backups for a requisite number of years. That is, the
data must remain accessible, and it must be protected from unauthorized access.
Maintaining secure backups requires compliance with at least the following rules:
•
The backups should be redundant. That is, there should be more than one copy of any given backup.
•
At least one copy of the backup should be stored off-site. Storing backups in another physical location
ensures that if disaster (such as an earthquake or a fire) strikes and a company’s computers are destroyed
along with any backups that are stored on the premises, there is still a copy of the backup data that is
safe.
•
Off-site storage locations must be secure. That is, only authorized personnel (those with a key or a
passcode) should be able to physically access the backup media.
•
Backups should be encrypted. Encryption prevents unauthorized users from using any information they
manage to intercept or steal, because without the decryption key, the data is unreadable.
•
Backups should be verified. This means that someone should check the backup media to be sure that
the information copied to it is accessible and complete.
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There are many government regulations pertaining to protecting people’s private information. Companies
take these regulations very seriously.
Backing Up PC System Files and Settings
System files are vital to the function of the operating system, and they can become corrupt over time.
Additionally, system settings can become damaged or misconfigured as software, updates, drivers, and apps
are installed. System file corruption or misconfiguration can lead to problems using your computer. For
example, some applications may stop working, or the system might start freezing up, or some hardware may
cease to function. In some cases, you may not be able to boot up at all.
Windows includes several built-in tools you can use to back up system files. You can use the backup to
recover damaged files or to reverse misconfigurations. These tools include:
•
system restore points
•
system image files
Even if you are not experienced enough to use these advanced tools to recover or repair your computer on
your own, system file backups are an invaluable tool in the hands of a technical specialist who can use them
to restore your system for you.
System Restore Points
A restore point is a saved snapshot of your computer’s Windows system files, program files, and Windows
registry settings at a specific point in time. User files are not included in a restore point. Restore points are
named and stored by their creation date.
System Restore is a protection feature built into Windows; however, it must be enabled before any restore
points can be created. To ensure that this protection feature is enabled on your Windows 10 system:
1.
Click in the taskbar search box, then type: restore.
2.
Click Create a restore point in the Start menu to open the System Protection tab in the System
3.
Click your hard drive in the Available Drives list box. If On displays in the Protection column, then the
4.
If protection is turned off for your hard drive, click Configure.
5.
Click Turn on system protection.
6.
Properties dialog box.
feature is enabled.
Drag the Max Usage slider to about the 5% point (between the first two tick marks on the scale). This
reserves a portion of the hard disk for storage of restore points.
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7.
Click Apply, then click OK.
8.
Click OK once more to close the System Properties dialog box.
Security and Maintenance
When it is enabled, System Restore automatically creates restore points on your system once per week, and
before major system events, such as installing a program or a device driver, or installing operating system
updates.
You can also manually create a restore point at any time. To manually create a restore point:
1.
Click in the taskbar search box, then type: restore.
2.
Click Create a restore point in the Start menu to open the System Protection tab in the System
3.
Click Create.
4.
Type a name for the restore point, then click Create.
5.
When the message that a restore point was successfully created appears, click Close, then click OK.
Properties dialog box.
When you restore from a restore point, System Restore restores the system files, program files, and registry
settings from the restore point to your computer. This effectively “rolls back” your system to a previous state.
This is useful when unexpected problems occur. For example, after an update, you may discover that you
can’t launch certain programs, or maybe when you try to access the Internet your system freezes. If you use
System Restore and select a restore point that was created before you installed the update, this can restore
your system files to the previous state before any problem occurred.
You may want to ask a technical specialist to guide you through rolling back your system to a restore point.
However, the steps are:
1.
Click in the taskbar search box, then type: restore.
2.
Click Create a restore point in the Start menu to open the System Protection tab in the System
3.
Click System Restore, then click Next to display a list of saved restore points. The most recently created
Properties dialog box.
restore points appear at the top of the list. You can select the Show more restore points check box to
view older restore points.
4.
Select the restore point you want to roll back to, then click Next.
5.
Click Finish and follow the prompts that appear.
System Image / Repair Disc
A system image is an exact image of a hard drive; it includes Windows and your system settings, programs,
and files. You can use a system image to restore the contents of your computer (to the state it was in when
you created the image) if your hard drive or computer ever stops working. When you restore your computer
from a system image, it is a complete restoration; you cannot choose individual items to restore, and all your
current programs, system settings and files are replaced.
When you create a backup using Windows Backup and Restore, Windows creates a system image. When the
image is created, you are given the option to create a repair disc, which you can use to boot your computer
and begin the process of re-creating your system from an image.
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You can also create a system image at any time by following these steps:
1.
Connect an external hard drive or other removable media with a large storage capacity.
2.
Click in the taskbar search box, then type: backup.
3.
Click Backup and Restore (Windows 7) Control panel in the Start menu to open the Backup and
4.
Click the Create a system image link.
5.
Select the media on which to create the image, then click Next.
6.
Confirm the settings, then click Start backup.
Restore (Windows 7) page in the Control Panel.
A technical specialist can guide you through the process of recovering your system from an image file; or
you can provide the image file media to the specialist if he or she will be making repairs.
Backing Up Your Mobile Data
It is always a good idea to back up your personal data (such as contacts, saved text messages, and photos)
on your mobile devices. You can use a USB cable and copy the data to your PC (this is the old school method),
or you can use the phone’s built-in backup utilities and associated cloud storage. You can also turn on
automatic backup so that your data is continually backed up.
Android
Android phones are connected to a Google account and Google can automate and streamline the backup
process.
1.
Go to Settings, Personal, Backup and reset.
2.
Turn on both Back up my data and Automatic restore.
3.
Ensure that your backup account is set to your Gmail account.
Turning these options on ensures that your personal data (including application data, Wi-Fi passwords,
bookmarks and other settings) are always backed up and can easily be restored.
iPhone/iOS
Devices running iOS (including iPhones, iPads and iPod touch devices) can be backed up using iCloud or
iTunes. iCloud stores backups in the cloud, while iTunes stores backups on your Mac or PC.
To make a backup using iCloud:
1.
Connect to a Wi-Fi network.
2.
Tap Settings, iCloud, Backup.
3.
Make sure iCloud Backup is turned on.
4.
Tap Back Up Now.
To make a backup using iTunes:
1.
Open iTunes and connect your device to your computer.
2.
Save content that you downloaded from the iTunes Store or App Store by clicking File, Devices, Transfer
3.
To create your backup, click Back Up Now.
Purchases.
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Security and Maintenance
Using Factory Reset Options for PC
When you use a factory reset option on your device, you are resetting the device to the state it was in when
it came out of the factory – clean, new, ready to be set up. Sometimes, you may want to reset a device
because it is running slowly or improperly and you just want to start over, from scratch. Other times, you will
want to reset a device that you are getting ready to donate or gift to another person.
Always create a backup of your personal files before resetting your device.
Windows 10 Refresh and Reset
The Refresh and Reset options (available in Windows 8 and later) enable you to restore the Windows
operating system to a default configuration without having to reinstall the operating system from a DVD or
USB drive.
•
Refreshing a PC gives you a fresh installation of Windows without deleting your personal files (pictures,
documents, videos, and so on), your personalization settings, or apps that you installed from the
Windows store. Applications that you installed from installation media or from the Internet will be
removed however. If you are experiencing problems with your computer (for example, the computer
freezes or applications will not load), performing a refresh may resolve the issue.
•
Resetting a PC gives you a fresh installation of Windows and preserves nothing. It is just like formatting
the hard disk and starting over with a fresh installation of the operating system. All your personal files,
personalization settings, apps and applications will be removed, and your PC settings will be changed
back to their defaults. Use the Reset option to set your computer back to its factory default state. This
option also allows you to fully clean the drive, which is considered best practice if you want to donate
the PC because it makes it difficult for other people to recover the files you have removed.
To refresh or reset your Windows 10 PC:
1.
Click Start, Settings, Update & security.
2.
In the left panel, click Recovery, then under Reset this PC, click Get started.
3.
In the Choose an option box, select either Keep my files or Remove everything.
Resetting Mobile Devices
Mobile devices include a factory reset feature that restores the device to the state it was in when it left the
factory. Resetting removes your personal files, any apps that you installed, and any customizations you may
have added, such as personal accounts, ringtones, screen savers, network passwords, and so on.
Resetting your phone or tablet may be necessary for troubleshooting purposes; although most people use
this option only when they are planning to donate or gift their mobile device. Remember that if you use a
GSM mobile device, the installed SIM card includes your personal account information. Always remove the
SIM card before donating or giving your phone to someone else.
Always back up your personal files before resetting.
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Android
Depending on the version of Android you are using, you may find that in addition to an option for performing
a factory data reset, you can use options for resetting only the phone settings (for example, ringtones or Do
Not Disturb settings); or for resetting only the network settings (such as those for Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and mobile
data).
To restore your Android device to its factory settings.
1.
Go to Settings, Personal, Backup and reset.
2.
Tap Factory data reset.
3.
Tap Reset Phone.
If your smartphone or tablet has expandable storage, the menu may ask if you'd like to wipe the external
memory card, which is not really necessary since you can pop the card out of the slot.
iPhone/iOS
In iOS 7 and up, a security feature called Activation Lock requires the Apple ID used to set up the phone
initially in order to reset it. If you do not disable Activation Lock, the next person who gets your iPhone won't
be able to use it. You can disable Activation Lock by turning off iCloud/Find My iPhone.
To turn off iCloud/Find My iPhone:
1.
Go to Settings.
2.
Tap iCloud.
3.
Scroll to the bottom of the screen and tap Sign Out. Enter your Apple ID /iCloud password if prompted.
To restore your iOS device to its factory settings:
1.
Go to Settings.
2.
Tap General.
3.
Tap Reset.
4.
Tap Erase All Content and Settings and enter your passcode if prompted.
5.
Tap Erase to proceed.
Note: Industry experts recommend that you encrypt your phone’s (or tablet’s) data before resetting if you
plan to sell or give your phone away. Encrypting the data before resetting ensures any personal data left
behind will be unusable, even for people with advanced technical know-how.
Troubleshooting
Objective 1-3.13
Troubleshooting is a systematic approach to solving a problem. Essentially, it is an organized process of trial
and error. You may need to try several different approaches before you can narrow down and find a solution,
and generally, you use a process of elimination. This means you make a list of things that could be causing
the problem and then test them out one by one to eliminate them as the cause.
Here are some general troubleshooting tips:
•
Write down your steps. This will help you remember exactly what you've done and prevent you from
testing the same possible causes again.
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•
Security and Maintenance
Take detailed notes about any error messages you see, writing down as much information as possible.
Or, you can use the Snipping tool built into Windows to take a screen capture of the error message.
Having a record of the error messages can help you research them online or describe them to a
professional who is trying to help you resolve your issue.
Is it Hardware or Software?
Often, the first step in troubleshooting is determining whether your issue is caused by hardware or software.
It is not always easy to determine which might be causing a particular issue because software and hardware
are designed to work together.
However, the points you consider for each and the items you check off your list as part of your process of
elimination are different for hardware and software.
Hardware
The hardware you will troubleshoot is often large and self-contained. For example, you might troubleshoot
issues with your printer, or a monitor, or a mouse or keyboard. These devices usually include switches,
indicator lights, and connection ports which are easily examined.
To investigate possible hardware issues, begin with the obvious:
•
•
Is there power?
–
Is the hardware device plugged in?
–
If it is plugged in to a surge protector, is the surge protector switched on?
–
Is the device powered on?
If the device uses batteries, are the batteries installed?
–
•
If batteries are installed, do they still have a sufficient charge?
Is there a good connection?
–
If the device is connected to your computer by a cable, is the cable securely connected to both your
device and the computer?
•
–
If the device and your computer are securely connected, is the cable damaged?
–
If you are using a wireless connection, is the wireless receiver connected?
–
If you are using a wireless mouse or keyboard, do they have good batteries and are they turned on?
Are there easily observable issues with the hardware device that need to be addressed before the device
will function? For example, if you suddenly find that you cannot print a document, and you have already
determined that the printer is plugged in and powered on, is there paper loaded? Is there a paper jam?
Is the printer out of ink? Are there any error messages displayed on the information panel on the printer?
Software
Software issues are sometimes a little more difficult to track down. However, symptoms of a software issue
are applications that stop running correctly, applications that freeze, or applications that won’t start. Software
issues can also cause the computer to freeze or not boot up correctly. Things to consider when you run across
issues like these include:
•
Did you install an update recently? Sometimes operating system updates can cause errors with an
application program. The next questions to ask yourself are:
–
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Does closing and then restarting the application solve the problem?
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Security and Maintenance
•
–
Does restarting the computer and relaunching the application solve the problem?
–
Is the application up to date? Can you find and install updates for it?
–
Can you run the application program in compatibility mode?
Lesson 7
If your system freezes up consistently or will not boot correctly after installing an update, could rolling
back the update using a restore point resolve the issue?
•
Could your system be infected with a virus? Run a virus scan to ensure that an infection is not interfering
with your application programs.
Troubleshooting Connection Issues
Another common cause for troubleshooting is network connection issues. Your system might be humming
along just fine, and then all of a sudden you can no longer connect to the Internet. There are a few things
you can check and try before calling the IT staff at work or school, or before calling your ISP if you are
experiencing network problems at home.
•
Check your IP address using either the ipconfig command line tool or the Windows Network and Sharing
Center. Remember that most LAN IP addresses resemble the following: 192.168.1.103.
–
If your IP address begins with 169.254, or if your IP address displays as 0.0.0.0, then your system has
not received a valid IP address from the broadband router on your home network (or from a server
on your school or work network). These devices provide IP addresses for all systems connecting to
the network.
–
If your system did not receive a valid IP address, first ensure that the Ethernet cable is securely
connected (if not, disconnect and then reconnect it).
–
If this does not resolve the issue, then try turning the broadband router off for 20 seconds, and then
start it up again. Once the router is fully up and running, restart your computer. Your computer
should receive a new IP address from the router, and you may then be able to connect to the Internet.
•
If your system has a valid IP address, but you cannot connect to the Internet, you may need to restart
your broadband modem. Sometimes, your ISP will send software updates to their users’ modems, and
often the modem requires a restart.
•
–
Turn the modem and the broadband router off for one minute.
–
Restart the modem. Once the modem is up and running, restart the router.
–
Once both the modem and router have been restarted, restart your computer once more.
If restarting your networking equipment does not resolve the issue, call your ISP. They may be
experiencing a service outage, or they may be able to help you troubleshoot the issue over the phone.
–
If you do call your ISP, be prepared to provide information to the technical specialist such as your
current IP address, and your connection speed. Remember that you view your network connections
in the Network and Sharing Center, and that you can click your connection to view its details, such
as the connection speed and the IP address.
•
If you have trouble connecting to your Wi-Fi network, check the following:
–
Is your wireless adapter turned on? Sometimes, wireless adapters are turned off by a device in order
to save battery power.
–
Has the Wi-Fi network password changed? Network administrators sometimes change the Wi-Fi
password if they suspect that the old password has been compromised.
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Security and Maintenance
Are you close enough to the Wi-Fi hotspot? WLAN devices have a limited range, especially if they
are using older WLAN standards such as 802.11b or 802.11g.
Don’t be discouraged if troubleshooting takes a while. It is a process, and the more practice you get, the
better you will become.
Lesson Summary
In this lesson, you learned about the need for computer security, how to identify risks and how to combat them.
You also learned how to back up and restore files, and to reset devices, and you learned about the basics of
troubleshooting. You should now be able to:

explain the need for security

describe how to keep your user name and


and phishing
password safe

describe methods for protecting against risks
describe the risks presented by viruses, worms,

explain how and why to back up and restore your
describe the risks associated with network

protect your information when using public

describe basic troubleshooting techniques

understand basic troubleshooting techniques
Trojans, and malware

data and your settings
connections

describe the risks presented by social engineering
computers
explain how to reset personal devices to their
factory settings
Review Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
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Which of the following passwords is the most secure?
a.
NeXt-Chg9917A
c.
Nextchg9917
b.
PaSW0rd
d.
pA$$word003
How do you access the Lock command using the Start menu?
a.
Click the Start button, click your user account name and then click Lock.
b.
Click Start, click Power, and then click Lock.
c.
Click Start, click Shutdown and then click Lock.
d.
You can only access the Lock command from the Power Options page in the Control Panel.
Eduardo’s computer started to display strange error messages, and then everything in his Documents
folder was erased. Eduardo was probably the victim of a:
a.
Virus
b.
System misconfiguration
c.
Spyware application
d.
Phishing exploit
A hacker can gain remote access to your computer through:
a.
A Trojan
c.
A virus
b.
A worm
d.
Adware
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Security and Maintenance
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Which software application automatically downloads advertisements?
a.
Adware
c.
Desktop firewall
b.
Spyware
d.
Monitoring software
Which of the following is not dangerous but can be used to store a user name and password?
a.
Cookie
c.
Adware
b.
Spyware
d.
Trojan
Claudia is connecting to a Wi-Fi network at the airport. How, should she identify this Wi-Fi network to
her operating system?
a.
As a Public network.
c.
As a Home network.
b.
As a Work network.
d.
As a Private network.
When using a public computer, what else should you do aside from logging out of your online accounts?
a.
Clear caches and cookies.
b.
Restart the computer.
c.
Turn the computer power off.
d.
Lock the system.
What do you call the practice of tricking people into giving you unauthorized access to a building or to
a computer system?
a.
Social engineering
c.
Spyware
b.
Hacking
d.
Phishing
10. Which of the following can you use to remove viruses from your computer?
a.
Antivirus software
b.
A desktop firewall
c.
Network monitoring software
d.
A hardware firewall
11. Which of the following prevents potentially dangerous network traffic from coming into the LAN?
a.
A firewall
c.
A browser cache
b.
Antivirus software
d.
A modem
12. Which of the following is designed to track and record network activities?
a.
Monitoring software
c.
Login accounts
b.
Firewalls
d.
Backup software
13. Which protocol indicates you are on a secure web site for e-commerce transactions?
a.
HTTPS
c.
FTP
b.
HTTP
d.
SMTP
14. Katarina is traveling and must connect securely to her company’s network in order to retrieve several
sensitive documents. How should she make this connection?
a.
Use VPN.
b.
Use a Wi-Fi hot spot.
c.
Use her web browser.
d.
Use her web browser and type in https as the protocol.
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15. Lee is creating a backup of his Documents folder. Which of the following locations is suitable for storing
his backup?
a.
An external hard drive.
b.
The Desktop.
c.
On the Desktop of another user profile saved on the system.
d.
Any of these is a suitable place for storing the backup.
16. In Windows 10 you can choose to back up personal files by copying files to cloud storage, or by using
File History. What is the third method?
a.
Using Windows Backup and Restore
b.
Creating a restore point
c.
Using the Refresh This PC command.
d.
Using the Reset This PC command.
17. When you create a system restore point, which files are not included?
a.
User files
b.
Program files
c.
Registry settings
d.
Operating system files
18. Which of the following can be used to perform an iPhone backup?
a.
iCloud
c.
Google Drive
b.
Dropbox
d.
OneDrive
19. If your computer tends to freeze when you start an application, what type of issue might you need to
troubleshoot?
a.
A software issue.
b.
A hardware issue.
c.
A network connectivity issue.
d.
An invalid user name issue.
20. Ann has been using the same Wi-Fi network all day. She took a break to go swimming. This evening,
however, she is unable to connect. Which of the following items should she check as a possible cause?
240
a.
Her wireless card may no longer be turned on.
b.
The wireless router no longer supports the wireless standard she is using.
c.
She has entered the wrong user name and password when logging on to her system.
d.
The WLAN has become unsecured and will not allow her to connect.
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Key Applications
Lesson 8: Apps and
Applications
Lesson Objectives
In this lesson, you will learn about the wide variety of apps and applications that are available to make you
productive. Upon completion, you will be able to:


describe the difference between apps and

applications
use an app store to browse and find apps

identify various types of application software and
install, delete and recover apps

describe the strengths and weaknesses of apps
the tasks for which they are suited

understand and use web apps
and applications
Understanding Apps and Applications
Apps, web apps, online apps, applications … all these terms describe software that we use to accomplish
various types of tasks. However, it can be difficult to define precisely what each term refers to for the simple
reason that users, vendors, and advertisers use the terms very loosely. Often, the terms overlap and two or
more terms may refer to the same thing.
For the purpose of our discussion, applications (or application software) are complex programs designed to
be used with a mouse and keyboard. They require a fair amount of system resources and they perform a
wide range of functions. A web browser is an example of an application program; you can use it to navigate
the web, download files, play videos, send and receive email, chat with friends, check the weather, look up
directions, print a map, perform banking transactions, make online purchases, and the list goes on and on.
Apps, on the other hand, are small and light-weight; they are designed to be used on touch screen devices
such as tablets and smart phones, and their functionality is much more focused. That is, an app does one
main thing, and does it well. Consider the apps you may have on your smart phone. Many of these apps
perform the individual tasks that you can accomplish in a web browser: stocks, maps, YouTube, weather,
messaging, and so on.
While it may be tempting to draw a line in the sand and say that apps run on mobile devices, and application
programs run on desktops and laptops we must bear in mind that there are applications that run on mobile
operating system platforms, and there are apps that run on desktop operating system platforms.
A better distinction might be found in what we, as users, expect from each.
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Lesson 8
Apps and Applications
Application Programs
Objective 2-6.2
Software is introduced in Computing Fundamentals, including how to obtain, install, and manage application
programs. An application program must be compatible with your hardware and operating system, and
programs have specific requirements for processor power, video resolution, and memory. But how do you
decide which application programs you should use?
Application programs vary in price from free to almost obscenely expensive. Deciding where to invest your
money is not always an easy task. Understanding the different types of application programs available can
help you get a clear grasp on what is available, and subsequently, what will meet your individual needs.
In this lesson, we will examine different types of productivity programs. A productivity program is one that is
dedicated to producing information, such as documents, presentations, worksheets, databases, charts,
graphs, digital images, web sites, electronic music or digital video. Different types of programs are suited for
different types of tasks.
It is important to select the appropriate software program for the task at hand. Many programs share a
number of features; to choose the one that best suits your needs, you must look closely at what you want to
accomplish. Make a list of all the tasks you need to perform, and check off items as you compare.
Word Processing
A word processing application enables you to create, edit, save, format and print documents. Most word
processing programs also allow you to insert pictures and other objects. You can use a word processing
application to create letters, memos, invoices, faxes, articles, and sometimes basic Web pages, newsletters,
forms, brochures, or flyers.
The following examples of documents you can produce with word processing programs include a letter, a
newsletter, and a flyer.
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Apps and Applications
Popular word processing applications include:
Microsoft Word – by Microsoft. Word is a word processing application that you can use to type and format
text and images for a variety of documents. Advanced features help you create tables, indices, and outlines.
Word Perfect – by Corel. Word Perfect was one of the first highly successful word processors for DOS and
Windows based systems, and it has also been available for a wide variety of operating systems.
Pages for Mac – by Apple. Pages for Mac is a powerful word processor that you can use to create documents
on Mac and on iOS devices. Design tools allow you to create charts, tables, bi-directional text and more.
Desktop Publishing
A desktop publishing (DTP) program enables you to manipulate large amounts of text and graphics that
require a specialized page layout or structure, and then send the finished product to be printed by a
dedicated printing service. In general, when you need to print professional documents that cannot be
handled with a word processor, a desktop publishing application is suitable. For instance, to create a 9.5”x6”
(24cm x 15cm) booklet with 10 pages would require you to use a booklet layout that allows content to appear
in the proper order as the separate pages of the booklet are printed. You might also use a desktop publishing
application to create a multi-color magazine or newspaper.
Most desktop publishing programs contain the same features and functions available in a word processing
program but are more flexible for manipulating items such as pictures, drawn objects, or long documents.
Some popular desktop publishing programs include:
Microsoft Publisher – produced by Microsoft and included in some Microsoft Office suites, Publisher is an
easy to use, lightweight alternative to professional layout software such as Adobe InDesign or QuarkXPress,
and is well suited for home users and small businesses. It includes typography tools and a large selection of
templates.
Adobe InDesign – produced by Adobe Systems. InDesign can be used to create posters, flyers, brochures,
magazines, newspapers, and books. InDesign can also publish content suitable for tablet devices in
conjunction with Adobe Digital Publishing Suite.
QuarkXPress – released by Quark, Inc. Individual designers and large publishing houses use QuarkXPress to
produce a variety of layouts, from single-page flyers to multimedia projects for magazines, catalogs and
newspapers.
Scribus – released under the GNU General Public
License as free software. Scribus is a page layout
program for Linux, FreeBSD, PC-BSD, NetBSD,
OpenBSD,
GNU/Hurd,
Solaris,
Mac
OS
OpenIndiana,
X,
OS/2
eComStation, Haiku and Windows.
Debian
Warp
4,
The figure shows a layout for a multi-page
booklet in a desktop publishing application.
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Apps and Applications
Spreadsheets
Spreadsheet programs perform mathematical calculations, help you analyze data, and produce graphs, charts,
and diagrams. If you need to track numbers or analyze information for trends or patterns, a spreadsheet is a
good choice.
Spreadsheets provide the ability to sort, find or filter information, and are very useful for managing and
manipulating large amounts of data. You can use spreadsheets to analyze and present information such as
expenses, assignment or report marks, financial forecasts, cash flow and so on, as shown in the following:
Popular spreadsheet programs include:
Microsoft Excel – by Microsoft. Excel is part of the Microsoft Office suite. It is a spreadsheet application that
runs on Windows, Mac OS X, Android, and iOS. It features calculation, graphing tools, pivot tables, and a
macro programming language called Visual Basic for Applications.
Quattro Pro – by Corel. Quattro Pro is a spreadsheet program sold by Corel, and often packaged as part of
the WordPerfect Office suite. It was originally designed for DOS systems, but runs on Windows. Historically,
Quattro Pro used keyboard commands close to those in Lotus 1-2-3. It is commonly said to have been the
first program to use tabbed worksheets.
Graphic Design and Image Editing
Graphic design is the process of communicating through visual elements such as typography, color, space,
and images. Graphic designers use various methods to create and combine words, symbols, and images to
create a visual representation of ideas and messages.
Graphic design software is used to create page layouts, logos, branding, posters, billboards, web site graphics
and more. The creative use of images, as well image editing, is considered part of graphic design. Popular
graphic design/image editing applications include:
Adobe Illustrator – by Adobe Systems. Illustrator is a program used to create vector images. A vector image
is an image generated by a mathematical algorithm, as opposed to a pixel-based image, which is composed
of individual pixels. Vector images scale smoothly to various sizes, and are used to create logos and other
items which must maintain a high quality appearance when printed or displayed at any size.
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Adobe Photoshop – by Adobe Systems. Photoshop is used to modify images like graphics or photos that
were created with a camera or an image creation program. Photoshop images are pixel-based, and you can
use Photoshop to create raster graphics and bitmap images. These images do not scale as well as vector
images, but they work well for projects in which images will remain at a fixed size. Photoshop is often used
to create/edit web site graphics and photos because it includes numerous built-in filters, special effects and
tools.
Microsoft Paint / Fresh Paint – by Microsoft. Paint is a simple computer graphics program that has been
included with all versions of Microsoft Windows. You can use it to draw or paint bitmapped images and save
them in various file formats. Fresh Paint is an upgraded version that was released with Windows 8. You can
download Fresh Paint from the Windows Store.
Web Development
Although you can create web pages and web sites using only a text editor, Web development programs
automate much of the process and help you keep your images, pages, and other elements organized and
accessible. Most web development tools provide a WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) environment
and write and apply the appropriate web markup code automatically as users apply formats and styles with
a toolbar.
These applications allow you to layout pages, insert text and images, add hyperlinks and alternative text, use
styles in cascading styles sheets, link to databases, and insert audio and video clips. Most also include tools
that help you develop apps for mobile operating systems.
The following figure shows a web page in a web development editor:
Popular web development packages include:
Adobe Dreamweaver – by Adobe Systems. Dreamweaver is a software program for designing web pages,
and is a full featured HTML web and programming editor. Dreamweaver supports multiple web and
programming languages and enables users to develop web sites and mobile applications.
Microsoft Visual Studio – by Microsoft. Visual Studio is a complete set of development tools for building
ASP.NET Web applications, XML Web Services, desktop applications, and mobile applications.
Microsoft Web Matrix – by Microsoft. Web Matrix is a free, cloud-connected website builder and HTML
editor for Windows. It includes built -in templates, coding, customization, and publishing capabilities all in
one place.
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Video Editing
Video editing refers to the process of manipulating video images. Decades ago, video editing was performed
on expensive video editing machines; but video editing software is now widely available for personal
computers. You use a video editing application to cut (trim) segments, re-sequence clips, and add transitions,
special effects or captions. The following figure shows the free Easy Movie Maker app for Windows 10.
Popular video editing applications include:
Adobe Premier Pro – by Adobe Systems. Premier Pro is a timeline-based video editing software application
that runs on Mac and Windows. It supports a wide variety of video and audio file formats, and is integrated
with other applications in the Adobe Creative suite.
Sony Vegas Pro – by Sony Creative Software. Vegas Pro features real-time multitrack video and audio editing
and allows you to add complex effects such as surround sound. Up to version 10, Vegas Pro runs on Windows
7, Windows 8, and Windows 10.
iMovie – by Apple. iMovie is a video editing application that runs on OS X. It imports video footage from
video cameras via USB or FireWire, or it can import video and photo files from a hard drive. Once you import,
you can edit photos and video clips, add titles and themes, make color corrections, and add music. It includes
video enhancement tools that let you add transitions such as fades and slides.
Presentation
Presentation programs allow you to share information in the form of a slide show. These types of applications
include a slide editor that allows you to create and add text to slides, as well as features that allow you to
insert and manipulate graphic images. They also include a built-in slide show system for presenting your
content.
Most presentation applications allow you to add text, formatting, charts, diagrams, tables, images and even
sound and video clips to slides. You can also add special effects such as animations, and apply different types
of transitions as you move from one slide to another in a slide show.
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The following is a sample of files you can create with a presentation program including an award certificate,
and part of a presentation shown in slide sorter view.
Popular presentation applications include:
Microsoft PowerPoint – by Microsoft. Part of the Office Suite, PowerPoint is a slide show presentation
program that allows you to create slides and presentations, embed images, audio and video, create speaker
notes and print audience handouts. It is integrated with other applications in the office suite, allowing you
to create tables and spreadsheets from within the application.
Keynote for Mac – by Apple. Keynote is Apple’s equivalent to Microsoft PowerPoint. Like PowerPoint, it
includes integrated chart and table tools, and allows you to add transitions and special effects. It also includes
graphics tools and templates.
Web Apps
Objective 2-6.1
Web apps are applications (both the lightweight and the more complex variety) that run on the World Wide
Web. These apps do not run directly on a device nor do they require installation; they are accessed over the
Internet and provide some of the same functionality as installed versions of the software. For example, with
only a browser and an Internet connection you can use web app versions of Microsoft Excel, OneNote,
PowerPoint and Word to read, edit, and create documents.
Microsoft calls their web apps “online apps,” and some users refer to web apps as software as a service (SaaS)
because the functionality of an installed software program is delivered to you over the Internet as a service
via your web browser.
Because web apps run inside a browser, they are platform-independent. That is, the same web app will run
in a browser on an iOS device or a browser on an Android device, or a browser on a Windows desktop or a
browser on a Mac OS X laptop.
Files that you create or modify with web apps are stored in the cloud. Because web apps are delivered online,
as opposed to being installed locally, they are associated with an account that is also linked to the cloud
storage location. As long as your account is active (in good standing), you can access and use the associated
web apps. If your account is canceled or closed, you will no longer be able to access the apps or the content
that may be stored online.
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Microsoft OneDrive is discussed in Computing Fundamentals; another well-known and widely used platform
for web apps is Google Drive.
Google Drive
Google provides a suite of productivity apps that are linked to its online storage service, Google Drive. These
productivity apps are:
Google Docs – an online word processor that lets you create and format text documents and collaborate
with other people in real time.
Google Sheets – an online spreadsheet app that lets you create and format spreadsheets and simultaneously
work with other people.
Google Slides – an online presentation app that lets you create and edit slides, and insert images and video.
You can create these documents directly from within Google Drive, or you can upload documents from a
device, convert them to an appropriate format and continue to edit them online. You can also download
documents from Google Drive to your device, and can select from several formats.
Log in to your Google account, click the
(Google apps) icon at the upper-right corner of the browser
window to display the Google Apps menu, then click Drive to view your online storage drive.
To use the integrated productivity apps, click NEW. The productivity apps appear at the bottom of the menu.
Click the app that you want to use to create a new document. As you work in your document, all changes are
automatically saved to Drive.
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Exercise 8-1: Using web apps on Google Drive
In this exercise, you will use web apps on Google Drive.
1.
Open your browser, navigate to www.gmail.com and log in to your Gmail account. (If you did not create
a Gmail account as directed in Lesson 5 of Computing Fundamentals, do so now if you want to proceed
with this exercise.)
2.
At the upper-right corner of the browser window, click the Google apps icon to open the menu, then in
the menu, click the Drive icon to access Google Drive. If necessary, close the welcome message.
Begin by creating a new word processing document.
3.
Click New, then click Google Docs to open a new word processing document. (If you are prompted to
4.
Type: My name is and type your first name.
5.
Press ENTER twice to insert a blank line.
6.
Type one or two sentences about yourself.
7.
Double-click your name, then in the toolbar, click the
8.
try out voice typing, click No Thanks.)
(Bold) button.
In the browser window, click the My Drive – Google Drive tab. Notice that the untitled document is
saved to Google Drive and displays in your My Drive folder.
Now create a new presentation.
9.
Near the top of the My Drive – Google Drive window, click the arrow for My Drive, then in the menu,
click Google Slides to open a new blank presentation.
10. In the menu bar, click File, then click Rename to select the text Untitled presentation at the top of the
window. Type: Digital Lit, then press ENTER to rename the presentation.
11. Drag the scroll bar in the Themes panel at the right side of the window, then click the Plum theme to
apply it to the presentation.
12. In the slide, click the placeholder called Click to add title, then type: Digital Literacy to enter a title.
13. In the slide, click the placeholder called Click to add subtitle, then type: Skills for Today and Tomorrow.
Notice that as you add text to the slide in the middle pane of the window, the text also appears in the
slide thumbnail at the left pane. This pane is the navigation pane; you can use it to navigate among your
slides.
14. At the left edge of the toolbar is the
(New Slide) button. Click the arrow for the New Slide button
to display a gallery of slide layouts, then click Title and body to add a new slide with the selected layout.
15. In the new slide, click the placeholder called Click to add title, then type: Word Processors.
16. In the browser window, click the Close button for the Digital Lit – Google Slides tab to close your
presentation, then click the Untitled document – Google Docs tab to view your document again.
17. Above the menu bar, click in the box that reads Untitled document so that you can rename the
document. Google Docs may suggest the first line of text in the document as a file name.
18. Type: About Me, then press ENTER to rename the document.
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19. Close the About Me – Google Docs tab. Your Drive window should resemble the one shown in the
following figure.
20. Close the Drive tab, sign out of Gmail, then close your browser.
Local Apps
Objective 2-6.1, 2-6.2
In contrast to web apps, local apps are installed on a device and run directly on that device. As such, they are
designed to run on specific devices, and are written for specific operating systems such as iOS, Mac OS X,
Windows, or Android.
While you can use apps on a desktop PC (discussed in Computing Fundamentals), most people interact with
apps on their tablets and smart phones. These mobile apps are specifically designed to run on hand held
devices with small touch screen interfaces. They optimize the appearance of displayed data even on the small
screen, and they are often capable of synchronizing files between devices (such as a smart phone and a
desktop system).
Most mobile devices are sold with several apps included as pre-installed software. For example, most smart
phones already include a web browser, email client, calendar, mapping program, and an app for buying music
or other media. They also include an app that takes you to the device’s app store, where you can obtain more
apps.
App Stores
An app store is a digital platform for distributing software. A user accesses the app store and can browse the
available titles, select an app, and then download the app.
Because apps that run on devices are platform-specific, different platforms utilize different app stores:
App Store Name
Platform
Notes and Devices
Google Play Store
(or simply, Play
Store)
Android
The Play Store is operated by Google. Android phones and Google TV
devices include access to the Play Store, and many also include access to
the Amazon Appstore as well.
App Store
iOS
The App Store is operated by Apple. Apps can be downloaded directly to
iOS devices such as iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad tablet.
On your desktop, you can access apps via iTunes.
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Windows Store
Windows
This app store is operated by Microsoft. You can get apps for your Surface
Pro or Windows 10 (or Windows 8.0/8.1) desktop here.
Appstore for
Android (via
Amazon)
Android
This is an app store for Android devices, operated by Amazon.com.
Amazon devices, such as the Kindle Fire include access to the Amazon
Appstore (instead of access to Google Play). BlackBerry 10.3 devices also
include access.
BlackBerry World
BlackBerry This is an app store for BlackBerry devices.
In most cases, the app for accessing your default app store will be pre-installed on your device.
Accounts and Access
Many apps are tied to accounts you have created for particular services. If you want to use the Facebook app,
you need an associated Facebook account. If you want to use a Microsoft Office app, you need to have a
Microsoft account to use the basic features; if you want to use all the features of the app, you need an Office
365 subscription.
As you install an app, you will be prompted to enter any requisite account information. Thereafter, you can
simply tap the app icon and be automatically logged in to your account.
Additionally, many apps require access to various settings and services on your device in order to provide
full performance. In most cases, the apps will “ask” for access when you install them or when you start using
them. Typical areas of access include:
•
contacts list
•
microphone
•
location
•
Wi-Fi connection
•
phone
•
device ID
•
SMS
•
storage
•
photos and media files
•
calendar
•
camera
Browsing an App Store
An app store is organized like many online stores – top picks or featured items may be presented on the first
page; however, you can usually tap an option that will allow you to browse by category.
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Apps may be categorized by function or genre, by the device for which each was designed, or by the
operating system each will run on. Different app stores display different categories, and many apps may
appear in more than one category.
App genres are loosely grouped into those described in the following sections.
Productivity/Communication Apps
Productivity apps are programs that allow you to get work done; you can use them to create documents and
other files, or you can use them to communicate with co-workers, classmates, team members and so on.
The following are just a few examples of the many productivity and communication apps available.
Gmail – use this app to log in to Gmail and access your mail box(es), messages, shared documents, social
network notifications, and whatever else you have connected to your Gmail account.
Google Hangouts – use this app to log into Google Hangouts. Google Hangouts is a unified communications
service that lets you participate in text messaging, voice and video chats. Contacts, saved conversations and
other items from your account are synced to your device.
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LINE – use this app to log into LINE. LINE is a communications application that lets you exchange texts,
images, video and audio, and conduct free phone calls and video conferences.
Skype – use this app to log into Skype. You use Skype to exchange texts, images, video and audio, and
conduct free phone calls and video conferences.
Pages – this is a word processing app developed for iPhone, iPad, and iPod Touch. It runs on the OS X and
iOS operating systems.
Office Mobile – these are mobile Microsoft Office apps that allow you to access, view and edit Word, Excel
and PowerPoint documents on your phone or tablet. This app is free, but you must have a Microsoft account
(Microsoft ID) in order to sign in and use the app.
Word – this mobile app brings Microsoft Word to your mobile device. The app is free; but you must have a
Microsoft ID to use the basic features. If you want to use the advanced features, then you must have an Office
365 subscription (which is not free). There are similar apps for Excel and PowerPoint.
Content Apps
Content apps aggregate (group together) news and information and present them to you on your device
whenever you launch the app. These types of apps often use your location information, your social media
accounts, and track your online activity to bring you information that is relevant to you.
A few examples include:
CNN – brings news headlines, alerts and stories to your mobile device.
Fox News – also brings news headlines, stories and video clips to your device.
Google – displays local weather and traffic conditions and news headlines.
New York Times – brings content from the New York Times newspaper to your device. This is a paid
subscription app.
WikiPedia Mobile – use this app to view Wikipedia articles on your phone or tablet. Apps are available for
Android, iOS, Windows, and FireFox OS.
iTunesU – use this app to access complete educational courses from universities and other schools. You can
also use this app to access free educational content right on your iPad, iPhone or iPod Touch.
Creativity Apps
Creativity apps are those that allow you to be creative or to use tools in a creative manner. This is a very loose
category, and depending on your app store, you may be able to find these apps in the games or editing, or
tools categories.
A few examples include:
Afterlight – this is an image editing app that is available for iOS, Android and Windows. You can shoot and
edit images with this photo editor app.
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Draw Something – this app is a game in which players take turns drawing a picture to represent the guess-
word for his/her partner to guess. Correct guesses earn one to three coins. Coins can be used to purchase
more shades of color for creating drawings, or to purchase “bombs”, which can be used to skip
advertisements between rounds of play. The free version includes ads; the standard version allows a player
to obtain bombs in exchange for watching advertisements, and a “pro” version was developed for iPad which
offers unlimited bombs.
Smart Tools – this app lets you use your smart phone as various types of tools, such as a level, a flashlight,
a ruler, magnetic field detector, and so on.
Social Media Apps
Social media (or social networking) sites are web sites you can join to connect with people and share pictures,
video, or text about yourself, your interests, your thoughts and so on.
Examples of social media apps include:
Facebook – use this app to log in to your Facebook account and view your page and other people’s pages,
to post comments, view notifications, and so on.
Twitter – use this app to log into your Twitter account. You use Twitter to send and read short 140-character
messages called "tweets". Registered users can read and post tweets, and unregistered users can only read
them.
Instagram - Instagram is a social networking app designed for sharing photos and videos from a
smartphone. Everyone who creates an account has a profile and a news feed, and when you post a photo or
video, it will be displayed on your profile. People who follow you will see your posts in their own newsfeeds,
just as you will see the posts of people you choose to follow.
Audio Apps
Audio apps facilitate the streaming and playing of audio content on your device. Some apps play stored
content, while others enable you to stream audio content.
When you stream an audio file, your device receives a constant flow of data from the source location and
can begin to play back the file almost immediately. (In contrast, when you download a file, you make a copy
of it and store it on your device. You can download audio and video files and then play them back later, after
the copying process is complete. Downloading, however, can take a long time depending on your bandwidth
and on the size of the file.) Streaming an audio file is like listening to the radio; it does not store a copy of
the file on your device.
Example audio apps include:
Audible – provides spoken audio entertainment through digital audiobooks, radio, and TV programs and
audio versions of magazines and newspapers. The app is free, although you will have to pay for content.
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iTunes Music – use this app to access Apple’s streaming music catalog and stream songs to your device.
This is a paid subscription app.
Pandora – use this app to stream “radio station style” music from Pandora’s servers. You create “custom
radio stations” by selecting genres of music, artists, albums and even specific songs. This app has free and
premium paid subscriptions versions. The free versions include ads.
Spotify – use this app to stream music from a library of over 20,000 songs. There are free and subscription-
based versions of the app, and both include a radio feature that creates a random playlist of songs chosen
based on specified genres and decades. The free version includes ads. Some artists do not allow their songs
to be offered through Spotify.
Video Apps
Use video apps to stream video content on your device. Many of the video apps described here can be used
on a wide variety of devices, including desktop PCs, tablets, phones, game consoles, and Internet-enabled
televisions (smart TVs).
Be aware that streaming video over 3G or 4G/LTE networks can use up your monthly cellular data plan
allowance very quickly. It is recommended that you use Wi-Fi if you want to stream video – especially high
definition video.
Example video apps include:
Hulu – use this app to stream TV shows, clips, movies and other streaming media from Hulu.com. There are
a limited number of free shows you can stream, and there are two subscription levels (limited commercials
and no commercials) that provide access to all the available content for a monthly fee. Hulu is offered only
to users in Japan, the United States and its overseas territories.
Netflix – use this app to stream movies and TV shows. Although it started as a DVD rental company, Netflix
also offers Internet video-streaming service to users in over 40 countries. Netflix also offers original television
shows, and releases all episodes at once. There are three subscription plans:
•
the basic plan allows you to watch Netflix on one screen at a time in standard definition video quality.
•
The middle plan allows you to watch on two screens at a time and high definition is available.
•
The premium plan allows you to watch on up to four screens at a time and both high and ultra-high
definition are available (assuming you have sufficient Internet bandwidth).
UStream.tv – use this app to watch and broadcast live video from your iPhone, iPad or Android phone. You
can use UStream to broadcast on 3G, 4G/LTE and Wi-Fi networks. A wide variety of membership plans are
available. The basic plan is free, and professional broadcasting plans can cost up to $999USD/month.
WatchESPN – use this app to watch live games and studio shows with 24/7 access to ESPN, ESPN2, ESPN3,
ESPNU, and other ESPN-related networks. The app is free and runs on Android and iOS; it also runs on
Windows and Mac OS X. You must have a subscription to ESPN with a participating video provider or affiliated
TV/Internet service provider.
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YouTube – use this app to view, rate, share, upload and comment on videos on the YouTube web site, which
is a video sharing web site. You can subscribe to various YouTube channels and view content for free. You
can also pay a subscription fee for YouTube Red, which gives you advertising-free access to videos. The app
lets you browse recommendations, see the latest from your favorite channels and look up videos you have
liked and watched previously, all from within the app.
Searching in the App Store
In addition to browsing the categories, you can type the name of a specific app in the Search bar and search
for it. The app store will display the best matches.
As you view the items in the app store, you will notice that many apps are free, but for some, there is a
charge.
The price is usually displayed in the vicinity of the rating.
Obtaining an App
Obtaining an app is a matter of finding the one you want and tapping it to install it.
Open the app store on your device, and browse the categories, or if you know the name of the particular app
you want, search for it using the Search bar.
When the app appears in the list, tap it to open its detail page.
Notice that you can view the average rating, the
number of downloads, and possibly see a list of
similar apps. In some cases, you can tap a link to read
more about the app.
Click Install to download and install the app. When
the installation is complete, the app will display an
Open button.
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Tap Open to launch the app.
Some apps require you to accept certain terms and
conditions.
Some apps will ask for permission to access
particular features before they open for the first time.
Once you have accepted the terms and granted
appropriate permissions, the app will run.
Paid Apps
The procedure for installing a paid app is essentially the same as installing a free app, except that you must
also enter payment information.
Instead of an Install button, the app’s detail page displays a price button. Tap the price and follow the screen
prompt.
You will be prompted to enter payment information or enter a code that can be redeemed to complete your
purchase.
The options that display will vary depending on your device
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In-App Purchases
In-app purchases are purchases made from within a mobile app. Many free apps include options for in-app
purchases. Typically, you would make an in-app purchase in order to access special content or unlock certain
features, or to turn off advertisements, or obtain virtual money or special powers in a game. When you make
an in-app purchase, the purchasing process is completed directly from within the app and it may be as quick
and easy as tapping an icon, depending on how you have configured your device.
You can configure settings on your mobile device that make in-app purchase streamlined or force you to
enter a password. If you want the process to be automatic, you must make sure that your payment
information is up to date.
However, if you configure your device to ask for a password, it is much less likely that you will be surprised
by accidental or unwanted purchases.
Authenticating Purchases
Requiring authentication for all purchases requires that you enter a password any and every time you (or
someone else using your device) begin to make an in-app purchase.
On Android devices, you can protect against accidental or unwanted purchases
by turning on Authentication:
1.
Open the Google Play Store app.
2.
Touch the menu icon, then tap Settings.
3.
Touch Require authentication for purchases.
4.
Choose a setting
5.
Follow the on-screen instructions (for example, you may be asked to enter
your Google password), then click OK.
To protect against accidental or unwanted in-app purchases on your iPhone, you can add restrictions to
protect your iTunes Store account:
1.
Go to Settings > General > Restrictions.
2.
Tap Enable Restrictions.
3.
Enter a Restrictions passcode that you'll remember and confirm your passcode. You should choose a
passcode that's different from the passcode you use to unlock your device.
After you tap Enable Restrictions, you'll see what's allowed on your device. To prevent only in-app
purchases, turn off In-App Purchases.
If you want to disable purchasing completely, turn off iTunes Store, iBooks Store, Installing Apps, and In-App
Purchases.
Deleting an App
If you do not want to use an app any longer, you can uninstall it from your device.
To delete an app on an Android device:
1.
Open the Google Play Store app.
2.
Touch the menu icon, then tap My apps & games.
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3.
On the Installed tab, touch any app labeled “Installed” to open the options.
4.
Tap Uninstall to remove it, and confirm the deletion if prompted.
5.
Close the Google Play Store app.
To uninstall an app on an iPhone or iPad:
1.
Start your device and go to the Home screen.
2.
Find the icon for the app you want to delete.
3.
Press and hold the icon until all of the phone’s icons begin to jiggle. This causes each icon to display a
small “x” at the upper-left corner. (Apps that come pre-installed on iPhone or iPad cannot be deleted,
and will not display the x.).
4.
Tap the x for the app you want to remove, and confirm that you want to delete the app and its data.
Recovering a Deleted App
If you accidentally delete an app, or if you delete it on purpose and then change your mind, you can recover
the app without having to pay for it again.
On Android:
On iOS:
1.
Open the Play Store.
2.
On the Play Store home page, click the Menu 2.
3.
4.
button.
1.
Open the App Store.
Tap Updates from the menu at the bottom.
3.
Tap Purchased. This displays a list of apps in two
apps in two tabs – the Installed tab, and the All 4.
tab.
Tap the Not on This iPhone tab and view the list
Tap My apps & games. This displays a list of
Tap the All tab and view the list of apps. Apps
tabs – the All tab and the Not on This iPhone tab.
of apps.
that are currently installed will display either the
word “Installed” or the word “Update.” Apps that
you have deleted will display either the word
“Free” or the word “Purchased.”
5.
5.
Find the app that you want to recover, then tap
on the cloud icon to reinstall it.
To recover an app, tap it in the list, then click the
Install button to re-install it on your device.
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Apps and Applications
Note that you can also search for the app on the App Store and download and install it again. When you
download an app that you have already paid for, you will not be charged again.
Exercise 8-2: Working with mobile apps
In this exercise, you will browse an app store, install, launch, and then delete an app on your mobile device.
Note: This exercise assumes that you have a mobile device and sufficient rights to install free apps.
1.
On your mobile device, access the Home screen.
2.
Tap Apps if necessary, then access your device’s default app store. List a few of the apps that appear at
3.
Describe how the apps are organized.
4.
Find and tap a button that will allow you to view apps by category. Are there several categories available?
5.
At the top of the screen, click in the Search box and type: dictionary, then tap the Search button. Are
6.
Tap one of the free apps to view its detail page. How many times has the app been downloaded? What
7.
Install the free app and give it access to some of your device’s features. How long does it take to
8.
When the Open button displays, tap it to launch the app.
9.
the top of the screen.
Are your surprised by how many there are?
there many dictionary apps available for your device? Are there more than simple dictionaries listed?
other information about the app can you see?
download the app?
Spend a little time in the app. (If the app includes in-app purchases, be careful to avoid making any
accidental purchases.) Does the app include advertising?
10. Evaluate the app: Is it easy to use? Is it useful?
11. Close the app (by tapping its Close button) and return to the Home screen. Did the app add its icon to
your Home screen?
12. Use the steps appropriate for your device in the Deleting an App section of this lesson to uninstall the
newly added app.
Limitations
Objective 2-6.3
Apps and application software can bring the power to get things done right to your fingertips. They enable
you to create and work with a wide variety of documents and files on various devices and from various
locations.
However, it is important to remember that apps and applications are designed for specific hardware and
specific operating systems. Accordingly, you may not be able to find a specific app in your app store. For
example, even though the Amazon Kindle Fire runs the Android operating system, there is not (as of the time
of this writing) an app for the Chrome web browser that is supported on the Kindle. Instead, Kindle offers its
own web browser named Silk.
If you cannot find a specific app, you can usually find comparable ones – most app stores group similar apps
near one another.
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In cases where an app is available only for specific versions of a mobile operating system, you may be able
to upgrade the operating system on your device if upgrades are available, and then install the desired app.
Keep in mind also that an installed app must work with the hardware on your device. You may install a full-
featured photo editing app on your phone, but if your phone has a low-quality camera, your photos will only
be as good as the hardware allows.
Lesson Summary
In this lesson, you learned about the wide variety of options you have when choosing apps and applications. You
should now be able to:


describe the difference between apps and

applications
use an app store to browse and find apps

identify various types of application software and
install, delete and recover apps

describe the strengths and weaknesses of apps and
the tasks for which they are suited

applications
understand and use web apps
Review Questions
1.
Which type of program is designed to be used on touch screen devices such as a tablet?
a.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Application programs
b.
Apps
What is a productivity program dedicated to?
a.
Producing information
b.
Keeping track of files or folders
c.
Recording the amount of time you spend online
d.
Tracking items you search for
What do some users refer to web apps as?
a.
Shareware
c.
Software as a Service
b.
Add-ware
d.
Freeware
Which term properly describes a web app that will run in a browser on any computing device regardless
of the operating system being used?
a.
Compatible
c.
Productivity programs
b.
Platform-independent
d.
Cloud based
What is a digital platform for distributing software called?
a.
Downloading
c.
App store
b.
E-commerce
d.
Vendor Cart
What do you need to have before you can use the Facebook app?
a.
Facebook account
c.
Apple account
b.
Microsoft account
d.
Google account
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7.
8.
9.
Apps and Applications
Which of the following is an example of a productivity/communication app?
a.
Twitter
c.
CNN
b.
Skype
d.
iTunes
What kind of app groups news and information, presenting them on the device when you launch the
app?
a.
Productivity/Communication
c.
Audio
b.
Social Media
d.
Content
What type of app is the Smart Tools app?
a.
Content
c.
Creativity
b.
Productivity/Communication
d.
Social Media
10. Which program best represents what you can do on a social media or social networking site?
a.
Netflix
c.
Instagram
b.
Google
d.
iTunes
11. What is it called when your device receives a constant flow of data from a source location and then plays
the file instantly?
a.
Downloading
c.
Uploading
b.
Streaming
d.
Flowing
12. Which of the following apps can stream video to your device?
a.
Hulu
c.
iTunes
b.
Spotify
d.
Facebook
13. Which option should you use when you want to obtain an app?
a.
Install
b.
Open
14. How can you access special content or unlock certain features in an app?
a.
Make an in-app purchase.
b.
Buy the full version of the app in the app store.
c.
Download a cheat sheet from another user.
d.
Purchase the special content from the vendor’s web site.
15. Lucy wants to put the Hoop-de-Doo app on her BlackBerry, but she cannot find it in the BlackBerry World
app store. What is the most likely reason for this?
262
a.
Lucy has not finished paying for her BlackBerry phone.
b.
Lucy does not have a Hoop-de-Doo account.
c.
The app is not compatible with the BlackBerry operating system.
d.
Lucy has required authentication for all her in-app purchases.
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Key Applications
Lesson 9: Using Microsoft Word
Lesson Objectives
This lesson introduces how to use a desktop application, specifically Microsoft Word, to create simple documents.
You will also be introduced to common features you will find in other desktop applications. Upon completion of
this lesson, you will be able to:

start and exit Microsoft Word

insert or remove page breaks

identify some common screen elements

insert or remove page numbers

create, save, and open documents

apply column formats

change view options for documents

use find and replace

insert, select, modify, and format text

print and preview documents

manipulate text using common features

insert pictures or multimedia files

use the ruler to create, modify or delete tab settings

work with tables

change margins, paper size, or the orientation

track changes made in documents
Identifying Common Features
Every computing device follows specific standards for how an app or application works; this is often set by
the operating system installed on the device. For instance, every touch-screen device allows you to use a
finger and tap to access the program or a feature such as playing a song. It also enables you to use your
index finger and the thumb to “pinch” in or out to zoom in or out on the screen. An Apple device such as the
MacBook displays icons at the top left corner of the program window to minimize, maximize, restore down,
or close a program. A Windows device also has icons to minimize, maximize, restore down, or close a
program; the difference is that these icons are located at the top right corner of the program window.
You will find as you begin using various devices (whether they are mobile or desktop models), that there are
a number of common elements on the screen and that there are common methods for performing specific
tasks. Many of these common elements appear in the same location on the screen; for example, the first two
tabs of the ribbon in any Microsoft Office program are the File and Home tabs. Other tabs in the ribbon are
program-specific.
Among application programs, and often within the operating system as well, you can use common methods
to perform actions such as copying, moving, and pasting items, selecting items, navigating the interface,
formatting or enhancing the look of text, and printing. Additionally, the same keyboard shortcuts are
assigned by default in many programs for accessing these common features. For instance, press CTRL+C to
copy a selection or press CTRL+A to select all items in the document.
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These common features are demonstrated throughout this course, beginning with Microsoft Word. As you
progress through the lessons, you will come to see that they are relatively universal.
Starting an Application
To start an application installed on a Windows 10 device:
1.
Click the Start button at the lower left corner of the taskbar.
2.
Click the All Apps command.
3.
Scroll in the list and click the menu item for the application you want. For example, to start Word, click
Word 2016.
Hint: If the system has been set up to display icons on the taskbar for the Microsoft Office programs, click
the
icon to start Word.
Exiting an Application
To exit or close an application installed on a Windows 10 device, click the
corner of the application window.
(Close) button at the top right
Hint: If the system has been set up to display icons on the taskbar for the Microsoft Office programs, point
at the
icon and click the
(Close) button for this preview window.
Understanding the Backstage View
When you first start an Office 2016 application, the program will display a startup screen of available
templates to help you get started quickly. A template is a boiler plate that already contains elements, such as
sample text, and format settings. Office programs include templates for a wide variety of documents. The
startup screen is one of the tabs (the New tab) in the Office Backstage view.
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You use the startup screen to indicate the type of document you want to work with. You can choose to create
a blank new document (or workbook, or presentation) by clicking the first template listed in the gallery or
you can click one of the other templates to create a document that includes pre-configured elements.
You can access the other elements of the Backstage view from the startup screen by clicking the Open Other
Documents link.
Use the Backstage view to create, open, save, print and manage your files. The commands and options
available here are related to things you can do with the entire file itself. For example, you can display
information about the file, create a new file or open an existing file, assign a password, save a file with a
different name, print or share the file with others.
You access the appropriate commands on the various tabs of the Backstage view. These tabs are: Info, New,
Open, Save, Save As, History, Print, Share, Export, Close and Account. The New tab is the startup screen.
Looking at the Edit Screen
Microsoft Word is one of the most popular word processing programs used for creating various types of
documents, from a short letter or memo to an annual report or brochures.
Once you start Word and choose a new blank document, the screen appears similar to the following:
File Tab
Quick Access Toolbar
Ribbon Tabs
Title Bar
Tell
Min/Restore/Max/Close
Ribbon Display Options
Insertion Point
Status Bar
Zoom Slider
View Buttons
File Tab – Click this tab to open the Backstage view to manage files.
Quick Access Toolbar – Gain quick access to frequently used commands.
Title Bar – Indicates which file and program is currently displayed in the window.
Minimize/Maximize/Restore Down/Close – Affect the size of the application window on the screen.
Ribbon Tabs – Click a tab to access commands to complete a specific type of task.
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Tell Me – A Help option where you can type keywords about a particular type of task and view information
from the Word Help system on how to complete that task.
Insertion Point – The flashing bar on the screen that indicates your current position in the document;
commonly referred to as the cursor.
Status Bar – Find information about the document currently displayed, such as which page or slide you are
viewing, or the total number of pages, or whether an error condition exists.
View Buttons – Click to quickly change between the different document views available in the application.
Zoom Slider – Click the buttons to zoom in or out in increments of 10%, or drag the slider button to a
specific zoom percentage.
Accessing Commands and Features
Many features and conventions shown here in Word are consistent across all programs in the Office suite.
Using ScreenTips
Use ScreenTips to help identify buttons or elements on the tabs
of the ribbon and on the screen. To view a ScreenTip, position
the mouse pointer over the item. A tip displays the name of
the button or feature and sometimes a brief description of its
purpose. In some cases, the ScreenTip will provide a keyboard
shortcut as an alternative way to activate the feature.
Using the Quick Access Toolbar
The Quick Access toolbar is located above the File tab and includes buttons for frequently used commands.
By default, this toolbar includes the Save, Undo, and Redo buttons. (If you have a touch screen device, it may
also include a Touch/Mouse Mode button as seen in the following image). You can customize the Quick
Access toolbar to include additional commands you want to access quickly, such as opening a new blank
document, printing a document, or running a spell check.
When you point at or click a button on the Quick Access Toolbar, it will appear with a different background
color.
Using the Ribbon
The ribbon helps you quickly find the command buttons you require to complete a task. Command buttons
are grouped logically on each tab, with each tab relating to a type of activity, such as inserting pictures into
a document. Some tabs appear only when they are applicable as when a picture or table is inserted into the
document.
•
A command button is active when it appears with a different color background, as seen with the Align
Left button in the previous image.
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•
A command button with an arrow provides two choices:
–
click the command button to activate this option with the current settings;
or
–
click the arrow to display a drop-down menu with more options for that
command.
Each tab on the ribbon includes groups of related commands; for example, the Home
tab includes a Font group that includes buttons for formatting text characters, while
the Insert tab includes an Illustrations group from which you can select different
types of media to insert into a document.
If a group includes a feature with a scroll bar or scroll buttons, click
the
More button below the bottom scroll button to display a
full list or gallery of choices for that feature. For example, you can
click the More button in the Styles group on the Home tab of the
ribbon to display a full gallery of document styles as shown here.
When you position the mouse pointer over an option in a gallery,
the program displays a live preview of how the selected item will
appear if you apply that option. You can turn off the preview option
in File, Options if you prefer.
Some groups on the ribbon include a Dialog box launcher button
at the lower right of the group. Click the dialog box launcher to
open the corresponding dialog box, task pane or window associated with the feature you want to apply. For
example, click the dialog box launcher in the Paragraph group on the Home tab to open the Paragraph dialog
box. Click the dialog box launcher in the Clipboard group on the Home tab to open the Clipboard task pane.
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Controlling the Display of the Ribbon
The ribbon can be hidden or minimized temporarily to make more space on screen for the document,
worksheet, or slide you are working with. To minimize the ribbon:
•
Double-click a tab, or
•
Click
(Collapse the Ribbon) on the far right of the ribbon.
To redisplay the ribbon, click the
(Ribbon Display Options) button
at the top right of the screen and then select the display type from the
menu. You can also double-click a ribbon tab to display the ribbon again.
Entering and Editing Text
Objective 2-1.6, 2-2.5
Typing involves using the keyboard to input or enter text seen on the screen.
Editing includes actions such as inserting and deleting single characters, words, or multiple lines of text,
correcting typographical errors, and inserting or deleting blank lines between paragraphs.
The following are basic concepts related to typing and editing text:
•
You can type or insert text at the insertion point in any location you want. The insertion point will move
to the right as you type. To move the insertion point to another location in the document, click at that
location.
•
To remove text, use the BACKSPACE key to delete characters to the left of the insertion point; or press
DELETE to delete characters to the right of the insertion point.
•
Press ENTER only when you want to end a paragraph or to add a blank line.
These basic concepts are applicable to all word processing programs, regardless of the software vendor. A
major benefit of word processing programs is that they allow you to focus on creating the content. For
example, a feature called word wrap enables you to type continuously; the program will automatically move
the insertion point to the next line as you reach the right margin. You need to press ENTER only when you
want to start a new line.
Using the Rulers
The Rulers help you identify where to position text – vertically or horizontally. To turn the ruler on or off, on
the View tab, in the Show group, click Ruler.
The ruler uses the default measurement for your location (we use inches as our measurement). You can
change the unit of measurement in the Display area of the Advanced category in Word Options. You can
select from inches, centimeters, millimeters, points, or picas.
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Selecting Text
Selecting or highlighting text tells Word exactly which portions of text you want to change. Once text has
been selected, the selection remains in place until you de-select it; this allows you to apply multiple actions
to that selection. The only exception is when you delete or replace the selection with new text.
If you inadvertently make the wrong selection or you wish to remove the selection, click anywhere in the
document window or press any arrow direction key to de-select, and then begin the selection procedure
again.
You can select text using the mouse or keyboard, and occasionally you may want to use a combination of
mouse and keyboard to select larger pieces of text.
Selecting Consecutive Text
To select text using the mouse, position the mouse pointer at the beginning of the text to be selected and
then drag to highlight the text.
Hint: To select text using the keyboard, position the insertion point, hold down SHIFT, and then press the
arrow keys to move the insertion point to highlight the text. Release SHIFT when the text is highlighted.
•
To select a word, double-click the word.
•
To select a sentence, hold CTRL and click anywhere in the sentence.
•
To select a paragraph, triple-click anywhere in that paragraph.
•
To select the entire document, on the Home tab, in the Editing group, click Select and then click Select
All; or press CTRL+A.
Selecting Non-Consecutive Text
To select multiple pieces of text in different areas of the document, you must select the first piece of text and
then press and hold CTRL as you select the next piece of text.
Managing Files
Objective 2-1.2, 2-1.9, 2-1.10, 2-2.4, 2-2.10, 2-2.11
As noted previously, it is important to understand file management so you can save and open documents.
The concepts learned in working with files in an operating system can be applied here when determining
where to save files or where to find files to open to the screen.
Saving Documents
It is important to save your documents frequently as you work on them. This ensures that if an unexpected
problem arises, such as a power outage, you will have a recently-saved version of your work and not be
forced to recreate all of it. You can save files to any location on the local drive, a network drive, or a portable
media device such as a USB flash drive. Once you have saved a file, you can retrieve or open it from any of
these locations. You can have multiple documents open on the screen, including new documents that you
have not saved yet.
To save a document, click the File tab and then click Save or Save As.
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Key Fact: You can also click the
save the document.
(Save) button on the Quick Access toolbar; or press CTRL+S to quickly
To save an existing document with a different name, use Save As in the File tab.
The first time you save a document, the Backstage view opens with the Save As tab selected. The first panel
displays the available locations for saving your document (these locations are associated with your Microsoft
or network account).
Up One
Level
Current
Folder
File name
Save as type
Drives or
locations to save
Folders or documents
in current folder
Date created
or modified
The second panel provides you options regarding the file name and file type. It will also display a list of
commonly-accessed folders (for example, Documents, or Pictures). These folders vary based on the location
currently selected in the first panel. For instance, the first screen in the following images displays what appears
if you are using OneDrive, the online storage location provided by Microsoft; the second image displays
folders available in the Documents folder on the local drive.
Notice how the location is clearly identified at the top of the second panel, thereby giving you the option to
click the arrow before the location name if you want to move to another location. You can also click More
options (below the file type) to open the Save As dialog box, from which you can navigate to any location.
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Click Save to save the document.
How often you save a document depends on how much work you put into it. If you make a large number of
changes, save the document frequently as you work to preserve your changes. If you see a message from
Word prompting you to save a document, this means Word recognizes something has changed in the
document since it was last saved. If you’re not sure whether you should save the document again, err on the
side of caution and save it with a different name than the original.
Understanding Word and File Types
By default, Word automatically assigns a .docx extension to the end of the file name; however, you can save
a Word document in other file formats.
Word, like most word processing applications, can handle several document types. This allows you to create
a file in one program and save it to a format readable by other programs. For example, if you create a file in
Word and need to share the file with someone who does not have Word, but has an application that supports
any of these listed file types, you can save your document to the type you have in common and then
successfully share the file.
File types commonly associated with word processing programs include:
•
Word Document (.docx) – this is the file type associated with Microsoft Word 2007 and later. This is the
default format for Word 2016.
•
Word Document (.doc) – this is the file type associated with Microsoft Word versions prior to 2007. Many
word processing programs can open files with a .doc extension.
•
Plain Text (.txt) – a text file that can be read on any operating system. This format does not include
formatting of any kind, nor does it include tables or images.
•
Rich Text Format (.rtf) – a text file that preserves font and paragraph formatting and can include
embedded images.
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•
Using Microsoft Word
Portable Document Format (.pdf) – a file format developed by Adobe Systems that allows you to view
documents (with formatting and images) on any operating system.
•
Publisher Document File (.pub) – the default file format used in Microsoft Publisher. This type of file
includes layout information and can include formatting, graphics, hyperlinks, charts and other types of
objects.
To save a Word document as a different file type, click the arrow for the Save as type field (the field below
the file name field) to display a list of available file formats.
Starting a New Document
Each time you start Word, the Backstage view appears where you can easily create a new blank document,
choose from a variety of built-in templates that will help you lay out particular types of documents (such as
invitations, meeting agendas, or business memos), or open an existing document.
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•
To create a new blank document, in Backstage, click New and then click Blank document from the list
of documents.
Key Fact: You can also press CTRL+N to quickly create a new blank document. This shortcut can be used in
all Office applications.
•
To choose from the variety of pre-designed templates for a new document, click one of the templates
displayed, and click Create.
Each time you create a new document, a document number will automatically appear in the title bar. For
example, if you have three new Word documents open and you create another new one, Word will assign it
the number “4” and the title bar will display “Document4.” Document numbering resets back to Document1
each time you start a new session of Word. Use this generic name as a reminder that you have not yet saved
the file with a descriptive and memorable name.
Closing a Document
Once you have finished editing a document, close the document to clear the screen and memory; this enables
you to start or open another document without old documents cluttering up your screen.
To close a document, click the File tab and then Close.
Key Fact: You can also press CTRL+W or CTRL+F4 to close a document quickly. This shortcut can be used
in all Office applications.
To close the Word application, click
(Close).
Opening a Document
Once a file is saved, you can open it from wherever it is located; the document is presented on the screen for
further processing. You can open as many documents as needed; only the amount of available memory on
your system limits the number of documents you can have open simultaneously.
Use one of the following methods to open a document:
•
Click the File tab, click Open, and then click the file name from the list of Recent documents; or
•
click the File tab, click Open, click the location where the file or its folder is located and click Browse to
select the file using the Open dialog box.
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Key Fact: You can also press CTRL+O or CTRL+F12 and then navigate to where the file is located. This can
be used with all Office applications.
Read-only Mode and Protected View
The Read only attribute can help prevent others from making changes to a document. There are two methods
you can use to apply this attribute to a document from within Word.
Any time you open a document that comes to your computer over the Internet (for example, as an email
attachment), Word opens the document in Protected View. Protected View automatically applies the readonly attribute to the file until you specify otherwise, thereby protecting you from content that may potentially
contain viruses, malware, or other items that can be harmful to your computer.
You can identify a file that is in Protected View the moment you open it. When the file is opened, Word
displays a message below the ribbon similar to the following:
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You can click Enable Editing to open the document for editing, or you can choose to keep working in
Protected View to protect your computer or to ensure that you do not inadvertently make changes to the
file while you are viewing it.
A file opened in Protected View is in read-only mode; you will not be able to do anything other than read
the file until you click Enable Editing. When you view the properties for this file in Backstage, the following
screen displays:
Notice that Word reminds you that you are still in Protected View. You can then choose to view more
information about this mode, or choose another action.
You can manually open a file in Protected View using an option in the Open
dialog box. Click File and Open, then click Browse to open the Open dialog box.
Navigate to the file, click it to select it, then click the arrow for the Open button
and click Open in Protected View.
Notice that you can also choose to open the file in read-only format if you do
not want to inadvertently make changes to the document. If you select this
option, Word will prompt you to save the file with a different name, thereby keeping the original file intact.
Opening or Saving with the Read-Only Option
The Read-only option can be applied to a document when you open it or when you save it.
To open a document as read-only, display the Open dialog box, select the file to open, then click the arrow
for the Open button, then choose the Open Read-Only command.
To save a document with the read-only feature, use a method to save
the document that will display the Save as dialog box. Then click the
arrow next to the Tools command and click General Options.
Once you click the Read-only recommended option, you can click OK
and then click Save. Anyone who opens this document is then notified
that the file is read only and can only be saved with a different name
than the original.
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Exercise 9-1: Blog Entry
In this exercise you will create a new document and then save it in different file formats for use in other
programs.
1.
Start Microsoft Word, if necessary, click Blank document and then type the following text, pressing
ENTER whenever you see the ¶ symbol (make corrections using the BACKSPACE or DELETE key):
Welcome to My First Blog!¶
I have always wanted a place where I can freely express my opinions or comment on
things I find fascinating or intriguing.¶
I will try to ensure my blog entries are fun and interesting for everyone who decides
to follow me. I will also try to blog on a regular basis and will welcome all
comments as we can learn a lot from each other.¶
2.
On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save.
3.
Click This PC in the center pane and click the arrow next to the Documents folder in the second panel.
4.
Click the Desktop folder, click the 7500-Student-Files folder (or navigate to the location where the data
5.
Click in the filename field, type: My First Blog - Student (use your own name or initials in the place of
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“Student”) and press ENTER.
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Lesson 9
The document has now been saved. You can also confirm the document has been saved by looking at
the title bar which should now show My First Blog - Student - Word.
Now create a new blank document and then create a new document based on a template provided by
Microsoft.
6.
Press CTRL+N to create a new document.
A new blank document displays on the screen (the Document# will vary depending on how often you
press CTRL+N before or during this exercise).
7.
Click File and click New.
8.
Click the Blog post template.
Use this window to see a preview and description of the template. You can decide if you would like to
use this template to create a new document. Notice how this template for a blog entry is already
formatted with commonly-used styles for this type of document.
9.
Click Create.
Depending on whether someone has created a blog report previously, you may see a message that
prompts you to register on a blog site when you create a new document based on this type of template.
The template includes placeholders in which you can enter your personal information. These
placeholders are field codes. For the purpose of this exercise, click Register Later.
10. Click in the [Enter Post Title Here] field code and type: Global Warming.
Notice how Word automatically replaced the existing text with the new text when you clicked the field
code.
11. Click in the blank line below the horizontal line, and type the following:
A lot of people have been talking about this topic for years now – some claim
global warming is happening and increasing significantly every year, while
others claim it is a huge scam. How many of us truly know what global warming is
and what is really changing in the world?¶
12. Press CTRL+S to save the document.
13. Click This PC and then navigate to click the Word folder as directed in step #4. Click in the filename
field, type: Global Warming Blog - Student and click Save.
Suppose you are asked to save a copy of this file in a different file format so the file can be adjusted by
someone with an old version of Word.
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14. Click File and click Save As. Ensure This PC is selected and then click the Word folder if necessary.
15. In the file name field, adjust the file name to Global Warming Blog (old Word) – Student, click the arrow
for the Save as type field and click Word 97-2003 Document. Click Save.
16. Click Continue to have Word maintain the compatibility check when saving the file.
Notice how the title bar in Word reflects the compatible file format:
Suppose you have been asked to save this file in a format that can be inserted into a web design program
such as Adobe Dreamweaver or given to someone who may need the text to be compatible with the HTML
language used for web pages.
17. Click File, click Save As, change the file name to Global Warming Blog (web) – Student, then click the
arrow for the Save as type field. Scroll in the list and click Web Page (*.htm, *.html) and click Save.
Notice that the file retains its formatting: the heading is bold and in a large font; there is a horizontal
rule across the page, and then your blog post paragraph is displayed underneath.
Suppose now that you have been asked to save this file again as a plain text file so that if there are problems
with the HTML code created by Word, the web master can import text from the plain text file. Plain text files
do not include any formatting.
18. Click File, click Save As, change the name of the file to Global Warming Blog (plain) – Student, and then
click the arrow for the Save as type field. Scroll in the list and click Plain Text (*.txt) and click Save.
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19. Click OK to allow Word to convert the file to plain text.
Now try working with basic file management tools.
20. Click the Close button at the top right corner of the current document window and click Don’t Save if
prompted to save the changes.
The document should no longer be visible on the screen.
21. Using the Windows taskbar, point at the Word icon to display the preview windows for each document.
Move to the one with the new blank document and click the Close button in the preview window to
close this document.
22. Click inside the first blog document, then press CTRL+W to close the document.
The Word application window remains open with no open documents.
The screen should now display with a grey background (depending on your color scheme).
23. Click the File tab, then click Open to display the Open tab of the Backstage view.
The list in the right pane shows the Word documents you recently worked on under the Today title. If
there are any other recently used documents on this computer, they will display below the list of
documents for today also.
24. Click My First Blog - Student.
This document opens and displays on the screen.
25. Click the File tab and click Open.
Notice that there are four documents listed for the Global
Warming Blog files; also notice the icon at the left of the file that
identifies the file format of the document.
26. Click the Global Warming Blog (old Word) file with the outlined Word icon – this is the document you
saved in Word 97-2003 format. Click Register Later, if necessary.
27. Press CTRL+O, and in the Recent list for Today, click the Global Warming Blog (web) file with the
Internet Explorer icon at the left (this should be the HTML version). If prompted with the message to
register on a blog, click Register Later to continue.
This file will appear similar to the Word version. However, an HTML file saved in Word may not always
render perfectly in a web design program or inside a web browser. This is why a web designer may ask
you for the file in plain text so he/she can format the page from scratch. Let’s look at this page in a web
browser.
28. In the taskbar, click the File Explorer icon, navigate to the Word folder in the 7500-Student-Files folder,
then double-click the HTML version of this document to open it a web browser. Does it look exactly the
same as it does in Word or can you see subtle differences? The more complex the formatting, the more
opportunities there are for unexpected results in the web browser.
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29. In the taskbar, point at the Word icon and click inside any one of the open documents to return to the
Word window.
30. Press CTRL+O, and in the Recent list for Today, click the Global Warming Blog (plain) file with
horizontal lines, but no application icon. (This is the plain text file.)
31. When prompted, click OK to allow Word to convert the file to plain text. Notice that plain text includes
no formatting, and no graphic elements.
Now try opening a file created by someone else.
32. Press CTRL+O, click This PC, and click the path that shows where the student data files are located at
the top of the list.
33. In the Open dialog box, click Newsletter A01, then click Open.
34. On the Windows taskbar, point at the Word icon and click the My First Blog – Student preview window
to switch to this document.
35. Click File, click Save As and then click More Options. Click the arrow next to the Tools command and
then click General Options.
36. Click Read-only recommended and click OK. Click Save.
37. Close the open Word documents, but leave the application window open.
38. Open the My First Blog – Student document. Word alerts you that the author has suggested that you
open it in read-only mode.
39. Click Yes to open the document in read-only mode.
40. Close all documents without saving.
41. Close the web browser and close the File Explorer window.
Manipulating Text
Objective 2-1.1, 2-1.7, 2-1.8, 2-1.11
Editing is the process of adding, deleting, or changing text. In many cases, you will select text before you edit
it. Be careful when making changes to selected text. The moment you press a key or click an option, all the
selected text is affected.
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Customizing the View
On occasion you may need to change the view to see more or less of the
document before you can select the piece of text. You can adjust how a
document displays by selecting the appropriate option using the View tab.
Read Mode – Useful for reading a document, as pages are adapted to the size
of your monitor for easy reading. A series of buttons you can use in Read mode appears across the top of
the screen. This view displays automatically when you are viewing a Word file sent as an attachment in email.
Print Layout – Displays file contents as if you sent the document to the printer, and this is the only view in
which the vertical ruler displays.
Web Layout – Adjusts text and other elements, such as pictures, to show how the document will look as a
Web page.
Outline – Collapses a document to display headings to assist you in organizing content flow.
Draft – Displays the document to the full width of the screen with only the horizontal ruler visible.
To switch between the commonly used views, click one of the view buttons at
the lower right corner of the status bar.
Read
Print
Mode Layout
Web
Layout
Adjusting the Zoom
The ability to enlarge the text display can be very useful when you are working with a small font size, whereas
the ability to reduce the zoom display is useful when you are working with landscape or horizontal
orientation.
To adjust the zoom display, click an option from the zoom area on the status bar.
Zoom In
Zoom Out
Zoom slider
Zoom level
Click the Zoom level button to open the Zoom dialog box if you want to choose a specific zoom percentage
or the number of pages to show.
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You can set the zoom percentage anywhere from 10% to 500%, or you can have Word automatically adjust
the magnification to view the entire width of the page of text on screen. When changing the view, the position
of the insertion point will determine the zoom area.
Keep in mind that the Zoom feature controls only the screen display. The amount of text that displays when
you change the zoom percentage is based on the display settings and size of your monitor. Changing the
magnification level has no effect on the size of the text or images when it is printed.
Using Undo
Any time you perform an action and then need to reverse the action (such as adding, deleting, or formatting
text) on the Quick Access toolbar, click
(Undo) to undo the last action or command performed.
Key Fact: You can also press CTRL+Z to undo the last action. This works in all Office applications.
You can also click the arrow for the Undo button to display a list of the last 100
consecutive actions performed. You can undo sequential actions only. For example,
in the illustration at the right, to undo the Estimated Sales 2017 text, you must also
undo the two actions before this action.
The Undo command cannot be used to reverse certain actions, such as saving a file or printing a file.
Generally, the Undo feature cannot be used on any commands accessed through the File tab.
Using Repeat or Redo
If you change your mind after undoing an action, you can redo the action by clicking the
(Redo) button
on the Quick Access toolbar. This key will appear in color once there is an action to undo or redo.
If you want Word to repeat the last action, on the Quick Access toolbar click
(Repeat). You can repeat
this action anywhere in the document simply by clicking in the next location and clicking Repeat. For instance,
you changed the spacing for a paragraph and would like to use the same spacing on other paragraphs on
page 2. You can repeat the spacing change action as many times as you need until you perform a different
action.
Key Fact: You can also press CTRL+Y to redo the last action, or press F4 to repeat the last action. This
works in all Office applications.
Using Cut, Copy, and Paste
Occasionally you may want to insert text into a document from another document, or from another location
in the current document. Word uses the Clipboard to temporarily store any cut or copied items such as text
or graphics. You can then paste these items into place wherever you choose. The main difference in using
Cut and Copy is that the cut command actually removes the selection from its original spot and pastes or
places it in a new location; using the Copy command makes a copy of the selection, leaving the original intact
and pastes the copy in the new location.
•
To cut or move an item, select the item first and then on the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click
.
•
•
To copy an item, first select the item and then on the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click
.
To paste an item, first place the insertion point where you want to paste the item and then on the Home
tab, in the Clipboard group, click Paste.
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Key Fact: You can also press CTRL+X to cut an item, CTRL+C to copy an item, or CTRL+V to paste the item.
These keys are commonly used in other applications.
Once you paste an item, the
(Paste Options) button appears at the bottom right of the pasted item
with choices for pasting the selected item. For example, you can specify to match the formatting in the
destination area, keep the source formatting, or paste only text, if text and graphics were copied.
Using the Office Clipboard
While the traditional Windows Clipboard offers the ability to store only one item,
Office offers the ability to store and retrieve up to 24 items. It also shows you the
contents of the Clipboard, along with an icon representing the software program
that was used to create each item.
To display the Clipboard task pane, on the Home tab, in the Clipboard group,
click the Clipboard dialog box launcher.
You can collect items from any programs (up to the maximum of 24 items) and
then paste them into one or more documents. As you collect new items, previous
items accumulated on the Clipboard will be replaced by the newer items.
To paste one item into the current location in the document, click that item on
the Clipboard.
Point at an item on the Clipboard to display a drop-down arrow at the right of
the item; click that arrow to display a menu: use Delete to delete only this item
from the Clipboard; or use Paste to paste only this item into the current location.
Understanding Drag and Drop
Once text is selected, you can quickly move text by dragging it to the new location and then dropping or
releasing the mouse button to place the text. As you drag selected text, the mouse cursor will display as
;
use this as a reminder that you are dragging text.
Hint: It is recommended that you use drag and drop when you need to move text a small distance in the
document.
Exercise 9-2: Basic Edits
In this exercise you will practice using the zoom buttons, apply different views, open a file in protected mode,
and copy and paste text.
1.
Click File, click Open, ensure This PC is selected in the first column and Word is selected in the Recent
2.
Click the
Folders. Click TEC Employee List to open this file.
button on the zoom bar at the lower right corner of the screen.
The magnification level of the document content increases by 10%. Remember that changing the zoom
affects only the display, not the actual size of the characters when the document is printed.
3.
Click the
button two more times.
4.
Click the Zoom level button to open the Zoom dialog box and then change the Percent to 75 and click
OK.
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(Read Mode) button and notice how the view now changes for you.
5.
Click the
6.
Click the View menu to see what options are available to you while in this view.
7.
Click Edit Document to exit this view mode.
8.
Close the document without saving it.
Now try opening a document that was sent previously as an attachment from the New York office. As it is an
original file sent from Marketing, you want to protect it from any possible changes so you will open it using
Protected View.
9.
Click File and then click Open if necessary, the click Browse to open the Open dialog box.
10. From the student data files, select TEC Corporate Profile and click the arrow for Open. Then click Open
in Protected View.
The warning prompt should appear across the top of the document, indicating that this document is
now in protected view, preventing any changes being made to the file.
11. Click File and read the information in Backstage, indicating the file has been protected from any changes
until you enable editing.
12. Click the Save tab in the panel in the left. You cannot save the file because saving is disabled in Protected
View.
13. In the message box, click Enable Saving to save the document.
Notice that the warning prompt about the protected view mode no longer appears.
14. Click File and click Close.
In this part of the exercise, you will copy information from one document and paste it into a new document.
15. Press CTRL+N to create a new blank document. Type: Estimated Sales 2017 and press ENTER.
16. Click File and then click Open. Navigate to the student data files location, select Sales Figures 2016 and
click Open.
17. Move the cursor to the beginning of the table, starting with the text Popular Tours.
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18. Click and drag to highlight the figures in the entire table and then on the Home tab, in the Clipboard
group, click Copy.
19. Switch to the new document and in the blank line below the title, on the Home tab, in the Clipboard
group, click Paste.
The table of figures has been copied from one document to another.
20. On the Quick Access toolbar, click the Undo button.
The pasted item is cleared, giving you the option to redo the paste (that is, to reverse the last action).
21. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click Paste once more.
The information is pasted into the document again, and in fact, you could paste this information into
other areas of the same document or to another document, as needed.
22. Save the new document in the 7500-Student-Files\Word folder as: Estimated Sales 2017 - Student and
then close it.
23. Close all other documents without saving.
Applying Formatting
Objective 2-2.1, 2-2.3, 2-2.5
Formatting refers to any process that alters the appearance or position of text or other objects in the
document. Word provides a number of formatting options that can be applied within a document for all
types of objects; accordingly, be careful with the number of formatting options you apply, considering who
your audience is and how they will view the message in the document. For example, if you apply the All Caps,
Bold, Italic, and Superscript formats to a sentence, it can be very distracting and difficult to read.
•
You can apply formatting to text as you type it or after you have typed it. It can be easier and faster to
wait until all the text in your document has been typed and edited before you format it. You need only
remember that you must select the existing text before you can apply formatting to it.
•
You can turn most formatting features on and off by clicking the appropriate button on the ribbon or
Mini toolbar. When a feature is active, it appears in a different color from the other buttons. An arrow
beside a button indicates that you can select additional options for the feature.
•
When you want to remove all formatting from selected text, on the Home tab, in the Font group, click
(Clear Formatting).
Enhancing Text Characters
Character formatting refers to any feature that changes the appearance of characters on the screen and in
print. You can control the following aspects of character formatting:
Font – Describes the typeface of characters on the screen and in print such as Courier New or Bradley.
Font Size – Refers to the height of the characters (as characters get taller, they also grow wider.)
Character Formatting – Refers to the special stylized variations applied to plain characters to make them
stand out from other text. They include bold, italics, and various kinds of underlines.
Effects – Apply special effects to the text, such as strikethrough,
superscript
or
subscript,
shadow, SMALL CAPS, and
so on.
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There are several ways to apply formatting to selected text characters:
•
The quickest method is to click the appropriate formatting button from the Font group on the Home
tab.
Key Fact: You can also enhance text using
keyboard shortcuts such as CTRL+B for bold,
CTRL+I for italic, or CTRL+U for underline.
•
As you select text for formatting, you will see the Mini toolbar appear; it contains buttons for applying
specific, common features for formatting characters and paragraphs.
Enhancing Paragraphs
Word provides a number of tools that allow you to change an entire paragraph to best suit the message in
your document. Many of the following items will affect the amount of vertical white space between lines of
text and paragraphs. Several of these tools can also assist you in maintaining consistency in order to produce
a professional-looking document.
Aligning Text
Alignment refers to the way the left and right edges of a paragraph line up horizontally on the page. You can
easily change the alignment in your document using one of the following four options in the Paragraph
group on the Home tab
Align Left – Aligns text to the left margin with a ragged or uneven edge on the right side of the text.
Align Left
Align Right
Center – Aligns text between the left and right margins to an imaginary line down
the middle of the page.
Align Right – Aligns text to the right margin with a ragged or uneven edge on the
Center
Justify
left side of the text.
Justify – Aligns text so the left and right edges of the text are flush with the margins
and each line of text is evenly spaced out between the margins, except for the last line of each paragraph.
Changing Line Spacing
Line spacing refers to the amount of space between lines of typed text, measured from the baseline of one
line to the baseline of the next. Word automatically adjusts the amount of space between lines according to
the size of the characters being used. However, you can also specify that line spacing be set to an exact
measurement.
It’s important to note that a precise line spacing setting will not adjust to accommodate larger text if the font
size is changed. It’s also important to note that, if you decrease line spacing too much, the lines of text may
overwrite each other, or the text may not display.
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To set or change the line spacing, on the Home tab, in the Paragraph group,
click
(Line and Paragraph Spacing).
Setting Paragraph Spacing
Paragraph spacing refers to the amount of space between paragraphs of text.
Although it is possible to create extra space between paragraphs by pressing
ENTER to insert blank lines, most published documents are set to insert a
specific amount of space between paragraphs. This enables you to set spacing
slightly smaller than a full line, which then reduces the amount of white space
on a page and ensures consistency throughout a document.
To set or change the paragraph spacing, click the Layout tab, in
the Paragraph group, set the spacing as required:
Exercise 9-3: Basic Formatting
In this exercise, you will apply basic formatting features in a document.
1.
Click File, click Open, ensure This PC is selected as the location, and open the Word folder. Double-click
2.
Double-click the word To in the first line and then click Bold in the Font group of the Home tab.
the Budget Memo file.
Hint: If the Mini toolbar appears when you select the text, click the Bold button in the toolbar.
3.
Select the entire Re: line of text and click Bold once more.
4.
In the second paragraph starting with In planning …, select the 3% text. On the Home tab, in the Font
5.
With the text still selected, press CTRL+B to add bold to the text.
6.
Select the four paragraphs of the memo and then on the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click the
group, click the down arrow for the Font color and click Green in the Standard Colors row.
down arrow for Line Spacing. Click 1.0.
Notice the line spacing has reduced while the spacing between the paragraphs remains unchanged.
7.
8.
With the four paragraphs still selected, click the Layout tab and in the Paragraph group, click the
increment button for After and change this to 12pt. This increases the spacing between paragraphs.
Save this document as Budget Memo – Student and then close it.
Understanding Tab Settings
Setting tabs or tab stops is similar to aligning text; the difference is that setting tabs allows you to align
information at specific intervals across the page so that text is lined up in columns.
Use appropriate tab alignment characters to match the type of data that will be entered. For instance, you
can use a right tab to line up whole integer numbers, but would probably want to use a decimal tab to line
up values with decimal places.
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Click in the Tab Selector box to choose the alignment type; a ScreenTip appears defining each symbol and
how it will align your tabbed columns:
Tab Selector
Box
Left Tab
Center Tab
Right Tab
Bar Tab
Decimal Tab
Left – Aligns text at the tab setting with characters shifting right as you type; this is the default setting.
Center – Centers text along an imaginary line down from the tab setting, with characters shifting evenly to
the left and right as you type.
Right – Aligns all text along the right edge of the tab setting with characters shifting left as you type.
Bar – Displays a small vertical line as a separator between the previous and next column of information.
Decimal – Aligns to the left of the decimal point until you type the decimal point, then text shifts to the right
of the decimal point.
In order to use tabs for aligning text, you need to do two things:
1.
Define the position of the tab “stops” on the page.
2.
Use the TAB key when entering text.
To insert a tab setting, select an alignment type from the Tab Selector box, then click on the horizontal ruler
at the measurement for this tab stop. Once all tab stops are set on the ruler, begin typing the text for the
report.
Pressing the TAB key tells Word to “move the insertion point to the text tab stop position on this line”. You
can then continue entering text (how the text flows at the new position will depend on the type of tab being
used). Pressing TAB again will move the insertion point to the position of the next tab stop on the line, and
so on. When you have entered the desired text at the last of your tab stop positions on the line, press ENTER
to start a new paragraph. Press TAB to move to the position of your first tab stop in the next paragraph, and
so on.
When you need to edit a tab setting that is currently applied to existing text, be sure to select the text first;
otherwise, the revised tab setting is applied only to the current line. For example, to adjust a tab setting for
a list of 10 names, select the 10 lines of text and then drag the tab character to its new location on the ruler.
Consider the following tips regarding setting tabs:
•
Click the Tab Selector box until the desired tab alignment character displays and then click in the ruler
where the tab stop is to be placed.
•
The items in the Tab Selector box cycle through each time you click the box; if you go pass the alignment
option you want, click until the desired character appears.
•
When placing a tab stop on the ruler, position the pointer close to the measurement mark in the bottom
half of the ruler. A vertical dash line will appear to verify the tab stop as you click in the ruler to set the
tab stop.
•
To remove a tab stop, click the tab character on the ruler and drag it up or down off the ruler.
Key Fact: To clear all the current tabs at once press CTRL+Q.
•
288
To adjust the position of a tab stop, click the tab character on the ruler and drag it to the new position.
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Exercise 9-4: Coffee Sales
In this exercise you will create a simple sales report by setting tabs on the ruler.
1.
Create a new document and save it as Coffee Sales – Student.
2.
Click the View tab, and in the Show group, check that the ruler is on; if it is off, click the option.
3.
Type: Coffee Sales as the title and press ENTER.
4.
At the far left of the ruler, click the Tab Selector until you see the Right Tab alignment character appear.
5.
Press TAB and type: Q1. Press TAB, type: Q2, press TAB, type: Q3, press TAB and type: Q4. Press ENTER.
6.
Type: Arabica and press TAB. Type: 4558, press TAB, type: 4905, press TAB, type: 4201, press TAB, type:
7.
Type: Espresso and press TAB. Type: 2895, press TAB, type: 3595, press TAB, type: 2572, press TAB, type:
8.
Save and close this document.
Then click at 2.5”, 3.5”, 4.5”, and 5.5”.
4013 and press ENTER.
2218 and press ENTER.
Formatting the Document
Objective 2-2.2, 2-2.5
There are several options you can use to alter the way pages are laid out for different types of documents.
Options include, for example, setting the margins to print differently for odd and even pages or changing
the paper size in order to print an envelope. These options can be quickly selected from the Layout tab.
Changing the Paper Size
The default paper size is determined by the Language and Regional settings for your system (the following
example is set for English US which uses 8½" by 11" or standard Letter size in this region); you can change
this for any document using the Layout tab. To change the paper size for a document, on the Layout tab, in
the Page Setup group, click Size and then select the required size from the list.
Changing the Orientation
Orientation refers to the way the document will print on the page. Portrait refers to a vertical
orientation, while Landscape refers to a horizontal orientation. To change the orientation for
a document, on the Layout tab, in the Page Setup group, click Orientation, then select an
option.
Changing Margins
Margins determine the amount of space between the edge of the paper and the area where the text is
printed. You can adjust the margin settings for the entire document or for specific parts of the document.
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The boundaries for the top and bottom margins are easy to see; they appear as the divider line
between the lighter (inside margins) and darker (outside margins) shades on the ruler. When
you position the mouse pointer at the margin point on the vertical and horizontal rulers, a
ScreenTip appears similar to those shown at the right.
The margin boundaries for the left and right margins appear on the top ruler, although the
indent markers may obscure the left margin markers. You can access the left margin marker by
pointing precisely between the Left Indent and First Line Indent markers. You can access the
right margin marker by pointing above the Right Indent marker.
Left Margin Marker
Right Margin Marker
Top Margin Marker
•
•
To change your margins, on the Layout tab, in the Page Setup group, click Margins; or
to adjust the margins using the ruler, point the mouse pointer at the margin and, when the appropriate
arrow appears, drag to the measurement you want for the margin.
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Adding Page Numbers
You can add page numbers to a document at any time. Page numbers can be inserted at any position on the
page, though they are usually placed in the header or footer. To insert page numbers into your document,
on the Insert tab, in the Header & Footer group, click Page Number.
Top of Page – Displays possible positions from a gallery of top-of-page
numbering options.
Bottom of Page – Displays possible positions from a gallery of bottom-of-page
numbering options.
Page Margins – Displays possible positions from a gallery of margin numbering
options.
Current Position – Displays numbering options (page number only, page # of #, and so on) to apply to the
current page number location.
Format Page Numbers – Displays various numbering styles (1, 2, 3; i, ii, iii), as well as the option to begin
numbering at a digit other than the number 1.
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Applying Columns
Word allows you to set up newspaper-style columns wherein text from the bottom of one column flows to
the top of the next; this makes it an ideal layout for documents such as newsletters and reports. The number
of columns you create depends on factors such as paper size and orientation, font size, and document layout
(for example, for print or the Web), as well as the column width and margins you choose.
You can apply columns to text before or after you type. You may find it easier to type
and edit the text first, and then apply multiple columns formatting.
To create columns, on the Layout tab, in the Page Setup group, click Columns.
If you want to end the flow of text at the bottom of one column, insert a column break
and force text to the top of the next column. To insert a column break, press
CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER.
Note that when you change the column layout of a document, the entire document
changes unless you specify otherwise. To change the column layout for only a portion
of the document, select that portion of text and make the appropriate column layout
change. Word automatically inserts the appropriate breaks for this selection.
Exercise 9-5: Recipe
In this exercise, you will change some settings for a document that improve the readability of the recipes.
1.
Open the Recipe file and save as Recipe - Student.
2.
Click the Layout tab and in the Page Setup group, click Orientation and then click Landscape.
3.
In the Page Setup group, click Columns and then click Two.
4.
Select the Quick and Easy Recipes title and in the Page Setup group, click Columns and click One.
The main title should now be on a separate line and its single column spans across the width of the
document.
5.
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Click at the beginning of Recipe #15 and press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER to insert a column break.
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Notice the recipe titles now line up at the top of each column.
6.
Select the main title, click the Home tab and in the Font group, click Bold. Click the down arrow for the
7.
Select the Recipe #11 text. Apply bold and change the font size to 14pt. Repeat this step for the Recipe
8.
Bold the title of Recipe #11, change the font size to 12pt and change the font color to blue.
9.
Bold the title of Recipe #15, change the font size to 12pt and change the font color to green.
Font Size and click 16. In the Paragraph group, click Center.
#15 text.
10. Click the Insert tab and in the Header & Footer group, click Page Number. Click Bottom of Page and
then click Circle.
11. On the Design tab of the Header & Footer Tools ribbon, click Close Header and Footer.
12. Save and close the document.
Preparing the Document for Printing
Objective 2-1.3, 2-1.5, 2-2.6, 2-2.7
Before distributing your document to others, always take a moment to look over the document to correct
any spelling, grammatical, or contextual errors, and to remove any repetitive text. This helps to ensure your
document represents you and your company/school in a professional manner.
Proofing the Document
Word provides tools to automate proofing and also displays visual hints if it encounters an item that should
be reviewed.
Red wavy lines indicate the word is not recognized in either the current or custom Word dictionary.
Blue wavy lines indicate grammatical or structural errors or a potential contextual error.
The Spelling and Grammar feature provides options to help you check for spelling and grammatical errors,
such as the ability to create custom dictionaries for special terms you may use in your work. The spelling
portion checks for incorrect spelling, duplicate words, and occurrences of incorrect capitalization. The
grammar portion detects sentences with grammatical errors or weak writing style, based on widely accepted
standards in the language (English only) overall as well as some regional variations (such as American versus
British English).
In Word, the Spelling and Grammar feature works in the background to check for mistakes as you type. This
enables you to correct mistakes immediately. However, you can still run a spelling and grammar check when
you are finished creating the document.
To run a Spelling and Grammar check, on the Review tab, in the Proofing group, click Spelling & Grammar.
Key Fact: You can also press F7 to begin a spell check of the entire document. This works in all Office
applications.
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When Word finds the first misspelled word in the document, it displays the item in the Spelling and Grammar
pane at the top. You click an option to specify how you want to proceed:
Ignore – Ignores this occurrence of this spelling but continues to search for other occurrences of this spelling.
Ignore All – Ignores all occurrences of this spelling; this might apply to a person’s name or some technical
jargon.
Add – Adds this spelling to your custom dictionary. In addition to providing a regular dictionary, Word allows
you to build a custom dictionary so that it will not identify as misspelled words names, jargon, slang, or
regional spellings you use often.
Suggestions – Displays a list of alternatives for the misspelled word. If the correct word is in the list, click it
and then click Change, or Change All, or double-click the word to change it immediately.
Change – Changes this occurrence with the selected word in the suggestions box.
Change All – Changes all words with this spelling with the selected word in the suggestions box.
Near the bottom of the pane is a definition of the word, if applicable, and a list of words that can be used in
place of this word. This is helpful if you find yourself repeating the word several times on a page. The types
of words that appear will depend on the type of word, (that is, if it is a noun, verb or adjective). If you have
sound available on your device, you can also click the speaker icon to hear the pronunciation of the word.
Grammatical or contextual errors appear in the Grammar pane as the grammar checker encounters them.
Grammatical errors occur when Word has detected a structural error in the text such as too many spaces,
incorrect or missing punctuation, incorrect verb tense, or passive versus active voice in the sentence.
Contextual error refers to words that have the same sound but different spellings and meanings depending
on the context. Some words that often give rise to contextual errors include:
•
there (refers to a place), their (possessive form), or they’re (contraction for they are)
•
its (possessive form) and it’s (contraction for it is)
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•
where (refers to a location), ware (goods or services), and wear (attire or clothing)
•
write (use a tool to scribe ideas) and right (direction or suitability)
•
allot (to distribute) and a lot (quantity)
Contextual errors, as with spelling or grammar errors, appear in at the top of the Spelling and Grammar pane.
Suggestions – Provides a list of suggestions as to how to fix this error.
Ignore – Ignores this occurrence but continues to find other occurrences of the same grammatical error.
Change – Changes the error identified in the top box with the highlighted option in the Suggestions box.
In the lower half of the pane you will see an explanation as to why the text was marked as an error; the text
in this box changes to reflect the grammatical error identified.
Finding and Replacing Items
You can use the Find feature to locate occurrences of specific words, phrases, symbols, codes, formatting, or
any combination of these items in your document. You might use the Find feature as a quick way to find a
word you think you may have misspelled or to refer back to a particular piece of information. Once you’ve
found what you’re looking for, you can replace it, check for other occurrences, or continue working with your
document.
To activate the Find feature, press CTRL+F to display the Navigation pane.
With the Navigation pane, you need only enter the text you want to find in
the Search field and press ENTER, or click
(Search for more things) to
have Word search your document. Word lists any matches it finds in the
Navigation pane as summaries where you can see some of the text around
the found occurrence to determine if this is an item you want to view or
change. When you click a result in the list, Word moves the insertion point
to that document location so you can make a change, if needed. If there
are a large number of results, use the
want to review.
buttons to scroll up and down in the list to find the item you
Each time you activate the Find feature within any given Word session, Word will display the last search
criteria entered. When you exit Word, all the boxes in the Find and Replace dialog box will clear.
To immediately clear the search field, click the
(Stop searching) button.
Replacing Items
To activate the Replace feature, on the Home tab, in the Editing group, click Replace.
Key Fact: You can also press CTRL+H to open the Find and Replace dialog box.
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If you searched for an item prior to activating Replace, the search criteria displays in the Find what field. You
can then enter what the replacement text should be in the Replace with field.
More – Display other options that can be applied to narrow the search.
Replace – Replace this one occurrence.
Replace All – Replace all occurrences.
Find Next – Find the next occurrence to determine whether it should be replaced.
Cancel – Cancel or close this feature.
Printing the Document
The Print feature enables you to preview the document as it will appear when printed. This gives you an
opportunity to review the document before you print or distribute it to discover if there are problems with
the appearance or layout. You can also use some of the print options to adjust or change the margins or
orientation, or display one or more pages at a time prior to printing.
To preview or print a document, click the File tab and click Print.
Key Fact: Press CTRL+P to display the print options in Backstage. This works for all Office applications.
Use the options in the first panel to control what prints, how it will print, and where it will print.
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Print – Print the document with the settings currently shown.
Copies – Enables you to specify the number of copies to be printed.
Printer – Select a printer from the list of installed printers. Use the Printer
Properties link to choose options for how the output is printed, such as
single- or double-sided, or black-and-white or color. Some options in the
properties for your printer may be available in specific print options.
Settings – Select how much of the document or which specific pages or
items to print.
– Alternatively, use the
field to enter
specific pages to print:
#-#
Print from one page to another, inclusive (for example 5-7)
#,#,# Print only the following pages (for example 3,7,10)
-#
Print from page 1 to a specific page (for example 1-6)
#-
Print from a specific page to the end of the document (for
example 13- )
Print Sides – Specify whether to print on one or both sides of each sheet
of paper.
Collated – If printing multiple copies, choose how each page is printed,
for example complete copies of the full document, or copies of each page
individually (which must then be collated into full documents).
Orientation – Choose which orientation should be used for printing this document.
Paper Size – Choose the paper size to use for printing this document.
Margins – Choose the margins to apply when printing this document.
Pages per Sheet – Select the number of pages to print per sheet.
Use the options at the bottom of the second panel to move among pages in the document, to adjust the
zoom level, or to zoom into the page.
Exercise 9-6: Newsletter
In this exercise, you will look at different options to proof and review the document prior to sending it to
print.
1.
Open the Newsletter A01 and save it as Newsletter A01 – Student.
2.
Press F7 to spell check the entire document.
3.
Read the information in the Grammar pane to see what Microsoft considers to be wrong in the
4.
Read the description of the next error and click Change.
5.
Click OK when prompted that the spell check is complete.
6.
Press CTRL+F to display the Navigation pane. Type: vendor in the search field and press ENTER.
document. Then click Change.
There should be two results highlighted in yellow for you to peruse, as needed.
7.
Close the Navigation pane and press CTRL+H to display the Find and Replace dialog box.
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Click in the Replace with field, type: partner and then click Replace All.
You have now replaced the two occurrences of vendor with the word, partner.
9.
Click Yes if prompted to continue searching from the beginning of the document, and click OK to close
the message box. Then close the Find and Replace dialog box.
10. Save and close this document and then open the TEC Employee List from your data files location.
This document has multiple pages consisting of one column of data.
11. Press CTRL+A to select all the text. Click the Layout tab and in the Page Setup group, click Columns and
then click Three.
12. Select the title of the report and change this to one column only.
13. Move to the bottom of column three where the Sydney title is and at the beginning of this text, press
CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER to force it to the top of the next page.
14. Save the file as TEC Employee List – Student, click File and then click Print.
15. At the far right bottom of the screen, click the + button on the zoom slider to increase the view of the
document. Then click the arrow at the left of the page number to return to Page 1.
16. Click Print All Pages. Click Print Current Page and then click the Print button.
17. Save and close the document.
Working with Pictures
Objective 2-7.1, 2-7.2
You can add pictures to any document from sources such as digital photographs, graphics files, scanned
images, or you can go online to find pictures on the Office.com site. Word provides the facility to insert
picture files in a wide variety of file formats; some commonly used formats are Windows Metafile (*.wmf),
JPEG File Interchangeable format (*.jpg, *jpeg), Portable Network Graphics (*.png), Windows Bitmap (*.bmp),
or Graphics Interchange format (*.gif).
To insert a picture, position the mouse pointer in the document where you want the picture to be placed,
and then on the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture.
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Word displays a dialog box which you use to select the picture file, similar to opening a text file. Navigate to
where the picture file is located, select it and then insert it into the document.
You can also search online for pictures; position the mouse pointer where you want the graphic to be placed,
and then on the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Online Pictures.
Once you enter the search criteria, you can click the
or press ENTER to begin the search.
The number and variety of pictures that appear will vary. By default, the search results are images covered
under the Creative Commons license. If you want to view as many pictures as possible that match the search
criteria, click the down arrow at the right of the CC Only field and click All Images.
Note: It is your responsibility to ensure you are not violating copyright laws when you insert images
returned in the search results page.
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You can point at an image to show some properties about the picture, specifically where this picture is located
and who may own the picture, as seen in the following:
To insert the image, click the checkbox at the top left of the image and then click Insert.
If there is more than one image on the search results page that you would like to insert into the document,
click each image you want to use. The images will be inserted into the current cursor location, and can then
be moved to other parts of the document.
You can also narrow the search by choosing one of the links below the search field if you have specific
requirements such as the size of the image.
To search for another category of pictures, delete the text in the search field and enter the new search criteria.
Fun Fact: You can insert pictures using both these methods in all Office applications.
Manipulating Objects
Any picture you insert into a document will appear with eight handles when it
is selected in the document, as shown in the following image. Handles are the
small circles or squares that appear around the perimeter of the picture; they
confirm that the object has been selected and that you can now make changes
to it. These handles may vary in appearance but always appear around the
selected picture.
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You can insert pictures into a document as inline objects (the default setting) or as floating objects.
•
An inline object acts as a text character in a paragraph.
•
A floating object can be placed anywhere (it floats) in the document.
Regardless of which way you insert a picture initially, you will be able to switch from inline to floating or vice
versa, using the Wrap Text feature from the Format tab of the Picture Tools ribbon.
Fun Fact: You must select a picture (display its handles), before you can manipulate it in any Office
application.
Moving a Picture
The drag-and-drop method is the easiest way to move a picture. However, take note of whether the picture
is inline or floating before you try to move it, as this determines how and where you can move the picture:
•
If it is an inline object, the mouse pointer displays as
when you drag it.
•
If it is a floating object, the mouse pointer displays as
and when you drag the picture, it changes to
.
Sizing a Picture
When you insert a picture into a document, it appears at its original size, or the largest size that the page will
accommodate. You can resize or scale the picture to any proportions you want. You use the same methods
to size a picture whether it is inline or floating.
You can use the handles to size a picture:
•
Vertically, by dragging the
middle horizontal handle at the top or bottom edge in or out.
•
Horizontally, by dragging the
•
On two adjacent sides at once, by dragging one of the
middle vertical handle at the left or right edge in or out.
corner handles in or out.
If you want to ensure that your resized picture remains in proportion, press SHIFT before you drag the
appropriate handle.
Wrapping Text Around a Picture
Wrapping styles affect the way the text flows around pictures and change the way pictures are positioned in
relation to the surrounding text.
By default, the picture wrapping style is In Line with Text, which places the inline graphic at the insertion point
on a line of text in the document. The graphic then moves with the text, as if it
were a text character.
Changing the wrapping style enables the picture to “float” or be positioned
anywhere in the document.
To change the text wrapping style for a picture object, select the picture and then
on the Format tab of Picture Tools, in the Arrange group, click Wrap Text to
choose the appropriate text wrapping style.
Each text wrapping style provides a different effect for the picture and the text in
the document. Use the previews to see which text wrap style is suitable for the
picture and the document. You can also use a combination of these methods to
achieve the desired effect.
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Cropping a Picture
Cropping refers to the ability to “cut off” certain portions of the picture. Using this feature, you can crop
pictures horizontally (at the top or bottom) or vertically (at the sides); for more precise cropping, you must
use a dedicated graphics program.
•
To crop the top or bottom of the picture, drag the top or bottom crop handle when you see
•
To crop the left or right side of the picture, drag the left or right crop handle when you see .
•
To adjust two adjacent sides of a picture, drag one of the corner crop handles when you see
.
.
Note: The mouse cursor displays the appropriate direction based on the side you are cropping.
Exercise 9-7: Newsletter with Pictures
In this exercise, you will add pictures to a document and then manipulate the graphics. This exercise uses
pictures available from CC web sites. The number and types of pictures will vary based on changes made by
web sites; focus should be on the task such as sizing, moving, or cropping.
1.
Open the Newsletter A01 file and save it as Newsletter A01 with pictures - Student.
2.
Delete the New Office text below the What’s New heading.
3.
Click the Insert tab and in the Illustrations group, click Online Pictures.
4.
Click in the search field, type: announcements and press ENTER.
5.
Scroll through the pictures and the click the checkbox for the picture similar to the following:
6.
Click Insert to insert the picture into the document. With the picture selected, click the top right handle
7.
Under Picture Tools, click the Format tab in the Arrange group, click Wrap Text and click Square.
8.
Position the mouse cursor anywhere inside the picture and drag it so that the top of the paragraph aligns
9.
and drag inward to make the picture approximately 1” in height.
with the top of the picture, as shown here:
Ensure the picture is still selected, and then on the Format tab, in the Size group, click Crop.
10. Using the crop handles around the picture, try to crop out as much of the white space around the picture
as possible, similar to the figure shown below, then click outside the image.
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11. At the end of the With more resources … paragraph, press ENTER to create a blank line.
12. Click in this blank line, then click the Insert tab, and in the Illustrations group, click Pictures.
13. Navigate to the Word folder in the student data files, if not there already, and then double-click the
balloons picture.
The picture should fill the width of the page. If you were actually creating this newsletter, you would
continue to add or modify pictures. For the purpose of this exercise, you will stop working on this
document.
14. Save and close the document.
Using Tables
Objective 2-2.5, 2-2.9
Use the Table feature to arrange columns of text and numbers, group paragraphs side by side, or create
forms. The following figure shows a table.
Table Selector
Column
Row
Cell
When working with a table, you are working with cells within the table (the intersection between a column
and a row). You can create a table before or after you type the text.
You can enter text, numbers or graphics into each cell. Text longer than the width of the cell will automatically
wrap to the next line in the same cell.
Use the
(Table Selector) to select the entire table; it appears at the top left corner of a table when your
cursor is in or near the table.
Once you create a table, the Table Tools ribbon appears providing further options for the design or layout
of the table. The Insertion point must be somewhere in the table before this ribbon displays.
Inserting a Table
To insert a table, use one of the following methods:
•
On the Insert tab, in the Tables group, click Table.
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In the drop-down menu, position your mouse pointer over the box in the
upper left corner and begin dragging across, down, or diagonally over the
grid to specify the number of columns and rows you want. As you drag, Word
will display the number of columns and rows for reference in the title area of
this list. Use this feature to create a table of up to 10 columns by 8 rows.
•
If you need a table larger than 8×10, use the Insert Table feature. You can also use this feature to display
a dialog box with more options:
Table size – Enter the number of columns and rows by typing the number
into the box or using the incremental buttons.
AutoFit behavior – Select options for specifying an exact cell size or
adjusting cell size to accommodate contents.
Remember dimensions for new tables – Remember the options you’ve
selected and use them as the default settings for all new tables you create.
You can adjust column widths or row heights as needed after the table is
created.
Once you create a table layout, Word places the insertion point in the first cell of the table for you to begin
typing. You can use the following methods to move within a table using the keyboard:
•
Press ENTER to add more lines of text in the same cell. This will increase the row height.
•
Press the TAB key to move to the next cell, or press SHIFT+TAB to move to the previous cell.
Formatting Text in the Table
You can format the text in a table in the same manner as you format regular text. You can also apply
formatting options to the entire table or to parts of it.
You may find it easier to format or adjust items once there is text in the table, especially if there are large
pieces of text. Having the text in the cells will help you determine the best width for columns, styles for
headings and titles, and so on.
Inserting & Deleting Rows/Columns/Cells
You can insert additional rows and columns into a table after you have created it.
•
To insert a single row or column, position the mouse pointer where you
want the new row or column inserted. Under Table Tools, on the Layout tab, in the Rows & Columns
group, click the appropriate option.
•
To delete cells, rows, columns, or an entire table, position the mouse pointer in the cell, row or column
to be deleted. Then under Table Tools, on the Layout tab, in the Rows & Columns group, click the arrow
for Delete and then select the appropriate option.
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Adjusting the Width or Height
You can adjust the width of each column, the height of each row, and the overall alignment of your table.
You can also evenly space selected rows or columns in a table.
To adjust the column width or row height:
•
place the mouse pointer on a vertical line on either side of the column to adjust and, when you see
drag left or right to the desired column width; or
•
place the mouse pointer on a horizontal line for the row to adjust and, when you see
down to the desired row height.
,
, drag up or
To distribute the width for each column or height of each row evenly, under Table Tools, on the Layout tab,
in the Cell Size group, click
or
.
Merging and Splitting Cells
Table cells can be merged to create a single cell, or a cell can be split into multiple columns or rows. Merging
cells is particularly useful when creating a title row for your table.
•
To merge cells, select the cells and then under Table Tools, on the Layout tab, in the Merge group, click
Merge Cells.
•
To split a cell into multiple cells, select the cell and then under Table Tools, on the Layout tab, in the
Merge group, click Split Cells. Specify the appropriate number of columns and rows, then click OK.
Exercise 9-8: Expenses
In this exercise you will create a simple table to record some expenses for the new office. You will then format
the table.
1.
2.
Press CTRL+N to create a new blank document. Type: Office Expenses for the title and press ENTER. Then
click the Insert tab, and in the Tables group, click Table.
Starting at the top left box in the grid, drag over to select 4 columns and then down to select 5 rows.
When the correct number of columns and rows has been selected, click to insert the new table into the
document.
3.
With the insertion point in the first box (cell) at the top left corner of the new table, type: Expenses and
then press TAB.
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Type: Actual and press TAB. Type: Quote and press TAB. Type: Budget for the last column and press TAB.
The insertion point should now be in the first cell of the second row.
5.
Enter text for the rest of the table as shown:
6.
At the end of the 3000, press TAB.
You have just inserted a new row in the table for another expense item.
7.
Type: Parking, press TAB, type: 200, press TAB, type: 150, press TAB, and type: 400.
8.
Save the file as First Month Expenses - Student.
Now try changing the appearance of the table data by using simple formatting attributes.
9.
Click to select all the cells in the first row and then click
on the Mini toolbar.
10. Move the cursor to above the Actual column. When you see , click and drag to select the three columns
(Actual to Budget).
11. On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click Align Right.
12. Position the mouse cursor on the vertical line between the Expenses and Actual columns. When you see
, click and drag the line approximately five characters to the right.
The width of the Actual column is now smaller than the other two columns. This allows for longer text
entries in the Expenses column, as required.
13. Ensure all three columns are selected and then under Table Tools, click the Layout tab and in the Cell
Size group, click Distribute Columns to resize the selected columns evenly.
14. Save the document and then close it.
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Tracking Changes
Objective 2-1.4, 2-2.8
When you want others to review a document and yet still want to maintain control over the final changes,
distribute copies to others with the Track Changes feature activated. The Track Changes feature "keeps track"
of edits made by other people and highlights them for you when you review the documents after others
have made their changes. You can also track your own changes in a document as Word will highlight the
changes using colors set up in the Advanced Options command of the Track Changes options.
To turn on (or off) Track Changes, on the Review tab, in the Tracking group, click Track Changes.
To control how much of the tracking information is visible on the screen, on the Review tab, in the Tracking
group, click the arrow for Display for Review and click an option.
In a document that contains tracked changes, you can use the commands in the
Changes group on the Review tab to move from one change or comment to the next.
At each tracked change, you can specify whether to accept or reject the change. You
can also click Next to bypass this change and move onto the next change for review.
Word will move to the next change or comment once you accept or reject a change:
•
To accept a change, click the change and then on the Review tab, in the Changes group, click Accept or
Accept and Move to Next.
•
To accept all changes in the document, click the arrow for Accept and then Accept All Changes or
Accept All Changes and Stop Tracking.
•
To reject a change, click the change and then Reject or Reject and Move to Next
•
To reject all changes in the document, click the arrow for Reject and then Reject All Changes or Reject
All Changes and Stop Tracking.
Exercise 9-9: Track Changes
In this exercise, you will work with a document marked with tracked changes.
1.
Open the Resume for Elinor Eng document and save it as Resume for Elinor Eng (reviewed) - Student.
2.
In the Tracking group, click the arrow for Display for Review and then click All Markup, if necessary.
3.
Take a few moments to review the changes that are marked in the document and how they appear in
4.
Click the Review tab and in the Tracking group, click Track Changes to turn it on.
5.
In the Changes group, click Next to have Word highlight the first change for you.
6.
In the Changes group, click Accept to accept the text entered (Expert). Word makes the change and then
the document.
moves to the next tracked change.
7.
In the Changes group, click Accept four times for the additional text in the Office Manager position.
8.
Click anywhere in the Part-time studies text and then click the Layout tab. In the Paragraph group, click
9.
Return to the Review tab, then click Next and then accept the two new lines in the Education area as
in the Before field and type: 3, then press ENTER.
well as the formatting change you made earlier.
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10. Click at the beginning of the England text, type: Nepal, (include the comma) and add a space if necessary,
and then at the end of the Denmark text, type: , Italy (include the comma).
11. In the Tracking group, click Track Changes to turn the feature off.
12. In the Changes group, click the arrow for Accept, then click Accept All Changes to accept the remaining
changes in the document.
13. Save and close the document.
Lesson Summary
This lesson introduced you to Microsoft Word, where you learned how to create simple documents, and how to
manipulate the content for a professional look and layout. You should now be able to:

start and exit Microsoft Word

insert or remove page breaks

identify some common screen elements

insert or remove page numbers

create, save, and open documents

apply column formats

change view options for documents

use find and replace

insert, select, modify, and format text

print and preview documents

manipulate text using common features

insert pictures or multimedia files

use the ruler to create, modify or delete tab settings

work with tables

change margins, paper size, or the orientation

track changes made in documents
Review Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
308
What is the view that appears when you start any Microsoft Office program?
a.
File menu
c.
Backstage
b.
New file
d.
Views
Which option would you click on the ribbon to display a gallery of choices?
a.
More button
b.
Dialog box launcher button
c.
Customize Quick Access Toolbar button
d.
Ribbon Display Options button
Which ribbon tab contains the option to turn the ruler on or off?
a.
Home
c.
Review
b.
Insert
d.
View
Which key can you press to select both a word in one paragraph and a heading of text on the next page?
a.
ALT
c.
SHIFT
b.
CTRL
d.
F8
Which field would you use to change the file format so the document is compatible with Word 2000?
a.
File type field
c.
More options
b.
Filename field
d.
Save button
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6.
7.
8.
9.
Which view mode appears when you open a document sent as an attachment?
a.
Read Mode
c.
Web
b.
Print Layout
d.
Draft
When will Word automatically open a document in Protected Mode?
a.
When you open a document created by someone else.
b.
When you open a document that was attached and sent via email.
c.
When you open a document from a cloud storage location.
d.
When you open a document saved on a jump drive.
What is the main difference between the Cut and Copy commands?
a.
Cut can only be used once whereas you can copy as many items as you need.
b.
You can only cut or move items using the drag and drop method.
c.
Cut moves an item from its original location; Copy makes a copy of the original item.
d.
Nothing; they work in the same manner.
You just changed the spacing after a paragraph to 10pt and would like this spacing on two other
paragraphs on page 3 of the document. Which option would you use?
a.
Redo
b.
Repeat
10. What must you do before applying formatting to existing text in a document?
a.
You must select the existing text.
b.
You must display the Font and Paragraph dialog boxes.
c.
You must save the document.
d.
You must have a new blank document open on the screen.
11. Why might you want to use various tab characters when working with a financial report?
a.
To ensure the tab settings remain in place as you press Tab.
b.
To align values based on the type of data to be entered.
c.
To show these can be used in any type of report.
d.
To specify the number of columns for data.
12. Which print orientation uses a horizontal layout?
a.
Portrait
b.
Landscape
13. How can you identify the margins on the horizontal or vertical ruler?
a.
The margins are the darker areas of either rulers.
b.
A thick dark line separates where the margins begin.
c.
A thick white line separates where the margins begin.
d.
The margin areas only appear when you are in Print Layout view.
14. When Word automatically inserts a page number, where is it inserted?
a.
On a blank line below the last line of text on a page.
b.
At the far right side in the right margin.
c.
In a header or footer.
d.
In a text box at the top left corner of the first page only.
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15. What keyboard shortcut can you use to create a column break?
a.
CTRL+ENTER
b.
SHIFT+ENTER
c.
CTRL+ALT+ENTER
d.
CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER
16. Which option displays the Navigation pane to find an item?
a.
CTRL+D
c.
CTRL+H
b.
CTRL+F
d.
CTRL+N
17. How can you recognize a spelling error in a Word file?
a.
The noted error appears with a green wavy line.
b.
The noted error appears with a blue wavy line.
c.
The noted error appears with a purple wavy line.
d.
The noted error appears with a red wavy line.
18. Which keyboard shortcut displays the Print options in the Backstage view for all Office applications?
a.
CTRL+A
c.
CTRL+P
b.
CTRL+R
d.
CTRL+V
19. How can you identify that an image or object has been selected for manipulation?
a.
It displays handles around its perimeter.
b.
It displays in a darker shadow.
c.
A circular handle appears across the top of the image or object.
d.
A four-headed arrow appears when you point the cursor at the image/object.
20. How can you crop a picture in Word?
a.
Horizontally only.
b.
Vertically only.
c.
Horizontally and vertically.
d.
You cannot crop a picture in Word.
21. What is the intersection of a row and a column in a table called?
a.
Text box
c.
Box
b.
Cell
d.
Active cell
22. How can you select an entire table quickly?
a.
Click the Tab Selector.
c.
Press CTRL+A.
b.
Click in the Selection Bar.
d.
Click the Table Selector.
23. How would you turn off the Track Changes feature when you are finished with the feature?
310
a.
Click the Track Changes button again.
b.
Press ESC.
c.
Press ENTER.
d.
Click Accept All Changes.
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Key Applications
Lesson 10:
Using Microsoft Excel
Lesson Objectives
This lesson introduces you to how to use a spreadsheet application to create simple reports such as budgets, or
cash flows. Upon completion of this lesson, you should be able to:

understand basic terminology or concepts for
spreadsheets


change the column width or row height

create simple formulas and use common built-in
create a new blank worksheet or use a template to
functions
create a new worksheet


enter or edit data in a worksheet
format the data in a worksheet to enhance it

open, close or save workbooks
work with charts



select cells for a variety of purposes
sort or filter information in a worksheet


copy and move data
work with tables

preview and print a report
Looking at the Excel Screen
Objective 2-3.1, 2-3.6
As with any Office application, when you first start the program, you see the Backstage view:
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You can select a template for creating a new workbook, or click the Open Other Workbooks link to access
the Open tab in the Backstage view. As you work in Excel, recently used files will display in the left pane of
the startup screen. A new, blank workbook is shown in the following figure.
Name
Box
Insert
Function
Formula
Bar
Select
Active Cell
Column Headings
Row Headings
Tab
Sheet
Scrolling Tab
Scroll Bars
Name Box – Look here for the address of the active cell. For example, if the Name box displays A21, this
indicates the active cell is where column A and row 21 intersect.
Insert Function – Open a dialog box that will help you choose and insert a built-in function.
Formula Bar – View the contents of the active cell. Under certain circumstances, you can use this bar to
create or edit entries in the worksheet.
Select All – Click to select all the cells in the worksheet.
Active Cell – Indicates the current cell with the thick border around the cell.
Column Headings – The sequential letters at the top of each column enable you to identify columns.
Row Headings – The sequential numbers on the left side of each row enable you to identify rows.
Tab Scrolling – Use these arrows to navigate between the worksheets in the workbook.
Sheet Tab – The name of the current or active worksheet on screen.
Scroll Bars – Use these to move horizontally or vertically within the current or active worksheet.
Worksheets are used whenever you need a report or document that tracks numerical information. Typical
reports include budgets, cash flow analysis reports, revenue and expense reports, financial reports, an
inventory analysis, or a document tracking data such as employee vacation time or student grades.
Understanding Basic Terminology
•
An Excel file is called a workbook and a workbook contains one or more individual worksheets. For
instance, a file named AM 2015 Figures could contain a worksheet that shows a summary of the
company’s revenue and expenses, another worksheet with quarterly summaries, and a worksheet that
shows business expenses, and so on.
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A worksheet contains rows numbered from 1 to 1,048,576, and columns assigned with letters or letter
combinations from A to Z, then AA to ZZ, then AAA to AZZ, and so on up to XFD.
•
A cell is the intersection of a row and a column and can contain one single value (text or number), or
formula. For instance, cell B5 is the “box” that you will find when you follow down column B to row 5.
–
Each cell has its own address, or a reference you can use to find it within a worksheet.
–
The active cell is the cell currently displayed with a thick border, such as cell A1 in the previous
picture.
Entering Data in the Worksheet
You should always try to organize the information on a worksheet in a way that will be clear to you and to
anyone else who may be using or analyzing the content. Include appropriate labels and descriptions in your
reports so your audience understands what they are viewing.
You can insert three types of data into worksheet cells:
Labels – Text entries appear in the cells exactly as you enter them; default to left align.
Values – Numeric values; default to right aligned.
Formulas – Composed of cell references, arithmetic operators, and functions (calculation commands) that
perform operations on data.
Entering Text or Labels
To enter information, click a cell to select it and then type the entry. Use the BACKSPACE key or DELETE key
to correct any input errors. When you finish typing, press ENTER to move to the next cell below, or press TAB
to move to the next cell to the right. You can also click another cell or press any arrow key to accept the input
in the current cell.
The following image is an example of how to organize your data so that you can clearly see its purpose:
When entering information, consider the following:
•
You can enter or edit data directly in the active cell, or use the Formula bar for long data entries.
•
Labels can be up to 32,767 characters long.
•
If a label is longer than the width of the cell, it will display past the column border as long as the adjoining
cell to the right is empty. Entries in adjoining cells cut off the display at the column border. The long text
label may not be visible, but it is still completely contained in the cell in which it was entered.
•
You can easily change the appearance and alignment of any entry in any cell.
•
The maximum length of formula contents is 8,192 characters.
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Entering Numbers or Dates
Numbers are constant values such as dollars and percentages; by default, they align to the right side of a
cell. If you enter characters other than numbers, Excel treats the entire entry as a label. Excel displays values
with no formatting, allowing you to format them yourself.
When entering dates, you can enter them in a numeric form such as 2-26-05 or as text, Month day, year).
When entering dates, note the following:
•
The default format of the date value is m-d-yy, although you can change this using the Region and
Language settings in the Control Panel.
•
The date value does not have to be the full day, month, and year. It can be just the day and month
(formatted mmm-dd), or the month and year (formatted mmm-yyyy).
Moving Around the Worksheet
You can move around the cells of a worksheet using the following methods:
Scroll Bars – Click the arrow buttons at either end of a scroll bar to move one row or column at a time. Click
and drag the scroll box to display another location in the worksheet.
LEFT, RIGHT, UP, or DOWN – Press a direction key to move one cell at a time.
HOME – Moves to column A in the current row.
CTRL+HOME – Moves to cell A1.
CTRL+END – Moves to the last cell with data in your report.
CTRL+G or F5 – Displays the Go To dialog box which you can use to move quickly to a cell address.
You can also use the horizontal or vertical scroll bar to move to other areas of the worksheet. As you begin
to work with multiple worksheets, you can use the arrows at the far left below the worksheet to navigate to
these sheets; alternatively, you can click the sheet tab for the sheet you want to view.
Managing Workbooks
Objective 2-3.11, 2-3.12
Basic file management tasks, such as saving a file, opening a file, creating a new file, or closing a file are
similar across all applications in the Office suite.
Creating a New Blank Workbook
When you start Excel, the Backstage view appears and you can choose to create a new workbook or open an
existing one. If you create a new blank workbook, it is automatically named Book1. Each time you create a
new workbook during the same session, Excel will number it sequentially as Book2, Book3, and so on. When
you exit Excel and start a new session later, the numbering begins at 1.
To create a new blank workbook in Backstage, click New, and double-click Blank workbook.
Key Fact: You can also press CTRL+N to create a new blank workbook, or a new blank document type in
any Office application.
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Creating a New Workbook from a Template
To create a new workbook using a template, click the File tab, and click New.
Click a template to open a larger view of the template contents.
Click Create to create a new workbook based on the selected template. Alternatively, click the arrow at either
side of the template to view other templates in the list on either side of this template. To exit the preview,
click the
at the top right corner of the preview window.
Each new workbook you create using a template displays the name of the template plus a number (for
example, Working budget1) as a reminder that this is a new file that should be saved with a different name,
preferably one that describes the type of data in the workbook.
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Saving Workbooks
To use a workbook again, you must save it. It is a good practice to save your work frequently during a session,
especially if the workbook is large, or if you are using a process you have not tried before.
To save the changes made to an existing file, click the File tab and then Save.
Key Fact: You can also click
(Save) on the Quick Access toolbar, or press CTRL+S to quickly save the
file. This is common to all Office applications.
To save the changes made to an existing file and save it with a new name or in a different file format, click
the File tab and then click Save As.
The first time you save a file, you will always see the Save As options so that you can give the new workbook
a distinct name and select the location where it will be stored, such as a folder on the hard drive, on a network
or online drive, or on a portable media drive.
Up One
Level
Current
Folder
File name
Save as
Drives or
locations to save
Folders or files in
current folder
Date created
or modified
You can choose the location by clicking the appropriate designation. Once the location is selected, the right
pane changes to display a list of recently accessed folders in which to save files.
From this screen you will click to select a folder to store the new file. Type the name in the File name field
and click Save (or press ENTER). File names can be up to 255 characters in length.
The default file type given to an Excel file is .xlsx, although you can save it in different file formats using the
options in the Save as type field (the field that displays below the file name field).
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If you need to save a workbook in a different format, click the arrow for the Save as type field to select the
format you want; for example, you could save the file in a PDF form so no one can make changes to the
workbook, or save the file in a previous version of Excel to make the file compatible for someone who does
not have the same version as you.
Using Excel and Other Spreadsheet File Types
In addition to working with its own native file types, Excel can open files produced in earlier versions of Excel
(such as .xls and .xlt files), and it can import files created in Microsoft Access, as well as output generated by
SQL queries.
Excel also supports the more generic file types associated with spreadsheet data. These types include:
Comma Separated Values (.csv) – these are text files wherein the data is laid out in a columnar format,
•
and the contents of each column are separated by a comma.
Tab delimited files (.tsv) – these are text files wherein the data is laid out in a columnar format, and the
•
contents of each column are separated by a tab character.
These files can be used by many spreadsheet programs, and you can open these types of files directly in
Excel, or you can import the data.
Opening Workbooks
To work with an existing workbook, you have to open it. You can have multiple workbooks open in Excel at
the same time, but only one (the one that is currently displayed on the screen) can be the active workbook
at any given time.
To open a file, use one of the following methods:
•
Click the File tab, click Open, click the location for the file, and then the folder where the file can be
found, or click Browse to use the Open dialog box. Select the file and click Open; or
•
click the File tab, and click a file from the list of Recent Workbooks displayed in the right pane. These
are grouped by the date the file was last accessed.
Key Fact: You can also press CTRL+O to display the Open dialog box.
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As you learned in a previous lesson, all applications in the Office suite automatically open files received over
the Internet in Protected Mode. You should understand that Protected Mode and Read-Only mode work the
same in Excel as they do in Word.
Closing Workbooks
When you are finished working with the current workbook, save the changes and then close the workbook
to protect it from accidental changes. Closing files also frees up system resources for other files. When you
close a workbook, Excel displays any other open workbooks or a blank background screen if no workbooks
are open.
To close a workbook, click the File tab and click Close.
Key Fact: You can also press CTRL+W or CTRL+F4 to close the workbook, or click the Close button to shut
down the application. These work in any Office application.
Exercise 10-1: Create New
In this exercise you will create new workbooks and enter data in one of them. You will also save some of the
new files for future use.
1.
Start Microsoft Excel, if necessary. Click Blank workbook to create a new workbook.
Excel displays the new blank workbook that contains a blank worksheet.
2.
Press CTRL+N to quickly create another new blank workbook.
This new workbook should show Book2 in the title bar (the number may vary depending on how many
times you pressed the shortcut key). Notice that the active cell is A1 – it should be highlighted with a
darker border around it and both column A and row 1 change color because these contain the cell that
is currently active. As you click in different cells, the column heading and row number will change color
accordingly.
3.
In cell A1 of Book2, type: <Your Name> - Bank Reconciliation and press ENTER.
The cursor should now be in cell A2 (you are still in column A but now in row 2).
4.
Type: Date and press TAB to go to cell B2.
5.
Type: Item and press TAB to move to cell C2. Type: Cash In.
6.
Press TAB to move to cell D2, type: Cash Out, press TAB to go to E2, type: Balance, and press ENTER.
This time the cursor is in cell A3.
7.
Press TAB to go to cell B3, type: Cash in Bank, press TAB to move to cell C3, type: 525 and press ENTER.
8.
In cell A4, type: Jan 1 and press TAB. Continue entering the information as shown:
9.
On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save.
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10. Click This PC in the middle pane and click the arrow at the left of Documents. Navigate to the Excel
folder in the student data files, then in the file name field, type: Bank Reconciliation - Student (use
your name or initials in place of “Student”) and click Save.
11. Click in cell B1 and type in today’s date using the mmm dd, yyyy format, for example, May 11, 2016 and
press ENTER.
You should notice the title text has been cut off by the date. This is an example of why you want to watch
where you are entering data and how it affects areas in the report.
12. Save the workbook again.
Now create a new workbook using a template.
13. Click the File tab and then click New.
14. Scroll in the list and then click Simple monthly budget. Click Create.
Notice how Excel created a new copy of this file for you using a similar name (Simple monthly budget1)
to remind you of which template you used. If you were planning to use this form, you could click each
field to enter the appropriate information. For the purpose of this demonstration, you will just save it.
15. Press CTRL+S to save this file. Click This PC and navigate to the Excel folder in the student data files.
16. Click in the filename field, type: Simple monthly budget - Student and press ENTER.
17. Press CTRL+N to create a new blank workbook.
You now have at least four workbooks open (the number will depend on the number of times you created
a blank workbook or a new document from a template).
18. Point at the Excel icon on the Windows taskbar and you should have at least four preview windows
displayed.
19. Click the Bank Reconciliation - Student file.
This file is now the active workbook on the screen.
20. Point at the Excel icon and then click the blank workbook created in step 17.
21. Close this workbook by pressing CTRL+W.
22. Then press CTRL+W to close all other workbooks.
Now try opening a file.
23. Click File and then click Open.
There should be at least two files in the list of files most recently accessed.
24. Click Bank Reconciliation – Student from the list.
25. Press CTRL+O and click Simple monthly budget – Student.
26. Click File, click Open, and click This PC. Ensure you are viewing the contents of the Excel folder, then
click Tour Prices to open this file.
Now save this file in another format so you can send it to someone who is using an earlier version of Excel.
27. Click File, click Save As. Click the arrow for the Save as type field and then click Excel 97-2003
Workbook (*.xls). Click Save.
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The file has been saved in this format and will also display a different icon at the left of this file name
than the Excel 2016 file.
Open a file that has been saved with Protected View.
28. Click File, click Open, and click This PC. If necessary, click Excel, and then click Eco Cruises to open this
file.
Notice the warning bar across the top of the file informing you that this file is in protected view mode.
29. Press CTRL+W as necessary to close all open files.
Manipulating the Contents
Objective 2-1.1, 2-1.7, 2-3.1, 2-3.2, 2-3.3, 2-3.9
The easiest way to change cell contents is to type the new content, press ENTER and have Excel replace the
old information with the new entry. To correct errors as you type, press BACKSPACE or DELETE prior to
pressing ENTER or moving to another cell.
If you want to add, delete, or change less than the entire contents of the cell, you can activate Excel’s Edit
mode by pressing F2 or double-clicking on the cell; Excel will display the insertion point and you can proceed
in one of the following ways:
•
Select the text in the cell, type the replacement text, and press ENTER to exit the Edit mode; or
•
use the DELETE key to remove any unwanted characters from the cell contents.
Selecting Cells
Prior to performing an action, you must indicate what range or part of the worksheet to affect with that
action. A range can be a single cell, several cells, or the entire worksheet. Selected cells remain selected or
highlighted until you click a cell or press an arrow key. The selected range appears in reverse color to the
cells. The active cell in the selected range appears in normal color. You can select individual cells or any range
of cells as follows:
Single cell – Click the cell.
Extend the selection – Click the first cell and drag to the end of the required range; or click the first cell,
hold the SHIFT key, and click the end cell in the range.
Entire row – Click the row header when you see the
.
Entire column – Click the column header when you see the .
Entire worksheet – Click the Select All button.
Non-adjacent cells, columns, or rows – Click the cell, column, or row, hold the CTRL key, then click to select
the next cell, column, or row.
Multiple rows – Click the first row number and drag for the number of rows to select.
Multiple columns – Click the first column letter and drag for the number of columns to select.
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The following figure shows numerous selected ranges within a worksheet.
Using Undo or Repeat
Excel includes an Undo function that enables you to undo commands executed in the worksheet.
Excel can undo up to a maximum of 100 recently-used commands; this “undo history” displays when you
click the arrow beside the
(Undo) button. The Undo command can be performed only in the reverse
sequence of the changes made to the worksheet; you cannot reverse the changes in a sequence of your
choosing. Undo does not work for some commands such as saving the file.
If you need to reverse an undo, you can redo or repeat it. The Repeat function is available only if one or more
commands were undone. To display the repeat history, click the arrow beside the
(Repeat) button. Like
the Undo command, these last 100 commands must be performed in the reverse sequence of the actions
that were undone.
Copying and Moving Data
Excel enables you to copy or move cell contents from a different part of the same worksheet, another
worksheet in the same workbook, or a worksheet in a different workbook. The command buttons and
shortcut keys are the same as they are Word.
Cut – Removes the contents of a cell or a range of cells to the Office Clipboard.
Copy – Copies the contents of a cell or a range of cells to the Office Clipboard.
Paste – Pastes any or all contents from the Office Clipboard into one or more cell locations.
Key Fact: You can press CTRL+C for copy, CTRL+X for cut and CTRL+ V for paste in any Office application.
Before you can activate the copy or cut command, you must select a range of cells. Once you activate either
the cut or copy command, a marquee (moving dotted rectangle) will appear around the selection, identifying
what will be cut or copied. To cancel the marquee, press ESC.
You can then use Paste to place the cut or copied item into the new location; alternatively you can press
ENTER to paste the item and turn off the marquee at the same time.
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Using the Office Clipboard
You can cut or copy more than one cell range, and keep up to 24 cell ranges in
the Office Clipboard at one time. You can then paste any or all these items in any
sequence. When you cut or copy the 25th item, the first one in the list will
disappear, making room for this new entry.
Activate the commands for cut, copy, and paste using the Home tab, in the
Clipboard group, or with the keyboard shortcuts. Display the Office Clipboard at
any time by clicking the Clipboard dialog box launcher in the Clipboard group of
the Home tab.
As with all Office applications, the Office Clipboard can contain cut or copied
items from any application, including a non-Office application.
Paste All – Paste all items in the same order they were collected into the current
location on the worksheet.
Clear All – Clear the Office Clipboard of all entries.
Options – Set how the Office Clipboard works.
Changing the Column Widths
You can adjust column widths to display more characters. When a text entry in a cell is longer than the width
of the column, Excel displays the text by overflowing the entry into the cells
to the right, if they are empty. If the cell to the right contains information,
the text is truncated or “cut off” at the column boundary.
If the width is not wide enough to display all the digits of a numeric or date value, Excel displays # symbols.
If you increase the width of the column sufficiently, the value will be shown in standard format using any
assigned cell formatting.
Column widths can be set between zero and 255 characters. When you change a column width, the stored
contents of the cells do not change, only the number of the characters displayed.
To change the width of a column, on the Home tab, in the Cells group, click Format, and then Column Width.
Type a value in the Column width box and click OK or press ENTER.
Hint: You can also point the mouse pointer on the line at the right edge of the
column header to be adjusted, and when you see
required width for the column.
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Adjusting the Row Height
When you need to adjust the row height so the row is smaller or larger than others in the worksheet, on the
Home tab, in the Cells group, click Format, and then Row Height.
Type a value in the Row height box and click OK or press ENTER.
Hint: You can also point at the bottom edge of the row header to be adjusted, and
when you see
, click and drag to the height required.
Manipulating Rows, Columns, or Cells
Insert new rows, columns, or cells when you need to add information or separate parts of the worksheet.
Delete rows, columns, or cells of data that you do not need in the worksheet.
Inserting Rows, Columns, or Cells
You can insert a new row above the current row, and a new column to the left of the current column. You
can insert one or more rows or columns at the same time.
You can also insert cells in specific areas of the worksheet; use caution when
activating this option as it can alter the structure of your worksheet. On the Home
tab, in the Cells group, click the arrow for Insert to select the item to be inserted.
Be careful using these commands as they affect the entire worksheet and may affect
areas of the worksheet you are not viewing on the screen. For example, if you want
to insert a row but only have one cell in the row selected, click the arrow for the Insert command to insert
the row; do not click the Insert command on its own as Excel will insert a cell in the current cursor location
only for that one column.
Hint: Click the row heading or column heading where you want to insert a new row or column. Then press
CTRL++ on the Numeric Keypad.
Deleting Rows, Columns, or Cells
You can delete one or several rows or columns, or shift cells over in place of deleted
cells. Deleting the contents of a cell affects only the contents, not the structure of
the worksheet. Deleting a cell affects the structure of the worksheet. On the Home
tab, in the Cells group, click the arrow for Delete to select the item to be deleted.
Hint: Click the row heading or column heading where you want to delete. Then
press CTRL+– on the Numeric Keypad.
Be careful when deleting entire rows or columns to ensure you do not accidentally
delete valuable data not currently displayed on the screen.
Exercise 10-2: Bank Reconciliation
In this exercise you will complete a workbook by adding similar entries into cells of a worksheet as well as
adjust the column widths to make the report comprehensive.
1.
Click File, click Open, and click the Bank Reconciliation - Student file to open it.
2.
Click File, click Save As, and in the File name field, type: Bank Reconciliation adjusted - Student as
the new name and then click Save.
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Click B1 and press DELETE. Then on the Quick Access Toolbar, click Undo.
The date should be back in the report.
4.
On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Redo to remove the date again.
5.
On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the Clipboard dialog box launcher button.
6.
Select cells B4 and C4 which contain the payday information. Then on the Home tab, in the Clipboard
group, click Copy.
Notice how the Office Clipboard now shows an entry for the contents of this cell range. You should also
notice the marquee around cells B4 and C4, reminding you this is the original source for the copy action.
7.
Click in cell B8 and then click the entry in the Clipboard.
You have just successfully copied and pasted an entry from one cell range to another (the marquee no
longer appears around the original source).
8.
Click in cell A8, type: Jan 15 and press ENTER.
9.
In cell A9, type: Gas, press TAB twice, type: 53.45 and press ENTER. The information has been entered
into the wrong cells.
10. Select cells A9 to C9, and press CTRL+X to cut the information.
11. Click in cell B9, and press CTRL+V to paste this entry into this location.
12. Click the
on the Office Clipboard. Then save the workbook.
Now try adjusting the worksheet to improve the readability of the report.
13. Place the cursor between the column heading for B and C. You should see the
the column headers.
icon appear between
14. Click and drag to the right to increase the size of column B.
Notice as you drag that Excel displays a small ScreenTip indicating the width of the column, such as
12.14.
15. Release the mouse when you see the 12.71 or 13.00 measurement.
Now insert a blank row to place some room between the title of the report and the column headings.
16. Click the row 2 heading. On the Home tab, in the Cells group, click Insert.
Excel automatically inserted a row as a result of selecting the entire row before selecting the command;
Excel can recognize what or where you want to apply a feature.
17. Save the workbook.
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Creating Simple Formulas
Objective 2-3.5
A formula is a calculation using numbers (or other data) in a cell or from other cells. It can be as simple as a
single cell or it can be as complex as required in a large worksheet of one workbook that may be linked to
other workbooks. Using a formula to calculate values enables you to focus on the data and allow Excel to
automatically recalculate the results if the data changes.
To begin a formula in any cell, you must enter = (equals symbol). Depending on the formula, this is usually
followed by a cell address, a mathematical operand, and then another cell address, as seen in the following:
=B3*F16
•
You can enter a cell address into a formula by typing it directly into the cell, or by clicking on the cells to
be included.
•
The cell into which you enter a formula will display the result of the formula; the formula itself will be
visible in the Formula bar.
Excel calculates formulas in “natural order”: exponents first, then multiplication and division, and then
addition and subtraction. This order can be altered by inserting parentheses or brackets around portions of
the formula; Excel will calculate the portions inside parentheses before calculating the other items in the
formula.
The following symbols are used in Excel to represent standard mathematical operators:
*
Multiplication
+
Addition
/
Division
-
Subtraction
Cells containing formulas can be copied to other cells. If these formulas contain cell references, Excel will
automatically adjust the cell references when you paste the formulas into a new location.
Using Common Built-In Functions
Excel provides over 300 built-in functions for mathematical and data operations. Functions accept numbers,
values, and cell references as arguments within parentheses, following this format:
=FUNCTION(numbers or values or cell references)
Some common functions you will use include:
=SUM – Calculates the sum of the values in the range of specified cells.
=AVERAGE – Calculates an average of the values in the specified cells (totals the range and divides the total
by the number of entries).
=MIN – Displays the minimum value in the range of specified cells.
=MAX – Displays the maximum value in the range of specified cells.
=COUNT – Counts the number of values within the specified range.
Cell ranges in a function should be indicated as follows:
<first cell address>:<last cell address>
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You can specify a range by typing the cell reference directly or by using the “point-to” method, where you
use the mouse to click and drag to select the cell range. The latter method allows you to visually identify the
cell range, which reduces the chance that you will enter incorrect cell references.
Be sure to verify that you have selected the correct cell range for the function. If there is even one blank cell
between cells, the range may not include all cells.
Using Absolute and Relative Addresses
Most formulas entered into an Excel worksheet refer to cell addresses which are relative. If you copy a formula
with a relative cell address and paste it to another cell, Excel will automatically adjust the cell references in
the pasted cell to reflect the new location. For example, suppose you have a formula that adds three rows
together within one column; you can copy this formula to another column to add the same three rows in the
new column. The cell addresses used in the formula are relative to the column in which you place the formula.
An absolute cell address refers to an exact or fixed location on the worksheet.
To change a relative cell address to an absolute (fixed) cell address in a formula or function:
•
Type a dollar sign before the row number and/or column letter; or
•
press F4 once you enter the cell address.
Exercise 10-3: Bank Reconciliation Formulas
In this exercise, you will enter a few simple formulas using math operators.
1.
Ensure the Bank Reconciliation adjusted – Student file is open and save it as Bank Reconciliation with
2.
Click in cell E4. Type: =C4 and press ENTER.
formulas - Student.
You successfully entered a simple formula into cell F4 that inserts the contents of cell C4 as the starting
formula.
3.
In cell E5, type: =C5+E4 and press ENTER.
Excel now displays the total of the starting balance plus the amount of the new cash.
4.
Click in cell C4 and type: 725. Press ENTER.
Notice how the formula updates to accommodate the new value. You can see how using a formula saves
you the time of having to change the data if you had entered it manually.
5.
Click in cell E6 and type: = to start the formula. Click cell E5, type: - (dash or minus sign), click cell D6
and press ENTER.
Notice how this time you clicked the cells for the formula instead of typing the cell addresses manually.
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Click cell E6 and press CTRL+C. Then select cells E7:E8 and press ENTER.
Excel has copied the formula in cell E6 and adjusted the cell addresses for the next two rows. This is an
example of relative cell referencing.
7.
In cell E9, type: =E8+C9 and press ENTER.
If you were to continue with the report, you would continue to enter data to indicate the cash going into
and out of the bank account, inserting formulas as applicable to calculate the changes.
8.
Save and close the report.
Now try using functions in a worksheet to show totals for the pricing set on tours for the upcoming year.
9.
Open the Tour Prices file and save as Tour Prices - Student.
10. Click the column heading for Column C, drag across to Column G, then release the mouse button.
Columns C through G are now selected.
11. In the Home tab, in the Cells group, click Format, then click Column Width to open the Column Width
dialog box. Type: 11 and then press ENTER to change the width of the selected columns to 11.
12. Click in cell G5. Then on the Home tab, in the Editing group, click AutoSum.
Excel now identifies the cells you may want to sum or total. If these are correct, you need only accept
the suggested cell range. If you need to change the range of cells, click to select the cells you want to
be included in the formula.
13. Press ENTER to accept the formula in this cell and move the cursor to the next cell below.
You will now insert formulas to total the remaining tours.
14. Click in cell G5 again and then on the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click Copy. Excel copies the
formula to the clipboard.
15. Click cell G6 and drag down to cell G15. Press ENTER.
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Excel pastes the formula into the remaining cells.
16. Click cell G6 to see how the formula appears.
You should notice that the cell references for the AutoSum range have adjusted to reflect the total for
this row instead. That is, the range is B6:F6 for row 6, but it will be B7:F7 for row 7 and so on.
17. Save the worksheet.
Suppose there is now a possibility that you may have to raise the tour prices by 25% to cover varying
exchange rates.
18. Click cell A20, type: Exchange Rate as the label and press TAB. In cell B20, type: 1.25 as the rate and
press ENTER.
19. Click cell I5. Type: = and then click cell G5.
20. Type: * to insert a multiplication operator and then click cell B20. Press ENTER to accept the formula.
21. Copy the results of this cell down to the cell I15.
You should notice that the remaining cells have no results in them from the copying of the original
formula. This is because Excel uses relative cell addressing by default. What we need to do is set the
appropriate cell in the original formula to be static or absolute so the new rate will be calculated correctly
in the remaining cells.
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22. Click in cell I5 and then click in the Formula bar to activate the Edit mode. With the cursor at the end of
the B20 cell address reference, press F4.
23. Press ENTER to accept this change.
You have specified that cell B20 is an absolute cell address. Neither the row nor the column will be
adjusted as you copy and paste.
24. Copy this formula down to cell I15.
25. Click in several of the cells to look at the formula, and notice how the first cell changed to recognize the
value but the cell with the Exchange Rate stayed constant.
26. Save and close the workbook.
What Does Formatting Mean?
Objective 2-3.9, 2-3.10
Formatting refers to changing the appearance of data to draw attention to parts of the worksheet, or to make
the data easier to read. Formatting does not affect any underlying values.
•
You can format a cell or range of cells at any time, either before or after you enter the data.
•
A cell remains formatted until you clear the format or reformat the cell.
•
When you enter new data in the cell, Excel will display it in the existing format.
•
When you copy or fill a cell, you copy its format along with the cell contents.
To apply formatting, on the Home tab, click the command to apply formatting from the appropriate group.
Excel provides other methods to access formatting options such as keyboard shortcuts or the Mini toolbar;
the following demonstrates the most commonly used method to access these formatting options.
Hint: You can also press CTRL+1 to display the Format Cells dialog box for further options on formatting
various elements of the worksheet.
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Formatting Numbers and Decimal Digits
When you enter numbers, Excel displays them exactly as you entered them except
for any trailing zeros. Also, numbers larger than the width of the cell will display in
scientific notation format.
•
To format selected cells that contain values, on the Home tab, in the Number
group, click the arrow for Number Format, and click the format required, or
•
click one of the commonly-used number format buttons in the Number group
of the Home tab.
Accounting
Number
Format
Comma
Style
Percent
Style
Changing Cell Alignment
Alignment refers to the position of data within a cell. You can align cell contents horizontally (column width)
and vertically (row height).
•
By default, new values entered into a worksheet use the General alignment option: numbers and dates
automatically right-align, while text labels automatically left-align.
•
Use Merge & Center to center a text label across several cells.
You can also wrap text in a cell or rotate it at a specific angle.
–
Vertical Alignment
Options
To split cells that were merged using Merge & Center, click
the arrow on the Merge & Center button, then click
Unmerge Cells.
To change the alignment for selected cells, on the Home tab, in the
Alignment group, click the alignment option required.
Horizontal Alignment
Options
Changing Fonts and Sizes
A font is a typeface or text style. Changing fonts alters the way text and numbers appear.
Note: Keep the number of fonts in a worksheet to one or two, as the
appearance of too many font styles can be distracting.
To format selected cells, on the Home tab, in the Font group, click the desired
format.
Applying Cell Borders
Borders separate groups of data to improve legibility, especially when the worksheet contains a large volume
of numbers. This feature enables you to draw lines around any or all edges of a cell or range of cells. You can
choose presets, line thickness, color/style options, and location of borders.
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To apply a border to a cell, on the Home tab in the Font group, click the arrow for
(Borders) and click
the side you want to apply a border; alternatively, click More Borders to apply other formatting options for
the borders from within the Border tab of the Format Cells dialog box.
Applying Colors and Patterns
The Fill option sets the background color and pattern for a cell. Patterns and colors draw attention to certain
parts of your worksheet, and can act as a visual divider of information.
Patterns and colors are different features. Patterns can make it harder to read the data than using a solid
color; whenever possible, avoid dark colors and dense patterns that can obscure the information in the cells.
To apply a color or pattern to a cell, on the Home tab, in the Font group, click the arrow for
(Fill Color).
Exercise 10-4: Balance Sheet
In this exercise, you will format different parts of the worksheet to emphasize values and text.
1.
Open the Balance Sheet file and save it as Balance Sheet - Student.
2.
Select cells A1 to C1. Then on the Home tab, in the Alignment group, click Merge & Center.
3.
Repeat step 2 for cells A2 to C2 and A3 to C3.
4.
Select the three cells and on the Home tab, in the Font group, click
5.
Click the arrow for Font Size and change this to 14.
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Click cell B5 and drag to cell C5. Press CTRL and then click cells A6, A11, A13, A16, A18, A21 and A23,
then release CTRL.
7.
Press CTRL+B to add bold to all these cells.
8.
Select cells B7 to C10, press CTRL and select cells B14 to C15 and also cells B19 to C20.
9.
On the Home tab in the Number group, click
.
10. Click cells B11 to C11, press CTRL, then click B16 to C16, B21 to C21, and B23 to C23.
11. On the Home tab, in the Number group, click
.
You have successfully applied two different number styles to the report to reflect the different types of
data, such as list items versus total values.
12. Select cells B11 to C11 and then B23 to C23. On the Home tab in the Number group, click the Number
dialog box launcher.
13. Click the Font tab. Click the arrow for the Underline option and click Double. In the field to the right,
change the color to a dark red. Click OK.
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14. Select cells B5 to B23. Then on the Home tab, in the Font group, click the arrow for the Fill Color button
and then click White, Background 1, Darker 5%.
15. Click anywhere away from the selected cell range to view the fill.
When choosing a background color, try to choose one that does not make the values difficult to read or
that emphasizes the wrong items or areas of the worksheet. On occasion you may find you need to
adjust the colors accordingly.
16. Save and close the workbook.
Working with Charts
Objective 2-3.7
A chart is a pictorial representation of data in a worksheet. A chart can be a more descriptive way of
representing your data, as it can clearly illustrate trends or patterns in the data.
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You can create a chart by selecting data from the worksheet, and then select the type of chart to insert into
the worksheet. Once you have created the chart, you can save it with the workbook.
Chart Title
Legend
Vertical
Axis/Series
Horizontal
Axis/Series
To create a chart, select the cell range(s) for the chart in the worksheet and then, on the Insert tab, in the
Charts group, click the chart type.
Once the chart has been created, it will reflect any patterns or trends in the worksheet data and show that
information in a picture format. Remember that the chart is created based on the cells you select prior to
activating the chart feature; if the data in the chart does not match your analysis of the data, you will need
to check the series used in the chart (both the items being charted and any time intervals).
You can also try changing the chart type to one that will better reflect the type of data you are trying to
illustrate. For example, a line chart can show a significant increase in product sales at a glance better than a
bar chart would, while a pie chart may do a better job of contrasting sales figures for a product during a
specified period. A pie chart can emphasize the total revenue of each location for the year as it compares the
values as a whole. A column or bar chart can display the same information as a comparison or ranking in a
side-by-side format.
When a chart is on screen, you can select it to display the Chart Tools ribbon, which consists of two tabs with
additional options for modifying or customizing the chart.
Selecting Chart Types
As noted previously, the type of chart you select will depend on what you are trying to show. Line charts are
better for trends, bar charts are better for volume, and pie charts are best for showing portions of a total.
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Excel provides a variety of chart types and several subtypes within each major type:
Column – Compares values over time or categories in a vertical presentation.
Line – Compares continuous trends.
Pie – Compares series that make up a whole.
Bar – Compares values over time or categories in a horizontal presentation.
Area – Compares a continuous change in volume.
X Y (Scatter) – Determines data patterns.
Stock – Displays high-low-close data; requires at least three sets of data.
Surface – Displays trends in values with a three-dimensional presentation and a continuous surface.
Radar – Determines patterns or trends with points matched up by lines.
You can create any of these charts in two-dimensional or three-dimensional form; the latter can be more
interesting to look at, but may be more difficult to interpret. Alternatively, if you would like a recommendation
for a chart type to use, click the Recommended Charts tab to review samples of how your data will appear
in each chart type.
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To change the chart type, click the chart and then under Chart Tools, on the Design tab, in the Type group,
click Change Chart Type.
Changing the Chart Layout
Excel generates a chart using standard defaults. Modify the layout to create exactly the look you want. Use
commands on the Chart Tools ribbon to manipulate items on the chart.
Axes – Include labels on the horizontal and vertical axes.
Axis Titles – Add titles to the horizontal and vertical axes; you can also customize items
for the chart, such as the units used in the vertical axis.
Chart Title – Add a title for the chart.
Data Labels – Include data labels on the chart.
Data Table – Display the chart data beneath the chart.
Error Bars – Displays margins of error and standard deviations on the chart.
Gridlines – Include gridlines on the chart.
Legend – Include a legend and position it in relation to the chart.
Exercise 10-5: Eco Cruises
In this exercise, you will create a simple chart and add elements to the chart to make it more effective in
determining if there is a pattern for cruise ship preferences.
1.
Open the Eco Cruises file, click Enable Editing, save it as Eco Cruises – Student and then click the
2.
Select cells A1 to G7. Click the Insert tab, in the Charts group, click Insert Column or Bar Chart and
Enable Content button.
then Clustered Column in the 2-D Column area.
Similar to working with pictures, there are handles that you can use to size the chart object; these are
represented by small squares instead of circles. To move the chart object, position the cursor anywhere
on a blank area of the border around the chart and when you see
, you can then drag the chart to a
different location on the worksheet.
3.
Position the mouse cursor on a blank area of the top border of the chart object and drag it to below the
data table.
4.
Click the bottom right handle of the chart object and drag to resize it so it fits within the range A9:J27.
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Notice how as you resize the chart, more text appeared across the bottom of the chart, or the horizontal
axis. As such, the bars are now too thin to view; you may also want to switch the data so the cruise ships
appear across the horizontal axis instead.
5.
Under Chart Tools, on the Design tab, in the Data group, click Switch Row/Column.
The way you display the chart data will depend on what your focus is; in this case, the current layout
represents the data in a more effective manner as we can quickly see which cruise liners seem to be
doing the most business, as well as during which time frame. You can also modify the scale for the
horizontal axis if you prefer the previous display. For this exercise, we will leave it with the cruise ships
listed in the horizontal axis.
6.
At the top of the chart, click to select the Chart Title element and then drag to select the text. Type: June
Bookings and then click anywhere else on the chart.
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Let’s change the chart type to give the chart more impact.
7.
Under Chart Tools, on the Design tab, and in the Type group, click Change Chart Type.
8.
Click the Line chart type. Click OK.
The data is still in a chart format but now may not be as easy to interpret any trends or view comparisons
as with the other chart type. This is an example of how you choose a chart type that best represents the
data or trend you want others to see in the report.
9.
Repeats step 7 and 8 to try different chart types and decide which chart type best shows the data in this
file.
10. Save and close the workbook.
Working with Lists and Databases
Objective 2-3.4, 2-3.13
Most often in Excel, data is arranged into lists. The word “list” is a term from the early days of Excel, and
generally it refers to data that is arranged into a series of columns. The top row of the list includes headings
or column titles (formatted in bold), and the rows below contain the data. Column titles are also called field
names.
In order for a list to be meaningful, each column within the list should contain the same type of data for each
row of information. Consider the list shown in the following figure:
Notice that column A contains movie titles for each row shown in the list, while column B contains genre
information, and column C contains media type information.
Arranging data into lists makes it easy to sort and filter the information.
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Sorting Data
One advantage of using Excel to store data is the option to sort and organize the data based on the values
in the selected columns or rows. You can sort and re-sort data as many times as required, using different sort
criteria each time. You can sort data by columns or rows; however, it is far more common to sort by columns.
On the Home tab, in the Editing group, click Sort & Filter.
Sort A to Z – Sort items in ascending order (for example, A to Z or 0 to 9).
Sort Z to A – Sort items in descending order (for example, Z to A or 9 to 0).
Custom Sort – Set up to 64 levels or priority on what items to sort by order (for example,
Last Name, then by First Name, then by Purchases, then by Product, and so on.
Filter – Search for specific items and show only those items that match.
Clear – Clear the filter and show all items in the worksheet.
Reapply – Apply the filter once more.
Filtering Information
Finding information in a large or unorganized worksheet can be simplified by sorting; however, you still have
to look through all the rows to find what you want. Another way to locate information quickly is to use a filter
to hide the rows you are not interested in. Filtering does not change the content of your worksheet or the
sequence of the information, only what you see.
The quickest and easiest way to filter data in Excel is to use the AutoFilter tool. When you activate this tool,
Excel places AutoFilter icons on the right side of each column or field name. Use these icons to select the
conditions for the records you want displayed. Initially all information is shown.
The AutoFilter can find rows where a cell is equal to a specific value or set of values. Other selection criteria
give you the flexibility to find almost anything you need, including values that are not equal, greater than,
less than, greater than or equal to, less than or equal to, and between. Certain types of fields have additional
selection criteria:
To activate the Filter command, on the Data tab, in the Sort & Filter group, click Filter.
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When the filter command is activated, Excel places arrows on each column heading that you can use to filter
data in the worksheet. Use these arrows to filter the information and show only the data you want to view.
You can choose to filter the data using one of the options in the top portion of the drop-down menu, clear
or create a custom filter, or click to turn on or off an item in the list to display the items you want to see in
the worksheet.
To clear a filter, click the AutoFilter button for the filtered data and then click Clear Filter From.
Exercise 10-6: Inventory Sort
In this exercise, you will sort the inventory list by different criteria.
1.
Open the Inventory file and save as Inventory to Sort - Student.
2.
Click in cell A2. Then on the Home tab, in the Editing group, click Sort & Filter.
3.
Click Sort A to Z.
Now let’s set up two different sort criteria.
4.
Click in cell B2.
5.
On the Home tab, in the Editing group, click Soft & Filter and then click Sort Z to A.
The inventory list is now sorted by genre.
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6.
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Save the workbook.
Now use the Filter feature to show only data you are interested in viewing.
7.
On the Home tab, in the Editing group, click Sort & Filter and then click Filter.
Arrows should appear at the bottom right of each column heading in the worksheet.
8.
Click the AutoFilter button for Genre.
Notice that Excel gives you the option to sort the data, as needed, in addition to setting conditions to
find a specific piece of data using the Text Filters.
9.
Click Select All to turn off this option and then click Animation. Then click OK.
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You should now be able to see only the titles that are listed as Animation. Notice that the filter button
changes to appear as
from
. This is a visual indicator that a filter has been applied in the worksheet.
Another indicator is the non-sequential row numbers which display in blue, and the 8 of 40 records found
notification that displays in the status bar.
10. On the Home tab, in the Editing group, click Sort & Filter and then click Clear.
You should now see the entire inventory list again.
11. Click the AutoFilter arrow for Media Type. Deselect Select All, click Blu-ray and click OK.
12. Click the AutoFilter arrow for Genre and deselect Select All. Click Action and Drama. Click OK.
13. Click the filter button for Media Type and click Clear Filter from Media Type (DVD/Blu-ray).
Notice how the list now contains more information that matches the filter for Genre.
14. Save and close the worksheet.
Understanding Excel Databases
Databases in Excel are really lists that adhere to a special set of requirements:
•
The first row of the database must contain field names (titles) at the top of each column.
•
Each column in the database must contain the same category of data in every row in the column.
•
Each row (record) in the database contains all of the fields of data.
•
The row containing the field names must be formatted differently from the rest of the list (for example,
they should appear in bold, or italics).
•
There can be no blank rows in the list (there can be blank cells in a column, but an entire row cannot be
empty)
•
Data in a column must be in the same format for every row in the column. That is, entry in a given column
must be numbers, or every entry must be text, or every entry must be dates; you cannot mix and match
within a column.
Other data that you want to include in the worksheet that is not part of the database can be located outside
the boundaries of the database.
You can use Excel to create and maintain simple databases quite easily, and you can use sorting and filtering
to find the data you want.
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Lesson 10
Working with Tables
Objective 2-3.8
Many worksheets consist of a rectangular block of data in which the rows of data have a common structure
and format. Excel offers you the ability to define this block as a table. As a table, you can use a variety of
tools such as selecting summary formulas, formatting, sorting, and filtering. These same features are available
even without using tables but you would have to select the columns of data manually. However, by defining
a range of cells as a table, you indicate to Excel that this group belongs together as a single unit. These same
tools are then easier to apply because Excel now knows which cells to include.
To create a table, the data you want to include must be contiguous. That is, there must not be any blank rows
or columns in the range of cells. Also, the data must be arranged in row order, with a header at the top of
each column and the data listed below.
To convert a range of cells containing data to a table, use one of the following methods:
•
On the Insert tab, in the Tables group, click Table, or
•
on the Home tab, in the Styles group, click Format as Table, then click a table style.
Once you create the table, Excel activates an AutoFilter icon next to each column title and applies the current
active theme. The Table Tools Design tab is also added to the Ribbon:
One of the table features is the ability to insert an automatic Total Row at the bottom of the table.
Modifying Table Data
After the table is created, you can add or delete rows and columns of data.
•
To add a new column of data at the far right of a table, simply enter this data into the first blank column.
Excel will automatically extend the table to include this new column.
•
Similarly, Excel will extend the table to include a new row of data that you enter directly below a table,
as long as the Total Row feature is not activated. If the Total Row is activated, you must click any cell in
the bottom data row, then on the Home tab, in the Cells group, click the arrow next to Insert, and click
Insert Table Row Below.
Similarly, on the Home tab, in the Cells group, you can use the Delete button to delete rows or columns of
data from the table.
Formatting Table Data
By default, the theme selected for the workbook is applied to all tables in that workbook. You can override it
for specific tables by selecting a different style under Table Tools, on the Design tab, in the Table Styles
group.
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The table style colors option can also be removed, and re-applied later if needed again. If none of these
predefined table styles are suitable, you can also create a customized one.
The Table Tools Design tab also allows you to activate or de-activate other table formatting options including:
•
Highlighting the first or last column – or both – with the bold font option. By default, both options are
turned off.
•
“Banding” rows by using different color shades for alternating rows. This feature often improves the
readability of tables that are very wide because data in the same row have the same background color.
By default, the Banded Rows option is turned on, but Banded Columns is turned off.
Exercise 10-7: Monthly Call
This exercise demonstrates how to create a table, assign a name of your choice to the table, and add a total
row at the bottom.
1.
Open the Monthly Call Volume workbook and save as Monthly Call Volume – Student.
Now convert the data to a table.
Hint: When creating a table, leave at least one empty row and column on all sides of the table to separate
it from any other data on the worksheet.
2.
Click any cell in the range A4:E15. On the Insert tab, in the Tables group, click Table.
3.
Confirm that My table has headers is turned on and then click OK.
The data is now converted into a table. Change the table name to something that is more meaningful to you.
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4.
Under Table Tools, on the Design tab, in the Properties group, click in the Table Name field and replace
5.
Under Table Tools, on the Design tab, in the Table Style Options group, click Total Row to turn it on.
the default name with: CallVolume (with no spaces between the words).
Note: When you activate the
Total row, Excel automatically
moves any data below the table
down by one row.
6.
Select cell B16, click the drop-down arrow that appears next to it, and click Average.
7.
Repeat step 7 for the Count, Max, and Min options for cell B16.
8.
Repeat step 7 for the Sum option for cell B16.
9.
Select each of the cells C16:D16 and select the Sum function.
Note: You cannot copy the contents of a column total to other cells in a table.
If you also want to display row totals (in a new column to the right of the table), you will have to insert them
manually. Tables do not have the ability to create row totals automatically. Row totals show the sum total for
each row of data.
10. Click cell F4 and enter: Total.
11. With cell F5 as the active cell, on the Home tab, in the Editing group, click AutoSum and press ENTER.
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Even though you only entered the row total for the first row, Excel has automatically inserted them for
the rest of the rows, except the Total row. This demonstrates one of the advantages of identifying this
range of cells as a table.
12. Click cell F5.
You can see that the formula used for this sum total is specifically used for tables.
Now insert the Total Row calculation for this new column.
13. Select cell F16, click its drop-down arrow, and select Sum.
14. Save the workbook.
Now add a new row at the bottom of the table.
15. Select cell F15 and press TAB.
Notice that Excel automatically shifts the Total row down by one row and that the formula in cell F15 is
copied down to this new row.
16. In cell A16, type: December 2016 as the new value and press TAB. Then enter the following values into
the remaining cells of the row:
B16
C16
D16
E16
8969
7375
7
1
Notice also that the statistical formulas in row 17 (these were all Sum but you may have selected Average
or other formulas instead) automatically updated even though the new data were added at the bottom
of the list.
Now add a new column between the Complaints and Total columns.
17. Select cell F8, then on the Home tab, in the Cells group, click the arrow for Insert, and click Insert Table
Columns to the Left.
18. Click cell F4 and type: Other. Then enter the following values into the remaining cells of the column:
F5
F6
F7
F8
F9
F10
500
F11
200
250
F13
100
300
450
400
220
F12
F14
F15
F16
480
200
150
300
19. Select cell F17, click the drop-down arrow and click Sum.
By adding a column to the table, you must ensure that the Total column at the far right includes this new
column.
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20. Click cell G6, and note the formula in the Formula bar. Press F2, delete the table cell reference
[Complaints], and replace it with: [Other]. Then press ENTER.
Notice how Excel automatically updates the total in G17 once you change the field headings that are
included in the table.
If no longer needed, a column (or row) can be easily removed from a table.
21. Click any cell in the range D4 to D17, then on the Home tab, in the Cells group, click the arrow for Delete,
and click Delete Table Columns.
Now try adding another row of data to the table using a different method.
22. Enter the following values:
A18
January 2017
C18
4000
B18
D18
E18
7000
20
200
23. Ensure that cell F17 is not the active cell, then position the cursor at the bottom right corner of cell F17
so that the cursor changes to a
.
24. Click and drag the resize handle down to row 18.
Hint: If the Total row is not activated for this table, the new row would have been automatically added to
the table.
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Because you had added the new data below the Total Row, Excel did not know if you intended to keep
that data separate from the table. Therefore, you had to manually expand the table to include the January
row.
Convert the table back to a regular range of cells.
25. Ensure that the active cell is anywhere within the table, then under Table Tools, on the Design tab, in the
Tools group, click Convert to Range.
26. Click Yes.
The worksheet does not appear any different, except that the Table Tools Design tab no longer appears
and the column titles no longer display the filter buttons.
27. Click the drop-down button on the right side of the Name Box to display the list of any range names in
the worksheet.
This indicates that the Convert to Range tool simply converts the data to a set of rows and columns with
data. If you want to create range names, you must add them manually.
28. Click on any cell in the worksheet to close the Name Box list.
29. Save and close the workbook.
Finalizing the Print Output
Whenever you are ready to print a workbook, always take a moment to review it one last time, to ensure your
data is correct and that the workbook does not contain spelling errors. As you prepare for printing you may
find that you need to change the orientation, scale the output, or adjust the margins or column widths to
make the best use of the space on your pages.
Printing the Worksheet
To print a worksheet, click the File tab, and click Print.
Excel displays both the print options and a preview of the worksheet with the existing print options applied.
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The total number of pages in the printout displays at the bottom left of the preview. If the number of pages
exceeds or falls short of what you expected, you may need to revisit and/or change the page setup before
printing.
A chart in the worksheet previews or prints based on where it is positioned in the worksheet. You can move
the chart to a new worksheet, or insert a page break between the data and the chart. If you are using a
monochrome printer, the chart will print in varying shades of gray; it will print in color only if you have a color
printer.
Once you have previewed the worksheet on the screen and made sure it is ready to print, you can select the
Print command.
By default, Excel prints only the current active worksheet in the workbook. You can also specify to print all
worksheets in the workbook, a selected group of worksheets, or only a selected range of cells.
Exercise 10-8: Stock Prices
In this exercise you will preview a worksheet and take appropriate action to produce the best result when
printing.
1.
Open the Stock Prices file.
The file has the data in the first two columns but the rest of the file is a chart.
2.
To determine how the worksheet would print, click File and then click Print.
Because the chart is cut off at the right side, you need to change the layout of the report.
3.
Click the Normal Margins option and change this to Narrow Margins.
4.
Click the Portrait Orientation option and click Landscape Orientation.
5.
Click No Scaling and then click Fit Sheet on One Page.
6.
If you are connected to a printer, print the report. Otherwise, click the Back button to return to the
7.
worksheet.
Save, then close the workbook.
Lesson Summary
This lesson taught you to how to use a spreadsheet application to create simple reports such as budgets, or cash
flows. You should now be able to:

understand basic terminology or concepts for
spreadsheets


change the column width or row height

create simple formulas and use common built-in
create a new blank worksheet or use a template to
functions
create a new worksheet

enter or edit data in a worksheet
format the data in a worksheet to enhance it



open, close or save workbooks
work with charts


select cells for a variety of purposes
sort or filter information in a worksheet

copy and move data
work with tables


preview and print a report
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Review Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
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What is the difference between a workbook and a worksheet?
a.
A workbook is the actual file that contains the worksheets, which turn contain the data.
b.
The worksheets contain the data and the workbook contains the tabs for each data type.
c.
A workbook is a section that contains the worksheet reports; both are contained in a spreadsheet.
d.
There is no difference other than which term you prefer to use for spreadsheets.
Which new workbook option displays the title, Book1, when it is created?
a.
A blank workbook.
b.
A workbook created from a template.
Why would you enter labels into the worksheet?
a.
Labels should be used when you need to enter text only.
b.
Labels are entered for report titles or column headings only.
c.
Labels identify the values and help outline the mathematical relationships.
d.
Labels identify where and how the values should appear.
Which key can you press to activate the Go To command?
a.
F1
c.
CTRL+H
b.
CTRL+G
d.
F6
To select an entire row, where would you click?
a.
The cell in column A for that row.
b.
Click the row header for the row you want to select.
c.
Click the column header where your cell is in the row you want to select.
d.
Click the row number in the Name Box and press ENTER.
What displays when you activate the Cut or Copy command?
a.
A dialog box appears prompting you to proceed with the command.
b.
A new worksheet appears for you to paste the cut or copied item.
c.
The selected cells for the Cut or Copy command appear in a different color.
d.
A marquee appears around the selected cells for the Cut or Copy command.
Which is the best way to set a column to a specific width?
a.
On the Home tab, in the Cells group, click Format, click Column Width and enter the measurement.
b.
Press CTRL+W to specify the width for the column.
c.
Double-click the heading for the column to be adjusted.
d.
Press F5 and then enter the column width.
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8.
9.
When you insert a row, where does Excel place it in relation to the cursor position?
a.
Above the current row.
b.
Below the current row.
c.
You must select the row before you can insert a new row.
d.
You must copy and paste any existing data down one row to have a blank row at the cursor
position.
Which character automatically indicates the contents of a cell are a formula?
a.
$
c.
=
b.
‘
d.
“
10. How can data be aligned within a cell?
a.
Horizontally
b.
Vertically
c.
Horizontal and Vertical
d.
Horizontally, vertically, or rotated
11. Why might you want to apply borders to a cell instead of just using the gridlines on the worksheet?
a.
Borders can help to separate and identify specific cells.
b.
You can highlight a row by clicking one button for outside borders.
c.
To emphasize specific cells in the gridline.
d.
To mark the print area of the worksheet.
12. Why might you prefer to apply a background color to a cell instead of applying a pattern?
a.
There is a limited number of patterns to choose.
b.
Patterns can make it harder to read the data than using a solid color.
c.
You can choose a lighter color whereas all patterns are dark in design.
d.
Patterns should only be used with cells that have formulas.
13. What do you notice about the chart in the following?
a.
Revenues are higher every month than expenses.
b.
Expenses are higher every month than revenues.
c.
Expenses appear to increase in the first three months.
d.
Revenue is higher during the last six months of the year.
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14. What has to happen in order for column headings to display in the Sort fields?
a.
Column headers must be in row 1.
b.
Turn on the My data has headers option.
c.
The data has to start on row 1.
d.
Must copy the column headers into the Sort dialog box.
15. Why might you choose to filter a list or table instead of simply sorting it?
a.
Filtering displays only those records that match the criteria you specify; other records are
b.
You can then copy out the matched data and paste into another spreadsheet.
c.
You can also manipulate the filtered data without affecting the rest of database.
d.
You have a large amount of data you need to separate into various categories.
temporarily hidden.
16. What does it mean that the data in a table must be contiguous?
352
a.
There must be a blank line between the column headers and the first row of data.
b.
There must be no blank rows or columns in the range of cells for the table.
c.
You must have existing data in the range of cells you set up for the table.
d.
The table cannot be longer than 100 rows at a time.
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Key Applications
Lesson 11: Database Concepts
Lesson Objectives
In this lesson, you will learn basic database concepts and learn how databases are used on the World Wide Web.
Upon completion of this lesson, you should be able to:

describe the nature of data

understand database relationships

understand the purpose and function of

understand how to read a database schema

describe the uses of databases on the web
relational databases

describe database elements
What is Data?
Objective 2-4.1
Data are pieces of information. Data can be measured, collected, analyzed and reported.
Data can exist in many forms – as a phone number scribbled on a scrap of paper, as a course listing in a
catalog, or a list of test scores on a grade report.
Data is distinct from the container in which it is stored. Data can be stored on a flash drive, or in a book, or
in remote storage location on Google Drive. Data can also be stored in a spreadsheet or a database. But
these containers are not data; their contents are data.
What is a Database?
Although many people become uncomfortable at the thought of working with a database, a database is really
nothing more than an organized collection of information. The basic function of a database is to store data.
If the database is well organized, retrieving the data you want is easy, and you can then generate reports, or
lists, and analyze the data in ways that are meaningful.
Spreadsheet Databases
You can create simple databases in Excel: a database in Excel is a single table that cannot include any blank
rows or columns. This type of database is sufficient for storing relatively small amounts of simple data; but
even though you can perform complex calculations on the data in an Excel table, a single table cannot
represent or handle complex data relationships.
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Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS)
A database application, on the other hand, is designed to handle complex relationships between various
items of data, and is correctly referred to as a relational database management system (RDBMS).
Many relational database applications are available on the market. Oracle, SQL Server, MySQL, PostgreSQL,
Sybase, IBM DB2, and Microsoft Access are just a few. These programs offer various features and interfaces,
but all of them access stored data in a standard manner – through Structured Query Language (SQL).
Structured Query Language (SQL)
Structured Query Language (SQL) is the standard language used to create and work with databases. Once a
database has been created, SQL is also used to retrieve and manipulate the data. Any interaction among a
user, program and database takes place through the use of SQL.
Even though various RDBMS applications provide their own user interface, SQL is used (often behind the
scenes) to create and manage both the database elements themselves and their data.
Connectivity Standards and APIs
Generally speaking, a database is not portable from one RDBMS to another, but different RDBMS can interoperate using one of the following application programming interface standards:
•
Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) – a standard programming interface for accessing a number of
different databases, including Access, DB2, SQL Server, and MySQL.
•
Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) – a standard programming interface for accessing Oracle
databases, which run on the Java platform.
An application programming interface (API) is a set of programming building blocks that specify how software
components should interact. There are APIs for operating systems, applications, and web sites.
These interfaces make it possible to connect databases to web pages. Web designers can then use serverside programming languages to build web pages on the fly based on current database content. (You will
learn more about this shortly.)
Multiple, Related Tables
Unlike spreadsheet databases which store all the information in a single table, relational databases store data
in multiple tables which are related to one another.
Let’s consider a database that tracks activities for a gardening supply company. There might be a table that
contains customer information, a table that contains order information, a table that contains detail
information for each order and a table that contains product information.
Because the data stored in each table is related to data in the other tables of the database, a complete set of
information can be retrieved. For example, you could retrieve the complete information for a particular order,
as shown in the following figure.
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This complete set of information is extracted from the Customers, Orders, OrderItems and InventoryItems
tables, as shown in the following figure:
The shaded rows in the figure show that Order #1 was placed by Helen Anderson (Customer #1012) on
2/19/2015. The order includes three line items: one for a garden hose (item #5), one for some rosemary seed
(item #17) and one for fieldstones for a garden path (item #40).
Note that each table in the database stores data about a specific type of thing. For example, the Customers
table stores information only about customers; it does not include information about orders or inventory. In
database terms, the specific type of thing for which data is stored is called an entity. Usually, there is a table
for each entity represented in the database.
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Database Tables
Objective 2-4.3, 2-4.4
In a database, data is stored in tables.
The data in a table is organized into a series of rows and columns. The following figure shows a portion of a
typical Access database table containing product information for items sold by a garden supply shop.
Record
Field
In a database:
•
Each row in a table can be referred to as a row or a record. In the table shown in the preceding figure,
each record contains information about a different products sold by a garden supply shop.
•
Each column in a table can be referred to as a column, a field, or an attribute. Each field contains a
different type of information, such as item number, description, unit price and so on for each product.
Table Metadata
In a spreadsheet, you can create a table simply by opening a blank workbook and typing. In fact, you can
enter any type of text or value into any cell at will. A database table, however, is a different animal.
The structure of a database table must be explicitly defined before you can enter any data. A table’s structural
definition includes items such as:
•
The name of the table – each table within a database must have a unique name
•
The name of each field (column) in the table
•
The data type of each field (column)
–
The data type determines what type of data the field can contain. Each field can contain only one
type of data. If the field is designed to accept text data, only text can be added to the field. If you
enter a number into a text field, that number is treated as text (which means that you cannot perform
any calculations on such numbers.) If you define a field to accept numeric data, you cannot enter
text into that field.
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•
The size of each field (column)
–
The size determines the range of numeric or date values that can be entered, or determines the
maximum number of characters that can be entered in a text field.
The following figure show two views of the same table in Microsoft Access – the left portion shows the
defined structure of the table, and the right portion shows the data stored in the defined table structure.
Without this clearly defined structure, the data itself is simply a collection of items presented out of context
and without relation to other things. A database table’s defined structure helps the user to make sense out
of the data, and to understand what the data is.
Because the defined structure of the database table describes the data it holds, the structure is considered
metadata. Metadata is simply data that describes other data.
Note: You may have worked with metadata before. Computer files have metadata associated with them in
the form of file properties, which you can use to locate a specific document, or a particular image, or a
specific version of a program. If you have ever viewed a file’s properties in Windows, or added tags to an
image on a social media site, you have worked with metadata.
Table metadata (that is, table structure) can be represented by a simple layout called a
table schema, which lists the name of the table and the names of each field in the table.
Database designers create table schemas while they are planning a database.
Once tables are created, many database products can render table
schemas to give the database designer an overview of the tables in
the database. The following schema is generated in Microsoft Access.
Primary Key
A primary key is a field (or a combination of fields) that uniquely identifies each record stored in a table. No
two records in a table may be exact duplicates; however, two records may have identical data, other than the
primary key.
The primary key, therefore, must be unique and it cannot contain a null value. In a database, null is equivalent
to "unknown." Null is not the same thing as zero (0).
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Assigning a primary key prevents the entry of any record that contains duplicate or null values in the primary
key field. When you add a record to a table for which a primary key has been assigned, the RDBMS checks
to make sure you have included a value in the primary key field and that the value you entered does not
already exist in the primary key field of any other record in the table. When you sketch a table schema, you
can indicate the primary key by adding the notation “(PK)” to the right of the field name or by underlining
the primary key field. Microsoft Access uses a key icon to the left of the field name to denote a primary key.
Note: A primary key that is comprised of a combination of fields is called a composite key.
The following figure shows schemas for two tables. The Products table has a single field primary key (the
ItemID field), and the OrderItems table has a composite primary key (the OrderID field + the LineItem field).
Selecting a Primary Key
Selecting a primary key can be a challenge. Many times a simple numerical value that increments
automatically (for example, an "ID" field) is added to a table to serve as the primary key. However, sometimes
a table already includes a field that is a natural choice for use as a primary key. For example, in a table that
tracked book sales, an ISBN field would be a good choice.
A primary key should:
•
be a value that will never change
•
be a value that is extremely unlikely to be null
Good choices for primary keys include unique identifiers issued by an organization (such as an Employee ID
number or a Student ID number), or an ID field.
Poor choices for primary keys include people's names (as these are likely to be duplicated, and they
sometimes change), and Social Security numbers (not everyone has one, and businesses do not like to store
them because of the potential liability if they are lost or stolen).
Consider the table shown in the following figure:
Notice that there are two entries for a person named Dennis Henderson. If you looked only at the Fname
and Lname fields, the records appear to be duplicates. However, if you look at these fields and the Address
field, you can see that the records are not duplicates. It would be possible to use the combination
Fname+Lname+Address as a composite primary key.
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It would also be possible to use the ZIP field as a primary key because right now each entry for a ZIP code is
unique.
Neither of these is really a good solution. If we used the ZIP field as a primary key, we would be unable to
add a record for another person living in the same ZIP code as any person already listed in the table. Using
the combination Fname+Lname+Address field is not a good solution either because people move, and the
primary key for a person who relocates would change.
A better solution for this table would be to add an ID field, as shown in the following figure:
When you use an ID field as a primary key, you can manually enter the ID number, or you can elect to have
the RDBMS create ID numbers automatically. In Microsoft Access you can create ID numbers automatically
by setting the ID field’s data type property to AutoNumber. A field with an AutoNumber data type is
automatically updated with a unique sequential number whenever a record is added to the table. The value
in an AutoNumber field cannot be deleted or changed.
Exercise 11-1: Selecting a Key
In this exercise, you will examine table schemas and select an appropriate primary key for each table.
1.
What would be a good primary key for the Students table? _______________________________
2.
What would be a good primary key for the Movies table? _______________________________
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Table Relationships – Foreign Keys
The data in a relational database is stored in multiple tables, so naturally, there needs to be a way to bring
the data from those separate tables together in a meaningful way. This is accomplished through the defining
of table relationships.
Table relationships are defined through the creation and association of foreign keys. A foreign key is a column
(or combination of columns) in a table that references the primary key in another table. For example, consider
the simple scenario of customers and orders. Suppose we have a Customers table, and an Orders table as
shown in the following figure:
A one-to-many relationship exists naturally between customers and orders. One
customer may place zero, one, or many orders; but an order can be placed by only
one customer.
The way the tables are configured right now, there is no way to keep track of which
customer places an order. We want to be able to trace an order back to the
customer who placed it.
The best way to keep track of which customer places an
order is to create a field that is common in both tables.
In the Orders table, this common field will become a foreign
key when we create a relationship between the tables.
Here we see a revised design of the Orders table: it now includes a field named
CustomerID. This is the common field – it exists in both tables.
In the Customers table, the CustomerID field is the primary key (denoted by (PK) in
the diagram. In the Orders table, the CustomerID field will become the foreign key
when a relationship is created between the two tables. The foreign key is denoted
by (fk) in the diagram.
Once the common field is added to the Orders table, you can create a relationship
between the two tables.
In Access, you can open a special window called the Relationships window and
drag the primary key field from the Customers table onto the common field in
the Orders table and Access will create the relationship.
Behind the scenes, SQL adds a constraint that will not allow you to add a record
to the Orders table if the value in the foreign key field does not match a value in
the primary key field of a record in the Customers table.
It is as this point that
That is, when you create a record for a new order, the
in the Orders table
table must reference a record that already exists in the
the CustomerID field
becomes a foreign
key.
value that you enter in the CustomerID field in the Orders
Customers table.
You cannot create an order for a customer who does not
exist.
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The following figure shows the data in the Customers table and the Orders table. In the Customers table, the
CustomerID field is the primary key and it uniquely identifies each customer; however, in the Orders table,
the CustomerID field is a foreign key and is used to refer to a specific customer in the Customers table. Note
that the primary key to which a foreign key maps is also known as a parent key.
Primary Key
(parent key)
Foreign Key (child
The line drawn between the two tables represents the relationship between the two tables. Note that the line
is drawn connecting the common fields. Often, the common fields have the same field name, but that is not
a requirement. However, common fields must have the same data type.
When you create relationships between tables, you can view and work with data stored in multiple tables.
For example, you can view customer and order information contained in two different tables to see which
customer placed a particular order. The related tables shown in the figure indicate that in order 1, customer
number 1012, Helen Anderson, placed an order on February 19th.
Relationship Types
There are three types of relationships that can be established between tables:
One-to-One
A relationship in which each record in Table A can have only one matching record in Table
One-to-Many
A relationship in which a record in Table A can have many matching records in Table B,
B, and vice versa. This type of relationship is not very common.
but a record in Table B has only one matching record in Table A. The relationship is
established between the primary key in Table A and the foreign key in Table B.
Many-to-Many
A relationship in which one record in Table A or Table B can be related to many matching
records in the other table. For example, suppose a database contains data about students
and classes. Each student can be enrolled in several classes, and each class can have many
students. This is a many-to-many relationship. Relational databases cannot directly
handle many-to-many relationships, and these must be replaced by multiple one-tomany relationships.
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Database Metadata (Database Schema)
Earlier, you examined table metadata. However, there is also metadata for the entire database – the database
schema.
The database schema represents a logical view of the entire database. It defines how the data is organized
and how the tables within the database are related to one another.
You can represent relationships in a database schema by drawing lines between the key fields in the related
tables. The primary key of each table should be denoted either by an underlined field name or a
representative icon.
You represent the “one” side of a one-to-many relationship by drawing a 1 beside the parent key, and you
represent the “many” side of a one-to-many relationship by drawing an infinity symbol (∞) beside the foreign
key.
The following figure shows a schema (generated in Microsoft Access) for a database with four tables.
The database schema in the preceding figure describes the following relationships:
•
There is a one-to-many relationship between the Publishers table and the Books table (based on the
PublisherID field).
•
There is a one-to-many relationship between the Books table and the AuthorBooks table (based on the
BookID field).
•
There is a one-to-many relationship between the Authors table and the AuthorBooks table (based on
the AuthorID field).
Notice that the AuthorBooks table is related to both the Books table and the Authors table. These two oneto-many relationships support the many-to-many relationship between books and authors: one author can
write many books, and a book can have many (that is, more than one) authors.
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Exercise 11-2: Reading Schemas
In this exercise, you will examine a database schema and answer a series of questions about the database it
describes.
Consider the following database schema:
1.
What type of relationship exists between the Customers table and the Orders table?
____________________________________
2.
What type of relationship exists between the Orders table and the Products table?
____________________________________
3.
What is the foreign key in the Products table?
____________________________________
4.
Which table has a composite primary key?
____________________________________
5.
What are the two foreign keys in the Orders table? _________________________ and _________________________
Database Queries
Objective 2-4.3
You use queries to view specific data in one or more database tables. A query asks a question of a table, such
as “Which customers live in Arizona?” and selects records from the table which answer the question. The
selected records are displayed in a result set.
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Query: Which customers live in Arizona?
Table
Query Result Set
Queries work by checking table fields for entries that meet the criteria that you specify. Criteria can be strings
of text, dates, or a number or range of numbers that you enter. The query examines each record in the table
to determine if particular values in the record match the query criteria. If a record meets the criteria, then it
is displayed in the result set.
The result set or dynaset (dynamic subset) is not a static snapshot of records, but a dynamic changing subset
of records. As changes are made to a table, the results of a query will change accordingly to reflect the current
content of that table. For example, suppose you ran a query on a table containing 100 records, generating
results with 30 records. If you then added another 20 records to that table and then ran the query again, the
results will also include any of the newly added records that meet the selection criteria specified in that query.
If only two records of the additional 20 met the criteria, then the query would generate 32 records, even
though the same query generated only 30 records a few minutes ago.
If you are working in a database, you can use a query to answer a simple question; view only specific table
fields; perform calculations; combine data from different tables; or to add, change or delete table data.
Database Forms
Objective 2-4.3
Forms are tools that aid data entry and help users understand what they need to do. They are user-friendly
interfaces designed to help users enter specific data without becoming distracted or confused by other data
that may be stored in a table. You can think of a form as a window into the data. Instead of allowing (or
forcing) users to view all the fields in a table, a form displays just the data that is necessary for performing a
given task.
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Consider the following figures:
•
•
The first shows a data entry form created in Access. A user can enter data about an order using the form.
Transparent to the user, the data entered through the form is added to four database tables, which are
shown in the second figure.
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Where Are Databases Used?
Objective 2-4.2
After this little whirlwind tour, you may have already decided that you have had your fill of databases. They
can seem cumbersome and confusing especially at first, and you may think you will never have a reason to
use a database.
However, chances are good that you interact with databases all the time and don’t even know it.
In short, databases are used almost everywhere you look – medical records, flight reservations, legal
pleadings, online orders, Pinterest, Twitter, Facebook and WordPress posts – are all stored in databases.
Databases and Web Sites
The Web is replete with databases because databases are extremely flexible and scalable – they can store
millions and millions of records, and they can present data in almost any format you want or need.
Online stores (think of Amazon!) display thousands and thousands of items and allow you to sort and filter
the items on the page by price, or vendor, or size or color – the options are almost endless. All the data that
populates that page of choices is stored in a database.
But you never have to see the database itself. Why? Because it is an easy thing for a web designer to design
a web page that connects to that database on the back end, where the web site visitor never sees it. Visitors
simply enjoy a “normal” web experience, while interacting with databases all the while.
Static and Dynamic Web Pages
There are two basic types of web pages:
•
Static – these types of pages display content that does not change (unless the web page developer edits
what is on the page). These are the “normal” web pages you build with HTML or XHTML. Anytime you
visit a static web page, your computer sends a request to the server, and the server sends the web page
to you over the Internet. The page is stored on the web server and served in the same condition every
time a request is received, until the web developer edits it.
•
Dynamic – these pages change every time they are loaded in the browser window. They change their
content based on user actions. For example, if you are viewing digital cameras on the Best Buy web site,
and you apply a filter because you want to see only GoPro cameras, the page is automatically rebuilt (regenerated) and resent to your browser. Often these pages are built using languages such as Active Server
Pages, Java Server Pages, CGI, or Perl.
Database Driven Web Pages
Many dynamic web pages are database driven; the web page is connected to a database through
programming, and it pulls information from the database and inserts that information into the web page
each time the page is loaded.
As information stored in the database changes, the web page connected to the database also changes
(automatically) to reflect the new data.
Banking web sites use database driven pages. You log in and view your account, and the web page connects
to a database where all your account information is stored. The page always shows the most current
information because it is connected to the data.
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Consider the following image of a web site page featuring Martin guitars.
As you scroll through and click options on the left side of the page you are specifying certain criteria
conditions that you want the guitars to meet. For example, you may want to see only those guitars which fall
into a certain price range.
Each time you click a button or check a box on the left side of the page, your browser sends that information
to the web server (along with a request for an updated web page). The server generates a new page (showing
only the guitars you want to see) and sends it back to your browser.
Have I Used Queries on the Web?
It is likely that you use queries all the time while you are on the World Wide Web. Have you searched for a
particular item in an online store? Have you searched to see if a particular check has cleared your account in
your online banking web site? Have you searched for credit card charges in an online account?
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Any time you click in a web site search box and specify an item to look for, you are specifying criteria for a
query that is executed on a database. Any time you specify that you want to see a list of credit card purchases
that were made during a specific time frame, you are specifying criteria for a database query.
The results that you see on the web page are the results of the query.
Have I Used Forms on the Web?
You probably already guessed the answer – any time you set up a profile for an account, enter an email
address for a newsletter, or enter payment information for an online purchase, you have likely used a web
form which is linked to a database.
Fields on the form are tied to fields in a table in a database on the back end.
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Lesson Summary
In this lesson, you learned basic database concepts and learned how databases are used on the World Wide Web.
You should now be able to:

describe the nature of data

understand database relationships

understand the purpose and function of

understand how to read a database schema

describe the uses of databases on the web
relational databases

describe database elements
Review Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Each table in a database must have:
a.
an ID field.
b.
at least one record.
c.
a unique name.
d.
at least five fields.
A primary key:
a.
should be a value that is unlikely to change.
b.
should use Social Security numbers whenever possible.
c.
should be null whenever possible.
d.
cannot be a composite key.
For a relationship between fields in two tables to be created, the fields must:
a.
have the same name.
b.
be stored in separate databases.
c.
have the same data type.
d.
have a numeric data type.
Which of the following is an example of data?
a.
a spreadsheet.
b.
a serial number.
c.
a Sears catalog.
d.
OneDrive
Which of the following guarantees record uniqueness?
a.
a primary key.
b.
a query.
c.
a database schema.
d.
a foreign key.
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6.
7.
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Which of the following makes it possible to connect a database to a web page?
a.
application programming interfaces (APIs).
b.
structured query language (SQL).
c.
hypertext markup language (HTML).
d.
foreign keys.
Which of the following can be used to capture user information online?
a.
a database query.
b.
a web form.
c.
a foreign key.
d.
a many-to-many relationship.
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Key Applications
Lesson 12:
Using Microsoft PowerPoint
Lesson Objectives
This lesson introduces you to how to use an application to create simple presentations, including adding slides,
images, and adding effects such as animation. Upon completion of this lesson, you should be able to:

plan and design a presentation

manipulate text or objects on slides

create, save, close, open, and switch between

presentation files
insert pictures or multimedia objects on slides


move around in a presentation
animate objects on the slides

change view displays
apply transitions to slides



insert, modify or delete slides
share presentations with others

change the layout or order of slides
publish slides

What is PowerPoint?
Objective 2-5.7
PowerPoint is an application program that you can use to create, edit, and manipulate slides for on-screen
presentations, send via email, or to promote products or services on a web page. These presentations can be
delivered to live audiences, or viewed individually (self-directed) by others at their convenience.
You can enter text, draw objects, create charts, or add graphics. You can choose to deliver a presentation to
a live audience, or broadcast or share it over the Internet.
What Does a Presentation Include?
PowerPoint is used to build a presentation slide by slide. Those slides, shown in order, make up your
presentation. Different slide types serve different functions.
Title Slide
Title Slide
The opening slide that introduces the subject of the presentation; it usually includes the title
or topic, and a subtitle. The subtitle might be the presenter’s name or the presenting
organization’s name, or it might be the date and location of the presentation.
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Agenda Slide
Using Microsoft PowerPoint
Agenda Slide
This slide usually lists the titles of all the slides in your presentation; it is often the second
slide and provides an overview of what will be covered, and can help the viewer grasp the
flow of the presentation.
Slide 1
Title and Content Slide
The most frequently used layout that controls which placeholders appear on a slide. A title
and content slide is commonly referred to as a bulleted-list slide because it includes a title
Slide 2
and a bulleted list of the key points the speaker wants to discuss. Bullet points should be
brief, concise, and clear.
Support Content Slides
Add various kinds of content to your presentation using different content layouts. Content
Slide 3
can include text, design elements, diagrams, videos, tables, charts, sounds, animation, or
special transitions from slide to slide.
Summary
Slide
Summary Slide
This is the last slide in the presentation and reviews your presentation, reinforces the key
messages, and provides contact information for further details.
Looking at the Edit Screen
As with all Office applications, once you start PowerPoint, you see the Backstage view where you can create
a new blank presentation, use a pre-designed template to create the new presentation, or open an existing
presentation. A new blank presentation is shown in the following figure.
Placeholder
Slide
Pane
Slide
Thumbnails
Split
Bar
Notes Pane
Slide Thumbnails – Refer to the thumbnail or miniature of the slide in this area to quickly view the contents
of slides or the flow of the slides in a presentation. You can also use this view to move quickly to a particular
slide.
Placeholder – Use these boxes on the slides for hints on the type of content you can insert onto the slide.
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Slide Pane – Use for entering or viewing the contents of the slide.
Split Bar – Drag to increase or decrease the size of the Outline or Slides tab, or to increase or decrease the
size of the Slide pane.
Notes Pane – Type presentation notes such as speaker notes, reminders of actions, and so on here. These
notes are for the presenter’s use and are not visible to the audience.
You can show or hide this pane by clicking the
button on the status bar.
Understanding Basic Terminology
Each slide includes placeholders—a dashed-line box with a tip that tells you what you can use the box for.
The blank slide layout, however, does not include placeholders.
•
You can click inside a placeholder to insert text or an object.
•
When you see a placeholder with various icons, point at an icon in the box to display a screen tip
indicating the type of object to insert; click that icon to insert it on the slide.
•
To move from one placeholder to another on a slide to enter items, click in the placeholder or press
CTRL+ENTER.
Working with Presentations
Objective 2-5.1, 2-5.3, 2-5.5, 2-5.6
When PowerPoint starts, it opens in Backstage where you can choose to create a new presentation or open
an existing presentation.
Creating Presentations
There are three common methods to create a presentation in PowerPoint:
Blank Presentation – Provides a blank presentation with only a title slide (no colors or design elements).
Add your own content and apply your own colors, backgrounds, images, and so on.
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Templates – Use a pre-designed presentation with suggestions for text and application of colors,
backgrounds, images, and so on. You can type the text and make design changes.
Reuse Slides – Insert one or more slides from an existing presentation to the current presentation. You can
also specify whether inserted slides retain their original formatting or use the formatting in the current
presentation.
To create a new blank presentation, click the File tab, click New, and then Blank Presentation.
Key Fact: You can also press CTRL+N to create a new blank presentation. Use this keyboard shortcut to
create a new blank document type in any Office application.
To create a new presentation using a template, click the File tab, click New.
You can click a template, enter criteria in the Search field, or use the categories to narrow the search to a
specific type of presentation you would like to create. Each template, with the exception of Blank
Presentation, has a set of pre-designed colors and styles drawn from commonly used elements in
presentations. Some templates may also include slides with text as a guide to the type of information you
might want to include.
Before creating your presentation:
•
Plan your presentation in draft form. This can save you time and keep you on track.
•
Keep the text consistent in format and layout – too many variations can be distracting. Remember that
text is generally read from left to right, top to bottom.
•
Keep the number of colors used to a minimum. Too many colors on one slide can be distracting and
detract from the message.
•
Use contrast to emphasize a message, such as dark text on a light background.
•
Keep the number of bullet points per slide to a minimum; the standard maximum is six points per slide.
Make your points brief as you want the audience to pay attention to what you’re saying, not what you’re
displaying.
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•
Be consistent with special effects.
•
For graphs or charts, keep the information to a minimum or split the information onto several slides.
Remember the rule: “If it takes you a long time to create the slide, it will take just as long for the audience
to read and understand it.”
•
Add pictures or tables only when relevant or for emphasis. Too much information can be distracting and
cause confusion.
•
Ensure that the presentation clearly identifies you to the audience.
The appearance and delivery of the presentation can determine how successful you are in reaching and
influencing your audience.
Entering Text on a Slide
Use the Slide pane to insert or modify items on slides. Placeholders clearly appear on the slides, and serve as
a guide concerning where to enter text. You can add formatting to existing items on the slide, or simply add
another item for the slide.
Note that the Slide pane and the Slide Thumbnails pane are two different areas with different purposes.
The Slide Thumbnails pane displays miniatures (also known as thumbnails) of your slides so you can see how
the information flows or appears in different areas of the presentation. You cannot make changes directly to
the slide in this view as this is an “instant preview” of the contents in the presentation only.
The Slide pane is the default view for working with slide contents.
Use the split bar between the Slide Thumbnails pane and Slide pane to show more or less of each pane. For
example, to display more of the Slide pane, drag the split bar to the left to shrink the size of each slide
thumbnail.
Slide Thumbnails Pane
Slide Pane
Vertical Split Bar
Saving a Presentation
It is important to save your presentations as you work to prevent having to recreate a presentation file in the
case of a power or computer failure.
To save a new presentation or to save changes to an existing presentation, click the File tab and then click
Save.
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Key Fact: You can also, click the
Using Microsoft PowerPoint
(Save) button on the Quick Access toolbar, or press CTRL+S to quickly
save a presentation. These methods can be used in any Office application.
The first time you save a presentation, you will see the Save As tab of the Backstage view. PowerPoint displays
the default folder (such as Documents), or a folder designated by your school or organization.
Up One
Level
Current
Folder
File name
Save as type
Drives or locations to
store files and folders
Folders or files
In current folder
Date created
or modified
Select a location in the left pane (we use This PC in the previous screen), and click to navigate to the specific
folder as required. Once the path has been selected, click in the File name field and type the name of the
presentation file. By default, PowerPoint saves all presentation files with the .pptx file format.
To save an existing file with a different name, click the File tab and then Save As.
If you need to save the file in another format, click the arrow for the Save as type field to select the appropriate
file type:
This option is very useful when you need to consider which file
format may be compatible for other users who need to share this
presentation. For instance, you may need to save the
presentation in a file format for a previous version of PowerPoint,
or you want to send the presentation in a PDF file format so no
one can make changes directly to the presentation file.
Closing a Presentation
Once you have finished working with a presentation, save and
close it to clear the screen. To close a presentation, click the File
tab and then click Close.
Key Fact: You can also press CTRL+W or CTRL+F4, or click the
Close button for the application. You can use these
methods in any Office application.
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Opening a Presentation
You can open a presentation file using one of the following methods:
•
Click the File tab, click Open, and if the file is one you recently worked on, click the file from the list in
the second pane that is organized by date; or
•
click the File tab, click Open, if the file is in another location than the default PowerPoint offers, click the
arrow to navigate to the folder where the file is saved, select the file and then click Open.
Hint: Whenever you click the displayed path above the list of files, the Open dialog box will open.
Key Fact: You can also press CTRL+O to display the list of recent files, or to navigate to the location of the
required file. This can be done in all Office programs.
If the file was saved in a file format other than the default PowerPoint Presentation
(.pptx) format, click the path to display the Open dialog box, and then click the All
PowerPoint Presentations button to display the file formats available.
If you open a file that was saved from an attachment in an email, Protected View
will display an information bar requesting you to enable editing in the file before
you can make changes to it (see below). The Protected View feature protects you
from the possibility of opening a file that may contain a virus; always save and scan any attachments you
receive via email before opening the file in the application program.
Alternatively you can apply this feature when opening a presentation to prevent accidental changes being
made to the file.
Displaying Information in the Presentation
To change the view of the presentation, on the View tab, in the Presentation Views group, click one of the
following options:
Normal – Displays the Slide Thumbnails, Slide and Notes panes.
Slide Sorter – Shows multiple miniature slides on one screen in a linear manner for rearranging or
sorting.
Reading View – View in full screen to show the contents of each slide similar to how your audience
will see them.
Slide Show – Runs the slide show for your review or for you to present to your audience.
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To change the magnification for the presentation, use one of the following:
•
On the far right of the status bar, click the button on either side of the zoom slider bar to zoom in or out
by 10% at a time; or
•
click the
(Zoom Level) button to select a specific size or zoom percentage; or
•
click the
(Fit slide to current window) button to quickly maximize the size of the slide on the
screen from its previous zoom percentage.
Exercise 12-1: Travel
In this exercise you will create new presentations, open existing presentations, make changes and then save
the changes.
1.
Start Microsoft PowerPoint, if necessary. Then click Blank Presentation to create a new blank
2.
In the Slide pane, click in the first placeholder and type: Travel has no age! and then press CTRL+ENTER
presentation.
to move to the sub-title placeholder.
The text you just entered should appear in the placeholder for the main title of the presentation.
3.
In the sub-title placeholder, type: Lucy Lee for the text, and then click anywhere away from the
placeholder.
You will now enter text for the next few slides.
4.
On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click New Slide to insert a new Title and Content slide.
5.
Type: Agenda as the title of this slide. Press CTRL+ENTER and type the points for the agenda, as shown in
6.
Press ENTER after the last bullet point and then press TAB to tell PowerPoint you want to enter text at a
7.
Type: Advantages and disadvantages and press ENTER.
the following:
sub-level for the last bullet point entered.
PowerPoint keeps you at the same level as this sub-text.
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8.
Type: Cost differences and press ENTER.
9.
Press SHIFT+TAB to move up one level so the text for the upcoming bullet point is at the main level.
10. Type: Preparing for the Trip.
11. On the Quick Access toolbar, click
(Save). Click This PC as the location, navigate to the student data
files location and then click the PowerPoint folder. Click in the file name field, type: Travel has no age
- Student (insert your initials or name in place of “Student”) and click Save.
Now create a new presentation using a template provided in PowerPoint.
12. Click the File tab and then click New. In the search field, type: certificates and press ENTER.
13. Click the Certificate, Employee of the month (blue chain design) and then click Create.
If this template is not available, choose a certificate from the choices available on your system. It isn’t
important which certificate you use; the focus here is seeing how PowerPoint provides some predesigned templates you can use to enter data as required.
You are now ready to save the file with a new name and make changes to the presentation.
14. Press CTRL+S to save the presentation. Click This PC as the location and then click or navigate to the
PowerPoint folder. Type: Green Soles Certificate - Student as the new name and then click Save.
15. In the Slide pane, select the Raffaella Bonaldi text and type: Irma Greenwood.
16. Select the date and type in today’s date. Save the certificate again.
Now look at the various ways you can close a presentation.
17. Press CTRL+N to create a new blank presentation.
18. Point at the PowerPoint icon on the Windows taskbar.
You should have at least three preview windows, one for each open presentation (the number of windows
may vary depending on how many presentations you have open or created during this exercise).
19. In the window with the blank presentation created in step 17, click the Close button.
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20. Press CTRL+W to close the next presentation.
21. Click File and then click Close to close the last presentation (repeat this step if you have more
presentations open).
Now that the PowerPoint application window is empty, open some presentations.
22. Click File, click Open, and then in the Recent Presentations list, click the Travel has no age - Student
presentation.
23. Press CTRL+O, click This PC, and click the Alaska Hiking Tours file to open it.
You should now have two presentations open.
24. Click File, click Open, click This PC, click the path for the location of the student data files to display the
Open dialog box. Click the Green Soles 2015 Getting There is Half the Fun file to select it, then click
the arrow for Open and click Open in Protected View.
Notice how you can access this file to open it but it appears with the Protected View feature active.
25. Point at the PowerPoint icon in the taskbar and click the
for the Travel has no age and the Green
Soles presentations, leaving the Alaska Hiking Tours presentation open.
Now try changing the view of the slides for a presentation.
26. Ensure the Alaska Hiking Tours presentation is active on the screen. In the Slide Thumbnails pane, click
Slide 4 to view the contents of this slide.
27. Click the
(Slide Sorter) button from the far right of the status bar.
Note: The number and size of slides that appear in this view will vary based on the size of your monitor.
Slide Sorter view can be advantageous when you want to view the entire presentation and assess the
flow of information. Slide Sorter view is designed to allow you to quickly rearrange the slides by dragging
them to a new location. To view the contents of a slide you may want to change, double-click the slide.
28. Scroll in the view and then double-click Slide 11 to return to Normal view.
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29. Use the
and
buttons to move from slide to slide.
30. Close this presentation file by pressing CTRL+W.
Managing the Slides
Objective 2-5.7
As you begin to work with a presentation, it will likely evolve. For example, you may need to insert new slides,
copy a particular slide and paste it into a new location, delete or hide a slide, or reorganize slides for better
flow.
Inserting New Slides
Every new presentation begins with a title slide and PowerPoint will automatically insert a Title and Content
layout as the second slide. You can change the layout of this slide as required.
You can insert a new slide into your presentation at any time; the new slide will be inserted directly before
the currently selected slide.
To insert a new slide, use one of the following methods:
•
On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click New Slide to insert a slide with the same layout previously
used; or
•
to insert a new slide with a specific layout, on the Home tab, in the Slides group, click the down arrow
for New Slide, and then click the layout required.
Notice you are presented with a variety of slide layouts and that the order in which they display follows the
standard progression for a presentation; that is, start with a title slide, and then choose the appropriate
content layouts based on the information you want to show.
Hint: You can also press CTRL+M to quickly insert a new slide using the same slide layout previously used.
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Changing the Slide Layout
By default, a new presentation starts with a Title Slide layout and the next slide uses a Title and Content
layout. You can change the layout of this or any slide at any time.
To change the layout for a slide, on the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout.
Click the layout that you want to use and it will be applied to the current slide.
Changing the Slide Background
You can add a background to the slide at any time; this can be a color,
pattern, or picture. As with applying any formatting to a presentation,
be careful of the colors and effects used to ensure the audience is not
distracted from the message of the presentation.
To add a background to a slide, click the Design tab and in the
Customize group, click Format Background.
When you select another option than color, different fields will appear
to match that selection. For instance, if you choose to fill the
background with a picture, two additional background options appear,
giving you the opportunity to choose from three lists for the picture.
You can also select to add the background to the current slide only, or
to all slides.
Deleting Slides
When you no longer need a slide, in the Slide Thumbnails pane or Outline View, select the slide and press
DELETE.
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Rearranging the Slides
As you work with a presentation, you may want to change the order of the slides to achieve better flow of
information.
To rearrange the order of the slides, in the Slide Sorter view, click and drag the slide to its new location. The
slide will display with a red outline to show you where the slide will be inserted when you release the mouse
button.
Exercise 12-2: Tolano New Employee
In this exercise you will open a presentation, add slides, enter text, and then change the layout and design
for the entire presentation.
1.
Click File, click Open, click This PC and navigate to the student data files location. Click the Tolano New
Employee Orientation file to open it.
2.
Click File, click Save As, and in the File name field, press the END key and type: - Student for the new
3.
In the Slide Thumbnails pane, click Slide 3.
4.
Click in the Slide pane, click at the end of the last bullet point, press ENTER, then type the following as
file name. Click Save.
the last bullet point on the slide: Offer travel adventures focused on leaving minimal carbon
footprint.
5.
On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click New Slide to insert a new slide with the Title and Content
layout.
You will now change the slide layout.
6.
On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout and then click Title Only.
7.
Type: Tolano Inc. as the title.
8.
In the Slide Thumbnails pane, click slide 5 and then on the Home tab, in the Slides group, click New
Slide.
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Add the following text to this slide:
10. Save the presentation.
Let’s now try adding a background fill to the slides.
11. Click the Design tab and in the Customize group, click Format Background.
12. Click Gradient fill and then click the arrow for Preset gradients. Click Top Spotlight – Accent 3.
13. Ensure the Type is set to Radial.
14. Click the arrow for Direction and click From Center.
15. Click Apply to All and then close the Format Background pane.
Now take a look at the presentation flow to see if the information flows logically from one slide to the next.
16. On the bottom right of the Status bar, click the
(Slide Sorter) button.
17. Review the slide content.
You should notice that Slide 6 seems out of place in its current location, and would make more sense if
you reposition it before Slide 11 (Summary).
18. Scroll the screen so you can see the rows that contain these two slides. Click Slide 6 to select it and then
drag it between Slides 10 and 11.
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19. When the slide appears between slides 10 and 11 (as shown in the figure), release the mouse to place
the slide here.
The Other Resources slide should now be in the Slide 10 position.
On further review of the presentation slides, you realize Slide 4 is no longer needed.
20. Click Slide 4 and then press DELETE.
21. Click the
(Normal) view button on the Status bar.
22. Save and close the presentation file.
Managing Slide Objects
Objective 2-1.3, 2-1.6, 2-5.5, 2-7.1, 2-7.2
An object is any shape, picture, media clip, chart, or text box inserted into a slide. To make changes to an
object, first select or highlight it, then you can:
•
delete or replace the object
•
indent text
•
cut, copy or paste the item into another location
•
add formatting
Using Select versus Edit Mode
The circles that appear around a selected object are called handles; they verify that the object is selected and
you can make changes to it.
You can size the object using one of the following methods:
•
Click a handle on the horizontal or vertical sides and then drag to adjust the width or height; or
•
click a corner handle to size two adjacent sides of the object.
When the border around a text box is a dashed line, you are in Edit mode and you can select specific areas
of the text in the box for changes.
•
To select specific text within the placeholder, click and drag to select the text. When Edit mode is active,
you can also select non-consecutive pieces of text by pressing the CTRL key as you select each piece of
text you want.
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When the border around a placeholder is a solid line, you are in Select mode and can affect the entire contents
of the object. To activate Select mode quickly, position the mouse pointer on one of the borders of the
placeholder, and then click when you see
•
(mouse pointer with four-headed arrow).
To select multiple placeholders, click the first placeholder and press SHIFT or CTRL as you click to select
other placeholders.
Manipulating Text
PowerPoint provides many ways to manipulate or edit selected text or placeholders, including inserting
additional text or deleting existing text.
•
To insert text, click in the placeholder to display the blinking insertion point and then move to where
you want to enter the new text and start typing.
•
To delete text, use BACKSPACE or DELETE.
Occasionally you may want to insert text into your presentation from another presentation, or from another
location in the current presentation. Instead of retyping the information, you can use the Cut, Copy, and
Paste commands.
•
To cut or move an item, select the item first and then on the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click
.
•
To copy an item, first select the item and then on the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click
.
•
To paste an item, first place the insertion point where you want to paste the item and then on the Home
tab, in the Clipboard group, click Paste.
Key Fact: You can also press CTRL+X to cut an item, CTRL+C to copy an item, or
CTRL+V to paste the item. These keys are commonly used in other applications.
PowerPoint uses the Clipboard to temporarily store any cut or copied items such
as text or graphics, and you can paste wherever you choose. To display the
Clipboard task pane, on the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the Clipboard
dialog box launcher.
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Checking the Spelling
The Spelling feature in PowerPoint provides various options when checking for spelling errors, including
custom dictionaries for special terms.
The Spelling feature works in the background to check for spelling mistakes as you type. When PowerPoint
detects a mistake, a wavy red line displays underneath the text. You can correct the mistakes immediately, or
wait until you are finished creating the presentation.
PowerPoint also displays proofing icons at the left on the status bar to indicate when PowerPoint detects no
errors (
) and when it detects a possible spelling error (
).
To perform a manual spell check on the entire presentation, press F7.
Note: Remember that performing a spell check assures only the accuracy of the spelling in your slides; you
should still proofread your presentation to ensure you are using the correct words.
Formatting Text
Formatting refers to the process of changing the appearance and position of objects on a slide.
Font – Describes the typeface of characters on the screen and in print such as Courier New or Bradley.
Font Size – Refers to the height of the characters (as characters get taller, they also grow wider.)
Character Formatting – Refers to the special stylized variations applied to plain characters to make them
stand out from other text. They include bold, italics, and various kinds of underlines.
Effects – Apply special effects to the text, such as strikethrough,
SMALL CAPS, and so on.
superscript
or
subscript,
character spacing,
The Font group in the Home tab enables quick, easy access to commonly used character formatting options
directly from the Ribbon:
The Mini toolbar provides similar access to commonly used formatting options, and provides a mixture of
character and paragraph formatting buttons. This toolbar appears only when you select text; once you move
the mouse pointer away from the selection, you will need to select the text again to display this toolbar.
Aligning Text
Each built-in slide layout aligns text according to defaults set for that layout. Occasionally, you may want to
change text alignment. To change the alignment, on the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click the
appropriate alignment option.
Align Left
Align Right
Center
Justify
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Inserting Pictures
You can easily add pictures to any slide using the Pictures command. Pictures can come from a variety of
sources, such as the Clip Organizer, saved picture files, scanned photographs, the Microsoft Office web site,
and so on.
To insert a picture file, use one of the following methods:
•
On the Insert tab, in the Images group, click Pictures; or
•
when creating or changing a slide layout, select one that contains a Content
placeholder; then click Pictures to insert a picture from a saved location.
In addition to choosing a picture saved on your computer/network, you can also search and then insert
pictures from online sources such as Bing. Note that pictures obtained from online sources are often
copyrighted and you should follow the rules for copyright and Fair Use principles.
To insert a picture from the Internet, position the mouse pointer on the slide at approximately the location
where you want to add the graphic, and then use one of the following methods:
•
When creating or changing a slide layout, select one that contains a Content
placeholder. Then click the Online Pictures icon; or
•
on the Insert tab, in the Images group, click Online Pictures.
You can enter the search criteria in the Bing Image Search field and press ENTER. Note that by default, the
set of pictures shown are covered by the Creative Commons license; you can freely use these images in your
documents without worry about copyright infringement.
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If you require pictures other than the ones provided with these search results, click the arrow for the CC Only
button and click All Images.
Be careful that you are not violating someone’s copyright when you use images from the Internet. Image,
sound, and video files can all be copyrighted. It is your responsibility to attribute proper credit for copyrighted
images (or other files) that do not belong to you or your company. You can point at the bar across the bottom
of an image (as shown in the following figures) to view information that may help you determine if you need
to take steps to avoid copyright infringement.
Manipulating the Pictures
Manipulating pictures refers to sizing, moving, or otherwise modifying pictures. When you select a picture,
the Picture Tools Format tab displays tools to help manipulate parts of the picture.
Consider the following when working with pictures in PowerPoint:
•
You must select the picture, displaying its handles before you can make changes to it.
•
To increase or decrease the size of a picture, click and drag one of the handles.
•
To move a picture, position the mouse pointer anywhere inside the picture and, when you see
and drag the picture.
, click
•
To rotate the picture, click and drag the green handle to the angle required.
•
To insert a picture without using a picture placeholder, you may need to reapply an appropriate slide
layout, or adjust the individual placeholders on that slide.
•
You cannot wrap text around a picture; you can either put the picture into a separate placeholder or
manipulate the text so that it appears to wrap around the picture.
•
To reduce parts of a picture, you can crop the picture horizontally, vertically, or to a shape.
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Inserting Media Objects
One advantage of using presentations is the ability to include multimedia files such as videos, music, or links
to Web pages that provide more information. To insert a media file, on the Insert tab, in the Media group,
click Video or Audio.
Hint: you can also click the Insert Video icon in a slide layout that contains icons for content.
Once you insert the media file, a new ribbon (Video Tools or Audio Tools) appears with two tabs for you to
manipulate the video or audio file.
Exercise 12-3: Destress Your Day
In this exercise, you will open a presentation to insert and modify some pictures on the slides. You will also
apply some formatting options to the presentation.
1.
Open De-stress your Day from the data files location, and save it as De-stress your Day – Student.
2.
Click slide 2 in the Slide Thumbnails pane.
3.
Click the Insert tab and in the Images group, click Online Pictures.
4.
In the Bing search field, type: stress and press ENTER.
5.
Scroll through the list of pictures and then click one of your choice.
6.
Click Insert to add the picture to the slide. If a Design Ideas task pane appears at the right, close it.
7.
Point at one of the corner handles until you see the diagonal arrow, press SHIFT and then drag inwards
to resize the picture to approximately 1.0” (2.5 cm) larger than its original size. (If your picture is big, drag
inwards to make it a smaller.)
8.
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Point anywhere in the picture and then drag the picture to the right of the bullet list points.
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Make sure the picture is selected and on the Format tab, in the Size group, click the arrow for Crop and
then click Crop to Shape.
10. In the Basic Shapes area, click Plaque.
11. Click slide 4. On the Insert tab, in the Media group, click Audio and then click Audio on My PC. Navigate
to the PowerPoint folder within the student data files and then insert the Slowed_Breathing file.
12. Close the Design Ideas pane if necessary. Drag the sound icon to the end of the Take deep breaths …
bullet point. Resize the icon so that it is approximately the same height as the text on this line.
13. With the sound icon still selected, click the Format tab on the Audio Tools ribbon and click Color. Click
Blue, Accent color 5 Dark so the icon is noticeable but not obvious.
14. Save the presentation and then close it.
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Animating Objects
Objective 2-5.4
You can animate objects and text to increase the effectiveness of your slide shows. You can also customize
how the text, objects, and graphics enter (or become visible) when the slide displays, or how they exit
(disappear from view). You can also use animation to emphasize objects on the slide.
To add animation, on the Animations tab, in the Animation group, click More to display the Animation
Gallery. After applying an animation, you can choose how the animation will make its entrance or exit, and
you can add special effects to add emphasis.
Once you choose an animation, you can set specific options for the animation using the Timing group:
Try to be consistent in the number and style of animation schemes used on the slides. Consider your audience
and choose the speed and effects accordingly. Too many variations can be distracting. Remember that you
may want to keep some elements, such as titles, static during the show to provide a focal point for your
audience.
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Customizing the Animation
You can adjust or customize how animation will occur during the presentation, as well as the speed and
direction of animations, and the order in which text or objects appear on the slide. For instance, you may
want the bullet points to appear one bullet at a time so your audience does not focus on the other text on
your slide. You can also set an item to dim after it appears on the slide.
To customize the animation, on the Animations tab, in the Advanced Animation group, click Animation
Pane. As you select each element to be animated, PowerPoint provides options that control when or how
the element will appear.
Be sure to check the speed and timing of each animation, and play it to be sure it works well.
As you apply animation to elements on a slide, PowerPoint places numbered boxes on the slide to indicate
the order in which the items will appear; the Animation Pane will also list the animations in numeric order.
You can rearrange the elements by using the
or
Re-Order arrows near the top of the pane;
alternatively, you can drag an item to the required location. The numbers for the animations on the slide
automatically reset themselves accordingly.
You can customize animation using the Effect Options commands for each animation type. The number or
types of effects vary with the Effect command chosen. Be sure to test each animation prior to setting up for
final presentation.
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When you no longer want or need an animation, remove it from the Animation Pane list.
Animation options and effects vary from one animation to another. Use care when adding animation and
effects; and always play or preview all the animations on your slides to be sure they appear in the proper
order and that they remain visually appealing and are not overwhelming. Proper preview and preparation
are important whether you animate all or only some of the elements on your slides.
Applying Slide Transitions
Slide transitions are special effects that you can apply as you move from one slide to the next during a slide
show. Try to be consistent in the type of transitions you use between specific types of slides (such as bulleted
lists or charts), as too much variation can distract your audience.
To apply a slide transition, on the Transitions tab, in the Transition to This Slide group, click More to display
all transition styles in the gallery.
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You can then point at a transition to preview it for the current slide. You can customize the transitions by
adding sound or changing the speed. You can apply a transition to one slide only or to all the slides in the
presentation.
You can use the options in the Timing group on the Transitions tab to apply the currently selected transition
to all of the slides in the presentation.
You can also use the options here to specify how your slides should
advance. For example, will a speaker present the show and click to
advance to each new slide, or will the slices advance automatically
after displaying for a specific amount of time such as for self-paced
training purposes, or to capture the interest of viewers as they walk by your exhibition booth at a trade show.
Exercise 12-4: Exploring Seattle
In this exercise you will add a variety of animations and transitions to slides and individual objects.
1.
Open the Exploring Seattle Proposal file and then save it as Exploring Seattle Proposal - Student.
2.
Go to slide 2 and review the contents on this slide.
3.
Click the border for the content placeholder. Then click the Animations tab, and in the Animation
4.
Click the Effect Options button to the right of the gallery and click From Left.
5.
On the Animations tab, in the Advanced Animation group, click Animation Pane.
6.
In the Animation Pane, click the arrow for the Content Placeholder and click Effect Options. Click the
gallery, click Fly In as the animation style.
Text Animation tab and then click the arrow for Group text.
This field determines how the bullet points appear on the slide and by which levels. We would like the
bullet points to appear one line at a time, regardless of level so we need to choose the lowest level in
the contents placeholder.
7.
Click By 4th Level Paragraphs and then click OK.
The preview should confirm each bullet point flying in from the left one at a time.
8.
On the slide, click the star graphic. On the Animations tab, in the Animation gallery, click Fly In. Click
Effect Options and then click From Left.
The graphic should now fly in from the left during the preview. However, look at the numbers at the left
of the contents placeholder. These numbers confirm the order the items will appear.
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In the Animation Pane, click the expansion double arrow below the Contents Placeholder animation to
expand the list of animations on the slide.
10. Click the Picture 2 item (if not already selected) and then click the Up re-order arrow near the top of the
Animation Pane until it appears after the bullet point starting with Very popular …
As you watch the preview play, you should notice the star appears for the line appropriately but it still
appears before the text. You want to change this to occur at the same time as the text.
11. In the Animation Pane, click the means popular text, then click the arrow for the means popular text and
click Start: With Previous. Click item# 5 (Very popular …) and then click Play From to watch the preview.
Now the star comes in with the text.
Now change the entrance speed of the bulleted text content.
12. In the Animation Pane, click the double arrow to hide the individual parts of the Content Placeholder.
Then click the arrow for the Content Placeholder and click Timing.
13. Click the arrow for Duration and then click 1 seconds (Fast). Click OK.
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Note: Be sure to test the timing set for each slide; what you consider to be enough time may be too fast
(or too slow) based on the amount of information on each slide.
14. Go back to slide 1. Click the Transitions tab and then in the Transition to This Slide gallery, click different
transition styles. Then click Push. Click Effect Options and then click From Top.
15. Switch to Slide Sorter view. Click the star icon at the lower right corner below Slide 1 to view the transition
applied to this slide.
16. Click the star icon for Slide 2 to view the animation.
You will now add transitions in Slide Sorter view.
17. Click Slide 2, then on the Transitions tab, in the Transition to This Slide gallery, click Split.
18. Click Slide 3, press and hold SHIFT, then click Slide 7 to select all the remaining slides in the presentation,
click the Peel Off transition to apply it to all selected slides. Set the duration to 1.5 seconds
19. Click Slide 4 and change the transition to Fracture.
20. Double-click Slide 1 to return to Normal view.
21. Close the Animation Pane. Then save and close the presentation when done.
Setting up Slide Shows
Objective 2-5.2
You can set up options for how the presentation will appear before or after you create your presentation. To
set up options for your slide show, on the Slide Show tab, in the Set Up group, click Set Up Slide Show.
Use the options here to specify how you want to deliver your presentation, such as with a speaker, run on a
computer at your booth, or in a window within a Web browser. You can also configure the presentation to
support multiple monitors.
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Viewing the Slide Show
To start a slide show, click
(Slide Show) from the view buttons in the status bar.
The slide show displays in full screen mode. By default, at the end of the slide show, PowerPoint displays a
black screen with the message “End of slide show, click to exit” at the top, indicating that the slide show has
ended.
When running a slide show, you can set PowerPoint to advance the slides automatically at set time intervals,
or you can advance the slides manually. To advance slides manually, click to move to the next slide or to
display bullets points or objects on the slide.
To present a slideshow on another monitor or on a projector, you must consider both hardware components
and software settings.
Hardware Considerations
Video Cables
Ensure you have the correct cable to connect from the video output port on your computer
to the video input port on the second monitor or the projector or HD television. Most
devices support VGA and either DVI or HDMI.
If your devices do not have a port in common, or if both devices use the same technology
but require different sized connectors be sure to bring an adapter so that you can adapt
the video output to the receiving device.
Audio Cables
If your slide show includes embedded sound or video, you must ensure that the sound will
be played back clearly and at a sufficient volume. If you are using an HDMI connection, and
you are sending output to a projection device that includes speakers, such as an HD TV,
then both picture and audio can be sent via the HDMI cable.
If you are using a VGA cable, then you must send audio signals to the projection device
separately using standard audio cables with connectors that will match the audio input
ports on the projection device.
If you are presenting your slide show on a projection device that does not include speakers,
then you must ensure that your own device has sufficient sound output, or you can attach
good quality speakers to your computer.
If you will need to amplify your own voice as you deliver your presentation, you will need a
microphone that can connect to an amplifier and speakers.
The following figures show an HDMI cable, a standard-to-mini HDMI adapter, and a standard audio cable
with 3.5 mm connectors.
Note that when you connect your computer to an external display, the operating system will detect the
additional hardware. You will need to specify to the operating system whether you want to mirror your
desktop on the external display or extend your desktop across both displays. For details on configuring an
external display, see Computing Fundamentals, Lesson 2, Connecting Peripherals.
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Using Presenter View
To display a slideshow on another monitor or projection device, do one of the following:
•
On the Slide Show tab, in the Set Up group, click Set Up Slide Show, then click the arrow for Slide show
monitor and select the appropriate monitor, and click OK.
•
on the Slide Show tab, in the Monitors group, click the arrow for Monitor, and select the appropriate
monitor.
When you run the slide show, it will appear in full screen on another monitor (or projection device) while
your primary monitor stays in PowerPoint mode.
If you turn on Use Presenter View with your secondary monitor, your primary monitor will change from
PowerPoint display mode to the view shown in the following figure when you run the slide show:
Notice the icons below the slide that you can use as the presenter rather than trying to find the icon at the
lower right of the monitor that the audience is viewing. This view is very useful as it shows you the contents
of the current slide as well as the contents of the next slide so you can see the flow of the presentation, or
make adjustments as questions from the audience arise.
Another benefit of using this view is that you can see the speaker notes on the current slide and can adjust
the font size of the notes using the buttons at the lower left.
To stop the slide show at any point, press ESC.
Exercise 12-5: Alaska Hiking
In this exercise, you will run a presentation as a slide show, review content and animation flow.
1.
Open the Alaska Hiking Tours file and save it as Alaska Hiking Tours - Student.
First, ensure that you are not using Presenter view.
2.
Click the Slide Show tab, then in the Monitors group, clear the Use Presenter View check box if
3.
Press F5 to go into Slide Show view and then click to view the contents of several slides.
necessary.
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5.
Using Microsoft PowerPoint
Point at the lower left corner to see the navigation tools and click the arrow buttons to move from one
slide to another.
Click the
Pen button and choose a pen style. You can use this tool to annotate your slides while you
are presenting a slide show. Try to write or highlight something on the current slide, or move to another
slide to use the pen.
6.
When you are done viewing the slide show, press ESC to return to Normal view for PowerPoint. Note
that you may need to press ESC twice and that you will be prompted to save or discard any screen
annotations. Discard any annotations.
The presentation was originally set up to be delivered by a speaker. Suppose you are now asked to set up
this presentation on the company Web site and allow people to view it on their own.
7.
Click the Slide Show tab, and in the Set Up group, click Set Up Slide Show.
8.
In the Show type area, click Browsed by an individual (window) and then click OK.
9.
Press F5 to begin the slide show.
10. Use the Previous and Next arrows at the lower right corner of the screen to move from one slide to
another. Click anywhere on the slide to move from one slide to the next slide.
11. Press ESC to exit the slide show view.
12. Save and close the presentation.
Sharing the Presentation
Objective 2-5.1
There are a number of ways to share a presentation, and the method you choose depends on what you want
to share and who you want to share it with. Because sharing is a file management task, it is accomplished
using either the Share tab or the Export tab in the Backstage view.
Using the Share Tab
Use the options on the Share tab to share your presentation as a whole.
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From the Share tab, you can:
•
Save your presentation to a cloud location and then provide access to others.
•
Send your presentation as an email attachment.
–
You can attach your presentation as a presentation file, a PDF document, an XPS file (which can be
viewed, but not edited, in an XPS viewer).
–
You can also elect to send the presentation as fax transmission over the Internet.
•
Present your presentation online in a video conference using Skype for Business.
•
Publish the presentation slides to your organization’s SharePoint site or slide library.
•
Send the presentation file as an attachment in an instant message.
Using the Export Tab
Use the options on the Export tab to generate presentation output in other file formats.
From the Export tab, you can:
•
Create a PDF or XPS document. In contrast to simply dumping the output of the entire presentation into
a PDF file that will be attached to an email (you do this on the Share tab), when you create a PDF/XPS
from the Export tab, you can specify which slides to include, whether to include comments and ink
markup, whether to include document properties, and whether to frame slides in the output.
•
Save the presentation as an MP4 video file that can be played back on a variety of personal devices. You
can burn the video to a disc, upload it to a web site, or email it as an attachment.
•
Save the presentation and all the objects (fonts, videos, sounds, linked files) embedded within it into a
package that can be burned onto a CD. A presentation package can be played back on most computers,
even if PowerPoint is not installed.
•
Create handouts in Word. Handouts include pictures of slides and text notes which are exported to a
Word document. You can control the layout of the output, and you can opt to generate an outline of
the presentation using the Outline only option.
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Change the file type of your presentation. You can save the presentation as:
–
One of several presentation file types (PowerPoint 97-2003 Presentation, PowerPoint Template,
PowerPoint Show, or PowerPoint Picture Presentation).
–
A series of image files (PNG or JPEG) suitable for printing or displaying on a web site.
–
Another file type. Selecting this option opens the Save As dialog box, from which you can select an
option in the Save as type drop-down list.
Note: Always remember to preview and proof your presentation before sharing.
Create Handouts in Word
Handouts are documents audience members can take with them after viewing
a presentation. Because PowerPoint creates handouts in Word, you can edit and
format them. To create handouts, click the File tab, click Export, and then click
Create Handouts.
Click Create Handouts to view the options for creating the Word document.
You can select a layout, and specify how you want the slides inserted into the Word document. Select Paste
to insert the slides themselves. If you select Paste link, then you would also need the original PowerPoint
presentation in order to see the slides in the Word document. Once the handout document is created, the
Word icon will flash in the Windows taskbar; you must save the Word file if you want to keep it.
Publishing the Presentation
If your organization or company uses SharePoint or another network storage system that provides a central
location for employees or members to store and share files, you can publish your presentation slides.
When you publish slides, PowerPoint saves each slide as an individual file. PowerPoint automatically names
each slide file with the presentation file name and a number, such as Exploring Seattle Proposal_004. This can
be helpful when you need to find a particular slide. You can change the file name in the File Name column
of the Publish Slides dialog box.
You can reuse published slides in multiple presentations; for example, you may want to reuse a slide with
your company mission statement, organization structure, or contact information.
To publish a presentation, on the File tab, click Share. In the Share panel, click Publish Slides and then click
the Publish Slides button.
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Within the Publish Slides dialog box, select the slides you want to publish and then specify a location for the
slides to be stored. You can publish directly to a shared location, or publish to a local location and then move
the published files to a shared location later.
Printing the Slides
You can print the slides in the presentation in various ways, such as one or more slides per page, as handouts,
in a format that includes notes, grayscale, and so on. These methods can be selected using the print options.
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Exercise 12-6: Exploring Seattle File Formats
In this exercise you will create handouts for a presentation and you will publish slides for upload to the
company intranet. You will also export the file to different formats.
1.
Open Exploring Seattle Proposal from the student data files.
2.
Click the File tab, click Export, and click Create PDF/XPS Document. Then click Create PDF/XPS.
3.
If necessary, click to turn on Open file after publishing. Ensure you are in the location of the student
data files. Type: PDF - Student at the end of the file name and press ENTER. PowerPoint exports the
presentation to a PDF and opens a PDF reader app on your system.
4.
Scroll in the window that displays the PDF version and then close the window.
Now create an outline that can be used for a formal report.
5.
Click File, click Export, and click Create Handouts. Then click Create Handouts.
6.
Click Outline only and click OK.
7.
Click the flashing Word icon on the taskbar.
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Notice that although all the slide text is imported into the outline, the hierarchy of topics is not preserved.
For example, Exploring Seattle and Expanding the Restaurants Tour are the title and sub-title text of the
first slide, but there is no way to tell that in this version of the outline. Outlines exported to Word require
some editing and formatting.
8.
Click
(Save) on the Quick Access toolbar. Click This PC and if necessary, navigate to the PowerPoint
folder in the student data files location. Click in the file name and type: Exploring Seattle Proposal
Outline - Student. Click Save. Then close Word.
Now try sharing a document as a PowerPoint show.
9.
Click File, click Export, and click Change File Type. Click PowerPoint Show and then click Save As.
Type: Show - Student at the end of the file name and press ENTER.
10. Close the show and exit PowerPoint, and then use File Explorer to navigate to the student data files
location, then double-click Exploring Seattle Proposal Show – Student to launch the show.
Notice that the show runs independently of PowerPoint.
11. Click the mouse several times to move through the text on the first few slides, then press ESC to close
the show.
12. Close the File Explorer window, and restart PowerPoint.
Now try creating a video of the presentation so the slide show can run on its own.
13. Re-open the Exploring Seattle Proposal presentation file.
14. Click File, click Export, click Create a Video.
15. Change the number of seconds spent on each slide to 3. Then click Create Video.
16. Navigate to the PowerPoint folder in the student data location. Type: Video - Student at the end of the
file name and click Save.
17. Once the video has been saved, start File Explorer and navigate to the student data location files for
PowerPoint. Double-click Exploring Seattle Proposal Video – Student. When the video finishes, close
the Movies & TV window.
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Now try publishing the slides.
18. Return to PowerPoint, click File, click Share, click Publish Slides, and then click Publish Slides.
19. Click Select All and then click Browse. Navigate to the PowerPoint folder in the student data location
and click Select.
20. Click Publish.
21. Minimize PowerPoint and use File Explorer to navigate to the PowerPoint folder in the student file
location to view the various formats that you can use to share this presentation with others.
22. Close File Explorer.
Now look at various print options you can select to print a presentation file.
23. Maximize PowerPoint to the screen and click slide 1.
24. Click the Notes button on the status bar.
25. In the Notes Pane, type the following:
The Restaurant Tour introduced last year was very popular with the few local
restaurants chosen for the pilot. Feedback from customers indicated an interest
to include some of the places mentioned on the Food Network and getting “group”
rates and especially, seating.
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26. Click File and then click Print.
27. Click the Color print option and then click Grayscale.
28. Click the Full Page Slides option and then click Notes Pages.
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This print layout option is useful when you want to print a copy of the notes for review. In practical life,
you would add more notes to the presentation than was required for this demonstration exercise.
29. Click Print to print all the slides of the presentation using this format.
30. Close the presentation without saving.
Lesson Summary
This lesson taught you how to use PowerPoint to create simple presentations, including adding slides, images,
animation and transitions. You also learned how to share PowerPoint elements. You should now be able to:

plan and design a presentation

manipulate text or objects on slides

create, save, close, open, and switch between

presentation files
insert pictures or multimedia objects on slides


move around in a presentation
animate objects on the slides


change view displays
apply transitions to slides

insert, modify or delete slides
share presentations with others



change the layout or order of slides
publish slides
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Review Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
A typical presentation contains what type of content in the first and second slides?
a.
Title and Introduction
c.
Title and Contacts
b.
Title and Agenda
d.
Title and Summary
Which view appears when you start PowerPoint?
a.
Backstage
c.
Read
b.
Edit
d.
Normal
When might you want to create a new presentation using a template?
a.
To use the slides in an existing presentation where you will simply change the text content where
b.
To use a predesigned presentation as a guide to what or how the content should be set up in the
c.
To save a copy of the colors and design used in a template that you can then use for your own
d.
To start a wizard that will guide you through the creation of a presentation one step at a time.
presentation.
requirements.
Which view displays the slides in a linear or grid manner?
a.
Normal
c.
Slide Sorter
b.
Outline
d.
Reading
Which slide layout is automatically inserted after a title slide layout?
a.
Title Only
c.
Two Content
b.
Title and Content
d.
Comparison
Which option would you use to change the layout of a slide?
a.
New Slide
c.
Layout
b.
Insert Slide
d.
Slide Layout
Which view would you use to rearrange the order of slides?
a.
Normal
c.
Reading View
b.
Slide Sorter
d.
Slide Show
If you see a dashed line as the border of a text placeholder, which mode are you using?
a.
9.
necessary.
Edit mode
b.
Select mode
Which key can you press to activate the spell checker tool for every slide in the presentation?
a.
F1
c.
F7
b.
F5
d.
F10
10. When searching for online pictures with Bing, what should you consider before clicking the All Images
option?
a.
Whether to use actual photographs or clip art images if you are searching for a picture.
b.
The number of objects you can choose from a web search.
c.
Copyright, or who may own the object you want to use from the web search results.
d.
How fast your Internet connection is before activating any searches.
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11. Before you can manipulate an image, what must you do first?
a.
You must have cited the source where you found this image.
b.
Ensure the image must be copyrighted to you or your company.
c.
Ensure the image must be a real photograph.
d.
You must select the picture.
12. On which tab would you find the command to include a video or audio file on a slide?
a.
Insert
c.
Slide Show
b.
Design
d.
View
13. What are the three types of animation effects you can apply to a slide object?
a.
Start, Continue, End
b.
Entrance, Emphasis, Exit
c.
Speed, Duration, Effect
d.
Speed, Timing, Effect
14. Which pane would you use to change or customize the animation of a slide object?
a.
Slide Thumbnails
b.
Notes
c.
Animation
d.
Effects
15. How do slide transitions differ from applying animations?
a.
Animations can be modified whereas transitions are preset features.
b.
Slide transitions affect the entire slide, regardless of the number of slide objects.
c.
You can only add three transitions on a slide but multiple animations for a slide object.
d.
There is no difference unless you use a theme in the presentation.
16. You will be delivering a presentation where an HD television has been set up to project the slides. What
type of cable are you likely to need to plug to your computer to show the slides on this television?
a.
HD
c.
HDMI
b.
Ethernet
d.
Parallel
17. Which command would you use from the File tab if you wanted to turn the presentation into a video?
a.
Save As
c.
Export
b.
Share
d.
Publish
18. Why might you want to publish a presentation?
410
a.
To reuse the slides for another presentation.
b.
To save these slides to OneDrive.
c.
To restrict others from making changes to the slides.
d.
To use the slides in a format that can be viewed from a web page.
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Living Online
Lesson 13: Looking at the
Internet
Lesson Objectives
In this lesson, you will learn about the nature of the Internet, and about the role and function of web browsers.
Upon completion of this lesson, you should be able to:

describe the nature of the Internet

describe the role of HTML, CSS, and hyperlinks

describe packets and how they make their way

across the Internet
use a web browser


differentiate between public and private networks
describe different browsers

specify a network location in Windows
work with browser settings


describe the function and characteristics of IP
describe browser functions and features

use bookmarks/favorites

handle pop-ups, cookies, and the browser

addresses

understand the Domain Name System (DNS)

describe domain types


identify parts of a URL
understand browser extensions


differentiate the Internet from the World Wide Web
describe web site/web page standards
cache
A Connected Community
As you have been making your way through this course, hopefully you have noticed the repeated theme of
connectedness. When personal computers were brand new, they were strictly stand-alone devices. But we
knew that connecting computers could be useful – and so we created networks. And then on a grand scale,
we created the Internet.
At one time, data, phone and cellular networks were separate and distinct. But they are rapidly closing all the
gaps and becoming one inter-connected network. Our personal devices – phones, tablets, TVs, and PCs –
can connect from almost anywhere, and our world is becoming a connected community.
In this module, you will examine some of the technology that connects us, and consider the advantages,
pitfalls, and responsibilities that come with living in a connected world.
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Introducing the Internet
Objective 3-1.1
You use the Internet all the time – doing research, playing games, watching videos, or chatting with friends.
You type in an address, or click a link, and pages of text, color, images and embedded audio and video files
appear on the screen. Where does all the information come from? And how does it reach your computer?
The information you view in your browser comes to your computer through a series of networks. The Internet
is a vast global network that functions in much the same way as your school or company network.
Hierarchically, the Internet is comprised of many smaller networks which are connected together so that they
can communicate and share information.
Backbone
At the core of the Internet is the backbone – a series of redundant, high-speed networks owned and operated
by some of the largest long-distance voice carriers (for example, AT&T, Verizon, Sprint, or CenturyLink).
Companies that operate networks on the backbone are called Tier 1 providers. Tier 1 provider networks
connect with one another at Internet Exchange Points (IXPs) located along the backbone, and high-speed
backbone routers keep network traffic moving.
Anyone who wants to access the Internet must ultimately connect to a Tier 1 provider network. Typically, this
connection is supplied by a local Internet Service Provider (ISP), such as a cable or DSL company. These local
ISPs negotiate with Tier 1 providers for Internet access. Individual consumers and businesses subscribe to
their local ISPs (which in turn are connected to Tier 1 providers).
Hardware
Physically, the Internet is a collection of hardware. It consists of wires, routers, switches, microwave links,
servers, and communication protocols. The hardware you use in your home LAN or in your school or office
LAN is not much different than the hardware that forms the core of the Internet itself.
Packets
In any network, data that is exchanged from one computer to another travels across the network in a unit
called a packet. A packet is a package of information. It contains address information for both the source
computing device (the one that sends the packet) and its intended target or destination device. The
addressing information is what makes it possible to deliver a packet from its source to its destination.
In addition to addressing information, a packet also contains a data payload. This data payload is the actual
information that you want to send from one device to another. For example, a data payload may contain a
request for a web page. If a packet is coming back to your computer from a web server, the data payload
may contain part of the web page that you requested.
All data that is sent over a network – images, document files, web pages, audio and video files – must be
broken down into packets before they can be transported across the network. The larger the file, the longer
the process will take.
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Routers
When you open a browser, type a URL in the Address bar, and press ENTER your computer breaks the request
for a specific web page into packets and sends those packets out onto the network. Your home, school, or
work router forwards those packets to your ISP, who forwards them onto the Internet. But how does your
packet with the web page request travel across the Internet to get to the target web server?
Routers along the Internet read the addressing information and forward your packet accordingly. That is,
your data packet passes from router to router along the Internet (and passes through several interconnecting
networks along the way) until it reaches the network where the target web server resides. At the destination,
the packets are reassembled into the original data transmission.
A router connects different networks to each other. A router also determines the best path for a transmission
to take, and passes that transmission to the next router along the path.
You may be familiar with residential broadband routers, or even enterprise-level routers used in a company
or school LAN. Routers all perform the same functions. However, high-speed Internet backbone routers must
be powerful enough to handle the enormous amounts of data streaming through the backbone at speeds
of gigabits-per-second.
Public Networks
Arguably, the most important thing you should understand about the Internet is that it is a public network.
In fact, it is often referred to as “the public network.” It is not centrally owned or controlled; it is available for
anyone (with a valid IP address and an Internet connection) to access and use. For these reasons, no one can
“police” the Internet to protect (or control, or monitor) the people who use it.
Think about all the people around the world who connect to the Internet every day. Any time you connect
to the Internet, you can, potentially, connect to anyone else who is connected.
The great thing about the Internet is that any computer can exchange data, email, and programs with any
other computer. And the bad thing about the Internet is that any computer can exchange data, email and
programs (and also, unfortunately, viruses, Trojans and malware) with any other computer. Being connected
can make any system vulnerable to unwanted activity such as eavesdropping or theft of personal information.
For this reason, the Internet is also referred to as “the open network” or
“the untrusted network.”
In network diagrams, the Internet is represented by a cloud because its
contents (and its participants) are unknown.
Internet
Private Networks
In contrast to the public, untrusted Internet, private networks are considered secure. All systems connected
to a private network are trusted.
When you log on to a system that is inside your home, school, or corporate LAN, you have access to the
resources connected to the LAN. Depending on your rights and permissions, you can likely access printers,
email servers, and documents stored on network file shares. One of the benefits of maintaining a LAN is the
ability to share resources.
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Looking at the Internet
Many organizations maintain intranets that allow their employees, partners, or students to access LAN
resources from outside the LAN. An intranet is a private web site; you access it with your browser and you
must log in using a valid user name and password. Once you are logged in, you can navigate the intranet
web site to access the LAN resources that have been made available.
In Computing Fundamentals, you learned that you can gain access to a LAN from the outside using a Virtual
Private Network (VPN) connection. An intranet and VPN serve the same general function – they allow access
to the LAN from the outside for users with a valid user name and password.
Once you make a connection (that is, once you are “inside”) your system is trusted just as if it were located
physically within and connected directly to the LAN.
Specifying a Network Connection Type
The issue of trust becomes a serious one the moment you attach a network cable or join a WLAN. Network
administrators use firewalls to keep potentially dangerous traffic out of the LAN. But who protects your
system when you are connected to a public network at a public spot, such as at a hotel, or an airport, or a
coffee shop?
The Windows operating system includes built-in mechanisms to help protect your system while you are
connected to various networks. When you make a network connection for the first time, Windows asks what
type of network you are connecting to (and you can change this setting for a connection at any time). You
can choose:
Private – if you configure a connection as private, then your computer will automatically “discover” (that is,
locate and identify) other computers, devices and content that is accessible on the network. More
importantly, it also makes your PC discoverable and allows sharing of folders on your system. This is the
appropriate setting for a connection to your or work (or school) network.
Public – if you configure a connection as public, Windows will not allow your PC to be discovered by other
systems on the network, and sharing will be disabled. Use this setting for connections to public hotspots.
The connection type is displayed on the Network and Sharing Center page in the Control Panel.
The connection type is tied to the discoverability of your PC, which you access through the Settings app.
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To configure a network connection as private:
1.
Click Start, Settings, then click Network & Internet.
2.
In the left pane, click either Wi-Fi or Ethernet (as appropriate) to display the current active connection(s).
3.
Scroll down and click Advanced options.
4.
Set the Make this PC Discoverable setting on.
Always choose the appropriate type of connection.
Exercise 13-1: Examining your connection type
In this exercise, you will examine your connection type settings.
1.
Right-click your network connection icon in the taskbar, then click Open Network and Sharing Center.
2.
Is your connection public or private? Is this setting what you expected? Why or why not?
3.
Close the Control Panel.
Finding Computers on the Internet
Objective 3-1.1
In order for computers connected to a network to communicate with one another, they need to know how
to locate each other. That is why each computer connected to a network must have a unique address.
You learned in Computing Fundamentals that this unique network address is called an IP address. When your
computer breaks a message into packets and adds addressing information, that addressing information is an
IP address.
IP Address Review
In IPv4, an IP address is represented by a grouping of four numbers (each between 0 and 255) separated by
periods (or dots). This type of notation is called “dotted quad” notation.
For example, 66.235.120.127 is the IP address for the web server at Ask.com.
Anytime you visit the Ask.com web site, your computer exchanges packets of information with the Ask.com
web server. Your computer uses the Ask.com web server’s IP address in order to properly address the packets
that it sends to the server. Once the addressed packets are sent out onto the Internet, routers guide the
packets to the Ask.com web server. Because return address information (that is, your computer’s IP address)
is included in the packets, the Ask.com web server knows how to properly address the packets that it will
return to your computer.
DNS
Have you ever typed an IP address into the address bar of your browser? Chances are you haven't.
Most people type a text-based web site address into the browser address bar. For example, you can visit the
Ask.com web site by typing www.ask.com in the browser address bar. Your computer can discover the IP
address of the Ask.com web server by querying (asking) a DNS server.
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The Domain Name System (DNS) is a service that keeps track of the specific IP addresses of web servers
around the Internet and maps those IP addresses to the text-based names we enter into the address bars of
our browsers. These text-based names are called domain names.
DNS resolves text-based domain names into their IP addresses. For example, you can access the Ask.com
web server at IP address 66.235.120.127 by typing: www.ask.com in your browser's address bar. In other
words: 66.235.120.127 = www.ask.com.
Both the domain name and the IP address refer to the same resource, but the domain name is easier to
remember. Without DNS, you would need to enter an IP address any time you wanted to access a resource
on the Internet.
These mappings are stored in records in a DNS database. Every domain consists of DNS records. A DNS
record is an entry in a DNS database. The network administrator will create one address record that maps the
IP address to the domain name, and usually creates several records for aliases or nicknames that point back
to the address record. If you enter an alias as a URL, for example “ask.com” or simply “ask,” you can still
navigate to the www.ask.com web server.
DNS Servers
The DNS service is made possible through DNS name servers, which are servers on the Internet whose sole
function is to resolve domain names into their IP addresses. For example, when you enter a URL such as
www.ccilearning.com into your browser's address bar, your computer contacts a domain name server to
obtain the IP address related to this domain name. When your computer receives the IP address
160.153.73.246 from the domain name server, it can correctly address a web page request and send it to the
web server. When the server responds, the CCI Learning Solutions site displays on the screen.
Note: If a DNS server is unreachable, you will not be able to navigate to a web site by entering its URL in
the browser address bar. You can, however, still reach the site if you know its IP address.
Understanding Domain Names
Objective 3-1.1
A typical domain name consists of three labels separated by periods or dots.
www.ccilearning.com
Server
Name
Registered
Domain
Name
Top-level
Domain
Name
Server Name
Identifies the name of the web server.
Registered Domain
Identifies the organization that owns the domain name. Each domain name is unique
Name
Top-level Domain
and is registered with the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
(ICANN).
Identifies the category of the registered domain name.
Starting from the right, the domain name lists the most general category, then more specifically the company
that owns the domain, and then the specific resource within the company that owns the domain. The domain
name is like a road-map to a particular resource.
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DNS Domain Levels
DNS is arranged into a hierarchy that consists of three levels:
•
Root-level domain
•
Top-level domains
•
Second-level domains
The root-level domain is the top of the hierarchy and contains entries for each top-level domain.
Top-Level Domains (Generic Categories and Countries)
Top-level domains are the highest level domain names of the Internet. Every domain name ends with a top-
level domain label.
There are two main groups of top-level domains:
•
those that group domains into generic categories (commercial, educational, military, and so on), and
•
country code top-level domains which are based on two-character codes signifying country
abbreviations.
Generic Top-Level Domains
You can generally determine what type of information a web site contains (or what it is meant to do) simply
by reading the generic top-level domain. The original seven generic top-level domains are:
.com
Represents commercial or company sites. Most web sites in this domain sell a service or product,
usually through an online store or web page from which you can purchase items directly. The
.com domain is considered a generic top-level domain and can be registered by anyone.
.net
Another type of commercial web site. It is generally hosted on a network managed by an Internet
.edu
Represents an education site created to share information about an academic institution, its
.gov
Refers to a site associated with a local, regional, or national government. (Depending on the
Service Provider (ISP).
curriculum, and other activities. This category may also be associated with research organizations.
country, there may be additional levels included in the URL to identify specific areas such as
states, municipalities, townships).
.int
Refers to international organizations.
.mil
Refers to military organizations.
.org
Identifies a site dedicated to a non-profit organization that may promote a specific cause such
as foundations for heart attack and stroke prevention, or cancer for example.
Additional categories are added as the need arises. Examples include: .aero, .biz, .info, .jobs, .pro, and .travel.
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Country Code Top-Level Domains
Other top-level domain names use a two-letter abbreviation and are meant to identify the country in which
the web site is hosted; examples include:
au
Australia
fr
France
jp
br
Brazil
il
Israel
mx Mexico
ca
Canada
in
India
tw
Tawain
cn
China
it
Italy
uk
United Kingdom
dk
Denmark
Japan
Second-Level Domains
The second-level domains can be:
•
a domain name registered by the company that owns it. Amazon.com and Microsoft.com are examples
of second-level domains.
•
categories of the top-level domain. For example, .co.uk indicates a commercial business within the United
Kingdom, while .police.uk is used by UK police forces.
Subdomains
Additionally, second-level domains can be further divided into subdomains. For example, in the following
URL: support.xbox.com
•
.com is the top-level domain
•
.xbox is the second-level domain
•
support is a subdomain within the xbox second-level domain.
Understanding URLs
Objective 3-1.1
The text-based web site address you type into a browser address bar is called a Uniform Resource Locator
(URL). A URL is the global address of a resource on the World Wide Web. A URL consists of two basic parts:
a protocol identifier and a domain name. These parts are separated by a colon : and two forward slashes / /.
Protocol Identifier
Various protocols are used on the Internet to communicate with specific types of servers. The protocol used
to request web pages from a web server is HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP). Web servers also use HTTP to
send web pages to the computers that request them.
Browsers assume that you want to use the http protocol when you enter a web site address. This allows you
to simply type: "www.yahoo.com" instead of "http://www.yahoo.com." Some web browsers display the http://
protocol identifier in the address bar and others do not.
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There’s more than HTTP
Other protocols commonly used in URLs are:
HTTP Secure (HTTPS) – is a protocol used for secure web transactions, such as making purchases over the
Internet. The HTTPS protocol allows you to use HTTP over a secure connection. In the past, these connections
were secured by a protocol called Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Today, Transport Layer Security (TLS) is the
protocol used to secure the connection. However, TLS is often still referred to as “SSL” and HTTPS is often
still referred to as “HTTP over SSL.”
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) – used to transfer large files between a user’s computer and a special type of
server called an FTP server. If you want to use your web browser to access an FTP server to transfer a file, you
must specify the ftp protocol in the URL; for example: ftp://aeneas.mit.edu.
Path and Filenames in URLs
Web servers (like any other PC) store files in directories on a hard drive. A URL can also include the path and
filename of a specific document or web page stored on a server.
Consider the following URL: http://www.opera.com/browser/tutorials/mail/setup/#account-setup
•
#account-setup is a web page
•
/browser/tutorials/mail/setup is the path to the folder on the web server where the page is stored
•
"www" is the name of the web server
•
opera.com is the registered domain name of the company that owns the web server
•
.com indicates that it is a commercial enterprise
What is the World Wide Web?
In our discussion of the Internet, we have made several references to the World Wide Web. While the Internet
is a network comprised of hardware connections, the World Wide Web is a system of interlinked documents
that are accessible on that network called the Internet.
There are countless millions of documents hosted on web servers – and if you can access a document by
typing its address into a web browser, or by clicking a link that takes you to it, that document is part of the
World Wide Web.
Documents hosted on web servers are generally referred to as web pages, and web pages usually contain
links (called hyperlinks) to other pages located on web servers around the Internet. If you have ever visited a
web site and clicked a link that took you to another web site (or to another page within the same web site),
then you have used a hyperlink. These hyperlinks form the connections that make the World Wide Web
possible – web pages around the world are connected to one another by hyperlinks.
What Exactly is a Web Page?
Objective 3-1.1
A web page is a file created with hypertext markup language (HTML). HTML is a special language that web
page authors use to add text, hyperlinks, applications, video clips, sound and animation to web pages. A
collection of related web pages is called a web site.
When web pages are designed properly, visitors can “point and click” to launch applications, navigate to
specific areas of the web site, or visit related web sites – all within a web browser window.
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HTML
HTML (the common name for Hypertext Markup Language) is a standardized language used to create web
pages. The language is built using HTML elements, which consist of tags enclosed in angle brackets, as used
in the “Hello World” HTML document shown in the following figure:
Most HTML tags are written in pairs, such as <head> and </head>. The first tag in the pair is called the
opening tag, and the second is called the closing tag. (Some tags, called empty elements, are not paired.)
Web browsers can read HTML files and render them into web pages. Browsers do not display the tags, but
use them to determine how to represent the content of the page. You may have noticed from looking at the
HTML example that the tags describe the structure of the page – there is a head section which can include
styles or a web page title, and a body section that can include headings, bullet lists, and paragraphs of body
text.
When you view the “Hello World” document in a browser, it appears as shown in the following figure:
HTML also allows images and objects to be embedded in web pages, and for pages to run scripts written in
programming and scripting languages such as JavaScript and Perl.
CSS
Today’s standard for web page design separates content/structure from presentation. The content and
structure are defined in the HTML. Presentational attributes (that is, properties such as font colors,
background styles, element alignment, and so on) are defined in Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).
CSS allows web page authors to move presentational styling information into the head section of the HTML
document (this is called internal CSS), or to a separate style sheet document (this is called external CSS) that
is linked to the HTML document. The web browser reads the HTML document for content and structure, and
looks to the style sheet for presentational information. The browser applies the styles defined in the style
sheet to the HTML content as it renders the page.
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The following figure shows the “Hello Word” document with a CSS paragraph style added to the head section.
The opening and closing tags for the style are <style> and </style>.
When you view the modified “Hello World” document in a browser, it appears as shown in the following
figure. Notice that the browser applies the style and renders the page accordingly.
Hyperlinks
The World Wide Web is based on a collection of documents which are connected to one another through
hyperlinks. You can click a hyperlink in a web page to move to another (connected) web page or to a
particular section within the current web page. A hyperlink is a reference to data that is located somewhere
other than the present location. A hyperlink can point to a whole document or to a specific element within a
document.
Hyperlinks are HTML elements, and are embedded into web pages. Generally, a hyperlink consists of link text
(which is the text or image that you click), and a target (which is the destination web page).
In HTML, links are defined with the <a> (anchor) tag and take the following form:
<a href= “url”>link text</a>
The <a> tag is used to create an anchor to link from. The href attribute contains the address (URL) of the
document to link to, and the link text is the text that will be displayed as the hyperlink. A sample hyperlink
tag is as follows:
<a href=“http://www.ccilearning.com”>Visit CCI Learning</a>.
In the sample, “http://www.ccilearning.com” is the URL, and “Visit CCI Learning” is the link text.
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Meet the Browser!
Web browsers (or simply, browsers) are software applications that enable users to easily access, view and
navigate web pages on the Internet. Browsers allow you to interact with web sites and to experience the
amazing rich media that is available on the World Wide Web.
You may be familiar with several browsers, such as Microsoft Edge, Microsoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla
Firefox, Google Chrome, Apple Safari and Opera.
While a browser’s primary function is to retrieve pages from a web server and display them on your screen,
you should understand that browsers are complex software applications that provide a number of services,
and they can be configured to suit your working style, and keep you safe while you are online.
Getting Where You Want to Go – The Address Bar
To visit a web page, you enter its URL into the browser address bar and press ENTER. The browser requests
the page from the web server, and when it is received, the browser displays the page within the browser
window. The address bar displays the URL of the page currently displayed in the browser window. If the web
page includes a title, it is displayed in the window tab.
Address bar
Window tab
Browser window title bar
You can visit any web page by typing its URL into the address bar and pressing ENTER.
As you navigate to other pages within a web site (or as you visit pages on other web sites), the URL shown
in the address field updates to show the address of the current page. Most browsers maintain a history of
URLs that you can access from the address bar. Clicking a URL displayed in the address bar history list has
the same effect as entering the URL directly into the address bar.
In addition to displaying the URL, the address bar often includes several buttons. The Internet Explorer
address bar is shown here:
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The Internet Explorer address bar includes the following buttons:
Search
You can search directly from the address bar, instead of first accessing a search engine
page. Enter your search criteria in the address bar and then click the
press ENTER to view a list of web sites related to your search criteria.
Show Address
(Search) button or
Click the
(Show Address) button to display a history of the URLs of previously visited
Security report Click the
(Security report) button to view digital certificates and encryption information.
web sites.
This button displays only when you are viewing a page over a secure protocol, such as
https.
Refresh/Go
Click the
The
(Refresh) button to re-display or refresh the contents of the current web page.
(Go to) button displays in the address bar while you are typing in a web site address.
You can click Go to instead of pressing ENTER to go to the site.
Stop
Click the
(Stop) button to halt the downloading of information for a web page. The Stop
button appears only while a page is loading.
Browser Scroll Bars
Browser windows (like other windows you may be used to seeing on a computer screen) support horizontal
and vertical scroll bars that display when a window is too small to display all the contents of a web page. The
following figure shows a browser window with a vertical scroll bar.
Vertical
scroll bar
with Scroll
box
A scroll bar consists of three parts: an arrow button at each end of the bar, a scroll box, and the scroll area.
The position of the scroll box within the scroll area provides an approximate gauge of where the information
currently displayed in the window is in relation to the entire window’s contents.
When you use a scroll bar to view different parts of the window, the action is called scrolling. Use one of the
following methods to scroll a window:
•
Click in the lighter shaded area above or below the scroll box to scroll up or down.
•
Click the arrow at either end of the scroll bar to move up or down.
•
Click and hold the mouse button on the arrow at either end to scroll the screen continuously in that
direction.
•
Drag the scroll box to a specific position in the scroll area to scroll to that location.
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Studies have shown that most users do not mind scrolling vertically, but they have a strong dislike for scrolling
horizontally. In response, web site designers create pages that use adjustable formats and layouts that
respond automatically to changes in the size of the window. As a result, most web pages do not require
horizontal scrolling, even though web browsers support horizontal scroll bars.
Standard Windows Control Buttons
Browser windows include the standard Minimize, Maximize/Restore and Close control buttons in the upperright corner. The control buttons change the way a currently open window displays, as follows:
(Minimize)
Temporarily closes the window, replacing it as a button on the taskbar. Click the
(Maximize)
Displays the window full screen.
button on the taskbar to open or restore the window.
(Restore Down) Restores the window to the size it was before it was maximized.
(Close)
Closes the window.
You can resize a browser window to any dimensions you as you would any other application win