INSTRUCTION MANUAL
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................................................. 4
WARNING ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 4
QUICK SETUP ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 5
ASSEMBLY........................................................................................................................................................................................... 8
ASSEMBLING THE NEXSTAR ................................................................................................................................................................ 8
Setting Up The Tripod .................................................................................................................................................................... 8
Adjusting the Tripod Height ........................................................................................................................................................... 9
Vibration Suppression Pads............................................................................................................................................................ 9
Attaching the NexStar to the Tripod ............................................................................................................................................. 10
Attaching the Hand Control.......................................................................................................................................................... 10
Adjusting the Clutches .................................................................................................................................................................. 11
The Star Diagonal ........................................................................................................................................................................ 11
The Eyepiece................................................................................................................................................................................. 11
The Finderscope ........................................................................................................................................................................... 12
Finderscope Installation ........................................................................................................................................................... 12
Aligning the Finderscope ......................................................................................................................................................... 13
Powering the NexStar....................................................................................................................................................................13
HAND CONTROL .............................................................................................................................................................................. 14
Hand Control Operation............................................................................................................................................................... 15
Alignment Procedures .................................................................................................................................................................. 15
GPS Alignment ........................................................................................................................................................................ 15
Auto-Align ............................................................................................................................................................................... 17
Two Star Alignment................................................................................................................................................................. 17
Quick-Align ............................................................................................................................................................................. 18
EQ North / EQ South Alignment.............................................................................................................................................. 18
NexStar Re-Alignment............................................................................................................................................................. 18
Object Catalog.............................................................................................................................................................................. 19
Selecting an Object .................................................................................................................................................................. 19
Slewing to an Object ................................................................................................................................................................ 19
Finding Planets ............................................................................................................................................................................ 19
Tour Mode .................................................................................................................................................................................... 20
Direction Buttons.......................................................................................................................................................................... 20
Rate Button................................................................................................................................................................................... 20
Setup Procedures.......................................................................................................................................................................... 20
Tracking Mode......................................................................................................................................................................... 20
Tracking Rate........................................................................................................................................................................... 21
Date/Time ................................................................................................................................................................................ 21
Steup Time-Site........................................................................................................................................................................ 21
Sidereal Time ........................................................................................................................................................................... 21
Altitude Limits ......................................................................................................................................................................... 21
User Defined Objects ............................................................................................................................................................... 21
Get RA/DEC ............................................................................................................................................................................ 22
Get Alt-Az................................................................................................................................................................................ 22
Goto R.A/Dec........................................................................................................................................................................... 22
Goto Alt-Az ............................................................................................................................................................................. 22
Utility Features............................................................................................................................................................................. 22
Anti-backlash ........................................................................................................................................................................... 22
Slew Limits .............................................................................................................................................................................. 23
Calibrate Motors ...................................................................................................................................................................... 23
Periodic Error Correction ......................................................................................................................................................... 23
Direction Buttons ..................................................................................................................................................................... 23
Calibrate Level......................................................................................................................................................................... 23
Light Control............................................................................................................................................................................ 23
GPS On/Off.............................................................................................................................................................................. 23
Factory Settings........................................................................................................................................................................ 23
TELESCOPE BASICS........................................................................................................................................................................ 25
Image Orientation......................................................................................................................................................................... 25
Focusing ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 26
Calculating Magnification............................................................................................................................................................ 26
Determining Field of View............................................................................................................................................................ 26
General Observing Hints.............................................................................................................................................................. 27
ASTRONOMY BASICS ..................................................................................................................................................................... 28
2
The Celestial Coordinate System .................................................................................................................................................. 28
Motion of the Stars ....................................................................................................................................................................... 29
Polar Alignment (with optional Wedge) ....................................................................................................................................... 30
Calibrating Level...................................................................................................................................................................... 30
EQ Alignment Procedure ......................................................................................................................................................... 30
Finding the North Celestial Pole .................................................................................................................................................. 31
Latitude Scale Polar Alignment Method .................................................................................................................................. 32
Pointing at Polaris Method of Polar Alignment........................................................................................................................ 32
Declination Drift Method of Polar Alignment.......................................................................................................................... 33
CELESTIAL OBSERVING ............................................................................................................................................................... 34
Observing the Moon ..................................................................................................................................................................... 34
Lunar Observing Hints ............................................................................................................................................................. 34
Observing the Planets................................................................................................................................................................... 34
Planetary Observing Hints........................................................................................................................................................ 34
Observing the Sun......................................................................................................................................................................... 35
Solar Observing Hints .............................................................................................................................................................. 35
Observing Deep Sky Objects......................................................................................................................................................... 35
Seeing Conditions......................................................................................................................................................................... 35
Transparency................................................................................................................................................................................ 35
Sky Illumination............................................................................................................................................................................ 35
Seeing ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 36
CELESTIAL PHOTOGRAPHY........................................................................................................................................................ 37
Short Exposure Prime Focus Photography................................................................................................................................... 37
Eyepiece Projection...................................................................................................................................................................... 38
Long Exposure Prime Focus Photography ................................................................................................................................... 39
Periodic Error Correction (PEC)................................................................................................................................................. 40
Using Periodic Error Correction............................................................................................................................................... 40
Terrestrial Photography ............................................................................................................................................................... 41
Metering................................................................................................................................................................................... 42
Reducing Vibration .................................................................................................................................................................. 42
CCD Imaging ............................................................................................................................................................................... 42
Fastar F/2 Imaging .................................................................................................................................................................. 44
F/6.3 with Reducer/Corrector................................................................................................................................................... 44
Auto Guiding ........................................................................................................................................................................... 45
TELESCOPE MAINTENANCE........................................................................................................................................................ 46
Care and Cleaning of the Optics .................................................................................................................................................. 46
Collimation................................................................................................................................................................................... 46
OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES ........................................................................................................................................................... 48
APPENDIX A - TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS ......................................................................................................................... 51
APPENDIX B - GLOSSARY OF TERMS ........................................................................................................................................ 52
APPENDIX C – LONGITUDES AND LATITUDES ....................................................................................................................... 55
APPENDIX D - RS-232 CONNECTION........................................................................................................................................... 60
Communication Protocol:......................................................................................................................................................... 60
APPENDIX E – MAPS OF TIME ZONES ....................................................................................................................................... 61
SKY MAPS .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 63
OBSERVATIONAL DATA SHEET.................................................................................................................................................. 69
WARRANTY....................................................................................................................................................................................... 70
3
Congratulations on your purchase of the Celestron NexStar GPS telescope! The NexStar GPS ushers in the next
generation of computer automated telescopes. The NexStar GPS series, for the first time ever in a commercial
telescope, uses GPS (Global Positioning System) technology to take the guesswork and effort out of aligning and
finding celestial objects in the sky. Simple and easy to use, the NexStar with its on-board GPS, is up and running after
locating just two alignment stars. It’s so advanced that once you turn it on, the integrated GPS and digital compass
system automatically pinpoints your exact location and points to your first alignment star. No need to enter the date,
time, longitude and latitude or even know the position of north.
If you are new to astronomy, you may wish to start off by using the NexStar's built-in Sky Tour feature, which
commands the NexStar to find the most interesting objects in the sky and automatically slews to each one. Or if you
are an experienced amateur, you will appreciate the comprehensive database of over 40,000 objects, including
customized lists of all the best deep-sky objects, bright double stars and variable stars. No matter at what level you are
starting out, the NexStar will unfold for you and your friends all the wonders of the Universe.
Some of the many standard features of the NexStar include:
•
Integrated Global Positioning System and electronic compass for hands free alignment.
•
Fully enclosed optical encoders for position location.
•
Ergonomically designed hand controller – built into the side of the fork arm.
•
Database filter limits for creating custom object lists.
•
Storage for programmable user defined objects; and
Many other high performance features!
The NexStar’s deluxe features combine with Celestron’s legendary Schmidt-Cassegrain optical system to give amateur
astronomers the most sophisticated and easy to use telescopes available on the market today.
Take time to read through this manual before embarking on your journey through the Universe. It may take a few
observing sessions to become familiar with your NexStar, so you should keep this manual handy until you have fully
mastered your telescope’s operation. The NexStar hand control has built-in instructions to guide you through all the
alignment procedures needed to have the telescope up and running in minutes. Use this manual in conjunction with the
on-screen instructions provided by the hand control. The manual gives detailed information regarding each step as
well as needed reference material and helpful hints guaranteed to make your observing experience as simple and
pleasurable as possible.
Your NexStar telescope is designed to give you years of fun and rewarding observations. However, there are a few
things to consider before using your telescope that will ensure your safety and protect your equipment.
Warning
Never look directly at the sun with the naked eye or with a telescope (unless you have the proper solar
filter). Permanent and irreversible eye damage may result.
Never use your telescope to project an image of the sun onto any surface. Internal heat build-up can damage
the telescope and any accessories attached to it.
Never use an eyepiece solar filter or a Herschel wedge. Internal heat build-up inside the telescope can cause
these devices to crack or break, allowing unfiltered sunlight to pass through to the eye.
Never leave the telescope unsupervised, either when children are present or adults who may not be familiar
with the correct operating procedures of your telescope.
4
2
1
Carrying
Handle
Center Leg
Brace
Tripod Head
Tension
Knob
Leg
Extension
Clamp
Carrying
Handle
Mounting
Bolt
Drive Base
Positioning
Pin
With the tripod set up outside, lift the telescope by the
carrying handle on each fork arm and carefully lower it
onto the tripod head. Make sure that the hole in the
bottom of the drive base goes over the positioning pin in
the center of the tripod head. Rotate the base until the
holes line-up with the mounting holes on the tripod.
Thread the three mounting bolts from underneath the
tripod head into the bottom of the telescope base.
Place the center leg brace between the tripod legs
and tighten the tension knob so that the brace
pushes out against the legs. Loosen the extension
clamp at the end of each tripod leg and slide down
the inner portion of the leg to the desired height.
Tighten the extension clamp to hold the legs in
place.
3
4
Eyepiece
Finderscope
Altitude
Clutch
Lock Lever
Star
Diagonal
Loosen the Altitude Clutch Lock Lever and rotate
the telescope tube upwards until it is level with the
ground. Tighten the Lock Lever.
Attach the included accessories (eyepiece, diagonal and
finderscope) and remove the front lens cover. Align the
finderscope on a distant object. (For instructions on
aligning the finderscope, see the Assembly section of the
manual).
5
6
5
12v DC
Power
On/Off
Switch
Once powered on, the NexStar will display
NexStar GPS, press ENTER to select GPS
alignment. The NexStar will automatically find its
North and Level position and retrieve information
from the GPS satellites.
Plug-in the supplied 12v AC adapter into the outlet
on the bottom portion of the drive base. Before
powering the NexStar, point the tube down towards
the ground and lock both the altitude and azimuth
clutches. Power the NexStar by flipping
the Star
Alignment
"On/Off" switch to the "On" position.
7
8
Finderscope
Up and Down
Scroll Buttons
Alignment Star
Tour
Button
Press the TOUR button on the hand control. The hand control
will display a list of celestial objects that are currently visible.
Press INFO to read information about the object displayed.
Press the DOWN scroll key to display the next object. Press
ENTER to slew to (go to) the displayed object.
The NexStar will automatically pick an alignment star and
slew the telescope close to that star. Once there, the display
will ask you to use the arrow buttons to aim the finderscope
at the star. If the star is not visible (perhaps behind a tree),
press UNDO to select a new star. Next, center the star in
the eyepiece and press ALIGN. Repeat these steps for the
second star alignment. When complete, the display will
read "Alig
Alignment
Alignment Successful".
Successful"
6
6
7
8
5
9
4
3
10
2
1
11
A
B
C
D
E
12
Figure 2 – The NexStar GPS
1
Control Panel (see below)
7
Optical Tube
2
Focus Knob
8
Schmidt Corrector Lens
3
Star Diagonal
9
Hand Control
4
Eyepiece
10
Fork Arm
5
Finderscope
11
Carrying Handle
6
Finderscope Adjustment Screw
12
Tripod
CONTROL PANEL
C
Auxiliary Port 2
A
PC Interface Port
D
12v Output Jack
B
Auxiliary Port 1
E
Auto
Guider Port
7
The NexStar comes completely pre-assembled and can be operational in a matter of minutes. The NexStar and its accessories are
conveniently packaged in one reusable shipping carton while the tripod comes in its own box. Included with your NexStar are the
following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
40mm Plossl Eyepiece – 1¼"
1¼" Star Diagonal
9x50 Finderscope and Mounting Bracket
1¼" Visual Back
AC adapter (car battery adapter is included with some models)
Heavy Duty Tripod
Vibration Suppression Pads
Bolt Pack
Assembling the NexStar
Start by removing the telescope and tripod from their shipping cartons and set the telescopes round base on a sturdy flat surface.
Always carry the telescope by holding it from the lower portion of the fork arm on the hand control side and from the handle on
the opposite side. Remove all of the accessories from their individual boxes. Remember to save all of the containers so that they
can be used to transport the telescope. Before attaching the visual accessories, the telescope should be mounted on the tripod and
the tube should be positioned horizontal to the ground.
Setting Up The Tripod
For maximum rigidity, the Celestron Heavy Duty Tripod has a leg support bracket. This bracket fits snugly against the tripod
legs, increasing stability while reducing vibration and flexure. However, the tripod is shipped with each arm of the leg support
bracket in between the legs so the tripod legs can collapse. To set up the tripod:
1.
Hold the tripod with the head up and the legs pointed toward the ground.
2.
Pull the legs away from the central column until they will not separate any further. A small stop on the top of each tripod
leg presses against the tripod head to indicate maximum separation.
3.
Rotate the tension knob (located underneath the support bracket on the central column) clockwise until it is close to the
bottom of the central column.
4.
Turn the leg support bracket until the cups on the end of each bracket are directly underneath each leg.
5.
Rotate the tension knob counterclockwise until the bracket is secure against the tripod legs. Do not over tighten.
The tripod will now stand by itself. Once the telescope is attached to the tripod, readjust the tension knob to ensure that the leg
support bracket is snug. Once again, do not over tighten!
8
Tripod Head
Central Column
Leg Support Bracket
Tension Knob
Leg Clamp
Figure 3-1
Adjusting the Tripod Height
The tripod that comes with your NexStar telescope is adjustable. To adjust the height at which the tripod stands:
1.
Loosen the extension clamp on one of the tripod legs (see figure 3-1).
2.
Extend the leg to the desired height.
3.
Tighten the extension clamp to hold the leg in place.
4.
Repeat this process for each of the remaining legs.
You can do this while the tripod legs are still folded together.
Remember that the higher the tripod legs are extended, the less stable it is. For casual observing, this may not pose a problem.
However, if you plan on doing photography, the tripod should be set low to ensure stability. A recommended height is to set the
tripod in such a manner that you can look directly into the eyepiece on the telescope with a diagonal while seated.
Vibration Suppression Pads
The Vibration Suppression Pads (VSP) reduce telescope vibration caused by windy conditions, an accidental bump from the
observer, or an unsteady mount. The VSP, which consists of a set of three pads, reduces the vibration time and also the vibration
amplitude. They fit between the bottom of the tripod legs and the ground. They work on any surface: grass, dirt, concrete,
asphalt, wood, etc. The Vibration Suppression Pads are installed after the tripod has been set up. The pads are inserted one leg at
a time. When using the VSP's remove the rubber feet on the bottom of each tripod leg and make sure that one of the grips on the
bottom of the Vibration Suppression Pad is pointing toward the center of the tripod.
9
Attaching the NexStar to the Tripod
After the tripod is set up, you are now ready to attach the telescope. The bottom of the NexStar base has three threaded holes
that mount to the tripod head and one hole in the center that goes over the positioning pin on the tripod head.
1.
Place the center hole in the bottom of the telescope base over the
positioning pin in the center of the tripod plate.
2.
Rotate the telescope base until the threaded holes align with the
holes in the tripod head.
3.
Thread the three mounting bolts from underneath the tripod head
into the bottom of the telescope base. Tighten all three bolts.
Warning: Never insert bolts with threads longer than 3/8"
into the NexStar base. It can cause damage to the internal
motors.
Mounting
Bolt
Positioning
Pin
You are now ready to attach the included visual accessories onto the
telescope optical tube.
Figure 3-2 Mounting the Telescope
Attaching the Hand Control
In order to protect your NexStar telescope during shipping, the hand control unit has been packaged along with the other
telescope accessories and will need to be attached to the fork arm of your telescope. The hand control cable has a phone jack
style connector that will plug into the jack outlet located on the inside of the fork arm (see figure 3-3). To connect the hand
control to the fork arm:
•
Insert the hand control connector so that the pins are facing the inside of the fork arm.
•
Push the connector into the jack until it clicks into place.
The hand control can now rest in the fork arm of the telescope.
Hand Control
Jack Outlet
Figure 3-3b Attaching the Hand
Control for NexStar 11 GPS
Figure 3-3a Attaching the Hand
Control for NexStar 8 GPS
10
Adjusting the Clutches
The NexStar GPS has a dual axis clutch system. This allows you to move the telescope manually even when the telescope is not
powered on. However, both clutches need to be tightened down for the telescope to be aligned for "goto" use. Any manual
movement of the telescope will invalidate your telescope's alignment.
Note: When transporting your telescope, make sure that both clutches are somewhat loose; this will diminish the load
placed on the worm gear assemblies and protect them from damage.
Azimuth Clutch Lock
Figure 3-4 - The NexStar has an altitude clutch lever (left) located on the fork arm and an azimuth
clutch lever (right) located on the bottom portion of the base.
The Star Diagonal
The star diagonal diverts the light at a right angle from the light path of the telescope. For astronomical observing, this allows
you to observe in positions that are more comfortable than if you were to look straight through. To attach the star diagonal:
1.
Turn the thumbscrew on the visual back until its tip no longer extends into (i.e., obstructs) the inner diameter of the visual
back.
2.
Slide the chrome portion of the star diagonal into the visual back.
3.
Tighten the thumbscrew on the visual back to hold the star diagonal in place.
If you wish to change the orientation of the star diagonal, loosen the thumbscrew on the visual back until the star diagonal rotates
freely. Rotate the diagonal to the desired position and tighten the thumbscrew.
The Eyepiece
Eyepiece
The eyepiece, or ocular, is the optical element that magnifies the image focused
by the telescope. The eyepiece fits into either the visual back directly or the
star diagonal. To install the eyepiece:
1.
Loosen the thumbscrew on the star diagonal so it does not obstruct the
inner diameter of the eyepiece end of the diagonal.
2.
Slide the chrome portion of the eyepiece into the star diagonal.
3.
Tighten the thumbscrew to hold the eyepiece in place.
Star
Diagonal
To remove the eyepiece, loosen the thumbscrew on the star diagonal and slide
the eyepiece out.
Visual
Back
Figure 3-5 - The Visual Accessories
11
Eyepieces are commonly referred to by focal length and barrel diameter. The focal length of each eyepiece is printed on the
eyepiece barrel. The longer the focal length (i.e., the larger the number) the lower the eyepiece power or magnification; and the
shorter the focal length (i.e., the smaller the number) the higher the magnification. Generally, you will use low-to-moderate
power when viewing. For more information on how to determine power, see the section on “Calculating Magnification.”
Barrel diameter is the diameter of the barrel that slides into the star diagonal or visual back. The NexStar uses eyepieces with a
standard 1-1/4" barrel diameter.
The Finderscope
The NexStar GPS comes with a 9x50 finderscope which has an 5.8° field-of-view. The specifications for a finderscope stand
for the magnification and the aperture, in millimeters, of the scope. So, a 9x50 finder magnifies objects nine times and has a
50mm objective lens
Finderscope Installation
1.
2.
3.
4.
Find the two holes in the rear cell of the telescope on the top left, when looking from the back of the tube.
Remove any tape covering the two holes. The tape is there to prevent dust and moisture from entering the optical tube
before the finder is installed.
Place the finder bracket over the two holes. Orient the bracket so that the rings that hold the finder are over the
telescope tube, not the rear cell.
Insert the screws through the bracket and into the rear cell.
WARNING: If you remove the finderscope, do not thread the screws back into the rear cell of the telescope. The screws are
long enough to obstruct the movement of, and possibly damage the primary mirror.
Figure 3-6 Mounting the Finderscope in the Bracket
With the bracket firmly attached to the telescope, you are ready to attach the finder to the bracket.
1.
Thread the three nylon screws into the front ring of the finder bracket. Tighten the screws until the nylon heads are
flush with the inner diameter of the bracket ring. Do NOT thread them in completely or they will interfere with the
placement of the finder.
2.
Slide the eyepiece end of the finderscope into the front of the bracket.
3.
Slide the O-Ring over the back of the finder and position it on the finderscope body toward the eyepiece end.
4.
Push the finder back until the O-Ring is snug inside the back ring of the finder bracket.
5.
Hand tighten the three nylon thumbscrews until snug.
12
Aligning the Finderscope
To make the alignment process a little easier, you should perform this task in the daytime when it is easier to locate objects in the
telescope without the finder. To align the finder:
1.
Choose a conspicuous object that is in excess of one mile away. This will eliminate any possible parallax effect
between the telescope and the finder.
2.
Point your telescope at the object you selected and center it in the main optics of the telescope.
3.
Lock the azimuth and altitude clamps to hold the telescope in place.
4.
Check the finder to see where the object is located in the field of view.
5.
Adjust the nylon thumb screws on the finder bracket, tightening one while loosening another, until the cross hairs are
centered on the target.
6.
Tighten each thumb screw a quarter of a turn to ensure that they will not come loose easily.
The image orientation through the finder is inverted (i.e., upside down and reversed from left-to-right). Because of this, it may
take a few minutes to familiarize yourself with the directional change each screw has on the finder
Powering the NexStar
The NexStar can be powered by the supplied 12v AC adapter or optional car battery adapter (see Optional Accessories
section in the back of this manual). Use only the AC adapter supplied by
Celestron. Using any other adapter may damage the electronics and will
void your manufacturer's warranty.
1.
To power the NexStar with the 12v AC adapter (or car battery
adapter), simply plug the round post into the 12v outlet on the
bottom portion of the drive base and plug the adapter into a
wall outlet (or cigarette lighter outlet for the car battery
adapter).
2.
Turn on the power to the NexStar by flipping the switch,
located next to the 12v outlet, to the "On" position.
12v DC
Power
On/Off
Switch
Figure 3-7 Powering the NexStar
13
The NexStar has a removable hand controller built into the side of the fork arm designed to give you instant access to all the
functions the NexStar has to offer. With automatic slewing to over 40,000 objects, and common sense menu descriptions, even
a beginner can master its variety of features in just a few observing sessions. Below is a brief description of the individual
components of the NexStar hand controller:
1.
2.
3.
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Window: Has a dual-line, 16 character display screen that is backlit for comfortable
viewing of telescope information and scrolling text.
Align: Instructs the NexStar to use a selected star or object as an alignment position.
Direction Keys: Allows complete control of the NexStar in any direction. Use the direction keys to move the
telescope to the initial alignment stars or for centering objects in the eyepiece.
1
7
2
8
3
9
10
4
5
11
6
12
Figure 4-1
The NexStar Hand Control
4.
Catalog Keys: The NexStar has keys on the hand control to allow direct access to each of the catalogs in its database.
The NexStar contains the following catalogs in its database:
Messier – Complete list of all Messier objects.
NGC – Complete list of all the deep-sky objects in the Revised New General Catalog.
14
Caldwell – A combination of the best NGC and IC objects.
Planets - All 8 planets in our Solar System plus the Moon.
Stars – A compiled list of the brightest stars from the SAO catalog.
List – For quick access, all of the best and most popular objects in the NexStar database have been broken down
into lists based on their type and/or common name:
Named Stars
Named Objects
Double Stars
Variable Stars
Asterisms
CCD Objects
IC Objects
Abell Objects
Common name listing of the brightest stars in the sky.
Alphabetical listing of over 50 of the most popular deep
sky objects.
Numeric-alphabetical listing of the most visually stunning
double, triple and quadruple stars in the sky.
Select list of the brightest variable stars with the shortest
period of changing magnitude.
A unique list of some of the most recognizable star
patterns in the sky.
A custom list of many interesting galaxy pairs, trios and
clusters that are well suited for CCD imaging with the
NexStar telescope.
A complete list of all the Index Catalog deep-sky objects.
A complete list of all the Abell Catalog deep-sky objects.
5.
6.
Info: Displays coordinates and useful information about objects selected from the NexStar database.
Tour: Activates the tour mode, which seeks out all the best objects for the current date and time, and automatically
slews the NexStar to those objects.
7. Enter: Pressing Enter allows you to selects any of the NexStar functions and accept entered parameters.
8. Undo: Undo will take you out of the current menu and display the previous level of the menu path. Press Undo
repeatedly to get back to a main menu or use it to erase data entered by mistake.
9. Menu: Displays the many setup and utilities functions such as tracking rate and user defined objects and many others.
10. Scroll Keys: Used to scroll up and down within any of the menu lists. A double-arrow will appear on the right side of
the LCD when there are sub-menus below the displayed menu. Using these keys will scroll through those sub-menus.
11. Rate: Instantly changes the rate of speed of the motors when the direction buttons are pressed.
12. RS-232 Jack: Allows you to interface with a computer and control the NexStar remotely.
Hand Control Operation
This section describes the basic hand control procedures needed to operate the NexStar. These procedures are grouped into three
categories: Alignment, Setup and Utilities. The alignment section deals with the initial telescope alignment as well as finding
objects in the sky; the setup section discusses changing parameters such as tracking mode and tracking rate; finally, the last
section reviews all of the utilities functions such as the slew limits, PEC and backlash compensation.
Alignment Procedures
In order for the NexStar to accurately point to objects in the sky, it must first be aligned to two known positions (stars) in the
sky. With this information, the telescope can create a model of the sky, which it uses to locate any object with known
coordinates. There are many ways to align the NexStar with the sky depending on what information the user is able to provide:
GPS Align Mode allows the NexStar to acquire all the necessary information needed to point itself to the required alignment
stars; AutoAlign will ask the user to input date and location information in order to locate the alignment stars; Two-Star
Alignment does not require the user to input date and location data, but does require the user to identify and manually slew the
telescope to the two alignment stars. Quick-Align will ask you to input all the same information as you would for the AutoAlign
procedure. However, instead of slewing to two alignment stars for centering and alignment, the telescope bypasses this step and
simply models the sky based on the information given. Finally, EQ North and EQ South alignments are designed to assist you
in aligning the NexStar when polar aligned using an equatorial wedge. Each alignment method is discussed in detail below.
GPS Alignment
GPS Align must be used with the telescope mounted in altazimuth. With GPS Align mode, the NexStar automatically levels the
optical tube, its built-in electronic compass points the telescope in the direction of the northern horizon, while the GPS receiver
links with and acquires information from 3 of the 24 orbiting GPS satellites. With this information, the built-in GPS system
calculates the scope’s location on Earth with an accuracy of a few meters and calculates universal time down to the second. After
quickly making all these calculations and automatically entering the information for you, the NexStar GPS orients itself with the
15
sky, slews to an alignment star and asks you to position the star is in the center of the eyepiece. The NexStar is then ready to start
finding and tracking any of the objects in its 40,000+ object database. Before the telescope is ready to be aligned, it should be set
up in an outside location with all accessories (eyepiece, diagonal and finderscope) attached and lens cover removed as described
in the Assembly section of the manual. Before turning on the NexStar, make sure that the tube is pointed downward and both the
altitude and azimuth clutches are locked down. To begin the GPS alignment:
1.
2.
Observing
Tip
Power on the NexStar by flipping the switch located on the
bottom portion of the drive base, to the "on" position. Once
turned on the hand control display will say NexStar GPS.
GPS
Press ENTER to choose GPS Align or use the UP/Down
scroll keys (10) to select a different mode of alignment.
Pressing the ALIGN key will bypass the other alignment
options and the scrolling text and automatically begins GPS
align.
Once GPS Align has been selected, the telescope will begin
to move to its north and level position. While the NexStar is
positioning itself, the GPS receiver automatically begins to
establish a link with the GPS satellites orbiting the Earth.
The hand control screen will display the message GPS
Searching to let you know that it is linking with the
satellites.
A Few Words on GPS:
The NexStar GPS uses an on-board GPS to take
the guesswork out of aligning your telescope with
the sky. Once GPS Align is selected, the NexStar
automatically initiate the internal GPS module.
However, there are a few things you should be
aware of in order to get the full use of its many
capabilities:
GPS alignment will only work when the
telescope is set-up outdoors with an
unobstructed view of the sky. If the
NexStar is set-up in a location that has a
limited horizon in any direction, the GPS
alignment may still work, however it will
take much longer for the telescope to find
and link with the needed satellites.
When using GPS alignment for the first
time, it may take 3-5 minutes for the
NexStar to link-up with its satellites.
Once the telescope is successfully linked,
leave the telescope powered on for at
least 20 minutes. During this time the
NexStar will download the complete
almanac of orbital elements (called the
ephemeris) for the orbiting GPS
satellites.
Once this information is
received it will be stored for future
alignments.
If your NexStar is transported over a
long distance (say from the northern to
the southern hemisphere) it may take as
long as one hour to establish a satellite
link from its new location. Observers
wishing to travel long distances with their
telescope are advised to begin the GPS
alignment in advance to allow the unit to
acquire the necessary data.
3.
Once the NexStar has established a link with the required
satellites, the hand control display will read
GPS
Linked.
The GPS satellites will then report the
Linked
current time and position directly to your NexStar. The
NexStar now has all the necessary data to make a virtual
model of the sky, select two bright stars for alignment and
begin slewing to the first star.
4.
When the NexStar has finished slewing to its first alignment
star, the hand control display will ask you to use the arrow
buttons to center the alignment star in the cross hairs of the
finderscope. At this point the telescope is only roughly
aligned, so the alignment star should only be close to the
field of view of the finderscope. Once centered in the
finderscope, press ENTER. If for some reason the chosen
star is not visible (perhaps behind a tree or building) you
can press the UNDO button to have the NexStar select and
slew to a different star.
5.
If the finderscope has been properly aligned with the
telescope tube, the alignment star should now be visible
inside the field of view of the eyepiece. The NexStar will
ask that you center the bright alignment star in the center of
the eyepiece and press the ALIGN button. This will accept
the star as the first alignment position. (There is no need to
adjust the slewing rate of the motors after each alignment
step. The NexStar automatically selects the best slewing rate
for aligning objects in both the finderscope and the
eyepiece).
6.
After the first alignment star has been recorded, the NexStar will automatically slew to a second alignment star and
have you repeat the alignment process for that star. When the telescope has been aligned to both stars, the display will
read "Alignment
Alignment Successful" and you are now ready to find your first object.
For the best possible pointing accuracy, always center the alignment stars using the up arrow button and the right arrow button.
Approaching the star from this direction when looking through the eyepiece will eliminate much of the backlash between the
gears and assure the most accurate alignment possible.
16
Auto-Align
Alternatively, if you are observing at a location where it is difficult to establish a link with the proper satellites, AutoAlign will
allow the user to input the necessary information needed to align the telescope. After choosing AutoAlign and moving the
telescope into the north and level position, the NexStar will ask you to input first the date and time information then it will ask
for your location. Just like with GPS align, once this information is received, NexStar will automatically choose a bright
alignment star and automatically slew to it. Follow the steps below to AutoAlign the NexStar:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Once the NexStar is powered on , Press ENTER to begin alignment.
Use the Up and Down scroll keys (10) to select AutoAlign and press ENTER.
The telescope will then ask you to use the direction keys (3) to level the telescope tube and point the front of the
telescope towards north. North can be found by finding the direction of the North Star (Polaris) or by using a compass.
You do not need to point at the North Star, only the north horizon. Alignment only needs to be approximate, however
a close alignment will make the auto alignment more accurate. Once the telescope is in the north and level position,
press ENTER.
The hand control display will then ask for the following information:
Time - Enter the current local time for your area. You can enter either the local time (i.e. 08:00), or you can enter
military time (i.e. 20:00 ).
•
Select PM or AM. If military time was entered, the hand control will bypass this step.
•
Choose between Standard time or Daylight Savings time. Use the Up and Down scroll buttons (10) to toggle
between options.
•
Select the time zone that you are observing from. Again, use the Up and Down buttons (10) to scroll through the
choices.
Date - Enter the month, day and year of your observing session. The display will default to the last entered date so
that only the necessary fields have to be changed.
Helpful
Hint
If the wrong information has been input into the hand control, the UNDO button will act as a backspace allowing the user to reenter information.
5.
Trouble
Shooting
Finally, you must enter the longitude and latitude of the location of your observing site. Use the table in Appendix C to
locate the closest longitude and latitude for your current observing location and enter those numbers when asked in the
hand control, pressing ENTER after each entry. Remember to select "West" for longitudes in North America and
"North" for latitudes in the North Hemisphere. For international cities, the correct hemisphere is indicated in the
Appendix listings.
Based on this information, the NexStar will automatically select a bright star that is above the horizon and slew towards it. Once
finished slewing, the display will ask you to use the arrow buttons to align the selected star with the cross hairs in the center of the
finderscope. If for some reason the chosen star is not visible (perhaps behind a tree or building) you can press UNDO to select
and slew to a different star. Once centered in the finder, press ENTER. The display will then instruct you to center the star in the
field of view of the eyepiece. When the star is centered, press ALIGN to accept this star as your first alignment star. After the first
alignment star has been entered the NexStar will automatically slew to a second alignment star and have you repeat this procedure
for that star. When the telescope has been aligned to both stars the display will read Alignment Successful,
Successful and you are
now ready to find your first object.
If the wrong star was centered and aligned to, the NexStar display will read Alignment Failed.
Failed Should this occur, the
display will automatically ask you to re-center the last alignment star and press ALIGN. If you believe that the wrong star may
have been centered (remember the alignment star will always be the brightest star nearest the field of view of the finder), then recenter the star and press ALIGN. If you wish to try aligning on a different star, press UNDO and the NexStar will select two new
alignment stars and automatically slew to the first star.
Two Star Alignment
With the two-star alignment method, the NexStar requires the user to know the positions of only two bright stars in order to
accurately align the telescope with the sky and begin finding objects. Here is an overview of the two-star alignment procedure:
1.
2.
Once the NexStar is powered on, use the Up and Down scroll keys to select TwoTwo-Star Align,
Align and press ENTER.
The NexStar display will ask you to move the telescope tube until it is horizontal to the ground. To do this, use the
direction keys (3) to move the telescope until it is roughly level with the ground. Press ENTER.
17
3.
4.
Helpful
Hint
The SELECT STAR 1 message will appear in the top row of the display. Use the Up and Down scroll keys (10) to select
the star you wish to use for the first alignment star. Press ENTER.
NexStar then asks you to center in the eyepiece the alignment star you selected. Use the direction buttons to slew the
telescope to the alignment star and carefully center the star in the eyepiece.
In order to accurately center the alignment star in the eyepiece, it will be necessary to decrease the slew rate of the motors
for fine centering. This is done by pressing the RATE key (11) on the hand controller then selecting the number that
corresponds to the speed you desire. (9 = fastest , 1 = slowest).
5.
6.
Once the alignment star is centered in the field of view of the eyepiece, press the ALIGN key (2) to accept this
position.
NexStar will then ask you to select and center a second alignment star and press the ALIGN key. It is best to choose
alignment stars that are a good distance away from one another. Stars that are at least 40º to 60º apart from each other
will give you a more accurate alignment than stars that are close to each other.
Once the second star alignment is completed properly, the display will read Alignment Successful,
Successful and you will hear the
tracking motors turn-on and begin to track.
Quick-Align
Quick-Align allows you to input all the same information as you would for the AutoAlign procedure. However, instead of slewing
to two alignment stars for centering and alignment, the NexStar bypasses this step and simply models the sky based on the
information given. This will allow you to roughly slew to the coordinates of bright objects like the moon and planets and gives
the NexStar the information needed to track objects in altazimuth in any part of the sky. Quick-Align is not meant to be used to
accurately locate small or faint deep-sky objects or to track objects accurately for photography. Note: Once a Quick-Align has
been done, you can use the Re-alignment feature (see below) to improve your telescopes pointing and tracking accuracy.
To use Quick-Align:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Select Quick-Align from the alignment options.
Use the arrow buttons to level the tube and position the telescope tube towards north and press ENTER.
The hand control will then ask you to input all the same time and location information as you would for the AutoAlign
procedure.
Once entered, the NexStar will model the sky based on this information and display Alignment Successful.
Successful
EQ North / EQ South Alignment
Both EQ North and EQ South Alignments are used when the telescope is to be polar aligned on an optional equatorial wedge.
The EQ alignments follows many of the same steps as the Two-Star Alignment, but will first position the optical tube parallel to
the fork arms for polar alignment For more information on using EQ alignments, see the Polar Alignment section of the manual.
NexStar Re-Alignment
The NexStar has a re-alignment feature which allows you to replace either of the two original alignment stars
with a new star or celestial object. This can be useful in several situations:
•
•
If you are observing over a period of a few hours, you may notice that your original two alignment stars have
drifted towards the west considerably. (Remember that the stars are moving at a rate of 15º every hour). Aligning
on a new star that is in the eastern part of the sky will improve your pointing accuracy, especially on objects in
that part of the sky.
If you have aligned your telescope using the Quick-Align method, you can use re-align to align to two actual
objects in the sky. This will improve the pointing accuracy of your telescope without having to re-enter addition
information.
To replace an existing alignment star with a new alignment star:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Select the desired star (or object) from the database and slew to it.
Carefully center the object in the eyepiece.
Once centered, press the UNDO button until you are at the main menu.
With NexStar Ready displayed, press the ALIGN key on the hand control.
18
5.
6.
7.
The display will then ask you which alignment star you want to replace.
Use the UP and Down scroll keys to select the alignment star to be replaced. It is usually best to replace the star
closest to the new object. This will space out your alignment stars across the sky.
Press ALIGN to make the change.
Object Catalog
Selecting an Object
Now that the telescope is properly aligned, you can choose an object from any of the catalogs in the NexStar's extensive
database. The hand control has a key (4) designated for each of the catalogs in its database. There are two ways to select objects
from the database: scrolling through the named object lists and entering object numbers.
Helpful
Hint
Pressing the LIST key on the hand control will access all objects in the database that have common names or types. Each list
is broken down into the following categories: Named Stars, Named Object, Double Stars, Variable Stars, Asterisms and
CCD Objects. Selecting any one of these catalogs will display a numeric-alphabetical listing of the objects under that list.
Pressing the Up and Down keys (10) allows you to scroll through the catalog to the desired object.
When scrolling through a long list of objects, holding down either the Up or Down key will allow you to scroll through the
catalog at a rapid speed.
Pressing any of the other catalog keys (M, CALD, NGC, or STAR) will display a blinking cursor below the name of the catalog
chosen. Use the numeric key pad to enter the number of any object within these standardized catalogs. For example, to find
the Orion Nebula, press the "M" key and enter "042".
Slewing to an Object
Once the desired object is displayed on the hand control screen, choose from the following options:
•
•
Press the INFO Key. This will give you useful information about the selected object such as R.A. and
declination, magnitude size and text information for many of the most popular objects.
Press the ENTER Key. This will automatically slew the telescope to the coordinates of the object.
Caution: Never slew the telescope when someone is looking into the eyepiece. The telescope can move at fast slew speeds
and may hit an observer in the eye.
If you slew to an object that is below the horizon, NexStar will notify you by displaying a message reminding you that you have
selected an object outside of your slew limits (see Slew Limits in the Utility Features section of the manual). Press UNDO to go
back and select a new object. Press ENTER to ignore the message and continue the slew.
Object information can be obtained without having to do a star alignment. After the telescope is powered on, press the UNDO
key. Pressing any of the catalog keys allows you to scroll through object lists or enter catalog numbers and view the information
about the object as described above.
Finding Planets
The NexStar can located all 8 of our solar systems planets plus the Moon. However, the hand control will only display the solar
system objects that are above the horizon (or within its slew limits). To locate the planets, press the PLANET key on the hand
control. The hand control will display all solar system objects that are above the horizon:
•
•
•
Use the Up and Down keys to select the planet that you wish to observe.
Press INFO to access information on the displayed planet.
Press ENTER to slew to the displayed planet.
19
Tour Mode
The NexStar includes a tour feature which automatically allows the user to choose from a list of interesting objects based on the
date and time in which you are observing. The automatic tour will display only those objects that are within your set filter limits
(see Filter Limits in the Setup Procedures section of the manual). To activate the Tour mode, press the TOUR key (6) on the
hand control. The NexStar will display the best objects to observe that are currently in the sky.
•
•
•
To see information and data about the displayed object, press the INFO key.
To slew to the object displayed, press ENTER.
To see the next tour object, press the Up key.
Direction Buttons
The NexStar has four direction buttons (3) in the center of the hand control which control the telescope's motion in altitude (up
and down) and azimuth (left and right). The telescope can be controlled at nine different speed rates.
Rate Button
Pressing the RATE key (11) allows you to instantly change the speed rate of the motors from high speed slew rate to precise
guiding rate or anywhere in between. Each rate corresponds to a number on the hand controller key pad. The number 9 is the
fastest rate (3º per second, depending on power source) and is used for slewing between objects and locating alignment stars.
The number 1 on the hand control is the slowest rate (.5x sidereal) and can be used for accurate centering of objects in the
eyepiece and photographic guiding. To change the speed rate of the motors:
•
•
Press the RATE key on the hand control. The LCD will display the current speed rate.
Press the number on the hand control that corresponds to the desired speed. The number will appear in
the upper-right corner of the LCD display to indicate that the rate has been changed.
The hand control has a "double button" feature that allows you to instantly speed up the motors without having to choose a speed
rate. To use this feature, simply press the arrow button that corresponds to the direction that you want to move the telescope.
While holding that button down, press the opposite directional button. This will increase the slew rate to the maximum slew rate.
When pressing the Up and Down arrow buttons in the slower slew rates (6 and lower) the motors will move the telescope in the
opposite direction than the faster slew rates (7 thru 9). This is done so that an object will move in the appropriate direction when
looking into the eyepiece (i.e. pressing the Up arrow button will move the star up in the field of view of the eyepiece). However,
if any of the slower slew rates (rate 6 and below) are used to center an object in the finderscope, you may need to press the
opposite directional button to make the telescope move in the correct direction.
1
2
3
4
5
=
=
=
=
=
.5x*
1x (sidereal)*
4x
8x
16x
6
7
8
9
= 64x
= .5º / sec
= 2º / sec
= 3º / sec
Nine available slew speeds
*Rate 1 and 2 are photographic guide rates and are meant to be used when the telescope is set up on a wedge in equatorial mode.
These rates can be used while set up in altazimuth, however the actual speed rate may differ slightly.
Setup Procedures
The NexStar contains many user defined setup functions designed to give the user control over the telescope's many advanced
features. All of the setup and utility features can be accessed by pressing the MENU key and scrolling through the options:
Tracking Mode This allows you to change the way the telescope tracks depending on the type of mount being used
to support the telescope. The NexStar has three different tracking modes:
20
Tracking Rate
Alt-Az
This is the default tracking rate and is used when the telescope is placed on
a flat surface or tripod without the use of an equatorial wedge. The
telescope must be aligned with two stars before it can track in altazimuth
(Alt-Az).
EQ North
Used to track the sky when the telescope is polar aligned using an
equatorial wedge in the Northern Hemisphere.
EQ South
Used to track the sky when the telescope is polar aligned using an
equatorial wedge in the Southern Hemisphere.
Off
When using the telescope for terrestrial (land) observation, the tracking
can be turned off so that the telescope never moves.
In addition to being able to move the telescope with the hand control buttons, the NexStar will
continually track a celestial object as it moves across the night sky. The tracking rate can be
changed depending on what type of object is being observed:
Sidereal
This rate compensates for the rotation of the Earth by moving the
telescope at the same rate as the rotation of the Earth, but in the opposite
direction. When the telescope is polar aligned, this can be accomplished
by moving the telescope in right ascension only. When mounted in AltAz mode, the telescope must make corrections in both R.A. and
declination.
Lunar
Used for tracking the moon when observing the lunar landscape.
Solar
Used for tracking the Sun when solar observing.
View Time-Site - Displays the current time and longitude/latitude downloaded from the GPS receiver. View Time-Site will
always display the last saved time and location entered while it is linking with the GPS. Once current information has been
received, it will update the displayed information. If GPS is switched off, the hand control will only display the last saved time
and location.
Setup Time-Site - Allows the user to customize the NexStar display by changing time and location parameters (such as time
zone and daylight savings).
Sidereal Time – Displays the Sidereal time for your current time and location. This is useful for knowing the right ascension
of celestial objects that are located on the local meridian at that time.
Filter Limits – When an alignment is complete, the NexStar automatically knows which celestial objects are above the
horizon. As a result, when scrolling through the database lists (or selecting the Tour function), the NexStar hand control will
display only those objects that are known to be above the horizon when you are observing. You can customize the object
database by selecting altitude limits that are appropriate for your location and situation. For example, if you are observing from a
mountainous location where the horizon is partially obscured, you can set your minimum altitude limit to read +20º. This will
make sure that the hand control only displays objects that are higher in altitude than 20º. If you manually enter an object that is
below the horizon using the numeric keypad, the hand control will display a warning message before slewing to the object.
Observing
Tip!
If you want to explore the entire object database, set the maximum altitude limit to 90º and the minimum limit to –90º.
This will display every object in the database lists regardless of whether it is visible in the sky from your location.
User Defined Objects - The NexStar can store up to 50 different user defined objects in its memory. The objects
can be daytime land objects or an interesting celestial object that you discover that is not included
in the regular database. There are several ways to save an object to memory depending on what
type of object it is:
Save Sky Object:
The NexStar stores celestial objects to its database by saving its right ascension and declination in
the sky. This way the same object can be found each time the telescope is aligned. Once a
21
desired object is centered in the eyepiece, simply scroll to the "Save
Save Sky Obj" command and
press ENTER. The display will ask you to enter a number between 1-25 to identify the object.
Press ENTER again to save this object to the database.
Save Land Object:
The NexStar can also be used as a spotting scope on terrestrial objects. Fixed land objects can be
stored by saving their altitude and azimuth relative to the location of the telescope at the time of
observing. Since these objects are relative to the location of the telescope, they are only valid for
that exact location. To save land objects, once again center the desired object in the eyepiece.
Scroll down to the "Save
Save Land Obj"
Obj command and press ENTER. The display will ask you to
enter a number between 1-25 to identify the object. Press ENTER again to save this object to the
database.
Enter R.A. - Dec:
You can also store a specific set of coordinates for an object just by entering the R.A. and
declination for that object. Scroll to the "Enter
Enter RARA-DEC " command and press ENTER. The
display will then ask you to enter first the R.A. and then the declination of the desired object.
GoTo Object:
To go to any of the user defined objects stored in the database, scroll down to either GoTo Sky
Obj or Goto Land Obj and enter the number of the object you wish to select and press
ENTER. NexStar will automatically retrieve and display the coordinates before slewing to the
object.
To replace the contents of any of the user defined objects, simply save a new object using one
of the existing identification numbers; NexStar will replace the previous user defined object
with the current one.
M ENU
U T ILIT IE S
Get RA/DEC - Displays the right ascension and declination for the current position of the
AN T I-BAC K LAS H
telescope.
Get Alt-Az - Displays the relative altitude and azimuth for the current position of the
telescope.
Goto R.A/ Dec - Allows you to input a specific R.A. and declination and slew to it.
Helpful
Hint
A Z M P O S IT IV E
A Z M N E G A T IV E
A L T P O S IT IV E
A L T N E G A T IV E
S LE W LIM IT S
Goto Alt-Az - Allows you to enter a specific altitude and azimuth position and slew to it.
SLEW ALT M AX
S L E W A L T M IN
CALIBRAT E M OT ORS
PE C
To store a set of coordinates (R.A./Dec) permanently into the NexStar database, save it as a
User Defined Object as described above.
PLAYBACK
RECORD
DIR E CT ION BU T T ON S
AZM BUTTONS
ALT BUTTONS
CALIBRAT E LE V E L
Utility Features
Scrolling through the MENU (9) options will also provide access to several advanced utility
functions within the NexStar such as; Periodic Error Correction , Anti-Backlash and Calibrate
Level.
Anti-backlash – All mechanical gears have a certain amount of backlash or play between
the gears. This play is evident by how long it takes for a star to move in the eyepiece when the
hand control arrow buttons are pressed (especially when changing directions). The NexStar's
anti-backlash features allows the user to compensate for backlash by inputting a value which
quickly rewinds the motors just enough to eliminate the play between gears. The amount of
compensation needed depends on the slewing rate selected; the slower the slewing rate the
longer it will take for the star to appear to move in the eyepiece. Therefore, the anti-backlash
compensation will have to be set higher. You will need to experiment with different values; a
value between 20 and 50 is usually best for most visual observing, whereas a higher value may
be necessary for photographic guiding.
N O A L IG N M E N T
PRESS ENTER
LIG H T C ONT R OL
D IS P L A Y O F F
D IS P L A Y O N
KEY PAD OFF
KEY PAD ON
G PS ON /OFF
GPS ON
G PS OFF
FAC T OR Y S E T T IN G
PRESS UNDO
P R E S S "0 "
22
To set the anti-backlash value, scroll down to the anti-backlash option and press ENTER. Enter a value from 0-100 for both
azimuth and altitude and press ENTER after each one to save these values. NexStar will remember these values and use them
each time it is turned on until they are changed.
Slew Limits – Sets the limits in altitude that the telescope can slew without displaying a warning message. By default the
slew limits are set to 0º to 90º and will only display a warning message if an object is below the horizon. However, the slew
limits can be customized depending on your needs. For example, if you have certain photographic accessories attached to your
telescope preventing it from pointing straight-up, you can set the maximum altitude limit to read 80º, thus preventing the
telescope from pointing to any objects that are greater than 80º in altitude without warning.
Calibrate Motors - Calibrate Motors compensates for different load levels on the motors and gears when set up in different
configurations and in different parts of the sky. This helps the NexStar determine which speed rate to send to the motors when a
particular direction button is pressed. The NexStar motors have been calibrated at the factory, but the motors should be recalibrated when used on an equatorial wedge or whenever additional weight is added to the tube. Motor calibration is most
effective when calibrating in the particular part of the sky that you wish to observe or photograph. To calibrate the motors, point
the telescope to the region of sky you plan on observing or photographing and select Calibrate Motors from the Utilities menu.
Even if Calibrate Motor is not used, the NexStar software will eventually train itself to automatically compensate for different
load levels.
Periodic Error Correction (PEC) - PEC is designed to improve photographic quality by reducing the amplitude of the
worm gear errors and improving the tracking accuracy of the drive. This feature is for advanced astrophotography and is used
when your telescope is polar aligned with the optional equatorial wedge. For more information on using PEC, see the section on
“Celestial Photography”.
Direction Buttons –The direction a star moves in the eyepiece varies depending on the accessories being used. This can
create confusion when guiding on a star using an off-axis guider versus a straight through guide scope. To compensate for this,
the direction of the drive control keys can be changed. To reverse the button logic of the hand control, press the MENU button
and select Direction Buttons from the Utilities menu. Use the Up/Down arrow keys (10) to select either the azimuth (left and
right) or altitude (up and down) button direction and press ENTER. Pressing ENTER again will reverse the direction of the hand
control buttons from their current state. Direction Buttons will only change the eyepiece rates (rate 1-6) and will not affect the
slew rates (rate 7-9).
Calibrate Level– This utility function calibrates the internal downstop switch in the fork arm with the actual position of the
optical tube. This downstop position is then stored and used to assist in polar alignment when EQ North (or South) Alignment is
selected. An Alt-Az alignment is required before the downstop can be calibrated. See Polar Alignment section in the Astronomy
Basics chapter of the manual for more details on using Calibrate Level.
Light Control – This feature allows you to turn off both the red key pad light and LCD display for daytime use to conserve
power and to help preserve your night vision.
GPS On/Off - Allows you to turn off the GPS module. When aligning the telescope using AutoAlign, the NexStar still
receives information, such as current time, from the GPS. If you want to use the NexStar database to find the coordinates of a
celestial object for a future date you would need to turn the GPS module off in order to manually enter a date and time other than
the present.
Factory Setting – Returns the NexStar hand control to its original factory setting. Parameters such as backlash compensation
values, initial date and time, longitude/latitude along with slew and filter limits will be reset. However, stored parameters such as
PEC and user defined objects will remain saved even when Factory Settings is selected. The hand control will ask you to press
the "0" key before returning to the factory default setting.
23
N exS tar R eady
M ENU
T R ACK ING
M ODE
A L T -A Z
EQ NO RTH
EQ SOUTH
O FF
RAT E
S ID E R E A L
SOLAR
LUNAR
V IE W T IM E -S IT E
S E T U P T IM E -S IT E
S IDE RE AL T IM E
F ILT E R L IM IT S
A L T M A X IN L IS T
A L T M IN IN L IS T
U T ILIT IE S
AN T I-BACK LAS H
S L E W LIM IT S
C ALIBR AT E M OT ORS
PE C
D IRE C T ION BUT T ON S
C ALIBR AT E L E V E L
L IG HT CON T R OL
G PS ON/OF F
F ACT ORY S E T T IN G
U S E R OBJE CT S
G O TO SKY O BJ
SAVE SKY OBJ
E NTER RA & DEC
G O TO LAND O BJ
SAVE LAND OBJ
G E T AL T -AZ
G OT O ALT -AZ
G E T R A-D E C
G OT O RA-DE C
A LIG NM ENT
LIST
G PS ALIG N M E NT
S E A R C H IN G ..
F IN D IN G N O R T H
C e n te r A lig n m e n t S ta r 1
C e n te r A lign m e n t S ta r 2
AUT O ALIG N
NAM ED STAR
N A M E D O B JE C T
DO UBLE STAR
V A R IA B L E S T A R
A S T E R IS M
TO UR
C C D O B JE C TS
ABELL
IC C A T A L O G
CALDW ELL
M E S S IE R
NGC
SAO
P O IN T T U B E N O R T H & L E V E L
E N T E R T IM E
E N T E R D A T E - M M /D D /Y Y
E N T E R L O N G /L A T
C e n te r A lig n m e n t S ta r 1
C e n te r A lig n m e n t S ta r 2
T W O-S T AR ALIG N M E N T
LEVEL T UBE
SELECT ST AR 1
CENT ER ST AR 1
SELECT ST AR 2
CENT ER ST AR 2
E Q ALIG N M E NT
F IN D IN G L E V E L
F IN D M E R ID IA N
A L IG N S C O P E
SELECT ST AR 1
CENT ER STAR 1
SELECT ST AR 2
CENT ER STAR 2
QU ICK -AL IG N
P O IN T T U B E N O R T H & L E V E L
E N T E R T IM E
E N T E R D A T E - M M /D D /Y Y
E N T E R L O N G /L A T
NexStar Menu Tree:
The following figure is a menu tree showing the sub-menus associated with the primary
command functions
24
A telescope is an instrument that collects and focuses light. The nature of the optical design determines how the light is focused.
Some telescopes, known as refractors, use lenses. Other telescopes, known as reflectors, use mirrors. The Schmidt-Cassegrain
optical system (or Schmidt-Cass for short) uses a combination of mirrors and lenses and is referred to as a compound or
catadioptric telescope. This unique design offers large-diameter optics while maintaining very short tube lengths, making them
extremely portable. The Schmidt-Cassegrain system consists of a zero power corrector plate, a spherical primary mirror, and a
secondary mirror. Once light rays enter the optical system, they travel the length of the optical tube three times.
Figure 5-1
A cutaway view of the light path of the Schmidt-Cassegrain optical design
The optics of the NexStar have Starbright coatings - enhanced multi-layer coatings on the primary and secondary mirrors for
increased reflectivity and a fully coated corrector for the finest anti-reflection characteristics.
Inside the optical tube, a black tube extends out from the center hole in the primary mirror. This is the primary baffle tube and it
prevents stray light from passing through to the eyepiece or camera.
Image Orientation
The image orientation changes depending on how the eyepiece is inserted into the telescope. When using the star diagonal, the
image is right-side-up, but reversed from left-to-right (i.e., mirror image). If inserting the eyepiece directly into the visual back
(i.e., without the star diagonal), the image is upside-down and reversed from left-to-right (i.e., inverted). This is normal for the
Schmidt-Cassegrain design.
Actual image orientation as seen
with the unaided eye
Reversed from left to right, as
viewed with a Star Diagonal
Figure 5-2
25
Inverted image, as viewed with
the eyepiece directly in telescope
Focusing
The NexStar's focusing mechanism controls the primary mirror which is mounted on a ring
that slides back and forth on the primary baffle tube. The focusing knob, which moves the
primary mirror, is on the rear cell of the telescope just below the star diagonal and eyepiece.
Turn the focusing knob until the image is sharp. If the knob will not turn, it has reached the
end of its travel on the focusing mechanism. Turn the knob in the opposite direction until
the image is sharp. Once an image is in focus, turn the knob clockwise to focus on a closer
object and counterclockwise for a more distant object. A single turn of the focusing knob
moves the primary mirror only slightly. Therefore, it will take many turns (about 30) to go
from close focus (approximately 60 feet) to infinity.
For astronomical viewing, out of focus star images are very diffuse, making them difficult to
see. If you turn the focus knob too quickly, you can go right through focus without seeing
the image. To avoid this problem, your first astronomical target should be a bright object
(like the Moon or a planet) so that the image is visible even when out of focus. Critical
focusing is best accomplished when the focusing knob is turned in such a manner that the
mirror moves against the pull of gravity. In doing so, any mirror shift is minimized. For
astronomical observing, both visually and photographically, this is done by turning the focus
knob counterclockwise.
Figure 5-3
The emblem on the end of
the focus knob shows the
correct rotational direction
for focusing the NexStar.
Calculating Magnification
You can change the power of your telescope just by changing the eyepiece (ocular). To determine the magnification of your
telescope, simply divide the focal length of the telescope by the focal length of the eyepiece used. In equation format, the
formula looks like this:
Focal Length of Telescope (mm)
Magnification =

Focal Length of Eyepiece (mm)
Let’s say, for example, you are using the 40mm Plossl eyepiece. To determine the magnification you simply divide the focal
length of your telescope (the NexStar 11 for example has a focal length of 2800mm) by the focal length of the eyepiece, 40mm.
Dividing 2800 by 40 yields a magnification of 70 power.
Although the power is variable, each instrument under average skies has a limit to the highest useful magnification. The general
rule is that 60 power can be used for every inch of aperture. For example, the NexStar 11 GPS is 11 inches in diameter.
Multiplying 11 by 60 gives a maximum useful magnification of 660 power. Although this is the maximum useful magnification,
most observing is done in the range of 20 to 35 power for every inch of aperture which is 220 to 385 times for the NexStar 11
telescope.
Determining Field of View
Determining the field of view is important if you want to get an idea of the angular size of the object you are observing. To
calculate the actual field of view, divide the apparent field of the eyepiece (supplied by the eyepiece manufacturer) by the
magnification. In equation format, the formula looks like this:
Apparent Field of Eyepiece
True Field = 
Magnification
As you can see, before determining the field of view, you must calculate the magnification. Using the example in the previous
section, we can determine the field of view using the same 40mm eyepiece. The 40mm Plossl eyepiece has an apparent field of
view of 46°. Divide the 46° by the magnification, which is 70 power. This yields an actual field of .66°, or two-thirds of a full
degree.
To convert degrees to feet at 1,000 yards, which is more useful for terrestrial observing, simply multiply by 52.5. Continuing
with our example, multiply the angular field .66° by 52.5. This produces a linear field width of 34.7 feet at a distance of one
thousand yards. The apparent field of each eyepiece that Celestron manufactures is found in the Celestron Accessory Catalog
(#93685).
26
General Observing Hints
When working with any optical instrument, there are a few things to remember to ensure you get the best possible image.
•
•
•
•
Never look through window glass. Glass found in household windows is optically imperfect, and as a result, may vary in
thickness from one part of a window to the next. This inconsistency can and will affect the ability to focus your telescope.
In most cases you will not be able to achieve a truly sharp image, while in some cases, you may actually see a double image.
Never look across or over objects that are producing heat waves. This includes asphalt parking lots on hot summer days or
building rooftops.
Hazy skies, fog, and mist can also make it difficult to focus when viewing terrestrially. The amount of detail seen under
these conditions is greatly reduced. Also, when photographing under these conditions, the processed film may come out a
little grainier than normal with lower contrast and underexposed.
If you wear corrective lenses (specifically glasses), you may want to remove them when observing with an eyepiece
attached to the telescope. When using a camera, however, you should always wear corrective lenses to ensure the sharpest
possible focus. If you have astigmatism, corrective lenses must be worn at all times.
27
Up to this point, this manual covered the assembly and basic operation of your NexStar telescope. However, to understand
your telescope more thoroughly, you need to know a little about the night sky. This section deals with observational
astronomy in general and includes information on the night sky and polar alignment.
The Celestial Coordinate System
To help find objects in the sky, astronomers use a celestial coordinate system that is similar to our geographical coordinate
system here on Earth. The celestial coordinate system has poles, lines of longitude and latitude, and an equator. For the
most part, these remain fixed against the background stars.
The celestial equator runs 360 degrees around the Earth and separates the northern celestial hemisphere from the southern.
Like the Earth's equator, it bears a reading of zero degrees. On Earth this would be latitude. However, in the sky this is
referred to as declination, or DEC for short. Lines of declination are named for their angular distance above and below the
celestial equator. The lines are broken down into degrees, minutes of arc, and seconds of arc. Declination readings south of
the equator carry a minus sign (-) in front of the coordinate and those north of the celestial equator are either blank (i.e., no
designation) or preceded by a plus sign (+).
The celestial equivalent of longitude is called Right Ascension, or R.A. for short. Like the Earth's lines of longitude, they
run from pole to pole and are evenly spaced 15 degrees apart. Although the longitude lines are separated by an angular
distance, they are also a measure of time. Each line of longitude is one hour apart from the next. Since the Earth rotates
once every 24 hours, there are 24 lines total. As a result, the R.A. coordinates are marked off in units of time. It begins with
an arbitrary point in the constellation of Pisces designated as 0 hours, 0 minutes, 0 seconds. All other points are designated
by how far (i.e., how long) they lag behind this coordinate after it passes overhead moving toward the west.
Figure 6-1
The celestial sphere seen from the outside showing R.A. and DEC.
28
Motion of the Stars
The daily motion of the Sun across the sky is familiar to even the most casual observer. This daily trek is not the Sun
moving as early astronomers thought, but the result of the Earth's rotation. The Earth's rotation also causes the stars to do
the same, scribing out a large circle as the Earth completes one rotation. The size of the circular path a star follows depends
on where it is in the sky. Stars near the celestial equator form the largest circles rising in the east and setting in the west.
Moving toward the north celestial pole, the point around which the stars in the northern hemisphere appear to rotate, these
circles become smaller. Stars in the mid-celestial latitudes rise in the northeast and set in the northwest. Stars at high
celestial latitudes are always above the horizon, and are said to be circumpolar because they never rise and never set. You
will never see the stars complete one circle because the sunlight during the day washes out the starlight. However, part of
this circular motion of stars in this region of the sky can be seen by setting up a camera on a tripod and opening the shutter
for a couple hours. The processed film will reveal semicircles that revolve around the pole. (This description of stellar
motions also applies to the southern hemisphere except all stars south of the celestial equator move around the south
celestial pole.)
Figure 6-2
All stars appear to rotate around the celestial poles. However, the appearance of this motion
varies depending on where you are looking in the sky. Near the north celestial pole the stars
scribe out recognizable circles centered on the pole (1). Stars near the celestial equator also
follow circular paths around the pole. But, the complete path is interrupted by the horizon.
These appear to rise in the east and set in the west (2). Looking toward the opposite pole, stars
curve or arc in the opposite direction scribing a circle around the opposite pole (3).
29
Polar Alignment (with optional Wedge)
Even though the NexStar can precisely track a celestial object while in the Alt-Az position, it is still necessary to align the
polar axis of the telescope (the fork arm) to the Earth's axis of
rotation in order to do long exposure astrophotography. To do an
accurate polar alignment, the NexStar requires an optional equatorial
wedge between the telescope and the tripod. This allows the
telescope's tracking motors to rotate the telescope around the
celestial pole, the same way as the stars. Without the equatorial
wedge, you would notice the stars in the eyepiece would slowly
rotate around the center of the field of view. Although this gradual
rotation would go unnoticed when viewing with an eyepiece, it
would be very noticeable on film.
Polar alignment is the process by which the telescope's axis of
rotation (called the polar axis) is aligned (made parallel) with the
Earth's axis of rotation. Once aligned, a telescope with a clock drive
will track the stars as they move across the sky. The result is that
objects observed through the telescope appear stationary (i.e., they
will not drift out of the field of view). If not using the clock drive,
all objects in the sky (day or night) will slowly drift out of the field.
This motion is caused by the Earth's rotation. There are several
methods of polar alignment, all work on a similar principle, but
performed somewhat differently. Each method is considered
separately, and discussed later in this section.
Calibrating Level
In order for the NexStar to align the optical tube parallel with the
fork arms, it must first use its internal downstop switch as a
Figure 6-3
reference for leveling the tube. Even though the downstop has been
This is how the telescope is to be set up for polar
installed at the factory, the switch still needs to be calibrated for
alignment. The tube should be parallel to the
every individual telescope. To accurately calibrate the downstop, it
fork arm and the mount should point to Polaris.
is necessary to first do an Alt-Azm alignment (see the Hand Control
section of the manual). Once an alignment has been completed the
NexStar can compare the position of the downstop switch with its known altitude above the horizon. The difference
between the two positions will be stored as an offset when slewing the optical tube to its polar aligned position (90º
declination). To calibrate the downstop switch, do the following:
1.
Align the NexStar in altazimuth using either the GPS
Alignment, AutoAlign or 2-Star Alignment method.
2.
Once a successful alignment has been completed, press
the MENU button and select Calibrate Level from the
Utilities menu.
3.
The telescope will automatically level the tube to its
downstop position and compare its position with its
current altitude above the horizon. This position will be
stored for future use when doing EQ Alignments.
EQ Alignment Procedure
The NexStar has two equatorial alignment modes (one for the
northern hemisphere and one for the southern) that will help you
polar align your telescope by using its internal downstop to position
the tube parallel to the fork arms. Once the telescope has been
positioned towards north (or south) and has been properly polar
aligned, the hand control will ask the user to select the first of two
stars to align the telescope with the sky. The following is an
overview of the polar alignment procedure for the NexStar GPS:
30
Figure 6-4
The Meridian is an imaginary line in the sky that
starts at the North celestial pole and ends at the South
celestial pole and passes through the zenith. If you are
facing South, the meridian starts from your Southern
horizon and passes directly overhead to the North
celestial pole.
1.
With the NexStar set up outside and attached to an equatorial wedge, rotate the tripod so that the fork arms are
pointed towards north (see figure 6-3).
2.
Power on the telescope and scroll through the alignment choices until EQ North Align (or South for the southern
hemisphere) is displayed and press ENTER.
3.
The NexStar will automatically level the telescope tube perpendicular to the fork arms to find its internal
downstop. It will use this information to accurately position the tube parallel with the fork arms for polar
alignment. To improve the accuracy of your polar alignment, see section on Calibrating Level above.
4.
With the telescope in its downstop position (the tube perpendicular to the fork arms), the hand control displays the
message Find Meridian. Manually rotate the telescope in azimuth (R.A.) only until the tube is pointed up at the
meridian (see figure 6-4) and press Enter.
5.
The telescope tube will now position the tube so that it is parallel with the fork arms (90º declination), and ready
to be polar aligned. The NexStar will also rotate itself 180º in azimuth so that the finderscope will be positioned
on the top of the optical tube.
6.
Move the tripod and wedge so that the fork arms (and tube) are pointed at the celestial pole. For help in finding
the true celestial pole and polar aligning the NexStar, see the sections on polar alignment methods later in this
chapter.
7.
Once the telescope is polar aligned, the NexStar will ask you to choose two alignment stars from the displayed list
and slew the telescope to each star for alignment. For more information on aligning the NexStar with the sky, see
the 2-Star Alignment Procedure in the Hand Control section of the manual.
Finding the North Celestial Pole
In each hemisphere, there is a point in the sky around which all the other stars appear to rotate. These points are called the
celestial poles and are named for the hemisphere in which they reside. For example, in the northern hemisphere all stars
move around the north celestial pole. When the telescope's polar axis is pointed at the celestial pole, it is parallel to the
Earth's rotational axis.
Figure 6-5
The position of the Big
Dipper changes throughout
the year and the night.
Many methods of polar alignment require that you know how to find the celestial pole by
identifying stars in the area. For those in the northern hemisphere, finding the celestial
pole is not too difficult. Fortunately, we have a naked eye star less than a degree away.
This star, Polaris, is the end star in the handle of the Little Dipper. Since the Little Dipper
(technically called Ursa Minor) is not one of the brightest constellations in the sky, it may
be difficult to locate from urban areas. If this is the case, use the two end stars in the
bowl of the Big Dipper (the pointer stars). Draw an imaginary line through them toward
the Little Dipper. They point to Polaris (see Figure 6-6). The position of the Big Dipper
changes during the year and throughout the course of the night (see Figure 6-5). When
the Big Dipper is low in the sky (i.e., near the horizon), it may be difficult to locate.
During these times, look for Cassiopeia (see Figure 6-6). Observers in the southern
hemisphere are not as fortunate as those in the northern hemisphere. The stars around the
south celestial pole are not nearly as bright as those around the north. The closest star
that is relatively bright is Sigma Octantis. This star is just within naked eye limit
(magnitude 5.5) and lies about 59 arc minutes from the pole.
Definition
The north celestial pole is the point in the northern hemisphere around which all stars appear to rotate. The
counterpart in the southern hemisphere is referred to as the south celestial pole.
31
Figure 6-6
The two stars in the front of the bowl of the Big Dipper point to Polaris which is less than
one degree from the true (north) celestial pole. Cassiopeia, the “W” shaped constellation,
is on the opposite side of the pole from the Big Dipper. The North Celestial Pole (N.C.P.)
is marked by the “+” sign.
Latitude Scale Polar Alignment Method
The easiest way to polar align a telescope is with a latitude scale. Unlike other methods that require you to find the
celestial pole by identifying certain stars near it, this method works off of a known constant, latitude, to determine how
high the polar axis should be pointed.
If you know the latitude of your observing site then you can determine the altitude the tilt plate needs to be set at.
There is a relationship between your latitude and the angular distance (altitude) the celestial pole is above the northern
(or southern) horizon. The angular distance from the northern horizon to the north celestial pole is always equal to
your latitude. In other words, the altitude you need to set your tilt plate at is the same as the latitude of your observing
site.
If you are observing from Los Angeles, which has a latitude of 34°, then the celestial pole would be 34° above the
northern horizon. All a latitude scale does then is to point the polar axis of the telescope at the right elevation above the
northern (or southern) horizon. To align your telescope:
1.
Use the EQ North alignment method (discussed above) to position the optical tube parallel with the fork arms.
2.
Adjust the equatorial wedge in altitude until the latitude indicator points to your latitude.
This method can be done in daylight, thus eliminating the need to fumble around in the dark. Although this method
does NOT put you directly on the pole, it will limit the number of corrections needed when tracking an object. It will
also be accurate enough for short exposure prime focus planetary photography (a couple of seconds) and short exposure
piggyback astrophotography.
Pointing at Polaris Method of Polar Alignment
This method uses Polaris as a guidepost to the celestial pole. Since Polaris is less than a degree from the celestial pole,
you can simply point the polar axis of your telescope at Polaris. Although this is by no means perfect alignment, it
does get you within one degree. Unlike the previous method, this must be done in the dark when Polaris is visible.
1.
Use the EQ North alignment method (discussed above) to position the optical tube parallel with the fork arms.
2.
Adjust the wedge in altitude and/or azimuth until Polaris is in the field of view of the finder.
3.
Center Polaris in the field of the telescope using the altitude and azimuth adjustment on the wedge.
32
Remember, while polar aligning, do NOT move the telescope in R.A. or DEC. You do not want to
move the telescope itself, but the polar axis. The telescope is used simply to see where the polar axis is
pointing. You adjust the telescope by moving the wedge and/or tripod.
Once Polaris is in the finder it should also be centered in the telescope. This, of course, presumes you aligned the
finderscope with the main optical tube. If not, use the fine adjustment controls to center Polaris in the telescope field.
Declination Drift Method of Polar Alignment
This method of polar alignment allows you to get the most accurate alignment on the celestial pole and is required if
you want to do long exposure deep-sky astrophotography through the telescope. The declination drift method requires
that you monitor the drift of selected stars. The drift of each star tells you how far away the polar axis is pointing from
the true celestial pole and in what direction. Although declination drift is simple and straight-forward, it requires a
great deal of time and patience to complete when first attempted. The declination drift method should be done after
any one of the previously mentioned methods has been completed.
To perform the declination drift method you need to choose two bright stars. One should be near the eastern horizon
and one due south near the meridian. Both stars should be near the celestial equator (i.e., 0° declination). You will
monitor the drift of each star one at a time and in declination only. While monitoring a star on the meridian, any
misalignment in the east-west direction is revealed. While monitoring a star near the east/west horizon, any
misalignment in the north-south direction is revealed. It is helpful to have an illuminated reticle eyepiece to help you
recognize any drift. For very close alignment, a Barlow lens is also recommended since it increases the magnification
and reveals any drift faster. When looking due south, insert the diagonal so the eyepiece points straight up. Insert the
cross hair eyepiece and align the cross hairs so that one is parallel to the declination axis and the other is parallel to the
right ascension axis. Move your telescope manually in R.A. and DEC to check parallelism.
First, choose your star near where the celestial equator and the meridian meet. The star should be approximately within
1/2 an hour of the meridian and within five degrees of the celestial equator. Center the star in the field of your
telescope and monitor the drift in declination.
•
If the star drifts south, the polar axis is too far east.
•
If the star drifts north, the polar axis is too far west.
Make the appropriate adjustments to the polar axis to eliminate any drift. Once you have eliminated all the drift, move
to the star near the eastern horizon. The star should be 20 degrees above the horizon and within five degrees of the
celestial equator.
•
If the star drifts south, the polar axis is too low.
•
If the star drifts north, the polar axis is too high.
Again, make the appropriate adjustments to the polar axis to eliminate any drift. Unfortunately, the latter adjustments
interact with the prior adjustments ever so slightly. So, repeat the process again to improve the accuracy checking both
axes for minimal drift. Once the drift has been eliminated, the telescope is very accurately aligned. You can now do
prime focus deep-sky astrophotography for long periods.
NOTE:
If the eastern horizon is blocked, you may choose a star near the western horizon, but you must reverse the
polar high/low error directions. Also, if using this method in the southern hemisphere, the direction of drift is
reversed for both R.A. and DEC.
33
With your telescope set up, you are ready to use it for observing. This section covers visual observing hints for both
solar system and deep sky objects as well as general observing conditions which will affect your ability to observe.
Observing the Moon
Often, it is tempting to look at the Moon when it is full. At this time,
the face we see is fully illuminated and its light can be overpowering.
In addition, little or no contrast can be seen during this phase.
One of the best times to observe the Moon is during its partial phases
(around the time of first or third quarter). Long shadows reveal a great
amount of detail on the lunar surface. At low power you will be able to
see most of the lunar disk at one time. The optional Reducer/Corrector
lens allows for breath-taking views of the entire lunar disk when used
with a low power eyepiece. Change to higher power (magnification) to
focus in on a smaller area. Choose the lunar tracking rate from the
NexStar's MENU tracking rate options to keep the moon centered in the
eyepiece even at high magnifications.
Lunar Observing Hints
To increase contrast and bring out detail on the lunar surface, use filters. A yellow filter works well at improving
contrast while a neutral density or polarizing filter will reduce overall surface brightness and glare.
Observing the Planets
Other fascinating targets include the five naked eye planets. You can
see Venus go through its lunar-like phases. Mars can reveal a host of
surface detail and one, if not both, of its polar caps. You will be able to
see the cloud belts of Jupiter and the great Red Spot (if it is visible at
the time you are observing). In addition, you will also be able to see the
moons of Jupiter as they orbit the giant planet. Saturn, with its beautiful
rings, is easily visible at moderate power.
Planetary Observing Hints
•
•
Remember that atmospheric conditions are usually the
limiting factor on how much planetary detail will be visible.
So, avoid observing the planets when they are low on the
horizon or when they are directly over a source of radiating heat, such as a rooftop or chimney. See the
"Seeing Conditions" section later in this section.
To increase contrast and bring out detail on the planetary surface, try using Celestron eyepiece filters.
34
Observing the Sun
Although overlooked by many amateur astronomers, solar observation is both rewarding and fun. However, because
the Sun is so bright, special precautions must be taken when observing our star so as not to damage your eyes or your
telescope.
Never project an image of the Sun through the telescope. Because of the folded optical design, tremendous heat buildup will result inside the optical tube. This can damage the telescope and/or any accessories attached to the telescope.
For safe solar viewing, use a solar filter that reduces the intensity of the Sun's light, making it safe to view. With a
filter you can see sunspots as they move across the solar disk and faculae, which are bright patches seen near the Sun's
edge.
Solar Observing Hints
•
The best time to observe the Sun is in the early morning or late afternoon when the air is cooler.
•
To center the Sun without looking into the eyepiece, watch the shadow of the telescope tube until it forms a
circular shadow.
•
To ensure accurate tracking, be sure to select the solar tracking rate.
Observing Deep Sky Objects
Deep-sky objects are simply those objects outside the boundaries of our solar system. They include star clusters,
planetary nebulae, diffuse nebulae, double stars and other galaxies outside our own Milky Way. Most deep-sky objects
have a large angular size. Therefore, low-to-moderate power is all you need to see them. Visually, they are too faint to
reveal any of the color seen in long exposure photographs. Instead, they appear black and white. And, because of their
low surface brightness, they should be observed from a dark-sky location. Light pollution around large urban areas
washes out most nebulae making them difficult, if not impossible, to observe. Light Pollution Reduction filters help
reduce the background sky brightness, thus increasing contrast.
Seeing Conditions
Viewing conditions affect what you can see through your telescope during an observing session. Conditions include
transparency, sky illumination, and seeing. Understanding viewing conditions and the effect they have on observing
will help you get the most out of your telescope.
Transparency
Transparency is the clarity of the atmosphere which is affected by clouds, moisture, and other airborne particles. Thick
cumulus clouds are completely opaque while cirrus can be thin, allowing the light from the brightest stars through.
Hazy skies absorb more light than clear skies making fainter objects harder to see and reducing contrast on brighter
objects. Aerosols ejected into the upper atmosphere from volcanic eruptions also affect transparency. Ideal conditions
are when the night sky is inky black.
Sky Illumination
General sky brightening caused by the Moon, aurorae, natural airglow, and light pollution greatly affect transparency.
While not a problem for the brighter stars and planets, bright skies reduce the contrast of extended nebulae making
them difficult, if not impossible, to see. To maximize your observing, limit deep sky viewing to moonless nights far
from the light polluted skies found around major urban areas. LPR filters enhance deep sky viewing from light
35
polluted areas by blocking unwanted light while transmitting light from certain deep sky objects. You can, on the other
hand, observe planets and stars from light polluted areas or when the Moon is out.
Seeing
Seeing conditions refers to the stability of the atmosphere and directly affects the amount of fine detail seen in extended
objects. The air in our atmosphere acts as a lens which bends and distorts incoming light rays. The amount of bending
depends on air density. Varying temperature layers have different densities and, therefore, bend light differently. Light
rays from the same object arrive slightly displaced creating an imperfect or smeared image. These atmospheric
disturbances vary from time-to-time and place-to-place. The size of the air parcels compared to your aperture
determines the "seeing" quality. Under good seeing conditions, fine detail is visible on the brighter planets like Jupiter
and Mars, and stars are pinpoint images. Under poor seeing conditions, images are blurred and stars appear as blobs.
The conditions described here apply to both visual and photographic observations.
Figure 7-1
Seeing conditions directly affect image quality. These drawings represent a point source
(i.e., star) under bad seeing conditions (left) to excellent conditions (right). Most often,
seeing conditions produce images that lie some where between these two extremes.
36
After looking at the night sky for a while you may want to try photographing it. Several forms of celestial photography
are possible with your telescope, including short exposure prime focus, eyepiece projection, long exposure deep sky,
terrestrial and even CCD imaging. Each of these is discussed in moderate detail with enough information to get you
started. Topics include the accessories required and some simple techniques. More information is available in some of
the publications listed at the end of this manual.
In addition to the specific accessories required for each type of celestial photography, there is the need for a camera but not just any camera. The camera does not have to have many of the features offered on today's state-of-the-art
equipment. For example, you don't need auto focus capability or mirror lock up. Here are the mandatory features a
camera needs for celestial photography. First, a “B” setting which allows for time exposures. This excludes point and
shoot cameras and limits the selection to SLR cameras, the most common type of 35mm camera on the market today.
Second, the “B” or manual setting should NOT run off the battery. Many new electronic cameras use the battery to
keep the shutter open during time exposures. Once the batteries are drained, usually after a few minutes, the shutter
closes, whether you were finished with the exposure or not. Look for a camera that has a manual shutter when
operating in the time exposure mode. Olympus, Nikon, Minolta, Pentax, Canon and others have made such camera
bodies.
The camera must have interchangeable lenses so you can attach it to the telescope and so you can use a variety of
lenses for piggyback photography. If you can't find a new camera, you can purchase a used camera body that is not
100-percent functional. The light meter, for example, does not have to be operational since you will be determining the
exposure length manually.
You also need a cable release with a locking function to hold the shutter open while you do other things. Mechanical
and air release models are available.
Short Exposure Prime Focus Photography
Short exposure prime focus photography is the best way to begin recording celestial objects. It is done with the camera
attached to the telescope without an eyepiece or camera lens in place. To attach your camera you need the Celestron TAdapter (#93633-A) and a T-Ring for your specific camera (i.e., Minolta, Nikon, Pentax, etc.). The T-Ring replaces
the 35mm SLR camera's normal lens. Prime focus photography allows you to capture the majority of the lunar disk or
solar disk. To attach your camera to your telescope.
1.
Remove all visual accessories.
2.
Thread the T-Ring onto the T-Adapter.
3.
Mount your camera body onto the T-Ring the same as you would any other lens.
4.
Thread the T-Adapter onto the back of the telescope while holding the camera in the desired orientation (either
vertical or horizontal).
With your camera attached to the telescope, you are ready for prime focus photography. Start with an easy object like
the Moon. Here's how to do it:
1.
Load your camera with film that has a moderate-to-fast speed (i.e., ISO rating). Faster films are more desirable
when the Moon is a crescent. When the Moon is near full, and at its brightest, slower films are more desirable.
Here are some film recommendations:
•
•
•
•
•
T-Max 100
T-Max 400
Any 100 to 400 ISO color slide film
Fuji Super HG 400
Ektar 25 or 100
37
2.
Center the Moon in the field of your NexStar telescope.
3.
Focus the telescope by turning the focus knob until the image is sharp.
4.
Set the shutter speed to the appropriate setting (see table below).
5.
Trip the shutter using a cable release.
6.
Advance the film and repeat the process.
Lunar Phase
Crescent
Quarter
Full
ISO 50
1/2
1/15
1/30
ISO 100
1/4
1/30
1/60
ISO 200
1/8
1/60
1/125
ISO 400
1/15
1/125
1/250
Table 8-1
Above is a listing of recommended exposure times when photographing the Moon at the
prime focus of your NexStar telescope.
The exposure times listed in table 8-1 should be used as a starting point. Always make exposures that are longer and
shorter than the recommended time. Also, take a few photos at each shutter speed. This will ensure that you will get a
good photo.
•
If using black and white film, try a yellow filter to reduce the light intensity and to increase contrast.
•
Keep accurate records of your exposures. This information is useful if you want to repeat your results or
if you want to submit some of your photos to various astronomy magazines for possible publication!
•
This technique is also used for photographing the Sun with the proper solar filter.
Eyepiece Projection
This form of celestial photography is designed for objects with small angular sizes, primarily the Moon and planets.
Planets, although physically quite large, appear small in angular size because of their great distances. Moderate to high
magnification is, therefore, required to make the image large enough to see any detail. Unfortunately, the
camera/telescope combination alone does not provide enough magnification to produce a usable image size on film. In
order to get the image large enough, you must attach your camera to the telescope with the eyepiece in place. To do so,
you need two additional accessories; a deluxe tele-extender (#93643), which attaches to the visual back, and a T-ring
for your particular camera make (i.e., Minolta, Nikon, Pentax, etc.).
Because of the high magnifications during eyepiece projection, the field of view
is quite small which makes it difficult to find and center objects. To make the
job a little easier, align the finder as accurately as possible. This allows you to
get the object in the telescope's field based on the finder's view alone.
Another problem introduced by the high magnification is vibration. Simply
tripping the shutter  even with a cable release  produces enough vibration to
smear the image. To get around this, use the camera's self-timer if the exposure
time is less than one second  a common occurrence when photographing the
Moon. For exposures over one second, use the "hat trick." This technique
incorporates a hand-held black card placed over the aperture of the telescope to
act as a shutter. The card prevents light from entering the telescope while the
shutter is released. Once the shutter has been released and the vibration has
Figure 8-1 - Accessories for
diminished (a few seconds), move the black card out of the way to expose the film.
Projection Photography
After the exposure is complete, place the card over the front of the telescope and
close the shutter. Advance the film and you're ready for your next shot. Keep in mind that the card should be held a
few inches in front of the telescope, and not touching it. It is easier if you use two people for this process; one to
release the camera shutter and one to hold the card. Here's the process for making the exposure.
1.
Find and center the desired target in the viewfinder of your camera.
38
2.
Turn the focus knob until the image is as sharp as possible.
3.
Place the black card over the front of the telescope.
4.
Release the shutter using a cable release.
5.
Wait for the vibration caused by releasing the shutter to diminish. Also, wait for a moment of good seeing.
6.
Remove the black card from in front of the telescope for the duration of the exposure (see accompanying table).
7.
Replace the black card over the front of the telescope.
8.
Close the camera's shutter.
Advance the film and you are ready for your next exposure. Don't forget to take photos of varying duration and keep
accurate records of what you have done. Record the date, telescope, exposure duration, eyepiece, f/ratio, film, and
some comments on the seeing conditions.
The following table lists exposures for eyepiece projection with a 10mm eyepiece. All exposure times are listed in
seconds or fractions of a second.
Planet
Moon
Mercury
Venus
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn
ISO 50
4
16
1/2
16
8
16
ISO 100
2
8
1/4
8
4
8
ISO 200
1
4
1/8
4
2
4
ISO 400
1/2
2
1/15
2
1
2
Table 8-2
Recommended exposure time for photographing planets.
The exposure times listed here should be used as a starting point. Always make exposures that are longer and shorter
than the recommended time. Also, take a few photos at each shutter speed. This will ensure that you get a good photo.
It is not uncommon to go through an entire roll of 36 exposures and have only one good shot.
NOTE: Don't expect to record more detail than you can see visually in the eyepiece at the time you are photographing.
Once you have mastered the technique, experiment with different films, different focal length eyepieces, and even
different filters.
Long Exposure Prime Focus Photography
This is the last form of celestial photography to be attempted after others have been mastered. It is intended primarily
for deep sky objects, that is objects outside our solar system which includes star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies. While
it may seem that high magnification is required for these objects, just the opposite is true. Most of these objects cover
large angular areas and fit nicely into the prime focus field of your telescope. The brightness of these objects, however,
requires long exposure times and, as a result, are rather difficult.
There are several techniques for this type of photography, and the one chosen will determine the standard accessories
needed. The best method for long exposure deep sky astrophotography is with an off-axis guider. This device allows
you to photograph and guide through the telescope simultaneously. Celestron offers a very special and advanced offaxis guider, called the Radial Guider (#94176). In addition, you will need a T-Ring to attach your camera to the Radial
Guider.
Other equipment needs include a guiding eyepiece. Unlike other forms of astrophotography which allows for fairly
loose guiding, prime focus requires meticulous guiding for long periods. To accomplish this you need a guiding ocular
with an illuminated reticle to monitor your guide star. For this purpose, Celestron offers the Micro Guide Eyepiece
(#94171) Here is a brief summary of the technique.
39
1.
Polar align the telescope using an optional equatorial wedge. To polar align the NexStar you must select EQ
North Align (or EO South Align) from the alignment options. For more information on polar aligning, see
the Polar Alignment section earlier in the manual.
2.
Remove all visual accessories.
3.
Thread the Radial Guider onto your telescope.
4.
Thread the T-Ring onto the Radial Guider.
5.
Mount your camera body onto the T-Ring the same as you would any other lens.
6.
Set the shutter speed to the "B" setting.
7.
Focus the telescope on a star.
8.
Center your subject in the field of your camera.
9.
Find a suitable guide star in the telescope field. This can be the most time consuming process.
10. Open the shutter using a cable release.
11. Monitor your guide star for the duration of the exposure using the buttons on the hand controller to make the
needed corrections.
12. Close the camera's shutter.
Periodic Error Correction (PEC)
PEC for short, is a system that improves the tracking accuracy of the drive by reducing the number of user corrections
needed to keep a guide star centered in the eyepiece. PEC is designed to improve photographic quality by reducing the
amplitude of the worm errors. Using the PEC function is a three-step process. First, the NexStar needs to know the
current position of its worm gear so that it has a reference when playing back the recorded error. Next, you must guide
for at least 8 minutes during which time the system records the correction you make. (It takes the worm gear 8 minutes
to make one complete revolution, hence the need to guide for 8 minutes). This “teaches” the PEC chip the
characteristics of the worm. The periodic error of the worm gear drive will be stored in the PEC chip and used to
correct periodic error. The last step is to play back the corrections you made during the recording phase. Keep in mind,
this feature is for advanced astrophotography and still requires careful guiding since all telescope drives have some
periodic error.
Using Periodic Error Correction
Once the telescope has been polar aligned using the EQ North Align (or EQ South for southern hemisphere) method,
select PEC from the Utilities menu and press ENTER to begin recording your periodic error. Here’s how to use the
PEC function.
1.
Find a bright star relatively close to the object you want to photograph.
2.
Insert a high power eyepiece with illuminated cross hairs into your telescope. Orient the guiding eyepiece
cross hairs so that one is parallel to the declination while the other is parallel to the R.A. axis.
3.
Center the guide star on the illuminated cross hairs, focus the telescope, and study the periodic movement.
4.
Before actually recording the periodic error, take a few minutes to practice guiding. Set the hand control slew
rate to an appropriate guide rate (rate 1 = .5x, rate 2 = 1x) and practice centering the guide star in the cross
hairs for several minutes. This will help you familiarize yourself with the periodic error of the drive and the
operation of the hand control. Remember to ignore declination drift when programming the PEC.
40
Note: When recording PEC only the photo guide rates (rates 1 and 2) will be operational. This eliminates the
possibility of moving the telescope suddenly while recording.
5.
Helpful
Hint
To begin recording the drive's periodic error, press the MENU button and select PEC from the Utilities menu.
Use the Up/Down scroll buttons to display the Record option and press ENTER. You will have 5 seconds
before the system starts to record. The first time each observing session that PEC record or play is selected,
the worm gear must rotate in order to mark its starting position. If the rotation of the worm gear moves your
guide star outside the field of view of the eyepiece, it will have to be re-centered before the recording begins.
Once the worm gear is indexed, it will not need to be positioned again until the telescope is turned-off. So, to give
yourself more time to prepare for guiding, it is best to restart PEC recording after the worm gear has found its index.
6.
After 8 minutes PEC will automatically stop recording.
7.
Point the telescope at the object you want to photograph and center the guide star on the illuminated cross
hairs and you are ready to play back the periodic error correction.
8.
Once the drive's periodic error has been recorded, use the Playback function to begin playing back the
correction for future photographic guiding. If you want to re-record the periodic error, select Record and
repeat the recording processes again. The previously recorded information will be replaced with the current
information. Repeat steps 7 and 8 to playback the PEC corrections for your next object.
Does the PEC function make unguided astrophotography possible? Yes and no. For solar (filtered), lunar, and
piggyback (up to 200mm), the answer is yes. However, even with PEC, off-axis guiding is still mandatory for long
exposure, deep sky astrophotography. The optional Reducer/Corrector lens reduces exposure times making the task of
guiding a little easier.
When getting started, use fast films to record as much detail in the shortest possible time.
recommendations:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Here are proven
Ektar 1000 (color print)
Konica 3200 (color print)
Fujichrome 1600D (color slide)
3M 1000 (color slide)
Scotchchrome 400
T-Max 3200 (black and white print)
T-Max 400 (black and white print)
As you perfect your technique, try specialized films, that is films that are designed or specially treated for celestial
photography. Here are some popular choices:
•
•
•
•
Ektar 125 (color print)
Fujichrome 100D (color slide)
Tech Pan, gas hypered (black and white print)
T-Max 400 (black and white print)
There is no exposure determination table to help you get started. The best way to determine exposure length is look at
previously published photos to see what film/exposure combinations were used. Or take unguided sample photos of
various parts of the sky while the drive is running. Always take exposures of various lengths to determine the best
exposure time.
Terrestrial Photography
Your NexStar makes an excellent telephoto lens for terrestrial (land) photography. Terrestrial photography is best done
will the telescope in Alt-Az configuration and the tracking drive turned off. To turn the tracking drive off, press the
MENU (9) button on the hand control and scroll down to the Tracking Mode sub menu. Use the Up and Down scroll
keys (10) to select the Off option and press ENTER. This will turn the tracking motors off, so that objects will remain
in your camera's field of view.
41
Metering
The NexStar has a fixed aperture and, as a result, fixed f/ratios. To properly expose your subjects photographically, you
need to set your shutter speed accordingly. Most 35mm SLR cameras offer through-the-lens metering which lets you
know if your picture is under or overexposed. Adjustments for proper exposures are made by changing the shutter
speed. Consult your camera manual for specific information on metering and changing shutter speeds.
Reducing Vibration
Releasing the shutter manually can cause vibrations, producing blurred photos. To reduce vibration when tripping the
shutter, use a cable release. A cable release keeps your hands clear of the camera and lens, thus eliminating the
possibility of introducing vibration. Mechanical shutter releases can be used, though air-type releases are best.
Blurry pictures can also result from shutter speeds that are too slow. To prevent this, use films that produce shutter
speeds greater than 1/250 of a second when hand-holding the lens. If the lens is mounted on a tripod, the exposure
length is virtually unlimited.
Another way to reduce vibration is with the Vibration Suppression Pads. These pads rest between the ground and tripod
feet. They reduce the vibration amplitude and vibration time.
CCD Imaging
Fastar Lens Assembly Option – Using your NEXSTAR GPS telescope at f/2 with optional Fastar Lens Assembly
The NexStar GPS telescope is equipped with a removable secondary mirror that allows you to convert your f/10
telescope into an f/2 imaging system capable of exposure times 25 times shorter than those needed with a f/10 system!
With the optional Fastar lens assembly you can easily convert your Fastar compatible telescope to f/2 prime focus use
in a matter of seconds. The NexStar's versatility allows it to be used in many different f-number configurations for
CCD imaging. It can be used at f/2 (with optional Fastar Lens Assembly), f/6.3 (with the optional Reducer/Corrector),
f/10, and f/20 (with the optional 2x Barlow) making it the most versatile imaging system available today. This makes
the system ideal for imaging deep-sky objects as well as planetary detail. Described below is the configuration of each
F-number and the type of object best suited to that kind of imaging.
42
Secondary
Mirror
Secondary
Mirror
Retaining Ring
Corrector Plate
Secondary
Mirror Mount
Handle
Figure 8-2
-
The Fastar Compatible Optical System
The above figure shows how the secondary mirror is removed when using the optional CCD camera at f/2 and the
Fastar Lens Assembly.
Warning: The secondary mirror should never be removed unless installing the optional Fastar Lens Assembly.
Adjustments to collimation can easily be made by turning the screws on the top of the secondary mirror mount without
ever having to remove the secondary mirror (see Telescope Maintenance section of this manual).
The F/# stands for the ratio between the focal length and the diameter of the light gathering element. A NexStar 11
optical tube has a focal length of 110 inches and a diameter of 11 inches. This makes the system an f/10, (focal length
divided by diameter). The NexStar 8 has a focal length of 80 inches and a diameter of 8 inches, also making it an f/10
optical system. When the secondary is removed and the CCD camera is placed at the Fastar position, the system
becomes f/2, this is a unique feature to some Celestron telescopes (see figures below).
Fastar L ens Assem bl
CCD Camera
Figure 8-3
Figure 8-4
The key factors for good CCD imaging are; exposure time, field-of-view, image size, and pixel resolution. As the F/#
goes down (or gets faster), the exposure times needed decreases, the field-of-view-increases, but the image scale of the
object gets smaller. What is the difference between f/2 and f/10? F/2 has 1/5 the focal length of f/10. That makes the
43
exposure time needed about 25 times shorter than at f/10, the field of view 5 times larger and the object size 1/5
compared to that of f/10. (see Table below)
Focal
Length &
Speed
ST 237
F.O.V.*
Telescope
Model
NexStar 8 GPS
Standard
Cassegrain f/10
With Reducer/Corrector
f/6.3
With Fastar Lens
Accessory f/2
80" (2032mm)
50.4" (1280mm)
16" (406.4mm)
NexStar 11 GPS
110" (2800mm)
69.5" (1764mm)
23.1 (587mm)
NexStar 8 GPS
8 x 6.1 (arc min)
12.6 x 9.7 (arc min)
40 x 30 (arc min)
NexStar 11 GPS
5.8 x 4.4 (arc min)
9.2 x 7.0 (arc min)
28 x 21 (arc min)
* Field of view calculated using SBIG ST 237 CCD camera with 4.7mm x 3.6mm chip.
Table 8-3
The following is a brief description of the advantages of imaging at each f-number configuration and the proper
equipment needed to use the telescope in any of its many settings
Fastar F/2 Imaging
As stated above, the exposure times are much shorter at f/2 than at f/6.3 or f/10. The field-of-view is wider, so it is
easier to find and center objects. Also with a wider field-of-view you can fit larger objects (such as M51, The
Whirlpool Galaxy) in the frame. Typical exposure times can be 20-30 seconds for many objects. Under dark skies you
can get an excellent image of the Dumbbell Nebula (M27) with only a few 30 second exposures (see figure 8-5 below).
The spiral arms of the Whirlpool galaxy (Figure 8-6) can be captured with a 30 second exposure and can be improved
upon dramatically if several 30-60 second exposures are added together .
F/6.3 with Reducer/Corrector
When imaging some objects like planetary nebula (for example M57, the Ring Nebula) and small galaxies (M104, the
Sombrero Galaxy), larger image scale is needed to resolve finer detail. These objects are better shot at f/6.3 or even
f/10.
Medium size to small galaxies -f/6.3 imaging gives you finer resolution then at f/2, but the slower f-number will usually require you to guide the
image while you are taking longer exposures. Guiding can be accomplished by using an optional Radial Guider or a
piggyback guide scope. The exposure times are about 10 times longer but the results can be worth the extra effort.
There are some objects that are small enough and bright enough that they work great at f/6.3. M104 (the Sombrero
Galaxy) can be imaged under dark skies with a series of short exposures using Track and Accumulate. Ten exposures
at 15 seconds each will yield a nice image and is short enough that you may not need to guide the exposure at all. For
f/6.3 imaging the optional Reducer/Corrector is needed. (See Optional Accessory section at the end of this manual).
Lunar or small planetary nebulae-f/10 imaging is more challenging for long exposure, deep-sky imaging. Guiding needs to be very accurate and the
exposure times need to be much longer, about 25 times longer than f/2. There are only a select few objects that work
well at f/10. The moon images fine because it is so bright, but planets are still a bit small and should be shot at f/20.
The Ring nebula is a good candidate because it is small and bright. The Ring Nebula (M57) can be imaged in about
30-50 seconds at f/10. The longer the exposure the better.
Planetary or Lunar-f/20 is a great way to image the planets and features on the moon. When imaging the planets, very short exposures are
needed. The exposure lengths range from .03 to .1 seconds on planetary images. Focus is critical as is good
atmospheric conditions. Generally you will take one image after another until one looks good. This is due to the
atmospheric “seeing” conditions. For every 10 exposures you might save 1. To image at f/20 you need to purchase a
2x Barlow and a T-adapter or Radial Guider.
44
Figure 8-5 M27 -- The Dumbbell Nebula
4 exposures of 30 seconds each!
Figure 8-6 M51 -- The Whirlpool Nebula
9 exposures of 60 seconds each.
Auto Guiding
The NexStar GPS has a designated auto guiding port for use with a CCD autoguider. The diagram below may be
useful when connecting the CCD camera cable to the NexStar and calibrating the autoguider. Note that the four outputs
are active-low, with internal pull-ups and are capable of sinking 25 mA DC.
Figure 8-7 – Pin out diagram for Autoguider port.
45
While your NexStar telescope requires little maintenance, there are a few things to remember that will ensure your telescope
performs at its best.
Care and Cleaning of the Optics
Occasionally, dust and/or moisture may build up on the corrector plate of your telescope. Special care should be taken when
cleaning any instrument so as not to damage the optics.
If dust has built up on the corrector plate, remove it with a brush (made of camel’s hair) or a can of pressurized air. Spray at an
angle to the lens for approximately two to four seconds. Then, use an optical cleaning solution and white tissue paper to remove
any remaining debris. Apply the solution to the tissue and then apply the tissue paper to the lens. Low pressure strokes should
go from the center of the corrector to the outer portion. Do NOT rub in circles!
You can use a commercially made lens cleaner or mix your own. A good cleaning solution is isopropyl alcohol mixed with
distilled water. The solution should be 60% isopropyl alcohol and 40% distilled water. Or, liquid dish soap diluted with water (a
couple of drops per one quart of water) can be used.
Occasionally, you may experience dew build-up on the corrector plate of your telescope during an observing session. If you want
to continue observing, the dew must be removed, either with a hair dryer (on low setting) or by pointing the telescope at the
ground until the dew has evaporated.
If moisture condenses on the inside of the corrector, remove the accessories from the rear cell of the telescope. Place the
telescope in a dust-free environment and point it down. This will remove the moisture from the telescope tube.
To minimize the need to clean your telescope, replace all lens covers once you have finished using it. Since the rear cell is NOT
sealed, the cover should be placed over the opening when not in use. This will prevent contaminants from entering the optical
tube.
Internal adjustments and cleaning should be done only by the Celestron repair department. If your telescope is in need of internal
cleaning, please call the factory for a return authorization number and price quote.
Collimation
The optical performance of your NexStar telescope is directly related to its collimation, that is the alignment of its optical system.
Your NexStar was collimated at the factory after it was completely assembled.
However, if the telescope is dropped or jarred severely during transport, it may have to
be collimated. The only optical element that may need to be adjusted, or is possible, is
the tilt of the secondary mirror.
To check the collimation of your telescope you will need a light source. A bright star
near the zenith is ideal since there is a minimal amount of atmospheric distortion.
Make sure that tracking is on so that you won’t have to manually track the star. Or, if
you do not want to power up your telescope, you can use Polaris. Its position relative
to the celestial pole means that it moves very little thus eliminating the need to
manually track it.
Before you begin the collimation process, be sure that your telescope is in thermal
equilibrium with the surroundings. Allow 45 minutes for the telescope to reach
equilibrium if you move it between large temperature extremes.
Figure 9-1
Rotate the collimation screw cover to
access the three collimation screw.
To verify collimation, view a star near the zenith. Use a medium to high power ocular
— 12mm to 6mm focal length. It is important to center a star in the center of the field
to judge collimation. Slowly cross in and out of focus and judge the symmetry of the
star. If you see a systematic skewing of the star to one side, then re-collimation is
needed.
46
Figure 9-2 -- Even though the star pattern appears the same on both sides of focus, they are asymmetric. The
dark obstruction is skewed off to the left side of the diffraction pattern indicating poor collimation.
To accomplish this, you need to tighten the secondary collimation screw(s) that move the star across the field toward the
direction of the skewed light. These screws are located in the secondary mirror holder (see figure 8-1). To access the collimation
screws you will need to rotate the collimation screw cover clockwise to expose the three collimation screws underneath. Make
only small 1/6 to 1/8 adjustments to the collimation screws and re-center the star by moving the scope before making any
improvements or before making further adjustments.
To make collimation a simple procedure, follow these easy steps:
1.
While looking through a medium to high power eyepiece, de-focus a bright star until a ring pattern with a dark shadow
appears (see figure 9-2). Center the de-focused star and notice in which direction the central shadow is skewed.
2.
Place your finger along the edge of the front cell of the telescope (be careful not to touch the corrector plate), pointing
towards the collimation screws. The shadow of your finger should be visible when looking into the eyepiece. Rotate
your finger around the tube edge until its shadow is seen closest to the narrowest portion of the rings (i.e. the same
direction in which the central shadow is skewed).
3.
Locate the collimation screw closest to where your finger is positioned. This will be the collimation screw you will
need to adjust first. (If your finger is positioned exactly between two of the collimation screws, then you will need to
adjust the screw opposite where your finger is located).
4.
Use the hand control buttons to move the de-focused star image to the edge of the field of view, in the same direction
that the central obstruction of the star image is skewed.
5.
While looking through the eyepiece, use an Allen wrench to turn the collimation screw you located in step 2 and 3.
Usually a tenth of a turn is enough to notice a change in collimation. If the star image moves out of the field of view in
the direction that the central shadow is skewed, than you are turning the
collimation screw the wrong way. Turn the screw in the opposite direction, so that
the star image is moving towards the center of the field of view.
Figure 9-3
A collimated telescope
should appear
symmetrical with the
central obstruction
centered in the star's
diffraction pattern.
6.
If while turning you notice that the screws get very loose, then simply tighten the
other two screws by the same amount. Conversely, if the collimation screw gets
too tight, then loosen the other two screws by the same amount.
7.
Once the star image is in the center of the field of view, check to see if the rings are
concentric. If the central obstruction is still skewed in the same direction, then
continue turning the screw(s) in the same direction. If you find that the ring pattern
is skewed in a different direction, than simply repeat steps 2 through 6 as described
above for the new direction.
Perfect collimation will yield a star image very symmetrical just inside and outside of focus.
In addition, perfect collimation delivers the optimal optical performance specifications that
your telescope is built to achieve.
If seeing (i.e., air steadiness) is turbulent, collimation is difficult to judge. Wait until a better night if it is turbulent or aim to a
steadier part of the sky. A steadier part of the sky is judged by steady versus twinkling stars.
47
You will find that additional accessories enhance your viewing pleasure and expand the usefulness of your
telescope. For ease of reference, all the accessories are listed in alphabetical order.
Adapter, Car Battery (#18769) -
Celestron offers the Car Battery Adapter that allows you to run the NexStar drive off
an external power source. The adapter attaches to the cigarette lighter of your car,
truck, van, or motorcycle.
Barlow Lens - A Barlow lens is a negative lens that increases the focal length of a
telescope. Used with any eyepiece, it doubles the magnification of that eyepiece.
Celestron offers two Barlow lens in the 1-1/4" size for the NexStar. The 2x Ultima
Barlow (#93506) is a compact triplet design that is fully multicoated for maximum
light transmission and parfocal when used with the Ultima eyepieces. Model #93507
is a compact achromatic Barlow lens that is under three inches long and weighs only
4 oz. It works very well with all Celestron eyepieces.
CD-ROM (#93700) - Celestron and Software Bisque have joined together to present
this comprehensive CD-ROM called The Sky™ Level 1 - from Celestron. It features
a 10,000 object database, 75 color images, horizontal projection, custom sky chart
printing, zoom capability and more! A fun, useful and educational product. PC
format.
Erect Image Diagonal (#94112-A) - This accessory is an Amici prism arrangement
that allows you to look into the telescope at a 45° angle with images that are oriented
properly (upright and correct from left-to-right). It is useful for daytime, terrestrial
viewing.
Eyepieces - Like telescopes, eyepieces come in a variety of designs. Each design has its own advantages and
disadvantages. For the 1-1/4" barrel diameter there are four different eyepiece designs available.
• Super Modified Achromatic (SMA) Eyepieces: 1 ¼"
The SMA design is an improved version of the Kellner eyepiece. SMAs are very good, economical, general purpose
eyepieces that deliver a wide apparent field, good color correction and an excellent image at the center of the field of
view. Celestron offers SMA eyepieces in 1-1/4" sizes in the following focal lengths: 6mm, 10mm, 12mm, 17mm and
25mm.
•
NexStar Plössl - Plössl eyepieces have a 4 - element lens
designed for low-to-high power observing. The Plössls offer razor sharp
views across the entire field, even at the edges! In the 1-1/4" barrel
diameter, they are available in the following focal lengths: 3.6mm, 6mm,
8mm, 10mm, 13mm, 17mm, 25mm, 32mm and 40mm.
• Ultima - Ultima is our 5-element, wider field eyepiece design. In the 11/4" barrel diameter, they are available in the following focal lengths:
5mm, 7.5mm, 12.5mm, 18mm, 30mm, 35mm, and 42mm. These
eyepieces are all parfocal. The 35mm Ultima gives the widest possible
field of view with a 1-1/4" diagonal.
• Axiom – As an extension of the Ultima line, a new wide angle series is offered – called the Axiom series. All units are
seven element designs and feature a 70º extra wide field of view ( except the 50mm). All are fully multicoated and
contain all the feature of the Ultimas.
48
• Lanthanum Eyepieces (LV Series) - Lanthanum is a unique rare earth glass used in one of the field lenses of this new
eyepiece. The Lanthanum glass reduces aberrations to a minimum. All are fully multicoated and have an astounding
20mm of eye relief — perfect for eyeglass wearers! In the 1-1/4" barrel diameter, they are available in the following
focal lengths: 2.5mm, 4mm, 5mm, 6mm, 9mm, 10mm, 12mm and 15mm. Celestron also offers the LV Zoom eyepiece
(#3777) with a focal length of 8mm to 24mm. It offers an apparent field of 40º at 24mm and 60º at 8mm. Eye relief
ranges from 15mm to 19mm.
Fastar Lens Assembly 8" – (#94180) - For the ultimate in deep-sky imaging, a
Fastar Lens Assembly can be combined with any of Celestron's Fastar compatible
telescope to achieve amazing f/2 wide-field images. Celestron offers the lens
assembly complete with lens assembly, secondary holder and counterweight.
Filters, Eyepiece - To enhance your visual observations of solar system objects,
Celestron offers a wide range of colored filters that thread into the 1-1/4" oculars. Available individually are: #12 deep
yellow, #21 orange, #25 red, #58 green, #80A light blue, #96 neutral density - 25%T, #96 neutral density - 13%T, and
polarizing. These and other filters are also sold in sets.
Flashlight, Night Vision - (#93588) - Celestron’s premium model for astronomy, using two red LED's to preserve night
vision better than red filters or other devices. Brightness is adjustable. Operates on a single 9 volt battery (included).
Red Astro Lite – (#93590) – An economical squeeze-type flashlight fitted with a red cap to help preserve your night vision.
Remove the red cap for normal flashlight operation. Very compact size and handy key chain.
Light Pollution Reduction (LPR) Filters - These filters are designed to enhance your views of deep sky astronomical
objects when viewed from urban areas. LPR Filters selectively reduce the transmission of certain wavelengths of light,
specifically those produced by artificial lights. This includes mercury and high and low pressure sodium vapor lights. In
addition, they also block unwanted natural light (sky glow) caused by neutral oxygen emission in our atmosphere. Celestron
offers a model for 1-1/4" eyepieces (#94126A) and a model that attaches to the rear cell ahead of the star diagonal and visual
back (#94127A).
Micro Guide Eyepiece (#94171) - This multipurpose 12.5mm illuminated reticle can be used for
guiding deep-sky astrophotos, measuring position angles, angular separations, and more. The
laser etched reticle provides razor sharp lines and the variable brightness illuminator is
completely cordless. The micro guide eyepiece produces 224 power when used with the NexStar
11 at f/10 and 163 power with the NexStar 8.
Moon Filter (#94119-A) - Celestron’s Moon Filter is an economical eyepiece filter for reducing
the brightness of the moon and improving contrast, so greater detail can be observed on the lunar
surface. The clear aperture is 21mm and the transmission is about 18%.
Planisphere (#93720) - A simple and inexpensive tool for all levels of observers, from naked eye viewers to users of highly
sophisticated telescopes. The Celestron Planisphere makes it easy to locate stars for observing and is a great planet finder as
well. A map of the night sky, oriented by month and day, rotates within a depiction of the 24 hours of the day, to display
exactly which stars and planets will be visible at any given time. Ingeniously simple to use, yet quite effective. Made of
durable materials and coated for added protection. Celestron Planispheres come in three different models, to match the
latitude from which you’re observing:
For 20° to 40° of latitude
For 30° to 50°of latitude
For 40° to 60° of latitude
#93720-30
#93720-40
#93720-50
Polarizing Filter Set (#93608) - The polarizing filter set limits the transmission of light to a specific plane, thus increasing
contrast between various objects. This is used primarily for terrestrial, lunar and planetary observing.
49
Radial Guider (#94176) - The Celestron Radial Guider® is specifically designed for use
in prime focus, deep sky astrophotography and takes the place of the T-Adapter. This
device allows you to photograph and guide simultaneously through the optical tube
assembly of your telescope. This type of guiding produces the best results since what you
see through the guiding eyepiece is exactly reproduced on the processed film. The Radial
Guider is a “T”-shaped assembly that attaches to the rear cell of the telescope. As light
from the telescope enters the guider, most passes straight through to the camera. A small
portion, however, is diverted by a prism at an adjustable angle up to the guiding eyepiece.
This guider has two features not found on other off-axis guiders; first, the prism and
eyepiece housing rotate independently of the camera orientation making the acquisition of
a guide star quite easy. Second, the prism angle is tunable allowing you to look at guide stars on-axis. This accessory works
especially well with the Reducer/Corrector.
Reducer/Corrector (#94175) - This lens reduces the focal length of the telescope by 37%, making your NexStar 11 a
1764mm f/6.3 instrument and the NexStar 8 a 1280mm f/6.3 instrument. In addition, this
unique lens also corrects inherent aberrations to produce crisp images all the way across
the field when used visually. When used photographically, there is some vignetting that
produces a 26mm circular image on the processed film. It also increases the field of view
significantly and is ideal for wide-field, deep-space viewing. It is also perfect for
beginning prime focus, long-exposure astro photography when used with the radial
guider. It makes guiding easier and exposures much shorter.
RS-232 Cable (#93920) – Allows your NexStar telescope to be controlled using a laptop
computer or PC. Once connected, the NexStar can be controlled using popular astronomy
software programs.
Sky Maps (#93722) - Celestron Sky Maps are the ideal teaching guide for learning the night sky. You wouldn’t set off on a
road trip without a road map, and you don’t need to try to navigate the night sky without a map either. Even if you already
know your way around the major constellations, these maps can help you locate all kinds of fascinating objects.
Skylight Filter (#93621) - The Skylight Filter is used on the Celestron NexStar telescope as a dust seal. The filter threads
onto the rear cell of your telescope. All other accessories, both visual and photographic (with the exception of Barlow
lenses), thread onto the skylight filter. The light loss caused by this filter is minimal.
T-Adapter (#93633-A) - T-Adapter (with additional T-Ring) allows you to attach your SLR camera to the rear cell of your
Celestron NexStar. This turns your NexStar into a high power telephoto lens perfect for terrestrial photography and short
exposure lunar and filtered solar photography.
T-Ring - The T-Ring couples your 35mm SLR camera body to the T-Adapter, radial guider, or tele-extender. This
accessory is mandatory if you want to do photography through the telescope. Each camera make (i.e., Minolta, Nikon,
Pentax, etc.) has its own unique mount and therefore, its own T-Ring. Celestron has 8 different models for 35mm cameras.
Tele-Extender, Deluxe (#93643) - The tele-extender is a hollow tube that allows you to attach a camera to the telescope
when the eyepiece is installed. This accessory is used for eyepiece projection photography which allows you to capture very
high power views of the Sun, Moon, and planets on film. The tele-extender fits over the eyepiece onto the visual back. This
tele-extender works with eyepieces that have large housings, like the Celestron Ultima series.
Wedge, Heavy Duty (#93655) – The wedge allows you to tilt the telescope so that its polar axis is parallel to the earth's axis
of rotation. Ideal for using your NexStar for guided astrophotography.
A full description of all Celestron accessories can be found in the Celestron Accessory Catalog (#93685).
50
Appendix A - Technical Specifications
Optical Specification
NexStar 8 GPS
Design
Aperture
Focal Length
F/ratio of the Optical System
Primary Mirror: Material
Coatings
Schmidt-Cassegrain Catadioptric
8" (203.2mm)
2032mm
10
Fine Annealed Pyrex
Starbright Coatings - 5 step multi-layer process
Secondary Mirror: Material
Coatings
Hand Figured Fine Annealed Pyrex
Starbright Coatings - 5 step multi-layer process
Central Obstruction
Corrector Plate:
Material
Coatings
Highest Useful Magnification
Lowest Useful Magnification (7mm exit pupil)
Magnification: Standard Eyepiece ( 40mm Pl)
Resolution: Rayleigh Criterion
Dawes Limit
Photographic Resolution (theoretic at 410nm)
Light Gathering Power
Near Focus w/ standard eyepiece or camera
Field of View: Standard Eyepiece
: 35mm Camera
Linear Field of View (at 1000 yds)
Optical Tube Length
Weight of Telescope
Weight of Tripod
2.7"
Optical Quality Crown Glass
A-R Coatings both sides
480x (~4mm eyepiece)
29x (~70mm eyepiece)
51x
.68 arc seconds
.57 arc seconds
200 line/mm
843x
~25 feet
.91º
1º x .68º
47.5 ft.
21"
42 lbs
26 lbs
NexStar 11 GPS
Schmidt-Cassegrain Catadioptric
11" (279mm)
2800mm
10
Fine Annealed Pyrex
Starbright Coatings - 5 step multi-layer
process
Hand Figured Fine Annealed Pyrex
Starbright Coatings - 5 step multi-layer
process
3.75"
Optical Quality Crown Glass
A-R Coatings both sides
660x (~4mm eyepiece)
40x (~70mm eyepiece)
70x
.50 arc seconds
.42 arc seconds
200 line/mm
1593x
~60 feet
.66º
.72º x .50º
34.5 ft.
25"
65 lbs
26 lbs
Electronic Specifications
Input Voltage
Maximum
Minimum
Power Supply Requirements
Cord Management
12 V DC Nominal
15 V DC Max.
9 V DC Min.
12 VDC-750 mA (Tip positive)
Internal Slip Ring Design
Mechanical Specifications
Motor: Type
Resolution
Slew speeds
Hand Control
Fork Arm
Gears
Bearings
Optical Tube
DC Servo motors with encoders, both axes
.26 arc sec
Nine slew speeds: 3º /sec, 2º /sec, .5º/sec, 64x, 16x, 8x, 4x, 1x, .5x
Double line, 16 character Liquid Crystal Display
19 fiber optic backlit LED keypad
Dual Fork tine cast aluminum, with integrated hand control receptacle
5.625", precision bronze gears on both axes, 180 tooth
9.5" Roller Azimuth Bearing
Carbon Fiber
Software Specifications
Software Precision
Ports
Period Error Correction
Tracking Rates
Tracking Modes
Alignment Procedures
Database
Complete Revised NGC Catalog
Complete Messier Catalog
Complete IC Catalog
Complete Caldwell
Abell Galaxies
Solar System objects
Famous Asterisms
Selected CCD Imaging Objects
Selected SAO Stars
16 bit, 20 arc sec. calculations
RS-232 communication port on hand control, Autoguider Port,
2 Auxiliary Port
Permanently programmable
Sidereal, Solar, Lunar
Alt-Az, EQ North & EQ South
GPS Align, AutoAlign, Two-Star Align, Quick-Align, EQ North Align & EQ
South Align
40,000+ objects, 50 user defined programmable objects.
Enhanced information on over 200 objects
7,840
110
5,386
109
2,712
9
20
25
29,500
51
Appendix B - Glossary of Terms
AAbsolute magnitude
Airy disk
Alt-Azimuth Mounting
Altitude
Aperture
Apparent Magnitude
Arcminute
Arcsecond
Asterism
Asteroid
Astrology
Astronomical unit (AU)
Aurora
Azimuth
BBinary Stars
CCelestial Equator
Celestial pole
Celestial Sphere
Collimation
DDeclination (DEC)
EEcliptic
Equatorial mount
FFocal length
The apparent magnitude that a star would have if it were observed from a standard distance of 10
parsecs, or 32.6 light-years. The absolute magnitude of the Sun is 4.8. at a distance of 10 parsecs, it
would just be visible on Earth on a clear moonless night away from surface light.
The apparent size of a star's disk produced even by a perfect optical system. Since the star can never
be focused perfectly, 84 per cent of the light will concentrate into a single disk, and 16 per cent into
a system of surrounding rings.
A telescope mounting using two independent rotation axis allowing movement of the instrument in
Altitude and Azimuth.
In astronomy, the altitude of a celestial object is its Angular Distance above or below the celestial
horizon.
the diameter of a telescope's primary lens or mirror; the larger the aperture, the greater the
telescope's light-gathering power.
A measure of the relative brightness of a star or other celestial object as perceived by an observer on
Earth.
A unit of angular size equal to 1/60 of a degree.
A unit of angular size equal to 1/3,600 of a degree (or 1/60 of an arcminute).
A small unofficial grouping of stars in the night sky.
A small, rocky body that orbits a star.
The pseudoscientific belief that the positions of stars and planets exert an influence on human
affairs; astrology has nothing in common with astronomy.
The distance between the Earth and the Sun. It is equal to 149,597,900 km., usually rounded off to
150,000,000 km.
The emission of light when charged particles from the solar wind slams into and excites atoms and
molecules in a planet's upper atmosphere.
The angular distance of an object eastwards along the horizon, measured from due north, between
the astronomical meridian (the vertical line passing through the center of the sky and the north and
south points on the horizon) and the vertical line containing the celestial body whose position is to
be measured. .
Binary (Double) stars are pairs of stars that, because of their mutual gravitational attraction, orbit
around a common Center of Mass. If a group of three or more stars revolve around one another, it is
called a multiple system. It is believed that approximately 50 percent of all stars belong to binary or
multiple systems. Systems with individual components that can be seen separately by a telescope are
called visual binaries or visual multiples. The nearest "star" to our solar system, Alpha Centauri, is
actually our nearest example of a multiple star system, it consists of three stars, two very similar to
our Sun and one dim, small, red star orbiting around one another.
The projection of the Earth's equator on to the celestial sphere. It divides the sky into two equal
hemispheres.
The imaginary projection of Earth's rotational axis north or south pole onto the celestial sphere.
An imaginary sphere surrounding the Earth, concentric with the Earth's center.
The act of putting a telescope's optics into perfect alignment.
The angular distance of a celestial body north or south of the celestial equator. It may be said to
correspond to latitude on the surface of the Earth.
The projection of the Earth's orbit on to the celestial sphere. It may also be defined as "the apparent
yearly path of the Sun against the stars".
A telescope mounting in which the instrument is set upon an axis which is parallel to the axis of the
Earth; the angle of the axis must be equal to the observer's latitude.
The distance between a lens (or mirror) and the point at which the image of an object at infinity is
brought to focus. The focal length divided by the aperture of the mirror or lens is termed the focal
ratio.
52
JJovian Planets
KKuiper Belt
LLight-Year (LY)
MMagnitude
Meridian
Messier
NNebula
North Celestial Pole
Nova
OOpen Cluster
PParallax
Parfocal
Parsec
Point Source
RReflector
Resolution
Right Ascension: (RA)
SSchmidt Telescope
Sidereal Rate
Any of the four gas giant planets that are at a greater distance form the sun than the terrestrial
planets.
A region beyond the orbit of Neptune extending to about 1000 AU which is a source of many short
period comets.
A light-year is the distance light traverses in a vacuum in one year at the speed of 299,792 km/ sec.
With 31,557,600 seconds in a year, the light-year equals a distance of 9.46 X 1 trillion km (5.87 X 1
trillion mi).
Magnitude is a measure of the brightness of a celestial body. The brightest stars are assigned
magnitude 1 and those increasingly fainter from 2 down to magnitude 5. The faintest star that can be
seen without a telescope is about magnitude 6. Each magnitude step corresponds to a ratio of 2.5 in
brightness. Thus a star of magnitude 1 is 2.5 times brighter than a star of magnitude 2, and 100 times
brighter than a magnitude 5 star. The brightest star, Sirius, has an apparent magnitude of -1.6, the
full moon is -12.7, and the Sun's brightness, expressed on a magnitude scale, is -26.78. The zero
point of the apparent magnitude scale is arbitrary.
A reference line in the sky that starts at the North celestial pole and ends at the South celestial pole
and passes through the zenith. If you are facing South, the meridian starts from your Southern
horizon and passes directly overhead to the North celestial pole.
A French astronomer in the late 1700’s who was primarily looking for comets. Comets are hazy
diffuse objects and so Messier cataloged objects that were not comets to help his search. This
catalog became the Messier Catalog, M1 through M110.
Interstellar cloud of gas and dust. Also refers to any celestial object that has a cloudy appearance.
The point in the Northern hemisphere around which all the stars appear to rotate. This is caused by
the fact that the Earth is rotating on an axis that passes through the North and South celestial poles.
The star Polaris lies less than a degree from this point and is therefore referred to as the "Pole Star".
Although Latin for "new" it denotes a star that suddenly becomes explosively bright at the end of its
life cycle.
One of the groupings of stars that are concentrated along the plane of the Milky Way. Most have an
asymmetrical appearance and are loosely assembled. They contain from a dozen to many hundreds
of stars.
Parallax is the difference in the apparent position of an object against a background when viewed by
an observer from two different locations. These positions and the actual position of the object form a
triangle from which the apex angle (the parallax) and the distance of the object can be determined if
the length of the baseline between the observing positions is known and the angular direction of the
object from each position at the ends of the baseline has been measured. The traditional method in
astronomy of determining the distance to a celestial object is to measure its parallax.
Refers to a group of eyepieces that all require the same distance from the focal plane of the
telescope to be in focus. This means when you focus one parfocal eyepiece all the other parfocal
eyepieces, in a particular line of eyepieces, will be in focus.
The distance at which a star would show parallax of one second of arc. It is equal to 3.26 light-years,
206,265 astronomical units, or 30,8000,000,000,000 km. (Apart from the Sun, no star lies within
one parsec of us.)
An object which cannot be resolved into an image because it to too far away or too small is
considered a point source. A planet is far away but it can be resolved as a disk. Most stars cannot
be resolved as disks, they are too far away.
A telescope in which the light is collected by means of a mirror.
The minimum detectable angle an optical system can detect. Because of diffraction, there is a limit
to the minimum angle, resolution. The larger the aperture, the better the resolution.
The angular distance of a celestial object measured in hours, minutes, and seconds along the
Celestial Equator eastward from the Vernal Equinox.
Rated the most important advance in optics in 200 years, the Schmidt telescope combines the best
features of the refractor and reflector for photographic purposes. It was invented in 1930 by
Bernhard Voldemar Schmidt (1879-1935).
This is the angular speed at which the Earth is rotating. Telescope tracking motors drive the
l
hi
h
i 5
d
d
5d
h
53
telescope at this rate. The rate is 15 arc seconds per second or 15 degrees per hour.
TTerminator
UUniverse
VVariable Star
WWaning Moon
The boundary line between the light and dark portion of the moon or a planet.
The totality of astronomical things, events, relations and energies capable of being described
objectively.
A star whose brightness varies over time due to either inherent properties of the star or something
eclipsing or obscuring the brightness of the star.
The period of the moon's cycle between full and new, when its illuminated portion is decreasing.
Waxing Moon
Z-
The period of the moon's cycle between new and full, when its illuminated portion is increasing.
Zenith
The point on the Celestial Sphere directly above the observer.
Zodiac
The zodiac is the portion of the Celestial Sphere that lies within 8 degrees on either side of the
Ecliptic. The apparent paths of the Sun, the Moon, and the planets, with the exception of some
portions of the path of Pluto, lie within this band. Twelve divisions, or signs, each 30 degrees in
width, comprise the zodiac. These signs coincided with the zodiacal constellations about 2,000 years
ago. Because of the Precession of the Earth's axis, the Vernal Equinox has moved westward by
about 30 degrees since that time; the signs have moved with it and thus no longer coincide with the
constellations.
54
APPENDIX C
LONGITUDES AND
LATITUDES
LONGITUDE
degrees
min
ALABAMA
Anniston
Auburn
Birmingham
Centreville
Dothan
Fort Rucker
Gadsden
Huntsville
Maxwell AFB
Mobile
Mobile Aeros
Montgomery
Muscle Shoal
Selma
Troy
Tuscaloosa
ALASKA
Anchorage
Barrow
Fairbanks
Haines Hrbor
Homer
Juneau
Ketchikan
Kodiak
Nome
Sitka
Sitkinak
Skagway
Valdez
ARIZONA
Davis-M AFB
Deer Valley
Douglas
Falcon Fld
Flagstaff
Fort Huachuc
Gila Bend
Goodyear
GrandCanyon
Kingman
Luke
Page
Payson
Phoenix
Prescott
Safford Awrs
Scottsdale
Show Low
Tucson
Williams AFB
Winslow
Yuma
Yuma Mcas
Yuma Prv Gd
ARKANSAS
Blytheville
Camden
El Dorado
Fayetteville
Ft Smith
Harrison
Hot Springs
Jonesboro
Little Rock
Pine Bluff
Springdale
Texarkana
Walnut Ridge
CALIFORNIA
Alameda
Alturas
Arcata
Bakersfield
Beale AFB
Beaumont
Bicycle Lk
Big Bear
Bishop
Blue Canyon
LATITUDE
degrees
min
85
85
86
87
85
85
86
86
86
88
88
86
87
86
86
87
51
26.4
45
15
27
43.2
5.4
46.2
22.2
15
4.2
2.4
37.2
59.4
1.2
37.2
33
32
33
32
31
31
33
34
32
30
30
32
34
32
31
33
34.8
40.2
34.2
54
19.2
16.8
58.2
39
22.8
40.8
37.8
18
45
20.4
52.2
13.8
149
156
147
135
151
134
131
152
165
135
154
135
146
51
46.8
52.2
25.8
3
34.8
4.2
3
25.8
21
1.2
31.8
21
61
71
64
59
59
58
55
57
64
57
56
59
61
13.2
18
49.2
13.8
37.8
22.2
21
45
30
4.2
52.8
45
7.8
110
112
109
111
111
110
113
112
112
113
112
111
111
112
112
109
111
110
110
111
110
115
114
114
52.8
4.8
3.6
43.8
40.2
21
10.2
22.8
9
57
22.8
27
19.8
1.2
25.8
40.8
55.2
0
55.8
40.2
43.8
0
37.2
2.4
32
33
31
33
35
31
33
33
35
35
33
36
34
33
34
32
33
34
32
33
35
33
32
32
10.2
40.8
27
28.2
7.8
36
33
25.2
57
16.2
31.8
55.8
13.8
25.8
39
49.2
37.2
16.2
7.2
18
1.2
6
39
51
89
92
92
94
94
93
93
90
92
91
94
94
90
57
2.4
4.8
10.2
22.2
9
0.6
39
22.8
55.8
7.8
0
55.8
35
33
33
36
35
36
34
35
35
34
36
33
36
58.2
31.2
13.2
0
19.8
16.2
28.8
49.8
13.2
10.2
10.8
27
7.8
122
120
124
119
121
116
116
116
118
120
19.2
31.8
0.6
3
27
57
37.2
40.8
3.6
4.2
37
41
40
35
39
33
35
34
37
39
46.8
28.8
58.8
25.8
7.8
55.8
16.8
16.2
36
16.8
Blythe
Burbank
Campo
Carlsbad
Castle AFB
Chico
China Lake
Chino
Concord
Crescent Cty
Daggett
Edwards AFB
El Centro
El Monte
El Toro
Eureka
Fort Hunter
Fort Ord
Fresno
Fullerton
George AFB
Hawthorne
Hayward
Imperial
Imperial Bch
La Verne
Lake Tahoe
Lancaster
Livermore
Long Beach
Los Alamitos
Los Angeles
Mammoth
March AFB
Marysville
Mather AFB
Mcclellan
Merced
Miramar NAS
Modesto
Moffet
Mojave
Montague
Monterey
Mount Shasta
Mount Wilson
Napa
Needles
North Is
Norton AFB
Oakland
Ontario Intl
Oxnard
Palm Springs
Palmdale
Palo Alto
Paso Robles
Pillaro Pt
Point Mugu
Pt Arena
Pt Arguello
Pt Piedras
Red Bluff
Redding
Riverside
Sacramento
Salinas
San Carlos
San
Clemente
San Diego
San
Francisco
San Jose
San Luis Obi
San Mateo
San Miguel
Sandburg
Santa Ana
Santa Barb
Santa Maria
Santa Monica
Santa Rosa
LONGITUDE
degrees
114
118
116
117
120
121
117
117
122
124
116
117
115
118
117
124
121
121
119
117
117
118
122
115
117
117
120
118
121
118
118
118
118
117
121
121
121
120
117
120
122
118
122
121
122
118
122
114
117
117
122
117
119
116
118
122
120
122
119
124
121
121
122
122
117
121
121
122
117
min
43.2
22.2
28.2
16.8
34.2
51
40.8
37.8
3
13.8
46.8
52.8
40.8
1.8
43.8
16.8
19.2
46.2
43.2
58.2
22.8
19.8
7.2
34.2
7.2
46.8
0
13.2
49.2
9
3
2.4
55.2
16.2
34.2
1.8
2.4
31.2
9
57
3
9
31.8
51
19.2
4.2
16.8
37.2
1.2
13.8
13.2
37.2
1.2
3
7.8
7.2
37.8
49.8
7.2
13.2
7.2
16.8
15
1.8
27
3
3.6
15
37.2
117
122
7.8
22.8
32
37
49.2
37.2
121
120
117
120
118
117
119
120
118
122
55.2
39
34.8
2.4
43.8
52.8
49.8
27
27
49.2
37
35
33
34
34
33
34
34
34
38
22.2
13.8
22.8
1.8
45
40.2
25.8
54
1.2
31.2
55
LATITUDE
degrees
33
34
32
33
37
39
35
33
37
41
34
34
32
34
33
41
36
36
36
33
34
33
37
32
32
34
38
34
37
33
33
33
37
33
39
38
38
37
32
37
37
35
41
36
41
34
38
34
32
34
37
34
34
33
35
37
35
37
34
39
34
35
40
40
33
38
36
37
33
min
37.2
12
37.2
7.8
22.8
46.8
40.8
58.2
58.8
46.8
52.2
54
49.2
4.8
40.2
19.8
0
40.8
46.2
52.2
34.8
55.2
39
49.8
34.2
6
54
43.8
42
49.2
46.8
55.8
37.8
52.8
6
34.2
40.2
16.8
52.2
37.8
25.2
3
43.8
34.8
19.2
13.8
13.2
46.2
42
6
43.8
3
12
49.8
3
28.2
40.2
49.8
7.2
34.8
57
40.2
9
30
57
31.2
40.2
31.2
25.2
Shelter Cove
Siskiyou
Stockton
Superior Val
Susanville
Thermal
Torrance
Travis AFB
Tahoe
Tustin Mcas
Ukiah
Van Nuys
Vandenberg
Visalia
COLORADO
Air Force A
Akron
Alamosa
Aspen
Brmfield/Jef
Buckley
Colo Sprgs
Cortez
Craig-Moffat
Denver
Durango
Eagle
Englewood
Fort Carson
Fraser
Ft Col/Lovel
Ft Collins
Grand Jct
Greeley-Wld
Gunnison
La Junta
Lamar
Leadville
Limon
Montrose
Pueblo
Rifle
Salida
Trinidad
Winter Park
LONGITUDE
degrees
124
122
121
117
120
116
118
121
120
117
123
118
120
119
min
4.2
28.2
15
0.6
57
10.2
19.8
55.8
7.8
49.8
1.2
28.8
57
2.4
LATITUDE
degrees
40
41
37
35
40
33
33
38
39
33
39
34
35
36
105
103
105
106
105
104
104
108
107
104
107
106
104
104
105
105
105
108
104
106
103
102
106
103
107
104
107
106
104
105
21
13.2
52.2
52.2
7.2
45
43.2
37.8
31.8
52.2
45
55.2
49.8
46.2
3
1.2
4.8
31.8
37.8
55.8
31.2
3.6
1.8
4.2
52.8
31.2
4.8
3
19.8
52.2
39
40
37
39
39
39
38
37
40
39
37
39
39
38
39
40
40
39
40
38
38
38
39
39
38
38
39
38
37
40
31.2
10.2
27
13.2
54
43.2
49.2
18
30
45
9
39
34.2
40.8
34.2
27
34.8
7.2
25.8
33
3
7.2
15
10.8
30
16.8
31.8
31.8
15
0
73
73
72
72
72
72
72
7.8
28.8
3
39
40.2
4.8
40.8
41
41
41
41
41
41
41
10.2
22.2
19.8
43.8
13.2
18
55.8
75
75
28.2
3.6
39
39
7.8
40.2
77
27.6
38
57
85
81
81
80
1.8
34.2
33
33
29
29
28
28
43.8
7.2
4.8
28.2
81
86
83
81
86
86
82
81
80
81
82
80
86
81
81
81
82
85
81
52.8
31.2
0.6
3
31.2
31.8
46.2
52.2
9
52.2
16.2
22.8
40.8
40.8
45
57
31.2
10.8
25.2
30
30
29
29
30
30
27
26
26
26
29
25
30
30
24
28
27
30
30
13.2
46.8
37.2
10.8
39
28.8
36
34.8
4.2
39
40.8
28.8
25.8
13.8
33
1.8
51
50.4
24
min
1.8
46.8
54
19.8
37.8
37.8
48
16.2
19.2
42
7.8
13.2
12
19.2
CONNECTICUT
Bridgeport
Danbury
Groton
Hartford
New Haven
New London
Windsor Loc
DELAWARE
Dover
Wilmington
D.C. WASH
Washington
FLORIDA
Apalachicola
Astor NAS
Avon Park G
Cape
Canaveral
Cecil
Crestview
Cross City
Daytona Bch
Duke Fld
Eglin AFB
Egmont Key
Fort Myers
Ft Lauderdale
Ft Myers
Gainesville
Homestead
Hurlburt Fld
Jacksonville
Key West
Lakeland
Macdill AFB
Marianna
Mayport NAS
Melbourne
Miami
Naples
Nasa Shuttle
Orlando
Panama City
Patrick AFB
Pensacola
Ruskin
Saint Peters
Sanford
Sarasota
Tallahassee
Tampa Intl
Titusville
Tyndall AFB
Vero Beach
West Palm
Beach
Whiting Fld
GEORGIA
Albany
Alma
Athens
Atlanta
Augusta/Bush
Brunswick
Columbus
Dobbins AFB
Fort Benning
Ft Stewart
Hunter Aaf
La Grange
Macon/Lewis
Moody AFB
Robins AFB
Rome/Russell
Valdosta
Waycross
HAWAII
Barbers Pt
Barking San
Fr Frigate
Hilo
Honolulu Int
Kahului Maui
Kaneohe Mca
Kilauea Pt
Lanai-Lanai
Lihue-Kauai
Maui
Molokai
Upolo Pt Ln
WaimeaKoha
IDAHO
Boise
Burley
Challis
Coeur
d'Alene
Elk City
Gooding
Grangeville
Idaho Falls
Lewiston
Malad City
Malta
Mccall
Mullan
Pocatello
Salmon
Soda Springs
Sun Valley
Twin Falls
ILLINOIS
Alton
Aurora
Bistate Park
Bloomington
Bradford
Cairo
Carbondale
Centralia
Champaign
Chicago
Danville
DeKalb
Decatur
Du Page
Galesburg
LONGITUDE
degrees
80
80
81
80
81
85
80
87
82
82
81
82
84
82
80
85
80
80
min
37.8
16.8
4.8
40.8
19.2
40.8
3.6
19.2
3.6
40.8
15
33
22.2
31.8
4.8
34.8
25.2
7.2
LATITUDE
degrees
28
25
26
28
28
30
28
30
27
27
28
27
30
27
28
30
27
26
87
1.2
30
43.2
84
82
83
84
81
81
84
84
85
81
81
85
83
83
83
85
83
82
10.8
31.2
19.2
25.2
58.2
22.8
55.8
31.2
0
34.2
9
4.2
39
1.2
3.6
10.2
16.8
2.4
31
31
33
33
33
31
32
33
32
31
32
33
32
30
32
34
30
31
31.8
31.8
57
39
22.2
9
31.2
55.2
19.8
52.8
1.2
0.6
42
58.2
37.8
21
46.8
15
158
160
166
155
157
156
158
159
156
159
156
157
156
156
7.2
1.8
28.2
4.2
55.8
25.8
16.8
40.2
57
21
49.8
0.6
28.2
7.2
21
22
24
19
21
20
21
22
20
21
20
21
20
20
31.8
3
27
43.2
21
54
45
22.8
48
58.8
58.2
9
25.2
0
116
113
114
116
13.2
46.2
13.2
49.2
43
42
44
47
34.2
31.8
31.2
46.2
115
115
116
112
117
112
113
116
115
112
113
111
114
114
25.8
10.2
7.8
4.2
1.2
19.2
22.2
0.6
4.8
3.6
5.4
34.8
1.8
28.8
45
43
45
43
46
42
42
44
47
42
45
42
43
42
49.2
0
55.2
31.2
22.8
10.2
18
52.8
28.2
55.2
10.8
39
30
28.8
90
88
90
88
89
89
89
89
88
87
87
88
88
88
90
3
19.2
9
55.8
3.6
13.2
15
5.4
16.8
39
3.6
43.2
52.2
15
25.8
38
41
38
40
41
37
37
38
40
41
40
41
39
41
40
52.8
46.2
34.2
28.8
9.6
4.2
46.8
30.6
1.8
54
12
55.8
49.8
55.2
55.8
min
6
49.2
7.8
37.2
25.8
12
13.8
21
58.2
55.2
46.8
24
22.8
58.2
31.2
4.2
39
40.8
Glenview
NAS
Kankakee
Macomb
Marion
Marseilles
Mattoon
Moline/Quad
Mount
Vernon
Peoria
Quincy
Rockford
Salem
Scott AFB
Springfield
Sterling
Taylorville
Vandalia
INDIANA
Bakalar
Bloomington
Elkhart
Evansville
Fort Wayne
Gary
Grissom AFB
Indianapolis
Muncie
South Bend
Terre Haute
W Lafayette
IOWA
Burlington
Cedar Rapids
Des Moines
Dubuque
Estherville
Fort Dodge
Lamoni
Mason City
Ottumwa
Sioux City
Spencer
Waterloo Mun
KANSAS
Chanute
Col. J Jabar
Concordia
Dodge City
Elkhart
Emporia
Ft Leavnwrth
Ft Riley
Garden City
Goodland
Hays
Hill City
Hutchinson
Johnson Cnty
Liberal
Manhatten
Mcconnell Af
Medicine Ldg
Olathe
Russell
Salina
Topeka
Topeka/Forbe
Wichita
KENTUCKY
Bowling Gren
Ft Campbell
Ft Knox
Jackson
Lexington
London
Louisville
Owensboro
Paducah
Pikeville
LOUISIANA
Alexandria
Barksdale
Baton Rouge
Boothville
Cameron Heli
Claiborne R
England AFB
Eugene Is.
Fort Polk
LONGITUDE
degrees
min
87
49.2
LATITUDE
degrees
42
min
4.8
87
90
89
88
88
90
88
51
39.6
0
40.8
16.8
31.2
51.6
41
40
37
41
39
41
38
4.2
31.2
45
22.2
28.8
27
19.2
89
91
89
88
89
89
89
89
89
40.8
1.2
0.6
57.6
51
40.2
40.2
19.8
10.2
40
39
42
38
38
39
41
39
38
40.2
55.8
12
37.8
33
51
44.4
31.8
59.4
86
86
86
87
85
87
86
86
85
86
87
86
3
37.2
0
31.8
1.2
25.2
9
16.2
22.8
19.2
1.8
55.8
39
39
41
38
41
41
40
39
40
41
39
40
22.8
7.8
43.2
3
0
37.2
39
43.8
13.8
42
27
25.2
91
91
93
90
94
94
93
93
92
96
95
92
7.2
4.2
39
4.2
45
10.8
55.8
19.8
27
22.8
9
2.4
40
41
41
42
43
42
40
43
41
42
43
42
46.8
52.8
31.8
24
24
33
37.2
9
6
24
10.2
33
95
97
97
99
101
96
94
96
100
101
99
99
97
94
100
96
97
98
94
98
97
95
95
97
28.8
13.2
39
58.2
52.8
1.2
55.2
46.2
43.2
4.2
16.2
49.8
52.2
52.8
58.2
40.2
16.2
34.8
5.4
49.2
39
37.2
40.2
25.8
37
37
39
37
37
38
39
39
37
39
38
39
38
38
37
39
37
37
38
38
38
39
38
37
40.2
45
33
46.2
0
19.8
22.2
3
55.8
22.2
51
22.8
4.2
49.2
3
9
37.2
18
51
52.2
48
4.2
57
39
86
87
85
83
85
84
85
87
88
82
25.8
3
58.2
19.2
0
4.2
40.2
10.2
46.2
31.2
36
36
37
37
38
37
38
37
37
37
58.2
40.2
54
36
3
4.8
13.8
45
4.2
28.8
92
93
91
89
93
92
92
91
93
1.8
40.2
9
40.2
1.8
57
33
46.8
1.2
31
32
30
29
29
31
31
28
31
22.8
30
31.8
33
46.8
13.2
19.8
28.2
3
56
LONGITUDE
degrees
Grand Isle
90
High Island
94
Houma
90
Intercoastal
92
Lafayette
92
Lake Charles
93
Lk Palourde
91
Missippi Can
89
Monroe
92
Morgan City
91
New Iberia
91
New Orleans
90
S Marsh Isl
91
Shreveport
93
Slidel
89
MAINE
Augusta
69
Bangor
68
Bar Harbor
68
Brunswick
69
Caribou Mun
68
Greenville
69
Houlton
67
Loring AFB
67
Portland
70
Presque Isle
68
Rockland
69
Rumford
70
MARYLAND
Andrews AFB
76
Baltimore
76
Fort Meade
76
Hagerstown
77
Ocean City
75
Patuxent
76
Phillips
76
Salisbury
75
MASSACHUSETTS
Bedford
71
Beverly
70
Boston
71
Cape Cod
70
Chatham
69
Fort Devens
71
Hyannis
70
Lawrence
71
Marthas Vine
70
Nantucket
70
New Bedford
70
Norwood
71
Otis ANGB
70
Pittsfield
73
S Weymouth
70
Westfield
72
Westover
72
Worcester
71
MICHIGAN
Alpena
83
Ann Arbor
83
Battle Creek
85
Benton
86
Harbor
Chippewa
84
Coopersville
85
Copper Harb
87
Detroit
83
Escanaba
87
Flint/Bishop
83
Grand Rapids
85
Hancock
88
Harbor Beach
82
Houghton
84
Lake
Iron Mtn
88
Ironwood
90
Jackson
84
Kalamazoo
85
Lansing
84
Manistee
86
Marquette
87
Menominee
87
Muskegon
86
Pellston
84
Pontiac
83
Saginaw
84
Sault Ste M
84
Sawyer AFB
87
Selfridge
82
Seul Choix
85
Traverse Cty
85
min
4.2
2.4
39
7.2
0
13.2
0.6
3
3
1.2
52.8
15
58.8
45
49.2
LATITUDE
degrees
29
28
29
29
30
30
29
28
32
29
30
29
28
32
30
min
10.8
7.8
34.2
43.8
12
7.2
42
46.8
31.2
42
1.8
58.8
18
31.2
21
4.8
49.2
22.2
55.8
1.2
33
46.8
52.8
19.2
3
7.2
52.8
44
44
44
43
46
45
46
46
43
46
44
44
19.2
48
27
52.8
52.2
27
7.8
57
39
40.8
4.2
52.8
52.2
40.2
46.2
43.2
7.8
2.4
10.2
3
38
39
39
39
38
38
39
38
49.2
10.8
4.8
42
33
16.8
28.2
19.8
16.8
55.2
1.8
3
58.2
3.6
16.8
7.2
37.2
4.2
58.2
10.8
31.2
10.8
55.8
43.2
31.8
52.2
42
42
42
41
41
42
41
42
41
41
41
42
41
42
42
42
42
42
28.2
34.8
22.2
46.8
40.2
34.2
40.2
43.2
24
15
40.8
10.8
39
15.6
9
10.2
12
16.2
34.2
45
13.8
25.8
45
42
42
42
4.2
13.2
18
7.8
28.2
57
51
1.2
4.8
45
31.2
3
31.8
40.8
46
43
47
42
45
42
42
47
43
44
15
4.2
28.2
25.2
43.8
58.2
52.8
10.2
49.8
22.2
7.2
7.8
28.2
33
3.6
15
57
37.8
15
4.8
25.2
4.8
22.2
2.4
49.8
55.2
34.8
45
46
42
42
42
44
46
45
43
45
42
43
46
46
42
45
44
49.2
31.8
16.2
13.8
46.2
16.2
52.8
7.2
10.2
34.2
40.2
31.8
28.2
21
37.2
55.2
43.8
Wurtsmith
Ypsilanti
MINNESOTA
Albert Lea
Alexandria
Bemidji Muni
Brainerd-Crw
Detroit Laks
Duluth
Ely
Fairmont
Fergus Falls
Grand Rapids
Hibbing
Intl Falls
Litchfield
Mankato
Marshall Arpt
Minneapolis
Park Rapids
Pequot Lake
Rochester
Saint Paul
St Cloud
Thief River
Tofte
Warroad
Worthington
MISSISSIPPI
Columbus
AFB
Golden Trian
Greenville
Greenwood
Gulfport
Hattiesburg
Jackson
Keesler AFB
Laurel
Mccomb
Meridian NAS
Meridian/Key
Natchez
Oxford
Tupelo
MISSOURI
Columbia
Cape
Girardeau
Ft Leonard
Jefferson City
Joplin
Kansas City
Kirksville
Monett
Muskogee
Poplar Bluff
Richards-Geb
Spickard
Springfield
St Joseph
St Louis
Vichy/Rolla
West Plains
Whiteman
AFB
MONTANA
Billings
Bozeman
Broadus
Butte
Cut Bank
Dillon
Drummond
Glasgow
Glendive
Great Falls
Harlowton
Havre
Helena
Jordan
Kalispell
Lewiston
Livingston
Malmstrom
Miles City
Missoula
Monida
Sidney
W Yellowston
LONGITUDE
degrees
min
83
2.4
83
31.8
LATITUDE
degrees
44
42
min
27
13.8
93
95
94
94
95
92
91
94
96
93
92
93
94
93
95
93
95
94
92
93
94
96
90
95
95
22.2
22.8
55.8
7.8
52.8
10.8
49.2
25.2
4.2
31.2
51
22.8
31.2
55.2
49.2
28.2
4.2
19.2
3
3
4.2
10.8
49.8
21
34.8
43
45
47
46
46
46
47
43
46
47
47
48
45
44
44
44
46
46
43
44
45
48
47
48
43
40.8
52.2
30
24
49.2
49.8
54
39
18
13.2
22.8
34.2
7.8
13.2
27
49.8
54
36
55.2
55.8
33
4.2
34.8
55.8
39
88
27
33
39
88
90
90
89
89
90
88
89
90
88
88
91
89
88
34.8
58.8
4.8
4.2
19.8
4.8
55.2
10.2
28.2
34.2
45
15
32.4
46.2
33
33
33
30
31
32
30
31
31
32
32
31
34
34
27
28.8
30
24
28.2
19.2
25.2
40.2
10.8
33
19.8
37.2
23.4
16.2
92
89
13.2
34.8
38
37
49.2
13.8
92
92
94
94
92
94
95
90
94
93
93
95
90
91
92
93
7.8
10.2
3
43.2
33
21
21.6
28.2
33
43.2
22.8
31.8
22.2
46.2
25.2
33
37
38
37
39
40
37
35
36
38
40
37
40
38
38
37
38
45
36
10.2
19.2
6
19.8
39.6
46.2
51
15
13.8
16.8
45
7.8
13.2
43.8
108
111
105
112
112
112
113
106
104
111
109
109
112
106
114
109
110
111
105
114
112
104
111
31.8
9
40.2
3
22.2
33
9
37.2
4.8
22.2
49.8
46.2
0
55.8
16.2
27
25.8
10.8
52.2
4.8
19.2
10.8
0.6
45
45
45
45
48
45
46
48
47
47
46
48
46
47
48
47
45
47
46
46
44
47
44
48
46.8
40.2
57
36
15
40.2
13.2
7.8
28.8
25.8
33
36
19.8
18
3
42
30
25.8
55.2
34.2
43.2
39
LONGITUDE
degrees
NEBRASKA
Ainsworth
99
Alliance
102
Beatrice
96
Broken Bow
99
Burwell
99
Chadron
103
Columbus
97
Cozad
100
Falls City
95
Grand Island
98
Hastings
98
Imperial
101
Kearney
99
Lincoln Muni
96
Mccook
100
Mullen
101
Norfolk
97
North Omaha
96
North Platte
100
O'neill
98
Offutt AFB
95
Omaha
95
Ord/Sharp
98
Scottsbluff
103
Sidney Muni
102
Valentine
100
NEVADA
Austin
117
Battle Mtn
116
Caliente
114
Elko
115
Ely/Yelland
114
Eureka
115
Fallon NAS
118
Hawthorne
118
Ind Sprng Rn
115
Las Vegas
115
Lovelock
118
Mercury
116
Nellis AFB
115
Owyhee
116
Reno
119
Tonopah
117
Wildhorse
116
Winnemucca
117
Yucca Flat
116
NEW HAMPSHIRE
Berlin
71
Concord
71
Jaffrey
72
Keene
72
Laconia
71
Lebanon
72
Manchester
71
Mt Washingtn
71
Nashua
71
Pease AFB
70
Wolfeboro
71
NEW JERSEY
Atlantic CtIy
74
Barnegat Ls
74
Fairfield
74
Lakehurst
74
Mcguire AFB
74
Millville
75
Morristown
74
Newark Intl
74
Teterboro
74
Trenton
74
NEW MEXICO
Albuquerque
106
Cannon
103
Carlsbad
104
Clayton Arpt
103
Corona
105
Deming
107
Farmington
108
Gallup/Clark
108
Grants
107
Hobbs
103
Holloman
106
AFB
Las Cruces
106
Las Vegas
105
Los Alamos
106
Moriarity
106
Northrup Str
106
Raton
104
Roswell
104
57
min
LATITUDE
degrees
min
58.8
4.8
45
39
9
4.8
21
0
34.8
19.2
25.8
23.4
0
45
34.8
3
25.8
1.2
40.8
40.8
55.2
5.4
57
3.6
58.8
33
42
42
40
41
41
42
41
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
42
41
41
41
42
41
41
41
41
41
42
34.8
3
19.2
25.8
46.8
49.8
27
52.2
4.2
58.2
36
19.8
43.8
51
13.2
3
58.8
22.2
7.8
28.2
7.2
18
37.2
52.2
6
52.2
7.8
52.2
31.2
46.8
51
58.2
4.2
37.8
34.2
10.2
55.2
1.2
1.8
10.2
46.8
4.8
15
4.8
4.8
39
40
37
40
39
39
39
38
36
36
40
36
36
42
39
38
41
40
37
49.8
37.2
37.2
49.8
16.8
30
25.2
33
31.8
4.8
6
37.2
13.8
34.8
30
4.2
19.8
54
34.8
10.8
3
0
16.2
25.8
1.8
25.8
1.8
31.2
49.2
22.8
44
43
42
42
43
43
42
44
42
43
44
34.8
12
48
54
34.2
37.8
55.8
16.2
46.8
4.8
0
34.2
16.8
16.8
21
3.6
4.2
25.2
10.2
3
49.2
39
40
40
40
40
39
40
40
40
40
27
16.8
52.2
1.8
1.2
22.2
48
42
51
16.8
3.6
19.2
16.2
9
40.8
4.2
13.8
46.8
5.4
1.2
0.6
35
34
32
36
34
32
36
35
35
32
32
3
22.8
19.8
27
6
15
45
31.2
10.2
40.8
51
46.2
9
16.8
3
2.4
3
31.8
32
35
35
34
32
36
33
18
39
52.8
58.8
54
44.4
18
LONGITUDE
degrees
Santa Fe
106
Silver City
108
Socorro
106
Taos
105
Truth Or Con
107
Tucumcari
103
White Sands
106
NEW YORK
Albany
73
Ambrose
74
Binghamton
75
Buffalo
78
Dansville
78
Elmira
76
Farmingdale
73
Fort Drum
75
Glens Falls
73
Griffiss AFB
75
Islip
73
Ithaca
76
Jamestown
79
Massena
74
Monticello
74
New York
73
Newburgh
74
Niagara Fall
78
Ogdensburg
75
Oneonta
75
Plattsburgh
73
Rochester
77
Saranac Lk
74
Schenectady
73
Syracuse
76
Utica
75
Watertown
76
Westhampton
72
White Plains
73
NORTH CAROLINA
Asheville
82
Cape Hattera
75
Charlotte
80
Cherry Point
76
Dare Co Gr
76
Diamond Sho
75
Elizabeth
76
Fayetteville
78
Fort Bragg
78
Greensboro
79
Hickory
81
Hot Springs
82
Jacksonville
77
Kinston
77
Mackall Aaf
79
Manteo Arpt
75
New Bern
77
New River
77
Pope AFB
79
Raleigh-Durh
78
Rocky Mt
77
Southern Pin
79
Wilmington
77
Winston80
Salem
NORTH DAKOTA
Bismarck
100
Devil's Lake
98
Dickenson
102
Fargo
96
Grand Forks
97
Jamestown
98
Lidgerwood
97
Minot
101
Roseglen
101
Williston
103
OHIO
Athens
82
Canton
81
Cincinnati
84
Cleveland
81
Columbus
82
Dayton
84
Findlay
83
Mansfield
82
Rickenbacker
82
Toledo
83
Willoughby
81
Youngstown
80
Zanesville
81
min
4.8
10.2
5.4
34.2
16.2
3.6
2.4
LATITUDE
degrees
35
32
34
36
33
35
32
min
37.2
37.8
4.2
25.2
13.8
10.8
37.8
4.8
22.2
58.8
43.8
1.2
5.4
25.8
43.8
37.2
2.4
0.6
28.2
15
51
4.8
58.8
0.6
57
2.4
7.2
28.2
40.2
1.2
55.8
7.2
22.8
1.2
37.8
43.2
42
40
42
42
42
42
40
44
43
43
40
42
42
44
41
40
41
43
44
42
44
43
44
42
43
43
44
40
41
45
45
13.2
55.8
58.2
10.2
43.8
3
21
13.8
46.8
28.8
9
55.8
42
46.2
30
6
40.8
52.2
39
7.2
22.8
51
7.2
9
0
51
4.2
33
33
55.8
52.8
3
3
10.8
52.8
55.8
57
22.8
49.2
37.2
37.8
3
40.8
3
25.8
1.2
46.8
52.8
23.4
55.2
13.8
35
35
35
34
36
35
36
35
35
36
35
35
34
35
35
35
35
34
35
35
35
35
34
36
25.8
16.2
13.2
54
7.8
15
16.2
0
7.8
4.8
45
54
49.2
19.2
1.8
55.2
4.8
42
10.2
52.2
51
14.4
16.2
7.8
45
5.4
4.8
4.8
10.8
40.8
9
16.8
49.8
37.8
46
48
46
46
47
46
46
48
47
48
46.2
7.2
46.8
54
57
55.2
6
16.2
45
10.8
13.8
25.8
40.2
40.8
52.8
1.2
40.2
31.2
55.8
4.8
2.4
40.2
5.4
39
40
39
41
40
39
41
40
39
41
41
41
39
12.6
55.2
3
31.2
0
54
1.2
49.2
49.2
36
37.8
16.2
57
LONGITUDE
degrees
OKLAHOMA
Altus AFB
99
Ardmore
97
Bartlesville
96
Clinton
99
Enid
97
Fort Sill
98
Gage
99
Hobart
99
Lawton
98
Mcalester
95
Norman
97
Oklahoma
97
Page
94
Ponca City
97
Stillwater
97
Tinker AFB
97
Tulsa
95
Vance AFB
97
OREGON
Astoria
123
Aurora
122
Baker
117
Brookings
124
Burns Arpt
118
Cape Blanco
124
Cascade
121
Corvallis
123
Eugene
123
Hillsboro
122
Klamath Fall
121
La Grande
118
Lake View
120
Meacham
118
Medford
122
Newport
124
North Bend
124
Ontario
117
Pendleton
118
Portland
122
Redmond
121
Roseburg
123
Salem
123
Sexton
123
The Dalles
121
Troutdale
122
PENNSYLVANIA
Allentown
75
Altoona
78
Beaver Falls
80
Blairsville
79
Bradford
78
Dubois
78
Erie
80
Franklin
79
Harrisburg
76
Johnstown
78
Lancaster
76
Latrobe
79
Middletown
76
Muir
76
Nth Philadel
75
Philadelphia
75
Philipsburg
78
Pittsburgh
79
Reading
75
Site R
77
State Colleg
77
Wilkes-Barre
75
Williamsport
76
Willow Grove
75
RHODE ISLAND
Block Island
71
Nth Kingston
71
Providence
71
SOUTH CAROLINA
Anderson
82
Beaufort
80
Charleston
80
Columbia
81
Florence
79
Greenville
82
Mcentire
80
min
LATITUDE
degrees
min
16.2
1.2
0
1.2
4.8
2.4
46.2
3
25.2
46.8
28.2
3.6
37.2
0.6
5.4
22.8
5.4
55.2
34
34
36
35
36
34
36
35
34
34
35
35
34
36
36
35
36
36
40.2
18
45
21
22.8
39
18
0
34.2
52.8
13.8
24
40.8
43.8
9.6
25.2
12
19.8
52.8
45
49.2
28.2
57
57
52.8
16.8
13.2
57
43.8
0
21
2.4
52.2
3
15
1.2
51
3.6
9
22.2
0
22.2
9
2.4
46
45
44
42
43
43
45
44
44
45
42
45
42
45
42
44
43
44
45
45
44
43
44
42
45
45
9
15
49.8
4.8
36
22.8
40.8
30
7.2
31.8
9
16.8
10.8
30
22.2
37.8
25.2
1.2
40.8
36
16.2
13.8
55.2
37.2
37.2
33
25.8
19.2
19.8
5.4
37.8
5.4
10.8
52.2
51
49.8
1.8
2.4
46.2
34.2
1.2
15
7.8
55.8
58.2
25.8
49.8
43.8
55.2
9
40
40
40
40
41
41
42
41
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
39
41
40
40
39
40
41
41
40
39
18
45
16.2
48
10.8
4.8
22.8
13.2
19.2
7.8
16.8
12
25.8
4.8
52.8
28.2
21
22.8
43.8
51
19.8
15
12
34.8
25.2
25.8
41
41
41
10.2
36
43.8
43.2
43.2
1.8
7.2
43.2
21
4.8
34
32
32
33
34
34
33
30
28.8
54
57
10.8
51
55.2
LONGITUDE
degrees
Myrtle Beach
78
Shaw AFB
80
Spartanburg
81
SOUTH DAKOTA
Aberdeen
98
Brookings
96
Chamberlain
99
Custer
103
Ellsworth
103
Huron
98
Lemmon
102
Mitchell
98
Mobridge
100
Philip
101
Pierre
100
Rapid City
103
Redig
103
Sioux Falls
96
Watertown
97
Yankton
97
TENNESSEE
Bristol
82
Chattanooga
85
Clarksville
87
Crossville
85
Dyersburg
89
Jackson
88
Knoxville
83
Memphis Intl
90
Monteagle
85
Nashville
86
Smyrna
86
TEXAS
Abilene
99
Alice
98
Amarillo
101
Austin
97
Bergstrom Af
97
Big Sky
101
Big Spring
101
Brownsville
97
Brownwood
98
Carswell AFB
97
Chase NAS
97
Childress
100
College Stn
96
Corpus Chrst
97
Cotulla
99
Dalhart
102
Dallas/FW
97
Del Rio
100
Dyess AFB
99
El Paso
106
Ellington Af
95
Fort Worth
97
Ft Hood Aaf
97
Galveston
94
Gray AFB
97
Greenville
96
Guadalupe
104
Harlingen
97
Hondo
99
Houston
95
Junction
99
Kelly AFB
98
Kerrville
99
Killeen
97
Kingsville
97
Laredo Intl
99
Laughlin AFB
100
Longview
94
Lubbock
101
Lufkin
94
Marfa
104
Mcallen
98
Midland
102
Mineral Wlls
98
Palacios
96
Paris/Cox
95
Plainview
101
Port Arthur
94
Reese AFB
102
Rockport
97
58
min
55.8
28.2
57.6
LATITUDE
degrees
33
33
34
min
40.8
58.2
55.2
25.8
4.8
19.2
3.6
0.6
13.2
10.2
1.8
25.8
3.6
16.8
4.2
19.2
43.8
9
22.8
45
44
43
43
44
44
45
43
45
44
44
44
45
43
44
42
27
18
48
46.2
9
22.8
55.8
46.2
31.8
3
22.8
3
9.6
34.8
55.2
55.2
2.4
1.2
25.2
4.8
2.4
55.2
58.8
0
30.6
40.8
3
36
35
36
35
36
35
35
35
35
36
36
28.8
1.8
37.2
57
1.2
36
49.2
3
9
7.2
0
40.8
1.8
4.2
4.2
40.8
28.8
27
25.8
57.6
25.8
40.2
16.8
22.2
3
13.2
33
1.8
55.2
51
2.4
10.2
21
43.2
52.2
49.8
4.2
4.8
40.2
10.2
21
46.2
34.8
4.8
40.8
49.2
28.2
46.8
43.2
49.2
45
1.2
13.8
10.8
4.2
15
27
42.6
1.2
3
1.8
32
27
35
30
30
32
32
25
31
32
28
34
30
27
28
36
32
29
32
31
29
32
31
29
31
33
31
26
29
29
30
29
29
31
27
27
29
32
33
31
30
26
31
32
28
33
34
30
33
28
25.2
43.8
13.8
18
12
23.4
18
54
47.4
46.8
22.2
25.8
34.8
46.2
27
1.2
54
22.2
25.8
48
37.2
49.2
9
16.2
4.2
4.2
49.8
13.8
21
58.2
30
22.8
58.8
4.8
30
31.8
22.2
22.8
39
13.8
22.2
10.8
57
46.8
43.2
37.8
10.2
34.8
36
4.8
LONGITUDE
degrees
San Angelo
100
San Antonio
98
Sanderson
102
South Brazos
95
Stephenville
98
Temple
97
Tyler/Pounds
95
Victoria
96
Wichita Flls
98
Wink
103
UTAH
Blanding
109
Bullfrog Mar
110
Cedar City
113
Delta
112
Eagle Range
113
Green River
110
Hanksville
110
Hill AFB
111
Logan
111
Milford
113
Moab
109
Ogden
112
Price/Carbon
110
Provo
111
Roosevelt
110
Saint George
113
Salt Lake Ct
111
Tooele
112
Vernal
109
Wendover
114
VERMONT
Burlington
73
Montpelier
72
Newport
72
Rutland
73
St Johnsbury
72
Wilmington
72
VIRGINIA
Charlottes
78
Chesapeake
76
Danville
79
Fort Belvoir
77
Fort Eustis
76
Hot Springs
79
Langley AFB
76
Lynchburg
79
Newport
76
News
Norfolk NAS
76
Norfolk Rgnl
76
Oceana NAS
76
Quantico Mca
77
Richmond
77
Roanoke
79
Muni
Staunton
78
Volens
78
Wallops Sta
75
WASHINGTON
Bellingham
122
Bremerton
122
Burlington
122
Colville
118
Ephrata
119
Everet/Paine
122
Fairchild
117
Fort Lewis
122
Hanford
119
Hoquiam
123
Mcchord AFB
122
Moses Lake
119
Oak Harbor
122
Olympia
122
Omak
119
Pasco
119
Port Angeles
123
Pullman
117
Quillayute
124
Renton
122
Seattle
122
Shelton
123
Spokane
117
Tacoma
122
Toledo
122
min
3
28.2
25.2
52.2
10.8
25.2
2.4
55.2
3
1.2
LATITUDE
degrees
31
29
30
28
32
31
32
28
33
31
min
22.2
31.8
10.2
1.8
13.2
9
22.2
51
58.8
46.8
46.8
4.2
0.6
34.8
4.2
9
43.2
58.2
51
1.8
45
1.2
45
43.2
37.8
3.6
58.2
1.2
31.2
3
38
37
37
39
41
39
38
41
41
38
38
41
39
40
40
37
40
40
40
41
1.8
30
42
19.8
3
0
22.2
7.2
46.8
43.2
46.2
10.8
37.2
13.2
30
4.8
46.8
10.2
27
13.2
9
34.2
19.8
57
1.2
52.8
44
44
45
43
44
42
28.2
12
33
31.8
25.2
52.8
27
1.2
19.8
10.8
37.2
49.2
22.2
1.2
3
38
37
36
38
37
37
37
37
37
7.8
30
34.2
43.2
7.8
57
4.8
19.8
7.8
16.8
1.2
1.8
1.8
19.8
58.2
36
36
36
38
37
37
55.8
54
49.2
30
30
19.2
51
58.8
28.8
38
36
37
16.2
57
51
31.8
46.2
19.8
28.2
31.2
16.8
39
34.8
3.6
58.2
28.8
19.2
40.8
5.4
31.8
7.2
3
7.2
33
13.2
1.8
9
31.8
34.8
4.8
48
47
48
48
47
47
47
47
46
46
47
47
48
46
48
46
48
46
47
47
47
47
47
47
46
48
28.8
30
52.8
19.2
55.2
37.2
4.8
34.2
58.2
9
12
15
58.2
25.2
16.2
7.2
45
57
30
27
15
37.8
16.2
28.8
LONGITUDE
LATITUDE
degrees
min degrees
Walla Walla
118
16.8
46
Wenatchee
120
1.2
47
Whidbey Is
122
39
48
Yakima
120
31.8
46
WEST VIRGINIA
Beckley
81
7.2
37
Bluefield
81
13.2
37
Charleston
81
3.6
38
Clarksburg
80
13.8
39
Elkins
79
51
38
Huntington
82
33
38
Lewisburg
80
2.4
37
Martinsburg
77
58.8
39
Morgantown
79
55.2
39
Parkersburg
81
25.8
39
Wheeling
80
39
40
Wh Sulphur
80
1.2
37
LONGITUDE
degrees
min
min
6
24
21
34.2
WISCONSIN
Appleton
Eau Claire
Green Bay
Janesville
La Crosse
Lone Rock
Madison
Manitowac
Milwaukee
Mosinee
Neenah
Oshkosh
Rhinelander
Rice Lake
Volk Fld
Wausau
46.8
18
22.2
16.8
52.8
22.2
52.2
24
39
21
10.8
27.6
88
91
88
89
91
90
89
87
87
89
88
88
89
91
90
89
31.2
28.8
7.8
1.8
15
10.8
19.8
40.2
5.4
40.2
31.8
34.2
27
43.2
16.2
37.2
LATITUDE
degrees
44
44
44
42
43
43
43
44
42
44
44
44
45
45
43
44
LONGITUDE
degrees
min
min
15
52.2
28.8
37.2
52.2
12
7.8
7.8
57
46.8
13.2
0
37.8
28.8
55.8
55.2
WYOMING
Big Piney
Casper
Cheyenne
Cody
Douglas
Evanston
Gillette
Jackson
Lander
Laramie
Moorcroft
Rawlins
Riverton
Rock Springs
Sheridan
Worland
Yellowstone
110
106
104
109
105
111
105
110
108
105
104
107
108
109
106
107
110
LATITUDE
degrees
0.6
28.2
49.2
1.2
22.8
0
31.8
43.8
43.8
40.8
48.6
1.2
27
4.2
58.2
58.2
25.2
CANADA
CITY
Calgary
Churchill
Coppermine
Edmonton
Frederickton
Ft Mcpherson
Goose Bay
Halifax
Hazelton
Kenora
Labrador City
Montreal
Mt. Logan
Nakina
Ottawa
Peace River
Pr. Edward Isl
Quebec
Regina
Saskatoon
St. Johns
Toronto
Vancouver
Victoria
Whitehorse
Winnipeg
PROVINCE
Alberta
Newfoundland
Northwest Terr.
Alberta
New Brunswick
Northwest Terr
Newfoundland
Nova Scotia
BC
Ontario
Labrador
Quebec
Yukon
Yukon
Ontario
Alberta
Nova Scotia
Quebec
Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Newfoundland
Ontario
BC
BC
Yukon
Manitoba
LONGITUDE
114
7
94
0
115
21
113
25
66
40
134
50
60
20
63
34
127
38
94
29
66
52
73
39
140
24
132
48
75
45
117
18
63
9
71
15
104
38
101
32
52
43
79
23
123
7
123
20
135
3
97
9
LATITUDE
51
14
58
45
67
49
53
34
45
57
67
29
53
15
44
39
55
15
49
47
52
56
45
32
60
34
59
12
45
18
56
15
46
14
46
50
50
30
52
10
47
34
43
39
49
16
48
26
60
43
49
53
CITY
Glasgow
Guatemala City
Guayaquil
Hamburg
Hammerfest
Havana
Helsinki
Hobart
Iquique
Irkutsk
Jakarta
Johannesburg
Kingston
La Paz
Leeds
Lima
Liverpool
London
Lyons
Madrid
Manchester
Manila
Marseilles
Mazatlán
Mecca
Melbourne
Mexico City
Milan
Montevideo
Moscow
Munich
Nagasaki
Nagoya
Nairobi
Nanjing
Naples
Newcastle
Odessa
Osaka
Oslo
Panama City
Paramaribo
Paris
Beijing
Perth
Plymouth
Rio de Janeiro
Rome
Salvador
Santiago
St. Petersburg
Sao Paulo
Shanghai
Sofia
Stockholm
Sydney
Tananarive
Teheran
Tokyo
Tripoli
Venice
Veracruz
Vienna
Warsaw
Wellington
Zürich
INTERNATIONAL
Aberdeen
Adelaide
Amsterdam
Ankara
Asunción
Athens
Auckland
Bangkok
Barcelona
Belém
Belfast
Belgrade
Berlin
Birmingham
Bombay
Bordeaux
Bremen
Brisbane
Bristol
Brussels
Bucharest
Budapest
Buenos Aires
Cairo
Canton
Cape Town
Caracas
Chihuahua
Chongqing
Copenhagen
Córdoba
Darwin
Dublin
Durban
Edinburgh
Frankfurt
Georgetown
Scotland
Australia
Holland
Turkey
Paraguay
Greece
New Zealand
Thailand
Spain
Brazil
Northern Ireland
Yugoslavia
Germany
England
India
France
Germany
Australia
England
Belgium
Romania
Hungary
Argentina
Egypt
China
South Africa
Venezuela
Mexico
China
Denmark
Argentina
Australia
Ireland
South Africa
Scotland
Germany
Guyana
2
138
4
32
57
23
174
100
2
48
5
20
13
1
72
0
8
153
2
4
26
19
58
31
113
18
67
106
106
12
64
130
6
30
3
8
58
9w
36 e
53 e
55 e
40 w
43 e
45 e
30 e
9e
29 w
56 w
32 e
25 e
55 w
48 e
31 w
49 e
8e
35 w
22 e
7e
5e
22 w
21 e
15 e
22 e
2w
5w
34 e
34 e
10 w
51 e
15 w
53 e
10 w
41 e
15 w
57
34
52
39
25
37
36
13
41
1
54
44
52
52
19
44
53
27
51
50
44
47
34
30
23
33
10
28
29
55
31
12
53
29
55
50
6
9n
55 s
22 n
55 n
15 s
58 n
52 s
45 n
23 n
28 s
37 n
52 n
30 n
25 n
0n
50 n
5n
29 s
28 n
52 n
25 n
30 n
35 s
2n
7n
55 s
28 n
37 n
46 n
40 n
28 s
28 s
20 n
53 s
55 n
7n
45 n
59
COUNTRY
Scotland
Guatemala
Ecuador
Germany
Norway
Cuba
Finland
Tasmania
Chile
Russia
Indonesia
South Africa
Jamaica
Bolivia
England
Peru
England
England
France
Spain
England
Phillipines
France
Mexico
Saudi Arabia
Australia
Mexico
Italy
Uruguay
Russia
Germany
Japan
Japan
Kenya
China
Italy
England
Ukraine
Japan
Norway
Panama
Surinam
France
China
Australia
England
Brazil
Italy
Brazil
Chile
Russia
Brazil
China
Bulgaria
Sweden
Australia
Madagascar
Iran
Japan
Libya
Italy
Mexico
Austria
Poland
New Zealand
Switzerland
LONGITUDE
4
15 w
90
31 w
79
56 w
10
2e
23
38 e
82
23 w
25
0e
147
19 e
70
7w
104
20 e
106
48 e
28
4e
76
49 w
68
22 w
1
30 w
77
2w
3
0w
0
5w
4
50 e
3
42 w
2
15 w
120
57 e
5
20 e
106
25 w
39
45 e
144
58 e
99
7w
9
10 e
56
10 w
37
36 e
11
35 e
129
57 e
136
56 e
36
55 e
118
53 e
14
15 e
1
37 w
30
48 e
135
30 e
10
42 e
79
32 w
55
15 w
2
20 e
116
25 e
115
52 e
4
5w
43
12 w
12
27 e
38
27 w
70
45 w
30
18 e
46
31 w
121
28 e
23
20 e
18
3e
151
0e
47
33 e
51
45 e
139
45 e
13
12 e
12
20 e
96
10 w
16
20 e
21
0e
174
47 e
8
31 e
LATITUDE
55
50 n
14
37 n
2
10 s
53
33 n
70
38 n
23
8n
60
10 n
42
52 s
20
10 s
52
30 n
6
16 s
26
12 s
17
59 n
16
27 s
53
45 n
12
0s
53
25 n
51
32 n
45
45 n
40
26 n
53
30 n
14
35 n
43
20 n
23
12 n
21
29 n
37
47 s
19
26 n
45
27 n
34
53 s
55
45 n
48
8n
32
48 n
35
7n
1
25 s
32
3n
40
50 n
54
58 n
46
27 n
34
32 n
59
57 n
8
58 n
5
45 n
48
48 n
39
55 n
31
57 s
50
25 n
22
57 s
41
54 n
12
56 s
33
28 s
59
56 n
23
31 s
31
10 n
42
40 n
59
17 n
34
0s
18
50 s
35
45 n
35
40 n
32
57 n
45
26 n
19
10 n
48
14 n
52
14 n
41
17 s
47
21 n
42
42
41
44
42
41
44
43
42
41
44
41
43
41
44
43
44
min
34.2
55.2
9
31.2
45
19.8
21
36
49.2
19.2
21
48
3
36
46.2
58.2
33
Appendix D - RS-232 Connection
You can control your NexStar telescope with a computer via the RS-232 port on the hand control and using an optional
RS-232 cable (see Optional Accessories section of manual). Once connected, the NexStar can be controlled using
popular astronomy software programs.
Communication Protocol:
NexStar GPS communicates at 9600 bits/sec, No parity and a stop bit. All angles are communicated with 16 bit angle
and communicated using ASCII hexadecimal.
Description
PC Command
ASCII
Hand
Control
Response
Notes
Echo
Goto Azm/Alt
Kx
B12AB, 4000
X#
#
Goto Ra/Dec
R34AB,
12CE
#
Get Azm/Alt
Z
Get RA/Dec
E
Set Azm-Alt
S12AB, 4000
12AB,
4000#
34AB,
12CE#
#
Useful to check communication
10 characters sent. B=Command,
12AB=Azm, comma, 4000=Alt.
If command conflicts with slew
limits, there will be no action.
Scope must be aligned. If
command conflicts with slew
limits, there will be no action.
10 characters returned,
12AB=Azm, comma, 4000=Alt, #
Scope must be aligned
Cancel Goto
Is Goto in Progress
M
L
#
0# or 1#
Is Alignment Complete
J
0# or 1#
10 characters sent. S=Command,
12AB=Azm, comma, 4000=Alt
0=No, 1=Yes; "0" is ASCII
character zero
0=No, 1=Yes
The cable required to interface to the telescope has an RS-232 male plug at one end and a 4-4 telephone jack at the
other end. The wiring is as follows:
60
APPENDIX E – MAPS OF TIME ZONES
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
Observational Data Sheet
Yearly Meteor Showers
Shower
Quadrantids
Lyrids
pi-Puppids
eta-Aquarids
June Bootids
July Phoenicids
Southern delta-Aquarids
Perseids
alpha-Aurigids
Draconids
Orionids
Leonids
alpha-Monocerotids
Phoenicids
Puppid-Velids
Geminids
Ursids
Date
Jan 01-Jan 05
Apr 16-Apr 25
Apr 15-Apr 28
Apr 19-May 28
Jun 26-Jul 02
Jul 10-Jul 16
Jul 12-Aug 19
Jul 17-Aug 24
Aug 25-Sep 05
Oct 06-Oct 10
Oct 02-Nov 07
Nov 14-Nov 21
Nov 15-Nov 25
Nov 28-Dec 09
Dec 01-Dec 15
Dec 07-Dec 17
Dec 17-Dec 26
Peak
4-Jan
21-Apr
23-Apr
5-May
27-Jun
13-Jul
27-Jul
12-Aug
31-Aug
8-Oct
21-Oct
17-Nov
21-Nov
6-Dec
7-Dec
13-Dec
22-Dec
Hourly Rate
60-200
15
Var.
60
Var.
Var.
20
120-160
10
Var*.
20
100*
Var.
Var.
10
120
10
* These meteor showers have the potential of becoming meteor storms with displays of thousands of meteors per hour.
Solar Eclipses in North America plus Total Eclipses Around the World
Date
2001 Dec 14
2001 Jun 21
2002 Dec 04
2002 Jun 10
2003 May 31
2003 Nov 23
2005 Apr 08
2006 Mar 29
2008 Aug 01
2009 Jul 22
2010 Jul 11
2012 May 20
2012 Nov 13
2013 May 10
2014 Oct 23
2015 Mar 20
2016 Mar 09
2017 Aug 21
2019 Jul 02
2020 Dec 14
Eclipse Type
Annular
Total
Total
Annular
Annular
Total
Partial
Total
Total
Total
Total
Annular
Total
Annular
Partial
Total
Partial
Total
Total
Total
Duration
Location
03m53s
04m57s
02m04s
00m23s
03m37s
01m57s
00m42s
04m07s
02m27s
06m39s
05m20s
05m46s
04m02s
06m03s
02m47s
04m09s
02m40s
04m33s
02m10s
North America, Hawaii
South Africa, Madagascar
S. Africa, Indonesia, Australia
West, Midwest, Hawaii, Alaska
Alaska
Australia, New Zealand, S. America
Florida, Southwest
Africa, Europe, Asia
Europe, Asia
Asia, Hawaii
South America
West, Hawaii, Alaska
Australia, S. America
Australia, N.Z.
West, Midwest, Alaska
Europe, N. Africa, Asia
Hawaii, Alaska
Across the U.S.!
S. America
S. America
69
CELESTRON ONE YEAR WARRANTY
A.
Celestron International (CI) warrants this telescope to be free from defects in materials and workmanship for one year. CI will
repair or replace such product or part thereof which, upon inspection by CI, is found to be defective in materials or
workmanship. As a condition to the obligation of CI to repair or replace such product, the product must be returned to CI
together with proof-of-purchase satisfactory to CI.
B.
The Proper Return Authorization Number must be obtained from CI in advance of return. Call Celestron at (310) 328-9560 to
receive the number to be displayed on the outside of your shipping container.
All returns must be accompanied by a written statement setting forth the name, address, and daytime telephone number of the
owner, together with a brief description of any claimed defects. Parts or product for which replacement is made shall become
the property of CI.
The customer shall be responsible for all costs of transportation and insurance, both to and from the factory of CI, and
shall be required to prepay such costs.
CI shall use reasonable efforts to repair or replace any telescope covered by this warranty within thirty days of receipt. In the
event repair or replacement shall require more than thirty days, CI shall notify the customer accordingly. CI reserves the right to
replace any product which has been discontinued from its product line with a new product of comparable value and function.
This warranty shall be void and of no force of effect in the event a covered product has been modified in design or
function, or subjected to abuse, misuse, mishandling or unauthorized repair. Further, product malfunction or
deterioration due to normal wear is not covered by this warranty.
CI DISCLAIMS ANY WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WHETHER OF MERCHANTABILITY OF FITNESS FOR
A PARTICULAR USE, EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY SET FORTH HEREIN.
THE SOLE OBLIGATION OF CI UNDER THIS LIMITED WARRANTY SHALL BE TO REPAIR OR REPLACE THE
COVERED PRODUCT, IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE TERMS SET FORTH HEREIN. CI EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS
ANY LOST PROFITS, GENERAL, SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHICH MAY RESULT
FROM BREACH OF ANY WARRANTY, OR ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE ANY CI PRODUCT.
ANY WARRANTIES WHICH ARE IMPLIED AND WHICH CANNOT BE DISCLAIMED SHALL BE LIMITED IN
DURATION TO A TERM OF ONE YEAR FROM THE DATE OF ORIGINAL RETAIL PURCHASE.
Some states do not allow the exclusion or limitation of incidental or consequential damages or limitation on how long an implied
warranty lasts, so the above limitations and exclusions may not apply to you.
This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights which vary from state to state.
CI reserves the right to modify or discontinue, without prior notice to you, any model or style telescope.
If warranty problems arise, or if you need assistance in using your telescope contact:
Celestron International
Customer Service Department
2835 Columbia Street
Torrance, CA 90503
Tel. (310) 328-9560
Fax. (310) 212-5835
Monday-Friday 8AM-4PM PST
This warranty supersedes all other product warranties.
NOTE:
This warranty is valid to U.S.A. and Canadian customers who have purchased this product from an Authorized
CI Dealer in the U.S.A. or Canada. Warranty outside the U.S.A. and Canada is valid only to customers who
purchased from a CI International Distributor or Authorized CI Dealer in the specific country and please contact
them for any warranty service.
70
Celestron International
2835 Columbia Street
Torrance, CA 90503
Tel. (310) 328-9560
Fax. (310) 212-5835
Web site at http//www.celestron.com
Copyright 2001 Celestron International
All rights reserved.
(Products or instructions may change
without notice or obligation.)
Item # 11052-INST
$10.00
10-01