Oracle Database Installation Guide 10g Release 2

Oracle® Database
Installation and Administration Guide
10g Release 2 (10.2) for Fujitsu Siemens BS2000/OSD
E10319-01
August 2007
Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide, 10g Release 2 (10.2) for Fujitsu Siemens BS2000/OSD
E10319-01
Copyright © 2007, Oracle. All rights reserved.
Primary Author: Anish Mathai
Contributing Author: Janelle Simmons
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Contents
Preface ............................................................................................................................................................... xiii
Audience.....................................................................................................................................................
Using Oracle Database Documentation .................................................................................................
Documentation Accessibility ...................................................................................................................
Related Documents ...................................................................................................................................
Conventions Used in this Manual...........................................................................................................
1
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xiii
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xv
Release Notes
Oracle Database Editions for BS2000/OSD .........................................................................................
Hardware Requirements.........................................................................................................................
CPU ......................................................................................................................................................
Memory ...............................................................................................................................................
Terminal...............................................................................................................................................
Disk Space ...........................................................................................................................................
Database Space ...................................................................................................................................
Software Requirements...........................................................................................................................
Operating System...............................................................................................................................
Communication System ....................................................................................................................
Language Compilers and Run-Time Environment for Oracle Applications ............................
openUTM Software .............................................................................................................................
Other Software....................................................................................................................................
Address Space Limit ................................................................................................................................
Features Supported ..................................................................................................................................
Features not Supported ...........................................................................................................................
Known Restrictions, Problems, and Workarounds ...........................................................................
General Notes .....................................................................................................................................
Oracle Spatial Data Option ...............................................................................................................
Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)............................................................................
Native Compilation of PL/SQL and Java.......................................................................................
ALTER DATABASE … RESIZE .......................................................................................................
IEEE Standard Floating Point Number Restrictions .....................................................................
Datatypes FLOAT and DOUBLE of SQL*Loader and External Tables......................................
Oracle Scheduler ................................................................................................................................
Oracle JDBC OCI Drivers..................................................................................................................
XML Database (XML DB) .................................................................................................................
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v
Oracle XML Developers Kit (XDK) .................................................................................................
BS2000/OSD file types of spool files ..............................................................................................
INIT.ORA parameters .......................................................................................................................
Archiving to Tape ..............................................................................................................................
SQL*Loader.........................................................................................................................................
Import and Export .............................................................................................................................
Datapump Import and Datapump Export .....................................................................................
Globalization Support .......................................................................................................................
Oracle Call Interface ..........................................................................................................................
SQL*Plus..............................................................................................................................................
Oracle Net Services ............................................................................................................................
Oracle Net BEQ Protocol...................................................................................................................
Oracle Protocol Support for TCP/IP ...............................................................................................
POSIX Subsystem ...............................................................................................................................
Incompatibilities ......................................................................................................................................
New Common Pool for Applications..............................................................................................
Subsystem POSIX Required..............................................................................................................
ALTER DATABASE … RESIZE .......................................................................................................
Datatypes FLOAT and DOUBLE of SQL*Loader and External Tables......................................
Default value of STATISTICS_LEVEL ..........................................................................................
Obsolete ORAENV Variables ...........................................................................................................
2
Architecture and Implementation
Basic Structures.........................................................................................................................................
Database Files and Log Files.............................................................................................................
Other Oracle Database Files .............................................................................................................
Initialization File .........................................................................................................................
Server Parameter File .................................................................................................................
ORAENV File ..............................................................................................................................
Control Files.................................................................................................................................
Message Files ...............................................................................................................................
Oracle-Managed Files ........................................................................................................................
Bigfile Tablespaces .............................................................................................................................
Two-Task Mode........................................................................................................................................
Address Space Planning .........................................................................................................................
Oracle Database Data Area Placement............................................................................................
Oracle Database Environment Definition File...................................................................................
Generating ORAENV ........................................................................................................................
ORAENV VARIABLES......................................................................................................................
Running ORAENV.............................................................................................................................
The ORALOAD Library..........................................................................................................................
The ORAMESG library...........................................................................................................................
User ID Requirements.............................................................................................................................
Installation User ID (ORAUID)........................................................................................................
Authorizations and File Access Rights ....................................................................................
Default Name .............................................................................................................................
DBA User ID .......................................................................................................................................
vi
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Authorizations and File Access Rights ....................................................................................
Default Name ..............................................................................................................................
User IDs for Oracle users ..................................................................................................................
Authorizations and File Access Rights ....................................................................................
3
2-7
2-8
2-8
2-8
Installing Oracle Database Software
Overview of Oracle Database Installation .......................................................................................... 3-1
Installing the Oracle Database Software ............................................................................................. 3-1
Installing Multiple Oracle Systems...................................................................................................... 3-2
4
Creating and Upgrading a Database
Creating a Database ................................................................................................................................. 4-1
Pre-Creation Activities ...................................................................................................................... 4-1
Creating a Database Automatically................................................................................................. 4-2
Creating a Database Manually ......................................................................................................... 4-4
Copying the DBA Procedures ................................................................................................... 4-4
Creating the Database ................................................................................................................ 4-5
Pre-Allocating the Files ....................................................................................................... 4-5
Modifying the Initialization File........................................................................................ 4-5
Modifying the ORAENV File............................................................................................. 4-6
Using SQL*Plus to Create the Database ........................................................................... 4-6
Installing Data Dictionary Views.............................................................................................. 4-6
Installing Data Dictionary Views for PL/SQL ....................................................................... 4-7
Installing Online HELP Messages ............................................................................................ 4-7
Installing the SQL*Plus Demonstration Database ................................................................. 4-7
Installing the Sample Schemas.................................................................................................. 4-7
Verifying Successful Creation of the Database....................................................................... 4-7
Installing Oracle Text ................................................................................................................. 4-8
Installing Java .............................................................................................................................. 4-8
Upgrading a Database ............................................................................................................................. 4-8
Upgrade from Version 8.................................................................................................................... 4-8
Upgrade from Version 9.................................................................................................................... 4-8
Post-Upgrade activities .................................................................................................................. 4-10
5
Administering Oracle Database
Using the SQL*Plus Utility ....................................................................................................................
Invoking the SQL*Plus Utility..........................................................................................................
Calling SQL*Plus from a Procedure ................................................................................................
Running BS2000 Commands from SQL*Plus.................................................................................
Startup and Parameter Files ...................................................................................................................
The Environment Definition File ORAENV...................................................................................
The Initialization File INIT.ORA .....................................................................................................
The Server Parameter File SPFILE ...................................................................................................
Using the Correct Initialization File ................................................................................................
Remote Startup of a Database Instance ...............................................................................................
Checking the Integrity of the Physical Data Structure .....................................................................
5-1
5-1
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5-2
5-2
5-2
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5-3
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5-4
vii
Customizing SQL*Plus Profiles ............................................................................................................ 5-4
6
Backing Up and Recovering a Database
Backing Up an Oracle database .............................................................................................................
Using BS2000 Utilities to Back Up an Oracle Database ................................................................
Online Backup ....................................................................................................................................
Recovering Databases..............................................................................................................................
Restoring from Backups ....................................................................................................................
Recovery Manager....................................................................................................................................
7
6-1
6-1
6-2
6-2
6-3
6-3
Tuning the Oracle Database
BS2000/OSD-Specific Parameters ......................................................................................................... 7-1
Task Priority........................................................................................................................................ 7-1
8
openUTM Product Set
Operation of Oracle Database Using openUTM Programs .............................................................. 8-1
Distributed openUTM Files.................................................................................................................... 8-1
Installing .................................................................................................................................................... 8-2
Developing an Oracle Database/openUTM Application.................................................................. 8-2
Defining an Open String ................................................................................................................... 8-4
Required Fields............................................................................................................................ 8-5
Optional Fields ............................................................................................................................ 8-5
Examples ...................................................................................................................................... 8-6
Using Precompilers with openUTM................................................................................................. 8-7
Using Pro*C with the Default Database .................................................................................. 8-7
Using Pro*C with a Named Database ..................................................................................... 8-7
Troubleshooting ....................................................................................................................................... 8-9
Trace Files............................................................................................................................................ 8-9
Trace File Examples .................................................................................................................... 8-9
Debugging........................................................................................................................................... 8-9
In-Doubt or Pending Transactions .................................................................................................. 8-9
Oracle Database SYS Account Tables........................................................................................... 8-10
Upgrading an existing Oracle Database / openUTM application from Oracle9i ...................... 8-11
9
Oracle Net Services
Introducing Oracle Net Services ...........................................................................................................
What's New in Oracle Net Services? ...............................................................................................
IPC Protocol Support .........................................................................................................................
Overview of IPC..........................................................................................................................
Using the IPC Protocol ...............................................................................................................
TCP/IP Protocol Support..................................................................................................................
Overview of TCP/IP ..................................................................................................................
Using the TCP/IP Protocol ...............................................................................................................
Bequeath Protocol ..............................................................................................................................
Overview of the Bequeath Protocol ........................................................................................
Shared Server Architecture.....................................................................................................................
viii
9-1
9-1
9-2
9-2
9-2
9-2
9-2
9-3
9-3
9-3
9-4
Oracle Advanced Security ......................................................................................................................
Configuring the Network .......................................................................................................................
Using the Local Naming Method ....................................................................................................
Using the Directory Naming Method .............................................................................................
Configuration on the Server .............................................................................................................
Configuration on the Client..............................................................................................................
Testing the Configuration on the Client .........................................................................................
Troubleshooting Oracle Net Services ..................................................................................................
10
9-5
9-6
9-6
9-7
9-7
9-8
9-8
9-9
Oracle Text
Installing Oracle Text ........................................................................................................................... 10-1
Starting Oracle Text utilities ............................................................................................................... 10-1
Restrictions of Oracle Text on BS2000/OSD .................................................................................... 10-2
11
External Procedures
Loading External Procedures .............................................................................................................. 11-1
12
Java in the Database
Installation of a Java Enabled Database ...........................................................................................
Database character sets and Java Encodings....................................................................................
Loadjava ..................................................................................................................................................
Java Demonstration Files .....................................................................................................................
Restrictions .............................................................................................................................................
13
12-1
12-2
12-3
12-3
12-3
XML
Installation of Xdk ................................................................................................................................ 13-1
Features and Restrictions..................................................................................................................... 13-1
Database XML support (Oracle XML DB)........................................................................................ 13-2
14
Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)
BS2000 prerequisites for Oracle RAC................................................................................................
Installation of Oracle RAC ..................................................................................................................
Creation and Configuration of a Database.......................................................................................
Placement of Files ...........................................................................................................................
Options in the CREATE DATABASE Statement........................................................................
Additional Threads of Redo Log Files .........................................................................................
Additional Undo Tablespaces ......................................................................................................
Oracle RAC- related views ............................................................................................................
Initialization Parameters ................................................................................................................
Creating Password Files.................................................................................................................
Configuring Oracle Net Services ..................................................................................................
Restrictions .............................................................................................................................................
14-1
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ix
15
Oracle Management Agent
Preinstallation Issues............................................................................................................................
Running the Installation Script ..........................................................................................................
Running the Agent................................................................................................................................
Restrictions .............................................................................................................................................
Troubleshooting ....................................................................................................................................
16
Oracle on SX Server
Concepts ..................................................................................................................................................
Definitions..............................................................................................................................................
Product Set..............................................................................................................................................
Hardware Requirements......................................................................................................................
Software Requirements........................................................................................................................
Address Space Limit .............................................................................................................................
Installing Oracle Database Software.................................................................................................
Database Creation .................................................................................................................................
Upgrade and Migration........................................................................................................................
Administration.......................................................................................................................................
Oracle application programs...............................................................................................................
openUTM Product Set...........................................................................................................................
A
Oracle Error Messages for BS2000/OSD
B
ORAENV Variables
ORAENV Rules .......................................................................................................................................
Built-in Variables ....................................................................................................................................
LOGNAME ........................................................................................................................................
ORAUID .............................................................................................................................................
PGM ....................................................................................................................................................
TERM ..................................................................................................................................................
TSN......................................................................................................................................................
General Variables....................................................................................................................................
CLN_BASE .........................................................................................................................................
CLN_MPID ........................................................................................................................................
DEFAULT_CONNECTION.............................................................................................................
EXP_CLIB_FILE_IO ..........................................................................................................................
IMP_CLIB_FILE_IO ..........................................................................................................................
IMP_USERID_IGNORE ...................................................................................................................
NLS_LANG........................................................................................................................................
OPS_JID ..............................................................................................................................................
ORADUMP .......................................................................................................................................
ORASID ..............................................................................................................................................
PRINTPAR .........................................................................................................................................
SQLPATH...........................................................................................................................................
SSSIDPWF ..........................................................................................................................................
DBA Startup Variables...........................................................................................................................
x
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Address and Size Specification .......................................................................................................
ALARM_TIMER_LIMIT ..................................................................................................................
BGJPAR...............................................................................................................................................
BGJPRC_UID / BGJPRC_SID..........................................................................................................
BGJ_LOG_JOBSTART ......................................................................................................................
sid_BGJPAR ........................................................................................................................................
sid_USER.............................................................................................................................................
user_ACCOUNT/ user_PASSWORD ............................................................................................
COM_MPID .......................................................................................................................................
COM_BASE........................................................................................................................................
ENABLE_RAC...................................................................................................................................
JOBID ..................................................................................................................................................
KNL_BASE ........................................................................................................................................
ORACLE_HOME .............................................................................................................................
PGA_BASE .......................................................................................................................................
PGA_SIZE .........................................................................................................................................
SF_PBLKSIZE ...................................................................................................................................
SGA_BASE .......................................................................................................................................
SGA_ROUND ...................................................................................................................................
Oracle Net Services Variables...............................................................................................................
BREAK_HANDLING .......................................................................................................................
TNS_ADMIN ..................................................................................................................................
TNS_BEQ_TIMEOUT ...................................................................................................................
TNS_UPDATE_IPNODE .............................................................................................................
C
Initialization Parameters and the Parameter File
Example Parameter File..........................................................................................................................
Unsupported Parameters .......................................................................................................................
Additional Notes on Initialization Parameters .................................................................................
BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST ....................................................................................................
USER_DUMP_DEST ........................................................................................................................
AUDIT_FILE_DEST ..........................................................................................................................
DB_BLOCK_SIZE..............................................................................................................................
DB_FILE_MULTIBLOCK_READ_COUNT...................................................................................
DB_FILES............................................................................................................................................
LOCK_SGA ........................................................................................................................................
SGA_MAX_SIZE ...............................................................................................................................
LOG_ARCHIVE_BUFFER_SIZE.....................................................................................................
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST ....................................................................................................................
D
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Troubleshooting
Problems Installing Oracle Database 10g...........................................................................................
Problems Creating a Database ........................................................................................................
Problems Starting a Database ...............................................................................................................
Problems Starting a Database..........................................................................................................
Problems with Tasks.........................................................................................................................
D-1
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Problems Accessing the Database........................................................................................................
Problems with Database and Log files...........................................................................................
Oracle Database 10g Trace Files ......................................................................................................
Trace File names ................................................................................................................................
Oracle Database-Level Error Information .....................................................................................
E
xii
File Types and Names Used by Oracle
D-2
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D-3
Preface
This manual, in conjunction with the Oracle Database User's Guide for Fujitsu Siemens
BS2000/OSD forms the system-specific component of a set of manuals which
document installation, maintenance, and use of the Oracle Database release 10.2 and
related products. This manual provides information for those responsible for installing
and administering Oracle Database 10g release 2 for BS2000/OSD and describes:
■
How Oracle Database 10g release 2 operates under BS2000/OSD
■
How you install or upgrade Oracle Database 10g release 2
■
How you create an Oracle Database 10g release 2
The Oracle Database User's Guide for Fujitsu Siemens BS2000/OSD, provides information
for BS2000/OSD end-users of Oracle products. You need to use the Oracle Database
User's Guide for Fujitsu Siemens BS2000/OSD for certain topics that are applicable both
to users and database administrators.
The preface contains the following topics:
■
Audience
■
Using Oracle Database Documentation
■
Documentation Accessibility
■
Related Documents
■
Conventions Used in this Manual
Audience
This manual is written for people who are responsible for installing and maintaining
the Oracle Database 10g release 2, and for assuring its smooth operation. These people
are usually system programmers who may have Database Administrator (DBA)
responsibilities.
The reader is assumed to have a fundamental knowledge of BS2000/OSD. No attempt
is made to document features of BS2000/OSD, except as they affect or are affected by
the Oracle Database 10g release 2.
Using Oracle Database Documentation
The Oracle Database products that run under BS2000/OSD are identical, in the way in
which they are supported, to the Oracle Database products that run under any other
operating system. However, because of the diversity of operating systems, the use of
xiii
applications may differ slightly between different operating systems. As a result of
this, Oracle provides two types of documentation:
Type
Meaning/Usage
Generic
This is the primary Oracle Database documentation, which describes
how the product works and how it is used. Use this type of
documentation to learn about product functions and how to use any
Oracle Database product or utility.
System Specific
This documentation provides the information required to use the
product under a specific operating system. Use this type of
documentation to determine whether there are any system-specific
deviations from the generic documentation.
This manual is written for users of Oracle Database 10g release 2 (10.2) for
BS2000/OSD, providing them with BS2000/OSD-specific information on using Oracle
Database products. It does not describe how to use a product unless its use is different
than that described in the generic documentation. System programmers and database
administrators responsible for installing the Oracle Database, or administering the
Oracle Database, or both, should read this manual as well as the Oracle Database User's
Guide for Fujitsu Siemens BS2000/OSD. There are places where the information in these
manuals overlap and is presented differently depending on the target audience.
Documentation Accessibility
Our goal is to make Oracle products, services, and supporting documentation
accessible, with good usability, to the disabled community. To that end, our
documentation includes features that make information available to users of assistive
technology. This documentation is available in HTML format, and contains markup to
facilitate access by the disabled community. Accessibility standards will continue to
evolve over time, and Oracle is actively engaged with other market-leading
technology vendors to address technical obstacles so that our documentation can be
accessible to all of our customers. For more information, visit the Oracle Accessibility
Program Web site at http://www.oracle.com/accessibility/.
Accessibility of Code Examples in Documentation
Screen readers may not always correctly read the code examples in this document. The
conventions for writing code require that closing braces should appear on an
otherwise empty line; however, some screen readers may not always read a line of text
that consists solely of a bracket or brace.
Accessibility of Links to External Web Sites in Documentation
This documentation may contain links to Web sites of other companies or
organizations that Oracle does not own or control. Oracle neither evaluates nor makes
any representations regarding the accessibility of these Web sites.
TTY Access to Oracle Support Services
Oracle provides dedicated Text Telephone (TTY) access to Oracle Support Services
within the United States of America 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. For TTY support,
call 800.446.2398. Outside the United States, call +1.407.458.2479.
Related Documents
For more information, refer to the following resources:
xiv
■
■
Fujitsu Siemens Computers documentation at
http://manuals.fujitsu-siemens.com/servers/bs2_man/man_us.htm
Oracle Database User's Guide for Fujitsu Siemens BS2000/OSD
Printed documentation is available for sale in the Oracle Store at
http://oraclestore.oracle.com/
To download free release notes, installation documentation, white papers, or other
collateral, please visit the Oracle Technology Network (OTN). You must register
online before using OTN; registration is free and can be done at
http://www.oracle.com/technology/membership/
If you already have a user name and password for OTN, then you can go directly to
the documentation section of the OTN Web site at
http://www.oracle.com/technology/documentation/
Conventions Used in this Manual
The following conventions are observed in this manual.
Typographic Conventions
The following text conventions are used in this manual:
Convention
Meaning
boldface
Boldface type indicates graphical user interface elements associated
with an action, or terms defined in text or the glossary.
italic
Italic type indicates book titles, emphasis, or placeholder variables for
which you supply particular values.
monospace
Monospace type indicates commands within a paragraph, URLs, code
in examples, text that appears on the screen, or text that you enter.
Command Syntax
Item
Syntax
Commands
This font identifies text which must be entered exactly as shown:
set echo off
Variables
Variables appear in italics. Substitute an appropriate value, for
example:
arg1
Required Items
Required items are enclosed in braces { }. You must choose one of the
alternatives.
DEFINE { macro1 | macro2 }
Optional Items
Optional items are enclosed in square brackets [].
[options] formname [userid/password]
Repetitive Items
An ellipsis, ... represents an arbitrary number of similar items.
CHKVAL fieldname value1 value2... valueN
xv
Punctuation
The following symbols should always be entered as they appear in the command
format:
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Name
Symbol
ampersand
&
backslash
\
colon
:
comma
,
double quotation
mark
"
equal sign
=
hyphen
-
number sign
#
parantheses
()
period
.
semi colon
;
single quotation
mark
'
1
1
Release Notes
This chapter describes the features of Oracle Database 10g release 2 on Fujitsu Siemens
BS2000/OSD. The following topics are covered in this chapter:
■
Oracle Database Editions for BS2000/OSD
■
Hardware Requirements
■
Software Requirements
■
Address Space Limit
■
Features Supported
■
Features not Supported
■
Known Restrictions, Problems, and Workarounds
■
Incompatibilities
Oracle Database Editions for BS2000/OSD
Oracle Database 10g release 2 is delivered in two editions for the two BS2000/OSD
hardware lines:
■
■
Oracle Database 10g release 2 (10.2.0.2.20) for Fujitsu Siemens BS2000/OSD is the
edition for the BS2000/OSD servers based on /390 architecture (S Server)
Oracle Database 10g release 2 (10.2.0.2.25) for Fujitsu Siemens BS2000/OSD (SX series)
is the edition for the BS2000/OSD servers based on SPARC64 architecture (SX
Server)
Depending on the type of hardware, you have to choose between these two editions.
This guide also contains all SPARC edition related information in Chapter 16, "Oracle
on SX Server". All other chapters do not refer to this distinction or are (in very small
parts) /390 related.
Hardware Requirements
This section describes the hardware requirements which must be satisfied before you
install Oracle Database 10g release 2.
CPU
Any CPU supported by BS2000/OSD V5.0, V6.0, or V7.0, with the XS31 HSI.
Release Notes
1-1
Software Requirements
Memory
Main memory must be at least 512 MB.
Terminal
9750-compatible.
Disk Space
Total static requirements for the Oracle Database software are approximately 700 000
PAM pages. Dynamic requirements (for example, SQL files, host language programs,
output spool files) depend on Oracle Database usage.
Database Space
Minimum database (DB) size is about 200 000 PAM pages, and the minimum log file
size is 10000 PAM pages. These values may be changed as part of the installation
process.
Software Requirements
This section describes the software requirements for running the Oracle Database.
Operating System
The following are the operating system requirements:
■
BS2000/OSD V5.0C as of correction package 2/2006
■
BS2000/OSD V6.0B
■
BS2000/OSD V7.0
Note:
The BS2000/OSD subsystem POSIX must have been started.
Communication System
One of the following communication systems is required:
■
openNet Server V3.1 as of correction package 2/2006
■
openNet Server V3.2
Language Compilers and Run-Time Environment for Oracle Applications
If high-level languages, such as C or COBOL, are used to interface with the Oracle
Database, then the following versions are supported:
■
COBOL85 Version V2.3
■
COBOL2000 V1.2 and higher
■
CPP V3.0 and higher
■
CRTE 2.5 as of correction package 2/2006; V2.6 and higher
1-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Features not Supported
openUTM Software
You need openUTM V5.3.
Other Software
The following products are used during the installation and execution of the Oracle
Database:
■
CRTE-BASYS (V1.5 and higher)
■
SDF
■
SDF-P
■
EDT
■
LMS
For transferring the Oracle Database 10g software to your BS2000/OSD server during
installation you need interNet Services ftp.
For Oracle Real Application Clusters you need the following:
■
HIPLEX MSCF V3.0 and higher
■
SM2 V14.0, openSM2 V6.0 and higher
Address Space Limit
A user's address space should not be less than 512 MB.
Features Supported
This release implements the features of Oracle Database 10g Release 2 Enterprise
Edition. These features are listed and described in the generic Oracle Documentation
and especially in the Oracle Database New Features Guide.
Oracle Database 10g release 2 on BS2000/OSD supports the following options:
■
Partitioning Option
■
Spatial Data Option
Features not Supported
The following features are not supported on Oracle Database 10g release 2 for Fujitsu
Siemens BS2000/OSD:
■
Oracle Universal Installer
■
Automatic Storage Management
■
Oracle RAC Data Guard
■
Oracle OLAP
■
Oracle Data Mining
■
Native Compilation of Java and PL/SQL
■
Cross Platform Transportable Tablespaces
■
Oracle Globalization Development Kit
Release Notes
1-3
Known Restrictions, Problems, and Workarounds
■
Oracle interMedia
■
Oracle Internet Directory
■
Oracle HTTP Server
■
Oracle HTML DB
■
Oracle Secure Backup
■
Oracle Workflow
■
Generic Connectivity (through ODBC)
■
Oracle Workspace Manager
■
OCCI
■
Oracle Instant Client
■
Oracle Ultra Search
■
Oracle Label Security
■
Oracle Java Server Pages
■
Oracle Heterogeneous Services
■
Oracle Messaging Gateway
Known Restrictions, Problems, and Workarounds
This section provides information about known restrictions and problems. It contains
workarounds where possible and suggestions for certain common usage problems. In
addition to this section, you should also refer to the Appendix D, "Troubleshooting". If
you encounter a problem which is not reported here, contact the Oracle Support
Services Representative for further assistance.
General Notes
The German characters ä, ö, ü and ß, cannot be used in the names of tables, columns,
fields, synonyms, and so on. This is because these characters are converted into
bracket symbols (for example, { ). The characters can, however, be stored as data.
Oracle Spatial Data Option
The SDO_GEORASTER feature is not supported.
Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)
Oracle Clusterware is not supported. Consequently, Oracle Clusterware utilities like
SRVCTL are not supported.
Oracle RAC on BS2000/OSD is based on the platform specific clusterware BS2000
HIPLEX MSCF.
Native Compilation of PL/SQL and Java
Native Compilation of PL/SQL and Java is not supported.
1-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Known Restrictions, Problems, and Workarounds
ALTER DATABASE … RESIZE
ALTER DATABASE ... RESIZE to make a database file smaller is not supported
anymore on BS2000. This operation has no effect on the corresponding BS2000 files.
Database files can be resized larger however, both manually (with ALTER) and
automatically as they fill (when a tablespace is defined with AUTOEXTEND).
IEEE Standard Floating Point Number Restrictions
The new BINARY FLOAT and BINARY DOUBLE data types are not supported for
customer-written database applications running on BS2000/OSD.
Attempts to store or fetch these types from an application program running on
BS2000/OSD will produce unpredictable results with both local and remote Oracle
databases.
Datatypes FLOAT and DOUBLE of SQL*Loader and External Tables
The binary data types FLOAT and DOUBLE of SQL*Loader are not supported on
BS2000/OSD. Using these data types with SQL*Loader and External Tables will
produce unpredictable results.
Use the external, non-binary data type FLOAT EXTERNAL instead.
Oracle Scheduler
External Jobs are not supported
Oracle JDBC OCI Drivers
Oracle JDBC OCI drivers are not supported.
XML Database (XML DB)
The following components are not supported:
■
WebDAV access
■
HTTP access
■
FTP access
Oracle XML Developers Kit (XDK)
Refer to the XML chapter in this guide.
BS2000/OSD file types of spool files
Oracle Database 10g release 2 can read SAM, ISAM, and PAM files and can create
ISAM and PAM files. If you want the Oracle Database to write to a SAM file, then you
need to preallocate the appropriate list or log file using the following BS2000 FILE
command:
FCBTYPE=SAM
INIT.ORA parameters
A few initialization parameters in the INIT.ORA file, described in the generic
documentation are not supported by Oracle Database 10g release 2 for BS2000/OSD.
Release Notes
1-5
Known Restrictions, Problems, and Workarounds
Refer to Appendix C, "Initialization Parameters and the Parameter File" for more
information.
Archiving to Tape
Archiving to tape is not supported; log archive files must always be created as disk
files. You may, however, use normal BS2000 backup procedures to back up the log
archive files created by the archive process.
SQL*Loader
Multithreading functionality of direct path loads is not supported on BS2000
Import and Export
This section provides information about known problems and restrictions when using
the Import and Export utilities.
■
■
Avoid ASCII/EBCDIC conversions being done by the operating system, ftp, or
PERCON. Import and Export perform their own conversions; additional
conversions will render the files unusable.
Import and Export on tapes are not possible to or from more than one tape.
Datapump Import and Datapump Export
This section provides information about known problems and restrictions when using
Datapump Import and Datapump Export:
■
■
Avoid ASCII/EBCDIC conversions being done by the operating system, ftp or
PERCON. Import and Export perform their own conversions; additional
conversions will render the files unusable.
Tapes are not supported with Datapump Export and Datapump Import.
Globalization Support
User-defined character sets implemented by means of Customizing Locale Data (as
described in the Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide) are not supported in this
release.
Oracle Call Interface
The following features are currently not supported:
■
OCI shared mode functionality
■
OCI publish-subscribe functions
■
OCI Thread package
SQL*Plus
The following remarks relate to SQL* Plus:
■
■
SQL*Plus truncates input lines that exceed 511 characters. A warning message is
displayed if the input lines exceed 511 characters.
If you use the SQL*Plus -s option, it must be the first option entered at the
prompt.
1-6 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Known Restrictions, Problems, and Workarounds
■
■
■
Only the EDT editor is supported in this release. SQL*Plus accepts whatever editor
you specify in the DEFINE_EDITOR command, but the editor is always EDT.
The internal message buffer is limited to 76 characters, therefore, certain messages
are truncated. This typically occurs if a message includes a second message. In
such cases you will usually still refer to the message number part of the second
message. For further information, refer to the manual relevant to the particular
message, either the Oracle Database Error Messages, or Appendix A, "Oracle Error
Messages for BS2000/OSD"of this guide.
If ECHO is set to ON and TAB is set to ON and you specify a spool file, the listing of
commands may be misaligned.
Oracle Net Services
The following remarks relate to Oracle Net Services:
■
■
When you specify a name for the listener in the LISTENER.ORA file, Oracle
recommends that the name is less than 20 characters long. If you use a listener
name with more than 20 characters, you must specify a log directory (trace
directory) and log file (trace file).
The listener can be started only if the POSIX subsystem is running.
Oracle Net BEQ Protocol
The support of the handoff/direct handoff technique makes the BEQ protocol
incompatible to the BEQ protocol of prior releases. For example, a 10g LISTENER
cannot start a server of a 9i instance.
Oracle Protocol Support for TCP/IP
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) divided port numbers into three
ranges:
■
Well Known Ports from 0 through 1023
■
Registered Ports from 1024 through 49151
■
Dynamic, or Private Ports, or both, from 49152 through 65535
The Fujitsu Siemens documentation for TCP/IP on BS2000 recommends setting the
privileged port to 2050. However, using a registered Oracle port number may cause
conflicts (see http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers). For
example, if you set the port number for the listener process to 1521, any Oracle
process, which should listen on such a registered port number, may fail with:
TNS-12545: Connect failed because target host or object does not exist
TNS-12560: TNS:protocol adapter error
TNS-00515: Connect failed because target host or object does not exist
BS2000 Error: 126: Can't assign requested address
BS2000 BCAM-RC: 40010020
The workaround is to use a non-privileged port, or to set the privileged port number
to a value less than 1500, usually to 1024.
Release Notes
1-7
Incompatibilities
POSIX Subsystem
As a consequence of Java in the Database and the Oracle Management Agent, Oracle
Database 10g on BS2000/OSD uses POSIX interfaces. For a non-POSIX user, this fact
should not be visible with the following exceptions:
■
You might get the following message:
CCM0090: ALL UFS TERMINAL DEVICES ARE IN USE OR PERMISSION DENIED
If the preceding message is displayed, you should ask the BS2000 administrator to
increase the number of UFS devices (parameter NOSTTY in
SYSSSI.POSIX-BC.version).
■
The termination of the POSIX subsystem will also terminate the Oracle instance.
Incompatibilities
This section describes known BS2000 specific incompatibilities with respect to Oracle9i
Server.
New Common Pool for Applications
Starting with Oracle Database 10g on BS2000, customer written applications use a
separate shared code pool for common services such as Core, Globalization Support,
and Net Services. The name of this new pool is "Client Common Pool". The placement
of this pool can be controlled by the new ORAENV variable CLN_BASE.
This variable replaces the variable COM_BASE for customer written applications. The
variable COM_BASE is now exclusively used for the server side common pool of the
Oracle instance.
Subsystem POSIX Required
For proper execution of Oracle Database 10g on BS2000 the BS2000/OSD subsystem
POSIX must be up and running.
ALTER DATABASE … RESIZE
ALTER DATABASE ... RESIZE to make a database file smaller is not supported
anymore on BS2000/OSD (compared to Oracle9i on BS2000/OSD). This operation has
no effect on the corresponding BS2000 files. However, database files can be resized to
larger sizes.
Datatypes FLOAT and DOUBLE of SQL*Loader and External Tables
The binary data types FLOAT and DOUBLE of SQL*Loader are not supported anymore
on BS2000/OSD (compared to Oracle9i on BS2000/OSD). Use the external, non-binary
data type FLOAT EXTERNAL instead.
Default value of STATISTICS_LEVEL
The default value of the init.ora paramater STATISTICS_LEVEL has been changed to
TYPICAL on BS2000/OSD. This is now the same default value as on the other Oracle
platforms. In Oracle9i on BS2000/OSD, the default value was BASIC.
1-8 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Incompatibilities
Obsolete ORAENV Variables
The following ORAENV variables are obsolete:
ALARM_TIMER_LIMIT
IMP_USERID_IGNORE
Release Notes
1-9
Incompatibilities
1-10 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
2
2
Architecture and Implementation
This chapter describes the basic structures of the Oracle Database system architecture,
as far as they are BS2000 specific. The chapter include the following topics:
■
Basic Structures
■
Two-Task Mode
■
Address Space Planning
■
Oracle Database Environment Definition File
■
The ORALOAD Library
■
The ORAMESG library
■
User ID Requirements
Basic Structures
The concepts of tasks (that is, processes in Oracle terminology) and memory structures
(areas) are not BS2000 specific.
Refer to the chapter ’Memory Structures and Processes’ in the Oracle Database Concepts
manual for detailed information.
Database Files and Log Files
One or more database files contain the data dictionary, the user data, and indexes.
The Oracle Database requires a minimum of two log files, which need not be the same
size, although on BS2000/OSD, the recommended minimum is 10000 PAM blocks.
Note that the size of a log file is set in BS2000 blocks and not Oracle Database blocks.
Both the BS2000/OSD operating system and the Oracle
Database perform input and output efficiently in units called blocks.
A block is simply the basic unit of data storage. An Oracle Database
block can be in one of the following formats:
Note:
■
2K, 4K, 6K, 8K, 16K, 32K when using BS2000 2K pubset format
■
4K, 8K, 16K, 32K when using BS2000 4K pubset format
Oracle Database and redo log files are BS2000 PAM files, and Oracle
Database uses UPAM to access them.
Architecture and Implementation
2-1
Basic Structures
Other Oracle Database Files
The following are the additional Oracle Database files:
Initialization File
The initialization file, INIT.ORA, contains a set of parameters which are read when an
instance is started or stopped.
See Also: Oracle Database Reference and the Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide for more information on the initialization file
Server Parameter File
The server parameter file (SPFILE) is a binary server-side initialization file, which
cannot be edited using a text editor. It is initially built from a traditional text
initialization file using the CREATE SPFILE statement.
ORAENV File
Every Oracle Database utility and product uses the Oracle Database environment
definition file, which is referenced as ORAENV. This file contains the Oracle Database
environment variables, which are used to describe the operating environment for each
Oracle Database task. The database administrator also uses the ORAENV file to define
BS2000-specific parameters necessary for database configuration.
Control Files
These files contain the information required by Oracle Database to identify the
instance and are specified in the initialization file.
Message Files
Message texts are stored in table modules, which are dynamically loaded from the
ORAMESG library at execution time.
Oracle-Managed Files
The following is a list of the INIT.ORA parameters for oracle-managed files:
■
DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST for data files, temp files and block change tracking files
■
DB_CREATE_ONLINE_LOG_DEST_n for redo log files and control files
■
DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST for backups, archive log files and flashback log files
On BS2000, these parameters are used as a prefix for file names.
Oracle tablespace names can be up to 30 characters long. If you want to be able to
associate an OMF-created file name with its owning tablespace, then you must use
tablespace names that are distinct in the first eight characters. Oracle allows
underscores(_) in tablespace names, and any underscores(_) that are present are
changed to hyphens(-) for use in the generated file name.
File names for Oracle-managed files have the following format on BS2000:
File type
Format
control files
destOMC.tttttttt
log files
destOMLlll.tttttttt
2-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Two-Task Mode
File type
Format
permanent tablespace files, data file copies
destOMD.tsn.tttttttt
temporary tablespace files
destOMT.tsn.tttttttt
archive log files
destOMA.Tnnn.Snnnnnn.tttttttt
data file or archivelog backup piece
destOMB.Lnnn.tttttttt
rman autobackup piece
destOMX.xnnnnnnn.tttttttt
block change tracking files
destOMR.tttttttt
flashback log files
destOMF.tttttttt
where:
■
■
dest is the destination string (_DEST) in the OMF parameter.
tttttttt is the encoded timestamp (which looks like a random mix of letters and
numerals)
■
lll is a three-digit log-group number
■
tsn is up to eight characters for the tablespace name
■
Tnnn is the letter "T" followed by a three-digit thread number
■
Snnnnnn is the letter "S" followed by a six-digit sequence number
■
Lnnn is the letter "L" followed by a three-digit incremental level
■
■
x is the letter P, if the database has an SPFILE, or the letter T if the database does
not have an SPFILE
nnnnnnn is a seven-byte timestamp
Given the 54 character limit on BS2000 file names, the preceding file name formats
impose a limit of 39 characters on DB_CREATE_ONLINE_LOG_DEST_n and DB_
CREATE_FILE_DEST, 29 characters on DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST. In these limits the
catid and userid are included, which may occupy up to 16 characters.
See Also: "Using Oracle-Managed Files" chapter in the Oracle
Database Administrator's Guide
Bigfile Tablespaces
Oracle Database 10g release 2 on BS2000/OSD supports bigfile tablespaces. The single
data file of a bigfile tablespace must reside on a BS2000 pubset with the following
attributes
LARGE_VOLUMES=*ALLOWED and LARGE_FILES=*ALLOWED
Refer to the Fujitsu Siemens BS2000/OSD Manual "Files and Volumes Larger than 32
GB" for more information about handling large objects on BS2000/OSD.
Two-Task Mode
In two-task mode, a user task connects to a server task, which runs Oracle Database
code on behalf of the user task. The user task does not have access to the SGA.
Communication between a user task and a server task is through Oracle Net Services.
Architecture and Implementation
2-3
Address Space Planning
Address Space Planning
The Oracle Database uses a number of data and code areas, which must be at the same
virtual addresses in all server and background tasks. Typically, the default values
provided with Oracle Database are sufficient. Address space planning (explicit
placement of the Oracle Database data areas) may be required in some special
situations, when you encounter address space conflicts. For example, dynamic
subsystems may occupy the default address ranges, which may require you to relocate
the Oracle Database areas.
Oracle Database Data Area Placement
The following ORAENV variables control explicit placement of the Oracle Database data
areas:
■
COM_BASE
■
KNL_BASE
■
PGA_BASE
■
SGA_BASE
The order of the areas in the address space is not significant. The xxx_BASE variable is
evaluated only during STARTUP processing.
After the database is started, users attaching to it do not need to specify the values in
the ORAENV files, as they are automatically supplied with the common values during
connection. This means that the settings in the user’s ORAENV file are ignored.
Figure 2–1 gives an example of the placement of data areas.
Figure 2–1 Placement of Data Areas in Background, Server and User Tasks
The xxx_BASE values must be compatible with the BS2000/OSD value SYSBASE
(defined by BS2000/OSD generation and delimiting the user’s address space).
Starting with Oracle Database 10g, user programs use a separate shared code pool for
common services such as Core, Globalization Support, and Net Services. The name of
this pool is Client Common Pool and its placement can be controlled by the
ORAENV parameter CLN_BASE.
In general, Oracle administrators should be aware of conflicts between Oracle pool
placements and other pool placements in the system.
2-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Oracle Database Environment Definition File
Oracle Database Environment Definition File
This section describes the ORAENV file, how it is used, and how you use the
environment variables to specify the default database.
The ORAENV text file has the format of a BS2000 command procedure that runs the
/SET-FILE-LINK ORAENV command for itself. Each line contains an Oracle
Database environment variable and its assigned value. When reading this file, the
Oracle Database ignores all lines, which have a slash (/) or an asterisk (*) in column 1.
Generating ORAENV
The INSTALL.P.DBA procedure automatically creates a copy of the ORAENV file. This
file provides a default configuration for an Oracle Database. You can edit this file to
adapt it to local needs. Users can also generate an ORAENV file specific to their own
environment. This is described in the chapter "Getting Started" in the Oracle Database
User's Guide for Fujitsu Siemens BS2000/OSD.
ORAENV VARIABLES
The Appendix B, "ORAENV Variables" contains a list of ORAENV variables that the
database administrator can use. Most users will only need to set a few of these
variables. Any DBA-specific variables that are placed in a user's ORAENV file are
ignored.
Running ORAENV
To set environment variables, simply run a CALL-PROCEDURE command on the
ORAENV file containing the environment variables for the database you want to use.
The name of the ORAENV file is sid.P.ORAENV (where sid is the database system
identifier). For example, to set the environment variables for database DEMO using
the example ORAENV file, run the following command:
/CALL-PROCEDURE DEMO.P.ORAENV
You can also generate an ORAENV file and run the /SET-FILE-LINK command before
calling any Oracle Database program:
/SET-FILE-LINK ORAENV, filename
Where filename is the name of a file having the same format as DEMO.P.ORAENV
and which defines at least the ORASID environment variable.
Note the following:
■
■
The database administrator should not modify the ORAENV file while the Oracle
Database is running.
Users may modify their ORAENV file at any time.
You can run several Oracle Databases simultaneously on your BS2000 system; even
within the same Database Administrator account. A unique system identifier provides
a globally unique name for the database so that a user can select a particular database
by setting the ORASID environment variable. The user does this by activating the
ORAENV file sid.P.ORAENV.
Whenever an Oracle Database product (for example, SQL*Plus) is started, it checks if
the link name ORAENV is defined and reads the related file, storing the variable
assignments for later use. If no link name ORAENV is set (or the related file cannot be
Architecture and Implementation
2-5
The ORALOAD Library
read), the sid remains undefined. Oracle recommends that a link name ORAENV is
always defined prior to a call to an Oracle Database program.
The ORALOAD Library
The ORALOAD library ($ORAC1020.ORALOAD.LIB by default) is required to run any
Oracle Database 10g release 2 program. The Oracle Database uses this library to load
executables and subroutines dynamically when required. The link name ORALOAD
must identify the ORALOAD library before calling any Oracle Database program. If the
link name is missing, you get a BLS (BS2000/OSD loader) error message. Usually,
this link name is set when the ORAENV procedure is called.
The ORAMESG library
The ORAMESG library ($ORAC1020.ORAMESG.LIB) is required for dynamically
loading tables, such as message files, by an Oracle task when required. The link name
ORAMESG must identify the ORAMESG library before calling any Oracle program. If the
link name is missing, you get a BLS (BS2000/OSD loader) error message. Usually,
this link name is set when the ORAENV procedure is called.
User ID Requirements
Review the following section to know about the user ID requirements.
Installation User ID (ORAUID)
During installation the complete Oracle Database software is installed into this user
ID, which should be empty. This installation user ID (referred to as ORAUID) includes:
■
■
Executable programs (such as SQL*Plus, the background and network programs)
Load libraries, in particular, ORALOAD.LIB, from which modules are loaded
during program execution. For example, the shared KERNEL module, and the
precompiler run-time modules.
■
Message files
■
Other data files, such as.SQL files for the DEMO tables
■
■
■
■
The INCLUDE files, application demo files and system configuration files
specifying default precompiler options for precompiler users
Object libraries required to link-edit precompiler applications, such as PRO.LIB
Port-specific installation utilities, such as programs, command procedures, and so
on
Default configuration files such as the default ORAENV file
A separate ORAUID is required for each separate Oracle Database release. However,
multiple databases using the same version can, and should, refer to the same
installation user ID.
Authorizations and File Access Rights
This user ID does not require any special BS2000 privileges.
■
You must not use the BS2000/OSD System Administrator user ID TSOS as an
Oracle Database installation user ID.
2-6 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
User ID Requirements
■
The ORAUID does not require any specific /JOIN options.
■
Only the installation phase requires a BS2000 LOGIN under this user ID.
■
As this user ID functions as a library user ID, most files should be cataloged as
follows:
SHARE=YES,ACCESS=READ
■
You do not need to define ’write’ access for any file after running
INSTALL.P.ORACLE.
Default Name
The default name for the ORAUID is $ORAC1020. If you select a different name during
the installation of Oracle Database software, the procedure, INSTALL.P.ORACLE,
which runs as part of the installation, makes the necessary changes to the installation
files.
DBA User ID
The DBA user ID is a BS2000 user ID that is used as the owner of one or more of the
Oracle databases. All the files for a specific Oracle database are owned by this user ID.
All tasks making up the running database, background tasks, and server tasks started
for two-task Oracle Database, execute under the DBA user ID. These tasks refer to the
executable programs and libraries, which are available under the installation user ID
(ORAUID). These programs and libraries need not, and should not be copied into the
DBA user ID. It is possible to use the installation user ID (ORAUID) as a DBA user ID.
However, it is recommended that you use separate user IDs. The DBA user ID can also
be used as a normal user ID.
Multiple databases can be created under the same, or under different DBA user IDs. If
installed under different BS2000 user IDs, then the databases are separated and
protected from each other, subject to the BS2000 protection mechanisms. In particular,
a Database Administrator cannot administer a database running under a different
BS2000 user ID (there is no global DBA privilege in Oracle Database for BS2000/OSD).
Authorizations and File Access Rights
The DBA user ID needs specific /JOIN privileges to run an Oracle Database. These
privileges include:
■
■
■
■
■
■
The right to start jobs immediately, preferably in a JOBCLASS reserved for Oracle
Database background jobs. Failure to do this may cause delays when starting the
database and when creating the two-task server.
The right to start jobs with no time limit (TIME=NTL). Failure to do this may cause
database tasks to terminate.
The right to set jobs to TP state. Failure to do this may reduce database
performance.
The right to set Common Memory Pools as read-only. Failure to do this may
reduce shared-code security.
The BS2000/OSD System Administrator user ID TSOS should not, under any
circumstances, be used as an Oracle Database DBA user ID.
File access rights set under the DBA user ID should be:
SHARE=NO,
Architecture and Implementation
2-7
User ID Requirements
ACCESS=WRITE
Default Name
There is no default name for a DBA BS2000 user ID.
User IDs for Oracle users
An Oracle user accesses and uses the database through Oracle utilities, such as
SQL*Plus, and through the precompiler application programs. The user can connect to
an Oracle Database through the Oracle Net Services facilities.
The BS2000 user ID can also be used as Oracle Database connect user ID by means of
the OPS$ generic facility.
Authorizations and File Access Rights
These user IDs do not require any special BS2000 privileges.
■
■
No file owned by a normal user needs any specific access attributes, as Oracle
Database programs access such files locally from within that user ID. For example,
LOGIN.SQL data files.
No specific /JOIN privileges are needed.
2-8 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
3
3
Installing Oracle Database Software
This chapter describes how you can install the Oracle Database 10g release 2 and
related products under BS2000/OSD. It provides information on the following topics:
■
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
■
Installing the Oracle Database Software
■
Installing Multiple Oracle Systems
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
The Oracle software is compressed into installation files that can be loaded from the
product DVD’s or downloaded from Oracle E-Delivery Web site at
http://edelivery.oracle.com/. The installation files are included in a LMS
library.
You must extract the compressed files to a temporary location on a Windows or UNIX
file system, and then upload the installation files to BS2000 using File Transfer
protocol (FTP). Below we describe the installation process for the /390 series of
ORACLE/BS2000. The installation process for the SX series is identical, except for the
name of the LMS library which is ora10202.sx.lib for the SX series instead of
ora10202.390.lib.
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Oracle recommends installing Oracle Database 10g release 2 using a new user ID.
Follow these steps to install the Oracle database software:
1.
The BS2000 System Administrator must create the Oracle installation user ID, the
user ID under which you want the Oracle Database 10g release 2 software to
reside. Throughout this guide we refer to this user ID as ORAC1020. This user ID
does not require any special BS2000 privileges. You will need about 1 400 000
PAM pages temporarily in the installation user ID. The extracted files will occupy
about 700 000 PAM pages.
2.
The software must be copied to a temporary location on a Windows or UNIX
system that has FTP access to the BS2000 system where you will be installing the
software.
If you have received the installation files on a DVD, mount the DVD on this
system. If you have downloaded the installation files from an Oracle Web Site,
move the zip file to this system.
3.
Unzip the zip file with a zip utility like WinZip into a temporary location on this
system. The following files should be created:
Installing Oracle Database Software 3-1
Installing Multiple Oracle Systems
doc/:contains ORACLE/BS2000 specific documentation
welcome.htm:starting point for accessing the documentation
ora10202.390.lib:installation files packed in one LMS library
4.
Transfer the LMS library binary into the installation userid, for example,
ORAC1020. Before the transfer, if you are using BS2000 ftp in the installation
userid, preallocate the file by using the following ftp file command:
file ora10202.390.lib,fcbtype=pam,blkctrl=no,blksize=(std,2)
Use the following command if you are using ftp on the platform where you had
unzipped the file:
quote file ora10202.390.lib,fcbtype=pam,blkctrl=no,blksize=(std,2)
5.
Login into the installation user ID, ORAC1020.
6.
Extract all files in the installation user ID by typing the following commands:
/START-LMSCONV
//extr (ora10202.390.lib,*,x),*
//end
After successful extraction you can delete the ora10202.390.lib file.
7.
Execute the install procedure as follows:
/CALL-PROCEDURE INSTALL.P.ORACLE,($userid)
This procedure applies the necessary changes to a number of command files.
8.
Optionally, run the installation procedure for the POSIX part of Oracle.
/CALL-PROCEDURE INSTALL.P.POSIX
You will be prompted for the ORACLE_HOME in the POSIX file system. If you want
to accept the default value, for example, /orac1020/oracle/product/10g,
press ENTER.
You must not use the /DO option to call this procedure.
The script can be run at any time after the installation of Oracle database for
BS2000/OSD. However, some prerequisites are necessary before you can run the
script:
■
The BS2000 administrator must enable the POSIX subsystem:
/START-SUBSYSTEM POSIX
■
The BS2000 administrator must create a POSIX directory (for example
/orac1020) with at least 400000 kbytes of free space.
You need the POSIX part of Oracle if you want to use Java in the database or if
you want to use Oracle Enterprise Management Agent or the Oracle Wallet
Manager for BS2000/OSD.
Installing Multiple Oracle Systems
You can also install multiple Oracle systems, based on the same or different versions
of Oracle software. In this case, different versions of the software must be installed
under different installation user IDs. If you are creating a database manually (not
3-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Installing Multiple Oracle Systems
using INSTALL.P.SUPER) keep the database file names unique by prefixing them
with the sid of that database.
Installing Oracle Database Software 3-3
Installing Multiple Oracle Systems
3-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
4
4
Creating and Upgrading a Database
This chapter describes the process of creating or upgrading a database to run with the
Oracle Database 10g release 2 software. It contains the following topics:
■
Creating a Database
■
Upgrading a Database
Note: Creating a Java enabled database is not part of this chapter.
For more information about this topic refer to Chapter 12, "Java in the
Database" in this book.
Creating a Database
You can create a database either automatically or manually. Oracle recommends you
to use the automatic creation procedure outlined in the "Creating a Database
Automatically" section on page 4-2. Instructions on how to create a database manually
are given in the "Creating a Database Manually" on page 4-4.
Pre-Creation Activities
Before creating a database, you first need to carry out the following pre-creation
activities:
1.
Install the Oracle Database 10g release 2 software under the installation user ID.
For details on how to do this, refer to Chapter 3, "Installing Oracle Database
Software".
2.
The BS2000 System Administrator must create a JOIN entry for the account, which
will hold the Oracle Database (the DBA user ID).
The required privileges for this account are as follows:
NTL=YES
EXPRESS=YES
TTYPL=TP
CSTMP-MACRO=YES
Note:
3.
The value of ADDRSPACE must be at least 512MB.
Oracle recommends that the BS2000 System Administrator should define a
separate job class for the background tasks. This job class should have the
following characteristics:
Creating and Upgrading a Database 4-1
Creating a Database
TP-ALLOWED=YES
NO-CPU-LIMIT=YES
JOB-TYPE=BATCH
Creating a Database Automatically
Complete the following steps to create a database automatically:
1.
Log in using the DBA User ID.
2.
To start the automatic creation procedure, INSTALL.P.SUPER, enter the
following command:
/CALL-PROCEDURE $ORAC1020.INSTALL.P.SUPER
When running INSTALL.P.SUPER procedure, you can specify the value of the
following keyword parameters (the default values are used if you choose not to
modify the values):
Parameter
Values
BATCH
Enter YES to run the procedure in batch mode. The default is set to
YES, so by default the procedure is run in batch mode.
CPULIMIT
Sets the time limit for batch jobs. The default is NO.
PL/SQL
Enter NO to suppress automatic installation of the basic PL/SQL
package. The default is YES.
ROLLBACK
Enter NO to suppress automatic creation of a second rollback segment.
The default is YES.
VIEWS
Enter NO to suppress automatic installation of the basic views
(catalog, import/export, and so on). The default is YES.
3.
Answer the prompts for the following information (if you enter nothing, the
default shown on the screen are used):
Parameter
Value
DBASID
Enter the 1 - 4 character system-id of the database you are installing.
This is a mandatory parameter.
JOBCLASS
Enter the jobclass to be used for the Oracle Database 10g release 2
background jobs. This is mandatory.
UPDATE
Enter YES if you have existing files for this sid and you want to
update them.
SYSPW
Enter the desired password for the Oracle Database user SYS.
Note: By default the SYS user has the password change_on_
install. For security reasons, Oracle recommends that you change
this password immediately after installation.
SYSTEMPW
Enter the desired password for the Oracle Database user SYSTEM.
Note: By default the SYSTEM user has the password manager. For
security reasons, Oracle recommends that you change this password
immediately after installation.
JAVA
Enter NO if you do not need a Java enabled database (thus saving
memory, CPU and disk space resources). For more information refer
to Chapter 12, "Java in the Database".
4-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Creating a Database
Parameter
Value
DBSIZE
Enter the size of the system tablespace file(s) in bytes, kilobytes or
megabytes. The value you enter can have one of the following forms:
■
44M for 44 megabytes
■
44000K for 44000 kilobytes
■
10000000 for 10000000 bytes
The default is 250M.
AUXSIZE
Enter the size of the sysaux tablespace file(s) in bytes, kilobytes, or
megabytes. The value you enter can have one of the following forms:
■
44M for 44megabytes
■
44000K for 44000 kilobytes
■
10000000 for 10000000 bytes
The default is 200M.
LOGSIZE
Enter the size of the log files in bytes, kilobytes, or megabytes. The
value you enter can have one of the following forms:
■
1M for 1 megabytes
■
1000K for 1000 kilobytes
■
100000 for 100000 bytes
The default is 20000K.
LOCAL
Enter NO if you do not require a locally managed system tablespace.
The default is YES. If you choose a locally managed system
tablespace, Oracle automatically creates a default temporary
tablespace.
DEFTS
Enter NO if you don't want to create a default permanent tablespace.
The default is YES.
TEMPTS
This prompt only appears if you don't want a locally managed
system tablespace. Enter NO if you don't want a default temporary
tablespace. The default is YES.
CHARSET
Enter the character set with which you want the database to be
created (the default is WE8BS2000).
For more information refer to the chapter about Globalization
Support in Oracle Database User's Guide for Fujitsu Siemens
BS2000/OSD .
NCHARSET
Enter the national character set used to store data in columns
specifically defined as NCHAR, NCLOB, or NVARCHAR2. Valid values
are AL16UTF16 and UTF8. The default is AL16UTF16.
Unless specified otherwise, $ORAC1020.INSTALL.P.SUPER will generate and
enter a batch job which:
■
Calls INSTALL.P.DBA
■
Creates the system and sysaux tablespace
■
Creates the default permanent tablespace and temporary tablespace
■
Creates the log files
■
Initializes the database
■
Runs CATALOG.SQL
■
Runs CATPROC.SQL
Creating and Upgrading a Database 4-3
Creating a Database
■
Installs the SQL Help tables
■
Installs the DEMO tables
■
Creates a second rollback segment
■
Changes the system passwords if necessary
■
Calls the verification procedure
When $ORAC1020.INSTALL.P.SUPER has completed, you should have an
initialized, ready-to-use database, and a running Oracle Database system. The results
of the job are listed in the file, L.sid.INSSUP.SYSOUT, where sid is the system ID
of the database you have just installed.
Creating a Database Manually
Oracle recommends that you use the automatic creation procedure outlined in the
"Creating a Database Automatically" section on page 4-2. The following manual
creation procedure performs the same steps as the automatic creation procedure.
However, because you enter the individual steps manually, you can perform the
installation at your own pace, and determine which of the optional steps you want to
perform and which you want to expand upon, omit, or save for another time.
Copying the DBA Procedures
Copy the DBA files from $ORAC1020 as shown below:
1.
Log in using the DBA User ID.
2.
Call the Oracle Database install procedure. This procedure copies the DBA files
from $ORAC1020 to the DBA User ID account. When the procedure begins you
are prompted to supply a 1 to 4 character Oracle Database ID for the database you
are installing.
To install the DBA files, enter the following command:
/CALL-PROCEDURE $ORAC1020.INSTALL.P.DBA
This procedure prompts you for the following information:
Parameter
Value
DBASID
Enter the 1 - 4 character system ID of the database you are
installing.
JOBCLASS
Enter the BS2000 jobclass to be used for background and server
tasks.
You can also modify the following keyword parameters when invoking this
procedure:
Parameter
Value
LOG
Enter WRITE-TEXT (the BS2000 command name) if you want to
have install actions listed.
UPDATE
Enter YES/NO to indicate whether existing files are to be
updated. The default is NO.
The $ORAC1020.INSTALL.P.DBA procedure copies the following files into the
DBA User ID account:
4-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Creating a Database
■
sid.P.ORAENV: Oracle Database environment definition file
■
sid.DBS.INIT.ORA: Oracle Database initialization file
where sid is the database ID for the database being installed.
Creating the Database
After installing the DBA procedures, you must create the database. This section
describes the procedure for creating the database, and for allocating the database file
and the log files.
Pre-Allocating the Files You can place the database file and the log files on the default
volume set for the DBA account, another Public Volume Set (PVS), or a specific private
volume.
To create a database file or a log file on a private disk, you must first allocate the file
using the BS2000 /FILE command as shown:
/FILE sid.DBS.DATABASE1.DBF,SPACE=filesize /[,DEVICE=device,VOLUME=volser]
/FILE sid.DBS.SYSAUX.DBF,SPACE=filesize //[,DEVICE=device,VOLUME=volser]
/FILE sid.DBS.LOG1.DBF,SPACE=filesize /[,DEVICE=device, VOLUME=volser]
/FILE sid.DBS.LOG2.DBF,SPACE=filesize /[,DEVICE=device, VOLUME=volser]
where:
sid identifies the database that you are installing.
filesize is the size of the file in PAM blocks. The file size specified in the /FILE
command must match the size specified to SQL*Plus in the CREATE DATABASE
statement when creating the database, plus 1 extra Oracle Database block used as an
extra header. The size of this block is 1 to 16 PAM pages depending on the Oracle
Database block size given in the init.ora parameter DB_BLOCK_SIZE, refer to
Appendix C, "Initialization Parameters and the Parameter File".
For example, if you want to create a 2MB database file, then you need to specify 1024
plus 1 PAM pages extra Oracle Database block as the value of file size in the FILE
command.
device specifies the device to be used to store the file.
volser specifies the volume to be used to store the file.
The names used in the preceding examples are the default database and log file
names. If you wish to use other names, remember to use these names in the SQL
CREATE DATABASE statement, when creating the database.
Modifying the Initialization File Determine what changes, if any, you wish to make to
parameters in the distributed initialization file, sid.DBS.INIT.ORA (where sid is
the database ID for the database). The SGA parameters may need to be adjusted to
reflect memory limitations and the maximum number of users who can access the
Oracle Database system at one time. Make the modifications using a BS2000 editor.
See Also: Refer to the Oracle Database Reference for an explanation of
initialization parameters
Creating and Upgrading a Database 4-5
Creating a Database
Modifying the ORAENV File Modify the environment definition file, sid.P.ORAENV,
according to the specific requirements. Remember that a number of variables are
evaluated during startup only. If you modify the ORAENV file later on, you may have
to wait for the next startup for the changes to become effective.
The character set in the ORAENV variable NLS_LANG, however, must not be changed
when you run some of the delivered SQL scripts.
Using SQL*Plus to Create the Database Remember that you must call the applicable
sid.P.ORAENV procedure before calling SQL*Plus. To execute SQL*Plus, enter the
following command:
START-PROGRAM $ORAC1020.SQLPLUS
* /NOLOG
SQL> CONNECT / AS SYSDBA
SQL> STARTUP NOMOUNT [PFILE=filename]
/NOLOG omits being prompted for username/password. CONNECT gives you a
connection to an idle instance. The last statement starts the Oracle Database instance. If
you want to use your own copy of the initialization file (sid.DBS.INIT.ORA), use
the PFILE=filename option, as illustrated in the previous command.
SQL> CREATE DATABASE...;
This statement creates database and log files. Note when you enter the statement:
■
■
Unless you have allocated the database file and the log files and specified these
files in the CREATE DATABASE statement, the files will be created by SQL*Plus on
the default public volume set.
When you create the files using SQL*Plus, the actual file size is 1 Oracle Database
block larger than you specified. This extra block is automatically added by
SQL*Plus and contains header information, which is used by the Oracle Database.
For example, if you select a file size of 5120 2K blocks by specifying a file size of 10
Mb in SQL*Plus, you get a file of 5121 PAM pages (5120 Oracle Database blocks
for use, plus the header block).
Note: If you get an error before the first SQL> prompt, it may be
caused by either a missing ORAENV file (or ORASID not set in the
ORAENV), or sometimes by an address space conflict. For example, the
address range you assigned to the kernel memory pool (KNL_BASE)
could be occupied by a subsystem.
Installing Data Dictionary Views
Data dictionary views provide easy access to dictionary information. If you wish to
use dictionary views, you must install them by running SQL*Plus, by issuing the
CONNECT / AS SYSDBA command, and entering the following commands:
SQL> SPOOL filename
SQL> SET TERMOUT OFF
SQL> @$ORAC1020.RDBMS.ADMIN.CATALOG.SQL
Data dictionary views required for Export/Import are also installed in this sequence.
4-6 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Creating a Database
Installing Data Dictionary Views for PL/SQL
If you chose not to install automatically the basic PL/SQL package when running
INSTALL.P.SUPER, to make PL/SQL available for use now you must first perform a
STARTUP and then:
1.
Include the following line in the ORAENV file:
SQLPATH=&ORAUID..RDBMS.ADMIN; &ORAUID..PLSQL.DEMO; other prefixes;
where other prefixes specifies the necessary prefix for scripts called by the
PL/SQL demo scripts.
2.
Run SQL*Plus, issue the CONNECT / AS SYSDBA command, and run the SQL
script RDBMS.ADMIN.CATPROC.SQL to install the PL/SQL dictionary tables:
SQL>@$ORAC1020.RDBMS.ADMIN.CATPROC.SQL
3.
To install the PL/SQL demonstration tables, run SQL*Plus under the SYSTEM
username and run the scripts EXAMPBLD.SQL (which creates the demo tables) and
EXAMPLOD.SQL (which loads the demo data into the tables:
SQL> START-PROGRAM $ORAC1020.SQLPLUS
* SYS/password
SQL> @EXAMPBLD
SQL> @EXAMPLOD
Installing Online HELP Messages
To install the online Help facility, enter the following command:
/CALL-PROCEDURE $ORAC1020.INSTALL.P.HELP,(sid [,SYSTEMPW=systempw])
Installing the SQL*Plus Demonstration Database
To install the SQL*Plus demonstration database, enter the following:
/CALL-PROCEDURE $ORAC1020.INSTALL.P.DEMO,(sid [,SYSTEMPW=systempw])
Installing the Sample Schemas
To install the Sample Schemas, enter the following:
/CALL-PROCEDURE $ORACL1020.INSTALL.P.SAMPLES,(sid /[,SYSTEMPW=systempw] [,SYSPW=syspw])
The procedure INSTALL.P.SAMPLES installs the sample schemas human resources
(HR), order entry (OE), info exchange (IX) and sales history (SH) with the default
passwords. product media (PM) is not supported.
By default, the SYSTEM user has the password manager and
the SYS user has the password change_on_install. For security
reasons, Oracle recommends that you change these passwords and the
sample schema passwords immediately after installation.
Note:
Verifying Successful Creation of the Database
To verify that the demonstration database was correctly created, enter the following:
/CALL-PROCEDURE $ORAC1020.INSTALL.P.VERIFY,(sid [,SYSTEMPW=systempw])
Creating and Upgrading a Database 4-7
Upgrading a Database
If the demonstration database was correctly created, you see messages like the
following one displayed on the screen:
*SCOTT'S TABLE EMP IS INSTALLED
Installing Oracle Text
Usage and installation of Oracle Text is summarized in the chapter "Oracle Text" in
this book.
Installing Java
Using and installing of Java is summarized in the chapter "Java in the Database" in this
book.
Upgrading a Database
This section contains information about upgrading your Oracle database.
Upgrade from Version 8
If you are using NCHAR data types in a version 8 database, Oracle recommends that
you analyze your SQL NCHAR data before migration. For upgrading from version 8
refer to Chapter 3: Upgrading to the New Oracle Database 10g Release in the Oracle
Database Upgrade Guide.
Upgrade from Version 9
This section explains the BS2000 specific steps of the upgrade path. We assume the
reader to be familiar with the Oracle Database 10g release 2 upgrade documentation (
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide.) about upgrade preparation, space and backup
requirements, release differences, and so on. Oracle also recommends reading the
appropriate section in the generic documentation, especially when you are using
TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE data type.
We further assume your Oracle9i database is set up and the Oracle Database 10g
release 2 software is properly installed as explained in Chapter 3 of this manual. Then
follow these steps:
1.
Run the Pre-Upgrade Information Tool utlu102i.sql from Oracle Database 10g
installation id with SQLPLUS in your Oracle9i environment to analyze required
parameters as follows (assuming the database is running):
/START-PROGRAM $ORACL920.sqlplus
* /nolog
SQL> connect / as sysdba
SQL> SPOOL info.log
SQL> @$ORAC1020.rdbms.admin.utlu102i.sql;
SQL> SPOOL off
2.
Check the sections in the spoolfile for Logfiles, Tablespaces, and Rollback
Segments, and change the appropriate values of your database.
3.
Shutdown the database and exit SQLPLUS
SQL> SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
SQL> exit
4-8 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Upgrading a Database
4.
Enter the following command to create an Oracle Database 10g release 2
init.ora and an Oracle Database 10g release 2 oraenv file and save the original
files under the suffix .OLD.
/CALL-PROCEDURE $ORAC1020.INSTALL.P.DBA, (sid, jobclass, UPDATE=YES)
5.
Modify the newly created files according to your special requirements (for
instance PROCESSES, DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS, and so on.) and set the parameters
in INIT.ORA file as recommended in the spoolfile. Make sure the COMPATIBLE
initialization parameter is properly set for the new Oracle Database 10g release
(9.2.0 or higher).
6.
/CALL-PROCEDURE sid.p.oraenv
To avoid being prompted for many overflow acknowledgements on your screen
set
/tchng oflow=no
7.
Invoke SQLPLUS with the following scripts:
/START-PROGRAM $ORAC1020.sqlplus
* /nolog
SQL> connect / as sysdba
SQL> STARTUP UPGRADE
8.
Create a SYSAUX tablespace. The Pre-Upgrade Information Tool estimated the
minimum required size in the SYSAUX Tablespace section of the spoolfile:
SQL> CREATE TABLESPACE sysaux DATAFILE 'sysaux01.dbf'
SIZE 500M REUSE EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL SEGMENT
SPACE MANAGEMENT AUTO ONLINE;
9.
Start the Upgrade script and run utlu102s.sql to display the results of the
upgrade:
SQL>
SQL>
SQL>
SQL>
SPOOL upgrade.log;
@$ORAC1020.rdbms.admin.catupgrd.sql;
@$ORAC1020.rdbms.admin.utlu102s.sql;
SPOOL off
10. Shut down and restart the instance to re-initialize the system parameters for
normal operation:
SQL> SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
SQL> STARTUP
11. Run utlrp.sql to recompile any remaining stored PL/SQL and Java code and
verify that all expected packages and classes are valid:
SQL> @$ORAC1020.rdbms.admin.utlrp.sql;
SQL> SELECT count(*) FROM dba_objects WHERE status='INVALID';
SQL> SELECT distinct object_name FROM dba_objects WHERE status='INVALID';
Now you should have an upgraded Oracle10g release 2 database. For
troubleshooting, refer to Chapter3 in the Oracle Database Upgrade Guide.
Creating and Upgrading a Database 4-9
Upgrading a Database
Post-Upgrade activities
Re-compilation of C and COBOL Programmatic Interface Programs
All C and COBOL programs developed prior to release 10.2.0 must be precompiled
using the new version of the precompilers and recompiled.
Re-Linking Programmatic Interface Programs
All user-written precompiler or Oracle Call Interface applications must be re-linked
using the new Oracle Database libraries.
Rebuilding Oracle Database (openUTM) Applications
As Oracle Database 10g on BS2000 exclusively supports the XA interface and the
interfaces have changed significantly, you have to rebuild your openUTM application.
Refer to the chapters on openUTM in this manual and in the Oracle Database User's
Guide for Fujitsu Siemens BS2000/OSD for more information.
Updating ORAENV Files
Your ORAUID environment variable must reference the correct Oracle Database
installation user ID. Check your ORAENV files, and if necessary, amend the values of
the ORAUID and NLS_LANG environment variables. Remember that you do not need
the file link for ORAUTM anymore.
4-10 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
5
5
Administering Oracle Database
This chapter describes how to use the SQL*Plus utility to administer Oracle Database
10g release 2 for BS2000/OSD.
Common administration tasks are described in the following sections:
■
Using the SQL*Plus Utility
■
Startup and Parameter Files
■
Remote Startup of a Database Instance
■
Checking the Integrity of the Physical Data Structure
■
Customizing SQL*Plus Profiles
Using the SQL*Plus Utility
The following topics are described in this section:
■
Invoking the SQL*Plus Utility
■
Calling SQL*Plus from a Procedure
■
Running BS2000 Commands from SQL*Plus
Invoking the SQL*Plus Utility
To start SQL*Plus, enter the following:
/START-PROGRAM $ORAC1020.SQLPLUS
When you are prompted for parameters, enter /NOLOG:
* /NOLOG
This prevents SQL*Plus from prompting you for username/password. Later you can
explicitly connect to the database. For example:
SQL> CONNECT / AS SYSDBA
For more ways to start SQL*Plus refer to the section "Running SQL*Plus" in Oracle
Database User's Guide for Fujitsu Siemens BS2000/OSD,.
Calling SQL*Plus from a Procedure
Set Task Switch 1 to on (/MODIFY-JOB-SWITCHES ON=1). This forces SQL*Plus to
read in data from the procedure, rather than prompt you at the terminal.
Administering Oracle Database 5-1
Startup and Parameter Files
Running BS2000 Commands from SQL*Plus
The SQL*Plus HOST command enables you to enter a BS2000 command, while you are
logged on to SQL*Plus.
Keep the following points in mind when using the HOST command:
■
■
If you enter the HOST command without any BS2000 command, then it takes you
to the command level. To return to SQL*Plus, you must use the RESUME
command.
If you enter the HOST command with a BS2000 command, then the command is
executed and you return to SQL*Plus.
Startup and Parameter Files
SQL*Plus uses two parameter files when starting and stopping the database:
1.
The ORAENV file, the environment definition file, which contains BS2000-specific
information. In the ORAENV file you identify the database to be started, or shut
down. You can use this file to set configuration variables, which adapt the Oracle
Database to the local operating system and application environment.
2.
The initialization file INIT.ORA or the server parameter file SPFILE, which exists
in all Oracle Database implementations and contains database-specific parameters.
The Environment Definition File ORAENV
The ORAENV file is identified by sid.P.ORAENV, where sid is the database identifier.
The same ORAENV file must be used by SQL*Plus and by all background jobs. This is
ensured by the installation procedures, which create the basic ORAENV file. Refer to
Appendix B, "ORAENV Variables" for details of required and optional ORAENV
variables.
The Initialization File INIT.ORA
Startup requires the INIT.ORA parameter file, which contains a list of specifications
for the Oracle Database. These generic, that is, platform independent parameters, are
used to setup the instance. Refer to the Oracle Database Administrator's Guide and
Oracle Database Reference for full descriptions of these parameters.
Oracle recommends that you always use a question mark (?) to
denote the database system-id in initialization files. The "@" character,
which is used on other platforms, is the equivalent but is not available
on all keyboards and may cause problems in Globalization Support
character-set translations.
Note:
The Server Parameter File SPFILE
You can choose to maintain initialization parameters in a binary server parameter file.
A server parameter file is initially built from a traditional text initialization parameter
file using the CREATE SPFILE command. If you enter the following command:
CREATE SPFILE FROM PFILE;
where neither SPFILE name nor PFILE name is specified, Oracle looks for a text
initialization file sid.DBS.INIT.ORA and creates a server parameter file
sid.DBS.SPFILE.ORA.
5-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Remote Startup of a Database Instance
Using the Correct Initialization File
A default initialization file, called $ORAC1020.DEMO.DBS.INIT.ORA, is distributed
with Oracle Database. During the Database Installation procedure, this file is copied to
the DBA User ID and renamed, sid.DBS.INIT.ORA, where sid is the 1 to 4
character database ID you specified at the beginning of the Database Installation
procedure.
Oracle determines the value of sid by retrieving the ORASID environment variable
defined in the ORAENV file for the database. When you issue the STARTUP command
with no PFILE clause, Oracle locates the initialization parameter file by examining file
names in the following order:
1.
sid.DBS.SPFILE.ORA
2.
DBS.SPFILE.ORA
3.
sid.DBS.INIT.ORA
If you wish to use some other initialization file, then use the argument PFILE. For
example, to bring up a previously created database using an initialization file called
TEST.INIT.ORA, enter the following:
/START-PROGRAM $ORAC1020.SQLPLUS
* /NOLOG
At the SQL*Plus prompt, enter:
SQL> CONNECT / AS SYSDBA
SQL> STARTUP PFILE=TEST.INIT.ORA
Remote Startup of a Database Instance
This section describes the preparations for a remote startup using SQL*Plus:
1.
Usually, the Oracle Database 10g release 2 listener's parameter file
LISTENER.ORA does not contain a static service registration section (SID_LIST)
for a database service. In case of a remote startup you need to define this section
for the desired database. For example:
SID_LIST_LISTENER = (SID_LIST =
(SID_DESC =
(SID_NAME = ORCL)))
The listener must be running on the computer where the instance is to be started.
The listener must statically register the instance. If the listener does not run under
the same user ID as the instance you want to start, then you have to define the
admissions to start a job under the user ID of the instance in the listener's ORAENV
file. For more information refer to the Configuring the Network chapter in the
Oracle Net Services section of this guide.
2.
Create a password file with the Oracle utility ORAPWD under the user ID of the
instance you want to administrate. For more information of how to use ORAPWD,
refer to the Oracle Database Administrator's Guide. To run the ORAPWD utility on
BS2000, use the following command:
/START-PROGRAM $ORAC1020.ORAPWD
*file=password_file password=my_password entries=10
3.
The name of the password file is taken from the parameter SSSIDPWF. So you
have to add this parameter to the ORAENV file of the instance you want to start:
Administering Oracle Database 5-3
Checking the Integrity of the Physical Data Structure
SSSIDPWF = password_file
4.
The parameter REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE must be set to EXCLUSIVE in the
initialization file of the instance.
REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE = EXCLUSIVE
5.
Execute SQL*Plus on the remote computer and connect as user sys to a server of
the instance you want to startup. In the following example, which shows the
commands for SQL*Plus on a UNIX client, we use the net service name orcl_on_
bs2000 to address the remote instance on the BS2000 computer:
sqlplus /nolog
SQL> connect sys@orcl_on_bs2000 as sysdba
Enter password:
*my_password
Connected
SQL> startup
...
Checking the Integrity of the Physical Data Structure
To check the data-structure integrity of off-line databases, use the DB_VERIFY
command-line utility. To start DB_VERIFY enter the following command:
/START-PROGRAM $ORAC1020.DBV
You can now enter the command, for example:
file=ora10.dbs.database1.dbf blocksize=4096 feedback=100
For more information about the DB_VERIFY program, refer to the Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide and the Oracle Database Utilities book.
Customizing SQL*Plus Profiles
The DBA can update the global SQL*Plus profile file,
$ORAC1020.SQLPLUS.ADMIN.GLOGIN.SQL, which is run when a user logs in to
SQL*Plus. This file is run before the user's local LOGIN.SQL (refer to SQL*Plus User's
Guide and Reference) and is provided to enable sites to set up several defaults useful to
all users. You can place any SQL and SQL*Plus statement in GLOGIN.SQL.
5-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
6
6
Backing Up and Recovering a Database
This chapter supplements the generic Oracle Database documentation set with
information about backup and recovery.
Refer to the following Oracle manuals for detailed information about database backup
and recovery:
■
Oracle Database Concepts
■
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Basics
■
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Advanced User's Guide
You can choose among many methods and Oracle tools for backup and recovery. You
may use the Import and Export Utilities for logical backup and recovery. For physical
backup and recovery you may use Recovery Manager (RMAN) or operating system
utilities.
This chapter describes some BS2000 specific issues if you apply user-managed backup
and recovery with SQL*Plus and BS2000 utilities.
In the last section of this chapter, you will find some information about RMAN on
BS2000.
Backing Up an Oracle database
You can use one of the following methods to back up an Oracle database:
Using BS2000 Utilities to Back Up an Oracle Database
You can back up an Oracle database using BS2000 operating system utilities (for
example, ARCHIVE or the /COPY-FILE command).
Use the following steps to back up an Oracle database:
1.
While the database is running, collect the names of all files, which make up the
Oracle database. You can determine the names of the log and database files by
entering the following commands:
/START-PROGRAM $ORAC1020.SQLPLUS
* /NOLOG
SQL> CONNECT / AS SYSDBA
SQL> SELECT * FROM V$DATAFILE;
SQL> SELECT * FROM V$LOGFILE;
Backing Up and Recovering a Database
6-1
Recovering Databases
2.
To ensure that all Oracle database files are synchronized at the time of the backup,
shut down the Oracle database using SQL*Plus.
3.
Back up all database files and log files using the BS2000 ARCHIVE utility or the
BS2000 /COPY-FILE command. Note that you should always back up all files at
the same time.
4.
Restart the Oracle Database using SQL*Plus.
Online Backup
You can perform an online backup of the database or individual tablespaces by using
either:
■
■
the BS2000 ARCHIVE utility together with the Oracle Database
INSTALL.C.OPNBACK utility
the BS2000 PERCON utility
The ARCHIVE method is faster, and is described in this section.
Before you can perform an online (hot) backup of individual tablespaces, you must
ensure that the ARCHIVE utility can back up open files.
The following BS2000 command ensures that ARCHIVE can back up all open files:
/START-PROGRAM
*<filename>
$ORAC1020.INSTALL.C.OPNBACK
The INSTALL.C.OPNBACK utility calls the BS2000 macro CATAL, which sets the
OPNBACK file attribute to YES. For the CATAL macro to work the database must be shut
down or the tablespace in question must be offline. You enter this command once for
each file. For example, before adding it to a tablespace, not on the occasion of each
backup.
You must never back up database files online without first setting the tablespace to
backup mode. If you do not follow this step, then the resulting backup files will be
inconsistent. To perform an online backup of individual tablespaces or data files, use
the following procedure:
1.
Enter the following command:
SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE name BEGIN BACKUP;
2.
Backup the file(s) of the tablespace using the BS2000 utility ARCHIVE (Make sure
that the OLS parameter of ARCHIVE is set to YES).
3.
Enter the following command:
SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE name END BACKUP;
The preceding SQL*Plus commands operate on tablespaces,
while the ARCHIVE utility operates on data files.
Note:
Recovering Databases
You can use one of the following methods to recover the database:
6-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Recovery Manager
Restoring from Backups
An Oracle Database can be restored offline from backups, using the following steps:
1.
Copy all the database files and the log files from the backup. You may use the
BS2000 ARCHIVE utility or the BS2000 /COPY-FILE command. Files must be
restored with their original name.
While the Oracle database is running, the names of all files which it comprises can
be determined by querying the table V$DATAFILE. Enter the following command
when the SQL prompt is displayed:
SELECT * FROM V$DATAFILE;
The following is displayed:
File #FILENAME
------------------------------1
?.DBS.DATABASE1.DBF
2
?.DBS.DATABASE2.DBF
2 ROWS SELECTED.
You can determine the name of the log files in a similar way:
SQL> SELECT * FROM V$LOGFILE;
The following result is displayed:
File #FILENAME
------------------------------1
?.DBS.LOG1.DBF
2
?.DBS.LOG2.DBF
2 ROWS SELECTED.
2.
Under the DBA user ID, ensure that the ORASID environment variable identifies
the Oracle database, which is to be restored.
3.
Use the SQL*Plus STARTUP command to start up the Oracle database.
Recovery Manager
On BS2000/OSD, RMAN does not support tapes. Disks are the only backup media.
As a workaround, you could use the Recovery Manager output as a first level storage
to be 'migrated' by BS2000 subsystem HSMS (Hierarchical Storage Management
System) to tapes. However, it is the administrator's responsibility to care for
cooperation of the two systems.
Recovery Manager must use an Oracle Net Services connection. For this purpose you
can:
■
■
use a Bequeath Server (refer to Chapter 9, "Oracle Net Services")
follow the same procedure as 'Starting a Database Instance from a Remote System',
that is, you must create a password file, start a listener, and connect through
Oracle Net Services
The following is an example of a Recovery Manager command:
/START-PROG $ORAC1020.RMAN
*target "dba1/dba1@i1" catalog "dba2/dba2@i2" cmdfile "b.dat" log "b.log"
Backing Up and Recovering a Database
6-3
Recovery Manager
6-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
7
7
Tuning the Oracle Database
Careful tuning can dramatically increase the speed of an Oracle database. This chapter
describes how you can monitor and tune the system for optimal performance of the
Oracle database. For a general discussion of performance and tuning issues, refer to
the Oracle Database Administrator's Guide and Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide.
This chapter covers BS2000 specific tuning parameters.
You should always tune the Oracle database. In addition, you may need to fine tune or
reconfigure the BS2000/OSD operating system to achieve optimal performance, or to
support more users than the basic configuration enables.
BS2000/OSD-Specific Parameters
This section describes ORAENV environment variables for BS2000/OSD-specific Oracle
Database performance tuning.
Task Priority
Apart from generic or BS2000/OSD-specific Oracle Database tuning options, the
BS2000/OSD priority of Oracle Database tasks at run-time, and their run-time priority
balance, can have a lot of influence on the overall throughput and the time delays
experienced.
Initially, all foreground (network server) and background tasks have the same
run-time priority, as specified by the ORAENV environment variable, BGJPAR. Server
tasks automatically become TP tasks, and the background tasks will also switch to TP
mode, if the JOIN entry permits this.
Both before and while changing run-time priorities, you should use SM2 to investigate
task behavior and possible bottlenecks. There is no simple rule that says that certain
tasks always have a high priority.
Tuning the Oracle Database 7-1
BS2000/OSD-Specific Parameters
7-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
8
8
openUTM Product Set
This chapter describes how to use the BS2000/OSD transaction monitor openUTM for
coordinated interoperation with Oracle Database 10g release 2 (10.2). The following
areas are covered:
■
Operation of Oracle Database Using openUTM Programs
■
Distributed openUTM Files
■
Installing
■
Developing an Oracle Database/openUTM Application
■
Troubleshooting
■
Upgrading an existing Oracle Database / openUTM application from Oracle9i
Operation of Oracle Database Using openUTM Programs
The Universal Transaction Monitor (openUTM) controls the execution of user
programs that can be used from a large number of terminals at the same time.
An openUTM application consists of a structured sequence of processing stages that
are supplied with access rights for the specific user. These stages, in turn, consist of
openUTM transactions that are carried out either in their entirety, or not at all.
If several users are working under openUTM at the same time then simultaneous
access to the shared database is also usually required. The database/data
communications system (DB/DC system), Oracle Database/openUTM, synchronizes
access by openUTM applications to Oracle Database, and ensures that the database
remains in a consistent state. In the event of system failure, the DB/DC system
performs an automatic recovery, which ensures that the database remains in a
consistent state.
Synchronization of Oracle and openUTM is done through the XA interface. The XA
interface is an X/Open interface for the coordination between database systems and
transaction monitors. Refer to the Developing Applications with Oracle XA chapter in
Oracle Database Application Developer's Guide - Fundamentals for a description of the
concepts of the XA interface.
Distributed openUTM Files
When you install the Oracle Database, as described in Chapter 3, "Installing Oracle
Database Software", the openUTM related software of the Oracle Database software is
installed. The distributed openUTM files comprise of:
■
XAO.LIB
openUTM Product Set
8-1
Installing
This file contains the connection module for the XA interface.
■
The following files provide examples of procedures and programs:
UTM.DEMO.P.COMPILE.C
UTM.DEMO.P.COMPILE.COBOL
UTM.DEMO.P.KDCDEF
UTM.DEMO.P.KDCROOT
UTM.DEMO.P.PROBIND
UTM.DEMO.P.PROSTRT
UTM.DEMO.CSELEMP.PC
UTM.DEMO.SELDEP.PCO
UTM.DEMO.SELEMP.PCO
UTM.DEMO.UPDEMP.PCO
UTM.DEMO.ERRSQL.C
UTM.DEMO.ERRTXT.C
Installing
Perform the following step to install after studying the Oracle Database Application
Developer's Guide - Fundamentals:
■
Grant the SELECT privilege to the DBA_PENDING_TRANSACTIONS table for all
openUTM users connecting to the Oracle Database. Use the following example to
grant the SELECT privilege to user scott:
grant select on DBA_PENDING_TRANSACTIONS to scott;
The openUTM users are identified in the Open String with the Item Acc. Refer to
Defining an Open String section on page 8-4 in this chapter.
Developing an Oracle Database/openUTM Application
Oracle Database 10g on BS2000 supports openUTM V5.3 and higher. Starting with the
release V5.3 openUTM supports the XA interface. Oracle Database 10g on BS2000
coordinates with openUTM through this XA interface. Using this new interface of
openUTM results in substantial changes in the steps of developing an Oracle
Database/openUTM application compared to previous releases of openUTM and
Oracle Database.
If you have an existing Oracle Database/openUTM application, then refer to the
section Upgrading an existing Oracle Database / openUTM application from Oracle9i
later in this chapter.
The steps involved in developing an Oracle Database application for coordinated
inter-operation with openUTM are described in this section. The main steps are as
follows:
1.
Building the openUTM program units
2.
Defining the configuration
3.
Translating the KDCROOT table module and openUTM program units
4.
Linking the openUTM application program
5.
Starting the openUTM application
In addition, this section also describes how you define open strings and how you use
precompilers with the Oracle XA library.
1.
Building the openUTM program units:
8-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Developing an Oracle Database/openUTM Application
(refer to the openUTM manual Programming Applications with KDCS for COBOL, C,
and C++, and the Oracle Database User's Guide for Fujitsu Siemens BS2000/OSD)
2.
Defining the configuration:
(refer to the openUTM manuals Generating Applications and Administering
Applications)
An Oracle Database/openUTM application requires the following information for
execution:
■
Information about the application
■
Username/password with access protection
■
Information about the terminal and communication partners
■
Information about the transaction codes
These properties collectively form the configuration, which is stored in the
KDCFILE file. The configuration definition is carried out by the KDCDEF utility.
This section gives the descriptions for three commands that are important for
connecting to the Oracle database. They are:
■
DATABASE
When the Oracle Database/openUTM application is generated, you must
specify that openUTM communicates with the Oracle Database. Enter the
following command to specify openUTM communication with the database:
DATABASE TYPE=XA,ENTRY=XAOSWD
where TYPE=XA specifies the use of the XA interface and ENTRY=XAOSWD
specifies the name of the XA switch for the Oracle database (for dynamic
registration).
■
OPTION
If you specify the corresponding GEN operand in the OPTION command, then
the KDCDEF utility also produces the source-code for the KDCROOT table
module. The syntax of OPTION is as follows:
OPTION [DATA=filename][,GEN={KDCFILE|ROOTSRC|NO|ALL}]
[,ROOTSRC=filename][,SHARETAB=filename]
[,TEST={N[o]|Y[ES]}]
■
MAX
Another important operand is APPLIMODE, which is specified in the MAX
command. This determines restart behavior after a system failure. The syntax
of MAX is as follows:
MAX APPLINAME=name[,APPLIMODE={S[ECURE]|F[AST]}]
[,ASYNTASKS=number][...]
APPLIMODE=SECURE means that openUTM continues after an application
malfunction with a co-ordinated warm-start of the openUTM application and
the Oracle database.
If you specify APPLIMODE=FAST, no openUTM application restart is carried
out, as openUTM stores no restart information. In the event of an error, the
application starts from scratch. Transactions that are still open after a
openUTM-application malfunctions are rolled back automatically.
openUTM Product Set
8-3
Developing an Oracle Database/openUTM Application
See the UTM.DEMO.P.KDCDEF file for an example procedure for building the
KDCFILE and the KDCROOT table module.
3.
Translating the KDCROOT table module and openUTM program units:
The source of the KDCROOT table module should be compiled with the BS2000
Assembler and the openUTM program units should be compiled with the
corresponding programming language compilers. See the example procedure
UTM.DEMO.P.KDCROOT for the compilation of the KDCROOT table module.
4.
Linking the openUTM application program:
The openUTM application program is produced by linking the KDCROOT table
module with the openUTM program units.
Instead of writing the binding procedure you should use the
example procedure UTM.DEMO.P.PROBIND and apply modifications
when needed.
Note:
If you cannot do without writing your own binding procedure please
study the example carefully before writing one.
5.
Starting the openUTM application:
An example procedure for starting the openUTM application can be found in the
file UTM.DEMO.P.PROSTRT.
When starting the openUTM application, you must specify the start parameters for
openUTM, as well as for the Oracle Database.
The openUTM start parameters are described in the openUTM manual Using
openUTM Applications under BS2000/OSD.
The start parameter for using the XA interface for coordinated inter-operation
with Oracle Database 10g is:
.RMXA RM="Oracle_XA",OS="<ORACLE open string>"
Defining an Open String
This section describes how to construct an open string. The transaction monitor uses
this string to open the database. The maximum number of characters in an open string
is 256, and the maximum number of open strings is 8. Construct the string as follows:
Oracle_XA{+required_fields...}[+optional_fields...]
where the required_fields are:
■
Acc=P/user/access_info
■
SesTm=session_time_limit
and the optional_fields are:
■
DB=db_name
■
MaxCur=maximum_no_of_open_cursors
■
SqlNet=connect_string
■
DbgFl=value_from_1_to_15
8-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Developing an Oracle Database/openUTM Application
Notes:
Remember the following:
■
■
■
You can enter the required fields and optional fields in any order
when constructing the open string.
All field names are case-insensitive, although their values may or
may not be case-sensitive depending on the system.
You may not use the "+" character as part of the actual open
string.
Required Fields
The required fields for the open string are:
Item
Meaning
Acc
Specifies user access information.
P
Indicates that explicit user and password information is provided.
user
A valid Oracle Database username.
access_info
The corresponding current password.
For example, Acc=P/scott/tiger indicates that user and password information is
provided. In this case, the user is scott and the password is tiger.
For the correct process, make sure that scott has the SELECT privilege on the DBA_
PENDING_TRANSACTIONS table.
Item
Meaning
SesTm
Specifies the maximum amount of time a transaction can be inactive
before it is automatically deleted by the system.
session_time_limit This value should correspond to what you require as a maximum
time from initiation of a global transaction and the completed
commit or rollback of that transaction.
Optional Fields
Optional fields for the open string are described in the following table:
Item
Meaning
DB
Specifies the database name.
openUTM Product Set
8-5
Developing an Oracle Database/openUTM Application
Item
Meaning
db_name
Indicates the name used in Oracle Database precompilers to identify
the database.
Application programs that use only the default database for the Oracle
Database precompiler, that is, do not use the AT clause in their SQL
statements, should omit the DB=db_name clause in the open string.
Note: This default database is represented in the ORAENV file by
ORASID.
Applications that use explicitly–named databases should indicate that
database name in their DB=db_name field.
For example, DB=payroll indicates that the database name is payroll
and that the application server program will use that name in AT
clauses.
For more information about precompilers, specifically Pro*C, refer to the section Using
Precompilers with openUTM later in this chapter.
Item
Meaning
MaxCur
Specifies the number of cursors to be allocated when the
database is opened. It serves the same purpose as the
precompiler option maxopencursors.
maximum_no_of_open_cursors Indicates the number of open cursors. The default is 10.
For example, MaxCur=5 indicates that the process should try to keep five open cursors
cached.
For more information on maxopencursors, refer to the Oracle Database Programmer's
Guide to the Oracle Precompilers.
Item
Meaning
SqlNet
Specifies the SQL*Net connection string.
connect_string
Indicates the string to be used to log onto the system. This can be any
supported Oracle Net Services connect string.
For example:
SqlNet=MADRID_FINANCE indicates an entry in TNSNAMES.ORA referencing a
protocol, a host, and a portnumber. For more information, refer to Chapter 9, "Oracle
Net Services" in this book.
Item
Meaning
DbgFl
Specifies if debugging should be enabled (debug flag). For more
information refer to Debugging in the subsequent section in this
chapter.
Examples
This section contains examples of open strings using the preceding information.
8-6 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Developing an Oracle Database/openUTM Application
If the string is longer than one line, refer to the openUTM
documentation for information about how to split up the string
information.
Note:
For bequeath protocol:
Oracle_XA+Acc=P/scott/tiger+SesTm=0+DbgFl=15
For other protocols:
Oracle_XA+SqlNet=MADRID_FINANCE+Acc=P/scott/tiger+SesTm=0
Oracle_XA+DB=finance+SqlNet=MADRID_FINANCE+Acc=P/scott/tiger
+SesTM=0
The optional fields LogDir, Loose_Coupling, SesWT, and Threads are not
supported.
For more information about the fields in the open string refer to the Developing
Applications with Oracle XA section in Oracle Database Application Developer's Guide Fundamentals.
Using Precompilers with openUTM
You can choose from two options when interfacing with precompilers:
■
Using precompilers with the default database
■
Using precompilers with a named database
Note that you should run all precompiler programs with the option release_
cursor set to no. Precompiler programs may be written in C or COBOL. In the
following examples, the precompiler Pro*C is used.
Using Pro*C with the Default Database
To interface to Pro*C with the default database, ensure that the DB=db_name field
used in the open string is not present. The absence of this field indicates the default
connection as defined in the ORAENV file, and only one default connection is allowed
for each process.
The following is an example of an open string identifying a default Pro*C connection:
Oracle_XA+SqlNet=MADRID_FINANCE+Acc=P/scott/tiger+SesTm=0
Note that DB=db_name is absent, indicating an empty database identifier string.
The following is the syntax of a select statement:
EXEC SQL SELECT ENAME FROM EMP;
Using Pro*C with a Named Database
To interface to Pro*C with a named database, include the DB=db_name field in the
open string. Any database you refer to must reference the same db_name specified in
the corresponding open string.
An application may include the default database, as well as one or more named
databases, as shown in the following examples.
openUTM Product Set
8-7
Developing an Oracle Database/openUTM Application
For example, suppose you want to update an employee's salary in one database, the
department number deptno in another, and the manager information in a third
database. You would configure the following open strings in the transaction manager:
Oracle_XA+SqlNet=MADRID_FINANCE1+Acc=P/scott/tiger+SesTm=0
Oracle_XA+DB=MANAGERS+SqlNet=MADRID_FINANCE2+
Acc=P/scott/tiger+SesTm=0
Oracle_XA+DB=PAYROLL+SqlNet=MADRID_FINANCE3+
Acc=P/scott/tiger+SesTm=0
Note that there is no DB=db_name field in the first open string.
In the application program, you would enter declarations such as:
EXEC SQL DECLARE PAYROLL DATABASE;
EXEC SQL DECLARE MANAGERS DATABASE;
Again, the default connection corresponding to the first open string that does not
contain the db_name field, does not require a declaration.
When doing the update, enter statements similar to the following:
EXEC SQL AT PAYROLL update emp set sal=4500 where empno=7788;
EXEC SQL AT MANAGERS update emp set mgr=7566 where empno=7788;
EXEC SQL update emp set deptno=30 where empno=7788;
There is no AT clause in the last statement because it refers to the default database.
You can use a character host variable in the AT clause, as the following example
shows:
EXEC SQL BEGIN DECLARE SECTION;
db_name1 CHARACTER(10);
db_name2 CHARACTER(10)
EXEC SQL END DECLARE SECTION;
.
.
set db_name1 = 'PAYROLL'
set db_name2 = 'MANAGERS'
.
.
EXEC SQL AT :db_name1 UPDATE...
EXEC SQL AT :db_name2 UPDATE...
For more information, refer to the respective sections in the Pro*COBOL Programmer's
Guide and Pro*C/C++ Programmer's Guide that discusses concurrent logons.
Note:
■
■
Application servers must not create Oracle database connections
of their own. Therefore, an openUTM user is not allowed to issue
CONNECT statements within an openUTM program. Any work
performed by them would be outside the global transaction, and
may confuse the connection information given by openUTM.
SQL calls must not occur in the openUTM start exit routine,
however may occur in the conversation exit routine
(Vorgangs-Exit)
8-8 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting
This section discusses how to recover data if there are problems or a system failure.
Both trace files and recovering pending transactions are discussed in the following
sections.
Trace Files
The Oracle XA library logs any error and tracing information to its trace file. This
information is useful in supplementing the XA error codes. For example, it can
indicate whether an open failure is caused by an incorrect open string, failure to find
the Oracle Database instance, or a login authorization failure. The name of the trace
file is:
ORAXALOG.pid-db_name-date.TRC
where
pid is the process identifier (TSN)
db_name is the database name you specified in the open string field DB=db_name
date is the date when the trace file is created
Trace File Examples
Examples of two types of trace files are discussed in this section.
The following example shows a trace file for an application's task '1234' that was
opened on April 2nd 1999. The DB field for this application was not specified in the
open string when the resource manager was opened
ORAXALOG.1234-NULL-990402.TRC
The following example shows a trace file that was created on December 15th 1998 by
task 5678. The DB field was specified as FINANCE in the open string when the
resource manager was opened.
ORAXALOG.5678-FINANCE-981215.TRC
Each entry in the trace file contains information that looks like this:
1032.2: xa_switch rtn ORA-22
where 1032 is the time when the information is logged, 2 is the resource manager
identifier, xa_switch is the module name, and ORA-22 is the returned Oracle
database information.
Debugging
You can specify the DbgFl (debug flag) in the open string. For more information, refer
to the Oracle XA chapter in Oracle Database Application Developer's Guide - Fundamentals.
Depending on the debugging level (low:DbgFl=1,high:DbgFl=15) you can get
more or less debug entries in the trace file ORAXALOG.pid-db_name-date.TRC (refer
to the preceding section).
In-Doubt or Pending Transactions
In-doubt or pending transactions are transactions that have been prepared but not yet
committed to the database. Generally, openUTM resolves any failure and recovery of
openUTM Product Set
8-9
Troubleshooting
any in-doubt or pending transaction. However, the Database Administrator may have
to override an in-doubt transaction in working with UTM-F, that is,
APPLIMODE=FAST, for example when the in-doubt transaction is:
■
Locking data that is required by other transactions
■
Not resolved in a reasonable amount of time
Overriding in-doubt transactions can cause inconsistency
between openUTM and the database. For example, if the DB
transaction is committed by the Database Administrator and the
openUTM application rolls back the transaction in the warm-start
phase, the Oracle Database cannot roll this committed transaction
back, therefore, causing an inconsistency.
Note:
Oracle Database SYS Account Tables
There are four tables under the Oracle Database SYS account that contain transactions
generated by regular Oracle Database applications and Oracle Database/openUTM
applications. These are as follows:
■
DBA_2PC_PENDING
■
DBA_2PC_NEIGHBORS
■
DBA_PENDING_TRANSACTIONS
■
V$GLOBAL_TRANSACTION
For detailed information about how to use these tables, refer to
the sections in the Oracle Database Administrator's Guide that discuss
failures during two-phase commit and manually overriding in-doubt
transactions.
Note:
For transactions generated by Oracle Database/openUTM applications, the following
column information applies specifically to the DBA_2PC_NEIGHBORS table:
■
The DBID column is always xa_orcl.
■
The DBUSER_OWNER column is always db_namexa.oracle.com.
Remember that the db_name is always specified as DB=db_name in the open string. If
you do not specify this field in the open string, then the value of this column is
NULLxa.oracle.com for transactions that are generated by Oracle
Database/openUTM applications.
For example, you could use the following sample SQL statement to find out more
information about in-doubt transactions that are generated by Oracle
Database/openUTM applications.
SELECT * FROM DBA_2PC_PENDING p, DBA_2PC_NEIGHBORS n
WHERE p.LOCAL_TRAN_ID = n.LOCAL_TRAN_ID
AND
n.DBID = 'xa_orcl';
8-10 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Upgrading an existing Oracle Database / openUTM application from Oracle9i
Upgrading an existing Oracle Database / openUTM application from
Oracle9i
Starting with the release V5.3, openUTM supports the XA interface. Oracle Database
10g on BS2000 does coordinated interoperation with openUTM now exclusively
through this XA interface. This results in substantial changes in all steps of developing
an Oracle Database/openUTM application compared to previous releases of openUTM
and Oracle Database, where the coordinated interoperation had been done through
the proprietary interface IUTMDB of openUTM on BS2000/OSD.
If you have an existing openUTM application on BS2000/OSD, which does coordinated
interoperation with one or more Oracle instances through the IUTMDB interface, then
you have to apply the following changes to the steps of the application development
in order to migrate to the new XA interface of openUTM.
The following table lists the steps used for Oracle9i:
Steps
Oracle9i (using IUTMDB interface)
KDCDEF Generation
DATABASE TYPE=ORACLE
,ENTRY=ORACLE
[,LIB=<ORAUID>UTM.ORAUTM.LIB]
KDCROOT
compilation
<ORAUID>.UTM.ORAUTM.LIB has to be specified as a macro library
Linking with
BINDER
INC-MOD LIB=<ORAUID>.UTM.ORAUTM.LIB,
Starting
.ORACLE <openstring>
ELEM=(KDCSVxx, ORADBCO, SQLUTM)
The following table lists the steps to be used for Oracle Database 10g:
Steps
Oracle Database 10g (using XA)
KDCDEF Generation
DATABASE TYPE=XA
,ENTRY=XAOSWD
KDCROOT
compilation
<ORAUID>.UTM.ORAUTM.LIB must not be specified as a macro
library.
Linking with
BINDER
INC-MOD LIB=<ORAUID>.XAO.LIB,
Starting
.RMXA RM="Oracle_XA",OS="<openstring>"
ELEM=XAOSTUB
Oracle Database 10g release 2 on BS2000/OSD does not support the IUTMDB interface
of openUTM.
openUTM Product Set 8-11
Upgrading an existing Oracle Database / openUTM application from Oracle9i
8-12 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
9
9
Oracle Net Services
This chapter describes Oracle Net Services and it’s implementation in the BS2000/OSD
environment. It supplements the Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide with
BS2000/OSD-specific information about the following topics:
■
Introducing Oracle Net Services
■
Shared Server Architecture
■
Oracle Advanced Security
■
Configuring the Network
■
Troubleshooting Oracle Net Services
Introducing Oracle Net Services
Oracle Net Services supports network communication between a client application
and a remote or local database running on a variety of operating systems.
Oracle Net Services allows the database servers and the client applications, or servers
acting as clients, that access it to run on separate systems, and provides a means for
moving data between the nodes on a network. For example, a UNIX or Windows user
can run applications that access and manipulate data in a remote Oracle database
running on a BS2000 system
Oracle Net Services is also used for Inter Process Communication if clients and
database are running on the same system.
What's New in Oracle Net Services?
The following are the new features in Oracle Net Services:
■
Oracle Advanced Security
With this release the encryption and data integrity functionality of Oracle
Advanced Security are supported. Creating and managing an Oracle Wallet is
now supported by the tools owm and orapki.
■
Direct Handoff
Oracle Database 10g on BS2000 now supports the handoff/direct handoff
technique, that is the listener will route the connection request of a client directly
to a server. The benefit of the handoff/direct handoff technique is that the client
must know only one access point. For example, in a TCP/IP connection only the
listener port must be reachable by the client. Unfortunately, this benefit makes the
BEQ protocol incompatible with prior versions.
Oracle Net Services 9-1
Introducing Oracle Net Services
IPC Protocol Support
This section introduces Oracle’s Interprocess Communication (IPC) protocol support
for inter-process calls. It is used to map the functionality of IPC to Oracle's Net
Foundation Layer.
Overview of IPC
On BS2000 systems, the IPC protocol is used for local inter-process communication.
The Oracle Protocol Support for IPC uses the ISO functionality of the BS2000 sockets.
The CLIENT process initiates its IPC connection with the remote process by specifying
a KEY that describes the listening process. Once the connection is established, the two
communicating processes send and receive data through a continuous byte stream.
Using the IPC Protocol
The IPC protocol allows applications to integrate with the Inter Process
Communication method on a local host. The following is the syntax for using IPC
protocol:
(ADDRESS=
(PROTOCOL=IPC)
(KEY=alphanumeric)
)
where
PROTOCOL specifies the supported protocol. For IPC, the value is "IPC".
KEY specifies the listen endpoint. A string of at most 32 characters: [a...z], [A...Z],
[0...9], '.', '-', '_', '$'
The following is an example of an IPC ADDRESS that specifies a server on a local host:
(ADDRESS=
(PROTOCOL=IPC)
(KEY=ORCL)
)
TCP/IP Protocol Support
This section introduces Oracle’s TCP/IP protocol support, which is used to map the
functionality within TCP/IP to Oracle's Net Foundation Layer.
Overview of TCP/IP
TCP/IP is a family of related protocols that derives its name from two main
components: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP).
The IP component dispatches information around the network, and the TCP
component assures reliable transfer of data from one point to another.
Application software sitting on top of the TCP/IP protocol views the network as a
reliable two-way data transmission medium. This medium provides inter-process
communication in a connection-oriented manner between pairs of processes in host
computers attached to inter-connected computer networks.
The application or client process initiates its TCP/IP connection with the remote host
process by specifying an address pair:
■
A host IP address
■
A TCP port (or entry point) on the host
9-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Introducing Oracle Net Services
Once the connection is established, the pair of communicating processes sends and
receives data through a continuous byte stream.
Using the TCP/IP Protocol
The TCP/IP protocol support implements a standard interface that is used to resolve
the equivalent communication functions between the TCP/IP protocol and Oracle's
Net Foundation Layer.
After the TCP/IP protocol is installed for the particular system, you can use the
TCP/IP–specific parameters with the TNS connect descriptors to identify nodes within
a TCP/IP-based community.
The specific TCP/IP connection parameters are part of the ADDRESS keyword-value
pair. The three TCP/IP–specific parameters can be entered in any order within the
ADDRESS construct. The syntax used by Oracle's TCP/IP protocol support is:
(ADDRESS=
(PROTOCOL=TCP)
(HOST=hostname)
(PORT=port#)
)
where
PROTOCOL specifies the supported protocol. For TCP/IP, the value is TCP.
HOST specifies the host name or the host's IP address.
PORT specifies the TCP/IP port number.
The following is an example of the TCP/IP ADDRESS specifying a client on the
sales-server host:
(ADDRESS=
(PROTOCOL=TCP)
(HOST=sales-server)
(PORT=1521)
)
Bequeath Protocol
The Bequeath technique enables clients to connect to a database without using the
network listener. Oracle's Bequeath protocol internally spawns a server process for
each client application. It does the same operation that a remote network listener does
for the connection locally.
Note: Oracle Database 10g BEQ protocol uses the handoff technique
which makes this protocol incompatible with the BEQ protocol of
prior versions. As a consequence of this enhancement Oracle Database
10g applications cannot directly spawn a process of a prior version
and connect to it through the BEQ protocol.
Overview of the Bequeath Protocol
The Bequeath protocol
■
Does not use a network listener (therefore, no listener configuration is required).
■
Automatically spawns a dedicated server
Oracle Net Services 9-3
Shared Server Architecture
■
■
Used for local connections where an Oracle Database client application (such as
SQL*Plus) communicates with an Oracle Database instance running on the same
computer.
Only works in Dedicated Server mode. It cannot be used in a Shared Server mode.
If clients are running under a user ID different from the DBA
user ID, Oracle recommends using a net service name to connect
through a listener to the destination database.
Note:
Shared Server Architecture
The initialization parameters that control the shared server architecture are as follows:
■
LOCAL_LISTENER
■
DISPATCHERS
■
MAX_DISPATCHERS
■
SHARED_SERVERS
■
MAX_SHARED_SERVERS
■
SHARED_SERVER_SESSIONS
■
CIRCUITS
For detailed information on the shared server architecture, please refer to the Oracle
Database Net Services Administrator's Guide.
The shared server architecture and the dedicated server architecture can work
concurrently in an instance. You provide information in the connect descriptor to
indicate whether a connecting application is to use the shared server or the dedicated
server architecture. By default, the listener process uses the shared server architecture
and if you want the application to use the dedicated server architecture instead, you
need to set USE_DEDICATED_SERVER=ON in the SQLNET.ORA file or to specify a
net_service_name with the parameter SERVER in the used naming method. Note
that the SQLNET.ORA parameter USE_DEDICATED_SERVER=ON overwrites the
parameter SERVER.
The following example shows how to reference a dedicated server in a shared server
configuration by using a specially defined net service name:
FINANCE_DED=(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=
(PROTOCOL=TCP)
(HOST=sales-server)
(PORT=1521))
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=sales.us.acme.com)
(SERVER=dedicated)))
For more information, refer to the Oracle Database Net Services Reference guide.
In choosing whether to use the shared server or the dedicated server architecture, you
need to consider the CPU overhead versus resource allocation such as tasks, memory
and so on. In a situation where many clients need to work only occasionally with the
Oracle Database, it would be best to use the shared server architecture, whereas, in a
situation where just a few clients need to work with the Oracle Database regularly, it
would be best to use the dedicated server architecture. Your decision may not always
9-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Oracle Advanced Security
be as clear-cut as that in these examples. If this is the case, you can use the information
in the following shared server dynamic tables to help you arrive at your decision:
■
V$DISPATCHER
■
V$QUEUE
■
V$SHARED_SERVERS
■
V$SHARED_SERVER_MONITOR
For more information on these tables, refer to the Oracle Database Administrator's Guide.
Oracle Advanced Security
With this release the data integrity and the cryptographic services of Oracle Advanced
Security are supported. The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol is also supported. SSL
provides authentication, encryption, and data integrity using Public Key Infrastructure
(PKI). SSL stores authentication data, such as certificates and private keys, in an Oracle
Wallet.
For using either the data integrity, or the cryptographic services, or both, you have to
specify the appropriate parameters in the SQLNET.ORA file.
Use the following parameters to specify whether a service (example:
crypto-checksumming or encryption) should be active:
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER
Each of the preceding parameters defaults to REJECTED.
Each of the preceding parameters can have one of the following values:
Value
Meaning
ACCEPTED
The service will be active if the other side of the connection
specifies REQUESTED or REQUIRED and there is a
compatible algorithm available on the other side. It will be
inactive otherwise.
REJECTED
The service must not be active, and the connection will fail
if the other side specifies REQUIRED.
REQUESTED
The service will be active if the other side specifies
ACCEPTED, REQUESTED, or REQUIRED and there is a
compatible algorithm available on the other side. It will be
inactive otherwise.
REQUIRED
The service must be active, and the connection fails if the
other side specifies REJECTED or if there is no compatible
algorithm on the other side.
Use the following parameters to control which algorithms will be made available for
each service on each end of a connection:
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_CLIENT
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_SERVER
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER
Oracle Net Services 9-5
Configuring the Network
The value of each of these parameters can be either a list of algorithm names in
parenthesis separated by commas or a single algorithm name.
The default crypto checksum type is MD5, while the encryption defaults to all the
algorithms.
Type
Values
Crypto checksum types
SHA1, MD5
Encryption types
AES256, RC4_256, AES192, 3DES168, AES128, RC4_128,
3DES112, RC4_56, DES, RC4_40, DES40
Use the parameter SQLNET.CRYPTO_SEED to specify the characters used when
generating cryptographic keys. The more random the characters are, the stronger the
keys are. The string should be 10-70 random characters. This is required when
encryption or checksumming is turned on.
SQLNET.CRYPTO_SEED="qwertyuiopasdfghjkl;zxcvbnm,.s1"
For more information, refer to Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide, Oracle
Database Net Services Reference, and Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's
Guide.
Example:
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT=required
SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_CLIENT=(md5)
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT=accepted
SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT=(aes192,3des168,rc4_128)
SQLNET.CRYPTO_SEED="qwertyuiopasdfghjkl;zxcvbnm,.s1"
Configuring the Network
Before a database can receive connections from clients, clients must be configured with
service names that are easy to remember aliases for database addresses and match the
address preconfigured in each system's LISTENER.ORA file. The client uses these
addresses to connect to the network listener, which routes the connection request to
the required service. During a connection, a client passes the service name to which it
wants to connect.
LISTENER.ORA file identifies and controls the behavior of the network listener that
listens for services on the system. This file includes network listener descriptors and
addresses, services the listener is listening for, and various control parameters.
Client configuration is accomplished by creating a list of net service names with
addresses of network destinations through the local naming parameter file
TNSNAMES.ORA or an LDAP compliant directory server. Clients and database servers
(that are clients of other database servers) use the net service name when making a
connection.
Using the Local Naming Method
Local naming refers to the method of resolving a service name to a network address by
using information configured on each individual client in a TNSNAMES.ORA
configuration file. For using the local naming make sure that "TNSNAMES" is listed in
the client's configuration file parameter for naming adaptors names.directory_
path.
9-6 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Configuring the Network
Local naming is most appropriate for simple distributed networks with a small
number of services that change infrequently.
Using the Directory Naming Method
Directory Naming refers to the method of resolving a service name to a network
address by using a Directory Server. For using a directory server make sure that LDAP
is listed in the client's configuration file parameter for naming adaptors
names.directory_path and that the target address of the directory server is
configured in the parameter file LDAP.ORA, for example:
# LDAP.ORA Network Configuration File: network.admin.ldap.ora
DEFAULT_ADMIN_CONTEXT = ""
DIRECTORY_SERVERS= (oid_server:389:636)
DIRECTORY_SERVER_TYPE = Your Internet Directory
For more information, refer to the Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide .
Configuration on the Server
Follow these steps to configure the Oracle Names Method:
1.
Before starting the listener, you have to set up the listener's configuration file
LISTENER.ORA. This file includes the addresses of the listeners and various
control parameters used by the listener. For more information refer to the Oracle
Database Net Services Administrator's Guide
On BS2000 systems you have the chance to define additional job parameters for
the Oracle Database tasks particularly a PROCESSING-ADMISSION to start a job
under a user ID different from the user ID of the running job. This technique
provides the benefits of using only one listener for all Oracle instances on the
system. The instances need not run under the same user IDs. If you want to run
only one listener on the database computer, you have to specify the following
parameters in the listener's environment file sid.P.ORAENV:
Parameter
Meaning
BGJPAR
parameters for ENTER jobs
sid_BGJPAR
parameters for ENTER jobs identified by sid
sid_USER
the user ID under which the job should run
user_ACCOUNT
Account of the target user ID
user_PASSWORD
Password of the target user ID
The following example of an ORAENV file configured for a central listener process
shows how the parameters work. The listener can share this ORAENV file with an
instance, which runs under the same user ID. For a better understanding, we
assume that the listener and the instances DEMO and DEM1 are running under the
user ID ORACDEM1 while the instance DEM2 is running under the user ID
ORACDEM2. We define the following parameters:
BGJPAR=J-C=JCBORA,START=IMME,CPU-LIMIT=NO,LOGGING=*NO
DEM1_BGJPAR=J-C=JCBDEM1,START=IMME,CPU-LIMIT=NO
DEM2_USER=ORACDEM2
ORACDEM2_ACCOUNT=O1234
ORACDEM2_PASSWORD=ORACLE
Oracle Net Services 9-7
Configuring the Network
The listener always runs the same sequence to look up the parameters sid_
BGJPAR and sid_USER. If no value for sid_BGJPAR are found, the listener uses
the value given by the parameter BGJPAR. If a user ID is given by sid_USER the
listener tries to get the processing admission from the parameters user_ACCOUNT
and user_PASSWORD. For the given ORAENV we get the following scenarios for
the listener:
■
■
■
The listener should start a server for the instance DEMO. Because the
parameters DEMO_BGJPAR and DEMO_USER are not defined the listener starts
the server for the instance DEMO under the user ID ORACDEM1 with the start
parameters defined by BGJPAR.
If a server for the instance DEM1 must be started the listener looks for the
parameters DEM1_BGJPAR and DEM1_USER. In this case the parameter DEM1_
BGJPAR can be translated, whereas, the translation of DEM1_USER failed
because this parameter is not defined. Therefore, the listener adds the start
parameters "J-C=JCBDEM1,START=IMME,CPU-LIMIT=NO" to the
ENTER-PROCEDURE command and starts the job under the user ID
ORACDEM1.
Now a server for instance DEM2 must be started. The listener looks for the
parameters DEM2_BGJPAR and DEM2_USER. The parameter DEM2_BGJPAR is
not defined so that the listener uses the start parameters defined by BGJPAR.
On the other hand the parameter DEM2_USER can be translated successfully
and returns the value ORACDEM2. Now the listener tries to get the processing
admission by translating the parameters ORACDEM2_ACCOUNT and
ORACDEM2_PASSWORD. The listener starts the server job under the user ID
ORACDEM2 with the ENTER-PROCEDURE parameters "J-C=JCBORA,
START=IMME,CPU-LIMIT=NO,LOGGING=*NO".
Start the listener using the Listener Control Utility LSNRCTL:
CALL-PROCEDURE sid.P.ORAENV
START-PROGRAM $ORAC1020.LSNRCTL
When the enter options prompt is displayed, press ENTER to get to the
LSNRCTL prompt. Enter the following command to start the Listener:
LSNRCTL> START listener-name
Configuration on the Client
Configuration of network clients involves adding or editing parameters in the client
configuration file SQLNET.ORA and dependent on the used naming method, the
configuration file LDAP.ORA or TNSNAMES.ORA. For more information about the
configuration parameters, refer to Oracle Database Net Services Reference.
Testing the Configuration on the Client
After you have verified the network connections, you can verify the connections to the
desired Oracle database systems using the TNSPING utility:
CALL-PROCEDURE sid.P.ORAENV
START-PROGRAM $ORAC1020.TNSPING
When the enter options prompt is displayed, enter the net service name for the
database service which you have specified in the naming service. If everything works
fine a message similar to the following is returned:
TNS Ping Utility for BS2000: Version 10.2.0.2.20 -
9-8 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Troubleshooting Oracle Net Services
Production on 04-JUL-2007 14:49:53
Used parameter files: network.admin.sqlnet.ora
Used TNSNAMES adapter to resolve the alias
Attempting to contact (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS_LIST =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = sales-server)(PORT = 3055)))
(CONNECT_DATA = (SERVICE_NAME = sales.us.acme.com)))
OK (340 msec)
For more information, refer to the Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide.
Troubleshooting Oracle Net Services
The following is a list of error messages and steps to fix the errors:
1.
Listener could not be started. LSNRCTL returns the following error message:
LSNRCTL> start
Starting /BS2/$ORAC1020.tnslsnr: please wait...
TNS-12547: TNS:lost contact
TNS-12560: TNS:protocol adapter error
TNS-00517: Lost contact
BS2000 Error: 145: Connection timed out
LSNRCTL>
■
■
2.
■
■
■
■
Verify the listener log file using the BS2000 SDF command
REPAIR-DISK-FILES.
If you are not able to repair the listener log file, delete the file.
Check the naming service if the hostname returned by the listener is well
known in the TCP/IP network.
If you do not want to use the BCAM hostname of the computer in the TCP/IP
network, define a sockets-host-name as described in the BCAM documentation
and register this name in the name service.
Make sure that the BCAM Leight Weight Resolver LWRESD is properly
configured and running.
A client reports ORA-12535
■
5.
Check if the listener log file. For example, NETWORK.LOG.LISTENER.LOG, is
accessible and readable.
A client reports ORA-12545
■
4.
Make sure that the BCAM Leight Weight Resolver LWRESD is properly
configured and running.
Listener could not open the log file.
■
3.
Make sure that the subsystem POSIX is up and running.
If you use the IPC protocol, check the Connection Timeout parameter of BCAM
(use the BCSHOW command). This parameter should be set to at least 600
seconds.
A client reports ORA-03113
■
Check if the SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME parameter is set for the server. If the
parameter is set, please check the BCAM LETTER-TIMER using the BCSHOW
command. If the LETTER-TIME is less than the SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME, data
which are sent by the server to see if the client is running may not be read
Oracle Net Services 9-9
Troubleshooting Oracle Net Services
during their lifetime, which is limited by the LETTER-TIME. As a result, the
client will log a broken pipe in the SQLNET.LOG file:
ns
ns
nt
nt
nt
main
(2)
main
(2)
OS
err
err
err
err
err
code:
code:
code:
code:
code:
12547
12560
517
32
0x0040002c
You can solve this problem by setting the LETER-TIMER to infinite
9-10 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
10
10
Oracle Text
This chapter describes how to install and run Oracle Text and the restrictions of this
option on BS2000/OSD.
Installing Oracle Text
When you follow the procedures explained in chapter 4 about creating an Oracle
Database 10g release 2 database the result is not already Oracle Text enabled.
If you want to install Oracle Text, follow these steps:
1.
Start SQL*Plus. To avoid being prompted for many overflow acknowledgements
on the screen set oflow=no:
/tchng oflow=no
/start-program $ORAC1020.sqlplus
* /nolog
connect / as sysdba
spool catctx.log
@$ORAC1020.ctx.admin.catctx.sql CTXSYS SYSAUX TEMP NOLOCK;
where ctxsys is the CTXSYS user password, SYSAUX is the default tablespace
for ctxsys, TEMP is the temporary tablespace for ctxsys, and LOCK|NOLOCK
specifies whether the ctxsys user account will be locked or not.
2.
If you are working with US english texts, install appropriate language-specific
default preferences:
connect CTXSYS/CTXSYS
@$ORAC1020.ctx.admin.drdefus;
If you are not working with US english texts, open the drdef*.sql script
according to the preferred language, set the attribute (refer to Restrictions in the
following section), and run the script.
3.
Type exit when finished.
Starting Oracle Text utilities
The Oracle Text loader utility, ctxldr, is available within the Oracle Text option. For
more information about its functions and parameters, refer to Oracle Text Reference.
The following is an example of how to start the Oracle Text utility:
/start-program $ORAC1020.ctxldr
(when prompted with * enter, for example:)
*-user scott/tiger -export -name myindex -file myfile -pk 1
Oracle Text 10-1
Restrictions of Oracle Text on BS2000/OSD
Restrictions of Oracle Text on BS2000/OSD
Due to ASCII-EBCDIC and other dependencies following restrictions are inherent:
■
No index themes, that is CTX_DDL.set_attribute ('DEFAULT_LEXER','INDEX_
THEMES','NO') must be set
■
No INSO filters, which are licensed on special platforms only
■
No ctxkbtc, which are knowledge base utility)
■
No fuzzy operators but corresponding attributes should not be set
■
URL_DATASTORE objects are not supported
■
FILE_DATASTORE objects may reside on native BS2000 DMS as PAM files or on
the POSIX file system.
10-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
11
11
External Procedures
This chapter describes how to create an environment on BS2000/OSD, where external
procedure calls can operate. It complements the chapter about External Routines in the
Fundamentals section of Oracle Database Application Developer's Guide - Fundamentals.
Loading External Procedures
This section complements the corresponding part in Oracle Database Application
Developer's Guide - Fundamentals.
Follow these steps to load external procedures:
1.
Set up the environment.
An external procedure does not run in the same process and address space as the
caller. Oracle creates separate processes for them to operate in a safe and secure
manner. For this purpose Oracle Net Services features are used and it is the
responsibility of the user to provide suitable Oracle Net Services control files. In
this section, we have documented an example of how it can work. For more
information, refer to Oracle Database Application Developer's Guide - Fundamentals,
Oracle Database Data Cartridge Developer's Guide , and Oracle Database Net Services
documentation set.
The listener.ora file should have the following entry:
(SID_DESC = (SID_NAME = ep_agt1)
(ENVS = EXTPROC_DLLS=ANY)
(ORACLE_SID = sid_of_your_database)
(PROGRAM = EXTPROC)
)
The tnsnames.ora file should have the following entry:
extproc_connection_data = (DESCRIPTION =(ADDRESS =(PROTOCOL=ipc)
(KEY = sid_of_your_database)(CONNECT_DATA =(PRESENTATION=RO)
(SID = ep_agt1)))
Then you can start a listener.
2.
Identify the 'DLL'.
A DLL in the BS2000 environment is a modlib containing the functions called as
external procedures. When EXTPROC is loaded these functions are dynamically
bound to the program.
Use the following command to identify your library to Oracle:
CREATE LIBRARY my_c_library AS '$myuserid.my-modlib';
External Procedures 11-1
Loading External Procedures
The external C routine has to be compiled and the generated LLM has to be stored
in the modlib. Note that if you set the MODULE-PROPERTIES option
LOWER-CASE-NAMES=*NO, all lowercase letters in the entry names are converted
to uppercase.
Furthermore, note that if you set the MODULE-PROPERTIES option
SPECIAL-CHARACTERS=*CONVERT-TO-DOLLAR, all underscores (_) in entry
names are converted to dollar signs ($), which must be considered when
publishing the external procedure.
3.
Publishing and running external procedures does not differ from the description
in Oracle Database Application Developer's Guide - Fundamentals. Result messages
about the execution of the external procedure can be found in a file named
L.sid.EXTP.SYSOUT.tsn.
11-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
12
12
Java in the Database
This chapter describes what is BS2000 specific for Java in the database. Parts of this
chapter are:
■
Installation of a Java Enabled Database
■
Database character sets and Java Encodings
■
Loadjava
■
Java Demonstration Files
■
Restrictions
For more information, refer to Oracle Database 10g Java Documentation (a complex of
manuals).
Installation of a Java Enabled Database
Since Oracle8i, for the first time, Oracle is using POSIX interfaces. This does not mean
that Oracle 'is running in POSIX' but that a few POSIX APIs are used by Oracle.
Whereas, the overwhelming majority of APIs is still native BS2000. For example, PAM
calls, common memory pools, sockets, and so on. However, the POSIX part of Oracle
must be installed.
The procedure INSTALL.P.POSIX copies two special files, classes.bin and
libcorejava.so, into the specified POSIX directory and changes the value of
ORACLE_HOME in $ORAC1020.DEMO.P.ORAENV.
When you call $ORAC1020.INSTALL.P.SUPER and set the JAVA parameter to YES,
you'll get a suitable ORAENV file (with ORACLE_HOME as described earlier), a database
sized to Java requirements and Java installed inside the database.
When you try to enable Java an existing Oracle Database 10g, you can use the Java
related parts of this procedure as an example and modify it according to your needs,
that is, increase dbsize, increase shared_pool_size, create a large rollback segment,
run initjvm.sql, and so on. For more information, refer to Oracle Database Java
Developer's Guide.
After successful installation, when you get the following message you should ask the
BS2000 administrator to increase the number of UFS devices by modifying the
parameter NOSTTY in the configuration file SYSSSI.POSIX-BC.version.
CCM0090: ALL UFS TERMINAL DEVICES ARE IN USE OR PERMISSION DENIED
Java in the Database 12-1
Database character sets and Java Encodings
Where can files related to Java reside and how should they be encoded?
It is not absolutely straightforward where files used by Java have to be stored and how
they should be encoded. In general files can reside in native BS2000 or in the POSIX
file system, but there are exceptions.
The following table gives an overview of the file types, location, default encoding, and
encoding modifications for APIs or statements
Default
encoding
Encoding
modifications
BS2000
PAM file or
POSIX
Binary
Not applicable
.properties
BS2000
PAM file or
POSIX
ascii
None, that is,
there is no
means to
change default
encoding)
CREATE JAVA
SOURCE USING
BFILE
.java, .sqlj
BS2000
PAM file or
POSIX
DB charset
Execute dbms_
java. set_
compiler_
option ('
',
'encoding',
'ISO8859-1'
)
CREATE JAVA
SOURCE AS
.sql
Part of
statement
Session
character set
specified in
NLS_LANG
NLS_LANG
CALL DBMS_
JAVA.LOADJAVA
*, .jar, .zip
POSIX
DB charset
Option
encoding in
loadjava call
java.io-package
*
POSIX
DB charset
Depends on
the classes
used
Statement or API
File type
Place
CREATE JAVA
CLASS USING
BFILE
.class
CREATE JAVA
RESOURCE USING
BFILE
BS2000 PAM files in ascii can be created by transferring files (ftp) from an ascii
platform to BS2000 in binary mode.
The distinction between a native BS2000 file name and a POSIX file name is made by
the preceding slash ('/'). As a consequence, no relative path names are allowed for
POSIX file names.
However, there is one exception: when used within dbms_java.loadjava, relative
path names are preceded by the value of ORACLE_HOME in ORAENV file.
Database character sets and Java Encodings
As far as I/O is concerned, the Oracle JAVAVM uses the database character set as
system property file.encoding. Therefore the following Oracle/BS2000 database
character sets have been added to the list of supported Java encodings:
WE8BS2000
WE8BS2000E
EE8BS2000
CE8BS2000
12-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Restrictions
CL8BS2000
WE8BS2000L5
These encodings are not known to any other Java implementation.
The system property file.encoding, however, does not apply to Java property files.
Property files always use the encoding 8859_1 (refer to Oracle Database SQLJ
Developer's Guide and Reference). The system property file.encoding is used when
compiling a source file. You can change this default by either using the following
procedure or by setting the encoding option of the procedure dbms_java.loadjava:
dbms_java.set_compiler_option('','encoding',...)
Loadjava
This utility is not available on BS2000. However, you can use the dbms_
java.loadjava (resp.dropjava) package, within SQL*Plus, which is almost as
capable as the loadjava utility. For more information, refer to Oracle Database Java
Developer's Guide).
You can use the loadjava utility from a Unix or Windows platform to load Java
objects into a BS2000 Oracle Database 10g.
Java Demonstration Files
A simple Java demonstration program running in the server is shipped under:
$ORAC1020.JAVAVM.DEMO.HELLO.SQL
An example with database connection using the server-side internal driver is shipped
under:
$ORAC1020.JAVAVM.DEMO.EMPLOYEE*
Restrictions
Native Compilation using Accelerator is not supported.
Java in the Database 12-3
Restrictions
12-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
13
13
XML
This chapter describes BS2000 specific topics of XML such as installation, features, and
restrictions. For more information refer to Oracle XML Developer's Kit Programmer's
Guide, Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide, Oracle Database XML C API Reference, Oracle
Database XML C++ API Reference, and Oracle Database XML Java API Reference.
Installation of Xdk
The Oracle XML Developer's Kit (Xdk) is not part of the Oracle Database Product Set.
Oracle recommends downloading the latest version of Xdk from the Oracle Technical
Network OTN (Http://oracle.com/technology/tech/xml). The Jar files for
The XML Sql Utility (Xsu12.jar, Xdb.jar) and the XML Parser
(Xmlparserv2.jar) are already loaded in the database when you have followed the
procedures explained in Creating and Upgrading a Database.
Features and Restrictions
The following table provides an overview of which XML features are available for
which languages on BS2000.
The meaning of empty fields is: not supported.
N/A means: not applicable.
Availability for
XML Feature
Java
C
C++
PL/SQL
Parser
Yes
Yes
XSLT Processor
Yes
Yes
Class Generator
N/A
XSQL
N/A
N/A
N/A
Transviewer
Beans
N/A
N/A
N/A
XML-SQL Utility Yes
N/A
N/A
Yes
Schema
Processor
Yes
N/A
N/A
When using PL/SQL instead of Java you should expect the following behavior:
■
PL/SQL File input is only possible from POSIX and with ASCII-Data Format.
XML 13-1
Database XML support (Oracle XML DB)
■
■
PL/SQL File output is written to POSIX with ASCII-Data Format.
For INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE operations the XML document must not contain
<?xml ... encoding=WE8BS2000 ...>.
When using the JAVA-interfaces you have to ensure the right charset of the data. For
more information, refer to the encoding considerations listed in Chapter 12, "Java in
the Database".
If you have an ASCII platform with JDK, you can also use XML components and
operate on the BS2000 Oracle database using a JDBC connection.
Database XML support (Oracle XML DB)
Oracle Database 10g supports XML in the server by a data type XMLType with
predefined member functions, a PL/SQL package dbms_xmlgen to create XML from
SQL queries, and a native implementation of SQL/XML functions XMLQuery and
XMLTable for the support of XQUERY.
These features are already available when you have followed the procedures
explained in the About Creating a JAVA Enabled Oracle Database 10g release 2 section of
Chapter 4, "Creating and Upgrading a Database".
However, if you want to use the Oracle XML DB Repository, you have to run the
following SQL script:
catqm.sql XDB_PASS XDB_TS_NAME TEMP_TS_NAME
After creating a new tablespace and a new temporary tablespace in the database, you
must run the following script:
SQL> connect / as sysdba
SQL> create tablespace xdb_resinfo datafile 'tablespace-xdb-data'
size 100M autoextend on next 10M;
SQL> create temporary tablespace xdb_temp tempfile
'tablespace-xdb-temp' size 10M autoextend on;
SQL> @$ORAC1020.RDBMS.ADMIN.CATQM xdb xdb_resinfo xdb_temp;
Note that Oracle Database 10g on BS2000 does not support WebDAV access, HTTP
access, and FTP access, to the Oracle XML DB Repository.
13-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
14
14
Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle
RAC)
This chapter describes what is BS2000-specific for RAC. This chapter includes the
following topics:
■
BS2000 prerequisites for Oracle RAC
■
Installation of Oracle RAC
■
Creation and Configuration of a Database
■
Restrictions
For more information, refer to Oracle Real Application Clusters documentation set.
BS2000 prerequisites for Oracle RAC
The following are the prerequisites for Oracle RAC:
■
An inter-process communication system between the nodes of a cluster
■
A clusterware
■
A shared file system.
The interprocess communication system enables Oracle to exchange messages and
coordinate operations between the instances on the cluster, the clusterware specifies to
Oracle, which node is part of the cluster, which is not, and prohibits dead nodes to
interfere with the healthy ones. The shared file system gives access of the common
database files to the instances on the different nodes of the cluster.
The interprocess communication (IPC) of Oracle RAC is based on the protocol UDP/IP
of BS2000/OSD openNet Server.
HIPLEX MSCF delivers clusterware and shared file system on BS2000. You must run
HIPLEX MSCF as an XCS, cross coupled system, with an XCS shared pubset. RAC
cannot operate without these prerequisites.
For more information on HIPLEX MSCF, refer to the BS2000/OSD HIPLEX MSCF
guide.
The generic Oracle Clusterware is not supported with RAC on BS2000/OSD.
Consequently, Oracle Clusterware utilities such as SRVCTL or Cluster Verification
Utility are not supported.
Refer to Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and
Deployment Guide for information about the generic Oracle RAC concepts.
Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) 14-1
Installation of Oracle RAC
Installation of Oracle RAC
Installation of Oracle RAC software is not different from the single instance BS2000
installation. Oracle RAC is a part of the Oracle Database 10g release 2 software and is
implicitly installed when you install Oracle Database 10g.
It is important to install the Oracle software on an XCS shared pubset in order to have
shared access to the Oracle Database software from different XCS nodes, that is, the
default pubset of the installation user ID should be an XCS pubset.
The following steps must be performed for Oracle RAC installation:
1.
Install clusterware
2.
Configure shared disks
3.
Install Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition and Oracle Real Application Cluster
software
4.
Create and configure the database
With an HIPLEX MSCF XCS cluster and an XCS shared pubset you implicitly get
clusterware and shared disks with a cluster file system.
The usual single instance installation puts you at the end of step 3.
The fourth step is described in the next section.
Creation and Configuration of a Database
To avoid RAC process overhead for non-RAC instances on BS2000, an ORAENV
parameter notifies Oracle if Oracle RAC should be switched on or off:
ENABLE_RAC=TRUE/FALSE
This parameter controls Oracle RAC operation on a BS2000 cluster. It does not replace
INIT.ORA parameters, such as CLUSTER_DATABASE=TRUE. The meaning of all
Oracle RAC related INIT.ORA parameters is unchanged. ENABLE_RAC=TRUE in
ORAENV must be set as a prerequisite to use RAC on BS2000.
There is no Database Configuration Assistant on BS2000. You must create the database
manually using SQL*Plus.
The next sections describe how to create and configure an Oracle database within an
Oracle RAC configuration:
Placement of Files
The control file, the server parameter file, all data files and all (online and archive)
redo log files have to be placed on a shared pubset so that all instances of an Oracle
RAC configuration can access them.
Oracle recommends that you use a shared pubset as default pubset for the DBA user ID
on each cluster node.
Options in the CREATE DATABASE Statement
The following options are available in the CREATE DATABASE statement:
■
MAXINSTANCES: The MAXINSTANCES option of CREATE DATABASE limits the
number of instances that can access a database concurrently. For Oracle RAC, set
14-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Creation and Configuration of a Database
MAXINSTANCES to a value greater than the maximum number of instances you
expect to run concurrently.
■
■
■
MAXDATAFILES: The MAXDATAFILES option of CREATE DATABASE determines
the number of data files a database can have. With Oracle RAC, databases tend to
have more data files and log files than an exclusively mounted database.
MAXLOGFILES and MAXLOGMEMBERS: The MAXLOGFILES option of CREATE
DATABASE specifies the maximum number of redo log groups that can be created
for the database. The MAXLOGMEMBERS option specifies the maximum number of
members or copies for each group. Set MAXLOGFILES to the maximum number of
threads possible, multiplied by the maximum anticipated number of groups for
each thread multiplied by MAXLOGMEMBERS for each group.
MAXLOGHISTORY: The MAXLOGHISTORY option of CREATE DATABASE
specifies the maximum number of archived redo log files that can be recorded in
the control file. For Oracle RAC, set MAXLOGHISTORY to a large value, such as 100.
If you have an existing database you can use the CREATE CONTROLFILE statement to
change the value of these CREATE DATABASE options.
Additional Threads of Redo Log Files
Each instance in an Oracle RAC configuration has its own thread of online redo log
files. Create a thread with at least two redo log groups for each instance and enable
each thread so the instance can use it.
For creating additional threads of online redo log files you can use the ALTER
DATABSE statement.
Additional Undo Tablespaces
Oracle strongly recommends that you use automatic undo management. This feature
automatically manages undo space.
Each instance in an Oracle RAC configuration must have its own undo tablespace. So
assign a separate undo tablespace to each instance.
Oracle RAC- related views
You must run the script CATCLUST.SQL to create RAC-related views and tables. You
must have SYSDBA privileges to run the script.
Initialization Parameters
Refer to Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and
Deployment Guide to get detailed information about setting the initialization
parameters for Oracle RAC.
There are some global parameters which must be identical on every instance. For
example, on every instance of an Oracle RAC configuration you have to set the
database to start in the cluster mode by specifying the following init.ora parameter:
CLUSTER_DATABASE=TRUE
There are other parameters which are specific for each instance of an Oracle RAC
configuration. For example the THREAD, INSTANCE_NAME, and INSTANCE_NUMBER
parameters must have unique values on all instances.
Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) 14-3
Restrictions
Creating Password Files
If you want to administer all instances of an Oracle RAC configuration remotely from
one node of the cluster, you have to create password files for each instance using the
ORAPWD utility.
Configuring Oracle Net Services
You have to configure Oracle Net Services on each node of the cluster by setting up
the Oracle Net parameter files (LISTENER.ORA, TNSNAMES.ORA, SQLNET.ORA).
Restrictions
The following are the restrictions when using BS2000:
■
Administering RAC Instances
On BS2000 you cannot administer Oracle RAC Instances with Oracle Enterprise
Manager or the SRVCTL-Utility of Oracle Cluster Ready Services. So you have to
use SQL*Plus for the Administration of Oracle RAC instances.
Refer to the Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration
and Deployment Guide for more information about Oracle RAC administration with
SQL*Plus.
■
Oracle Clusterware
Generic Oracle Clusterware is not supported on BS2000.
SRVCTL and Cluster Verification Utility are not supported.
14-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
15
15
Oracle Management Agent
This chapter describes the Oracle Management Agent for BS2000/OSD and provides
installation and configuration information. The reader is supposed to be familiar with
Oracle Enterprise Manager.
The Oracle Management Agent for BS2000/OSD is responsible for monitoring all
components on the host computer. Once installed, the Oracle Management Agent
knows how to monitor default target types, such as the Oracle Database. For more
information, refer to Oracle Enterprise Manager Concepts.
Preinstallation Issues
The following is a list of preinstallation issues:
■
The Management Agent requires the correction package 2/2007 of openNet Server
v3.1 and openNet Server v3.2, respectively, in particular of the appropriate
component Sockets v2.2 and Sockets v2.3, respectively.
■
Check if the BS2000/OSD POSIX subsystem is started
■
Check if the openNet Server tool netstat is installed under POSIX.
■
Check if jenv v5.0 is installed
■
Check if perl v5.8 is installed
If one of the required software packages is not installed, install the software
package first before installing Oracle Management Agent.
■
The user address space should be 1GB
■
There should be at least 750MB disc space available on the POSIX file system
■
Make sure that the file /etc/hosts includes an entry with a loopback address for
the localhost similar to the following example:
127.0.0.1 localhost local # loopback
■
Create a file /var/opt/oracle/oratab with the following format:
<ORACLE_SID>:<ORACLE_HOME>:<N|Y>:<ORACLE_DATA>
The following table describes the parameters in the format:
Parameter
Description
ORACLE_SID
system identifier of
the database
Oracle Management Agent
15-1
Running the Installation Script
Parameter
Description
ORACLE_HOME
Oracle home
directory under
POSIX
ORACLE_DATA
userid where the
database files are
stored
Each database that should be monitored needs an entry in the oratab file. An
example for a valid oratab file is:
# oratab file
# valid entries are of the following form:
# <ORACLE_SID>:<ORACLE_HOME>:<N|Y>:<ORACLE_DATA>
orcl:/ora10202/oracle/product/10g:N:$ORACLE
The dba group should have read and write access on the
oratab file. Oracle recommends that the DBA group should have
read and write access to the oracle directory in the /var/opt/
folder.
Note:
■
■
■
If you want to monitor a 9i database, you have to manually create a dbs directory
in the ORACLE_HOME of your Oracle9i installation.
For monitoring a LISTENER you have to copy the appropriate LISTENER.ORA file
to the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory.
If you want to monitor a database under a user-id different from the user-id of the
Enterprise Management Agent, you have to make the alert file accessible to all
users.
Running the Installation Script
It is recommended to install the Oracle Management Agent under a separate Oracle
Home directory. All Oracle user should belong to the same group, e.g. dba. To start
the installation enter:
/CALL-PROCEDURE $ORACLE1020.INSTALL.P.AGENT
You will be prompted for the following:
Parameter
Description
EMDROOT
This is the
Management Agent’s
home directory.
EM-AGENT-PORT
The port on which
the Management
Agent should listen.
EM-OMS-HOST
The host name of the
Oracle Management
Server
15-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Restrictions
Parameter
Description
EM-OMS-HTTP-PORT The port of the
Oracle Management
Server
EM-OMS-HTTPS-POR The SSL port of the
Oracle Management
T
Server
To finalize the EM Agent installation login as root and execute the following script:
$EMDROOT/root.sh
Running the Agent
■
To run the agent, start a POSIX shell and type the following command:
emctl start agent
■
To stop the agent, start a POSIX shell and type the following command:
emctl stop agent
■
To get the status of the agent, start a POSIX shell and type the following
command:
emctl status agent
Use the Oracle Management Agent for BS2000/OSD as described in the Oracle
Database 10g Enterprise Manager book set.
Restrictions
The following is a list of issues that might affect Oracle Enterprise Manager Agent
■
■
■
■
■
Oracle Management Agent for BS2000/OSD can monitor servers that are running
Oracle Database 9i or Oracle Database 10g.
The Oracle Management Agent for BS2000/OSD does not support the SNMP
framework. That means, the agent is not integrated within the EMANATE master
agent for BS2000/OSD. The agent does not accept any SNMP requests and does
not send any SNMP trap. Therefore, the Oracle Management Agent for
BS2000/OSD is not usable with third party SNMP management systems.
Oracle10g Database for BS2000/OSD supports only a minimal set of system
statistics and these may not reflect the actual performance of the system.
Currently, Oracle Database 10g for BS2000/OSD only ships with the Oracle
Enterprise Manager Agent. Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control Console is
not supported, though this release does support a remote Oracle Enterprise
Manager Grid Control Console.
Currently, the Management Agent supports only a minimal set of host metrics and
these may not reflect the actual performance and only a part of the configuration
of the system.
Oracle Management Agent
15-3
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting
Typically, the Oracle Management Agent is monitored by an internal watchdog
process and will be restarted in case of an error. This method does not prevent from
any crashes where at least one task of the thread application is kept alive and might
inhibit a proper restart of the Management Agent. If the Oracle Management Agent
cannot be started or restarted, use the following instructions to resolve the issue:
CALL-PROCEDURE $TSOS.SYSPRC.PTHREADS.010(ITH-SHOW)
This procedure produces an output similar to the following:
% BLS0523 ELEMENT 'ITHSHOW', VERSION 'V01.0C05',
TYPE 'L' FROM LIBRARY ':OCT3:$TSOS.SYSLNK.PTHREADS.010' IN PROCESS
% BLS0524 LLM 'ITHSHOW', VERSION 'V01.0C05' OF '2006-10-18 16:40:35' LOADED
% BLS0551 COPYRIGHT (C) Fujitsu Siemens Computers GmbH 2006. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
LLM
= EMAGENT
MAIN
= IC@#MAIN
LIBRARY = :ORA1:$ORA10202.ORALOAD.LIB
STARTED AT 2007-07-06-114314 FROM POSIX
TYPE TSN
PID
JOB-TYPE
PRI
CPU-USED CPU-MAX ACCOUNT#
ORIG 987Y 1151 (X'047F') 3 DIALOG *0 240
53.9535
32767 FSC
RESO 9877 1163 (X'048B') 3 DIALOG *0 240
87.4625
32767 FSC
THRE 9878 1164 (X'048C') 3 DIALOG *0 240
121.7945
32767 FSC
Here you find the TSNs of the tasks involved in the PTHREADS application. You can
connect to the PTHREADS application when you choose the TSN of the ORIG task as
the input for the parameter TSN of the ITH-START procedure in the following format:
/CALL-PROCEDURE $TSOS.SYSPRC.PTHREADS.010(ITH-START),(TSN=987Y)
When you see the double slash prompt you can type CANCEL-THREADED-PROGRAM to
cancel the PTHREADS application. If the ORIG task is already terminated, you can
terminate all other PTHREADS tasks by using the BS2000 system command
/CANCEL_JOB JOB-IDENTIFICATION=tsn
If the Management Agent is running on a SX machine in SPARC mode, then you must
define the proper load library in the procedure parameters as follows:
/CALL-PROCEDURE
$TSOS.SYSPRC.PTHREADS.010(ITH-START),(START-LIBRARY=$TSOS.SPULNK.PTHREADS.010,TSN=
987Y)
15-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
16
16
Oracle on SX Server
This chapter describes features, which are specific to Oracle Database for BS2000/OSD
SX Server:
■
Concepts
■
Definitions
■
Product Set
■
Hardware Requirements
■
Software Requirements
■
Address Space Limit
■
Installing Oracle Database Software
■
Database Creation
■
Upgrade and Migration
■
Administration
■
Oracle application programs
■
openUTM Product Set
Concepts
The SX server line is a line of BS2000/OSD business servers, which are based on
SPARC64 architecture. Oracle Database 10g supports this innovative line of SX servers,
for example, SX150, and the BS2000 operating system OSD/XC.
Oracle Database 10g release 2 (10.2.0.2.25) for SX Server runs in native SPARC mode in
the BS2000 partition of the SX Server. Programs running in this mode provide much
better performance than programs running in /390 mode (= compatibility mode).
There are no differences in handling and administration compared to the
"conventional" Oracle for BS2000 (on /390 systems). So the migration from
conventional Oracle for BS2000 to Oracle for SX Server is very simple.
All products you know from the /390 edition of Oracle, for example, Oracle Net
Services, SQL*Plus, Precompilers, are available in native SPARC mode for the SX
Server line.
Oracle on SX Server 16-1
Definitions
Definitions
Because there are two Oracle editions for BS2000, that is, one for the /390 series and
one for the SX series, the following definitions are introduced to avoid confusion:
Oracle edition
Meaning
Oracle for BS2000/390:
BS2000 line of Oracle, which is running on systems with /390
CPU's (S Servers).
This Oracle line can also run on SX Server, but only in the
slower /390 mode, also called compatibility mode.
Synonyms: "/390 edition of Oracle/BS2000"
Oracle for BS2000/SPARC:
BS2000 line of Oracle, which runs in native SPARC mode in
the BS2000 partition of the SX Server.
This Oracle line can’t run in the Solaris partition of the SX
Server.
This Oracle line cannot run on /390 CPU's.
Synonyms:
"SPARC edition of Oracle/BS2000"
"Oracle for SX series"
"Oracle for Fujitsu Siemens BS2000/OSD (SX series)"
"Oracle for SX Server line"
Product Set
All products, which are available with the /390 edition of Oracle/BS2000 are also
available with the SPARC edition. There are no differences in functionality between
the products of these two Oracle/BS2000 editions.
The release number of the SPARC edition of Oracle Database 10g release 2 for
BS2000/OSD is 10.2.0.2.25.
This Oracle Database release 10.2.0.2.25 is the Oracle Database software for the Oracle
platform "Fujitsu Siemens BS2000/OSD (SX series)".
Hardware Requirements
■
SX Server, for example SX150
■
Main memory: at least 512 MB
■
■
Disk Space: Total static Oracle Database non-database requirements are
approximately 700000 PAM pages. Dynamic requirements, such as SQL files, host
language programs, and output spool files, depend on Oracle Database usage.
Database Space: No difference to /390 edition of Oracle
Software Requirements
The following table lists the software requirements:
16-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Administration
Component
Requirement
Operating System
OSD/XC V1.2 as of correction package 2/2006
OSD/XC V2.1 as of correction package 2/2006
OSD/XC V3.0
Note that the BS2000/OSD subsystem POSIX should have been
started.
Compilers
Though not required to run the Oracle Database, if high-level
languages, such as C or COBOL, are used to interface to the
Oracle Database, then the following compilers are supported:
COBOL85 V2.3
COBOL2000 as of V1.2
CPP as of V3.1
openUTM
openUTM V5.3
CRTE
CRTE V2.5 as of correction package 2/2006
CRTE V2.6 and higher
Address Space Limit
A user's address space should not be less than 512MB. Oracle recommends loading the
SPARC version of BS2000 DSSM "CRTE-BASYS" (= CRTEBASP) to reduce memory
requirements.
Installing Oracle Database Software
Refer to Chapter 3, "Installing Oracle Database Software".
Database Creation
The creation of a database works exactly as described in Chapter 4, "Creating and
Upgrading a Database". You may create a database automatically, by BS2000
procedure INSTALL.P.SUPER, or manually.
There are no differences to the /390 edition of Oracle for BS2000.
Upgrade and Migration
Refer to Chapter 4, "Creating and Upgrading a Database".
Administration
There are almost no differences in administration compared to the /390 edition of
Oracle Database. The only difference is that Oracle on SX server does not support
executables ("phases"), but only LLMs. Therefore, you must start Oracle programs like
SQLPLUS as follows:
/START-PROGRAM *MODULE($ORAC1020.ORALOAD.LIB,SQLPLUS,A,A)
Oracle on SX Server 16-3
Oracle application programs
Oracle application programs
Oracle for SX Server supports the same programming languages for Oracle application
programs as the /390 edition of Oracle. There are Precompilers for C/C++ and Cobol.
Oracle application programs can run on SX Servers only in /390 mode.
Application programs have to be linked as described in the Oracle Database User's
Guide for Fujitsu Siemens BS2000/OSD.
Application programs, which have been developed on /390 systems can run on SX
Servers without any changes.
openUTM Product Set
The openUTM product set of Oracle 10.2 for SX Server requires openUTM V5.3.
There are no differences in developing Oracle Database/openUTM applications in
comparison with the /390 edition of Oracle (refer to chapter "Using the Oracle
Database under openUTM" in the Oracle Database User's Guide for Fujitsu Siemens
BS2000/OSD ).
16-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
A
A
Oracle Error Messages for BS2000/OSD
This appendix lists Oracle Database 10g release 2 for Fujitsu Siemens BS2000/OSD
messages with possible causes and suggested actions. The messages shown in this
chapter may be accompanied by additional text when displayed on screen. This text
identifies the function that detected the problem, and can include internal status codes,
BS2000 system macro return codes, or both. These codes can be helpful to the Oracle
Support Services Representative in determining the cause of a problem.
Sometimes, for example, in the early stages of initialization when the message
components are not yet available, the Oracle Database cannot issue a regular Oracle
message. If this occurs, Oracle Database calls the ILCS task termination routine, or it
issues a TERM macro directly, giving the message number as the user termination code.
You can use this message number to find the explanation in this appendix.
ORA-05000: ORACLE termination routine called
Cause: The termination routine of the Oracle Database run-time system has been
called due to a fatal error.
Action: If you do not know why the Oracle Database program terminated, or how
to resolve this problem, then contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05001: Unsupported BS2000 Version
Cause: The active version of the BS2000/OSD operating system is not supported
by Oracle Database 10g release 2.
Action: Upgrade to a more recent BS2000/OSD version.
ORA-05002: Fatal error: called from non-ILCS program
Cause: In a precompiler or OCI application, the Oracle Database is called from a
program that does not run in an ILCS environment. The Oracle Database does not
support non-ILCS programs
Action: Make sure that the application program runs in ILCS mode. Some
programming languages, for example, FOR1, PL/I, require specific options for
ILCS. Refer to the Fujitsu Siemens documentation for further information.
ORA-05003: Fatal error: ILCS PCD cannot be verified
Cause: In a precompiler or OCI application, Oracle Database is called with a save
area that is marked as an ILCS save area but does not point to a proper PCD (ILCS
global area). The problem is either that memory has been overwritten, or that
Oracle Database is called from a program that does not run in an ILCS
environment. Oracle Database does not support non-ILCS programs.
Action: Make sure that the application program runs in ILCS mode. Some
programming languages, for example, FOR1, PL/I, require specific options for
ILCS. Refer to the Fujitsu Siemens documentation for further information.
Oracle Error Messages for BS2000/OSD A-1
ORA-05004: Fatal error: stack overflow, extension failed
Cause: A call to a function required an extension of the current call stack segment.
This extension failed and the corresponding ILCS routine returned the error.
Action: Make sure that the user address space is large enough in the JOIN entry
and that there is no temporary memory saturation. Then re-run the program. If
you need further help, contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05005: Error: IT0INITS called in PROLOD
Cause: This is an internal error and should not occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05006: sltga already initialized
Cause: The initialization routine for the sltga is called more than one time.
Action: Check if more than one stub modules (PROSTUB, XAOSTUB) are linked to
the application.
ORA-05007: failed to load OSNTAB
Cause: This message is usually be preceded by a BS2000 BLS-nnnn message. The
most likely reason is that the ORALOAD library cannot be found.
Action: Contact the Database Administrator about the ORALOAD library. If you
cannot identify the cause of the problem contact the Oracle Support Services
Representative.
ORA-05008: failed to load requested network driver
Cause: This message is usually be preceded by a BS2000 BLS-nnnn message. The
most likely reason is that the ORALOAD library cannot be found.
Action: Contact the Database Administrator about the ORALOAD library. If you
cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle Support Services
Representative.
ORA-05009: osnsgl: user connects invalid in kernel
Cause: A database link was set up using the single-task driver (S:). This is invalid,
as the single-task driver can only be used for call connections on the user side.
Action: Select a different network driver for the database link.
ORA-05010: bad filename length
Cause: Buffer overflow while building/translating a file name. This could be
caused by specifying an excessively long file name in the ORAENV file.
Action: If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
ORA-05011: bad file size
Cause: This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05012: bad block size
Cause: This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05013: bad filename parse
Cause: A file name being analyzed is not well-formed for Oracle Database
purposes.
A-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Action: Correct the file name and re-run the program.
ORA-05014: sfcopy: non-matching block size
Cause: In a partial database file copy, source and target file have different block
sizes. This may indicate an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
ORA-05015: text file open failed
Cause: An Oracle Database text or command file cannot be opened. One of the
following could cause this error: the file name is wrong, the file has not been
properly initialized, or the file is not accessible.
Action: Correct the problem and restart the Oracle Database. If this occurs when
you issued the STARTUP command, check the initialization file for the correct
specification of the database files.
ORA-05016: text file close failed
Cause: Attempt to close an Oracle Database file has failed. This is an internal error
and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact your Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05017: file open failed
Cause: An Oracle Database database file cannot be opened. Either the file name is
wrong, the file has not been properly initialized, or the file is not accessible (for
example a file may not be accessible for a cross-user ID single-task client).
Action: Correct the problem and restart the Oracle Database. If this occurred
when you issued the STARTUP command, then check the initialization file for the
correct specification of the database files.
ORA-05018: file seek failed
Cause: This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05019: file write failed
Cause: An I/O error occurred while writing to an Oracle Database file.
Action: If the error cannot be identified as one caused by a disk malfunction,
either contact the System Administrator, or contact the Oracle Support Services
Representative.
ORA-05020: write block outside of file
Cause: An attempt was made to write a block of an Oracle Database file that does
not exist. For example, block number < 1 or > file size. This is an internal error
and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05021: file read failed
Cause: An I/O occurred while reading an Oracle Database file.
Action: If the error cannot be identified as one caused by a disk malfunction,
either contact the System Administrator, or contact the Oracle Support Services
Representative.
ORA-05022: read block outside of file
Oracle Error Messages for BS2000/OSD A-3
Cause: An attempt was made to read a block of an Oracle Database file that does
not exist. For example, block number < 1 or > file size. This is an internal error
and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05023: file close failed
Cause: The attempt to close an Oracle Database file failed. This is an internal error
and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05025: sfccf:file mismatch. Trying to reuse a file with different size
Cause: When trying to reuse a database file, the file size specified differs from the
actual size of the existing file.
Action: Specify the correct file size (remember to subtract one logical block for the
implicit header block), or leave the size unspecified, or use a different file name if
you want to create a larger or smaller database file.
ORA-05026: file does not exist
Cause: An attempt was made to access a database file, which no longer exists.
Action: Contact the Database Administrator who may know why this error has
occurred. If the Database Administrator cannot find the cause of the problem, then
contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05027: file does exist
Cause: When attempting to create a new file, this error occurs if the file is found
and is not empty.
Action: If the error occurred in a create database, retry with the reuse
option. Otherwise use a different file name or check whether the file can be erased.
ORA-05028: file is not a dbfile
Cause: The database, or log, or control, file to be opened does not contain the
proper identification for such a file.
Action: Check for wrong file specification.
ORA-05029: illegal use-option
Cause: Internal error. Function sfccf was called with an illegal option.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05030: SID not defined
Cause: When the system id was required, typically, to substitute the "?" in names,
for example, in file names set by the initialization file, it was not yet defined. This
could be caused by a missing ORAENV file or a missing ORASID in that file.
Action: Ensure that the ORAENV file definition is correct and re-run the program.
ORA-05031: SID translation failure
Cause: The system id is syntactically incorrect.
Action: Ensure that the ORASID definition is correct and re-run the program.
ORA-05032: bad name parse
Cause: The translation of a file name, or other name containing variable parts,
failed. The error may be caused by a wrong specification in the ORAENV file.
A-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Action: Ensure that the ORAENV variable assignments are correct. If you cannot
identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle Support Services
Representative.
ORA-05033: bad environment values
Cause: One or more of the values specified in the ORAENV file are invalid.
Action: Ensure that you specified legal values in the ORAENV file, refer to the
appendix "ORAENV Variables" in the Oracle Database Installation and Administration
Guide for Fujitsu Siemens BS2000/OSD or the Oracle Database User's Guide for Fujitsu
Siemens BS2000/OSD for further information.
ORA-05034: bad seal
Cause: Internal error. An internal file control structure is found to be corrupt.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05035: host command not executed
Cause: A BS2000 command, argument of a HOST or #HOST command, is invalid
or too long.
Action: Enter a valid HOST command.
ORA-05036: bad user id (length)
Cause: Internal buffer overflow while building a file name from variable
components.
Action: Ensure that the ORAUID value specified in the ORAENV file is correct. If
you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle Support
Services Representative.
ORA-05037: /CANCEL command not executed
Cause: A background job could not be cancelled. The background task may have
already been terminated.
Action: If you cannot identify the cause of the problem contact the Oracle Support
Services Representative.
ORA-05038: SID has illegal length
Cause: The system identifier specified in either the ORAENV file or as part of a
connect string exceeds 4 characters in length.
Action: Specify a correct value.
ORA-05039: Recursive entry to ssodrv
Cause: Oracle Database kernel has been re-entered at the top. This should not
happen.
Action: Make sure that the user program does not incorrectly call Oracle Database
functions from within an interrupt handling routine (signal routine, contingency).
If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle Support
Services Representative.
ORA-05040: no more dynamic memory
Cause: Request memory failed in file-management components. This is probably
caused by a user address space that is too small.
Action: Make sure that the user address space is large enough in the JOIN entry
and that there is no temporary memory saturation. Then re-run the program. If
you need further help, then contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
Oracle Error Messages for BS2000/OSD A-5
ORA-05041: Interrupt in soarch
Cause: The archiver process was unexpectedly interrupted.
Action: If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
ORA-05042: soarch: Buffer overflow
Cause: The archiver process detected an internal buffer overflow.
Action: If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
ORA-05043: Archive control string too long
Cause: The archive control string is too long.
Action: Shorten this parameter and restart the database.
ORA-05044: Archive generated filename too long
Cause: The file name is generated from the values of the initialization parameters
log_archive_format and log_archive_dest. This has resulted in a file
name that is too long.
Action: Run the command ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG START TO VALID_
DEST where VALID_DEST is a valid BS2000 file name.
ORA-05045: Archive file creation/open error
Cause: The archive file is normally allocated dynamically. Either this or the
subsequent open failed. Possible causes are either insufficient space left on disk, or
a bad archive file allocation parameter in ORAENV.
Action: Make sure that the optional ORAENV parameter is correct and that
sufficient disk space is available.
ORA-05046: Archive control string error
Cause: The archive file name or control parameters are incorrect.
Action: Correct the parameters.
ORA-05050: PGA (fixed part) could not be allocated
Cause: Probable operating system error or internal error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05051: cannot allocate var. PGA
Cause: During creation of the PGA, required dynamic memory could not be
allocated.
Action: Verify that the user address space is large enough and that if an
application program produced the error, the program is not consuming excessive
memory. Otherwise contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05052: error deleting var. PGA
Cause: During deletion of the PGA, dynamic memory could not be released. This
is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05053: invalid or missing PGA_BASE
Cause: An invalid value for the PGA_BASE parameter has been specified in the
DBA ORAENV file.
A-6 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Action: Use the default value for the PGA_SIZE environment variable. If this does
not solve the problem, then contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05054: invalid or missing PGA_SIZE
Cause: An invalid value for the PGA_SIZE environment variable has been
specified in the DBA ORAENV file. You should never need to change the default
value for the PGA_SIZE environment variable.
Action: Use the default value for the PGA_SIZE environment variable. If this does
not solve the problem, then contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05055: address range for PGA (fixed part) is not free
Cause: The address range described by the PGA_BASE and PGA_SIZE ORAENV
variables is not available for allocation. This may be due to overlapping PGA, SGA,
and KERNEL areas, or to an application program, which has occupied memory in
this area. If you did not specify a value for PGA_BASE, the default may be
inappropriate for the case.
Action: Refer to the section "Address Space Planning" in Chapter , "Address Space
Planning" for further information.
ORA-05056: no more context space
Cause: During processing of a SQL request, dynamic memory could not be
allocated. This could happen when very complex requests are being processed and
there is not enough memory available.
Action: Verify that the user address space is large enough and that the application
program, if the error occurred when you were using an application program, is
not using excessive memory. Otherwise, contact the Oracle Support Services
Representative.
ORA-05058: assert failed: SGA not mapped
Cause: This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05059: assert failed: not in kernel
Cause: This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05060: SGA not created
Cause: After you run the STARTUP command, the SGA shared memory pool
could not be created.
Action: Verify that you are not trying to start the database while it is running and
that the database system id is not being used for two different databases.
Otherwise, contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05061: SGA attach failed
Cause: Connection to the SGA shared memory pool could not be established. This
may have happened if you used the wrong system id, or if the database you
expected to be running is not running.
Action: Verify that it is not one of the preceding causes (check with the Database
Administrator). Otherwise, contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05063: SGA base invalid
Cause: An invalid value has been specified for the SGA_BASE parameter in the
ORAENV file.
Oracle Error Messages for BS2000/OSD A-7
Action: This value is not normally needed. If specified, it must be a hexadecimal
value giving the full virtual address for the SGA memory pool. Correct the value
and run the STARTUP command.
ORA-05064: cannot allocate SGA
Cause: After creating the memory pool, the REQMP to allocate the space failed.
This might be an operating system error.
Action: If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
ORA-05065: SGA not deleted
Cause: When attempting to detach from the SGA, the DISMP system macro
returned an error.
Action: If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
ORA-05066: SGA address space conflict
Cause: The SGA cannot be placed at the requested address range, because the
range is already partly used. The SGA start address is defined by the ORAENV
variable, SGA_BASE; its size is determined by various initialization file parameters
such as processes, buffers, and so on.
Action: Refer to the section on "Address Space Planning" in Chapter 2,
"Architecture and Implementation", and adjust the relevant initialization file and
ORAENV variables. Inspect the JOIN entry for the address space limit. Contact the
System Administrator to find out about shared subsystems and their placement in
the address space. Make sure that you do not overlap with the Oracle Database
kernel.
ORA-05067: SGA: address space saturation
Cause: When the SGA is being allocated, the operating system reported that the
virtual address space is saturated.
Action: Contact the System Administrator about paging area size and current
overall system load.
ORA-05068 SGA still active, should not be
Cause: When the SGA is being created during startup, it is found that the SGA
memory pool is still in use, although the databases should be shut down. This may
be caused by a hanging single-task, user task, or a network server task.
Action: Check for such hanging tasks. Cancel these tasks, and then restart the
database.
ORA-05069: Unexpected SGA memory pool problem
Cause: The ENAMP macro returned an unexpected error code.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05070: cannot enable TPA ser.item
Cause: Probable operating system error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05071: cannot ENQ on TPA ser.item
Cause: Probable operating system error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
A-8 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
ORA-05072: cannot enable post/wait item
Cause: Probable operating system error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05073: error in post
Cause: An inter-process communication operation failed.
Action: Check that the database and all required background tasks are running
correctly. If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
ORA-05074: error in wait
Cause: An inter-process communication operation failed.
Action: Check that the database and all required background tasks are running
correctly. If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
ORA-05075: error in task table manager
Cause: Internal error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05076: error setting spid
Cause: Probable operating system error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05077: cannot enable HIA event
Cause: Probable operating system error. The HIA (Here I Am) event item is used
during startup to communicate between a started background task and the
invoking SQL*DBA program.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05078: create process failure
Cause: When you issued the STARTUP command, a background job could not be
started successfully.
Action: Check for any job scheduling problems and that any BGJPAR entry in the
ORAENV file is correct. If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact
the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05079: internal asynchronous IO error
Cause: This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05101: bind-error xxxxxxxx for module/library
Cause: The Oracle Database/UTM attach module could not be loaded. One
possible reason is that the Oracle Database has been installed under a user ID
different from $ORAC1020 and that the installation procedure has not executed
correctly.
Action: Ensure that the ORAUID definition in the ORAENV file is correct.
Otherwise, contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05102: module verification failure: ORADBCN@
Cause: The openUTM application has probably been link-edited with an Oracle
Database version different from the Oracle Database version used at execution.
Oracle Error Messages for BS2000/OSD A-9
Action: Re-link the UTM application. If the error persists, then contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
ORA-05103: generated TSKM too short
Cause: The TSKM area was overwritten by the Oracle Database.
Action: Change the parameter LTHTSKM in the KDCDB / KDCDBO macro.
ORA-05104: generated TAM too short
Cause: The TAM area was overwritten by the Oracle Database.
Action: Change the parameter LTHTAM in the KDCDB / KDCDBO macro.
ORA-05107: POSIX environment variable <variablename> not defined
Cause: The specified environment variable is not defined.
Action: Define and export the requested variable in your profile.
ORA-05108: failed to process BS2000 command <bs2-command>
Cause: The BS2000 command processor cannot execute the command.
Action: Test the logged command in the POSIX shell using the POSIX command,
bs2cmd.
ORA-05109: failed to initialize environment for POSIX
Cause: An application running under the POSIX shell cannot create links to
required files in the BS2000 file system.
Action: Check if the environment Variables required for Oracle applications
under POSIX are set properly.
ORA-05110: cannot attach to memory pool
Cause: Invalid pool ID parameter xxx_MPID or operating system error.
Action: Check the ORAENV parameter xxx_MPID, at most 4 characters of the set
[A...Z],[0...9]), or contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05111: error attaching to memory pool
Cause: This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05112: error creating memory pool
Cause: This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05114: bad pool base
Cause: An invalid value for the base address parameter of the shared pool, that is,
COM_BASE, and so on. has been specified in the ORAENV file.
Action: If this value is specified, it must be a hexadecimal value giving the full
virtual address for the base address of a memory pool. Correct the value and
restart the database.
ORA-05116: cannot load shared code into pool
Cause: Shared code could not be loaded into the specified memory pool.
Generally, this message will be preceded by a BLS-nnnn message from the
operating system.
A-10 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Action: Make sure that the ORALOAD link name identifies the correct ORALOAD
library. Then restart the program. If you cannot identify the cause of the problem,
then contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05117: cannot attach to socket subsystem
Cause: An application could not be bound to the sockets subsystem. Generally
this message is preceded by a BLS-nnnn message from the operating system.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05118: ORACLE PCD slot not accessible
Cause: The current task is trying to attach to the ORACLE PCD slot but cannot
find this slot.
This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05119: module verification failed
Cause: The version of the shared loaded module does not match the version of
the connection module on the user side.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05120: waiting for shared module to be loaded timed out
Cause: This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05121: waiting for initialization of shared module timed out
Cause: This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05126: Missing IT0PCD address
Cause: The ILCS run-time link-library is probably missing.
Action: Contact the System Administrator.
ORA-05127: PARAM-LIST AT CALL ORACLE NOT OK
Cause: System error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05128: COMMIT/ROLLBACK/CONNECT NOT ALLOWED IN
UTM-PROGRAM
Cause: Illegal SQL COMMIT/ROLLBACK/CONNECT found in UTM program.
Action: Correct the UTM program accordingly.
ORA-05131: ORADBCO-Call not allowed
Cause: System error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05132: TA for User x is committed by the Resource-Manager
Cause: Transaction has been committed before malfunction.
Action: None.
ORA-05133: No Connect-String in Startparams found
Oracle Error Messages for BS2000/OSD A-11
Cause: In the start parameters there must be at least one open string for the Oracle
Database.
Action: Refer to Chapter 8, "openUTM Product Set" in the Oracle Database
Installation and Administration Guide for Fujitsu Siemens BS2000/OSD and correct the
start parameters.
ORA-05134: DBSTAT secondary opcode inconsistent
Cause: System error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05135: Error x Recover PTC-list, Instance y
Cause: System error.
Action: Check if UTM is correctly installed and select privileges are granted to
XA-tables, refer to Chapter 8, "openUTM Product Set", or contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
ORA-05136: Maximum number of instances exceeded
Cause: The maximum number of open strings in the start parameters has been
exceeded.
Action: Refer to Chapter 8, "openUTM Product Set" and correct the start
parameters.
ORA-05137: Error x at Open Instance y
Cause: The connection to instance y is not possible.
Action: Start the Instance with all the required servers. If the error persists, then
contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05138: Error x at Close Instance y
Cause: Error occurred when disconnecting from instance y.
Action: Because the disconnection has just been done, there is no action.
ORA-05139: Error x at Start Transaction for User z, Instance y
Cause: The start of transaction in instance y is invalid.
Action: Restart the UTM transaction. If the error persists, close the UTM
application and do a restart.
ORA-05140: Error x at Continue Transaction for User z, Instance y
Cause: The continuation of transaction in instance y is invalid.
Action: Restart the UTM transaction. If the error persists, and the error is not
'XAER_PROTO'. This means that the transaction is rolled back because of longlock.
Shut down the openUTM application and restart.
ORA-05141: Error x at Break Transaction for User z, Instance y
Cause: The break of transaction in instance y is invalid.
Action: Restart the UTM transaction. If the error persists, and there are no cursor
operations in the preceded dialog step, shut down the UTM application and
restart.
ORA-05142: Error x at End Transaction for User z, Instance y
Cause: The end of a transaction in instance y is invalid.
Action: Restart the UTM transaction. If the error persists, shut down the UTM
application and do a restart.
A-12 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
ORA-05143: Mismatch in TA for User(s) z
Cause: In the UTM warmstart there is a mismatch between openUTM, and the
Oracle Database instance(s), or both.
Action: Clear the Oracle Database instance(s), create a new KDCDEF for openUTM
and restart the openUTM application.
ORA-05144: Error x at Prepare Transaction for User z, Instance y
Cause: The preparation for committing a transaction in instance y is invalid.
Action: Restart the UTM transaction. If the error persists, then shutdown the
openUTM application and do a restart.
ORA-05145: Error x at Commit Transaction for User z, Instance y
Cause: Attempt to commit transaction in instance y unsuccessful.
Action: Restart the UTM transaction. If the error persists, then shutdown the
openUTM application and restart.
ORA-05146: Error x at Rollback Transaction for User z, Instance y
Cause: The rollback of transaction in instance y is invalid.
Action: No action, but if the error persists, shutdown the UTM application and
restart.
ORA-05147: TA for User z committed; Reason: Recovery
Cause: In a openUTM warmstart an interrupted transaction has been committed.
Action: None.
ORA-05148: TA for User z heuristic rolled back in Instance y
Cause: In a UTM warmstart, an interrupted transaction has just been rolled back
from the Oracle Database.
Action: Restart the UTM transaction.
ORA-05149: TA for User z rolled back; Reason: Internal Event
Cause: The end- or prepare-call was invalid. Therefore the transaction must be
rolled back.
Action: Restart the UTM transaction.
ORA-05150: KDCS-PEND before DBFITA missing
Cause: System error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05151: KDCS-PEND before DBPETA missing
Cause: System error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05152: Linked Resource-Manager is not CAE-compatible
Cause: System error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05153: xa_switch definition not found for specified Resource-Manager: s
Cause: System error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05154: Syntax error in start parameters for Resource-Manager: s
Oracle Error Messages for BS2000/OSD A-13
Cause: In the start parameters for the Oracle Database there is a syntax error.
Action: Refer to Chapter 8, "openUTM Product Set"and correct the start
parameters.
ORA-05155: Internal Error: malloc in dbstpa
Cause: This error message indicates a system error. One of the possible reasons
for this issue is that the system is out of memory.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05156: Internal Error: realloc in dbstpa
Cause: This error message indicates a system error. One of the possible reasons
for this issue is that the system does not have sufficient memory.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05157: Internal Error: malloc in up_recovery
Cause: This error message indicates a system error. One of the possible reasons
for this issue is that the system does not have sufficient memory.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05158: IUTMDB-Function not supported
Cause: openUTM system error.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05159: TA for User(s) z rolled back; Reason: Recovery
Cause: In a openUTM warmstart one or more interrupted transactions have been
rolled back.
Action: None.
ORA-05161: TCP/IP can't perform asynchronous test on break socket.
Cause: Select on break socket failed.
Action: Contact the System Administrator about TCP/IP networking problems. If
the error persists, contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05165: function not supported
Cause: Either Oracle Database 10g release 2 Server or BS2000/OSD does not
support this function.
Action: None.
ORA-05167: Defect in data buffer
Cause: This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05170: SID not defined (ORAENV file missing?)
Cause: The system identifier, data base name, is not defined when needed during
Oracle Database program initialization. A missing ORAENV file or a missing
ORASID entry in that file could cause this error.
Action: Ensure that the ORAENV file definition is correct and re-run the program.
ORA-05173: bad kernel size
Cause: An invalid value for the KNL_SIZE parameter has been specified in the
ORAENV file.
A-14 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Action: You should not normally need to specify this variable, as the default
value will be correct. Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05174: bad kernel base
Cause: An invalid value for the KNL_BASE parameter has been specified in the
ORAENV file.
Action: If this value is specified, then it must be a hexadecimal value giving the
full virtual address for the kernel memory pool. Correct the value and restart the
database.
ORA-05175: Kernel address space conflict
Cause: The Oracle Database kernel cannot be placed at the requested address
range, because the range is already used. The kernel start address is defined by the
ORAENV parameter, KNL_BASE.
Action: Refer to the section on "Address Space Planning" in Chapter 2,
"Architecture and Implementation", and adjust the relevant initialization file and
ORAENV parameters. Inspect the JOIN entry for the address space limit. Contact
the System Administrator to learn about shared subsystems and their placement
in the address space.
ORA-05176: Kernel: address space saturation
Cause: When the Oracle Database kernel memory pool was being allocated, the
operating system signalled that the virtual address space is currently saturated.
Action: Contact the System Administrator about paging area size and current
overall system load.
ORA-05177: Unexpected Kernel memory pool problem
Cause: The ENAMP macro returned an unexpected error code.
Action: This problem can be caused when you run a program in 24-bit mode and
try to connect single-task to a kernel, which has a value greater than the 16MB line,
because the database itself is running in 31-bit mode. If this is the cause of the
error, then you must access the database in two-task mode (through SQL*Net).
Refer to the ENAMP macro description in the BS2000 documentation for other
possible reasons. If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the
Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05178: Kernel module not yet initialized
Cause: The current task is trying to attach to an Oracle Database kernel which is
not yet completely initialized. This can only happen if you try to connect to a
database, which is just being started.
Action: Retry after a while. Remember that it may take a few minutes until a
database is fully running and ready for the users. If the error persists, then check
this issue with the Database Administrator.
ORA-05180: Cannot load character set table
Cause: One of the modules containing character set tables cannot be loaded.
Action: Verify that the ORALOAD library is accessible through LINK=ORALOAD.
For further information on link names and the ORALOAD library, refer to the
chapter "Getting Started" in Oracle Database User's Guide for Fujitsu Siemens
BS2000/OSD. If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the
Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05181: load/init problem with PRO/OCI interface
Oracle Error Messages for BS2000/OSD A-15
Cause: The user-side stub module could not load the PRO/OCI module. In this
case, the message is usually preceded by a BS2000 BLS-nnnn message, or the
loaded module is incompatible with the version of the stub module.
Action: Make sure that the ORALOAD link name exists and points to the current
ORALOAD library. Re-link the application with the current link libraries.
ORA-05191: symbol translation error for kernel memory pool
Cause: The logical name translation for the kernel memory pool failed. Normally,
this indicates an invalid system id, ORASID in the ORAENV file.
Action: Ensure that the ORAENV file definition is correct. Otherwise, contact the
Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05192: cannot create/attach kernel memory pool
Cause: The memory pool for the Oracle Database kernel code could not be
enabled. In a user program, a possible cause is that the user program already
allocates part of the address range needed for the memory pool.
Action: Ensure that the user program does not request storage excessively, and
that any SGA_BASE and KNL_BASE parameters in the ORAENV file are consistent. If
you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle Support
Services Representative.
ORA-05193: Symbol translation error for kernel module or load library
Cause: The logical-name translation for the kernel module or load library failed.
This is an internal error and should not normally occur.
Action: Contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05194: cannot load kernel
Cause: The kernel could not be loaded into the kernel memory pool. In most
cases, this message is preceded by a BLS-nnn message from the operating system.
Action: Make sure that the ORALOAD link name identifies the correct ORALOAD
library, and that the ORAENV variable, KNL_MODULE, names one of the possible
kernels. Then re-issue the STARTUP command. If you cannot identify the cause of
the problem, then contact the Oracle Support Services Representative.
ORA-05195: bad or missing kernel connector
Cause: The loaded kernel could not verify its user-side connector module. This
can occur if you use an incorrect kernel version.
Action: If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
ORA-05198: associated internal OSD error code %d
Cause: This message precedes ORA-05199, if there is more information available.
The first 4 hexadecimal digits can often identify the module, and the last 4
hexadecimal digits are usually a condensed version of an associated system macro
code. This code can be helpful in diagnosing the problem.
Action: If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
ORA-05199: ORACLE ABNORMAL EXIT
Cause: A fatal error occurred, which prevents continuation of execution. In many
cases, a preceding message explains the error. The system causes the program
execution to stop (TERM ABNORMAL with DUMP is displayed).
A-16 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Action: If you cannot identify the cause of the problem, then contact the Oracle
Support Services Representative.
Oracle Error Messages for BS2000/OSD A-17
A-18 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
B
B
ORAENV Variables
This appendix describes each variable that can be specified in the ORAENV file.
The variables are categorized into the following three classes
Class
Description
DBA
These variables are for database administration purposes. Most DBA
variables are evaluated only during database startup.
USER
These variables can be specified by ordinary users as well as by the
DBA. When these variables are specified in a particular user's ORAENV
file, they modify that user's environment only.
NET
These variables apply to Oracle Net Services components. These
variables should be included in the ORAENV file of the DBA.
The class (or classes) to which a variable belongs is noted in the variable descriptions
in this appendix.
Any DBA or NET variables specified in an ordinary user's ORAENV file are ignored.
ORAENV Rules
You should consider the following general rules when writing ORAENV files:
■
All lines which begin with a slash or asterisk (/ or *) are ignored.
■
All variable names must be written in uppercase.
■
Spaces must not be included immediately before and after the equals sign (=).
■
■
■
■
Do not enclose values in quotation marks unless you want the quotation marks to
be part of the value.
Since the variable list is conceptually open ended, errors in variable names are not
recognized. This means that the value of any variable whose name is mis-typed is
not modified.
There is only limited checking of variable assignments. An incorrect value may
generate an error message, but may also be interpreted as a null value.
When variable assignments refer to other variables, BS2000 command file
substitution syntax applies. Substitution takes place when a variable is actually
used, not when it is read from the ORAENV file.
For example:
ORAUID=$ORAC1020
SQLPATH=&ORAUID..RDBMS.ADMIN
ORAENV Variables
B-1
Built-in Variables
assigns the value $ORAC1020.RDBMS.ADMIN to the variable SQLPATH. If ORAUID
is changed, SQLPATH automatically reflects the new value.
■
■
The sequence of items in the ORAENV file is not generally significant. If an item
occurs more than once, the last occurrence is used.
If no value is given for a variable, the default value is used, if it exists.
Built-in Variables
The following variables are always defined, and may be referenced in other variable
assignments:
LOGNAME
The LOGNAME variable always contains the current BS2000 user ID. You cannot alter
the value of this variable by assigning a different value to it in the ORAENV file.
ORAUID
This variable specifies the BS2000 user ID where the Oracle Database programs,
installation and demonstration files are installed. The initial value is derived from the
ORALOAD link name (the user ID part of the ORALOAD library name). This value is
usually correct, but if necessary, you can override it by assigning a different value to it
in the ORAENV file.
Format: ORAUID=$userid or ORAUID=/BS2/$userid
PGM
The PGM variable always contains the last part of the current START_PROGRAM
program name. You cannot alter the value of this variable by assigning a different
value to it in the ORAENV file.
TERM
The TERM variable contains the terminal type, and defaults to 'SNI9750'. This default
value is usually correct, but if necessary, you can override it by assigning a different
value to it in the ORAENV file.
TSN
The TSN variable contains the task sequence number of the current task. You cannot
alter the value of this variable by assigning a different value to it in the ORAENV file.
General Variables
The following variables are for general, day-to-day use by Oracle DBAs and users.
CLN_BASE
This variable specifies the address of the shared code pool of customer written
database applications for CORE, NLS, and NET.
B-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
General Variables
Format:
CLN_BASE=address
Classification:
USER
Default:
CLN_BASE=37M
CLN_MPID
This variable specifies the identification of the shared code pool of customer written
database applications for CORE, NLS, and NET.
Format:
CLN_MPID=sid
Classification:
USER
Default:
CLN_MPID=&ORASID
DEFAULT_CONNECTION
This variable provides a default host string for connect requests where no host string
is specified. If you always connect to the same database, it may be convenient to
specify this. This value should contain everything you would otherwise specify after
the "@" character.
Format: DEFAULT_CONNECTION=host-string
Classification: USER
Example:
DEFAULT_CONNECTION=TNS:
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS=
(PROTOCOL=TCP)
(HOST=MADRID)
(PORT=1521))
(CONNECT_DATA=
(SERVICE_NAME=PROD)))
EXP_CLIB_FILE_IO
This variable should be set to FALSE when you use the Export utility to overcome a
problem with the C library functions when an export file is written to tape.
Format: EXP_CLIB_FILE_IO=FALSE
Classification: USER
Default: EXP_CLIB_FILE_IO=TRUE
ORAENV Variables
B-3
General Variables
IMP_CLIB_FILE_IO
This variable should be set to FALSE when you use the Import utility to overcome a
problem with the C library functions when an import file is read from tape.
Format: IMP_CLIB_FILE_IO=FALSE
Classification: USER
Default: IMP_CLIB_FILE_IO=TRUE
IMP_USERID_IGNORE
This variable is obsolete.
NLS_LANG
This variable specifies the default language and character set. For example:
NLS_LANG=GERMAN_GERMANY.D8BS2000
Format: NLS_LANG=language_territory.character-set
Classification: USER, DBA
Default: NLS_LANG=AMERICAN_AMERICA.WE8BS2000
OPS_JID
This variable is used for concatenation with the OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX, refer to
initialization parameter. The default value concatenates the value of the parameter
OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX with the BS2000 user ID. Using OPS_JID, you can specify that
the BS2000 jobname, /.jobname LOGON..., is used instead. This is useful when
many users are sharing one BS2000 user ID.
Format: OPS_JID=userid/jobname
Classification: DBA
Default: userid
ORADUMP
This variable specifies the dump file for Oracle Database and user trace output.
Format: ORADUMP=dump-file
Classification: USER, DBA
Default: ORADUMP=OTRC.?.&TSN..&PGM..TRC
Example:
ORADUMP=(SYSOUT)
This assignment redirects the trace output to SYSOUT.
ORASID
This variable defines the database that is used if no database identification is given at
connect time.
Format: ORASID=sid (sid is a characterstring where 1 <= length <= 4)
B-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
DBA Startup Variables
Classification: USER, DBA
PRINTPAR
This variable specifies optional variables for the /PRINT command issued for SPOOL
OUT spool files. Using this variable, the user can modify the spooled job, and, for
example, route the job to a remote printer, add print options for laser printers, and so
on. The BS2000 /PRINT command for spool files is issued as follows:
/PRINT temp.spoolfile,&PRINTPAR
Format: PRINTPAR=print-options
Classification: USER
SQLPATH
This variable specifies a path where SQL*Plus looks for command files. Elements of
the path are separated by semicolons (;). For example:
SQLPATH=PRIVATE;$ORAC1020
This assignment will cause SQL*Plus to look for filename.SQL, then for
PRIVATE.filename.SQL, and finally for $ORAC1020.filename.SQL.
Format: SQLPATH=search-path
Classification: USER, DBA
SSSIDPWF
This variable specifies the password file for remote instance start. For further
information, refer to Chapter 5, "Administering Oracle Database".
Format: SSSIDPWF=password-file
Classification: DBA
DBA Startup Variables
The following variables are used during database and network startup. They
supplement (and in some cases provide defaults for) variables contained in the
initialization file.
Oracle recommends that database startup and shutdown, background jobs, and
network jobs should all refer to the same ORAENV file to ensure that the variables are
consistent.
Note that the default values listed in the following section are built-in defaults, most of
them are over-ridden by settings in the shipped DEMO.P.ORAENV.
Address and Size Specification
Several of the variables described in this section define memory addresses and sizes.
The notation used to specify these items is as follows:
■
■
A number with no modifiers is interpreted as a decimal number
A number followed by K or M is interpreted as a decimal number multiplied by
1024 or 1048576 (1024*1024) respectively
ORAENV Variables
B-5
DBA Startup Variables
■
A number enclosed in single quotation marks and preceded by the letter X is
interpreted as a hexadecimal number
For example, the following all set the KNL_BASE variable to 8M:
KNL_BASE=8M
KNL_BASE=8388608
KNL_BASE=X'800000'
ALARM_TIMER_LIMIT
This variable is obsolete.
BGJPAR
This variable specifies the parameters for the ENTER-PROCEDURE command used
when starting background jobs. The ENTER-PROCEDURE command is used to submit
jobs as follows:
.jobname ENTER-PROCEDURE jobfile, &BGJPAR
Format: BGJPAR=parameters
Classification: DBA
Note:
The BGJPAR variable is set up by the installation procedure.
BGJPRC_UID / BGJPRC_SID
These variables specify the user ID and orasid of the file for the background enter
jobs. If the use of a special enter job file is desired, the parameters must be set to the
desired userid and orasid.
Format:
BGJPRC_UID=$userid
BGJPRC_SID=sid
Classification: DBA, NET
Default:
BGJPRC_UID=&ORAUID
BGJPRC_SID=DEMO
BGJ_LOG_JOBSTART
This variable specifies whether the operating system message that a new job was
accepted should be logged on SYSOUT or not.
Format: BGJ_LOG_JOBSTART=Y/N
Classification: DBA,USER, NET
Default: BGJ_LOG_JOBSTART=N
sid_BGJPAR
This variable specifies the parameters, which are used by the ENTER-PROCEDURE
command to start a server process for the instance specified by sid.
B-6 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
DBA Startup Variables
Format: sid_BGJPAR=parameters
Syntax: sid is a string of at the most 4 alphanumeric characters
parameters is the parameters for the ENTER-PROCEDURE command as described in
the BS2000/OSD commands
Classification: DBA,USER, NET
sid_USER
This variable specifies the USER-ID where the instance assigned by sid resides.
Format: sid_USER=userid
Syntax: sid is a string of at the most 4 alphanumeric characters
userid is a string of at most 8 alphanumeric characters which follows the rules of a
BS2000/OSD USER-ID
Classification: DBA,USER, NET
user_ACCOUNT/ user_PASSWORD
These parameters define credentials of a USER-ID, which are used by the
ENTER-PROCEDURE command to start a process.
Format: user_ACCOUNT=account
user_PASSWORD=password
Syntax: user is a string of at the most 8 alphanumeric characters, which follows the
rules of a BS2000/OSD USER-ID and must match a USER-ID defined by the
parameter sid_USER.
account is a string of at the most 8 alphanumeric characters, which follows the rules
for a BS2000/OSD account number.
password is a string of at the most 8 alphanumeric characters, which follows the rules
for a BS2000/OSD password.
Classification: DBA, NET
COM_MPID
This parameter specifies the identification of the shared code pool of the Oracle
instance for CORE, NLS, and NET.
Format: COM_MPID=sid
Classification: DBA
Default: COM_MPID=&ORASID
COM_BASE
This parameter specifies the address of the shared code pool of the Oracle instance for
CORE and NLS.
Format: COM_BASE=address
Classification: DBA
Default: COM_BASE=37M
ORAENV Variables
B-7
DBA Startup Variables
ENABLE_RAC
This variable specifies if the instance can run in RAC mode, refer to Chapter 14,
"Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)".
Format: ENABLE_RAC=TRUE/FALSE
Classification: DBA
Default: ENABLE_RAC=FALSE
JOBID
This variable is used internally in identifying the background tasks and generating
task-specific names. You see it in some places, but you should never specify it
yourself.
Classification: DBA
KNL_BASE
This variable gives the base address where the shared memory pool is mapped in
memory. This must be an integral number of megabytes.
Format: KNL_BASE=address
Classification: DBA
Default: KNL_BASE=72M
ORACLE_HOME
This parameter specifies a directory in the POSIX file system, which is used for
installation and operation purposes of Java and Oracle Management Agent. For more
information, refer to Chapter 12, "Java in the Database" and Chapter 15, "Oracle
Management Agent".
Format: ORACLE_HOME=/path-name
Classification: DBA
Default: ORACLE_HOME=/orac1020
PGA_BASE
This variable specifies the base address of the fixed part of the PGA. The PGA is
task-specific, but must be located at a fixed memory address so that the kernel can
access it. The base address must lie on a 64KB boundary.
Format: PGA_BASE=address
Classification: DBA
Default: PGA_BASE=189M
The value of PGA_BASE is taken from the kernel if the shared
kernel is already loaded.
Note:
PGA_SIZE
This variable specifies the size of the fixed part of the PGA. This variable should not
be changed from its default value.
B-8 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Oracle Net Services Variables
Format: PGA_SIZE=size
Classification: DBA
Default: PGA_SIZE=64K
The value of PGA_SIZE is taken from the kernel if the shared
kernel is already loaded.
Note:
SF_PBLKSIZE
This variable specifies the physical blocksize of redo log files.
Format: SF_PBLKSIZE=2K|4K
Classification: DBA
Default: 2K
Note: This variable cannot be changed after database creation. Once
you specify a value different from the default, you must specify it in
all future calls.
SGA_BASE
This variable gives the address where the SGA is mapped into memory, and must
represent a megabyte-boundary.
Format: SGA_BASE=address
Classification: DBA
Default: SGA_BASE=190M
The value of SGA_BASE is read from the kernel if the shared
kernel is already loaded. There is no corresponding SGA_SIZE
variable; the size of the SGA memory pool is calculated when the
database is started.
Note:
SGA_ROUND
This variable is obsolete.
Oracle Net Services Variables
The following are the Oracle Net Services variables:
BREAK_HANDLING
This variable deactivates the signal routine for user interrupts, which sends a break
over the network. An interrupt can be released by pressing the [K2] key.
Format:
BREAK_HANDLING=ON|OFF
ORAENV Variables
B-9
Oracle Net Services Variables
Classification:
DBA, USER, NET
Default:
BREAK_HANDLING=ON
TNS_ADMIN
This variable specifies the user ID of the Oracle Net Services configuration files, for
example, LISTENER.ORA, TNSNAMES.ORA and SQLNET.ORA. If TNS_ADMIN is not
defined, the configuration files are searched under the local user ID with the prefix
NETWORK.ADMIN.
Format: TNS_ADMIN=$userid
Classification: DBA, USER, NET
TNS_BEQ_TIMEOUT
This variable specifies the time after which a connection between a parent and a child
process is closed if there is no communication between them.
Format: TNS_BEQ_TIMEOUT=lifetime (in seconds)
Classification: NET
Default: TNS_BEQ_TIMEOUT=180
TNS_UPDATE_IPNODE
This variable forces the Oracle Net software to change always the server's IP-Node
name to an IP-Node address.
Format: TNS_UPDATE_IPNODE=TRUE/FALSE
Classification: NET
Default: TNS_UPDATE_IPNODE=FALSE
B-10 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
C
C
Initialization Parameters and the Parameter
File
Every time SQL*Plus starts an Oracle Database instance, it uses a set of parameters
which specify the characteristics of the instance's operation. These parameters are kept
in a file, typically named sid.DBS.INIT.ORA.
This appendix lists unsupported parameters, and lists other parameters that you may
need to change to customize the Oracle Database for the system.
Refer to the Oracle Database Reference manual for general descriptions of the parameters
listed in this Appendix.
Example Parameter File
The $ORAC1020.DEMO.DBS.INIT.ORA parameter file is created upon initial
installation and can be edited as a text file.
Unsupported Parameters
The following initialization file parameters, described in the generic documentation
are not supported by Oracle Database 10g for BS2000/OSD.
■
MAX_DUMP_FILE_SIZE
■
OS_ROLES
■
AUDIT_SYSLOG_LEVEL
Specifying these parameters in the initialization file results in an Oracle Database error
during startup. The workaround is to remove such lines from the file.
Additional Notes on Initialization Parameters
This section contains additional information on initialization parameters.
BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST
This parameter specifies the path name (directory or prefix) where debugging trace
files for the background processes (LGWR, DBWn, and so on.) are written during
Oracle operations. Furthermore, it specifies the path name for the alert file. The default
value for this parameter is the current BS2000 user ID of the Oracle background
processes. You can specify a prefix for the trace and alert files in the following format:
BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST=BDD
Initialization Parameters and the Parameter File C-1
Additional Notes on Initialization Parameters
You can also specify a POSIX directory for this parameter, if you have enabled the
POSIX subsystem.
USER_DUMP_DEST
This parameter specifies the path name (directory or prefix) where the server will
write debugging trace files on behalf of a user process. The default value for this
parameter is the current BS2000 user ID of the Oracle Database processes.
You can specify a prefix for the trace files as follows:
USER_DUMP_DEST=UDD
You can also specify a POSIX directory for this parameter, if you have enabled the
POSIX subsystem.
AUDIT_FILE_DEST
This parameter specifies the path name (directory or prefix) into which the audit trail
is written when the AUDIT_TRAIL initialization parameter is set to OS. Usually this
value is used as a prefix for BS2000 file names. You can also specify a POSIX directory
for this parameter, if you have enabled the POSIX subsystem. The default value for
this parameter is <sid>.ADUMP. The name of the audit files is <tsn>.<pgm>.AUD,
where tsn is the task sequence number of the current task and pgm is the program
name. Bear in mind that regardless of whether database auditing is enabled,
Oracle/BS2000 always records some database-related actions into the operating
system audit file: instance startup, shutdown and connections with administrator
privileges.
DB_BLOCK_SIZE
This parameter can have one of the following values:
■
2K, 4K, 6K, 8K, 16K, 32K, if you use BS2000 2K pubset format.
■
4K, 8K, 16K, 32K, if you use BS2000 4K pubset format.
DB_FILE_MULTIBLOCK_READ_COUNT
The default value of this parameter is 64K/DB_BLOCK_SIZE, which is also the
maximum value. Setting this parameter beyond this limit has no effect.
DB_FILES
If you plan to create a large database, you should set this value to the maximum of
2044 before creating the database.
LOCK_SGA
This parameter is ignored on Oracle Database 10g for BS2000/OSD. Buffers in the SGA
are page fixed only during I/O operations. Otherwise, the SGA on BS2000 is pageable.
SGA_MAX_SIZE
This parameter should not be specified on Oracle Database 10g for BS2000/OSD.
Because the SGA is not permanently pagefixed as it is on some other systems, there is
little benefit in reserving SGA expansion space with the SGA_MAX_SIZE parameter. It
will default to the actual SGA size.
C-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Additional Notes on Initialization Parameters
LOG_ARCHIVE_BUFFER_SIZE
The value of this parameter should always be set so that when multiplied by the value
of SF_PBLKSIZE the result equals 32K.
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST
This parameter can indicate a pubset, such as LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST=:PUB1:to store
all archived redo logs on special media.
Initialization Parameters and the Parameter File C-3
Additional Notes on Initialization Parameters
C-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
D
D
Troubleshooting
This section describes problems that you may encounter when using the Oracle
Database 10g release 2 on BS2000, and provides you with information on how to
diagnose and overcome such problems.
To solve a problem, identify the type of the problem and locate the relevant
information in this appendix. Examine each of the listed points to find the cause of the
problem. Carry out the suggested solution, and try again. The event log file described
in this document may help you to diagnose the problem.
Refer to the Appendix A, "Oracle Error Messages for BS2000/OSD" in this guide and
Oracle Database Error Messages manual for information about specific messages.
Problems Installing Oracle Database 10g
The following sections describe some of the probable problems faced while installing
Oracle Database 10g release 2.
Problems Creating a Database
You should always use INSTALL.P.SUPER or INSTALL.P.DBA to create a new
database, because this is the easiest way to get a correct instance. If you encounter
problems during this process, study the diagnostic output, correct, and run the
respective part manually, or remove the partially-created database, and re-run the
whole process. All files belonging to a specific database are prefixed with the system
identifier (ORASID) for that database, except for log files which have an extra prefix.
Also, check the following:
■
Does the BS2000 account have the necessary space in the JOIN file?
■
Is enough disk space available on the pubset or disks used to create the databases?
■
Is disk space fragmentation too high?
Problems Starting a Database
The following section lists some of the probable issues that you might face when you
start a database.
Problems Starting a Database
This section lists information related to problems encountered when starting a
database.
■
Did you get an ORA-05032 error with no extra information?
Troubleshooting D-1
Problems Accessing the Database
When you attempt to start up a database and the startup fails, you sometimes get
an ORA-05032 message and not much other information. This indicates that a
problem occurred in a very early stage of the startup, when Oracle Database 10g
error stack and backtracking mechanism was not yet active. If this is the case, you
should check the following:
–
Did you call the ORAENV procedure prior to calling SQL*Plus?
–
Did you specify a correct and unique ORASID value in the ORAENV file?
–
Are there potential address range conflicts?
The address ranges assigned to the kernel memory pool, the SGA, and the
PGA, in each task, could be partially occupied by shared subsystems also used
in the instance. Contact the System Administrator to find out how the
subsystems are arranged. Then change the corresponding xxx_BASE
environment variables in the ORAENV file to relocate the Oracle Database 10g
areas to suitable address ranges.
–
Is the user address space large enough?
A small address space limit in the JOIN file may not leave enough room for
Oracle Database 10g requirements.
–
Has a previous startup attempt failed, leaving invalid background, database,
or user tasks?
If the Oracle Database 10g has not been shut down properly, old background
or database tasks may hang and still be connected to the SGA of the old
instance. This inhibits the creation of a new SGA. You may get a message
indicating shutdown in progress.
Cancel the remaining background, server, and user tasks. Exit SQL*Plus (this
is required to release shared memory pools of the old instance) and retry.
Problems with Tasks
If you get a time out message when starting the background tasks, check the following
points:
■
Are the background tasks blocked in the BS2000 job queue? This may occur due to
system overload or insufficient task priority.
The background tasks should always be started with the IMMEDIATE option and
preferably in a reserved Jobclass. Check the ORAENV BGJPAR environment
variable and the BS2000 JOIN entry. Cancel any background tasks that have
already started.
■
If no background task can be found using the /STATUS command, the jobs have
probably aborted. Check the job outputs.
Problems Accessing the Database
Refer to this section if you are facing issues accessing the database.
Problems with Database and Log files
If you have problems opening, closing, reading, or writing a database or log file, check
the following points:
■
Does the file exist?
D-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Problems Accessing the Database
■
Is the file accessible to the program which is trying to open it?
■
Is there a hardware problem?
■
Did you specify the correct block size?
If you specified the ORAENV environment variable, SF_PBLKSIZE, at database
creation, you must continue to use the same specification whenever you run an ALTER
DATABASE statement.
Oracle Database 10g Trace Files
Whenever Oracle Database 10g encounters an exception, it writes a trace (or dump)
file. You may need to send the file to the Oracle Support Services Representative if any
unusual problem occurs.
Note that these files are created at database startup with a standard header and are
modified for the last time at database shutdown. If no problems have occurred, you
may wish to remove these files after a successful shutdown.
Trace File names
A trace file name is constructed using the pattern defined by the ORADUMP
environment variable in the ORAENV file.
Oracle Database-Level Error Information
When you get an Oracle Database message, the OER-xxxx message may sometimes be
followed by a message like the following:
SOSD error 8xxxyyyy from mmmmmmmm : text
This indicates that the error originated in operating system code or low-level Oracle
Database code interfacing with the operating system. The SOSD error code provides
important diagnostic information, and when contacting the Oracle Support Services
Representative you should always supply this code, if present, in addition to the
Oracle Database error number.
The error code is displayed in hexadecimal, and is structured as follows:
■
■
■
xxx identifies the function reporting the error. This information is useful to the
Oracle Support Services Representative.
yyyy details the error. It is either an internal code of the function, or a compacted
return code of a BS2000 system macro (see subsequent section).
mmmmmmmm is the name of the Oracle Database internal function. Text, if
present, explains the error code. Often it says "RC FROM zzzzz MACRO".
A BS2000 system macro return code is condensed into the 2-byte value yyyy as
follows:
■
For system macros that return a code bb0000aa, yyyy is bbaa
■
For I/O calls, yyyy is the DMS error code
In all other cases, yyyy contains the right halfword of the return code of the BS2000
macro.
Troubleshooting D-3
Problems Accessing the Database
D-4 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
E
E
File Types and Names Used by Oracle
The following is a list of file types and names used by Oracle.
sid.DBS.xxx.DBF
Database files such as sid.DBS.CONTROL.DBF, sid.DBS.DATABASE1.DBF, or
sid.DBS.LOG1.DBF contain the entire Oracle database including data dictionary, user
tables, log files, and so on.
sid.DBS.INIT.ORA
Parameter file used when instance is started.
sid.P.ORAENV
Environment file containing user environment. Always to be run before start of an
instance or an application: /DO sid.P.ORAENV.
S.E.tsn.YYYY-MM-DD.hh.mm.ss
Temporary ENTER-PROCEDURE file for starting background processes (using
$ORAC1020.DEMO.P.ENTER).
S.OUT.tsn.YYYY-MM-DD.hhmmss
Temporary files of background processes containing run-time information. After a
task is successfully completed, these files are removed. These files can help diagnosis.
L.sid.xxxx.SYSOUT.tsn
Run-time listing documenting the start of a background process. When process
finishes orderly listings are removed, except the SDF-P variable BJGOUT is set to KEEP
in sid.P.ORAENV for diagnosis purposes. xxxx corresponds with the identifier of
Oracle background jobs.
Oracle Net Services LOG files
All errors encountered in Oracle network products are appended to a log file. The
default directory path on BS2000/OSD is network.log. For more information about
Oracle Net Services log files, refer to Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide .
ALERT.sid.LOG
This file lists the log of significant events and errors of the database. If this file exits,
the same file is used, else a new file is created. This file is valuable for diagnosis, and
should not be removed.
File Types and Names Used by Oracle E-1
T.sid.INSTALL.E.SUPER
To be removed after successful installation.
T.sid.INSTALL.E.SUPER.72
To be removed after successful installation.
L.sid.xxx.LOG
To be removed after successful installation, for example, L.sid.CATALOG.LOG.
ORAXALOG.tsn-NULL-YYMMDD.TRC
This file is used to trace errors when openUTM is used with Oracle. This file is created
only when an error occurs. NULL can be replaced by a db_name when specified in the
open string.
OTRC.sid.tsn.program.TRC
This trace file is created for one of the following reasons:
■
To be analyzed by TKPROF utility, created after switch on of SQL trace by
alter session set sql_trace=true;
■
To be analyzed when internal errors (example: ORA-00600) or special events occur
E-2 Oracle Database Installation and Administration Guide
Index
A
DB_FILES, C-2
DEFAULT_CONNECTION,
DISPATCHERS, 9-4
Address Space, 2-4
administration utility
SQL*Plus, 5-1
ALARM_TIMER_LIMIT, B-6
ALERT.sid.LOG, E-1
Architecture
Oracle Server, 2-1
Archiving, 1-6
AUDIT_FILE_DEST, C-2
E
B
BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST,
BCAM, 9-9
Bequeath adapter, 9-3
BGJ_LOG_JOBSTART, B-6
BGJPAR, 7-1, B-6
Bigfile Tablespaces, 2-3
B-3
C-1
C
CE8BS2000, 12-2
CIRCUITS, 9-4
CL8BS2000, 12-3
Client Common Pool, 2-4
CLN_BASE, B-2
CLN_MPID, B-3
COM_BASE, B-7
Creating a database, 4-1
CRTE-BASYS, 1-3
D
Data dictionary views
installing, 4-6
Database
creating, 4-1
files, 2-1
recovering, 6-2
system identifier, 2-5
Database character sets
Java, 12-2
Datapump Import and Datapump Export, 1-6
DB_BLOCK_SIZE, C-2
DB_FILE_MULTIBLOCK_READ_COUNT, C-2
EDT, 1-3
EE8BS2000, 12-2
ENABLE_RAC, B-8
Environment Definition File, 2-5
Environment variables
BGJPAR, 7-1, B-6
CLN_BASE, B-2
CLN_MPID, B-3
DEFAULT_CONNECTION, B-3
EXP_CLIB_FILE_IO, B-3
IMP_CLIB_FILE_IO, B-4
IMP_USERID_IGNORE, B-4
JOBID, B-8
KNL_BASE, B-8
LOGNAME, B-2
NLS_LANG, B-4
OPS_JID, B-4
ORA_DUMP, B-4
ORAUID, B-2
PGA_BASE, B-8
PGA_SIZE, B-8
PGM, B-2
PRINTPAR, B-5
SF_PBLKSIZE, B-9
SGA_BASE, B-9
SGA_ROUND, B-9
SQLPATH, B-5
SSSIDPWF, B-5
TERM, B-2
TNS_ADMIN, B-10
TSN, B-2
EXP_CLIB_FILE_IO, B-3
Export, 1-6
External procedure calls, 11-1
F
File Names, E-1
File Types, E-1
Files
Index-1
database, 2-1
INIT.ORA, C-1
ORAENV, B-1
trace, 8-9
files
Java installation, 12-1
FTP access, 13-2
Globalization Support, 1-6
GLOGIN.SQL, 5-4
LMS, 1-3
Loading External Procedures, 11-1
Loadjava, 12-3
LOCAL_LISTENER, 9-4
LOCK_SGA, C-2
Log Files, 2-1
LOG_ARCHIVE_BUFFER_SIZE, C-3
LOG_ARCHIVE_DES, C-3
LOGIN.SQL, 5-4
LOGNAME, B-2
L.sid.xxx.LOG, E-2
L.sid.xxxx.SYSOUT.tsn, E-1
H
M
G
Hardware requirements,
HIPLEX MSCF, 14-1
HOST, 5-2
HTTP access, 13-2
1-1
Making PL/SQL available, 4-7
MAX_DISPATCHERS, 9-4
MAX_SHARED_SERVERS, 9-4
Messages, A-1
Modifying INIT.ORA, 4-5
I
IMP_CLIB_FILE_IO, B-4
IMP_USERID_IGNORE, B-4
Import, 1-6
Incompatibilities, 1-8
Initialization parameters
CIRCUITS, 9-4
DB_FILE_MULTIBLOCK_READ_COUNT,
DB_FILES, C-2
DISPATCHERS, 9-4
INIT.ORA file, C-1
LOCAL_LISTENER, 9-4
MAX_DISPATCHERS, 9-4
MAX_SHARED_SERVERS, 9-4
SHARED_SERVER_SESSIONS, 9-4
SHARED_SERVERS, 9-4
INIT.ORA, 2-2, C-1
modifying, 4-5
Installation
Java Enabled Database, 12-1
Installing
Oracle Database, 3-1
Intelligent Agent, 15-1
Invoking
SQL*Plus, 5-1
N
NLS_LANG,
O
C-2
J
Java, 12-1
database character sets,
JOBID, B-8
KNL_BASE, B-8
Known problems, restrictions and workarounds,
LDAP.ORA, 9-7
Index-2
openNet Server
netstat, 15-1
tool, 15-1
OPS_JID, B-4
Oracle
file types, E-1
Oracle Database
administering, 5-1
architecture, 2-1
hardware requirements, 1-1
installing, 3-1
tuning, 7-1
Oracle Database Environment Definition File, 2-5
Oracle Net Services LOG files, E-1
Oracle Text, 10-1
ORACLE_HOME, B-8
ORADUMP, B-4
ORAENV, 2-2, 2-5, 4-6, B-1
ORAENV variables, 2-5
ORALOAD.LIB, 2-2
ORAUID, B-2
ORAXALOG.tsn-NULL-YYMMDD.TRC, E-2
OTRC.sid.tsn.program.TRC, E-2
12-2
P
K
L
B-4
1-4
parameter files, 5-2
Parameters
initialization, C-1
PGA, B-8
PGA_BASE, B-8
PGA_SIZE, B-8
PGM, B-2
PL/SQL
making available, 4-7
POSIX, 1-8
Precompilers
interfacing to the Oracle XA Library, 8-7
Preinstallation Issues, 15-1
Printers, B-5
PRINTPAR, B-5
Problems, 1-4
Protocol Adapters
TCP/IP, 9-3
R
RAC, 14-1
Recovering Databases, 6-2
Remote Startup
database instance
database instance
remote startup,
T
TCP/IP, 1-7
TCP/IP adapter, 9-3
TERM, B-2
timeout handling, D-2
TNS_ADMIN, B-10
TNS_UPDATE_IPNODE, B-10
Trace Files, 8-9
Troubleshooting, 8-9
T.sid.INSTALL.E.SUPER, E-2
T.sid.INSTALL.E.SUPER.72, E-2
TSN, B-2
Tuning
Oracle Database, 7-1
U
5-3
Restrictions, 1-4
S
SDF, 1-3
SDF-P, 1-3
Server Parameter File, 5-2
S.E.tsn.YYYY-MM-DD.hh.mm.ss, E-1
SF_PBLKSIZE, B-9
SGA_BASE, B-9
SGA_MAX_SIZE, C-2
SGA_ROUND, B-9
shared code pool, B-7
SHARED_SERVER_SESSIONS, 9-4
SHARED_SERVERS, 9-4
sid_BGJPAR, B-6
SID_LIST_LISTENER, 5-3
sid_USER, B-7
sid.DBS.INIT.ORA, E-1
sid.DBS.xxx.DBF, E-1
sid.P.ORAENV, E-1
Software requirements, 1-2
S.OUT.tsn.YYYY-MM-DD.hhmmss, E-1
SPFILE, 2-2, 5-2
SQL*Loader, 1-6
SQL*Net TCP/IP, 1-7
SQL*Plus, 1-6, 5-1
and INIT.ORA, 5-2
calling from procedures, 5-1
database administration utility, 5-1
invoking, 5-1
issuing BS2000 commands from, 5-2
SQLPATH, B-5
SSSIDPWF, B-5
Starting
Oracle Text, 10-1
SX Server, 16-1
SX130, 16-1
Upgrading an existing Oracle Database /openUTM
application from Oracle9i, 8-11
User ID
DBA, 2-7
installation, 2-6
Oracle users, 2-8
user_ACCOUNT, B-7
USER_DUMP_DEST, C-2
user_PASSWORD, B-7
Utilities
Import, 1-6
UTM, 8-1
UTM.ORAUTM.LIB, 8-11
V
variables
ORAENV,
2-5
W
WE8BS2000, 12-2
WE8BS2000E, 12-2
WE8BS2000L5, 12-3
WebDAV access, 13-2
Workarounds, 1-4
X
XAO.LIB, 8-1
XCS, 14-1
XDK, 13-1
XML, 13-1
XML parser, 13-1
XML SQL Utility, 13-1
XMLType, 13-2
XSLT Processor, 13-1
Index-3
Index-4
Information on this document
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