BreezeNET PRO.11 Series User'

BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
User’s Guide
Software Version 5.1
March, 2001
Cat. No. 213178
Front Matter
© 2000 by BreezeCOM Ltd. All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form without the written
permission of the copyright owner.
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form without the written
permission of the copyright owner.
Trade Names
BreezeNET and BreezeLINK are trade names of BreezeCOM Ltd. Other brand and
product names are registered trademarks or trademarks of their respective companies.
User’s Guide
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Front Matter
Statement of Conditions
The information contained in this user's guide is subject to change without notice. BreezeCOM Ltd. shall not be
liable for errors contained herein or for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing,
performance, or use of this user's guide or equipment supplied with it.
Warranty
In the following warranty text, “the Company” shall mean:
- BreezeCOM Inc., for products located in the USA.
- BreezeCOM Ltd., for products located outside the USA.
This BreezeNET product is warranted against defects in material and workmanship for a period of one year. During
this warranty period the Company will, at its option, either repair or replace products that prove to be defective.
For warranty service or repair, the product must be returned to a service facility designated by the Company.
Authorization to return products must be obtained prior to shipment. The buyer shall pay all shipping charges to the
Company and the Company shall pay shipping charges to return the product to the buyer.
The Company warrants that the firmware designed by it for use with the unit will execute its programming
instructions when properly installed on the unit. The Company does not warrant that the operation of the unit or
firmware will be uninterrupted or error-free.
Limitation of Warranty
THE FOREGOING WARRANTY SHALL NOT APPLY TO DEFECTS RESULTING FROM IMPROPER OR INADEQUATE MAINTENANCE BY
THE BUYER, BUYER SUPPLIED INTERFACING, UNAUTHORIZED MODIFICATION OR MISUSE, OPERATION OUTSIDE OF THE
ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE PRODUCT, OR IMPROPER SITE PREPARATION OR MAINTENANCE.
NO OTHER
THE COMPANY SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED.
BREEZECOM SHALL NOT BE LIABLE TO ANY PERSON FOR ANY SPECIAL OR INDIRECT DAMAGES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
LIMITED TO, LOSS OF PROFITS OR REVENUES, LOSS OF USE OR DAMAGE TO ANY ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT, COST OF CAPITAL,
COST OF SUBSTITUTE PRODUCTS, FACILITIES OR SERVICES, DOWNTIME COSTS OR CLAIMS RESULTING FROM ANY CAUSE
WHATSOEVER ARISING FROM OR IN ANY WAY CONNECTED WITH THE MANUFACTURE, SALE, HANDLING, SERVICE, REPAIR,
MAINTENANCE OR USE OF THE PRODUCTS. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COMPANY’S LIABILITY EXCEED THE PURCHASE PRICE
DENOTED ON THE INVOICE.
Electronic Emission Notices
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC rules, ETSI 300-328, UL, UL/C, TUV/GS, and CE.
Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
1. This device may not cause harmful interference.
2. This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
FCC Radio Frequency Interference Statement
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a class A digital device, pursuant to Part 15
of the FCC rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the
equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency
energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to
radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference in
which case the user will be required to correct the interference at his own expense.
Information to User
Any changes or modifications of equipment not expressly approved by the manufacturer could void the user’s
authority to operate the equipment and the company’s warranty.
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User’s Guide
Front Matter
Contacting BreezeCOM Technical Support
Should you need assistance beyond the scope of this guide, please contact your local
BreezeCOM reseller or distributor. If they cannot solve your problem, feel free to contact the
BreezeCOM Technical Support Department. The support representatives can assist you in
solving any problems that cannot be solved by your reseller.
When requesting support, please have the following items available:
•
Configuration of the system, including models of the BreezeCOM equipment used
•
BreezeNET firmware version currently in use
•
Antenna type and cable lengths
•
Site information such as possible radio path problems (like trees, machines, and buildings)
•
Distance between devices
•
Configuration, statistic counters, and error messages as seen on the monitor
•
Description of problems encountered
To contact BreezeCOM Technical Support, refer to the BreezeCOM web site:
http://www.breezecom.com/ContactUs/brzcnt.htm
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................1-1
1.1 Scope of the User’s Guide ............................................................................................1-1
1.2 BreezeNET PRO.11 Series Features ............................................................................1-2
1.3 BreezeNET PRO.11 Series Product Line .....................................................................1-3
1.3.1 The BreezeNET PRO.11 Access Point ..............................................................1-4
1.3.2 The BreezeNET PRO.11 Single Station Adapter ..............................................1-6
1.3.3 The BreezeNET PRO.11 Four Port Station Adapter .........................................1-7
1.3.4 The BreezeNET PRO.11 Workgroup Bridge.....................................................1-9
1.3.5 The BreezeNET PRO.11 SA-PCR Card ..........................................................1-11
1.3.6 The BreezeNET PRO.11 Extended Range Access Point and Bridge ..............1-12
1.4 BreezeNET PRO.11 Functional Description ..............................................................1-13
1.4.1 Quick Review of Ethernet................................................................................1-13
1.4.2 Startup Procedure.............................................................................................1-13
1.4.3 AP-10 Access Point .........................................................................................1-13
1.4.4 SA-10 Station Adapter .....................................................................................1-14
1.4.5 SA-40 Station Adapter .....................................................................................1-14
1.4.6 WB-10 Wireless Bridge ...................................................................................1-14
1.4.7 SA-PCR Station Adapter .................................................................................1-15
2. BASIC INSTALLATION .........................................................................................2-1
2.1 Basic Installation Checklist ..........................................................................................2-1
2.2 Check the Packing List .................................................................................................2-1
2.3 Position the Unit ...........................................................................................................2-2
2.3.1 Additional Considerations When Positioning the Access Point........................2-3
2.4 Connect the Unit to the Power Supply..........................................................................2-4
2.5 Connect the Unit to the Ethernet Port...........................................................................2-4
2.6 Check Unit Functionality via the LED indicators ........................................................2-5
2.6.1 Station (SA-10, SA-40) and Bridge (WB-10) LEDs..........................................2-5
2.6.2 Access Point LEDs.............................................................................................2-6
2.6.3 Verifying the Ethernet Connection ....................................................................2-6
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3. USING THE LOCAL TERMINAL FOR UNIT SETUP AND MANAGEMENT ..........3-1
3.1 Getting Started with the Local Terminal ......................................................................3-1
3.2 Configuration Screens...................................................................................................3-3
3.3 Main Menu....................................................................................................................3-7
3.4 System Configuration Menu .........................................................................................3-8
3.4.1 Station Status .....................................................................................................3-8
3.4.2 IP and SNMP Parameters.................................................................................3-10
3.4.3 Wireless LAN (WLAN) Parameters ................................................................3-11
3.4.4 Bridging ...........................................................................................................3-14
3.4.5 Station Control .................................................................................................3-16
3.4.6 Security (Authentication Feature)....................................................................3-16
3.5 Advanced Settings Menu ............................................................................................3-18
3.5.1 Translation Mode .............................................................................................3-18
3.5.2 Roaming ...........................................................................................................3-18
3.5.3 Performance .....................................................................................................3-20
3.5.4 Radio ................................................................................................................3-21
3.5.5 Rate ..................................................................................................................3-22
3.5.6 AP Redundancy Support..................................................................................3-22
3.5.7 Maintenance.....................................................................................................3-22
3.6 Voice and Data Configuration ....................................................................................3-23
3.7 Site Survey Menu........................................................................................................3-23
3.7.1 System Counters ..............................................................................................3-24
3.7.2 Survey Software...............................................................................................3-32
3.7.3 Using the Site Survey Software .......................................................................3-32
3.7.4 Event Log .........................................................................................................3-35
3.7.5 Display Neighboring APs ................................................................................3-36
3.8 Access Control Menu..................................................................................................3-36
3.9 Code Activate Control Menu......................................................................................3-38
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4. SA-PCR PRO.11 PC CARD INSTALLATION, SETUP, AND MANAGEMENT.......4-1
4.1 Packing List ..................................................................................................................4-1
4.2 Before You Begin .........................................................................................................4-1
4.3 Installing the SA-PCR Card..........................................................................................4-2
4.3.1 Installing the SA-PCR Drivers...........................................................................4-3
4.3.2 Checking the LED Indicators...........................................................................4-17
4.3.3 Initial Configuration.........................................................................................4-17
4.4 Installing the SA-PCR Utilities...................................................................................4-18
4.4.1 Installing the SA-PCR Driver for Windows 2000 Systems .............................4-19
4.4.2 Uninstalling SA-PCR Utilities .........................................................................4-23
4.5 Using the SA-PCR Configuration Utility ...................................................................4-24
4.5.1 Station Status Tab ............................................................................................4-25
4.5.2 WLAN Parameters Tab....................................................................................4-26
4.5.3 Station Control Tab..........................................................................................4-27
4.5.4 Configuration Access Tab................................................................................4-29
4.5.5 Power Management Tab ..................................................................................4-30
4.5.6 Security Tab .....................................................................................................4-32
4.5.7 Maintenance Tab..............................................................................................4-34
4.5.8 Radio Tab.........................................................................................................4-35
4.5.9 Performance Tab ..............................................................................................4-36
4.5.10 Resetting the SA-PCR Card ...........................................................................4-37
4.5.11 Running the Configuration Utility Under Windows 2000.............................4-37
4.6 Using the Windows CE SA-PCR Utility ....................................................................4-40
4.6.1 Configuration ...................................................................................................4-40
4.6.2 Monitor ............................................................................................................4-41
4.7 Using the SA-PCR Site Survey Utility .......................................................................4-42
4.7.1 Accessing the SA-PCR Site Survey Utility .....................................................4-42
4.7.2 SA-PCR Site Survey Main Window ................................................................4-43
4.7.3 Performing a Site Survey with the SA-PCR ....................................................4-46
4.8 Using the Upgrade Kit Program .................................................................................4-47
4.9 Installation Troubleshooting.......................................................................................4-52
4.10 Installing the SA-PCR Drivers in ODI Systems .......................................................4-53
4.11 Installing the SA-PCR in Linux Systems..................................................................4-56
4.11.1 Requirements .................................................................................................4-56
4.11.2 Installing the PCMCIA Package ....................................................................4-57
4.11.3 Checking the SA-PCR Firmware Version in Linux.......................................4-58
4.11.4 Installing the SA-PCR Linux Driver..............................................................4-59
4.11.5 Building the Driver ........................................................................................4-60
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4.11.6 Configuration Steps Prior to Operation .........................................................4-61
4.11.7 SA-PCR Operation Under Linux ...................................................................4-64
5. THE BREEZENET SNMP CONFIGURATION UTILITY .........................................5-1
5.1 Configuration Utility Main Window ............................................................................5-1
5.1.1 The Toolbar........................................................................................................5-3
5.1.2 Network Selection Buttons ................................................................................5-4
5.1.3 The Device List..................................................................................................5-4
5.1.4 Main Window Control Buttons..........................................................................5-5
5.1.5 Setting the Access Rights...................................................................................5-5
5.1.6 Setting the SNMP Community Information.......................................................5-6
5.2 Configuration Utility Modes.........................................................................................5-7
5.2.1 Firmware Upgrade .............................................................................................5-8
5.2.2 Multiple Unit Configuration ..............................................................................5-9
5.3 Configuration Utility Tools ........................................................................................5-10
5.3.1 Managing Sites.................................................................................................5-11
5.3.2 Selecting Units for Management......................................................................5-11
5.3.3 Assigning and Editing IP Addresses Manually................................................5-12
5.3.4 Defining Remote Network Discovery Settings................................................5-13
5.4 Utility Configuration Windows ..................................................................................5-16
5.4.1 Station Status Tab ............................................................................................5-16
5.4.2 IP Parameters Tab ............................................................................................5-17
5.4.3 SNMP Parameters Tab.....................................................................................5-19
5.4.4 WLAN Parameters Tab....................................................................................5-20
5.4.5 Station Control Tab..........................................................................................5-24
5.4.6 Security Tab .....................................................................................................5-25
5.4.7 Advanced Tab ..................................................................................................5-27
5.4.8 Counters Tab....................................................................................................5-30
5.4.9 Trap Monitor Tab.............................................................................................5-34
5.4.10 Bridging Tab ..................................................................................................5-35
6. PLANNING AND INSTALLING WIRELESS LANS ................................................6-1
6.1 System Configurations..................................................................................................6-1
6.1.1 Single Cell Configuration ..................................................................................6-2
6.1.2 Overlapping Cell Configuration System Configurations...................................6-6
6.1.3 Multicell Configuration .....................................................................................6-8
6.1.4 Multi-Hop Configuration (Relay) ......................................................................6-9
6.2 Indoor Installation Considerations..............................................................................6-11
6.2.1 Site Selection Factors.......................................................................................6-11
6.2.2 Antennas for Indoor Applications....................................................................6-13
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6.2.3 Construction Materials.....................................................................................6-14
6.2.4 Cell Size ...........................................................................................................6-15
6.3 Outdoor Installation Considerations ...........................................................................6-16
6.3.1 Site Selection Factors.......................................................................................6-16
6.3.2 Rooftop Installation .........................................................................................6-17
6.3.3 Antennas for Outdoor Applications .................................................................6-18
6.3.4 Antenna Seal ....................................................................................................6-20
6.3.5 Cell Size ...........................................................................................................6-20
6.3.6 Link Distance ...................................................................................................6-20
6.3.7 Using Outdoor Range Tables...........................................................................6-21
6.3.8 FCC Outdoor Range Tables (USA) .................................................................6-21
6.3.9 ETSI Outdoor Range Tables (Europe and Rest-of-World) – D Models, DL
Models.......................................................................................................................6-23
6.3.10 ETSI Outdoor Range Tables (Europe and Rest-of-World) – DE Models .....6-24
6.3.11 Non-Regulated Outdoor Range Tables – D Models ......................................6-25
6.3.12 Extending the range using the TPA-24 and LNA-10.....................................6-27
6.4 Available Antennas and Antenna Kits........................................................................6-31
6.5 Precautions..................................................................................................................6-33
6.5.1 Transmit Antenna.............................................................................................6-33
6.5.2 Spurious Radio Frequency Emissions..............................................................6-33
6.5.3 Lightning Protection ........................................................................................6-34
6.5.4 Rain Proofing ...................................................................................................6-34
7. ACCESSORY INSTALLATION ..............................................................................7-1
7.1 TPA 24 Transmit Power Amplifier (Booster) ..............................................................7-1
7.1.1 Installing the TPA 24 .........................................................................................7-2
7.2 LNA 10 Low Noise Receive Amplifier ........................................................................7-3
7.2.1 Installing the LNA 10 ........................................................................................7-3
7.3 RFS 122 Radio Frequency Splitter ...............................................................................7-4
7.3.1 Installing the RFS 122........................................................................................7-5
7.4 AL 1 Lightning Arrestor ...............................................................................................7-5
7.5 AMP 2440 Bi-Directional Amplifier............................................................................7-6
7.5.1 Installing the AMP 2440 Bi-directional Amplifier ............................................7-8
8. UPGRADE PROCEDURE......................................................................................8-1
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9. SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING ...........................................................................9-1
9.1 Troubleshooting Guide .................................................................................................9-1
9.2 Checking Counters........................................................................................................9-5
9.2.1 WLAN Counters ................................................................................................9-5
9.2.2 Ethernet Counters...............................................................................................9-5
10. APPENDIX .........................................................................................................10-1
10.1 Supported MIBs and Traps .......................................................................................10-1
10.1.1 Supported MIBs .............................................................................................10-1
10.1.2 Supported Traps ...........................................................................................10-15
10.2 Technical Specifications.........................................................................................10-17
10.2.1 Specifications for BreezeNET PRO.11 Units..............................................10-17
10.2.2 Specifications for TPA 24 Transmit Power Amplifier ................................10-20
10.2.3 Specifications for LNA 10 Low Noise Receive Amplifier..........................10-21
10.2.4 Specifications for RFS 122 Radio Frequency Splitter.................................10-22
10.2.5 Specifications for AL 1 Lightning Arrestor.................................................10-22
10.2.6 Specifications for AMP 2440 Bi-Directional Power Amplifier ..................10-23
10.3 Wireless LAN Concepts .........................................................................................10-24
10.4 Radio Signal Propagation .......................................................................................10-31
10.4.1 Introduction..................................................................................................10-31
10.4.2 RF Terms and Definitions............................................................................10-32
10.5 IEEE 802.11 Technical Tutorial .............................................................................10-39
10.5.1 Architecture Components ............................................................................10-39
10.5.2 IEEE 802.11 Layers Description .................................................................10-41
10.5.3 The MAC Layer ...........................................................................................10-41
10.5.4 How Does a Station Join an Existing Cell ...................................................10-47
10.5.5 Roaming .......................................................................................................10-48
10.5.6 Keeping Synchronization.............................................................................10-49
10.5.7 Security ........................................................................................................10-49
10.5.8 Frame Types.................................................................................................10-51
10.5.9 Frame Formats .............................................................................................10-52
10.5.10 Most Common Frame Formats ..................................................................10-57
10.5.11 Point Coordination Function (PCF) ...........................................................10-59
10.5.12 Ad-Hoc Networks ......................................................................................10-59
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TABLE OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1. AP-10 PRO.11 with Two Built-in Omni-Directional Antennas ..........................1-4
Figure 1-2. SA-10 PRO.11 with Two Integrated Omni-Directional Antennas.......................1-6
Figure 1-3. SA-40 PRO.11 with Two Integrated Omni-Directional Antennas.......................1-7
Figure 1-4. WB-10D PRO.11 with Two External Antenna Connector Ports .........................1-9
Figure 1-5. The SA-PCR PRO.11 PC Card ..........................................................................1-11
Figure 2-1. Side Connection Panel .........................................................................................2-4
Figure 2-2. Rear Connection panel .........................................................................................2-4
Figure 3-1. Side Connection Panel .........................................................................................3-1
Figure 3-2. Main Menu ...........................................................................................................3-7
Figure 3-3. System Configuration Menu ................................................................................3-8
Figure 3-4. Advanced Settings Menu....................................................................................3-18
Figure 3-5. Site Survey Menu ...............................................................................................3-24
Figure 3-6. Display Rx Packets per Frequency.....................................................................3-30
Figure 3-7. Transmit Statistics ..............................................................................................3-33
Figure 3-8. Receive Statistics................................................................................................3-34
Figure 3-9. RSSI to dBm Graph............................................................................................3-34
Figure 3-10. Access Control Menu .......................................................................................3-36
Figure 4-1. Installing the Windows 2000 Driver Kit ...............................................................4-4
Figure 4-2. System Properties Window – Windows 95B .......................................................4-9
Figure 4-3. New Hardware Found Window..........................................................................4-10
Figure 4-4. SA-PCR LAN Adapter Properties Window .......................................................4-12
Figure 4-5. Windows NT Diagnostics Window....................................................................4-13
Figure 4-6. BreezeCOM SA-PCR Utilities Setup.................................................................4-18
Figure 4-7. BreezeCOM SA-PCR Utilities - Folder Selection Window ..............................4-18
Figure 4-8. BreezeCOM SA-PCR Utilities Setup Complete Window..................................4-19
Figure 4-9. Installing the Windows 2000 Driver Kit .............................................................4-20
Figure 4-10. SA-PCR Configuration Utility Main Window - Station Status Tab ................4-24
Figure 4-11. WLAN Parameters Tab ....................................................................................4-26
Figure 4-12. Station Control Tab ..........................................................................................4-28
Figure 4-13. Configuration Access Tab................................................................................4-29
Figure 4-14. Power Management Tab...................................................................................4-31
Figure 4-15. The Security Tab ..............................................................................................4-32
Figure 4-16. Maintenance Tab ..............................................................................................4-34
Figure 4-17. Radio Tab .........................................................................................................4-35
Figure 4-18. Performance Tab ..............................................................................................4-36
Figure 4-19. SA-PCR Site Survey.........................................................................................4-42
Figure 4-20. Connection Quality Graph................................................................................4-44
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Figure 4-21. Survey Log .......................................................................................................4-44
Figure 4-22. Upgrade Kit Program Introductory Window....................................................4-47
Figure 4-23. Upgrade Kit Program Welcome Window ........................................................4-48
Figure 4-24. Upgrade Kit Program Step 1 ............................................................................4-48
Figure 4-25. Upgrade Kit Program Step 2 ............................................................................4-49
Figure 4-26. Password Dialog Box .......................................................................................4-49
Figure 4-27. Upgrade Program Step 3 ..................................................................................4-50
Figure 4-28. Upgrade Program Step 4 ..................................................................................4-50
Figure 4-29. Utilities Directory.............................................................................................4-51
Figure 4-30. Upgrade Program Step 5 ..................................................................................4-51
Figure 5-1. Configuration Utility Window (Station Control Tab)..........................................5-2
Figure 5-2. Access Rights .......................................................................................................5-6
Figure 5-3. Firmware Upgrade................................................................................................5-8
Figure 5-4. Multiple Configuration.........................................................................................5-9
Figure 5-5. The Set IP Dialog Box........................................................................................5-12
Figure 5-6. Remote Network Auto-Discovery Settings Dialog Box......................................5-13
Figure 5-7. Station Status Tab...............................................................................................5-16
Figure 5-8. IP Parameters Tab ..............................................................................................5-17
Figure 5-9. SNMP Parameters Tab .......................................................................................5-19
Figure 5-10. WLAN Parameters Tab ....................................................................................5-20
Figure 5-11. The Station Control Tab...................................................................................5-24
Figure 5-12. Security Tab .....................................................................................................5-25
Figure 5-13. Advanced - Performance Tab (SA and WB Units) ..........................................5-27
Figure 5-14. Advanced - Performance Tab (AP Units) ........................................................5-28
Figure 5-15. Advanced - Radio Tab......................................................................................5-29
Figure 5-16. Counters - Rate Tab..........................................................................................5-30
Figure 5-17. Counters - Traffic Tab......................................................................................5-31
Figure 5-18. Trap Monitor Tab .............................................................................................5-34
Figure 5-19. Bridging Tab.....................................................................................................5-35
Figure 6-1. Point-to-Point Configuration/ Connecting Remote Offices to Main Office
Network....................................................................................................................................6-2
Figure 6-2. Wireless Bridging Between Two or More Wireless LAN Segments...................6-4
Figure 6-3. Single Cell Configuration.....................................................................................6-5
Figure 6-4. Three Overlapping Cells ......................................................................................6-6
Figure 6-5. Multicell Configuration........................................................................................6-8
Figure 6-6. Multi-Hop Configuration ...................................................................................6-10
Figure 6-7. Advanced Multihop Configuration ....................................................................6-10
Figure 6-8. BreezeNET LAN in a typical office environment..............................................6-11
Figure 7-1. TPA 24 Installation ..............................................................................................7-2
Figure 7-2. LNA 10 Connections Diagram.............................................................................7-4
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Figure 7-3. RFS-122 Connection Diagram .............................................................................7-5
Figure 7-4. AL-1 Connection Block Diagram.........................................................................7-6
Figure 7-5. AMP 2440 Functional Block Diagram.................................................................7-6
Figure 7-6. AMP 2440 Installation and Mounting..................................................................7-8
Figure 7-7. AMP 2440 Installation Details.............................................................................7-9
Figure 10-1. Wired LAN Topology ....................................................................................10-25
Figure 10-2. The Basic Wireless LAN Cell........................................................................10-26
Figure 10-3. Wireless LAN Connectivity ...........................................................................10-27
Figure 10-4. Roaming Through Overlapping Cells ............................................................10-28
Figure 10-5. The Common Coverage Area of a Multi-cell Structure .................................10-29
Figure 10-6. Typical Radio System .....................................................................................10-31
Figure 10-7. Attenuation of an RF signal ...........................................................................10-32
Figure 10-8. Side View .......................................................................................................10-34
Figure 10-9. Top View........................................................................................................10-34
Figure 10-10. Radiation Pattern of Directional Antenna ....................................................10-35
Figure 10-11. Multipath Reception.....................................................................................10-37
Figure 10-12. Fresnel Zone .................................................................................................10-38
Figure 10-13. Fresnel Zone Clear of Obstacles ..................................................................10-39
Figure 10-14. Typical 802.11 LAN.....................................................................................10-40
Figure 10-15. Transaction Between Stations A and B........................................................10-44
Figure 10-16. Frame Fragmentation....................................................................................10-45
Figure 10-17. Access Mechanism .......................................................................................10-47
Figure 10-18. MAC Frame Format .....................................................................................10-53
Figure 10-19. Frame Control Field .....................................................................................10-53
Figure 10-20. RTS Frame Format .......................................................................................10-57
Figure 10-21. CTS Frame ...................................................................................................10-58
Figure 10-22. ACK Frame Format......................................................................................10-58
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1. INTRODUCTION
This chapter outlines the scope of this User’s Guide, presents the members of the
BreezeNET PRO.11 series, describes the benefits of BreezeNET PRO.11 wireless
LANs and lists the product specifications.
1.1 Scope of the User’s Guide
This User’s Guide provides instructions for planning and setting up your wireless
LAN, provides details of how to install each unit, and how to install antennas and
accessories.
This User’s Guide contains the following chapters:
⇒ Chapter 1 Introduction – Explains how to use this guide and presents the
members of the BreezeNET PRO.11 series.
⇒ Chapter 2 Basic Installation – Explains how to install BreezeNET PRO.11
series units.
⇒ Chapter 3 Device Setup and Management – Explains how to use the local
terminal to setup, configure, and manage BreezeNET PRO.11 series units.
⇒ Chapter 4 SA-PCR PRO.11 PC Card Installation, Setup, and Management
- Explains how to install the SA-PCR card, and how to setup and manage the
card using the SA-PCR utilities.
⇒ Chapter 5. The Configuration Utility - Explains how to use the SNMP
Configuration Utility for managing and configuring BreezeNET PRO.11 units.
⇒ Chapter 6 Planning and Installing Wireless LANs – Provides guidelines and
restrictions regarding antenna selection and installation, and includes outdoor
antenna range tables.
⇒ Chapter 7 Accessory Installation – Introduces some of the accessories
available for specific installations, and describes how to install them.
⇒ Chapter 8 Upgrade Procedure – Explains how to perform upgrades for
BreezeNET PRO.11 series units using a TFTP application.
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Introduction
⇒ Chapter 9 System Troubleshooting – Contains a troubleshooting guide that
provides answers to some of the more common problems which may occur
when installing and using BreezeNET PRO.11 series products.
⇒ Chapter 10 Appendix –Lists MIBs and traps supported by BreezeNET
PRO.11 series products, lists product and attachment specifications, provides
an overview of the concepts related to wireless LANs, discusses the concepts
and applications of radio signal propagation relevant to wireless LANs, and
introduces the new 802.11 standard.
⇒ Index
1.2 BreezeNET PRO.11 Series Features
The following is a partial list of the BreezeNET PRO.11 series features:
User’s Guide
•
IEEE 802.11 Compliant – All BreezeNET PRO.11 series units are fully
compliant with the final IEEE 802.11 specification for wireless LANs, and
thus support interoperability with other IEEE 802.11 compliant vendors.
•
Fully integrated product family – One high-performance Access Point for
all products in the series.
•
Increased Throughput – A 3 Mbps modem, with up to 2 Mbps data
throughput.
•
Translation Bridging – Support for both translation and transparent bridging
as defined in the IEEE 802.1h and RFC 1042 standards.
•
Seamless Roaming– Network connection is maintained while roaming
between overlapping coverage areas. Transmission and reception can be
continued while moving at high speeds with no data packet loss or duplication.
•
Load Sharing – Traffic is equally distributed among all Access Points in the
area.
•
Redundancy – In co-located cell environments, upon failure of an Access
Point, stations will switch to other available Access Points.
•
LED Display – Power, Network Activity, and WLAN Load or Signal Quality
LEDs indicate the current status of the unit.
•
Upgrading – Simple, quick, and free software upgrades via TFTP.
•
Future-proof Investment – All items in the PRO.11 Series line can be freely
and quickly upgraded with flash updates.
1-2
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Introduction
•
SA-PCR Card – The SA-PCR PRO.11 PC card is extremely compact and
does not extend beyond your PC. It comes with two retractable antennas, or
two connectors to which antennas may be connected. Multi-rate support for 1,
2, and 3 Mbps guarantees efficient use of the medium. Throughput is up to 2
Mbps – the highest rate on the market!
∗
Configuration Utility – This user-friendly application helps you quickly
setup stations containing SA-PCR Card. You can save the configuration
to a file and import the file to other stations for fast installation.
∗
Site Survey Utility – This user-friendly application records the signal
strength received by the SA-PCR Card at different locations, giving a
clear image of existing coverage. The gathered data indicates whether to
add, remove, or move Access Points.
1.3 BreezeNET PRO.11 Series Product Line
The BreezeNET PRO.11 series product line consists of:
Product Name
Access Point
Single Station Adapter
Four Port Station Adapter
Workgroup Bridge
PCMCIA PC Card
Station Adapter Card
Extended Range Access Point
Extended Range Bridge
Available Types
AP-10 PRO.11
AP-10D PRO.11
AP-10DL PRO.11
SA-10 PRO.11
SA-10D PRO.11
SA-10DL PRO.11
SA-40 PRO.11
SA-40D PRO.11
SA-40DL PRO.11
WB-10 PRO.11
WB-10D PRO.11
WB-10DL PRO.11
SA-PCR PRO.11
SA-PCD PRO.11
AP-10DE
WB-10DE
Antenna Type
Internal
External
External
Internal
External
External
Internal
External
External
Internal
External
External
Internal
External
External
External
Notes: The WB-10DE and AP-10DE are not compatible with the BreezeNET PRO.11
series.
Units in the BreezeNET PRO.11 series are not compatible with units in the
BreezeNET PRO series.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
1-3
User’s Guide
Introduction
1.3.1 The BreezeNET PRO.11 Access Point
The BreezeNET PRO.11 Access Point is fully compliant with the IEEE 802.11
Wireless LAN standard.
The Access Point is a wireless hub that provides access for wireless workstations
into wired Ethernet LANs. It also contains the wireless relaying function that
enables workstations equipped with a Station Adapter (Station Adapter, Bridge,
and SA-PCR) to communicate with one another inside the cell coverage area (even
if they are not in direct line of sight) via the Access Point. Any two wireless
stations in two different cells can communicate through their Access Points.
The BreezeNET Access Point can support various data rates simultaneously: at
3 Mbps, 2 Mbps or 1 Mbps.
Figure 1-1. AP-10 PRO.11 with Two
Built-in Omni-Directional Antennas
Mobile workstations, such as laptops and hand-held devices, can roam between
Access Points that belong to the same Extended Service Set (ESS). In an Extended
Service Set, all Access Points have the same ESSID. When the access points are set
up so that their coverage areas overlap, users can roam seamlessly from cell to cell.
This means that there is no interruption of network connection when moving from
one coverage area to the other through the overlap area. The roaming is completely
transparent to the user and the applications. The Station Adapters decide when a
mobile user becomes disassociated from one access point and associated with
another. This process is fully transparent, requires no user intervention and
involves no loss of data packets.
User’s Guide
1-4
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Introduction
Multiple Access Points can be positioned in locations where heavy network traffic
is expected; this creates a multicell and increases the aggregate throughput capacity
in areas where it is needed most. The system implements a Load Balancing
algorithm to divide the stations equally between the available co-located Access
Points.
The Access Point contains an embedded SNMP agent, enabling effective
management by BreezeVIEW or any standard SNMP management station.
Software upgrades can be downloaded by TFTP protocol via the wired LAN or
wireless LAN.
The Access Point is available in three models:
•
AP-10 PRO.11 with two integrated omni-directional antennas.
•
AP-10D PRO.11 for use with external high-gain antenna(s).
•
AP-10DL PRO.11 for use in Europe with high gain antenna under the ETSI
standard.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
1-5
User’s Guide
Introduction
1.3.2 The BreezeNET PRO.11 Single Station Adapter
The BreezeNET PRO.11 Single Station Adapter is a wireless LAN station adapter
that converts any device equipped with an Ethernet interface into a wireless LAN
station. The Single Station Adapter is transparent to the device’s hardware,
software, and network operating system. This enables plug-and-play installation.
Figure 1-2. SA-10 PRO.11 with Two
Integrated Omni-Directional Antennas
The Single Station Adapter enables its workstation to communicate with any other
wireless station in the same cell coverage area, and to access all network resources
such as file servers, wired stations, printers and shared databases via the Access
Point. Any two wireless stations in two different cells can communicate through
their Access Points.
Workstations that can be connected to the wireless LAN include PCs, X-Terminals,
and any other device that supports Ethernet. The unit is transparent to the
workgroup devices’ hardware, software, and network operating system.
The Single Station Adapter contains an embedded SNMP agent that enables
effective management. Software upgrades are downloaded by TFTP via the
Ethernet port or via the wireless LAN and Access Point.
User’s Guide
1-6
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Introduction
Network connection is maintained while roaming between overlapping coverage
areas. Transmission and reception can be continued while moving at high speed
with no data packet loss or duplication.
The Single Station Adapter is available in three models:
•
SA-10 PRO.11 with two integrated 2dbi omni-directional antennas.
•
SA-10D PRO.11 for use with external antenna(s).
•
SA-10DL PRO.11 for use in Europe with high gain antenna under the ETSI
standard.
1.3.3 The BreezeNET PRO.11 Four Port Station Adapter
The BreezeNET PRO.11 Four-Port Work group Adapter is a wireless LAN adapter
that connects a workgroup of up to four Ethernet-equipped workstations to the
wireless LAN. The Four Port Station Adapter is transparent to the workgroup
devices’ hardware and software, allowing plug-and-play installation.
Figure 1-3. SA-40 PRO.11 with Two
Integrated Omni-Directional Antennas
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
1-7
User’s Guide
Introduction
The Four Port Station Adapter enables connected workstations to communicate
with other wireless stations in the same cell coverage area, and to access all
network resources such as file servers, wired stations, printers and shared databases
via the Access Point. The Four Port Station Adapter also allows highly efficient
and fast wired communication among the four connected workstations.
Workstations that can be connected to the wireless LAN include PCs, X-Terminals
and any other device that supports Ethernet. The unit is transparent to the
workgroup devices’ hardware, software, and network operating system.
The BreezeNET Four Port Station Adapter contains an embedded SNMP agent and
software downloading capabilities which allow it to be effectively managed.
Software upgrades are downloaded by TFTP protocol via the Ethernet ports or via
the Wireless LAN and Access Point.
Network connection is maintained while roaming between overlapping coverage
areas. Transmission and reception can be continued while moving at high speed
with no data packet loss or duplication.
The Four Port Station Adapter is available in three models:
User’s Guide
•
SA-40 PRO.11 with two integrated omni-directional antennas.
•
SA-40D PRO.11 for use with external antenna(s).
•
SA-40DL PRO.11 for use in Europe with high gain antenna under the ETSI
standard.
1-8
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Introduction
1.3.4 The BreezeNET PRO.11 Workgroup Bridge
The BreezeNET Workgroup Bridge is a high-speed, wide-range wireless LAN
bridge that provides connectivity to remote Ethernet networks.
Figure 1-4. WB-10D PRO.11 with Two
External Antenna Connector Ports
The Workgroup Bridge communicates with the Access Points of the remote LANs,
effectively creating an extended wireless network spanning sites situated up to 6
miles apart (in Europe, this range is limited by ETSI regulations to 2.5 Km; in
deregulated regions, this range can be up to 60 Km). In this way a central Ethernet
LAN may be connected with one or more branch office LANs.
In addition, an island consisting of a Workgroup Bridge together with an Access
Point can work as a relay. Transmissions from the central LAN and from the
remote LAN are relayed via the island located between them. This configuration
effectively doubles the bridge range.
Workstations that can be connected to the wireless LAN include PCs, X-Terminals
and any other device that supports Ethernet. The unit is transparent to the
workgroup devices’ hardware, software, and network operating system.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
1-9
User’s Guide
Introduction
The BreezeNET Workgroup Bridge contains an embedded SNMP agent and
software downloading capabilities enabling effective management. Software
upgrades are downloaded using TFTP protocol via the Ethernet ports or via the
wireless LAN and Access Point.
The Workgroup Bridge is available in three models:
User’s Guide
•
WB-10 PRO.11 with two integrated 2dbi omni-directional antennas.
•
WB-10D PRO.11 with two external antenna connector ports.
•
WB-10DL PRO.11 for use in Europe with high gain antenna under the ETSI
standard.
1-10
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Introduction
1.3.5 The BreezeNET PRO.11 SA-PCR Card
The PC Card provides the portable computer user with continuous connectivity and
complete mobility, allowing seamless roaming throughout the wireless LAN
campus.
Figure 1-5. The SA-PCR PRO.11 PC Card
The BreezeNET PRO.11 SA-PCR card
converts any portable computer
(including notebooks, laptops, penbased and handheld computers)
containing a PCMCIA Release 2.1 type
II slot into a wireless LAN workstation.
The SA-PCR card can communicate
with any other wireless station in its
cell coverage area. Furthermore, any
two wireless stations in two different
cells can communicate through their
Access Points. The SA-PCR card can
access all network resources such as
file servers, other wired stations,
printers and shared databases via the
BreezeNET Access Point.
Network connection is maintained
while roaming between overlapping cell
coverage areas. Transmission and
reception can be continued while
moving at high speed with no data
packet loss or duplication.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
1-11
User’s Guide
Introduction
The SA-PCR Card is available in two models:
•
SA-PCR PRO.11 with two integrated omni-directional retractable antennas.
•
SA-PCD PRO.11 with two external antenna connector ports.
1.3.6 The BreezeNET PRO.11 Extended Range Access Point
and Bridge
Note: This product complies with European ETSI 300-328 and should only be used in
countries which implement this standard.
The BreezeNET PRO.11 WB-10DE is a high-speed, wide-range wireless LAN
bridge that provides connectivity to remote Ethernet networks.
The WB-10DE communicates with the BreezeNET AP-10DE Access Points of the
remote LANs, effectively creating an extended wireless network spanning sites
situated up to 5 Km apart. In this manner, a central Ethernet LAN may be
connected with one or more branch office LANs.
The WB-10DE and AP-10DE products comply with European ETSI standard
300-328. They should not be used in countries where FCC standards are applicable.
The WB-10DE and AP-10DE can be used as a point-to-point or a point-tomultipoint solution.
Note: The WB-10DE and AP-10DE are not compatible with the BreezeNET
PRO.11 series. The SA-10 PRO.11, SA-PCR PRO.11, SA-40 PRO.11, AP10 PRO.11 and WB-10 PRO.11 units cannot communicate with the AP-10DE
or the WB-10DE.
The BreezeNET AP-10DE and WB-10 DE contain an embedded SNMP agent and
software downloading capabilities enabling effective management. Software
upgrades are downloaded using TFTP protocol via the Ethernet ports or via the
wireless LAN and Access Point.
The BreezeNET DE Access Point and Bridge are available for use with external
antenna connector ports.
User’s Guide
1-12
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Introduction
1.4 BreezeNET PRO.11 Functional Description
BreezeNET PRO.11 units add wireless functionality to existing Ethernet LANs.
1.4.1 Quick Review of Ethernet
Standard Ethernet LAN stations are wired to a common bus. When one of the
stations sends a message, it assigns a destination address to the message and sends
the message on the bus. All stations on the bus “hear” the message, but only the
station with the matching address processes the message.
1.4.2 Startup Procedure
When wireless units (other than the AP-10) start up, they scan the frequencies for
an AP-10. If an active AP-10 is in range, the units synchronize with it. The
addresses associated with the units are registered in the AP-10 (the registration
process is different for each unit type). From then on, the units can send and
receive messages to and from the wired LAN.
1.4.3 AP-10 Access Point
The AP-10 Access Point is connected to a wired Ethernet LAN, and it keeps a list
of known stations on its wireless side. When an AP-10 “hears” a message that is
destined for a wireless station, the AP-10 forwards the message wirelessly to the
station. If the message has a destination address that the AP-10 does not recognize,
the AP-10 ignores the message.
The AP-10 continuously “listens” for wireless messages as well. When the AP-10
“hears” a wireless message destined for another wireless unit, it relays the message
directly to the wireless unit without forwarding the message to the wired LAN.
When the AP-10 “hears” a wireless message the destination of which is not on the
wireless LAN, it forwards the message to the wired LAN. Messages cannot be sent
directly between wireless stations without an AP-10 to relay the message.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
1-13
User’s Guide
Introduction
1.4.4 SA-10 Station Adapter
The SA-10 station adapter is connected to a station’s network card. When the
station sends a message, the SA-10 wirelessly forwards it to the AP-10. And when
the AP-10 receives a message destined for the station, it wirelessly forwards the
message to the SA-10.
The first time the station sends a message, the station’s address is registered in the
AP-10. The AP-10 keeps only the first address for each SA-10, so the SA-10 will
not work properly if connected to more than one station.
1.4.5 SA-40 Station Adapter
The SA-40 station adapter has four connectors for up to four stations, and features
operation identical to that of the SA-10. As each station connected to the SA-40
sends its first message, each address is registered in the AP-10. The AP-10 only
keeps up to four addresses for each SA-40, so the SA-40 will not operate properly
if connected to more than four stations.
1.4.6 WB-10 Wireless Bridge
As opposed to the SA-10 and SA-40 that connect directly to stations, the WB-10
wireless bridge connects to a wired Ethernet LAN (hub). When a station on the
WB-10’s LAN sends a message that is not destined for a local station, the WB-10
wirelessly forwards the message to the AP-10. When the AP-10 receives a message
destined for a station on the WB-10s LAN, the AP-10 wirelessly forwards it to the
WB-10. In this way, the WB-10 and AP-10 work together like a standard network
bridge.
The first time each station on the WB-10’s LAN sends a message, the station’s
address is registered in the WB-10 and the AP-10. The WB-10 and AP-10 can hold
all the addresses necessary to support an entire LAN connected to a WB-10.
User’s Guide
1-14
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Introduction
1.4.7 SA-PCR Station Adapter
The SA-PCR station adapter is inserted into the station’s PCMCIA slot and features
identical operation to that of the SA-10. As opposed to the SA-10 and SA-40
station adapters that connect to the station’s network card, the SA-PCR is the
station’s network card. The SA-10 and SA-40 can be used with stations of any
operating system as long as the station sends legal Ethernet messages, but the SAPCR requires a driver that is compatible with the station’s operating system.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
1-15
User’s Guide
Basic Installation
2. BASIC INSTALLATION
This chapter describes physical installation of the BreezeNET PRO.11 series units
described in Chapter 1, with the exception of the SA-PCR card. Installation of the
SA-PCR PRO.11 PC card is described in Chapter 4.
The BreezeNET PRO.11 series features plug-and-play operation, i.e., the unit starts
operating immediately after physical installation with a set of default operation
parameters. A local terminal can be connected to the unit to perform systemspecific parameter setting. The use of a local terminal and the configuration
parameters are described in Chapter 3. In addition, all products in the PRO.11
series contain an SNMP agent and can be configured from a remote location via the
network. This is described in the Appendix.
2.1 Basic Installation Checklist
Standard installation involves the following steps:
•
Check the packing list
•
Position the unit and the antenna in the best location
•
Connect the power supply to the unit
•
Connect the Ethernet port to the unit
•
Check unit functionality using the LED indicators
2.2 Check the Packing List
When you first open the package, verify that the unit is complete with the following
components:
•
The unit, complete with two omni-directional antennas or RF connectors for
use with external antennas (D models).
•
Quick Installation Guide/Card.
•
5V DC power supply transformer.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
2-1
User’s Guide
Basic Installation
•
Mounting bracket for wall or ceiling installations and torque key for antenna
connectors (supplied with D models).
The AP-10 PRO.11 and AP-10DE Access Points come with the following
additional components:
•
The BreezeNET PRO.11 series User’s Guide.
•
A monitor connector cable for connecting the units to a monitor in order to
perform Local Terminal Management functions (see Section 3.1).
•
Proprietary MIB disk for performing remote unit configuration and monitoring
via SNMP (see the Appendix).
Open the packaging carefully and make sure that none of the items listed above are
missing. Do not discard packaging materials. If, for any reason, the unit is returned,
it must be shipped in its original package.
2.3 Position the Unit
BreezeNET PRO.11 wireless LAN products are robust, trouble-free units, designed
to operate efficiently under a wide range of conditions. The following guidelines
are provided to help you position the units to ensure optimum coverage and
operation of the wireless LAN.
Metal Furniture
Position the units clear of metal furniture and away from moving objects such as
metal fans or doors.
Microwave Ovens
For best performance, position the units clear of radiation sources that emit in the
2.4 GHz frequency band, such as microwave ovens.
Antennas
For models with integrated antennas, make sure the antennas are extended upward
vertically in relation to the floor. For models with external antennas, connect the
User’s Guide
2-2
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Basic Installation
external antennas and RF cable. For information regarding external antenna
installation, refer to Section 6.3.
Heat Sources
Keep the units well away from sources of heat, such as radiators and airconditioners.
2.3.1 Additional Considerations When Positioning the Access
Point
When positioning the AP-10 PRO.11 and AP-10DE Access Points, take into
account the following additional considerations.
Height
Install the Access Point at least 1.5m above the floor, clear of any high office
partitions or tall pieces of furniture in the coverage area. The Access Point can be
placed on a high shelf, or can be attached to the ceiling or a wall using a mounting
bracket.
Central Location
Install the Access Point in a central location in the intended coverage area. Good
positions are:
•
In the center of a large room
•
In the center of a corridor
•
At the intersection of two corridors
Many modern buildings have partitions constructed of metal or containing metal
components. We recommend that you install the Access Points on the corridor
ceilings. The radio waves propagated by the BreezeNET PRO.11 LAN are reflected
along the metal partitions and enter the offices through the doors or glass sections.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
2-3
User’s Guide
Basic Installation
2.4 Connect the Unit to the Power Supply
The unit operates on a power input of 5VDC, (1200mA , 1500mA peak) supplied
by the power transformer included with the unit.
D C IN 5V
-
+
M on itor
Figure 2-1. Side Connection Panel
•
Plug the output jack of the power transformer into the DC input socket on the
side panel of the unit.
•
Connect the supplied power transformer to a power outlet - 110/220 VAC.
2.5 Connect the Unit to the Ethernet Port
•
Connect one end of an Ethernet 10BaseT cable (not supplied) to the RJ-45 port
on the rear panel of the unit (marked UTP).
Figure 2-2. Rear Connection panel
•
Connect the other end of the connector cable to the Ethernet outlet:
•
When connecting an SA-10 or SA-40 to a PC, use a straight cable.
•
When connecting an AP-10 or WB-10 to a LAN, use a straight cable.
•
When connecting an AP-10 or WB-10 to a PC, use a crossed cable.
•
When connecting an AP-10 to a WB-10, use a crossed cable.
User’s Guide
2-4
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Basic Installation
2.6 Check Unit Functionality via the LED indicators
Verify that the unit is functioning correctly via the front panel LEDs. The following
tables describe the front panel LEDs for stations (SA-10, SA-40) and bridges (WB10), and for Access Points.
2.6.1 Station (SA-10, SA-40) and Bridge (WB-10) LEDs
Name
Description
Functionality
PWR
Power supply
WLNK
WLAN Link
ETHR
Ethernet activity
On – After successful power up
Off – Power off
On – Unit is synchronized or associated with an AP
Off – Unit is not synchronized or associated with an
AP
On – Reception on Ethernet port
Off – No reception on Ethernet port
QLT
Quality of reception
QLT
QLT
QLT
QLT
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
2-5
very low quality reception or
not synchronized with Access Point
less than -81 dBm
low quality reception
(usually enabling 1 Mbps traffic)
from -81 to -77 dBm
medium quality reception
(usually enabling 2 Mbps traffic)
from -77 to -65 dBm
high quality reception
(usually enabling 3 Mbps traffic)
greater than -65 dBm
User’s Guide
Basic Installation
2.6.2 Access Point LEDs
Name
Description
Functionality
PWR
power supply
INFR
radio interference
ETHR
Ethernet activity
On – After successful power up
Off – Power off
Off – No interference
Blinking – Interference Present
On – Reception of data from Ethernet LAN that is
forwarded to WLAN (in reject unknown mode)
Off – No reception of data from Ethernet LAN that is
forwarded to WLAN
LOAD
WLAN load
Number of associated
stations
no stations
1-8 stations
9-16 stations
17 or more stations
2.6.3 Verifying the Ethernet Connection
Once you have connected the unit to an Ethernet outlet, verify that the ETHR LED
on the front panel is blinking. The ETHR LED should blink whenever the unit
receives LAN traffic.
At the other end of the Ethernet link, verify that the LINK indicator is ON. On APs,
the LINK indicator is located on the attached hub port; on station adapters, the
LINK indicator is located on the NIC.
User’s Guide
2-6
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
3. USING THE LOCAL TERMINAL FOR UNIT
SETUP AND MANAGEMENT
BreezeNET PRO.11 series units feature plug-and-play operation; the unit starts
operating immediately following physical installation with a set of default parameters.
System-specific configuration of the unit to meet specific requirements can be done
via a local terminal (ASCII ANSI terminal or PC) connected to the unit.
This chapter explains how to use the local terminal to configure and manage the
BreezeNET PRO.11 series units described in Chapter 1, with the exception of the
SA-PCR card. Configuration and management of the SA-PCR card is described in
Chapter 4.
3.1 Getting Started with the Local Terminal
1. Use the Monitor cable supplied with the Access Point. Connect one end of the
cable to the MON jack on the side panel of the unit and the other end to the
COM port of the terminal.
D C IN 5V
-
+
M on itor
Figure 3-1. Side Connection Panel
2. Run a terminal emulation program (such as HyperTerminal).
3. Set the communication parameters to the following:
Baud Rate:
Data Bits:
Stop Bits:
Parity:
Flow Control:
Connector:
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
9600
8
1
None
None
Connected COM port.
3-1
User’s Guide
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
4. Click Enter. The main menu (see Figure 3-2) is displayed.
⇒To use Local Terminal Management:
1. Click an option number to open/activate the option. You may need to press
Enter in some cases.
2. Press Esc to exit a menu or option.
3. Reset the unit after making configuration changes.
User’s Guide
3-2
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
3.2 Configuration Screens
Listed below are the menus, sub-menus, and parameters/options in the terminal
program that the Installer can edit. Default values are listed where applicable.
Numbers in the table below indicate how to reach each option. For example, to
reach the 1.2.1 IP Address option, start at the main menu and press 1, then 2, and
then 1.
Menu
1. System
Configuration
Sub-Menu
Sub-Menu
Default Values
1.1. Station Status
1.2. IP and SNMP
Parameters
1.2.1 IP Address
1.2.2 Subnet Mask
1.2.3 Default Gateway Address
1.2.4 SNMP Traps
Enabled
1.2.5 DHCP Client
Disabled
1.2.S Display Current Values
1.3. Wireless LAN
(WLAN)
Parameters
1.3.1 Hopping Sequence (only for AP)
1
1.3.2 Hopping Set (only for AP)
1
1.3.3 ESSID
ESSID1
1.3.4 Max. Data Rate
3Mbps
1.3.5 Transmit Antenna
Use 2 Antennas
1.3.6 Mobility
Low
1.3.7 Load Sharing
Disabled
1.3.8 Preferred AP (not available for APs)
Not Set
1.3.9 Use Prefix ESSID (For AP only)
Disabled
1.3.A Prefix ESSID (For AP only)
ESSID1
1.3.B Station Mode (For SA only)
Access Station
1.3.S Display Current Values
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
3-3
User’s Guide
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
Menu
Sub-Menu
1.4. Bridging
1.5. Station Control
Sub-Menu
Default Values
1.4.1 LAN to WLAN Bridging Mode (AP
only)
Reject Unknown
1.4.2 Intelligent Bridging Period (AP only)
15 sec
1.4.3 IP Filtering
Disabled
1.4.4 Tunneling
Both Enabled
1.4.5 Broadcast Relaying
Enabled
1.4.6 Unicast Relaying
Enabled
1.4.7 Association Aging Period
Disabled
1.5.1 Reset Unit
1.5.2 Load Defaults
1.6. Security
1.6.1 Authentication Algorithm
Open system
1.6.2 Default Key ID
1
1.6.3 Pre-authentication
Disabled
1.6.4 Authentication Option Installation
Privacy option not
implemented
1.6.A WEP Key #1
0000000000
1.6.B WEP Key #2
0000000000
1.6.C WEP Key #3
0000000000
1.6.D WEP Key #4
0000000000
1.6.S Display Keys
2. Advanced
Settings
2.1. Translation
Mode
2.2 Roaming
User’s Guide
Enabled
2.2.1 Max. Number of Scanning
70
2.2.2 Roaming Decision Window
10
2.2.3 Roaming Decision Numerator
6
2.2.4 Roaming Decision RSSI Threshold
60
2.2.5 Joining Decision RSSI Threshold
70
2.2.6 Number of Beacons for Disconnect
Reasons
6
2.2.7 Number of Probe Responses
1
2.2.8 Neighboring Beacon Rate
40
3-4
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
Menu
Sub-Menu
2.3. Performance
2.4. Radio
Sub-Menu
Default Values
2.3.1 Dwell Time
128
2.3.2 RTS Threshold
120 bytes
2.3.3 Max. Multicast Rate
1 Mbps
2.3.4 Power Save Support
Disabled
2.3.5 DTIM Period
4
2.3.6 IP Stack
Enabled
2.3.7 Acknowledge Delay
Regular
2.3.8 Beacon Interval
2 dwells
2.3.9 Contention Window
7
2.3.10 Associate with AP running S/W
Version 4.X and below
Disabled
2.5.1 Hopping Standard
US FCC
2.5.2 Display Site Proprietary Sequences
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
2.5.3 Power level
High
2.5.4 Carrier sense level
48
2.5.5 Carrier Sense Difference level
10
2.5.6 Noise Floor
-92dbm
2.5.7 External Amplifier
Disabled
3-5
User’s Guide
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
Menu
Sub-Menu
2.5. Rate
Sub-Menu
Default Values
2.5.1 Multi-Rate Support
Enabled
2.5.2 Multi-Rate Decision Window Size
3
2.6. AP Redundancy
Support
2.7. Maintenance
2.8 Voice and Data
Configuration
Disabled
2.7.1 Wait for Association Address
2.7.2 Japan Call Sign
Wait for update via
Ethernet
2.8.1 Enable Voice
Voice disabled
2.8.2 Max. Number of Retransmissions in
Voice Packets
3
2.8.3 Number of Dwells to Retransmit in
Voice Packets
0
2.8.5 Max. Number of Dwells to
Retransmit in Data Packets
1
2.8.6 Number of Dwells to Retransmit in
Data Packets
2
2.8.S Display Current Values
3. Site Survey
3.1. System
Counters
3.1.1 Display Ethernet and WLAN
Counters
3.1.2 Display Rate Counters
3.1.3 Display Rx packets per frequency
3.1.4 Reset All Counters
3.1.5 Power Saving Counters
3.1.6 Display Quality Counters
3.2 Survey Software
3.3. Event Log
3.3.1 Display Event Log
3.3.2 Erase Event Log
3.3.3 Event display policy
Show Informational
severity and higher
3.4. Display
Neighboring
APs
4. Access Control
4.1. Change Access
Rights
4.1.0 User
Installer
4.1.1 Installer
4.1.2 Technician
4.2. Change Installer
Password
User’s Guide
"inst2000”
3-6
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
Menu
Sub-Menu
Sub-Menu
Default Values
4.3. Change Write
Community
Password
"private"
4.4. Change Read
Community
Password
"public"
4.S Display Current
Values
5. Code Activate
Control
5.1. Try To Run
From Non-Active
Code
5.2. Check NonActive Code State
*
Option 1.3.5 Transmit Antenna has the default value Use #2 for the SA-40
unit only.
** Option 1.3.7 Load Sharing has the default value Enabled for the AP-10 unit
only.
3.3 Main Menu
Unit Mode
Product Name
Ordering
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series (AP-10 DL)
Version :
5.10
Version No.
Tue Oct 17 12:58:47 2000
BreezeNET Monitor
=================
1 - System Configuration
2 - Advanced Settings
3 - Site Survey
4 - Access Control
5 - Code Activate Control
Select option >
Figure 3-2. Main Menu
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
3-7
User’s Guide
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
3.4 System Configuration Menu
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series (AP-10 DL)
Version :
5.10
Tue Oct 17 12:58:47 2000
BreezeNET Monitor
=================
1 - Station Status
2 - IP and SNMP Parameters
3 - Wireless LAN Parameters
4 - Bridging
5 - Station Control
6 - Security
Select option >
Figure 3-3. System Configuration Menu
3.4.1 Station Status
Station Status is a read-only sub-menu that displays the current values of the
following parameters:
User’s Guide
•
Unit's Mode – Identifies the unit’s function. For example, if the unit is an
Access Point, AP-10 appears in this field. If the unit is a Station Adapter i.e.,
SA-10, SA-40 or a WB-10, SA-10, SA-40 or WB-10 appears in this field.
•
Unit's HW Address – Displays the unit’s unique MAC address.
•
Unit's WLAN Address (SA or WB) – The address associated with the unit. For
an SA-10 configured to Access Station mode, this is the MAC address of the
unit. For an SA-10 configured to use the host MAC address for association, this
is the address of the host. For the SA-40 and WB-10, this is the MAC address of
the unit. This field does not appear when the unit is an AP.
3-8
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
•
Station Status (SA or WB) – Current status of the station. This field does not
appear when the unit is an AP. There are three options:
∗
Scanning – The station is searching for an AP with which to associate.
∗
Sync Waiting for Address – The station is synchronized with an AP
but has not yet learned its WLAN MAC address (this option is relevant
only to the SA-10). The AP does not forward packets to the station
when it is in this mode.
∗
Associated – The station is associated with an AP and has adopted the
attached PC MAC address (for SA-10 units configured to use the host
MAC address for association) or uses the unit’s hardware address
(SA-40, WB-10 and SA-10 units configured to Access Station mode),
and is receiving packets from the LAN.
•
AP Address (Station Only) – For stations, this parameter indicates an address
of the AP with which the unit is currently associated.
•
Total Number of Associations since last reset (Station Only) – For stations,
this indicates the total number of associations and disassociations with various
APs. This is usually an indication of roaming.
•
Current Number of Associations (AP Only) – Total number of stations
currently associated with an AP.
•
Maximum number of Associations since last reset (AP Only) – Maximum
number of stations that were associated with an AP since the last reset.
•
Current Number of Authentications (AP Only) – Total number of stations
currently authenticated with an AP. A station may be concurrently
authenticated with several APs, but is associated with only one AP at a time.
•
Maximum number of Authentications since last reset (AP Only) –
Maximum number of stations that were authenticated with an AP since the last
reset.
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Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
3.4.2 IP and SNMP Parameters
All BreezeNET PRO.11 units contain IP host software. This software can be used
for testing the unit for SNMP management functions and for downloading software
upgrades using the TFTP protocol.
•
IP Address – IP address of the unit.
•
Subnet Mask – Subnet mask of the unit.
•
Default Gateway Address – Gateway address of the unit.
•
SNMP Traps – Type 0 to disable SNMP trap sending.
Type 1 to enable SNMP trap sending. When an event occurs, a trap is sent to
the defined host address (see the Appendix for a list of traps). You can
configure the host address to which the traps are sent through SNMP
management.
•
•
User’s Guide
DHCP Client– Defines the DHCP mode. Available selections are:
∗
Disabled– IP Address configuration is always manual.
∗
DHCP Only– The IP Address configuration is always
automatic, using a DHCP server.
∗
Automatic– If a DHCP Server was found (within 4
minutes), then the IP address configuration is done using
the DHCP Server; otherwise, the IP address configuration
is manual.
Display Current Values – Type S to displays information concerning the
current status of all IP-related items.
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
3.4.3 Wireless LAN (WLAN) Parameters
The WLAN Parameters menu contains the following options:
•
Hopping Sequence (AP Only) – Hopping sequence of the unit. A hopping
sequence is a pre-defined series of channels (frequencies) that are used in a
specific, pseudo-random order as defined in the sequence. The unit “hops”
from frequency to frequency according to the selected sequence. When more
than one AP is co-located in the same area (even if they are not part of the same
network) it is recommended to assign a different hopping sequence to each AP.
Hopping sequences are grouped in three hopping sets (see the following
parameter). When setting up multiple APs in the same site, always choose
hopping sequences from the same hopping set. This reduces the possibility of
collisions on the WLAN.
This parameter is set only for the BreezeNET PRO.11 Access Point. It is not
accessible from any other BreezeNET PRO.11 unit. During the association
process, all other stations learn the hopping sequence from the Access Point.
Different co-located WLAN segments should use different hopping sequences.
•
Hopping Set (AP Only) – Hopping set (between 1 and 3) of the unit. Hopping
sequences are grouped in several hopping sets. Always use the same hopping
set per site.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
3-11
User’s Guide
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
The number of hopping sequences per set is different for each hopping standard
according to the following table:
Table 3-1. Hopping Sequences
Hopping Standard
•
Number of Sequences
per Hopping Set
Australia
20
Canada
10
Europe ETSI
26
France
11
Israel
11
Japan
4
Korea
4
Netherlands
5
Singapore
12
Spain
9
US FCC
26
ESSID –The ESSID (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) of the unit is a string
used to identify a WLAN. This ID prevents the unintentional merging of two
co-located WLANs. A station can only associate with an AP that has the same
ESSID. Use different ESSIDs to segment the WLAN network and add security.
Note:
The ESSID parameter is case-sensitive.
•
Maximum Data Rate – Maximum data rate of the unit. BreezeNET PRO.11
units operate at 1 Mbps, 2 Mbps or 3 Mbps. The unit adaptively selects the
highest possible rate for transmission. Under certain conditions (compatibility
reasons or for range/speed trade-off) you may decide to limit the use of higher
rates.
•
Transmit Antenna (also referred to as Transmit Diversity) – Which antennas
are used for transmission. During reception, a BreezeNET PRO.11 unit
dynamically selects the antenna where reception is optimal. In contrast, the unit
User’s Guide
3-12
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
selects the antenna from which it will transmit before transmission. It usually
uses the antenna last used for successful transmission. In models with external
antennas, sometimes only a single antenna is used. In this case, Transmit
Antenna should be configured to transmit only from that single antenna.
Similarly, models using a booster or an LNA use only a single antenna for
transmission. There are three possibilities for configuration:
•
∗
Use Two Antennas
∗
Use Antenna No. 1 only
∗
Use Antenna No. 2. only
Mobility – BreezeNET PRO.11 stations optimize their roaming algorithms
according to the mobility mode parameter. For example, a stationary station is
more tolerant of bad propagation conditions. It assumes that this is a temporary
situation and is not caused by the station changing position. Initiating a
roaming procedure in such a case would be counter-productive.
In general, wireless stations can be used in one of three mobility modes:
•
∗
High (Mobility) – Type 2 for stations that may move at speeds of over
30 km per hour.
∗
Medium (Mobility) – Type 1 for stations that may move at speeds of
over 10 km per hour, but not over 30 km per hour.
∗
Low (Mobility) -Type 0 for stations that will not move at speeds of
over 10 km per hour. Stationary is the default value, and in almost all
cases this is the best choice.
Load Sharing – Type 1 to enable Load Sharing. When installing a Wireless
LAN network in a high-traffic environment, you can increase the aggregate
throughput by installing multiple APs to create co-located cells. Load Sharing
allows the wireless stations to distribute themselves evenly among the APs to
best divide the load between the APs.
Note:
When working in Load Sharing mode, both the APs and the units should be
configured to Load Sharing Enabled.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
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User’s Guide
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
•
Preferred AP MAC (Ethernet) address of the preferred AP – You can
configure a station to prefer a specific AP unit. When the station powers up, it
will associate with the preferred AP even if the signal from that AP is lower
than the signal from other APs. The station will roam to another AP only if it
stops receiving beacons from the preferred AP.
•
Use Prefix EssID (for AP only) – This attribute defines whether the prefix
ESSID feature is activated. The use of prefix ESSID enables association of
stations with partial ESSID, adopting the full ESSID of the AP upon
association.
•
Prefix ESSID (for AP only) – This attribute identifies the Wireless LAN prefix
ESSID.
•
Station Mode (for SA only) – This attribute defines whether the station is
activated as an Access Unit. A station activated as an Access Unit functions as
a WB with only one PC behind it. The options are:
•
∗
Access Station – station functions as a WB with only one PC behind it
∗
Use Host MAC Access Address for Association
Display Current Values – This read-only status screen displays current
WLAN parameters. Press any key to return to the WLAN Parameters menu.
3.4.4 Bridging
The Bridging menu contains the following options:
•
User’s Guide
LAN to WLAN Bridging Mode (AP Only) – The options are:
∗
Reject Unknown – Type 0 to allow transmission of packets only to
stations that the AP knows to exist in the Wireless LAN (behind the
Wireless Bridge).
∗
Forward Unknown – Type 1 to allow transmission of all packets except
those sent to stations that the AP recognizes as being on its wired
Ethernet side.
3-14
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
∗
Note:
Intelligent Bridging Period – Intelligent bridging enables smooth
roaming of WB-10 units. When intelligent bridging is enabled, the AP
goes into a special bridging mode for a fixed amount of time whenever a
wireless bridge (WB) roams into its area. This mode causes the AP to
forward packets destined for the stations behind the WB-10 even though
they are known or were learned from the wired side (except that no
learning of the wired LAN will take place). Afterwards, the AP will
switch back to Reject Unknown bridging mode. This procedure prevents
packets destined for stations behind the bridge from getting lost. The
value of this parameter is the length of time in seconds that the AP will
remain in special mode.
When connecting very large networks, it is recommended to set this parameter
to Forward Unknown.
•
IP Filtering – Whether IP filtering is enabled for the unit. Enable IP Filtering
to filter out any other protocol (such as IPX) if you want that only IP traffic
will pass through the WLAN.
•
Tunneling – Whether the unit performs tunneling. Enable Appletalk tunneling
if the network contains a mix of Ethertalk1 (ET1) and Ethertalk2 (ET2)
stations to ensure smooth communications. Enable IPX tunneling if IPX
protocol is running over your network. Be sure to set all units to the same
tunneling setting.
•
Broadcast Relaying (AP Only) – Whether the unit performs broadcast
relaying. When Broadcast Relaying is enabled, Broadcast packets originating
in WLAN devices are transmitted by the AP back to the WLAN devices, as
well as to the LAN. If it is disabled, these packets are sent only to the local
wired LAN and are not sent back to the WLAN. Disable Broadcast Relaying
only if you know that all Broadcast messages from the WLAN will be destined
to the wired LAN.
•
Unicast Relaying – Whether the unit performs Unicast relaying. When
Unicast Relaying is enabled, Unicast packets originating in WLAN devices
can be transmitted back to the WLAN devices. If this parameter is disabled,
these packets are not sent to the WLAN even if they are intended for devices
on the WLAN. Disable Unicast Relaying only if you know that all Unicast
messages from the WLAN will be destined to the local wired LAN.
•
Association Aging Period – Units that are inactive for a period of time (in
minutes) as defined in this parameter will be disconnected.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
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User’s Guide
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
3.4.5 Station Control
The Station Control menu contains the following options:
3.4.6
•
Reset Unit – Type 1 to reset the BreezeNET PRO.11 unit and apply any
changes made to the system parameters.
•
Load Defaults – When this option is implemented, system parameters revert
back to the original factory default settings. There are two options:
∗
Load Full Factory Defaults – All parameters revert to defaults except
for Japan Call Sign (if applicable) and Hopping Standard.
∗
Load Partial – All parameters revert to defaults, except for Japan Call
Sign (if applicable), IP Address, Subnet Mask, Default Gateway, Hopping
Sequence, Hopping Set, ESSID, Transmit Diversity, Long Range,
Preferred AP, IP Filtering, Hopping Standard, Power Level, Auto
Calibration, Encapsulation, WEP Attributes, Authentication Algorithm,
Pre-authentication, WEP Default Keys, Ethernet Disable, Trap Host
Addresses.
Security (Authentication Feature)
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is an authentication algorithm which protects
authorized Wireless LAN users against eavesdropping. The definition of WEP is
defined in the 802.11 standard. Refer to Section 10.5.2 in the Appendix of this
guide for further information.
WEP, also referred to as the Privacy option, must be ordered specifically and is not
supported by default. The security mechanism involves configuration of the
following parameters:
User’s Guide
•
Authentication Algorithm – This module operates in two modes:
0-Open System (default): no authentication; OR 1-Shared Key authentication
(for systems that have the privacy option implemented).
•
Default Key ID – The key to be used for the encryption of transmitted
messages.
3-16
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
•
Pre-authentication – Set this parameter to Enabled when there is a great deal
of roaming between the APs. Pre-authentication must be activated on both the
APs and the stations.
•
Privacy Option Implemented – Yes if Shared Key authentication is
supported, No if Shared Key authentication is not supported.
•
WEP Key# 1-4 – The default encryption key must be set before you can use
the Shared Key Authentication mode. The encryption key you enter for the
AP, must match those defined in the stations. Each key is a combination of 10
Hex digits.
Note:
It is recommended to change the encryption keys periodically, to enhance
system security.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
3-17
User’s Guide
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
3.5 Advanced Settings Menu
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series (AP-10 D)
Version :
5.10
Tue Oct 17 12:58:47 2000
Advanced Settings menu
======================
1 - Translation Mode
2 - Roaming
3 - Performance
4 - Radio
5 - Rate
6 - AP Redundancy Support
7 - Maintenance
8 - Voice and Data Configuration
Select option >
Figure 3-4. Advanced Settings Menu
Modification of most of the parameters in the Advanced Settings menu is limited
to certified BreezeCOM engineers only.
3.5.1
Translation Mode
The translation mode determines how the unit handles 802.3 packets. The
translation mode is either enabled (default) or disabled.
3.5.2
Roaming
The Roaming menu is used to set various parameters regarding roaming and
scanning in the wireless network. The roaming feature allows network connection
to be maintained while roaming between overlapping coverage areas. Transmission
and reception can be continued while moving at high speeds with no data packet
User’s Guide
3-18
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
loss or duplication. In order to verify that no packet loss will occur, the station
scans all frequencies and checks the quality of neighboring APs before deciding
whether it can switch to the coverage area of another AP.
•
Max. Number of Scanning – The number of times a station scans to attempt
to find a neighboring AP. If, after the maximum number of scans, no AP is
found, the station performs a reset. A value of zero implies non reset.
•
Roaming Decision Window –. The minimum number of RSSI samples which
is required to make a decision about the current WLAN channel quality (i.e.,
when to switch APs). A new RSSI sample arrives with each incoming frame.
•
Roaming Decision Numerator – The maximum number of RSSI samples that
are allowed to be below the Roaming Decision RSSI Threshold, among a
number equal to Roaming Decision Window of the last arrived samples. If a
number of bad samples (i.e. below Roaming Decision RSSI Threshold)
exceeds this parameter setting, the channel is considered to be BAD.
Tip:
It is recommended not to adjust this value, as the factory default has
been tested and has proven to be optimal for a majority of system
configurations.
•
Roaming Decision RSSI Threshold – An RSSI sample which is below this
value is considered BAD, incrementing the Roaming Decision Numerator
value by 1.
•
Joining Decision RSSI Threshold – A station will join a new AP only if the
AP transmits with an RSSI quality above this value. If a station associated
with the AP is heard at an RSSI level below this threshold, a trap is sent by the
AP.
•
Number of Beacons for Disconnect Decision – Defines the maximum
number of consecutive not arrived beacons allowed before a disconnect
decision is made.
•
Number of Probe Responses – The number of acceptable scans (above the
Joining Decision RSSI Threshold) required to move to the coverage area of a
neighboring AP.
Tip:
In environments with a great deal of mobility (i.e., a great deal of
roaming), it is recommended that you increase the value from the default.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
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User’s Guide
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
•
Neighboring Beacon Rate – once in how many dwell times the AP will send
a neighboring beacon. A value of zero implies no neighboring beacons.
Tip:
In environments with no mobility (i.e., no roaming), you can set this
parameter to 0.
3.5.3 Performance
The Performance menu determines the unit performance:
•
Dwell Time (AP Only) – The time spent on a radio channel before hopping to
the next channel in the sequence.
•
RTS Threshold – Minimum packet size to require an RTS. For packets with a
size below RTS Threshold value, an RTS is not sent and the packet is
transmitted directly to the WLAN.
•
Max Multicast Rate – Multicast and Broadcast transmissions are not
acknowledged, therefore the chance of error increases. By default, the unit will
always transmit broadcasts, multicasts and control frames in the minimum
possible rate, 1Mbps.
•
Power Save Support – If you enable Power Save Support on one of the
WLAN stations (SA-PCR only), you must also configure the AP unit. Power
Save Support is influenced by two parameters:
•
User’s Guide
∗
DTIM interval on the AP side – Determines at which interval the AP
will send its broadcast traffic (default 4 beacons).
∗
Listen interval on the SA-PCR side – Determines when the station
will “wake up” to listen to unicast packets which are destined to it
(default value: 4 beacons).
DTIM Period – Determines at which interval the AP will send its broadcast
traffic to all the stations in the cell, both stations that are in power save mode
and to stations that are not in power save mode (normal mode). When stations
that are in power save mode “wake up” to receive broadcast frames, they can
also poll the AP for the unicast frames if there are any stored in the AP’s
buffer. Default value is 4 beacons (approximately every 1 second).
3-20
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
3.5.4
•
IP Stack – By default this parameter is disabled, to check connectivity. Any
changes to this parameter will be returned to the default value whenever the
unit resets.
•
Acknowledge Delay – Enlarges the range of system but can only be enabled
for links above 20kms. It must be enabled on both sides. The values are Long
or Regular (default) and can be configured by an Installer or Technician.
•
Beacon Interval – A beacon will be sent every number of dwells as defined in
this parameter (default: 2 dwells).
•
Contention Window – This parameter should be set according to the amount
of hidden stations. Hidden stations are most prevalent in access applications
(e.g. ISPs). The greater the number of hidden stations, the larger the initial size
of the contention window should be set. Possible values are 7, 15, 31, 63. The
default value is 7.
•
Associate with AP Running S/W Version 4.X and below – This parameter
is only relevant for WB units. Enabling this parameter causes the broadcast,
sent by the WB, to be preceded by a relatively large back off period, since APs
from Versions 4.x and up can not receive frames in high rate (in bursts).
Radio
The Radio menu contains the following parameters:
•
Hopping Standard – The Hopping Standard is a set of rules regarding the
radio transmission standard allowed in each country. Units will work together
only if set to the same hopping standard. Use this parameter to set the unit’s
hopping standard to that of the relevant country.
•
Display Site Propriety Sequences – The site proprietary frequencies are
displayed for each hopping set.
•
Power level – Output power level at which the unit is transmitting. There are
two possibilities, Low (4dBm) or High (17 dBm) at the antenna connector.
•
Carrier Sense Level – This attribute defines the carrier sense absolute
threshold. When sample are above this level, the media is considered to be
busy.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
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Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
•
Carrier Sense Differential Level – This attribute defines the carrier sense
differential threshold, which defines at which level the received signal is
considered to be a packet.
•
Noise Floor – Defines the level above which a received signal is considered to
be a packet.
•
External Amplifier – Whether or not an external amplifier is used.
3.5.5 Rate
•
Multi-Rate Support – When this parameter is enabled, the unit will
automatically switch to the best transmission rate at any given time. When the
parameter is disabled, the unit will always stay at the maximum rate
configured in the WLAN Parameters menu.
•
Multi-Rate Decision Window Size – The number of successful transmissions
required before the unit automatically switches to the next highest
transmission rate.
3.5.6 AP Redundancy Support
When the AP identifies that the Ethernet link has been discontinued over a defined
period of time, it then stops transmitting and forces the stations associated with it to
associate with another AP.
The default mode for the AP Redundancy Support parameter is disabled (the AP
continues transmitting even when the ETH link is discontinued). This can only be
configured by a Technician. It is recommended to use this parameter only when
more than one AP is connected to the same distribution system and this AP is
configured to the same ESSID.
User’s Guide
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
3.5.7 Maintenance
The Installer has access to modify the following parameter of the Maintenance menu:
•
•
Wait for Association Address – This attribute indicates which MAC address
the station shall use while associating the AP. Two values are possible:
∗
Use mine –the station tries associating the AP with its own MAC address;
this option enables managing the unit but does not enable communication
with the PC behind the Station.
∗
Wait for update via Ethernet –the unit tries associating the AP with the
MAC address of the PC behind it; this occurs only after the PC behind the
station have tried communicating.
Japan Call Sign – The Japan Call Sign is part of the Japanese standard,
defined according to local regulations. The Japanese Ministry of
Communications supplies an activation code for the units; this code is set in
the factory for each unit.
3.6 Voice and Data Configuration
•
Enable Voice – When enabled, voice packets are given priority over data
packets. If packets are discarded, data packets shall be discarded first.
•
Max Number of Retransmissions in Voice Packets – The number of times
the voice frame is retransmitted, during the last dwell, before it is dropped. For
example, if the Number of Dwells to Retransmit parameter (see next) is 2 and
the Max Number of Retransmissions is set to 10, the station will retransmit 10
times during the third dwell. If unsuccessful, the frame is dropped.
•
Number of Dwells to Retransmit in Voice Packets – The number of dwells
during which the station attempts to retransmit voice packets.
•
Max Number of Retransmissions in Data Packets – The number of times
the data frame is retransmitted, during the last dwell, before it is dropped.
•
Number of Dwells to Retransmit in Data Packets – The number of dwells
during which the station attempts to retransmit data packets.
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Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
3.7 Site Survey Menu
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series (SA-10 DL)
Version :
5.10
Tue Oct 17 12:58:47 2000
Site Survey menu
================
1 - System Counters
2 - Survey Software
3 - Event Log
4 - Display Neighboring AP’s
Select option >
Figure 3-5. Site Survey Menu
The Site Survey menu allows performing a site survey that helps you position your
units and align the antennas of the units, as well as perform troubleshooting.
3.7.1 System Counters
The System counters are a simple yet efficient tool for monitoring, interpreting and
analyzing the Wireless LAN performance. The counters contain statistics
concerning Wireless and Ethernet frames. The sub-menu contains the following
options:
User’s Guide
•
Display Ethernet and WLAN Counters – Choose this option to display the
current value of the Ethernet and Wireless counters. Refer to Sections 3.7.1.1
and 3.7.1.2 for a detailed description of the counters.
•
Display Rate Counters – Displays contents of packets at each rate. The AP
displays counters per station.
•
Display Rx Packets per Frequency – Two display options are available:
table format and histogram format. Refer to Section 3.7.1.4 for more
information.
3-24
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
•
Reset Counters – Choose this option to reset all counters. After choosing this
option you will be requested to type 1 for confirmation or 0 to cancel the reset.
•
Power Saving Counters – Displays the power saving counters per station, the
number of transmitted frames and the number of discarded frames. This
applies only to APs.
•
Display Quality Counters – For APs, displays information of all associated
units. The information is displayed as a table and includes the following: the
MAC address of the associated unit, the RSSI and dBm of the unit as heard by
the AP (collected from Acknowledge frames received by the AP from the
unit).
For other units: the information is displayed as a table and includes: the MAC
address of the AP the unit is associated to, the RSSI and dBm of the AP as
heard by the unit (collected from Acknowledge frames received by the unit).
3.7.1.1 Ethernet Counters
Ethernet counters display statistics about the unit’s Ethernet port activity.
The unit receives Ethernet frames from its UTP port and forwards them to its
internal bridge, which decides whether or not to transmit them to the Wireless
LAN. The units have a smart hardware filter mechanism which filters most of the
frames on the LAN, and hardware filtered frames are not counted.
On the other side, frames which were received from the wireless LAN and some
frames generated by the unit (answers to SNMP queries and pings which reached to
the unit via the UTP port), will be transmitted to the UTP port.
Available counters:
•
Frames Received – Total number of frames received from the Ethernet port.
•
Bad Frames Received (sum and percent) – The number and percentage of
frames received from the UTP port. A large number of received bad frames
indicates a problem in the UTP connection such as a bad UTP cable or hub
port.
•
Missed Frames (internal overflow) – Frames that were recognized by the
unit, but failed to be read since no available free buffer was located.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
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Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
•
Transmitted to Ethernet – The number of frames transmitted by the unit to
the UTP port. i.e., frames that have been received from the Wireless side, and
frames generated by the unit itself.
3.7.1.2 Wireless LAN Counters
Wireless counters display statistics about the unit’s Wireless LAN activity.
Transmission to the wireless media includes data frames received from the UTP
ports, as well as self generated control and management frames. When a data frame
is transmitted, the unit will wait for an acknowledge from the receiving side. If an
acknowledge is not received, the unit will retransmit the frame until it gets an
acknowledge (there are no retransmissions for control frames). If the unit has
retransmitted a frame for the maximum number of retransmissions it will stop retransmitting the frame and drop this frame.
Available counters:
•
Total Frames Transmitted Successfully – The total number of frames
transmitted successfully, not including retransmissions.
Note:
User’s Guide
An AP continuously transmits a control frame called beacon in every
frequency to which it hops, in order to publish its existence and keep its
associated stations synchronized. Thus, the total transmitted frames
counter will get high values even if the AP-10 is not connected to an
active LAN.
•
Total Frames Retransmitted (sum and percent) – X = total number of
frames retransmitted. P = percentage of frames retransmitted from the total
number of transmitted frames.
•
Data Frames Transmitted (including Retransmissions)– The number of
data frames transmitted successfully, not including retransmissions.
•
Data Frames Retransmitted (sum and percent) – X = number of data
frames retransmitted. P = percentage of data frames retransmitted from the
total number of transmitted frames.
•
Total Frames Transmitted (including retransmitted) – Total number of
frames transmitted including retransmitted frames.
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
•
Frames Dropped (too many retries) – The number of dropped frames.
Frames are dropped when they were retransmitted for the maximum allowed
retransmission attempts.
•
Frames Discarded (Internal overflow) – The number of frames discarded
from the WLAN port, due to buffer overflow. Frame discard will occur when
the wireless conditions are bad, the unit is busy re-transmitting frames, and is
not able to handle new frames.
•
Power Saving Aged – Total number of buffered frames that were aged out.
This counter counts the number of frames dropped by the AP because a station
did not poll those frames for a long period of time.
•
Frames Received (data + management) – The number of frames received
from the wireless media. The count includes data and control frames
(including beacons received from APs).
•
Data Frames Received– The number of data frames received from the
wireless media.
•
Bad Frames Received (sum and percent) – The number and percentage of
frames received with CRC error
•
Duplicated frames received – When a unit receives a frame it sends an
acknowledge for it. If the acknowledge is lost, it receives a copy of the same
frame. Although duplicate frames are counted, only the first copy of the frame
is forwarded to the UTP port.
•
Total Frames Received – Total number of received frames.
•
Probe Response sent (AP only) - The total number of Probe Response frames
sent by the AP to requesting units.
•
Probe Response received (SA only) The number of Probe Response received
by the unit (sent by responding APs).
•
Probe Request sent (SA only)-The number of Probe Request frames sent by
unit.
•
Probe Request Received (AP only)-The number of Probe Request received
by the AP (from requesting units).
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Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
User’s Guide
•
Auth Request sent (SA only).-The number of Authentication Requests sent
by the unit.
•
Auth Request Received (AP only)-The number of Authentication Request
received by the AP (from requesting units).
•
Assoc Response sent (AP only)-The number of Association Response frames
sent by the AP to requesting units.
•
Assoc Response received (SA only)-The number of Association Response
frames received by the unit (sent from the AP).
•
Assoc Request Sent (SA only)-The number of Association Request frames
sent by the unit to AP.
•
Assoc Request Received (AP only)-The number of Association Request
frames received by AP from requesting units.
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
3.7.1.3 Display Rate Counters
00-20-D6-12-88-4E: Data tx on rates 1Mb: 23; 2Mb: 67; 3Mb: 462; Ret: 30
00-20-D6-12-25-13: Data tx on rates 1Mb: 250; 2Mb: 550; 3Mb: 0; Ret: 29
The rate counters display the number of frames transmitted in each data-rate since
the last reset. As displayed, the rate counters show the number of frames
transmitted at 1Mbps, 2Mbps, 3Mbps, and the number of Re-Transmitted frames
(Ret). The counters display the rate of packets transmitted for the first time only
(without retransmissions).
Note:
Counters for APs are displayed for all associated stations, indicated by their
MAC address. Rate counters for stations are displayed with no indication of
MAC address.
Checking the rate counters is the best way to determine which data-rate is the
optimal data-rate for the unit. It is recommended to restrict the Maximum Data
Rate for each unit according to the Rate counters (see also Section 3.4.3). The Ret
counter displays the number of frames that had to be retransmitted, however it does
not count the number of retransmissions that actually accrued.
3.7.1.4 Using the Rx Packets per Frequency Histogram
Use one of the Display Rx Packets per Frequency options to see a histogram of
the number of frames received on each channel. This menu provides the following
options:
•
Display Rx packets per frequency Table — Displays the number of frames
received at each frequency in table form; the table includes an index, the
frequency and the number of frames received in this frequency.
•
Display Rx packets per frequency Graph — Displays a histogram of the
number of frames received on each channel. This option is not available for the
site proprietary hop standard.
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Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
The following is an example of the histogram.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series (SA-10)
Version :
5.10
Tue Oct 17 12:58:47 2000
Max = 187
Min = 112
#
#
#
# #
##
####### ######### ###### ####### ################
####### ####################################################
####### ## ######################################################### ########
#############################################################################
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
2
+10
+20
+30
+40
+50
+60
70
Hit any key to return >
Figure 3-6. Display Rx Packets per Frequency
Each point of the histogram line corresponds to a frequency. The base frequency
appears at the far left, and gradations are marked in steps of ten along the line. A
hash (#) represents each packet received on a given frequency. The Max and Min
values indicate the highest and lowest number of frames received across all
frequencies. This graph is very useful for tracking interference. Frequencies with
small numbers of packets received probably have more interference than other
frequencies.
User’s Guide
3-30
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
3.7.1.5
Reset All Counters
This option allows you to reset the system counters, Ethernet counters, WLAN
counters, and Rate counters.
•
Click 1 to reset all counters.
•
Click 0 to cancel request.
3.7.1.6 Power Saving Counters
These counters apply only to APs.
•
PS stations – Number of associated stations currently working in Power Save
mode.
•
Internally Discarded – Number of frames that were discarded because of
aging.
•
Table – Valid only when Power Save mode is enabled.
∗
Station ID – The station ID in the power save table.
∗
Buffered – Number of buffered frames per station.
∗
Aged – Number of buffered frames that were aged out from buffer, per
station.
∗
Sent – Number of buffered frames that were sent to a specific station.
∗
Queue Full– Number of frames that could not be stored in the buffer.
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3.7.2 Survey Software
The Survey Software menu enables you to align antennas and to assess the radio
signal quality of a point-to-point link. The sub-menu includes the following
options:
•
Operation Mode – When running a Site Survey, set the units on either side of
the link to either receive (option 1) or transmit (option 2) packets (one unit
should be set to transmit and the other to receive).
•
Start Statistics – Type 2 and then press any digit to start Site Survey.
•
Stop Statistics – Type 3 and then press any key to stop update of Site Survey
statistics.
3.7.3 Using the Site Survey Software
The following procedure explains how to perform a site survey using the
BreezeNET 5.00 new Site Survey software.
1. Roughly align the antennas on either side of the link before starting the Site
Survey procedure.
2. Verify that the Ethernet cables are disconnected from both units.
3. Type 1 to access the Operation Mode screen. Set the units on either side of the
link to either receive (option 1) or transmit (option 2) packets (one unit should
be set to transmit and the other to receive).
4. Start the survey by typing 2 in the Survey Software menu in both units. When
performing a site survey from a station to an AP (transmitting from the station
to the AP), always begin with the station (type 2 on the station).
5. On the transmit side, appears a table displaying the number of packets and the
frequency at which each packet was transmitted. This list is updated
continuously.
User’s Guide
3-32
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series (SA-10 DL)
Version :
5.10
Tue Oct 17 12:58:47 2000
# Tx Packets Channel
0
37
1
10
2
7
3
30
4
28
5
44
6
35
7
12
8
48
9
76
10
42
Hit any key to return >
Figure 3-7. Transmit Statistics
6. On the receive side of the link, the screen displays a table showing the packet
number received, the frequency at which each packet was transmitted, the
Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) for each antenna and the antenna
that was selected for reception (refer to Figure 3-8). Use only the RSSI reading
from the selected antenna.
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User’s Guide
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
Figure 3-8. Receive Statistics
7. The RSSI is given in arbitrary units. Use the graph in Figure 3-9 to correlate
RSSI to dBm.
566,
9V G%P
566, 9DOXH
5) /HYHO >GEP@
Figure 3-9. RSSI to dBm Graph
User’s Guide
3-34
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
8. Re-align the antennas until the maximum received signal strength is attained.
As you align the antennas, the RSSI (received signal strength indicator)
continually increases until it reaches a certain level after which the RSSI begins
to decrease. This is the maximum attainable RSSI level indicating optimum
receive antenna alignment.
9. Switch the functions of either side of the link (set the transmit unit to receive
and the receive unit to transmit) and repeat the procedure to check the link from
the opposite direction.
10. To stop the survey/statistics, press any key and then select the 3-Stop Statistics
option on the Survey Software menu.
3.7.4 Event Log
The Event Log records all the error messages that the unit displayed since the last
Load Full Factory Defaults reset or since the log was erased by Erase Event Log.
The Event log stores events in four levels of error notifications: MSG (Message),
WRN (Warning), ERR (Error), and FTL (Fatal).
The following options available in this screen:
Show All Messages — Display all messages.
Show Information severity and higher — Display all messages from
informational level up.
Show Warning severity and higher — Display all messages from warning level
and up.
Show Error severity and higher — Display all messages from error level and up.
Show Fatal Errors Only — Display all messages from fatal error level and up.
Complete Mask-Don't Display Any Type of Message — No messages are
displayed.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
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User’s Guide
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
⇒ To display the event log:
1. From the main menu select 3 to open the Site Survey menu.
2. Select 3 to display the Event Log sub-menu.
3. Select 1 to display the Display Event Log selection screen.
4. Enter the number of events to display, and press any key.
The Event Log starts to list the most recent events according to the number of
you have entered. For example if you entered 100, the event log displays the
last 100 events.
3.7.5 Display Neighboring APs
Displays neighboring APs on the same ESS for both the AP and the station units.
3.8 Access Control Menu
Access Control functions enable the System Administrator or Installer to limit
access to Local Terminal Maintenance setup and configuration menus.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series (SA-10)
Version :
5.10
Tue Oct 17 12:58:47 2000
Access Control menu
===================
1 - Change Access Rights
2 - Change Installer Password
3 - Change Write Community Password
4 - Change Read Community Password
S - Show Current Access Right
Select option > 1
Figure 3-10. Access Control Menu
User’s Guide
3-36
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Using the Local Terminal for Unit Setup and Management
The Access Control menu includes the following options:
•
Change Access Rights – This screen determines the level of access rights to
the BreezeNET PRO.11 unit’s setup and configuration menus. When the unit
is first installed, the default access right is Installer, and the default password
is inst2000 (case sensitive).
•
User – The Local Terminal Management menus are read-only for a user
who does not possess the correct password. The ESSID and security
parameters are hidden by asterisks (*) at this level.
•
Installer – The installer has access to configure all required parameters
in the system configuration menu, as well as some of the advanced
settings. Access is password-protected. After configuration, the installer
should change access rights to option (0), User. The installer can also
change the installer password (see next parameter).
•
Technician – Only a Certified BreezeCOM Engineer possessing the
correct password can select this option to configure all the parameters and
settings.
•
Change Installer Password – Type in the new password according to the
directions on screen. This screen changes the installer password to prevent
unauthorized persons from making any changes in system configuration and
setup. The password is limited to eight printable ASCII characters. This option
is not available at User level.
•
Change Write Community Password – Allows you to change the SNMP
Write Community Password of the unit. The default password is Private.
•
Change Read Community Password – Allows you to change the SNMP
Read Community Password of the unit. The default password is Public. To
change the passwords, you will need the Installer access rights (and up).
•
Display Current Access Right – This read-only screen presents the current
access right configuration.
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3.9 Code Activate Control Menu
The embedded software of the PRO.11 unit is stored on a Flash memory
component. The Flash components houses two memory banks: an active bank (the
version that is currently running) and a non-active backup bank. The Code
Activate Control menu allows you to perform the following options:
User’s Guide
•
Try To Run From Non-Active Code — The unit tries to run from the nonactive code. An appropriate message is displayed if the switch is successful; or
an error message is displayed if not.
•
Check Non-Active Code State— Checks the non-active, backup, memory
bank CRC and returns the code state (Good or Bad).
3-38
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
SA-PCR PRO.11 PC Card Installation, Setup, and Management
4. SA-PCR PRO.11 PC CARD INSTALLATION,
SETUP, AND MANAGEMENT
This chapter describes how to install the SA-PCR card and its associated firmware,
drivers and utilities. The SA-PCR Configuration and SA-PCR Site Survey utilities,
which are used to setup and manage the card, are also described in this chapter.
4.1 Packing List
The SA-PCR PRO.11 package should come with the following items:
•
SA-PCR PRO.11 PC card
•
Drivers diskette
•
Utilities diskette
•
Installation and User’s Guide
4.2 Before You Begin
Before installing, do the following:
•
Verify that the AP you are going to use is an AP-10 PRO.11. The SA-PCR
PRO.11 will work with any AP that is compliant to the 802.11 standard.
It is advisable to turn on the AP before installing the SA-PCR, enabling you to
use the SA-PCR LEDs to check the status of the SA-PCR when installation is
complete refer to Section 4.3.2, for further information about the LEDs.
•
When installing on Windows 95/98, verify that you have the Windows CD
with you, or that the Windows CAB files are installed on your local hard disk
in a directory whose name does not exceed 8 letters. When the CAB files are
on the disk, they are usually found in C:\Windows\Options\Cabs.
•
When installing on Windows NT, verify that you have the Windows NT CD
with you, or that the Windows NT distribution files are installed on your local
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
4-1
User’s Guide
SA-PCR PRO.11 PC Card Installation, Setup, and Management
hard disk. During installation, enter the path of the distribution files whenever a
message appears asking for them.
•
It is highly recommended that you remove all PCMCIA cards from the
notebook prior to installing the SA-PCR card. This will help to avoid
conflicts during installation. If you have another network card installed (e.g., an
Ethernet card), you must remove it prior to installing the SA-PCR card.
4.3 Installing the SA-PCR Card
Installing the SA-PCR PRO.11 card consists of the following installation steps:
•
Installing the card in a PCMCIA slot
•
Installing the SA-PCR drivers and utilities
Section 4.3.3 provides instructions on performing initial configuration of the SA-PCR
card. Section 4.5 provides installation troubleshooting information.
Note:
If you are installing the card under Windows 95 or Windows 98 systems, there
are two installation options. You can install the drivers and utilities separately,
or you can use the Upgrade kit program to install all components in one
session. The Upgrade kit program is described in Section 4.8.
If you are installing the card under Windows CE, you will need to connect the
handheld PC to its host desktop PC in order to install the drivers. This
procedure is described on page 4-14.
User’s Guide
4-2
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
SA-PCR PRO.11 PC Card Installation, Setup, and Management
4.3.1 Installing the SA-PCR Drivers
The SA-PCR card can be installed to operate under a wide range of PC operating
systems. The following table lists the supported operating systems, together with
the page number in the user's guide which describes the relevant installation
procedure. Skip to the page that describes the relevant procedure.
If you are installing the
SA-PCR under:
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Refer to:
Windows 2000
page 4-4
Windows 98
page 4-8
Windows 95A
page 4-10
Windows 95B
page 4-10
Windows NT
page 4-12
Windows CE
page 4-14
ODI (DOS)
page 4-53
Linux
page 4-56
4-3
User’s Guide
SA-PCR PRO.11 PC Card Installation, Setup, and Management
Installing the SA-PCR Driver for Windows 2000 Systems
This section describes software installation of the SA-PCR station adapter in PCs
running the Windows 2000 operating system.
To perform this procedure, you will need the driver kit, which consists of the
BRZW2KA.EXE file. Running this file installs both the SA-PCR driver and the
BreezeNet Configuration utility (a Windows Control Panel applet). You can
download the driver kit from www.breezecom.com. Call BreezeCOM customer
support for further information.
When installing certain models of the card under Windows 2000, the system will
automatically install the SA-PCR driver on the Microsoft Windows 2000
Installation CD. This driver has restricted capabilities and is not compatible with
some BreezeNet features (such as the Configuration utility). To install a driver
which is fully compatible with all BreezeNET features, perform the upgrade
procedure described below.
Installing the Windows 2000 Driver Kit
Installation of the SA-PCR Driver for Windows 2000 requires the Windows 2000
Driver kit
⇒To install the Windows 2000 Driver Kit:
1. Run the BRZW2KA.EXE file. Click
dialog box is displayed.
when prompted. The following
Figure 4-1. Installing the Windows 2000 Driver Kit
User’s Guide
4-4
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
SA-PCR PRO.11 PC Card Installation, Setup, and Management
2. By default, the driver kit program extracts the files to the TMP directory in
your default hard drive. To change the location, enter the path in the Unzip to
folder field or click
and navigate to the directory of your choice.
3. Click
to start extracting, or click
to open the Winzip
application if you wish to control the extraction process. After extraction, a
message is displayed informing that the files were extracted.
Installing SA-PCR Cards Under Windows 2000
⇒To install the SA-PCR Cards Under Windows 2000:
1. Physically install the SA-PCR card.
2. Start the PC and login to the system with Administrator access rights. A Found
New Hardware message is displayed.
3. Follow the instructions provided by the Add Hardware Wizard and when
prompted, navigate to the driver file installed by BRZW2KA.EXE (located in
C:\TMP by default).
Note:
If Windows 2000 does not ask you to specify the location of the driver and
installs one automatically from the Windows 2000 CD, perform the
procedure on the next page.
4. If Windows displays the Digital Signature Not Found message, click Yes.
This update may contain drivers that are not digitally signed.
5. After the driver installation is complete, open the Configuration Utility; select
the desired ESSID and country code.
6. If you do not need to restart Windows, eject the card and insert it again. The
device will now work with the updated driver. The new settings became
effective after the card is removed and inserted again, or Windows is restarted.
Important:
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Before removing the card, be sure to perform the Stop function
from the Removable devices Taskbar icon. This icon is normally
visible if removable devices are attached to your PC. Removal of
a device without stopping it first can crash Windows and cause the
loss of your data..
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User’s Guide
SA-PCR PRO.11 PC Card Installation, Setup, and Management
Upgrading the Windows 2000 Driver for PnP SA-PCR Cards
If Windows 2000 automatically installed the SA-PCR driver on the Microsoft
Windows 2000 Installation CD, you will need to perform the following upgrade
procedure. The driver provided on the Windows 2000 Installation CD has restricted
capabilities and is not compatible with some of the BreezeNet features (such as the
Configuration utility).
1. Open the Device Manager with Administrator access rights (if you have not
logged in as an Administrator).
2. Expand the Network Adapters branch and select the BreezeNET Wireless LAN
PC Card.
3. Click
and select the Driver tab of the Properties dialog box.
4. Click
. The Update Device Driver Wizard starts. Click
5. Select the Display a list of all drivers ... option and click
6. Click
.
.
.
7. Enter the location path and name of the driver or browse to the location where
the driver can be found (C:\TMP by default). A list will appear that contains
. Then click
.
exactly one item. Select it and click
8. In the Wizard is ready to install . . . box click
.
9. If Windows displays the Digital Signature Not Found message, click Yes.
This update may contain drivers that are not digitally signed.
10. Click Finish.
11. After the driver update is complete, open the Configuration Utility from the
Control Panel (
➩ Settings ➩ Control Panel and then double click the
BreezeCOM Configuration icon)
12. Select the desired ESSID and country code.
User’s Guide
4-6
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
SA-PCR PRO.11 PC Card Installation, Setup, and Management
Note:
If Windows prompts to restart, click YES and restart Windows; while
Windows is shut down, remove the card (so you can use the Configuration
Utility before the card starts).
13. If you do not need to restart Windows, eject the card and insert it again. The
new settings became effective after the card is removed and inserted again, or
Windows is restarted.
Important:
If Windows prompts to restart, click YES and restart Windows;
while Windows is shut down, remove the card (so you can use the
Configuration Utility before the card starts). Before removing the
card, be sure to perform the Stop function from the Removable
devices Taskbar icon. This icon is normally visible if removable
devices are attached to your PC. Removal of a device without
stopping it first can crash Windows and cause loss of your data.
Installing/Updating the Site Survey
The Site Survey utility can be installed and updated as a separate package. Users do
not need Administrator rights in order to install and run it.
Important:
Do not use the Win9x Site Survey utility under Windows 2000;
only use the Windows 2000 Site Survey utility.
To install the Site Survey application, run the SURVEY.EXE file installed by
BRZW2KA.EXE (located in C:\TMP by default).
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
4-7
User’s Guide
SA-PCR PRO.11 PC Card Installation, Setup, and Management
Installing the SA-PCR Drivers in Windows 98
1. Insert the SA-PCR card in a free PCMCIA slot. Windows detects the unit and
displays the New Hardware Found window.
2. When the Add New Hardware Wizard window appears, click Next.
3. Select the Search for best driver option and click Next.
4. Insert the BreezeCOM drivers diskette, select the Floppy disk drives option and
click Next.
5. The installation wizard notifies you that the driver for the BreezeNET Wireless
LAN PC card has been located. Click Next.
6. A window appears notifying you that the driver for the BreezeNET Wireless
LAN PC card has been installed. Click Finish.
7. Restart the computer.
Uninstalling the SA-PCR Drivers in Windows 98
1. From the Windows Start menu, select Settings, and then select Control Panel.
Double click on the Network icon, click the Configuration tab, select
BreezeNET Wireless LAN PC card, and click Remove.
A message appears asking whether you want to restart the computer; click No.
2. Insert the BreezeCOM Drivers diskette. From the Windows Start menu, select
Run, and type a:\DrvClean.
3. When notified that the SA-PCR driver has been deleted, click Setup.
4. Restart the computer.
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Installing the SA-PCR Drivers in Windows 95
Check which version of the Windows 95 operating system your PC is running:
1. From the Windows 95 desktop, right-click the My Computer icon and select
Properties. The System Properties window opens.
Figure 4-2. System Properties Window – Windows 95B
2. Click the General tab. The letter indicating the type of operating system (a or
b) is displayed under the System heading.
3. If you are running the Windows 95A operating system, refer to the For
Windows 95A section on the next page. If you are running Windows 95B
operating system, refer to the For Windows 95B section on page 4-10.
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For Windows 95A
1. Insert the SA-PCR card in the PCMCIA slot on your computer. Windows 95
detects the unit and displays the New Hardware Found window.
Figure 4-3. New Hardware Found Window
2. Select the driver from disk provided by hardware manufacturer option and click
OK.
3. When prompted for the location of the driver, insert the BreezeCOM drivers
diskette, type A:\ and click OK. The necessary files are copied from the
diskette.
4. When the Please insert disk labeled Windows 95 CD-ROM appears, insert the
Windows 95 CD and click OK. If the Windows 95 CAB files are located on
your local hard disk, you can point to that directory (usually found in
\Windows\Options\Cabs).
5. If this is the first time a network card has been installed on this PC, a network
setup window may appear. It is not necessary to fill out this window for the
purposes of this installation.
6. Restart the computer.
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For Windows 95B
1. Insert the SA-PCR slot in the PCMCIA slot on your computer. Windows 95
detects the unit, briefly displays the New Hardware Found window, and then
displays the Update Device Driver Wizard window.
2. Insert the BreezeCOM drivers diskette and click Next. When Windows 95
notifies it has found the driver, click Finish.
3. If the Windows 95 CAB files are not found automatically, the message Please
insert disk labeled Windows 95 CD-ROM appears. Click OK.
4. If the file BRZCOM.VXD is not found, direct the window to drive A:\ and
click OK.
5. If no other windows appear, the installation is complete. If the Please insert
disk labeled Windows 95 CD-ROM appears, click OK, enter the path of the
Windows 95 CAB files, and click OK. Installation is now complete.
6. Restart the computer.
Uninstalling SA-PCR Drivers in Windows 95
1. From the Windows Start menu, select Settings - Control Panel. Double click
on the PC Card icon, select BreezeCOM Wireless LAN PC Card and click
Stop. Close all active applications.
A message appears asking whether you want to restart the computer; click No.
2. From the Windows Start menu, select Settings, and then select Control Panel.
Double click on the Network icon, click the Configuration tab, select
BreezeNET Wireless LAN PC card , and click Remove.
3. Insert the BreezeCOM Drivers diskette. From the Windows Start menu, select
Run, and type a:\DrvClean.
4. When notified that the SA-PCR driver has been deleted, click Setup.
5. Restart the computer.
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Installing the SA-PCR Drivers in Windows NT
1. Press the Windows Start button, select Settings, and then select Control
Panel. Double-click on the Network icon.
2. If the message The Windows NT Networking is not installed. Do
you want to install it now?, continue with step 2a. If this message
does not appear, continue with step 2b.
a. Click Yes and choose Wired to the network. When a list of supported
network adapters appears, click Have Disk.
b. Click on the Adapters tab, click Add, and then click Have Disk.
3. Insert the BreezeCOM drivers diskette, enter the location of the diskette (e.g.,
A:\) and click OK.
4. From the list choose BreezeNET Wireless LAN PC card and click OK. The
SA-PCR LAN Adapter Properties window appears.
Figure 4-4. SA-PCR LAN Adapter Properties Window
5. The default settings are memory range D0000h to D3FFFh, IRQ 11. In the
following steps we will verify that these default settings are acceptable for your
machine.
Note:
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If the SA-PCR Configuration utility is already installed, you can access it
directly by pressing Advanced.
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6. Click the Windows Start button and select Run. Type WINMSD and click OK.
The Windows NT Diagnostics window appears.
Figure 4-5. Windows NT Diagnostics Window
7. Click IRQ and verify that IRQ 11 is not taken. If it is, find a free IRQ.
For example, in Figure 4-5 IRQ 5 is free.
8. Click Memory and verify that memory from D0000h to D3FFFh is not taken.
If it is, find another free memory location, such as E0000h.
9. Return to the SA-PCR LAN Adapter Properties window. If the default values
for Memory Address and Interrupt are acceptable, click OK. Otherwise,
enter new values and click OK.
10. Click Close to close each installation window.
11. If configuration windows for other network components (such as Protocol)
appear, enter the requirements according to the instructions of your network
administrator.
12. Restart Windows NT.
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Uninstalling SA-PCR Drivers in Windows NT
1. From the Windows Start menu, select Settings, and then select Control Panel.
Double click on the Network icon, click the Configuration tab, select
BreezeNET Wireless LAN PC card, and click Remove.
2. Insert the BreezeCOM Drivers diskette. From the Windows Start menu, select
Run, and type a:\DrvClean.
3. When notified that the SA-PCR driver has been deleted, click Setup.
4. Restart the computer.
Installing the SA-PCR Drivers in Windows CE
When installing the SA-PCR drivers on handheld PCs (H-PC), you will first need
to connect the H-PC to its host desktop PC and establish communications between
them.
1. Connect the H-PC to COM port 1 or 2 of the host desktop PC, using an RS-232
serial cable.
2. Insert the Windows CE Service application CD into the CD drive of the host
desktop PC. The application setup program is automatically displayed. If it is
not displayed for any reason, double-click the setup.exe file from the CD
folder.
3. Follow the on-screen instructions of the setup program.
4. Check that the Baud Rate of the desktop PC and the H-PC are identical (the
default is 19200 bps). Continue to Step 5.
If the Baud Rate is not identical in both PCs, follow the instructions below to
change the Baud Rate on the H-PC:
a. Click the My handheld PC icon.
b. Double-click the Control Panel icon and select Communications and
Properties>PC Connection tab.
c. Click the Change button.
d. Select the baud rate the drop down list that matches the baud rate of the PC.
e. Click OK.
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5. After changing the configuration of the H-PC, reset the device by pushing in
the Reset push button of the H-PC (usually located at the bottom of the PC).
6. Double-click the setup.exe file. After the introductory notice, the following
window is displayed.
7. Click the
button to begin the installation process.
8. Choose the installation destination folder (C:\Program Files\Windows CE
Services by default).
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9. Click OK.
10. Click
Click
to install the application in the Windows CE directory of the H-PC.
to install the application in a directory of your choice.
The setup program copies files from the desktop PC the H-PC. The progress
bar, briefly displayed on the screen, indicates the completion of this process.
11. Check your mobile device screen for any additional steps required to complete
the installation process. For example, replacing an old version of the driver (if
you have one installed) with a new version.
If you need to perform additional installation steps, follow the instructions on
the mobile device screen.
If no additional steps are needed, click OK to complete the installation.
12. Insert the SA-PCR card in a free PCMCIA slot of the H-PC.
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4.3.2 Checking the LED Indicators
Verify correct operation of the SA-PCR using the following LED indicators table:
Table 4-1. SA-PCR Card LED Indications
Color
Yellow
Description
Link Status
Meaning
Blink – Scanning
Solid –Associated
Green
Data Traffic
Blink – According to traffic
The LED indicators are useful only if there is an active AP in the area.
The LED indicators can be used to verify correct firmware download procedure;
the LEDs turn on and off quickly, one LED being ON while the other is OFF.
4.3.3 Initial Configuration
If your wireless network uses a non-default ESSID, enter the proper ESSID as
follows:
1. Start the SA-PCR Configuration utility as described in Section 4.5. From the
Windows Start menu, select Programs - BreezeCOM Utilities, and then
Configure.
2. Edit the ESSID parameter. Click the WLAN Parameters tab and enter the
ESSID that matches the AP unit.
3. Restart the computer.
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4.4 Installing the SA-PCR Utilities
If a previous version of the SA-PCR utilities is installed, uninstall it before
reinstalling the new version (as described in Section 4.4.1).
⇒To install the SA-PCR utilities:
1. Insert the BreezeCOM Utilities diskette.
2. From the Windows Start menu, select Run. Type A:\setup, and click OK.
3. When the notification dialog box appears; click Setup.
Figure 4-6. BreezeCOM SA-PCR Utilities Setup
4. In the BreezeCOM SA-PCR Utilities window, choose a location for the
installation, and click OK.
Figure 4-7. BreezeCOM SA-PCR Utilities - Folder Selection Window
5. When the BreezeCOM SA-PCR Utilities Setup Complete window appears,
click OK. Icons for the utilities are added to the Windows Programs menu, and
an SA-PCR Configure icon is added to the Control Panel.
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Figure 4-8. BreezeCOM SA-PCR Utilities Setup Complete Window
4.4.1 Installing the SA-PCR Driver for Windows 2000 Systems
This section describes software installation of the SA-PCR station adapter in PCs
running the Windows 2000 operating system.
To perform this procedure, you will need the driver kit, which consists of the
BRZW2KA.EXE file. Running this file installs both the SA-PCR driver and the
BreezeNet Configuration utility (a Windows Control Panel applet). You can
download the driver kit from www.breezecom.com. Call BreezeCOM customer
support for further information.
When installing certain models of the card under Windows 2000, the system will
automatically install the SA-PCR driver on the Microsoft Windows 2000
Installation CD. This driver has restricted capabilities and is not compatible with
some BreezeNet features (such as the Configuration utility). To install a driver
which is fully compatible with all BreezeNET features, perform the upgrade
procedure described in Section 4.4.1.3.
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4.4.1.1 Installing the Windows 2000 Driver Kit
Installation of the SA-PCR Driver for Windows 2000 requires the Windows 2000
Driver kit
⇒To install the Windows 2000 Driver Kit:
1. Run the BRZW2KA.EXE file. Click
dialog box is displayed.
when prompted. The following
Figure 4-9. Installing the Windows 2000 Driver Kit
2. By default, the driver kit program extracts the files to the TMP directory in
your default hard drive. To change the location, enter the path in the Unzip to
folder field or click
and navigate to the directory of your choice.
3. Click
to start extracting, or click
to open the Winzip
application if you wish to control the extraction process. After extraction, a
message is displayed informing that the files were extracted.
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4.4.1.2 Installing SA-PCR Cards Under Windows 2000
⇒To install the SA-PCR Cards Under Windows 2000:
1. Physically install the SA-PCR card.
2. Start the PC and login to the system with Administrator access rights. A Found
New Hardware message is displayed.
3. Follow the instructions provided by the Add Hardware Wizard and when
prompted, navigate to the driver file installed by BRZW2KA.EXE (located in
C:\TMP by default).
Note:
If Windows 2000 does not ask you to specify the location of the driver and
installs one automatically from the Windows 2000 CD, perform the
procedure in Section 4.4.1.3 on the next page.
4. If Windows displays the Digital Signature Not Found message, click Yes.
This update may contain drivers that are not digitally signed.
5. After the driver installation is complete, open the Configuration Utility; select
the desired ESSID and country code.
6. If you do not need to restart Windows, eject the card and insert it again. The
device will now work with the updated driver. The new settings became
effective after the card is removed and inserted again, or Windows is restarted.
Important:
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Before removing the card, be sure to perform the Stop function
from the Removable devices Taskbar icon. This icon is normally
visible if removable devices are attached to your PC. Removal of
a device without stopping it first can crash Windows and cause the
loss of your data..
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4.4.1.3 Upgrading the Windows 2000 Driver for PnP SA-PCR
Cards
If Windows 2000 automatically installed the SA-PCR driver on the Microsoft
Windows 2000 Installation CD, you will need to perform the following upgrade
procedure. The driver provided on the Windows 2000 Installation CD has restricted
capabilities and is not compatible with some of the BreezeNet features (such as the
Configuration utility).
1. Open the Device Manager with Administrator access rights (if you have not
logged in as an Administrator).
2. Expand the Network Adapters branch and select the BreezeNET Wireless LAN
PC Card.
3. Click
and select the Driver tab of the Properties dialog box.
4. Click
. The Update Device Driver Wizard starts. Click
5. Select the Display a list of all drivers ... option and click
6. Click
.
.
.
7. Enter the location path and name of the driver or browse to the location where
the driver can be found (C:\TMP by default). A list will appear that contains
. Then click
.
exactly one item. Select it and click
8. In the Wizard is ready to install . . . box click
.
9. If Windows displays the Digital Signature Not Found message, click Yes.
This update may contain drivers that are not digitally signed.
10. Click Finish.
11. After the driver update is complete, open the Configuration Utility from the
Control Panel (
➩ Settings ➩ Control Panel and then double click the
BreezeCOM Configuration icon)
12. Select the desired ESSID and country code.
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Note:
If Windows prompts to restart, click YES and restart Windows; while
Windows is shut down, remove the card (so you can use the Configuration
Utility before the card starts).
13. If you do not need to restart Windows, eject the card and insert it again. The
new settings became effective after the card is removed and inserted again, or
Windows is restarted.
Important:
If Windows prompts to restart, click YES and restart Windows;
while Windows is shut down, remove the card (so you can use the
Configuration Utility before the card starts). Before removing the
card, be sure to perform the Stop function from the Removable
devices Taskbar icon. This icon is normally visible if removable
devices are attached to your PC. Removal of a device without
stopping it first can crash Windows and cause loss of your data.
4.4.1.4 Installing/Updating the Site Survey
The Site Survey utility can be installed and updated as a separate package. Users do
not need Administrator rights in order to install and run it.
Important:
Do not use the Win9x Site Survey utility under Windows 2000;
only use the Windows 2000 Site Survey utility.
To install the Site Survey application, run the SURVEY.EXE file installed by
BRZW2KA.EXE (located in C:\TMP by default).
4.4.2 Uninstalling SA-PCR Utilities
1. From the Windows Start menu, select Programs - BreezeCOM Utilities and
then select Uninstall.
2. You can also uninstall the SA-PCR utilities by using Windows Add/Remove
Programs feature.
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4.5 Using the SA-PCR Configuration Utility
Note: if you are using a Windows CE device, refer to page 4-37.
This section describes how to use the SA-PCR Configuration utility to configure
and manage your SA-PCR card.
Access the SA-PCR Configuration utility as follows: click the Start button, select
Programs, select the BreezeCOM Utilities program group and choose Configure.
The SA-PCR Configuration main window is displayed as follows, with the Station
Status tab selected.
Figure 4-10. SA-PCR Configuration Utility Main Window - Station Status Tab
The SA-PCR Configuration window contains several tabs, as described in the
following sections.
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In addition, the Configuration windows contain the following buttons:
•
OK – Implements any changes you made and closes the window.
•
Undo – Causes the window to display currently active values. This is useful if
you started changing values and you want to start again from the current
values.
•
Cancel – Closes the window without implementing any changes you made.
•
Apply – Implements any changes you made but leaves the window open.
4.5.1 Station Status Tab
The Station Status tab of the SA-PCR Configuration utility displays information
regarding the card and the card’s status.
The Station Status tab contains the following parameters:
•
Network Type – In the current version, the value of this parameter should be
always set to Infrastructure.
•
Firmware Version – Displays the version of unit’s current firmware
(internally installed software). The first two numbers of the firmware and
driver versions should be identical. The remaining numbers (if any) indicate
the minor version. The final letter indicates the hardware version.
•
Driver Version – Displays the version of unit’s current driver.
•
MAC Address – Displays the unit’s unique IEEE MAC address.
•
BSS Address – The MAC address of the AP with which the unit is currently
associated.
•
Station Status – Current status of the unit. There are two options:
∗
Scanning – The unit is searching for an AP with which to associate.
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∗
•
Associated – The unit is associated with an AP and has adopted the
attached PC MAC address.
Wep enabled – Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is an authentication
algorithm which protects authorized Wireless LAN users against
eavesdropping. The definition of WEP is well defined in the 802.11 standard.
Note:
Parameter changes take effect only after reset.
4.5.2 WLAN Parameters Tab
The WLAN Parameters tab of the SA-PCR Configuration utility lets you view
and edit basic Wireless LAN parameters of the card.
Figure 4-11. WLAN Parameters Tab
The WLAN Parameters tab contains the following parameters:
•
User’s Guide
ESSID – An ASCII string of up to 32 characters used to identify a WLAN that
prevents the unintentional merging of two co-located WLANs. It is essential
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that the ESSID is set to the same value in all stations and Access Points in the
extended WLAN. The ESSID field is case-sensitive.
•
Maximum Data Rate – By default, the unit adaptively selects the highest
possible rate for transmission. Under certain conditions (for range/speed tradeoff) you may decide not to use the higher rates. Possible values are 1, 2, or 3
Mbps.
•
Transmit Antenna – By default, the unit dynamically selects the antenna
where reception and transmission is optimal. If your model has an external
antenna and uses only a single antenna, set Transmit Antenna to transmit only
from that single antenna. Antenna number one is the antenna nearest the
yellow LED.
•
Load Sharing – When installing a Wireless LAN network in a high-traffic
environment, you can increase the aggregate throughput by installing multiple
APs to create co-located cells. Enable Load Sharing to cause your stations to
equally divide their traffic between the available APs.
Note:
Parameter changes take effect only after reset.
4.5.3 Station Control Tab
The Station Control tab of the SA-PCR Configuration utility allows you to return
the card to default configuration values, and export/import configuration files.
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Figure 4-12. Station Control Tab
The Station Control tab contains the Default button which returns all parameters
to factory default values.
As a time saving feature, you can configure one unit and then save the
configuration as a file (with a .BRZ extension). You can later import the
configuration file to other units.
•
Import – Imports a configuration file to this unit, and overwrites all previous
settings.
•
Export – Exports the current configuration of this unit to a file.
Note:
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Parameter changes take effect only after reset.
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4.5.4 Configuration Access Tab
The Configuration Access tab of the SA-PCR Configuration utility lets you login
to the card as User, Installer, or Technician, and lets you change the password.
Figure 4-13. Configuration Access Tab
The Configuration Access tab displays the current mode (User, Installer, or
Technician) in the Present Mode box. This mode determines the security access to
system parameters. Users can view some of the window tabs, but cannot modify
parameters. Installers can view all of the tabs and can modify some of the values.
Technician access rights are reserved for certified BreezeCOM technicians.
When the Configuration utility opens, it will begin at the same mode that was
active when it closed. If security is an issue, change the access mode to User before
you close the utility. The first time the utility is opened, it is set to Installer access
mode.
The default password for Installer mode is User, however you can change this
password If security considerations play an important role in the construction of
your WLAN.
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⇒ To change the Configuration Access mode:
1. Select the radio button next to the desired mode.
2. Type in the password. No password is necessary to lower the access right level.
3. Click Set mode. The name of the new mode appears in the Present Mode box.
⇒ To change the password for Installer Configuration Access mode:
1. Look at the Present Mode box to verify that you are in Installer mode.
2. Click Change Password.
3. In the Change Password dialog box, type in the new password twice and click
OK. The BreezeNET Monitor changes your password.
Note:
If you change the Installer password do not forget it, or you will be unable to
change the unit's access rights.
4.5.5 Power Management Tab
The Power Management tab of the SA-PCR Configuration utility allows you to
enable/disable Power Save mode and to configure Power Save mode parameters.
Power Save mode is intended for laptops or hand-held computers, in order to
conserve battery energy. When Power Save mode is enabled, the unit “sleeps” most
of the time and “wakes up” occasionally to transmit/receive to/from the AP. This
will extend the battery life span of a laptop installed with the SA-PCR.
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Figure 4-14. Power Management Tab
Note:
Expect a degradation in performance of the entire cell, even if only the AP and
one station are set to Power Save mode.
The Power Management tab includes the following parameters:
•
Power Management Mode – Enable Power Save mode by clicking the
Powersave option; disable by clicking the Normal option (default).
•
Listen Interval Settings –Specifies how often the station is to “wake up” in
order to transmit or receive data (unicast packets). This parameter enables
performance optimization on a per station basis. In contrast, the DTIM period
(that is set in the AP only) defines the time period for all stations in the cell to
“wake up” in order to receive broadcasts.
Note:
If the Power Save mode is enabled on one of the WLAN's SA-PCR stations, you
must also enable the Power Save mode on the AP through the BreezeNET
monitor. Refer to Section 3.5.3 for further information.
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4.5.6 Security Tab
The Security tab allows you to set the security parameters of the station.
Figure 4-15. The Security Tab
The station in which the SA-PCR card is installed can use one of the following
authentication algorithms (as defined in the 802.11 standard).
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•
Open System – any station in the WLAN can associate with an AP and
receive and transmit data (null authentication).
•
Shared Key – only stations using a shared key encryption identified by the AP
are allowed to associate with it. You can only select this option if the card was
ordered with the Privacy option or if you enabled the WEP feature during the
upgrade procedure (as described in Section 4.4.1). The option which was
ordered is displayed in a read only field at the top of the dialog box. To see
whether the WEP option was enabled during installation, select the Station
Status tab described in Section 4.5.1.
Values: Unknown
Card is not inserted.
Implemented
Shared Key authentication is enabled.
Not Implemented
Shared Key authentication is disabled.
Only open system authentication is
available in this mode.
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If you selected the Shared Key algorithm, proceed to set the following parameters:
•
Default Key ID – Sets the default key for encryption in the Authentication
process. This is the encryption key that will be used for transmissions between
the station and the AP.
•
WEP Key – Define the encryption keys used for transmissions between the
station and the AP. Specify each key by clicking the appropriate WEP Key
row (First, Second, Third or Fourth) and entering 10 Hex digits (5 pairs of
characters) for each of the 4 keys.
To configure security parameters in ODI/DOS environment, use the brzsetup
application.
Note:
The default Key ID you enter for the SA-PCR must match the Key ID defined in
the AP. Section 3.4.6 describes the procedure for setting the encryption keys
for BreezeNET APs.
It is recommended to change the encryption keys periodically, to enhance
system security.
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4.5.7 Maintenance Tab
The Maintenance tab of the SA-PCR Configuration utility allows you to cause the
unit to verify firmware/driver compatibility, and set how the unit handles 802.3
packets.
This tab is not visible when in User login mode. When in Installer login mode, you
can see the parameters. When in Technician login mode, can edit the parameters.
Figure 4-16. Maintenance Tab
The Maintenance tab contains the following parameters:
•
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Version Information – Windows drivers are divided into three files:
Brzcom.vxd, Brzwlanw.sys, and Brzwlan.inf. The version number of all these
files must be identical. Control information of these files is displayed.
The Configuration utility file is called BrzConfig.exe. The first two numbers
of the Configuration utility version must match the first two numbers of the
drivers.
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•
Disable AppleTalk tunneling – allows you to disable (default) or enable
AppleTalk tunneling if the network contains a mix of Ethertalk 1 (ET 1) and
Ethertalk 2 (ET 2) stations to ensure smooth communications. Ensure that all
units are set to the same tunneling settings.
•
icon on the
Show control on taskbar – Check this box to display the
Windows taskbar. When this option is enabled, you can double click the
icon to display the SA-PCR Configuration utility at any time.
4.5.8 Radio Tab
The Radio tab of the SA-PCR Configuration utility allows you to set the power
level of the unit and choose a hopping standard.
This tab is not visible when in User login mode. When in Installer login mode, you
can see the parameters. When in Technician login mode, the parameters can be
edited.
Figure 4-17. Radio Tab
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The Radio tab contains the following parameters:
•
Power Level – Level of power at which the unit is operating. There are two
possibilities, Low or High.
•
Default Radio Status – For on the radio receives in regular mode, when off
the radio does not work at startup (e.g. when traveling in planes).
•
Hopping Standard –A set of rules regarding the radio transmission standard
allowed in each country. Units will work together only if set to the same
hopping standard. Use this parameter to set the unit’s hopping standard to that
of the relevant country. Proprietary hopping standards can also be
implemented. Refer to Section 3.5.4.
4.5.9 Performance Tab
The Performance tab of the SA-PCR Configuration utility allows you to fine-tune
performance and roaming parameters. This tab is not visible when in User login mode.
When in Installer login mode, you can see the parameters. When in Technician login
mode, the parameters can be edited. Only major parameters are described below.
Note:
All fields in this dialog box are read only.
Figure 4-18. Performance Tab
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The Performance tab contains the following parameter:
•
Rts threshold (bytes) – Minimum packet size to require an RTS (Request To
Send). For packets smaller than this threshold, an RTS is not sent and the
packet is transmitted directly to the WLAN.
4.5.10 Resetting the SA-PCR Card
It is necessary to reset the SA-PCR card after making configuration changes via the
SA-PCR Configuration utility. Perform this procedure as follows:
1. Close the Configuration and Site Survey utilities and then do one of the
following:
2. Restart the computer, OR
Stop the PC card then eject and reinsert the card, OR
Stop and refresh the driver as follows:
3. Right-click the My Computer icon on the desktop, choose Properties, and go
to the Device Manager tab.
Select Network Adapters - BreezeNET WLAN PC Card, and click Refresh.
4.5.11 Running the Configuration Utility Under Windows 2000
The Configuration Utility is located in the Control Panel. Windows Administrators
have Installer user rights by default. Other users have User access rights by default,
and normally can not change settings. This is part of Windows NT system
protection policy.
In order to use the Configuration Utility when you are not logged on as
Administrator, you can create a shortcut to BRZWLAN.CPL in the All Users'
Programs menu or another folder.
In the Properties page of this shortcut, check Run as different user. You need to
enter the Administrator password to run it as Administrator.
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Additional general comments on the Configuration Utility:
•
When the card can not establish a link with an Access Point (the yellow LED
blinks), the Taskbar icon will indicate Network cable unplugged. Wireless
Ethernet devices report their unconnected state as their cable being unplugged.
This is a feature of Windows 2000.
•
This update removes the Advanced tab on the device properties; the
configuration can only be done using the Configuration utility.
•
In the event that the driver does not work properly after performing the driver
upgrade or when changing the configuration, you may need to reset parameters
to factory default using the updated Configuration utility; then re-apply your
desired parameters.
•
The Device Manager will not display non-present plug-and-play devices, even
when the Show hidden devices option is active.
•
In order to access the driver in Device Manager without inserting the card,
start Windows 2000 in Safe mode, or set the environment variable:
DEVMGR_SHOW_NONPRESENT_DEVICES=1
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4.5.11.1 Troubleshooting Tips
In order to perform the troubleshooting procedures described here, the user is
required to have knowledge of WindowsNT procedures such as using event log,
and machine administration.
Make sure that your machine has an updated BIOS
The PCMCIA/Cardbus controller must be properly initialized by BIOS in order to
work with Windows 2000. Even machines listed as Windows 2000 compatible, still
may have an outdated BIOS. In case of strange resource allocation problems check the BIOS.
Use the Winrep utility to create your problem report
From the Windows Taskbar, click
the select Run. Type Winrep.
Allow Winrep to collect system information. Check the Event log for relevant
messages.
Using the Event Viewer’s Copy command, paste the message into your report or
save the entire System log and attach it.
In case of a blue screen, copy the error code that is displayed. You can also select a
small memory dump in System Properties, Startup and recovery... Write debugging
information... Small memory dump. The small dump file contains all information
from the blue screen. Attach this dump file to your report.
Save the report to file and send it to Technical support.
Important:
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Data collected by Winrep contains your user name and other
information that you may consider sensitive..
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4.6 Using the Windows CE SA-PCR Utility
The Windows CE version of the SA-PCR software includes two tabs:
•
Configuration
•
Monitor
To open the software:
1. Click the SA-PCR icon located at the bottom right hand corner of the H-PC
Status bar.
2. Click either the Configuration tab or the Monitor tab.
4.6.1 Configuration
This tab includes the following parameters:
•
ESSID – An ASCII string of up to 32 characters used to identify a WLAN that
prevents the unintentional merging of two co-located WLANs. It is essential
that the ESSID be set to the same value in all stations and Access Points in the
extended WLAN. The ESSID field is case-sensitive.
•
Rate – By default, the unit adaptively selects the highest possible rate for
transmission. Under certain conditions (for range/speed trade-off) you may
decide not to use the higher rates. Possible values are 1, 2, or 3 Mbps.
•
Power Level – Level of power at which the unit is operating. There are two
options, Low or High.
•
Power (Power Save) – Enable Power Save mode by clicking the Powersave
option; disable by clicking the Normal option (default).
Note:
User’s Guide
If the Power Save mode is enabled on one of the WLAN's SA-PCR stations, you
must also enable the Power Save mode on the AP through the BreezeNET
monitor. Refer to the BreezeNET PRO.11 User’s Guide for further
information.
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To apply the new configuration, click the Update button. After changing the
configuration you must reset the SA-PCR card by pulling it out of the H-PC and
inserting it back in.
Note:
To obtain full access to the configuration parameters, use the Configuration
utility available from BreezeCOM authorized dealers.
4.6.2 Monitor
This tab includes the following parameters:
•
Driver Version – The current driver version installed on the mobile device.
•
Firmware Version – The current firmware version installed.
•
H/W Version – The current hardware version of the inserted card.
•
SA-PCR – Displays the MAC address of the SA-PCR card.
•
Current BSSID – Displays the MAC address of the current AP.
•
Current RSSI Level – Displays the current RSSI readouts of the station.
•
Station Status – Current status of the unit. There are five options:
∗
None – No association with an AP (the station is scanning for an AP with
which to associate).
∗
Synchronized – The station is synchronized with an AP but has not yet
learned its WLAN MAC address.
∗
Authenticated – The card has been identified by the AP and is allowed
to access the network.
∗
Associated – The station is associated with an AP and has adopted the
attached PC MAC address.
∗
Roaming
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4.7 Using the SA-PCR Site Survey Utility
Note:
This utility can not be used in systems installed under ODI.
This section describes how to use the SA-PCR Site Survey utility to manage your
SA-PCR card. The Site Survey utility keeps you informed of the signal strength
your unit is receiving.
You can run a Site Survey to compare reception at various locations. This is
extremely useful when first setting up the wireless LAN, since you can easily
determine where reception is good or bad, and where many Access Points overlap.
The following sections describe how to access the Site Survey utility, how to read
the main Site Survey window, and how to perform a site survey.
4.7.1 Accessing the SA-PCR Site Survey Utility
Open the SA-PCR Site Survey utility as follows: click the Start button, select
Programs, select the BreezeCOM Utilities program group and choose Site
Survey. The SA-PCR Site Survey main window is displayed.
Figure 4-19. SA-PCR Site Survey
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4.7.2 SA-PCR Site Survey Main Window
The Site Survey main window contains the following sections:
•
Associated AP – This section, located at the top of the window, displays
various parameters regarding the Access Point with which the unit is currently
associated.
•
Alias – The alias you have assigned to the AP that the SA-PCR is currently
associated with. To assign aliases to AP units, click the Alias button. If no
alias has been assigned to the AP, this field displays “no alias”.
•
AP Address – The IEEE MAC address of the AP.
•
Signal Strength – The strength of the signal from the AP in dBm. The table
below maps the signal strength indicators to dBm ranges:
Signal
dBm
Poor
less than -74
Fair
Good
Very Good
-74 to -69
-68 to -61
greater than -61
•
Signal Bar – The signal bar is a graphical representation of the signal
strength. The longer the bar, the stronger the signal. As signal strength drops,
the bar changes from green, to yellow, to red
•
Neighbor APs – This section, located at the bottom of the window, displays
nearby APs (up to 4)from which the station is receiving a signal. For each AP,
the following parameters are displayed:
•
Alias – The alias you have assigned to the AP. To assign aliases to AP units,
click the Alias button. If no alias has been assigned to the AP, this field
displays “no alias”.
•
AP Address – The IEEE MAC address of the AP.
•
Signal – A miniature signal bar indicating the current signal strength from the
AP. When you hold the cursor over the line, the exact value appears.
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The following buttons appear on the right side of the Site Survey window. Several
of the buttons are used in the course of performing a Site Survey as described in
Section 4.7.3.
•
Record – Records the signal strength of the current location in the Survey
Log, as well as all neighboring APs. In the Record window, you can add the
name of the location and a remark. You can view the Survey Log by clicking
Survey Log.
•
Alias – Lets you assign alias names to APs. In the Alias window, enter the AP
address and the desired alias. For convenience, you can drag and drop the
address of the associated AP from the main window into the Alias window.
For neighbor APs, you should use Ctrl-C to copy the AP Address from the
main window.
•
Iconize – Closes the Site Survey window and opens the Connection Quality
Graph that indicates current signal strength of the associated AP at a glance.
The Graph can be moved anywhere on the screen, and will always appear on
top of other applications. Hold the cursor over the X to see the signal strength
in units. Click the X to close the Graph and open the Site Survey window.
Figure 4-20. Connection Quality Graph
•
Survey Log – Opens the Survey Log at the bottom of the main window. The
Survey Log displays the information recorded using the Record button. Click
Clear Log to clear the Survey Log. Click Delete Last to delete the last
recorded reading.
Figure 4-21. Survey Log
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Menu Bar – The menu bar at the top of the window contains four menus – Edit,
View, Report and Help. These menus contain sub-menus which correspond in most
cases to the buttons at the side of the window.
•
Edit Menu – three sub-menus, Record, Alias and Exit.
•
View Menu – has two sub-menus Survey Log and Iconize.
•
Report Menu – two sub-menus Preview and Print (do not have corresponding
buttons on side of window).
•
Preview – enables you to preview a site survey report before proceeding
further.
•
Print – Opens a Site Survey report showing the information in the Survey
Log, including neighboring APs.
You can print the file by clicking the Printer button, or save the file by
clicking the Diskette button. You can save the file as text, or as a QRP file
viewable using this application.
•
Help Menu – contains two sub-menus, About and Getting Started (do not
have corresponding buttons on side of window).
About – contains standard Windows format information about the application.
Getting Started – provides basic information to enable you to begin working.
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4.7.3 Performing a Site Survey with the SA-PCR
You can run a Site Survey to compare reception at various locations. This is
extremely useful when first setting up the wireless LAN, since you can easily
determine where reception is good or bad, and where many Access Points overlap.
⇒ To run a Site Survey:
1. Open the Site Survey utility.
2. Click Survey Log to expand the bottom of the Site Survey window.
3. Bring the station to a new location.
4. Click Record. Type in the name of the location and a remark, and click OK.
The signal details of the current location appear in the Survey Log at the
bottom of the window.
5. Repeat steps 2 and 3 with other locations. The recorded readings should give
you a good idea of where reception is good or bad, and where many APs
overlap unnecessarily.
6. When you are done recording, click Print. A site survey report appears
containing information about each recorded location including signal strength
of associated AP and of neighbor APs. You can print the file by clicking the
Print button, or save the file by clicking the Diskette button. You can save the
file as text, or as a QRP file which can be viewed using this application only.
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4.8 Using the Upgrade Kit Program
The Upgrade kit program is an application that allows you to upgrade previous
versions of the firmware, drivers and utilities of the SAPCR, if installing on a
machine that had a previous version installed. The Upgrade kit can be obtained
from the BreezeCOM Web site.
In addition, under Windows 95/98 you can use this program as another way to
install the firmware, driver and utilities.
Note:
Upgrading causes your system to lose all configuration parameters that were
set previously.
Upgrade Procedure for Windows 95/98
1. Run the UPGR4402.EXE program from the diskette. The following dialog box
is displayed.
Figure 4-22. Upgrade Kit Program Introductory Window
2. Click Setup. The following dialog box is displayed.
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Figure 4-23. Upgrade Kit Program Welcome Window
3. Click Next. The following dialog box is displayed.
Figure 4-24. Upgrade Kit Program Step 1
4. Form the Country drop down list, select the standard applicable to your country
and click Next. You do not need to select the country if you are installing the
application in the following countries: USA/FCC, Europe/ETSI, Japan.
5. If the card is already installed, stop the card as follows: from the Control Panel,
double click the PCMCIA Card icon, select the BreezeCOM card and click
Stop. Remove the SA-PCR card from the slot. Wait for about 15 seconds and
then reinsert. Click Next.
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Figure 4-25. Upgrade Kit Program Step 2
6. The MAC address of the PC and the hardware version of the SA-PCR card are
displayed in read only field.
If you purchased the SA-PCR without the Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
feature and you wish to enable this feature, contact your BreezeCOM
representative.
OR
Double click the WEP field value (set to NO by default). The following dialog
box is displayed.
Figure 4-26. Password Dialog Box
Enter the password supplied by BreezeCOM and click OK to return to the
Upgrade Program Step 2 dialog box.
Note:
The password for enabling the WEP feature can only be obtained from
BreezeCOM.
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7. Follow the on screen instructions and check the card LEDs as described in
Section 4.3.2. Click Next. The following dialog box is displayed.
Figure 4-27. Upgrade Program Step 3
8. When downloading the firmware has completed, the following dialog box is
displayed.
Figure 4-28. Upgrade Program Step 4
9. At this point, the Upgrade program installs the SA-PCR utilities. Specify the
directory in which the program installs the utilities.
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Figure 4-29. Utilities Directory
10. Continue to follow the on-screen prompts until the following dialog box is displayed.
Figure 4-30. Upgrade Program Step 5
11. Restart the computer when prompted. When the computer is restarted the new
hardware wizard is entered automatically and the new drivers are installed and
shortcuts are updated.
Upgrade Procedure for Windows NT, DOS/ODI
Follow these instructions in order to upgrade SA-PCR cards installed in machines
running Windows NT or DOS/ODI.
1. Upgrade the firmware in a Windows 95/98 machine, using the Upgrade kit program.
2. Remove the old drivers and utilities from your Windows NT or DOS/ODI machine.
3. Download new drivers and utilities from the BreezeCOM Web site according
to your country (http://www.breezecom.com/TechSupport/techsupp2.html).
4. Use the drivers and utilities that you have downloaded to install the new
versions of the drivers and utilities.
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4.9 Installation Troubleshooting
The following are some problems that may occur while installing the SA-PCR card,
and some recommended solutions to these problems. Should you encounter
problems during installation which are not listed in this section, contact
BreezeCOM technical support.
Problem 1. Card does not function properly:
1. Check Device Manager for conflicts with any other devices and drivers.
2. Right click My Computer, Properties and then the Device Manager tab.
3. Click Network Adapters to verify status of BreezeCOM PC card wireless
LAN adapter – an exclamation mark next to the card indicates a conflict.
Problem 2. There is a Resource Conflict, perform the following:
1. Double click the BreezeCOM Wireless LAN Adapter.
2. Select the Resources tab.
3. In the event that the conflicting resources are listed in the conflicting device
list, edit the Memory range and Interrupt to values that do not cause conflicts.
Problem 3.
There is no resource conflict, but the card still fails to work, there may be a
conflict with DOS drivers not recognized by Windows:
1. Look for device drivers or lines containing device or call commands in either
the autoexec.bat or config.sys files.
2. Disable the conflicting drivers and devices and uninstall and reinstall the card.
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4.10 Installing the SA-PCR Drivers in ODI Systems
The ODI driver supports Novell VLM and NETX clients, Novell TCPIP, LANtastic
v.6 (with ODINSUP), Microsoft Windows 3.11 (with ODINSUP).
The following files are supplied for the DOS ODI environment:
brzwlan.com
ODI driver file, generic version
brzwlanf.com
ODI driver file for Falcon 310 (supplied only on request)
brzwlan.ini
Default configuration file
brzsetup.exe
Site survey utility
net.cfg
Sample ODI16 configuration file
Brzwlan.ins
Installation information for Novell client (DOS and
Windows)
1. The ODI driver gets its resources from the Card & Socket Services. Verify that
the PC you are using is installed with Card & Socket Services software.
2. Copy all files from the DOSODI directory on the driver to the NetWare client
directory. (In case you already have a NET.CFG file that you want to keep,
copy and paste the BRZWLAN section from the sample NET.CFG file
supplied by BreezeCOM, into your existing file.
3. In order to login to a NetWare server you should run the following files (make
sure that the NET.CFG and the BRZWLAN.INI files are located in the
directory from which you run the following files:
•
•
•
•
LSL.COM (supplied by Novell)
BRZWLAN.COM
IPXODI.COM (supplied by Novell)
VLM.EXE (supplied by Novell)
4. After running the BRZWLAN file, the yellow LED on the card should blink
several times and then remain lit.
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Configuration Notes
1. To configure the SA-PCR, use the brzsetup.exe configuration utility.
2. A sample net.cfg file is provided; you may edit this to configure the parameters
for IRQ and MEM.
3. For DOS versions 3.30 to 6.20, LASTDRIVE=E by default. If the user only has
drive C, letters D and E will be available for Novell network drives. To make
all letters available for the network, add LASTDRIVE=Z to the config.sys file.
4. The units can only work with AP-10 PRO. 11 (which have 802.11 software
version 4.3 or later).
5. To see the version of the SA-PCR, ensure that the card is inserted and run the
Site Survey utility.
6. For configuration of the NDIS2 stack using ODINSUP, refer to the ODINSUP
documentation.
Running the Configuration Utility
1. Change to the NetWare client directory.
2. Type brzsetup and press Enter.
3. Enter the ESS ID as defined in the AP (if using default ESS ID, do not change).
4. Reset/restart the computer.
Note:
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Default ESSID is ESSID1 in capital letters.
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Troubleshooting ODI Installation
The following paragraphs provide information that can help in the event of
problems encountered in the ODI drivers installation.
•
It is important to note which net.cfg and brzwlan.ini is used. After installation
of new Novell client, two copies of brzwlan.ini, brzwlan.com and net.cfg files
may exist, one in the Windows directory and another in the directory where
the Novell client is installed.
•
If Card Services fails to provide correct memory and IRQ automatically – edit
net.cfg and use IRQ and MEM parameters.
•
If the driver did not display a message Testing Device, this indicates that
Card Services failed to recognize the card or to provide the required
information to the driver. Check the Card Services information configuration.
•
The driver reports an error in allocating IRQ or memory. The Card Services
failed to provide the required resources to the driver, or there are no resources
available. Reboot without EMM386 or other programs that may take up the
adapter memory region. Change the IRQ or MEM parameters in net.cfg to
force the driver to request specific resources.
•
The driver reports errors in net.cfg or brzwlan.ini. The files are corrupt or you
are not in the correct directory.
•
The yellow LED blinks and turns off after several seconds. The AP is
configured with incorrect parameters. Check the AP configuration. The built
in antennas are not pulled out or the external antenna is not attached to the PC
card.
•
The yellow LED does blink and is not lit. The driver is not receiving
interrupts. Try to change IRQ – wrong firmware version or card initialization
error.
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4.11 Installing the SA-PCR in Linux Systems
The Linux driver supports the following Linux distributions:
•
RedHat 6.0 (kernel 2.2.5-15)
•
Slackware 3.6.0 (kernel 2.0.35)
•
Caldera
Furthermore, the driver is compatible with the following PCMCIA package
versions: 3.0.9, 3.0.5, 2.2.7, 2.2.5, and 2.0.36
To Check the Kernel Version:
The command below will give you the version number of the current running Linux
kernel:
# uname -r
4.11.1 Requirements
Software
•
Linux system with networking; building environment optional.
•
Installed PCMCIA package.
•
BreezeNET Linux driver (brzcom-x.x.x.tar.gz)
Hardware
•
BreezeNET Pro.11 SA-PCR adapter with firmware version 4.4 or higher
•
BreezeNET Pro.11 AP-10 Access Point
Note:
Firmware version upgrades can be found at: http://www.breezecom.com.
The Linux driver does not support firmware updates, therefore updates must be
performed from Windows. To check your current firmware version, see
Section 4.11.3.
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4.11.2 Installing the PCMCIA Package
Install the package with the distribution's installation tool (e.g. Setup or pkgtool,
etc.).
-ORCopy the pcmcia-cs-x.x.x.tar.gz package (e.g. pcmcia-cs-3.0.9.tar.gz) to the
Linux kernel source directory (usually /usr/src/linux), and unpack it using:
gzip -cd pcmcia-cs-x.x.x.tar.gz | tar xfv -.
For example:
# gzip -cd pcmcia-cs-3.0.9.tar.gz | tar xfv -
To rebuild the PCMCIA binaries (or rebuild the BreezeNET driver):
1. Change to the kernel source directory and make the configuration (using make
config or make menuconfig):
cd /usr/src/linux
2. Configure the PCMCIA build environment (using make config):
cd pcmcia-cs-x.x.x (Where 'x.x.x' represents the PCMCIA card
services version)
3. Make sure that you specify the target directory correctly (usually
/lib/modules/x.x.x, where 'x.x.x' is the kernel's version).
4. Rebuild the PCMCIA package using make all or make install.
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4.11.3 Checking the SA-PCR Firmware Version in Linux
1. Insert the card in a free PCMCIA slot.
2. Change the directory to /usr/src/linux/pcmcia-cs-x.x.x (the directory where you
previously unpacked the PCMCIA Card Services):
cd to debug-tools and run ./dump_cis
3. The output appears as follows:
vers_1 4.1, "BreezeCOM", "BreezeNET PC-Card", "Version
4.4.07 990608"
Where "Version x.x.xx" describes the current firmware version of the card.
If you previously installed Card Services, perform the following:
1. Run % cardctl ident
2. Locate the line using the following command:
product info: "BreezeCOM", "BreezeNET PC-Card", "Version
4.4.07 990608"
Where "Version x.x.xx" describes the current firmware version of the card.
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4.11.4 Installing the SA-PCR Linux Driver
1. Copy the BreezeCOM driver archive to the PCMCIA source directory:
cp -fp brzcom-y.y.y.tar.gz /usr/src/linux/pcmcia-csx.x.x (where x.x.x is the PCMCIA card services version and y.y.y is the
breezeCOM driver version).
For example:
# cp -fp brzcom-0.9.3.tar.gz /usr/src/linux/pcmcia-cs3.0.9
2. Unpack the driver:
gzip -cd brzcom-x.x.x.tar.gz | tar xfv -
This creates a 'brzcom' directory, where x.x.x represents the BreezeCOM driver
version. For example:
# gzip -cd brzcom-0.9.3.tar.gz | tar xfv -
3. Copy the driver's binary file to the PCMCIA modules library:
cd brzcom
cp -fp xbrzcom_cs.o /lib/modules/x.x.x/pcmcia (where x.x.x
is the kernel version).
For example:
# cp -fp xbrzcom_cs.o /lib/modules/2.2.5-15/pcmcia
4. Configure the PCMCIA card, the driver and the network as explained in
Section 4.11.6.
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4.11.5 Building the Driver
1. Make sure the kernel build environment and the PCMCIA build environment
are set correctly (see Section 4.11.1).
2. If you have previously built the driver and want to rebuild it, you may need to
clean it using: make clean
3. Build the driver using: make all
4. Install the driver using: make install
Note: If your target build directory is NOT the "real" lib/modules directory, you will
have to manually copy the file xbrzcom_cs.o from the target build to the "real"
target.
5. Configure the driver for a different Hopping Standard (Country Domain):
Edit the file brznet.c and find the next string:
iprs.cs.countryCode=GetChangedWordFormat(3)
Change the number to your country code, save it and recompile the driver.
Table 4-2. Country Domain - Country Code
Hopping Standard
Australia
Canada
Europe ETSI
France
Israel
Japan
Korea
Netherlands
Singapore
Spain
US FCC
User’s Guide
4-60
Number of Sequences
per Hopping Set
20
10
26
11
11
4
4
5
12
9
26
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SA-PCR PRO.11 PC Card Installation, Setup, and Management
Note:
Site Proprietary is not supported in this release.
Important: Changing the Country Domain might be against local communication
regulations and it is considered illegal if improper setting is configured.
6. Check the driver version of the compiled module:
% strings xbrzcom_cs.o |grep version
The output looks as follows:
Linux Driver version 0.9.3
4.11.6 Configuration Steps Prior to Operation
The following elements must be configured before using the driver:
•
The PCMCIA handler
•
The driver
•
The Network
•
Example files
Configuring the PCMCIA Handler
1. Change to the PCMCIA configuration directory:
cd /etc/pcmcia
2. Using a text editor, open the config file for editing:
vi config
-ORpico config (you may need to 'chmod' if the file is set as read-only).
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3. Look for the section labeled Device driver definitions. Under this section you
will see several declarations of device followed by class. Add the following
declaration:
device "xbrzcom_cs"
class "network" module "xbrzcom_cs"
4. Look for the section labeled Ethernet adapter definitions. Under this section,
you will see several declarations of card followed by version and bind. Add the
following declaration:
card "BreezeCOM SA PCR-11 Pro"
version "BreezeCOM"
bind "xbrzcom_cs"
5. Save and quit.
Configuring the Driver
1. Change directory to the PCMCIA configuration directory:
cd /etc/pcmcia
2. Using a text editor, open the options file for editing using:
vi config.opts
-ORpico config.opts (you may need to 'chmod' if the file is set as read-only).
3. Add the driver configuration options at the end of the file:
module "xbrzcom_cs" opts "ess_id=your_ess_id
irq_list=8,9,10 verbose=0"
Where the parameters are defined as the following.
User’s Guide
•
ess_id - The ESS ID as defined in the AP. The default ESS ID is ESSID1
•
irq_list - A list of up to 4 IRQ (Interrupt Request) numbers that may be
used by the adapter. Consult the adaptor's and your computer's
documentation for a list of usable IRQs, or do a 'cat /proc/interrupts' to see
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which IRQs are already taken. If you are not sure which IRQs to use,
remove the irq_list parameter.
•
verbose - Controls diagnostic messages. For full diagnostic messages set to
1 (one). For minimal messages set to 0.
Example: for using the default ESS ID, default IRQs and minimal diagnostic
messages:
module "xbrzcom_cs" opts "ess_id=ESSID1 irq_list=8,9,10 verbose=0"
Configuring the Network
1. Determine the network address, the Adapter's address and the gateway address.
In this section we shall use the following sample:
Network
169.254.200.0
Gateway
169.254.200.2
Local IP
169.254.200.100
2. Configure the network using either one of the following methods:
•
Using 'ifconfig' and 'route':
ifconfig eth0 169.254.200.100
route add -net 169.254.200.0 eth0
route add default gw 169.254.200.2
The file 'brzcfg' contains a script for network configuration; you may edit it, and
then run it with: /brzcfg.
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Edit the 'network.opts' file as follows (you may need to 'chmod' if the file is set as
read-only):
IPADDR="169.254.200.100"
NETWORK="169.254.200.0"
BROADCAST="169.254.200.255"
GATEWAY="169.254.200.2"
NETMASK="255.255.255.0"
Note: To configure the card to work with DHCP, set DHCP=y in network.opts. Make
sure that you have installed a DHCP client (such as dhcpcd) on your computer.
RedHat 6.0 and above has scripts that handle DHCP automatically (dhcpcd is
included in the RedHat release). For other distributions, you may need to adjust
the configuration files to autostart the DHCP client upon card insert detection.
Example configurations of the above files can be found in /examples/. Make sure to
copy these files to /etc/pcmcia directory.
4.11.7 SA-PCR Operation Under Linux
1. Restart the computer.
2. Insert the PCMCIA card. A high-tone beep is heard and the following message
is displayed:
BreezeNet Pro.11 --- Linux Driver version x.x.x
3. After a few seconds, a second high-tone beep is heard, and the initialization
message is displayed:
BreezeNet Pro.11 ==> Initialized
4. If you hear a low-tone beep and the above messages does not appear, the
configuration was set incorrectly (see Section 4.11.5).
5. After initialization test the connection with Ping or any other communication
program.
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Diagnostic Messages
The following diagnostic messages are displayed even if the verbose option is set to
zero (in /etc/pcmcia/config.opts):
BreezeNet Pro.11 --- Linux Driver version x.x.x
Displayed when the card is inserted.
BreezeNet Pro.11 ==> Initialized
Displayed after the card is inserted and loaded.
BreezeNet Pro.11 ==> Unloaded
Displayed after the card is removed.
BreezeNet Pro.11 ==> IRQ x Request FAILED
Displayed if the IRQ (assigned to the driver by the PCMCIA handler) could not be
allocated to the driver.
When this message is displayed the card is inoperable. A different IRQ is needed to
be assigned to the card (see Section Checking the IRQ Status).
LED Status
Check the functioning of the AP LEDs as described in Section 2.6
Checking the IRQ Status
You can check /proc/interrupts for any occurrences of interrupt conflicts:
cat /proc/interrupts
CPU0
0:
216722
XT-PIC timer
9:
155
XT-PIC BreezeCOM Card
If the number of interrupts (in the 2nd column) is 0, the card or driver are not
working.
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Site Survey
To check the adapter's status and signal levels (Site Survey):
cat /proc/net/BreezeCOM
The following table is displayed:
BreezeCOM SA-PCR WLAN 802.11, Linux driver by Ericsson Radio Systems
---------- Current signal levels for neighbor AP's---------Configured ESS-ID: ESSID1
-- AP --
---- HW MAC ADDR ----
-- Signal strength --
#0
00:20:d6:81:62:29
*-48 dBm
#1
00:00:00:00:00:00
0 dBm
#2
00:00:00:00:00:00
0 dBm
#3
00:00:00:00:00:00
0 dBm
#4
00:00:00:00:00:00
0 dBm
#5
00:00:00:00:00:00
0 dBm
#6
00:00:00:00:00:00
0 dBm
#7
00:00:00:00:00:00
0 dBm
#8
00:00:00:00:00:00
0 dBm
#9
00:00:00:00:00:00
0 dBm
* Indicates the current AP that the SA-PCR card is associated with. The screen is
updated automatically every 1 second.
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5. THE BREEZENET SNMP CONFIGURATION
UTILITY
The BreezeNET SNMP configuration utility is available for setting configuration
parameters of BreezeNET units.
5.1 Configuration Utility Main Window
The Configuration utility main window consists of two main areas, as shown in
Figure 5-1.
•
The IP Address and Community Selection area - In this area, you can
perform the following:
⇒ Select the IP address of the unit you wish to manage
⇒ Assign unit IP addresses
⇒ Set the Configuration utility access rights
⇒ Set the SNMP Community string
If there are many units in the managed network, you can enlarge the list box by
clicking on the horizontal line above the list; click again to toggle back the
default display state. The list box also displays the Location of each unit, as set
in the Station Status dialog box (see Section 5.4.1).
•
The Tabs area - This area consists of several tabs, each corresponding to a
dialog box containing parameters required for the management of the selected
unit; the number of tabs displayed varies between the type of managed unit.
The different tabs are described in the following sections. When you switch
between the tabs, the IP Selection area with the selected unit address remains
displayed.
•
Remote Auto-Discovery On/Off Indicator - When bright green, the remote
auto-discovery feature is in operation.
•
The Tool bar - This area consists of eight shortcut buttons that access various
tools.
5-1
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
IP address,
Community and
selection area
Tabs area
Remote
AutoDiscovery
Indicator
Tool Bar
Network
selection
buttons
Device
List
Figure 5-1. Configuration Utility Window (Station Control Tab)
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
5.1.1 The Toolbar
The following shortcut tool buttons, described below, are present on all
Configuration Utility windows. Toolbar icons are disabled (grayed out) when
Open Site. Opens the Select Site dialog box, allowing you to
select a site which was saved previously.
Close Site. Closes the site; this icon is only enabled when a
site is opened.
Create Site. Opens the Select Site dialog box, allowing you
to enter a new site name; this icon is disabled when a site is
opened.
Add Device. Adds the selected device to the current site. A
member device has a plus sign (+) next to it in the Device
List.
Add All Devices. Adds all listed devices to the current site.
Remove Device. Removes the selected device from the
current site.
Remove All Devices. Removes all devices from the current
site.
Delete Site. Deletes the current site.
Locate Device. Opens the Locate Device dialog box.
Set IP. Opens the Set IP dialog box.
Local Network Autodiscovery. Initiates the autodiscovery
process for detection of the stations connected to the local
(Ethernet) network.
Get Seeds Statistics. Opens a dialog box which displays
statistics regarding the networks managed by the station.
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5.1.2 Network Selection Buttons
By default, the Device list (explained in the next section) lists all the units
monitored by the station, even if they are on separate subnets.
You can use the network selection buttons to select a specific network to display in
the Configuration Utility window. After selecting a network, the units on the
selected network only are displayed in the Device list.
The L button selects the local (Ethernet) network. The 1 -5 buttons are used to
select one of the remote networks, if the Remote Auto-discovery feature described
in Section 5.3.4 was used. When none of these buttons are displayed, the Device
list lists all the units in all of the subnets monitored by the station.
5.1.3 The Device List
The Device List displays the units on the selected network. Each unit is displayed
with the following data: the unit IP address, the unit type (AP, SA, WB, etc.), the
unit location (as specified by the user in the Station Status tab of the Configuration
Utility). The SM column displays a plus sign (+) when the unit belongs to the
currently opened site.
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
5.1.4 Main Window Control Buttons
All Configuration utility windows contain the following buttons. Additional
buttons, specific to certain windows, are explained when relevant.
•
– Implements any changes you made and closes the window.
•
– Closes the window without implementing any changes you made.
•
– Implements any changes you made but leaves the window open.
•
– Refreshes the window with the most recent data from the unit.
•
– Minimizes the application into the
icon, placed in the
Windows task bar (at the bottom of the Windows desktop). To restore the
application, double click the
icon.
5.1.5 Setting the Access Rights
The Configuration utility has three access levels, each intended for a different type
of user. The access level determines the parameters, which can be set by the
operator. The access levels are Technician (highest level), Installer and User
(lowest level, at which parameters can only viewed and not set). This User’s Guide
describes operation at the Installer level.
The access level to which the Configuration Utility is currently set is displayed in a
read only field. To change the access level, click the
dialog box is displayed.
5-5
button. The following
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
Figure 5-2. Access Rights
Select the access level, enter the password and click
. Table 5-1 lists
default passwords. You can change the password for each access level by entering
.
the New Password and clicking
Table 5-1. Default Passwords
Access Rights
Password
User
No password needed
Installer
user
5.1.6 Setting the SNMP Community Information
Type the known Read/Write Community string in the Community field (the
default string is Public for read and Private for read/write) and click the
to confirm.
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button
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
5.2 Configuration Utility Modes
There are several options you can choose that determine the Configuration Utility
operation mode; these options are chosen via the Mode menu in the Configuration
Utility main window (shown below). The selected mode(s) is indicated by a check
mark next to the option in the menu.
•
Unit Configuration - this is the default mode; used for setting parameters as
detailed in this manual.
•
Firmware Upgrade - allows upgrading the embedded software in managed
units; refer to Section 5.2.1 for instructions on using this feature.
•
Multiple Configuration - allows downloading configuration parameters to
multiple units simultaneously; refer to Section 5.2.2 for instructions on using
this feature.
•
Trap Quick View - when set to this mode, the PC station (if set as the trap host
as described in Section 5.4.3) switches automatically to the Trap Monitor tab
(described in Section 5.4.9) when the Configuration utility is active.
•
Reset Progress Bar - when this option is enabled, a progress bar is displayed
whenever an Apply operation is made; while the progress bar is displayed, no
configuration operations can be made. remove this option to allow additional
operations while operations are in progress.
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
5.2.1 Firmware Upgrade
This option allows upgrading the embedded software in managed units. When you
select this option from the Mode menu, the following dialog box is displayed.
Figure 5-3. Firmware Upgrade
The list box on the left-hand side of the dialog box displays the managed units; it is
sorted sequentially by APs and SA/WB units.
Select the units which you wish to upgrade from the list box. Use Shift-click and/or Ctrlclick to select multiple units, or select multiple units by dragging with the mouse.
Specify the firmware file you wish to use in the Local file name fields; there are
separate fields for the AP and SA/WB files. The field text is displayed in blue
when corresponding unit types are selected in the list box.
In the Remote File Name field, enter the community string for reading/writing
to/from the unit(s).
Click
to initiate the firmware upgrade; a progress bar is displayed
indicating the progress of the operation. If SA/WB and AP units are selected, the
program upgrades SA/WB units first.
Click
download.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
to change the settings of the TFTP session used in the upgrade
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
5.2.2 Multiple Unit Configuration
This feature allows downloading configuration parameters to multiple units
simultaneously. When you select this option in the Mode menu, all configuration
windows become write-only (with some of the parameters grayed out if not
relevant).
Select the units which you wish to upgrade from the list box on the left-hand side
of all dialog box tabs. Use Shift-click and/or Ctrl-click to select multiple units.
Enter the configuration parameter values and click
box is displayed.
. The following dialog
Figure 5-4. Multiple Configuration
This dialog box displays the selected units and displays a list of the requested
configuration changes to be made in the multiple configuration session. Check the
box to reset all affected units.
A log of the multiple configuration session is displayed during and after the
operation.
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5.3 Configuration Utility Tools
The Tools menu, shown below, can be used to access various tools from the
Configuration Utility main window. Most of these functions can also be accessed
via the icon toolbar described in Section 5.1.1.
•
Remote Network Discover Settings – opens the Remote Network AutoDiscovery Settings dialog box.; refer to Section 5.3.1 for instructions on using
this feature.
•
Open Site – opens the Select Site dialog box, used to select and open a
previously saved site.
•
Close Site – opens the Select Site dialog box, used to select and close a site.
•
Create Site – opens the Select Site dialog box, used to create a site.
•
Add Device To Site – adds one selected listed device to the current site. A
member device has a plus sign (+) next to it in the Device List.
•
Remove Device From Site – removes one selected listed device from the
current site. A member device has a plus sign (+) next to it in the Device List.
•
Delete Site – deletes the current site.
•
Locate Device – opens the Set IP dialog box, refer to Section 5.3.1 for
instructions on using this feature.
•
Set IP – opens the Set IP dialog box, refer to Section 5.3.1 for instructions on
using this feature.
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
5.3.1 Managing Sites
The Configuration Utility site management feature is designed to facilitate the work
of technicians that provide service to BreezeNET PRO.11 networks. A site is a
management station configuration stored on hard disk. The site contains a
description of the networks managed by the station and all unit IP addresses in all
networks.
For example, if a technician provides service to 10 different installations, he/she
can maintain 10 sites on their notebook PC. When going from one installation to
the next, the technician loads the relevant site from the hard disk. All networks and
unit IPs of that site are loaded immediately, and the technician does not need to
spend time manually searching for IPs or using auto-discover.
5.3.2 Selecting Units for Management
You can select the units that are to be managed by the station in one of the
following ways:
Remote Network Autodiscovery. Select the Remote Network Discovery option
from the Tools menu. For more information on the Remote Network AutoDiscovery feature, refer to Section 5.3.1.
toolbar icon. All the IP addresses of
Local Network Autodiscovery. Click the
the units connected to the local (Ethernet) network under the selected community
are displayed in the Device list of the Configuration Utility main window. Click on
an address to select the corresponding unit for viewing and configuration.
Locate Device. To select an unlisted unit more efficiently, click
Device dialog box opens.
5-11
. The Locate
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
Type the unit's address in the Enter IP address field and click
displayed in the Device list.
. The unit is
5.3.3 Assigning and Editing IP Addresses Manually
1. Click the Set IP Address button
. The Set IP dialog box is displayed.
Figure 5-5. The Set IP Dialog Box
2. Type the parameters in the appropriate fields and click OK; the MAC address
is written underneath the unit. A message box is displayed notifying you when
the changes are to take affect. This feature can be used only if the Manager is
on the same Ethernet segment as the unit and not behind the router.
Note: In order to see the unit after assigning the IP address, the PC with the
Configuration utility should be on the same IP subnet as the assigned IP
address.
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
5.3.4 Defining Remote Network Discovery Settings
The Remote Network Discovery option can be used to find and list all devices in
remote networks (e.g., located behind a router). The definitions for the remote
networks are made in the Remote Network Auto-Discovery Settings dialog box,
shown below in Figure 5-6.
Figure 5-6. Remote Network Auto-Discovery Settings Dialog Box
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
To open the Remote Network Auto-Discovery Settings dialog box:
Click Remote Access Discovery Settings from the Tools menu, or double click the
Remote Network AutoDiscovery indicators (shown below).
.
How does Remote Network Auto-Discovery Work?
When the remote auto-discovery feature is enabled, the management station
continuously sends unicasts to each unit on all specified remote subnets (up to five
Class B or Class C networks). The station sends a unicast to the first unit in the first
subnet; when it receives an acknowledgment from that unit, it continues to the next
unit and then to the next unit. When all station has communicated with all units in
the first subnet, the management station starts polling the next subnet.
When the management station has completed the round of all subnets, it waits the
amount of time specified in the Query Interval field before starting the round again.
This cycle is repeated indefinitely.
An optional Keep-Alive mechanism can be applied to poll all of the discovered
units on the remote subnets, to verify that all units are operational and if not, to
raise an alarm as soon as a unit stops responding.
When enabled and working, the Remote Network Auto-Discovery indicator on the
top right-hand corner of the Configuration Utility mail window appears in bright
green.
To make Remote Network Auto-Discovery settings:
box is checked.
Verify that the
When the box is cleared, the remote auto-discovery feature is disabled.
The Configuration Utility supports auto-discovery of up to five remote Class B or
Class C IP networks. Enter the IP address and Subnet Mask of the subnet in the
Seed # and Subnet Mask fields. Enter up to five IP addresses and subnet masks.
In the Response Timeout field, specify the amount of time to wait before the
management station terminates the remote auto-discovery attempt and issues an
appropriate alarm.
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
In the Query Interval field, specify amount of time between polling the units on the
specified subnets. Tip — it is recommended that you set this value at several hours,
to prevent congestion of the station’s communication channel.
Select the time unit from the pulldown field adjacent to the two previously
described fields.
By default, the management station transmits Unicast messages to the units in the
box, the
specified subnets. If you check the
management station sends a broadcast message to each subnet.
Note:
By default, the remote network auto-discovery feature uses Unicast messages;
this mode is designed to support auto-discovery of networks which are
connected behind routers (which do not pass broadcast transmissions).
By default, the management station transmits keep-alive broadcasts to the specified
remote networks at user-specified intervals. This function in used to verify that
units on the remote network are functioning normally and if not, to provide an
indication to the management station operator.
Clear the
box to disable the keep-alive function.
In the Response Timeout field (underneath the Keep-Alive check box), specify the
amount of time to wait before the management station issues an alarm that the
remote station is not responding.
In the Keep Alive Request field, specify amount of time between keep-alive
queries.
Select the time unit from the pulldown field adjacent to the two previously
described fields.
After completing the settings in the Remote Network Auto-Discovery Settings
dialog box, click OK to close the window.
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5.4 Utility Configuration Windows
5.4.1 Station Status Tab
The Station Status tab displays general information regarding the unit's firmware
and hardware versions, and general unit address information.
Figure 5-7. Station Status Tab
•
System Name - The name of the selected unit.
•
Firmware - The current firmware version.
•
Location - Location of the selected unit.
•
MAC Address - MAC address of the selected unit.
•
BSS Address (displayed for SA and WB units only)- This defines the BSS
address, which is the AP that the unit is associated with.
•
Station Status (displayed for SA and WB units only)- Displays the
association status of the unit, which can be Associated or Scanning.
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
•
Number of Associated Devices (displayed for AP units only) - Displays the
number of SA/WB units that were associated with the AP since last reset.
•
Max Number of Associated Devices (displayed for AP units only) - Displays
the maximum number of SA/WB units that were associated with the AP since
last reset. This value can differ from the previous parameter (Number of
Associated Devices); for example, if there are several APs configured in load
sharing mode, or if stations are roaming to another AP, this parameter will be
greater than the previous one.
•
Associated Stations - This list displays a list of the stations currently
associated with this AP, together with the following information for each of
the associated stations: the MAC address, the Received Signal Strength
Indicator (RSSI) level and the station type (model, e.g., SA-40).
5.4.2 IP Parameters Tab
The IP parameters tab allows you to define or edit the IP parameters of units.
Figure 5-8. IP Parameters Tab
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
•
Use DHCP – Defines the DHCP mode. Available selections are:
∗
Never – IP Address configuration is always manual.
∗
DHCP Only– the IP Address configuration is always
automatic, using a DHCP server.
∗
Automatic– IP address configuration method varies: if an
IP address was configured manually, behavior is identical
to Use DHCP Never; if no IP address was configured
manually, IP address configuration is automatic using a
DHCP server
•
Static IP Settings – This area of the dialog box is used to enter the IP
address of the unit, its subnet mask and the IP address of the default
gateway of the unit. These fields are only active when the Use DHCP field
was set to Never and the IP address configuration is manual.
•
Static IP Settings – This area of the dialog box is read-only and displays
the IP address of the unit, its subnet mask and the IP address of the default
gateway of the unit when these values are submitted by a DHCP server.
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5.4.3 SNMP Parameters Tab
The SNMP parameters tab allows you to define or edit the SNMP community
strings and the SNMP-related parameters.
Figure 5-9. SNMP Parameters Tab
•
Read - The read only community string of the unit.
•
Read/Write - The read/write community string of the unit.
•
Trap Sending - Set this field to Enabled if you wish the selected unit to
send SNMP traps.
•
Trap host IP address - If the previous field is set to Enabled, enter the IP
address of the host PC to which the traps are to be sent.
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5.4.4 WLAN Parameters Tab
The WLAN parameters tab allows you to define or edit parameters related to the
Wireless LAN environment in which the selected unit is operating.
Figure 5-10. WLAN Parameters Tab
•
Hopping Set - Select a value between 1 and 3. Hopping sequences are grouped
in several hopping sets. Always use the same hopping set per site.
The number of hopping sequences per set is different for each hopping standard
according to Table 5-2.
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
Table 5-2. Hopping Sequences
Hopping Standard
•
Number of Sequences
per Hopping Set
Netherlands
5
Europe ETSI
26
France
11
US FCC
26
Japan
4
Australia
20
Israel
11
Canada
10
Europe ETSI (DE Model)
10
Korea
4
Spain
9
Hopping Sequence - Hopping sequence of the unit. A hopping sequence is a
pre-defined series of channels (frequencies) that are used in a specific, pseudorandom order as defined in the sequence. The unit “hops” from frequency to
frequency according to the selected sequence. When more than one AP is colocated in the same area (even if they are not part of the same network) it is
recommended to assign a different hopping sequence to each AP.
Hopping sequences are grouped in three hopping sets (see the following
parameter). When setting up multiple APs in the same site, always choose
hopping sequences from the same hopping set. This reduces the possibility of
collisions on the WLAN.
Both the Hopping Set and Hopping Sequence parameters are set only for the
BreezeNET PRO.11 Access Point. It is not accessible from any other
BreezeNET PRO.11 unit. During the association process, all other stations
learn the hopping sequence from the Access Point. Different co-located WLAN
segments should use different hopping sequences.
•
Power level – A read only field which displays the output power level at which
the unit is transmitting. There are two possibilities, Low or High at the antenna
connector.
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
•
Use Prefix ESS ID (for AP only) – This attribute defines whether the prefix
ESSID feature is activated. The use of prefix ESSID enables association of
stations with partial ESSID, adopting the ESSID of the full AP upon
association.
•
Prefix ESS ID – (For AP only) – This attribute identifies the Wireless LAN
prefix ESSID.
•
ESS ID – An ASCII string of up to 32 characters used to identify a WLAN
that prevents the unintentional merging of two co-located WLANs. A station
can only associate with an AP that has the same ESSID. The ESSID field is
case-sensitive.
•
Maximum data rate - Maximum data rate of the unit. BreezeNET PRO.11
units operate at 1 Mbps, 2 Mbps or 3 Mbps. The unit adaptively selects the
highest possible rate for transmission. Under certain conditions (compatibility
reasons or for range/speed trade-off) you may decide to limit the use of higher
rates.
•
Mobility - BreezeNET PRO.11 stations optimize their roaming algorithms
according to the mobility mode parameter. For example, a stationary station is
more tolerant of bad propagation conditions. It assumes that this is a temporary
situation and is not caused by the station changing position. Initiating a
roaming procedure in such a case would be counter-productive.
In general, wireless stations can be used in one of three mobility modes:
•
∗
High (Mobility) – Type 2 for stations that may move at speeds of over
30 km per hour.
∗
Medium (Mobility) – Type 1 for stations that may move at speeds of
over 10 km per hour, but not over 30 km per hour.
∗
Low (Mobility) -Type 0 for stations that will not move at speeds of
over 10 km per hour. Stationary is the default value, and in almost all
cases this is the best choice.
Load Sharing - Set this feature ON or OFF. When installing a Wireless LAN
network in a high-traffic environment, you can increase the aggregate
throughput by installing multiple APs to create co-located cells. Load Sharing
allows the wireless stations to distribute themselves evenly among the APs to
best divide the load between the APs.
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
Note: When working in Load Sharing mode, both the APs and the units
should be configured to Load Sharing Enabled.
•
•
Transmit Diversity - Which antennas are used for transmission. During
reception, a BreezeNET PRO.11 unit dynamically selects the antenna where
reception is optimal. In contrast, the unit selects the antenna from which it will
transmit before transmission. It usually uses the antenna last used for successful
transmission. In models with external antennas, sometimes only a single
antenna is used. In this case, Transmit Antenna should be configured to
transmit only from that single antenna. Similarly, models using a booster or an
LNA use only a single antenna for transmission. There are three possibilities
for configuration:
∗
Use Two Antennas
∗
Use Antenna No. 1 only
∗
Use Antenna No. 2. only
Preferred AP (SA and WB units only) - You can configure a station to prefer
a specific AP unit. When the station powers up, it will associate with the
preferred AP even if the signal from that AP is lower than the signal from
other APs. The station will roam to another AP only if it stops receiving
beacons from the preferred AP.
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5.4.5 Station Control Tab
Figure 5-11. The Station Control Tab
Set Factory Defaults - These options revert system parameters back to original
factory default settings. There are two options:
button for all parameters to revert to defaults, except for Japan
Click the
Call Sign (if applicable), IP Address, Subnet Mask, Default Gateway, Hopping
Sequence, Hopping Set, ESSID, Transmit Diversity, Long Range, Preferred AP, IP
Filtering, Hopping Standard, Power Level, Auto Calibration, Encapsulation, WEP
Attributes, Authentication Algorithm, Pre-authentication, WEP Default Keys,
Ethernet Disable, Trap Host Addresses.
button for all parameters to revert to defaults except for Japan
Click the
Call Sign (if applicable) and Hopping Standard..
button to reset the BreezeNET PRO.11 unit and
Reset Unit - Click the
apply any changes made to the system parameters.
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
button to export the current basic configuration of this
Export - Click the
unit to a file. A popup window is displayed prompting you to specify the name of
the file.
Code Activation Control - The BreezeNET firmware includes a two-code
mechanism which allows the user to revert back and forth between the currently
installed versions of the unit. One version is assigned as Active code, the second
version is assigned as Non-Active code. The first three read only fields display
information about the firmware versions and the status of the Non-active code.
Click
to run the firmware from the Non-active code.
5.4.6 Security Tab
Figure 5-12. Security Tab
This window displays the following read only information, regarding the security
configuration of the unit. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is an authentication
algorithm which protects authorized Wireless LAN users against eavesdropping,
and is implemented in BreezeNET PRO.11 units. The definition of WEP is defined
in the 802.11 standard.
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
•
Pre-authentication –This parameter is usually Enabled when there is a great
deal of roaming between the AP’s.
•
Authentication Type – BreezeNET PRO.11 units operate in two modes:
Open System (default) which is equivalent to no authentication or Shared Key
authentication (for systems that have the privacy option implemented).
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
5.4.7 Advanced Tab
The Advanced tab, which varies depending on the type of selected unit, provides
additional performance information.
Figure 5-13. Advanced - Performance Tab (SA and WB Units)
•
Ack Delay - Enlarges the range of system but can only be enabled for links
above 20kms. It must be enabled on both sides.
•
IP Stack – By default this parameter is enabled. If disabled it will improve
performance but you will have NO access to the unit via the network. In order
to re-enable you will need to connect with the monitor cable.
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Figure 5-14. Advanced - Performance Tab (AP Units)
•
Ack Delay - Enlarges the range of system but can only be enabled for links
above 20kms. It must be enabled on both sides.
•
IP Stack – By default this parameter is enabled. If disabled it will improve
performance but you will have NO access to the unit via the network. In order
to re-enable you will need to connect with the monitor cable.
•
Dwell Time – The time spent on a radio channel before hopping to the next
channel in the sequence.
•
Power Save Support – If you enable Power Save Support on one of the
WLAN stations (SA-PCR only), you must also configure the AP unit. Power
Save Support is influenced by two parameters:
•
∗
DTIM interval on the AP side – Determines at which interval the AP
will send its broadcast traffic (default 4 beacons).
∗
Listen interval on the SA-PCR side – Determines when the station
will “wake up” to listen to Unicast packets which are destined to it
(default value: 4 beacons).
PM bit test – Specifies whether the AP supports the IEEE802.11 Power Save
mode (when the parameter is enabled) or BreezeCOM's proprietary Power
Save mode (when the parameter is disabled).
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•
Voice Priority–When enabled, the AP gives priority to SpectraLink voice packets.
Figure 5-15. Advanced - Radio Tab
•
External Amplifier – Set to on when using the unit is connected to an
AMP2440 bi-directional amplifier or LNA-10 receiver amplifier.
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5.4.8 Counters Tab
The Counters window has two tabs: Rate Counters and Traffic Counters.
5.4.8.1 Rate Counters
Figure 5-16. Counters - Rate Tab
The table at the center of the window displays the contents of packets at each rate.
APs display counters per station. Rate counters display the number of frames
transmitted in each data-rate since the last reset. As displayed, the rate counters
show the number of frames transmitted at 1Mbps, 2Mbps, 3Mbps, and the number
of Re-Transmitted frames (Ret). The counters display the rate of packets
transmitted for the first time only (without retransmissions).
Note: Counters for APs are displayed for all associated stations, indicated by
their MAC address. Rate counters for stations are displayed with no
indication of MAC address.
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
Checking the rate counters is the best way to determine which data-rate is the
optimal data-rate for the unit. It is recommended to restrict the Maximum Data
Rate for each unit (set in the WLAN Parameters tab described in Section 5.4.4)
according to the Rate counters.
5.4.8.2 Traffic Counters
Figure 5-17. Counters - Traffic Tab
Select a counter and drag it to the
icon to view the graph. This window
displays two types of counters: Ethernet counters and WLAN counters.
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5.4.8.3 Ethernet Counters
Ethernet counters display statistics about the unit’s Ethernet port activity.
The unit receives Ethernet frames from its UTP port and forwards them to its
internal bridge, which decides whether or not to transmit them to the Wireless
LAN. The units have a smart hardware filter mechanism which filters most of the
frames on the LAN, and hardware filtered frames are not counted.
On the other side, frames which were received from the wireless LAN and some
frames generated by the unit (answers to SNMP queries and pings which reached to
the unit via the UTP port), will be transmitted to the UTP port.
Available counters:
•
Rx Packets – Total number of packets received from the Ethernet port.
•
Rx Bytes – Total number of bytes received from the Ethernet port.
•
Tx Packets – The number of packets transmitted by the unit to the UTP port.
i.e., frames that have been received from the Wireless side, and frames
generated by the unit itself.
•
Tx Bytes – The number of bytes transmitted by the unit to the UTP port.
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5.4.8.4 Wireless LAN Counters
Wireless counters display statistics about the unit’s Wireless LAN activity.
Transmission to the wireless media includes data frames received from the UTP
ports, as well as self generated control and management frames. When a data frame
is transmitted, the unit will wait for an acknowledge from the receiving side. If an
acknowledge is not received, the unit will retransmit the frame until it gets an
acknowledge (there are no retransmissions for control frames). If the unit has
retransmitted a frame for the maximum number of retransmissions it will stop retransmitting the frame and drop this frame.
Available counters:
•
Tx Packets– The total number of frames transmitted successfully,
not including retransmissions.
Note: An AP continuously transmits a control frame called beacon in every
frequency to which it hops, in order to publish its existence and keep
its associated stations synchronized. Thus, the total transmitted frames
counter will get high values even if the AP-10 is not connected to an
active LAN.
•
Re-transmissions (%) – total number of frames retransmitted. Percentage of
frames retransmitted from the total number of transmitted frames.
•
Rx Packets – The number of frames received from the wireless media. The
count includes data and control frames (including beacons received from
AP’s).
•
Rx Bad Packets (%)– The percentage packets received from the WLAN with
errors.
•
Tx data to WLAN – The number of data frames sent to the wireless media.
•
Rx data from WLAN – The number of data frames received from the
wireless media.
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5.4.9 Trap Monitor Tab
Figure 5-18. Trap Monitor Tab
When an event occurs, a trap is sent to the defined host address (the setting is made
in the SNMP Parameters tab described in Section 5.4.3). This window displays the
recorded traps.
Click the
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
button to clear the display area.
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
5.4.10 Bridging Tab
Note:
This tab is only displayed for AP units; it is not displayed for SA and WB units.
Figure 5-19. Bridging Tab
•
Bridging Mode – The options are:
Note: When connecting very large networks, it is recommended to set this
parameter to Forward Unknown.
∗
Reject Unknown – Allows transmission of packets only to stations that
the AP knows to exist in the Wireless LAN (behind the Wireless Bridge).
∗
Forward Unknown –Allows transmission of all packets except those
sent to stations that the AP recognizes as being on its wired Ethernet side.
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∗
Intelligent Bridging Period – Intelligent bridging enables smooth
roaming of WB-10 units. When intelligent bridging is enabled, the AP
goes into a special bridging mode for a fixed amount of time whenever a
wireless bridge (WB) roams into its area. This mode causes the AP to
forward packets destined for the stations behind the WB-10 even though
they are unknown (except that no learning of the wired LAN will take
place). Afterwards, the AP will switch back to Reject Unknown bridging
mode. This procedure prevents packets destined for stations behind the
bridge from getting lost. The value of this parameter is the length of time
in seconds that the AP will remain in special mode.
•
IP Filtering – Whether IP filtering is enabled for the unit. Enable IP Filtering
to filter out any other protocol (such as IPX) if you want that only IP traffic
will pass through the WLAN.
•
Tunneling – Whether the unit performs tunneling. Enable AppleTalk
tunneling if the network contains a mix of Ethertalk1 (ET1) and Ethertalk2
(ET2) stations to ensure smooth communications. Enable IPX tunneling if IPX
protocol is running over your network. Be sure to set all units to the same
tunneling setting.
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6. PLANNING AND INSTALLING WIRELESS
LANS
All products in the BreezeNET PRO.11 series are available in several models:
standard, D, and DE. The standard model is equipped with two integrated 2 dBi
omni-directional antennas and is suitable for indoor, short-to-medium range
installations. The D and DE models are equipped with two customized female
connectors for use with a range of external antennas.
This chapter describes various possible system configurations, lists points to
consider when performing indoor and outdoor installations, presents guidelines and
restrictions regarding external antenna installation, and also describes antennas that
are recommended to work with BreezeNET PRO.11 units.
6.1 System Configurations
This chapter describes various wireless LAN configurations, and how to set them
up:
•
Single Cell Configuration – The wireless LAN consists of an Access Point
and the wireless workstations associated with it.
•
Overlapping Cell Configuration – The wireless LAN consists of two or
more adjacent Access Points whose coverage slightly overlaps.
•
Multicell Configuration – The wireless LAN consists of several Access
Points installed in the same location. This creates a common coverage area
that increases aggregate throughput.
•
Multi-Hop Configuration – The wireless LAN contains AP-WB pairs that
extend the range of the wireless LAN.
Many wireless LANs contain several of these configurations at different points in
system. The Single Cell configuration is the most basic, and the other
configurations build upon it.
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6.1.1 Single Cell Configuration
A basic BreezeNET cell consists of an Access Point and the wireless workstations
associated with it. You can convert most workstations (e.g., PCs and X-Terminals)
that are equipped with an Ethernet network interface card (NIC) to wireless
workstations by connecting a BreezeNET SA-10 PRO.11 station adapter. You can
convert most laptop computers with a PCMCIA slot into a wireless mobile station
by using the SA-PCR PRO.11 PCMCIA card.
There are three types of Single Cell configurations:
•
Point-to-Point
•
Point-to-Multipoint
•
Mobile Applications
Each configuration is explained in the following sections.
6.1.1.1 Point-to-Point
Figure 6-1. Point-to-Point Configuration/
Connecting Remote Offices to Main Office Network
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
Point-to-Point installations require directional antennas at either end of the link. To
select the best antenna for a specific application, consider the following factors:
•
Distance between sites
•
Required throughput
•
Clearance between sites
•
Cable length.
Refer to Section 6.3.7 to determine the best combination of antennas for your
application.
6.1.1.2 Point-to-Multipoint
Point-to-Multipoint applications consist of one or more APs at the central site and
several remote stations and bridges (SA-10, SA-40, WB-10). In this configuration,
use an Omni-6 antenna with the Access Point because of its 360° radiation pattern.
In the United States, the Omni-7.2 antenna (which also has a 360° radiation pattern
but has a wider range) can also be used. The Omni-7.2 antenna comes with a 20ft.
low loss cable and a mast mount bracket for rooftop installations.
The remote units should use directional antennas aimed in the direction of the AP’s
antenna(s).
6.1.1.3 Mobile Applications
In mobile applications, station orientation changes continuously. In order to
maintain connectivity throughout the entire coverage area, most mobile
applications require omni-directional antennas for both Access Points and wireless
stations. In a motor vehicle, for example, you can install an SA-10 in the cabin, and
mount the antennas (in most cases an Omni-6) on the roof.
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
6.1.1.4 Extending the LAN with WLAN Bridging
Figure 6-2 demonstrates how the WB-10 can be used to extend a regular network
with a wireless link.
The WB-10 PRO.11 also enables connectivity between a wireless LAN and
individual workstations or workgroups located outside the LAN. The WB-10
PRO.11 enables these wireless stations in its coverage area to communicate with
the wireless LAN and to gain access to its network resources such as file servers,
printers and shared databases.
Figure 6-2. Wireless Bridging Between Two or More Wireless LAN Segments
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
6.1.1.5 Setting up a Single BreezeNET Cell
Figure 6-3. Single Cell Configuration
1. Install the Access Point (refer to Chapter 2 for installation instructions). Be
sure to position the Access Point as high as possible.
Note: It is not necessary at this point to connect the Access Point to an Ethernet
backbone, since Access Points continuously transmit signals (beacon frames)
whether they are connected to an Ethernet backbone or not.
2. Install a Station Adapter (refer to Chapter 2 for installation instructions) or
SA-PCR card (refer to Chapter 4 for installation instructions).
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3. Check the Station Adapter front panel LED indicators, or the Site Survey
application of the SA-PCR card to check signal strength.
4. Make any necessary adjustments, for example:
•
Adjust the antennas
•
Adjust the location of the Station Adapter
•
Adjust the location of the Access Point
5. Proceed to setup the other workstations.
6.1.2 Overlapping Cell Configuration System Configurations
When two adjacent Access Points are positioned close enough to each other, a part
of the coverage area of Access Point #1 overlaps that of Access Point #2. This
overlapping area has two very important attributes:
•
Any workstation situated in the overlapping area can associate and
communicate with either Access Point #1 or Access Point #2.
•
Any workstation can move seamlessly through the overlapping coverage areas
without losing its network connection. This attribute is called Seamless
Roaming.
Figure 6-4. Three Overlapping Cells
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
⇒ To set up overlapping BreezeNET cells:
1. Install an Access Point (refer to Chapter 2 for installation instructions). Be sure
to position the Access Point at the highest point possible.
2. Install the second Access Point so that the two are positioned closer together
than the prescribed distance (as listed in Section 6.2.4).
3. To allow roaming, configure all Access Points and stations adapters to the
same ESSID.
4. To improve collocation and performance, configure all Access Points to
different hopping sequences of the same hopping set.
5. Install a Station Adapter or SA-PCR card on a workstation.
6. Position the wireless workstation at approximately equal distances from the
two Access Points.
7. Temporarily disconnect the first Access Point from the power supply. Verify
radio signal reception from the first Access Point. View the LED indicators of
the front panel of the Station Adapter, or the Site Survey application of the SAPCR card, to check signal strength of the first Access Point.
8. Disconnect the second Access Point from the power supply and re-connect the
first Access Point. View the LED indicators of the front panel of the station
adapter, or the Site Survey application of the SA-PCR card, to check signal
strength of the second Access Point.
9. If necessary, adjust the distance between the Access Points so the coverage
areas overlap.
10. Continue setting up overlapping cells until the required area is covered.
Note: It is not necessary at this point to connect the Access Points to an Ethernet
backbone, since Access Points continuously transmit signals (beacon frames)
whether they are connected to an Ethernet backbone or not.
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6.1.3 Multicell Configuration
Areas congested by many users and a heavy traffic load may require a multicell
structure. In a multicell structure, several Access Points are installed in the same
location. Each Access Point has the same coverage area, thereby creating a
common coverage area that increases aggregate throughput. Any workstation in the
overlapping area can associate and communicate with any Access Point covering
that area.
Figure 6-5. Multicell Configuration
⇒ To set up a BreezeNET multicell:
1. Calculate the required number of Access Points as follows: multiply the
number of active users by the required throughput per user, and divide the
result by 1.5Mbps (which is the net throughput supported by collocated Access
Points). Consider the example of five active stations, each requiring 0.5 Mbps
throughput. The calculation is (5*.5)/1.5=1.6. Two Access Points should be
used. This method is accurate only for the first few Access Points.
2. The aggregate throughput of the common coverage area is equal to the number
of co-located Access Points multiplied by the throughput of each individual
Access Point, minus a certain amount of degradation caused by the interference
among the different Access Points.
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
3. Install several Access Points in the same location a few meters from each other
so they cover the same area. Be sure to position the Access Points at the highest
points possible.
4. To allow roaming and redundancy, configure all Access Points and stations
adapters to the same ESSID.
5. To improve collocation and performance, configure all Access Points to
different hopping sequences of the same hopping set.
6. Install Station Adapters or SA-PCR cards on workstations.
7. Make sure that the Load Sharing option is activated. Stations will automatically
associate with an Access Point that is less loaded and provides better signal
quality.
Note: It is not necessary at this point to connect the Access Points to an Ethernet
backbone, since Access Points continuously transmit signals (beacon frames)
whether they are connected to an Ethernet backbone or not.
6.1.4 Multi-Hop Configuration (Relay)
When you need to connect two sites and no line-of-sight exist between them, an
AP-WB pair can be positioned at a third location where line-of-sight exists with
each of the original locations. This third location then acts as a relay point.
In areas where a wired LAN backbone is not available, another AP can be added to
the AP-WB relay to distribute a wireless backbone. In this manner, the range of a
wireless system can be extended.
⇒ To set up a BreezeNET multi-hop cell:
1. Install an AP at the main office (refer to Chapter 2 for installation instructions).
2. Install a WB at the remote site.
3. Install an AP-WB pair in a high location that has a clear line of sight to both
the main office and the remote site. Many AP-WB pairs can form a chain.
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4. When an AP and WB communicate over the wireless LAN, set them both to the
same ESSID. For example, set the AP of the main office and the WB of the
first AP-WB relay pair to the same ESSID. Also, set the AP of the last AP-WB
relay and the WB of the remote site to the same ESSID; this ESSID should be
different from the first ESSID.
5. Another option is to use one ESSID, and to set the Preferred AP parameter of
each WB to its paired AP (refer to Section 3.4.3). This option allows stations to
roam between the sites.
6. As usual, make sure that the hopping sequence of the Access Points is
different.
Figure 6-6. Multi-Hop Configuration
7. If desired, an additional AP may be added at the main office and remote site,
and between each AP-WB pair to provide wireless LANs at those points (see
Figure 6-7).
Figure 6-7. Advanced Multihop Configuration
8. Install Station Adapters or SA-PCR cards on workstations (refer to Chapter 2).
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6.2 Indoor Installation Considerations
This section describes various considerations that must be taken into account when
planning an indoor installation. This includes site selection, antenna diversity,
antenna polarization, construction materials and cell size.
Figure 6-8. BreezeNET LAN in a typical office environment
6.2.1 Site Selection Factors
BreezeNET PRO.11 wireless LAN products are robust, trouble-free units, designed
to operate efficiently under a wide range of conditions. The following guidelines
are provided to help you position the units to ensure optimum coverage and
operation of the wireless LAN.
Metal Furniture
Position the units clear of metal furniture and away from moving objects such as
metal fans or doors.
Microwave Ovens
For best performance, position the units clear of radiation sources that emit in the
2.4 GHz frequency band, such as microwave ovens.
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Antennas
Make sure the antennas are extended upward vertically in relation to the floor. For
models with external antennas, connect the external antennas and RF cable.
Heat Sources
Keep the units well away from sources of heat, such as radiators and airconditioners
6.2.1.1 Site Selection for Access Points
When positioning Access Points, take into account the following additional
considerations.
Height
Install the Access Point at least 1.5m above the floor, clear of any high office
partitions or tall pieces of furniture in the coverage area. The Access Point can be
placed on a high shelf, or can be attached to the ceiling or a wall using a mounting
bracket.
Central Location
Install the Access Point in a central location in the intended coverage area. Good
positions are:
•
In the center of a large room.
•
In the center of a corridor.
•
At the intersection of two corridors.
Many modern buildings have partitions constructed of metal or containing metal
components. We recommend that you install the Access Points on the corridor
ceilings. The radio waves propagated by the BreezeNET PRO.11 LAN are reflected
along the metal partitions and enter the offices through the doors or glass sections.
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6.2.2 Antennas for Indoor Applications
For most indoor applications, the best choice is the standard unit equipped with its
integrated 2dBi antennas. The units are small, easy to install and cover a large area.
In some installations, it is required to install the unit and antenna separately. In
such instances, use the AP-10D with the omni-6 antenna kit (6dbi omni-directional
antenna with 3 meter RG-58 cable). In the USA (FCC regulated) and in nonregulated countries, the omni-6 comes with a shorter antenna cable, extending the
coverage area.
The Uni-8.5 is also useful in indoor applications. It is very small and easily wallmounted, but its radiation pattern is limited (75°).
BreezeCOM recommends that, for indoor applications, you use two antennas per
unit to utilize the diversity gain of the system.
6.2.2.1 Antenna Diversity
In applications where no multipath propagation is expected, a single antenna is
sufficient to ensure good performance levels. However, in cases where multipath
propagation exists, BreezeCOM recommends that two antennas be used. This takes
advantage of space diversity capabilities. By using two antennas per unit, the
system can select the best antenna on a per-packet basis (every several
milliseconds).
Multipath propagation is to be expected when there are potential reflectors between
the main and remote sites. These reflectors may be buildings or moving objects
such as airplanes and motor vehicles. If this is the case, the radio signal does not
travel in a straight line, but is reflected or deflected off of the object, creating
multiple propagation paths.
When installing a single antenna, modify the transmit diversity option to either
antenna 1 or antenna 2, according to the antenna being used (refer to Section 3.4.3).
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
6.2.2.2 Antenna Polarization
Antenna polarization must be the same at either end of the link. In most
applications, the preferred orientation is vertical polarization. Above-ground
propagation of the signal is better when it is polarized vertically. To verify antenna
polarization, refer to the assembly instructions supplied with the antenna set.
6.2.3 Construction Materials
A cell’s coverage area is affected by the construction materials of the walls,
partitions, ceilings, floors and the furnishings of the cell. Due to their intrinsic
nature, these materials may cause radio signal loss:
•
Metal objects reflect radio signals. They do not let the signals pass through.
•
Wood, glass, plastic and brick reflect part of the radio signals and allow part
of the radio signals to pass through.
•
Water and objects with high moisture content absorb a large part of the radio
signals.
Use the following table as a guideline to predict the effects of different materials.
Table 5-1. Signal Loss Chart
Obstruction
Additional Loss (dB) Effective Range Approx. Range
Open Space
0dB
100%
1000ft. (300m)
Window (non-metallic tint)
3dB
70%
700ft. (215m)
Window (metallic tint)
5-8dB
50%
500ft. (150m)
Light Wall (dry wall)
5-8dB
50%
500ft. (150m)
Medium Wall (wood)
10dB
30%
300ft. (100m)
Heavy Wall (solid core 6”)
15-20dB
15%
150ft. (50m)
Very Heavy Wall (solid core 12”)
20-25dB
10%
100ft. (30m)
Floor/Ceiling (solid core)
15-20dB
15%
150ft. (50m)
Floor/Ceiling (heavy solid core)
20-25dB
10%
100ft. (30m)
Note: Take stairwells and elevator shafts into consideration when positioning Access
Points. There is no way to quantify the loss associated with these obstructions,
however they do have an effect on the signal.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
6-14
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
6.2.4 Cell Size
Cell size is determined by the maximum possible distance between the Access
Point and the Station Adapter. This distance varies according to the building floor
plan and the nature of that environment. There are several general categories:
Open Indoor Areas
Open office areas with no partitioning and no obstacles between the Access Point
and the BreezeNET workstation.
The suggested maximum distance between Access Point and workstation:
Standard AP-10 PRO.11
200m (600 ft.)
Semi-Open Indoor Areas
Open-plan offices partitioned into individual workspaces, factory floor areas,
warehouses, etc.
The suggested maximum distance between Access Point and workstation: Standard
AP-10 PRO.11
100m (300 ft.)
Closed Indoor Areas
A floor divided into individual offices by concrete, masonry or sheet-rock walls. A
house is also a closed indoor area.
The suggested maximum distance between Access Point and workstation: Standard
AP-10 PRO.11
50m (150 ft.)
6-15
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
6.3 Outdoor Installation Considerations
This chapter describes various considerations to take into account when planning
an outdoor installation including site selection, antenna alignment, antenna
diversity, antenna polarization, antenna seal, and cell size.
6.3.1 Site Selection Factors
When selecting a location for external antennas, remember to take into
consideration the following guidelines:
•
Minimum distance between sites
•
Maximum height above the ground
•
Maximum line of sight clearance
•
Maximum separation between antennas (diversity option)
Path of Clearest Propagation
A propagation path is the path that signals traverse between the antennas of any
two bridges. The “line” between two antenna sites is an imaginary straight line,
which may be drawn between the two antennas. Any obstacles in the path of the
“line” degrade the propagation path. The best propagation path is, therefore, a clear
line of sight with good clearance between the “line” and any physical obstacle.
Physical Obstacles
Any physical object in the path between two bridges can cause signal attenuation.
Common obstructions are buildings and trees. If a bridge’s antenna is installed
indoors, the walls and/or windows between the two sites are physical obstructions.
If the antenna is positioned outdoors, any buildings or other physical structure such
as trees, mountains or other natural geographic features higher than the antenna and
situated in the path between the two sites can constitute obstructions.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
6-16
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
Install indoor antennas as close as possible to a window (or wall if a window is not
accessible) facing the required direction. Avoid metal obstacles such as metal
window frames or metal film anti-glare windows in the transmission path. Install
outdoor antennas high enough to avoid any obstacles, which may block the signal.
Minimal Path Loss
Path loss is determined mainly by several factors:
•
Distance between sites – Path loss is lower and system performance better
when distances between sites are shorter.
•
Clearance – Path loss is minimized when there exists a clear line of sight. The
number, location, size, and makeup of obstacles determine their contribution
to path loss.
•
Antenna height – Path loss is lower when antennas are positioned higher.
Antenna height is the distance from the imaginary line connecting the antennas
at the two sites to “ground” level. “Ground” level in an open area is the actual
ground. In dense urban areas, “ground” level is the average height of the
buildings between the antenna sites.
6.3.2 Rooftop Installation
Note:
Rooftop antenna installations are extremely dangerous! Incorrect installation
may result in death, serious injury and/or damage. Such installations should be
performed by professional antenna installers only!
Rooftop installations offer several advantages:
•
Increased antenna range.
•
Fewer obstacles in path.
•
Improved performance due to greater height.
•
Reduced multipath problems.
6-17
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
6.3.3 Antennas for Outdoor Applications
The BreezeNET PRO.11 series can be used in point-to-point or point-to-multipoint
configurations.
6.3.3.1 Point-to-Point
A point-to-point link is based on the use of one Access Point with external antennas
(AP-10D or AP-10DE) and one adapter (SA-10/40D, WB-10D or WB-10DE). The
AP and the WB must be equipped with one or two directional antennas. The
necessary antenna gain depends on the required range and performance.
6.3.3.2 Point-to-Multipoint
Setting up a point-to-multipoint link requires the use of an AP-10D equipped with
omni-directional antennas and a remote WB-10D (or SA-10/40D) equipped with
high-gain directional antennas.
6.3.3.3 Antenna Alignment
Low gain antennas do not require alignment due to their very wide radiation
pattern. High gain antennas have a narrow beamwidth necessitating an alignment
procedure in order to optimize the link.
Check antenna alignment by using the LED indicators on the front panel of
whichever adapter is used in the link (WB-10D or SA-10/40D). These LED
indicators provide indication of reception quality.
⇒ To perform antenna alignment:
1. Assemble antennas according to the assembly instructions included with the
antenna set.
2. Mount the antennas as high as possible.
3. Connect the coaxial cable to the AP at the main site.
4. Connect the coaxial cable to the WB (or SA) at the remote site.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
6-18
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
5. Power on the AP and the WB (or SA).
6. Synchronize the units by aligning the antennas manually until the WLNK
indicator LED on the front panel of the wireless Bridge and/or Station Adapter
illuminates.
7. Align antennas at the main and remote sites until maximum signal quality is
obtained. (Check QLT LEDs on the front panel of the Station Adapter and the
wireless Bridge.)
If the received signal quality is lower than expected for this antenna/range
combination, change antenna height and verify RF cables connections.
6.3.3.4 Antenna Diversity
In applications where no multipath propagation is expected, a single antenna is
sufficient to ensure good performance levels. However, in cases where multipath
propagation exists, BreezeCOM recommends that two antennas be used. This takes
advantage of space diversity capabilities. By using two antennas per unit, the
system can select the best antenna on a per-packet basis (every several
milliseconds).
Multipath propagation is to be expected when there are potential reflectors between
the main and remote sites. These reflectors may be buildings or moving objects
such as airplanes and motor vehicles. If this is the case, the radio signal does not
travel in a straight line, but is reflected or deflected off of the object, creating
multiple propagation paths.
When installing a single antenna, modify the transmit diversity option to either
antenna 1 or antenna 2, according to the antenna being used (refer to Section 3.4.3).
6.3.3.5 Antenna Polarization
Antenna polarization must be the same at either end of the link. In most
applications, the preferred orientation is vertical polarization. Above-ground
propagation of the signal is better when it is polarized vertically. To verify antenna
polarization, refer to the assembly instructions supplied with the antenna set.
6-19
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
6.3.4 Antenna Seal
When using outdoor antennas, you must seal the antenna connectors against rain.
Otherwise the antennas are not suitable for use in outdoor installations.
6.3.5 Cell Size
Cell size is determined by the maximum possible distance between the Access
Point and the Station Adapter, usually related to point-to-multipoint installations
using external antennas. For open outdoor areas with an unobstructed line of sight
between the Access Point and the BreezeNET PRO.11 workstation, the suggested
maximum distance between Access Point and workstation is:
Standard AP-10 PRO.11
700m (2000 ft.)
6.3.6 Link Distance
Link distance is the maximum distance between the AP and the station adapter,
usually related to point-to-point installations using external antennas. For open
outdoor areas with an unobstructed line of sight between the Access Point and the
wireless bridge, the suggested maximum distance is:
Unit
USA
Europe
AP-10D PRO.11 with
external antennas
up to 10Km (7 miles)
up to 2.5Km in Europe
AP-10DE PRO.11
with external
antennas
−
up to 5Km in Europe
Note: The maximum distance of 10Km/7 miles is achieved using 24 dBi antennas. The
maximum distance of 2.5Km is achieved using 18 dBi antennas.
For range tables, refer to Section 6.3.7.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
6-20
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
6.3.7 Using Outdoor Range Tables
Outdoor installations must have a clear line-of-sight. Solid obstacles such as
buildings or hills prevent the establishment of a link. Partial obstacles such as trees
or traffic can reduce range. Extending coaxial cables can cause an increase in
assembly signal loss and a reduction in range.
The ranges in the following tables are attained under good propagating conditions
when using the standard cables supplied in the antenna set. Actual ranges may vary
due to specific multipath and interference conditions.
For specific range guidelines and information about extending cables, consult your
local dealer or BreezeCOM central offices.
Ranges are subject to change without notice.
6.3.8 FCC Outdoor Range Tables (USA)
The following tables are compliant with FCC regulations.
Table 5-2. BreezeNET USA/FCC Range Table - 1 Mbps
Ant.
type
Asmb
Omni-2
Omni6
Omni7
Uni-8.5
Uni-11
Uni-13
Uni-16
Uni-18
Uni24
2 dBi
5 dBi
6 dBi
6.5 dBi
9 dBi
11 dBi
14 dBi
15 dBi
2500 ft
3800 ft
3900 ft
4000 ft
1.0 mi
1.2 mi
1.4 mi
1.5 mi
1.9 mi
3800 ft
4300 ft
4600 ft
4800 ft
1.2 mi
1.5 mi
1.7 mi
1.8 mi
2.2 mi
3900 ft
4600 ft
4800 ft
1.0 mi
1.3 mi
1.6 mi
1.8 mi
1.9 mi
2.3 mi
4000 ft
4800 ft
1.0 mi
1.1 mi
1.4 mi
1.7 mi
1.9 mi
2.0 mi
2.4 mi
1.0 mi
1.2 mi
1.3 mi
1.4 mi
1.7 mi
2.0 mi
2.3 mi
2.5 mi
2.9 mi
1.2 mi
1.5 mi
1.6 mi
1.7 mi
2.0 mi
2.2 mi
2.6 mi
2.8 mi
3.2 mi
1.4 mi
1.7 mi
1.8 mi
1.9 mi
2.3 mi
2.6 mi
3.1 mi
3.4 mi
3.7 mi
1.5 mi
1.8 mi
1.9 mi
2.0 mi
2.5 mi
2.8 mi
3.4 mi
3.5 mi
4.0 mi
19
dBi
1.9 mi
2.2 mi
2.3 mi
2.4 mi
2.9 mi
3.2 mi
3.7 mi
4.0 mi
6.0 mi
gain
Omni-2
2 dBi
Omni-6
5 dBi
Omni-7
6 dBi
Uni-8.5
6.5 dBi
Uni-11
9 dBi
Uni-13
11 dBi
Uni-16
14 dBi
Uni-18
15 dBi
Uni-24
19 dBi
6-21
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
Table 5-3. BreezeNET USA/FCC Range Table - 2 Mbps
Ant.
type
Asmb
Omni-2
Omni-6
Omni-7
Uni-8.5
Uni-11
Uni-13
Uni-16
Uni-18
Uni-24
2 dBi
5 dBi
6 dBi
6.5 dBi
9 dBi
11 dBi
14 dBi
15 dBi
19 dBi
1500 ft
2000 ft
2300 ft
2500 ft
0.6 mi
0.7 mi
0.8 mi
0.9 mi
1.1 mi
2000 ft
2400 ft
2600 ft
2800 ft
0.7 mi
0.9 mi
1.0 mi
1.1 mi
1.3 mi
2300 ft
2600 ft
2900 ft
3000 ft
0.8 mi
1.0 mi
1.2 mi
1.3 mi
1.4 mi
2500 ft
2800 ft
3000 ft
0.6 mi
0.8 mi
1.0 mi
1.3 mi
1.3 mi
1.5 mi
0.6 mi
0.7 mi
0.8 mi
0.8 mi
0.9 mi
1.1 mi
1.4 mi
1.5 mi
1.7 mi
0.7 mi
0.9 mi
1.0 mi
1.0 mi
1.1 mi
1.2 mi
1.5 mi
1.7 mi
2.0 mi
0.8 mi
1.0 mi
1.2 mi
1.3 mi
1.4 mi
1.5 mi
1.8 mi
2.0 mi
2.6 mi
0.9 mi
1.1 mi
1.3 mi
1.3 mi
1.5 mi
1.7 mi
2.0 mi
2.2 mi
2.8 mi
1.1 mi
1.3 mi
1.4 mi
1.5 mi
1.7 mi
2.0 mi
2.6 mi
2.8 mi
3.5 mi
gain
Omni-2
Omni-6
Omni-7
Uni-8.5
Uni-11
Uni-13
Uni-16
Uni-18
Uni-24
2 dBi
5 dBi
6 dBi
6.5 dBi
9 dBi
11 dBi
14 dBi
15 dBi
19 dBi
Table 5-4. BreezeNET USA/FCC Range Table - 3 Mbps
Ant.
type
Asmb
Omni-2
Omni-6
Omni-7
Uni-8.5
Uni-11
Uni-13
Uni-16
Uni-18
Uni-24
2 dBi
5 dBi
6 dBi
6.5 dBi
9 dBi
11 dBi
14 dBi
15 dBi
19 dBi
500 ft
750 ft
800 ft
850 ft
1200 ft
1600 ft
0.4 mi
0.5 mi
0.6 mi
750 ft
900 ft
1000 ft
1100 ft
1600 ft
2000 ft
0.5 mi
0.6 mi
0.7 mi
800 ft
1000 ft
1000 ft
1200 ft
1700 ft
2100 ft
0.6 mi
0.7 mi
0.8 mi
850 ft
1100 ft
1200 ft
1400 ft
2200 ft
0.5 mi
0.7 mi
0.7 mi
0.9 mi
1200 ft
1600 ft
1700 ft
2200 ft
0.5 mi
0.6 mi
0.8 mi
0.9 mi
1.0 mi
1600 ft
2000 ft
2100 ft
0.5 mi
0.6 mi
0.7 mi
0.9 mi
1.0 mi
1.2 mi
0.4 mi
0.5 mi
0.6 mi
0.7 mi
0.8 mi
0.9 mi
1 mi
1.1 mi
1.4 mi
0.5 mi
0.6 mi
0.7 mi
0.7 mi
0.9 mi
1.0 mi
1.1 mi
1.2 mi
1.5 mi
0.6 mi
0.7 mi
0.8 mi
0.9 mi
1.0 mi
1.2 mi
1.4 mi
1.5 mi
2 mi
gain
Omni-2
Omni-6
Omni-7
Uni-8.5
Uni-11
Uni-13
Uni-16
Uni-18
Uni-24
2 dBi
5 dBi
6 dBi
6.5 dBi
9 dBi
11 dBi
14 dBi
15 dBi
19 dBi
Note:
The use of an LNA can improve the range by 30%-40%. To achieve this it is
necessary to install an LNA on both sides of the link (in each site). An LNA will
NOT enlarge the link if it is installed only on one side of the link. When using
an LNA you must use two antennas - one for TX and one for RX.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
6-22
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
6.3.9 ETSI Outdoor Range Tables (Europe and Rest-of-World) –
D Models, DL Models
In order to comply with ETSI regulations, 20dBm (100mW) EIRP units using
antenna kits indicated as low must be configured to the low power setting (4 dBm).
Using BreezeNET PRO.11 DL model with an 18dbi antenna and lowering the
output power of the unit complies with ETSI regulations and improves reception.
Installing this antenna at both ends of the link increases the total range. Installing
this antenna at one end of the link does not increase the range, but it does increase
the throughput of traffic received at the end with the 18 dBi antenna.
The following tables are compliant with ETSI regulations.
Table 5-5. BreezeNET Europe and ROW Range Table – D Models, DL Models
Data Rate = 1Mbps, Sen=-81dBm
Antenna Kit
Omni-2
Omni-2 Omni-6 Uni-8.5 Uni-18/20
(DL model)
710m 790m 750m 670m
Uni-18/15
(DL model)
730m
Uni-18/10
(DL model)
790m
Omni-6
790m
890m
840m
750m
820m
890m
Uni-8.5
750m
840m
790m
710m
770m
840m
Uni-18/20 (low) 670m
750m
710m
1,910m
2,020m
2,130m
Uni-18/15 (low) 730m
820m
770m
2,020m
2,130m
2,250m
Uni-18/10 (low) 790m
890m
840m
2,130m
2,250m
2,370m
Table 5-6. BreezeNET Europe and ROW Range Table – D Models
Data Rate = 2Mbps, Sen=-75dBm
Antenna Kit
Omni-2
Omni-2 Omni-6 Uni-8.5 Uni-18/20
(DL model)
350m 400m 380m 330m
Uni-18/15
(DL model)
370m
Uni-18/10
(DL model)
400m
Omni-6
400m
450m
420m
380m
410m
450m
Uni-8.5
380m
420m
400m
350m
390m
420m
Uni-18/20 (low) 330m
380m
350m
1,240m
1,310m
1,380m
Uni-18/15 (low) 370m
410m
390m
1,310m
1,380m
1,460m
Uni-18/10 (low) 400m
450m
420m
1,380m
1,460m
1,540m
6-23
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
Table 5-7. BreezeNET Europe and ROW Range Table – D Models, DL Models
Data Rate = 3Mbps, Sen=-67dBm
Antenna Kit
Note:
Omni-2
Omni-2 Omni-6 Uni-8.5 Uni-18/20
Uni-18/15
Uni-18/10
(DL models) (DL models) (DL models)
140m 160m 150m 130m
150m
160m
Omni-6
160m
180m
170m
150m
160m
180m
Uni-8.5
150m
170m
160m
140m
150m
170m
Uni-18/20 (low) 130m
150m
140m
560m
610m
670m
Uni-18/15 (low) 150m
160m
150m
610m
670m
730m
Uni-18/10 (low) 160m
180m
170m
670m
730m
790m
All antennas above 8.5 (i.e. 12, 18, and 24), require a filter to be ETSIcompliant.
6.3.10 ETSI Outdoor Range Tables (Europe and Rest-of-World)
– DE Models
The following tables are compliant with ETSI regulations.
Table 5-8. BreezeNET Europe and ROW Range Table – DE Models
Data Rate = 1Mbps, Sen=-85dBm
Antenna Kit
Uni-24/20
Uni-24/15
Uni-24/10
Uni-24/20
3,920m
4,140m
4,370m
Uni-24/15
4,140m
4,370m
4,610m
Uni-24/10
4,370m
4,610m
4,870m
Table 5-9. BreezeNET Europe and ROW Range Table – DE Models
Data Rate = 2Mbps, Sen=-79dBm
Antenna Kit
Uni-24/20
Uni-24/15
Uni-24/10
Uni-24/20
2,550m
2,690m
2,840m
Uni-24/15
2,690m
2,840m
3,000m
Uni-24/10
2,840m
3,000m
3,160m
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
6-24
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
Table 5-10. BreezeNET Europe and ROW Range Table – DE Models
Data Rate = 3Mbps, Sen=-71dBm
Note:
Antenna Kit
Uni-24/20
Uni-24/15
Uni-24/10
Uni-24/20
1,430m
1,510m
1,600m
Uni-24/15
1,510m
1,600m
1,680m
Uni-24/10
1,600m
1,680m
1,780m
All antennas above 8.5 (i.e. 12, 18, and 24), require a filter to be ETSIcompliant.
The use of an LNA can improve the range by 30%-40%. To achieve this it is
necessary to install an LNA on both sides of the link (in each site). An LNA will
NOT enlarge the link if it is installed only on one side of the link. When using
an LNA you must use two antennas - one for TX and one for RX.
6.3.11 Non-Regulated Outdoor Range Tables – D Models
Table 5-11. BreezeNET Non-Regulation Range Table – D Models
Data Rate = 1Mbps, Sen=-81dBm
Antenna Kits Omni-2 Omni-6 Uni-8.5 Uni18/20
Omni-2
710m
790m
750m
1,980m
Uni18/15
2,090m
Uni18/10
2,210m
Uni24/20
3,050m
Uni24/15
3,220m
3,400m
Omni-6
790m
890m
840m
2,130m
2,250m
2,370m
3,280m
3,460m
3,650m
Uni-8.5
750m
840m
790m
2,050m
2,170m
2,290m
3,160m
3,340m
3,520m
Uni-18/20
1,980m 2,130m 2,050m 4,870m
5,140m
5,420m
7,500m
7,910m
8,350m
Uni-18/15
2,090m 2,250m 2,170m 5,140m
5,420m
5,730m
7,910m
8,350m
8,820m
Uni-18/10
2,210m 2,370m 2,290m 5,420m
5,730m
6,040m
8,350m
8,820m
9,310m
Uni-24/20
3,050m 3,280m 3,160m 7,500m
7,910m
8,350m
11,550m 12,190m 12,860m
Uni-24/15
3,220m 3,460m 3,340m 7,910m
8,350m
8,820m
12,190m 12,860m 13,580m
Uni-24/10
3,400m 3,650m 3,520m 8,350m
8,820m
9,310m
12,860m 13,580m 14,330m
6-25
Uni-24/10
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
Table 5-12. BreezeNET Non-Regulation Range Table – D Models
Data Rate = 2Mbps, Sen=-75dBm
Antenna Kits Omni-2 Omni-6 Uni-8.5 Uni18/20
Omni-2
350m
400m
380m
1,290m
Uni18/15
1,360m
Uni18/10
1,430m
Uni24/20
1,980m
Uni24/15
2,090m
Uni-24/10
2,210m
Omni-6
400m
450m
420m
1,380m
1,460m
1,540m
2,130m
2,250m
2,370m
Uni-8.5
380m
420m
400m
1,330m
1,410m
1,490m
2,050m
2,170m
2,290m
Uni-18/20
1,290m 1,380m 1,330m 3,160m
3,340m
3,520m
4,870m
5,140m
5,420m
Uni-18/15
1,360m 1,460m 1,410m 3,340m
3,520m
3,720m
5,140m
5,420m
5,730m
Uni-18/10
1,430m 1,540m 1,490m 3,520m
3,720m
3,920m
5,420m
5,730m
6,040m
Uni-24/20
1,980m 2,130m 2,050m 4,870m
5,140m
5,420m
7,500m
7,910m
8,350m
Uni-24/15
2,090m 2,250m 2,170m 5,140m
5,420m
5,730m
7,910m
8,350m
8,820m
Uni-24/10
2,210m 2,370m 2,290m 5,420m
5,730m
6,040m
8,350m
8,820m
9,310m
Table 5-13. BreezeNET Non-Regulation Range Table – D Models
Data Rate = 3Mbps, Sen=-67dBm
Antenna Kits Omni-2 Omni-6 Uni-8.5 Uni18/20
Omni-2
140m
160m
150m
600m
Uni18/15
650m
Uni18/10
710m
Uni24/20
1,110m
Uni24/15
1,180m
Omni-6
160m
180m
170m
670m
730m
790m
1,200m
1,260m
1,330m
Uni-8.5
150m
170m
160m
630m
690m
750m
1,150m
1,220m
1,290m
Uni-18/20
600m
670m
630m
1,780m
1,880m
1,980m
2,740m
2,890m
3,050m
Uni-18/15
650m
730m
690m
1,880m
1,980m
2,090m
2,890m
3,050m
3,220m
Uni-18/10
710m
790m
750m
1,980m
2,090m
2,210m
3,050m
3,220m
3,400m
Uni-24/20
1,110m 1,200m 1,150m 2,740m
2,890m
3,050m
4,220m
4,450m
4,700m
Uni-24/15
1,180m 1,260m 1,220m 2,890m
3,050m
3,220m
4,450m
4,700m
4,960m
Uni-24/10
1,240m 1,330m 1,290m 3,050m
3,220m
3,400m
4,700m
4,960m
5,230m
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
6-26
Uni-24/10
1,240m
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
6.3.12 Extending the range using the TPA-24 and LNA-10
The following tables show examples of how outdoor ranges of D-model units can
be extended using the TPA-24 and LNA-10 devices.
In the range tables below, the note LNA means that the LNA 10 Low Noise
Receive Amplifier is used (see Section 7.2). The note TPA means that the TPA 24
Transmit Power Amplifier is used (see Section 7-1). When the LNA or TPA are
used, one of the unit’s antennas should be permanently set to transmit and the other
to receive. In this case, Antenna Diversity is not applicable. The use of an LNA or
a Booster (TPA 24) will only enlarge the range if they are installed on both sides of
the link.
The identification of “TX kit” and “RX kit” is for reference purposes only. They do
not have any other meaning than for arranging the table to show the effects of the
LNA and Booster (TPA 24).
For ranges over 30 km, it is recommended to consult BreezeCOM technical support
or your local dealer.
Note:
In the following tables, “Omni-6/10” refers to an Omni 6dbi antenna with a 10
Meter Heliax cable.
6-27
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
Table 5-14. TPA-24 and LNA-10 Extension Range Table. Data Rate = 1Mbps, Sen=81dBm
Transmit and Receive TX kit
Omni-6/10 Omni-6/10
Antenna Kits
Omni-6
Omni-6
(TPA)
(TPA)
30
30
Uni-18/10
Uni-18/10
Uni-18/10 Uni-18/10 Uni-24/10
(TPA)
(TPA)
42
42
Uni-24/10
Uni-24/10 Uni-24/10
(TPA)
(TPA)
48
for Side A
Transmit and
Receive Antenna Kits
for Side B
TX EIRP
21
RX kit
Omni-6/10 Omni-6
21
RX Gain
4
8.35
4
8.35
16
20.35
16
20.35
22
26.35
22
26.35
Omni-6/10 Omni-6
(LNA 10)
33
33
39
48
Uni-18/10
Uni-18/10- Uni-18/10 Uni-18/10 Uni-24/10
Uni-24/10
Uni-24/10 Uni-24/10
(LNA)
(LNA)
(LNA)
39
(LNA)
(LNA)
TX kit
EIRP RX kit
RX
Omni-6/10
21
Omni-6/10
4
1,070m
1,070m
1,070m
1,470m
2,550m
2,550m
2,550m
3,480m
3,920m
3,920m
3,920m
5,370m
Omni-6/10
21
Omni-6 (LNA)
8.35
1,070m
1,470m
1,070m
1,470m
2,550m
3,480m
2,550m
3,480m
3,920m
5,370m
3,920m
5,370m
Omni-6 (TPA)
30
Omni-6/10
4
1,070m
1,070m
2,050m
2,050m
2,550m
2,550m
4,870m
4,870m
3,920m
3,920m
7,500m
7,500m
Omni-6 (TPA)
30
Omni-6 (LNA)
8.35
1,470m
1,470m
2,050m
2,810m
3,480m
3,480m
4,870m
6,660m
5,370m
5,370m
7,500m
10,260m
Uni-18/10
33
Uni-18/10
16
2,550m
2,550m
2,550m
3,480m
6,040m
6,040m
6,040m
8,260m
9,310m
9,310m
9,310m
12,730m
Uni-18/10
33
Uni-18/10 (LNA) 20.35
2,550m
3,480m
2,550m
3,480m
6,040m
8,260m
6,040m
8,260m
9,310m
12,730m
9,310m
12,730m
Uni-18/10 (TPA) 42
Uni-18/10
2,550m
2,550m
4,870m
4,870m
6,040m
6,040m
11,550m
11,550m
9,310m
9,310m
17,780m
17,780m
Uni-18/10 (TPA) 42
Uni-18/10 (LNA) 20.35
3,480m
3,480m
4,870m
6,660m
8,260m
8,260m
11,550m
15,790m
12,730m
12,730m
17,780m
24,320m
Uni-24/10
39
Uni-24/10
3,920m
3,920m
3,920m
5,370m
9,310m
9,310m
9,310m
12,730m
14,330m
14,330m
14,330m
19,600m
Uni-24/10
39
19,600m
Gain
16
22
Uni-24/10 (LNA) 26.35
3,920m
5,370m
3,920m
5,370m
9,310m
12,730m
9,310m
12,730m
14,330m
19,600m
14,330m
Uni-24/10 (TPA) 48
Uni-24/10
3,920m
3,920m
7,500m
7,500m
9,310m
9,310m
17,780m
17,780m
14,330m
14,330m
27,380m
27,380m
Uni-24/10 (TPA) 48
Uni-24/10 (LNA) 26.35
5,370m
5,370m
7,500m
10,260
12,730m
12,730m
17,780m
24,320m
19,600m
19,600m
27,380m
37,450m
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
22
6-28
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
Table 5-15. TPA-24 and LNA-10 Extension Range Table. Data Rate = 2Mbps, Sen=-75dBm
Omni-
Omni-
Omni-6
Omni-6
6/10
6/10
(TPA)
(TPA)
TX EIRP
21
21
30
30
RX kit
Omni-
Omni-6
Omni-6/10 Omni-6
Transmit and Receive TX kit
Antenna Kits
Uni-18/10 Uni-18/10 Uni-18/10 Uni-18/10 Uni-24/10 Uni-24/10 Uni-24/10 Uni-24/10
(TPA)
(TPA)
42
42
(TPA)
(TPA)
48
48
for Side A
Transmit and
Receive Antenna Kits
for Side B
RX Gain
33
33
39
39
Uni-18/10 Uni-18/10 Uni-18/10 Uni-18/10 Uni-24/10 Uni-24/10 Uni-24/10 Uni-24/10
6/10
(LNA 10)
4
8.35
4
8.35
(LNA)
16
(LNA)
20.35
16
(LNA)
20.35
22
(LNA)
26.35
22
(LNA)
26.35
TX kit
EIRP RX kit
RX
Omni-6/10
21
Omni-6/10
4
560m
560m
560m
930m
1,650m
1,650m
1,650m
2,260m
2,550m
2,550m
2,550m
3,480m
Omni-6/10
21
Omni-6 (LNA)
8.35
560m
930m
560m
930m
1,650m
2,260m
1,650m
2,260m
2,550m
3,480m
2,550m
3,480m
Omni-6 (TPA)
30
Omni-6/10
4
560m
560m
1,330m
1,330m
1,650m
1,650m
3,160m
3,160m
2,550m
2,550m
4,870m
4,870m
Omni-6 (TPA)
30
Omni-6 (LNA)
8.35
930m
930m
1,330m
1,820m
2,260m
2,260m
3,160m
4,320m
3,480m
3,480m
4,870m
6,660m
Uni-18/10
33
Uni-18/10
16
1,650m
1,650m
1,650m
2,260m
3,920m
3,920m
3,920m
5,370m
6,040m
6,040m
6,040m
8,260m
Uni-18/10
33
Uni-18/10 (LNA) 20.35
1,650m
2,260m
1,650m
2,260m
3,920m
5,370m
3,920m
5,370m
6,040m
8,260m
6,040m
8,260m
Uni-18/10
1,650m
1,650m
3,160m
3,160m
3,920m
3,920m
7,500m
7,500m
6,040m
6,040m
11,550m
11,550m
15,790m
Gain
Uni-18/10 (TPA) 42
16
Uni-18/10 (TPA) 42
Uni-18/10 (LNA) 20.35
2,260m
2,260m
3,160m
4,320m
5,370m
5,370m
7,500m
10,260m
8,260m
8,260m
11,550m
Uni-24/10
39
Uni-24/10
2,550m
2,550m
2,550m
3,480m
6,040m
6,040m
6,040m
8,260m
9,310m
9,310m
9,310m
12,730m
Uni-24/10
39
Uni-24/10 (LNA) 26.35
2,550m
3,480m
2,550m
3,480m
6,040m
8,260m
6,040m
8,260m
9,310m
12,730m
9,310m
12,730m
Uni-24/10 (TPA) 48
Uni-24/10
2,550m
2,550m
4,870m
4,870m
6,040m
6,040m
11,550m
11,550m
9,310m
9,310m
17,780m
17,780m
Uni-24/10 (TPA) 48
Uni-24/10 (LNA) 26.35
3,480m
3,480m
4,870m
6,660m
8,260m
8,260m
11,550m
15,790m
12,730m
12,730m
17,780m
24,320m
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
22
22
6-29
User’s Guide
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
Table 5-16. TPA-24 and LNA-10 Extension Range Table. Data Rate = 3Mbps, Sen=-67dBm
Transmit and Receive TX kit
Omni-
Omni-6/10 Omni-6 Omni-6
6/10
Antenna Kits
(TPA)
Uni-18/10 Uni-18/10 Uni-18/10 Uni-18/10 Uni-
(TPA)
(TPA)
(TPA)
24/10
42
42
39
Uni-
Uni-24/10 Uni-24/10
24/10
(TPA)
(TPA)
39
48
48
Uni-
Uni-24/10 Uni-24/10
for Side A
Transmit and
Receive Antenna Kits
for Side B
TX EIRP
21
21
30
30
33
RX kit
Omni-
Omni-6
Omni-
Omni-6
Uni-18/10 Uni-18/10 Uni-18/10 Uni-18/10 Uni-
33
6/10
(LNA 10)
6/10
(LNA)
(LNA)
(LNA)
24/10
24/10
(LNA)
(LNA)
RX Gain
TX kit
EIRP RX kit
RX
Omni-6/10
21
Omni-6/10
4
Omni-6/10
21
Omni-6 (LNA) 8.35
4
8.35
4
8.35
16
20.35
16
20.35
22
26.35
22
26.35
220m
220m
220m
370m
890m
890m
890m
1,270m
1,430m
1,430m 1,430m 1,960m
220m
370m
220m
370m
890m
1,270m
890m
1,270m
1,430m
1,960m 1,430m 1,960m
Gain
Omni-6 (TPA)
30
Omni-6/10
220m
220m
630m
630m
890m
890m
1,780m
1,780m
1,430m
1,430m 2,740m 2,740m
Omni-6 (TPA)
30
Omni-6 (LNA) 8.35
4
370m
370m
630m
1,030m
1,270m
1,270m
1,780m
2,430m
1,960m
1,960m 2,740m 3,740m
Uni-18/10
33
Uni-18/10
16
890m
890m
890m
1,270m
2,210m
2,210m
2,210m
3,020m
3,400m
3,400m 3,400m 4,650m
Uni-18/10
33
Uni-18/10
20.35
890m
1,270m
890m
1,270m
2,210m
3,020m
2,210m
3,020m
3,400m
4,650m 3,400m 4,650m
(LNA)
Uni-18/10 (TPA) 42
Uni-18/10
16
890m
890m
1,780m 1,780m
2,210m
2,210m
4,220m
4,220m
3,400m
3,400m 6,490m 6,490m
Uni-18/10 (TPA) 42
Uni-18/10
20.35
1,270m
1,270m
1,780m 2,430m
3,020m
3,020m
4,220m
5,770m
4,650m
4,650m 6,490m 8,880m
(LNA)
Uni-24/10
39
Uni-24/10
22
1,430m
1,430m
1,430m 1,960m
3,400m
3,400m
3,400m
4,650m
5,230m
5,230m 5,230m 7,160m
Uni-24/10
39
Uni-24/10
26.35
1,430m
1,960m
1,430m 1,960m
3,400m
4,650m
3,400m
4,650m
5,230m
7,160m 5,230m 7,160m
(LNA)
Uni-24/10 (TPA) 48
Uni-24/10
22
1,430m
1,430m
2,740m 2,740m
3,400m
3,400m
6,490m
6,490m
5,230m
5,230m 10,000 10,000m
Uni-24/10 (TPA) 48
Uni-24/10
26.35
1,960m
1,960m
2,740m 3,740m
4,650m
4,650m
6,490m
8,880m
7,160m
7,160m 10,000 13,680m
m
(LNA)
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
m
6-30
Planning and Installing Wireless LANS
6.4 Available Antennas and Antenna Kits
This following table describes several transmit/receive antennas that work well with
BreezeNET PRO.11 units.
Table 5-17. FCC Available Antennas (USA)
Model
Ant.
Gain
Cable
Len
OMNI-2
2 dBi
N/A
OMNI-6
6 dBi
4-ft
OMNI-7.2
7.2 dBi
20-ft
UNI-8.5
8.5 dBi
8-ft
UNI8.5Ext
8.5 dBi
8-ft
UNI-11P75
11 dBi
30-ft
UNI-13P
13 dBi
20-ft
UNI-16P
16 dBi
30-ft
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Kit Contains:
2 OMNI-2
Antennas
Proprietary SMA
OMNI-6 Antenna
Mounting
Hardware 4-ft
Cable Assembly
OMNI-7.2
Antenna Mounting
Hardware 20-ft
Cable Assembly
UNI-8.5 Antenna
Mounting
Hardware 8-ft
Cable
UNI-8.5 Antenna
Mounting
Hardware 8-ft
Cable Assembly
UNI-11P-75
Antenna Mounting
Hardware 30-ft
Cable Assembly
UNI-13P Antenna
Mounting
Hardware 20-ft
Cable Assembly
UNI-16P Antenna
Mounting
Hardware 30-ft
Cable Assembly
Ideal for:
Dispersion
Dimensions
HxWxD
Converting “D”
Models for use
indoors
Extending indoor
range of access
points and station
adapters
Establishing 360°
coverage for
outdoor multipoint
links
Extending indoor
range of access
points and/or
station adapters
Short range
outdoor multipoint
links
360°H/
60° V
3"x.5"
Tubular
360°H/
26° V
13"x0.75"
Tubular
360°H/
22° V
16"x0.75"
Tubular
75°H/
60° V
4"x3.7"x1.2"
75°H/
60° V
4"x3.7"x1.2"
ISPs, school
districts, and
campus area
networks requiring
wide dispersion
patterns
Medium range
outdoor multipoint
links
75°H/
28° V
11"x7.5"x3.5"
46°H/
28° V
11"x7.5"x3.5"
Medium to long
range outdoor
multipoint links
requiring compact
form factors
28°H/
28° V
11"x11"x3.5"
6-31
User’s Guide
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
Model
Ant.
Gain
Cable
Len
UNI-18
18 dBi
30-ft
UNI-24
24 dBi
50-ft
Kit Contains:
UNI-18 Antenna
Mounting
Hardware 30-ft
Cable Assembly
UNI-24 Antenna
Mounting
Hardware 50-ft
Cable Assembly
Ideal for:
Long range
outdoor point-topoint and
multipoint links
Long range
outdoor point-topoint links
Dispersion
Dimensions
HxWxD
12°H/
14° V
16"x20"X15"
6°H/
10° V
24"x36"x15"
Table 5-18. ETSI Available Antennas (Europe and Rest-of-World)
Model
Ant.
Gain
Cable
Len
Kit Contains:
OMNI-2
2 dBi
N/A
OMNI-6
6 dBi
3m
UNI-8.5
8.5 dBi
6m
UNI-18/10
UNI-18/15
UNI-18/20
18 dBi
10m
15m
20m
2 OMNI-2
Antennas
Proprietary SMA
OMNI-6 Antenna
90° Mount
Bracket 3m RG58 Cable
UNI-8.5 Antenna
Wall Mounting
HW 6m RG-58
Cable
UNI-18 Antenna
U-bolt for pole
Heliax Cable
UNI-24/10
UNI-24/15
UNI-24 /20
24 dBi
10m
15m
20m
UNI-24 Antenna
U-bolt for pole
Heliax Cable
User’s Guide
Ideal for:
Converting “D”
Models for use
indoors
Extending indoor
range of access
points and station
adapters
Extending indoor
range of access
points and/or
station adapters
Long range
outdoor point-topoint and
multipoint links
Long range
outdoor point-topoint links
6-32
Dispersion
Dimensions
HxWxD
360°H/
60° V
3"x.5"
Tubular
360°H/
26° V
13"x0.75"
Tubular
75°H/
60° V
4"x3.7"x1.2"
12°H/
14° V
16"x20"X15"
6°H/
10° V
24"x36"x15"
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Planning and Installing Wireless LANS
6.5 Precautions
Note:
Detached antennas, whether installed indoors or out, should be installed
ONLY by experienced antenna installation professionals who are familiar with
local building and safety codes and, wherever applicable, are licensed by the
appropriate government regulatory authorities.
Failure to do so may void the BreezeNET Product Warranty and may expose
the end user to legal and financial liabilities. BreezeCOM and its resellers or
distributors are not liable for injury, damage or violation of government
regulations associated with the installation of detached antennas.
6.5.1 Transmit Antenna
Regulations regarding maximum antenna gains vary from country to country. It is
the responsibility of the end user to operate within the limits of these regulations
and to ensure that the professional installer is aware of these regulations, as well.
The FCC in the United States and ETSI in Europe limit effective transit power to
36dBm (USA) and 20dBm (Europe). The maximum total assembly gain of
antennas and cables in this case equals 19dBi (USA) and 3dBi (Europe).
Violation of government regulations exposes the end user to legal and financial
liabilities. BreezeCOM and its resellers and distributors shall not be liable for
expense or damage incurred as a result of installations which exceed local transmit
gain limitations.
6.5.2 Spurious Radio Frequency Emissions
The regulations referred to in the previous section also specify maximum “out-ofband” radio frequency emissions. Install a filter as close as possible to the
BreezeNET PRO.11 “D” model unit connector.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
6-33
User’s Guide
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
6.5.3 Lightning Protection
Lightning protection is designed to protect people, property and equipment by
providing a path to ground for the lightning’s energy. The lightning arrestor diverts
the strike energy to ground through a deliberate and controlled path instead of
allowing it to choose a random path. Lightning protection for a building is more
forgiving than protection of electronic devices. A building can withstand up to
100,000 volts, but electronic equipment may be damaged by just a few volts.
Lightning protection entails connecting an antenna discharge unit (also called an
arrestor) to each cable as close as possible to the point where it enters the building.
It also entails proper grounding of the arrestors and of the antenna mast (if the
antenna is connected to one).
The lightning arrestor should be installed and grounded at the point where the cable
enters the building. The arrestor is connected to the unit at one end and to the
antenna at the other end.
The professional installer you choose must be knowledgeable about lightning
protection. The installer must install the lightning protector in a way that
maximizes lightning protection. BreezeCOM offers the following high-quality
lightning arrestor assembly:
BreezeNET AL 1 Lightning Arrestor - Part No. 872905 5 ft (1.5m), “N” Male to
“N” Female.
6.5.4 Rain Proofing
12, 18, and 24 dBi antennas must be sealed against rain at the point the cable enters
the pole before they are suitable for external use.
User’s Guide
6-34
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Accessory Installation
7. ACCESSORY INSTALLATION
This chapter introduces some of the accessories available for specific installations,
and describes how to install them.
7.1 TPA 24 Transmit Power Amplifier (Booster)
The TPA 24 Transmit Power Amplifier is used to amplify the transmit power to a
fixed output of 24 dBm (250 mW). The TPA 24 is especially useful when long RF
cable runs are required. In addition, the TPA 24 simplifies antenna alignment by
enabling the use of wider dispersion transmit antennas. The TPA 24 is internally
protected against lightning and voltage surge protection.
There are two models:
•
The TPA 24 NL receives input power in the range of -10dBm to 0dBm.
•
The TPA 24 NH receives an input power of 0dBm to +10dBm.
Both models amplify the input power to a fixed output level of 24dBm (250mW).
The TPA is powered by 12VDC carried from the power inserter by the RF cable.
Note:
The TPA 24 is not available in the USA due to FCC regulations.
When used in compliance with ETSI regulations, the TPA 24 can be connected to
cables and antennas resulting in a total transmitted power of 20dBm (100 mW)
EIRP.
For technical specifications, refer to the Appendix.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
7-1
User’s Guide
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
7.1.1 Installing the TPA 24
1. Choose one of the TPA 24 models according to the power level at the input of
the booster. In general the NH model is used. For installations with long cables
(high attenuation), the NL model should be used.
2. Choose one of the antenna connectors to be used for transmission. This
connector is called the transmit antenna of the unit.
3. Configure the BreezeNET PRO.11 unit via a local terminal to transmit through
the transmit antenna using the Transmit Diversity parameter (see Section
3.4.3).
Figure 7-1. TPA 24 Installation
4. Connect the TPA 24 RF output directly to the transmit antenna.
5. Attach the TPA 24 RF input to the Power Inserter with the RF cable. The
Power Inserter must be installed indoors.
6. Connect the RF cable leading from the Power Inserter to the transmit antenna
on the BreezeNET PRO.11 unit.
7. Plug the power cable leading from the Power Inserter into any available
110/220V outlet. The power supply must be installed indoors.
User’s Guide
7-2
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Accessory Installation
8. For reception, use a separate antenna connected to the other antenna connector
of the BreezeNET unit.
Note: Installations exceeding regulations set by local authorities expose the installer
and the user to potential legal and financial liabilities.
7.2 LNA 10 Low Noise Receive Amplifier
The LNA 10 is a high-performance, low-noise preamplifier designed to enhance
fringe area reception and provide additional gain on the receive antenna. Its
exceptionally small size and light weight enables it to be directly mounted on the
antenna by means of the female RF IN connector. Power is obtained through an
RG-59 coaxial cable connected to the power supply. The LNA 10 is internally
protected against lightning and voltage surge protection.
The Power Supply (PS) and Power Inserter are supplied with the LNA 10. The RG59 coaxial cable with F-type connector is not supplied and must be purchased
separately.
For technical specifications, refer to the appendixes.
7.2.1 Installing the LNA 10
Before installing the LNA 10, the following steps must be taken:
1. Choose one of the antenna connectors to be used for reception. This connector
is called the receive antenna of the unit. The other connector is called the
transmit antenna of the unit.
2. Configure the BreezeNET PRO.11 unit via the Monitor to transmit through the
transmit antenna only using the Transmit Diversity parameter
(see Section 3.4.3). This prevents transmission from going through the LNA
10.
3. Connect the LNA 10 RF input directly to the receive antenna, as close as
possible.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
7-3
User’s Guide
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
4. Attach the LNA 10 RF output directly to the RF cable going down to the
receive antenna connector on the BreezeNET PRO.11 unit.
5. Connect the RG-59 coaxial cable which leads down to the Power Inserter to the
“Signal and Power out” connector on the LNA 10.
6. Connect the Power Inserter to the power supply (both are indoor units).
7. For transmission, use a separate antenna connected to the other antenna
connector (transmit antenna) of the BreezeNET unit.
Figure 7-2. LNA 10 Connections Diagram
7.3 RFS 122 Radio Frequency Splitter
The RFS 122 Radio Frequency Splitter is used to split the RF signal generated by a
transmitter into two signals. These signals are then sent to two different and
independent antennas. The RFS 122 enables radio transmission using two
User’s Guide
7-4
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Accessory Installation
directional antennas connected to the same port of the BreezeNET PRO.11 unit.
Similarly, the splitter is used to combine two receiving antennas to one antenna
connector.
Before installing the RFS 122, configure the BreezeNET PRO.11 unit via the
Monitor to transmit through Antenna 2 only using the Transmit Diversity parameter
(see Section 3.4.3), and connect the RFS 122 to antenna connector 2.
For technical specifications, refer to Section 10.2.
7.3.1 Installing the RFS 122
The following diagram illustrates RFS-122 installation.
Figure 7-3. RFS-122 Connection Diagram
7.4 AL 1 Lightning Arrestor
The AL 1 Lightning Arrestor is used to protect transmitters and receivers from
transients originating from lightning or EMP.
The AL 1 is gas tube-based and is not radioactive. The gas discharge tube can
sustain several transients if the time period between transients is sufficient to allow
the tube to cool down.
For technical specifications, refer to Section 10.2.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
7-5
User’s Guide
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
Figure 7-4. AL-1 Connection Block Diagram
One of the female-type N connectors is mounted directly through a hole in the
shelter wall and held in place with a lockwasher and nut.
7.5 AMP 2440 Bi-Directional Amplifier
The AMP 2440 is a bi-directional amplifier designed for extending the range of
BreezeNET wireless LAN radios.
The unit operates automatically, therefore there is no need for manual adjustments.
The units receive signal gain and also provide transmit power amplification.
Tx Power
Sense
Tx Amp
Tx
RF
Tx
Out
In
Rx
12 V DC
Rx Amp
Bandpass
Filter
Rx
DC
Power Supply
Figure 7-5. AMP 2440 Functional Block Diagram
User’s Guide
7-6
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Accessory Installation
The amplifier is installed directly at the antenna’s feed point, providing maximum
effectiveness of transmit power which compensates for signal loss in the transmitter
cable to the antenna. Likewise, the Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) in the AMP 2440
boosts the receive signal right at the antenna prior to experiencing the loss in the
transmission cable to the radio. This gain also overcomes the losses in the
transmission cable between the amplifier and the radio. In fact, use of the
AMP 2440 bi-directional amplifier will actually increase the receiver sensitivity of
the radio by 4dB. The ultimate result is the best possible noise figure and maximum
receiver sensitivity. System gains of up to 30 dB are typical when amplifiers are
used at each end of a link.
The AMP 2440 bi-directional amplifier is completely weatherproof and can be
bolted to the antenna mast or tower leg using the U-bolt included. The connectors
face down so that gravity will drain all water away from the amplifier enclosure.
This will prevent water from settling on the face of the unit. Likewise, since the
LEDs are also facing downward they can be checked for operation from the bottom
of the mast.
DC Power to the amplifier is supplied through the transmission cable, using an
indoor power supply and DC Injector. The amplifier unit also contains its own
integral lightning protection and DC surge protection to ensure years of continuous
outdoor operation.
BreezeCOM provides the user with two models of the AMP 2440 bi-directional
amplifier:
•
AMP 2440-500. Provides 500 mW (+27dBm) maximum output
•
AMP 2440-250. Provides 250 mW (+24dBm) maximum output
The transmit gain for both models is 12 - 15dB. Full output power of
approximately 500 mW is achieved with 30 mW (+15 dBm) input to the amplifier;
8 mW (+9dBm) for the AMP 2440-250 model. The amplifier goes into limiting at
this point and higher input power results in only slight increases in the output
power. Up to 100 mW of power may be safely applied directly to the amplifier
input without any damage on either model.
The AMP 2440 bi-directional amplifier comes with power supplies that have
standard 2.1 mm barrel plugs (which are configured as positive (+) tip and negative
(-) outer conductor). Although normally supplied with a power supply, any
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
7-7
User’s Guide
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
regulated 12 Volt DC 1 amp supply can be used. The power supply can be used
with 110 or 240 VAC power.
7.5.1 Installing the AMP 2440 Bi-directional Amplifier
The AMP 2440 bi-directional amplifier is designated for installation by
professional radio installers. Several key factors unique to the particular installation
determine the power level at the input of the amplifier. The most important
consideration is the cable loss in the transmission cable between the radio and the
pole mounted amp. The installer should understand these and other factors when
computing the input power to the amplifier.
The AMP 2440 bi-directional amplifier can be mast mounted using the steel U-bolt
included with the unit (refer to Figure 7-6). The AMP 2440 bi-directional amplifier
should be installed with the connectors facing downward. After placing the
assembly on the mast, use an open-end wrench to carefully tighten the nuts. Take
care not to over-tighten the nuts or you may inadvertently strip the threads.
Figure 7-6. AMP 2440 Installation and Mounting
WARNING!
User’s Guide
It is very important to waterproof the RF connectors on the AMP 2440 bidirectional amplifier.
7-8
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Accessory Installation
However, it is recommended that you do not seal the connectors until after all
system tests have been performed. Be sure to use the high quality weather resistant
vapor wrap included with you amplifier kit to seal all the outside connections.
The DC Power Injector is not in a waterproof enclosure and must be protected from
the weather. It can be permanently mounted to a surface using the mounting
flanges. For more information on amplifier installation, refer to Figure 7-7.
Note:
When using the 24dB gain dish antenna in the United States, the external
filter (P/N: SPF-1) must be installed to comply with FCC emission
requirements.
ANTENNA
Omni-directional (shown), or
Grid or Panel Antennas (not shown)
AMP2440 (mounted to mast with U-Bolt)
Drip
Loop
N-Male connector
Filter
*
(P/N: )SPF-1
Transmission Line
Low loss cable to radio room
Mast
Coax Cable to
Pole Mounted
Amplifier
110/220 VAC
AC Main Power
110/220 VAC
AC Main Power
Barrel Plug
RF + DC
N-Male to
N-Male adapter
to attach to the
N-Female on
cable
DC POWER
INJECTOR
5ft. LMR-400
N-Male to
N-Male adapter
to attach to the
N-Female on
cable
BreezeNet
Radio
UTP Cable
To Ethernet
Hub
Special SMA Right angle
Male connector
is required in the United States when the 24dB grid dish
* Filter
antenna is used in order to comply with FCC emission requirements.
Figure 7-7. AMP 2440 Installation Details
For technical specifications, refer to Section 10.2.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
7-9
User’s Guide
Upgrade Procedure
8. UPGRADE PROCEDURE
Firmware upgrades to the unit's flash memory is done by a simple download
procedure using a TFTP application of any kind. Before beginning an upgrade, be
sure you have the correct files and latest instructions. Upgrade packages can be
obtained at the BreezeCOM web site:
http://www.breezecom.com/TechSupport/techsupp.html.
The BreezeNET firmware includes a two-code mechanism which allows the user to
revert back and forth between the currently installed versions of the unit. One
version is assigned as Active code, the second version is assigned as Non-Active
code.
The user can download a newer version which will replace the currently assigned
Active code version. the old Active code is reassigned as the Non-active code, and
the old Non-active code is erased from the unit.
⇒ To download a new version:
1. Set up an IP connection to the device. You can verify working connection using
the Ping command.
2. Run a TFTP software of any kind and connect to the device.
3. Use Table 8-1 below to determine the specific file to use, according to the
unit’s current version.
4. Send the file to the unit's IP address, using the TFTP application. For the
source file name, use the code file supplied by BreezeCOM; for the destination
file name, use the SNMP write community parameter defined in the unit. The
default write community parameter is private.
For example: TFTP -i 192.122.123.12 PUT codesa private.
Do not reset the device during the download procedure.
5. The unit resets itself and comes up with the new upgraded version.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
8-1
User’s Guide
BreezeNET PRO.11 Configuration Utility
The new version is downloaded to the unit replacing the Active code. The old
version becomes the new Non-Active code and the old Non-Active code is
erased from the unit.
Table 8-1. Upgrade Files
Current
Version of Unit
3.2, 3.38, 3.42, 3.50
3.52, 4.204
3.62, 4.210, 4.211,
4.310
Flash Erase
File Name
download
erase
erase -fw
Software Download File Name
AP-10
eanaf
eanafb
ap_fw
SA-10, SA-40,
WB-10
eansf
eansfb
sawb_fw
The current version and type of the unit determine the files used for upgrade. For
example, when upgrading an AP-10 from version 3.52 to version 4.4.1, use the
erase and eanafb files. When upgrading a SA-10 from version 3.62 to version
4.4.1, use the fw-erase and sawb_fw files.
User’s Guide
8-2
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
System Troubleshooting
9. SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING
The following troubleshooting guide provides answers to some of the more
common problems which may occur when installing and using BreezeNET PRO.11
series products. If problems not mentioned in this guide should arise, checking the
Ethernet and WLAN counters may help (see Section 9.2). If the problem persists,
please feel free to contact your local distributor or the BreezeCOM Technical
Support Department.
9.1 Troubleshooting Guide
Problem and Indication
Possible Cause
Corrective Action
No Power to Unit. PWR
LED is off.
1. Power cord is not
properly connected.
2. Power supply is
defective.
Failure to establish wireless
link. WLNK LED is off and
unit resets every few
minutes.
1. Power supply to units
may be faulty
2. The units may not have
the same ESSID as the
AP-10.
1. Verify power cord is properly connected to the BreezeNET unit and to the
power outlet.
2. If this is not the cause, replace the
power supply.
1. Verify power to units (AP and SA/ WB).
2. Verify that all units in the network have
the same ESSID as the AP (ESSID must
be identical in all units in the network):
3. Verify wireless link:
• Set AP and unit (SA or WB) side by
side.
• Power on each unit and see if a
wireless link is established (even “D”
models without their external
antennas should establish a link if
placed side by side with the AP).
• If the units fail to associate, reset
units to factory default values reset
unit (see Section 3.4.5). The units
should now establish a wireless link.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
9-1
User’s Guide
System Troubleshooting
Problem and Indication
Possible Cause
Corrective Action
Failure to establish wireless
link (D models/external
antennas)
1. Power supply to units
may be faulty.
2. Cables may be
improperly connected
3. There may be some
problem with antenna
installation.
Wireless link established,
but there is no Ethernet
activity (AP and WB units).
1. Ethernet hub port or
UTP cable is faulty.
2. Ethernet port in unit is
faulty.
1. Verify power to units.
2. Verify that all cables are connected
securely.
3. Refer to previous Section and verify
wireless link between the units.
4. Verify that the antenna(s) are properly
installed (see relevant Section in this
manual):
• Check antenna alignment.
• Verify that antenna polarization is the
same at both ends.
• Verify that the range matches
specifications.
• Verify line-of-sight/antenna
alignment/antenna height.
1. Check that the LINK LED is on and
solid at the hub port. If this is not the
case, the port is inactive. Try another port
on the hub or another UTP cable.
2. Verify that Ethernet port in unit is
working. Ping unit to verify Ethernet
connection.
3. Verify that you are using a crossover UTP cable (pins 1 & 3, 2 & 6) if
connected directly to workstation, or a
straight-through cable if connected to
a hub.
Wireless link established,
but there is no Ethernet
activity (SA-10 and SA-40
units).
User’s Guide
1. Ethernet port on
Network Interface card is
faulty.
2. Ethernet port of unit is
faulty.
3. UTP cable is faulty.
9-2
4. Check ETHR LED indicator in unit and
Ethernet counters in Monitor to verify
Ethernet activity (see Section 3.7.1).
1. Verify that the LINK LED is lit and solid
at the NIC port. If this is not the case, the
port is inactive. Try using another UTP
cable or another workstation.
2. Ping the unit to check the Ethernet
port. If you cannot ping the unit, this may
indicate failure of cable, Ethernet port of
unit or Ethernet port of workstation’s NIC.
Change UTP cable and retry. If you still
cannot ping the unit, exchange units and
try to ping the new unit using the same
NIC and cable.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
System Troubleshooting
Problem and Indication
Possible Cause
Corrective Action
No network detected at
Station Adapter (SA-10, SA40) workstation.
1. Workstation networking
is improperly configured.
2. UTP cable connection is
faulty.
3. Failure to pass Ethernet
packets.
High quality signal but
throughput is poor.
1. Too much interference
or multipath propagation.
2. Ethernet port of the unit
may be faulty.
Link signal quality low or not
as good as expected
(indoor installation).
1. Possible multipath or
structural interference.
1. Reset both Access Point and Station
Adapter.
• Re-establish network connection.
• Verify proper workstation network
configuration.
2. Try to ping the remote network. Failure
to detect the network may indicate a
failure to pass Ethernet packets.
3. Verify UTP cable connection. Solid
LINK LED in workstation NIC indicates
proper Ethernet connection.
4. Check monitor messages for errors or
other indications of problems.
5. Check station counters to verify
increase in Ethernet counters which
indicates Ethernet activity (see Section
3.7.1).
1. Move the unit or the antennas out of
the range of interference.
• Check counters to see if more than
10% of total transmitted frames are
retransmitted fragments (see Section
3.7.1).
• Check if more than 10% of total
received data frames are bad
fragments.
2. Verify Ethernet port activity by checking
Ethernet counters (see Section 3.7.1).
Reposition the unit outside range of
possible interference.
• Check for heavy metal structures (e.g.
elevators, racks, file cabinets) near
unit.
• Check counters for excessive
retransmissions or received bad
fragments.
• Site may require higher gain
antennas.
• site may require a multicell structure
(multiple AP units) due to
multipath/structural interference.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
9-3
User’s Guide
System Troubleshooting
Problem and Indication
Possible Cause
Corrective Action
Link signal quality low or not
as good as expected
(outdoor installation).
There may be a problem
with certain aspects of
outdoor installation considerations (see relevant
section in this manual).
Unit associates with the
wrong Access Point.
In a multicell structure with
overlapping cells, the units
may not associate with the
closest Access Point.
Reduced performance in a
multi-AP configuration.
The APs in the same
coverage area have not
been assigned unique
hopping sequences.
Auto Calibration is
enabled for a “DE” unit.
Refer to Section 6.3:
• Verify that there is a clear line-of-site.
• Verify antenna height.
• Verify antenna polarization.
• Verify antenna alignment.
• Check length of cable between
antenna and unit (an overly long
extension cable may adversely affect
performance).
For a unit to associate with a specific
Access Point, assign a unique
ESSID to the Access Point and to all the
units you want to include in that wireless
network.
Assign a unique hopping sequence to
each AP in the coverage area. Each AP
must have a unique hopping sequence
regardless of ESSID.
Disable Auto Calibration for the unit.
Rx / Tx calibration
error messages.
User’s Guide
9-4
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
System Troubleshooting
9.2 Checking Counters
Checking counters is also a good way to pinpoint any problems that may occur in
the BreezeNET wireless LAN. Counters can be checked from the monitor.
See Section 3.7.1.
9.2.1 WLAN Counters
When checking WLAN counters, total retransmitted fragments should be below
10% of total transmitted (bridge) frames. If total retransmitted fragments are above
10%, this indicates errors in data transmission. Too many retransmissions may be
an indication of interference between the transmitting and receiving units. Also, the
ratio between Frames Dropped (too many retries) and Total Transmitted Frames
(Bridge) should not exceed 1:40 (2.5%)
Received bad fragments should be no more than 10% of the total received data
frames. If more than 10% of the total received data frames are bad fragments, this
may indicate that there is a problem with the wireless link.
Refer to the Troubleshooting guide (Section 9.1) above for possible corrective
action.
9.2.2 Ethernet Counters
When checking the Ethernet counters, received bad frames should be zero (0). If
this is not the case, this may indicate a problem with the Ethernet connection.
Verify Ethernet port link at hub, workstation, and unit. Assign a unique IP address
to the unit and ping.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
9-5
User’s Guide
Appendix
10. APPENDIX
This appendix includes the following sections:
•
Supported MIBs and Traps – Lists MIBs and traps supported by BreezeNET
PRO.11 series products.
•
Technical Specifications – Lists product and attachment specifications.
•
Wireless LAN Concepts – Provides an overview of the concepts related to
wireless LANs.
•
Radio Signal Propagation – Discusses the concepts and applications of radio
signal propagation relevant to wireless LANs.
•
IEEE 802.11 Technical Tutorial – Introduces the new IEEE 802.11 standard.
10.1 Supported MIBs and Traps
This chapter lists MIBs and traps supported by BreezeNET PRO.11 series products.
10.1.1 Supported MIBs
All products in the BreezeNET PRO.11 series as well as the Extended Range
Access Point (AP-10 DE) and Workgroup Bridge (WB-10 DE) contain an
embedded SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) agent. All functions can
be accessed from the Management Information Base (MIB) using an SNMP
application. IP host software
BreezeNET PRO.11 series agents support the following MIBs:
•
MIB-II (RFC1213)
•
BRIDGE-MIB (RFC1286)
• BreezeCOM Private MIB
The BreezeCOM Private MIB can be viewed by opening the MIB file on the
provided diskette.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
10-1
User’s Guide
Appendix
The following table provides a detailed description of all the supported MIBs and a
short description of each.
MIB
BrzSys
sysCmd
Name and Description
sysReset - Setting the value of this attribute to ON is interpreted as a system reset
command.
SysSetDefaults - Setting the value of this attribute to ON causes the system to set the
NVRAM parameters to the factory default values. These values will become active after
the next system reset.
sysSetParcialDefaults - Setting the value of this attribute to ON causes the system to
set the partial NVRAM parameters to the factory default values. These values will
become active after the next system reset.
sysResetCounters - Setting the value of this attribute to ON causes the system to clear
the performance counters.
sysResetCounters - Setting the value of this attribute to ON causes the system to clear
the performance counters.
sysTrapEnable - Setting the value of this attribute to OFF disables the system from
sending traps (see Section 10.1.2).
sysTrapCounter - This attribute counts the total number of traps generated by the
device since initialization.
SysCarrierSense - This attribute defines the carrier sense absolute threshold.
sysDeltaCarrierSense - This attribute defines the carrier sense differential threshold.
sysRunFromNonActiveCode - This attribute forces you to run from non active code if
the last is valid.
AccessRights
sysDisplayAccessRights - This attribute displays the access rights of the
station.
SysChangeRightsToUSER - This attribute allows you to change the access
rights of that station to USER. Type any string other then NULL to change
the access right to user.
SysChangeRightsToINSTALLER - This attribute allows you you change the
access rights of that station to INSTALLER. Type the password for the
desired access right.
SysChangeRightsToTECHNITIAN - This attribute allows you change the
access rights of that station to AUTHORIZED TECHNICIAN. Type the
password for the desired access right.
SysChangeInstallerPassword - This attribute allows you change the Installer
Password of that station. Type the new password, maximum 8 characters.
SysParams
User’s Guide
brzHWMacAddress - The Hardware MAC address of the device.
10-2
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Appendix
MIB
Name and Description
BrzApplTunneling - This attribute specifies the device tunneling mode, as follows: IPX the device will enable IPX tunneling only. Apple_Talk - the device will enable AppleTalk
tunneling only. None - the device will disable tunneling. Both - the device will enable
only IPX and AppleTalk tunneling.
BrzPositiveBrg - This attribute specifies the Wired to Wireless LAN bridging mode at
the AP, as follows: Reject_Unknown - the AP forwards to the Wireless LAN only frames
that are destined to associated stations. Forward_Unknown - The AP forwards to the
Wireless LAN frames destined to associated and unknown addresses. This value
should be used only for Wireless Bridge installations. Intelligent - If connected to a
wireless bridge, the AP automatically activates the Forward_Unknown option. NA - not
applicable value, for non-AP devices.
brzIpFilter - Setting the value of this attribute to ON will cause the system to filter all
non-IP traffic to the Wireless LAN. This should be used on environments where only IP
(and ARP) traffic is permitted. This option is available only on AP (NA value assigned in
non-AP devices.
brzTranslationMode - When this attribute is set to ON, data frames are translated for
the Wireless LAN transmission. If it is set to OFF, tunneling of data frames applies. All
devices within the same Wireless LAN network must have the same
brzTranslationMode assigned.
BrzWIXSupport - This attribute applies to installations with co-located APs. When it is
set to ON, a load balancing algorithm is activated, resulting in balanced Basic Service
Sets (cells). This option may be set only at some of the stations in the network.
BrzWlanNetID - This attribute identifies the Wireless LAN network name (Extended
Service Set ID) for that device. Stations are not allowed to associate to APs with
different Net IDs.
BrzAuthenticationType - This attribute indicates the authentication algorithm used
during the authentication sequence. The value of this attribute is one of the following:
1 - Open System,
2 - Shared Key
20 - Special Authentication Algorithm (#0)
21 - Special Authentication Algorithm (#1)
22 - Special Authentication Algorithm (#2)."
BrzWlanRTNetID - This attribute identifies the run-time Wireless LAN network name
(Extended Service Set ID) for that device. Stations are not allowed to associate to APs
with different Net IDs.
BrzApRedundancySupport - Setting the value of this attribute to ON will cause the
Access-Point to discontinue sending beacons to the Wireless LAN after no multicast or
unicast frames for the cell arrive from the Ethernet during a period of 100 seconds. This
option is available ONLY on APs (a NA value is assigned in non-AP devices).
brzWlanRelayUnicast - This attribute enables the relaying of unicast frames on the
WLAN within the BSS. Setting this attribute to OFF means that unicast frames received
from the WLAN by the AP can only be passed to the Distribution System. Applicable
only in AP's.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
10-3
User’s Guide
Appendix
MIB
Name and Description
brzWlanRelayBroadcast - This attribute enables the relaying of broadcast frames on
the WLAN within the BSS. Setting this attribute to OFF means that broadcast frames
received from the WLAN by the AP can only be passed to the Distribution System.
Applicable only in APs.
brzApRedundancyLimit - This attribute sets the time limit, after which an Access-Point
discontinues sending beacons to the Wireless LAN when no multicast or unicast
frames for the cell arrive from the Ethernet. This option is available ONLY on AP (NA
value assigned in non-AP devices).
brzStaNumForLargeCW - This attribute sets the minimum number of stations in this
cell that will cause this unit to use large CW; otherwise the unit will use the default CW.
(The value is in the range of 1-120.)
brzPowerMngMode - This attribute describes the current power management mode of
the station. The allowed values are ACTIVE (for normal mode of operation), and
POWER SAVE. An STA will always return an ACTIVE value.
BrzACKDelayed - This attribute applies to installations with co-located APs. When set
to ON, a load balancing algorithm is activated, resulting in balanced Basic Service Sets
(cells). This option may be set only at some of the stations in the network.
BrzDTIMPperiod - ACCESS read-write STATUS mandatory description. This attribute
defines the rate of DTIM frames. The value is expressed in Beacon Intervals. This
attribute is applicable only in APs.
brzPowerMngBitTestMode - This attribute describes the current power management bit
test mode of the AP. The allowed values are DISABLED (for normal mode of operation)
and ENABLED.
BrzBeaconInterval - This attribute defines the rate of Beacon frames. The value is
expressed in Dwells. This attribute is applicable only in APs.
brzPowerSaveSupport - This attribute defines the power save support.
0 - Power Save support disabled
1 - Power Save support enabled
2 - Enable Power Save support with PM bit test This attribute is applicable only in APs.
brzWlanAssocAge - This attribute defines the Association Aging Period.
BrzDisplayRights - This attribute displays the current rights of the device.
BrzNonActiveCodeState - This attribute displays the current non active code state.
Warning! Activating this attribute will cause substantial degradation in station
throughput. Respond rate is also delayed.
BrzDisplayNonActiveCodeVersion - This attribute displays the current non active code
version.
brzIntelligentBridgingPeriod - This attribute defines the Intelligent Bridging Period in
seconds.
IpParams
User’s Guide
trapHostsTable - A list of trap_hosts entries.
10-4
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Appendix
MIB
Name and Description
TrapHostsEntry - A trap-receiving host entry, containing trap-host objects for a
particular host.
TrapHostsIndex - A unique value for each trap_host. Its value ranges
between 1 and 3.
TrapIPaddress - The IP address of the host to be sent all traps.
TrapCommunity - The community of the host to be sent all traps.
IpAddr - The IP address of this device, used to access the device through any of its
LAN Ports (Ethernet or WLAN).
MaskIP - The IP Network mask used by the IP entity when accessing devices through
any of its LAN Ports (Ethernet or WLAN).
ReadCommunity - The device read community. If updated, it will be used after the next
reset.
WriteCommunity - The device write community. If updated, it will be used after the next
reset.
GatewayIPaddr - Gateway default IP address.
BrzIPStack - This attribute defines whether to use the IP stack or not.
BrzWlanPara
ms
brzMaxRate - This attribute indicates the rate (in Mbits per second) at which data will be
transmitted across the medium. The default value is 3.
brzMobilLvl - This attribute indicates the expected mobility level of the system. The
default value of this attribute is stationary.
brzAvrgRssi - A value representing the average Signal Strength for packets received
from the current AP. This attribute is applicable only for a station (an AP will always
return a value of 255).
BrzWlanProtocol - This attribute specifies the MAC/PHY protocol utilized by this
system. This attribute is not write accessible for regular users.
BrzWlanTrapThreashold - This attribute specifies a threshold value for sending the
WlanStatusTRAP. When the Wireless LAN quality drops below (or goes above) this
value, a trap will be issued.
BrzWlanQuality - A measure for quality (and noise level) of the Wireless LAN.
BrzLastBeacon - A value representing the last dwell to receive beacons from that AP.
BrzBadBeacons - A value representing the number of beacons received with a strength
less than the join level from that AP.
BrzLoadStations - A value representing the number of stations associated with that AP.
KnownAPsTable - aKnownAPs in dot11, with additional quality information. A table of
identities of the most recently known Access Points, and their signal quality.
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Appendix
MIB
Name and Description
KnownAPsEntry - An entry in the known APs table.
knownAPsIndex - A unique value, representing the index of the AP in the
Known APs table
knownAPsValue - This attributes specifies the address of a recently known
AP. The default value of this attribute shall be null (an empty entry).
KnownAPsQuality - This attribute specifies the current reception quality of
frames transmitted by that AP. At a station, a GOOD value indicates that
the station can join that AP.
KnownAPsAvrgRssi - A value representing the average Signal Strength for
packets received from that AP.
KnownAPsStatus - The validity of the current entry, either invalid or valid.
KnownAPsLoadStations - A value representing the number of stations
associated with that AP.
KnownAPsGoodBeacons - A value representing the number of beacons
received with Strength more then join level from that AP.
KnownAPsTotalBeacons - A value representing the total number of
beacons (good and bad) received from that AP.
BssInfo
bssNumOfStations - This attribute specifies the number of devices that are currently
associated with this AP.
BssNumOfStationsPeak - This attribute contains the maximum value that
bssNumOfStations has reached.
TBD - This attribute contains the total beacons sent counter.
BssCollectPerStationInfo - When this attribute is set to ON, the AP accumulates
Wireless Link statistics per station. This option is available only for the AP. At stations,
it is always assigned with a NA (Not Applicable) value.
Warning! Setting this attribute to ON can cause substantial degradation in cell
throughput.
bssNumOfBeaconLost - This attribute contains the total beacons lost counter.
BssNumOfStationsAuthenticated - This attribute specifies the number of devices, that
are currently authenticated with this AP.
BssNumOfStationsAuthenticatedPeak - This attribute contains the maximum value that
bssNumOfStationsAuthenticated has reached.
BssApAdb
adbTable - A table of the associated stations.
AdbEntry - An entry in the ADB table.
stAddress - The MAC Address of the station represented by this entry in the
Association Data Base.
StCFMode - This attribute is set to ON if the station is in the Contention Free Polling list
of the AP.
StMaxRate - This attribute indicates the maximum rate (in Mbits per second) at which
that station transmits data across the Wireless medium.
User’s Guide
10-6
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Appendix
MIB
Name and Description
StCurTxRate - The rate currently used by the AP to transmit packets to this station.
StRssi - A value representing the average Signal Strength for packets received from
that station. This attribute is updated only if sysCollectPerStationInfo is set to ON.
StPMMode - The current Power Management mode of this station.
StTxFragments1M - This attribute counts the total number of fragments (including
retransmissions), that were transmitted to that station over the Wireless LAN in 1Mbps.
It is updated only if sysCollectPerStationInfo is set to ON.
StTxFragments2M - This attribute counts the total number of fragments (including
retransmissions), that were transmitted to that station over the Wireless LAN in 2Mbps.
It is updated only if sysCollectPerStationInfo is set to ON.
StTxFragments3M - This attribute counts the total number of fragments (including
retransmissions), that were transmitted to that station over the Wireless LAN in 3Mbps.
It is updated only if sysCollectPerStationInfo is set to ON.
StTxRetry - This attribute counts the total number of retransmissions to that station
over the Wireless LAN. It is updated only if sysCollectPerStationInfo is set to ON.
StTxDroppedPackets - This attribute counts the number of transmit frames (data or
management) to this station that were dropped because of too many retransmissions.
It is updated only if sysCollectPerStationInfo is set to ON.
StRxFragments - This attribute counts the total number of fragments (data and
management) that have been received successfully from that station through the
Wireless LAN. It is updated only if sysCollectPerStationInfo is set to ON.
StWlanStatus - This attribute specifies the current reception quality of frames,
transmitted by that station.
StResetCounters Setting the value of this attribute to ON will clear the station counters
at the AP (clear the counters in that adbEntry).
Warning! Setting the value of this attribute to ON may cause momentary
degradation in performance.
stType - This attribute identifies the device type of the station.
BrzSTA
brzCurrentAPMacAddress - The hardware MAC address of the AP currently associated
with. Available ONLY in station.
BrzLastAPMacAddress - The hardware MAC address of the last AP that the station
was associated with. Available ONLY in stations.
BrzPreferredAPMacAddress The hardware MAC address of the preferred AP, to which
the station should associate whenever possible. Null value here indicates no
preference. Available ONLY in stations.
BrzRoamToAPMacAddress - Setting this attribute to a specific AP MAC address will
cause the station to roam immediately to that AP, if possible. Available ONLY for
stations.
brzCFMode - This attribute is set to ON if the station required Contention Free services
from the AP (hence it is in the AP's Contention Free list). This option is available ONLY
on stations. A NA value is returned for all APs.
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Appendix
MIB
Name and Description
brzTx1MBitRate - Total transmitted frames in 1 MBit rate.
brzTx2MBitRate - Total transmitted frames in 2 MBit rate.
brzTx3MBitRate - Total transmitted frames in 3 MBit rate.
BrzTotalRetx - Total Retransmitted frames including all rates.
BrzRoamPara
ms
brzRoamDecisionWin - This parameter defines a minimum number of RSSI samples
which is required to make a decision about the current WLAN channel quality. A new
RSSI sample arrives with each incoming frame. Available ONLY in stations.
BrzRoamDecisionNumerator - This parameter defines the maximum number of RSSI
samples that are allowed to be below brzRoamDecisionRSSIThreshold, among a
number equal to brzRoamDecisionWin of the last arrived samples. If a number of bad
samples (i.e. below brzRoamDecisionRSSIThreshold) exceeds this parameter setting,
the channel is considered to be BAD. Available ONLY in stations.
BrzRoamDecisionRSSIThreshold - If an RSSI sample is bellow the value which is
defined by this parameter the sample is considered to be BAD. Available ONLY in
stations.
BrzJoinDecisionRSSIThreshold - A station will join a new AP only if the AP transmits
with an RSSI quality above the value which is defined by this parameter. Available
ONLY in stations. In AP's, this is the threshold for sending Bad WLAN Conditions traps.
If a station associated with the AP is heard at an RSII level below this threshold, a Bad
WLAN Conditionds trap is sent by the AP.
BrzNeighboringBeacons - This parameters defines once in how many dwell times the
AP will send a neighboring beacon. Available ONLY in AP's.
brzNumberOfProbeResponses - If a number of good RSSI samples coming from a
neighbor is greater than or equal to this parameter, the neighbor might be selected for
joining.
BrzNumberOfBeaconsForDisconnect - This parameter defines the maximum number of
consecutive not arrived Beacons allowed before a disconnect decision. Available ONLY
in stations.
BrzMaxNumberOfScanning - This parameter defines a maximum number of scanning
attempts to perform before system reset. A value of zero implies non reset. Available
ONLY in stations.
BrzNeighboringBeaconRate - This parameter defines the Neighboring Beacon Rate in
dwells. A value of zero implies non Neighboring Beacons. Available ONLY in AP's.
brzCnt
brzDSCnt
brzRxFromDS - This attribute counts the total number of frames that have been
received successfully from the Wired Distribution system.
BrzRxBadFromDS - This attribute counts the number errored frames, received from the
Wired Distribution system.
BrzRxOctetsFromDS - This attribute counts the total number of octets that have been
received successfully from the Wired Distribution system.
BrgbrzMissedFrames - This attribute counts the total number of missed frames that
have missed the transmission to the Ethernet LAN.
User’s Guide
10-8
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Appendix
MIB
Name and Description
BrzTxToDS - This attribute counts the total number of frames that have been
transmitted to the Wired Distribution system.
BrzWlanCnt
brzTxWlanCnt - brzTxPacketsToWlan - This attribute counts the total number of frames
(data and management) that have been transmitted to the Wireless LAN.
BrzTxMSDUToWlan - This attribute counts the total number of frames (data frames)
that have been transmitted to the Wireless LAN.
BrzDiscarded - This attribute counts the number of data frames that were internally
discarded in the system, instead of being transmitted over the Wireless LAN. High
values of this counter indicate either very high traffic volume, or a noisy environment
that prevents Wireless transmissions.
BrzTxFragToWlan - This attribute counts the total number of fragments (including
retransmissions), that were transmitted to the Wireless LAN.
BrzRetryOnWlan - This attribute counts the total number of retransmitted fragments on
the Wireless LAN.
BrzFailedCountOnWlan - Equals to the dot11 FailedCount. This attribute counts the
number of frames that were dropped (not transmitted), due to the number of retransmit
attempts exceeding the RetryMax value.
BrzTxErrorAckTimeOut - This attribute counts the total number of acknowledge
timeouts on the Wireless LAN.
BrzTxErrorAckCRC - This attribute counts the total number of acknowledge CRC errors
on the Wireless LAN.
BrzTxErrorNoTimeUntilHop - This attribute counts the total number of timeouts until
end of the hop on the wireless cell.
BrzTxErrorUnderRunAndCTS - This attribute counts the total number of errors caused
by hardware problems (Under Run).
BrzTxErrorAbort - This attribute counts the total number of errors caused by frame
abortion from Boori.
BrzTxErrorFrameReceived - This attribute counts the total number of errors caused by
frame failure on the Wireless LAN.
BrzRxWlanCnt - brzRxPacketsFromWlan - This attribute counts the total number of
frames (data and management) that have been received successfully from the
Wireless LAN.
BrzRxMSDUFromWlan - This attribute counts the total number of MSDUs (data
frames) that have been received successfully from the Wireless LAN.
BrzRxFragFromWlan - Equals to the dot11 ReceivedFrameCount. This attribute counts
the number of fragments (data and management), that have been received
successfully from the Wireless LAN.
BrzRxBadFragFromWlan - This counter is incremented when an error is detected in a
fragment received from the Wireless LAN.
BrzRxDuplicateFragFromWlan - Equals to the dot11 FrameDuplicateCount This
counter is incremented when a duplicated fragment is received from the Wireless LAN.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
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User’s Guide
Appendix
MIB
Name and Description
FreqStatisticsTable - A table for the traffic statistics of each frequency.
FreqStatisticsEntry - An entry in the Frequencies Statistics table.
freqStatisticsIndex - A unique value representing the index of the
frequency in the hopping sequence table
freqNo - This attributes specifies the channel number of the frequency for
which this entry accumulates the statistics.
FreqTotalReceived - This attribute counts the total number of frames (data
and management) that have been received successfully from the Wireless
LAN in that specific frequency.
BrzRoamCnt
brzNumOfReassocRequests - For an AP: The number of Association and
Reassociation requests received since the last reset of the AP. This counter is useful
for getting information about mobility activity on the BSS. For a Station: The number of
Associations and Reassociation requests issued by the station since the last reset.
BrzMngCnt
brzMngAP - ProbeResponseSent - For an AP: Number of Probe response that sent
ProbeResponseLost - For an AP: Number of Probe response that got lost.
ProbeResponseSentRetx - For an AP: Number of retransmitted Probe response frames
that sent.
AssocResponseSent - For an AP: Number of Association Probe response frames that
sent.
AssocResponseLost - For an AP: Number of Association Probe response frames that
got lost.
AssocResponseSentRetx - For WB or SA: Number of retransmitted Association Probe
response frames that sent.
BrzMngSAWB - ProbRequestSent - For WB or SA: Number of Probe request frames
that sent.
AuthRequestSent - For WB or SA: Number of Authentication request frames that sent.
AuthRequestSentRetx - For WB or SA: Number of Retransmitted Association request
frames that sent.
AssocRequestSent - For WB or SA: Number of Association request frames that sent.
AssocRequestSentRetx - For WB or SA: Number of Retransmitted Association request
frames that sent.
BrzPSCnt
PSFreeEntries - For an AP: Number of station free entries.
PSInternallydiscarded - For an AP: Number of Internally Discarded frames.
PSstations - For an AP: Number of power saved station connected to this AP.
PSPowerSavingAged - For an AP: Number of frames that were not transmitted due to
the end of aging time.
PowreStationsTable - A list of trap_hosts entries.
User’s Guide
10-10
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Appendix
MIB
Name and Description
PowreStationsEntry - A trap-receiving host entry, containing trap-host objects for a
particular host.
PowerSaveIndex - A unique value, representing the index of the frequency
in the hopping sequence table
powerSaveStationID - The identifier numerator of the Station in the AP.
Note: ID zero is Broadcast.
PowerSaveBuffered - This attribute specifies how many messages are waiting for that
station in the AP buffers.
PowerSaveAged - This attribute specifies how many stations were deleted after a long
waiting time.
PowerSaveSent - This attribute specifies how many messages were sent to that
station.
PowerSaveQueueFull - This attribute specifies how many messages were discarded
because the queue to that station was full.
BrzTraps
brzTrapAPMacAddr - The MAC address of an AP.
BrzTrapSTAMacAddr - The MAC address of a station device.
BrzTrapMacAddress - A STA or AP MAC address.
BrzTrapRssiQuality - The RSSI level of the signal received from the Access Point.
BrzTrapLastRssiQuality - The RSSI level of the signal received from the previous
Access Point.
BrzTrapIndex - Index number for future trap implementation.
BrzTrapText - Textual string for future trap implementation.
BrzTrapToggle - A general ON/OFF toggle value, for the traps.
BrzTrapSTAType - This attribute identifies the device type of the station.
BrzAProamingInTRAP - A trap indicating that a station has roamed into this AP. It
contains the MAC address of the associated station and the device type of that station.
BrzAPassociatedTRAP - An AP trap indicating that a new station was associated with
this AP. It contains the MAC address of the associated station.
BrzAPdisassociatedTRAP - An AP trap indicating that the station disassociated itself
from the AP. The trap contains the MAC address of the disassociated station.
BrzAPagingTRAP - An AP trap indicating that the station association was aged out,
and removed from that AP. The trap contains the MAC address of the aging station.
BrzAProamedOutTRAP - An AP trap indicating that a given station has roamed out
from this AP. The trap contains the MAC address of the roamed out station.
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
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Appendix
MIB
Name and Description
BrzSTAassociatedTRAP - A station trap, indicating that the station became associatedwith, or has roamed-to, another AP. The trap contains the MAC address and the
average RSSI level of the new AP. If the station was roaming, the MAC address of the
old AP, and the RSSI level prior to roaming, is also provided (for an association, the
second address will appear as all-zeros).
BrzWlanStatusTRAP - An AP and STA trap, indicating a change in the conditions of the
wireless media. An ON value is sent when the Wireless LAN quality drops below the
brzWlanTrapThreashold value. A trap with an OFF value is sent if the quality improves,
exceeding the brzWlanTrapThreashold value. The Wireless LAN quality value is also
sent.
BrzWlanStatusOfStationTRAP - An AP trap, indicating a change in the quality of the
Wireless connection, with a specific (associated) station. An ON value indicates a
specially bad connection, and an OFF value is sent if the quality improves, exceeding a
predetermined threshold value. The brzTrapMacAddress contains the MAC address of
the applicable station.
BrzGeneralTRAP - An AP and STA general purpose trap, for future trap
implementation.
brzdot11
dot11smt - dot11DefaultWEPKey1 - This attribute indicates the WEP secret key value
corresponding to KeyID 1. The WEP secret key is logically WRITE-ONLY. Attempts to
read this attribute shall return a string of asterisks (enter exactly 10 Hex-Decimal digits).
dot11DefaultWEPKey2 - This attribute indicates the WEP secret key value
corresponding to KeyID 2. The WEP secret key is logically WRITE-ONLY. Attempts to
read this attribute shall return a string of asterisks (enter exactly 10 Hex-Decimal digits).
dot11DefaultWEPKey3 - This attribute indicates the WEP secret key value
corresponding to KeyID 3. The WEP secret key is logically WRITE-ONLY. Attempts to
read this attribute shall return a string of asterisks (enter exactly 10 Hex-Decimal digits).
dot11DefaultWEPKey4 - This attribute indicates the WEP secret key value
corresponding to KeyID 4. The WEP secret key is logically WRITE-ONLY. Attempts to
read this attribute shall return a string of asterisks (enter exactly 10 Hex-Decimal digits).
dot11PrivacyGrp - dot11PrivacyOptionImplemented - This attribute, when true,
indicates that the 802.11 WEP option is implemented.
dot11PrivacyInvoke - This attribute indicates if a special mechanism is invoked, to
protect the Wireless LAN transmissions. The value is one of the following:
1 - Standard WEP,
2 - No Encryption,
20 - Special Encryption (#0),
21 - Special Encryption (#1),
22 - Special Encryption (#2)
dot11WEPDefaultKeyID - This attribute indicates the use of the first, second, third or
fourth DefaultWEPKey when set to values of one, two, three or four.
dot11Preauthentication - This attribute, when true, enables Pre-authentication
algorithm.
User’s Guide
10-12
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Appendix
MIB
Name and Description
dot11Operatio
nGrp
dot11RTSThreshold - This attribute indicates the number of bytes in an MPDU (frame),
above which an RTS/CTS handshake will be performed. Setting this attribute to be
larger than the maximum frame size, will prevent the RTS/CTS handshake for frames
transmitted by this station.
dot11ShortRetryLimit - This attribute indicates the number of retransmission attempts
made, before a failure condition is indicated.
dot11FragmentationThreshold - This attribute specifies the current maximum size, in
octets, of the MPDU that will be delivered to the PHY. A frame will be broken into
fragments if its size exceeds the value of this attribute, after adding MAC header and
tail. The value is one of the following:
1 - 560 octets
2 - 800 octets
3 - 1518 octets
dot11DwellRetryLimit - This attribute indicates the number of retransmission attempts
made in several Dwells, before a failure condition is indicated. Values between 0 to 9.
dot11MaxMulticastRate - This attribute indicates the basic rate for multicast frames.
dot11DwellTime - This attribute indicates the dwell time in Kilo-microsecond Allowed
Values are between 19 to 390. This attribute is available only in AP's.
dot11res
dot11ResourceInfo - dot11manufacturerName - This attribute identifies the
manufacturer of the resource.
Dot11manufacturerProductName - This attribute identifies the manufacturer product
name of the resource.
dot11manufacturerProductVersion - This attribute identifies the manufacturer's product
version of the resource.
dot11CurrentStationStatus - This attribute identifies the current Station WLAN status.
dot11TotalNumberOfAssocSinceLastReset - This attribute identifies how many time the
device Associated since startup.
dot11phy
dot11PhyOperationGrp - This attribute specifies the regularity domain, for the radio
operation of this device. This integer contains an 8 bit value, as defined below:
00h - EthAirNet
10h - USA
20h - Canada
30h - Europe
31h - Spain
32h - France
37h - Europe Double Deviation
38h - Netherlands
40h - Japan
41h - Korea
48h - Israel
49h - Australia
60h - Proprietary
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Appendix
MIB
Name and Description
dot11PhyAntennaGrp - dot11CurrentTxAntenna - This attribute specifies the current
antenna being used to transmit. The value is one of the following:
0 - Intelligent antennas selection
1 - Transmitting only with antenna 1
2 - Transmitting always with antenna 2.
dot11PhyTxPwrGrp - dot11CurrentTxPwrLvl. This attribute specifies the power level,
currently being used to transmit data. The value is one of the following:
0 - Low or 1 - High.
dot11PhyFHSSGrp - dot11CurrentDwellTime OBJECT-TYPE This attribute specifies
the current time, in Kilo-microseconds, that the radio operates on a single channel. The
value is between 19 to 390. The same Dwell Time value should be assigned to all the
devices within the same Wireless LAN network.
dot11CurrentSet - This attribute represents the current set of patterns that the device is using
to determine the hop sequence. The range of values is 1 to 3, and the default is 1.
dot11CurrentPattern - This attribute represents the current pattern that the device is
using to determine the hop sequence.
dot11MultySupport - dot11MultyRateSupport - This attribute indicates the multi cast
rate support.
dot11MultyRateDecisionWindow - This attribute indicates the multi cast rate decision
window size.
dot11Mainten
ance
dot11WaitforAssociationAddress - This attribute indicates the station MAC address.
0 - Use mine
1 - Wait for update via Ethernet Available only for Stations
dot11JapanCallSign - This attribute indicates the Japan call sign string. Available only
for Japan standard.
User’s Guide
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Appendix
10.1.2 Supported Traps
The following traps are implemented by BreezeNET PRO.11 units. All BreezeNET
PRO.11 units that have the SNMP Traps parameter enabled will send traps to the
network’s designated managers. The traps can be viewed and filtered using
SNMPc.
To enable/disable trap sending for a device, use the IP and SNMP Parameters
menu (see Section 3.4.2).
The following table lists the traps implemented by BreezeCOM PRO.11 units:
Trap
Variables
Description
brzAProamingIn
brzTrapSTAMacAddr
BrzAPassociated
brzTrapSTAMacAddr
BrzAPdisassociated
brzTrapSTAMacAddr
BrzAPaging
brzTrapSTAMacAddr
BrzAProamedout
brzTrapSTAMacAddr
BrzSTAassociated
brzLastAPMacAddr
brzTrapAPMac
brzTrapLastRssiQuali
tybrzTrapRssiQuality
BrzWlanStatus
brzTrapToggle
brzTrapMacAddress
A station has roamed into this AP coverage area.
The trap contains the MAC address of the
associated station.
A new station is associated with this AP. The trap
contains the MAC address of the associated
station.
A station has disassociated itself from this AP. The
trap contains the MAC address of the associated
station.
A station association was aged out and removed
from this AP. The trap contains the MAC address of
the aged-out station.
A station has roamed out of this AP’s range. The
trap contains the MAC address of the station that
roamed out.
A station has become associated with, or roamed
to, a new AP. The trap contains the MAC address
and average RSSI level of the new AP (TrapAPMac
and TrapRssiQuality variables). If the station has
been roaming, the MAC address of the old AP and
the RSSI level prior to roaming are also provided
(LastAPMacAddr and LastRssiQuality variables).
For an association, the second address appears as
all zeros.
The wireless media condition has changed. An ON
value is sent when the wireless LAN quality for a
station or AP drops below the WLAN trap threshold.
An OFF value is sent if the quality improves beyond
the threshold. The current value of wireless LAN
quality is also sent.
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Appendix
Trap
Variables
Description
BrzWlanStatusOfStati
on
brzTrapToggle
brzTrapMacAddress
BrzGeneral
brzTrapIndex
brzTrapText
User’s Guide
The quality of the wireless connection to the AP has
changed. An ON value is sent when the connection
goes lower than the predetermined threshold. An
OFF value is sent when the quality improves above
the threshold. The brzTrapMacAddress variable
contains the MAC address of the applicable station.
For future use.
10-16
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Appendix
10.2 Technical Specifications
10.2.1 Specifications for BreezeNET PRO.11 Units
The following table provides the technical specifications for all products in the
BreezeNET PRO.11 series.
Technical Specifications
AP-10 PRO. 11, SA-10/40 PRO. 11,
WB-10 PRO. 11
SA-PCR PRO.11
SA-PCD PRO.11
Wired LAN interface
Compliant with
Ethernet / IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD
standard
N/A
Physical Interface
10BaseT
PC card type II /
PCMCIA 2.1
Network Operating Systems
supported
All
Windows 95, 98, NT4
Network protocols supported
All
NDIS
Wireless LAN interface
Compliant with
IEEE 802.11 CSMA / CA Wireless LAN standard
Physical interface – two antennas
Integrated or External
Radio Specifications
Type
Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)
Frequency range
2.4 GHz – 2.4835 GHz (ISM band)
(different ranges available for countries using other bands)
Dwell time
32, 64, 128 ms
Transmitted power - integrated
antennas
Up to 100 mW (20dBm) EIRP
Transmitted power - external antennas D models:
- High Power (at the connector):
17dBm (50mW)
- Low Power (at the connector): 4dBm
(2.5 mW)
DE models:
At the connector: -2dBm (0.01mW)
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N/A
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Appendix
Technical Specifications
AP-10 PRO. 11, SA-10/40 PRO. 11,
WB-10 PRO. 11
SA-PCR PRO.11
SA-PCD PRO.11
DL models:
At the connector: 4dBm (2.5mW)
Sensitivity:
@ 1 Mbps
−81dBm
@ 2 Mbps
−75dBm
@ 3 Mbps
−67dBm
Modulation
Multilevel GFSK
Demodulation Technology
DSP-based with adaptive equalization
Antenna Diversity
Two antennas, selected for use on a packet basis
Frequency Accuracy
+/- 10 PPM
Approvals of Compliance
FCC part 15, ETS 300-328, UL, UL/C, TUV/GS, CE
Configuration and Management
Configuration and Setup
SNMP management
SNMP agents
Via Local Monitor port (serial RS-232)
Via Application
N/A
MIB II, Bridge MIB, WLAN MIB, and private
MIB
Access via
Wired LAN, Wireless LAN
Site Survey
Via Local Monitor port (serial RS-232)
Via SNMP
Via Application
Front Panel Display LED
indicators
- Power on
- Wired LAN activity
- Wireless LAN synchronization
- Wireless LAN signal quality/Load
- Link Status
- Data Traffic
S/W upgradeable
Through TFTP download
via PC
System Considerations
Range (Access Point to Station)
Depends on rate and antenna cable length/quality.
(Accurate values must be calculated for specific installations).
Refer to Section 5.3.7.
Range - unobstructed with
integrated antennas
2000 ft. (600m)
1500 ft. (450m)
Range - unobstructed with
external
antennas (models D, DE and
DL)
USA FCC - up to 6 miles
Europe ETSI (DL model only) - up to 2.5
km
Europe ETSI (DE model only) - up to 5 km
Non-Regulated - 30 km and above
N/A
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BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
Appendix
Technical Specifications
AP-10 PRO. 11, SA-10/40 PRO. 11,
WB-10 PRO. 11
Range - Office Environment
Up to 500 ft. (150m)
Maximum no. of APs per wired
LAN
Unlimited
Maximum no. of co-located
(overlapping) cells (Access
Points)
15
Data Rate:
1, 2, or 3 Mbps
Up to 2 Mbps
Over 5 Mbps with overlapped cells
over the air
nominal net
aggregate
High Speed roaming
up to 60 mph (90 kph)
Load sharing support
yes (with WIX)
SA-PCR PRO.11
SA-PCD PRO.11
Dynamic rate selection based Yes
on radio medium quality
Electrical
External Power Supply
100V - 250V, 50-60Hz, 0.5A
via network PC
Input Voltage
5Vdc
5Vdc
Power Consumption
1.5A (peak)
1.2A (average)
- XMT 365mA (peak)
- RCV 280mA (peak)
Dimensions (without antennas
and power supply)
5.1” x 3.4” x 1.35”
(13cm x 8.6cm x 3cm)
standard PCMCIA Type
II
Weight (without antennas and
power supply)
0.9 lb. (0.4 kg.)
1.1 oz (32 gr.)
Environmental
Operating Temperature
32° F - 105° F (0° C - 40° C)
Operating Humidity
5% - 95% non-condensing
Note: All specifications are subject to change without notice.
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10.2.2 Specifications for TPA 24 Transmit Power Amplifier
Models used with the
BreezeNET PRO.11 Series
• TPA 24 NL
• TPA 24 NH
Input Power
• TPA 24 NL: -10dBm - 0dBm (Low input)
• TPA 24 NH: 0dBm - +10dBm (High input)
Output Power
24 dBm (250mW) (fixed output level)
Input Impedance
50W
Output Impedance
50W (DC short)
Operating Temperature
-20° to 50°C
Power Requirements
12V; 420 mA (Power Supply and Power Inserter are supplied
with models TPA-24 NL and TPA-24 NH)
Connectors
• TPA 24: IN - N-type Male; OUT - N-type Female
• Power Inserter: RF - N-type Male; RF&DC - N-type Female
Dimensions
70mm x 150mm x 25mm (2.8”x 6”x 1”)
Operating Environment
• TPA 24 - For outdoor/indoor use
• Power Supply - For indoor use
• Power Inserter - For indoor use
Note: All specifications are subject to change without notice.
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Appendix
10.2.3 Specifications for LNA 10 Low Noise Receive Amplifier
Gain
10dB
Noise Figure
1.5dB Typ, 2dB Max.
Response Flatness
± 1.5dB
Max. RF Input Level
-15dBm
Input Impedance
50W
Output Impedance
50W
Connectors
• LNA-10:
• Power Inserter:
RF IN: N-type, female
RF OUT: N-type, male
Signal and Power IN: not in use
Signal and Power OUT: F-type,
female
To CONV - F-type, female
To TV - F-type, female
Power Supply:
Required Voltage
Required Current
+12V to +28Vdc
20mA
Operating Temperature
-20° C to +50° C
Dimensions
60mm x 35mm x 25mm
(2.3”x 1.3”x 1”)
Operating Environment
LNA 10 - outdoor/indoor
Power Supply - indoor
Power inserter - indoor
Note: All specifications are subject to change without notice.
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10.2.4 Specifications for RFS 122 Radio Frequency Splitter
Insertion Loss
3.8dB max.
Isolation
19dB min.
Power Rating
10 W max.
Internal Load Dissipation
125 mW max.
Input Impedance
50W
Output Impedance
50W
Connectors
• SUM: N-type, Male
• PORTS: N-type, Female (on each port)
Operating Temperature
-20° C to +85° C
Dimensions
51mm x 51mm x 19mm (2” x 2” x 0.75”)
Operating Environment
Outdoor/Indoor
10.2.5 Specifications for AL 1 Lightning Arrestor
Turn on voltage
75V
Insertion loss
0.3dB typical
DC path from input to output
existing
Operating Temperature
-55° C to +70° C
Dimensions
67.5mm x 25mm x 25mm (2.7” x 1” x 1”)
Connectors
• Antenna Port: N-type, Female
• Equipment Port: N-type, Female
Operating Environment
Indoor/Outdoor
Grounding
One of the female-type N connectors is mounted directly through
a hole in the shelter wall and held in place with a lockwasher and
nut.
Note: All specifications are subject to change without notice.
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10-22
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Appendix
10.2.6 Specifications for AMP 2440 Bi-Directional Power
Amplifier
General Specifications
Operating Range
2400-2483 MHz
Operating Mode
Bi-directional, half-duplex. Senses RF carrier from
transmitter and automatically switches from receive
to transmit mode.
Connectors
N-female
Indicators
TX and RX LEDs on both the amplifier and the DC
bias injector
Lightning Protection
Direct DC ground at antenna connector
DC Surge Protection
600 Watt TVS at 12 VDC input from transmission
cable
Transmitter Amplifier
Transmit Gain
Up to 15 dB
Frequency Response
+/-1 dB over operating range
Transmit Output Power
• AMP 2440-500 model: 500 mW
*
• AMP 2440-250 model: 250 mW.
Transmit Input Power
3 mW minimum,
100mW maximum
(+3dBm required to cause TX mode)
Receiver Low Noise Amplifier (LNA)
Receive Gain
18 dB typical
Frequency Response
+/-1 dB over operating range
Noise Figure
3.5 dB approximately
Third Order Intercept
20 dBm
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Mechanical and Environmental
Operating Temperature
-20°C to +60°C
Power
12VDC @ 650mA or 105-240 VAC from power
supply provided with kit
Dimensions
Amplifier: 3.85” x 2.52” x 1.46”
DC Power injector: 4.42” x 2.40” x 1.22”
Mounting Bracket for
amplifier
Accommodates pole/mast diameters from 3/4” to 3”
Kit Weight
Approx. 1.5 lb. with U-bolts
10.3 Wireless LAN Concepts
Wireless LAN technology is becoming increasingly popular in large-scale and
complex wireless networks, as more and more users are discovering its reliability
and high performance.
Originally designed for indoor office applications, today’s wireless LANs can be
used for both indoor client-server and peer-to-peer networks as well as for outdoor
point-to-point and point-to-multipoint remote bridging applications.
Wireless LANs are designed to be modular and very flexible. They can also be
optimized for different environments. For example, point-to-point outdoor links are
less susceptible to interference and can have higher performance if designers
increase the Dwell Time and disable the Collision Avoidance and Fragmentation
mechanisms described later in this section.
Topology
Wired LAN Topology
Traditional LANs (Local Area Networks) link PCs and other computers to one
another and to file servers, printers and other network equipment using cables or
optic fibers as the transmission medium.
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Appendix
Figure 10-1. Wired LAN Topology
Wireless LAN Topology
Wireless LANs allow workstations to communicate and to access the network
using radio propagation as the transmission medium. Wireless LANs can be
connected to existing wired LANs as an extension, or can form the basis of a new
network. While adaptable to both indoor and outdoor environments, wireless LANs
are especially suited to indoor locations such as office buildings, manufacturing
floors, hospitals and universities.
The basic building block of the wireless LAN is the Cell. This is the area in which
wireless communication takes place. The coverage area of a cell depends on the
strength of the propagated radio signal and the type and construction of walls,
partitions and other physical characteristics of the indoor environment. PC-based
workstations, notebook and pen-based computers can move freely in the cell.
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Figure 10-2. The Basic Wireless LAN Cell
Each wireless LAN cell requires some communications and traffic management.
This is coordinated by an Access Point (AP) which communicates with each
wireless station in its coverage area. Stations also communicate with each other via
the AP, so communicating stations can be hidden from one another. In this way, the
AP functions as a relay, extending the range of the system.
The AP also functions as a bridge between the wireless stations and the wired
network and the other wireless cells. Connecting the AP to the backbone or other
wireless cells can be done by wire or by a separate wireless link, using wireless
bridges. The range of the system can be extended by cascading several wireless
links one after the other.
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Appendix
Figure 10-3. Wireless LAN Connectivity
Roaming
When any area in the building is within reception range of more than one Access
Point, the cells’ coverage is said to overlap. Each wireless station automatically
establishes the best possible connection with one of the Access Points. Overlapping
coverage areas are an important attribute of the wireless LAN setup, because this
enables seamless roaming between overlapping cells.
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Appendix
Figure 10-4. Roaming Through Overlapping Cells
Roaming allows mobile users with portable stations to move freely between
overlapping cells, constantly maintaining their network connection. Roaming is
seamless: a work session can be maintained while moving from one cell to another.
Multiple Access Points can provide wireless coverage for an entire building or
campus. When the coverage area of two or more APs overlap, the stations in the
overlapping area can establish the best possible connection with one of the APs,
continuously searching for the best AP. In order to minimize packet loss during
switch-over, the “old” and “new” APs communicate to coordinate the process.
Load Sharing
Congested areas with many users and heavy traffic load per unit may require a
multi-cell structure. In a multi-cell structure, several co-located APs “illuminate”
the same area creating a common coverage area which increases aggregate
throughput. Stations inside the common coverage area automatically associate with
the AP that is less loaded and provides the best signal quality. The stations are
equally divided between the APs in order to equally share the load between all APs.
Efficiency is maximized because all APs are working at the same low level load.
Load balancing is also known as load sharing.
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Appendix
Figure 10-5. The Common Coverage Area of a Multi-cell Structure
Dynamic Rate Switching
The data rate of each station is automatically adjusted according to the received
signal quality. Performance (throughput) is maximized by increasing the data rate
and decreasing retransmissions. This is very important for mobile applications
where the signal quality fluctuates rapidly, but less important for fixed outdoor
installations where signal quality is stable.
Media Access
When many users are located in the same area, performance becomes an issue. To
address this issue, wireless LANs use the Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)
algorithm with a Collision Avoidance (CA) mechanism in which each unit senses
the medium before it starts to transmit.
If the medium is free for several microseconds, the unit can transmit for a limited
time. If the medium is busy, the unit will back off for a random time before it
senses again. Since transmitting units compete for air time, the protocol should
ensure equal fairness between the stations.
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Fragmentation
Fragmentation of packets into shorter fragments adds protocol overhead and
reduces protocol efficiency when no errors are expected, but reduces the time spent
on retransmissions if errors are likely to occur. No fragmentation or longer
fragment length adds overhead and reduces efficiency in case of errors and
retransmissions (multi-path).
Collision Avoidance
To avoid collisions with other incoming calls, each station transmits a short RTS
(Request To Send) frame before the data frame. The Access Point sends back a
CTS (Clear To Send) frame with permission to start the data transmission. This
frame includes the time that this station is going to transmit. This frame is received
by all the stations in the cell, notifying them that another unit will transmit during
the following Xmsec, so they can not transmit even if the medium seems to be free
(the transmitting unit is out of range).
Channelization
Using Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS), different hopping sequences
are assigned to different co-located cells. Hopping sequences are designed so
different cells can work simultaneously using different channels.
Since hopping sequences and hopping timing of different cells cannot be
synchronized (according to FCC regulations), different cells might try to use the
same channel occasionally. Then, one cell uses the channel while the other cell
backs off and waits for the next hop. In the case of a very noisy environment
(multiples and interference), the system must hop quickly. If the link is quiet and
clean, it is better to hop slowly, reducing overhead and increasing efficiency.
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Appendix
10.4 Radio Signal Propagation
10.4.1 Introduction
This section explains and simplifies many of the terms relating to antennas and RF
(Radio Frequency) used when dealing with an RF installation system.
The following diagram depicts a typical radio system:
Figure 10-6. Typical Radio System
A radio system transmits information to the transmitter. The information is
transmitted through an antenna which converts the RF signal into an
electromagnetic wave. The transmission medium for electromagnetic wave
propagation is free space.
The electromagnetic wave is intercepted by the receiving antenna which converts it
back to an RF signal. Ideally, this RF signal is the same as that originally generated
by the transmitter. The original information is then demodulated back to its original
form.
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10.4.2 RF Terms and Definitions
dB
The dB convention is an abbreviation for decibels. It shows the relationship
between two values.
RF Power Level
RF power level at either the transmitter output or the receiver input is expressed in
Watts. It can also be expressed in dBm. The relation between dBm and Watts can
be expressed as follows:
PdBm = 10 x Log Pmw
For example: 1 Watt = 1000 mW; PdBm = 10 x Log 1000 = 30 dBm
100 mW; PdBm = 10 x Log 100 = 20 dBm
For link budget calculations, the dBm convention is more convenient than the
Watts convention.
Attenuation
Attenuation (fading) of an RF signal is defined as follows:
Figure 10-7. Attenuation of an RF signal
Pin is the incident power level at the attenuated input
Pout is the output power level at the attenuated output
Attenuation is expressed in dB as follows: PdB = -10 x Log (Pout/Pin)
For example: If, due to attenuation, half the power is lost (Pout/Pin = 1/2),
attenuation in dB is -10 x Log (1/2) = 3dB
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Appendix
Path Loss
Loss of power of an RF signal traveling (propagating) through space. It is
expressed in dB. Path loss depends on:
•
The distance between transmitting and receiving antennas
•
Line of sight clearance between the receiving and transmitting antennas
•
Antenna height
Free Space Loss
Attenuation of the electromagnetic wave while propagating through space. This
attenuation is calculated using the following formula:
Free space loss = 32.4 + 20xLog(FMhz) + 20xLog(RKm)
F is the RF frequency expressed in MHz.
R is the distance between the transmitting and receiving antennas.
At 2.4 GHz, this formula is: 100+20xLog(RKm)
Antenna Characteristics
Isotropic Antenna
A hypothetical antenna having equal radiation intensity in all directions. Used as a
zero dB gain reference in directivity calculation (gain).
Antenna Gain
A measure of directivity. It is defined as the ratio of the radiation intensity in a
given direction to the radiation intensity that would be obtained if the power
accepted by the antenna was radiated equally in all directions (isotropically).
Antenna gain is expressed in dBi.
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Radiation Pattern
A graphical representation in either polar or rectangular coordinates of the spatial
energy distribution of an antenna.
Side Lobes
The radiation lobes in any direction other than that of the main lobe.
Omni-directional Antenna
Radiates and receives equally in all directions in azimuth. The following diagram
shows the radiation pattern of an omni-directional antenna with its side lobes in
polar form.
Figure 10-8. Side View
Figure 10-9. Top View
Directional Antenna
Radiates and receives most of the signal power in one direction. The following
diagram shows the radiation pattern of a directional antenna with its side lobes in
polar form:
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Appendix
Figure 10-10. Radiation Pattern of Directional Antenna
Antenna Beamwidth
The directiveness of a directional antenna. Defined as the angle between two halfpower (-3 dB) points on either side of the main lobe of radiation.
System Characteristics
Receiver Sensitivity
The minimum RF signal power level required at the input of a receiver for certain
performance (e.g. BER).
EIRP (Effective Isotropic Radiated Power)
The antenna transmitted power. Equal to the transmitted output power minus cable
loss plus the transmitting antenna gain.
Pout
Output power of transmitted in dBm
Ct
Transmitter cable attenuation in dB
Gt
Transmitting antenna gain in dBi
Gr
Receiving antenna gain in dBi
Pl
Path loss in dB
Cr
Receiver cable attenuation is dB
Si
Received power level at receiver input in dBm
Ps
Receiver sensitivity is dBm
Si = Pout - Ct + Gt - Pl + Gr - Cr
EIRP = Pout - Ct + Gt
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Example:
Link Parameters:
Frequency: 2.4 GHz
Pout = 4 dBm (2.5 mW)
Tx and Rx cable length (Ct and Cr) = 10 m. cable type RG214 (0.6 dB/meter)
Tx and Rx antenna gain (Gt and Gr) = 18 dBi
Distance between sites = 3 Km
Receiver sensitivity (Ps) = -84 dBm
Link Budget Calculation
EIRP = Pout - Ct + Gt = 16 dBm
Pl = 32.4 + 20xLog(FMhz) + 20xLog(RKm) ≅ 110 dB
Si = EIRP - Pl + Gr - Cr = -82 dBm
In conclusion, the received signal power is above the sensitivity threshold, so the
link should work. The problem is that there is only a 2 dB difference between
received signal power and sensitivity. Normally, a higher margin is desirable due to
fluctuation in received power as a result of signal fading.
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Signal Fading
Fading of the RF signal is caused by several factors:
•
Multipath
The transmitted signal arrives at the receiver from different directions, with
different path lengths, attenuation and delays. The summed signal at the
receiver may result in an attenuated signal.
Figure 10-11. Multipath Reception
•
Bad Line of Sight
An optical line of sight exists if an imaginary straight line can connect the
antennas on either side of the link.
Radio wave clear line of sight exists if a certain area around the optical line of
sight (Fresnel zone) is clear of obstacles. A bad line of sight exists if the first
Fresnel zone is obscured.
•
Link Budget Calculations
•
Weather conditions (Rain, wind, etc.)
At high rain intensity (150 mm/hr), the fading of an RF signal at 2.4 GHz may
reach a maximum of 0.02 dB/Km
Wind may cause fading due to antenna motion.
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•
Interference
Interference may be caused by another system on the same frequency range,
external noise, or some other co-located system.
The Line of Sight Concept
An optical line of sight exists if an imaginary straight line can be drawn connecting
the antennas on either side of the link.
Clear Line of Sight
A clear line of sight exists when no physical objects obstruct viewing one antenna
from the location of the other antenna.
A radio wave clear line of sight exists if a defined area around the optical line of
sight (Fresnel Zone) is clear of obstacles.
Fresnel Zone
The Fresnel zone is the area of a circle around the line of sight.
The Fresnel Zone is defined as follows:
Figure 10-12. Fresnel Zone
R = ½ √ (λxD)
R: radius of the first Fresnel zone
λ: wavelength
D: distance between sites
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Figure 10-13. Fresnel Zone Clear of Obstacles
When at least 80% of the first Fresnel Zone is clear of obstacles, propagation loss
is equivalent to that of free space.
10.5 IEEE 802.11 Technical Tutorial
The purpose of this chapter is to give technical readers a basic overview of the new
IEEE 802.11 Standard, enabling them to understand the basic concepts, principles
of operation, and the reasons behind some of the features and/or components of the
Standard.
The document does not cover the entire Standard and does not provide enough
information for the reader to implement an 802.11-compliant device (for this
purpose the reader should refer to the standard).
10.5.1 Architecture Components
An 802.11 LAN is based on a cellular architecture where the system is subdivided
into cells. Each cell (called Basic Service Set, or BSS, in the 802.11 nomenclature)
is controlled by a Base Station (called Access Point or, in short, AP).
Although a wireless LAN may be formed by a single cell, with a single Access
Point, (and as will be described later, it can also work without an Access Point),
most installations will be formed by several cells, where the Access Points are
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connected through some kind of backbone (called Distribution System or DS). This
backbone is typically Ethernet but, in some cases, might be wireless itself.
The whole interconnected wireless LAN, including the different cells, their
respective Access Points and the Distribution System, is seen as a single 802
network to the upper layers of the OSI model and is known in the Standard as the
Extended Service Set (ESS).
The following diagram shows a typical 802.11 LAN including the components
described above:
Figure 10-14. Typical 802.11 LAN
The standard also defines the concept of a Portal. A portal is a device that
interconnects between an 802.11 and another 802 LAN. This concept is an abstract
description of part of the functionality of a “translation bridge”.
Even though the standard does not necessarily require it, typical installations will
have the AP and the Portal on a single physical entity. This is also the case with
BreezeCOM’s AP which provides both functions.
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10.5.2 IEEE 802.11 Layers Description
As in any 802.x protocol, the IEEE 802.11 protocol covers the Media Access
Control Layer (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY). The Standard currently defines a
single MAC which interacts with three PHYs (all of them running at 1 or 2 Mbit/s)
as follows:
•
Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) in the 2.4 GHz Band
•
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) in the 2.4 GHz Band, and
•
InfraRed
802.2
802.11 MAC
FH
Data Link
Layer
DS
IR
PHY Layer
Beyond the standard functionality usually performed by MAC Layers, the 802.11
MAC performs other functions that are typically related to upper layer protocols,
such as Fragmentation, Packet Retransmissions, and Acknowledges.
10.5.3 The MAC Layer
The MAC Layer defines two different access methods, the Distributed
Coordination Function and the Point Coordination Function:
10.5.3.1 The Basic Access Method: CSMA/CA
The basic access mechanism, called the Distributed Coordination Function, is
basically a Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance mechanism
(known as CSMA/CA). CSMA protocols are well-known in the industry, the most
popular being Ethernet, which is a CSMA/ CD protocol (CD standing for Collision
Detection).
A CSMA protocol works as follows: A station desiring to transmit senses the
medium. If the medium is busy (i.e. some other station is transmitting) then the
station defers its transmission to a later time. If the medium seems free then the
station is allowed to transmit.
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These kinds of protocols are very effective when the medium is not heavily loaded
since it allows stations to transmit with minimum delay. But there is always a
chance of two or more stations simultaneously sensing the medium as being free
and transmitting at the same time, causing a collision.
These collision situations must be identified so the MAC layer can retransmit the
packet itself, not by the upper layers, to avoid significant delay. In the Ethernet
case, a collision is recognized by the transmitting stations which listen while
transmitting and go into a retransmission phase based on an exponential random
back-off algorithm.
While these Collision Detection Mechanisms are a good idea on a wired LAN, they
cannot be used on a wireless LAN environment for two main reasons:
•
Implementing a Collision Detection Mechanism would require the implementation of a Full-Duplex radio capable of transmitting and receiving at the
same time, an approach that would increase the price significantly.
•
In a wireless environment we cannot assume that all stations can hear each
other (a basic assumption of the Collision Detection scheme), and the fact that
a station wants to transmit and senses the medium as free doesn’t necessarily
mean that the medium is free around the receiver’s area.
In order to overcome these problems, 802.11 uses a Collision Avoidance (CA)
mechanism together with a Positive Acknowledge scheme, as follows:
1. A station wanting to transmit senses the medium. If the medium is busy then it
delays. If the medium is free for a specified time (called Distributed Inter
Frame Space (DIFS) in the standard), then the station is allowed to transmit.
2. The receiving station checks the CRC of the received packet and sends an
acknowledgment packet (ACK). Receipt of the acknowledgment indicates to
the transmitter that no collision occurred. If the sender does not receive the
acknowledgment, then it retransmits the fragment until it either receives
acknowledgment or is thrown away after a given number of retransmissions.
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10.5.3.2 Virtual Carrier Sense
In order to reduce the probability of two stations colliding because they cannot hear
each other, the standard defines a Virtual Carrier Sense mechanism:
A station wanting to transmit a packet first transmits a short control packet called
RTS (Request To Send), which includes the source, destination, and the duration of
the following transaction (i.e. the packet and the respective ACK), the destination
station responds (if the medium is free) with a response control Packet called CTS
(Clear to Send), which includes the same duration information.
All stations receiving either the RTS or the CTS, set their Virtual Carrier Sense
indicator (called NAV, for Network Allocation Vector), for the given duration, and
use this information together with the Physical Carrier Sense when sensing the
medium.
This mechanism reduces the probability of a collision on the receiver area by a
station that is “hidden” from the transmitter to the short duration of the RTS
transmission because the station hears the CTS and “reserves” the medium as busy
until the end of the transmission. The duration information on the RTS also
protects the transmitter area from collisions during the ACK (from stations that are
out of range of the acknowledging station).
It should also be noted that, due to the fact that the RTS and CTS are short frames,
the mechanism also reduces the overhead of collisions, since these are recognized
faster than if the whole packet was to be transmitted. (This is true if the packet is
significantly bigger than the RTS, so the standard allows for short packets to be
transmitted without the RTS/CTS transmission. This is controlled per station by a
parameter called RTS Threshold).
The following diagrams show an exchange between stations A and B, and the NAV
setting of their neighbors:
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G3
Src
RTS
Data
G1
Dest
G1 = SIFS
G3 = DIFS
CW = Contention Window
G1
G1
Ack
CTS
G3
Other
NAV (RTS)
CW
Next MPDL
NAV (CTS)
Defer Access
Backoff after Defer
Figure 10-15. Transaction Between Stations A and B
The NAV State is combined with the physical carrier sense to indicate the busy
state of the medium.
10.5.3.3 MAC Level Acknowledgments
As mentioned earlier in this document, the MAC layer performs Collision
Detection by expecting the reception of an acknowledge to any transmitted
fragment (Packets that have more than one destination, such as Multicasts, are not
acknowledged.)
10.5.3.4 Fragmentation and Reassembly
Typical LAN protocols use packets several hundred bytes long (the longest
Ethernet packet could be up to 1518 bytes long).
There are several reasons why it is preferable to use smaller packets in a wireless
LAN environment:
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•
Due to the higher Bit Error Rate of a radio link, the probability of a packet
getting corrupted increases with the packet size.
•
In case of packet corruption (either due to collision or noise), the smaller the
packet, the less overhead it causes to retransmit it.
•
On a Frequency Hopping system, the medium is interrupted periodically for
hopping (in our case every 20 milliseconds), so, the smaller the packet, the
smaller the chance that the transmission will be postponed after dwell time.
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However, it doesn’t make sense to introduce a new LAN protocol that cannot deal
with packets 1518 bytes long which are used on Ethernet, so the committee decided
to solve the problem by adding a simple fragmentation/ re-assembly mechanism at
the MAC Layer.
The mechanism is a simple Send-and-Wait algorithm, where the transmitting
station is not allowed to transmit a new fragment until one of the following
happens:
1. Receives an ACK for the said fragment, or
2. Decides that the fragment was retransmitted too many times and drops the
whole frame.
It should be noted that the standard does allow the station to transmit to a different
address between retransmissions of a given fragment. This is particularly useful
when an AP has several outstanding packets to different destinations and one of
them does not respond.
The following diagram shows a frame (MSDU) being divided to several fragments
(MPDUs):
Figure 10-16. Frame Fragmentation
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10.5.3.5 Inter-Frame Spaces
The Standard defines 4 types of Inter Frame Spaces, which are use to provide
different priorities:
•
SIFS – Short Inter Frame Space, separates transmissions belonging to a single
dialog (e.g. Fragment-Ack), and is the minimum Inter Frame Space. There is
always at most one single station to transmit at any given time, therefore
giving it priority over all other stations.
This value is a fixed value per PHY and is calculated in such a way that the
transmitting station will be able to switch back to receive mode and be capable
of decoding the incoming packet. On the 802.11 FH PHY this value is set to
28 microseconds
•
PIFS – Point Coordination IFS, is used by the Access Point (or Point
Coordinator, as called in this case), to gain access to the medium before any
other station. This value is SIFS plus a Slot Time (defined in the following
paragraph), i.e. 78 microseconds.
•
DIFS – Distributed IFS, is the Inter Frame Space used for a station willing to
start a new transmission, which is calculated as PIFS plus one slot time, i.e.
128 microseconds.
•
EIFS – Extended IFS, which is a longer IFS used by a station that has received
a packet that it could not understand. This is needed to prevent the station
(which could not understand the duration information for the Virtual Carrier
Sense) from colliding with a future packet belonging to the current dialog.
10.5.3.6 Exponential Back-off Algorithm
Back-off is a well known method used to resolve contention between different
stations wanting to access the medium. The method requires each station to choose
a Random Number (n) between 0 and a given number, and wait for this number of
Slots before accessing the medium, always checking if a different station has
accessed the medium before.
The Slot Time is defined in such a way that a station will always be capable of
determining if another station has accessed the medium at the beginning of the
previous slot. This reduces collision probability by half.
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Exponential Back-off means that each time the station chooses a slot and happens
to collide, it will increase the maximum number for the random selection
exponentially.
The 802.11 standard defines an Exponential Back-off Algorithm, that must be
executed in the following cases:
•
When the station senses the medium before the first transmission of a packet,
and the medium is busy
•
After each retransmission, and
•
After a successful transmission
The only case when this mechanism is not used is when the station decides to
transmit a new packet and the medium has been free for more than DIFS.
The following figure shows a schematic of the access mechanism:
Figure 10-17. Access Mechanism
10.5.4 How Does a Station Join an Existing Cell
When a station wants to access an existing BSS (either after power-up, sleep mode,
or just entering the BSS area), the station needs to get synchronization information
from the Access Point (or from the other stations when in ad-hoc mode, which will
be discussed later).
The station can get this information by one of two means:
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•
Passive Scanning: In this case the station just waits to receive a Beacon
Frame from the AP, (the beacon frame is a frame sent out periodically by the
AP containing synchronization information), or
•
Active Scanning: In this case the station tries to locate an Access Point by
transmitting Probe Request Frames, and waits for Probe Response from the
AP.
Both methods are valid. A method is chosen according to the power
consumption/performance trade-off.
10.5.4.1 The Authentication Process
Once the station has located an Access Point, and decides to join its BSS, it goes
through the Authentication Process. This is the interchange of information between
the AP and the station, where each side proves the knowledge of a given password.
10.5.4.2 The Association Process
Once the station is authenticated, it then starts the Association Process, which is the
exchange of information about the station and BSS capabilities, and which allows
the DSS (the set of APs) to know about the current position of the station). A
station is capable of transmitting and receiving data frames only after the
association process is completed.
10.5.5 Roaming
Roaming is the process of moving from one cell (or BSS) to another without losing
connection. This function is similar to the cellular phones’ handover, with two
main differences:
1. On a packet-based LAN system, the transition from cell to cell may be
performed between packet transmissions, as opposed to telephony where the
transition may occur during a phone conversation, this makes the LAN roaming
a little easier, but
2. On a voice system, a temporary disconnection may not affect the conversation,
while in a packet-based environment it significantly reduces performance
because retransmission is then performed by the upper layer protocols.
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The 802.11 standard does not define how roaming should be performed, but defines
the basic tools. These include active/passive scanning, and a re-association process,
where a station which is roaming from one Access Point to another becomes
associated with the new one1.
10.5.6 Keeping Synchronization
Stations need to keep synchronization, which is necessary for keeping hopping
synchronized, and other functions like Power Saving. On an infrastructure BSS,
this is achieved by all the stations updating their clocks according to the AP’s
clock, using the following mechanism:
The AP periodically transmits frames called Beacon Frames. These frames contain
the value of the AP’s clock at the moment of transmission (note that this is the
moment when transmission actually occurs, and not when it is put in the queue for
transmission. Since the Beacon Frame is transmitted using CSMA rules,
transmission may be delayed significantly).
The receiving stations check the value of their clocks at the moment the signal is
received, and correct it to keep in synchronization with the AP’s clock. This
prevents clock drifting which could cause loss of synch after a few hours of
operation.
10.5.7 Security
Security is one of the first concerns that people have when deploying a wireless
LAN. The 802.11 committee has addressed the issue by providing what is referred
to as WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy).
Users are primarily concerned that an intruder should not be able to:
1
•
Access the Network resources by using similar wireless LAN equipment
•
Capture wireless LAN traffic (eavesdropping)
The BreezeNET product line provides a patented enhanced roaming mechanism which allows stations to roam at
speeds of 60 Km/h without losing or duplicating packets.
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10.5.7.1 Preventing Access to Network Resources
This is done by the use of an Authentication mechanism where a station needs to
prove knowledge of the current key. This is very similar to Wired LAN privacy, in
the sense that an intruder needs to enter the premises (by using a physical key) in
order to connect his workstation to the wired LAN.
10.5.7.2 Eavesdropping
Eavesdropping is prevented by using the WEP algorithm which is a pseudo-random
number generator initialized by a shared secret key. This PRNG outputs a key
sequence of pseudo-random bits equal in length to the largest possible packet which
is combined with the outgoing/incoming packet producing the packet transmitted in
the air.
The WEP is a simple algorithm based on RSA’s RC4 which has the following
properties:
•
Reasonably strong:
Brute-force attack to this algorithm is difficult because every frame is sent
with an Initialization Vector which restarts the PRNG for each frame.
•
Self Synchronizing:
The algorithm re-synchronizes for each message. This is necessary in order to
work in a connection-less environment, where packets may get lost (as any
LAN).
10.5.7.3 Power Saving
Wireless LANs are typically related to mobile applications. In this type of
application, battery power is a scare resource. This is the reason why the 802.11
standard directly addresses the issue of Power Saving and defines an entire
mechanism which enables stations to go into sleep mode for long periods of time
without losing information.
The main idea behind the Power Saving Mechanism is that the AP maintains a
continually updated record of the stations currently working in Power Saving mode,
and buffers the packets addressed to these stations until either the stations
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specifically request the packets by sending a polling request, or until they change
their operation mode.
As part of its Beacon Frames, the AP also periodically transmits information about
which Power Saving Stations have frames buffered at the AP, so these stations
wake up in order to receive the Beacon Frame. If there is an indication that there is
a frame stored at the AP waiting for delivery, then the station stays awake and
sends a Polling message to the AP to get these frames.
Multicasts and Broadcasts are stored by the AP, and transmitted by the AP at predefined intervals (called DTIM), all stations - both stations working in Power
Saving mode and stations working in Normal mode, will be awake at that period
and will receive this kind of frames.
Unicasts are stored by the AP, and transmitted at station-defined intervals (called
Listen Intervals), when all stations who wish to receive this kind of frames are
awake. Unicast frames are transmitted upon request only, whereas, Multicast
frames are transmitted automatically at every DTIM interval.
Note:
Unicast frames can be also poled by the stations at the DTIM intervals.
10.5.8 Frame Types
There are three main types of frames:
•
Data Frames: which are used for data transmission
•
Control Frames: which are used to control access to the medium (e.g. RTS,
CTS, and ACK), and
•
Management Frames: which are frames that are transmitted in the same
manner as data frames to exchange management information, but are not
forwarded to upper layers (e.g. beacon frames).
Each frame type is subdivided into different Subtypes, according to its specific
function.
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10.5.9 Frame Formats
All 802.11 frames are composed of the following components:
Preamble
PLCP Header
MAC Data
CRC
10.5.9.1 Preamble
This is PHY dependent, and includes:
•
Synch: An 80-bit sequence of alternating zeros and ones, which is used by the
PHY circuitry to select the appropriate antenna (if diversity is used), and to
reach steady-state frequency offset correction and synchronization with the
received packet timing.
•
SFD: A Start Frame delimiter which consists of the 16-bit binary pattern 0000
1100 1011 1101, which is used to define frame timing.
10.5.9.2 PLCP Header
The PLCP Header is always transmitted at 1 Mbit/s and contains Logical
information used by the PHY Layer to decode the frame. It consists of:
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•
PLCP_PDU Length Word: which represents the number of bytes contained in
the packet. This is useful for the PHY to correctly detect the end of packet.
•
PLCP Signaling Field: which currently contains only the rate information,
encoded in 0.5 Mbps increments from 1 Mbit/s to 4.5 Mbit/s.
•
Header Error Check Field: Which is a 16 Bit CRC error detection field.
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10.5.9.3 MAC Data
The following figure shows the general MAC Frame Format. Part of the fields are
only present in part of the frames as described later.
Figure 10-18. MAC Frame Format
Frame Control Field
The Frame Control field contains the following information:
Figure 10-19. Frame Control Field
Protocol Version
This field consists of 2 bits which are invariant in size and placement across
following versions of the 802.11 Standard, and will be used to recognize possible
future versions. In the current version of the standard the value is fixed as 0.
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Type and Subtype
These 6 bits define the Type and SubType of the frame as indicated in the
following table:
Type Value
b3-b2
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
01
01
01
01
01
01
01
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
Type Description
Management
Management
Management
Management
Management
Management
Management
Management
Management
Management
Management
Management
Management
Control
Control
Control
Control
Control
Control
Control
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Subtype Value
b7 b6 b5 b4
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110-0111
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101-1111
0000-0001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000-1111
0000-1111
Subtype Description
Association Request
Association Response
Association Request
Reassociation Response
Probe Request
Probe Response
Reserved
Beacon
ATIM
Disassociation
Authentication
Deauthentication
Reserved
Reserved
PS-Poll
RTS
CTS
ACK
CF End
CF End + CF-ACK
Data
Data + CF-Ack
Data + CF-Poll
Data + CF-ACK + CF-Poll
Null Function (no data)
CF-Ack (no data)
CF-Poll (no data)
CF-Ack + CF-Poll (no data)
Reserved
Reserved
ToDS
This bit is set to 1 when the frame is addressed to the AP for forwarding to the
Distribution System (including the case where the destination station is in the same
BSS, and the AP is to relay the frame).
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The Bit is set to 0 in all other frames.
FromDS
This bit is set to 1 when the frame is received from the Distribution System.
More Fragments
This bit is set to 1 when there are more fragments belonging to the same frame
following the current fragment.
Retry
This bit indicates that this fragment is a retransmission of a previously transmitted
fragment. This is used by the receiver station to recognize duplicate transmissions
of frames that may occur when an Acknowledgment packet is lost.
Power Management
This bit indicates the Power Management mode that the station will be in after the
transmission of this frame. This is used by stations which are changing state either
from Power Save to Active or vice versa.
More Data
This bit is used for Power Management as well as by the AP to indicate that there
are more frames buffered for this station. The station may decide to use this
information to continue polling or even changing to Active mode.
WEP
This bit indicates that the frame body is encrypted according to the WEP algorithm
Order
This bit indicates that this frame is being sent using the Strictly-Ordered service
class2.
2
The Strictly-Ordered Service Class is defined for users that cannot accept change of ordering between Unicast
Frames and Multicast Frames (ordering of Unicast frames to a specific address is always maintained). The only
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Duration/ID
This field has two meanings depending on the frame type:
•
In Power-Save Poll messages this is the Station ID
•
In all other frames this is the duration value used for the NAV Calculation.
Address Fields
A frame may contain up to 4 Addresses depending on the ToDS and FromDS bits
defined in the Control Field, as follows:
•
Address-1 is always the Recipient Address (i.e. the BSS station that is the
immediate recipient of the packet). If ToDS is set, this is the AP Address; if
ToDS is not set, then this is the address of the end-station.
•
Address-2 is always the Transmitter Address (i.e. the station which is
physically transmitting the packet). If FromDS is set, this is the AP address; if
it is not set, then it is the Station address.
•
Address-3 is in most cases the remaining, missing address. On a frame with
FromDS set to 1, Address-3 is the original Source Address; if the frame has
the ToDS set, then Address 3 is the destination Address.
•
Address-4 is used in special cases where a Wireless Distribution System is
used, and the frame is being transmitted from one Access Point to another. In
such cases, both the ToDS and FromDS bits are set, so both the original
Destination and the original Source Addresses are missing.
The following Table summarizes the usage of the different Addresses according to
ToDS and FromDS bits setting:
To DS
0
0
1
From DS
0
1
0
Address 1
DA
DA
BSSID
Address 2
SA
BSSID
SA
Address 3
BSSID
SA
DA
Address 4
N/A
N/A
N/A
known protocol that would need this service class is DEC’s LAT.
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1
1
RA
TA
DA
SA
Sequence Control
The Sequence Control Field is used to represent the order of different fragments
belonging to the same frame, and to recognize packet duplications. It consists of
two subfields, Fragment Number and Sequence Number, which define the frame
and the number of the fragment in the frame.
CRC
The CRC is a 32-bit field containing a 32-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC).
10.5.10 Most Common Frame Formats
10.5.10.1 RTS Frame Format
The RTS frame looks as follows:
Figure 10-20. RTS Frame Format
The RA of the RTS frame is the address of the STA on the wireless medium that is
the intended immediate recipient of the next Data or Management frame.
The TA is the address of the STA transmitting the RTS frame.
The Duration value is the time, in microseconds, required to transmit the next Data
or Management frame, plus one CTS frame, plus one ACK frame, plus three SIFS
intervals.
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10.5.10.2 CTS Frame Format
The CTS frame looks as follows:
Figure 10-21. CTS Frame
The Receiver Address (RA) of the CTS frame is copied from the Transmitter
Address (TA) field of the immediately previous RTS frame to which the CTS is a
response.
The Duration value is the value obtained from the Duration field of the
immediately previous RTS frame, minus the time, in microseconds, required to
transmit the CTS frame and its SIFS interval.
10.5.10.3 ACK Frame Format
The ACK frame looks as follows:
Figure 10-22. ACK Frame Format
The Receiver Address of the ACK frame is copied from the Address 2 field of the
immediately previous frame.
If the More Fragment bit was set to 0 in the Frame Control field of the previous
frame, the Duration value is set to 0, otherwise the Duration value is obtained from
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the Duration field of the previous frame, minus the time, in microseconds, required
to transmit the ACK frame and its SIFS interval.
10.5.11 Point Coordination Function (PCF)
Beyond the basic Distributed Coordination Function, there is an optional Point
Coordination Function, which may be used to implement time-bounded services,
like voice or video transmission. This Point Coordination Function makes use of
the higher priority that the Access Point may gain by the use of a smaller Inter
Frame Space (PIFS).
By using this higher priority access, the Access Point issues polling requests to the
stations for data transmission, hence controlling medium access. To still enable
regular stations to access the medium, there is a provision that the Access Point
must leave enough time for Distributed Access in between the PCF.
10.5.12 Ad-Hoc Networks
In certain circumstances, users may wish to build up wireless LAN networks
without an infrastructure (more specifically without an Access Point). This may
include file transfer between two notebook users, co-workers meeting outside the
office, etc.
The 802.11 standard addresses this need by the definition of an “ad-hoc” mode of
operation. In this case, there is no Access Point and part of its functionality is
performed by the end-user stations (such as Beacon Generation, synchronization,
etc.). Other AP functions are not supported (such as frame-relaying between two
stations not in range, or Power Saving).
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