WordStar
Training Guide
Second Edition, Revised:
February, 1983
Copyright© 1983
MicroPro International Corporation
33 San Pablo Avenue
San Rafael, California 94903 USA
All Rights Reserved
Worldwide
COPYRIGHT NOTICE
Copyright 1982 by MicroPro® International Corporation. All Rights Reserved
Worldwide. This publication has been provided pursuant to an agreement
containing restrictions on its use. The publication also is protected by federal
copyright law. No part of this publication may be copied or distributed,
transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any
human or computer language, in any form or by ::iny means, electronic,
mechanical, magnetic, manual, or otherwise, or disclosed to third parties
without the express written permission of MicroPro International Corporation,
33 San Pablo Avenue, San Rafael, California 94903 U.S.A.
TRADEMARKS
MicroPro, WordStar, WordMaster, MailMerge, and SuperSort are registered
trademarks of MicroPro International Corporation. AIIStar, CalcStar, DataStar,
InfoStar, SpeliStar and Starlndex are trademarks of MicroPro International
Corporation.
DISCLAIMER
MicroPro International Corporation makes no representation or warranties with
respect to the contents hereof and specifically disclaims any implied warranties
or merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. Further, MicroPro
International Corporation reserves the right to revise this publication and to
make changes from time to time in the content hereof without obligation 01
MicroPro International Corporation to notify any person or organization of such
revision or changes.
This document was initially typed, corrected, and edited using WordStar word
processing.
iv
Welcome
to Wordstar
You are about to learn a system that will make typing much easier and more
enjoyable for you. This guide will lead you step by step through all the basic
procedures. In no more than two work days, you will get to practice every major
feature of WordStar. (You may want to spread the two days over a week or so, ~
rather than take this course all at once.)
.
This guide is divided into three parts:
• Short Course (Lessons 1-6)
• Intermediate Course (Lessons 7-12)
• Extended Course (Lessons 13-20)
If you plan to type ordinary letters, you
may find all you need in the Short Course,
which should take you about three or four
hours to complete. If your typing tasks
involve formatted pages, tables, scientific
symbols, special headings, sec::.rching, or
extensive rearranging of text, take the
Intermediate Course (about four or five
more hours). The Extended course (about
another seven or eight hours) covers
WordStar's many features for print
formatting, especially in longer
documents; MailMerge's ability to merge
text, chain-print, and produce form letters;
and SpellStar's aid in finding and
correcting misspellings and typos in text
files.
Since the lessons follow a certain order,
you will have to complete them in
sequence. You can go through the
exercises very quickly if you wish. Or you
can take time to repeat them if you need
more practice. Just remember that many
lessons require prior completion of earlier
lessons in the guide.
There are about 50,000 different
Chinese characters. But it has been said
that with a knowledge of only 1,200 of
them, you could read 95% of all Chinese
writing. WordStar is nowhere near as
difficult as Chinese, but it's the same idea:
Even though there are a lot of WordStar
features, you don't need to know all of
them to be able to use WordStar.
Anything new seems unfamiliar at first,
so it may take time to get used to the way
WordStar works. But once you do, you will
be happy to find how much simpler your
work has become.
v
vi
Contents
Introduction
Short Course
Lesson
Lesson
Lesson
Lesson
Lesson
Lesson
1
2
3
4
5
6
Getting Acquainted with the Equipment
Some Basics
Typing a Letter
Moving the Cursor
Inserting and Deleting Text
Forming Paragraphs
Intermediate Course
Lesson
Lesson
Lesson
Lesson
Lesson
Lesson
7
8
9
10
11
12
Margins, Tabs, and Centering
Typing Tables
Creating Special Effects: Part 1
Creating Special Effects: Part 2
Finding and Replacing Text
Handling Blocks and Files
Extended Cou rse
Lesson 13
Lesson 14
Lesson 15
Lesson 16
Lesson 17
Lesson 18
Lesson 19
Lesson 20
Printing and Pagination
Printing with Headings and Footings
Typing Form Letters
(MailMerge Option Only)
Envelopes and Mailing Labels
(MailMerge Option Only)
Typing Reply Letters
(MailMerge Option Only)
Chain-Printing
(MailMerge Option Only)
Checking Spelling
(SpellStar Option Only)
Dictionary Maintenance
(SpellStar Option Only)
Conclusion
vii
viii
Introduction
This section will help you get acquainted with Wordstar, wordprocessing, and files,
WordStar
WordStar is a complete wordprocessing system that makes it easy for
you to type any kind of letter or document.
WordStar offers all the features of the
most advanced electric typewriter, plus
many more features not found on any
typewriter. The computer that you will be
using for typing probably looks something
like the one shown below. It has a
keyboard almost identical to a typewriter
keyboard, a video screen, and two or
more slots to hold diskettes.
Here are some of the ways typing has
been simplified for you:
• You can make changes, insertions,. or
deletions at any time, even after you
have typed an entire document.
• You can move words, sentences,
paragraphs, or even entire chapters
from one location to another.
Typical Microcomputer
1-1
• You can see the text you have typed
on the video screen just the way you
entered it.
decide to make changes to your file or to
print it, WordStar will ask you for the file's
name. If you forget the name of your file,
you can always look at the directory on
the screen to find it again.
• Screen displays above your text give
you information about your present
location in the document, your margins
and tabs, which keys to use for
different tasks, and provide various
other aids.
Here are some examples of file names
you can use:
NEWSALES Newsales
newsales
Word Processing Methods
LIST /497
Listl497
list/497
(equivalent)
LETTER04
Letter04
letter04
(equivalent)
Even though you will be using a
keyboard that looks very much like a
typewriter keyboard, there are some major
differences between typing on a typewriter
and using Word Star. To begin with, the
words you enter using WordStar are not
immediately printed on paper. First, they
are stored in the computer's memory
(what you see on the screen is an image
from one small segment of computer
memory). Then, after you have completed
your document, you save it on one of your
diskettes. Finally, after you have decided
to print your document, you print it from
your diskette.
Storing Text
Before you can enter text using
WordStar, you have to create a file for
storing the text. (If you plan to enter
ordinary text, it will be a document file; if
you plan to enter a data file or a computer
program, it will be a non-document file.)
You can think of this file as similar to a
cabinet file, in that you can store in it any
amount of information up to the limits of
the system. Anything you store, you can
later retrieve, and either add to or take
from.
When you create a file, you must give it
a name. And you must remember the
exact name you give your file so you can
go back to it again later. Any time you
1-2
Naming Files
(equivalent)
A file name may contain from one to
eight characters, including letters, numbers,
and some special characters (colons,
periods, question marks, and asterisks are
not allowed). WordStar makes no distinction
between upper and lower case letters of
the alphabet. That's why "Z" and "z," for
example, are equivalent file names.
If you need to give more information
about the file, you can also add a period
and three more characters to the end of
the name. Some examples are TXT (for
text) and DOC (for document):
NEWSALES.TXT Newsales.Txl
newsales.txt (equiv)
LlST/497.DOC List/497.Doc
list/ 497.doc (equiv)
LETTER04.LTR Letter04.Ltr
letter04.ltr
(equiv)
·BAK Files
Learning as You Go
Any time you finish a typing job under
WordStar, you have to save your typing
(store it in a file). And whenever you save
your typing, WordStar creates for you
another file to back up your current file.
This other file, called the .BAK file, contains
the last version of your file, and ends in
.BAK. For example, if you had a file named
LETTER04 (or LETTER04.LTR), WordStar
would call its .BAK file LETIER04.BAK.
If you should somehow lose a file, you
can always restore it from your .BAK file.
This is the purpose of the .BAK file-to
back you up if something goes wrong.
(Once again, the .BAK file will contain
everything but your most recent changes).
You will learn how to restore a lost file in
Lesson 12.
If you don't understand some of the
things discussed above or in Lesson 1, it
doesn't make any difference. How
WordStar works, how a computer works,
how text can be stored on a little piece of
plastic-these are things you don't even
have to think about. The discussions here
are just to give you a rough idea of what is
going on when you start typing. Whatever
you need to know, you will learn through
practice at the keyboard.
Another thing: If you feel uneasy about
the thought of dealing with a computer,
you don't have to. Going from a typewriter
to a computer is probably no more
challenging than gOing from a bicycle to a
car. The car has more switches, dials, and
lights than the bicycle, and there's more to
learn. But the car will take you where
you're going a lot faster, especially if it's
very far away. You can make mistakes on
a computer, but (as long as you don't pick
it up and hurl it out the window) there's no
way you can damage it. So put yourself at
ease and start enjoying all the
conveniences your computer is bringing
to you.
1-3
1-4
Short Course
1
Getti ng Acq uai nted
with the Equipment
5
The Keyboard
The Screen
Diskettes and Disk Drives
The Logged Disk Drive
The Printer
2
Deleting
Deleting
Deleting
Deleting
Deleting
Some Basics
3
Typing a Letter
Preliminary Adjustments
A Letter With Mistakes
Correcting "july"
Correcting "somers"
Inserting a Space before "President"
Correcting "mr."
Correcting "should"
Emphasizing "all"
Correcting a Sentence
Printing the Letter
4
Moving the Cursor
Moving the Cursor One Position
Moving the Cursor One Word
Moving the Cursor One Screen
Scrolling
Moving to the Edges of the Text Area
Moving to Either End of Your File
Continuous Scrolling
Repeating a Function
Saving Your File
a Character
a Word
a Line
to the Right
to the Left
Copying a Paragraph
Deleting a Paragraph
Moving a Paragraph
Inserting "P.S."
Printing Your File
Summary
Starting Your Computer
Starting WordStar
Stopping WordStar
Stopping Your Computer
Help from WordStar
Help Levels
Selecting a WordStar Function
Recovering from Errors
Inserting and Deleting Text
Inserting a New Paragraph
Inserting New Sentences
6
Forming Paragraphs
Typing Separate Paragraphs
JOining Paragraphs
Splitting a Paragraph
Changing to Indented Faragraphs
Hyphenating Words During Reform
Rejoining Paragraphs
Printing Your File
Printing Double-Spaced, Unjustified
Line Spacing and Justification
Lesson 1
Getting acquainted
with the equipment
In this lesson you are going to become familiar with your computer and the
equipment connected to it.
The Keyboard
The keyboard for your computer
probably looks a lot like the keyboard of
your typewriter. The keys for letters and
numbers are in the same locations and
look the same. But there are a few other
keys that you may not have seen before.
A typical keyboard with these keys is
shown below. Your own keyboard may be
a little different.
Take a look at your own keyboard and
find where the following keys are located:
RETURN, SHIFT, CTRL (CONTROL), and
ESC (ESCAPE). You will be using these
keys fairly often, so take a moment to ..
locate them now. (On some keyboards,
the RETURN key may be called ENTER or
NEW LINE.)
The Screen
The typing you do at your keyboard will
appear first on a video screen, not on a
sheet of paper. But unlike a sheet of
paper, your screen will give you helpful
information. For example, after you start
typing, it will tell you the name of your file,
Typical Keyboard
1-1
your current page, line, and column in the
file, and prompts to help you along.
I~ the next lesson you will get your first
chance to look at an actual screen
display. For now, it should be enough to
mention that the screen shows you
information displays, error messages, and
the text you are typing. To help you find
your place, you will find a special
character called the cursor at the location
on the screen where you will type next.
Diskettes and Disk Drives
All your files will be stored on diskettes,
including text files and any data files you
may require. For that matter, WordStar's
program files are also stored on a diskette.
A disk file can hold either text, data, or a
computer program. You can have
WordStar's files and your typing files
together on the same diskette, or you can
have WordStar's files on one diskette and
your typing files on another. Make sure
you ask someone how the files are stored
for your system. One typical set-up would
be for you to have one WordStar disk, one
working disk, and several backup disks
kept on a shelf for emergencies. (The
more you work with computers, the more
you will learn to value backup disks.)
When you insert a diskette into one of
those slots, you are placing it under the
control of one of the system's disk drives.
The disk drive actually spins the diskette
at high speed, somewhat the way a record
player spins a record. While the diskette is
spinning, the system can either read files
from it or write files onto it. (But you don't
have to be concerned about this- it's all
automatic. )
Be careful never to insert or remove a
diskette while WordStar is busy. Make
sure WordStar has completed an
operation entirely, then deal with the
1-2
diskette. You will be able to tell by looking
at the screen. Whenever WordStar is in
the middle of a task, it gives you a
message to let you know (WAIT,
COPYING ... , SAVING ... ,and so on).
Just wait until the message leaves the
screen before doing anything with the
diskette. Also, never turn off your
computer while a diskette is engaged.
Whenever you are going to be away
from your terminal for more than a few
minutes, make sure Wordstar is idle, then
remove your diskettes and return them to
their protective envelopes. Never leave
them unattended in the disk drives for very
long.
Care of Diskettes
The diskettes that you will be using to
store typing require special care in
handling. If you aren't careful with them,
you risk losing the information stored on
them. Always follow these rules:
• Keep them in their protective envelopes
any time you aren't using them.
• Avoid bending them.
• Insert them into disk drives carefully.
• Don't touch the area of the diskette that
is exposed through the window of
the envelope.
• Don't expose them to temperature
extremes or magnetism.
The Logged Disk Drive
Each disk drive has a one-letter name,
followed by a colon. If your system has
two disk drives, they will probably be
called A: and B:; if it has four, the other
two will probably be called C: and D:.
When you start up WordStar, the computer
will read the program into its memory from
drive A:. Disk drive A: is said to be the
logged disk drive, the one the computer is
currently looking at. (You can tell by the A
prompt that appears just before you ask
for WordStar. A means A: is logged.)
If you want to ask for a file that is not
stored on the logged disk, you have to
type the name of the drive in front of the
file name (e.g., B:TEXTFI LE instead of
TEXTFILE). To avoid this inconvenience,
you can change the logged disk drive.
The simple procedure is given in the next
lesson.
The Printer
When you type on a typewriter, a paper
copy is produced at the same time you
are typing. When you use a word
processing system like WordStar, printing
a paper copy is a separate task from
typing at the keyboard. With WordStar you
first type your text at the keyboard,~next
store your text on a diskette, and then
print a paper copy on a printer. This
printer must be connected to your
computer and turned on, with its paper
loaded and adjusted, before you can print
your document. Ask someone to show
you how to load the paper, adjust it in the
platen, and change ribbons before you
start printing anything.
1 -3
NOTES
c
1- 4
Lesson 2
Some basics
In this lesson, you will learn how to start and stop your computer, and how to
start and stop WordStar. You will also learn how WordStar helps you when you need
information.
Starting Your Computer
Starting WordStar
The following are the approximate steps
you must take to start up your computer.
The steps are not the same for all
machines, so there may be some
differences between the steps shown here
and the steps required for your computer.
Now start WordStar by following these
steps:
1.
Turn on the start switch (or turn the
start key).
2.
Press the RESET button (not all
machines require this step).
3.
Press the space bar (not all machines
require this step).
Insert your diskettes:
4.
5.
a.
Insert the WordStar diskette (a
boot diskette containing an
installed WordStar) into the first
drive (usually called drive a:).
b.
Insert your work diskette into the
second drive (usually called drive
b:) if required.
1.
After the screen prompt A>, type ws
(for WordStar) and press RETURN.
(With some systems, you may type
something a little different.)
a.
First you will see the MicroPro
copyright message for a few
seconds.
b. Then you will see a list of
commands entitled" Opening"
menu with a directory under it. This
is about how your screen should
look:
"Boot" or "Reset" your computer,
according to instructions from that
machine's reference manual or
instructions from someone familiar with
the procedure.
Take a moment right now to learn the ex·
act procedures for your machine, and write
them down for reference. Later you will
type them using WordStar.
2-1
«<OPENING MENU»>
- --Preliminary Commands-- - File CommandsL Change logged disk drive
P Print a file
F File directory
now (ON)
H Set help level,
- - Commands to Open a File - ERename a file
o Open a document file
oCopy a file
N Open a non-document file
Y Delete a file
DIRECTORY of disk A:
CHAPTR1.oOC
CHAPTRt.OAK
CONTENTS
FILEt.oOC
LETTER.oOC
LETTER. OAK
WS.COM
WSMSGS.OVR
2.
CHAPTR.oOC
FILEt.OAK
MAILMRGE.OVR
WSOVLY1.OVR
If required, type!.. to request to
change the logged disk drive. (This
will be required if the WordStar
programs are on one disk and your
document files are on another.)
a.
When the prompt NEW LOGGED
DISK DRIVE (letter, colon,
RETURr'J)? appears, type 12: and
press RETURN. (In some cases,
you may type Q: or 9.:.)
b. The" Opening" menu will
return with the same list of
commands (but a different
directory).
3.
This time press D to "create or edit a
Document file" (the explanation is in
the upper left-hand corner).
4.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
EDIT? appears, type the name of your
file (say Practice) and press
RETURN-.- -
2.
2·2
- WordStar OptionsM Run Mail Merge
S Run SpellStar •
CHAPTR.BAK
FILE2.DOC
TESIDOC
When the" Opening" menu
appears, press X.
WordStar will stop and you will see B (or
something similar) somewhere on the
screen. This means that the operating
system is now running. Your operating
system allows you to copy files, delete
files, and check your work space. See the
manual on your operating system to learn
how to perform these functions.
To return to WordStar from your
operating system, see "Starting WordStar"
earlier in this lesson.
Stopping Your Computer
If you plan to be away from the
machine for a while, you may want to turn
the computer off completely. Here is how
to do this:
1.
When the B> prompt appears,
release each of the diskettes. (Never
leave diskettes running in the
machine while you are away.)
2.
Store the diskettes in a safe place
until you are ready to return to your
machine.
3.
If appropriate, turn off the switch (or
key) on your machine. (This may not
be good for some machines, so
check with your supervisor before
dOing this.)
Stoppi ng WordStar
After you have finished typing (for now,
a few lines for practice should be enough),
you can stop WordStar as follows:
1. While holding down the CTRL key
with one finger, type KD with another.
This will save your document file and
retumyou to the" Opening"
menu.
-System CommandsRRun a program
X Exit to system
Help from WordStar
Whenever WordStar is running, you will
never be lost for long. If you don't
remember which key to push, WordStar
will remind you. For example, as soon as
you enter WordStar, the" Opening"
display is there to tell you which keys you
can push. (By the way, if you push the
wrong one, the worst thing that can
happen is that you will get something
different from what you were expecting.)
Right now let's take a quick look at the
other menus that WordStar displays for
you. To see these menus, you will have to
start WordStar and create a document file:
1.
With the" Opening" menu on the
screen, press 0 to create a document
file.
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
EDIT? appears, type Practice and
press RETURN.
3.
After several messages come and go
on the screen (WAIT, NEW FILE), the
lower half of the screen will be
cleared and the new file will be ready.
This is how the screen should look:
B:PRACTICE
b. The next eight lines give the Main
Menu itself. (All you need to do
now is just glance over it.)
c. The tenth line of the display, with
L on the left and R on the right, is
called the ruler line. This tells
you where your margins and tabs
are currently set:
(1 ) L marks the left margin.
(2) R marks the right margin.
(3) Each! marks a regular tab
setting.
4.
(4) Each # marks a decimal tab
setting.
While holding down the CTRL key
with one finger, type J to see the Help
Menu. (Just remember, J stands for
help. Note: This is a joke; there is no J
in "help.")
a. When the Help Menu appears,
look it over, then press R to read
about the ruler line.
b.
After taking a look, press the
space bar to return to the Main
Menu.
PAGE 1 LINE 1 COL 1
INSERT ON
MAIN MENU
»>
- - Cursor Movement - I - Delete - I - Miscellaneous I - Other MenusAS char left
"0 char right I "G char I "I Tab
<B Reform I ~rom Main only)
AA word left "F word right I DEL chr If I AV Insert On or Off
I J Help AK Block
"E line up
"X line down 1 "T word rt I "l Find/Replce again I "Q Quick "p Print
- Scrolling , "y line
I RETURN End paragraph I "0 Onscreen
"w up line liZ down line I
, "N Insert a RETURN
I
"R up screen "C down screen I
I "U Stop a command
I
L ----1----1----1----1----1----1----1----1----1----1----1----- - - - - -R
«<
•
The Main Menu
a.
The very top line is called the
status line and tells you the
name of your document
(B:PRACTICE, file "Practice" on
disk drive B:), your current page,
line, and column number, and
other information (INSERT ON is
one example).
5.
While holding down the CTRL key
with one finger, type Q to see the
Quick Menu. (Press the space bar
when you are ready to return to the
Main Menu.)
2-3
6.
Repeat Step 5 with the other letters to
see the rest of the menus:
a. K - Block Menu
b. 0 - Onscreen Formatting Menu
c. P - Print Menu
7. While holding the CTRL key with one
finger, type KQ with another to
release and discard the file.
Any time you push one of these keys to
begin a WordStar function, if you wait a
few moments, the menu will appear to
help you.
Help Levels
You also have a choice in how much
help you want WordStar to give you:
• All the help I can get (level 3).
• A lot of help (level 2).
• A little help (level 1 ).
• No help (level 0).
When you first start WordStar, you get
help level 3 automatically. You will
probably want to stay with level 3 through
this entire course. However, at the end of
the booklet, we'll talk about how you can
switch to a lower help level when you're
ready. Less help usually means more
screen area to work with.
Selecting a WordStar Function
If you want to select a function on a
typewriter (set a margin, clear a tab, and
so on), there is usually one key
designated for the function. With WordStar,
you select some functions with a single
keystrdke, just the way you would select a
typewriter function. (With WordStar, it will
be a letter key like D, rather than a special
function key like TAB.) Other functions you
select by pressing a combination of keys.
There are also a number of functions
related to printing that you select by a third
method. This method will be described in
the Extended Course (Lessons 13-18).
Recovering from Errors
Suppose you select a WordStar function
and then find that you actually wanted
another function. WordStar allows you to
interrupt the undesired function in the
following way:
1. While holding down the CTRL key
with one finger, press U with another.
2. When you see the screen prompt "***
INTERRUPTED *** Press ESC Key,"
press the ESCAPE key (often labeled
ESC).
3. Now you are free to select another
function.
Suppose you open a file and discover
that 'it isn't the file you wanted. Or suppose
you open the right file, but make some
. mistakes that are so hard to correct that it
would be easier to start from the
beginning. In either case, WordStar allows
you to abandon the file and make another
selection:
1. While holding down the CTRL key
with one finger, type KQ with your
other fingers.
2. If you have done any typing or made
any changes in the file, the following
message will appear on the screen:
ABANDON EDITED VERSION OF
FILE [filename]? (YIN):
a. Type t if you are sure you want
to abandon the file and there is
no reason to save it.
b. Type D! if you change your mind
and decide to save the file after
all.
3. The file you had open will be
abandoned and you are now free to
open another file (or the same one
a~ain).
2-4
Lesson 3
Typing
a letter
In this lesson you are going to type a business letter using WordStar and then
print the letter on the printer that is connected to your computer. Assuming your
computer is running, you have inserted the diskettes, and WordStar is running, you
are ready to create a document file for the letter.
1 . Open a new file named "Letter":
Change the right margin to column 56:
a. While holding down the CTRL key
with one finger, type the letters
OR.
b.
b. When the question RIGHT
MARGIN COLUMN NUMBER?
appears, type 56 and press
RETURN.
In response to the prompt NAME
OF FILE TO EDIT?, type b.ill!ill
and press RETURN.
c. There will be a pause while the
messages WAIT and NEW FILE
appear on the screen.
2.
2.
a. When the" Opening" menu
appears, press D to create a
document file.
When the status line, main menu, and
ruler line appear, you are ready to
begin.
Preliminary Adjustments
Ordinarily, you do not have to make any
adjustments - you just start typing in the
blank space below the ruler line. But this
time, to get some practice in using
WordStar, you will make three minor
adjustments:
1 . Change the left margin to column 21 :
a. While holding down the CRTL key
with one finger, type OL with
another.
b. When the question LEFT
MARGIN COLUMN NUMBER?
appears, type gj, and press
RETURN.
3.
Turn off justification (alignment of the
right margin):
a. While holding down the CTRL key
with one finger, type 0 to look at
the Onscreen Formatting Menu.
b.
You should see "J=Justification
off (ON)" in the middle column. If
so, hold down CTRL and type J; if
not, press the space bar and
continue.
Now you should see
"J=Justification on (OFF)."
Now the status line, main menu, and
ruler line should be back on the screen.
This is how.the ruler line should look:
c.
L----!----!----!----!----! ----!----R
If it looks like this, go on to the next
section; if it doesn't, repeat steps 1 and 2
very carefully until it does look like this.
3-1
•
A Letter with Mistakes
Correcting "july"
. Here is the letter. Type this letter exactly
as it appears, including mistakes. (In a
moment, you will get a chance to correct
them, and thereby learn more about
WordStar.) Press the RETURN key at the
places shown, but nowhere else. Within a
paragraph, WordStar will return
automatically from one line to another. So
you never have to think about where you
are on the line or how long the last word is
going to be. (When you start, the cursor
will be resting in column 1, not in column
21 , where you just set the left margin. But
as soon as you type the first letter, the
cursor will jump over to column 21. Then it
will move across the screen as you type.)
Now you can go back and correct the
mistakes in the letter. To make these
corrections, you will first have to move the
cursor to the screen location of each
mistake. ( On your particular screen, the
cursor may be in the form of a rectangle,
a triangle, a hyphen, or an underline, and it
mayor may not be flashing.) For example,
after you have completed the letter, the
cursor will be on the line below JW / sl in
column 1 . The first thing you need to do is
to move the cursor in the j in "july" in the
first line of the letter:
_ _ _... july 22,1981
IRETURNI
IRETURNI
~IR""'E~TU--R"""N""I
Dear mr. Somers:
IRETURN I
convenience.
~IR""E~TU-R""N""I
_ _ _... Sincerely,
RETURNI
I
IRETURNl
Jim Winters, President .....-l......;"";;,.,;;;;,;"p.,;;,,
_ _ _-. Charm, Inc.
IRETURNI
•
3-2
JW/sl
IRETURNJ
1.
While holding the CTRL key down
with one finger, press QR. This will
take the cursor straight to the
beginning of the file (to the left of
"july").
2.
While holding the CTRL key down,
press F. This will move the cursor
across the screen to the j in "july."
Now you can change the lowercase j to
an uppercase J. First look at the upper
right-hand corner of the screen, on the
status line. If you see the words INSERT
ON, this means that anything you type will
be inserted in front of july. If you type a J
now, you will change "july" to "Jjuly,"
which isn't what you want. So to make the
change correctly, you first have to shut off
automatic insertion.
1.
While holding down the CTRL key
with one finger, press V with another.
a.
b.
2.
Look at the upper right-hand
corner of the screen and note
that the words INSERT ON have
disappeared.
Just to see how this works, keep
the CTRL key down and press V
two more times while watching
the upper right-hand corner. You
will see INSERT ON appear and
then vanish again.
With the cursor resting on the
incorrect j and INSERT ON gone from
the upper right-hand corner of the
screen, hold down the SHIFT key with
one finger and press J with another.
The uppercase J will now replace the
lowercase j (and change "july" to
"July").
Correcting "somers"
2.
While holding down the CTRL key,
press F twice. This will move the
cursor across to the first s in
"somers."
3.
Since automatic insertion is still off,
you can just type an uppercase § (or
SHIFT S) over the lowercase s. Now
you have changed "somers" to
"Somers."
Inserting a Space before
"President"
Next, you want to insert a space between
the comma and "President" on the same
line:
1.
While holding down the CTRL key
with one finger, press 0 six times with
another. This moves the cursor
across the line six characters to the P
in "President."
2.
Now turn automatic insertion back on
by holding down CTRL and pressing
V. (You should see INSERT ON
reappear in the upper right-hand
corner.)
3.
Press the space bar. You will see the
word "President" move to the right
one space. Now you have inserted a
space after the comma.
Correcting "mr."
Now you want to correct "mr." in the
eighth line. Once again you start by
positioning the cursor:
Next, to change "somers" to "Somers" on
the third line, proceed as follows:
1.
While holding down the CTRL key,
press X twice. This will move the
cursor down two lines, but in column 1.
3-3
1.
While holding down CTRL, press X
five times. This will move the cursor
down five lines (to the left of "Dear").
(We could also say, "Press CTRL X
five times." This is a shorter way of
saying it.)
2.
PressCTRL F twice to move the
cursor across one word to the m in
"mr."
3.
Press CTRL V to turn off automatic
insertion. (Make sure INSERT ON
disappears from the upper right-hand
corner.)
4.
Type an uppercase M (or SHIFT M)
over the lowercase m to change "mr."
to "Mr."
Let's take a moment now to see how
you've done so far. The first eight lines of
the letter should look like this:
July 22, 1981
Bill Somers, President
Beauty, Inc.
485 Avenida de las Guapas
Los Angeles, California 90036
Correcting "should"
Your next task is to replace "should" in
line 13 with "mus!":
1.
Press CTRL X five times to move the
cursor from "Mr. Somers" five lines
down (to the left of "should").
2.
Press CTRL F to move the cursor
across to the s in "should."
3.
Type must over the word "should".
Now you have must d", with the
cursor over the I.
4.
Press CTRL T to delete "Id." Notice
how the rest of the line moves left two
spaces when you press CTRL T.
m
Emphasizing "all"
Now you are going to do something that
will place more emphaSis on the word
"all" in the same line:
1.
Press CTRL F twice to move the
cursor across one word to the a in
"aiL"
Dear Mr. Somers:
2.
If your letter looks just like this,
wonderful! Go on to the next section
("Correcting 'should"'). If it doesn't, you
have nothing to be ashamed of. Just give
it another try. Here's how:
Press CTRL V to turn automatic
insertion back on. (Make sure you see
INSERT ON in the upper right-hand
corner of the screen.)
3.
Press CTRL PB (that is, hold down the
CTRL key with one finger, then type
PB with another, without a pause
between the P and the B).
1.
If you were fairly close, try turning
back to the section called "Correcting
'july'" and going back over the steps
very carefully.
2.
If you are not very close and would
like to start all over again, hold down
the CTRL key and tYP€3 KO. Now you
can turn back to the beginning of this
lesson and forget about your
mistakes.
3-4
a.
You will see the characters "B
inserted in front of the word all.
(The characters "B represent an
even shorter way of saying CTRL
B.)
b.
Note that in some instances,
control characters (like CTRL B)
are actually displayed on the
screen along with the characters
of the text.
4.
5.
6.
Press CTRL F (also written AF) to
move the cursor across to the p in
"possibilities."
Now press CTRL S (or AS) to move
the cursor back to the space between
"all" and "possibilities."
Press CTRL PB (APAB) again, but this
time with a pause between Ap and AB.
a.
c.
2.
c. This tells you that by placing a AB
on each side of the word "all,"
you want WordStar to print "all" in
boldface type, as you see here.
d. Note that "all" will not appear in
boldface on the video screen
-only on paper after you have
printed this letter.
Change "me" to "my":
a. Press CTRL 0 (AD) to move the
cursor over one space to the e in
"me."
b.
c. Type y to insert the corrected
letter.-
Note
This is a second way of replacing one
letter with another: deleting the old, then
inserting the new. (If you recall, the first
way was to shut off automatic insertion
and type the new letter over the old
letter.)
3.
Move "my secretary" from line 18 to
line 17:
a.
Set a beginning marker:
(1) Press CTRLA(AA)to move the
cursor back to the m in "my."
(2) Press CTRL KB (AK"B) to mark
the beginning of the text you are
about to move. (You will see
<B> appear in front of "my.")
b.
Set an ending marker:
(1) Press CTRL F (A F) twice to
move the cursor two words
across to the a in "at."
Correcting a Sentence
Your next task is to change the wording
of the sentence in the second paragraph
to, "Please call my secretary to set an
appointment at your earliest convenience."
This involves three changes: deleting the
word "with," changing "me" to "my," and
moving "my secretary" from the second
line to the first. Here are the steps to
follow:
1.
Delete "with:"
a. Press CTRL X (AX) five times to
move the cursor five lines down
(to the left of "with").
b.
Press CTRL G (AG) to delete the
e.
If you wait long enough (about
three seconds), you will see the
menu at the top of the screen
change.
b. Then if you look at this menu, you
will see B in the middle column,
followed by the explanation
"Boldface begin/ end."
Press CTRL T (AT) to delete
"with." Now the cursor is on the
min"me."
(2) Press CTRL KK("K"K)to mark
the end of the text you are about
to move. (If your screen is so
designed, you will see "my
secretary" become highlighted
on the screen.)
Press CTRL F (AF) to move the
cursor across the screen to the w
in "with."
3-5
c.
Move the text:
(1 ) Press CTRL E (AE) to move the
cursor up one line.
(2) PressCTRLA(AA)tomovethe
cursor back to the t in "to."
(3) Press CTRL KV (AKAVYto move
"my secretary" to the space
between "call" and "to." Now
you have re-worded the
sentence.'
4.
Reform the paragraph:
a.
Press CTRL B ("B) to reform the
paragraph.
b. When the cursor stops on the n in
"convenience," press CTRL S (AS)
twice to back up two spaces to the
v and press the hyphen key ( -) to
hyphenate the word after "con."
Checking the Results
If this is your first time on a computer
and your letter looks just like this, you've
done a very good job. You're on your way
to becoming a WordStar superstar! Go on
to the next section ("Printing the Letter").
If your letter needs a little more work, try
pressing CTRL R (AR) followed by CTRL E
(AE) to return to the salutation line and
turning back to "Correcting 'should'" in
this lesson. Go through the steps again
very carefully. Or if your letter needs a lot
more work, you may want to start all over
by pressing CTRL KO (AKAO) and going
back to the beginning of the lesson.
By the way, if you're curious about
those "chicken scratches" along the
right-hand side of the screen, the <
symbols tell you where you pressed
RETURN, while the blanks tell you where
WordStar began a new line for you.
Now your letter should look like this:
r
~y~l~
Bill Somers, President
Beauty, Inc.
485 Avenida de las Guapas
Los Angeles, California 90036
Dear Mr. Somers:
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
In reference to our conversation
earlier today, I would like to meet
with you as soon as possible. We
must discuss ABallAB possibilities of
merging Beauty, Inc. and Charm,
Inc.
Please call my secretary to set an
appointment at your earliest convenience.
<
Sincerely,
<
<
Jim Winters, President
Charm, Inc.
3-6
~~
~~
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
____________________________________________- '
Printing the Letter
b.
Now you are ready to print this letter on
your printer. To make it look more
attractive, you can have WordStar justify
the right margin for you:
1.
Press CTRL OJ (AOAJ) to turn on
justification. After Steps 2 and 3, this
will cause the text in the two main
paragraphs to be lined up with even
margins.
2·.
Reform the first paragraph:
a.
b.
Press CTRL E (AE) ten times to
move the cursor to the first line of
the first paragraph ("In reference
to ... ").
You don't have to worry about the "of"
that appears to be past the right-hand
margin. It will be lined up with the rest of
the paragraph when the page is printed.
c. When you see the cursor stop
over the I in "Dealing," press
CTRL B (AB) again to tell
WordStar not to bother
hyphenating this word.
3.
Reform the second paragraph:
a.
4.
Note
This is when your file gets transferred to
your diskette for storage. Now your file
will be much safer in the event that
something goes wrong (the power fails,
the plug comes loose, etc.).
5.
When the" Opening" menu
appears, press P to print your file.
a.
Make sure your printer is
connected to your computer,
loaded with ribbon, and ready to
print. You can get help from
someone if necessary.
b.
In response to the prompt NAME
OF FILE TO PRINT?, type the
name of your file Letter and
press ESC (ESCAPE).
Press CTRL B (AB) to reform the
first paragraph.
Note
Press CTRL X (AX) once to move
the cursor down to the first line of
the second paragraph ("Please
call ... ")~
b. Press CTRL B (AB) to reform the
second paragraph.
Press CTRL KD (AKD) to save a copy
of your file. You will see two
messages appear on the screen:
SAVING FILE B:LETTERassuming "LETTER"
is on drive B (telling you what
WordStar is doing now).
Now your letter should be printed. If
nothing happens, check the most likely
possibilities:
• Is the printer plugged in?
• Is the switch turned on?
• Is the cable from the computer
connected?
• Is the lid on the printer closed tightly?
If the answer to all these questions is
yes, then you should ask someone else
for help. The printer may not be working
properly.
a. WAIT (temng you not to press any
keys)
3-7
NOTES
3-8
Lesson 4
Moving
the cursor
In Lesson 3 you found that certain keys can be used to move the cursor from one
place on the screen to another. In this lesson you are going to take a closer look at all
the different ways of moving the cursor.
Moving the Cursor One
Position
5.
We begin by moving the cursor one
position at a time. But first we have to
have an open document file to work with.
Follow these steps to re-open the file you
named Letter:
Now that the cursor is located in the
middle of a paragraph, you can try moving
the cursor around one position at a time:
1.
Press CTRL 0 to move one position
to the right.
1.
When the" Opening" menu
appears on your screen, press D.
2.
Press CTRL E to move up one
pOSition (one line).
2.
In response to the prompt NAME OF
FILE TO EDIT?, type !&llill and press
RETURN.
3.
Press CTRL S to move one position to
the left.
4.
3.
Now the status line, the main menu,
and the ruler line will appear in the
upper half of the screen, with the first
fourteen lines of your letter in the
lower half. If you turned off the
computer after the last chapter, you'll
have to reset the ruler line(margins)
for the "Letter" file.
Press CTRL X to move down one
position (one line).
5.
Press these keys several more times
in any order.
4.
While holding down the CTRL key
with one finger, type C with another
(for short, "Press CTRL C"). This will
move the cursor down to line 12 (to
the left of "with").
Press CTRL F five times to move the
cursor across to the a in the second
"as."
Look at the arrangement of these four
keys (0, E, S, and X) on your keyboard.
Note that they form an approximate
diamond shape. These four keys make up
what we call the "cursor control diamond."
Any time you hold down the CTRL key
and press one of these keys, you move
the cursor one position:
4-1
In reference to our conversation
earlier today. I Wid like to meet
with you as soo possible. We
must discuss AB Bpossibilities of
merging Beauty. Inc. and Heavy
Dealing.
Moving the Cursor One Word
Return the cursor to the a in "as" and
press CTRL F several times. Continue
pressing CTRL F until the cursor reaches
the end of the paragraph. Now press
CTRL A several times. Continue preSSing
CTRL A until the cursor is back at the.
beginning of the paragraph.
As you look at your keyboard and the
following illustration, you can see that
these two keys (A and F) are also part of
the "cursor control diamond." These keys
move the cursor one word at a time in one
direction or the other. As you just noticed,
they continue moving from one line of text
to another.
In reference to our conversation
earlier today. I would like to meet
with you as~ssible. We
must discuss ABaWB possibilities of
merging Beauty. Inc. and Heavy
Dealing.
Moving the Cursor One
Screen
If the cursor is still on the I in "In," press
CTRL X twice to move it down one line to
the w in "with." Now at this location press
CTRL R. The cursor should jump all the
way up to the J in "July." Now press CTRL
C to return. Press CTRL C again to move
the cursor down to the J in "Jim Winters."
Looking at your keyboard and the
following illustration, you can see that
these two keys (R and C) are also part of
the "cursor control diamond." These keys
move the cursor up or down a distance of
one screen. (Actually, it's about
three-fourths of one screen-eleven lines
of text when fourteen are displayed.)
reference to our conversation
rliertoday. I would like to meet
ith you as soon as possible. We
ust discuss ABallAB possibilities of
erging Beauty. Inc. and Heavy
ealing.
i
4-2
Scrolling
At your location near the end of the
letter, press CTRL W several times. The
cursor will not move (unless it is on the
very bottom line of the screen), but the
entire display will move down one line for
each CTRL W. Now press CTRL Z a few
times, and watch the display move up.
This is called scrolling.
Looking at your keyboard and the
following illustration, you can see that
these two keys (Wand Z) are also part of
the "cursor control diamond." The E, S, X,
and 0 keys make up the "inner diamond,"
while the W, A, Z, C, F, and R keys make
up the "outer diamond."
In reference to our conversation
earlier today, I would like to meet
with you as soon as possible. We
must discuss "Ball"B possibilities of
merging Beauty, Inc. and Heavy
Dealing.
Moving to the Edges of the
Text Area
Using the cursor motion keys you have
. learned, move the cursor back to the word
"as" in "as possible." Now hold down the
CTRL key and press as. (A shorter way
of saying it is, "Press CTRL as.") CTRL a
is the "quick" key, which makes things
happen faster. So when you press CTRL
as, the cursor moves quickly to the left
side of the screen. Now press CTRL AD,
and watch the cursor move to the right
margin.
Next, press CTRL OE, and watch the
cursor move to the top of the text area.
Finally, press CTRL OX (or OX for short),
and watch the cursor return.
As you have probably noticed already,
the four keys you have been using with
CTRL (E, S, X, and D) are the four keys
of the cursor control diamond. Without
CTRL A, they move the cursor only one
position in any of four directions; with
CTRL a, they move the cursor to the
edge of the text area in any direction.
a
must discuss "Ba I"B possibilities of
merging Beauty, nco and Heavy
Dealing.
4-3
Moving to Either End of Your
File
Using the keys you have learned, move
the cursor back to the middle of the first
paragraph of the letter (to the "as" in "as
possible"). Now press CTRL OR ("Q"R),
and watch the cursor move up to the first
line. Next, press CTRL OC ("Q" C) and
watch the cursor move down to the end of
the file.
Once again, these two keys (R and C)
are part of the cursor control diamond.
Without CTRL Q ("Q), they scroll up or
down a distance of one screen (actually,
three-quarters of a screen); with CTRL Q
("Q), they move the cursor either up to the
beginning of the file or down to the end of
the file.
Note that CTRL QR ("Q"R) will move
the cursor to the beginning of the file,
regardless how large the file. However, if
you have a very large file and you want to
return to the beginning of the file quickly,
press CTRL KS ("K"S) instead. This will
save a copy of your file and move the
cursor to the beginning much faster than
CTRL QR (QAR).
In reference to o,conversation
earlier today, I w uld like to meet
with you as soon possible. We
must discuss ABa I"B possibilities of
merging Beauty, nco and Heavy
Dealing.
Continuous Scrolling
From the current location of the cursor
at the end of the file, press CTRL QW
(AQAW), and watch the screen begin
scrolling down (while the cursor moves up
to stay on the screen). You can stop the
scrolling at any time by pressing CTRL Q
again or by pressing the space bar. If you
press CTRL QZ (AQAZ), the text will begin
scrolling up.
These two keys (Wand Z) once again
complete the cursor control diamond.
Without CTRL Q, these keys scroll only
one line either up or down; with CTRL Q,
these keys scroll continuously.
In reference to o,conversation
earlier today, I w Id like to meet
with you as soon possible. We
must discuss AB "B possibilities of
merging Beauty, nco and Heavy
Dealing.
4-4
Repeating a Function
ICTRLI~~~
WordStar allows you to repeat any
function (or any keystroke) many times
without having to keep pressing the keys.
Since this is a lesson on cursor motion,
let's use a cursor motion function as an
example:
1.
Press CTRL OR ("O"R) to move the
cursor to the beginning of the file.
2.
Press CTRL OOF ("O"O"F) to start
the cursor moving through the text a
word at a time.
3.
After watching the cursor move for a
while, press the space bar to stop it.
While holding down the CTRL key, type
KD. (Another way of saying this is, "Press
CTRL KD." A third way of saying it is,
"Press "K"D.") WordStar will save your file
on diskette and return to the "editing no
file" menu.
You pressed CTRL KD this time
because you were finished with the file.
But other times, when you plan to save
your file and then make more changes to
it, CTRL KS ("K"S) is a little faster.
Again, as a caution, computers rely on
electrical power, and electrical power can
fail or fluctuate. So protect you files by
saving them. Save them often during a
typing session, and always save them at
the end of a session. Never leave an
unsaved file unattended while you are
away from the keyboard.
You have seen CTRL 0 ("0) used with
various other keys to give you various
"quick" functions. When you press CTRL
twice, followed by a third keystroke
(CTRL F in the example above), this tells
WordStar to keep repeating this keystroke
until you press the space bar. Try Steps 2
and 3 again, only use CTRL OOA
("O"O"A) in Step 2 this time. This will start
moving the cursor backwards a word at a
time.
o
Saving Your File
Early in this guide, you learned that
WordStar operates in your computer and
that your files are stored on diskettes.
About every half hour or so, you should
save a copy of the file you are working on.
Then WordStar will transfer your most
recent changes to diskette, where they will
be stored (and where they will be safer). In
this lesson you have not really made any
changes to your file (~), so this will be
just for practice.
4-5
NOTES
4-6
Lesson 5
Inserting and
deleting text
In Lesson 4 you learned how to move the cursor in any direction either a short
distance or a longer distance. In this lesson you wi" learn how to add to and delete
from text you have already typed. First we need a file to work with:
1.
When the" Opening" menu
appears on your screen, press D to
open a document file.
2.
Take a moment to look at the
information on the screen.
3.
In response to the prompt NAME OF
FILE TO EDIT?, type !&!!ill and press
RETURN.
Inserting a New Paragraph
Now that the file is open, use the cursor
motion keys you have learned to move the
cursor to the blank line above "Sincerely"
near the end of the letter. Now follow
these steps:
1.
Look at the upper right-hand corner of
the screen and make sure you see
"INSERT ON" on the status line. If you
don't, press CTRL V ("V) to make it
appear.
2.
Press the RETURN key. Since
automatic insertion is on, this will
create an extra blank line above
"Sincerely."
3.
Now type the following additional
paragraph exactly the way you see it
One item 3we have to be sure to
cover when we get together is is
that plant we have over in Burbank.
that plant we have over in Burbank. RETURN
4.
Press CTRL KS ("K"S) to save your
file.
5.
When the text reappears, press CTRL
OP ("O"P) to return to the place
where you left off last time.
As you can see, WordStar inserts the
text a character at a time while you type.
The first RETURN creates a blank line for
you to begin typing. With this one blank
line as a starting-point, you can type as
much text as you like. The RETURN at the
end is to create a blank line between the
new paragraph and "Sincerely." There are
several mistakes in the text to be
corrected later. But first you are going to
insert more sentences.
Inserting New Sentences
Now press CTRL A to return to the end of
the previous line, leave two spaces after
the period, and add these sentences to
the paragraph you havejust typed: "I need
to hear what you think about this. Maybe
there's more to this than we realized. Keep
5-1
in touch." The paragraph should now look
like this:
One Item 3we have to be sure to
Cover when we get together is is
that plant we have over In Burbank.
that plant we have over in Burbank.
. 1need to hear what you think about
this. Maybe there's more to this
than we realized. Keep In touch.
With WordStar, once you have found
your place, there is no difference between
adding a character, a word, a sentence, or
even more. Just make sure the INSERT
ON message is on the screen and start
typing.
Deleting a Character
ICTRLI
0
CTRL T (AT) deletes one word at a time.
This includes the space that follows the
word; it also includes any punctuation that
may follow the word.
Deleting a Line
ICTRLI
The third mistake to correct is the line
that was typed twice:
1.
Position the cursor anywhere in one
of the extra lines.
2.
Press CTRL Y (Ay) to delete the line.
CTRL Y (Ay) deletes one line of text
from your file. There are also ways to
delete part of a line.
Deleting to the Right
The first mistake we need to correct is
the 3 in front of "we" in the first line of the
new paragraph:
1 . Use the cursor motion keys to
position the cursor over the 3 in
"3we."
2.
Press CTRL G (AG) to delete the 3.
CTRL G (AG) deletes one character at a
time. If you want to delete more than just a
single character, you can use other keys.
Deleting a Word
The next mistake to correct is the extra
"is" in the second line of the new
paragraph:
1.
Position the cursor over the i in the
first "is."
2.
Press CTRL T (AT) to delete the word.
5-2
0
ICTRLI ~ [2J
The next correction to make is to delete
the sentence, "Maybe there's more to this
than we realized." We can't use CTRL y
here because the sentence isn't on a line
by itself. So we'll begin with the part on the
fifth line of the paragraph:
1.
Move the cursor to the M in "Maybe."
2.
Press CTRL QY (AQAy) to delete
"Maybe there's more ... "
CTRL QY (AQAy) deletes from where
the cursor is located to the end of the
same line (to the right). The character on
which the cursor is resting is deleted. As
you might have guessed, you can also
delete to the left.
1.
Deleting to the Left
ICTRLI
~
IOELI
Next, we'll delete the rest of the
unwanted sentence, which is on the sixth
line of the paragraph:
1.
Move the cursor to the K in "Keep."
2.
Press CTRL Q DEL ("Q"DEL) to
delete "than we realized." (On some
keyboards, DEL (DELETE) is called
RUBOUT.)
CTRL Q DEL ("Q"DEL) deletes from in
front of the cursor to the beginning of the
same line (to the left). The character on
which the cursor is resting is not deleted.
This is how your new paragraph should
look now:
2.
3.
One item we have to be sure to
cover when we get together is
that plant we have over in Burbank.
I need to hear what you think about
this.
Keep in touch.
These deletions have left both margins
a little ragged. In a moment, we'll take
care of that. Right now we are going to
consider ways of inserting and deleting
blocks of text that you have already typed.
Copying a Paragraph
ICTRLI00
Suppose that after looking at your letter,
you discover that you have typed this new
paragraph in the wrong location. It really
belongs between the other two
paragraphs. WordStar allows you to copy
the entire paragraph to the new location:
Mark the beginning of the paragraph:
a.
Move the cursor to column 1 of
the line above your new paragraph
(the line above "One item ... ").
b.
Press CTRL KB ("K"B) to mark
the beginning of the block of text
you are going to copy. (You will
see <B> appear in front of the
cursor.)
Mark the end 01 the paragraph:
a.
Move the cursor to column 1 of
the line below your ne\N paragraph
(the line below "Keep in touch.").
b.
Press CTRL KK ("K"K) to mark
the end of the block of text you
are going to copy. (Either the
block will becomp highlighted or
<K> will appear.)
Copy the paragraph to the new
location:
a.
Move the cursor to column 1 of
the line between the other two
paragraphs (the line above
"Please call ... ").
b.
Press CTRL KC ("K"C) to copy
the marked paragraph to the new
location.
Deleting a Paragraph
ICTRLI
0
[2J
Now you are going to go back
and delete the paragraph from the old
location:
1.
Mark the beginning of the paragraph:
a.
b.
Move the cursor to column 1 of
the line above the paragraph (the
line above "One .item").
Press CTRL KB ("K"B) to mark the
beginning of the block of text you
are going to delete. (You will see
<8> appear in front of the
cursor.)
5-3
2.
3.
Mark the end of the paragraph:
a.
Move the cursor to column 1 of
the line below the paragraph (the
line below "Keep in touch.").
b.
Press CTRL KK ("K"K) to mark
the end of the block of text to be
deleted. (Either the block will
become highlighted or <K> will
appear.)
Moving a Paragraph
ICTRLI0G
After looking at your letter for a while,
you decide that the new paragraph you've
inserted really belongs at the end as a
postscript. You can move the paragraph to
the end of the letter with one command
after marking it:
2.
Press CTRL KK ("K"K) to mark
the end of the block of text you
are going to move. (Either the
block will become highlighted or
<K> will appear.)
Move the paragraph to the new
location:
a.
Move the cursor to column 1 of
the blank line above the initials
(the line above "JW lsi").
b.
Press CTRL KV ("K"V) to move
the marked paragraph. (No copy
will be left at the previous
location.)
Inserting "P.S,"
Now for a final touch you can insert
"P.S. " in front of the paragraph you just
moved:
1.
Press CTRL KH ("K"H) to turn off the
highlighting (and hide the markers).
2.
Move the cursor to the 0 of "One
item ... ".
3.
Look at the upper right-hand corner of
the screen to check for "INSERT ON."
If it isn't there, press CTRL V ("V) to
make it appear.
4.
Type "P.S. " (with a space after the
second period) in front of "One item
5.
Press CTRL B ("B) to reform the
paragraph.
6.
Press CTRL KD ("K"D) to save your
file.
7.
Look at the directory for LETTER.BAK,
your backup file.
Mark the beginning of the paragraph:
a.
Move the cursor to column 1 of
the line above the paragraph (the
line above "One item ... ").
b.
Press CTRL KB ("K"B) to mark
the beginning of the block of text
you are going to move. (You will
see <B> appear in front of the
cursor.)
Mark the end of the paragraph:
a.
5-4
3.
Press CTRL KY ("K"Y) to delete the
marked paragraph.
You don't have to copy a block of text
from one location to another and then go
back to the old location to delete. This has
just been for the practice. WordStar has
another feature that moves text from one
location to another without leaving a copy
behind at the old location.
1.
b.
Move the cursor to column 1 of
the line below the paragraph (the
line below "Keep in touch.").
Any time you mess up a paragraph with
insertions or deletions, you can tidy it up
again by pressing CTRL B ("B). You can
press "B either at the beginning of the
paragraph or at any line further down, as
long as the cursor precedes the untidy
places.
Printing Your File
2.
Just for practice, you can now print your
file on your printer:
1.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
PRINT? appears, type ~ and
press ESC (ESCAPE). Now your letter
will be printed with the new
paragraph.
When the" Opening
menu
appears, press P. (Make sure the
printer is ready and that the paper is
lined up at the right position.)
II
July 22,1981
Bill Somers, President
Beauty, Inc.
485 Avenida de las Guapas
Los Angeles, California 90036
Dear Mr. Somers:
In reference to our conversation
earlier today, I would like to meet
with you as soon as possible. We
must discuss all possibilities of
merging Beauty, Inc. and Charm,
Inc.
Please call my secretary to set an
appointment at your earliest convenience.
Sincerely,
Jim Winters, President
Charm, Inc.
P.S. One item we have to be sure to
cover when we get together is that
plant we have over in Burbank. I
need to hear what you think about
this. Keep in touch.
JW/sl
5-5
Summary
In this lesson you have learned how to
insert a sentence, a paragraph, or any
amount of text into your file, using INSERT
ON. You have also learned how to delete
a character, a word (or part of a word), an
entire line, or part of a line:
CTRLG
One item ~we have to be sure to
cover when we get together -+s- is
that plant we have over in Burbank.
CTRL Y
-U=I~ ~~
CTRL DEL
I need to hear what you think about
this. Meyae-tftere's ~e te ~
~aR we -reafffee. Keep in touch.
we Ra¥9 &¥SF -+R a~.
In addition, you have learned how to set
markers at each end of a block of text:
<B>(CTRL KB)
One item we have to be sure to
cover when we get together is
that plant we have over in Burbank.
I need to hear what you think about
this.
Keep in touch.
<K> (CTRL KK)
Finally, you have learned how to copy,
delete, or move a paragraph (or any other
block of text that has been marked):
5-6
CTRL T
CTRL QY
==
<8>~__________
<K>
GTRL KG
=
<B>~____________
<K>
1
<8>
GTRL KY
<K>
J
L
-=
<8>~__________
<K>
GTRL KV
-=
<8>/ ___________
5-7
NOTES
5-8
Lesson 6
Forming paragraphs
In this section you will learn how to enter paragraphs correctly, how to split one
paragraph into several, and how to merge several paragraphs into one. You will also
learn how to select unjustified right margins and how to select double or triple
spacing.
First, you will create a new document
file and (if you haven't exited from
WordStar since Lesson 5) reset the
original margins.
1.
Create a new file called "Control":
a. When the" Opening" menu
appears, press D.
b. When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO CREATE OR EDIT? appears,
type QQD!!:Q! and press RETURN.
c.
2.
First the WAIT and NEW FILE
messages will appear on the
screen, then the file will be ready.
Reset the left margin to column 1 (if
necessary):
a. Press CTRL OL (AOAL) to request
a new left margin.
b. When the question LEFT
MARGIN COLUMN NUMBER?
appears~ type 1 and press
RETURN.
3.
Reset the right margin to column 65 (if
necessary):
a. Press CTRL OR (AOAR) to request
a new right margin.
b. When the question RIGHT
MARGIN COLUMN NUMBER?
appears, 'type §§ and press
RETURN.
6-1
Typing Separate Paragraphs
Enter the following text exactly as you
see it here:
The CTRL key on your keyboard is very similar to the SH IFT key in
many ways. First of all, you always press it while you are
pressing another key; pressing it by itself doesn't do anything.
Like the SH IFT key, the CTRL key changes what happens when you
press some other key. And like the SHIFT key, the CTRL key is
located near the left side of the key cluster. However, pressing
the CTRL key while you are pressing another key does not usually
produce a visible character on the screen and never produces a
rinted character.
IRETURNI
RETURN
Instead of saying, "While holding down the CTRL key with one
finger, press 0 with another," we can be briefer by just saying,
"Press CTRL 0." This is like saying, "Press SHIFT 0." The
difference is that pressing CTRL O· will activate a WordStar
function, while pressing SHIFT 0 will merely display a capital
letter 0 on the screen. If we want to be even briefer still, we
IRETURN
can say, "Press 0" instead of, "Press CTRL 0."
6-2
I
Even though you have already typed
this text as two separate paragraphs,
WordStar makes it easy for you to change
this.
2.
a. With the first RETURN, "However,
... " moves to a separate line.
Joining Paragraphs
Just for practice, you will first join the
two paragraphs you have typed into one
larger paragraph:
1.
Move the cursor just past the last
word of the first paragraph (to the first
blank space past "character."), as
follows:
a.
Place the cursor in the left-hand
margin of the blank line between
the two paragraphs.
b.
Press CTRL A (AA) to move the
cursor back up to the end of the
previous line.
2.
Press the space bar twice to leave
room between the two sentences.
3.
Press CTRL G (AG) twice.
a.
With the first CTRL G, the blank
line between the paragraphs will
vanish.
b. With the second, a blank line
appears between the new
paragraphs.
3.
Press CTRL B (AB) to reform the
second paragraph.
4.
Repeat Steps 1-3 to form a third
paragraph beginning with "Instead of
Even though you entered this text in block
style, there's nothing to keep you from
changing that now.
Changing to Indented
Paragraphs
WordStar makes it easy for you to
change to indented paragraphs after you
have already typed them:
1.
b.
4.
With the second, the first word of
the second paragraph will move to
the cursor.
Press CTRL B (AB) twice to reform the
new paragraph.
Splitting a Paragraph
Now you are going to split into smaller
paragraphs the larger paragraph you have
just formed:
1.
Using the cursor control keys you
have learned, move the cursor to the
H in "However, ... " in the sixth line.
With INSERT ON showing in the
upper right-hand corner of the screen,
press RETURN twice.
2.
3.
Move the cursor to the beginning of
the first paragraph (the T in "The
CTRL key ... ").
With INSERT ON showing in the
upper right-hand corner of the screen,
press CTRL I (AI) to indent the first line
of the paragraph to the first tab stop.
Press CTRL B (AB) to reform the
paragraph.
You will see the cursor stop in the
middle of "anything." This is WordStar's
way of asking you if you want to
hyphenate this word. To hypenate, back
the cursor up to the t and press the key
(-). Now WordStar will continue reforming.
6-3
Hyphenating Words During
Reform
Repeat Steps 1-3 for the second two
paragraphs. While you are reforming the
second paragraph, WordStar will stop to
hyphenate "another:"
1.
If you don't want to hyphenate
"another," just press CTRL B (AB)
again. WordStar will move "another"
to the next line and go on.
2.
If you want to hyphenate "another,"
use CTRL S (AS) to back up the
cursor to the 0 and press the hyphen
key. WordStar will place a hyphen
after "an" and then go on to the end
of the paragraph.
Just for practice, reform the paragraph
twice, once without hyphenation and once
with hyphenation. (If you have already
reformed with hyphenation, just leave the
paragraph that way.) Note that the hyphen
may appear highlighted on your screen.
The highlighting tells you that this hyphen
will be printed only if it falls at the end of a
line (which it does right now). If your
screen doesn't show highlighting, this is
still true.
Rejoining Paragraphs
Now you are going to rejoin the first and
second paragraphs:
1.
2.
3.
Press CTRL G (AG) five more times to
remove the indentation.
4.
CTRL B (AB) to reform the new
paragraph.
5.
Press CTRL KD (AKAD) to save a
copy of your file.
Now the text is about the way it was
when you first entered 'it, except that each
paragraph begins with an indented line.
Printing Your File
To print your completed file, follow these
steps:
1.
When you see the" Opening."
menu, press P to request printing.
(Make sure the printer is ready and
the paper is positioned correctly.)
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
BE PRINTED? appears, type Control
and press ESCAPE. Your file ~
printed on the printer.
Printing Double-Spaced,
Unjustified
Just to illustrate some of the choices
you have in printing, you will now print the
same file with double-spacing and an
unjustified right margin:
1.
Using the cursor control keys you
have learned, move the cursor past
the last word in the first paragraph,
with two spaces between the period
and the cursor. (CTRL F or CTRL A
should do this automatically.)
Press CTRL G (AG) twice to bring the
two paragraphs together.
Open the file named "Control:"
a. When the" Opening" menu
appears, press D to open your file
again.
b. When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO CREATE OR EDIT? appears,
type CONTROL and press
RETURN.
2.
Set double-spacing:
a.
Press CTRL OS (AOAS).
b. When the prompt "ENTER space
OR NEW LINE SPACING (1-9):"
appears, type g (no RETURN
required).
6·4
c.
3.
4.
5.
6.
LINE SPACING 2 will appear in
the upper right-hand corner of the
screen (on the status line).
Turn off justification:
a.
Press CTRL 0 ("0).
b.
If the menu shows that
justification is now ON, press
CTRL J ("J) to
turn it off.
c.
If the menu shows that justification
is already OFF, press the space
bar to leave it that way.
d.
The next time you type "0"J, you
will turn justification back on
again.
Reform the first paragraph:
a.
Leave the cursor at column 1 of
the first line of the first paragraph
(liThe CTRL key ... ").
b.
Press CTRL B ("B) to reform the
paragraph.
Reform the second paragraph:
a.
Move the cursor down to column
1 of the first line of the second
paragraph ("Instead of ... ").
b.
Press CTRL B ("B) to reform the
paragraph.
Print your file again:
a.
When you see the" Opening"
menu, press P to request printing.
b.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO BE PRINTED? appears, type
Control and press ESCAPE.
c.
The printed result should look like
this:
6-5
The CTRL key on your keyboard is very similar to the SHIFT
key in many ways, First of all, you always press it while you
are pressing another key: pressing it by itself doesn't do anything, Like the SHIFT key, the CTRL key changes what happens
when you press some other key, And like the SHIFT key, the CTRL
key is located near the left side of the key cluster, However,
pressing the CTRL key while you are pressing another key does not
usually produce a visible character on the screen and never
produces a printed character,
Instead of saying, "While holding down the CTRL key with one
finger, press 0 with another," we can be briefer by just saying,
"Press CTRL 0," This is like saying, "Press SHIFT 0," The
difference is that pressing CTRL 0 will activate a WordStar
function, while pressing SHIFT 0 will merely display a capital
letter 0 on the screen, If we want to be even briefer still, we
can say, "Press 0" instead of, "Press CTRL 0,"
6-6
Line Spacing and Justification
You can set any line spacing from 1 to
9 by pressing "O"S, and typing a number.
When you set a value other than 1
(single-spacing), e.g., 2 (double-spacing),
you will see a message in the upper
right -hand corner of your screen (LINE
SPACING 2). You probably won't have
many occasions to use any setting other
than 1. 2. or 3 for line spacing.
You can turn off justification of the right
margin by pressing "0" J once. The next
time you press "0"J, you will turn
justification back on again. You can
always tell whether you have turned
justification on or off by looking at the text
you are typing. Another way to tell is to
press "0 and look at the menu after J
(either ON or OFF will appear highlighted).
If you don't want to change it, just press
the space bar.
If you select double spacing and
unjustified right margins before you begin
typing. then you will see the text appear
with these features on the screen. But if
you have already typed the text and then
select these features, nothing will happen
to your text until you reform each
paragraph one at a time. This means that
WordStar allows you to change the
settings as often as you like, which
means, in turn, that you could type each
paragraph of your file with different
settings for printing.
Any WordStar features you select will
remain in effect until you exit from
WordStar, even if you switch to a different
file.
Lesson 1. You learned how the
keyboard, screen, diskettes, disk drives,
and printer work together while you are
typing.
Lesson 2. You learned how to start
your computer and WordStar, how to stop
WordStar and your computer, and how
WordStar helps you while you are typing.
Lesson 3. You learned how to create a
document file and type a letter. You also
learned how to use many WordStar
functions for making corrections and how
to print the letter.
Lesson 4. You learned how to move
the cursor one position, one word, or one
screen in either direction. You also learned
how to scroll the screen up or down, move
the cursor to the edge of the text area,
move the cursor to either end of the file,
and repeat a keystroke or WordStar
function.
Lesson 5. You learned how to insert
text with INSERT ON and how to delete a
character, a word, a line, or part of a line.
You also learned how to copy, delete, or
move a block of text.
Lesson 6. You learned how to join two
paragraphs together and split one
paragraph into two. You also learned how
to change block paragraphs to indented
paragraphs, how to reform a paragraph.
and how to hyphenate words during a
paragraph reform. Finally, you learned
how to specify line spacing and
right -justification.
End of the Short Course
This concludes the Short Course. At
this point. you don't know all the features
of WordStar, but you know enough to
handle most ordinary typing jobs. Here is
a quick summary of what you have
covered:
6-7
You have created these files:
PRACTICE (Lesson 2)
LEDER (Lesson 3)
CONTROL (Lesson 6)
If you plan to repeat the Short Course,
you can delete these files now, using
either WordStar's deletion command or
your operating system's deletion
command. Here is how to use WordStar's
deletion command for the first file
(PRACTICE):
6-8
1.
When the" Opening" menu
appears, press Y to delete a file.
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
DELETE? appears, type Practice and
press RETURN.
Intermediate Course
7 Margins, Tabs, and
Centering
Centering Text
Indenting Text
Printing Your File
Changing the Margins
Restoring the Original Margins
Changing the Tabs
8 Typing Tables
Typing a Simple Table
Typing a Table with Decimal Amounts
Resetting the Tabs
Typing the Table
Printing the Table
Ordinary Tabs and Decimal Tabs
9 Creating Special Effects:
Part 1
Typing Boldface Text
Double-Striking
Underlining
Striking Out Words
Summary
10 Creating Special Effects:
Part 2
Typing Subscripts
Typing Superscripts
Typing Strikeovers
Typing Non-Break Spaces
Combining Special Effects
11 Finding and Replacing Text
Setting Place Markers
Moving to Place Markers
Finding a String
Disregarding Case
Searching for Whole Words
Replacing One String with Another
Automatic Replacement
Summary
12 Handling Blocks and Files
Saving Your File and Continuing
Saving Your File and Going to
Another WordStar Operation
Saving Your File and Stopping
Word Star
Abandoning a File
Marking a Block
Moving a Block
Copying a Block
Deleting a Block
Writing a Block to Another File
Reading One File into Another
Summary: Moving Text from One File
to Another
Copying a File
Renaming a File
Deleting a File
Restoring a Lost File
from the Backup File
Lesson 7
Margins, tabs,
and centeri ng
In this lesson you will learn how to align the text you are typing with tabs, margins, and centering.
First you will need to create a new
document file:
1.
2.
When the .. Opening' menu
appears. press D to create a
document file.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
EDIT? appears, type Display and
press RETURN.
Now you have a document file called
"Display," and you are ready to begin
entering text.
Centering Text
ICTRLI@J~
Indenting Text
ICTRLI
D
Now you are going to enter several
paragraphs of text with indentations
included for better appearance:
1.
Press RETURN three times to leave
two blank lines below the title.
2.
Press CTRL I (AI) to move the cursor
out to the first tab stop. (You can see
the positions of the tabs that WordStar
has set for you by looking at the ruler
line below the menu. Each
exclamatioil point (I) represents one
tab stop.)
The first word you are going to type is to
be the title of this file. So you will want to
center this word in the middle of the line:
1.
Press RETURN three times to bring
the title down from the top of the
page.
2.
Type "Display" next to the left-hand
margin.
3.
Press CTRL OC (AOAC) to center
"Display." You will see the word shift
to the middle of the screen.
7-1
3.
Now type the following paragraph:
4.
Press CTRL I ("I) to move the cursor
out to the first tab stop and type "0" to
represent a bullet.
5.
Press CTRL I ("I) again to move the
cursor to the second tab stop.
6.
Press CTRL OG ("O"G) twice to
move the left margin temporarily to
the second tab stop, then type the
following paragraph:
Status Line. The status line tells you the name of
your file (B:DISPLAY), the page, line, and column of
the cursor's location in your file, and other
information, such as INSERT ON.
IRETURNI
'RETURN'
7.
Repeat Steps 4-6 and type the
following paragraph:
Main Menu. The main menu gives you information about
the most common WordStar functions and refers you to
five other menus for additional information.
, RETURN'
IRETURN'
8.
Repeat Steps 4-6and type the
following paragraph:
Ruler Line. The ruler line shows you the margins and
tab stops currently in effect. WordStar initially sets
the left margin to column 1, the right mar in to 65,
and tab stops at every fifth column up to 56. RETURN
'RETURN'
7·2
9.
Printing Your File
Press CTRL KD ("K"D) to save your
file.
Now you can print your file by following
these steps:
By pressing CTRL I ("I) one or more
times, you can cause a line of text to be
indented to one of the tab stops currently
set. (But the rest of the lines of the
paragraph will not be indented.) By
pressing CTRL OG ("O"G) the same
number of times, you can temporarily
reset the left margin to the same tab stop,
which means that the entire paragraph will
be indented.
1.
When the" Opening" menu
appears, press P.
2.
Make sure the printer is ready and
that the paper is in the correct
position.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
PRINT? appears, type Display, then
press ESC (ESCAPE). - -
3.
When printed. your file should look like this:
Display
WordStar displays a lot of information for the beginning
user. Besides the display of text in the lower part of the
screen, WordStar also displays
a
Status Line. The status line tells you the name of
your file (B:DISPLAY), the page, line, and column of
the cursor's location in your file, and other
information, such as INSERT ON.
a
Main Menu. The main menu gives you information about
the most common WordStar functions and refers you to
five other menus for additional information.
a
Ruler Line. The ruler line shows you the margins and
tab stops currently in effect. WordStar initially sets
the left margin to column 1, the right margin to 65,
and tab stops at every fifth column up to 56.
7-3
Changing the Margins
e.
To help you become more familiar with
margin settings, you are now going to
reprint your file with narrower margins:
6.
7.
1.
2.
Open file "Display" again:
a.
When the . Opening"
appears, press D:
b.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type Display
and press RETURN.
--
Change the left margin to 11:
a. Press CTRL OL (AOAL) to change
the left margin.
b.
3.
4.
5.
7-4
menu
When the prompt LEFT COLUMN
NUMBER (ESCAPE for cursor
column)? appears, type 11 and
press RETURN.
Change the right margin to 56:
a.
Press CTRL OR (AOAR) to change
the right margin.
b.
When the prompt RIGHT
COLUMN NUMBER (ESCAPE for
cursor column)? appears, type 56
and press RETURN.
Reform the first paragraph:
a.
Move the cursor to the first line of
the first paragraph ("WordStar
displays ...").
b.
Press CTRL B (AB) to reform the
paragraph.
Reform the second paragraph:
a.
After making sure INSERT ON is
showing in the upper right-hand
corner, move the cursor to the
start of the second paragraph (to
the bullet).
b.
Press CTRL I (AI) twice to push
the bullet out to the first tab stop.
c.
Press CTRL F (AF) to move the
cursor to the S in "Status Line."
d.
Press CTRL OG (AOAG) twice to
reset the left margin temporarily
to the second tab stop.
Press CTRL B (AB) to reform the
paragraph.
Repeat Step 5 for the third and fourth
paragraphs, leaving all words
unhyphenated.
Press CTRL KD (AKAD) to save a
copy of your file.
Now your file should look like this:
r
Display
WordStar displays a lot of information
for the beginning user. Besides the display
of text and the lower part of the screen.
WordStar also displays
o
a
o
Status Line. The status line tells
you the name of your fi Ie
(B:DlSPLAY). the page. line. and
column of the cursor's location in
your file. and other information.
such as INSERT ON.
Main Menu. The main menu gives you
information about the most common
WordStar functions and refers you to
five other menus for additio'lal
information.
Ruler Line. The ruler line shows
you the margins and tab stops
currently in effect. WordStar
initially sets the left margin to
column 1. the right margin to 65.
and tab stops at every fifth column
up to 56.
~
~
To print your file, follow these steps:
2.
Restore the left rllargin:
a.
1.
When the .. Opening·· menu
appears, press P.
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
PRINT? appears, type Display and
press ESCAPE (ESC).
b.
Restoring the Original Margins
To restore the original margins (column
1 and column 65), using a slightly different
procedure, follow these steps:
1.
Open file "Display" again:
a. When the .. Opening
appears, press D.
menu
b. When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type Display
and press RETURN.
--
With the cursor resting in column
1, press CTRL OL (AOAL) to reset
the left margin.
3.
When the prompt LEFT COLUMN
NUMBER (ESCAPE for cursor
column)? appears. press ESC
(ESCAPE) to reset the left margin
to column 1. (This is a second
way to change a margin, and can
be used any time.)
Restore the right margin:
a.
Press CTRL OR (AOAR) to reset
the right margin.
b.
When the prompt RIGHT
COLUMN NUMBER (ESCAPE for
cursor column)? appears, enter
65 and press RETURN. (You will
not be able to use the ESCAPE
7-5
key this time because there is no
way to move the cursor to
column 65.)
4.
5.
Reform the first paragraph:
a.
Move the cursor to the first line of
the first paragraph ("WordStar
displays ... ").
b.
Press CTRL B ("B) to reform the
paragraph.
Reform the second paragraph:
a.
Move the cursor to column 1 of
the first line of the second
paragraph ("Status Line.").
b.
Press CTRL T ("T) to delete the
spaces in front of the bullet. The
bullet will jump to column 1.
c.
With INSERT ON showing, press
CTRL I ("I) to push the bullet out
to the first tab stop.
d.
Press CTRL F ("F) to move the
cursor to the S in "Status Line."
e.
Press CTRL OG ("O"G) twice to
Changing the Tabs
You have just changed margins from
one pair of settings to another and back
again. Now you will learn how to change
the tab settings, using the same file. Begin
by clearing some of the current tab
settings:
1.
2.
Clear the tab stop in column 6:
a.
Press CTRL ON ("O"N) to clear a
tab.
b.
When the prompt CLEAR TAB AT
COL (ESCAPE for cursor col; A
for all)? appears, type.§. and
press RETURN.
Clear the tab stop in column 11:
a.
Move the cursor to column 11 .
b.
Press CTRL ON ("O"N) to clear
another tab.
c.
When the prompt CLEAR TAB AT
COL (ESCAPE for cursor col; A
for all)? appears, press ESC
ESCAPE).
move the left margin temporarily
to the second tab stop.
f.
Press CTRL B ("B) to reform the
paragraph.
6.
Repeat Step 5 for the third and fourth
paragraphs.
7.
Press CTRL KS ("K"S) to save your
Now that you have cleared two of the
old tab settings, you are ready to set two
new tab settings:
1.
file.
Now the text should look the way it
looked when you first entered it.
Remember, new margins do not change
existing text until you reform your
paragraphs. New text that you are just
entering is placed within the margins you
now see on the screen on the ruler line.
With the procedure described above, the
text in the bulleted paragraphs will be leftjustified with the paragraph title. If you
want your paragraphs left-justified with the
bullets, press CTRL OG once instead of
twice in substep e.
2.
a.
Press CTRL 01 ("0"1) to set a tab.
b.
When the prompt SET TAB AT
COLUMN (ESCAPE for cursor
column)? appears, type 1. and
press RETURN.
Set a tab stop in column 8:
a.
Move the cursor to column 8 ( the
status line can help you find the
column).
3.
7-6
Set a tab stop in column 4:
b.
Press CTRL 01 ("0"1) to set
another tab.
c.
When the prompt SET TAB AT
COLUMN (ESCAPE for cursor
column)? appears, press ESC
(ESCAPE).
Look at the ruler line to see the new
tab settings.
You have just used two methods for
clearing tabs one at a time and the same
two methods for setti ng tabs one at a
time. One method is to enter a column
number and press RETURN; the other is
to position the cursor in the desired
column ahead of time and then press ESC
(ESCAPE). There is also a method for
clearing all tabs at once:
1.
Press CTRL ON (AOAN) to clear tabs.
2.
When the prompt CLEAR TAB AT
COL (ESCAPE for cursor col; A for
all)? appears, type II to clear all tabs.
3.
Look at the ruler line to see the result.
To restore the tabs again, you will have
to restart WordStar:
1.
Press CTRL KO (AKAO) to abandon
the file.
2.
When the" Opening" menu
appears, press X to stop WordStar.
3.
When the operating system's prompt
(A> or something similar) appears,
type ~ (or something similar) and
press RETURN to start WordStar
again.
4.
Look at the ruler line to see the tab
settings.
7-7
NOTES
7-8
Lesson 8
Typing tables
After learning how to set margins and tabs in Lesson 7, now you are ready to type some tables.
Typing a Simple Table
a.
You will start by typing a simple table.
Then you will type a more difficult table.
Press RETURN again to leave a
blank line, then type CTRL §
beginning at the left margin.
b.
Press CTRL I ("I) once to move
the cursor to the next tab stop
(column 11 ).
c.
Press CTRL OG ("O"G) twice to
move the left margin temporarily
to the tab stop, and type the
following description:
1.
Open a new file called "Tables":
a. When the" Opening" menu
appears, press D to create a
document file.
b.
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? apears, type Tables
and press RETURN.
Type the title of the table:
a. When your new file is ready, type
Table 8-1. Basic Cursor
Movement Commands.
Move the cursor back to the previous
character, returning to the end of the
preceding line if the curser is at the
beginning of a line.IRETURNIRETURNI
b. Without moving the cursor, press
CTRL OC ("O"C) to center the
title.
3.
4.
Type the table headings:
a.
Press RETURN twice to leave a
blank line, then type Command
beginning at the left margin.
b.
Press CTRL I ("I) five times to
move the cursor to the tab stop in
column 31.
c.
Type Description and press
RETURN.
Type the first table entry:
8-1
5.
Follow procedures similar to those
given in Step 4 to type the other three
items in the table:
Move the cursor ahead of the next character, going to
the beginning of the next line if the cursor is at the
end of a line.
IRETURN
CTRLD
I
'RETURNl
CTRL E
'RETURN
I
Move the cursor down to the next line, staying in the
same column if possible.
IRETURNI
CTRLX
'RETURN
6.
I
Press CTRL KD (AKAD) to save your
file.
This completes the table. Now you can
print it on your printer:
1.
When the"' Opening" menu
appears, press P.
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
PRINT? appears, type Tables and
press ESC (ESCAPE).
This is how the table should look:
3.
Table 8-1. Basic Cursor Movement Commands
Command
8-2
Description
CTRL S
Move the cursor back to the previous character,
returning to the end of the preceding line if the
cursor is at the beginning of a line.
CTRL D
Move the cursor ahead to the next character, going to
the beginning of the next line if the cursor is at the
end of a line.
CTRL E
Move the cursor up to the preceding line, staying in
the same column if possible.
CTRL X
Move the cursor down to the next line, staying in the
same column if possible.
Typing a Table with Decimal
Amounts
Now you are ready to type a table with
more columns and some decimal
amounts in place of words. First you will
need a file to work with:
1.
3.
When the .. Opening" menu
appears, press D to create a
document file.
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
EDIT? appears, type Tables and press
RETURN. (This is the same file you
used for the other table.)
3.
When the file appears on the screen,
press CTRL OC ("O"C) to move the
cursor to the end of the file.
4.
Press RETURN three times to leave a
few blank spaces after the other table.
Resetting the Tab Settings
The next step is to reset the tabs for the
new table:
c.
You have just set a new tab in
column 8 (look at the ruler line).
d.
Follow procedures similar to
those given in Steps 2a-c to set
new tabs at columns 26, 36, 48,
and 56.
Set the new decimal tabs:
a.
Press CTRL 01 ("0"1) to set
another new tab.
b.
When the prompt appears, type
#39 and press RETURN.
c.
You have just set a decimal tab in
column 39 (look at the # in the
ruler line).
d.
Follow procedures similar to
those given in Steps 3a-c to set
decimal tabs in columns 51 and
60.
Typing the Table
Now you are ready to begin typing the
table:
1 . Type the title of the table:
1 . Clear the old tabs:
a. Press CTRL ON ("O"N) to clear
a.
Type Table 8-2. Parts Orders next
to the left margin.
b.
Without moving the cursor, press
CTRL OC ("O"C) to center the
title.
c.
Press RETURN twice to leave a
blank line after the title.
tabs.
b.
c.
2.
When the prompt CLEAR TAB AT
COL (ESCAPE for cursor col; A
for all)? appears, type 8. and
press RETURN.
Look at the ruler line to see the
result.
Set the new ordinary tabs:
a.
Press CTRL 01 ("0"1) to set a
new tab.
b.
When the prompt SET TAB AT
COLUMN (ESCAPE for cursor
column)? appears, type ~ and
press RETURN.
2.
Type the table headings:
a.
Beginning at the left margin, type
Item.
b.
Press CTRL I ("I) to move to the
next tab and type Description.
c.
Repeat steps similar to a and b
for the rest of the column
headings ("Part," "Price," "Oty.··
and "Amount").
d.
Press RETURN twice to leave a
blank line after the column
headings.
8-3
At this point, your table should look this:
,
Table 8·2. Parts Orders
.Item
Description
Part
Price
Amount
Oty
Now you can type the body of the table
a line at a time:
1.
Type 1501.
2.
Press CTRL I (AI) to move the cursor
to the next tab and type Chair, easy.
3.
Press CTRL I (AI) to move to the next
tab and type 721 C.
4.
Press CTRL I (AI) twice to move to the
first decimal tab and type ~
(watch the screen to see what
happens).
5.
Press CTRL I (AI) twice to move to the
next decimal tab and type Z.
6.
Press CTRL I (AI) twice to move to the
last decimal tab and type 1743.00.
7.
Press RETURN twice to leave a blank
line.
8.
Repeat Steps 1-7 to type the rest of
the table:
,
8-4
1502
Table, kitchen
682U
175.00
4
700.00
1503
Sofa, queen size
836L
535.00
19
10165.00
1504
Lamp, table
379H
85.00
24
2040.00
1505
Curio, odd
102Z
1.25
101
126.25
9.
Press CTRL KD ("K"D) to save a
copy of your file.
Ordinary Tabs and Decimal
Tabs
Printing the Table
WordStar allows you to use two kinds of
tab settings when you are typing a table:
ordinary tabs and decimal tabs. Use
ordinary tabs to align columns of text. (If a
column of text takes more than one line,
you can also use CTRL OG ("O"G) one or
more times to move the left margin
temporarily to the tab.) Use decimal tabs
to align columns of numbers, whether the
numbers actually have decimal points or
not.
This completes the table. Now you can
print it on your printer:
1.
When the" Opening" menu
appears, press P.
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
PRINT? appears, type Tables and
press ESC (ESCAPE). - -
3.
The table should appear as shown
here.
4.
To restore the original tab settings,
restart WordStar:
a. When the "Openi ng" menu
appears, press X to exit from
WordStar.
b.
When the operating system's
prompt (A> or something similar)
appears, type ~ (or something
similar) and press RETURN.
Table 8-2. Parts Orders
Price Qty
Amount
Item
Description
Part
1501
Chair, easy
721C
249.00
7
1743.00
1502
Table, kitchen
682U
175.00
4
700.00
1503
Sofa, queen size
836L
535.00
19
10165.00
1504
Lamp, table
379H
85.00
24
2040.00
1505
Curio, odd
102Z
1.25 101
126.25
8-5
NOTES
8-6
Lesson 9
Creating
special effects:
Part 1
In this lesson, you will learn how to create a variety of special printing effects,
such as boldface, double-striking, underlining, and strikeout. In Lesson 10, you will
learn how to type subscripts, superscripts, strikeovers, and non-break spaces. With
these features, you will be able to emphasize certain words, type titles of books, print
new characters, type mathematical formulas, and so on. These two lessons are
designed so that you may skip around. However, for your first time through, the
complete text will be required for later lessons.
Before you can begin, you will need a
file to work with:
1.
When the .. Opening" menu
appears, press D.
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
EDIT? appears, type Special and
-press RETURN.
3.
When the file is ready, press CTRL PB
(APAB) followed by RETURN to go to
the next line.
4.
On the next line, type Special Effects,
press CTRL OC (AOAC) to center"t'he
title, and press RETURN.
5.
On the next line, press CTRL PB
(APAB) then RETURN twice.
Typing Boldface Text
ICTRLI00
The titles and headings of a book are
often printed in boldface type. The
heading for this section is in boldface; so
is the word "boldface" in this paragraph.
You just typed the title for your file
("Special Effects") in boldface. Here is an
exercise in typing boldface characters:
1.
2.
Press CTRL I (AI) to move the cursor
to the first tab.
Press CTRL PB (APAB), type Boldface
Printing, and press CTRL PB (APAB)
again.
9-1
3.
Type a period, leave two spaces, and
type the following paragraph: "To
produce boldface printing, press .
CTRl PB before and after the desired
words. If the words are in a title, you
can type the first CTRl PB on the line
before the title and the second on the
line after the title. If the words are
within a paragraph of text, you can
type the control characters
immediately before and after the
words."
4.
Press RETURN twice after the last
sentence to leave a blank line. What
you have typed so far should look like
this on the screen:
r~------------------------------------,
~
~
Special Effects
AB
\...
ABBoldface PrlntingAB. To produce boldface printing, pressCTRl
PB before and after the desired words. If the words are in a
title, you can type the first CTRl PB on the line before the
title and the second on the line after the title. If the words are
within a paragraph of text. you can type the control
characters immediately before and after the words.
You can see the four ABs that WordStar
has inserted into the text. (The word
"CTRl" in the first line of text appears to
be beyond the right margin because
WordStar does not recognize the ABs as
part of the text.) To see how this will look
on paper, print this file on your printer:
1.
Press CTRl KD (AKAD) to save your
file on disk.
2.
When the "Opening" menu
appears, press P.
3.
When the prompt NAME OF FilE TO
PRINT? appears, type Special and
press ESC.
--
4.
This is how this paragraph should
look:
9-2
Special Effects
Boldface Printing. To produce boldface printing, type CTRL
PB before and after the desired words. If the words are in a
title, you can type the first CTRL PB on the line before the
title and the second on the line after the title. If the words
are within a paragraph of text, you can type the control
characters immediately before and after the words.
As you can see, the title of the file
("Special Effects") and the paragraph
heading ("Boldface Printing") were both
printed with thicker, darker letters. This is
boldface printing. The special effects you
are about to learn are all typed in just
about the same way.
2.
a. When the file is ready, press
CTRL QC ("Q"C) to move the
cursor to the end of the file.
b.
3.
Type the paragraph:
Press CTRL PB ("P"B), type
Double-Striking, press CTRL PB
("P"B) again, and type a period,
followed by two spaces.
b. Now type the following paragraph,
using CTRL PO ("P"D) to doublestrike the phrase "every word in
the file": "To produce doublestriking, press CTRL PO before
and after the desired words. If you
want to double-strike every word
in the file, place one control
character at the beginning of the
file and one at the end."
ICTRLI00
To produce printing in which each
character is typed twice for double clarity,
you can use double-striking. The
characters will be sharper than ordinary
characters, but not as thick as boldface
characters. Here is an exercise in doublestriking words in a paragraph:
Reopen the file "Special":
a. When the" Opening" menu
appears, press D.
b. When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type Special
and press RETURN.
--
Press CTRL I to move the cursor
to the first tab.
a.
Double-Striking
1.
Position the cursor:
4.
Press RETURN twice to leave a blank
line after the paragraph. This is how
your paragraph should look on the
screen:
,
"BDouble-Striking"B. To produce double-striking. press C!RL PO
before and after the desired words. If you want to double·strlke
"Devery word in the file"D. place one control character at the
beginning of the file and one at the end.
\..
9-3
WordStar has inserted a AD before and
after the words "every word in the file." To
see how this will look on paper, print this
file on your printer:
1.
2.
3.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
PRINT? appears, type Special and
press ESC.
--
4.
This is how this paragraph should
look:
Press CTRL KD (AKAD) to save your
file on disk.
When the .. Opening" menu
appears, press P.
Double-Striking. To produce double-striking, press CTRL PD
before and after the desired words. If you want to double-strike
every word in the file, place one control character at the
beginning of the file and one at the end.
Underlining
In this training guide, underlining is used
to indicate items for you to type. For
example, "'Start WordStar by typing '!:Jj
after A>''' Here is an exercise in typing
underlined words.
1.
2.
3.
b.
Reopen the file "Special":
a.
When the" Opening"
appears, press D.
menu
b.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type Special
and press RETURN.
--
Position the cursor:
a.
When the file is ready, press
CTRL QC (AQAC) to move the
cursor to the end of the file.
b.
Press CTRL I to move the cursor
to the first tab.
4.
9-4
Type the paragraph:
a. Press CTRL PB (APAB), type
Underlining, press CTRL PB
(APi\B) again, and type a period,
followed by two spaces.
Now type the following paragraph,
using CTRL PS (APAS) to
underscore the phrase
"continuous underlining": "To
produce underlining, press CTRL
PS before and after the desired
words. If you want continous
underlining, make sure you type
underscore characters between
words. Otherwise, only the words
themselves will be underscored
and the spaces between the
words will be blank."
Press RETURN twice to leave a blank
line after the paragraph. This is how
your paragraph should look on the
screen:
r
~
~
"BUnderlining"B. To produce underlining, press CTRL PS before
and after the desired words. If you want "Scontinuous underlining"S,
make sure you type underscore characters between words.
Otherwise, only the words themselves will be underscored and the
spaces between the words will be blank.
~
WordStar has inserted a "s before and
after the words "continuous underlining,"
but it is up to you to type the underscore
character between the words if you want it
printed.
To see how this will look on paper, print
this file on your printer:
1.
Press CTRL KD ("K"D) to save your
file on disk.
2.
When the" Opening" menu
appears, press P.
3.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
PRINT? appears, type Special and
-press ESC.
4.
This is how this paragraph should
look:
Underlining. To produce underlining, press CTRL PS before
and after the desired words. If you want continuous underlining,
make sure you type underscore characters between words.
Otherwise, only the words themselves will be underscored and the
spaces between the words will be blank.
9-5
Striking Out Words
Sometimes you need to show some
words or sentences that you are deleting
from your text. This is especially common
in printing legal documents or the by-laws
of an organization. Here is an exercise in
striking words from the text:
1.
2.
3.
WordStar has inserted a AX before and
after the second sentence of the
paragraph. To see how this will look on
paper, print this file on your printer:
1.
Press CTRL KD (AKAD) to save your
file on disk.
2.
When the" Opening" menu
appears, press P.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
PRINT? appears, type Special and
press ESC.
--
3.
Reopen the file "Special":
a.
When the" Opening" , menu
appears, press D.
b.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type Special
and press RETURN.
--
Position the cursor:
a.
When the file is ready, press
CTRL QC (AQAC) to move the
cursor to the end of the file.
b.
Press CTRL I to move the cursor
to the first tab.
Type the paragraph:
a.
Press CTRL PB (APAB), type
Strikeouts, press CTRL PB (APAB)
again, and type a period, followed
by two spaces.
b.
Now type the following paragraph,
using CTRL PX (APAX) to strikeout
the sentence beginning with "Any
obsolete words ... ": "To produce
a strikeout, press CTRL PX
before and after the desired
words. AWl ~ssle-te WgrgS wi-Il
-tf1oo ee sffi€koo ~ tRe ffi~ffi.
f3i4Atee €ef3Y.
Press RETURN twice to leave a blank
line after the paragraph. This is how
your paragraph should look on the
screen.
~e
4.
ABStrikeoutsAB. To produce a strikeout, press eRTl PX before
and after the desired words. AXAny obsolete words will then be
stricken from the text in the printed copyAX.
9-6
4.
This is how this paragraph should
look:
Strikeouts. To produce a strikeout, press CTRL PX before
and after the desired words. AR¥ .QQS~ wGj:QS w.j.jj .tReR Q~
~~R .f!:~m ~~.t..H:1.-u:!~ ~RtQg SQW.
Summary
You have now learned how to type
boldface, double-strike, underlining, and
strikeouts. This is how the file "Special"
should look:
Special Effects
Boldface Printing. To produce boldface printing, press CTRL
PB before and after the desired words. If the words are in a
title, you can type the first CTRL PB on the line before the
title and the second on the line after the title. If the words
are within a paragraph of text, you can type the control characters immediately before and after the words.
Double-Strjking. To produce double-striking, press CTRL PO
before and after the desired words. If you want to double-strike
every word in the file, place one control character at the beginning of the file and one at the end.
Underlining. To produce underlining, press CTRl PS before
and after the desired words. If you want continuous underlining,
make sure you type underscore characters between words. Otherwise, only the words themselves will be underscored and the
spaces between the words will be blank.
Strikeouts. To produce a strikeout, press CTRL PX before
and after the desired words. AR¥ ~s~e. wGf.Eie wi.U ~ ~
etFi~ .f.i:Gm -U:!Q4e~-H=t#!e-f*iRte4€~.
9-7
NOTES
9-8
Lesson 10
Creating
special effects:
Part 2
In this lesson we continue with subscripts, superscripts, strikeovers, and non-break spaces.
Typing
Subscripts
ICTRLI0G
Subscripts are used in chemical
notation and certain mathematical
applil"'3.tions. Here is an exercise in typing
subscripts:
1.
b.
Now type, using CTRL PV (APAV)
before and after each number,
"To type a subscript, press CTRL
PV before and after the desired
number. For example, H20 is the
chemical name for water. Here is
a 'system of linear equations:'
Reopen the file "Special":
a. When the" Openi ng" menu
appears, press D.
b.
2.
3.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type Special
and press RETURN.
--
Position the cursor:
a.
When the file is ready, press
CTRL QC (AQAC) to move the
cursor to the end of the file.
b.
Press CTRL I to move the cursor
to the first tab.
Type the paragraph:
a. Press CTRL PB (APAB), type
Subscripts, press CTRL PB (APAB)
again, and type a period, followed
by two spaces.
10-1
4.
Press RETURN twice to leave a blank
line after the paragraph. This is how
your paragraph should look on the
screen:
r
ABSubscriptsAB. To type a subscript, press CTRL PV before and
after the desired number. For example, WV2 AVO is the chemical name
for water. Here is a 'system of linear equations:'
aAVVVx + bAVl AVy
=
cAVl AV
aAV2 AVx + bAV2 AVy = cAV2 AV
WordStar has inserted a AV before and
after each subscript. To see how this will
look on paper, print this file on your printer:
1.
Press CTRL KD (AKAD) to save your
file on disk.
2.
When the" Opening" menu
appears, press P.
3.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
PRINT? appears, type Special and
press ESC.
--
4.
This is how this paragraph should
look:
Subcripts. To type a subscript, press CRTL PV before and
after the desired number. For example, H20 is the chemical name
for water. Here is a 'system of linear equations:'
10-2
Typing Superscripts
ICTRLI
0
[2J
Superscripts are used to flag footnotes
in ordinary text and to represent
exponents in mathematical equations.
Here is an exercise in typing superscripts:
1.
2.
3.
Reopen the file "Special":
a.
When the" Opening"
appears, press D.
menu
b.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type Special
and press RETURN.
--
Position the cursor:
a.
When the file is ready, press
CTRL QC (AQAC) to move the
cursor to the end of the file.
b.
Press CTRL I to move the cursor
to the first tab.
Type the paragraph:
a.
Press CTRL PB (APAB), type
Superscripts, press CTRL PB
(APAB) again, and type a period,
followed by two spaces.
b.
Now type, using CTRL PT (APAT)
before and after each number,
"To type a superscript, press
CTRL PT before and after the
desired number. For example,
suppose we wanted to place a
footnote at the end of this
sentence. 3 Here is one
mathematical equation for a
circle:
(x - a)2 + (y - b)2 = r2
10-3
4.
Press RETURN twice to leave a blank
line after the paragraph. This is how
your paragraph should look on the
screen:
r
ABSuperscriptsAB. To type a superscript. press CTRL PT before'"
and after the desired number. For example, suppose we wanted to
place a footnote at the end of this sentence.AT3 AT Here is
one mathematical equation for a circle:
Ix - a)AT2AT + Iy - b)AT2AT = ~T2AT
WordStar has inserted a AT before and
. after each superscript. To see how this will
look on paper, print this file on your printer:
1.
Press CTRL KD (AKAD) to save your
file on disk.
2.
When the" Openi ng
appears, press P.
3.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
PRINT? appears, type Special and
press ESC.
--
4.
This is how this paragraph should
look:
menu
Superscripts. To type a superscript, press CTRL PT before
and after the desired number. For example, suppose we wanted to
place a footnote at the end of this sentence. 3 Here is one
mathematical equation for a circle:
(x - a)2 + (y - b)2
10-4
= r2
Typing Strikeovers
WordStar allows you to print more than
one character in the same position, so
that you can form new characters by
combining the ordinary ones. For example,
YOLi :ould combine c and I to form a cent
sign or you could combine a special
symbol with a letter to form an accented
letter in a foreign language. Here is an
exercise in typing strikeovers:
1.
2.
3.
Reopen the file "Special ":
a.
When the" Opening" menu
appears, press D.
b.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type Special
and press RETURN.
--
4.
Position the cursor:
a.
When the file is ready, press
CTRL QC ("O"C) to move the
cursor to the end of the file.
b.
Press CTRL I to move the cursor
to the first tab.
Type the paragraph:
a.
Press CTRL PB ("P"B), type
Strikeovers, press CTRL PB
("P"B) again, and type a period,
followed by two spaces.
b.
Now type, using CTRL PH ("P"H)
and an apostrophe after the first
e in fiancee, "To type a
strikeover, press CTRL PH
between any two characters. For
example, you could type' over
the first e to print the French word
"fiancee." "
Press RETURN twice to leave a blank
line after the paragraph. This is how
your paragraph should look on the
screen:
r
"BStrikeovers"B. To type a strikeover, press CTR!. PH between
any two characters. For example, you could type' over the first
e to print the French word "flance"H'e."
WordStar has inserted a "H between the
pair of characters to be combined. To see
how this will look on paper, print this file on
your printer:
1.
Press CTRL KD ("K"D) to save your
file on disk.
2.
When the" Opening"
appears, press P.
menu
3.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
PRINT? appears, type Special and
press ESC.
--
4.
This is how this paragraph should
look:
Strikeovers. To type a strikeover, press CTRL PH between
any two characters. For example, you could type over the first
e to print the French word "fiancee."
10-5
Typing Non-Break Spaces
3.
ICTRLI [!J @]
Suppose you are typing about a product
called "Tempo III," and you want to be
sure that WordStar never splits this name
at the end of a line. WordStar allows you
to type a special space between "Tempo"
and "III" that will prevent the two from
being split by a line break. Here is an
exercise in typing non-break spaces:
1.
Reopen the file "Special:"
a. When the" Opening" menu
appears, press D.
b. When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type Special
and press RETURN.
--
2.
Position the cursor:
4.
Type the paragraph:
a.
Press CTRL PB (APAB), type NonBreak Spaces, press CTRL PB
(APAB) again, and type a period,
followed by two spaces.
b.
Now type, using CTRL PO (APAO)
before "IV" and "XII." "To type a
non-break space between two
words, press CTRL PO instead of
the space bar whenever you type
these two words. WordStar will
make sure the words are always
kept together. Here are some
examples: MasterSort IV,
Spinout XI!."
Press RETURN twice to leave a blank
line after the paragraph. This is how
your paragraph shouid look on the
screen:
a. When the file is ready, press
CTRL QC (AQAC) to move the
cursor to the end of the file.
b.
Press CTRL I to move the cursor
to the first tab.
,
ABNon-Break SpacesAB. To type a non-break space between two "'"
words, press CTRL PO instead of the space bar whenever you type
these two words. WordStar will make sure the words are always
kept together. Here are some examples: MasterSortAOIV,
" SpinoutAOXl1.
~
10-6
WordStar has inserted a AO between
"MasterSort" and" IV" and between
"Spinout" and "XII." (Without the nonbreak space, "Spinout" would have stayed
on the fourth line, with "XII" on the fifth
line. To see how this will look on paper,
print this file on your printer:
1.
2.
Press CTRL KD (AKAD) to save your
file on disk.
When the" Opening ,. menu
appears, press P.
3.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
PRINT? appears, type Special and
-press ESC.
4.
This is how this paragraph should
look:
Non-Break Spaces. To type a non-break space between two
words, press CTRL PO instead of the space bar whenever you type
these two words. WordStar will make sure the words are always
kept together. Here are some examples: MasterSort IV,
Spinout XII."
Combining Special Effects
In Lessons 9 and 10 you have learned
to create a variety of special effects with
WordStar: boldface characters, doublestrike characters, underlined text, stricken
text, subscripts, superscripts, strikeovers,
and non-break spaces. So far you have
tried these features only in separate
examples. However, you are free to
combine them in almost any way you can
imagine. You can have a boldface
subscript, an underlined superscript, a
multiple strikeover, and so on. Here is an
exercise in combining special effects:
1.
Reopen the file "Special":
a.
When the" Opening" menu
appears, press D.
b. When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type Special
and press RETURN.
-10-7
2.
3.
Position the cursor:
a. When the file is ready, press
CTRL QC (AQAC) to move the
cursor to the end of the file.
b. Press CTRL I to move the cursor
to the first tab.
Type the paragraph:
a. Press CTRL PB (APAB), type
Combining Special Effects, press
CTRL PB (APAB) again, and type
a period, followed by two spaces.
b. In this paragraph, use boldface,
subscript, strikeover, and
superscript in the appropriate
places to produce the special
effects. Now type, "To combine
special effects, simply insert one
control character after another.
For example, your WordStalTM
cursor may look like this: •.
[Use H, I, N, and Z.]
I a I = / (ax 2 + ay2 + az2)"
4.
Press RETURN twice to leave a blank
line after the paragraph. This is how
your paragraph should look on the
screen:
ABCombining Special EffectsAB. To combine speCial effects:
simply insert one control character after another. For example,
your ABWordSta~BAVTMAV cursor may look like this: HAHIAHNAHZ.
IABaAB I =/(aAVxAVAT2AT + aAVy AVAT2AT + aAVzAVAT2ATJ
WordStar has inserted many control
characters. To see how this will look on
paper, print this file on your printer:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Press CTRL KO (KAO) to save your
file on disk.
When the "Opening" menu
appears, press P.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
PRINT? appears, type Special and
press ESC.
This is how this paragraph should
look:
Combining Special Effects. To combine special effects,
simply insert one control character after another. For example,
your WordStalTM cursor may look like this: I.
10-8
Lesson 11
Finding and
replacing text
In this lesson you will learn how to set place markers in your file-markers to
which you can later return. You will also learn how to search for a given word in your
file, and if necessary to replace it with another word.
First you will need a file to work with:
1.
When the" Opening" menu
appears, press D.
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
EDIT? appears, type Special and
press RETURN.
--
Setting Place Markers
ICTRLI
0 GJ
Now that you have an open file, you
can set place markers in different
locations:
1.
Set place marker number 1:
a.
Move the cursor to the blank
space in front of the heading
"Double-Striking" (second
paragraph ).
b.
Press CTRL K1 (AK1). (You will
see <1 appear highlighted
where the cursor was. Don't be
concerned when you see the text
get pushed to the right.) You have
just set place marker number 1 in
front of this paragraph.
>
2.
3.
Set place marker number 2:
a.
Move the cursor to the blank
space right after "Strikeouts"
(fourth paragraph).
b.
Press CTRL K2 (AK2). (You will
see <2> appear.) You have just
set place marker number 2.
Set place marker number 3:
a.
Move the cursor to the blank
space after "r2" in the equation
(sixth paragraph).
b.
Press CTRL K3 (AK3). (You will
see <3> appear.) You have just
set place marker number 3.
You can set as many as ten place
markers in a single file by pressing CTRL
K, followed by a single digit (0-9). (The
markers do not have to be in numerical
order.) You can then return the cursor to
any of these locations very quickly.
NOTE
You must release the CTRL key before
pressing any number key.
11-1
Moving to Place Markers
ICTRLI ~ GJ
Now that you have three place markers
set in your file, you can move the cursor to
anyone of them at any time:
5.
1.
6.
2.
3.
Press CTRL Q2 (A02) to move the
cursor to place marker number 2.
Press CTRL 03 (AQ3) to move the
cursor to place marker number 3.
Press CTRL 01 (AQ1) to move the
cursor to place marker number 1.
You can move the cursor to any place
marker that you have already set by
pressing CTRL Q, followed by the number
of the marker. It probably doesn't need to
be said, but you can't move the cursor to
a marker that you haven't set.
Finding a String
ICTRLI ~ 0
In computer language, a "string" isn't
something you tie around your finger; it's a
sequence of characters, which mayor
may not form a word or phrase. WordStar
makes it easy for you to find any word,
phrase, or string of up to 30 characters
with a simple command.
1.
2.
3.
4.
11-2
With the file "Special" still open, press
CTRL OR (AOAR) to return the cursor
to the beginning of the file.
Press CTRL OF (AQAF) to request a
search.
When the prompt FIND? appears,
type words and press ESC (ESCAPE).
The cursor will come to rest at the W in
"words" in the second line of the first
paragraph.
a. If this is what you are looking for,
you can note the location, make
corrections, and so on.
b. If this is not what you are looking
for, you can ask WordStar to go
on to the next one (Step 5).
Press CTRL L (AL) to move the cursor
to the next occurrence of "words."
Keep pressing AL until the NOT
FOUND message appears (*** NOT
FOUND *** words *** Press ESC Key
***). This message tells you that
WordStar could not find another
occurrence of "words." You have two
options:
a. To return to the last occurrence of
"words," press ESC (ESCAPE),
then CTRL QV (AQAV).
b. To return to the beginning of the
file, press ESC (ESCAPE), then
CTRL QR (QAR).
You have just completed a simple,
unconditional search. Now repeat Steps 16, substituting "under" for "words." Note
that WordStar found "underlining,"
"underlining," "underscore," and
"underscored" in the third paragraph. This
shows that you can look for a prefix (or
suffix) of a word without having to know
the rest of the word. (Soon you will learn
how to specify only the word "under" by
itself.)
Disregarding Case
Option U
If you look closely at the third
paragraph, you will see that WordStar
missed one occurrence of "under"-the
"under" in the paragraph heading
"Underlining." WordStar skipped this not
because it was boldface, but because the
U was capitalized. Here is how you can
correct that:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Press CTRL OR (AOAR) to move the
cursor to the beginning of the file.
Press CTRL OF (AOAF) to request a
search.
When the prompt FIND? appears,
type under and press RETURN
(instead of ESCAPE).
This time another prompt will appear
(OPTIONS?). Now type U. and press
RETURN. (The U tells WordStar to
disregard the difference between
upper case and lower case letters.)
Now WordStar will stop at the
paragraph heading "Underlining."
Searching for Whole Words
5.
You have tried two find options so far, U
(disregard the difference between upper
and lower case letters) and W (search
only for whole words). You can also
combine options in a.ny order. Repeat
Steps 1-6, this time typing "under" after
FI NO and either UW or WU after
OPTIONS? in Step 6.
Replacing One String
with Another
ICTRLI
Option W
In the simple search for "under," recall
that WordStar found words that contained
"under," but not the word itself, since there
was none to be found. Now you will learn
how to ask WordStar to search only for the
word itself:
1.
2.
3.
4.
With the file "Special" still open, press
CTRL OC (AOAC) to move the cursor
to the end of the file.
Type this sentence: "Under the last
paragraph on special effects you will
find this sentence all by itself."
Press CTRL OR (AOAR) to return the
cursor to the beginning of the file.
Press CTRL OF (AOAF) to request a
search.
a. When the prompt FIND? appears,
type Under and press RETURN.
b. When the OPTIONS? prompt
appears, type Wand press
RETURN. (The W tells WordStar
to look only for a whole word.)
WordStar will stop at the word
"Under" at the beginning of the
sentence you just typed; it will not
stop at "Underlining" or "underscore."
@] 0
WordStar also allows you to search' for
a string, then replace it with another string.
This can help you when you need to
change one word to another in your file:
1.
2.
3,
4.
With the file "Special" open, press
CTRL OR (AOAR) to return the cursor
to the beginning of the file.
Press CTRL OA (AOAA) to request a
replace.
a. When the prompt FIND? appears,
type words and press RETURN.
b. When the prompt REPLACE
WITH? appears, type numbers
and press ESC (ESCAPE).
The cursor will come to rest at the W in
"words" in the second line of the first
paragraph. with this prompt displayed
above: REPLACE (YIN):
a. Type t. to allow the replacement.
b. Press CTRL L (AL) to continue.
When the REPLACE.(Y/N) prompt
appears, type y. (Continue in this way
until you have replaced all
occurrences of "words" with
"numbers,")
11-3
5.
When the NOT FOUND message
appears, press ESC (ESCAPE), then
CTRL OR (AOAR).
You have just completed a manual
replacement. A manual replacement
allows you to look at each occurrence of
the string and make a decision about
whether you want to replace it. If you are
absolutely certain that you want every
occurrence replaced, you can ask
WordStar to perform an automatic
replacement, which is much faster.
3.
Press CTRL KQ (AKAQ) to "abandon"
this file.
a. In response to the prompt
ABANDON EDITED VERSION
OF FILE A:DISPLAY? (YIN)',
type 1: (no RETURN necessary).
b. The file will be abandoned.
You can abandon a file any time you
don't want to keep the results of your most
recent session.
Summary
Automatic Replacement
Option N
All the options for finding a string may
also be used for replacing a string. There
is also an additional option you can
request to have WordStar skip the
REPLACE (YIN) prompt and make all
replacements automatically:
1. With the cursor at the beginning of file
"Special," press CTRL OA (AQAA) to
request replacement.
a. When the prompt FIND? appears,
type numbers and press
RETURN.
b. When the prompt REPLACE
WITH? appears, type ~ and
press RETURN.
c. When the prompt OPTIONS?
appears, type GN and press
RETURN. (The GN tells WordStar
to make all replacements without
asking.)
2. This time WordStar will move quickly
through your file and replace each
occurrence of "numbers" with
"words."
11 -4
In this lesson you have learned how to
set place markers anywhere in your file
and then move the cursor to one of these
markers. You press CTRL K (AK) and a
number to set a place marker; you press
CTRL Q (AQ) and a number to move the
cursor to one of these place markers.
You have also learned how to search
for words, phrases, or other strings in your
file. You press CTRL QF (AQAF) to begin a
search to find a string; you press CTRL
QA (AO"A) to begin a search to replace a
string. Two of the options available for
either find or replace are to disregard the
difference between upper and lower case
(option U) and to search only for whole
words (option W). Another option available
only for replace is to make an automatic
replacement without asking (option N).
Additional options are also available
during a search. These are described in
other WordStar publications.
Lesson 12
Handling
blocks and files
In this lesson you will learn the different ways you can save your file after a typing
session; you will learn how to mark a block of text to be moved, copied, or deleted;
and you will learn how to move, copy, delete, or rename an entire file.
In Lesson 1 you learned that it is
important to save the file you are working
on fairly often to avoid losing text. In this
lesson you will practice the four ways of
saving (or not saving) your file after a
session of typing.
Saving Your File
and Continuing
ICTRLI00
If you are going to spend a lot of time on
a typing job, you should interrupt the job
from time to time to save your file, then
resume work. (Remember, no text is
saved until you request to have it saved,
and until it is saved, it can be lost.) Here is
an example of the procedure:
1.
When the" Opening ,. menu
appears, press D.
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type Control and
press RETURN.
3.
Now you have an open file. In a real
typing situation, you would be
spending some time with this file. For
now, assume you have been working
with the file for a while, and move the
cursor to the middle of the file.
4.
Press CTRL KS (AKAS) to save the
file.
5.
After a short time (and some noises
from your disk drive), you will see
your file return to the screen.
Press CTRL QP (AQAP) to return the
cursor to where it was before you
saved the file.
6.
Pressing CTRL KS (AKAS) allows you to
·save a copy of your file on disk, then
continue typing where you left off. Now
leave your file just the way it is for the next
exercise.
Saving Your File
and Going to Another
WordStar Operation
ICTRLI
0~
12-1
If you have completed work on one file
and you plan to do something else with
WordStar (like opening another file or
printing the same file), you can save the
file and return to the" Opening" menu:
1.
2.
With file "Control" still open from the
previous exercise, press CTRL KD
("K"D) to save the file.
Again, the file is saved, but this time
WordStar displays the" Opening"
menu instead of the file after the save.
Pressing CTRL KD ("K"D) allows you to
save your file and go to another file or
begin another WordStar operation.
Saving Your File
and Stopping
Word Sta r
If you have completed work on your file
and you are also completing a session
with WordStar, you can save your file and
exit from WordStar at the same time:
Pressing CTRL KX ("K"X) allows you to
save your file and exit from WordStar.
Once you are out of WordStar, you may
want to run utility r>rograms under your
computer's operating system. For example,
your operating system probably has
programs to check the amount of space
left on your disk or to copy or delete files.
Abandoning a File
ICTRLI
0
@]
If you work on a file for a while and
discover that you have made some big
mistakes that you want to get rid of, you
can abandon the file instead of saving it.
By doing this, you retain your previous
version of this file, which is still on disk
(and which doesn't have the mistakes).
You may also want to abandon a file that
you have just opened by mistake.
1.
When WordStar is running again and
the "Opening" menu appears,
press D.
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type Special and
press RETURN.
--
1.
When the" Openi ng" menu
appears, press D.
3.
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
EDIT? appears, type Special and
press RETURN.
--
Now you have an open file again.
Suppose you have messed it up and
want to get rid of it.
4.
Press CTRL KQ ("K"Q) to abandon
the file.
3.
Now you have an open file from
which to exit.
4.
Press CTRL KX ("K"X) to save your
file and exit from WordStar.
5.
After saving your file, you will find that
WordStar is no longer running. Type
~ (or just ws and press RETURN to
restart WordStar.
12-2
PreSSing CTRL KQ ("K"Q) allows you
to abandon a file that you don't want to
keep. The next time you open the file with
this name, you will get the previous
version of it.
Marking a Block
WordStar allows you to move, copy, or
delete a block· of text. The first step is to
mark the beginning and end of the block
that you want to deal with. Here is a
sample procedure:
Now you are ready to deal with this
block of text. (An easy way to remember
these letters is to think of the word BlocK,
which begins with B and ends with K.) One
of the things you can do with the block is to
move it to somewhere else in the file.
Moving a Block
1.
2.
Open the file "Special":
a.
When the" Opening" menu
appears, press D.
b.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type Special
and press RETURN.
--
Set the beginning marker:
a.
Move the cursor to the blank line
above the first paragraph
(" Boldface Printing ").
b.
3.
Press CTRL KB (AKAB) to mark
the beginning of a block. «B>
will appear on the screen.)
Set the ending marker:
a.
Move the cursor straight down to
the blank line between the fourth
and fifth paragraphs (left-hand
margin, just above Subcripts").
II
b.
Press CTRL KK (AKAK) to mark
the end of this block.
c.
If your screen has the capability,
you will see the four paragraphs
become highlighted.
d.
If you received an addendum with this
manual, read it to make sure that your
system has sufficient memory to perform
this operation.
After typing your text, you may decide
that a certain sentence, paragraph, or
group of paragraphs belongs in a different
location. WordStar allows you to move it
as a block of text. For practice you will
move the four paragraphs you just
marked in the previous section:
1.
Press CTRL OC (AOAC) to move the
cursor to the end of the file.
2.
Press CTRL KV (AKAV) to move the
four paragraphs to this location.
3.
Now press CTRL OR (AOAR) to
return the cursor to the beginning of
the file, then move it straight down to
the blank line above the first
paragraph (",Subscripts''').
4.
Press CTRL KV (AKAV) to return the
four paragraphs to their original
location. (The block markers are still
in effect, even though you have
already moved the block once.)
If your screen is not capable of
highlighting, <K> will appear on
the screen.
In Lesson 11, you learned how to move
the cursor to anyone of ten numbered
markers. For your convenience, WordStar
also allows you to move the cursor quickly
to the block markers <B> and <K>:
1.
Press CTRL OB (AO"B) to move the
cursor to the beginning marker <B>'
2.
Press CTRL OK (AOAK) to move the
cursor to the ending marker <K>'
Pressing CTRL KV (AKAV) allows you to
move a block of text from one location to
another. After the move, the block will no
longer be in the previous location. Another
thing you can do with a marked block of
12-3
text is,to make a copy of it somewhere
else in the file (or the same place). The
next section explains how to do this.
Copying a Block
1.
2.
3.
You may want to repeat a certain block
of text in more than one place in your file.
For practice, you will make a copy of the
four paragraphs you marked in a previous
section:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Press CTRL QC (AQAC) to move the
cursor to the end of the file.
Press CTRL KC (AKAC) to copy the
four paragraphs to this location.
Press CTRL KC (AKAC) to make
another copy. (The block markers
remain in effect, even after you have
copied the block. The markers remain
until you save your file or mark
another block of text.)
Press CTRL KH (AKAH) to hide the
block markers. (This can sometimes
be a helpful precaution.)
Pressing CTRL KC (AKAC) - after block
markers have been set - allows you to
make a copy of a block of text at the
place where the cursor is currently
located. The original block is not changed.
Another thing you can do with a marked
block is to delete it. The next section
explains how to do this.
Pressing CTRL KY (AKAy) allows you to
delete a block of text that has been
marked. The block is gone and so are the
markers. (The block-hiding feature (CTRL
KH) can be used to protect you from an
accidental deletion.)
Writing a Block
to Another File
So far you have been handling blocks
of text only within the same file. Now you
will learn how to transfer a block out of the
current file into another file. Here are the
steps:
1.
2.
Deleting a Block
In the previous section, you made an
extra copy of the four paragraphs that
were marked. For practice you will delete
one of them:
12-4
Press CTRL KH (AKAH) to make the
block markers reappear on the
screen.
Press CTRL KY (A KAy) to delete the
marked block. (It doesn't matter
where the cursor is located.)
Press CTRL KQ (AKAQ) to abandon
the file. (Now the block markers are
gone.)
3.
Reopen the file "Speciall ":
a. When the" Opening" menu
appears, press D.
b. When the prompt NAME OF FILE
EDIT? appears, type Special
and press RETURN.
-Set the beginning marker:
a. When the file appears, move the
cursor to the blank line above the
first paragraph ("Boldface
Printing").
b. Press CTRL KB (AKA8) to mark
the beginning of a block.
Set the ending marker:
a. Move the cursor down to the
blank line between the fourth and
fifth paragraphs (just above
4.
5.
"Subscripts"). (CTRL C ("C)
twice should do it.)
b. Press CTRL KK ("K"K) to mark
the end of this block.
Write the block to a temporary file
named "x:"
a. Press CTRL KW (AK"W) to
request a block write.
b. When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO WRITE MARKED TEXT ON?
appears, type.2$. and press
RETURN.
Press CTRL KQ (AKAQ) to abandon
"SpeciaL"
WordStar will write this block to a new
file named "x." Now you will learn how to
read the block from this new file into
another file. (It's usually a good idea to
give temporary files like x short, one-letter
names to make them easy to use and
easy to identify.)
Reading One File
into Another
ICTRLI00
In the previous section, you marked a
block of text and then wrote it into a new
file. Now you will read this new file into still
another file:
1.
Reopen the file "Control":
a. When the "Opening" menu
appears, press D.
b. When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type Control
and press RETURN.
--
2.
Read "x" into "Control":
a. When the file appears, move the
cursor down to the blank line
between the two paragraphs.
b. Press CTRL KR ("K"R) to request
a file read.
c. When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO READ? appears, type.2$. and
press RETURN.
WordStar will read the entire contents of
file "x" into file "ControL" Scroll the screen
up and down to check this. The four
paragraphs of file "x," which originally
came from file "Special," have been
inserted into file "ControL" This is how you
copy text from one file to another. (You
can press CTRL KQ ("KAQ) to abandon
file "ControL")
Summary: Moving Text from
One File to Another
The exercise you have just completed
in the previous two sections illustrates·
how you copy text from one file to
another. It's a two-step procedure in
Word Sta r:
• First mark the block of text to be moved
and write it to a temporary file.
• Then open the target file, position the
cursor and read the text from the
temporary file.
Now a copy of the text has been
transferred from the original file to the
target file via a temporary file, as shown in
the following illustration:
12-5
After
Before
Original File
Target File
Temporary File
Moving Text from One File to Another
Copying a File
ICTRLI
0
Renaming a File
@]
Now you will learn how to make a copy
of a file:
1. When the" Opening'" menu
appears, press O.
2. When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
COpy FROM? appears, type ~ and
press RETURN.
3. When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
COPY TO? appears, type y and press
RETURN.
WordStar will make a copy of file "x,"
called file "y." To verify this, look at your
disk directory, which usually appears
under the" Opening" menu. You can
also open file "y" to see that it is the same.
Note that you don't have to use the
" Opening" menu to copy a file. You
can also use CTRL KO (AKAO) if you're in
the middle of a file (it doesn't have to be
the file you're copying).
WordStar allows you to change the
name of a file:
1.
When the" Opening ,. menu
appears, press E.
2. When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
RENAME? appears, type ~ and press
RETURN.
3. When the prompt NEW NAME?
appears, type z. and press RETURN.
WordStar will change the name of file
"x" to file "z." File "x" no longer exists. You
can verify this by looking at your disk
directory, which usually appears below the
.. Opening" menu. You can also look
at the actual file:
1.
2.
12-6
When the" Opening" nenu
appears, press D.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
EDIT? appears, type ~ and press
RETURN.
3.
After glancing over the file, press
CTRL KD (AKAD) to save a copy of it
on disk.
Note that you don't have to use the
.. Opening" menu to rename a file.
You can also use CTRL KE (AKAE) if
you're in the middle of a file (it doesn't
have to be the file you're renaming).
Deleting a File
Finally, Wordstar allows you to delete
any file you have entered:
1.
When the ., Opening" menu
appears, press Y.
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
DELETE? appears, type ~ and press
RETURN.
WordStar will delete file "z." You can
verify this by looking at your disk directory,
which usually appears below the" Opening
menu.
Note that you don't have to use the
.. Opening' menu to delete a file. You
can also use CTRL KJ (AKAJ) - not CTRL
KY - if you're in the middle of a file (it
doesn't have to be the file you're deleting).
(Since Y is the "no-file" key for deleting a
file, you may think that CTRL KY is the
key sequence to use when you're in
another file. But CTRL KY is for deleting a
marked block.)
Restoring a Lost File
from the Backup File
Any time you lose a file, you can restore
it from the backup file that WordStar
created the last time you saved a copy of
it. For example, suppose you realized after
deleting "z" that you really wanted to keep
the file. You could restore "z" from "z.bak"
as follows:
1.
When the" Opening" menu
appears, press O .
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
COpy FROM? appears, type ~
and press RETURN.
3.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
COpy TO? appears, type ~ and
press RETURN.
WordStar will make a copy of "z.bak,"
called "z." You can verify this by looking at
your disk directory. This new "z" will
contain all the changes you made before
the last time you saved it. You can make a
copy of a backup file, but you can never
edit the backup file itself.
End of the Intermediate Course
This concludes the Intermediate
Course. By now you have learned most of
WordStar's major features. Here is a brief
summary of what you have learned:
Lesson 7. You learned to center text on
a line and indent text using the tab stops .
You also learned how to change the
margins and tabs that WordStar provides
automatically.
Lesson 8. You learned how to type
tables using both ordinary tabs and
decimal tabs.
Lesson 9. You learned how to type
boldface, double-strike, underlined, and
stricken text.
Lesson 10. You learned how to type
subscripts, superscripts, strikeovers, and
non-break spaces. In addition, you
learned how to combine special effects
and how to type two more special
characters.
12-7
Lesson 11. You learned how to set
place markers in a file and then'move the
cursor to them. You also learned how to
search for a string and how to replace a
string, along with several options
(disregard case, search for whole words,
automatic replace).
PRACTICE (Lesson 2)
LETTER (Lesson 3)
CONTROL (Lesson 6)
If you plan to repeat any of these
lessons or you have no further use for
these files, you may want to delete them
now. If you plan to go on to the Extended
Course, do not delete these files nowsome of them will be used again.
12-8
Lesson 12. You learned how to save
your file (or not save it) in four different
ways. You also learned how to mark a
block to be moved, copied, deleted, or
transferred to another file. Finally, you
learned how to copy, rename, or delete an
entire file, including how to restore a lost
file from the backup copy.
So far you have created the following
files:
DISPLAY (Lesson 7)
TABLES (Lesson 8)
SPECIAL (Lessons 9)
X (Lesson 12)
Y (Lesson 12)
Z (Lesson 12)
Extended Cou rse
13 Printing and Pagination
Setting a Conditional Page Break
Typing an Article
Making Copies of the Article
Setting an Unconditional Page Break
14 Printing with Headings
and Footings
Adding Page Headings
Adding Page Footings
Printing Selected Pages
Pausing for Paper Changes
Suspending a Print Job
15 Typing Form Letters
(Mail Merge Option Only)
Preparing the Matrix Letter
Typing the Data File
Printing the Form Letters
Rules For Typing a Data File
16 Envelopes
and Mailing Labels
(MailMerge Option Only)
Addressing Envelopes
Printing Mailing Labels
Combining Three Tasks into One
Typing a Command File
Running the Command File
Summary
17 Typing Reply Letters
(MailMerge Option Only)
Preparing the Matrix Letter
The Heading File
The First Product File
The Second Product File
The Third Product File
Having the Reply Letter Printed
Summary
18 Chain-Printing
(MailMerge Option Only)
Typing the Text Files
Printing with Continous Pagination
Printing with Pagination by Chapter
19 Checking Spelling
(SpeliStar Option Only)
Starting SpeliStar
The Operations Menu
Setting Up Spelling Check Controls
Running a Sample Spelling Check
Correction Errors in the Text File
Setting Aside Words to Add
to a Dictionary
20 Dictionary Maintenance
(SpeliStar Option Only)
What Is Dictionary Maintenance
Setting Up Dictionary
Maintenance Controls
Setting Up Dictionary
Maintenance Options
Adding Words to the Main Dictionary
Creating and Updating a
Supplemental Dictionary
Deleting Words from a Dictionary
Combined Add/Delete Maintenance
Lesson 13
Printing
and pagination
. I~ this lesson you will learn how to print a document longer than one page. This
will Involve telling WordStar where to make page breaks and how to format each
printed page. You wi!1 also learn how to select the various printing options provided
by WordStar, along with how to suspend, stop, or resume a printing job.
Setting a Conditional
Page Break
Move the cursor up to the blank line
above the paragraph (the line above
"Combining Special Effects.").
2.
Make sure you see INSERT ON in the
upper right-hand corner of the screen;
if you don't, press CTRL V (AV) to
make it appear.
3.
Press RETURN to create a new blank
line.
4.
Type .cp5, and press RETURN. (You
will see the page break marker jump
up two lines.)
5.
Press CTRL KD (AKAD) to save a
copy of your file.
.cp
When you print a document longer than
one page, you have to have a way to tell
WordStar where to make page breaks.
Otherwise, WordStar's automatic methods
may break pages in undesirable places.
One way you can do this is by setting a
conditional page break:
1.
When the .. Opening" menu
appears, press D.
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
EDIT? appears, type Special and
-press RETURN.
3.
1.
When the file appears, press CTRL
QC (AQAC) to move the cursor to the
end of the file, then back up a few
lines to view the last paragraph.
You will see that the paragraph is split
in half by a dashed line, with a P in the
right-hand margin. This is WordStar's way
of telling you that this is where WordStar is
planning to break the first page. Suppose
you decide that this isn't the best place to
make a page break. This is how to tell
WordStar to move the page break:
You have just moved the page break
from the middle of the paragraph to the
top of the paragraph. The .cp command is
the conditional page command, which
allows you to give WordStar a certain
number of printed lines (in this case, 5).
This command says to WordStar, "Keep
the next five lines together. If they won't fit
on this page, then move them all to the
next page." The line containing the .cp
command is not counted by WordStar as
a line of text.
If you would like to see this document on
paper, you can print it on your printer:
13-1
1.
When the "Openi ng " menu
appears, press P.
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
PRINT? appears, type Special and
press ESC (ESCAPE). - -
Typing an Article
Sometimes you need to have a page
broken in a certain place, no matter what.
For example, at the start of a new chapter,
the title must be at the top of a new page,
regardless 'of how much or how little text
is printed on the previous page. To see
how to set an unconditional page break,
you will first have to type several new
paragraphs of text:
1.
When the" Opening" menu
appears, type Q.
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
EDIT? appears, type DataStar and
press RETURN.
3.
When the empty file appears, leave
three blank lines and type the
following text just as you see it here:
13-2
DataStar
If you'd like one, easy, uniform way to enter, retrieve, and
update all your records, you'll love DataStar. Why use sixteen
different programs to handle sixteen different kinds of
records ... when you can turn to DataStar?
IRETURN I
You pay for only one program, but you get the ability to
enter, verify, update, and print all your records, whether
they're address lists, inventories, invoice and order records,
accounting and employee information, shipping and receiving data
or anything else.
IRETURNI
What's more, DataStar handles all that information just the
way you want, because you set up the system so it makes sense for
you and the way you do business.
IRETURNI
You don't have to be a computer whiz to know and love
DataStar. In fact, you don't have to know anything about
computers ... or even how to type. First of all, DataStar itself
takes you on a short demonstration tour that shows you how easy
it is to operate. Even better, you're told exactly what to do
while you're doing it - with prompts right on the screen, whether
you're making or filling out a "form." IRETURN~
You use simple commands on a keyboard that ooks like an
ordinary typewriter. And you use the DataStar manual that looks
as though it's written in ordinary language - and is. Even if you
don't know anything about computers, you can run DataStar right.
You can't inadvertently affect, chan e, or wi e out any part of
DataStar by making mistakes.
RETURN
You can even install DataStar yourself. It's compatible
with a wide range of microcomputers that run under CP / M or a
C. P/ M-derived operatin~ system ... virtually any Z80 or 8080/8085
system.
IRETURN_
The only computer forms you use are in plain and simple
English. Because you design them. You don't have to translate
all your current forms into exotic computer language that nobody
understands. You don't have to translate them at all. If you
wish, you can enter those forms into DataStar just the way they
'RETURN
now look on paper.
Other systems may restrict the number and length of lines or "fields," the overall size of the form, or your ability to
change it or to create new forms. With DataStar, you can design
virtually anything you want - even a form that's three times as
long or three times as wide as the screen. And then change
it whenever you have a better idea.
I RETURN I
I
IRETURNI
13-3
Making Copies of the Article
1.
With the text now typed, your next step
is to make several copies of it for printing:
If you received an addendum with this
manual, read it to be sure that your system
has sufficient memory to perform this
operation.
1.
Mark the beginning of the block:
a.
b.
2.
3.
Press CTRL OR (AOAR) to return
the cursor to the beginning of the
file.
Press CTRL KB (AKAB) to set a
beginning marker.
Mark the end of the block:
a.
Press CTRL OC (AOAC) to move
the cursor to the end of the file.
b.
Press CTRL KK (AKAK) to set an
end marker.
Without moving the cursor, press
CTRL KC (AKAC) to copy the block of
text (to make a duplicate copy). You
now have two copies of the same
text.
4.
Repeat Step 3 two more times to
make two more copies.
5.
Press CTRL KH (AKAH) to hide the
block markers and turn off the
highlighting.
Setting an Unconditional
Page Break
.pa
Now you should have four copies of the
text. However, if you move the cursor
through the file, you will discover that the
page breaks are not where you would like
them to be. You would like each copy to
appear on a separate page. Here is how
you can make this happen:
13-4
Move the cursor to the first blank line
below the first copy of the article (just
below" ... have a better idea.").
a.
Look at the status line to find the
location.
b.
You will find this blank line on
PAGE 1 at LINE 46.
2.
Type~. (You will see the page
divider jump to the line below .pa.)
3.
Repeat Steps 1 and 2 for each of the
remaining three copies of the article.
4.
Press CTRL KD ("KAD) to save a
copy of the file.
You have just set unconditional page
breaks between each pair of articles. The
.pa command is the unconditional page
command. This command tells WordStar
to cause a page break on the very next
line. The line containing .pa is not counted
by WordStar as a line of text.
If you would like to see this document
on paper, you can print it on your printer:
1.
When the "Openi ng " menu
appears, press P.
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
PRINT? appears, type DataStar and
press ESC (ESCAPE).
When you look at the results, you will
see that the pages have been numbered
1-4, with each number centered at the
bottom of a page. (In this learning
exercise, the four pages are the same; but
in actual practice, you will be printing
pages that are different.) If you would like
to number the pages a different way (such
as alternating from side to side), you will
learn how to do this in Lesson 14.
Lesson 14
Printing
with head ings
and footings
In Lesson 13, you typed some text from a brochure, made copies of it, then
printed the four copies as a four-page document. In this lesson you will print the
same four pages with headings and footings. You will also learn how to print
selected pages of a document, pause for paper changes, and suspend a print job in
the middle.
Adding Page Headings
.he
When you print a book, you often print
the same heading at the top of each page.
For example, you might print the title of the
book or the title of a chapter. Just for
practice, you can now add a heading to
the document you typed in Lesson 13:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
When the "Opening" menu
appears, press D.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
EDIT? appears, type DataStar and
press RETURN.
Make s~re you see INSERT ON in the
upper right-hand corner of the screen.
If you don't, press CTRL V (''V) to
make it appear.
Press CTRL N to create an extra
blank line.
Now type, ~ ASMicroPro 8rochureAS
and press RETURN (use CTRL PS
("pAS) to insert the AS underline
characters).
The .he command is the heading
command. It allows you to type in any
one-line heading, using any special
effects that you learned earlier in this
guide. In a moment you will print your four
pages again, but first you will get a
chance to add a footing also.
Adding Page Footings
.fo
WordStar also allows you to print from
one character to a full line of text at the
bottom of each page. For practice, you will
print the page numbers on alternating
sides of the page:
1.
2.
On the next blank line, type .fa AK
(use CTRL PK (AP"K) to enter the
CTRL K (AK)).
Move the cursor out to column 69
(watch the column number on the
status line at the top of the screen).
(You can use CTRL I (AI) to tab most
of the way.)
14-1
3.
4.
Type It. for the page number.
Press CTRL KD (AKAD) to save a
copy of your file.
You have just entered a simple footing.
The .fa command is the footing command.
It allows you to enter up to one line of text
to be printed at the bottom of every page.
The CTRL K that follows the space after
.fa tells WordStar to remove the spaces
between .fa and # on even-numbered
pages (this is how the page numbers are
from side to side).
If you would like to see this document
on paper, you can print it on your printer:
5.
When the prompt STOP AFTER
PAGE NUMBER (RETURN for end)?
appears, type ~ and press RETURN.
6.
Press RETURN four more times to
skip the remaining questions and start
printing.
You can see from the page numbers
that only pages 2 and 3 have been
printed. Note that a RETURN after the
ST ART question means to start printing at
the beginning of the file (page 1 in this
case) and a RETURN after the STOP
question means to print all the way to the
end of the file (page 4 in this case).
Pausing for Paper Changes
1.
When the .. Opening" menu
appears, press P.
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
PRINT? appears, type DataStar and
press ESC (ESCAPE).
You can see how the heading and
footing you requested were printed at. the
top and bottom of each of the four pages,
even though you typed them only once.
If your printer has a single-sheet feeder,
you can try this feature with separate,
hand-fed sheets. If not, you can just use
continuous form and pretend the sheets
are separated. Here are the steps:
1.
When the "Opening" menu
appears, press P.
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
PRINT? appears, type ~ and
press RETURN four times.
3.
When the question PAUSE FOR
PAPER CHANGE BETWEEN PAGES
(Y / N): appears, type 1: and press
RETURN four more times to start
printing.
Printing Selected Pages
WordStar allows you to print only part of
your file. For example, to print only pages
2 and 3 of "DataStar," you could follow
these steps:
1.
When the' .. Opening" menu
appears, press P.
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
PRI NT appears, type DataStar and
press RETURN (not ESCAPE).
3.
When the prompt DISK FILE au PUT
(Y / N): appears, press RETURN to
skip this question.
4.
When the prompt START AT PAGE
NUMBER (RETURN for beginning)?
appears, type g and press RETURN.
14-2
After printing one page, the printer will
stop to give you time to insert the next
page. As soon as the next page is ready,
press P to continue printing. (If you forget,
you can look at the " Opening" menu,
where you will see P=CONTINUE.)
Suspending a Print Job
2.
Start printing:
a. When the file appears on the
screen, press CTRL KP ("KAP) to
request printing.
b. When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO PRINT? appears, type
DataStar and press ESC
(ESCAPE).
You can suspend a print job before it
has completed if necessary. Here is an
exercise in how to suspend printing in
progress:
1.
When the" Opening" menu
appears, press P.
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
PRINT? appears, type DataStar and
press ESC (ESCAPE).
3.
After a few paragraphs have been
printed, press P again. (You have just
suspended printing.)
When the prompt TYPE "Y" TO
ABANDON PRINT, "N" TO RESUME,
U TO HOLD: appears, type t::! to
resume printing (no RETURN required
here).
4.
5.
After a few more paragraphs have
been printed, press P again.
6.
When the prompt appears, type Y to
abandon printing.
7.
Move the paper to the correct position
if necessary.
You have just practiced two of the
options available to you (resuming the
print job and abandoning the print job). In
this example, you started printing from the
" Opening" menu. You also could
have started printing while you were in the
middle of a file, as you will do in the next
exercise:
1.
Open the file "DataStar:"
a. When the "Opening"
appears, press D.
menu
c.
As soon as the file starts to print,
you will see the following
message appear on-screen
below the menu:
WARNING:
You are printing the same file as
you are editing. The last saved
version will be printed, not reflecting unsaved changes. Furthermore, WordStar will not allow
you to save the edited version
while the print is in progress.
If your computer doesn't have enough
memory to print and edit at the same. you
will see a message telling you to finish one
operation before starting the other.
You will learn more about this
later; right now, just go on to the
next step.
3.
Suspend, then resume, printing:
a.
After a few paragraphs have
been printed, press CTRL KP
(AKAP) to suspend printing.
b.
When the prompt TYPE "Y" TO
ABANDON PRINT, "N" TO
RESUME, AU TO HOLD: appears,
press CTRL U (AU) to hold
printing.
c.
When the prompt "***
INTERRUPTED *** Press
ESCAPE Key" appears, press
ESC (ESCAPE).
b. When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type DataStar
and press RETURN.
14-3
4.
5.
d.
While the print job is holding, you
can move the cursor around,
delete text, add text, change
margins, and reform paragraphs.
(No changes will be included in
the current print job, however.)
e.
Press CTRL KP ("K"P) to resume
printing.
Abandon printing:
a.
After a few more paragraphs
have been printed, press CTRL
KP ("K"P) to suspend printing
again.
b.
When the prompt appears (see
Step 3b), press Y to abandon
printing.
c.
Return the paper to the
top-of-form position.
Press CTRL KQ ("K"Q) to abandon
the file.
To summarize: After you suspend a
print job, you may then do one of three
things:
• Abandon the print job entirely
• Resume printing after making some
checks
• Hold the print job while you perform
some other WordStar tasks
14-4
Lesson 15
Typing
form letters
(MailMerge
option only)
In this lesson you will learn how to transform an ordinary letter into a form letter,
into which thousands of names and addresses can be inserted. Once you complete
this lesson, you will be able to generate a large number of letters from one letter and
mailing list. (Your WordStar system must include the MailMerge option.)
Preparing the Matrix Letter
The first step in printing thousands of
form letters is to prepare a "matrix letter,"
which contains generic names in place of
actual names:
1.
When the" Opening" menu
appears, press 0 to copy a file.
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
COPY FROM? appears, type bill!ill
and press RETURN. (This is the letter
you typed in Lesson 3.)
3.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
COPY TO? appears, type Mailing3
and press RETURN. (You have just
made a copy of file "Letter" called
"Mailing3.")
Eventually, you will print many letters
that look just like "Letter." Now that you
have a copy of it, you can modify this
copy to produce the matrix letter. To do
this, you begin by typing some preliminary
instructions for WordStar:
1.
Open a file called "Mailing3":
a. When the .. Opening" menu
appears, press D.
b.
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type Mailing3
and press RETURN.
Make sure you see INSERT ON in the
upper right-hand corner; if you don't,
press CTRL V (AV).
3.
Press CTRL N to create a blank line.
4.
Type .. File: MAl LI NG3 and press
RETURN. (This tells you the name of
your file.)
5.
On the next blank line type .op and
press RETURN. (This is to tum off
page-numbering.)
6.
On the third blank line type i!f
L1ST3.DAT and press RETURN.(This
is to tell WordStar the name of your
data file, which you will be typing
later.)
15-1
7.
On the fourth blank line type J1
N,TITLE,COMPANY, ADDRESS1 ,
ADDRESS2, NAME, LOCAL and
press RETURN. (This tells WordStar
what to read from your data file.)
With the instructions to WordStar
completed, you can turn off insertion by
pressing CTRL V (AV) and begin modifying
the actual letter:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
15-2
Replace the title line with & TITLE&:
a. Move the cursor to the B in "Bill
Somers, President."
b. Type &TITLE& over the name
and press CTRL QY (AQAy) to
delete whatever is left on the line
after" &TITLE&."
Replace the company line with
&COMPANY&:
a. Move the cursor down one line to
the B in "Beauty, Inc.".
b. Type &COMPANY& over the
name and press CTRL QY (AQAy)
to delete whatever is left over.
Replace the first address line with
&ADDRESS1 &:
a. Move the cursor down one line to
the 4 in "485 Avenida de las
Guapas."
b. Type &ADDRESS1 & over the
address and press CTRL QY
(AQAy) to delete whatever is left
over.
Replace the second address line with
&ADDRESS2&:
a. Move the cursor down one line to
the L in "Los Angeles, California
90036."
b. Type &ADDRESS2& over the
address and press CTRL QY
(AQAY) to delete whatever is left
over.
Replace the name in the salutation
with &NAME&:
a.
Move the cursor to the M in
"Dear Mr. Somers."
b. Type &NAME~ over "Mr.
Somers" and delete the last four
letters of "Somers" (but leave the
colon).
6. Replace the company name with
&COMPANY& again:
a. Move the cursor to the B in
"Beauty, Inc." near the end of the
first paragraph.
b. Type &COMPANY& over
"Beauty, Inc." and press CTRL T
to delete the last three letters of
"Inc." (but leave the space before
"and").
c. It won't be necessary to reform
the paragraph.
7. Replace the name of the local city
with &LOCAL&:
a. Move the cursor to the B in
"Burbank" in the postscript.
b. Type &LOCAL& over "Burbank"
(leave the period).
8. Press CTRL OC (AQAC) to move the
cursor to the end of the file.
9. On a blank line type .pa to tell
WordStar to start eachletter on a new
page.
10. Press CTRL KD (AKAD) to save your
file.
You have added five lines of instructions
to WordStar (four at the beginning, one at
the end) and replaced each specific name
or address with a generic name. This
changes the sample letter into a matrix
letter, ready to receive information from a
date file. WordStar will fill information into
the places where the generic names are
located in the matrix letter. This is how the
matrix letter should look on the screen:
r
.. File: MAIUNG3
.op
.df UST3.DAT
.rv N, TITLE, COMPANY, ADDRESS1, ADDRESS2, NAME, LOCAL.
July 22, 1981
&TITLE&
&COMPANY&
&ADDRESS1&
&ADDRESS2&
Dear &NAME&:
In reference to our conversation
earlier today, I would like to meet
with you as soon as possible. We
must discuss "Ball"B possibilities of
merging &COMPANY& and Charm,
Inc:
Please call my secretary to set an
appointment at your earliest convenience.
Sincerely,
Jim Winters, President
Charm, Inc.
P.S One item we have to be sure to
cover when we get together is that
plant we have over in &LOCAL&. I
need to hear what you think about
this. Keep in touch.
JW/sl
.pa
Typing the Data File
Your next task is to type the data file,
which contains the specific names and
addresses that will be inserted into the
matrix letter:
1.
Open a file called "LlST3.DAT":
a. When the "editing no file" menu
appears, press N (not D) to
create a non-document file.
2.
b.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type
LlST3.DAT and press RETURN.
c.
You will see the messages
"WAIT" and "NEW FILE" appear
on the screen.
When the messages leave and the file
is ready, type the following five lines of
information (each line is continued as
one line until you press RETURN):
15-3
1,"Bill Somers, Presidenf', "Beauty,lnc." ,485 Avenida de las Guapas, "Los Angeles, California 90036' ',Mr. Somers, Burbank RETURN
2,"Running Bear, Chief", Pp.poose-a-Plenty, North River Fork, "Little Big Horn, Montana 59107", Chief, Billings RETURN
3,"Henry Howe, Chairman", Mixed Reactions, 12736B North Central Avenue, "New York, New York 10024", Mr, Howe, Queens RETURN
4,"Jane Southern, President", Interiors Unlim~ed, 7 Rue d'Elegance, "New Orleans, Louisiana 70149", Mrs. Southern, Baton Rouge RETURN
5,"James Beauregard, Executive", Sumptuous Dining, 901 Gastronomic Parkway,
4,
Press CTRL KD ("K"D) to save your
data file,
Each entry line, or record, in your data
file contains seven items, or fields,
separated by commas, (When a field
contains a comma of its own, as "Beauty,
Inc_" does, it must be typed within
quotation marks_) The seven fields in each
line correspond to the seven generic
names, or variables, you used in the
matrix letter. For example, in the third
record,
N
3
TITLE
Henry Howe, Chairman
COMPANY
Mixed Reactions
ADDRESS1
12736B North Central Avenue
ADDRESS2
New York, New York 10024
NAME
Mr. Howe
LOCAL
Queens
Because there are five records in your
data file, five letters will be printed,
Printing the Form Letters
With your matrix letter and your data file
completed, you are ready to begin
printing:
15-4
"De~ver, Colorado 80201", Mr. Beauregard, Colorado Springs RETURN
1.
When the" Opening" menu
appears, type Mto request a
mailmerge.
2_
Make sure your printer is ready to go,
with the first page aligned correctly.
3.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
MAILMERGE? appears, type Mailing3
and
a.
If you are printing on continous
form paper, press ESC (ESCAPE)
to begin printing.
b.
If you are printing each letter on a
separate sheet of stationery,
press RETURN seven times,
press Y for PAUSE FOR PAPER
CHANGE BETWEEN PAGES
(Y IN):., then press RETURN
two more times to begin printing.
Now WordStar will print five letters on
the printer, using the five lines of your data
file to insert information into your matrix
letter. You can see that WordStar made
allowance for words of different lengths
that had to be inserted, and reformed
paragraphs when necessary. Note also
that the first letter is identical to the letter
you typed in Lesson 3.
Rules for Typing a Data File
Follow these rules whenever you type a
data file:
• Use a non-document file
• Use quotation marks around fields that
contain commas of their own (type the
closing quotation mark before the next
comma)
• Begin each record with a record
number
• Never leave out a field; if you don't
know what to enter, just type a blank
space followed by a comma
• Separate fields with commas
• End each record by pressing RETURN
• Whenever possible,' use DataStar to
enter data files
If you should forget these rules and type
the data file incorrectly, you could end up
with letters that look like this:
July 22, 1981
Bill Somers
President
Beauty
Inc.
Dear 485 Alameda de las Guapas:
In reference to our conversation
earlier today, I would like to meet
with you as soon as possible. We
must discuss all possibilities of
merging President and Charm, Inc.
Please call my secretary to set an
appointment at your earliest convenience.
Sincerely,
Jim Winters, President
Charm, Inc.
P.S. One item we have to be sure to
cover when we get together is that
plant we have over in Los Angeles.
I need to hear what you think about
this. Keep in touch.
JW/sl
15-5
NOTES
15·6
Lesson 16
Envelopes and
mailing labels
(MailMerge
option only)
In Lesson 15 you printed five form letters. In this lesson you will address
envelopes to mail the letters in and prepare mailing labels for some accompanying
mail.
Addressing Envelopes
To address envelopes tor mailing your
five letters, you can use the same data file
with a different matrix. Here is how to type
the new matrix:
1.
Open a new file called "Envelop3":
a.
When the" Opening" menu
appears, press D.
b.
2.
3.
4.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type
Envelop3 and press RETURN.
When the file appears, type the
information on the next page.
Read the comments to see what each
command is used for. (The comments
are not required, but are provided
here to help you learn the
commands.)
Press CTRL KD (AK"D) to save your
file.
You now have a document file called
"Envelop3" that you can use as a matrix
to address your mailing envelopes one at
a time. This matrix calls for an envelope
height of 25 lines, a top margin of 15 lines,
a left margin of 30 characters, and singlespacing. (To print with double-spacing,
change the top margin to 10 and leave
blank lines between the lines of
addressing.) You are ready to print the
envelopes:
1.
When the" Opening" menu
appears, type
to request a
mail merge.
M
2.
Make sure your printer is ready to go,
with the first envelope in position.
3.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
MAILMERGE? appears, type
Envelop3 and press ESC (ESCAPE) to
begin printing.
4.
Press P each time you are ready to
address a new envelope. (If you
forget, look at the "Opening
menu, where you will see P =
CONTINUE PRINT.)
16-1
· . File: ENVELOP3 (print envelopes from LlST3.DAT)
.. File: EN
.op
.p125
.mt 15
.mb 0
Turn off page numbering
Page length =25 lines (ordinary envelope)
Allow a top margin of 15 lines
Allow no bottom margin (0 lines)
.df LlST3.DAT (the data file is LlST3.DAT)
Read these seven fields (variables),
one record at a time:
.rv N, TITLE, COMPANY, ADDRESS1 , ADDRESS2, NAME, LOCAL
Press CTRL PC (APAC) to insert AC
(wait for the next envelope)
AC
.pa
&TITLE&
&COMPANY&
&ADDRESS1&
&ADDRESS2&r--_ _..,
Roll envelope out of the printer
IRETURN I
When you have finished positioning the
last envelope, WordStar will print and then
Opening
menu.
return you to the
You now have five mailing envelopes to
match your five ietters.
Printing Mailing Labels
To print single-column mailing labels for
the people on your mailing list, you can
use the same data file again with still
another matrix. (To print multi-column
labels, see Section 10 of thE:; WordStar
Reference Manual.) Here is how to type
the matrix:
16-2
1.
2.
Open a new file called "LabeI3":
a.
When the
Opening
appears, press D.
b.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type Label3
and press RETURN.
menu
When the file appears, type the
following information (the comments
can help):
File: LABEL3 (print mailing labels from LlST3.DAT)
.op
Turn off page numbering
.p118
Page length =18 lines (this may vary)
.mt 8
Allow a top margin of 8 lines
.mb 6 Allow a bottom margin of 6 lines
.df LlST3.DAT (the data file is LlST3.DAT)
.rv N, TITLE, COMPANY, ADDRESS1 , ADDRESS2, NAME, LOCAL
&TITLE&
&COMPANY&
&ADDRESS1 &
&ADDRESS2&
.. End of file
RETURN
I
3.
I
Combining Three Tasks into
One
Press CTRL KD ("K"D) to save a
copy of your file.
You now have a document file called
"LabeI3" that you can use as a matrix to
print your mailing labels on a continuous
roll. This matrix calls for a label height of
18 lines, a top margin of 8 lines, a bottom
margin of 6 lines, a left margin of 10
characters, and single-spacing. (To print
with double-spacing, change the top
margin to 5, the bottom margin to 5, and
leave blank lines between the the lines of
addressing.) You are ready to print the
labels:
1.
When the .. Opening' menu
appears, type Mto request a
mailmerge.
2.
Make sure your printer is ready to go,
with the roll of labels in position.
3.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
MAILMERGE? appears, type ~
and press ESC (ESCAPE) to begin
printing.
Now WordStar will print five mailing
labels to match your five letters and
envelopes.
In Lesson 15 and this lesson you have
printed a series of letters, followed by
corresponding envelopes and mailing
labels. Now you will learn how to combine
all three of these tasks into one task. So
far you have typed files with these names:
• MAILlNG3 (matrix for the letters)
•
ENVELOP3 (matrix for the envelopes)
•
LABEL3
(matrix for the mailing labels)
All three of these matrices drew from
the same data file of names and
addresses (LlST3.DAT). In this lesson you
will type an additional matrix file to print
your data file in a readable format. Then
you will type a simple command file to
have all four printed in succession.
As you 'have probably noticed, your
data file of names and addresses is
difficult to read. If you had to make any
changes to it, you would not have an easy
time finding anything. So why not print it in
a more readable format and make your
job easier? Here are the steps:
16-3
1.
2.
Open a new file called "Format3":
a.
When the "Opening" menu
appears, press D.
b.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type Format3
and press RETURN.
When the file appears, type the
following:
.. File: FORMAT3 (print a formatted mailing list)
.op
Turn off page-numbering
.pl 8
Set the page length to 8 lines
.mt 2
Set the top margin to 2 lines
.mb 2 Set the bottom margin to 2 lines
.cp 6
Set a conditional page break (6 lines)
.df LlST3.DAT
.rv N, TITLE, COMPANY, ADDRESS1, ADDRESS2, NAME, LOCAL
&n&
&title&
&company&
&address1 &
&address2&
.cs
.dm NOW PRINTING RECORD FOR &title&
.. End of file
RETURN
I
3.
I
Press CTRL KD ("K"D) to save your
file.
Typing a Command File
Whenever you want to combine several
tasks into one, MailMerge allows you to
type one special file, called a command
file, to have these tasks performed for you.
This command file will call the other files
for you and print them in succession while
you go on to some other work. Here are
the steps for this particular command file:
16-4
1.
2.
Open a new file called "Combine3":
a.
When the "Opening" menu
appears, press D.
b.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type
Combine3 and press RETURN.
When the file appears, type the
following:
.dm
This program will perform four tasks in succession:
.dm
(1) print a series of letters, (2) print the envelopes
.dm
(3) print mailing labels, (4) print the data file
.dm
Task 1: Print the letters
.fi MAILlNG3
.dm
Task 2: Print the envelopes
.dm
Get the envelopes ready
.fi ENVELOP3
.dm
Task 3: Print the mailing labels
.dm
Put the labels into the feeder
Press CTRL PC ("P"C) to insert "c
"c
.fi LABEL3
.dm
Task 4: Print the mailing list
.dm
Put the paper back into the feeder
Press CTRI PC ("P"C) to insert "c
"c
.fi
3.
FORMAT3
Press CTRL KD ("K"D) to save your
file.
Running the Command File
Now that you have a command file,
along with four files that are called by the
command file, you are ready to start:
1.
When the" Opening" menu
appears, type Mto request a
mailmerge.
2.
Make sure your printer is ready to go,
with the paper in position.
3.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
MAILMERGE? appears, type
Combine3 and press ESC (ESCAPE)
to begin printing:
a. The letters will be printed first,
with no action required by you.
b.
After the last letter has been
printed, you will have to begin
inserting the envelopes one at a
time, as indicated by screen
messages.
c.
After the last envelope has been
addressed, you will have to insert
the roll of mailing labels during
the next printing pause.
d. After the last label has been
addressed, change back to paper
again during the printing pause.
After the mailing list has been printed,
WordStar will return you to the "editing no
file" menu. You now have five letters, five
envelopes, five mailing labels, and a
mailing list with five names on it.
Summary
The documents you have been typing to
produce special printing all contain a
number of three-character commands
that begin with periods (dots). These are
called dot commands. Here is a summary
of the dot commands you have seen so
far, and what they mean to WordStar:
16-5
"Ignore this line. This line is for
comments (or to leave some
open space in the file)."
.op
"Turn off page-numbering when
you print this document."
.pa
"Go to a new page right here."
.cp
"Here is a number. If this number
of lines won't fit on this page,
move all of them to the next
page."
.pl
"The length of each page of
printing is as follows."
.mt
"Allow the following top margin on
each page before printing
anything."
.mb
"Allow the following bottom
margin after printing one page."
.df
"The name of the data file for this
matrix file is as follows."
(Mail Merge only)
.rv
"For each item to be printed,
read the following fields
(variables) from a record in the
data file. You don't have to use all
of them during printing."
(MailMerge only)
.fi
"Insert the following file right here .
In other words, print everything in
that file here, then come back to
this file to continue printing."
(MailMerge only)
.cs
"Clear the open area of the
screen." (MailMerge only)
.dm
"Display the following information
on the screen." (MailMerge only)
16-6
Lesson 17
Typing
reply letters
(MailMerge
option only)
In Lesson 15 you typed a form letter that could be addressed to many different
people. Each addressee got the same letter. Now you will learn how to type a:1other
kind of form letter, a reply letter. This time, you will not be mailing a large nu '""'ber
of identical letters. Instead, you will be mailing only one letter at a time, bL the
wording may vary from letter to letter.
<-
Preparing the Matrix Letter
Instead of converting a sample letter
into a matrix letter by making substitutions,
as you did in Lesson 15, you will type the
matrix letter directly this time:
1.
Open a new file called "Reply":
a. When the Opening'< menu
appears, press D.
«
b.
When the prompt NAME OF FI LE
TO EDIT? appears, type Reply
and press RETURN.
--
2.
Press CTRL OJ ("O"J) to turn off
justification.
3.
When the new file appears on the
screen, type the following letter:
4.
Press CTRL KD ("K"D) to save your
file.
17-1
· . File: REPLY (prints a reply letter using RADIO, TV, or
STEREO for description)
.cs
.av "Enter the file name (RADIO/TV/STEREO): ", FILENAME
.av "Please enter today's date:", DATE
.fi
HEADING
(standard letter heading and salutation)
Thank you for your recent inquiry. The following features
are available for you to select from:
.fi
&FILENAME&
We were happy to hear from you. We hope that our &PRODUCT&
will contribute to your &FUNCTION&. Let me know if I can be of
any further assistance.
Sincerely,
Henry L. ("Ham") Burger
~IR~E~T~U~R~N~I
Director of Marketing
The Heading File
As you can see from looking at this
letter, you are going to need several other
files (HEADING, RADIO, TV, and
STEREO) before you will be able to use it.
We can begin by typing the heading file:
1.
When the" Opening" menu
appears, press D.
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
EDIT? appears, type Heading and
press RETURN.
3.
When the new file appears on the
screen, type the following:
17-2
.. File: HEADING (provides the standard heading and salutation)
.av "Addressee's name and title: ", TITLE
.av "Addressee's company: ", COMPANY
.av "Street address: ", ADDRESS1
.av "City, state, and zip: ", ADDRESS2
.av "Dear", NAME
.cs
&TITLE&
&COMPANY&
&ADDRESS1&
&ADDRESS2&
&DATE&
Dear &NAME&:.~........_ .....
. . End of file
RETURN
I
4.
I
Press CTRL KD (AKAD) to save your
file.
The First Product File
Next we go on to the three product files.
One of these will be inserted as the
middle paragraph of the reply. Here is the
first one:
1.
Open a new file called "Radio":
a. When the "Opening" menu
appears, press D.
b. When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type Radio
and press RETURN.
2.
When the new file appears on the
screen, type the following:
.. File: RADIO (describes the AM/FM clock radio)
.sv PRODUCT, AM/FM clock radio
.sv FUNCTION, listening enjoyment
a automatic tuning selection
a AC/DC selection
a choice of one of three wake-up methods
* soft music
* Chinese gong
* "Stars and Stripes Forever"
.. End of file
IRETURN
I
17·3
3.
Press CTRL KD ("KAD) to
file.
save your
The Second Product File
Next we prepare the second product
file:
1.
2.
Open a new file called "TV":
a.
When the . Opening
appears, press D.
menu
b.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type TV and
press RETURN.
When the new file appears on the
screen, type the following:
.sv
.sv
File: TV (describes the portable color TV)
PRODUCT, portable color television
FUNCTION, viewing enjoyment
o full channel selection
o Big Rainbow color
o choice of three sizes
* portable
* briefcase size
* pocket size
.. End of file
RETURN
I
3.
Press CTRL KD (AKAD) to
file.
save your
The Third Product File
Finally we prepare the third product file:
1.
2.
17-4
Open a new file called "Stereo":
a.
When the . Opening'
appears, press D.
menu
b.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type Stereo
and press RETURN.
--
When the new fiie appears on the
screen, type the following:
I
.. File: Stereo (describes the stereo system)
.sv PRODUCT, stereophonic system
.sv FUNCTION, listening enjoyment
o acoustic suspension speakers
o Full stereophonic sound
o Elliptical, 1.5-gram cartridge
o choice of three colors
* Brick Road yellow
* Emerald green
* Black and white
.. End of file
RETURN
I
3.
I
Press CTRL KD (AKAD) to save your
file.
Having the Reply Letter
Printed
Now you have a matrix letter to answer
inquiries about products, along with four
accompanying files. Here is how to have a
reply letter typed:
1.
When the "Opening' menu
appears, type Mto request a
mailmerge.
2.
Make sure your printer is ready to go,
with the paper in position.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
MAILMERGE? appears, type Reply
and press ESC (ESCAPE) to begin
printing.
3.
4.
In reply to the prompt "Enter one file
name (RADIO/TV/STEREO): ", type
Radio and press RETURN.
5.
Answer the remaining questions as
indicated, pressing RETURN after
each response:
Please enter today's date: June l.§, 1981
Addressee's name and title: Mr. James Y: Thompson
Addressee's company: Rampant Electronics, Inc.
Street address: 1307 Helsing Boulevard
City, state, and zip: Cupertino, CA 95014
Dear Mr. Thompson
17-5
6.
WordStar will now print the letter,
which should look like this:
June 15, 1981
Mr. James V. Thompson
Rampant Electronics, Inc.
1307 Helsing Boulevard
Cupertino, CA 95014
Dear Mr. Thompson:
Thank you for your recent inquiry. The following features
are available for you to select from:
o automatic tuning selection
o ACIDC selection
o choice of one of three wake-up methods
* soft music
* Chinese gong
* "Stars and Stripes Forever"
We were happy to hear from you. We hope that our AMI FM
clock radio will contribute to your listening enjoyment. Let me
know if I can be of any further assistance.
Sincerely,
Henry L. ("Ham") Burger
Director of Marketing
7.
Press the space bar to return to the
" Opening" menu.
8.
Repeat Steps 1-7, using either "TV" or
"Stereo" in Step 4 and making up
your own entries for Step 5.
17-6
Summary
3.
First of all, you learned two more dot
commands in this lesson, both used to tell
WordStar what value to use for a field
(variable):
HEADING asks for the addressee's
name and address and types them,
along with the salutation, using the
date that REPLY asked you for, then
returns control to REPLY.
4.
Next REPLY prints a short paragraph
and turns control over to the file you
named in Step 1 (RADIO, TV, or
STEREO).
5.
Since you named RADIO the first
time, RADIO begins by setting
PRODUCT to "AMI FM clock radio"
and FUNCTION to "listening
enjoyment," prints the features of the
radio, and returns control to REPLY.
6.
REPLY now prints the closing
paragraph, using the values of
PRODUCT and FUNCTION set by
RADIO, then prints the signature line
to conclude the letter.
.av
"Ask the operator to type in this
field (variable) at the keyboard."
.sv
"Set this field (variable) to the
following value."
You have three different ways of telling
WordStar what value to use for a given
field (variable): read a variable (.rv), ask for
a variable (.av), or set a variable (.sv).
Here is a brief description of how
WordStar prints this reply letter (look at the
contents of the files earlier in this lesson
while you are reading this):
1.
After you request a mailmerge, REPLY
asks you for a file name and today's
date.
2.
Then REPLY switches control over to
HEADING. (It's as though everything
in HEADING were typed in the middle
of REPLY. This is called nesting.)
17 -7
NOTES
17-8
Lesson 18
Chain-printing
(MailMerge
option only)
In this lesson you will type three text files, representing three chapters of a book.
Then you will type a command file that will print the three text files in succession.
This is known as chain-printing, another way WordStar's MailMerge option can save
you time and effort.
(3) Leave 13 blank lines between
the end of the first paragraph
("00 . a little different.") and the
figure caption ("Typical
Keyboard").
Typing the Text Files
You will begin by typing several pages
from each of the first three lessons of this
guide. Besides helping you learn
chain-printing, this will give you a good
review of the different things you have
learned in this guide. Here's how to do
this:
1.
Open a new file called "Guide1 ":
a. When the .. Opening" menu
appears, press D.
b.
2.
Here are some guidelines on
spacing:
(1) Leave three blank lines
between the beginning of the
file and "Lesson 1."
(2) Leave two blank lines
between the title and the first
line of text.
After the last sentence (which
should be at the bottom of page
1 ), press RETURN three or four
times to force a page break to
page 2.
3.
Press CTRL KD ("K"D) to save the
file.
4.
Open a new file called "Guide2":
a. When the .. Opening" menu
appears, press D.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type ~
and press RETURN.
Type the first two sections of Lesson 1
of this guide ("The Keyboard" and
"The Screen"), typing everything just
as you see it.
a.
b.
b.
5.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type ~
and press RETURN.
Type the first four sections of Lesson
2 of this guide ("Starting Your
Computer," "Starting WordStar,"
"Stopping WordStar," and "Stopping
Your Computer ").
a.
Follow the format of Lesson 2, but
type the procedures that apply to
your own machine, rather than
the procedures you find in Lesson
2 (if they are different).
18-1
b. This should fill about two and a
half pages.
c.
6.
7.
On a blank line after the last line
of text, type ~ and press
RETURN. To force a fourth page
type ~ and press RETURN
again.
Press CTRL KD (AKAD) to save the
file.
Open a new file called "Guide3".:
a. When the "Opening" menu
appears, press D.
b. When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO ED1T? appears, type ~
and press RETURN.
8.
9.
"
Type the opening paragraph and the
first section of Lesson 3 ("Preliminary
Adjustments"). This should fill a little
more than one page.
Press CTRL KD (AKAD) to save the
file.
Now you have three files (Guide1,
Guide2, and Guide3), one for each of the
three opening lessons of this guide. For
this exercise, these represent only about
five pages of typing. In actual practice,
you may have dozens of files and
hundreds of pages of typing.
File: PRI NT01
.fi Guide1
.pa
.fi Guide2
.pa
.fi Guide3
"
3.
End of file
I RETURN I
Press CTRL KD (AKAD) to save the
file.
Each time you type an unconditional
page command (.pa), WordStar will insert
a page break in the command file, which
you can ignore. For clarity, the page
breaks are not shown here.
Note
The .pa command you typed at the end
of Guide2 was to leave a blank page at
the end of Lesson 2. (If you wanted to
reproduce this printing on two-sided
paper and you left a chapter with an odd
numberof pages, the next chapter would
begin on the back of a sheet, instead of
the front.)
Now you are ready to start printing:
Printing with Continuous
Pagination
1.
When the "Openi ng" menu
appears, type Mto request a
mailmerge.
First you will type a command file that
will cause the pages to be numbered
continuously from lesson to lesson:
2.
Make sure your printer is ready and
the paper is in position.
3.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
MAILMERGE? appears, type Print01
and press RETURN (not ESCAPE)
four times.
1.
Open a new file called "Print01 :"
a.
When the" Opening" menu
appears, press D.
b. When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type Print01
and press RETURN.
2.
18-2
When the file appears, type the
following:
4.
When the prompt NUMBER OF
COPIES (RETURN for 1 )? appears,
type g and press RETURN four more
times.
1.
You should have two eight-page copies,
numbered from 1 to 8, with each number
centered at the bottom of the page.
Printing with Pagination by
Chapters
Now you will print the same three files
with another method of pagination. This
time, the chapters will be paginated
separately, with the first page of chapter 1
called 1-1 , the second page called 1-2,
and so on. In addition, the page numbers
will be alternated from side to side.
2.
Add a footing to each of the pages of
"Guide1 ":
a. When the .. Opening" menu
appears, press D.
b. When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type ~
and press RETURN.
c. When the file appears, press
CTRL N to create a blank line at
the beginning of the file.
d. Type .fo"K at the left-hand margin,
then type 1-# in columns 67 -69.
(Press CTRL PK to type "K.)
e. Press CTRL KD ("K"D) to save
the file.
Repeat Step 1 for "Guide2" and
"Guide3," using 2-# and 3-# in Step
1d in place of 1-#, as shown below.
2-#
Lesson 2
Some Basics
In this lesson, you will learn how to start and stop your
computer, and how to start and stop WordStar. You will also
learn how WordStar helps you when you need information.
Top of Page 1 of Lesson 2
18-3
3.
4.
Open a new file called "Print02:"
a.
When the "Opening" menu
appears, press D.
b.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE
TO EDIT? appears, type Print02
and press RETURN.
When the file appears, type the
following:
.,
File: PRINT02
.fi Guide1
.pa
.pn 1
.fi Guide2
.pa
~n 1
.fi Guide3
..
5.
End of file
IRETURN I
Press CTRL KD (AK"D) to save the
file.
This file is the same as PRINT01,
except for the page number commands
(.pn 1), which tell WordStar to reset the
pa~e count to 1 before starting a new
chapter. Once again, the page breaks are
not shown here. Now you are ready to
start printing:
1.
When the "Openi ng .. menu
appears, type 11 to request a
mailmerge.
2.
Make sure your printer is ready and
the paper is in position.
3.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
MAILMERGE? appears, type ~
and press ESC (ESCAPE).
You should have eight pages, numbered
as follows: 1-1,1-2,2-1,2-2,2-3,2-4,3-1,
3-2. Also, the numbers should be
alternated from side to side, with 1-1 on
the right, 1-2 on the left, and so on.
18-4
Lesson 19
Check spelling
(SpeliStar
option only)
In this lesson, you will learn how to "proofread" everything you write with
WordStar. You will practice checking for misspellings and typos automatically,
correcting the errors, and setting aside words to add to your on-disk dictionary or
dictionaries. (Your WordStar program must have the SpeliStar option to perform
these operations.)
This lesson and Lesson 20 (about maintaining SpeliStar's dictionaries) assume you are
using disks of about 240 kilobytes. If you
are using smaller capacity disks, you will
need two disks and will have to take that
into account when following these
instructions.
Starting SpeliStar
The Operations Menu
Next you will see SpeliStar's Operations
Menu, from which you can choose to run
a spelling check or do dictionary
maintenance. (You can also return to
WordStar's .. Opening" menu at this
point.)
,
C · Check spelling
M · Maintain dictionary
Opening
X · Exit to WordStar
SpeliStar needs WordStar to run, so first
you must get WordStar started:
1.
Start your computer. (If you don't
know how to do this, refer to Lesson 2
of this Training Guide.)
2.
Start WordStar, logged on the A: drive.
(You can refer to Lesson 2 for
instructions on this also.)
3.
Put a blank disk into drive B:.
4.
When the" Opening" menu
appears on your screen, press S to
"Run SpeIiStar."
5.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
CHECK / ADD TO DICTIONARY?
appears, type A:SAMPLETXT and
press RETURN. ("SAMPLETXT" is a
file that comes with SpeliStar; you'll
use it to do. a spelling check.)
..,
OPERATIONS
\..
Operation?
•
~
19-1
,
SpeliStar - Spelling Check Operation
SPELLING CHECK CONTROLS
D S F W-
CURRENT VALUE
A:SPELSTAR.DCT
Use another main dictionary
Add supplemental dictionary
Change file to be checked
Change work drive
A:SAMPLE .TXT
A:
<Return> - Start spelling check
X
- Exit to Operations Menu
Control to change? •
In this lesson, you'll run a sample
spelling check, so
1.
Press C, for "Check Spelling."
2.
Now a menu titled "Spelling Check
Controls" will appear. You will use the
controls on this menu to define the
check.
Setting Up Spelling Check
Controls
The controls needed for each spelling
check are the names of a dictionary and a
file to be checked, and the letter of a work
drive. You may name a supplemental
dictionary if you wish, but it's not required.
When the Spelling Check Controls
menu first appears, it tells you the names
("current values") of the dictionaries, file,
and work drive SpeliStar will use unless
you change them.
If you liked the way the controls were
set up, you could just press RETURN and
SpeliStar would begin checking the file
named.
Changing the Main Dictionary
This time, let's see how you use the
controls to design a spelling check the
way you want it. You'll use these same
methods later to change other controls in
SpeliStar.
1.
In response to the prompt "Control to
change?", press D.
2.
The following message appears on
the screen below the Controls menu:
, D- Dictionary: A:SPELSTAR.DCT This is the main dictionary.
""
Enter the drive, filename,
and/or type of main dictionary
to use.
~
19-2
SPELSTAR.DCT is the 20,000-word
dictionary that is "standard equipment"
with SpellStar. It is based on the American
Heritage dictionaries, published by
Houghton Mifflin Co. Most of the time you'll
find it quite sufficient.
When the Spelling Check Controls
menu first appears on the screen, the
current value of the main dictionary will
always be SPELSTAR.DCT on the logged
disk drive. (Note that the main dictionary
can be on either drive, as long as you
identify its location for SpeIIStar.) Let's
pretend SPELSTAR.DCT is on the B: drive.
make a mistake. backspace with the
"backspace" key or CTRL H (eH) and
correct it.)
Notice that the new current value for
main dictionary reads B:HERITAGE.DCT.
Even though you typed in"HERITAGE"
beginning at the first character of the
previous dictionary's drive letter and
name, SpellStar put "HERITAGE" in the
proper place, SpellStar recognizes which
part of the value you're entering and
inserts it correctly.
Try this now with the dictionary name's
extension, changing it to ". EXT."
1.
1.
Press O.
2.
Type .DCN, and press RETURN.
2.
The cursor is on the first
character-the drive letter- of the
dictionary name. Type ft and press
RETURN. (You must always press
RETURN after typing in your change.)
Notice that on the Controls menu the
current value of the main dictionary is
now B:SPELSTAR.DCT.
You've just told SpellStar that the main
dictionary to use, SPELSTAR.DCT, is on
the B: drive.
With the "0" control, you can replace
SPELSTAR.DCT with another main
dictionary entirely. SpeliStar will use any
dictionary you name that has been
organized properly. (We'll discuss in
Chapter 20 how you and SpellStar do
that.)
Let's suppose you have a dictionary file
called "HERITAGE.DCT" that you want to
use.
1.
Press O. The message you saw
before appears below the Controls
menu. The cursor .is on the first
character.
2.
Type HERITAGE, and press RETURN.
(You can type HERITAGE in upper or
lower case; it doesn't matter. If you
The current value for main dictionary is
now B: HERITAGE .EXT.
As you've just seen, you can change
the drive, filename, or extension of the
main dictionary as individual elements.
You can also change the entire value all
at once, simply by entering the drive letter
(with colon following), the filename, and
the extension (with period preceding).
You can erase any element of the
current value-the drive, filename, or
extension-by using the "#" key. Let's try
that.
1.
Press O.
2.
Type!t, and press RETURN.
The current value of the main dictionary
should now read
B:
.EXT.
You can erase the entire value for any
control (except the work drive) with the
space bar, if you prefer, before entering a
new value.
19-3
To begin a spelling check, you must
have values for the main dictionary, file to
be checked, and work drive. So if you
erase either the main dictionary or the file
value and leave a blank, you'll have to
enter a value before SpeliStar will let your
command to begin the spelling check take
effect.
The methods with which you've just
experimented in naming a main dictionary
will apply to many other controls in
SpeliStar.
Since you want to proceed now with
setting the other controls for your sample
spelling check, let's change the main
dictionary value back to
A:SPELSTAR. OCT.
1.
Press O.
2.
Type A:SPELSTAR.DCT, and press
RETURN.
Adding a Supplemental
Dictionary
With SpeliStar, you can use more than
one dictionary during a spelling check.
Using a main dictionary plus a
supplemental dictionary to check a
document may catch many more errors.
Suppose you've just finished typing a
contract with many legal terms. SpeliStar
can use a supplemental dictionary of legal
terms, in addition to the main dictionary, to
check your contract. (You can buy
specialized dictionaries or create your
own with SpeIiStar.)
Another useful supplemental dictionary
might contain names and addresses of
your company's clients. The dictionary
wouldn't help you connect the right name
with the right address, but it could tell you
if the name, street, city, and state wece
spelled correctly.
19-4
You enter or change the supplemental
dictionary's name the same way you did
the main dictionary's. The only difference
is that if you erase the entire supplemental
name by pressing the space bar, SpeliStar
will let you begin a spelling check without
a supplemental dictionary. Entering a
supplemental value is always an option.
Even though we won't use a
supplemental dictionary to check spelling
in SAMPLETXT, let's look at the control to
"add supplemental dictionary."
1.
Press S.
2.
Read the prompt, then press
RETURN.
Notice that pressing RETURN left the
value unchanged. In this case, the value
was blank, but in this and other SpeliStar
controls, RETURN will always leave the
value unchanged, whether that value is a
blank or a name you entered earlier.
Changing the File to be
Checked
On the Controls menu, you see that the
current value of the file to be checked is
SAMPLE.TXT. This is the name you
entered at the . Opening ,. menu, when
SpeliStar asked you NAME OF FILE TO
CHECK / ADD TO DICTIONARY?
If you wanted to change the file value,
you'd press "F" and enter the new
filename just as you entered new
information for the value of the main
dictionary.
You'll find this control especially handy
in cases where you run spelling checks
on several files at once ~ correcting
the errors SpeliStar has flagged in any of
.&.L- ................
lIlt:lll.
This time, you'll leave SAMPLETXT as
the file to be checked, so you needn't do
anything.
Note
Changing the Work Drive
To see your document's size - and how
much space is left on your disk, you run a
status check from the "opening" menu. If
you needed to do it now, you would have to
enter "X" to go back to the SpeliStar
Operations Menu, and exit using "X" from
there to WordStar. (This won't hurt
anything, but you'll lose a little time.)
To get back to this point in your check,
you would press S atthe "opening" menu,
and enter the name of the file you're
checking and press RETURN. Then press
C at the Operations Menu.
In WordStar, we use the term "work
drive" generally to mean the drive to
which your work is directed for storage.
But in SpeliStar, "work drive" has a
different meaning. During spelling checks,
SpeliStar creates its own temporary
sorting files containing words from your
document.
The "change work drive" control lets
you tell SpeliStar where to put its
temporary files. The critical factor in your
decision is the space available on either
disk.
The sorting files take up about the same
amount of space as your document file.
YObJ should always find out how large your
document is and check to see if the
sorting files will fit on the same disk. This
is especially important when you're
checking a large file.
Unless you have a lot of files on your
boot disk, you should have enough space
to put the sorting tiles there.
(SAMPLE.TXT's size is only 4K.) However,
you have a blank disk in the B: drive, so to
play it safe, use B: for the work drive.
r
Changing the work drive is very simple.
1.
Press W.
2.
Type 12. (This time you don't have to
press RETURN.)
Now the controls for your sample
spelling check should look like this:
SPELLING CHECK CONTROLS
o -Use another main dictionary =
S - Add supplemental dictionary =
F - Change file to be checked =
W - Change work drive =
<Return>
X
CURRENT VALUE
A:SPELSTAR.DCT
A:SAMPLE .TXT
B:
- Start spelling check
- Exit to Operations Menu
19-5
If your screen looks different, use what
you've learned to change the controls so that
they match these.
Running a Sample Spelling
Check
Now, if you want, you're ready to run the
spelling check on SAMPLETXT.
On the other hand, you could change
your mind. If you decided you would
rather do dictionary maintenance or go
back to WordStar, you'd simply press "X"
r
1.
Press RETURN.
2.
Watch the screen display change to
reflect what SpeliStar's finding in
SAMPLE TXT.
SpellStar is now checking your document for misspelled words.
Number of words in document ......... :422
Number of different words ............ :261
Number of words in main dictionary .... :20863
Number of words in supplement ....... :
Number of dictionary words checked . ... :8733
Number of misspelled words .......... :28
Total number of misspellings .......... :
The first thing SpeliStar does is count
the total number of words in your
document; the total appears on the first
line of the screen display.
Then it tells you how many of those
words are "different"; after you throw out
the duplicates, how many unique words
are left? That total appears on the second
line.
This calculation is useful if, for instance,
you are writing something technical for
non-technical people. A proportionately
high number of different words indicates
too much jargon.
In the third and fourth lines of the
on-screen summary, SpeliStar tells you
how many words are in the main and
supplemental dictionaries you specified
for this check.
19·6
and find yourself back at SpeliStar's
Operations Menu. If you decide to
abandon the spelling check here, on
SAMPLETXT or any other file, you won't
hurt anything. When you return to this
pOint, it will look just as you left it, as long
as you haven't exited to WordStar before
returning.
We QQ want to perform a spelling
check, though, so let's go.
The changing number on the fifth line,
"Number of dictionary words checked,"
lets you know how far SpeliStar has gotten
with your spelling check.
After SpeliStar counts the words in your
document, it sorts them by length and
alphabetically and compares them to the
words in the dictionary, which is organized
the same way. As it compares, it tells you
how many dictionary words it has gone
through, by thousands.
By seeing how long SpeliStar takes to
get through a thousand words, you'll know
approximately how long it will take to
check your entire document. The more
words in your document, the longer it
takes to check. You can go do something
else while the machine checks a long
document, and come back when it's
finished.
Next, SpellStar tells you how many
different words are misspelled. A
"misspelled" word is any word that doesn't
match up with a word in the dictionary or
dictionaries you've specified. So SpeliStar
flags misspellings, typos, and all other
words not in the dictionary or dictionaries.
SpellStar won't fill in the last line, "Total
number of misspellings," until later.
When SpeliStar has finished its check of
SAMPLE.TXT, it pauses to let you decide
what to do next.
At this point, SpellStar has not yet
actually flagged the errors within the text
of SAMPLETXT. Before you tell SpeliStar
to do that, you can elect to see listed on
the screen all the misspellings, typos, and
words unmatched in the dictionary: or you
can leave the spelling check at this point
without affecting your file.
SpeliStar shows you the choices below
the on-screen summary:
r SpeliStar has completed proofreading your document.""
Enter "L" to list the misspelled words.
Enter <Return> to flag errors in your text.
Enter "R" to abandon the check and restart.
Let's list the misspelled words.
1.
Press L.
2.
Y our screen should look like this:
r AA CH WS SAN ATTN DISCO TOM'S TYPOS WIT'S WRKNG BILOXI CALVIN DISCOS
RAFAEL SURVAY KEYTOPS MAUREEN HOTSTUFF JUMPSUIT ONSCREEN PROGRAMM
HICCUPING WHISKEY'S WORDSTAR'S FREEWHEELING CORESPONDENCE INTERNATOINAL
INSUBODRINATION
" Enter <Return> to flag errors, "R" to restart.
You can see the kinds of words that
aren't in SpellStar's dictionary:
abbreviations (AA, ATTN); slang (DISCO);
proper names (RAFAEL, MAUREEN);
variations on root words ("hiccup" is in the
dictionary, but HICCUPING isn't). And,
most important - misspelled and mistyped words (WRKNG, INTERNATOINAL).
You don't see state names or most
plurals from SAMPLETXT on the list
because SpeliStar's dictionary includes
names of all the states in the U.S. and the
plurals of most common nouns.
(Remember that at this point SpellStar
has not yet flagged these words in your
document; once you're using SpellStar in
your day-to-day work, if you saw words on
this list you thought were in your dictionary
[either main or supplemental], you could
go back and check whether you'd used
the right dictionary. To do this, you'd press
"R" to go back to the Operations Menu,
then "C" to look at your controls. You
could change the dictionary or dictionaries
in use, if necessary, and re-do the spelling
check. As usual, you wouldn't hurt your
documeflt file if you left it now.)
Now that you've seen the errors listed,
tell SpellStar to go ahead and flag those
errors in the text of SAMPLE.TXT.
19-7
1.
Press RETURN.
2.
Now see that SpellStar removes the
word list, fills in a number on the last
line in the checking summary, "Total
number of misspellings," and shows
you a new prompt at the bottom of the
screen.
SpeliStar has flagged the misspellings in the text.
I
\".
Enter < Return> to correct errors in text, lOR" to restart.
In SAMPLETXT 28 different words are
misspelled, and when SpellStar adds up
all the occurrences of these words, it finds
35 total misspellings.
You have two choices now: to proceed
with correcting the errors in SAMPLE.TXT,
or to exit with "R" from the spelling check
and go back to SpellStar's Operations
Menu.
If you worked for Freewheeling
Enterprises, you might have a
supplementary dictionary with the names
and addresses of company employees. If
you used that dictionary to check the
letter, then SpellStar wouldn't flag Calvin P.
Hotstuff and his address. Let's create
such a supplemental dictionary, and add
Calvin's name and address to it.
Correcting Errors in the Text
File
Setting Aside Words to Add to
a Dictionary
You want to go ahead with correcting
errors in SAMPLETXT, so
1.
Press S for "Add to supplemental
dictionary." When the prompt Add to
Supplement: CALVI N (Y / N)? appears,
press Y.
2.
Now the cursor moves onto the next
"misspelled" word- "Hotstuff." Press
S to add it to the supplement. Press Y
in response to the prompt.
3.
Press S at the next two words
"Freewheeling" and "Biloxi," also.
Press Y in response to the prompts.
1.
Press RETURN.
2.
Watch SAMPLETXT appear on the
screen, with SpellStar's menu of
correction commands above it.
The cursor is flashing at the first flagged
error, the name "Calvin" in the return
address, indicating that it's either
.
misspelled or not in SpellStar's dictionary.
Notice that other words in the text are
flagged with "@." When the cursor lands
on a flagged word, the flag disappears
and the word may be either highiighted or
dimmed, depending on the kind of
terminal you have.
19-8
,.
A:SAMPLE.@@@ PAGE 1 LINE 3 COL 42 ACTION [F/8/1/D/S]?
F· Fix word
8 • 8ypass word
I • Ignore word
D• Add to dictionary
S . Add to supplemental dictionary
~~~~-~~-~~~~~~~~~~~~-~~
April 1, 1981
[iillvin P. A@Hotstuff
A@Freewheeling Enterprises
A@8110xi, Mississippi
MicroPro A@lnternatoinal
33 San Pablo 'Avenue
A@San A@Rafael, California 94903
A@Attn: Customer Service
Dear Sirs:
I want to start by telling you that I think WordStar is a
Now you come to the first truly
misspelled word, "Internatoinal", To
correct the spelling.. .
1,
2.
Press F for "Fix word,"
Now you are in WordStar's edit mode.
All the WordStar commands are
available to you to correct the
misspelled word and to change
anything else in the document you
want. WordStar's main help menu
appears at the top of the screen.
2.
3.
4.
Change "Internatoinal" to
"I nternational."
Now, if you didn't know the correct
spelling of "International", you would have
to look it up in your dictionary. SpeliStar
can't tell you the correct spelling of a
word.
Let's continue:
1.
In order to get out of WordStar's edit
mode and move the cursor to the next
flagged word, "San", press CTRL L
(AL).
5.
6.
Whenever you do a "Fix word", follow
it with CTRL L (AL).
"San" is next. We don't want to put
this word in our main dictionary or our
supplement, so we'll tell SpellStar just
to ignore this word and go on to the
next one. Press I for "Ignore word."
The cursor goes to "Rafael." Press I,
for "Ignore word."
"Attn" is next. This may be a word you
want to put in the dictionary, if you
use it a lot. Right now, let's tell
SpeliStar to bypass this word, and we
can come back to it later to make a
decision. Press B for "Bypass word."
"Programm": Press F for "Fix word"
and correct spelling to "program."
Press CTRL B (AB) to rejustify the
paragraph. Then press CTRL L (AL) to
go on to the next flagged word.
Notice that SpeliStar stops in the
middle of the word "hard-wrkng."
SpeliStar takes compound words like
this and treats them like two separate
words. Press F for "Fix Word" and
change "wrkng" to "working." Press
CTRL L (AL).
19·9
7.
"Programm": Press F for "Fix Word"
and correct. Yau corrected this word
when it appeared in the letter the first
time, but SpeliStar doesn't remember
the correct spelling for you, so you
must do it again. Press CTRL 8 (A8)
to reformat the paragraph. Press
CTRL L (AL).
Notice that the next word the cursor
jumps to is "disco." Look at the paragraph
above. The word "survay" in the last line is
flagged, but SpeliStar skipped it, because
reformatting the paragraph took the cursor
past this word. CTRL L always takes you
to the next flagged word forward from the
cursor.
1.
Press D. Press Y in response to the
prompt.
2.
The next word, "corespondence," is
hyphenated with a WordStar soft
hyphen. SpeliStar ignores soft
hyphens, joining the two parts of the
word into one. Press F for "Fix word"
and correct the spelling to
"correspondence." Press CTRL 8 (A8)
to reformat the paragraph. Press
CTRL 8 (A8) two more times in
response to the hyphenation prompt.
Press CTRL L (AL).
3.
Press I for "Ignore word" at the next
six flagged words: "keytops,"
"hiccuping," "Tom's," "wit's,"
"WordStar's," and "onscreen." Two of
these words ("wit's," "WordStar's")
are possessive forms of words
already in the dictionary. SpeliStar
treats them as different words.
4.
"Insubodrination": Press F for "Fix
word" and correct spelling to
"insubordination." You don't need to
reformat, since you haven't changed
the number of characters in the line.
Press CTRL L (AL).
5.
Press I for "Ignore word" until you are
at the end of the letter.
6.
When the message "Spelling Check
Completed *** Press ESCAPE key"
appears, press ESCAPE.
Don't worry about correcting "survay."
We'll get back to it later. Let's go on.
1.
"Disco": Press 0 for "Add to
dictionary." Press Y when Y / N
prompt appears.
2.
Press D at the next two words,
"jumpsuit" and "discos." Press Y
when Y / N prompt appears.
3.
Press I at the next two words,
"Maureen" and "Whiskey's," and
watch the screen carefully as you do.
Observe that the cursor stops briefly at
the word "Disco" in "Whiskey's Disco
City," removes the flag, then moves on to
the next flagged word. That's because you
already told SpeliStar to add "disco" to the
dictionary the first time it appeared.
SpeliStar can remember "ignore" or "add"
instructions for approximately 15 words at
a time.
SpeliStar did, however, stop at "discos,"
even though you'd already told it to add
"disco" to the main dictionary. It treats
plurals and other variations of words as
separate words.
The cursor should now be at the word
"typos." Let's add this word to our main
dictionary.
19-10
You see on the screen the end of
SAMPLETXT. SpeliStar is waiting for you
to "save" the edited file with CTRL KD
(AKD).
But first-remember the word you
bypassed and the word SpeliStar skipped
over when you reformatted a paragraph?
You'll go back and take care of them now.
It's always a good idea to go back over
your document a second time to make
sure you've caught everything, so
1.
2.
3.
4.
Press CTRL QL ("Q"L).
When the prompt RETURN = search
forward. B = search backward.
appears. press B.
The cursor will land at "survay.·'
Press F for "Fix word" and correct the
spelling to "survey." Press CTRL L (eL)
to find any other flagged words.
The cursor now goes to "ATTN". the
word we told SpeliStar to bypass.
Press 0 to add it to your dictionary.
and press Y when the YIN prompt
appears.
You are now back at WordStar's opening
menu.
5.
When the prompt "Spelling Check
Completed *** Press ESCAPE key"
appears, press ESCAPE.
6.
Now press CTRL KD ("K"D) to save
the file SAMPLE.TXT.
1.
Press Y, to delete a file.
2.
Respond to the prompt NAME OF
FILE TO DELETE? by typing
SAMPLE.TXT. Press RETURN.
3.
Press E, to rename a file.
4.
Respond to the prompt NAME OF
FILE TO RENAME? by typing
SAMPLE.BAK, and press RETURN.
5.
Respond to the prompt NEW NAME?
by typing SAMPLE.TXT.
6.
Press Y, to delete a file.
7.
Respond to the prompt NAME OF
FILE TO DELETE? by typing
SAMPLE.ADD, and press RETURN.
SAMPLE.ADD is the file created by
SpeliStar for the words you decided 1 ) add
to a dictionary or ignore. If yOJ didn't
delete it, you would have trouble
practicing this lesson again.
SAMPLE.TXT now contains the
corrected version of Calvin Hotstuff's
letter. The back-up file, SAMPLE.BAK,
contains the letter as it was before you
corrected it.
Print a copy of SAMPLE.TXT, so you
can see for yourself that all the errors
have been fixed.
1.
Check to see that your printer is on,
and ready to begin printing.
2.
Press P, to print a file.
3.
In response to the prompt NAME OF
FILE TO PRINT? type SAMPLE.TXT.
4.
Press ESCAPE to begin printing.
If you want to use the SAMPLETXT
letter to practice this lesson again, do the
following:
19-11
NOTES
19-12
Lesson 20
Dictionary
mai ntenance
(SpellStar
option only)
Now you will learn to update dictionaries and to create new dictionaries with
SpellStar. You will use a file that SpellStar created containing the words from
SAMPLE.TXTthat you decided to add to the dictionary, during Lesson 19.
What Is Dictionary
Maintenance?
In Lesson 19, when you made
corrections to SAMPLETXT, you asked
SpeliStar to add several words to the main
dictionary or to a supplemental dictionary.
SpeliStar put all those words into a file it
made up and called SAMPLE.ADD. (After
your spelling check on SAMPLETXT, you
probably saw SAMPLE.ADD on your file
directory.)
Dictionary maintenance in SpeliStar is
actually a two-step process. First a word
file is created, by you or SpeliStar.
The word file may contain words for
updating, adding to, or deleting from) a
dictionary; or it may contain words to
create an entirely new dictionary. Most of
the time the word file will be the" .ADD"
file that SpeliStar creates during a spelling
check.
Y~u can also create a brand new word
file ih the edit mode of WordStar, simply by
making a list of words. Or, you could
decide you want all the words in a certain
document to be in the dictionary, and
make that document the word file.
You can also buy a disk containing a
main dictionary or a specialized dictionary
and use that as your word file.
However the word file is created, it must
go through the second step of the
dictionary maintenance process to
actually be integrated with existing
dictionaries or to be organized in the
proper format for SpeliStar to use.
Now you'll practice several kinds of
dictionary maintenance. We'll start with
adding words to the main dictionary.
Dictionary Maintenance
Controls
1.
Put a blank disk in drive B:.
2.
Go to WordStar's " Opening"
menu and press S to get SpeliStar.
3.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
CHECK / ADD TO DICTIONARY?
appears, type ASAMPLE.ADD.
20·1
4.
When the SpeliStar Operations Menu
appears, press M for "Maintain
dictionary."
5.
Take a look at the Dictionary
Maintenance Controls Menu.
SpeliStar - Dictionary Maintenance
UW-
DICTIONARY MAINTENANCE CONTROLS
Change word file to use
Change dictionary to update
Change name of new or updated dictionary
Change work drive for sort
NATCSL-
DICTIONARY MAINTENANCE OPTIONS
Create a new dictionary
Add words
Delete words
Combine add/delete
Use "s" words from .ADD file
List dictionary words
F-
o-
<Return> X
-
CURRENT VALUE
= A:SAMPLE .ADD
= A:SPELSTAR.DCT
= A:
A:
= NO
=
NO
= NO
= YES
= NO
= NO
Start dictionary maintenance.
Exit to Operations menu
Control or option to change? •
As in the spelling check step of
SpeliStar, if you like the way the current
values are set up, you can go right to the
Maintenance Options.
In this practice session, however, we'll
make some adjustments to the controls.
These tell SpeliStar exactly which file
contains the words to use, which
dictionary to apply those words to,
whether you want the resulting dictionary
to be renamed, and where SpeliStar
should put its temporary sorting files.
F- File:A:SAMPLE.ADD
l
20-2
The techniques you'll use to change the
dictionary controls are the same ones you
used for the spelling check controls.
You can change the drive, filename, or
extension separately or in combination
just by typing in new information over
what's already there. Use the '#' key to
blank out any portion of the control. Use
the space bar to cancel the entire control;
and press RETURN alone to leave the
control unchanged.
First, take a look at "word file to use."
1.
Press F.
2.
Read the prompt at the bottom of the
screen.
This is the current input file. Enter the
drive. filename. and/or tvne of the
input'file to use:
H-
--
no
)
Since the current value is already
SAMPLE.ADD, press RETURN to leave it
unchanged. Go on to the next control.
The "dictionary to update" can be either
a main or supplemental dictionary that you
want to add words to or delete words
from. (If you were creating an entirely new
dictionary, you'd leave this value blank.)
1. Press D.
2. Read the prompt at the bottom of the
screen.
r 0 _ Dictionary A:SPELSTAR.DCT
When SpellStar first shows you the
controls, it will show SPELSTARDCT on
the logged disk drive as the default value
for this control. It happens to be the
dictionary we want with the correct drive
location, so we'll leave it alone. Press
RETURN to leave the value unchanged.
The "new or updated dictionary" is the
one SpeliStar creates during this
maintenance run. It will be either a
completely new dictionary or an old one
with words added or deleted. If you
wanted to update an existing dictionary,
without changing its name or location,
then you'd leave this control blank. (If you
were sure that the disk with the "dictionary
to update" had enough extra space to
accept the temporary dictionary file that
SpellStar creates during updating. More
about this in the next page's Note.) The
result would be one updated dictionary on
the logged disk drive.
If you wanted to update a dictionary and
put its updated version on a different drive,
then you'd enter the new drive letter,
including the colon following. SpeliStar
would save the old dictionary where it was
and put the updated one where you told it
to. The result would be two dictionaries on
different drives, each with the same name.
Dictionary to update (add/delete words).
Enter the drive, filename, and/or type of
different dictionary.
You could also give an updated
dictionary a new name, with SpellStar,
saving the old one, simply by entering the
new name with the "new or updated
dictionary" control.
Note
Whenever
you
do
an
updating
maintenance run, make sure you have extra disk space equivalent to the size of your
original dictionary. SpellStar needs this
space for either a temporary dictionary file
or for the dictionary you've specified with
U, for "new or updated dictionary". You
can find out how much space you have by
running a status check from WordStar's
opening menu. If you'd reached this point
in dictionary maintenance without checking your disk space, you could hit "X" to
go to SpellStar's Operations Menu, then
hit a second "X" there to go to the "opening" menu. As usual, you wouldn't hurt
your file or your dictionaries if you chose to
exit at this point.
For this practice run, you do not need to
check disk space, since you will be
putting your updated dictionary on the
blank disk in your-S: drive, as a guarantee
you'll have enough disk space.
20-3
Now you'll tell SpeliStar to rename the
updated dictionary and put it on the B:
drive.
1.
Press U, for "Change name of new or
updated dictionary."
2.
Read the prompt at the bottom of the
screen.
I
r
U- New diet. A:
\..
3.
Type B:SPELSTARNEW, and press
RETURN. (If you make a mistake
here, or in typing any other value,
backspace over it with the
"backspace" key or CTRL H ("H) and
type over it.)
Now for "Change work drive for sort."
Just as in the spelling check step,
SpeliStar uses temporary files to sort the
words in your word file. With the "change
work drive for sort" control, you can
decide where you want those files to go.
They will disappear when the
maintenance run is over, but you must
have space for them while SpeliStar is
using them. Combined, they are roughly
equivalent to the size of your word file.
r W-
20-4
Work drive A:
This is the new or updated dictionary.
Enter the drive, filename, and/or type
of different dictionary.
""'I
~
Note
Once again, in order to know which of your
disks has enough space to accept the temporary sorting files, you would have to run
a status check from WordStar's "opening" menu.
You will not need to check disk space
for this practice run, since you will be
using the blank disk in B: for a work disk.
For this practice run, the work drive
should be B:
1.
Press W.
2.
Check the prompt at the bottom of the
screen.
..,
This is drive to receive temporary sort files
created by SpellStar. Enter the letter
code for the drive to be used.
3.
Type 12 to change the work drive. You do
not need to press RETURN.
The current values for the controls on
this dictionary maintenance run should
look like this:
SpellStar - Dictionary Maintenance
F-
o-
U\.. W-
Change word file to use
= A:SAMPlE .ADD
Change dictionary to update
= A:SPElSTAR.DCT
Change name of new or updated dictionary = B:SPElSTAR.NEW
Change work drive for sort
B:
Dictionary Maintenance
Options
Now you'll go on to check that SpellStar
is ready to perform the maintenance
operation you want. The next section of
this menu lists all the actions to choose
from.
,
NA-
TCSL-
DICTIONARY MAINTENANCE OPTIONS
Create a new dictionary
Add words
Delete words
Combine add/delete
Use "S" words from" .ADD" file
List dictionary words
<Return>-
x-
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
Start dictionary maintenance.
Exit to Operations Menu
Control or option to change? •
In this run we are going to add words to
the main dictionary, so leave the value for
"create a new dictionary" as NO, and go
on to Option A.
1.
Press A for "Add words."
2.
Read the prompt at the bottom of the
screen.
A- Add words NO
3.
Add all words from the input file to the
dictionary. Enter<Y>es or<N>o.
Press Y for "yes."
20-5
Notice on the Options menu that when
you do this, the "YES" next to "Combine
add/ delete" becomes "NO". SpeliStar
starts out with a default value of "YES" for
the "Combine add/ delete" operation, but
when you choose to do something else it
automatically switches to "No."
Bypass T for "Delete words," thus
leaving its value as "NO".
And bypass C for "Combine
add/ delete," leaving its value as "NO."
Bypass Sfor "Use "S" words from
".ADD" file," too; for this step, we want
SpeliStar only to add the "0" words from
SAMPLE.ADD to the main dictionary.
SpeliStar selects only the right
ones-those "marked" with a "0" during
corrections to SAMPLETXT - even though
the SAMPLE.ADD file now contains words
that you specified for both a main and a
supplemental dictionary.
,
Your last action is to tell SpeliStar to list
the words it found in SAMPLE.ADD to add
to the main dictionary, while it's updating
your dictionary. It will also list the words in
the updated dictionary. Let's see how that
works.
1.
Press L for "List dictionary words."
Read the message at the bottom of
the screen.
2.
Press Y, in response to the Y / N
prompt.
3.
Everything is ready to go. So press
RETURN.
Here's what you should see on the
screen:
SpeliStar is now creating or updating your dictionary:
Number of words in word file ............ : 5
Number of different words in word file ..... : 5
Number of words in dictionary being updated. :
Number of words added to dictionary ...... :
Number of words deleted from dictionary ... :
Number of words in new or updated dictionary:
[list of update words]
ATTN DISCO TYPOS DISCOS JUMPSUIT
Enter <Return> to proceed, "R" to restart.
First, SpeliStar counts the "0" words in
your file; then on the second line it tells
you how many of those are different
words. (Often those two numbers will be
the same, but when you use a document
for a word file, or add the same words
more than once, there will be duplicate
words, and the numbers will be different.)
SpeliStar will fill in the other numbers
later.
20-6
Below the summary, SpeliStar lists the
words it will add to the dictionary.
(Once you're using SpeliStar regularly,
you'll find this listing of words to be a
handy double-check. When SpeliStar
shows you the list, you can make sure
these are really the wOids you want added
to the dictionary. If they are not, you can
press R for "restart", which will take you
back to the SpeliStar Operations Menu.
From there, you can go to the
Maintenance Controls menu and choose
another word file.)
1.
Press SPACE BAR, and look at the
next list of words.
2.
Press C to make the list scroll
continuously.
Press CTRL L (AL) to stop the list.
3.
You do want to add these words, so
1.
Press RETURN, to proceed with
dictionary maintenance.
2.
Watch the numbers appear in the
remaining lines of the on-screen
summary.
Now SpeliStar will begin to list, by
screenful, the words that will be in your
dictionary after it's updated by this run.
SpeliStar stops updating for as long as
you want to look at this list. When you're
ready, you can go on to the next screenful
of words, or you can make the list scroll
continuously. You can also stop listing
words entirely and SpeliStar will go on
updating.
The message line under the listing
shows you the commands to see the next
screenful, to make it scroll continuously, or
to stop it.
Now SpellStar goes ahead with the
update. Notice that the updating goes
faster when the listing is stopped. If at any
point you want to begin listing words
again, just press CTRL L (AL) again and it
will pick up wherever SpeliStar is in the
dictionary.
(Notice that the words in the dictionary
are arranged alphabetically by length of
word. So if you are looking for a word in
your dictionary, count the letters and look
for it among words of that length.)
The numbers flashing by in the third
and sixth lines of your on-screen
summary tell you how many dictionary
words SpeliStar has gone through in its
updating process, and how many words it
has added or deleted.
When SpeliStar has finished adding
words to the dictionary, it will show you
this message below the summary:
SpeliStar has completed the dictionary maintenance.
Enter RETURN to. return to WordStar, "R" to restart.
You can exit to WordStar's "opening"
menu by preSSing RETURN, or go to the
Operations Menu with "R" if you want to
do another spelling check or maintenance
procedure.
In this case, you press "R" to go back
to SpeliStar's Operations Menu, since
you're going to practice another
maintenance run.
Remember that SAMPLE.ADD still
contains words that you decided, during
the spelling check of SAMPLETXT, you
wanted to add to a supplemental
dictionary containing names of employees
of Calvin Hotstuff's company.
Of course, you knew at that time that
such a dictionary didn't exist. Now you'll
create a new supplemental dictionary
called EMPLOYEE.SUP, using the words
you "marked" with an "s" in SAMPLETXT.
20-7
Creating and Updating a
Supplemental Dictionary
First, we'll go back to the Dictionary
Maintenance Controls and Options setup.
1.
Press M, for "Maintain dictionary," on
the Operations Menu.
2.
Study the current values on the
Dictionary Maintenance Controls
menu. The word file to use is still
SAMPLE.ADD, since you used that
last time. That's what you want, so go
right past it, without doing anything to
the F control.
You don't need a dictionary to update
for this operation, so
1. Press 0, for "Change dictionary to
update."
2.
Press SPACE BAR and RETURN to
erase name of dictionary to update.
Caution: Any dictionary named here will
be erased during this maintenance run.
Now put in the name of the new
dictionary.
1.
2.
Press U, for "Change name of new or
updated dictionary." You'll see
B:SPELSTAR.NEW as the current
value.
Type AEMPLOYEE.SUP. Press
RETURN. (Remember - you can use
your backspace key to erase if you
make a mistake while entering a new
control value.)
For W, "Change work drive for sort," you
can leave the current value as is.
Now you want to set up the Dictionary
Maintenance Options.
20-8
1.
Press N for "Create a new dictionary."
2.
Press Y in response to the YIN
prompt.
The current value for A, "Add words," is
already YES, from your last operation. If it
had been NO, your selection of N, for
"Create a new dictionary," would have
changed it automatically to YES.
Make sure the current values for the T
and C options are NO.
Tell SpeliStar to use words you marked
in SAMPLETXT as ones to be added to a
supplemental dictionary.
1.
Press S, for "Use'S' words from .ADD
file."
2.
Press Y, in response to Y IN prompt at
bottom of screen.
You won't list dictionary words this time,
so
1.
Press L, for "List dictionary words."
2.
Press N in response to the YIN
prompt.
Your Controls and Options should look
like this:
r
SpellStar - Dictionary Maintenance
F-
o-
UWN~
ATCSL-
DICTIONARY MAINTENANCE CONTROLS
CURRENT VALUE
Change word file to use
= A:SAMPLE .ADD
Change dictionary to update
Change name of new or updated dictionary = A:EMPLOYEE.SUP
Change work drive for sort
B:
DICTIONARY MAINTENANCE OPTIONS
= YES
= YES
Create a new dictionary
Add words
Delete words
Combine add/delete
Use "S" words from .ADD file
List dictionary words
<Return> X
-
= NO
= NO
= YES
= NO
Start dictionary maintenance.
Exit to Operations Menu
Control or option to change? •
Press RETURN to begin the operation.
Now SpeliStar is creating a
supplemental dictionary for you. Read on
while it does that.
If you already had a supplemental
dictionary for employee's names and you
were adding to it from your .ADD file, you
would have named EMPLOYEE.SUP as
the dictionary to update, leaving the "new
or updated dictionary" control blank. You
would have selected A for "Add words"
and S for "Use'S' words from '.ADD' file"
as the maintenance options.
Deleting Words from a
Dictionary
You're not going to practice deleting
words in this lesson; this section will
simply describe how you delete words
from any dictionary when you want to.
First open a file with WordStar's 0
command ("Open a document file") and
put into it all the words you wish to delete,
in any order. You can use DEL as this
file's extension if you like. SpeliStar doesn't
require delete files to be named any
special way, but it may help you recognize
that file more quickly.
When you've saved that word file with
~KD, you'll be at WordStar's "opening"
menu again. Select "S"; when the NAME
OF FILE prompt appears, enter the name
of the word file you just created. Select M
at SpeliStar's Operations menu; on the
Dictionary Maintenance menu, select T,
"Delete words", as the maintenance
option. (Naturally, you'd name .the dictionary from which the words would be
deleted as the "dictionary to updc;tte".)
Combined Add/ Delete
Maintenance
You'll practice one more dictionary
maintenance operation before ending this
lesson: the "Combine add/ delete" step.
This can be a real timesaver, letting you
do two maintenance operations in one
step.
20-9
In your last exercise, you created a
new supplemental dictionary. Now that
SpeliStar has finished that, you should see
the following message at the bottom of
your screen:
SpellStar has completed the dictionary maintenance.
Enter Return to return to WordStar, "R" to restart.
In other practice steps, you've pressed
R to go to Spellstar's Operations menu,
but you won't do that this time. Even
though you're going to do another
maintenance operation, you will need a
file to work with, and you'll create that with
WordStar.
1.
Press RETURN to go to WordStar's
" Opening" menu.
2.
On the" Opening" menu, press 0
to "open a document file."
3.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
EDIT? appears, type Words, and
press RETURN.
4.
When the main help menu appears,
type these words in a list (don't worry
about format or spacing):
fattest
peachy
bunnies
cub
hobo
annul
20-10
5.
When you've entered all the words
press CTRL KD ("K"D) to save the
file.
6.
When the" Opening" menu
appears, press S, for "Run SpeIiStar."
7.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
CHECK / ADD TO DICTIONARY?
appears, type Words, and press
RETURN.
8.
When SpeliStar's Operations Menu
appears, press M, for "Maintain
dictionary," then press RETURN.
9.
When the Dictionary Maintenance
menu appears, the current values of
the controls and options should look
like this:
SpeliStar - Dictionary Maintenance
F-
oU-
WNAT-
CSL-
DICTIONARY MAINTENANCE CONTROLS
Change word file to use
Change dictionary to update
Change name of new or updated dictionary
Change work drive for sort
DICTIONARY MAINTENANCE OPTIONS
Create a new dictionary
Add words
Delete words
Combine add/delete
Use "s" words from .ADD file
List dictionary words
<Return>
X
-
CURRENT VALUE
A:WORDS
= A:SPELSTAR.DCT
= A:
A:
=
NO
NO
NO
YES
NO
NO
Start dictionary maintenance.
Exit to Operations Menu
Control or option to change? •
Note
1.
Press D, for "Change dictionary to
update."
What appears above is SpellStar's default
condition for dictionary maintenance. That
is, each time you come into SpeliStar from
WordStar, you will see these default controls: the word file you named at the
"opening" menu, SPELSTAR.DCT on the
logged disk drive as " ... dictionary to update" and the logged disk drive as " ...
new or updated dictionary" and ". . . work
drive." Similarly, in the options, the only
YES value will be for C, "Combine
add/delete." These defaults will not recur
during successive SpeliStar operations
without exits to WordStar; in those cases,
current values will show information
entered for the preceding operation.
2.
Type B:SPELSTAR.NEW, and press
RETURN.
You're going to use B:SPELSTARNEW,
the dictionary you created when you
added words earlier in this lesson, so
Now change the disk drive for the
updated dictionary to B:.
1. Press U for "Change name of new or
updated dictionary."
2.
Type §: and press RETURN.
Before you leave the controls, change
the work drive value.
1 . Press W for "Change work drive for
sort."
2.
Type § in response to the prompt.
You don't need to make any changes to
the Options, since the value for C,
"Combine add/ delete," is already YES,
and all others are NO. This is just what
you want.
20-11
Now press RETURN to begin the
combined add/ delete maintenance run on
your WORDS file.
What SpeliStar is doing is comparing all
words in the WORDS file to
SPELSTAR.NEW. In one step, it's adding
words from WORDS that aren't already in
the dictionary, and deleting from the
dictionary any words already listed there.
While SpeliStar is doing this, you'll see'
on the screen the familiar six-line
summary. Above that, at the top of the
screen, you will sep, a prompt for several
words, one at a time, in the WORDS file
that looks like this:
[HOBO]
This word is in the dictionary. Should it be deleted? IV IN)
1.
Press N for No.
2.
2.
Press N the next two times the
message appears, for "hobo" and
"annul."
When the "Opening" menu
appears, press Y for "Delete a file."
3.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
DELETE? appears, type
SAMPLE.ADD, and press RETURN.
SpeliStar shows you this to tell you that
the word in the first line is already in the
dictionary; it asks you to confirm that you
want the duplicate deleted. In other words,
SpellStar asks you to double-check all
words that it thinks should be deleted.
In this practice run on the WORDS file,
you should enter N in response to all the
double-check prompts SpeliStar shows
you.
Notice that SpeliStar is adding the
words in the WORDS file that weren't in
the dictionary. By the time this
maintenance run is finished, the line
"Number of words adqed to dictionary"
should say 5.
When the maintenance run is over,
SpeliStar gives you the usual message.
1.
Respond to the prompt "Enter Return
to return to WordStar, "R" to restart"
by pressing RETURN.
20-12
Since you have added the words in
SAMPLE.ADD to both your main and
supplemental dictionaries, you have no
further use for this file. It is good to delete
it so that it doesn't take up disk space
unnecessarily.
The only time you would want to keep a
.ADD file would be if you planned to make
an addition to the document file to which it
corresponds. Then, when you rechecked
the file for spelling errors, SpeliStar would
remember all the Ignore commands it has
stored in the .ADD file. So, SpellStar would
pass over the words you previously told it
to ignore when it checked the file for the
second time.
Now you'll erase SPELSTAR.NEW and
EMPLOYEE.SUP, since you may want to
run this lesson again.
1.
Press Y, for "Delete a file."
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
DELETE? appears, type
B:SPELSTARNEW, and press
RETURN.
Now do the same thing for
EMPLOYEE.SUP.
1.
Press Y, for "Delete a file."
2.
When the prompt NAME OF FILE TO
DELETE? appears, type
AEMPLOYEE.SUP, and press
RETURN.
Remember, in normal maintenance,
when you update a dictionary, you keep
the new one and delete the old one.
You've done just the opposite here-so
that you can repeat this lesson if you wish.
Lesson 16. You learned how to address
envelopes, print mailing labels, format your
data file, and how to combine several
printing jobs into one.
Lesson 17. You learned how to type the
matrix and several nested files for a letter
of reply.
Lesson 18. You learned how to print a
number of files in succession from a
single command file (chain-printing) and
how to print multiple copies at a
document.
Lesson 19. You learned how to check a
document for misspellings, correct errors,
and set aside words to add to a dictionary.
Lesson 20. You learned how to run all
SpeliStar's dictionary maintenance
operations-adding words, deleting words,
combining add/ delete, and creating a
new dictionary.
End of the Extended Course
This concludes the Extended Course.
By now you have become acquainted
with every major WordStar feature. Here is
a brief summary of what you have
learned:
Lesson 13. You learned how to set
conditional and unconditional page breaks
for documents longer than one page.
Lesson 14. You learned how to add
page headings and footings to a
document to be printed, as well as how to
print selected pages, pause for paper
changes, and suspend a print job.
Lesson 15. You learned how to type the
matrix and the data file for a form letter,
with names and addresses inserted from
the data file.
20-13
You have created the following files:
PRACTICE (Lesson 2)
LETTER (Lesson 3)
CONTROL (Lesson 6)
DISPLAY (Lesson 7)
TABLES (Lesson 8)
SPECIAL (Lessons 9)
X (Lesson 12)
Z (Lesson 12)
Y (Lesson 12)
DATASTAR (Lesson 13)
MAILlNG3 (Lesson 15)
LlST3.DAT (Lesson 15)
ENVELOP3 (Lesson 16)
LABEL3 (Lesson 16)
FORMAT3 (Lesson 16)
COMBINE3 (Lesson 16)
REPLY (Lesson 17)
HEADING (Lesson 17)
RADIO (Lesson 17)
TV (Lesson 17)
STEREO (Lesson 17)
GUIDE1 (Lesson 18)
GUIDE2 (Lesson 18)
GUIDE3 (Lesson 18)
PRINT01 (Lesson 18)
PRINT02 (Lesson 18)
WORDS (Lesson 20)
If you plan to repeat any of these
lessons or you have no further use for
these files, you may want to delete them
now.
20-14
Conclusion
Asking for Less Help
Maintaining Your Disk Files
In Lesson 2 we talked about help levels,
and recommended that you stay with level
3 until you finished this guide. If you feel
that you are now ready to use WordStar
with less help (and more screen space to
work in), you can change the help level:
Until now, you have not created a large
number of files on your disk. But after
you've done quite a bit of typing, you will
have a lot of files and you will have to
think about maintaining them and avoiding
overflow on your disk. Your operating
system provides you with a number of
utility programs (some also in WordStar)
that can help you in maintaining your disk
files:
1.
When the" Opening" menu
appears, press H to request to set
the help level.
2.
When the prompt ENTER Space OR
NEW HELP LEVEL (0, 1,2, OR 3):
appears, type Q, 1, or g.
Turning WordStar Features Off
During the course of using this guide,
you have always had all Wordstar features
available to you. You may never want to
turn any of them off. But if the need should
ever arise, there are commands to shut off
these WordStar features (also turn them
back on again):
• displaying a listing of the disk directory
• displaying the amount of space left on
the disk
• making a copy of an entire disk
• copying, renaming, or deleting a file
• printing screen displays on your printer
These programs can help you keep
track of your disk files, make backup
copies of them, and avoid filling up your
disk. Refer to the publication that
describes your operating system.
Word wrap (AOAW)
Page break display (AOAP)
Justification (AOAJ)
Print control display (AOAD)
Variable tabbing (AOAV)
Hyphen help (AOAH)
Ruler line display (AOAT)
Temporary hyphen entry (AOAE)
File directory display (F or AKAF)
21-1
Finding Out More
You have now completed the WordStar
training course. We have tried to cover
every topic you will need to start working
right away. (If we missed anything, please
let us know.) At the end of this course, you
should know all the major functions of
WordStar. However, there are other things
you can do with WordStar that haven't
been mentioned in this booklet:
• Using another deletion key (delete
character left)
• Setting your own ruler line,
•
Inserting a permanent hyphen
• Printing one line over another
• Changing margins or tabs in
mid-paragraph
• Setting extra wide margins up to 240
columns
• Sophisticated searching techniques for
Find and Replace
• Additional printing features:
-changing ribbon color
-selecting alternate character pitch
-setting other print functions
-setting fine adjustments for printing
-selecting other printing options
• Additional MailMerge features:
-changing diskettes
-controlling print-time reformatting
21-2
NOTES
NOTES