13: sony pxw-x70 video camera - This, That and Other Things— Home

13: SONY PXW-X70 VIDEO CAMERA
13- 1 Camera Kit
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Camera Bag
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Camera Lens Cap
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3
5
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The PXW-X70 is a compact camcorder that weighs less than
3 pounds including the XLR handle unit, battery (NP-FV70),
lens hood and large eye-cup. It features professional interfaces
including 3G-SDI and HDMI output connectors, an XLR handle
unit with zoom lever, a manual lens ring that can control zoom
and focus, and an ergonomic palm grip with large zoom lever.
Its records video to two SD memory card slots that can be used
for simultaneous and relay recording and to backup files.
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You are responsible for the equipment when it’s in your
possession. You could be liable for the cost of replacing lost ,
stolen or damaged equipment.
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Camera Bag Strap
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3
Collaborative effort by Jerry Broeckert, Wally Swanson, Scott Dierks
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14.95
Sony PWX-X70 Video Camera
1999.00
14.75
Camera Lens Hood
87.25
Camera Viewfinder Eyecup
11.95
XLR Audio Box and Shoe
598.00
Shotgun Mic
257.13
XLR Cable for Shotgun Mic
49.95
Operators Manual
00.00
AC Adapter and Adapter Cord
39.99
Camera Battery
74.98
Lavalier Mic
115.95
Wirelss Mic Transmitter
328.39
Alligator Clip for Lavalier Mic
7.95
Wireless Mic Receiver
328.39
Tripod Bag
Tripod
Tripod Plate
Light Kit
1
168.00
7.95
TOTAL
Camera Bag
Manfrotto LED Light and Power Cord
Clamp
TOTAL
44.95
11.95
$ 4161.48
17.00
332.00
31.00
$ 379.00
13-2 Inserting the Battery
The X70’s battery goes in ON THE BACK of the camera.
INSERT THE BATTERY WITH THE ARROW POINTING UP
and pressing against the BATT release switch on the
underside of the camera,
then SLIDE THE BATTERY UP UNTIL IT CLICKS.
13-3 Removing the Battery
TURN THE POWER OFF,
then SLIDE THE BATT release lever to release the battery.
13-4 Charging the Battery
1. Close the LCD screen and store the viewfinder BEFORE
attaching the battery.
2. Connect the AC Adaptor and power cord from the
camera to an outlet.
• The CHG lamp lights up and charging starts.
• The CHG lamp turns off when the battery is fully charged.
Disconnect the AC Adaptor from the DC IN jack.
• You can check the remaining battery lie with the status
check function on the camera.
• The CHG lamp lights up and charging starts.
• The approximate time required to charge a fully
discharged battery is about 205 minutes. .
13-5 Shooting Using the AC Adapter for AC Power
You can use the AC Adapter to obtain the AC power.
While you are using the AC Adapter, the battery will not lose
its charge even when it is attached to the camera.
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13-6 Identifying Camera Parts and Controls
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Handle zoom switch
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Eye sensor
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Viewfinder
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Large eyecup
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AUTO/MANUAL switch
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ND Filter
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Battery Slot
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Headphones hack
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SHUTTER SPEED button
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GAIN button
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IRIS button
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SLOT SELECT button
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THUMBNAIL button
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LCD screen/touch panel
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Memory card slot A/
Memory card access lamp
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Memory card slot B/
Memory card access lamp
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Display button
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ASSIGN 3/PICTURE PROFILE button
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ASSIGN 2/STATUS CHECK button
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ASSIGN 1/LAST SCENE PREVIEW
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WHITE BALANCE button
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on/standby button
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The SDHC Card goes by many names:
SDHC Card
Memory Card
Media Card
13-7 Inserting the SDHC Cards
The PXW-X70 is a file-based camera system. It records to
SDHC (secure digital high capacity) flash memory cards.
You’ll have to purchase and use your own SDHC card.
When purchasing, look for the
designation SDHC on the card.
The camera should be OFF when inserting or
ejecting SDHC cards.
logo or the
The camera has slots for two SDHC cards. These slots are
located on the side of the camera behind the LCD screen.
Cards will also have a “class” designation.
You’ll need at least a class 10 card.
To insert a card, after open the LCD screen, open the SDHC
card door. Insert the card into the A and/or B slots. You don’t
have to use two cards; it’ll work with only one card.
Capacity of the card should be at least
16GB, but 32 is better. A 16GB card
is good for about an hour of highdefinition recording. The cameras
we use have ports for two cards - that
allows you to go seamlessly from one
to the other when shooting and the
first card is filled. If you’re thinking
Typical Card
you’d like more than16GB, two 16GB
cards may give you more flexxibility than on 32GB card.
Finally, look for an indication of 30MB or greater. Not all cards
will indicate a write speed,but performance of SD cards has
improved a lot in just a couple of years.
13-8 Powering Up the Camera
The power switch on the camera is on the back, left side of the camera
to the left of where we put the battery. Simply press the power button
to power up the camera.
When you close the LCD screen, the camera will power down to prevent
you from accidentally draining the battery. Nice! Huh?
You can confirm that power is on if the green POWER/CHG light
is glowing on the back of the camera.
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13-9 Formatting the SDHC Card
Formatting deletes data from the recording media to recover
recordable free space. Everything that’s on the card will be
lost when you format the card.
Make sure your camera has enough battery life to complete
the formatting process. If it doesn’t, connect the camera to
the wall outlet using the AC Adaptor.
When Formatting the SDHC Card
When [Executing...] is displayed, do not turn off the camera,
do not operate any buttons on the camera, disconnect the AC
Adaptor, or remove the SDHC Card from your camera.
13-10 Deleting All Data from the SDHC Card
If a memory card is used repeatedly, garbage data accumulate which may prevent the image data from being written
at the fixed speed. In this case, recording may stop suddenly.
If that happens, emptying the card can erase more data than
ordinary formatting.
(if there’s not enough life in the
battery to complete the operation)
When you perform this operation, all stored data are deleted.
To avoid the loss of important images, you should save them
before the operation.
Do not apply any vibrations or shocks to your camcorder
during this operation.
It may take several minutes to several hours to empty
recording media, depending on the capacity. You can check
the actual time required on the LCD screen.
When Deleting Data from the SDHC Card
When [Executing...] is displayed, do not turn off the camera,
do not operate any buttons on the camera, disconnect the AC
Adaptor, or remove the SDHC Card from your camera.
13-11 Preview Previous Scene
Press the LAST SCENE PREVIEW if you want to preview what
you just shot.
While this is a helpful feature and it can come in handy in
certain situations, bec areful not to become too dependent on
it or it can double the time it takes you to shoot your story.
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13-12 Understanding the LED Screen Display
Formatting deletes data from
the recording media to recover
recordable free space.
To activate/deactivate
levels of display, press the
DISPLAY button on the
control panel on the side of
the camera when the LCD
screen is open.
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13-13 Operating the Menu
You can change various settings or make detailed
adjustments using the menu items displayed on the LCD
screen.
13-14 Menu Settings for 3102
The EXECUTE button
is like a toggle
switch; you can
press it or tip it up,
down, left or right.
These are the settings that were set on your camera at the beginning of the semester to ensure proper recordings of you work.
If you’re on a shoot and you’re having problems, using the procedures for operating the menu noted above, you can check the
settings on your camera.
MENU SET
CAMERA SET
REC/OUT SET
AUDIO SET
DISPLAY SET
TC/UB SET
NETWORK SET
ICON
SUBMENU
ITEM
AGC LIMIT
AGC LIMIT:set to 12db
WB PRESET
REC SET
AVCHD AUDIO
FORMAT
MIC SELECT
HISTOGRAM
MARKER
FOCUS DISPLAY
TC FORMAT
SETTING
FILE FORMAT
REC FORMAT
ON/OFF
CENTER
GUIDEFRAME
Choose either DAYLIGHT or INDOOR.
This affects which preset comes up when you
activate while balance on the camera
AVCHD
Set to HD FX 1080i quality.
Set to LINEAR PCM (uncompressed).
DO NOT record dolby (MP3).
Set to MI SHOE MIC
Set to ON
Set to ON
Set to OFF
Set to ON
Set to FEET
Leave at DF (dropframe)
N/A
OTHERS
Leave at Defaults
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13-15 Camera Checklist - Using SWEFF
Why this order? The most important and technically
complex task is at the top. If you’re getting good sound,
you’ve accomplished a lot. If not, you should make
adjustments before moving on to the visual aspects of the
shot. Gorgeous video is great, but your story depends on
good audio. Deal with that first!
Here’s a short camera checklist you can use each time you
go out to shoot video for a news story. Do everything in the
order listed. It doesn’t matter which type of camera you’re
using. The list is short and real easy to remember. Just use
the acronym….. SWEFF, which stands for:
Sound – check mic connections and mic placement,
Try to commit this checklist to memory. Learn it and
understand it, then do each task in order, over and over,
so the process seeps into your muscle memory. The goal
is to be able to roll through each item without having to
stop and think about what to do next. It should eventually
be like brushing your teeth in the morning. You probably
don’t have to stop and think about each step after waking
up. It’s not like you say, “hey, I just put toothpaste on
the brush, what do I do next?” You just brush your teeth
automatically, giving your brain a chance to plan the day or
think creative thoughts.
then check audio levels (while wearing headphones!) If
you’re using a DSLR without headphone input, make a test
recording, play it back to check levels, make adjustments if
needed.
White Balance – set up lights and check the camera to
make sure that colors appear “true.” Perform a manual
white balance if needed.
Exposure – check the brightness and contrast of your shot,
Make SWEFF a part of your everyday routine. You’ll be
able to quickly set up shots without missing an important
step. And, at the same time, you’ll be able to devote more
of your mental energy to thinking about the content of the
story.
adjust the iris/ISO/shutter to get proper exposure on your
subject.
Focus – use manual controls to make sure your subject is
in focus (zoom in on the target, adjust the focus controls so
subject is sharply in focus, zoom out)
Hat tip to the BBC for this list. I was reading through one of
their old documents and learned that they used something
similar for training their video journalists.
Framing – check the framing of the shot, follow basic
(Source for this article: Web site of professor Chris Shumway,
Grady College of Journalism, University of Georgia)
video aesthetics (proper headroom, leadroom, lookroom,
etc.) to compose the shot. Use the appropriate camera angle
and field of view (CU, MS, WS, etc.) for each shot.
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13-16 Using the Camera in the Full Automatic Mode
A great deal of customizing can be done with the camera
to suit particular format needs, shooting styles and situations.
Such flexibility is great for a seasoned pro but can be a
distraction if you have to check every setting before you start
shooting; and, without sufficient understanding of what those
manual controls affect, you may be doing yourself more harm
than good.
Fortunately, the camera can operated in a full automatic mode
where a number of key features operate based on reasonable
preset behaviors. The camera can be put in automatic mode
to control the following functions:
• Sound (audio levels)
• White balance
• Exposure
• Focus
To set up the camera for automatic operations, there are
three switch configurations to check and switch to the
AUTO position:
1. Main switch (back of camera)
2. Focus switch (AF / MF toggle)
3. Audio levels (side of XLR input box)
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13-17 Camera Checklist - Using SWEFF
SOUND
On the right side of the XLR box, your wireless mic should be
plugged into INPUT 1. The shotgun mic should be plugged into
INPUT 2. Note that the input number read from right to left –
that INPUT 1 is towards the front of the camera.
The illustrations above show how microphones should be attached and configured on the
camera. Be ssure that the wireless mic transmitted and receiver are both powered on. If
audio levels are recording too low, have the subject speak up or be sure the microphone
is close enough. The wireless mic should be positioned about 6-12 inches from the
speaker’s mouth or the audio source.
If necessary, you can switch audio input levels from automatic (AUTO) to manual (MAN)
and adjust using the dials next to the channel indicator.
ALWAYS WEAR HEADPHONES when recording. The audio
meters on the LCD screen tell you if you’re receiving audio; using
the headphones lets you know if you’re getting clean audio.
The headphone jack is located on the lower left hand side of the
camera, beneath a rubber cover. You want to listen for these
possible problems so you can correct them:
• crackling (faulty wires, clothing rubbing on
mic, loose audio cable connections
• audio cutting in and out (competing wireless device - other devices in same area)
• hum or buzz (electrical interference from
electrical sources)
• excessive rumble (traffic or air conditioning
and HVAC fans)
• and, of course, construction or traffic noise
that is distractful in the location where you’re
shooting - means you may have to move!
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13-18 Camera Checklist - Using SWEFF
White Balance
White balancing is a process for adjusting the camera’s
circuitry so that colors are recorded as accurately
as possible. The camera evaluates the overall color
composition, the strengths of various part of the
electromagnetic spectrum, and the light source
illuminating the scene.
An example of incorrect and correct white balancing:
Setting Manual White Balance
1.If
isn’t showing on your LED screen, then
press the WHT BAL button on the side of the camera.
2. Set the WHT BAL to the
preset mode
by turning the Manual Dial on the lower front of camera.
3. Press the MENU button
4. From the CAMERA SET, select WB SET.
5. The WB SET window opens.
6. Zoom in on a neutral gray or white object, such as a piece of
paper, a white shirt or an actual gray photo card.
7. Execute the white balance by depressing the
button / joystick on the back of the
camera. You can see a readout of the color temperature on the
Kelvin scale
before the display changes back to the
selection icon.
8. Press the MENU button to close the menu.
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Using Full Automatic Mode for White Balance
On back, left of camera, set to AUTO (see page 82).
Will generally work for you 98% of the time.
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13-19 Camera Checklist - Using SWEFF
Exposure
Exposure is a function of four components”
1. Iris or aperture (expressed as f-stops)
2. Shutter speed
3. Gain
4. Neutral density filters.
Pressing the IRIS, GAIN or SHUTTER SPEED button activates
that item for control. The value for that item will he
highlighted in the LCD display.
The main exposure controls are activated using buttons on
the lower side of the camera, then changing values by using
the Manual Adjustment Ring.
1. Adjusting the Iris
The higher the f-stop, the smaller the aperture opening that lets light in. Brightly
lighted situation require a smaller aperture, therefore a high f-stop reading. F-stops
range from a maximum opening of f2.8 or 4.0 (depending on the zoom factor of the
lens) to f11.
To adjust the iris, press the IRIS button on the side of the camera below the LCD
screen. Adjust the exposure by rotating the MANUAL ADJUSTMENT RING located
behind the lens. The indicated F number changes as you adjust the ring.
2 Adjusting the Shutter Speed
Shutter speed represents how long the iris remain open to record an exposure.
Videographers have traditionally overlooked the role of shutter speed which runs
at a normal defaulr of 1/30 to 1/60 second. Shutter speeds are expressed onlay as a
reciprocal of the fraction of a second, so 1/125 of a second is represented simply as
“125”. You normally would set the shutter speed at twice the frame rate. Our frame
rate is 30 frame a second so usually 1/60 of “60” would be a good setting for us.
To adjust the the shutter speed, press the SHUTTER SPEED button on the side of the
camera located below the LCD screen and use the MANUAL ADJUSTMENT RING.
3. Adjusting the Gain
Gain is an electronic amplification of the signal in the camera in order to make the
image brighter. Increased gain can result in increased noise in shadow area and
midtones that will make color corrections potentially irregular looking. While the
precise effects are difficult to predict, when shooting in low light it could mean the
difference between an “okay” image or no image at all. A good rule of thumb is 12db
with minimal artifacting.
To adjust the gain, press the GAIN button the side of the camera below the LCD screen
and use the MANUAL ADJUSTMENT RING.
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13-20 Camera Checklist - Using SWEFF
Exposure
4. Neutral Density (ND) Filters to Prevent Over-Exposure
Neutral density are the equivalent of
putting sunglasses on the camera –
without the color changes (hence, the
“neutral”). They are used to reduce the
amount of light hitting the sensor, used
most commonly to avoid over-exposure
siturations. Our camera has three neutral
density filters. The higher the filer
number, the more it cuts back the light.
USING THE HISTOGRAM
The histogram is the single best tool to ensure your image is not
over exposed or under exposed. It’s a chart, with the horizontal
axis displaying all of the greyscale values in your image (with pure
black on the left, and pure white on the right), and the vertical axis
displaying the density of pixels for each of those greyscale values.
Over exposure and under exposure can be judged simply by seeing
whether or not the mass of pixels on the histogram touches either
side of the display.
HISTORY REALLY QUITE
SIMPLE TO USE
Pixels are located somewhere
or anywhere in middle
Pixels are touching
the right side
Pixels are touching
the left side
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13-21 Camera Checklist - Using SWEFF
Focus
Use MANUAL focus when doing interviews or when you have objects going between you, your camera and what you’re
recording. We all know how auto focus works; our eyes don’t work like that. We don’t want objects going in and out of focus in
our shot. If it happens, it’s distracting to our viewer and takes them out of our story.
To turn on AUTO FOCUS:
push AF/MF button behind
lens and forward of LCD screen.
When on MANUAL FOCUS,
you’ll see the manual focus icon
on the LCD display.
Slide the function selector to FOCUS.
Adjust focus by rotating the FOCUS RING just behind the lens shade.
To achieve critical focus, position the camera and then zoom in as tight
as possible on the subject that is to be in focus. When shooting people
(such as during an interview), zoom in on the bridge of their nose.
Focus from the zoomed in position by turning the focus ring, then
zoom back out and compose your shot using the rule of thirds.
If you’re having difficulty judging focus, zoom in and then push AF/
MF button to go into the autofocus mode. The camera’s sensors will
take over and focus for you. Once focus is achieved, press the AF/MF
button again, and the focus will stay locked. Auto focus circuitry can
have difficulties in low light situations, in areas with strong horizontal
stripes or if two possible subjects are in the center of the frame but at
different distances from the camera.
13-22 Camera Checklist - Using SWEFF
Framing
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THREE WORDS FOR FRAMING:
Rule of Thirds
Framing the Interview
Rule of Thirds | Look Room | Head Room
Background Not Too Distracting
Framing the Interview 87
AVID MEDIA COMPOSER KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS
Right arrow
Left arrow
Space bar
Home
End
Command + /
Command + L
Go forward one frame
Go back one frame
Play
Go to the beginning
To to the end
fit all to one window
Enlarge
Reduce
Toggle back and forth between Source and Record window
Esc
Command + Drag Position Bar Snap to nearest edit point
New audio track
Command + U
Command + K
Command + Y
s
b or red arrow
d
f
g
i
j
k
l
u
v or yellow arrow
x
z
Option + drag
Caps Lock
Command + period
New video track
With tracks inactive, Move to next edit point ( “a” to previous edit point)
overwrite
Clears in point
Clears out point
Clears both in and out
Mark in point
Plays backward
Pause / Stop
Plays forward
selects closest edit / transition point
Splice in (insert)
Extract edit (splice fills space with clip to right)
Lift edit (overwrite move it/leave space empty)
Change size of Audio or Video track by grabbing bottom of tab
With caps lock on you can hear audio when you scrub with position bar
To stop export as Quicktime Movie
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