Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference

Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
Version 6.3
Corporate Headquarters
Cisco Systems, Inc.
170 West Tasman Drive
San Jose, CA 95134-1706
USA
http://www.cisco.com
Tel: 408 526-4000
800 553-NETS (6387)
Fax: 408 526-4100
Customer Order Number: 78-14890-01
Text Part Number: 78-14890-01
THE SPECIFICATIONS AND INFORMATION REGARDING THE PRODUCTS IN THIS MANUAL ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. ALL
STATEMENTS, INFORMATION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS IN THIS MANUAL ARE BELIEVED TO BE ACCURATE BUT ARE PRESENTED WITHOUT
WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. USERS MUST TAKE FULL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THEIR APPLICATION OF ANY PRODUCTS.
THE SOFTWARE LICENSE AND LIMITED WARRANTY FOR THE ACCOMPANYING PRODUCT ARE SET FORTH IN THE INFORMATION PACKET THAT
SHIPPED WITH THE PRODUCT AND ARE INCORPORATED HEREIN BY THIS REFERENCE. IF YOU ARE UNABLE TO LOCATE THE SOFTWARE LICENSE
OR LIMITED WARRANTY, CONTACT YOUR CISCO REPRESENTATIVE FOR A COPY.
The Cisco implementation of TCP header compression is an adaptation of a program developed by the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) as part of UCB’s public
domain version of the UNIX operating system. All rights reserved. Copyright © 1981, Regents of the University of California.
NOTWITHSTANDING ANY OTHER WARRANTY HEREIN, ALL DOCUMENT FILES AND SOFTWARE OF THESE SUPPLIERS ARE PROVIDED “AS IS” WITH
ALL FAULTS. CISCO AND THE ABOVE-NAMED SUPPLIERS DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT
LIMITATION, THOSE OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT OR ARISING FROM A COURSE OF
DEALING, USAGE, OR TRADE PRACTICE.
IN NO EVENT SHALL CISCO OR ITS SUPPLIERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING,
WITHOUT LIMITATION, LOST PROFITS OR LOSS OR DAMAGE TO DATA ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THIS MANUAL, EVEN IF CISCO
OR ITS SUPPLIERS HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
CCIP, CCSP, the Cisco Arrow logo, the Cisco Powered Network mark, Cisco Unity, Follow Me Browsing, FormShare, and StackWise are trademarks of Cisco Systems, Inc.;
Changing the Way We Work, Live, Play, and Learn, and iQuick Study are service marks of Cisco Systems, Inc.; and Aironet, ASIST, BPX, Catalyst, CCDA, CCDP, CCIE, CCNA,
CCNP, Cisco, the Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert logo, Cisco IOS, the Cisco IOS logo, Cisco Press, Cisco Systems, Cisco Systems Capital, the Cisco Systems logo,
Empowering the Internet Generation, Enterprise/Solver, EtherChannel, EtherFast, EtherSwitch, Fast Step, GigaDrive, GigaStack, HomeLink, Internet Quotient, IOS, IP/TV, iQ
Expertise, the iQ logo, iQ Net Readiness Scorecard, LightStream, Linksys, MeetingPlace, MGX, the Networkers logo, Networking Academy, Network Registrar, Packet, PIX,
Post-Routing, Pre-Routing, ProConnect, RateMUX, Registrar, ScriptShare, SlideCast, SMARTnet, StrataView Plus, SwitchProbe, TeleRouter, The Fastest Way to Increase Your
Internet Quotient, TransPath, and VCO are registered trademarks of Cisco Systems, Inc. and/or its affiliates in the United States and certain other countries.
All other trademarks mentioned in this document or Website are the property of their respective owners. The use of the word partner does not imply a partnership relationship
between Cisco and any other company. (0403R)
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
Copyright © 2004 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
CONTENTS
About This Guide
ix
Document Objectives
Audience
ix
ix
Document Organization
x
Document Conventions
x
Related Documentation
xi
Obtaining Documentation xi
Cisco.com xi
Documentation CD-ROM xi
Ordering Documentation xi
Documentation Feedback xii
Obtaining Technical Assistance xii
Cisco.com xii
Technical Assistance Center xiii
Cisco TAC Website xiii
Cisco TAC Escalation Center xiii
Obtaining Additional Publications and Information
CHA PTER
1
PIX Firewall Software Version 6.3 Commands
CHA PTER
2
Using PIX Firewall Commands
Introduction 2-1
Tips 2-2
For more information
Command Modes
Ports
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-6
Deprecated Commands
3
1-1
2-3
Protocols
CHA PTER
xiv
A through B Commands
aaa accounting
3-1
3-1
aaa authentication
aaa authorization
2-7
3-3
3-12
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
iii
Contents
aaa mac-exempt
3-16
aaa proxy-limit
aaa-server
3-17
3-18
access-group
access-list
3-22
3-25
activation-key
alias
3-40
arp
3-43
auth-prompt
3-45
auto-update
3-46
banner
CHA PTER
4
3-38
3-48
C Commands
ca
4-1
4-1
ca generate rsa key
capture
4-11
clear
4-14
clock
4-20
conduit
4-22
configure
console
copy
4-29
4-33
4-34
crashinfo
4-38
crypto dynamic-map
crypto ipsec
5
4-57
D through F Commands
debug
5-1
dhcpd
5-12
dhcprelay
disable
5-20
5-20
dynamic-map
5-21
enable
5-1
5-17
domain-name
eeprom
4-46
4-50
crypto map
CHA PTER
4-10
5-21
5-24
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
iv
78-14890-01
Contents
established
exit
5-26
5-29
failover
filter
5-29
5-36
fixup protocol
flashfs
5-55
floodguard
5-57
fragment
CHA PTER
6
5-39
5-59
G through L Commands
global
6-1
help
6-4
hostname
http
6-5
6-6
icmp
6-7
igmp
6-8
interface
6-9
ip address
ip audit
6-15
6-19
ip local pool
6-22
ip verify reverse-path
isakmp
login
7
6-33
6-37
logging
CHA PTER
6-23
6-26
isakmp policy
kill
6-1
6-38
6-44
M through R Commands
mac-list
7-1
management-access
mgcp
7-5
7-6
multicast
7-7
name/names
nameif
7-2
7-3
mroute
mtu
7-1
7-9
7-11
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
v
Contents
nat
7-12
ntp
7-20
object-group
7-25
outbound /apply
pager
7-36
password
pdm
7-37
7-38
perfmon
ping
7-44
7-45
prefix-list
7-46
privilege
quit
7-47
7-49
reload
rip
7-31
7-50
7-51
route
7-53
route-map
7-54
router ospf
7-57
routing interface
CHA PTER
8
S Commands
service
7-63
8-1
8-1
session enable
setup
8-2
show
8-4
8-2
show blocks/clear blocks
show checksum
8-8
show chunkstat
8-8
show conn
8-7
8-10
show cpu usage
8-13
show crypto engine [verify]
8-13
show crypto interface [counters]
show ip local pool
show history
8-17
8-17
show local-host/clear local host
show memory
show ospf
8-15
8-18
8-20
8-22
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
vi
78-14890-01
Contents
show ospf border-routers
8-23
show ospf database
8-24
show ospf flood-list
8-28
show ospf interface
8-29
show ospf neighbor
8-30
show ospf request-list
8-31
show ospf retransmission-list
show ospf summary-address
show ospf virtual links
show processes
8-35
8-36
show startup-config
8-39
show tech-support
show tcpstat
8-42
8-50
show traffic/clear traffic
8-52
show uauth/clear uauth
8-53
show version
8-54
show xlate/clear xlate
snmp deny version
snmp-server
8-59
8-61
8-62
8-66
static
9
8-56
8-58
sip ip-address-privacy
CHA PTER
8-33
show running-config
ssh
8-33
8-34
show routing
shun
8-32
8-69
syslog
8-77
sysopt
8-77
T through Z Commands
telnet
9-1
9-1
terminal
9-4
tftp-server
timeout
9-5
9-6
url-block
9-8
url-cache
9-10
url-server
9-12
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
vii
Contents
username
virtual
vpdn
9-14
9-15
9-18
vpnclient
9-26
vpngroup
9-29
who
write
9-33
9-33
Y and Z Commands
9-36
INDEX
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
viii
78-14890-01
About This Guide
This preface introduces the Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference and contains the following sections:
•
Document Objectives, page ix
•
Audience, page ix
•
Document Organization, page x
•
Document Conventions, page x
•
Related Documentation, page xi
•
Obtaining Documentation, page xi
•
Obtaining Technical Assistance, page xii
•
Obtaining Additional Publications and Information, page xiv
Document Objectives
This guide contians the commands available for use with the Cisco PIX Firewall to protect your network
from unauthorized use and to establish Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) to connect remote sites and
users to your network.
Audience
This guide is for network managers who perform any of the following tasks:
•
Managing network security
•
Configuring firewalls
•
Managing default and static routes, and TCP and UDP services
Use this guide with the Cisco PIX Firewall Hardware Installation Guide and the Cisco PIX Firewall and
VPN Configuration Guide.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
ix
About This Guide
Document Organization
Document Organization
This guide includes the following chapters:
•
Chapter 1, “PIX Firewall Software Version 6.3 Commands,” provides you with a quick reference to
the commands available in the PIX Firewall software.
•
Chapter 2, “Using PIX Firewall Commands,” introduces you to the PIX Firewall commands, access
modes, and common port and protocol numbers.
•
Chapter 3, “A through B Commands,” provides detailed descriptions of all commands that begin
with the letters A or B.
•
Chapter 4, “C Commands,” provides detailed descriptions of all commands that begin with the
letter C.
•
Chapter 5, “D through F Commands,” provides detailed descriptions of all commands that begin
with the letters D through F.
•
Chapter 6, “G through L Commands,” provides detailed descriptions of all commands that begin
with the letters G through L.
•
Chapter 7, “M through R Commands,” provides detailed descriptions of all commands that begin
with the letters M through R.
•
Chapter 8, “S Commands,” provides detailed descriptions of all commands that begin with the
letter S.
•
Chapter 9, “T through Z Commands,” provides detailed descriptions of all commands that begin
with the letters T through X.
Document Conventions
The PIX Firewall command syntax descriptions use the following conventions:
Command descriptions use these conventions:
•
Braces ({ }) indicate a required choice.
•
Square brackets ([ ]) indicate optional elements.
•
Vertical bars ( | ) separate alternative, mutually exclusive elements.
•
Boldface indicates commands and keywords that are entered literally as shown.
•
Italics indicate arguments for which you supply values.
Examples use these conventions:
•
Examples depict screen displays and the command line in screen font.
•
Information you need to enter in examples is shown in boldface screen font.
•
Variables for which you must supply a value are shown in italic screen font.
Graphic user interface access uses these conventions:
•
Boldface indicates buttons and menu items.
•
Selecting a menu item (or screen) is indicated by the following convention:
Click Start>Settings>Control Panel.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
x
78-14890-01
About This Guide
Related Documentation
Note
Means reader take note. Notes contain helpful suggestions or references to material not covered in the
manual.
Related Documentation
Use this document in conjunction with the PIX Firewall documentation available online at the following
site:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/secursw/ps2120/index.html
Obtaining Documentation
Cisco provides several ways to obtain documentation, technical assistance, and other technical
resources. These sections explain how to obtain technical information from Cisco Systems.
Cisco.com
You can access the most current Cisco documentation on the World Wide Web at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/home/home.htm
You can access the Cisco website at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com
International Cisco web sites can be accessed from this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/public/countries_languages.shtml
Documentation CD-ROM
Cisco documentation and additional literature are available in a Cisco Documentation CD-ROM
package, which may have shipped with your product. The Documentation CD-ROM is updated monthly
and may be more current than printed documentation. The CD-ROM package is available as a single unit
or through an annual subscription.
Registered Cisco.com users can order the Documentation CD-ROM (product number
DOC-CONDOCCD=) through the online Subscription Store:
http://www.cisco.com/go/subscription
Ordering Documentation
You can find instructions for ordering documentation at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/es_inpck/pdi.htm
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
xi
About This Guide
Obtaining Technical Assistance
You can order Cisco documentation in these ways:
•
Registered Cisco.com users (Cisco direct customers) can order Cisco product documentation from
the Networking Products MarketPlace:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/ordering/index.shtml
•
Registered Cisco.com users can order the Documentation CD-ROM (Customer Order Number
DOC-CONDOCCD=) through the online Subscription Store:
http://www.cisco.com/go/subscription
•
Nonregistered Cisco.com users can order documentation through a local account representative by
calling Cisco Systems Corporate Headquarters (California, U.S.A.) at 408 526-7208 or, elsewhere
in North America, by calling 800 553-NETS (6387).
Documentation Feedback
You can submit comments electronically on Cisco.com. On the Cisco Documentation home page, click
Feedback at the top of the page.
You can e-mail your comments to bug-doc@cisco.com.
You can submit your comments by mail by using the response card behind the front cover of your
document or by writing to the following address:
Cisco Systems
Attn: Customer Document Ordering
170 West Tasman Drive
San Jose, CA 95134-9883
We appreciate your comments.
Obtaining Technical Assistance
Cisco provides Cisco.com, which includes the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) Website, as a
starting point for all technical assistance. Customers and partners can obtain online documentation,
troubleshooting tips, and sample configurations from the Cisco TAC website. Cisco.com registered users
have complete access to the technical support resources on the Cisco TAC website, including TAC tools
and utilities.
Cisco.com
Cisco.com offers a suite of interactive, networked services that let you access Cisco information,
networking solutions, services, programs, and resources at any time, from anywhere in the world.
Cisco.com provides a broad range of features and services to help you with these tasks:
•
Streamline business processes and improve productivity
•
Resolve technical issues with online support
•
Download and test software packages
•
Order Cisco learning materials and merchandise
•
Register for online skill assessment, training, and certification programs
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
xii
78-14890-01
About This Guide
Obtaining Technical Assistance
To obtain customized information and service, you can self-register on Cisco.com at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com
Technical Assistance Center
The Cisco TAC is available to all customers who need technical assistance with a Cisco product,
technology, or solution. Two levels of support are available: the Cisco TAC website and the Cisco TAC
Escalation Center. The avenue of support that you choose depends on the priority of the problem and the
conditions stated in service contracts, when applicable.
We categorize Cisco TAC inquiries according to urgency:
•
Priority level 4 (P4)—You need information or assistance concerning Cisco product capabilities,
product installation, or basic product configuration.
•
Priority level 3 (P3)—Your network performance is degraded. Network functionality is noticeably
impaired, but most business operations continue.
•
Priority level 2 (P2)—Your production network is severely degraded, affecting significant aspects
of business operations. No workaround is available.
•
Priority level 1 (P1)—Your production network is down, and a critical impact to business operations
will occur if service is not restored quickly. No workaround is available.
Cisco TAC Website
You can use the Cisco TAC website to resolve P3 and P4 issues yourself, saving both cost and time. The
site provides around-the-clock access to online tools, knowledge bases, and software. To access the
Cisco TAC website, go to this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/tac
All customers, partners, and resellers who have a valid Cisco service contract have complete access to
the technical support resources on the Cisco TAC website. Some services on the Cisco TAC website
require a Cisco.com login ID and password. If you have a valid service contract but do not have a login
ID or password, go to this URL to register:
http://tools.cisco.com/RPF/register/register.do
If you are a Cisco.com registered user, and you cannot resolve your technical issues by using the Cisco
TAC website, you can open a case online at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/support/index.html
If you have Internet access, we recommend that you open P3 and P4 cases through the Cisco TAC
website so that you can describe the situation in your own words and attach any necessary files.
Cisco TAC Escalation Center
The Cisco TAC Escalation Center addresses priority level 1 or priority level 2 issues. These
classifications are assigned when severe network degradation significantly impacts business operations.
When you contact the TAC Escalation Center with a P1 or P2 problem, a Cisco TAC engineer
automatically opens a case.
To obtain a directory of toll-free Cisco TAC telephone numbers for your country, go to this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/687/Directory/DirTAC.shtml
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
xiii
About This Guide
Obtaining Additional Publications and Information
Before calling, please check with your network operations center to determine the level of Cisco support
services to which your company is entitled: for example, SMARTnet, SMARTnet Onsite, or Network
Supported Accounts (NSA). When you call the center, please have available your service agreement
number and your product serial number.
Obtaining Additional Publications and Information
Information about Cisco products, technologies, and network solutions is available from various online
and printed sources.
•
The Cisco Product Catalog describes the networking products offered by Cisco Systems as well as
ordering and customer support services. Access the Cisco Product Catalog at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/products_catalog_links_launch.html
•
Cisco Press publishes a wide range of networking publications. Cisco suggests these titles for new
and experienced users: Internetworking Terms and Acronyms Dictionary, Internetworking
Technology Handbook, Internetworking Troubleshooting Guide, and the Internetworking Design
Guide. For current Cisco Press titles and other information, go to Cisco Press online at this URL:
http://www.ciscopress.com
•
Packet magazine is the Cisco monthly periodical that provides industry professionals with the latest
information about the field of networking. You can access Packet magazine at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/about/ac123/ac114/about_cisco_packet_magazine.html
•
iQ Magazine is the Cisco monthly periodical that provides business leaders and decision makers
with the latest information about the networking industry. You can access iQ Magazine at this URL:
http://business.cisco.com/prod/tree.taf%3fasset_id=44699&public_view=true&kbns=1.html
•
Internet Protocol Journal is a quarterly journal published by Cisco Systems for engineering
professionals involved in the design, development, and operation of public and private internets and
intranets. You can access the Internet Protocol Journal at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/about/ac123/ac147/about_cisco_the_internet_protocol_journal.html
•
Training—Cisco offers world-class networking training, with current offerings in network training
listed at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/learning/le31/learning_recommended_training_list.html
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
xiv
78-14890-01
C H A P T E R
1
PIX Firewall Software Version 6.3 Commands
Table 1-1 lists the commands that are supported in PIX Firewall software Version 6.3.
Table 1-1
Supported Commands
A-D
E-M
M-S
S (continued)-Z
aaa accounting
eeprom
mtu
show history
aaa authentication
enable
multicast
show local-host/clear local
host
aaa authorization
established
name / names
show memory
aaa-server
exit
nameif
show processes
access-group
failover
nat
show tech-support
access-list
filter
ntp
show traffic/clear traffic
activation-key
fixup protocol
object-group
show uauth/clear uauth
alias
fixup protocol snmp
outbound / apply
show version
arp
floodguard
pager
show xlate/clear xlate
auth-prompt
fragment
password
shun
auto-update
global
pdm
· When this feature is off,
regular SIP Fixup will work
as it does under PIX 6.3.3
banner
help
perfmon
ssh
ca
hostname
ping
static
ca generate rsa key
http
prefix-list
sysopt
capture
icmp
privilege
telnet
clear
igmp
quit
terminal
clock
interface
reload
tftp-server
conduit
ip address
rip
timeout
configure
ip audit
route
url-block
console
ip local pool
route-map
url-cache
copy
ip verify reverse-path
router ospf
url-server
crypto dynamic-map
isakmp
routing interface
username
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
1-1
Chapter 1
Table 1-1
PIX Firewall Software Version 6.3 Commands
Supported Commands (continued)
A-D
E-M
M-S
S (continued)-Z
crypto ipsec
isakmp policy
service
virtual
crypto map
kill
session enable
vpdn
debug
logging
setup
vpnclient
dhcpd
login
show
vpngroup
dhcprelay
mac-list
show blocks / clear blocks
who
disable
management-access
show checksum
write
domain-name
mgcp
show conn
dynamic-map
mroute
show cpu usage
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
1-2
78-14890-01
C H A P T E R
2
Using PIX Firewall Commands
This chapter introduces the Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference and contains the following sections:
•
Introduction, page 2-1
•
Command Modes, page 2-3
•
Ports, page 2-3
•
Protocols, page 2-6
•
Deprecated Commands, page 2-7
Introduction
This section provides a brief introduction to using PIX Firewall commands and where to go for more
information on configuring and using your PIX Firewall.
The following table lists some basic PIX Firewall commands.
Task
Related Command
Saving my configuration
write memory
Viewing my configuration
write terminal
Accumulating system log (syslog) messages
logging buffered debugging
Viewing system log (syslog) messages
show logging
Clearing the message buffer
clear logging
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
2-1
Chapter 2
Using PIX Firewall Commands
Introduction
Tips
Tip
When using the PIX Firewall command-line interface (CLI), you can do the following:
•
Check the syntax before entering a command. Enter a command and press the Enter key to view a
quick summary, or precede a command with help, as in, help aaa.
•
Abbreviate commands. For example, you can use the config t command to start configuration mode,
the write t command statement to list the configuration, and the write m command to write to Flash
memory. Also, in most commands, show can be abbreviated as sh. This feature is called command
completion.
•
After changing or removing the alias, access-list, conduit, global, nat, outbound, and static
commands, use the clear xlate command to make the IP addresses available for access.
•
Review possible port and protocol numbers at the following IANA websites:
http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers
http://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers
•
Create your configuration in a text editor and then cut and paste it into the configuration.
PIX Firewall lets you paste in a line at a time or the whole configuration. Always check your
configuration after pasting large blocks of text to be sure everything copied.
For more information
For information about how to build your PIX Firewall configuration, please refer to the
Cisco PIX Firewall and VPN Configuration Guide.
Syslog messages are fully described in Cisco PIX Firewall System Log Messages.
For information about how to use Cisco PIX Device Manager (PDM), please refer to the online Help
included in the PDM software (accessed through the PDM application Help button). For information
about how to install PDM, please refer to the Cisco PIX Device Manager Installation Guide.
PIX Firewall technical documentation is located online at the following website:
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/iaabu/pix/
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
2-2
78-14890-01
Chapter 2
Using PIX Firewall Commands
Command Modes
Command Modes
The PIX Firewall contains a command set based on Cisco IOS technologies and provides configurable
command privilege modes based on the following command modes:
•
Unprivileged mode. When you first access the firewall, it displays the “>” prompt. This is
unprivileged mode, and it lets you view firewall settings. The unprivileged mode prompt appears as
follows:
pixfirewall>
•
Privileged mode, which displays the “#” prompt and lets you change current settings. Any
unprivileged mode command also works in privileged mode. Use the enable command to start
privileged mode from unprivileged mode as follows:
pixfirewall> enable
Password:
pixfirewall#
Use the exit or quit commands to exit privileged mode and return to unprivileged mode as follows:
pixfirewall# exit
Logoff
Type help or '?' for a list of available commands.
pixfirewall>
Use the disable command to exit privileged mode and return to unprivileged mode as follows:
pixfirewall# disable
pixfirewall>
•
Configuration mode, which displays the “(config)#” prompt and lets you change the firewall
configuration. All privileged, unprivileged, and configuration mode commands are available in this
mode. Use the configure terminal command to start configuration mode as follows:
pixfirewall# configure terminal
pixfirewall(config)#
Use the exit or quit commands to exit configuration mode and return to privileged mode as follows:
pixfirewall(config)# quit
pixfirewall#
Use the disable command to exit configuration mode and return to unprivileged mode as follows:
pixfirewall(config)# disable
pixfirewall>
Ports
Literal names can be used instead of a numerical port value in access-list commands.
The PIX Firewall uses port 1521 for SQL*Net. This is the default port used by Oracle for SQL*Net;
however, this value does not agree with IANA port assignments.
The PIX Firewall listens for RADIUS on ports 1645 and 1646. If your RADIUS server uses ports 1812
and 1813, you must reconfigure it to listen on ports 1645 and 1646.
To assign a port for DNS access, use domain, not dns. The dns keyword translates into the port value
for dnsix.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
2-3
Chapter 2
Using PIX Firewall Commands
Ports
Note
By design, the PIX Firewall drops DNS packets sent to UDP port 53 (usually used for DNS) that have a
packet size larger than 512 bytes.
Port numbers can be viewed online at the IANA website:
http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers
Table 2-1 lists the port literal values.
Table 2-1
Port Literal Values
Literal
TCP or
UDP?
Value
Description
aol
TCP
5190
America On-line
bgp
TCP
179
Border Gateway Protocol, RFC 1163
biff
UDP
512
Used by mail system to notify users that new mail is
received
bootpc
UDP
68
Bootstrap Protocol Client
bootps
UDP
67
Bootstrap Protocol Server
chargen
TCP
19
Character Generator
citrix-ica
TCP
1494
Citrix Independent Computing Architecture (ICA)
protocol
cmd
TCP
514
Similar to exec except that cmd has automatic
authentication
ctiqbe
TCP
2748
Computer Telephony Interface Quick Buffer Encoding
daytime
TCP
13
Day time, RFC 867
discard
TCP, UDP
9
Discard
domain
TCP, UDP
53
DNS (Domain Name System)
dnsix
UDP
195
DNSIX Session Management Module Audit
Redirector
echo
TCP, UDP
7
Echo
exec
TCP
512
Remote process execution
finger
TCP
79
Finger
ftp
TCP
21
File Transfer Protocol (control port)
ftp-data
TCP
20
File Transfer Protocol (data port)
gopher
TCP
70
Gopher
https
TCP
443
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (SSL)
h323
TCP
1720
H.323 call signalling
hostname
TCP
101
NIC Host Name Server
ident
TCP
113
Ident authentication service
imap4
TCP
143
Internet Message Access Protocol, version 4
irc
TCP
194
Internet Relay Chat protocol
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
2-4
78-14890-01
Chapter 2
Using PIX Firewall Commands
Ports
Table 2-1
Port Literal Values (continued)
Literal
TCP or
UDP?
Value
Description
isakmp
UDP
500
Internet Security Association and Key Management
Protocol
kerberos
TCP, UDP
750
Kerberos
klogin
TCP
543
KLOGIN
kshell
TCP
544
Korn Shell
ldap
TCP
389
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
ldaps
TCP
636
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (SSL)
lpd
TCP
515
Line Printer Daemon - printer spooler
login
TCP
513
Remote login
lotusnotes
TCP
1352
IBM Lotus Notes
mobile-ip
UDP
434
MobileIP-Agent
nameserver
UDP
42
Host Name Server
netbios-ns
UDP
137
NetBIOS Name Service
netbios-dgm
UDP
138
NetBIOS Datagram Service
netbios-ssn
TCP
139
NetBIOS Session Service
nntp
TCP
119
Network News Transfer Protocol
ntp
UDP
123
Network Time Protocol
pcanywhere-status
UDP
5632
pcAnywhere status
pcanywhere-data
TCP
5631
pcAnywhere data
pim-auto-rp
TCP, UDP
496
Protocol Independent Multicast, reverse path flooding,
dense mode
pop2
TCP
109
Post Office Protocol - Version 2
pop3
TCP
110
Post Office Protocol - Version 3
pptp
TCP
1723
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
radius
UDP
1645
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service
radius-acct
UDP
1646
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service
(accounting)
rip
UDP
520
Routing Information Protocol
secureid-udp
UDP
5510
SecureID over UDP
smtp
TCP
25
Simple Mail Transport Protocol
snmp
UDP
161
Simple Network Management Protocol
snmptrap
UDP
162
Simple Network Management Protocol - Trap
sqlnet
TCP
1521
Structured Query Language Network
ssh
TCP
22
Secure Shell
sunrpc (rpc)
TCP, UDP
111
Sun Remote Procedure Call
syslog
UDP
514
System Log
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
2-5
Chapter 2
Using PIX Firewall Commands
Protocols
Table 2-1
Port Literal Values (continued)
Literal
TCP or
UDP?
Value
Description
tacacs
TCP, UDP
49
Terminal Access Controller Access Control System
Plus
talk
TCP, UDP
517
Talk
telnet
TCP
23
RFC 854 Telnet
tftp
UDP
69
Trivial File Transfer Protocol
time
UDP
37
Time
uucp
TCP
540
UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program
who
UDP
513
Who
whois
TCP
43
Who Is
www
TCP
80
World Wide Web
xdmcp
UDP
177
X Display Manager Control Protocol
Protocols
Literal names can be used instead of a numerical port value in access-list commands.
Protocol numbers can be viewed online at the IANA website:
http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers
Note
Many routing protocols use multicast packets to transmit their data. If you send routing protocols across
the PIX Firewall, configure the surrounding routers with the Cisco IOS software neighbor command. If
routes on an unprotected interface are corrupted, the routes transmitted to the protected side of the
firewall will pollute routers there as well.
The PIX Firewall supports the protocol literal values listed in Table 2-2 .
Table 2-2
Protocol Literal Values
Literal
Value
Description
ah
51
Authentication Header for IPv6, RFC 1826
eigrp
88
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
esp
50
Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) for IPv6, RFC 1827
gre
47
General routing encapsulation
icmp
1
Internet Control Message Protocol, RFC 792
igmp
2
Internet Group Management Protocol, RFC 1112
igrp
9
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
ipinip
4
IP-in-IP encapsulation
nos
94
Network Operating System (Novell NetWare)
ospf
89
Open Shortest Path First routing protocol, RFC 1247
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
2-6
78-14890-01
Chapter 2
Using PIX Firewall Commands
Deprecated Commands
Table 2-2
Protocol Literal Values (continued)
Literal
Value
Description
pcp
108
Payload Compression Protocol
snp
109
Sitara Networks Protocol
tcp
6
Transmission Control Protocol, RFC 793
udp
17
User Datagram Protocol, RFC 768
Deprecated Commands
The following commands are no longer used to configure the firewall: sysopt route dnat, sysopt
security fragguard, fragguard, and session enable.
The sysopt route dnat command is ignored, starting in PIX Firewall software Version 6.2. Instead,
overlapping configurations (network addresses and routes) are automatically handled by outside NAT.
The sysopt security fragguard and fragguard commands have been replaced by the fragment
command.
The session enable command is deprecated because the AccessPro router it was intended to support no
longer exists.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
2-7
Chapter 2
Using PIX Firewall Commands
Deprecated Commands
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
2-8
78-14890-01
C H A P T E R
3
A through B Commands
aaa accounting
Enable, disable, or view LOCAL, TACACS+, or RADIUS user accounting (on a server designated by
the aaa-server command).
[no] aaa accounting include | exclude service if_name local_ip local_mask foreign_ip
foreign_mask server_tag
[no] aaa accounting include | exclude service if_name server_tag
clear aaa [accounting include | exclude service if_name server_tag]
[no] aaa accounting match acl_name if_name server_tag
show aaa
Syntax Description
accounting
Enable or disable accounting services. Use of this command requires that you
previously used the aaa-server command to designate a AAA server.
exclude
Create an exception to a previously stated rule by excluding the specified service
from accounting. The exclude parameter improves the former except option by
allowing the user to specify a port to exclude to a specific host or hosts.
foreign_ip
The IP address of the hosts you want to access the local_ip address. Use 0 to mean
all hosts.
foreign_mask
Network mask of foreign_ip. Always specify a specific mask value. Use 0 if the
IP address is 0. Use 255.255.255.255 for a host.
if_name
Interface name from which users require authentication. Use if_name in
combination with the local_ip address and the foreign_ip address to determine
where access is sought and from whom. The local_ip address is always on the
highest security level interface and foreign_ip is always on the lowest.
include
Create a new rule with the specified service to include.
local_ip
The IP address of the host or network of hosts that you want to be authenticated or
authorized. You can set this address to 0 to mean all hosts and to let the
authentication server decide which hosts are authenticated.
local_mask
Network mask of local_ip. Always specify a specific mask value. Use 0 if the IP
address is 0. Use 255.255.255.255 for a host.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
3-1
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
aaa accounting
match acl_name Specify an access-list command statement name.
server_tag
The AAA server group tag defined by the aaa-server command. To use the local
PIX Firewall user authentication database, enter LOCAL for this parameter.
service
The accounting service. Accounting is provided for all services or you can limit it
to one or more services. Possible values are any, ftp, http, telnet, or protocol/port.
Use any to provide accounting for all TCP services. To provide accounting for
UDP services, use the protocol/port form.
For protocol/port, the TCP protocol appears as 6, the UDP protocol appears as 17,
and so on, and port is the TCP or UDP destination port. A port value of 0 (zero)
means all ports. For protocols other than TCP and UDP, the port is not applicable
and should not be used.
Defaults
For protocol/port, the TCP protocol appears as 6, the UDP protocol appears as 17, and so on, and port
is the TCP or UDP destination port. A port value of 0 (zero) means all ports. For protocols other than
TCP and UDP, the port is not applicable and should not be used.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
User accounting services keep a record of which network services a user has accessed. These records are
also kept on the designated AAA server. Accounting information is only sent to the active server in a
server group.
Use the aaa accounting command with the aaa authentication and aaa authorization commands.
The include and exclude options are not backward compatible with previous PIX Firewall versions. If
you downgrade to an earlier version, the aaa command statements will be removed from your
configuration.
Note
Traffic that is not specified by an include statement is not processed.
For outbound connections, first use the nat command to determine which IP addresses can access the
PIX Firewall. For inbound connections, first use the static and access-list command statements to
determine which inside IP addresses can be accessed through the PIX Firewall from the outside network.
If you want to allow connections to come from any host, code the local IP address and netmask as
0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0, or 0 0. The same convention applies to the foreign host IP address and netmask; 0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0 means any foreign host.
Tip
Examples
The help aaa command displays the syntax and usage for the aaa authentication, aaa authorization,
aaa accounting, and aaa proxy-limit commands in summary form.
The default PIX Firewall configuration provides the following aaa-server protocols:
aaa-server TACACS+ protocol tacacs+
aaa-server RADIUS protocol radius
aaa-server LOCAL protocol local
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
3-2
78-14890-01
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
aaa authentication
The following example uses the default protocol TACACS+ with the aaa commands:
aaa-server TACACS+ (inside) host 10.1.1.10 thekey timeout 20
aaa authentication include any outbound 0 0 0 0 TACACS+
aaa authorization include any outbound 0 0 0 0
aaa accounting include any outbound 0 0 0 0 TACACS+
aaa authentication serial console TACACS+
This example specifies that the authentication server with the IP address 10.1.1.10 resides on the inside
interface and is in the default TACACS+ server group. The next three command statements specify that
any users starting outbound connections to any foreign host will be authenticated using TACACS+, that
the users who are successfully authenticated are authorized to use any service, and that all outbound
connection information will be logged in the accounting database. The last command statement specifies
that access to the PIX Firewall unit’s serial console requires authentication from the TACACS+ server.
Related Commands
aaa authentication
Enables, disables, or displays LOCAL, TACACS+, or RADIUS user
authentication on a server designated by the aaa-server command, or for
PDM user authentication.
aaa authorization
Enables or disables LOCAL or TACACS+ user authorization services.
auth-prompt
Changes the AAA challenge text.
password
Sets the password for Telnet access to the PIX Firewall console.
service
Resets inbound connections.
ssh
Specifies a host for access through Secure Shell (SSH).
telnet
Specifies the host for access via Telnet.
virtual
Accesses the PIX Firewall virtual server.
aaa authentication
Enable, disable, or view LOCAL, TACACS+, or RADIUS user authentication, on a server designated
by the aaa-server command, or PDM user authentication.
[no] aaa authentication include | exclude authen_service if_name local_ip local_mask [foreign_ip
foreign_mask] server_tag
clear aaa [authentication include | exclude authen_service if_name local_ip local_mask
foreign_ip foreign_mask server_tag]
[no] aaa authentication match acl_name if_name server_tag
[no] aaa authentication secure-http-client
[no] aaa authentication [serial | enable | telnet | ssh | http] console server_tag [LOCAL]
show aaa
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
3-3
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
aaa authentication
Syntax Description
authen_service
Specifies the type of traffic to include or exclude from authentication based on the
service option selected.
access authentication
The access authentication service options are as follows: enable, serial,
ssh, and telnet. Specify serial for serial console access, telnet for Telnet
access, ssh for SSH access, and enable for enable-mode access.
cut-through authentication
The cut-through authentication service options are as follows: telnet, ftp,
http, https, icmp/type, proto, tcp/port, and udp/port. The variable proto
can be any supported IP protocol value or name: for example, ip or igmp.
Only Telnet, FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS traffic triggers interactive user
authentication.
You can enter an ICMP message type number for type to include or exclude
that specific ICMP message type from authentication. For example, icmp/8
includes or excludes type 8 (echo request) ICMP messages.
The tcp/0 option enables authentication for all TCP traffic, which includes
FTP, HTTP, HTTPS, and Telnet. When a specific port is specified, only the
traffic with a matching destination port is included or excluded for
authentication. Note that FTP, Telnet, HTTP, and HTTPS are equivalent to
tcp/21, tcp/23, tcp/80, and tcp/443, respectively.
If ip is specified, all IP traffic is included or excluded for authentication,
depending on whether include or exclude is specified. When all IP traffic
is included for authentication, following are the expected behaviors:
authentication
•
Before a user (source IP-based) is authenticated, an FTP, Telnet, HTTP,
or HTTPS request triggers authentication and all other IP requests are
denied.
•
After a user is authenticated through FTP, Telnet, HTTP, HTTPS, or
virtual Telnet authentication (see the virtual command), all traffic is
free from authentication until the uauth timeout.
Enable or disable user authentication, prompt user for username and
password, and verify information with authentication server.
When used with the console option, enables or disables authentication
service for access to the PIX Firewall console over Telnet or from the
Console connector on the PIX Firewall unit.
Use of the aaa authentication command requires that you previously used
the aaa-server command to designate an authentication server.
The aaa authentication command supports HTTP authentication. The
PIX Firewall requires authentication verification of the HTTP server
through the aaa authentication http console command before PDM can
access the PIX Firewall.
console
Specify that access to the PIX Firewall console require authentication and
optionally, log configuration changes to a syslog server. The maximum
password length for accessing the console is 16 characters.
enable
Access verification for the PIX Firewall unit’s privilege mode.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
3-4
78-14890-01
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
aaa authentication
exclude
Create an exception to a previously stated rule by excluding the specified
service from authentication. The exclude parameter improves the former
except option by allowing the user to specify a port to exclude to a specific
host or hosts.
foreign_ip
The IP address of the hosts you want to access the local_ip address. Use 0
to mean all hosts.
foreign_mask
Network mask of foreign_ip. Always specify a specific mask value. Use 0
if the IP address is 0. Use 255.255.255.255 for a host.
http
Access verification for the HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) access to
the PIX Firewall (via PDM). The maximum username prompt for HTTP
authentication is 30 characters. The maximum password length is 15
characters.
if_name
The interface name from which to authenticate users.
include
Create a new rule with the specified service to include.
local_ip
The IP address of the host or network of hosts that you want to be
authenticated or authorized. You can set this address to 0 to mean all hosts
and to let the authentication server decide which hosts are authenticated.
local_mask
Network mask of local_ip. Always specify a specific mask value. Use 0 if
the IP address is 0. Use 255.255.255.255 for a host.
match acl_name
Specify an access-list command statement name. However, do not use an
access-list command statement that uses the source port to identify
matching traffic. Like the aaa authentication include | exclude command,
the source port is not supported in the match criteria of the aaa
authentication match acl_name command.
secure-http-client
Secures HTTP client authentication (through SSL) for HTTP cut-through
proxy authentication.
serial
Access verification for the PIX Firewall unit’s serial console.
server_tag
The AAA server group tag defined by the aaa-server command.
For cut-through proxy and “to the box” authentication, you can also use the
local PIX Firewall user authentication database by specifying the server
group tag LOCAL. If LOCAL is specified for server_tag and the local user
credential database is empty, the following warning message appears:
Warning:local database is empty! Use 'username' command to define
local users.
Conversely, if the local database becomes empty when LOCAL is still
present in the command, the following warning message appears:
Warning:Local user database is empty and there are still commands
using 'LOCAL' for authentication.
Defaults
ssh
Access verification for the SSH access to the PIX Firewall console.
telnet
Access verification for the Telnet access to the PIX Firewall console.
If a aaa authentication http console server_tag command statement is not defined, you can gain access
to the PIX Firewall (via PDM) with no username and the PIX Firewall enable password (set with the
password command). If the aaa commands are defined but the HTTP authentication requests a time out,
which implies the AAA servers may be down or not available, you can gain access to the PIX Firewall
using the username pix and the enable password. By default, the enable password is not set.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
3-5
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
aaa authentication
The PIX Firewall supports authentication usernames up to 127 characters and passwords of up to
16 characters (some AAA servers accept passwords up to 32 characters). A password or username may
not contain an “@” character as part of the password or username string, with a few exceptions.
Tip
The help aaa command displays the syntax and usage for the aaa authentication, aaa authorization,
aaa accounting, and aaa proxy-limit commands in summary form.
The authentication ports supported for AAA are fixed. We support port 21 for FTP, port 23 for Telnet,
and port 80 for HTTP. For this reason, do not use Static PAT to reassign ports for services you wish to
authenticate. In other words, when the port to authenticate is not one of the three known ports, the
firewall rejects the connection instead of authenticating it.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
To use the aaa authentication command, you must first designate an authentication server with the
aaa-server command. Also, for each IP address, one aaa authentication command is permitted for
inbound connections and one for outbound connections.
Use the if_name, local_ip, and foreign_ip variables to define where access is sought and from whom.
The address for local_ip is always on the highest security level interface and foreign_ip is always on the
lowest.
The aaa authentication command is not intended to mandate your security policy. The authentication
servers determine whether a user can or cannot access the system, what services can be accessed, and
what IP addresses the user can access. The PIX Firewall interacts with FTP, HTTP , HTTPS, and Telnet
to display the credentials prompts for logging in to the network or logging in to exit the network. You
can specify that only a single service be authenticated, but this must agree with the authentication server
to ensure that both the firewall and server agree.
The include and exclude options are not backward compatible with previous PIX Firewall versions. If
you downgrade to an earlier version, these aaa authentication command statements will be removed
from your configuration.
Note
When a cut-through proxy is configured, TCP sessions (TELNET, FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS) may have
their sequence number randomized even if the norandomseq option is used in the nat or static
command. This occurs when a AAA server proxies the TCP session to authenticate the user before
permitting access.
aaa authentication console command
The aaa authentication serial console command enables you to require authentication verification to
access the PIX Firewall unit’s serial console. The serial console options also logs to a syslog server
changes made to the configuration from the serial console.
Authenticated access to the PIX Firewall console has different types of prompts depending on the option
you choose with the aaa authentication [serial | enable | telnet | ssh] console server_tag [LOCAL]
command. While the enable and ssh options allow three tries before stopping with an access denied
message, both the serial and telnet options cause the user to be prompted continually until successfully
logging in. The serial option requests a username and password before the first command line prompt
on the serial console connection. The telnet option forces you to specify a username and password
before the first command line prompt of a Telnet console connection. The enable option requests a
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
3-6
78-14890-01
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
aaa authentication
username and password before accessing privileged mode for serial, Telnet, or SSH connections. The
ssh option requests a username and password before the first command line prompt on the SSH console
connection. The ssh option allows a maximum of three authentication attempts. The [LOCAL] keyword
option specifies a second authentication method that can be local only.
Telnet access to the PIX Firewall console is available from any internal interface, and from the outside
interface with IPSec configured, and requires previous use of the telnet command. SSH access to the
PIX Firewall console is also available from any interface without IPSec configured, and requires
previous use of the ssh command.
The new ssh option specifies the group of AAA servers to be used for SSH user authentication. The
authentication protocol and AAA server IP addresses are defined with the aaa-server command
statement.
Similar to the Telnet model, if a aaa authentication ssh console server_tag command statement is not
defined, you can gain access to the PIX Firewall console with the username pix and with the
PIX Firewall Telnet password (set with the passwd command). If the aaa command is defined but the
SSH authentication requests timeouts, which implies the AAA servers may be down or not available,
you can gain access to the PIX Firewall using username pix and the enable password (set with the enable
password command). By default, the Telnet password is cisco and the enable password is not set.
If the console login request times out, you can gain access to the PIX Firewall from the serial console
by entering the username pix and the enable password.
The LOCAL keyword is optional when specified as a RADIUS or TACACS+ server only. Any access
to the module (SSH, Telnet, enable) requiring a username and password is prompted only three times.
If an aaa authentication ssh console server_tag command is not defined, you can gain access to the
CLI with the username pix and with the PIX Telnet password (set with the passwd command). If the aaa
command is defined but the SSH authentication requests timeouts, which implies that the AAA servers
may be down or not available, you can gain access to the PIX Firewall using the username pix and the
enable password (set with the enable password command).
The PIX Firewall supports authentication usernames up to 127 characters and passwords up to
16 characters (some AAA servers accept passwords up to 32 characters). A password or username may
not contain an “@” character as part of the password or username string.
The command only accepts the second, optional LOCAL keyword when the server_tag refers to an
existing, valid TACACS+ or RADIUS server group defined in a aaa-server command. You can configure
LOCAL as the first and only server_tag.
The no form of the command removes the complete command and does not support removing single
methods.
aaa authentication secure-http-client
The aaa authentication secure-http-client command enables SSL and secures username and password
exchange between HTTP clients and the firewall. It offers a secure method for user authentication to the
firewall prior to allowing the user's HTTP-based web requests to traverse the firewall.
The following example configures HTTP traffic to be authenticated securely:
aaa authentication secure-http-client
aaa authentication include http ...
where “...” represents your values for authen_service if_name local_ip local_mask [foreign_ip
foreign_mask] server_tag.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
3-7
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
aaa authentication
The following are limitations of the aaa authentication secure-http-client command:
•
At runtime, a maximum of 16 HTTPS authentication processes are allowed. If all 16 HTTPS
authentication processes are running, the 17th, new HTTPS connection requiring authentication is
dropped.
•
When uauth timeout 0 is configured (the uauth timeout is set to 0), HTTPS authentication may
not work. If a browser initiates multiple TCP connections to load a web page after HTTPS
authentication, the first connection is let through but the subsequent connections trigger
authentication. As a result, users are presented with an authentication page, continuously, even if
the correct username and password are entered each time. You can workaround this by setting the
uauth timeout to 1 second with the timeout uauth 0:0:1 command. However, this workaround
opens a 1-second window of opportunity that may allow non-authenticated users to go through the
firewall if they are comming from the same source IP address.
•
Because HTTPS authentication occurs on the SSL port 443, users must not configure an access-list
command statement to block traffic from the HTTP client to HTTP server on port 443. Furthermore,
if static PAT is configured for web traffic on port 80, it must also be configured for the SSL port.
In the following example, the first line configures static PAT for web traffic and the second line
must be added to support the HTTPS authentication configuration:
static (inside,outside) tcp 10.132.16.200 www 10.130.16.10 www
static (inside,outside) tcp 10.132.16.200 443 10.130.16.10 443
Enabling Authentication
The aaa authentication command enables or disables the following features:
•
User authentication services provided by a TACACS+ or RADIUS server are first designated with
the aaa authorization command. A user starting a connection via FTP, Telnet, or over the World
Wide Web is prompted for their username and password. If the username and password are verified
by the designated TACACS+ or RADIUS authentication server, the PIX Firewall unit will allow
further traffic between the authentication server and the connection to interact independently
through the PIX Firewall unit’s “cut-through proxy” feature.
•
Administrative authentication services providing access to the PIX Firewall unit's console via
Telnet, SSH, or the serial console. Telnet access requires previous use of the telnet command. SSH
access requires previous use of the ssh command.
The prompts users see requesting AAA credentials differ between the three services that can access the
PIX Firewall for authentication: Telnet, FTP, HTTP, and HTTPS:
•
Telnet users see a prompt generated by the PIX Firewall that you can change with the auth-prompt
command. The PIX Firewall permits a user up to four chances to log in and then if the username or
password still fails, the PIX Firewall drops the connection.
•
FTP users receive a prompt from the FTP program. If a user enters an incorrect password, the
connection is dropped immediately. If the username or password on the authentication database
differs from the username or password on the remote host to which you are using FTP to access,
enter the username and password in these formats:
authentication_user_name@remote_system_user_name
authentication_password@remote_system_password
If you daisy-chain PIX Firewall units, Telnet authentication works in the same way as a single unit,
but FTP and HTTP authentication have additional complexity for users because they have to enter
each password and username with an additional at (@) character and password or username for each
daisy-chained system. Users can exceed the 63-character password limit depending on how many
units are daisy-chained and password length.
Some FTP graphical user interfaces (GUIs) do not display challenge values.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
3-8
78-14890-01
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
aaa authentication
•
HTTP users see a pop-up window generated by the browser itself if aaa authentication
secure-http-client is not configured. If aaa authentication secure-http-client is configured, a
form will load in the browser which is designed to collect username and password. In either case, if
a user enters an incorrect password, the user is reprompted. When the web server and the
authentication server are on different hosts, use the virtual command to get the correct
authentication behavior.
Authenticated access to the PIX Firewall console has different types of prompts depending on the option
you choose with the aaa authentication console command:
•
enable option—Allows three tries before stopping with “Access denied.” The enable option
requests a username and password before accessing privileged mode for serial or Telnet
connections.
•
serial option—Causes the user to be prompted continually until successfully logging in. The serial
option requests a username and password before the first command line prompt on the serial console
connection.
•
ssh option—Allows three tries before stopping with "Rejected by Server." The ssh option requests
a username and password before the first command line prompt appears.
•
telnet option—Causes the user to be prompted continually until successfully logging in. The telnet
option forces you to specify a username and password before the first command line prompt of a
Telnet console connection.
You can specify an interface name with the aaa authentication command. In previous versions, if you
specified aaa authentication include any outbound 0 0 server, PIX Firewall only authenticated
outbound connections and not those to the perimeter interface. PIX Firewall now authenticates any
outbound connection to the outside as well as to hosts on the perimeter interface. To preserve the
behavior of previous versions, use these commands to enable authentication and to disable
authentication from the inside to the perimeter interface:
aaa authentication include any outbound 0 0 server
aaa authentication exclude outbound perim_net perim_mask server
When a host is configured for authentication, all users on the host must use a web browser or Telnet first
before performing any other networking activity, such as accessing mail or a news reader. The reason
for this is that users must first establish their authentication credentials and programs such as mail agents
and newsreaders do not have authentication challenge prompts.
The PIX Firewall only accepts 7-bit characters during authentication. After authentication, the client and
server can negotiate for 8 bits if required. During authentication, the PIX Firewall only negotiates
Go-Ahead, Echo, and NVT (network virtual terminal).
HTTP Authentication
When using HTTP authentication to a site running Microsoft IIS that has “Basic text authentication” or
“NT Challenge” enabled, users may be denied access from the Microsoft IIS server. This occurs because
the browser appends the string: “Authorization: Basic=Uuhjksdkfhk==” to the HTTP GET commands.
This string contains the PIX Firewall authentication credentials.
Windows NT Microsoft IIS servers respond to the credentials and assume that a Windows NT user is
trying to access privileged pages on the server. Unless the PIX Firewall username password
combination is exactly the same as a valid Windows NT username and password combination on the
Microsoft IIS server, the HTTP GET command is denied.
To solve this problem, PIX Firewall provides the virtual http command, which redirects the browser's
initial connection to another IP address, authenticates the user, then redirects the browser back to the
URL which the user originally requested.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
3-9
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
aaa authentication
Once authenticated, a user never has to reauthenticate no matter how low the PIX Firewall uauth timeout
is set. This is because the browser caches the “Authorization: Basic=Uuhjksdkfhk==” string in every
subsequent connection to that particular site. This can only be cleared when the user exits all instances
of Netscape Navigator or Internet Explorer and restarts. Flushing the cache is of no use.
As long as the user repeatedly browses the Internet, the browser resends the “Authorization:
Basic=Uuhjksdkfhk==” string to transparently reauthenticate the user.
Multimedia applications such as CU-SeeMe, Intel Internet Phone, MeetingPoint, and MS NetMeeting
silently start the HTTP service before an H.323 session is established from the inside to the outside.
Network browsers such as Netscape Navigator do not present a challenge value during authentication;
therefore, only password authentication can be used from a network browser.
Note
To avoid interfering with these applications, do not enter blanket outgoing aaa command statements for
all challenged ports such as using the any option. Be selective with which ports and addresses you use
to challenge HTTP, and when to set user authentication timeouts to a higher timeout value. If interfered
with, the multimedia programs may fail on the PC and may even crash the PC after establishing outgoing
sessions from the inside.
TACACS+ and RADIUS servers
Up to 196 TACACS+ or RADIUS servers are permitted (up to 14 servers in each of the up to 14 server
groups—set with the aaa-server command). When a user logs in, the servers are accessed one at a time
starting with the first server you specify in the configuration, until a server responds.
The PIX Firewall permits only one authentication type per network. For example, if one network
connects through the PIX Firewall using TACACS+ for authentication, another network connecting
through the PIX Firewall can authenticate with RADIUS, but one network cannot authenticate with both
TACACS+ and RADIUS.
For the TACACS+ server, if you do not specify a key to the aaa-server command, no encryption occurs.
The PIX Firewall displays the same timeout message for both RADIUS and TACACS+. The message
“aaa server host machine not responding” displays when either of the following occurs:
•
The AAA server system is down.
•
The AAA server system is up, but the service is not running.
Previously, TACACS+ differentiated between the two preceding states and provided two different
timeout messages, while RADIUS did not differentiate between the two states and provided one timeout
message.
aaa authentication match
The aaa authentication match acl_name interface_name server_tag command specifies to match an
access-list command statement and then to provide authentication for that match. However, do not use
an access-list command statement that uses the source port to identify matching traffic. Like the aaa
authentication include | exclude command, the source port is not supported in the match criteria of the
aaa authentication match acl_name command.
The following set of examples illustrates how to use this command, as follows:
show access-list
access-list mylist permit tcp 10.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 172.23.2.0 255.255.255.0
access-list yourlist permit tcp any any
show aaa
aaa authentication match mylist outbound TACACS+
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
3-10
78-14890-01
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
aaa authentication
Similar to IPSec, the keyword permit means “yes” and deny means “no.” Therefore, the following
command,
aaa authentication match yourlist outbound tacacs
is equal to this command:
aaa authentication include any outbound 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 tacacs
The aaa command statement list is order-dependent between access-list command statements. If the
following command is entered:
aaa authentication match yourlist outbound tacacs
after this command:
aaa authentication match mylist outbound TACACS+
The PIX Firewall tries to find a match in the mylist access-list command statement group before it tries
to find a match in the yourlist access-list command statement group.
Old aaa command configuration and functionality stays the same and is not converted to the access-list
command format. Hybrid access control configurations (that is, old configurations combined with new
access-list command-based configurations) are not recommended.
Examples
The following example shows use of the aaa authentication command:
pixfirewall(config) aaa authentication telnet console radius
The following example lists the new include and exclude options:
aaa authentication include any outbound 172.31.0.0 255.255.0.0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 tacacs+
aaa authentication exclude telnet outbound 172.31.38.0 255.255.255.0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
tacacs+
The following examples demonstrate ways to use the if_name parameter. The PIX Firewall has an inside
network of 192.168.1.0, an outside network of 209.165.201.0 (subnet mask 255.255.255.224), and a
perimeter network of 209.165.202.128 (subnet mask 255.255.255.224).
This example enables authentication for connections originated from the inside network to the outside
network:
aaa authentication include any outbound 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 209.165.201.0
255.255.255.224 tacacs+
This example enables authentication for connections originated from the inside network to the perimeter
network:
aaa authentication include any outbound 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 209.165.202.128
255.255.255.224 tacacs+
This example enables authentication for connections originated from the outside network to the inside
network:
aaa authentication include any inbound 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 209.165.201.0
255.255.255.224 tacacs+
This example enables authentication for connections originated from the outside network to the
perimeter network:
aaa authentication include any inbound 209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224 209.165.202.128
255.255.255.224 tacacs+
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
3-11
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
aaa authorization
This example enables authentication for connections originated from the perimeter network to the
outside network:
aaa authentication include any outbound 209.165.202.128 255.255.255.224 209.165.201.0
255.255.255.224 tacacs+
This example specifies that IP addresses 10.0.0.1 through 10.0.0.254 can originate outbound
connections and then enables user authentication so that those addresses must enter user credentials to
exit the PIX Firewall. In this example, the first aaa authentication command permits authentication on
FTP, HTTP, or Telnet depending on what the authentication server handles. The second aaa
authentication command lets host 10.0.0.42 start outbound connections without being authenticated.
This example uses the default authentication group tacacs+.
nat (inside) 1 10.0.0.0 255.255.255.0
aaa authentication include any outbound 0 0 tacacs+
aaa authentication exclude outbound 10.0.0.42 255.255.255.255 tacacs+ any
This example permits inbound access to any IP address in the range of 209.165.201.1 through
209.165.201.30 indicated by the 209.165.201.0 network address (subnet mask 255.255.255.224). All
services are permitted by the access-list command, and the aaa authentication command permits
authentication on FTP, HTTP, or Telnet depending on what the authentication server handles. The
authentication server is at IP address 10.16.1.20 on the inside interface.
aaa-server AuthIn protocol tacacs+
aaa-server AuthIn (inside) host 10.16.1.20 thisisakey timeout 20
static (inside,outside) 209.165.201.0 10.16.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.224
access-list acl_out permit tcp 10.16.1.0 255.255.255.0 209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224
access-group acl_out in interface outside
aaa authentication include any inbound 0 0 AuthIn
Related Commands
aaa authorization
Enable or disable LOCAL or TACACS+ user authorization services.
auth-prompt
Changes the AAA challenge text.
password
Sets the password for Telnet access to the PIX Firewall console.
service
Resets inbound connections.
ssh
Specifies a host for access through Secure Shell (SSH).
telnet
Specifies the host for access via Telnet.
virtual
Accesses the PIX Firewall virtual server.
aaa authorization
Enable or disable LOCAL or TACACS+ user authorization services.
[no] aaa authorization command {LOCAL | tacacs_server_tag}
[no] aaa authorization include | exclude svc if_name local_ip local_mask foreign_ip
foreign_mask
clear aaa [authorization [include | exclude svc if_name local_ip local_mask foreign_ip
foreign_mask]]
[no] aaa authorization match acl_name if_name server_tag
show aaa
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
3-12
78-14890-01
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
aaa authorization
Syntax Description
authorization
Enable or disable TACACS+ user authorization for services (PIX Firewall does not
support RADIUS authorization). The authentication server determines what
services the user is authorized to access.
exclude
Create an exception to a previously stated rule by excluding the specified service
from authentication, authorization, or accounting to the specified host. The exclude
parameter improves the former except option by allowing the user to specify a port
to exclude to a specific host or hosts.
foreign_ip
The IP address of the hosts you want to access the local_ip address. Use 0 to mean
all hosts.
foreign_mask
Network mask of foreign_ip. Always specify a specific mask value. Use 0 if the
IP address is 0. Use 255.255.255.255 for a host.
if_name
Interface name from which users require authentication. Use if_name in
combination with the local_ip address and the foreign_ip address to determine
where access is sought and from whom. The local_ip address is always on the
highest security level interface and foreign_ip is always on the lowest.
include
Create a new rule with the specified service to include.
LOCAL
Specifies use of the PIX Firewall local user database for local command
authorization (using privilege levels).
The command will only accept the second, optional LOCAL method when the
<server_tag> refers to an existing, valid AAA TACACS+ or RADIUS server
group defined in a aaa-server configuration command. Clearly, you can configure
LOCAL as the first and only <server_tag>.
The no form of the command will remove the complete command and will not
support removing single methods.
local_ip
The IP address of the host or network of hosts that you want to be authenticated or
authorized. You can set this address to 0 to mean all hosts and to let the
authentication server decide which hosts are authenticated.
local_mask
Network mask of local_ip. Always specify a specific mask value. Use 0 if the IP
address is 0. Use 255.255.255.255 for a host.
match acl_name Specify an access-list command statement name.
server_tag
The AAA server group tag as defined by the aaa-server command. You can also
enter LOCAL for the group tag value and use the local firewall database AAA
services such as local command authorization privilege levels.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
3-13
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
aaa authorization
svc
The services which require authorization. Use any, ftp, http, telnet, or
protocol/port. Use any to provide authorization for all TCP services. To provide
authorization for UDP services, use the protocol/port form.
Services not specified are authorized implicitly. (Services specified in the aaa
authentication command do not affect the services that require authorization.)
For protocol/port:
•
protocol—the protocol (6 for TCP, 17 for UDP, 1 for ICMP, and so on).
•
port—the TCP or UDP destination port, or port range. The port can also be the
ICMP type; that is, 8 for ICMP echo or ping. A port value of 0 (zero) means
all ports. Port ranges only applies to the TCP and UDP protocols, not to ICMP.
For protocols other than TCP, UDP, and ICMP the port is not applicable and
should not be used. An example port specification follows.
aaa authorization include udp/53-1024 inside 0 0 0 0
This example enables authorization for DNS lookups to the inside interface for all
clients, and authorizes access to any other services that have ports in the range of
53 to 1024.
Note
tacacs_server
_tag
Specifying a port range may produce unexpected results at the
authorization server. PIX Firewall sends the port range to the server as a
string with the expectation that the server will parse it out into specific
ports. Not all servers do this. In addition, you may want users to be
authorized on specific services, which will not occur if a range is accepted.
Specifies to use a TACACS user authentication server.
Defaults
An IP address of 0 means all hosts.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
Except for its use with command authorization, the aaa authorization command requires previous
configuration with the aaa authentication command; however, use of the aaa authentication command
does not require use of a aaa authorization command.
Currently, the aaa authorization command is supported for use with LOCAL and TACACS+ servers
but not with RADIUS servers.
Tip
The help aaa command displays the syntax and usage for the aaa authentication, aaa authorization,
aaa accounting, and aaa proxy-limit commands in summary form.
For each IP address, one aaa authorization command is permitted. If you want to authorize more than
one service with aaa authorization, use the any parameter for the service type.
If the first attempt at authorization fails and a second attempt causes a timeout, use the
service resetinbound command to reset the client that failed the authorization so that it will not
retransmit any connections. An example authorization timeout message in Telnet follows.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
3-14
78-14890-01
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
aaa authorization
Unable to connect to remote host: Connection timed out
User authorization services control which network services a user can access. After a user is
authenticated, attempts to access restricted services cause the PIX Firewall unit to verify the access
permissions of the user with the designated AAA server.
The include and exclude options are not backward compatible with previous PIX Firewall versions. If
you downgrade to an earlier version, the aaa command statements will be removed from your
configuration.
Note
RADIUS authorization is supported for use with access-list command statements and for use in
configuring a RADIUS server with an acl=acl_name vendor-specific identifier. Refer to the access-list
command page for more information. Also see the aaa-server radius-authport commands.
If the AAA console login request times out, you can gain access to the PIX Firewall from the serial
console by entering the pix username and the enable password.
Examples
The default PIX Firewall configuration provides the following aaa-server protocols:
aaa-server TACACS+ protocol tacacs+
aaa-server RADIUS protocol radius
aaa-server LOCAL protocol local
The following example uses the default protocol TACACS+ with the aaa commands:
aaa-server TACACS+ (inside) host 10.1.1.10 thekey timeout 20
aaa authentication include any outbound 0 0 0 0 TACACS+
aaa authorization include any outbound 0 0 0 0
aaa accounting include any outbound 0 0 0 0 TACACS+
aaa authentication serial console TACACS+
This example specifies that the authentication server with the IP address 10.1.1.10 resides on the inside
interface and is in the default TACACS+ server group. The next three command statements specify that
any users starting outbound connections to any foreign host will be authenticated using TACACS+, that
the users who are successfully authenticated are authorized to use any service, and that all outbound
connection information will be logged in the accounting database. The last command statement specifies
that access to the PIX Firewall unit’s serial console requires authentication from the TACACS+ server.
The following example enables authorization for DNS lookups from the outside interface:
aaa authorization include udp/53 inbound 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
The following example enables authorization of ICMP echo-reply packets arriving at the inside interface
from inside hosts:
aaa authorization include 1/0 outbound 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
This means that users will not be able to ping external hosts if they have not been authenticated using
Telnet, HTTP, or FTP.
The following example enables authorization for ICMP echoes (pings) only that arrive at the inside
interface from an inside host:
aaa authorization include 1/8 outbound 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
3-15
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
aaa mac-exempt
Related Commands
aaa authentication
Enables, disables, or displays LOCAL, TACACS+, or RADIUS user
authentication on a server designated by the aaa-server command, or for
PDM user authentication.
auth-prompt
Changes the AAA challenge text.
password
Sets the password for Telnet access to the PIX Firewall console.
service
Resets inbound connections.
ssh
Specifies a host for access through Secure Shell (SSH).
telnet
Specifies the host for access via Telnet.
virtual
Accesses the PIX Firewall virtual server.
aaa mac-exempt
Exempts a list of MAC addresses from authentication and authorization.
[no] aaa mac-exempt match id
Syntax Description
id
Defaults
None.
Command Modes
The aaa mac-exempt match id command is available in configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The aaa mac-exempt match id command exempts a list of MAC addresses from authentication and
authorization.
Note
Examples
A MAC access list number. (Configured with the mac-list command.)
When configuring mac-exempt, do not use the same IP address for two MACs. If a mac-exempt
command is configured for two MACs, M1 and M2, and both attempt to use the same ip address, only
the traffic from M1 would be permitted. If a mac-exempt is configured for M1 or M2, or if one of them
is not configured at all, then the traffic from second host would be allowed to pass. A syslog alerting you
to a possible spoof attack, is generated.
The following example shows how to configure MAC-based AAA:
pixfirewall(config)# show mac-list
mac-list adc permit 00a0.c95d.0282 ffff.ffff.ffff
mac-list adc deny 00a1.c95d.0282 ffff.ffff.ffff
mac-list ac permit 0050.54ff.0000 ffff.ffff.0000
mac-list ac deny 0061.54ff.b440 ffff.ffff.ffff
mac-list ac deny 0072.54ff.b440 ffff.ffff.ffff
pixfirewall(config)# aaa mac-exempt match ac
pixfirewall(config)# show aaa
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
3-16
78-14890-01
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
aaa proxy-limit
aaa mac-exempt match ac
pixfirewall(config)# aaa ?
Usage: [no] aaa authentication|authorization|accounting include|exclude <svc>
<if_name><l_ip> <l_mask> [<f_ip> <f_mask>] <server_tag>
[no] aaa authentication serial|telnet|ssh|http|enable console <server_tag>
[no] aaa authentication|authorization|accounting match <acl_name> <if_name>
<server_tag>
[no] aaa authorization command {LOCAL | tacacs_server_tag} aaa proxy-limit <proxy
limit> | disable
[no] aaa mac-exempt match <mcl-id>
Related Commands
aaa authentication
Enable, disable, or view LOCAL, TACACS+, or RADIUS user
authentication, on a server designated by the aaa-server command, or PDM
user authentication.
aaa authorization
Enable or disable LOCAL or TACACS+ user authorization services.
access-list
Create an access list, or use downloadable access lists. (Downloadable access
lists are supported for RADIUS servers only.)
mac-list
Adds a list of MAC addresses using a first match search, and used by the
firewall VPN client in performing MAC-based authentication.
aaa proxy-limit
Specifies the number of concurrent proxy connections allowed per user.
[no] aaa proxy-limit proxy_limit | disable
show aaa proxy-limit
Syntax Description
disable
Disables the proxy limit.
proxy_limit
Specifies the number of concurrent proxy connections allowed per user,
from 1 to 128. (The default value is 16.)
Defaults
The default proxy limit value is 16.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The aaa proxy-limit command enables you to manually configure the uauth session limit by setting the
maximum number of concurrent proxy connections allowed per user. By default, this value is set to 16.
If a source address is a proxy server, consider excluding this IP address from authentication or increasing
the number of allowable outstanding AAA requests.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
3-17
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
aaa-server
The show aaa proxy-limit command displays the number of outstanding authentication requests
allowed, or indicates that the proxy limit is disabled if disabled.
Examples
The following example shows how to set and display the maximum number of outstanding
authentication requests allowed:
pixfirewall(config)# aaa proxy-limit 6
pixfirewall(config)# show aaa proxy-limit
aaa proxy-limit 6
Related Commands
aaa authentication
Enable, disable, or view LOCAL, TACACS+, or RADIUS user
authentication, on a server designated by the aaa-server command, or PDM
user authentication
aaa authorization
Enable or disable LOCAL or TACACS+ user authorization services.
aaa-server
Specifies a AAA server.
aaa-server
Defines the AAA server group.
[no] aaa-server server_tag deadtime <minutes>
[no] aaa-server server_tag [(if_name)] host server_ip [key] [timeout seconds]
[no] aaa-server server_tag max-failed-attempts <number>
[no] aaa-server server_tag protocol auth_protocol
[no] aaa-server radius-acctport [acct_port]
[no] aaa-server radius-authport [auth_port]
clear aaa-server [server_tag]
show aaa-server
debug radius session
Syntax Description
aaa-server
Specifies a AAA server or up to 14 groups of servers with a maximum of 14
servers each. Certain types of AAA services can be directed to different
servers. Services can also be set up to fail over to multiple servers.
acct_port
RADIUS authentication port number. The default is 1645.
auth_port
RADIUS accounting port number. The default is 1646.
deadtime <minutes>
<minutes> identifies the minutes to declare the AAA server group as
unresponsive.
debug radius session
Captures RADIUS session information and attributes for sent and received
RADIUS packets.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
3-18
78-14890-01
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
aaa-server
host server_ip
The IP address of the TACACS+ or RADIUS server.
if_name
The interface name on which the server resides.
key
A case-sensitive, alphanumeric keyword of up to 127 characters that is the
same value as the key on the TACACS+ server. Any characters entered past
127 are ignored. The key is used between the client and server for
encrypting data between them. The key must be the same on both the client
and server systems. Spaces are not permitted in the key, but other special
characters are.
max-failed-attempts
<number>
<number> identifies the maximum number of AAA requests to attempt to
each AAA server in a AAA server group.
no aaa-server
Unbinds a AAA server from and interface or host.
protocol auth_protocol The type of AAA server, either tacacs+ or radius.
Defaults
radius-acctport
Sets the port number of the RADIUS server which the PIX Firewall unit will
use for accounting functions. The default port number used for RADIUS
accounting is 1646.
radius-authport
Sets the port number of the RADIUS server which the PIX Firewall will use
for authentication functions. The default port number used for RADIUS
authentication is 1645.
server_tag
An alphanumeric string which is the name of the server group. Use the
server_tag in the aaa command to associate aaa authentication and aaa
accounting command statements to a AAA server. Up to 14 server groups
are permitted. However, LOCAL cannot used with aaa-server command
because LOCAL is predefined by the PIX Firewall.
timeout seconds
The timeout interval for the request. This is the time after which the
PIX Firewall gives up on the request to the primary AAA server. If there is
a standby AAA server, the PIX Firewall will send the request to the backup
server. The retransmit timeout is currently set to 10 seconds and is not user
configurable.
By default, the PIX Firewall listens for RADIUS on ports 1645 for authentication and 1646 for
accounting. (The default ports 1645 for authentication and 1646 for accounting are as defined in
RFC 2058.)
The default configuration provides the following aaa-server command protocols:
aaa-server TACACS+ protocol tacacs+
aaa-server RADIUS protocol radius
aaa-server LOCAL protocol local
The default timeout value is 5 seconds.
Some AAA servers accept passwords up to 32 characters, but the PIX Firewall allows passwords up to
16 characters only.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
3-19
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
aaa-server
Usage Guidelines
The aaa-server command lets you specify AAA server groups. PIX Firewall lets you define separate
groups of TACACS+ or RADIUS servers for specifying different types of traffic; such as, a TACACS+
server for inbound traffic and another for outbound traffic. Another use is where all outbound HTTP
traffic will be authenticated by a TACACS+ server, and all inbound traffic will use RADIUS.
Other aaa commands reference the server tag group defined by the aaa-server command server_tag
parameter. This is a global setting that takes effect when the TACACS+ or RADIUS service is started.
Note
When a cut-through proxy is configured, TCP sessions (TELNET, FTP, or HTTP) may have their
sequence number randomized even if the norandomseq option is used in the nat or static command.
This occurs when a AAA server proxies the TCP session to authenticate the user before permitting
access.
AAA server groups are defined by a tag name that directs different types of traffic to each authentication
server. If the first authentication server in the list fails, the AAA subsystem fails over to the next server
in the tag group. You can have up to 14 tag groups and each group can have up to 14 AAA servers for a
total of up to 196 AAA servers.
If accounting is in effect, the accounting information goes only to the active server.
The show aaa-server command displays AAA server configuration.
[no] aaa-server server_tag deadtime <minutes>
The server_tag identifies the AAA server group and is the same as the current aaa-server command.
<minutes> identifies the minutes to declare the AAA server group as unresponsive
Valid input rage: 0 - 1440
Units: minutes
Default:10
While the command may be configured even without having configured the LOCAL method on any of
the three authentication and authorization commands described earlier, it only affects operations when
a user has configured two methods. Obviously, at this time, the second method must and be LOCAL.
The command specifies the minutes a particular method should be marked unresponsive and skipped.
When a AAA server group has been marked unresponsive, the firewall will immediately perform the
authentication or authorization against the next method which will be the local firewall user database.
Every server in a group must be marked unresponsive before the entire group will be declared
unresponsive.
When you configure the deadtime to “0”, the AAA server group is never considered unresponsive and
all authentication and authorization requests are always attempted against this AAA server group first
before using the next method in the method list (for example, falling back to the local user database).
The [no] form of this command restores the aaa-server command to its default value of 10 minutes.
The deadtime begins as soon as the last server in the AAA server group has been marked DOWN. A
server is marked down when maximum number of attempts defined in max-attempts has been reached
and failed to receive a response. Upon expiration of the deadtime, the AAA server group becomes active
and all requests will are submitted once again to the AAA servers in the AAA server group.
[no] aaa-server server_tag max-failed-attempts <number>
The server_tag identifies the AAA server group and is the same as existing aaa-server command today.
<number> identifies the maximum number of AAA requests to attempt to each AAA server in a AAA
server group.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
3-20
78-14890-01
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
aaa-server
Valid input rage: 1 -5
Units: Counter
Default: 3 (same as current PIX/FWSM software)
The current PIX/FWSM software sends a AAA request 3 times to a AAA server before it declares the
AAA server unresponsive and moves on to try the next server in the group. This command lets the user
configure this number of attempts. Users should tune the max-failed-attempts and the timeout values to
achieve the desired fall-back behavior when authenticating or authorizing commands in a fall-back
configuration. That is, if you wish to declare an individual AAA server unresponsive more aggressively,
you should reduce the max-failed-attempts counter to 1 or 2.
aaa-server radius-authport and aaa-server radius-acctport
You can change authorization and accounting port settings on the firewall with the aaa-server
radius-authport and aaa-server radius-acctport commands. These commands specify the destination
TCP/UDP port number of the remote RADIUS server host to which you wish to assign authentication or
accounting functions.
By default, the PIX Firewall listens for RADIUS on ports 1645 and 1646. If your authentication server
uses ports other than 1645 and 1646, then you must configure the firewall for the appropriate ports prior
to starting the RADIUS service with the aaa-server command. For example, some RADIUS servers use
the port numbers 1812 and 1813 as defined in RFC 2138 and RFC 2139. If your RADIUS server uses
ports 1812 and 1813, you must use the aaa-server radius-authport and aaa-server radius-acctport
commands to reconfigure the firewall to use ports 1812 and 1813.
The following port pairs are listed as assigned to authentication and accounting services on RADIUS
servers:
•
1645 (authentication), 1646 (accounting) - default for PIX Firewall
•
1812 (authentication), 1813 (accounting) - alternate
You can view these and other commonly used port number assignments online at the following website:
http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers
Or, alternately, refer to “Ports” in Chapter 2, “Using PIX Firewall Commands,” for additional
information.
Upgrading Your AAA Server Configuration and Backward Compatibility
If you are upgrading from a previous version of PIX Firewall and have aaa command statements in your
configuration, using the default server groups lets you maintain backward compatibility with the aaa
command statements in your configuration.
The previous server type option at the end of the aaa authentication and aaa accounting commands
has been replaced with the aaa-server server_tag group tag. Backward compatibility with previous
versions is maintained by the inclusion of two default protocols for TACACS+ and RADIUS.
Examples
The following example uses the default protocol TACACS+ with the aaa commands:
aaa-server TACACS+ (inside) host 10.1.1.10 thekey timeout 20
aaa authentication include any outbound 0 0 0 0 TACACS+
aaa authorization include any outbound 0 0 0 0
aaa accounting include any outbound 0 0 0 0 TACACS+
aaa authentication serial console TACACS+
This example specifies that the authentication server with the IP address 10.1.1.10 resides on the inside
interface and is in the default TACACS+ server group. The next three command statements specify that
any users starting outbound connections to any foreign host will be authenticated using TACACS+, that
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
3-21
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
access-group
the users who are successfully authenticated are authorized to use any service, and that all outbound
connection information will be logged in the accounting database. The last command statement specifies
that access to the PIX Firewall unit’s serial console requires authentication from the TACACS+ server.
This example creates the AuthOut and AuthIn server groups for RADIUS authentication and specifies
that servers 10.0.1.40, 10.0.1.41, and 10.1.1.2 on the inside interface provide authentication. The servers
in the AuthIn group authenticate inbound connections, the AuthOut group authenticates outbound
connections.
aaa-server AuthIn protocol radius
aaa-server AuthIn (inside) host 10.0.1.40 ab timeout 20
aaa-server AuthIn (inside) host 10.0.1.41 abc timeout 4
aaa-server AuthOut protocol radius
aaa-server AuthOut (inside) host 10.1.1.2 abc123 timeout 15
aaa authentication include any inbound 0 0 0 0 AuthIn
aaa authentication include any outbound 0 0 0 0 AuthOut
The following example lists the commands that can be used to establish an Xauth crypto map:
ip address inside 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
ip address outside 168.20.1.5 255.255.255.0
ip local pool dealer 10.1.2.1-10.1.2.254
nat (inside) 0 access-list 80
aaa-server TACACS+ host 10.0.0.2 secret123
crypto ipsec transform-set pc esp-des esp-md5-hmac
crypto dynamic-map cisco 4 set transform-set pc
crypto map partner-map 20 ipsec-isakmp dynamic cisco
crypto map partner-map client configuration address initiate
crypto map partner-map client authentication TACACS+
crypto map partner-map interface outside
isakmp key cisco1234 address 0.0.0.0 netmask 0.0.0.0
isakmp client configuration address-pool local dealer outside
isakmp policy 8 authentication pre-share
isakmp policy 8 encryption des
isakmp policy 8 hash md5
isakmp policy 8 group 1
isakmp policy 8 lifetime 86400
The aaa-server command is used with the crypto map command to establish an authentication
association so that VPN clients are authenticated when they access the PIX Firewall.
Related Commands
aaa authentication
Enable, disable, or view LOCAL, TACACS+, or RADIUS user
authentication, on a server designated by the aaa-server command, or PDM
user authentication.
aaa authorization
Enable or disable LOCAL or TACACS+ user authorization services.
crypto ipsec
Creates, displays, or deletes IPSec security associations, security association
global lifetime values, and global transform sets.
isakmp
Negotiates IPSec security associations and enables IPSec secure
communications.
access-group
Binds the access list to an interface.
[no] access-group access-list in interface interface_name [per-user-override]
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
3-22
78-14890-01
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
access-group
clear access-group [access-list]
show access-group [access-list]
Syntax Description
access-list
The access list id.
in interface
Filter inbound packets at the given interface.
interface_name
The name of the network interface.
[per-user-override]
Allow downloadable user access lists to override the access list applied to
the interface.
Defaults
None.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The access-group command binds an access list to an interface. The access list is applied to traffic
inbound to an interface. If you enter the permit option in an access-list command statement, the
PIX Firewall continues to process the packet. If you enter the deny option in an access-list command
statement, PIX Firewall discards the packet and generates the following syslog message.
%PIX-4-106019: IP packet from source_addr to destination_addr, protocol protocol received
from interface interface_name deny by access-group id
PIX Firewall Version 6.3(2) adds support for the per-user-override option, which allows downloaded
access lists to override the access list applied to the interface. If the per-user-override optional
argument is not present, thePIX Firewall preserves the existing filtering behavior. When
per-user-override is present, the PIX Firewall allows the permit or deny status from the per-user
access-list (if one is downloaded) associated to a user to override the permit or deny status from the
access-group command associated access list. Additionally, the following rules are observed:
•
At the time a packet arrives, if there is no per-user access list associated with the packet, the
interface access list will be applied.
•
The per-user access list is governed by the timeout value specified by the uauth option of the
timeout command but it can be overriden by the AAA per-user session timeout value.
•
Existing access list log behavior will be the same. For example, if user traffic is denied because of
a per-user access list, syslog message 109015 will be logged. If user traffic is permitted, no syslog
message is generated. The log option in the per-user access-list will have no effect.
Always use the access-list command with the access-group command.
Note
The use of access-group command overrides the conduit and outbound command statements for the
specified interface_name.
The no access-group command unbinds the access-list from the interface interface_name.
The show access-group command displays the current access list bound to the interfaces.
The clear access-group command removes all entries from an access list indexed by access-list. If
access-list is not specified, all access-list command statements are removed from the configuration.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
3-23
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
access-group
Examples
The following example shows use of the access-group command:
static (inside,outside) 209.165.201.3 10.1.1.3
access-list acl_out permit tcp any host 209.165.201.3 eq 80
access-group acl_out in interface outside
The static command statement provides a global address of 209.165.201.3 for the web server at 10.1.1.3.
The access-list command statement lets any host access the global address using port 80. The
access-group command specifies that the access-list command statement applies to traffic entering the
outside interface.
Related Commands
access-list
Creates an access list, or uses a downloadable access list.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
3-24
78-14890-01
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
access-list
access-list
Create an access list, or use a downloadable access list. (Downloadable access lists are supported for
RADIUS servers only).
access-list <acl_name> object-group-search
[no] access-list deny-flow-max n
[no] access-list alert-interval secs
[no] access-list [id] compiled
[no] access-list id [line line-num] remark text
[no] access-list id [line line-num] {deny | permit}{protocol | object-group protocol_obj_grp_id
{source_addr source_mask} | object-group network_obj_grp_id [operator port [port] |
interface if_name | object-group service_obj_grp_id] {destination_addr | remote_addr}
{destination_mask | remote_mask} | object-group network_obj_grp_id [operator port [port] |
object-group service_obj_grp_id]} [log [[disable | default] | [level]]] [interval secs]]
[no] access-list id [line line-num] {deny | permit} icmp {source_addr source_mask} |
interface if_name | object-group network_obj_grp_id {destination_addr | remote_addr}
{destination_mask | remote_mask} | interface if_name | object-group network_obj_grp_id
[icmp_type | object-group icmp_type_obj_grp_id] [log [[disable | default] | [level]]] [interval
secs]]
[no] debug access-list all | standard | turbo
clear access-list {[id] | [id counters]}
show access-list [[id] source_addr]
Restricted for use with the prefix-list command:
[no] access-list id deny | permit {any | prefix mask | host address}
Syntax Description
alert-interval secs Specifies the time interval, from 1 to 3600 seconds, for generating syslog message
106101, which alerts you that the firewall has reached a deny flow maximum. In
other words, when the deny flow maximum is reached, another 106101 message is
generated if has been at least secs seconds since the last 106101 message.
If this option is not specified, the default interval is 300 seconds.
compiled
When used in conjunction with the access-list command, this turns on TurboACL
unless the no qualifier is used, in which case the command no access-list id
compiled turns off TurboACL for that access list.
To use TurboACL globally, enter the access-list compiled command and to
globally turn off TurboACL, enter the no access-list compiled command.
After TurboACL has been globally configured, individual access lists or groups can
have TurboACL enabled or disabled using individual [no] access-list id compiled
commands.
TurboACL is compiled only if the number of access list elements is greater than or
equal to 19.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
3-25
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
access-list
debug
Outputs access list debugging information to the console.
deny
When used with the access-group command, the deny option does not allow a
packet to traverse the PIX Firewall. By default, PIX Firewall denies all inbound or
outbound packets unless you specifically permit access.
When used with a crypto map command statement, deny does not select a packet
for IPSec protection. The deny option prevents traffic from being protected by
IPSec in the context of that particular crypto map entry. In other words, it does not
allow the policy as specified in the crypto map command statements to be applied
to this traffic.
deny-flow-max n Specifies the maximum number of concurrent deny flows that can be created.
(Syslog message 106101 is generated when the firewall has reached the maximum
number, n, of ACL deny flows.)
For a firewall with greater than 64 MB Flash memory, the value can be from 1 to
4096, with a default value of 4096. For a firewall with greater than 16 MB Flash
memory, the value can be from 1 to 1024, with a default value of 1024. For a
firewall with less than or equal to 16 MB Flash memory, the value can be from 1
to 256, with a default value of 256.
destination_addr
IP address of the network or host to which the packet is being sent. Specify a
destination_addr when the access-list command statement is used in conjunction
with an access-group command statement, or with the aaa match access-list
command and the aaa authorization command. For inbound and outbound
connections, destination_addr is the address before NAT has been performed.
destination_mask Netmask bits (mask) to be applied to destination_addr, if the destination address is
a network mask.
disable
Disables ACL logging for the access control element (ACE), which is an access
control list entry.
icmp_type
For non-IPSec use only, permit or deny access to ICMP message types. Refer to
Table 3-1 for a list of message types. Omit this option to mean all ICMP types.
ICMP message types are not supported for use with IPSec; that is when the
access-list command is used in conjunction with the crypto map command, the
icmp_type is ignored.
id
Name of an access list. You can use either a name or number.
interface
if_name
The name of the firewall interface.
interval secs
The time interval in seconds, from 1 to 600, at which to generate an 106100 syslog
message. The secs value is also used as the timeout value for deleting an inactive
flow.
If this option is not specified, the default interval is 300 seconds for a new access
control element (ACE). If an ACE already exists, any interval previously
associated with that ACE remains unchanged.
line-num
The line number at which to insert a remark or an access control element (ACE).
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
3-26
78-14890-01
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
access-list
log disable |
default | level
When the log option is specified, it generates syslog message 106100 for the access
list element (ACE) to which it is applied. (Syslog message 106100 is generated for
every matching permit or deny ACE flow passing through the firewall.) The
first-match flow is cached. Subsequent matches increment the hit count displayed
in the show object-group command (hitcnt) for the ACE, and new 106100
messages will be generated at the end of the interval defined by interval secs if the
hit count for the flow is not zero.
The default ACL logging behavior (the log keyword not specified) is that if a
packet is denied, then message 106023 is generated, and if a packet is permitted,
then no syslog message is generated.
An optional syslog level (0 - 7) may be specified for the generated syslog messages
(106100). If no level is specified, the default level is 6 (informational) for a new
ACE. If the ACE already exists, then its existing log level remains unchanged.
If the log disable option is specified, access list logging is completely disabled. No
syslog message, including message 106023, will be generated.
The log default option restores the default access list logging behavior.
mask
The netmask.
obj_grp_id
An existing object group.
object-group
Specifies an object group. Refer to the object-group command for information on
how to configure object groups.
object-group-se
arch
Use this keyword to specify that access list search is performed on object groups
that are contained in access list instead of searching the entire expanded access list.
– This mode overrides TurboACL mode (compiled).
– When this mode is enabled, TurboACL on this access-list is not allowed.
– When this mode is enabled on an access-list, the access-list cannot be used
in the nat and crypto commands.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
3-27
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
access-list
operator
The operator compares the source IP address (sip) or destination IP address (dip)
ports. Possible operands include lt for less than, gt for greater than, eq for equal,
neq for not equal, and range for an inclusive range. Use the access-list command
the without an operator and port to indicate all ports by default.
For example,
access-list acl_out permit tcp any host 209.165.201.1
Use eq and a port to permit or deny access to just that port. For example, use eq ftp
to permit or deny access only to FTP.
access-list acl_out deny tcp any host 209.165.201.1 eq ftp
Use lt and a port to permit or deny access to all ports less than the port you specify.
For example, use lt 2025 to permit or deny access to the well-known ports (1 to
1024).
access-list acl_dmz1 permit tcp any host 192.168.1.1 lt 1025
Use gt and a port to permit or deny access to all ports greater than the port you
specify. For example, use gt 42 to permit or deny ports 43 to 65535.
access-list acl_dmz1 deny udp any host 192.168.1.2 gt 42
Use neq and a port to permit or deny access to every port except the ports that you
specify. For example, use neq 10 to permit or deny ports 1-9 and 11 to 65535.
access-list acl_dmz1 deny tcp any host 192.168.1.3 neq 10
Use range and a port range to permit or deny access to only those ports named in
the range. For example, use range 10 1024 to permit or deny access only to ports
10 through 1024. All other ports are unaffected. The use of port ranges can
dramatically increase the number of IPSec tunnels. For example, if a port range of
5000 to 65535 is specified for a highly dynamic protocol, up to 60,535 tunnels can
be created.
permit
When used with the access-group command, the permit option selects a packet to
traverse the PIX Firewall. By default, PIX Firewall denies all inbound or outbound
packets unless you specifically permit access.
When used with a crypto map command statement, permit selects a packet for
IPSec protection. The permit option causes all IP traffic that matches the specified
conditions to be protected by IPSec using the policy described by the corresponding
crypto map command statements.
prefix
The network number. For more information, refer to the prefix-list command.
port
Services you permit or deny access to. Specify services by the port that handles it,
such as smtp for port 25, www for port 80, and so on. You can specify ports by
either a literal name or a number in the range of 0 to 65535.
You can view valid port numbers online at the following website:
http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers
See “Ports” in Chapter 2, “Using PIX Firewall Commands” for a list of valid port
literal names in port ranges; for example, ftp h323. You can also specify numbers.
protocol
Name or number of an IP protocol. It can be one of the keywords icmp, ip, tcp, or
udp, or an integer in the range 1 to 254 representing an IP protocol number. To
match any Internet protocol, including ICMP, TCP, and UDP, use the keyword ip.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
3-28
78-14890-01
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
access-list
Defaults
remark text
The text of the remark to add before or after an access-list command statement, up
to 100 characters in length.
remote_addr
IP address of the network or host remote to the PIX Firewall. Specify a
remote_addr when the access-list command statement is used in conjunction with
a crypto access-list command statement, a nat 0 access-list command statement,
or a vpdn group split-tunnel command statement.
remote_mask
Netmask bits (mask) to be applied to remote_addr, if the remote address is a
network mask.
source_addr
Address of the network or host from which the packet is being sent. Use this field
when an access-list command statement is used in conjunction with an
access-group command statement, or with the aaa match access-list command
and the aaa authorization command.
source_mask
Netmask bits (mask) to be applied to source_addr, if the source address is for a
network mask.
By default, PIX Firewall denies all inbound or outbound packets unless you specifically permit access.
TurboACL is used only if the number of access list elements is greater than or equal to 19.
The default time interval at which to generate syslog message 106100 is 300 seconds.
The default time interval for a deny flow maximum syslog message (106101) is 300 seconds.
The default ACL logging behavior is to generate syslog message 106023 for denied packets.
When the log option is specified, the default level for syslog message 106100 is 6 (informational).
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The access-list command lets you specify if an IP address is permitted or denied access to a port or
protocol. In this document, one or more access-list command statements with the same access list name
are referred to as an “access list.” Access lists associated with IPSec are known as “crypto access lists.”
By default, all access-list commands have an implicit deny unless you explicitly specify permit. In
other words, by default, all access in an access list is denied unless you explicitly grant access using a
permit statement.
Note
Do not use the string “multicastACL” following the name of a PIX Firewall interface in an access-list
name because this is a reserved keyword used by PIX Device Manager (PDM).
Additionally, you can use the object-group command to group access lists like any other network object.
Use the following guidelines for specifying a source or destination address:
•
Use a 32-bit quantity in four-part, dotted-decimal format.
•
Use the keyword any as an abbreviation for an address and mask of 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0. This keyword
is normally not recommended for use with IPSec.
•
Use host address as an abbreviation for a mask of 255.255.255.255.
Use the following guidelines for specifying a network mask:
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
3-29
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
access-list
•
Do not specify a mask if the address is for a host; if the destination address is for a host, use the host
parameter before the address.
For example:
access-list acl_grp permit tcp any host 192.168.1.1
•
If the address is a network address, specify the mask as a 32-bit quantity in four-part, dotted-decimal
format. Place zeros in the bit positions you want to ignore.
•
Remember that you specify a network mask differently than with the Cisco IOS software access-list
command. With PIX Firewall, use 255.0.0.0 for a Class A address, 255.255.0.0 for a Class B
address, and 255.255.255.0 for a Class C address. If you are using a subnetted network address, use
the appropriate network mask.
For example:
access-list acl_grp permit tcp any 209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224
If appropriate, after you have defined an access list, bind it to an interface using the access-group
command. For IPSec use, bind it with a crypto ipsec command statement. In addition, you can bind an
access list with the RADIUS authorization feature (described in the next section).
The access-list command supports the sunrpc service.
The show access-list command lists the access-list command statements in the configuration and the hit
count of the number of times each element has been matched during an access-list command search.
Additionally, it displays the number of access list statements in the access list and indicates whether or
not the list is configured for TurboACL. (If the list has less than eighteeen access control entries then
it is marked to be turbo-configured but is not actually configured for TurboACL until there are 19 or
more entries.)
The show access-list source_addr option filters the show output so that only those access-list elements
that match the source IP address (or with any as source IP address) are displayed.
The clear access-list command removes all access-list command statements from the configuration or,
if specified, access lists by their id. The clear access-list id counters command clears the hit count for
the specified access list.
The no access-list command removes an access-list command from the configuration. If you remove all
the access-list command statements in an access list, the no access-list command also removes the
corresponding access-group command from the configuration.
Note
The aaa, crypto map, and icmp commands make use of the access-list command statements.
access-list line line-num commands
Use the access-list id line line-num command to insert an access-list command statement, and the no
access-list id line line-num command to delete an access-list command statement.
Each access control element (ACE) and remark has an associated line number. Line numbers can be used
to insert or delete elements at any position in an access list. These numbers are maintained internally in
increasing order starting from 1. (For example, in sequence such as 1, 2, 3...) A user can insert a new
entry between two consecutive ACEs by choosing the line number of the higher line number ACE.
The line numbers are always maintained in increasing order, with an individual line number for each
ACE. However, all ACEs resulting from a single object group access-list command statement have a
single line number. Consequently, you cannot insert an ACE in the middle of object-group ACEs.
Line numbers are displayed by the show access-list command. However, they are not shown in your
configuration.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
3-30
78-14890-01
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
access-list
access-list logging commands
The following example shows what happens when an access list log option is enabled. There are some
behavior differences among various types of IP traffic because the access check is only applied to those
packets which do not have an existing “connection”:
access-group outside-acl in interface outside
.
.
access-list outside-acl permit ip host 1.1.1.1 any log 7 interval 600
access-list outside-acl permit ip host 2.2.2.2 any
access-list outside-acl deny ip any any log 2
The following example illustrates the use of access list based logging in an ICMP context:
1.
An inbound ICMP echo request (1.1.1.1 -> 192.168.1.1) arrives on the outside interface.
2.
An ACL called outside-acl is applied for the access check.
3.
The packet is permitted by the first ACE of outside-acl which has the log option enabled.
4.
The log flow (ICMP, 1.1.1.1, 0, 192.168.1.1, 8) has not been cached, so the following syslog
message is generated and the log flow is cached:
106100: access-list outside-acl permitted icmp outside/1.1.1.1(0) ->
inside/192.168.1.1(8) hit-cnt 1 (first hit)
5.
Twenty such packets arrive on the outside interface within the next 10 minutes (600 seconds).
Because the log flow has been cached, the log flow is located and the hit count of the log flow is
incremented for each packet.
6.
At the end of 10th minute, the following syslog message is generated and the hit count of the log
flow is reset to 0:
106100: access-list outside-acl permitted icmp outside/1.1.1.1(0) ->
inside/192.168.1.1(8) hit-cnt 20 (300-second interval)
7.
No such packets arrive on the outside interface within the next 10 minutes. So the hit count of the
log flow remains 0.
8.
At the end of 20th minute, the cached flow (ICMP, 1.1.1.1, 0, 192.168.1.1, 8) is deleted because of
the 0 hit count.
To disable a log option without having to remove the ACE, use access-list id log disable.
When removing an access control element (ACE) with a log option enabled using a no access-list
command, it is not necessary to specify all the log options. The ACE is removed as long as its permit or
deny rule is used to uniquely identify it. However, the removal of an ACE (with a log option enabled)
does not remove the associated cached flows. You must remove the entire access control list (ACL) to
remove the cached flows. When a cached flow is flushed due to the removal of an ACL, a syslog message
will be generated if the hit count of the flow is non-zero.
The clear access-list command removes all the cached flows.
access-list id remark command
The access-list id [line line-num] remark text command enables users to include comments (remarks)
about entries in any access control list (ACL). You can use remarks to make the ACL easier to scan and
interpret. Each remark line is limited to 100 characters.
The ACL remark can be placed before or after an access-list command statement, but it should be placed
in a consistent position so that it is clear which remark describes which access-list command. For
example, it would be confusing to have some remarks before the associated access-list commands and
some remarks after the associated access-list commands.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
3-31
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
access-list
The no access-list id line line-num remark text and no access-list id line line-num commands both
remove the remark at that line number.
The following are samlpes of possible access list remarks:
access-list
access-list
access-list
access-list
access-list
access-list
access-list
access-list
out-acl
out-acl
out-acl
out-acl
out-acl
out-acl
out-acl
out-acl
remark - ACL for the outside interface
remark - Allow Joe Smith's group to login
permit tcp 1.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 server
remark - Allow Lee White's group to login
permit tcp 1.1.3.0 255.255.255.0 server
remark - Deny known hackers
deny ip host 192.23.56.1 any
deny ip host 197.1.1.125 any
RADIUS Authorization
PIX Firewall allows a RADIUS server to send user group attributes to the PIX Firewall in the RADIUS
authentication response message. Additionally, the PIX Firewall allows downloadable access lists from
the RADIUS server. For example, you can configure an access list on a Cisco Secure ACS server and
download it to the PIX Firewall during RADIUS authorization.
After the PIX Firewall authenticates a user, it can then use the CiscoSecure acl attribute returned by the
authentication server to identify an access list for a given user group. To maintain consistency,
PIX Firewall also provides the same functionality for TACACS+.
To restrict users in a department to three servers and deny everything else, the access-list command
statements are as follows:
access-list
access-list
access-list
access-list
eng
eng
eng
eng
permit ip any server1 255.255.255.255
permit ip any server2 255.255.255.255
permit ip any server3 255.255.255.255
deny ip any any
In this example, the vendor specific attribute string in the CiscoSecure configuration has been set to
acl=eng. Use this field in the CiscoSecure configuration to identify the access-list identification name.
The PIX Firewall gets the acl=id from CiscoSecure and extracts the ACL number from the attribute string,
which it places in a user’s uauth entry. When a user tries to open a connection, PIX Firewall checks the access
list in the user’s uauth entry, and depending on the permit or deny status of the access list match, permits or
denies the connection. When a connection is denied, PIX Firewall generates a corresponding syslog
message. If there is no match, then the implicit rule is to deny.
Because the source IP of a given user can vary depending on where they are logging in from, set the
source address in the access-list command statement to any, and the destination address to identify
which network services the user is permitted or denied access to. If you want to specify that only users
logging in from a given subnet may use the specified services, specify the subnet instead of using any.
Note
An access list used for RADIUS authorization does not require an access-group command to bind the
statements to an interface.
There is not a radius option to the aaa authorization command.
Configure the access list specified in Attribute 11 to specify a per-user access list name. Otherwise,
remove Attribute 11 from the AAA RADIUS server configuration if no access list is intended for user
authentication. If the access list is not configured on the PIX Firewall when the user attempts to login,
the login will fail.
For more information on how to use RADIUS server authorization, refer to the Cisco PIX Firewall and
VPN Configuration Guide, Version 6.2 or higher.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
3-32
78-14890-01
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
access-list
TurboACL
On the PIX Firewall, TurboACL is turned on globally with the command access-list compiled (and
turned off globally by the command no access-list compiled).
The PIX Firewall default mode is TurboACL off (no access-list compiled), and TurboACL is active
only on access lists with 19 or more entries.
The minimum amount of Flash memory required to run TurboACL is 2.1 MB. If memory allocation
fails, the TurboACL lookup tables will not be generated.
Note
Use TurboACL only on PIX Firewall platforms that have 16 MB or more of Flash memory.
Consequently, TurboACL is not supported on the PIX 501 because it has 8 MB of Flash memory.
If TurboACL is configured, some access control list or access control list group modifications can
trigger regeneration of the TurboACL internal configuration. Depending on the extent of TurboACL
configuration(s), this could noticeably consume CPU resources. Consequently, we recommend
modifying turbo-complied access lists during non-peak system usage hours.
For more information on how to use TurboACL, refer to the Cisco PIX Firewall and VPN Configuration
Guide, Version 6.2 or higher.
Usage Notes
1.
The clear access-list command automatically unbinds an access list from a crypto map command
or interface. The unbinding of an access list from a crypto map command can lead to a condition
that discards all packets because the crypto map command statements referencing the access list
are incomplete. To correct the condition, either define other access-list command statements to
complete the crypto map command statements or remove the crypto map command statements that
pertain to the access-list command statement. Refer to the crypto map command for more
information.
2.
Access control lists that are dynamically updated on the PIX Firewall by a AAA server can only be
shown using the show access-list command. The write command does not save or display these
updated lists.
3.
The access-list command operates on a first match basis.
4.
If you specify an access-list command statement and bind it to an interface with the access-group
command statement, by default, all traffic inbound to that interface is denied. You must explicitly
permit traffic. Note that “inbound” in this context means traffic passing through the interface, rather
than the more typical PIX Firewall usage of inbound meaning traffic passing from a lower security
level interface to a higher security level interface.
5.
Always permit access first and then deny access afterward. If the host entries match, then use a
permit statement, otherwise use the default deny statement. You only need to specify additional
deny statements if you need to deny specific hosts and permit everyone else.
6.
You can view security levels for interfaces with the show nameif command.
7.
The ICMP message type (icmp_type) option is ignored in IPSec applications because the message
type cannot be negotiated with ISAKMP.
8.
Only one access list can be bound to an interface using the access-group command.
9.
If you specify the permit option in the access list, the PIX Firewall continues to process the packet.
If you specify the deny option in the access list, PIX Firewall discards the packet and generates the
following syslog message.
%PIX-4-106019: IP packet from source_addr to destination_addr, protocol protocol
received from interface interface_name deny by access-group id
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
3-33
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
access-list
The access-list command uses the same syntax as the Cisco IOS software access-list command
except that PIX Firewall uses a subnet mask, whereas Cisco IOS software uses a wildcard mask. (In
Cisco IOS software, the mask in this example would be specified with the 0.0.0.255 value.) For
example, in the Cisco IOS software access-list command, a subnet mask of 0.0.0.255 would be
specified as 255.255.255.0 in the PIX Firewall access-list command.
10. We recommend that you do not use the access-list command with the conduit and outbound
commands. While using these commands together will work, the way in which these commands
operate may cause debugging issues because the conduit and outbound commands operate from
one interface to another whereas the access-list command used with the access-group command
applies only to a single interface. If these commands must be used together, PIX Firewall evaluates
the access-list command before checking the conduit and outbound commands.
11. Refer to the Cisco PIX Firewall and VPN Configuration Guide for a detailed description about using
the access-list command to provide server access and to restrict outbound user access.
12. Refer to the aaa-server radius-acctport and aaa-server radius-authport commands to verify or
change port settings.
ICMP Message Types
For non-IPSec use only, if you prefer more selective ICMP access, you can specify a single ICMP
message type as the last option in this command. Table 3-1 lists possible ICMP types values.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
3-34
78-14890-01
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
access-list
Table 3-1
ICMP Type Literals
ICMP Type
Literal
0
echo-reply
3
unreachable
4
source-quench
5
redirect
6
alternate-address
8
echo
9
router-advertisement
10
router-solicitation
11
time-exceeded
12
parameter-problem
13
timestamp-request
14
timestamp-reply
15
information-request
16
information-reply
17
mask-request
18
mask-reply
31
conversion-error
32
mobile-redirect
If you specify an ICMP message type for use with IPSec, PIX Firewall ignores it.
For example:
access-list 10 permit icmp any any echo-reply
IPSec is enabled such that a crypto map command references the (ACL) id for this access-list
command, then the echo-repy ICMP message type is ignored.
Using the access-list Command with IPSec
If an access list is bound to an interface with the access-group command, the access list selects which
traffic can traverse the PIX Firewall. When bound to a crypto map command statement, the access list
selects which IP traffic IPSec protects and which traffic IPSec does not protect. For example, access lists
can be created to protect all IP traffic between Subnet X and Subnet Y or traffic between Host A and
Host B. More information is available in the crypto map command section of this guide.
The access lists themselves are not specific to IPSec. It is the crypto map command statement referring
to the specific access list that defines whether IPSec processing is applied to the traffic matching a permit
in the access list.
Crypto access lists associated with the IPSec crypto map command statement have these primary
functions:
•
Select outbound traffic to be protected by IPSec (permit = protect).
•
Indicate the data flow to be protected by the new security associations (specified by a single permit
entry) when initiating negotiations for IPSec security associations.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
3-35
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
access-list
•
Process inbound traffic to filter out and discard traffic that IPSec protects.
•
Determine whether or not to accept requests for IPSec security associations on behalf of the
requested data flows when processing IKE negotiation from the IPSec peer. (Negotiation is only
done for crypto map command statements with the ipsec-isakmp option.) For a peer’s initiated
IPSec negotiation to be accepted, it must specify a data flow that is permitted by a crypto access list
associated with an ipsec-isakmp crypto map entry.
You can associate a crypto access list with an interface by defining the corresponding crypto map
command statement and applying the crypto map set to an interface. Different access lists must be used
in different entries of the same crypto map set. However, both inbound and outbound traffic will be
evaluated against the same “outbound” IPSec access list. Therefore, the access list’s criteria are applied
in the forward direction to traffic exiting your PIX Firewall and the reverse direction to traffic entering
your PIX Firewall.
If you want certain traffic to receive one combination of IPSec protection (for example, authentication
only) and other traffic to receive a different combination of IPSec protection (for example, both
authentication and encryption), you need to create two different crypto access lists to define the two
different types of traffic. These different access lists are then used in different crypto map entries that
specify different IPSec policies.
We recommend that you configure “mirror image” crypto access lists for use by IPSec and that you avoid
using the any keyword. See the Cisco PIX Firewall and VPN Configuration Guide for more information.
If you configure multiple statements for a given crypto access list, in general, the first permit statement
matched, will be the statement used to determine the scope of the IPSec security association. That is, the
IPSec security association will be set up to protect traffic that meets the criteria of the matched statement
only. Later, if traffic matches a different permit statement of the crypto access list, a new, separate IPSec
security association will be negotiated to protect traffic matching the newly matched access list
command statement.
Some services such as FTP require two access-list command statements, one for port 10 and another for
port 21, to properly encrypt FTP traffic.
Examples
The following example creates a numbered access list that specifies a Class C subnet for the source and
a Class C subnet for the destination of IP packets. Because the access-list command is referenced in the
crypto map command statement, PIX Firewall encrypts all IP traffic that is exchanged between the
source and destination subnets.
access-list 101 permit ip 172.21.3.0 255.255.0.0 172.22.2.0 255.255.0.0
access-group 101 in interface outside
crypto map mymap 10 match address 101
The next example only lets an ICMP message type of echo-reply be permitted into the outside interface:
access-list acl_out permit icmp any any echo-reply
access-group acl_out interface outside
The following example shows how access list entries (ACEs) are numbered by the firewall and how
remarks are inserted:
pixfirewall(config)# show access-list ac
access-list ac; 2 elements
access-list ac line 1 permit ip any any
access-list ac line 2 permit tcp any any
pixfirewall(config)# access-list ac permit tcp object-group remote object-group locals
pixfirewall(config)# show access-list ac
access-list ac; 3 elements
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
3-36
78-14890-01
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
access-list
access-list ac line 1 permit ip any any
access-list ac line 2 permit tcp any any (
access-list ac line 3 permit tcp object-group remote object-group locals
pixfirewall(config)# access-list ac remark This comment decribes the ACE line 3
pixfirewall(config)# show access-list ac
access-list ac; 3 elements
access-list ac line 1 permit ip any any
access-list ac line 2 permit tcp any any
access-list ac line 3 remark This comment decribes the ACE line 3
access-list ac line 4 permit tcp object-group remote object-group locals
pixfirewall(config)# access-list ac permit tcp 172.16.0.0 255.0.0.0 any
pixfirewall(config)# show access-list ac
access-list ac; 4 elements
access-list ac line 1 permit ip any any
access-list ac line 2 permit tcp any any
access-list ac line 3 remark This comment decribes the ACE line 3
access-list ac line 4 permit tcp object-group remote object-group locals
access-list ac line 5 permit tcp 172.16.0.0 255.0.0.0 any
pixfirewall(config)# no access-list ac permit tcp object-group remote object-group locals
pixfirewall(config)# show access-list ac
access-list ac; 3 elements
access-list ac line 1 permit ip any any
access-list ac line 2 permit tcp any any
access-list ac line 3 remark This comment decribes the ACE line 3
access-list ac line 4 permit tcp 172.16.0.0 255.0.0.0 any
The following shows how to remove an access list comment:
pixfirewall(config)# access-list ac remark This comment decribes the ACE line 5
pixfirewall(config)# sh access-list ac
access-list ac; 3 elements
access-list ac line 1 permit ip any any
access-list ac line 2 permit tcp any any
access-list ac line 3 remark This comment decribes the ACE line 3
access-list ac line 4 permit tcp 172.16.0.0 255.0.0.0 any
access-list ac line 5 remark This comment decribes the ACE line 5
pixfirewall(config)# no access-list ac remark This comment decribes the ACE line 5
pixfirewall(config)# show access-list ac
access-list ac; 3 elements
access-list ac line 1 permit ip any any line 1
access-list ac line 2 permit tcp any any line 2
access-list ac line 3 remark This comment decribes the ACE line 3
access-list ac line 4 permit tcp 172.16.0.0 255.0.0.0 any line 4
The following shows how to insert an access list statement at a specific line number:
pixfirewall(config)# show access-list ac
access-list ac; 3 elements
access-list ac line 1 permit ip any any
access-list ac line 2 permit tcp any any
access-list ac line 3 remark This comment decribes the ACE line 3
access-list ac line 4 permit tcp 172.16.0.0255.0.0.0 any
pixfirewall(config)# access-list ac line 4 permit ip 172.16.0.0 255.0.0.0 any
pixfirewall(config)# show access-list ac
access-list ac; 4 elements
access-list ac line 1 permit ip any any
access-list ac line 2 permit tcp any any
access-list ac line 3 remark This comment decribes the ACE line 3
access-list ac line 4 permit ip 172.16.0.0 255.0.0.0 any
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
3-37
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
activation-key
access-list ac line 5 permit tcp 172.16.0.0 255.0.0.0 any
The show access-list command has the following line of output:
access-list cached ACL log flows: total 0, denied 0 (deny-flow-max 4096)
which shows the total number of cached ACL log flows (total), the number of cached deny-flows
(denied), and the maximum number of allowed deny-flows.
Related Commands
access-group
Binds the access list to an interface.
conduit
(Deprecated command.) Add, delete, or show conduits through the
PIX Firewall for incoming connections, superseded by the access-list
command.
object-group
Defines object groups that you can use to optimize your configuration.
Objects such as hosts, protocols, or services can be grouped, and then you can
issue a single command using the group name to apply to every item in the
group.
outbound / apply
Creates an access list for controlling Internet use.
activation-key
Updates the activation key on your PIX Firewall and checks the activation key running on your
PIX Firewall against the activation key stored in the Flash memory of the PIX Firewall.
activation-key activation-key-four-tuple
show activation-key
Syntax Description
activation-key
Updates the PIX Firewall activation key unless there is a mismatch
between the Flash memory and running PIX Firewall software
versions.
activation-key-four-tuple
A four-element hexidecimal string with one space between each
element.
For example:
0xe02888da 0x4ba7bed6 0xf1c123ae 0xffd8624e
(The leading 0x specfier is optional; all values are assumed to be
hexadecimal.)
Defaults
None.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
3-38
78-14890-01
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
activation-key
Usage Guidelines
Caution
Use the activation-key activation-key-four-tuple command to change the activation key on your
PIX Firewall.
Use only an activation key valid for your PIX Firewall software version and platform or your system
may not reload after rebooting.
The activation-key activation-key-four-tuple command output indicates the status of the activation key
as follows:
•
If the PIX Firewall Flash memory software image version is the same as the running PIX Firewall
software version, and the PIX Firewall Flash memory activation key is the same as the running
PIX Firewall software activation key, then the activation-key command output reads as follows:
The flash activation key has been modified.
The flash activation key is now the SAME as the running key.
•
If the PIX Firewall Flash memory image version is the same as the running PIX Firewall software,
and the PIX Firewall Flash memory activation key is different from the running PIX Firewall
activation key, then the activation-key command output reads as follows:
The flash activation key has been modified.
The flash activation key is now DIFFERENT from the running key.
The flash activation key will be used when the unit is reloaded.
•
If the PIX Firewall Flash memory image version is not the same as the running PIX Firewall
software, then the activation-key command output reads as follows:
The flash image is DIFFERENT from the running image.
The two images must be the same in order to modify the flash activation key.
•
If the PIX Firewall Flash memory image version is the same as the running PIX Firewall software,
and the entered activation key is not valid, then the activation-key command output reads as
follows:
ERROR: The requested key was not saved because it is not valid for this system.
•
If the PIX Firewall Flash memory activation key is the same as the entered activation key, then the
activation-key command output reads as follows:
The flash activation key has not been modified.
The requested key is the SAME as the flash activation key.
The show activation-key command output indicates the status of the activation key as follows:
•
If the activation key in the PIX Firewall Flash memory is the same as the activation key running on
the PIX Firewall, then the show activation-key output reads as follows:
The flash activation key is the SAME as the running key.
•
If the activation key in the PIX Firewall Flash memory is the different from the activation key
running on the PIX Firewall, then the show activation-key output reads as follows:
The flash activation key is DIFFERENT from the running key.
The flash activation key takes effect after the next reload.
•
If the PIX Firewall Flash memory software image version is not the same as the running
PIX Firewall software image, then the show activation-key output reads as follows:
The flash image is DIFFERENT from the running image.
The two images must be the same in order to examine the flash activation key.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
3-39
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
alias
Usage Notes
Examples
1.
The PIX Firewall must be rebooted for a new activation key to be enabled.
2.
If the PIX Firewall software image is being upgraded to a higher version and the activation key is
being updated at the same time, we recommend that you first install the software image upgrade and
reboot the PIX Firewall unit, and then update the activation key in the new image and reboot the
unit again.
3.
If you are downgrading to a lower PIX Firewall software version, we recommend that you ensure
that the activation key running on your system is not intended for a higher version before installing
the lower version software image. If this is the case, you must first change the activation key to one
that is compatible with the the lower version before installing and rebooting. Otherwise, your
system may refuse to reload after installation of the new software image.
The following example shows sample out from the show activation-key command:
pixfirewall(config)# show activation-key
Serial Number: 480221353 (0x1c9f98a9)
Running Activation Key: 0x36df4255 0x246dc5fc 0x39d2ec4d 0x09f6288f
Licensed Features:
Failover:
Enabled
VPN-DES:
Enabled
VPN-3DES:
Enabled
Maximum Interfaces: 6
Cut-through Proxy: Enabled
Guards:
Enabled
URL-filtering:
Enabled
Inside Hosts:
Unlimited
Throughput:
Unlimited
IKE peers:
Unlimited
The flash activation key is the SAME as the running key.
Related Commands
show version
Displays the PIX Firewall operating information.
alias
Administer overlapping addresses with dual NAT.
[no] alias [(if_name)] dnat_ip foreign_ip [netmask]
clear alias
show alias
Syntax Description
dnat_ip
An IP address on the internal network that provides an alternate IP address for the
external address that is the same as an address on the internal network.
foreign_ip
IP address on the external network that has the same address as a host on the internal
network.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
3-40
78-14890-01
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
alias
if_name
The internal network interface name in which the foreign_ip overlaps.
netmask
Network mask applied to both IP addresses. Use 255.255.255.255 for host masks.
Defaults
None.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The alias command translates one address into another. Use this command to prevent conflicts when you
have IP addresses on a network that are the same as those on the Internet or another intranet. You can
also use this command to do address translation on a destination address. For example, if a host sends a
packet to 209.165.201.1, you can use the alias command to redirect traffic to another address, such as,
209.165.201.30.
Note
For DNS fixup to work properly, proxy-arp has to be disabled. If you are using the alias command for
DNS fixup, disable proxy-arp with the following command after the alias command has been executed:
sysopt noproxyarp internal_interface
If the alias command is used with the sysopt ipsec pl-compatible command, a static route command
statement must be added for each IP address specified in the alias command statement.
There must be an A (address) record in the DNS zone file for the “dnat” address in the alias command.
Use the no alias command to disable a previous set alias command statement. Use the show alias
command to display alias command statements in the configuration. Use the clear alias command to
remove all alias commands from the configuration. After changing or removing an alias command
statement, use the clear xlate command.
The alias command changes the default behavior of the PIX Firewall in three ways:
•
When receiving a packet coming in through the interface identified by if_name, destined for the
address identified by dnat_ip, PIX Firewall sends it to the address identified by foreign_ip.
•
When receiving a DNS A response, containing the address identified by foreign_ip, coming from a
lower security interface, and destined for the host behind the inteface identified by if_name,
PIX Firewall changes foreign_ip in the reply to dnat_ip. This can be turned off by using the
command sysopt nodnsalias inbound.
•
When receiving a DNS A response, containing the address identified by dnat_ip, coming from a
DNS server behind the interface, if_name, and destined for a host behind the lower security
interface, PIX Firewall changes dnat_ip address to foreign_ip. This can be turned off using the
command sysopt nodnsalias outbound.
The alias command is applied on a per-interface basis, while the sysopt nodnsalias changes the
behaviour for all interfaces. Also, note that addresses in the zone transfers made across the PIX Firewall,
are not changed.
You can specify a net alias by using network addresses for the foreign_ip and dnat_ip IP addresses. For
example, the alias 192.168.201.0 209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224 command creates aliases for each IP
address between 209.165.201.1 and 209.165.201.30.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
3-41
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
alias
Note
ActiveX blocking does not occur when users access an IP address referenced by the alias command.
ActiveX blocking is set with the filter activex command.
Usage Notes
•
To access an alias dnat_ip address with static and access-list command statements, specify the
dnat_ip address in the access-list command statement as the address from which traffic is permitted
from. The following example illustrates this note.
alias (inside) 192.168.201.1 209.165.201.1 255.255.255.255
static (inside,outside) 209.165.201.1 192.168.201.1 netmask 255.255.255.255
access-list acl_out permit tcp host 192.168.201.1 host 209.165.201.1 eq ftp-data
access-group acl_out in interface outside
An alias is specified with the inside address 192.168.201.1 mapping to the foreign address
209.165.201.1.
•
Examples
You can use the sysopt nodnsalias command to disable inbound embedded DNS A record fixups
according to aliases that apply to the A record address and outbound replies.
In the following example, the inside network contains the IP address 209.165.201.29, which on the
Internet belongs to example.com. When inside clients try to access example.com, the packets do not go
to the PIX Firewall because the client assumes 209.165.201.29 is on the local inside network.
To correct this, use the alias command as follows:
alias (inside) 192.168.201.0 209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224
show alias
alias 192.168.201.0 209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224
When the inside network client 209.165.201.2 connects to example.com, the DNS response from an
external DNS server to the internal client’s query would be altered by the PIX Firewall to be
192.168.201.29. If the PIX Firewall uses 209.165.200.225 through 209.165.200.254 as the global pool
IP addresses, the packet goes to the PIX Firewall with SRC=209.165.201.2 and DST=192.168.201.29.
The PIX Firewall translates the address to SRC=209.165.200.254 and DST=209.165.201.29 on the
outside.
In the next example, a web server is on the inside at 10.1.1.11 and a static command statement was
created for it at 209.165.201.11. The source host is on the outside with address 209.165.201.7. A DNS
server on the outside has a record for www.example.com as follows:
www.example.com. IN A 209.165.201.11
The period at the end of the www.example.com. domain name must be included.
The alias command follows:
alias 10.1.1.11 209.165.201.11 255.255.255.255
PIX Firewall doctors the nameserver replies to 10.1.1.11 for inside clients to directly connect to the web
server.
The static command statement is as follows:
static (inside,outside) 209.165.201.11 10.1.1.11
The access-list command statement you would expect to use follows:
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
3-42
78-14890-01
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
arp
access-list acl_grp permit tcp host 209.165.201.7 host 209.165.201.11 eq telnet
But with the alias command, use this command:
access-list acl_grp permit tcp host 209.165.201.11 eq telnet host 209.165.201.7
You can test the DNS entry for the host with the following UNIX nslookup command:
nslookup -type=any www.example.com
Related Commands
access-list
Creates an access list, or uses a downloadable access list.
static
Configures a persistent one-to-one address translation rule by mapping a local
IP address to a global IP address, also known as Static Port Address
Translation (Static PAT).
arp
Configure the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache timeout value, static ARP table entries, or static
proxy ARP, and view the ARP cache, status, or timeout value.
[no] arp if_name ip mac [alias]
[no] arp timeout seconds
clear arp [timeout | statistics]
show arp [timeout | statistics]
Syntax Description
arp
Configure a static ARP mapping (IP-to-physical address binding) for the addresses
specified. These entries are not cleared when the ARP persistence timer times out and
are automatically stored in the configuration when you use the write command to store
the configuration.
arp alias
Configure a static proxy ARP mapping (proxied IP-to-physical address binding) for
the addresses specified. These entries are not cleared when the ARP persistence timer
times out and are automatically stored in the configuration when you use the write
command to store the configuration.
if_name
The interface name whose ARP table will be changed or viewed. (The interface name
itself is specified by the nameif command.)
ip
IP address for an ARP table entry.
mac
Hardware MAC address for the ARP table entry; for example, 00e0.1e4e.3d8b.
seconds
Duration that a dynamic ARP entry can exist in the ARP table before being cleared.
statistics
The ARP statistics, including block usage.
Defaults
The default value for the ARP persistence timer is 14,400 seconds (4 hours).
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
3-43
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
arp
Usage Guidelines
Note
The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) maps an IP address to a MAC address and is defined in RFC
826. Proxy Address Resolution Protocol (proxy ARP) is a variation of the ARP protocol in which an
intermediate device (for example, the firewall) sends an ARP response on behalf of an end node to the
requesting host. ARP mapping occurs automatically as the firewall processes traffic, however, you can
configure the ARP cache timeout value, static ARP table entries, or proxy ARP.
Because ARP is a low-level TCP/IP protocol that resolves a node’s MAC (physical) address from its IP
address (through an ARP request asking the node with a particular IP address to send back its physical
address), the presence of entries in the ARP cache indicates that the firewall has network connectivity.
The arp timeout command specifies the duration to wait before the ARP table rebuilds itself,
automatically updating new host information. This feature is also known as the ARP persistence timer.
The no arp timeout command resets the ARP persistence timer to its default value. The show arp
timeout command displays the current timeout value.
The arp if_name ip mac command adds a static (persistent) entry to the firewall ARP cache. (This
matches the behavior of Cisco IOS). For example, you could use the arp if_name ip mac command to
set up a static IP-to-MAC address mapping for hosts on your network. Use the no arp if_name ip mac
command to remove the static ARP mapping.
The arp if_name ip mac alias command configures proxy ARP for the IP and MAC addresses specified.
Enable proxy ARP when you want the firewall to respond to ARP requests for another host (determined
by the IP address of the host) with the MAC address you specify in the arp alias command. Use the no
arp if_name ip mac alias command to remove the static proxy ARP mapping.
The clear arp command clears all entries in the ARP cache table except for those you configure directly
with the arp if_name ip mac command. Use the no arp if_name ip mac command to remove these
entries. The show arp command lists the entries in the ARP table.
The show arp statistics command displays the following ARP information:
pixfirewall(config)# show arp statistics
Dropped blocks in ARP: 6
Maximum Queued blocks: 3
Queued blocks: 1
Interface collision ARPs Received: 5
ARP-defense Gratuitous ARPS sent: 4
Total ARP retries: 15
Unresolved hosts: 1
Maximum Unresolved hosts: 2
Examples
The following examples illustrate use of the arp and arp timeout commands:
arp inside 192.168.0.42 00e0.1e4e.2a7c
arp outside 192.168.0.43 00e0.1e4e.3d8b alias
show arp
outside 192.168.0.43 00e0.1e4e.3d8b alias
inside 192.168.0.42 00e0.1e4e.2a7c
clear arp inside 192.168.0.42
arp timeout 42
show arp timeout
arp timeout 42 seconds
no arp timeout
show arp timeout
arp timeout 14400 seconds
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
3-44
78-14890-01
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
auth-prompt
Related Commands
sysopt
Changes firewall system options.
auth-prompt
Change the AAA challenge text for through the firewall user sessions. (Configuration mode.)
Configure with the command...
auth-prompt [accept | reject | prompt]
string
Remove with the command...
no auth-prompt [accept | reject | prompt]
string
clear auth-prompt
Show command options
show auth-prompt
Syntax Description
Usage Guidelines
Show command output
Displays the AAA challenge text.
accept
If a user authentication via Telnet is accepted, display the prompt string.
prompt
The AAA challenge prompt string follows this keyword. This keyword is optional for
backward compatibility.
reject
If a user authentication via Telnet is rejected, display the prompt string.
string
A string of up to 235 alphanumeric characters or 31 words, limited by whichever
maximum is first reached. Special characters should not be used; however, spaces and
punctuation characters are permitted. Entering a question mark or pressing the Enter
key ends the string. (The question mark appears in the string.)
The auth-prompt command lets you change the AAA challenge text for HTTP, FTP, and Telnet access
through the firewall requiring user authentication from TACACS or RADIUS servers. This text is
primarily for cosmetic purposes and displays above the username and password prompts that users view
when logging in. If the user authentication occurs from Telnet, you can use the accept and reject options
to display different status prompts to indicate that the authentication attempt is accepted or rejected by
the AAA server.
Following is the authentication sequence showing when each auth-prompt string is displayed:
1.
A user initiates a telnet session from the inside interface through the firewall to the outside
interface.
2.
The user receives the auth-prompt challenge text, followed by the username prompt.
3.
The user enters the AAA username/password username and password, or in the formats
aaa_user@outside_user and aaa_pass@outside_pass.
4.
The firewall sends the aaa_user/aaa_pass to the TACACS or RADIUS AAA server.
5.
If the AAA server authenticates the user, the firewall displays the auth-prompt accept text to the
user, otherwise the reject challenge text is displayed. Authentication of http and ftp sessions
displays only the challenge text at the prompt. The accept and reject text are not displayed.
If you do not use this command, FTP users view FTP authentication, HTTP users view
and challenge text does not appear for Telnet access.
HTTP Authentication,
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
3-45
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
auto-update
Microsoft Internet Explorer only displays up to 37 characters in an authentication prompt. Netscape
Navigator displays up to 120 characters, and Telnet and FTP display up to 235 characters in an
authentication prompt.
Examples
The following example shows how to set the authentication prompt and how users view the prompt:
auth-prompt XYZ Company Firewall Access
After this string is added to the configuration, users view the following:
Example.com Company Firewall Access
User Name:
Password:
The prompt keyword can be included or omitted.
For example:
auth-prompt prompt Hello There!
This command statement is the same as the following:
auth-prompt Hello There!
Related Commands
aaa authentication
Enables, disables, or displays LOCAL, TACACS+, or RADIUS user
authentication on a server designated by the aaa-server command, or for
PDM user authentication.
auto-update
Specifies how often to poll an Auto Update Server.
[no] auto-update device-id hardware-serial | hostname | ipaddress [if_name] | mac-address
[if_name] | string text
[no] auto-update poll-period poll_period [retry_count [retry_period]]
clear auto-update
[no] auto-update server url [verify_certificate]
[no] auto-update timeout period
clear auto-update
show auto-update
Syntax Description
device-id
The device ID of the PIX Firewall.
hardware-serial
Specifies to use the hardware serial number of the PIX Firewall to uniquely
identify the device.
hostname
Specifies to use the host name of the PIX Firewall to uniquely identify the
device.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
3-46
78-14890-01
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
auto-update
if_name
Specifies the interface to use (with its corresponding IP or MAC address) to
uniquely identify the device.
ipaddress
Specifies to use the IP address of the specified PIX Firewall interface to
uniquely identify the firewall.
mac-address
Specifies to use the MAC address of the specified PIX Firewall interface to
uniquely identify the firewall.
period
Specifies how long to attempt to contact the Auto Update Server, after the last
successful contact, before stopping all traffic passing through the firewall.
poll_period
Specifies how often, in minutes, to poll an Auto Update Server. The default is
720 minutes (12 hours).
retry_count
Specifies how many times to try reconnecting to the Auto Update Server if the
first attempt fails. The default is 0.
retry_period
Specifies how long to wait, in minutes, between connection attempts. The
default is 5 minutes and the valid range of values is from 1 to 35791.
text
Specifies the text string to uniquely identify the device to the Auto Update
Server.
url
Specifies the location of the Auto Update Server using the following syntax:
http[s]:[[user:password@] location [:port ]] / pathname
See the copy command for variable descriptions.
verify_certificate
Defaults
Specifies to verify the certificate returned by the Auto Update Server.
The default poll period is 720 minutes (12 hours).
The default number of times to try reconnecting to the Auto Update Server if the first attempt fails is 0.
The default period to wait between connection attempts is 5 minutes.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The clear auto-update command removes the entire auto-update configuration.
The auto-update poll-period command specifies how often to poll the Auto Update Server for
configuration or software image updates. The no auto-update poll-period command resets the poll
period to the default.
The auto-update server command specifies the URL of the Auto Update Server. Only one server can
be configured. The no auto-update server command disables polling for auto-update updates (by
terminating the auto-update daemon).
The auto-update timeout command is used to stop all new connections to the PIX Firewall if the
Auto Update Server has not been contacted for period minutes. This can be used to ensure that the
PIX Firewall has the most recent image and configuration.
The show auto-update command displays the Auto Update Server, poll time, and timeout period.
Examples
The show auto-update command displays the Auto Update Server, poll time, and timeout period. The
following is sample output from the command:
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
3-47
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
banner
show auto-update
Server: https://10.0.1.15/autoupdate/AutoUpdateServlet
Poll period: 1 minutes, retry count: 0, retry period: 5 minutes
Timeout: none
Device ID: string [device1]
Next poll in 0.13 minutes
Last poll: 23:43:33 UTC Fri Jun 7 2002
The format of the URL, /autoupdate/AutoUpdateServlet, is the standard URL format on the Auto
Update Server. The port 443 (the default port for HTTPS) can be omitted because it is the default setting.
Related Commands
copy
Changes software images without requiring access to the TFTP monitor
mode.
banner
Configures the session, login, or message-of-the-day banner.
banner {exec | login | motd} text
no banner {exec | login | motd} [text]
show banner [{exec | login | motd}]
clear banner
Syntax Description
exec
Configures the system to display a banner before displaying the enable
prompt.
login
Configures the system to display a banner before the password login prompt
when accessing the firewall using telnet.
motd
Configures the system to display a message-of-the-day banner.
text
The line of message text to be displayed in the firewall CLI. Subsequent text
entries are added to the end of an existing banner unless the banner is cleared
first. The tokens $(domain) and $(hostname) are replaced with the host name
and domain name of the firewall.
Defaults
The default is no login, session, or message-of-the-day banner.
Command Modes
The banner command is available in configuration mode.
The show banner command is available in privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The banner command configures a banner to display for the option specified. The text string consists of
all characters following the first whitespace (space) until the end of the line (carriage return or LF).
Spaces in the text are preserved. However, tabs cannot be entered through the CLI.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
3-48
78-14890-01
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
banner
Multiple lines in a banner are handled by entering a new banner command for each line you wish to add.
Each line is then appended to the end of the existing banner. If the text is empty, then a carriage return
(CR) will be added to the banner. There is no limit on the length of a banner other than RAM and
Flash memory limits.
When accessing the firewall through Telnet or SSH, the session closes if there is not enough system
memory available to process the banner messages or if a TCP write error occurs in attempting to display
the banner messages.
To replace a banner, use the no banner command before adding the new lines. The no banner {exec |
login | motd} command removes all the lines for the banner option specified. The no banner command
does not selectively delete text strings, so any text entered at the end of the no banner command is
ignored.
The clear banner command removes all the banners.
The show banner {motd | exec | login} command displays the specified banner option and all the lines
configured for it. If a banner option is not specified, then all the banners are displayed.
Examples
The following example shows how to configure the motd, exec, and login banners:
pixfirewall(config)# banner motd Think on These Things
pixfirewall(config)# banner exec Enter your password carefully
pixfirewall(config)# banner login Enter your password to log in
pixfirewall(config)# show banner
exec:
Enter your password carefully
login:
Enter your password to log in
motd:
Think on These Things
The following example shows how to add a second line to a banner:
pixfirewall(config)# banner motd and Enjoy Today
pixfirewall(config)# show banner motd
Think on These Things
and Enjoy Today
Related Commands
login
Specifies to log in as a particular user.
password
Sets the password for Telnet access to the PIX Firewall console.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
3-49
Chapter 3
A through B Commands
banner
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
3-50
78-14890-01
C H A P T E R
4
C Commands
ca
Configure the PIX Firewall to interoperate with a certification authority (CA).
ca authenticate ca_nickname [fingerprint]
[no] ca configure ca_nickname ca | ra retry_period retry_count [crloptional]
[no] ca crl request ca_nickname
[no] ca enroll ca_nickname challenge_password [serial] [ipaddress]
ca generate rsa {key | specialkey} key_modulus_size
[no] ca identity ca_nickname [ca_ipaddress| hostname [:ca_script_location] [ldap_ip address|
hostname]]
[no] ca save all
[no] ca subject-name ca_nickname X.500_string
[no] ca verifycertdn X.500_string
ca zeroize rsa [keypair_name]
show ca certificate
show ca crl
show ca configure
show ca identity
show ca mypubkey rsa
show ca subject-name
show ca verifycertdn
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-1
Chapter 4
C Commands
ca
Syntax Description
ca_ipaddress
The CA’s IP address.
ca_nickname
The name of the certification authority (CA). Enter any string that you
desire. (If you previously declared the CA and just want to update its
characteristics, specify the name you previously created.) The CA might
require a particular name, such as its domain name.
Currently, the PIX Firewall supports only one CA at a time.
ca | ra
Indicates whether to contact the CA or registration authority (RA) when
using the ca configure command.
Some CA systems provide an RA, which the PIX Firewall contacts instead
of the CA.
:ca_script_location
The default location and script on the CA server is /cgi-bin/pkiclient.exe. If
the CA administrator has not put the CGI script in this location, provide the
location and the name of the script in the ca identity command.
A PIX Firewall uses a subset of the HTTP protocol to contact the CA, and
so it must identify a particular cgi-bin script to handle CA requests.
challenge_password
A required password that gives the CA administrator some authentication
when a user calls to ask for a certificate to be revoked. It can be up to 80
characters in length.
crloptional
Allows other peers’ certificates be accepted by your PIX Firewall even if the
appropriate certificate revocation list (CRL) is not accessible to your
PIX Firewall. The default is without the crloptional option.
fingerprint
A key consisting of alphanumeric characters the PIX Firewall uses to
authenticate the CA’s certificate.
hostname
The host name.
ipaddress
Return the PIX Firewall unit’s IP address in the certificate.
key
Specifies that one general-purpose RSA key pair will be generated.
key_modulus_size
The size of the key modulus, which is between 512 and 2048 bits. Choosing
a size greater than 1024 bits may cause key generation to take a few minutes.
ldap_ipaddress
The IP address of the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) server.
By default, querying of a certificate or a CRL is done via Cisco’s PKI
protocol. If the CA supports LDAP, query functions may also use LDAP.
retry_count
Specify how many times the PIX Firewall will resend a certificate request
when it does not receive a certificate from the CA from the previous request.
Specify from 1 to 100. The default is 0, which indicates that there is no limit
to the number of times the PIX Firewall should contact the CA to obtain a
pending certificate.
retry_period
Specify the number of minutes the PIX Firewall waits before resending a
certificate request to the CA when it does not receive a response from the CA
to its previous request. Specify from 1 to 60 minutes. By default, the
PIX Firewall retries every 1 minute.
serial
Return the PIX Firewall unit’s serial number in the certificate.
specialkey
This specifies that two special-purpose RSA key pairs will be generated
instead of one general-purpose key.
subject-name
Configures the device certificate request with the specified subject name.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-2
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
ca
verifycertdn
Verifies the certificate’s Distinguished Name (DN) and acts as a subject
name filter, based on the X.500_string. If the subject name of the peer
certificate matches the X.500_string, then it is filtered out and ISAKMP
negotiation fails.
X.500_string
Specify per RFC1779. The entered string will be the Distinguished Name
(DN) sent.
Defaults
The retry_count default is 0.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The sections that follow describe each ca command.
The PIX Firewall currently supports the CA servers from VeriSign, Entrust, Baltimore Technologies,
and Microsoft. Refer to the Cisco PIX Firewall and VPN Configuration Guide for a list of specific CA
server versions the PIX Firewall supports.
The lifetime of a certificate and the certificate revocation list (CRL) is checked in UTC, which is the
same as GMT. Set the PIX Firewall clock to UTC to ensure that CRL checking works correctly. Use the
clock command to set the PIX Firewall clock.
The PIX Firewall authenticates the entity certificate (the device certificate). The PIX Firewall assumes
the entity certificate is issued by the same trusted point or root (the CA server). As a result, they should
have the same root certificate (issuer certificate). Therefore, the PIX Firewall assumes the entity
exchanges the entity certificate only, and cannot process a certificate chain that includes both the entity
and root certificates.
ca authenticate
The ca authenticate command allows the PIX Firewall to authenticate its certification authority (CA)
by obtaining the CA’s self-signed certificate, which contains the CA’s public key.
To authenticate a peer’s certificate(s), a PIX Firewall must obtain the CA certificate containing the CA
public key. Because the CA certificate is a self-signed certificate, the key should be authenticated
manually by contacting the CA administrator. You are given the choice of authenticating the public key
in that certificate by including within the ca authenticate command the key’s fingerprint, which is
retrieved in an out-of-band process. The PIX Firewall will discard the received CA certificate and
generate an error message, if the fingerprint you specified is different from the received one. You can
also simply compare the two fingerprints without having to enter the key within the command.
If you are using RA mode (within the ca configure command), when you issue the ca authenticate
command, the RA signing and encryption certificates will be returned from the CA, as well as the CA
certificate.
The ca authenticate command is not saved to the PIX Firewall configuration. However, the public keys
embedded in the received CA (and RA) certificates are saved in the configuration as part of the RSA
public key record (called the “RSA public key chain”). To save the public keys permanently to Flash
memory, use the ca save all command. To view the CA’s certificate, use the show ca certificate
command.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-3
Chapter 4
C Commands
ca
Note
If the CA does not respond by a timeout period after this command is issued, the terminal control will
be returned so it will not be tied up. If this happens, you must re-enter the command.
ca configure
The ca configure command is used to specify the communication parameters between the PIX Firewall
and the CA.
Use the no ca configure command to reset each of the communication parameters to the default value.
If you want to show the current settings stored in RAM, use the show ca configure command.
The following example indicates that myca is the name of the CA and the CA will be contacted rather
than the RA. It also indicates that the PIX Firewall will wait 5 minutes before sending another certificate
request, if it does not receive a response, and will resend a total of 15 times before dropping its request.
If the CRL is not accessible, crloptional tells the PIX Firewall to accept other peer’s certificates.
ca configure myca ca 5 15 crloptional
ca crl request
The ca crl request command allows the PIX Firewall to obtain an updated CRL from the CA at any time.
The no ca crl command deletes the CRL within the PIX Firewall.
A CRL lists all the network's devices' certificates that have been revoked. The PIX Firewall will not
accept revoked certificates; therefore, any peer with a revoked certificate cannot exchange IPSec traffic
with your PIX Firewall.
The first time your PIX Firewall receives a certificate from a peer, it will download a CRL from the CA.
Your PIX Firewall then checks the CRL to make sure the peer's certificate has not been revoked. (If the
certificate appears on the CRL, it will not accept the certificate and will not authenticate the peer.)
A CRL can be reused with subsequent certificates until the CRL expires. When the CRL does expire, the
PIX Firewall automatically updates it by downloading a new CRL and replaces the expired CRL with
the new CRL.
If your PIX Firewall has a CRL which has not yet expired, but you suspect that the CRL's contents are
out of date, use the ca crl request command to request that the latest CRL be immediately downloaded
to replace the old CRL.
The ca crl request command is not saved with the PIX Firewall configuration between reloads.
The following example indicates the PIX Firewall will obtain an updated CRL from the CA with the
name myca:
ca crl request myca
The show ca crl command lets you know whether there is a CRL in RAM, and where and when the CRL
is downloaded.
The following is sample output from the show ca crl command. See Table 4-2 for descriptions of the
strings within the following sample output.
show ca crl
CRL:
CRL Issuer Name:
CN = MSCA, OU = Cisco, O = VSEC, L = San Jose, ST = CA, C = US, EA
=<16> username@example.com
LastUpdate:17:07:40 Jul 11 2000
NextUpdate:05:27:40 Jul 19 2000
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-4
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
ca
ca enroll
The ca enroll command is used to send an enrollment request to the CA requesting a certificate for all
of your PIX Firewall unit’s key pairs. This is also known as “enrolling” with the CA. (Technically,
enrolling and obtaining certificates are two separate events, but they both occur when this command is
issued.)
Your PIX Firewall needs a signed certificate from the CA for each of its RSA key pairs; if you
previously generated general purpose keys, the ca enroll command will obtain one certificate
corresponding to the one general purpose RSA key pair. If you previously generated special usage keys,
this command will obtain two certificates corresponding to each of the special usage RSA key pairs.
If you already have a certificate for your keys, you will be unable to complete this command; instead,
you will be prompted to remove the existing certificate first.
The ca enroll command is not saved with the PIX Firewall configuration between reloads. To verify if
the enrollment process succeeded and to display the PIX Firewall unit’s certificate, use the show ca
certificate command. If you want to cancel the current enrollment request, use the no ca enroll
command.
The required challenge password is necessary in the event that you need to revoke your PIX Firewall
unit's certificate(s). When you ask the CA administrator to revoke your certificate, you must supply this
challenge password as a protection against fraudulent or mistaken revocation requests.
Note
This password is not stored anywhere, so you must remember this password.
If you lose the password, the CA administrator may still be able to revoke the PIX Firewall's certificate,
but will require further manual authentication of the PIX Firewall administrator identity.
The PIX Firewall unit's serial number is optional. If you provide the serial option, the serial number will
be included in the obtained certificate. The serial number is not used by IPSec or IKE but may be used
by the CA to either authenticate certificates or to later associate a certificate with a particular device.
Ask your CA administrator if serial numbers should be included in the certificate. If you are in doubt,
specify the serial option.
The PIX Firewall unit's IP address is optional. If you provide the ipaddress option, the IP address will
be included in the obtained certificate. Normally, you would not include the ipaddress option because
the IP address binds the certificate more tightly to a specific entity. Also, if the PIX Firewall is moved,
you would need to issue a new certificate.
Note
When configuring ISAKMP for certificate-based authentication, it is important to match the ISAKMP
identity type with the certificate type. The ca enroll command used to acquire certificates will, by
default, get a certificate with the identity based on host name. The default identity type for the isakmp
identity command is based on address instead of host name. You can reconcile this disparity of identity
types by using the isakmp identity address command. See the isakmp command for information about
the isakmp identity address command.
The following example indicates that the PIX Firewall will send an enrollment request to the CA
myca.example.com. The password 1234567890 is specified, as well as a request for the PIX Firewall
unit’s serial number to be embedded in the certificate.
ca enroll myca.example.com 1234567890 serial
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-5
Chapter 4
C Commands
ca
ca generate rsa
The ca generate rsa command generates RSA key pairs for your PIX Firewall. RSA keys are generated
in pairs—one public RSA key and one private RSA key. If your PIX Firewall already has RSA keys
when you issue this command, you will be warned and prompted to replace the existing keys with new
keys.
Note
Before issuing this command, make sure your PIX Firewall has a host name and domain name
configured (using the hostname and domain-name commands). You will be unable to complete the ca
generate rsa command without a host name and domain name.
The ca generate rsa command is not saved in the PIX Firewall configuration. However, the keys
generated by this command are saved in the persistent data file in Flash memory, which is never
displayed to the user or backed up to another device.
In this example, one general-purpose RSA key pair is to be generated. The selected size of the key
modulus is 2048.
ca generate rsa key 2048
Note
You cannot generate both special usage and general purpose keys; you can only generate one or the
other.
ca identity
The ca identity command declares the CA that your PIX Firewall will use. Currently, PIX Firewall
supports one CA at one time. The no ca identity command removes the ca identity command from the
configuration and deletes all certificates issued by the specified CA and CRLs. The show ca identity
command shows the current settings stored in RAM.
The PIX Firewall uses a subset of the HTTP protocol to contact the CA, and so must identify a particular
cgi-bin script to handle CA requests. The default location and script on the CA server is
/cgi-bin/pkiclient.exe. If the CA administrator has not put the CGI script in the previously listed location,
include the location and the name of the script within the ca identity command statement.
By default, querying of a certificate or a CRL is done via Cisco’s PKI protocol. If the CA supports
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), query functions may use LDAP as well. The IP address
of the LDAP server must be included within the ca identity command statement.
The following example indicates that the CA myca.example.com is declared as the PIX Firewall unit’s
supported CA. The CA’s IP address of 205.139.94.231 is provided.
ca identity myca.example.com 205.139.94.231
ca save all
The ca save all commands lets you save the PIX Firewall unit’s RSA key pairs, the CA, RA and
PIX Firewall unit’s certificates, and the CA’s CRLs in the persistent data file in Flash memory between
reloads. The no ca save command removes the saved data from PIX Firewall unit’s Flash memory.
The ca save command itself is not saved with the PIX Firewall configuration between reloads.
To view the current status of requested certificates, and relevant information of received certificates,
such as CA and RA certificates, use the show ca certificate command. Because the certificates contain
no sensitive data, any user can issue this show command.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-6
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
ca
ca subject-name ca_nickname X.500_string
The ca subject-name ca_nickname X.500_string command is a certificate enrollment enhancement that
supports X.500 directory names.
When the ca subject-name ca_nickname X.500_string command is configured, the firewall enrolls the
device certificate with the subject Distinguished Name (DN) that is specified in the X.500_string, using
RFC 1779 format. The supported DN attributes are listed in Table 4-1
Table 4-1
Supported Distinguished Name attributes.
Attribute
Description
ou
OrganizationalUnitName
o
OrganizationName
st
StateOrProvinceName
c
CountryName
ea
Email address (a non-RFC 1779
format attribute)
For more information on RFC 1779, refer to http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1779.txt.
PIX Firewall software Version 6.3 supports X.509 (certificate support) on the VPN client.
Cisco IOS software, the VPN 3000 concentrator, and the PIX Firewall look for the correct VPN group
(mode config group) according to the ou attribute. (The ou attribute is part of the subject DN of the
device certificate when the Easy VPN client negotiates the RSA signature.) For example,
ca subject-name myca ou=my_department, o=my_org, st=CA, c=US
where my_department is the VPN group.
Note
If the X.500_string is being using to communicate between a Cisco VPN 3000 headend and the firewall,
the VPN 3000 headend must not be configured to use DNS names for its backup servers. Instead, the
backup servers must be specified by their IP addresses.
ca verifycertdn X.500_string
The ca verifycertdn X.500_string command verifies the certificate’s Distinguished Name (DN) and acts
as a subject name filter, based on the X.500_string. If the subject name of the peer certificate matches
the X.500_string, then it is filtered out and ISAKMP negotiation fails.
ca zeroize rsa
The ca zeroize rsa command deletes all RSA keys that were previously generated by your PIX Firewall.
If you issue this command, you must also perform two additional tasks. Perform these tasks in the
following order:
1.
Use the no ca identity command to manually remove the PIX Firewall unit’s certificates from the
configuration. This will delete all the certificates issued by the CA.
2.
Ask the CA administrator to revoke your PIX Firewall unit’s certificates at the CA. Supply the
challenge password you created when you originally obtained the PIX Firewall unit’s certificates
using the crypto ca enroll command.
To delete a specific RSA key pair, specify the name of the RSA key you want to delete using the option
keypair_name within the ca zeroize rsa command statement.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-7
Chapter 4
C Commands
ca
Note
You may have more than one pair of RSA keys due to SSH. See the ssh command in Chapter 8, “S
Commands” for more information.
show ca commands
The show ca certificate command displays the CA Server’s subject name, CRL distribution point
(where the PIX Firewall will obtain the CRL), and lifetime of both the CA server’s root certificate and
the PIX Firewall’s certificates.
The following is sample output from the show ca certificate command. The CA certificate stems from
a Microsoft CA server previously generated for this PIX Firewall.
show ca certificate
RA Signature Certificate
Status:Available
Certificate Serial Number:6106e08a000000000005
Key Usage:Signature
CN = SCEP
OU = VSEC
O = Cisco
L = San Jose
ST = CA
C = US
EA =<16> username@example.com
Validity Date:
start date:17:17:09 Jul 11 2000
end
date:17:27:09 Jul 11 2001
Certificate
Status:Available
Certificate Serial Number:1f80655400000000000a
Key Usage:General Purpose
Subject Name
Name:pixfirewall.example.com
Validity Date:
start date:20:06:23 Jul 17 2000
end
date:20:16:23 Jul 17 2001
CA Certificate
Status:Available
Certificate Serial Number:25b81813efe58fb34726eec44ae82365
Key Usage:Signature
CN = MSCA
OU = Cisco
O = VSEC
L = San Jose
ST = CA
C = US
EA =<16> username@example.com
Validity Date:
start date:17:07:34 Jul 11 2000
RA KeyEncipher Certificate
Status:Available
Certificate Serial Number:6106e24c000000000006
Key Usage:Encryption
CN = SCEP
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-8
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
ca
OU = VSEC
O = Cisco
L = San Jose
ST = CA
C = US
EA =<16> username@example.com
Validity Date:
start date:17:17:10 Jul 11 2000
end
date:17:27:10 Jul 11 01
Table 4-2 describes strings within the show ca certificate command sample output.
Table 4-2
show ca certificate command Output Strings
Sample Output String
Description
CN
common name
C
country
EA
E-mail address
L
locality
ST
state or province
O
organization name
OU
organizational unit name
DC
domain component
The show ca crl command displays whether there is a certificate revocation list (CRL) in the
PIX Firewall RAM, and where and when the CRL downloaded.
The show ca configure command displays the current communication parameter settings stored in the
PIX Firewall RAM.
The show ca identity command displays the the current certification authority (CA) settings stored in
RAM.
The show ca mypubkey rsa command displays the PIX Firewall unit’s public keys in a DER/BER
encoded PKCS#1 representation.
The following is sample output from the show ca mypubkey rsa command. Special usage RSA keys
were previously generated for this PIX Firewall using the ca generate rsa command.
show ca mypubkey rsa
% Key pair was generated at: 15:34:55 Aug 05 1999
Key name: pixfirewall.example.com
Usage: Signature Key
Key Data:
305c300d 06092a86 4886f70d 01010105
6e7ed9a2 32883ca9 319a4b30 e7470888
6e2fd12c 5b3ffa98 8c5adc59 1ec84d78
% Key pair was generated at: 15:34:55
00034b00 30480241 00c31f4a ad32f60d
87732e83 c909fb17 fb5cae70 3de738cf
90bdb53f 2218cfe7 3f020301 0001
Aug 05 1999
Key name: pixfirewall.example.com
Usage: Encryption Key
Key Data:
305c300d 06092a86 4886f70d 01010105 00034b00 30480241 00d8a6ac cc64e57a
48dfb2c1 234661c7 76380bd5 72ae62f7 1706bdab 0eedd0b5 2e5feef0 76319d98
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-9
Chapter 4
C Commands
ca generate rsa key
908f50b4 85a291de 247b6711 59b30026 453bfa3c 45234991 5d020301 0001
Examples
In the following example, a request for the CA’s certificate was sent to the CA. The fingerprint was not
included in the command. The CA sends its certificate and the PIX Firewall prompts for verification of
the CA’s certificate by checking the CA certificate’s fingerprint. Using the fingerprint associated with
the CA’s certificate retrieved in some out-of-band process from a CA administrator, compare the two
fingerprints. If both fingerprints match, then the certificate is considered valid.
ca authenticate myca
Certificate has the following attributes:
Fingerprint: 0123 4567 89AB CDEF 0123
The following example shows the error message. This time, the fingerprint is included in the command.
The two fingerprints do not match, and therefore the certificate is not valid.
ca authenticate myca 0123456789ABCDEF0123
Certificate has the following attributes:
Fingerprint: 0123 4567 89AB CDEF 5432
%Error in verifying the received fingerprint. Type help or ‘?’ for a list of
available commands.
ca generate rsa key
The ca generate rsa command generates RSA key pairs for your PIX Firewall. RSA keys are generated
in pairs—one public RSA key and one private RSA key.
ca generate rsa key modulus
Syntax Description
Note
ca generate rsa key
Generates an RSA key for the PIX Firewall.
modulus
Defines the modulus used to generate the RSA key. This is a size measured
in bits. You can specify a modulus between 512, 768, 1024, and 2048.
Before issuing this command, make sure your PIX Firewall host name and domain name have been
configured (using the hostname and domain-name commands). If a domain name is not configured, the
PIX Firewall uses a default domain of ciscopix.com.
Defaults
RSA key modulus default (during PDM setup) is 768. The default domain is ciscopix.com.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
If your PIX Firewall already has RSA keys when you issue this command, you are warned and prompted
to replace the existing keys with new keys.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-10
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
capture
Note
The larger the key modulus size you specify, the longer it takes to generate an RSA. We recommend a
default value of 768.
PDM uses the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) communications protocol to communicate with the
PIX Firewall.
SSL uses the private key generated with the ca generate rsa command. For a certificate, SSL uses the
key obtained from a certification authority (CA). If that does not exist, it uses the PIX Firewall
self-signed certificate created when the RSA key pair was generated.
If there is no RSA key pair when an SSL session is initiated, the PIX Firewall creates a default RSA key
pair using a key modulus of 768.
The ca generate rsa command is not saved in the PIX Firewall configuration. However, the keys
generated by this command are saved in a persistent data file in Flash memory, which can be viewed
with the show ca my rsa key command.
Examples
The following example demonstrates how one general purpose RSA key pair is generated. The selected
size of the key modulus is 1024.
router(config) ca generate rsa key 1024
Key name:pixfirewall.cisco.com
Usage:General Purpose Key
Key Data:
30819f30 0d06092a 864886f7 0d010101 05000381
9f5e0b52 aea931df 04db2872 5c4c0afd 9bd0920b
1047481a 17be5a01 851835f6 18af8e22 45304d53
bb2ddc46 2841b63b f92cb3f9 8de7cb01 d7ea4057
e291e4ea 67efbf6c 90348b75 320d7fd3 c573037a
8d003081
5e30de82
12584b9c
7bb44b4c
ddb2dde8
89028181
63d834ac
2f48fad5
a64a9cf0
00df782c
00c8ed4c
f2e1db1f
31e1be5a
efaacd42
39020301 0001
capture
Enables packet capture capabilities for packet sniffing and network fault isolation.
capture capture_name [access-list acl_name][buffer bytes] [ethernet-type type][interface name]
[packet-length bytes] [circular-buffer]
no capture capture_name [access-list [acl_name]] [interface name] [circular-buffer]
clear capture capture_name
show capture [capture_name] [access-list acl_name] [detail] [dump]
Syntax Description
access-list
Selects packets based on IP or higher fields. By default, all IP packets are matched.
acl_name
The access list id.
buffer
Defines the buffer size used to store the packet. The default size is 512 KB. Once
the buffer is full, packet capture stops.
bytes
The number of bytes (b) to allocate.
capture_name
A name to uniquely identify the packet capture.
circular-buffer
Overwrites the buffer, starting from the beginning, when the buffer is full.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-11
Chapter 4
C Commands
capture
detail
Shows additional protocol information for each packet.
dump
Shows a hexidecimal dump of the packet transported over the data link transport.
(However, the MAC information is not shown in the hex dump.)
ethernet-type
Selects packets based on the Ethernet type. An exception is the 802.1Q or VLAN
type. The 802.1Q tag is automatically skipped and the inner Ethernet type is used
for matching. By default, all Ethernet types are accepted.
interface
The interface for packet capture.
name
The name of the interface on which to use packet capture.
packet-length
Sets the maximum number of bytes of each packet to store in the capture buffer.
By default, the maximum is 68 bytes.
type
An Ethernet type to exclude from capture. The default is 0, so you can restore the
default at any time by setting type to 0.
Defaults
The default type is 0.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
To enable packet capturing, attach the capture to an interface with the interface option. Multiple
interface statements attach the capture to multiple interfaces.
If the buffer contents are copied to a TFTP server in ASCII format, then only the headers can be seen.
The details and hex dump of the packets can not be seen. To see the details and hex dump, transfer the
buffer in PCAP format and then read with TCPDUMP or Ethereal using the options to show the detail
and hex dump of the packets.
The ethernet-type and access-list options select the packets to store in the buffer. A packet must pass
both the Ethernet and access list filters before the packet is stored in the capture buffer.
The capture capture_name circular-buffer command enables the capture buffer to overwrite itself,
starting from the beginning, when the capture buffer is full.
Enter the no capture command with either the access-list or interface option unless you want to clear
the capture itself. Entering no capture without options deletes the capture. If the access-list option is
specified, the access list is removed from the capture and the capture is preserved. If the interface option
is specified, the capture is detached from the specified interface and the capture is preserved.
To clear the capture buffer, use the clear capture capture_name command. The short form of clear
capture is not supported to prevent accidental destruction of all packet captures.
Note
The capture command is not saved to the configuration, and the capture command is not replicated to
the standby unit during failover.
Use the copy capture: capture_name tftp://location/path [pcap] command to copy capture information
to a remote TFTP server.
Use the https://pix-ip-address/capture/capture_name[/pcap] command to view the packet capture
information with a web browser.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-12
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
capture
If the pcap option is specified, then a libpcap-format file is downloaded to your web browser and can
be saved using your web browser. (A libcap file can be viewed with Tcpdump or Ethereal.)
The show capture command displays the capture configuration when no options are specified. If the
capture_name is specified, then it displays the capture buffer contents for that capture.
Output Formats
The decoded output of the packets are dependent on the protocol of the packet. In Table 4-3, the
bracketed output is displayed when the detail option is specified.
Table 4-3
Examples
Packet Capture Output Formats
Packet Type
Capture Output Format
802.1Q
HH:MM:SS.ms [ether-hdr] VLAN-info encap-ether-packet
ARP
HH:MM:SS.ms [ether-hdr] arp-type arp-info
IP/ICMP
HH:MM:SS.ms [ether-hdr] ip-source > ip-destination: icmp:
icmp-type icmp-code [checksum-failure]
IP/UDP
HH:MM:SS.ms [ether-hdr] src-addr.src-port dest-addr.dst-port:
[checksum-info] udp payload-len
IP/TCP
HH:MM:SS.ms [ether-hdr] src-addr.src-port dest-addr.dst-port:
tcp-flags [header-check] [checksum-info] sequence-number
ack-number tcp-window urgent-info tcp-options
IP/Other
HH:MM:SS.ms [ether-hdr] src-addr dest-addr: ip-protocol
ip-length
Other
HH:MM:SS.ms ether-hdr: hex-dump
On a web browser, the capture contents for a capture named “mycapture” can be viewed at the following
location:
https://209.165.200.232/capture/mycapture/pcap
To download a libpcap file (used in web browsers such as Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator) to
a local machine, enter the following:
https://209.165.200.232/capture/http/pcap
In the following example, the traffic is captured from an outside host at 209.165.200.241 to an inside
HTTP server.
access-list http permit tcp host 10.120.56.15 eq http host 209.165.200.241
access-list http permit tcp host 209.165.200.241 host 10.120.56.15 eq http
capture http access-list http packet-length 74 interface inside
To capture ARP packets, enter the following:
pixfirewall(config)# capture arp ethernet-type arp interface outside
To display the packets captured by an ARP capture, enter the following:
pixfirewall(config)# show capture arp
2 packets captured
19:12:23.478429 arp who-has 209.165.200.228 tell 209.165.200.10
19:12:26.784294 arp who-has 209.165.200.228 tell 209.165.200.10
2 packets shown
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-13
Chapter 4
C Commands
clear
To capture PPPoE Discovery packets on multiple interfaces, enter the following:
pixfirewall(config)# capture pppoed ethernet-type pppoed interface outside
pixfirewall(config)# capture pppoed interface inside
The following stores a PPPoED trace to a file name “pppoed-dump” on a TFTP server at 209.165.201.17.
(Some TFTP servers require that the file exists and is world writable, so check your TFTP server for the
appropriate permissions and file first.)
pixfirewall(config)# copy capture:pppoed tftp://209.165.201.17/pppoed-dump
Writing to file '/tftpboot/pppoed-dump' at 209.165.201.17 on outside
To display the capture configuration, use the show capture command without specifying any options as
follows:
pixfirewall(config)# show capture
capture arp ethernet-type arp interface outside
capture http access-list http packet-length 74 interface inside
clear
Removes configuration files and commands from the configuration, or resets command values.
However, using the no form of a command is preferred to using the clear form to change your
configuration because the no form is usually more precise.
clear file configuration | pdm | pki
clear command
no command
Command Modes
Configuration mode for clear commands that remove or reset firewall configurations. Privilege mode
for commands that clear items such as counters in show commands. Additionally, the clear commands
available in less secure modes are available in subsequent (more secure) modes. However, commands
from a more secure mode are not available in a less secure mode.
Syntax Description
Table 4-4, Table 4-5, and Table 4-6 list the clear commands available in each mode.
Table 4-4
Unprivileged Mode Clear Command
Clear Command
Description
Used in the following
command(s)
clear pager
Resets the number of displayed lines to 24.
pager
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-14
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
clear
Table 4-5
Privileged Mode Clear Commands
Clear Command
Description
Used in the following
command(s)
clear aaa accounting
To clear the local, TACACS+, or RADIUS user
account.
aaa accounting {include |
exclude}
clear aaa
authentication
To clear the local or TACACS+ user
authentication.
aaa authentication
clear aaa
authorization
To clear the local or TACACS+ user
authorization.
aaa authorization
{include | exclude}
clear aaa-server
To remove a defined server group.
aaa authorization,
aaa authentication
aaa-server
clear arp
Clears the ARP table.
arp
clear auth-prompt
Removes an auth-prompt command statement
from the configuration.
auth-prompt
clear banner
Removes all configured banners.
banner
clear blocks
Resets the show blocks command statement
counters.
show blocks / clear
blocks
clear configure
Resets command parameters in the configuration configure
to their default values.
clear crashinfo
Deletes the crash information file from the Flash crashinfo
memory of the firewall.
clear flashfs
Clears Flash memory prior to downgrading the
PIX Firewall software version.
clear floodguard
Removes Flood Defender, which protects against floodguard
flood attacks from configuration.
clear local-host
Resets the information displayed for the show
local-host command.
show local-host/clear
local host
clear passwd
Resets the Telnet password back to “cisco.”
password
clear traffic
Resets the counters for the show traffic
command.
show traffic/clear traffic
clear uauth
Deletes one user’s or all users’ AAA
authorization caches, which forces the users to
reauthenticate the next time they create a
connection.
show uauth/clear uauth
clear xlate
Clears the contents of the translation slots.
show xlate/clear xlate
fragment
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-15
Chapter 4
C Commands
clear
Table 4-6
Configuration Mode Clear Commands
Used in the following
command(s)
Clear Command
Description
clear aaa
Removes aaa command statements from the
configuration.
aaa accounting
clear aaa accounting
Removes aaa-server command statements from
the configuration.
aaa authorization
clear aaa-server
Remove a defined server group from the
configuration.
aaa authorization
clear access-group
Removes access-group command statements
from the configuration.
access-group
clear access-list
Removes access-list command statements from
the configuration. This command also stops all
traffic through the PIX Firewall on the affected
access-list command statements.
access-list
clear access-list
aclname counters
Clears the counters shown by the show access-list access-list
command.
clear alias
Removes alias command statements from the
configuration.
alias
clear apply
Removes apply command statements from the
configuration.
outbound / apply
clear capture
Clears the packet capture.
capture
clear clock
Removes clock command statements from the
configuration.
clock
clear conduit
Removes conduit command statements from the
configuration.
conduit
clear dhcpd
Removes dhcpd command statements from the
configuration.
dhcpd
clear established
Removes established command statements from
the configuration.
established
clear filter
Removes filter command statements from the
configuration.
filter
clear fixup
Resets fixup protocol command statements to
their default values.
fixup protocol
clear flashfs
Clears Flash memory before downgrading to a
previous PIX Firewall version.
fragment
clear global
Removes global command statements from the
configuration.
global
clear http
Removes all HTTP hosts and disables the server.
http
clear icmp
Removes icmp command statements from the
configuration.
icmp
clear ip
Sets all PIX Firewall interface IP addresses to
127.0.0.1 and stops all traffic.
ip address
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-16
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
clear
Table 4-6
Configuration Mode Clear Commands (continued)
Used in the following
command(s)
Clear Command
Description
clear ip address
Clears all PIX Firewall interface IP addresses
(configuration mode).
ip address
clear ip audit
Clears the IDS signature on the interface
(configuration mode).
ip audit
clear ip local pool
Clears pool of local IP addresses for dynamic
assignment to a VPN.
ip local pool
clear ip verify
reverse-path
Clears RPF IP spoofing protection (configuration
mode).
ip verify reverse-path
clear [crypto]
dynamic-map
Remove crypto dynamic-map command
statements from the configuration.The keyword
crypto is optional.
crypto dynamic-map
and dynamic-map
clear [crypto] ipsec sa Delete the active IPSec security associations. The crypto ipsec
keyword crypto is optional.
clear [crypto] ipsec sa Clear the traffic counters maintained for each
counters
security association. The keyword crypto is
optional.
crypto ipsec
clear [crypto] ipsec sa Delete the active IPSec security association with
entry
the specified address, protocol, and SPI. The
destination-address
keyword crypto is optional.
protocol spi
crypto ipsec
clear [crypto] ipsec sa Delete the active IPSec security associations for crypto ipsec
map map-name
the named crypto map set. The keyword crypto is
optional.
clear [crypto] ipsec sa Delete the active IPSec security associations for
peer
the specified peer. The keyword crypto is
optional.
crypto ipsec
clear [crypto] isakmp Delete the active IKE security associations. The
sa
keyword crypto is optional.
isakmp
clear [crypto] map
Delete all parameters entered through the crypto
map command belonging to the specified map.
Does not delete dynamic maps.
crypto map
clear isakmp
Remove isakmp command statements from the
configuration.
isakmp
clear isakmp log
Clears events in the isakmp log buffer
isakmp
clear interface
Clear counters for the show interface command.
interface
clear logging
Clear syslog message queue accumulated by the
logging buffered command.
logging
clear names
Removes name command statements from the
configuration.
name / names
clear nameif
Reverts nameif command statements to default
interface names and security levels.
nameif
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-17
Chapter 4
C Commands
clear
Table 4-6
Configuration Mode Clear Commands (continued)
Used in the following
command(s)
Clear Command
Description
clear nat
Removes nat command statements from the
configuration.
nat
clear ntp
Removes ntp command statements from the
configuration.
ntp
clear outbound
Removes outbound command statements from
the configuration.
outbound / apply
clear ospf [process-id]
{process | counters |
neighbor
[neighbor-intf]
[neighbr-id]}
routing interface
Clears and restarts the OSPF process with the
specified ID, resets OSPF interface counters,
neighbor interface router designation, or neighbor
router ID, depending on the option selected. This
command does not remove any configuration. Use
the no form of the router ospf or routing
interface command to remove the OSPF
configuration.
clear pdm
Removes all locations, disables logging and clears pdm
the PDM buffer. Internal PDM command.
clear privilege
Removes privilege command statements from the privilege
configuration.
clear rip
Removes rip command statements from the
configuration.
rip
clear route
Removes route command statements from the
configuration that do not contain the CONNECT
keyword.
route
clear service
Removes service command statements from the
configuration.
service
clear snmp-server
Removes snmp-server command statements from · When this feature is
the configuration.
off, regular SIP Fixup
will work as it does
under PIX 6.3.3
clear ssh
Removes ssh command statement from the
configuration.
ssh
clear static
Removes static command statements from the
configuration.
static
clear sysopt
Removes sysopt command statements from the
configuration.
sysopt
clear telnet
Removes telnet command statements from the
configuration.
telnet
clear tftp-server
Removes tftp-server command statements from
the configuration.
tftp-server
clear timeout
Resets timeout command durations to their
default values.
timeout
clear url-cache
Removes url-cache command statements from the url-cache
configuration.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-18
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
clear
Table 4-6
Configuration Mode Clear Commands (continued)
Used in the following
command(s)
Clear Command
Description
clear url-server
Removes url-server command statements from
the configuration.
url-server
clear username
Removes username command statements from
the configuration.
username
clear virtual
Removes virtual command statements from the
configuration.
virtual
clear vpdn
Removes vpdn command statements from the
configuration.
vpdn
clear vpnclient
Removes vpnclient command statements from the vpnclient
configuration.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-19
Chapter 4
C Commands
clock
clock
Set the PIX Firewall clock for use with the PIX Firewall Syslog Server (PFSS) and the Public Key
Infrastructure (PKI) protocol.
clock set hh:mm:ss {day month | month day} year
clear clock
[no] clock summer-time zone recurring [week weekday month hh:mm week weekday month
hh:mm] [offset]
[no] clock summer-time zone date {day month | month day} year hh:mm {day month | month
day} year hh:mm [offset]
[no] clock timezone zone hours [minutes]
show clock [detail]
Syntax Description
date
The date command form is used as an alternative to the recurring form of the clock
summer-time command. It specifies that summertime should start on the first date
entered and end on the second date entered. If the start date month is after the end date
month, the summer time zone is accepted and assumed to be in the Southern
Hemisphere.
day
The day of the month to start, from 1 to 31.
detail
Displays the clock source and current summertime settings.
hh:mm:ss
The hour:minutes:seconds expressed in 24-hour time; for example, 20:54:00 for 8:54
pm. Zeros can be entered as a single digit; for example, 21:0:0.
hours
The hours of offset from UTC.
minutes
The minutes of offset from UTC.
month
The month expressed as the first three characters of the month; for example, apr for
April.
offset
The number of minutes to add during summertime. The default is 60 minutes.
recurring
Specifies the start and end dates for local summer “daylight savings” time. The first
date entered is the start date and the second date entered is the end date. (The start date
is relative to UTC and the end date is relative to the specified summer time zone.) If
no dates are specified, United States Daylight Savings Time is used. If the start date
month is after the end date month, the summer time zone is accepted and assumed to
be in the Southern Hemisphere.
summer-time
The clock summer-time command displays summertime hours during the specified
summertime date range. This command affects the clock display time only.
timezone
clock timezone sets the clock display to the time zone specified. It does not change
internal PIX Firewall time, which remains UTC.
week
Specifies the week of the month. The week is 1 through 4 and first or last for partial
weeks at the begin or end a month, respectively. For example, week 5 of any month
is specified by using last.
weekday
Specifies the day of the week: Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and so on.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-20
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
clock
year
The year expressed as four digits; for example, 2000. The year range supported for the
clock command is 1993 to 2035.
zone
The name of the time zone.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The clock command lets you specify the time, month, day, and year for use with time stamped syslog
messages, which you can enable with the logging timestamp command. You can view the time with the
clock or the show clock command.
The clear clock command removes all summertime settings and resets the clock display to UTC.
The show clock command outputs the time, time zone, day, and full date.
Note
The lifetime of a certificate and the certificate revocation list (CRL) is checked in UTC, which is the
same as GMT. If you are using IPSec with certificates, set the PIX Firewall clock to UTC to ensure that
CRL checking works correctly.
You can interchange the settings for the day and the month; for example, clock set 21:0:0 1 apr 2000.
The maximum date range for the clock command is 1993 through 2035. A time prior to January 1, 1993,
or after December 31, 2035, will not be accepted.
While the PIX Firewall clock is year 2000 compliant, it does not adjust itself for daylight savings time
changes; however, it does know about leap years.
The PIX Firewall clock setting is retained in memory when the power is off by a battery on the
PIX Firewall unit’s motherboard. Should this battery fail, contact Cisco TAC for a replacement
PIX Firewall unit.
Cisco’s PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) protocol uses the clock to make sure that a certificate revocation
list (CRL) is not expired. Otherwise, the CA may reject or allow certificates based on an incorrect
timestamp. Refer to the Cisco PIX Firewall and VPN Configuration Guide for a description of IPSec
concepts.
Examples
To enable PFSS time stamp logging for the first time, use the following commands:
clock set 21:0:0 apr 1 2000
show clock
21:00:05 Apr 01 2000
logging host 209.165.201.3
logging timestamp
logging trap 5
In this example, the clock command sets the clock to 9 p.m. on April 1, 2000. The logging host
command specifies that a syslog server is at IP address 209.165.201.3. The PIX Firewall automatically
determines that the server is a PFSS and sends syslog messages to it via TCP and UDP. The logging
timestamp command enables sending time stamped syslog messages. The logging trap 5 command in
this example specifies that messages at syslog level 0 through 5 be sent to the syslog server. The value
5 is used to capture severe and normal messages, but also those of the aaa authentication enable
command.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-21
Chapter 4
C Commands
conduit
The following clock summer-time command specifies that summertime starts on the first Sunday in
April at 2 a.m. and ends on the last Sunday in October at 2 a.m.:
pix_name (config)# clock summer-time PDT recurring 1 Sunday April 2:00
last Sunday October 2:00
If you live in a place where summertime follows the Southern Hemisphere pattern, you can specify the
exact date and times. In the following example, daylight savings time (summer time) is configured to
start on October 12, 2001, at 2 a.m. and end on April 26, 2002, at 2 a.m.:
pix_name (config)# clock summer-time PDT date 12 October 2001 2:00
26 April 2002 2:00
conduit
Add, delete, or show conduits through the PIX Firewall for incoming connections. However, the conduit
command has been superseded by the access-list command. We recommend that you migrate your
configuration away from the conduit command to maintain future compatibility.
[no] conduit permit | deny protocol global_ip global_mask [operator port [port]] foreign_ip
foreign_mask [operator port [port]]
[no] conduit deny|permit protocol | object-group protocol_obj_grp_id global_ip global_mask |
object-group network_obj_grp_id [operator port [port] | object-group service_obj_grp_id]
foreign_ip foreign_mask | object-group network_obj_grp_id [operator port [port] |
object-group service_obj_grp_id]
[no] conduit deny|permit icmp global_ip global_mask | object-group network_obj_grp_id
foreign_ip foreign_mask | object-group network_obj_grp_id [icmp_type | object-group
icmp_type_obj_grp_id]
clear conduit
clear conduit counters
show conduit
Syntax Description
deny
Deny access if the conditions are matched.
foreign_ip
An external IP address (host or network) that can access the global_ip. You
can specify 0.0.0.0 or 0 for any host. If both the foreign_ip and foreign_mask
are 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0, you can use the shorthand any option.
If foreign_ip is a host, you can omit foreign_mask by specifying the host
command before foreign_ip.
For example:
conduit permit tcp any eq ftp host 209.165.201.2
This example lets foreign host 209.165.201.2 access any global address for
FTP.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-22
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
conduit
foreign_mask
Network mask of foreign_ip. The foreign_mask is a 32-bit, four-part dotted
decimal; such as, 255.255.255.255. Use zeros in a part to indicate bit positions
to be ignored. Use subnetting if required. If you use 0 for foreign_ip, use 0 for
the foreign_mask; otherwise, enter the foreign_mask appropriate to
foreign_ip. You can also specify a mask for subnetting.
For example: 255.255.255.192.
global_ip
A global IP address previously defined by a global or static command. You
can use any if the global_ip and global_mask are 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0. The any
option applies the permit or deny parameters to the global addresses.
If global_ip is a host, you can omit global_mask by specifying the host
command before global_ip.
For example:
conduit permit tcp host 209.165.201.1 eq ftp any
This example lets any foreign host access global address 209.165.201.1 for
FTP.
global_mask
Network mask of global_ip. The global_mask is a 32-bit, four-part dotted
decimal; such as, 255.255.255.255. Use zeros in a part to indicate bit positions
to be ignored. Use subnetting if required. If you use 0 for global_ip, use 0 for
the global_mask; otherwise, enter the global_mask appropriate to global_ip.
icmp_type
The type of ICMP message. Table 4-7 lists the ICMP type literals that you can
use in this command. Omit this option to include all ICMP types. The conduit
permit icmp any any command permits all ICMP types and lets ICMP pass
inbound and outbound.
icmp_type
_obj_grp_id
An existing ICMP type object group.
object-group
Specifies an object group.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-23
Chapter 4
C Commands
conduit
operator
A comparison operand that lets you specify a port or a port range.
Use without an operator and port to indicate all ports.
For example:
conduit permit tcp any any
Use eq and a port to permit or deny access to just that port. For example use
eq ftp to permit or deny access only to FTP:
conduit deny tcp host 209.165.200.247 eq ftp 209.165.201.1
Use lt and a port to permit or deny access to all ports less than the port you
specify. For example, use lt 2025 to permit or deny access to the well-known
ports (1 to 1024).
conduit permit tcp host 209.165.200.247 lt 1025 any
Use gt and a port to permit or deny access to all ports greater than the port you
specify. For example, use gt 42 to permit or deny ports 43 to 65535.
conduit deny udp host 209.165.200.247 gt 42 host 209.165.201.2
Use neq and a port to permit or deny access to every port except the ports that
you specify. For example, use neq 10 to permit or deny ports 1-9 and 11 to
65535.
conduit deny tcp host 209.165.200.247 neq 10 host 209.165.201.2 neq
42
Use range and a port range to permit or deny access to only those ports named
in the range. For example, use range 10 1024 to permit or deny access only
to ports 10 through 1024. All other ports are unaffected.
conduit deny tcp any range ftp telnet any
By default, all ports are denied until explicitly permitted.
network_obj_grp_id
An existing network object group.
permit
Permit access if the conditions are matched.
port
Service(s) you permit to be used while accessing global_ip or foreign_ip.
Specify services by the port that handles it, such as smtp for port 25, www
for port 80, and so on. You can specify ports by either a literal name or a
number in the range of 0 to 65535. You can specify all ports by not specifying
a port value.
For example:
conduit deny tcp any any
This command is the default condition for the conduit command in that all
ports are denied until explicitly permitted.
You can view valid port numbers online at the following website:
http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers
See "“Ports”"in Chapter 2, “Using PIX Firewall Commands” for a list of valid
port literal names in port ranges; for example, ftp h323. You can also specify
numbers.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-24
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
conduit
protocol
Specify the transport protocol for the connection. Possible literal values are
icmp, tcp, udp, or an integer in the range 0 through 255 representing an IP
protocol number. Use ip to specify all transport protocols. You can view valid
protocol numbers online at the following website:
http://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers
If you specify the icmp protocol, you can permit or deny ICMP access to one
or more global IP addresses. Specify the ICMP type in the icmp_type variable,
or omit to specify all ICMP types. See "Usage Guidelines" for a complete list
of the ICMP types.
protocol_obj_grp_id
An existing protocol object group.
service_obj_grp_id
An existing service (port) object group.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
We recommend that you use the access-list command instead of the conduit command because using an
access list is a more secure way of enabling connections between hosts. Specifically, the conduit
command functions by creating an exception to the PIX Firewall Adaptive Security Algorithm that then
permits connections from one PIX Firewall network interface to access hosts on another.
The conduit command can permit or deny access to either the global or static commands; however,
neither is required for the conduit command. You can associate a conduit command statement with a
global or static command statement through the global address, either specifically to a single global
address, a range of global addresses, or to all global addresses.
When used with a static command statement, a conduit command statement permits users on a lower
security interface to access a higher security interface. When not used with a static command statement,
a conduit command statement permits both inbound and outbound access.
The show conduit command displays the conduit command statements in the configuration and the
number of times (hit count) an element has been matched during a conduit command search.
Converting conduit Commands to access-list Commands
Follow these steps to convert conduit command statements to access-list commands:
Step 1
View the static command format. This command normally precedes both the conduit and access-list
commands. The static command syntax is as follows.
static (high_interface,low_interface) global_ip local_ip netmask mask
For example:
static (inside,outside) 209.165.201.5 192.168.1.5 netmask 255.255.255.255
This command maps the global IP address 209.165.201.5 on the outside interface to the web server
192.168.1.5 on the inside interface. The 255.255.255.255 is used for host addresses.
Step 2
View the conduit command format. The conduit command is similar to the access-list command in that
it restricts access to the mapping provided by the static command. The conduit command syntax is as
follows.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-25
Chapter 4
C Commands
conduit
conduit action protocol global_ip global_mask global_operator global_port [global_port] foreign_ip
foreign_mask foreign_operator foreign_port [foreign_port]
For example:
conduit permit tcp host 209.165.201.5 eq www any
This command permits TCP for the global IP address 209.165.201.5 that was specified in the static
command statement and permits access over port 80 (www). The “any” option lets any host on the
outside interface access the global IP address.
The static command identifies the interface that the conduit command restricts access to.
Step 3
Create the access-list command from the conduit command options. The acl_name in the access-list
command is a name or number you create to associate access-list command statements with an
access-group or crypto map command statement.
Normally the access-list command format is as follows:
access-list acl_name [deny | permit] protocol src_addr src_mask operator port dest_addr dest_mask
operator port
However, using the syntax from the conduit command in the access-list command, you can see how the
foreign_ip in the conduit command is the same as the src_addr in the access-list command and how the
global_ip option in the conduit command is the same as the dest_addr in the access-list command. The
access-list command syntax overlaid with the conduit command options is as follows.
access-list acl_name action protocol foreign_ip foreign_mask foreign_operator foreign_port
[foreign_port] global_ip global_mask global_operator global_port [global_port]
For example:
access-list acl_out permit tcp any host 209.165.201.5 eq www
This command identifies the access-list command statement group with the “acl_out” identifier. You
can use any name or number for your own identifier. (In this example the identifier, “acl” is from ACL,
which means access control list and “out” is an abbreviation for the outside interface.) It makes your
configuration clearer if you use an identifier name that indicates the interface to which you are
associating the access-list command statements. The example access-list command, like the conduit
command, permits TCP connections from any system on the outside interface. The access-list command
is associated with the outside interface with the access-group command.
Step 4
Create the access-group command using the acl_name from the access-list command and the
low_interface option from the static command. The format for the access-group command is as follows.
access-group acl_name in interface low_interface
For example:
access-group acl_out in interface outside
This command associates with the “acl_out” group of access-list command statements and states that
the access-list command statement restricts access to the outside interface.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-26
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
conduit
More on the conduit Command
If you associate a conduit command statement with a static command statement, only the interfaces
specified on the static command statement have access to the conduit command statement. For example,
if a static command statement lets users on the dmz interface access a server on the inside interface,
only users on the dmz interface can access the server via the static command statement. Users on the
outside do not have access.
Note
The conduit command statements are processed in the order they are entered into the configuration.
The permit and deny options for the conduit command are processed in the order listed in the
PIX Firewall configuration. In the following example, host 209.165.202.129 is not denied access
through the PIX Firewall because the permit option precedes the deny option.
conduit permit tcp host 209.165.201.4 eq 80 any
conduit deny tcp host 209.165.201.4 host 209.165.202.129 eq 80 any
Note
If you want internal users to be able to ping external hosts, use the conduit permit icmp any any
command.
After changing or removing a conduit command statement, use the clear xlate command.
You can remove a conduit command statement with the no conduit command. The clear conduit
command removes all conduit command statements from your configuration. The clear conduit
counters command clears the current conduit hit count.
If you prefer more selective ICMP access, you can specify a single ICMP message type as the last option
in this command. Table 4-7 lists possible ICMP types values.
Table 4-7
ICMP Type Literals
ICMP Type
Literal
0
echo-reply
3
unreachable
4
source-quench
5
redirect
6
alternate-address
8
echo
9
router-advertisement
10
router-solicitation
11
time-exceeded
12
parameter-problem
13
timestamp-request
14
timestamp-reply
15
information-request
16
information-reply
17
mask-request
18
mask-reply
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-27
Chapter 4
C Commands
conduit
Table 4-7
ICMP Type Literals (continued)
ICMP Type
Literal
31
conversion-error
32
mobile-redirect
Usage Notes
1.
By default, all ports are denied until explicitly permitted.
2.
The conduit command statements are processed in the order entered in the configuration. If you
remove a command, it affects the order of all subsequent conduit command statements.
3.
To remove all conduit command statements, cut and paste your configuration onto your console
computer, edit the configuration on the computer, use the write erase command to clear the current
configuration, and then paste the configuration back into the PIX Firewall.
4.
If you use Port Address Translation (PAT), you cannot use a conduit command statement using the
PAT address to either permit or deny access to ports.
5.
Two conduit command statements are required for establishing access to the following services:
discard, dns, echo, ident, pptp, rpc, sunrpc, syslog, tacacs-ds, talk, and time. Each service,
except for pptp, requires one conduit for TCP and one for UDP. For DNS, if you are only receiving
zone updates, you only need a single conduit command statement for TCP.
The two conduit command statements for the PPTP transport protocol, which is a subset of the GRE
protocol, are as shown in the following example:
static (dmz2,outside) 209.165.201.5 192.168.1.5 netmask 255.255.255.255
conduit permit tcp host 209.165.201.5 eq 1723 any
conduit permit gre host 209.165.201.5 any
In this example, PPTP is being used to handle access to host 192.168.1.5 on the dmz2 interface from
users on the outside. Outside users access the dmz2 host using global address 209.165.201.5. The
first conduit command statement opens access for the PPTP protocol and gives access to any outside
users. The second conduit command statement permits access to GRE. If PPTP was not involved
and GRE was, you could omit the first conduit command statement.
6.
The RPC conduit command support fixes up UDP portmapper and rpcbind exchanges. TCP
exchanges are not supported. This lets simple RPC-based programs work; however, remote
procedure calls, arguments, or responses that contain addresses or ports will not be fixed up.
For MSRPC, two conduit command statements are required, one for port 135 and another for access
to the high ports (1024-65535). For Sun RPC, a single conduit command statement is required for
UDP port 111.
Once you create a conduit command statement for RPC, you can use the following command to test
its activity from a UNIX host:
rpcinfo -u unix_host_ip_address 150001
Replace unix_host_ip_address with the IP address of the UNIX host.
7.
You can overlay host statics on top of a net static range to further refine what an individual host can
access:
static (inside, outside) 209.165.201.0 10.1.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0
conduit permit tcp 209.165.201.0 255.255.255.0 eq ftp any
static (inside, outside) 203.31.17.3 10.1.1.3 netmask 255.255.255.0
conduit permit udp host 209.165.201.3 eq h323 host 209.165.202.3
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-28
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
configure
In this case, the host at 209.165.202.3 has Intel Internet Phone access in addition to its blanket FTP
access.
Examples
1.
The following commands permit access between an outside UNIX gateway host at 209.165.201.2,
to an inside SMTP server with Mail Guard at 192.168.1.49. Mail Guard is enabled in the default
configuration for PIX Firewall with the fixup protocol smtp 25 command. The global address on
the PIX Firewall is 209.165.201.1.
static (inside,outside) 209.165.201.1 192.168.1.49 netmask 255.255.255.255 0 0
conduit permit tcp host 209.165.201.1 eq smtp host 209.165.201.2
To disable Mail Guard, enter the following command:
no fixup protocol smtp 25
2.
You can set up an inside host to receive H.323 Intel Internet Phone calls and allow the outside
network to connect inbound via the IDENT protocol (TCP port 113). In this example, the inside
network is at 192.168.1.0, the global addresses on the outside network are referenced via the
209.165.201.0 network address with a 255.255.255.224 mask.
static (inside,outside) 209.165.201.0 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.224 0 0
conduit permit tcp 209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224 eq h323 any
conduit permit tcp 209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224 eq 113 any
3.
You can create a web server on the perimeter interface that can be accessed by any outside host as
follows:
static (perimeter,outside) 209.165.201.4 192.168.1.4 netmask 255.255.255.255 0 0
conduit permit tcp host 209.165.201.4 eq 80 any
In this example, the static command statement maps the perimeter host, 192.168.1.4. to the global
address, 209.165.201.4. The conduit command statement specifies that the global host can be
accessed on port 80 (web server) by any outside host.
configure
Configure from the terminal, Flash memory, the network, or factory default. The new configuration
merges with the active configuration except for the factory default, in which case the active
configuration is cleared first and then replaced by the factory default. The factory default option is
available only on the PIX 501 and PIX 506/506E.
clear configure [terminal | memory]
clear configure [primary | secondary | all]
[no] configure http[s] :// [user:password@] location [ :port ] / http_pathname
configure net [[location]:[filename]]
clear configure primary | secondary | all
show configure
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-29
Chapter 4
C Commands
configure
For the PIX 501 and PIX 506/506E only:
configure factory-default [inside_ip_address [address_mask]]
For older PIX Firewall units that have a floppy drive only:
configure floppy
Syntax Description
address_mask
Specifies the address mask for the inside interface IP address. The default
address mask is 255.255.255.0.
all
Combines the primary and secondary options.
clear
Clears aspects of the current configuration in RAM. Use the write erase
command to clear the complete configuration.
factory-default
Specifies to clear the current configuration and regenerate the default,
factory-loaded configuration. This command is supported for the PIX 501 and
PIX 506/506E only in PIX Firewall software Version 6.2.
filename
A filename you specify to qualify the location of the configuration file on the
TFTP server named in server_ip. If you set a filename with the tftp-server
command, do not specify it in the configure command; instead just use a colon
( : ) without a filename.
floppy
Merges the current configuration with that on diskette.
http_pathname
The name of the HTTP server path that contains the PIX Firewall configuration
to copy.
http[s]
Specifies to retrieve configuration information from an HTTP server. (SSL is
used when https is specified.)
inside_ip_address
Specifies the inside IP address. The default inside interface IP address is
192.168.1.1.
location
The IP address (or defined name) of the HTTP server to log into.
memory
Merges the current configuration with that in Flash memory.
net
Loads the configuration from a TFTP server and the path you specify. Comments
in the configuration preceded by a colon (:) or exclamation mark (!) will be
pruned and will not be visible in the PIX Firewall configuration listing.
password
The password for logging into the HTTP server.
pathname
The name of the resource that contains the PIX Firewall configuration to copy.
port
Specifies the port to contact on the HTTP server. It defaults to 80 for http and
443 for https.
primary
Sets the interface, ip, mtu, nameif, and route commands to their default values.
In addition, interface names are removed from all commands in the
configuration.
secondary
Removes the aaa-server, alias, access-list, apply, conduit, global, outbound,
static, telnet, and url-server command statements from your configuration.
location
The IP address or name of the server from which to merge in a new configuration.
This server address or name is defined with the tftp-server command.
terminal
Starts configuration mode to enter configuration commands from a terminal. Exit
configuration mode by entering the quit command.
user
The username for logging into the HTTP server.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-30
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
configure
Command Modes
The configure terminal command (with the short form “config t”) is available in privileged mode, and
it changes the firewall over to configuration mode. All other configure commands are available in
configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
You must be in configuration mode to use the configuration commands, except for the configure
terminal (config t) command. The configure terminal command starts configuration mode from
privileged mode. You can exit configuration mode with the quit command. After exiting configuration
mode, use the write memory command to store your changes in Flash memory or write floppy to store
the configuration on diskette.
Each command statement from Flash memory (with configure memory), TFTP transfer (with configure
net), or diskette (with configure floppy) is read into the current configuration and evaluated in the same
way as commands entered from a keyboard with the following rules:
•
If the command in Flash memory or on diskette is identical to an existing command in the current
configuration, it is ignored.
•
If the command in Flash memory or on diskette is an additional instance of an existing command,
such as if you already have one telnet command for IP address 10.2.3.4 and the diskette
configuration has a telnet command for 10.7.8.9, then both commands appear in the current
configuration.
•
If the command redefines an existing command, the command on diskette or Flash memory
overwrites the command in the current configuration in RAM. For example, if you have the
hostname ram command in the current configuration and the hostname floppy command on
diskette, the command in the configuration becomes hostname floppy and the command line
prompt changes to match the new hostname when that command is read from diskette.
The show configure and show startup-config commands display the startup configuration of the
firewall. The write terminal and show running-config commands display the configuration currently
running on the firewall.
The clear configure [all] command resets a configuration to its default values. Use this command to
create a template configuration or when you want to clear all values. The clear configure primary
command resets the default values for the interface, ip, mtu, nameif, and route commands. This
command also deletes interface names in the configuration. The clear configure secondary command
removes the aaa-server, alias, access-list, apply, conduit, global, outbound, static, telnet, and
url-server command statements from the configuration. However, the clear configure secondary
command does not remove tftp-server command statements.
Note
Save your configuration before using a clear configure command. The clear configure primary and
clear configure secondary commands do not prompt you before deleting lines from your configuration.
configure factory-default
On the PIX 501 and PIX 506/506E, the configure factory-default command reinstates the factory
default configuration. (This command is not supported on other PIX Firewall platforms at this time.)
Use this command carefully because, before reinstating the factory default configuration, this command
has the same effect as the clear configure all command; it clears all existing configuration information.
With no options specified, the configure factory-default command gives a default IP address of
192.168.1.1, and a netmask of 255.255.255.0, to the PIX Firewall inside interface.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-31
Chapter 4
C Commands
configure
With the configure factory-default ip-address command, if you specify an inside IP address but no
netmask, the default address mask is derived from the specified IP address and is based on the IP address
class.
With the configure factory-default ip-address netmask command, the specified IP address and
netmask are assigned to the inside interface of the firewall.
For the PIX 501, the 10-user license is limited to a DHCP pool of 32 addresses, the 50-user license is
limited to a DHCP pool size of 128 addresses, and the unlimited user license is limited to a DHCP pool
size of 253 addresses. (It would be 256 addresses for the unlimited user license, but the default IP address
is class C and 256 DHCP addresses cannot be supported within a class C address.) The PIX 506/506E is
limited to a DHCP pool size of 253.
configure http[s]
The configure http[s] command retrieves configuration information from an HTTP server for remotely
managing a PIX Firewall configuration. The configuration can be either a text file or an XML file. Text
files merge regardless of errors that may be in the cofiguration. XML files require the use of the message
“config-data” in the XML file to explicitly control merging and error handling.
configure net
The configure net command merges the current running configuration with a TFTP configuration stored
at the IP address you specify and from the file you name. If you specify both the IP address and path
name in the tftp-server command, you can specify server_ip :filename as simply a colon ( : ).
For example:
configure net :
Use the write net command to store the configuration in the file.
If you have an existing PIX Firewall configuration on a TFTP server and store a shorter configuration
with the same filename on the TFTP server, some TFTP servers will leave some of the original
configuration after the first “:end” mark. This does not affect the PIX Firewall because the configure
net command stops reading when it reaches the first “:end” mark. However, this may cause confusion if
you view the configuration and see extra text at the end of the configuration.
Note
Many TFTP servers require the configuration file to be world-readable to be accessible.
configure floppy
The configure floppy command merges the current running configuration with the configuration stored
on diskette. This command assumes that the diskette was previously created by the write floppy
command.
configure memory
The configure memory command merges the configuration in Flash memory into the current
configuration in RAM.
Examples
The following example shows how to configure the PIX Firewall using a configuration retrieved with
TFTP:
configure net 10.1.1.1:/tftp/config/pixconfig
The pixconfig file is stored on the TFTP server at 10.1.1.1 in the tftp/config folder.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-32
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
console
The following example shows how to configure the PIX Firewall from a diskette:
configure floppy
The following example shows how to configure the PIX Firewall from the configuration stored in Flash
memory:
configure memory
The following example shows the commands you enter to access configuration mode, view the
configuration, and save it in Flash memory.
Access privileged mode with the enable command and configuration mode with the configure terminal
command. View the current configuration with the write terminal command and save your
configuration to Flash memory using the write memory command.
pixfirewall> enable
password:
pixfirewall# configure terminal
pixfirewall(config)# write terminal
: Saved
[...current configuration...]
: End
write memory
When you enter the configure factory-default command on a platform other than the PIX 501 or
PIX 506/506E, the PIX Firewall displays a “not supported” error message. On the PIX 515/515E, for
example, the following message is displayed:
pixdfirewall(config)# configure factory default
'config factory-default' is not supported on PIX-515
console
Sets the idle timeout for the serial-cable console session of the PIX Firewall.
[no] console timeout number
Syntax Description
number
Defaults
The default timeout is 0, which means the console will not time out. The zero value in the command
console timeout 0 has the same meaning as zero value in the command exec-timeout 0 0 in Cisco IOS
software.
Command Modes
The console timeout command is available in configuration mode.
Idle time in minutes (0-60) after which the serial-cable console session ends.
The show console timeout command is available in privileged and configuration mode.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-33
Chapter 4
C Commands
copy
Usage Guidelines
The console timeout command sets the timeout value for any authenticated, enable mode, or
configuration mode user session when accessing the firewall console through a serial cable. This timeout
does not alter the Telnet or SSH timeouts; these access methods maintain their own timeout values.
The no console timeout command resets the console timeout value to its default.
The show console timeout command displays the currently configured console timeout value.
Examples
The following example shows how to set the console timeout to fifteen (15) minutes:
pixfirewall(config)# console timeout 15
The following example shows how to display the configured timeout value:
pixfirewall(config)# show console timeout
console timeout 15
Related Commands
aaa authorization
Enable or disable LOCAL or TACACS+ user authorization services.
password
Sets the password for Telnet access to the PIX Firewall console.
ssh
Specifies a host for PIX Firewall console access through Secure Shell (SSH).
telnet
Specifies the host for PIX Firewall console access via Telnet.
copy
Change software images without requiring access to the TFTP monitor mode or copy a capture file to a
TFTP server.
copy capture: capture_name tftp://location/path [pcap]
copy http[s]://[user:password@] location [:port ] / http_pathname flash [: [image | pdm] ]
copy tftp[:[[//location] [/tftp_pathname]]] flash[:[image | pdm]]
Syntax Description
copy capture
capture_name
Copies capture information to a remote TFTP server. capture_name is a
unique name that identifies the capture.
copy http[s]
Downloads a software image into the Flash memory of the firewall from an
HTTP server. (SSL is used when https is specified.)
copy tftp flash
Downloads a software image into Flash memory of the firewall via TFTP
without using monitor mode.
http_pathname
The name of the resource that contains the PIX Firewall software image or
PDM file to copy.
image
Download the selected PIX Firewall image to Flash memory. An image you
download is made available to the PIX Firewall on the next reload (reboot).
location
Either an IP address or a name that resolves to an IP address via the
PIX Firewall naming resolution mechanism.
password
The password for logging into the HTTP server.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-34
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
copy
pdm
Download the selected PDM image files to Flash memory. These files are
available to the PIX Firewall immediately, without a reboot.
port
Specifies the port to contact on the HTTP server. It defaults to 80 for http and
443 for https.
tftp_pathname
PIX Firewall must know how to reach this location via its routing table
information. This information is determined by the ip address command, the
route command, or also RIP, depending upon your configuration. The
pathname can include any directory names in addition to the actual last
component of the path to the file on the server.
user
The username for logging into the HTTP server.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
copy capture
The copy capture: capture_name tftp://location/path [pcap] command uses the capture name on the
PIX Firewall (capture_name) as its source and the TFTP address (tftp://location/path) as the copy
destination. (These parameters are similar to the copy tftp command options.) The addition of the pcap
option at the end of a copy capture command transfers the file in libpcap format.
copy http[s]
The copy http[s]://[user:password@] location [:port ] / http_pathname flash [: [image | pdm] ]
command enables you to download a software image into the Flash memory of the firewall from an HTTP
server. SSL is used when the copy https command is specified. The user and password options are used
for authentication when logging into the HTTP server. The location option is the IP address (or a name
that resolves to an IP address) of the HTTP server. The :port option specifies the port on which to
contact the server. The value for :port defaults to port 80 for HTTP and port 443 for HTTP through SSL.
The pathname option is the name of the resource that contains the image or PDM file to copy.
copy tftp
The copy tftp flash command enables you to download a software image into the Flash memory of the
firewall via TFTP. You can use the copy tftp flash command with any PIX Firewall model running
Version 5.1 or higher.
The image you download is made available to the PIX Firewall on the next reload (reboot).
The command syntax is as follows:
copy tftp[:[[//location][/pathname]]] flash [:[image][pdm]]
If the command is used without the location or pathname optional parameters, then the location and
filename are obtained from the user interactively via a series of questions similar to those presented by
Cisco IOS software. If you only enter a colon (:), parameters are taken from the tftp-server command
settings. If other optional parameters are supplied, then these values would be used in place of the
corresponding tftp-server command setting. Supplying any of the optional parameters, such as a colon
and anything after it, causes the command to run without prompting for user input.
The location is either an IP address or a name that resolves to an IP address via the PIX Firewall naming
resolution mechanism (currently static mappings via the name and names commands). PIX Firewall
must know how to reach this location via its routing table information. This information is determined
by the ip address command, the route command, or also RIP, depending upon your configuration.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-35
Chapter 4
C Commands
copy
The pathname can include any directory names besides the actual last component of the path to the file
on the server. The pathname cannot contain spaces. If a directory name has spaces, set the directory in
the TFTP server instead of in the copy tftp flash command.
If your TFTP server has been configured to point to a directory on the system from which you are
downloading the image, you need only use the IP address of the system and the image filename.
The TFTP server receives the command and determines the actual file location from its root directory
information. The server then downloads the TFTP image to the PIX Firewall.
You can download a TFTP server from the following website:
http://tftpd32.jounin.net
Note
Examples
Images prior to Version 5.1 cannot be retrieved using this mechanism.
copy capture
The following example shows the prompts provided when you enter the copy capture command without
specifying the full path:
copy capture:abc tftp
Address or name of remote host [209.165.200.228]?
Source file name [username/cdisk]?
copying capture to tftp://209.165.200.228/username/cdisk:
[yes|no|again]? y
!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Alternately, you can specify the full path as follows:
copy capture:abc tftp:209.165.200.228/tftpboot/abc.cap pcap
If the TFTP server is already configured, the location or file name can be left unspecified as follows:
tftp-server outside 209.165.200.228 tftp/cdisk
copy capture:abc tftp:/tftp/abc.cap
The following example shows how to use the defaults of the preconfigured TFTP server in the copy
capture command:
copy capture:abc tftp:pcap
copy http[s]
The following example shows how to copy the PIX Firewall software image from a public HTTP server
into the Flash memory of your PIX Firewall:
copy http://209.165.200.228/auto/cdisk flash:image
The following example show how to copy the PDM software image through HTTPS (HTTP over SSL),
where the SSL authentication is provided by the username robin and the password xyz:
copy https://robin:xyz@209.165.200.228/auto/pdm.bin flash:pdm
The following example show how to copy the PIX Firewall software image from an HTTPS server
running on a non-standard port, where the file is copied into the software image space in Flash memory
by default:
copy https://robin:zyx@209.165.200.228:8080/auto/cdisk flash
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-36
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
copy
The following examples copy files from 192.133.219.25, which is the IP address for www.cisco.com, to
the Flash memory of your PIX Firewall. To use these examples, replace the username and password
" cco-username:cco-password" with your CCO username and password. Also note that the URL
contains a '?'. To enter this while using the PIX Firewall CLI, it must be preceded by typing Ctrl-v.
To copy PIX Firewall software Version 6.2.2 into the Flash memory of your PIX Firewall from
Cisco.com, enter the following command:
copy http://cco-username:cco-password@192.133.219.25/cgi-bin/Software/Tablebuild/
download.cgi/pix622.bin?&filename=cisco/ciscosecure/pix/pix622.bin flash:image
To copy PDM Version 2.0.2 into the Flash memory of your PIX Firewall from Cisco.com, enter the
following command:
copy http://cco-username:cco-password@192.133.219.25/cgi-bin/Software/Tablebuild/
download.cgi/pdm-202.bin?&filename=cisco/ciscosecure/pix/pdm-202.bin flash:pdm
copy tftp
The following example causes the PIX Firewall to prompt you for the filename and location before you
start the TFTP download:
copy tftp flash
Address or name of remote host [127.0.0.1]? 10.1.1.5
Source file name [cdisk]? pix512.bin
copying tftp://10.1.1.5/pix512.bin to flash
[yes|no|again]? yes
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!…
Received 1695744 bytes.
Erasing current image.
Writing 1597496 bytes of image.
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!…
Image installed.
The next example takes the information from the tftp-server command. In this case, the TFTP server is
in an intranet and resides on the outside interface. The example sets the filename and location from the
tftp-server command, saves memory, and then downloads the image to Flash memory.
pixfirewall(config)# tftp-server outside 10.1.1.5 pix512.bin
Warning: 'outside' interface has a low security level (0).
pixfirewall(config)# write memory
Building configuration...
Cryptochecksum: 017c452b d54be501 8620ba48 490f7e99
[OK]
pixfirewall(config)# copy tftp: flash
copying tftp://10.1.1.5/pix512.bin to flash
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!…
The next example overrides the information in the tftp-server command to let you specify alternate
information about the filename and location. If you have not set the tftp-server command, you can also
use the copy tftp flash command to specify all information as shown in the second example that follows.
copy tftp:/pix512.bin flash
copy tftp://10.0.0.1/pix512.bin flash
The next example maps an IP address to the TFTP host name with the name command and uses the
tftp-host name in the copy commands:
name 10.1.1.6 tftp-host
copy tftp://tftp-host/pix512.bin flash
copy tftp://tftp-host/tftpboot/pix512.bin flash
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-37
Chapter 4
C Commands
crashinfo
crashinfo
Configure crash information to write to Flash memory, with the option to force a crash of the firewall.
crashinfo test
crashinfo force [page-fault | watchdog]
crashinfo save [enable | disable]
no crashinfo save disable
show crashinfo [save]
clear crashinfo
Syntax Description
page-fault
Forces a crash of the firewall with a page fault.
save disable
Disables crash information from writing to Flash memory.
save enable
Configures crash information to write to Flash memory. (This is the default
behavior.)
test
Tests the firewall’s ability to save crash information to Flash memory. This
does not actually crash the firewall.
watchdog
Forces a crash of the firewall as a result of watchdogging.
Defaults
By default, the firewall saves the crash information file to Flash memory. In other words, by default the
crashinfo save command is in your configuration.
Command Modes
The crashinfo save commands are available in configuration mode.
The show crashinfo commands are available in privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The crashinfo save enable command does not need to be entered to save crash information to the Flash
memory of your firewall; this is the default behavior of the firewall. However, if the firewall unit crashes
during start up, the crash information file is not saved, whether or not the crashinfo save enable
command is in your configuration.The firewall must be fully initialized and running first, and then it can
save crash information as it crashes.
The crashinfo save disable command turns off saving crash information to the Flash memory of the
firewall. After a crashinfo save disable command is written to your configuration, crash information is
dumped to your console screen only. Use the crashinfo save enable or no crashinfo save disable
command to re-enable saving the crash information to Flash memory.
The crashinfo test command provides a simulated crash information file, which it saves to Flash
memory. It does not crash the firewall. Use the crashinfo test command to test your crash information
file configuration without actually having to crash your firewall. However, if a previous crash
information file was in Flash memory, the test crash information file overwrites it automatically.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-38
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
crashinfo
crashinfo force [page-fault | watchdog]
Caution
Do not use the crashinfo force command in a production environment. The crashinfo force command truly
crashes the firewall and forces it to reload.
The crashinfo force page-fault command crashes the firewall as a result of a page fault, and the
crashinfo force watchdog command crashes the firewall as a result of watchdogging. In the crash
output, there is nothing that differentiates a real crash from a crash resulting from the crashinfo force
page-fault or crashinfo force watchdog command (because these are real crashes). The firewall reloads
after the crash dump is complete. This command is available only in configuration mode.
If save to crash (crashinfo save enable) is enabled then the crash is first dumped to Flash memory and
then to the console. Otherwise, it is only dumped to console.
When the crashinfo force page-fault command is issued, a warning prompt similar to the following is
displayed:
pixfirewall(config)# crashinfo force page-fault
WARNING: This command will force the PIX to crash and reboot.
Do you wish to proceed? [confirm]:
If you enter a carriage return (by pressing the return or enter key on your keyboard), “Y”, or “y” the
firewall crashes and reloads; all three of these are interpreted as confirmation. Any other character is
interpreted as a no, and the firewall returns to the command-line configuration mode prompt.
show crashinfo
The show crashinfo save command displays whether or not the firewall is currently configured to save
crash information to Flash memory.
The show crashinfo command displays the crash information file that is stored in the Flash memory of
the firewall. If the crash information file is from a test crash (from the crashinfo test command), the
first string of the crash information file is “ : Saved_Test_Crash” and the last one is
“: End_Test_Crash”. If the crash information file is from a real crash, the first string of the crash
information file is “: Saved_Crash” and the last one is “: End_Crash” (this includes crashes from use
of the crashinfo force page-fault or crashinfo force watchdog commands).
The clear crashinfo command deletes the crash information file from the Flash memory of the firewall.
Examples
The following example shows how to display the current crash information configuration:
pixfirewall(config)# show crashinfo save
crashinfo save enable
The following example shows the output for a crash information file test. (However, this test does not
actually crash the firewall. It provides a simulated example file.)
pixfirewall(config)# crashinfo test
pixfirewall(config)# exit
pixfirewall# show crashinfo
: Saved_Test_Crash
Thread Name: ci/console (Old pc 0x001a6ff5 ebp 0x00e88920)
Traceback:
0: 00323143
1: 0032321b
2: 0010885c
3: 0010763c
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-39
Chapter 4
C Commands
crashinfo
4: 001078db
5: 00103585
6: 00000000
vector 0x000000ff (user defined)
edi 0x004f20c4
esi 0x00000000
ebp 0x00e88c20
esp 0x00e88bd8
ebx 0x00000001
edx 0x00000074
ecx 0x00322f8b
eax 0x00322f8b
error code n/a
eip 0x0010318c
cs 0x00000008
eflags 0x00000000
CR2 0x00000000
Stack dump: base:0x00e8511c size:16384, active:1476
0x00e89118: 0x004f1bb4
0x00e89114: 0x001078b4
0x00e89110-0x00e8910c: 0x00000000
0x00e89108-0x00e890ec: 0x12345678
0x00e890e8: 0x004f1bb4
0x00e890e4: 0x00103585
0x00e890e0: 0x00e8910c
0x00e890dc-0x00e890cc: 0x12345678
0x00e890c8: 0x00000000
0x00e890c4-0x00e890bc: 0x12345678
0x00e890b8: 0x004f1bb4
0x00e890b4: 0x001078db
0x00e890b0: 0x00e890e0
0x00e890ac-0x00e890a8: 0x12345678
0x00e890a4: 0x001179b3
0x00e890a0: 0x00e890b0
0x00e8909c-0x00e89064: 0x12345678
0x00e89060: 0x12345600
0x00e8905c: 0x20232970
0x00e89058: 0x616d2d65
0x00e89054: 0x74002023
0x00e89050: 0x29676966
0x00e8904c: 0x6e6f6328
0x00e89048: 0x31636573
0x00e89044: 0x7069636f
0x00e89040: 0x64786970
0x00e8903c-0x00e88e50: 0x00000000
0x00e88e4c: 0x000a7473
0x00e88e48: 0x6574206f
0x00e88e44: 0x666e6968
0x00e88e40: 0x73617263
0x00e88e3c-0x00e88e38: 0x00000000
0x00e88e34: 0x12345600
0x00e88e30-0x00e88dfc: 0x00000000
0x00e88df8: 0x00316761
0x00e88df4: 0x74706100
0x00e88df0: 0x12345600
0x00e88dec-0x00e88ddc: 0x00000000
0x00e88dd8: 0x00000070
0x00e88dd4: 0x616d2d65
0x00e88dd0: 0x74756f00
0x00e88dcc: 0x00000000
0x00e88dc8: 0x00e88e40
0x00e88dc4: 0x004f20c4
0x00e88dc0: 0x12345600
0x00e88dbc: 0x00000000
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-40
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
crashinfo
0x00e88db8: 0x00000035
0x00e88db4: 0x315f656c
0x00e88db0: 0x62616e65
0x00e88dac: 0x0030fcf0
0x00e88da8: 0x3011111f
0x00e88da4: 0x004df43c
0x00e88da0: 0x0053fef0
0x00e88d9c: 0x004f1bb4
0x00e88d98: 0x12345600
0x00e88d94: 0x00000000
0x00e88d90: 0x00000035
0x00e88d8c: 0x315f656c
0x00e88d88: 0x62616e65
0x00e88d84: 0x00000000
0x00e88d80: 0x004f20c4
0x00e88d7c: 0x00000001
0x00e88d78: 0x01345678
0x00e88d74: 0x00f53854
0x00e88d70: 0x00f7f754
0x00e88d6c: 0x00e88db0
0x00e88d68: 0x00e88d7b
0x00e88d64: 0x00f53874
0x00e88d60: 0x00e89040
0x00e88d5c-0x00e88d54: 0x12345678
0x00e88d50-0x00e88d4c: 0x00000000
0x00e88d48: 0x004f1bb4
0x00e88d44: 0x00e88d7c
0x00e88d40: 0x00e88e40
0x00e88d3c: 0x00f53874
0x00e88d38: 0x004f1bb4
0x00e88d34: 0x0010763c
0x00e88d30: 0x00e890b0
0x00e88d2c: 0x00e88db0
0x00e88d28: 0x00e88d88
0x00e88d24: 0x0010761a
0x00e88d20: 0x00e890b0
0x00e88d1c: 0x00e88e40
0x00e88d18: 0x00f53874
0x00e88d14: 0x0010166d
0x00e88d10: 0x0000000e
0x00e88d0c: 0x00f53874
0x00e88d08: 0x00f53854
0x00e88d04: 0x0048b301
0x00e88d00: 0x00e88d30
0x00e88cfc: 0x0000000e
0x00e88cf8: 0x00f53854
0x00e88cf4: 0x0048a401
0x00e88cf0: 0x00f53854
0x00e88cec: 0x00f53874
0x00e88ce8: 0x0000000e
0x00e88ce4: 0x0048a64b
0x00e88ce0: 0x0000000e
0x00e88cdc: 0x00f53874
0x00e88cd8: 0x00f7f96c
0x00e88cd4: 0x0048b4f8
0x00e88cd0: 0x00e88d00
0x00e88ccc: 0x0000000f
0x00e88cc8: 0x00f7f96c
0x00e88cc4-0x00e88cc0: 0x0000000e
0x00e88cbc: 0x00e89040
0x00e88cb8: 0x00000000
0x00e88cb4: 0x00f5387e
0x00e88cb0: 0x00f53874
0x00e88cac: 0x00000002
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-41
Chapter 4
C Commands
crashinfo
0x00e88ca8: 0x00000001
0x00e88ca4: 0x00000009
0x00e88ca0-0x00e88c9c:
0x00e88c98: 0x00e88cb0
0x00e88c94: 0x004f20c4
0x00e88c90: 0x0000003a
0x00e88c8c: 0x00000000
0x00e88c88: 0x0000000a
0x00e88c84: 0x00489f3a
0x00e88c80: 0x00e88d88
0x00e88c7c: 0x00e88e40
0x00e88c78: 0x00e88d7c
0x00e88c74: 0x001087ed
0x00e88c70: 0x00000001
0x00e88c6c: 0x00e88cb0
0x00e88c68: 0x00000002
0x00e88c64: 0x0010885c
0x00e88c60: 0x00e88d30
0x00e88c5c: 0x00727334
0x00e88c58: 0xa0ffffff
0x00e88c54: 0x00e88cb0
0x00e88c50: 0x00000001
0x00e88c4c: 0x00e88cb0
0x00e88c48: 0x00000002
0x00e88c44: 0x0032321b
0x00e88c40: 0x00e88c60
0x00e88c3c: 0x00e88c7f
0x00e88c38: 0x00e88c5c
0x00e88c34: 0x004b1ad5
0x00e88c30: 0x00e88c60
0x00e88c2c: 0x00e88e40
0x00e88c28: 0xa0ffffff
0x00e88c24: 0x00323143
0x00e88c20: 0x00e88c40
0x00e88c1c: 0x00000000
0x00e88c18: 0x00000008
0x00e88c14: 0x0010318c
0x00e88c10-0x00e88c0c:
0x00e88c08: 0x00000074
0x00e88c04: 0x00000001
0x00e88c00: 0x00e88bd8
0x00e88bfc: 0x00e88c20
0x00e88bf8: 0x00000000
0x00e88bf4: 0x004f20c4
0x00e88bf0: 0x000000ff
0x00e88bec: 0x00322f87
0x00e88be8: 0x00f5387e
0x00e88be4: 0x00323021
0x00e88be0: 0x00e88c10
0x00e88bdc: 0x004f20c4
0x00e88bd8: 0x00000000
0x00e88bd4: 0x004eabb0
0x00e88bd0: 0x00000001
0x00e88bcc: 0x00f5387e
0x00e88bc8-0x00e88bc4:
0x00e88bc0: 0x00000008
0x00e88bbc: 0x0010318c
0x00e88bb8-0x00e88bb4:
0x00e88bb0: 0x00000074
0x00e88bac: 0x00000001
0x00e88ba8: 0x00e88bd8
0x00e88ba4: 0x00e88c20
0x00e88ba0: 0x00000000
0x00e88b9c: 0x004f20c4
0x00000001
0x00322f8b
*
0x00000000
0x00322f8b
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-42
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
crashinfo
0x00e88b98:
0x00e88b94:
0x00e88b90:
0x00e88b8c:
0x00e88b88:
0x00e88b84:
0x00e88b80:
0x00e88b7c:
0x00e88b78:
0x00e88b74:
0x00e88b70:
0x00e88b6c:
0x00e88b68:
0x00e88b64:
0x00e88b60:
0x00e88b5c:
0x00e88b58:
0x000000ff
0x001031f2
0x00e88c20
0xffffffff
0x00e88cb0
0x00320032
0x37303133
0x312f6574
0x6972772f
0x342f7665
0x64736666
0x00020000
0x00000010
0x00000001
0x123456cd
0x00000000
0x00000008
Cisco PIX Firewall Version 6.3
Cisco PIX Device Manager Version 2.1
Compiled on Fri 15-Nov-02 14:35 by root
pixfirewall up 10 days 0 hours
Hardware:
PIX-515, 64 MB RAM, CPU Pentium 200 MHz
Flash i28F640J5 @ 0x300, 16MB
BIOS Flash AT29C257 @ 0xfffd8000, 32KB
0: ethernet0: address is 0003.e300.73fd, irq 10
1: ethernet1: address is 0003.e300.73fe, irq 7
2: ethernet2: address is 00d0.b7c8.139e, irq 9
Licensed Features:
Failover:
Disabled
VPN-DES:
Enabled
VPN-3DES-AES:
Disabled
Maximum Interfaces: 3
Cut-through Proxy: Enabled
Guards:
Enabled
URL-filtering:
Enabled
Inside Hosts:
Unlimited
Throughput:
Unlimited
IKE peers:
Unlimited
This PIX has a Restricted (R) license.
Serial Number: 480430455 (0x1ca2c977)
Running Activation Key: 0xc2e94182 0xc21d8206 0x15353200 0x633f6734
Configuration last modified by enable_15 at 13:49:42.148 UTC Wed Nov 20 2002
------------------ show clock -----------------15:34:28.129 UTC Sun Nov 24 2002
------------------ show memory -----------------Free memory:
Used memory:
------------Total memory:
50444824 bytes
16664040 bytes
---------------67108864 bytes
------------------ show conn count -----------------0 in use, 0 most used
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-43
Chapter 4
C Commands
crashinfo
------------------ show xlate count -----------------0 in use, 0 most used
------------------ show blocks -----------------SIZE
4
80
256
1550
MAX
1600
400
500
1188
LOW
1600
400
499
795
CNT
1600
400
500
927
------------------ show interface -----------------interface ethernet0 "outside" is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is i82559 ethernet, address is 0003.e300.73fd
IP address 172.23.59.232, subnet mask 255.255.0.0
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit half duplex
6139 packets input, 830375 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 5990 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
90 packets output, 6160 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 13 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 babbles, 0 late collisions, 47 deferred
0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier
input queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (5/128) software (0/2)
output queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (0/1) software (0/1)
interface ethernet1 "inside" is up, line protocol is down
Hardware is i82559 ethernet, address is 0003.e300.73fe
IP address 10.1.1.1, subnet mask 255.255.255.0
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit half duplex
0 packets input, 0 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
1 packets output, 60 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 babbles, 0 late collisions, 0 deferred
1 lost carrier, 0 no carrier
input queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (128/128) software (0/0)
output queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (0/1) software (0/1)
interface ethernet2 "intf2" is administratively down, line protocol is down
Hardware is i82559 ethernet, address is 00d0.b7c8.139e
IP address 127.0.0.1, subnet mask 255.255.255.255
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit half duplex
0 packets input, 0 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
0 packets output, 0 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 babbles, 0 late collisions, 0 deferred
0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier
input queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (128/128) software (0/0)
output queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (0/0) software (0/0)
------------------ show cpu usage -----------------CPU utilization for 5 seconds = 0%; 1 minute: 0%; 5 minutes: 0%
------------------ show process ------------------
PC
SP
STATE
Hsi 001e3329 00763e7c 0053e5c8
Runtime
SBASE
Stack Process
0 00762ef4 3784/4096 arp_timer
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-44
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
crashinfo
Lsi
Lwe
Lwe
Hwe
Hwe
Lsi
Lsi
Mrd
Lsi
Hsi
Hwe
Lsi
Hwe
Mwe
Hwe
Mwe
Lwe
Lwe
Hwe
Hwe
Hwe
H*
Csi
Hwe
Hwe
Hwe
Hsi
Crd
Lsi
Hwe
Cwe
Hwe
Hwe
Hwe
Hwe
Cwe
Hwe
Hwe
Hwe
Hwe
Cwe
Hwe
Hwe
Hwe
Hwe
Mwe
001e80e9
00117e3a
003cee95
003d2d18
003d2c91
002ec97d
002ec88b
002e3a17
00423dd5
002d59fc
0020e301
002d377c
0020bd07
00205e25
003864e3
00255a65
002e450e
002e471e
001e5368
001e5368
001e5368
001a6ff5
002dd8ab
002cb4d1
003d17d1
003e71d4
001db3ca
001db37f
001db435
001e5398
001dcdad
001e5398
001e5398
001e5398
001e5398
001dcdad
001e5398
001e5398
001e5398
001e5398
001e542d
001e5398
001e5398
001e5398
003d1a65
0035cafa
00807074
009dc2e4
009de464
009e155c
009e360c
00b1a464
00b1b504
00c8f8d4
00d3a22c
00d3b2bc
00d5957c
00d7292c
00d9c12c
00d9e1ec
00db26bc
00dc9244
00e7bb94
00e7cc44
00e7ed44
00e80e14
00e82ee4
0009ff2c
00e8a124
00f2bfbc
00f2e0bc
00f2f20c
00f30fc4
00f32084
00f33124
00f441dc
00f4523c
00f4633c
00f47404
00f4849c
00f495bc
00f4a61c
00f4b71c
00f4c7e4
00f4d87c
00f4e99c
00f4fa6c
00f50afc
00f51bc4
00f52c5c
00f78284
00f7a63c
0053e5c8
00541d18
00537718
005379c8
005379c8
0053e5c8
0053e5c8
0053e600
0053e5c8
0053e5c8
0053e5c8
0053e5c8
0050bb90
0053e5c8
00557920
0053e5c8
00552c30
00553368
00730674
007305d4
00730534
0053e5b0
0053e5c8
0051e360
00828cf0
00537d20
0053e5c8
0053ea40
0053e5c8
008121e0
00872b48
008121bc
00812198
00812174
00812150
008ea850
0081212c
00812108
008120e4
008120c0
00730534
0081209c
00812078
00812054
008140f8
0053e5c8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2470
4820
0
0
0
0
0
508286220
0
0
120
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
008060fc
009db46c
009dc51c
009df5e4
009e1694
00b194dc
00b1a58c
00c8d93c
00d392a4
00d3a354
00d55614
00d719a4
00d9b1c4
00d9c274
00db0764
00dc8adc
00e7ad1c
00e7bdcc
00e7ce9c
00e7ef6c
00e8103c
00e8511c
00e891cc
00f2a134
00f2c1e4
00f2e294
00f3004c
00f310fc
00f321ac
00f43294
00f44344
00f453f4
00f464cc
00f475a4
00f48674
00f49724
00f4a7d4
00f4b8ac
00f4c984
00f4da54
00f4eb04
00f4fbb4
00f50c8c
00f51d64
00f77fdc
00f786c4
3792/4096 FragDBGC
3704/4096 dbgtrace
8008/8192 Logger
8008/8192 tcp_fast
8008/8192 tcp_slow
3928/4096 xlate clean
3888/4096 uxlate clean
7908/8192 tcp_intercept_times
3900/4096 route_process
3780/4096 PIX Garbage Collecr
16048/16384 isakmp_time_keepr
3928/4096 perfmon
3944/4096 IPSec
7860/8192 IPsec timer handler
6904/8192 qos_metric_daemon
1436/2048 IP Background
3704/4096 pix/trace
3704/4096 pix/tconsole
7228/8192 pix/intf0
7228/8192 pix/intf1
4892/8192 pix/intf2
12860/16384 ci/console
3396/4096 update_cpu_usage
7692/8192 uauth_in
7896/8192 uauth_thread
3960/4096 udp_timer
3784/4096 557mcfix
3688/4096 557poll
3700/4096 557timer
3912/4096 fover_ip0
3528/4096 ip/0:0
3532/4096 icmp0
3896/4096 udp_thread/0
3456/4096 tcp_thread/0
3912/4096 fover_ip1
3832/4096 ip/1:1
3912/4096 icmp1
3896/4096 udp_thread/1
3832/4096 tcp_thread/1
3912/4096 fover_ip2
3944/4096 ip/2:2
3912/4096 icmp2
3896/4096 udp_thread/2
3832/4096 tcp_thread/2
300/1024 listen/http1
7640/8192 Crypto CA
------------------ show failover -----------------No license for Failover
------------------ show traffic -----------------outside:
received (in 865565.090 secs):
6139 packets
830375 bytes
0 pkts/sec
0 bytes/sec
transmitted (in 865565.090 secs):
90 packets
6160 bytes
0 pkts/sec
0 bytes/sec
inside:
received (in 865565.090 secs):
0 packets
0 bytes
0 pkts/sec
0 bytes/sec
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-45
Chapter 4
C Commands
crypto dynamic-map
transmitted (in 865565.090 secs):
1 packets
60 bytes
0 pkts/sec
0 bytes/sec
intf2:
received (in 865565.090 secs):
0 packets
0 bytes
0 pkts/sec
0 bytes/sec
transmitted (in 865565.090 secs):
0 packets
0 bytes
0 pkts/sec
0 bytes/sec
------------------ show perfmon ------------------
PERFMON STATS:
Xlates
Connections
TCP Conns
UDP Conns
URL Access
URL Server Req
TCP Fixup
TCPIntercept
HTTP Fixup
FTP Fixup
AAA Authen
AAA Author
AAA Account
: End_Test_Crash
Related Commands
Current
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
failover
Average
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
Enable or disable the PIX Firewall failover feature on a standby PIX Firewall.
crypto dynamic-map
Create, view, or delete a dynamic crypto map entry.
[no] crypto dynamic-map dynamic-map-name dynamic-seq-num match address acl_name
[no] crypto dynamic-map dynamic-map-name dynamic-seq-num set peer hostname | ip_address
[no] crypto dynamic-map dynamic-map-name dynamic-seq-num set pfs [group1 | group2]
[no] crypto dynamic-map dynamic-map-name dynamic-seq-num set security-association lifetime
seconds seconds | kilobytes kilobytes
[no] crypto dynamic-map dynamic-map-name dynamic-seq-num set transform-set
transform-set-name1 [… transform-set-name9]
clear [crypto] dynamic-map [dynamic-map-name] [dynamic-seq-num]
show crypto dynamic-map [tag dynamic-map-name]
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-46
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
crypto dynamic-map
Syntax Description
Note
dynamic-map-name
Specify the name of the dynamic crypto map set.
dynamic-seq-num
Specify the sequence number that corresponds to the dynamic crypto map
entry.
subcommand
Various subcommands (match address, set transform-set, and so on).
tag map-name
(Optional) Show the crypto dynamic map set with the specified map-name.
The crypto dynamic-map subcommands, such as match address, set peer, and set pfs are described
with the crypto map command. If the peer initiates the negotiation and the local configuration specifies
perfect forward secrecy (PFS), the peer must perform a PFS exchange or the negotiation will fail. If the
local configuration does not specify a group, a default of group1 will be assumed, and an offer of either
group1 or group2 will be accepted. If the local configuration specifies group2, that group must be part
of the peer’s offer or the negotiation will fail. If the local configuration does not specify PFS, it will
accept any offer of PFS from the peer.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The sections that follow describe each crypto dynamic-map command.
crypto dynamic-map
The crypto dynamic-map command lets you create a dynamic crypto map entry. The no crypto
dynamic-map command deletes a dynamic crypto map set or entry. The clear [crypto] dynamic-map
removes all of the dynamic crypto map command statements. Specifying the name of a given crypto
dynamic map removes the associated crypto dynamic map command statement(s). You can also specify
the dynamic crypto map’s sequence number to remove all of the associated dynamic crypto map
command statements. The show crypto dynamic-map command lets you view a dynamic crypto map
set.
Dynamic crypto maps are policy templates used when processing negotiation requests for new security
associations from a remote IPSec peer, even if you do not know all of the crypto map parameters required
to communicate with the peer (such as the peer’s IP address). For example, if you do not know about all
the remote IPSec peers in your network, a dynamic crypto map lets you accept requests for new security
associations from previously unknown peers. (However, these requests are not processed until the IKE
authentication has completed successfully.)
When a PIX Firewall receives a negotiation request via IKE from another peer, the request is examined
to see if it matches a crypto map entry. If the negotiation does not match any explicit crypto map entry,
it will be rejected unless the crypto map set includes a reference to a dynamic crypto map.
The dynamic crypto map accepts “wildcard” parameters for any parameters not explicitly stated in the
dynamic crypto map entry. This lets you set up IPSec security associations with a previously unknown
peer. (The peer still must specify matching values for the “wildcard” IPSec security association
negotiation parameters.)
If the PIX Firewall accepts the peer’s request, at the point that it installs the new IPSec security
associations it also installs a temporary crypto map entry. This entry is filled in with the results of the
negotiation. At this point, the PIX Firewall performs normal processing, using this temporary crypto
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-47
Chapter 4
C Commands
crypto dynamic-map
map entry as a normal entry, even requesting new security associations if the current ones are expiring
(based upon the policy specified in the temporary crypto map entry). Once the flow expires (that is, all
of the corresponding security associations expire), the temporary crypto map entry is removed.
The crypto dynamic-map command statements are used for determining whether or not traffic should
be protected. The only parameter required in a crypto dynamic-map command statement is the set
transform-set. All other parameters are optional.
Examples
The following example configures an IPSec crypto map set:
Crypto map entry mymap 30 references the dynamic crypto map set mydynamicmap, which can be
used to process inbound security association negotiation requests that do not match mymap entries 10
or 20. In this case, if the peer specifies a transform set that matches one of the transform sets specified
in mydynamicmap, for a flow “permitted” by the access list 103, IPSec will accept the request and set
up security associations with the remote peer without previously knowing about the peer. If accepted,
the resulting security associations (and temporary crypto map entry) are established according to the
settings specified by the remote peer.
The access list associated with mydynamicmap 10 is also used as a filter. Inbound packets that match
a permit statement in this list are dropped for not being IPSec protected. (The same is true for access
lists associated with static crypto maps entries.) Outbound packets that match a permit statement without
an existing corresponding IPSec security association are also dropped in the following example.
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
map mymap 10 ipsec-isakmp
map mymap 10 match address 101
map mymap 10 set transform-set my_t_set1
map mymap 10 set peer 10.0.0.1 10.0.0.2
map mymap 20 ipsec-isakmp
map mymap 20 match address 102
map mymap 20 set transform-set my_t_set1 my_t_set2
map mymap 20 set peer 10.0.0.3
dynamic-map mydynamicmap 10 match address 103
crypto dynamic-map mydynamicmap 10 set transform-set my_t_set1 my_t_set2 my_t_set3
crypto map mymap 30 ipsec-isakmp dynamic mydynamicmap
The following is sample output from the how crypto dynamic-map command:
show crypto dynamic-map
Crypto Map Template "dyn1" 10
access-list 152 permit ip host 172.21.114.67 any
Current peer: 0.0.0.0
Security association lifetime: 4608000 kilobytes/120 seconds
PFS (Y/N): N
Transform sets={ tauth, t1, }
The following partial configuration was in effect when the preceding show crypto dynamic-map
command was issued:
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
ipsec security-association lifetime seconds 120
ipsec transform-set t1 esp-des esp-md5-hmac
ipsec transform-set tauth ah-sha-hmac
dynamic-map dyn1 10 set transform-set tauth t1
dynamic-map dyn1 10 match address 152
map to-firewall local-address Ethernet0
map to-firewall 10 ipsec-isakmp
map to-firewall 10 set peer 172.21.114.123
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-48
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
crypto dynamic-map
crypto map to-firewall
crypto map to-firewall
crypto map to-firewall
access-list 150 permit
access-list 150 permit
access-list 150 permit
access-list 152 permit
10
10
20
ip
ip
ip
ip
set transform-set tauth t1
match address 150
ipsec-isakmp dynamic dyn1
host 172.21.114.67 host 172.21.114.123
host 15.15.15.1 host 172.21.114.123
host 15.15.15.1 host 8.8.8.1
host 172.21.114.67 any
The following example shows output from the show crypto map command for a crypto map named
“mymap”:
pixfirewall(config)# show crypto map
Crypto Map: "mymap" interfaces: { outside }
Crypto Map "mymap" 1 ipsec-isakmp
Peer = 209.165.200.241
access-list no-nat; 1 elements
access-list no-nat permit ip 209.165.201.16 255.255.255.0 1.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
(hitcnt=0)
Current peer: 209.165.200.241
Security association lifetime: 4608000 kilobytes/28800 seconds
PFS (Y/N): Y
DH group: group5
Transform sets={ mycrypt, }
crypto dynamic-map match address
See the crypto map match address command within the crypto map command for information about
this command.
crypto dynamic-map set peer
See the crypto map set peer command within the crypto map command for information about this
command.
crypto dynamic-map set pfs
See the crypto map set pfs command within the crypto map command for information about this
command.
crypto dynamic-map set security-association lifetime
See the crypto map set security-association lifetime command within the crypto map command for
information about this command.
crypto dynamic-map set transform-set
See the crypto map set transform-set command within the crypto map command for information
about this command.
Note
The crypto map set transform-set command is required for dynamic crypto map entries.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-49
Chapter 4
C Commands
crypto ipsec
crypto ipsec
Create, view, or delete IPSec security associations, security association global lifetime values, and
global transform sets.
[no] crypto ipsec security-association lifetime seconds seconds | kilobytes kilobytes
crypto ipsec transform-set transform-set-name transform1 [transform2 [transform3]]
crypto ipsec transform-set transform-set-name mode transport
[no] crypto ipsec transform-set trans-name [ah-md5-hmac | ah-sha-hmac] [esp-aes
|esp-aes-192 | esp-aes-256| esp-des | esp-3des| esp-null] [esp-md5-hmac | esp-sha-hmac]
clear [crypto] ipsec sa
clear [crypto] ipsec sa counters
clear [crypto] ipsec sa entry destination-address protocol spi
clear [crypto] ipsec sa map map-name
clear [crypto] ipsec sa peer
show crypto ipsec security-association lifetime
show crypto ipsec transform-set [tag transform-set-name]
show crypto ipsec sa [map map-name | address | identity] [detail]
Syntax Description
address
(Optional) Show all of the existing security associations, sorted by the
destination address (either the local address or the address of the remote IPSec
peer) and then by protocol (AH or ESP).
esp-aes
Selecting this option means that IPSec messages protected by this transform
are encrypted using AES with a 128-bit key.
esp-aes-192
Selecting this option means that IPSec messages protected by this transform
are encrypted using AES with a 192-bit key.
esp-aes-256
Selecting this option means that IPSec messages protected by this transform
are encrypted using AES with a 256-bit key.
destination-address
Specify the IP address of your peer or the remote peer.
detail
(Optional) Show detailed error counters.
identity
(Optional) Show only the flow information. It does not show the security
association information.
kilobytes kilobytes
Specify the volume of traffic (in kilobytes) that can pass between IPSec peers
using a given security association before that security association expires. The
default is 4,608,000 kilobytes (10 megabytes per second for one hour).
map map-name
The name of the crypto map set.
mode transport
Specifies the transform set to accept transport mode requests in addition to the
tunnel mode request.
protocol
Specify either the AH or ESP protocol.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-50
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
crypto ipsec
seconds seconds
Specify the number of seconds a security association will live before it
expires. The default is 28,800 seconds (eight hours).
seq-num
The number you assign to the crypto map entry.
spi
Specify the Security Parameter Index (SPI), a number that is used to uniquely
identify a security association. The SPI is an arbitrary number you assign in
the range of 256 to 4,294,967,295 (a hexidecimal value of FFFF FFFF).
tag
transform-set-name
(Optional) Show only the transform sets with the specified
transform-set-name.
transform1
transform2
transform3
Specify up to three transforms. Transforms define the IPSec security
protocol(s) and algorithm(s). Each transform represents an IPSec security
protocol (ESP, AH, or both) plus the algorithm you want to use.
transform-set-name
Specify the name of the transform set to create or modify.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The sections that follow describe each crypto ipsec command. To run the Known Answer Test (KAT),
refer to the show crypto engine verify command.
crypto ipsec security-association lifetime
The crypto ipsec security-association lifetime command is used to change global lifetime values used
when negotiating IPSec security associations. To reset a lifetime to the default value, use the no crypto
ipsec security-association lifetime command. The show crypto ipsec security-association lifetime
command lets you view the security-association lifetime value configured for a particular crypto map
entry.
IPSec security associations use shared secret keys. These keys and their security associations time out
together.
Assuming that the particular crypto map entry does not have lifetime values configured, when the
PIX Firewall requests new security associations during security association negotiation, it will specify
its global lifetime value in the request to the peer; it will use this value as the lifetime of the new security
associations. When the PIX Firewall receives a negotiation request from the peer, it will use the smaller
of the lifetime value proposed by the peer or the locally configured lifetime value as the lifetime of the
new security associations.
There are two lifetimes: a “timed” lifetime and a “traffic-volume” lifetime. The security association
expires after the first of these lifetimes is reached.
If you change a global lifetime, the change is only applied when the crypto map entry does not have a
lifetime value specified. The change will not be applied to existing security associations, but will be used
in subsequent negotiations to establish new security associations. If you want the new settings to take
effect sooner, you can clear all or part of the security association database by using the clear [crypto]
ipsec sa command. See the clear [crypto] ipsec sa command for more information.
To change the global timed lifetime, use the crypto ipsec security-association lifetime seconds
command. The timed lifetime causes the security association to time out after the specified number of
seconds have passed.
To change the global traffic-volume lifetime, use the crypto ipsec security-association lifetime
kilobytes command. The traffic-volume lifetime causes the security association to time out after the
specified amount of traffic (in kilobytes) has been protected by the security associations' key.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-51
Chapter 4
C Commands
crypto ipsec
Shorter lifetimes can make it harder to mount a successful key recovery attack, because the attacker has
less data encrypted under the same key to work with. However, shorter lifetimes require more CPU
processing time for establishing new security associations. The lifetime values are ignored for manually
established security associations (security associations installed using an ipsec-manual crypto map
command entry).
The security association (and corresponding keys) will expire according to whichever occurs sooner,
either after the number of seconds has passed (specified by the seconds keyword) or after the amount of
traffic in kilobytes has passed (specified by the kilobytes keyword).
A new security association is negotiated before the lifetime threshold of the existing security association
is reached, to ensure that a new security association is ready for use when the old one expires. The new
security association is negotiated either 30 seconds before the seconds lifetime expires or when the
volume of traffic through the tunnel reaches 256 kilobytes less than the kilobytes lifetime (whichever
occurs first).
If no traffic has passed through the tunnel during the entire life of the security association, a new security
association is not negotiated when the lifetime expires. Instead, a new security association will be
negotiated only when IPSec sees another packet that should be protected.
clear [crypto] ipsec sa
Use the clear [crypto] ipsec sa command to delete IPSec security associations. The keyword crypto is
optional. If the security associations were established via IKE, they are deleted and future IPSec traffic
will require new security associations to be negotiated. When IKE is used, the IPSec security
associations are established only when needed.
If the security associations are manually established, the security associations are deleted.
If the peer, map, entry, or counters keywords are not used, all IPSec security associations will be
deleted. This command clears (deletes) IPSec security associations.
If the security associations were established via IKE, they are deleted and future IPSec traffic will
require new security associations to be negotiated. (When IKE is used, the IPSec security associations
are established only when needed.)
If the security associations are manually established, the security associations are deleted and
reinstalled. (When IKE is not used, the IPSec security associations are created as soon as the
configuration is completed.)
If the peer, map, entry, or counters keywords are not used, all IPSec security associations will be
deleted.
The peer keyword deletes any IPSec security associations for the specified peer.
The map keyword deletes any IPSec security associations for the named crypto map set.
The entry keyword deletes the IPSec security association with the specified address, protocol, and SPI.
If any of the previous commands cause a particular security association to be deleted, all the “sibling”
security associations—that were established during the same IKE negotiation—are deleted as well.
The counters keyword simply clears the traffic counters maintained for each security association; it does
not clear the security associations themselves.
If you make configuration changes that affect security associations, these changes will not apply to
existing security associations but to negotiations for subsequent security associations. You can use the
clear [crypto] ipsec sa command to restart all security associations so they will use the most current
configuration settings. In the case of manually established security associations, if you make changes
that affect security associations you must use the clear [crypto] ipsec sa command before the changes
take effect.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-52
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
crypto ipsec
Note
If you make significant changes to an IPSec configuration, such as to access lists or peers, the clear
[crypto] ipsec sa command does not enable the new configuration. In such a case, rebind the crypto map
to the interface with the crypto map interface command.
If the PIX Firewall is processing active IPSec traffic, we recommend that you only clear the portion of
the security association database that is affected by the changes to avoid causing active IPSec traffic to
temporarily fail.
The clear [crypto] ipsec sa command only clears IPSec security associations; to clear IKE security
associations, use the clear [crypto] isakmp sa command.
The following example clears (and reinitializes if appropriate) all IPSec security associations at the
PIX Firewall:
clear crypto ipsec sa
The following example clears (and reinitializes if appropriate) the inbound and outbound IPSec security
associations established along with the security association established for address 10.0.0.1 using the
AH protocol with the SPI of 256:
clear crypto ipsec sa entry 10.0.0.1 AH 256
show crypto ipsec sa
The show crypto ipsec sa command lets you view the settings used by current security associations. If
no keyword is used, all security associations are displayed. They are sorted first by interface, and then
by traffic flow (for example, source/destination address, mask, protocol, port). Within a flow, the
security associations are listed by protocol (ESP/AH) and direction (inbound/outbound).
Note
While entering the show crypto ipsec sa command, if the screen display is stopped with the More
prompt and the security association lifetime expires while the screen display is stopped, then the
subsequent display information may refer to a stale security association. Assume that the security
association lifetime values that display are invalid.
Output from the show crypto ipsec sa command lists the PCP protocol. This is a compression protocol
supplied with the Cisco IOS software code on which the PIX Firewall IPSec implementation is based;
however, the PIX Firewall does not support the PCP protocol.
crypto ipsec transform-set transform-set-name mode transport
This command specifies IPSec transport mode for a transform set. The Windows 2000 L2TP/IPSec
client uses IPSec transport mode, so transport mode must be selected on the transform set. The default
is tunnel mode. For PIX Firewall Version 6.0 and higher, L2TP is the only protocol that can use the
IPSec transport mode. All other types of packets using IPSec transport mode will be discarded by the
PIX Firewall. Use the no form of the command to reset the mode to the default value of tunnel mode.
Note
A transport mode transform can only be used on a dynamic crypto map, and the
PIX Firewall
CLI will display an error if you attempt to tie a transport-mode transform to a static crypto map.
Tunnel mode is automatically enabled for a transform set, so no mode needs to be explicitly configured
when tunnel mode is desired.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-53
Chapter 4
C Commands
crypto ipsec
The firewall uses tunnel mode except when it is talking to a Windows 2000 L2TP/IPSec client, with
which it uses transport mode. Use the crypto ipsec transform-set trans_name mode transport
command to configure the firewall to negotiate with a Windows 2000 L2TP/IPSec client. To reset the
mode to the default value of tunnel mode, use the no crypto ipsec transform-set trans_name mode
transport command.
The crypto ipsec transform-set command defines a transform set. To delete a transform set, use the no
crypto ipsec transform-set command. To view the configured transform sets, use the show crypto
ipsec transform-set command.
A transform set specifies one or two IPSec security protocols (either ESP or AH or both) and specifies
which algorithms to use with the selected security protocol. During the IPSec security association
negotiation, the peers agree to use a particular transform set when protecting a particular data flow.
IPSec messages can be protected by a transform set using AES with a 128-bit key, 192-bit key, or 256-bit
key.
The following example uses the AES 192-bit key transform:
pixfirewall(config)# crypto ipsec transform-set standard esp-aes-192 esp-md5-hmac
Note
AES support is available on firewalls licensed for VPN-3DES only.
Due to the large key sizes provided by AES, ISAKMP negotiation should use Diffie-Hellman group 5
instead of group 1 or group 2. This is done with the isakmp policy priority group 5 command.
You can configure multiple transform sets, and then specify one or more of these transform sets in a
crypto map entry. The transform set defined in the crypto map entry is used in the IPSec security
association negotiation to protect the data flows specified by that crypto map entry’s access list. During
the negotiation, the peers search for a transform set that is the same at both peers. When such a transform
set is found, it is selected and is applied to the protected traffic as part of both peer’s IPSec security
associations.
When security associations are established manually, a single transform set must be used. The transform
set is not negotiated.
Before a transform set can be included in a crypto map entry, it must be defined using the crypto ipsec
transform-set command.
To define a transform set, you specify one to three “transforms”—each transform represents an IPSec
security protocol (ESP or AH) plus the algorithm you want to use. When the particular transform set is
used during negotiations for IPSec security associations, the entire transform set (the combination of
protocols, algorithms, and other settings) must match a transform set at the remote peer.
In a transform set you can specify the AH protocol or the ESP protocol. If you specify an ESP protocol
in a transform set, you can specify just an ESP encryption transform or both an ESP encryption transform
and an ESP authentication transform.
Examples of acceptable transform combinations are as follows:
•
ah-md5-hmac
•
esp-des
•
esp-des and esp-md5-hmac
•
ah-sha-hmac and esp-des and esp-sha-hmac
If one or more transforms are specified in the crypto ipsec transform-set command for an existing
transform set, the specified transforms will replace the existing transforms for that transform set.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-54
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
crypto ipsec
If you change a transform set definition, the change is only applied to crypto map entries that reference
the transform set. The change will not be applied to existing security associations, but will be used in
subsequent negotiations to establish new security associations. If you want the new settings to take effect
sooner, you can clear all or part of the security association database by using the clear [crypto] ipsec
sa command.
For more information about transform sets, refer to the Cisco PIX Firewall and VPN Configuration
Guide.
show crypto ipsec commands
The show crypto ipsec security-association lifetime command displays the security-association
lifetime value configured for a particular crypto map entry.
The show crypto ipsec transform-set [tag transform-set-name] command displays the configured
transform sets.
The show crypto ipsec sa [map map-name | address | identity] [detail] command displays the settings
used by current security associations.
Examples
The following example shortens the IPSec SA lifetimes. The time-out lifetime is shortened to 2700
seconds (45 minutes), and the traffic-volume lifetime is shortened to 2,304,000 kilobytes (10 megabytes
per second for one half hour).
crypto ipsec security-association lifetime seconds 2700
crypto ipsec security-association lifetime kilobytes 2304000
The following is sample output from the show crypto ipsec security-association lifetime command:
show crypto ipsec security-association lifetime
Security-association lifetime: 4608000 kilobytes/120 seconds
The following configuration was in effect when the preceding show crypto ipsec security-association
lifetime command was issued:
crypto ipsec security-association lifetime seconds 120
This example defines one transform set (named “standard”), which is used with an IPSec peer that
supports the ESP protocol. Both an ESP encryption transform and an ESP authentication transform are
specified in this example.
crypto ipsec transform-set standard esp-des esp-md5-hmac
The following is sample output for the show crypto ipsec transform-set command:
show crypto ipsec transform-set
Transform set combined-des-sha: { esp-des esp-sha-hmac
will negotiate = { Tunnel, },
}
Transform set combined-des-md5: { esp-des esp-md5-hmac
will negotiate = { Tunnel, },
}
Transform set t1: { esp-des esp-md5-hmac
will negotiate = { Tunnel, },
Transform set t100: {
will negotiate = {
ah-sha-hmac
Tunnel, },
}
}
Transform set t2: { ah-sha-hmac }
will negotiate = { Tunnel, },
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-55
Chapter 4
C Commands
crypto ipsec
{ esp-des }
will negotiate = {
Tunnel,
},
The following configuration was in effect when the preceding show crypto ipsec transform-set
command was issued:
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
ipsec
ipsec
ipsec
ipsec
ipsec
transform-set
transform-set
transform-set
transform-set
transform-set
combined-des-sha esp-des esp-sha-hmac
combined-des-md5 esp-des esp-md5-hmac
t1 esp-des esp-md5-hmac
t100 ah-sha-hmac
t2 ah-sha-hmac esp-des
The following is sample output from the show crypto ipsec sa command:
show crypto ipsec sa
interface: outside
Crypto map tag: firewall-robin, local addr. 172.21.114.123
local ident (addr/mask/prot/port): (172.21.114.123/255.255.255.255/0/0)
remote ident (addr/mask/prot/port): (172.21.114.67/255.255.255.255/0/0)
current_peer: 172.21.114.67
PERMIT, flags={origin_is_acl,}
#pkts encaps: 10, #pkts encrypt: 10, #pkts digest 10
#pkts decaps: 10, #pkts decrypt: 10, #pkts verify 10
#send errors 10, #recv errors 0
local crypto endpt.: 172.21.114.123, remote crypto endpt.: 172.21.114.67/500
path mtu 1500, media mtu 1500
current outbound spi: 20890A6F
inbound esp sas:
spi: 0x257A1039(628756537)
transform: esp-des esp-md5-hmac ,
in use settings ={Tunnel UDP-Encaps, }
slot: 0, conn id: 26, crypto map: firewall-robin
sa timing: remaining key lifetime (k/sec): (4607999/90)
IV size: 8 bytes
replay detection support: Y
inbound ah sas:
outbound esp sas:
spi: 0x20890A6F(545852015)
transform: esp-des esp-md5-hmac ,
in use settings ={Tunnel, }
slot: 0, conn id: 27, crypto map: firewall-robin
sa timing: remaining key lifetime (k/sec): (4607999/90)
IV size: 8 bytes
replay detection support: Y
outbound ah sas:
interface: inside
Crypto map tag: firewall-robin, local addr. 172.21.114.123
local ident (addr/mask/prot/port): (172.21.114.123/255.255.255.255/0/0)
remote ident (addr/mask/prot/port): (172.21.114.67/255.255.255.255/0/0)
current_peer: 172.21.114.67
PERMIT, flags={origin_is_acl,}
#pkts encaps: 10, #pkts encrypt: 10, #pkts digest 10
#pkts decaps: 10, #pkts decrypt: 10, #pkts verify 10
#send errors 10, #recv errors 0
local crypto endpt.: 172.21.114.123, remote crypto endpt.: 172.21.114.67
path mtu 1500, media mtu 1500
current outbound spi: 20890A6F
inbound esp sas:
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-56
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
crypto map
spi: 0x257A1039(628756537)
transform: esp-des esp-md5-hmac ,
in use settings ={Tunnel, }
slot: 0, conn id: 26, crypto map: firewall-robin
sa timing: remaining key lifetime (k/sec): (4607999/90)
IV size: 8 bytes
replay detection support: Y
inbound ah sas:
outbound esp sas:
spi: 0x20890A6F(545852015)
transform: esp-des esp-md5-hmac ,
in use settings ={Tunnel, }
slot: 0, conn id: 27, crypto map: firewall-robin
sa timing: remaining key lifetime (k/sec): (4607999/90)
IV size: 8 bytes
replay detection support: Y
outbound ah sas:
crypto map
Create, modify, view or delete a crypto map entry. Also used to delete a crypto map set.
[no] crypto map map-name client [token] authentication aaa-server-name [LOCAL]
[no] crypto map map-name client configuration address initiate | respond
[no] crypto map map-name interface interface-name
[no] crypto map map-name seq-num ipsec-isakmp | ipsec-manual [dynamic dynamic-map-name]
[no] crypto map map-name seq-num match address acl_name
[no] crypto map map-name seq-num set peer {ip_address | hostname}
[no] crypto map map-name seq-num set pfs [group1 | group2]
[no] crypto map map-name seq-num set security-association lifetime seconds seconds |
kilobytes kilobytes
[no] crypto map map-name seq-num set session-key inbound | outbound ah spi hex-key-string
[no] crypto map map-name seq-num set session-key inbound | outbound esp spi cipher
hex-key-string [authenticator hex-key-string]
[no] crypto map map-name seq-num set transform-set transform-set-name1
[… transform-set-name6]
show crypto map [interface interface-name | tag map-name]
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-57
Chapter 4
C Commands
crypto map
Syntax Description
aaa-server-name
The name of the AAA server that will authenticate the user during IKE
authentication. The AAA server options available are TACACS+, RADIUS,
or LOCAL.
If LOCAL is specified and the local user credential database is empty, the
following warning message appears:
Warning:local database is empty! Use \Qusername' command to define
local users.
Conversely, if the local database becomes empty when LOCAL is still present
in the command, the following warning message appears:
Warning:Local user database is empty and there are still commands
using LOCAL for authentication.
acl_name
Identify the named encryption access list. This name should match the name
argument of the named encryption access list being matched.
ah
Set the IPSec session key for the AH protocol. Specify ah when the crypto
map entry’s transform set includes an AH transform.
AH protocol provides authentication via MD5-HMAC and SHA-HMAC.
authenticator
(Optional) Indicate that the key string is to be used with the ESP
authentication transform. This argument is required only when the crypto map
entry’s transform set includes an ESP authentication transform.
cipher
Indicate that the key string to use with the ESP encryption transform.
dynamic
(Optional) Specify that this crypto map entry is to reference a pre-existing
dynamic crypto map.
dynamic-map-name
(Optional) Specify the name of the dynamic crypto map set to be used as the
policy template.
esp
Set the IPSec session key for the ESP protocol. Specify esp when the crypto
map entry’s transform set includes an ESP transform.
ESP protocol provides both authentication and/or confidentiality.
Authentication is done via MD5-HMAC, SHA-HMAC and NULL.
Confidentiality is done via DES, 3DES, and NULL.
group1
Specify that IPSec should use the 768-bit Diffie-Hellman prime modulus
group when performing the new Diffie-Hellman exchange.
group2
Specify that IPSec should use the 1024-bit Diffie-Hellman prime modulus
group when performing the new Diffie-Hellman exchange.
hex-key-string
Specify the session key; enter in hexadecimal format. This is an arbitrary
hexadecimal string of 16, 32, or 40 digits. If the crypto map's transform set
includes the following:
•
DES algorithm, specify at least 16 hexadecimal digits per key.
•
MD5 algorithm, specify at least 32 hexadecimal digits per key.
•
SHA algorithm, specify 40 hexadecimal digits per key.
Longer key sizes are simply hashed to the appropriate length.
hostname
Specify a peer by its IP address, or by its host name as defined by the
PIX Firewall name command.
inbound
Set the inbound IPSec session key.
(You must set both inbound and outbound keys.)
initiate
Indicate that the PIX Firewall will attempt to set IP addresses for each peer.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-58
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
crypto map
interface
interface-name
Specify the identifying interface to be used by the PIX Firewall to identify
itself to peers.
If IKE is enabled, and you are using a certification authority (CA) to obtain
certificates, this should be the interface with the address specified in the CA
certificates.
ip_address
Specify a peer by its IP address.
ipsec-isakmp
Indicate that IKE will be used to establish the IPSec security associations for
protecting the traffic specified by this crypto map entry.
ipsec-manual
Indicate that IKE will not be used to establish the IPSec security associations
for protecting the traffic specified by this crypto map entry.
Note
Manual configuration of SAs is not supported on the PIX 501.
kilobytes kilobytes
Specify the volume of traffic (in kilobytes) that can pass between peers using
a given security association before that security association expires.
The default is 4,608,000 kilobytes.
map map-name
The name of the crypto map set.
match address
Specify an access list for a crypto map entry.
outbound
Set the outbound IPSec session key.
(You must set both inbound and outbound keys.)
respond
Indicate that the PIX Firewall will accept requests for IP addresses from any
requesting peer.
seconds seconds
Specify the number of seconds a security association will live before it
expires. The default is 28,800 seconds (eight hours).
seq-num
The number you assign to the crypto map entry.
set peer
Specify an IPSec peer in a crypto map entry.
set pfs
Specify that IPSec should ask for perfect forward secrecy (PFS).
With PFS, every time a new security association is negotiated, a new
Diffie-Hellman exchange occurs. (This exchange requires additional
processing time.)
set
security-association
lifetime
Set the lifetime a security association will last in either seconds or kilobytes.
For use with either seconds or kilobyte keywords.
set session-key
Manually specify the IPSec session keys within a crypto map entry.
set transform-set
Specify which transform sets can be used with the crypto map entry.
spi
Specify the Security Parameter Index (SPI), a number that is used to uniquely
identify a security association. The SPI is an arbitrary number you assign in
the range of 256 to 4,294,967,295 (a hexidecimal value of FFFF FFFF).
You can assign the same SPI to both directions and both protocols. However,
not all peers have the same flexibility in SPI assignment. For a given
destination address/protocol combination, unique SPI values must be used.
The destination address is that of the PIX Firewall if inbound, the peer if
outbound.
tag map-name
(Optional) Show the crypto map set with the specified map name.
token
Indicate a token-based server for user authentication is used.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-59
Chapter 4
C Commands
crypto map
transform1
transform2
transform3
Specify up to three transforms. Transforms define the IPSec security
protocol(s) and algorithm(s). Each transform represents an IPSec security
protocol (ESP, AH, or both) plus the algorithm you want to use.
transform-set-name
The name of the transform set.
For an ipsec-manual crypto map entry, you can specify only one transform set.
For an ipsec-isakmp or dynamic crypto map entry, you can specify up to six
transform sets.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The sections that follow describe each crypto map command.
Note
If a crypto map map-name client configuration address initiate | respond command configuration
exists on the firewall, then the Cisco VPN Client version 3.x uses it.
crypto map client authentication
The crypto map client authentication command enables the Extended Authentication (Xauth) feature,
which lets you prompt for a TACACS+, RADIUS, or LOCAL username and password during IKE
authentication. You must first set up your AAA server configuration to use this feature, and be sure to
specify the same AAA server name within the crypto map client authentication command statement
as was specified in the aaa-server command statement.
This command tells the PIX Firewall during Phase 1 of IKE to use the Xauth (RADIUS, TACACS+, or
LOCAL) challenge to authenticate IKE. If the Xauth fails, the IPSec security association will not be
established, and the IKE security association will be deleted. Use the no crypto map client
authentication command to restore the default value. The Xauth feature is not enabled by default.
Note
Normally, when Xauth is enabled, an entry is added to the uauth table (as shown by the show
uauth/clear uauth command) for the IP address assigned to the client. However, when using Xauth with
the Easy VPN Remote feature in Network Extension Mode, the IPSEC tunnel is created from network
to network, so the users behind the firewall cannot be associated with a single IP address. For this reason,
a uauth entry cannot be created upon completion of Xauth. If AAA authorization or accounting services
are required, you can enable the AAA authentication proxy to authenticate users behind the firewall. For
more information on AAA authentication proxies, please refer to the aaa commands.
You cannot enable Xauth or IKE Mode Configuration on a interface when terminating an L2TP/IPSec
tunnel using the Microsoft L2TP/IPSec client v1.0 (which is available on Windows NT, Windows XP,
Windows 98 and Windows ME OS). Instead, you can do either of the following:
•
Use a Windows 2000 L2TP/IPSec client, or
•
Use the isakmp key keystring address ip_address netmask mask no-xauth no-config-mode
command to exempt the L2TP client from Xauth and IKE Mode Configuration. However, if you
exempt the L2TP client from Xauth or IKE Mode Configuration, all the L2TP clients must be
grouped with the same ISAKMP pre-shared key or certificate and have the same fully qualified
domain name.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-60
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
crypto map
The crypto map client token authentication command enables the PIX Firewall to interoperate with a
Cisco VPN 3000 Client that is set up to use a token-based server for user authentication. The keyword
token tells the PIX Firewall that the AAA server uses a token-card system and to prompt the user for
username and password during IKE authentication. Use the no crypto map client token authentication
command to restore the default value.
Note
The remote user must be running one of the following:
Cisco VPN Client Version 3.x
Cisco VPN 3000 Client Version 2.5/2.6 or higher
Cisco Secure VPN Client Version 1.1 or higher
crypto map client configuration address
Use the crypto map client configuration address command to configure the IKE Mode Configuration
on your PIX Firewall. IKE Mode Configuration allows the PIX Firewall to download an IP address to
the remote peer (client) as part of an IKE negotiation. With the crypto map client configuration
address command, you define the crypto map(s) that should attempt to configure the peer.
Use the no crypto map client configuration address command to restore the default value. IKE Mode
Configuration is not enabled by default.
The keyword initiate indicates that the PIX Firewall will attempt to set IP addresses for each peer. The
respond keyword indicates that the PIX Firewall will accept requests for IP addresses from any
requesting peer.
Note
If you use IKE Mode Configuration on the PIX Firewall, the routers handling the IPSec traffic must also
support IKE Mode Configuration. Cisco IOS Release 12.0(6)T and higher supports the IKE Mode
Configuration.
Refer to the Cisco PIX Firewall and VPN Configuration Guide for more information about IKE Mode
Configuration.
The following examples show how to configure IKE Mode Configuration on your PIX Firewall:
crypto map mymap client configuration address initiate
crypto map mymap client configuration address respond
crypto map interface
The crypto map interface command applies a previously defined crypto map set to an interface. Use
the no crypto map interface command to remove the crypto map set from the interface. Use the show
crypto map [interface | tag] to view the crypto map configuration.
Use this command to assign a crypto map set to any active PIX Firewall interface. The PIX Firewall
supports IPSec termination on any and all active interfaces. You must assign a crypto map set to an
interface before that interface can provide IPSec services.
Only one crypto map set can be assigned to an interface. If multiple crypto map entries have the same
map-name but a different seq-num, they are considered to be part of the same set and will all be applied
to the interface. The crypto map entry with the lowest seq-num is considered the highest priority and will
be evaluated first. A single crypto map set can contain a combination of ipsec-isakmp and ipsec-manual
crypto map entries.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-61
Chapter 4
C Commands
crypto map
Note
While a new crypto map instance is being added to the PIX Firewall, all clear and SSH traffic to the
firewall interface stops because the crypto peer/ACL pair has not yet been defined. To workaround this,
use PIX Device Manager (PDM) to add the new crypto map instance or, through the PIX Firewall CLI,
remove the crypto map interface command from your configuration, add the new crypto map instance
and fully configure the crypto peer/ACL pair, and then reapply the crypto map interface command back
to the interface. In some conditions the CLI workaround is not acceptable as it temporarily stops VPN
traffic also.
The use of the crypto map interface command re-initializes the security association database causing
any currently established security associations to be deleted.
The following example assigns the crypto map set “mymap” to the outside interface. When traffic passes
through the outside interface, the traffic will be evaluated against all the crypto map entries in the
“mymap” set. When outbound traffic matches an access list in one of the “mymap” crypto map entries,
a security association (if IPSec) will be established per that crypto map entry’s configuration (if no
security association or connection already exists).
crypto map mymap interface outside
The following is sample output from the show crypto map command:
show crypto map
Crypto Map: "firewall-robin" pif: outside local address: 172.21.114.123
Crypto Map "firewall-robin" 10 ipsec-isakmp
Peer = 172.21.114.67
access-list 141 permit ip host 172.21.114.123 host 172.21.114.67
Current peer: 172.21.114.67
Security-association lifetime: 4608000 kilobytes/120 seconds
PFS (Y/N): N
Transform sets={ t1, }
The following configuration was in effect when the preceding show crypto map command was issued:
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
map
map
map
map
firewall-robin 10 ipsec-isakmp
firewall-robinrobin 10 set peer 172.21.114.67
firewall-robin 10 set transform-set t1
firewall-robin 10 match address 141
The following is sample output from the show crypto map command when manually established
security associations are used:
show crypto map
Crypto Map "multi-peer" 20 ipsec-manual
Peer = 172.21.114.67
access-list 120 permit ip host 1.1.1.1 host 1.1.1.2
Current peer: 172.21.114.67
Transform sets={ t2, }
Inbound esp spi: 0,
cipher key: ,
auth_key: ,
Inbound ah spi: 256,
key: 010203040506070809010203040506070809010203040506070809,
Outbound esp spi: 0
cipher key: ,
auth key: ,
Outbound ah spi: 256,
key: 010203040506070809010203040506070809010203040506070809,
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-62
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
crypto map
The following configuration was in effect when the preceding show crypto map command was issued:
crypto map multi-peer 20 ipsec-manual
crypto map multi-peer 20 set peer 172.21.114.67
crypto map multi-peer 20 set session-key inbound ah 256
010203040506070809010203040506070809010203040506070809
crypto map multi-peer 20 set session-key outbound ah 256
010203040506070809010203040506070809010203040506070809
crypto map multi-peer 20 set transform-set t2
crypto map multi-peer 20 match address 120
crypto map ipsec-manual | ipsec-isakmp
To create or modify a crypto map entry, use the crypto map ipsec-manual | ipsec-isakmp command.
To create or modify an ipsec-manual crypto map entry, use the ipsec-manual option of the command.
To create or modify an ipsec-isakmp crypto map entry, use the ipsec-isakmp option of the command.
Use the no crypto map command to delete a crypto map entry or set.
Note
The crypto map command without a keyword creates an ipsec-isakmp entry by default.
After you define crypto map entries, you can use the crypto map interface command to assign the
crypto map set to interfaces.
Crypto maps provide two functions: filtering/classifying traffic to be protected, and defining the policy
to be applied to that traffic. The first use affects the flow of traffic on an interface; the second affects the
negotiation performed (via IKE) on behalf of that traffic.
IPSec crypto maps link together definitions of the following:
•
What traffic should be protected
•
Which IPSec peer(s) the protected traffic can be forwarded to—these are the peers with which a
security association can be established
•
Which transform sets are acceptable for use with the protected traffic
•
How keys and security associations should be used/managed (or what the keys are, if IKE is not
used)
A crypto map set is a collection of crypto map entries each with a different seq-num but the same
map-name. Therefore, for a given interface, you could have certain traffic forwarded to one peer with
specified security applied to that traffic, and other traffic forwarded to the same or a different peer with
different IPSec security applied. To accomplish this you would create two crypto map entries, each with
the same map-name, but each with a different seq-num.
The number you assign to the seq-num argument should not be arbitrary. This number is used to rank
multiple crypto map entries within a crypto map set. Within a crypto map set, a crypto map entry with a
lower seq-num is evaluated before a map entry with a higher seq-num; that is, the map entry with the
lower number has a higher priority.
Note
Every static crypto map must define an access list and an IPsec peer. If either is missing, the crypto map
is considered incomplete and any traffic that has not already been matched to an earlier, complete crypto
map is dropped. Use the show conf command to ensure that every crypto map is complete. To fix an
incomplete crypto map, remove the crypto map, add the missing entries, and reapply it.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-63
Chapter 4
C Commands
crypto map
The following example shows the minimum required crypto map configuration when IKE will be used
to establish the security associations:
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
map
map
map
map
mymap
mymap
mymap
mymap
10 ipsec-isakmp
10 match address 101
set transform-set my_t_set1
set peer 10.0.0.1
The following example shows the minimum required crypto map configuration when the security
associations are manually established:
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
transform-set someset ah-md5-hmac esp-des
map mymap 10 ipsec-manual
map mymap 10 match address 102
map mymap 10 set transform-set someset
map mymap 10 set peer 10.0.0.5
map mymap 10 set session-key inbound ah 256 98765432109876549876543210987654
map mymap 10 set session-key outbound ah 256 fedcbafedcbafedcfedcbafedcbafedc
map mymap 10 set session-key inbound esp 256 cipher 0123456789012345
map mymap 10 set session-key outbound esp 256 cipher abcdefabcdefabcd
crypto map ipsec-isakmp dynamic
To specify that a given crypto map entry is to reference a pre-existing dynamic crypto map, use the
crypto map ipsec-isakmp dynamic command.
Use the crypto dynamic-map command to create dynamic crypto map entries. After you create a
dynamic crypto map set, use the crypto map ipsec-isakmp dynamic command to add the dynamic
crypto map set to a static crypto map.
Give crypto map entries which reference dynamic map sets the lowest priority map entries so that
inbound security association negotiation requests will try to match the static maps first. Only after the
request does not match any of the static maps do you want it to be evaluated against the dynamic map set.
To make a crypto map entry that references a dynamic crypto map to be set to the lowest priority map
entry, give the map entry the highest seq-num of all the map entries in a crypto map set.
The following example configures an IPSec crypto map set that includes a reference to a dynamic crypto
map set.
Crypto map “mymap 10” allows security associations to be established between the PIX Firewall and
either (or both) of two remote IPSec peers for traffic matching access list 101. Crypto map “mymap 20”
allows either of two transform sets to be negotiated with the peer for traffic matching access list 102.
Crypto map entry “mymap 30” references the dynamic crypto map set “mydynamicmap,” which can be
used to process inbound security association negotiation requests that do not match “mymap” entries 10
or 20. In this case, if the peer specifies a transform set that matches one of the transform sets specified
in “mydynamicmap” for a flow “permitted” by the access list 103, IPSec will accept the request and set
up security associations with the peer without previously knowing about the peer. If accepted, the
resulting security associations (and temporary crypto map entry) are established according to the settings
specified by the peer.
The access list associated with “mydynamicmap 10” is also used as a filter. Inbound packets that match
a permit statement in this list are dropped for not being IPSec protected. (The same is true for access
lists associated with static crypto maps entries.) Outbound packets that match a permit statement without
an existing corresponding IPSec security association are also dropped.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-64
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
crypto map
The following example shows the configuration using “mydynamicmap”:
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
map mymap 10 ipsec-isakmp
map mymap 10 match address 101
map mymap 10 set transform-set my_t_set1
map mymap 10 set peer 10.0.0.1
map mymap 10 set peer 10.0.0.2
map mymap 20 ipsec-isakmp
map mymap 10 match address 102
map mymap 10 set transform-set my_t_set1 my_t_set2
map mymap 10 set peer 10.0.0.3
dynamic-map mydynamicmap 10
dynamic-map mydynamicmap 10 match address 103
dynamic-map mydynamicmap 10 set transform-set my_t_set1 my_t_set2 my_t_set3
map mymap 30 ipsec-isakmp dynamic mydynamicmap
crypto map match address
To assign an access list to a crypto map entry, use the crypto map match address command. Use the
no crypto map match address command to remove the access list from a crypto map entry.
This command is required for all static crypto map entries. If you are defining a dynamic crypto map
entry (with the crypto dynamic-map command), this command is not required but is strongly
recommended.
Use the access-list command to define this access list.
The access list specified with this command will be used by IPSec to determine which traffic should be
protected by IPSec crypto and which traffic does not need protection. (Traffic that is permitted by the
access list will be protected. Traffic that is denied by the access list will not be protected in the context
of the corresponding crypto map entry.)
Note
The crypto access list is not used to determine whether to permit or deny traffic through the interface.
An access list applied directly to the interface with the access-group command makes that
determination.
The crypto access list specified by this command is used when evaluating both inbound and outbound
traffic. Outbound traffic is evaluated against the crypto access lists specified by the interface’s crypto
map entries to determine if it should be protected by crypto, and if so (if traffic matches a permit entry),
which crypto policy applies. (If necessary, in the case of static IPSec crypto maps, new security
associations are established using the data flow identity as specified in the permit entry; in the case of
dynamic crypto map entries, if no security association exists, the packet is dropped.) Inbound traffic is
evaluated against the crypto access lists specified by the entries of the interface’s crypto map set to
determine if it should be protected by crypto and, if so, which crypto policy applies. (In the case of
IPSec, unprotected traffic is discarded because it should have been protected by IPSec.)
The access list is also used to identify the flow for which the IPSec security associations are established.
In the outbound case, the permit entry is used as the data flow identity (in general). In the inbound case,
the data flow identity specified by the peer must be “permitted” by the crypto access list.
The following example shows the minimum required crypto map configuration when IKE will be used
to establish the security associations. (This example is for a static crypto map.)
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
map
map
map
map
mymap
mymap
mymap
mymap
10
10
10
10
ipsec-isakmp
match address 101
set transform-set my_t_set1
set peer 10.0.0.1
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-65
Chapter 4
C Commands
crypto map
crypto map set peer
Use the crypto map set peer command to specify an IPSec peer in a crypto map entry. Use the no
crypto map set peer command to remove an IPSec peer from a crypto map entry.
This command is required for all static crypto maps. If you are defining a dynamic crypto map (with the
crypto dynamic-map command), this command is not required, and in most cases is not used because,
in general, the peer is unknown.
For ipsec-isakmp crypto map entries, you can specify multiple peers by repeating this command. The
peer that packets are actually sent to is determined by the last peer that the PIX Firewall received either
traffic or a negotiation request from for a given data flow. If the attempt fails with the first peer, IKE
tries the next peer on the crypto map list.
For ipsec-manual crypto entries, you can specify only one peer per crypto map. If you want to change
the peer, you must first delete the old peer and then specify the new peer.
The following example shows a crypto map configuration when IKE will be used to establish the
security associations. In this example, a security association could be set up to either the peer at 10.0.0.1
or the peer at 10.0.0.2.
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
map
map
map
map
mymap
mymap
mymap
mymap
10
10
10
10
ipsec-isakmp
match address 101
set transform-set my_t_set1
set peer 10.0.0.1 10.0.0.2
crypto map set pfs
The crypto map set pfs command sets IPSec to ask for perfect forward secrecy (PFS) when requesting
new security associations for this crypto map entry, or that IPSec requires PFS when receiving requests
for new security associations. To specify that IPSec should not request PFS, use the no crypto map set
pfs command. This command is only available for ipsec-isakmp crypto map entries and dynamic crypto
map entries.
By default, PFS is not requested.
With PFS, every time a new security association is negotiated, a new Diffie-Hellman exchange occurs,
which requires additional processing time. PFS adds another level of security because if one key is ever
cracked by an attacker, only the data sent with that key will be compromised.
During negotiation, this command causes IPSec to request PFS when requesting new security
associations for the crypto map entry. The default (group1) is sent if the set pfs statement does not
specify a group.
If the peer initiates the negotiation and the local configuration specifies PFS, the peer must perform a
PFS exchange or the negotiation will fail. If the local configuration does not specify a group, a default
of group1 will be assumed, and an offer of either group1 or group2 will be accepted. If the local
configuration specifies group2, that group must be part of the peer’s offer or the negotiation will fail. If
the local configuration does not specify PFS, it will accept any offer of PFS from the peer.
The 1024-bit Diffie-Hellman prime modulus group, group2, provides more security than group1, but
requires more processing time than group1.
Note
IKE negotiations with a remote peer may hang when a PIX Firewall has numerous tunnels that originate
from the PIX Firewall and terminate on a single remote peer. This problem occurs when PFS is not
enabled, and the local peer requests many simultaneous rekey requests. If this problem occurs, the IKE
security association will not recover until it has timed out or until you manually clear it with the clear
[crypto] isakmp sa command.
PIX Firewall units configured with many tunnels to many peers or
many clients sharing the same tunnel are not affected by this problem. If your configuration is affected,
enable PFS with the crypto map mapname seqnum set pfs command.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-66
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
crypto map
The following example specifies that PFS should be used whenever a new security association is
negotiated for the crypto map “mymap 10”:
crypto map mymap 10 ipsec-isakmp
crypto map mymap 10 set pfs group2
crypto map set security-association lifetime
To override (for a particular crypto map entry) the global lifetime value, which is used when negotiating
IPSec security associations, use the crypto map set security-association lifetime command. To reset a
crypto map entry's lifetime value to the global value, use the no crypto map set security-association
lifetime command.
The crypto map's security associations are negotiated according to the global lifetimes.
This command is only available for ipsec-isakmp crypto map entries and dynamic crypto map entries.
IPSec security associations use shared secret keys. These keys and their security associations time out
together.
Assuming that the particular crypto map entry has lifetime values configured, when the PIX Firewall
requests new security associations during security association negotiation, it will specify its crypto map
lifetime value in the request to the peer; it will use this value as the lifetime of the new security
associations. When the PIX Firewall receives a negotiation request from the peer, it will use the smaller
of the lifetime value proposed by the peer or the locally configured lifetime value as the lifetime of the
new security associations.
There are two lifetimes: a “timed” lifetime and a “traffic-volume” lifetime. The session keys/security
association expires after the first of these lifetimes is reached.
If you change a lifetime, the change will not be applied to existing security associations, but will be used
in subsequent negotiations to establish security associations for data flows supported by this crypto map
entry. If you want the new settings to take effect sooner, you can clear all or part of the security
association database by using the clear [crypto] ipsec sa command. See the clear [crypto] ipsec sa
command for more details.
To change the timed lifetime, use the crypto map set security-association lifetime seconds command.
The timed lifetime causes the keys and security association to time out after the specified number of
seconds have passed.
To change the traffic-volume lifetime, use the crypto map set security-association lifetime kilobytes
command. The traffic-volume lifetime causes the key and security association to time out after the
specified amount of traffic (in kilobytes) has been protected by the security association's key.
Shorter lifetimes can make it harder to mount a successful key recovery attack, because the attacker has
less data encrypted under the same key to work with.
However, shorter lifetimes require more CPU processing time.
The lifetime values are ignored for manually established security associations (security associations
installed via an ipsec-manual crypto map entry).
The following example shortens the timed lifetime for a particular crypto map entry, because there is a
higher risk that the keys could be compromised for security associations belonging to the crypto map
entry. The traffic-volume lifetime is not changed because there is not a high volume of traffic anticipated
for these security associations. The timed lifetime is shortened to 2700 seconds (45 minutes).
crypto map mymap 10 ipsec-isakmp
set security-association lifetime seconds 2700
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-67
Chapter 4
C Commands
crypto map
crypto map set session-key
To manually specify the IPSec session keys within a crypto map entry, use the crypto map set
session-key command. Use the no crypto map set session-key command to remove IPSec session keys
from a crypto map entry. This command is only available for ipsec-manual crypto map entries.
If the crypto map’s transform set includes an AH protocol, you must define IPSec keys for AH for both
inbound and outbound traffic. If the crypto map’s transform set includes an ESP encryption protocol,
you must define IPSec keys for ESP encryption for both inbound and outbound traffic. If the crypto
map’s transform set includes an ESP authentication protocol, you must define IPSec keys for ESP
authentication for inbound and outbound traffic.
When you define multiple IPSec session keys within a single crypto map, you can assign the same
Security Parameter Index (SPI) number to all the keys. The SPI is used to identify the security
association used with the crypto map. However, not all peers have the same flexibility in SPI assignment.
You may have to coordinate SPI assignment with the peer’s network administrator, making certain that
the same SPI is not used more than once for the same destination address/protocol combination.
Security associations established using this command do not expire (unlike security associations
established using IKE).
The PIX Firewall unit’s session keys must match its peer’s session keys.
If you change a session key, the security association using the key will be deleted and reinitialized.
The following example shows a crypto map entry for manually established security associations. The
transform set “t_set” includes only an AH protocol.
crypto ipsec transform-set t_set ah-sha-hmac
crypto map mymap 20 ipsec-manual
crypto map mymap 20 match address 102
crypto map mymap 20 set transform-set t_set
crypto map mymap 20 set peer 10.0.0.21
crypto map mymap 20 set session-key inbound ah 300
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111
crypto map mymap 20 set session-key outbound ah 300
2222222222222222222222222222222222222222
The following example shows a crypto map entry for manually established security associations. The
transform set “someset” includes both an AH and an ESP protocol, so session keys are configured for
both AH and ESP for both inbound and outbound traffic. The transform set includes both encryption and
authentication ESP transforms, so session keys are created for both using the cipher and authenticator
keywords.
crypto ipsec transform-set someset ah-sha-hmac esp-des esp-sha-hmac
crypto map mymap 10 ipsec-manual
crypto map mymap 10 match address 101
crypto map mymap 10 set transform-set someset
crypto map mymap 10 set peer 10.0.0.1
crypto map mymap 10 set session-key inbound ah 300
9876543210987654321098765432109876543210
crypto map mymap 10 set session-key outbound ah 300
fedcbafedcbafedcbafedcbafedcbafedcbafedc
crypto map mymap 10 set session-key inbound esp 300 cipher 0123456789012345
authenticator 0000111122223333444455556666777788889999
crypto map mymap 10 set session-key outbound esp 300 cipher abcdefabcdefabcd
authenticator 9999888877776666555544443333222211110000
crypto map set transform-set
To specify which transform sets can be used with the crypto map entry, use the crypto map set
transform-set command. Use the no crypto map set transform-set command to remove all transform
sets from a crypto map entry.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-68
78-14890-01
Chapter 4
C Commands
crypto map
This command is required for all static and dynamic crypto map entries.
For an ipsec-isakmp crypto map entry, you can list up to six transform sets with this command. List
the higher priority transform sets first.
If the local PIX Firewall initiates the negotiation, the transform sets are presented to the peer in the order
specified in the crypto map command statement. If the peer initiates the negotiation, the local
PIX Firewall accepts the first transform set that matches one of the transform sets specified in the crypto
map entry.
The first matching transform set that is found at both peers is used for the security association. If no
match is found, IPSec will not establish a security association. The traffic will be dropped because there
is no security association to protect the traffic.
For an ipsec-manual crypto map command statement, you can specify only one transform set. If the
transform set does not match the transform set at the remote peer’s crypto map, the two peers will fail
to correctly communicate because the peers are using different rules to process the traffic.
If you want to change the list of transform sets, respecify the new list of transform sets to replace the old
list. This change is only applied to crypto map command statements that reference this transform set.
The change will not be applied to existing security associations, but will be used in subsequent
negotiations to establish new security associations. If you want the new settings to take effect sooner,
you can clear all or part of the security association database by using the clear [crypto] ipsec sa
command.
Any transform sets included in a crypto map command statement must previously have been defined
using the crypto ipsec transform-set command.
Examples
The following example shows how the crypto map client authentication command is used. This
example sets up the IPSec rules for VPN encryption IPSec. The ip, nat, aaa-server command statements
establish the context for the IPSec-related commands.
ip address inside 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
ip address outside 168.20.1.5 255.255.255.0
dealer 10.1.2.1-10.1.2.254
nat (inside) 0 access-list 80
aaa-server TACACS+ protocol tacacs+
aaa-server TACACS+ (inside) host 10.0.0.2 secret123
crypto ipsec transform-set pc esp-des esp-md5-hmac
crypto dynamic-map cisco 4 set transform-set pc
crypto map partner-map 20 ipsec-isakmp dynamic cisco
crypto map partner-map client configuration address initiate
crypto map partner-map client authentication TACACS+
crypto map partner-map interface outside
isakmp key cisco1234 address 0.0.0.0 netmask 0.0.0.0
isakmp client configuration address-pool local dealer outside
isakmp policy 8 authentication pre-share
isakmp policy 8 encryption des
isakmp policy 8 hash md5
isakmp policy 8 group 1
isakmp policy 8 lifetime 86400
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
4-69
Chapter 4
C Commands
crypto map
The following example shows how the crypto map client token authentication command is used. This
example sets up the IPSec rules for VPN encryption IPSec. The ip, nat, aaa-server command statements
establish the context for the IPSec-related commands.
ip address inside 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
ip address outside 168.20.1.5 255.255.255.0
ip local pool dealer 10.1.2.1-10.1.2.254
nat (inside) 0 access-list 80
aaa-server RADIUS protocol radius
aaa-server RADIUS (inside) host 10.0.0.2 secret123
crypto ipsec transform-set pc esp-des esp-md5-hmac
crypto dynamic-map cisco 4 set transform-set pc
crypto map partner-map 20 ipsec-isakmp dynamic cisco
crypto map partner-map client configuration address initiate
crypto map partner-map client token authentication RADIUS
crypto map partner-map interface outside
isakmp key cisco1234 address 0.0.0.0 netmask 0.0.0.0
isakmp client configuration address-pool local dealer outside
isakmp policy 8 authentication pre-share
isakmp policy 8 encryption des
isakmp policy 8 hash md5
isakmp policy 8 group 1
isakmp policy 8 lifetime 86400
The following example defines two transform sets and specifies that they can both be used within a
crypto map entry. (This example applies only when IKE is used to establish security associations. With
crypto maps used for manually established security associations, only one transform set can be included
in a given crypto map command statement.)
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
crypto
ipsec transform-set my_t_set1 esp-des esp-sha-hmac
ipsec transform-set my_t_set2 ah-sha-hmac esp-des esp-sha-hmac
map mymap 10 ipsec-isakmp
map mymap 10 match address 101
map mymap 10 set transform-set my_t_set1 my_t_set2
map mymap set peer 10.0.0.1 10.0.0.2
In this example, when traffic matches access list 101 the security association can use either transform
set “my_t_set1” (first priority) or “my_t_set2” (second priority), depending on which transform set
matches the remote peer's transform sets.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
4-70
78-14890-01
C H A P T E R
5
D through F Commands
debug
You can debug packets or ICMP tracings through the PIX Firewall. The debug command provides
information that helps troubleshoot protocols operating with and through the PIX Firewall.
[no] debug aaa [authentication | authorization| accounting | internal]
[no] debug access-list all | standard | turbo
[no] debug arp
[no] debug crypto ca [level]
[no] debug ctiqbe
[no] debug crypto ipsec [level]
[no] debug crypto isakmp [level]
[no] debug crypto vpnclient
[no] debug dhcpc detail | error | packet
[no] debug dhcpd event | packet
[no] debug dhcprelay event | packet | error
[no] debug dns {resolver | all}
[no] debug fixup {udp | tcp}
[no] debug fover option
[no] debug h323 h225 [asn | event]
[no] debug h323 h245 [asn | event]
[no] debug h323 ras [asn | event]
[no] debug icmp trace
[no] debug ils
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-1
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
debug
[no] debug ospf [adj | database-timer | events |f lood | lsa-generation | packet | tree |
retransmission | spf [external | internal |intra]]
[no] debug mgcp [messages | parser | sessions]
[no] debug ntp [adjust | authentication | events | loopfilter | packets | params | select | sync |
validity]
[no] debug packet if_name [src source_ip [netmask mask]] [dst dest_ip [netmask mask]] [[proto
icmp] | [proto tcp [sport src_port] [dport dest_port]] | [proto udp [sport src_port] [dport
dest_port]] [rx | tx | both]
[no] debug pdm history
[no] debug ppp error | io | uauth | upap | chap | negotiation
[no] debug pppoe event | error | packet
[no] deubg pptp
[no] debug radius [session | all | user username]
[no] debug rip
[no] debug route
[no] debug rtsp
[no] debug sip
[no] debug skinny
[no] debug sqlnet
[no] debug ssh
[no] debug ssl [cypher | device]
[no] debug vpdn event | error | packet
[no] debug xdmcp
no debug all
undebug all
show debug
Syntax Description
aaa
Displays authentication, authorization, and accounting information.
access-list
Displays access list configuration information.
adjust
Displays NTP clock adjustments.
all
Displays both standard and TurboACL access list information.
authentication
Displays NTP clock authentication.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-2
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
debug
both
Displays both received and transmitted packets.
chap
Displays CHAP/MS-CHAP authentication.
crypto ca
Displays information about certification authority (CA) traffic.
crypto ipsec
Displays information about IPSec traffic.
crypto isakmp
Displays information about IKE traffic.
crypto vpnclient
Displays information about the firewall EasyVPN client.
ctiqbe
Displays information about CTI Quick Buffer Encoding (CTIQBE), which is
used with Cisco TAPI/JTAPI applications.
cypher
Display information about the cipher negotiation between the HTTP server
and the client.
device
Displays information about the SSL device including session initiation and
ongoing status.
dhcpc detail
Displays detailed information about the DHCP client packets.
dhcpc error
Displays error messages associated with the DHCP client.
dhcpc packet
Displays packet information associated with the DHCP client.
dhcpd event
Displays event information associated with the DHCP server.
dhcpd packet
Displays packet information associated with the DHCP server.
dhcprelay
Displays DHCP Relay Agent information.
dns {resolver | all}
Displays DNS debugging information. The resolver option collects DNS
resolution information, and the all option collects all DNS information.
dport dest_port
Destination port.
dst dest_ip
Destination IP address.
events
Displays NTP event information.
fixup {udp | tcp}
Displays fixup information, using either UDP or TCP.
fover option
Displays failover information. Refer to Table 5-1 for the options.
h225 asn
Displays the output of the decoded PDUs.
h225 events
Displays the events of the H.225 signaling, or turn both traces on.
h245 asn
Displays the output of the decoded PDUs.
h245 events
Displays the events of the H.245 signaling, or turn both traces on.
h323
Displays information about the packet-based multimedia communications
systems standard.
icmp
Displays information about ICMP traffic.
if_name
Interface name from which the packets are arriving; for example, to monitor
packets coming into the PIX Firewall from the outside, set if_name to
outside.
ils
Displays Internet Locator Service (ILS) fixup information (used in LDAP
services).
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-3
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
debug
level
The level of debugging feedback. The higher the level number, the more
information is displayed. The default level is 1. The levels correspond to the
following events:
•
Level 1: Interesting events
•
Level 2: Normative and interesting events
•
Level 3: Diminutive, normative, and interesting events
Refer to the “Examples” section at the end of this command page for an
example of how the debugging level appears within the show debug
command.
loopfilter
Displays NTP loop filter information.
messages
Displays debug information for MGCP messages.
negotiation
Equivalent of the error, uauth, upap and chap debug command options.
netmask mask
Network mask.
packet
Displays packet information.
packets
Displays NTP packet information.
params
Displays NTP clock parameters.
parser
Displays debug information about parsing MGCP messages.
pdm history
Turns on the PDM history metrics debugging information. The no version of
this command disables PDM history metrics debugging.
ppp
Debugs L2TP or PPTP traffic, which is configured with the vpdn command.
ppp error
Displays L2TP or PPTP PPP virtual interface error messages.
ppp io
Display the packet information for L2TP or PPTP PPP virtual interface.
ppp uauth
Displays the L2TP or PPTP PPP virtual interface AAA user authentication
debugging messages.
pppoe error
Displays PPPoE error messages.
pppoe event
Displays PPPoE event information.
pppoe packet
Displays PPPoE packet information.
pptp
Displays PPTP traffic information.
proto icmp
Displays ICMP packets only.
proto tcp
Displays TCP packets only.
proto udp
Displays UDP packets only.
radius all
Enables all RADIUS debug options.
radius session
Logs RADIUS session information and the attributes of sent and received
RADIUS packets.
ras asn
Displays the output of the decoded PDUs.
ras events
Displays the events of the RAS signaling, or turn both traces on.
route
Displays information from the PIX Firewall routing module.
rx
Displays only packets received at the PIX Firewall.
select
Displays NTP clock selections.
sessions
Displays debug information for MGCP sessions.
sip
Debug the fixup Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) module.
skinny
Debugs SCCP protocol activity. (Using this option is system-resources
intensive and may impact performance on high traffic network segments.)
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-4
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
debug
sport src_port
Source port. See the “Ports” section in "Chapter 2, “Using PIX Firewall
Commands” for a list of valid port literal names.
sqlnet
Debugs SQL*Net traffic.
src source_ip
Source IP address.
ssh
Debug information and error messages associated with the ssh command.
ssl
Debug information and error messages associated with the ssl command.
standard
Displays non-TurboACL access list information.
sync
Displays NTP clock synchronization.
turbo
Displays TurboACL access list information.
tx
Displays only packets that were transmitted from the PIX Firewall.
upap
Displays PAP authentication.
user username
Specifies to display information for an individual username only.
validity
Displays NTP peer clock validity.
vpdn error
Display L2TP or PPTP protocol error messages.
vpdn event
Display L2TP or PPTP tunnel event change information.
vpdn packet
Display L2TP or PPTP packet information about PPTP traffic.
xdmcp
Display information about the xdmcp negotiation
Defaults
MGCP debugging is disabled by default.
Command Modes
Configuration mode unless otherwise specified.
The debug mgcp command is available in privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
Note
The debug command lets you view debug information. The show debug command displays the current
state of tracing. You can debug the contents of network layer protocol packets with the debug packet
command.
Use of the debug commands may slow down traffic on busy networks.
Use of the debug packet command on a PIX Firewall experiencing a heavy load may result in the output
displaying so fast that it may be impossible to stop the output by entering the no debug packet command
from the console. You can enter the no debug packet command from a Telnet session.
To let users ping through the PIX Firewall, add the access-list acl_grp permit icmp any any command
statement to the configuration and bind it to each interface you want to test with the access-group
command. This lets pings go outbound and inbound.
To stop a debug packet trace command, enter the following command:
no debug packet if_name
Replace if_name with the name of the interface; for example, inside, outside, or a perimeter interface
name.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-5
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
debug
no debug all and undebug all
The no debug all and undebug all commands stop any and all debug messages from being displayed.
debug crypto
When creating your digital certificates, use the debug crypto ca command to ensure that the certificate
is created correctly. Important error messages only display when the debug crypto ca command is
enabled. For example, if you enter an Entrust fingerprint value incorrectly, the only warning message
that indicates the value is incorrect appears in the debug crypto ca command output.
Output from the debug crypto ipsec and debug crypto isakmp commands does not display in a Telnet
console session.
debug dhcpc
The debug dhcpc detail command displays detailed packet information about the DHCP client. The
debug dhcpc error command displays DHCP client error messages. The debug dhcpc packet
command displays packet information about the DHCP client. Use the no form of the debug dhcpc
command to disable debugging.
The debug dhcpd event command displays event information about the DHCP server. The debug
dhcpd packet command displays packet information about the DHCP server. Use the no form of the
debug dhcpd commands to disable debugging.
debug h323
The debug h323 command lets you debug H.323 connections. Use the no form of the command to
disable debugging. This command works when the fixup protocol h323 command is enabled.
Note
The debug h323 command, particularly the debug h323 h225 asn, debug h323 h245 asn, and debug
h323 ras asn commands, might delay the sending of messages and cause slower performance in a
real-time environment.
debug icmp
The debug icmp trace command shows ICMP packet information, the source IP address, and the
destination address of packets arriving, departing, and traversing the PIX Firewall including pings to the
PIX Firewall unit’s own interfaces.
To stop a debug icmp trace command, enter the following command:
no debug icmp trace
debug mgcp
The debug mgcp command displays debug information for Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP)
traffic. Without any options explicitly specified, the debug mgcp command enables all three MGCP
debug options. The no debug mgcp command, without any options explicitly specified, disables all
MGCP debugging.
debug ospf
The debug ospf command enables all OSPF debugging options, and the no debug ospf command
disables all OSPF debugging options.
The debug ospf spf command enables all SPF options, and the no debug ospf spf command disables all
SPF options.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-6
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
debug
debug sqlnet
The debug sqlnet command reports on traffic between Oracle SQL*Net clients and servers through the
PIX Firewall.
debug ssh
The debug ssh command reports on information and error messages associated with the ssh command.
debug pptp
The debug pptp and debug vpdn commands provide information about PPTP traffic. PPTP is
configured with the vpdn command.
debug fover
Table 5-1 lists the options for the debug fover command.
Table 5-1
debug fover Command Options
Option
Description
cable
Failover cable status
fail
Failover internal exception
fmsg
Failover message
get
IP network packet received
ifc
Network interface status trace
lanrx
LAN-based failover receive process messages
lanretx
LAN-based failover retransmit process messages
lantx
LAN-based failover transmit process messages
lancmd
LAN-based failover main thread messages
open
Failover device open
put
IP network packet transmitted
rx
Failover cable receive
rxdmp
Cable recv message dump (serial console only)
rxip
IP network failover packet received
tx
Failover cable transmit
txdmp
Cable xmit message dump (serial console only)
txip
IP network failover packet transmit
verify
Failover message verify
switch
Failover Switching status
Trace Channel Feature
The debug packet command sends its output to the Trace Channel. All other debug commands do not.
Use of Trace Channel changes the way you can view output on your screen during a PIX Firewall
console or Telnet session.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-7
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
debug
If a debug command does not use Trace Channel, each session operates independently, which means
any commands started in the session only appear in the session. By default, a session not using Trace
Channel has output disabled by default.
The location of the Trace Channel depends on whether you have a simultaneous Telnet console session
running at the same time as the console session, or if you are using only the PIX Firewall serial console:
•
If you are only using the PIX Firewall serial console, all debug commands display on the serial
console.
•
If you have both a serial console session and a Telnet console session accessing the console, then
no matter where you enter the debug commands, the output displays on the Telnet console session.
•
If you have two or more Telnet console sessions, the first session is the Trace Channel. If that
session closes, the serial console session becomes the Trace Channel. The next Telnet console
session that accesses the console will then become the Trace Channel.
The debug commands, except the debug crypto commands, are shared between all Telnet and serial
console sessions.
Note
Examples
The downside of the Trace Channel feature is that if one administrator is using the serial console and
another administrator starts a Telnet console session, the serial console debug command output will
suddenly stop without warning. In addition, the administrator on the Telnet console session will
suddenly be viewing debug command output, which may be unexpected. If you are using the serial
console and debug command output is not appearing, use the who command to see if a Telnet console
session is running.
The following is partial sample output from the debug dhcpc packet and the debug dhcpc detail
commands. The ip address dhcp setroute command was configured after entering the debug dhcpc
commands to obtain debugging information.
debug dhcpc packet
debug dhcpc detail
ip address outside dhcp setroute
DHCP:allocate request
DHCP:new entry. add to queue
DHCP:new ip lease str = 0x80ce8a28
DHCP:SDiscover attempt # 1 for entry:
Temp IP addr:0.0.0.0 for peer on Interface:outside
Temp sub net mask:0.0.0.0
DHCP Lease server:0.0.0.0, state:1 Selecting
DHCP transaction id:0x8931
Lease:0 secs, Renewal:0 secs, Rebind:0 secs
Next timer fires after:2 seconds
Retry count:1
Client-ID:cisco-0000.0000.0000-outside
DHCP:SDiscover:sending 265 byte length DHCP packet
DHCP:SDiscover 265 bytes
DHCP Broadcast to 255.255.255.255 from 0.0.0.0
DHCP client msg received, fip=10.3.2.2, fport=67
DHCP:Received a BOOTREP pkt
DHCP:Scan:Message type:DHCP Offer
DHCP:Scan:Server ID Option:10.1.1.69 = 450A44AB
DHCP:Scan:Server ID Option:10.1.1.69 = 450A44AB
DHCP:Scan:Lease Time:259200
DHCP:Scan:Subnet Address Option:255.255.254.0
DHCP:Scan:DNS Name Server Option:10.1.1.70, 10.1.1.140
DHCP:Scan:Domain Name:example.com
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-8
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
debug
DHCP:Scan:NBNS Name Server Option:10.1.2.228, 10.1.2.87
DHCP:Scan:Router Address Option:10.3.2.1
DHCP:rcvd pkt source:10.3.2.2, destination: 255.255.255.255
...
The following example executes the debug icmp trace command:
debug icmp trace
When you ping a host through the PIX Firewall from any interface, trace output displays on the console.
The following example shows a successful ping from an external host (209.165.201.2) to the
PIX Firewall unit’s outside interface (209.165.201.1).
Inbound ICMP echo reply (len 32
Outbound ICMP echo request (len
Inbound ICMP echo reply (len 32
Outbound ICMP echo request (len
Inbound ICMP echo reply (len 32
Outbound ICMP echo request (len
Inbound ICMP echo reply (len 32
NO DEBUG ICMP TRACE
ICMP trace off
id
32
id
32
id
32
id
1 seq 256) 209.165.201.1 > 209.165.201.2
id 1 seq 512) 209.165.201.2 > 209.165.201.1
1 seq 512) 209.165.201.1 > 209.165.201.2
id 1 seq 768) 209.165.201.2 > 209.165.201.1
1 seq 768) 209.165.201.1 > 209.165.201.2
id 1 seq 1024) 209.165.201.2 > 209.165.201.1
1 seq 1024) 209.165.201.1 > 209.165.201.2
This example shows that the ICMP packet length is 32 bytes, the ICMP packet identifier is 1, and the
ICMP sequence number. The ICMP sequence number starts at 0 and is incremented each time a request
is sent.
The following is sample output from the show debug command output:
show debug
debug ppp error
debug vpdn event
debug crypto ipsec 1
debug crypto isakmp 1
debug crypto ca 1
debug icmp trace
debug packet outside both
debug sqlnet
The preceding sample output includes the debug crypto commands.
The following example shows debugging messages for Unity client negotiation using Diffie-Hellman
group 5:
pixfirewall(config)# debug crypto isakmp
check_isakmp_proposal:
is_auth_policy_configured: auth 1
is_auth_policy_configured: auth 4
ISAKMP (0): Checking ISAKMP transform 1 against priority 8 policy
ISAKMP:
encryption 3DES-CBC
ISAKMP:
hash SHA
ISAKMP:
default group 5
ISAKMP:
extended auth RSA sig
ISAKMP:
life type in seconds
ISAKMP:
life duration (VPI) of 0x0 0x20 0xc4 0x9b
ISAKMP (0): atts are not acceptable. Next payload is 3
ISAKMP (0): Checking ISAKMP transform 2 against priority 8 policy
ISAKMP:
encryption 3DES-CBC
ISAKMP:
hash MD5
ISAKMP:
default group 5
ISAKMP:
extended auth RSA sig
ISAKMP:
life type in seconds
ISAKMP:
life duration (VPI) of 0x0 0x20 0xc4 0x9b
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-9
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
debug
ISAKMP (0):
ISAKMP (0):
ISAKMP:
ISAKMP:
ISAKMP:
ISAKMP:
ISAKMP:
ISAKMP:
ISAKMP (0):
ISAKMP (0):
ISAKMP:
ISAKMP:
ISAKMP:
ISAKMP:
ISAKMP:
ISAKMP:
atts are not acceptable. Next payload is 3
Checking ISAKMP transform 3 against priority 8 policy
encryption 3DES-CBC
hash SHA
default group 5
auth RSA sig
life type in seconds
life duration (VPI) of 0x0 0x20 0xc4 0x9b
atts are not acceptable. Next payload is 3
Checking ISAKMP transform 4 against priority 8 policy
encryption 3DES-CBC
hash MD5
default group 5
auth RSA sig
life type in seconds
life duration (VPI) of 0x0 0x20 0xc4 0x9b
ISAKMP (0): atts are acceptable. Next payload is 3
The following example shows possible output for the debug mgcp messages command:
17: MGCP: Retransmitted command RSIP
Gateway IP
gate-1
Transaction ID 1
18: MGCP: Expired command RSIP
Gateway IP
gate-1
Transaction ID 1
19: MGCP: New command RSIP
Gateway IP
gate-1
Transaction ID 1
Endpoint name
d001
Call ID
Connection ID
Media IP
0.0.0.0
Media port
0
Flags
0x80
20: MGCP: Retransmitted command RSIP
Gateway IP
gate-1
Transaction ID 1
The following example shows possible output for the debug mgcp parser command:
28: MGCP packet:
RSIP 1 d001@10.10.10.11 MGCP 1.0
RM: restart
29: MGCP: command verb - RSIP
30: MGCP: transaction ID - 1
31: MGCP: endpoint name - d001
32: MGCP: header parsing succeeded
33: MGCP: restart method - restart
34: MGCP: payload parsing succeeded
35: MGCP packet:
RSIP 1 d001@10.10.10.11 MGCP 1.0
RM: restart
36:
37:
38:
39:
40:
41:
MGCP:
MGCP:
MGCP:
MGCP:
MGCP:
MGCP:
command verb - RSIP
transaction ID - 1
endpoint name - d001
header parsing succeeded
restart method - restart
payload parsing succeeded
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-10
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
debug
The following example shows possible output for the debug mgcp sessions command:
91: NAT::requesting UDP conn for generic-pc-2/6166 [209.165.202.128/0]
from dmz/ca:generic-pc-2/2427 to outside:generic-pc-1/2727
92: NAT::reverse route: embedded host at dmz/ca:generic-pc-2/6166
93: NAT::table route: embedded host at outside:209.165.202.128/0
94: NAT::pre-allocate connection for outside:209.165.202.128 to dmz/ca:generic-pc-2/6166
95: NAT::found inside xlate from dmz/ca:generic-pc-2/0 to outside:209.165.201.15/0
96: NAT::outside NAT not needed
97: NAT::created UDP conn dmz/ca:generic-pc-2/6166 <-> outside:209.165.202.128/0
98: NAT::created RTCP conn dmz/ca:generic-pc-2/6167 <-> outside:209.165.202.128/0
99: NAT::requesting UDP conn for 209.165.202.128/6058 [generic-pc-2/0]
from dmz/ca:genericgeneric-pc-2/2427 to outside:generic-pc-1/2727
100: NAT::table route: embedded host at outside:209.165.202.128/6058
101: NAT::reverse route: embedded host at dmz/ca:generic-pc-2/0
102: NAT::pre-allocate connection for dmz/ca:generic-pc-2 to outside:209.165.202.128/6058
103: NAT::found inside xlate from dmz/ca:generic-pc-2/0 to outside:209.165.201.15/0
104: NAT::outside NAT not needed
105: NAT::created UDP conn dmz/ca:generic-pc-2/0 <-> outside:209.165.202.128/6058
106: NAT::created RTCP conn dmz/ca:generic-pc-2/0 <-> outside:209.165.202.128/6059
107: MGCP: New session
Gateway IP
generic-pc-2
Call ID
9876543210abcdef
Connection ID 6789af54c9
Endpoint name aaln/1
Media lcl port 6166
Media rmt IP
209.165.202.128
Media rmt port 6058
108: MGCP: Expired session, active 0:06:05
Gateway IP
generic-pc-2
Call ID
9876543210abcdef
Connection ID
6789af54c9
Endpoint name
aaln/1
Media lcl port 6166
Media rmt IP
209.165.202.128
Media rmt port 6058
You can debug the contents of packets with the debug packet command:
debug packet inside
--------- PACKET ---------- IP -4.3.2.1 ==>
255.3.2.1
ver = 0x4
hlen = 0x5
tos = 0x0
tlen = 0x60
id = 0x3902
flags = 0x0
frag off=0x0
ttl = 0x20
proto=0x11
chksum = 0x5885
-- UDP -source port = 0x89
dest port = 0x89
len = 0x4c
checksum = 0xa6a0
-- DATA -00000014:
00 01
....
00000024: 00 00 00 01 20 45 49 45 50 45 47 45 47 45
.. EIEPEGEGEFF
00000034: 43 43 4e 46 41 45 44 43 41 43 41 43 41 43
NFAEDCACACACAC
00000044: 41 43 41 41 41 00 00 20 00 01 c0 0c 00 20
AAA.. ..... ..
00000054: 00 04 93 e0 00 06 60 00 01 02 03 04 00
....`......
--------- END OF PACKET ---------
00 00
|
46 46
| ..
41 43
| CC
00 01
| AC
| ..
This display lists the information as it appears in a packet.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-11
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
dhcpd
The following is sample output from the show debug command:
show debug
debug icmp trace off
debug packet off
debug sqlnet off
Related Commands
mgcp
Configures additional support for the Media Gateway Control Protocol fixup
(packet application inspection) and is used with the fixup protocol mgcp
command.
show conn
Displays all active connections. There is an MGCP show conn option and
connection flag, “g”.
timeout
Sets the maximum idle time duration. (There is an MGCP timeout option.)
dhcpd
Configures the DHCP server.
[no] dhcpd address ip1[-ip2] if_name
[no] dhcpd auto_config [outside]
[no] dhcpd dns dns1 [dns2]
[no] dhcpd wins wins1 [wins2]
[no] dhcpd lease lease_length
[no] dhcpd domain domain_name
[no] dhcpd enable if_name
[no] dhcpd option 66 ascii {server_name | server_ip_str}
[no] dhcpd option 150 ip server_ip1 [ server_ip2]
no dhcpd option code
[no] dhcpd ping_timeout timeout
[no] debug dhcpd event
[no] debug dhcpd packet
clear dhcpd [binding|statistics]
show dhcpd [binding|statistics]
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-12
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
dhcpd
Syntax Description
address ip1 [ip2]
The IP pool address range. The size of the pool is limited to 32 addresses
with a 10-user license and 128 addresses with a 50-user license on the
PIX 501. The unlimited user license on the PIX 501 and all other
PIX Firewall platforms support 256 addresses.
If the address pool range is larger than 253 addresses, the netmask of the
PIX Firewall interface cannot be a Class C address (for example,
255.255.255.0) and hence needs to be something larger, for example,
255.255.254.0.
Command Modes
auto_config
Enable PIX Firewall to automatically configure DNS, WINS and domain
name values from the DHCP client to the DHCP server. If the user also
specifies dns, wins, and domain parameters, then the CLI parameters
overwrite the auto_config parameters.
binding
The binding information for a given server IP address and its associated
client hardware address and lease length.
code
Specifies the DHCP option code, either 66 or 150.
dns dns1 [dns2]
The IP addresses of the DNS servers for the DHCP client. Specifies that
DNS A (address) resource records that match the static translation are
rewritten. A second server address is optional.
domain domain_name
The DNS domain name. For example, example.com.
if_name
Specifies the interface on which to enable the DHCP server.
lease lease_length
The length of the lease, in seconds, granted to DHCP client from the
DHCP server. The lease indicates how long the client can use the assigned
IP address. The default is 3600 seconds. The minimum lease length is 300
seconds, and the maximum lease length is 2,147,483,647 seconds.
option 150
Specifies the TFTP server IP address(es) designated for Cisco IP Phones
in dotted-decimal format. DHCP option 150 is site-specific; it gives the IP
addresses of a list of TFTP servers.
option 66
Specifies the TFTP server IP address designated for Cisco IP Phones and
gives the IP address or the host name of a single TFTP server.
outside
The outside interface of the firewall.
ping_timeout
Allows the configuration of the timeout value of a ping, in milliseconds,
before assigning an IP address to a DHCP client.
server_ip(1,2)
Specifies the IP address(es) of a TFTP server.
server_ip_str
Specifies the TFTP server in dotted-decimal format, such as 1.1.1.1, but is
treated as a character string by the PIX Firewall DHCP server.
server_name
Specifies an ASCII character string representing the TFTP server.
statistics
Statistical information, such as address pool, number of bindings,
malformed messages, sent messages, and received messages.
wins wins1 [wins2]
The IP addresses of the Microsoft NetBIOS name servers (WINS server).
The second server address is optional.
Configuration mode.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-13
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
dhcpd
Usage Guidelines
A DHCP server provides network configuration parameters to a DHCP client. Support for the DHCP
server within the PIX Firewall means the PIX Firewall can use DHCP to configure connected clients.
This DHCP feature is designed for the remote home or branch office that will establish a connection to
an enterprise or corporate network. See the Cisco PIX Firewall and VPN Configuration Guide for
information on how to implement the DHCP server feature into the PIX Firewall.
You must specify an interface name, if_name, for all DHCP server commands when using PIX Firewall
software Version 6.3. In earlier software versions, only the inside interface could be configured as the
DHCP server so there was no need to specify if_name.
Note
The PIX Firewall DHCP server does not support BOOTP requests and failover configurations.
The dhcpd address ip1[-ip2] if_name command specifies the DHCP server address pool. The address pool
of a PIX Firewall DHCP server must be within the same subnet of the PIX Firewall interface that is enabled
and you must specify the associated PIX Firewall interface with the if_name. In other words, the client must
be physically connected to the subnet of a PIX Firewall interface. The size of the pool is limited to 32
addresses with a 10-user license and 128 addresses with a 50-user license on the PIX 501. The unlimited
user license on the PIX 501 and all other PIX Firewall platforms support 256 addresses.
Note
When the PIX Firewall responds to a DHCP client request, it uses the IP address of the interface where
the request was received as the default gateway in the response. It uses the subnet mask on that interface
for the subnet mask in its response.
Use caution with names that contain a “-” (dash) character because the dhcpd address command interprets
the last (or only) “-” character in the name as a range specifier instead of as part of the name. For
example, the dhcpd address command treats the name “host-net2” as a range from “ host” to “net2”.
If the name is “host-net2-section3” then it is interpreted as a range from “host-net2” to “section3”.
The no dhcpd address command removes the DHCP server address pool you configured.
The dhcpd dns command specifies the IP address(es) of the DNS server(s) for DHCP client. You have the
option to specify two DNS servers. The no dhcpd dns command removes the DNS IP address(es) from your
configuration.
The dhcpd wins command specifies the addresses of the WINS server for the DHCP client. The no dhcpd
dns command removes the WINS server IP address(es) from your configuration.
The dhcpd lease command specifies the length of the lease in seconds granted to the DHCP client. This
lease indicates how long the DHCP client can use the assigned IP address the DHCP granted. The no
dhcpd lease command removes the lease length that you specified from your configuration and replaces
this value with the default value of 3600 seconds.
The dhcpd domain command specifies the DNS domain name for the DHCP client. For example,
example.com. The no dhcpd domain command removes the DNS domain server from your
configuration.
The dhcpd enable if_name command enables the DHCP daemon to begin to listen for the DHCP client
requests on the DHCP-enabled interface. The no dhcpd enable command disables the DHCP server
feature on the specified interface.
DHCP must be enabled to use this command. Use the dhcpd enable if_name command to turn on DHCP.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-14
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
dhcpd
Note
The PIX Firewall DHCP server daemon does not support clients that are not directly connected to a
firewall interface, and the interface must be configured to retrieve DHCP client information (with the
dhcprelay enable client_ifc command).
The dhcpd option 66 | 150 command retrieves TFTP server address information for Cisco IP Phone
connections.
When a dhcpd option command request arrives at the PIX Firewall DHCP server, the PIX Firewall
places the value(s) specified by the dhcpd option 66 | 150 in the response.
Use the dhcpd option code command as follows:
•
If the TFTP server for Cisco IP Phone connections is located on the inside interface, use the local
IP address of the TFTP server in the dhcpd option command.
•
If the TFTP server is located on a less secure interface, create a group of NAT, global and access-list
command statements for the inside IP phones, and use the actual IP address of the TFTP server in
the dhcpd option command.
•
If the TFTP server is located on a more secure interface, create a group of static and access-list
command statements for the TFTP server and use the global IP address of the TFTP server in the
dhcpd option command.
The show dhcpd command displays dhcpd commands, binding and statistics information associated
with all of the dhcpd commands.
The clear dhcpd command clears all of the dhcpd commands, binding, and statistics information.
The debug dhcpd event command displays event information about the DHCP server. The debug
dhcpd packet command displays packet information about the DHCP server. Use the no form of the
debug dhcpd commands to disable debugging.
Examples
The following partial configuration example shows how to use the dhcpd address, dhcpd dns, and
dhcpd enable if_name commands to configure an address pool for the DHCP clients and a DNS server
address for the DHCP client, and how to enable the dmz interface of the PIX Firewall for the DHCP
server function.
dhcpd address 10.0.1.100-10.0.1.108 dmz
dhcpd dns 209.165.200.226
dhcpd enable dmz
The following partial configuration example shows how to define a DHCP pool of 253 addresses and
use the auto_config command to configure the DNS, WINS, and DOMAIN parameters. Note that the
dmz interface of the firewall is configured as the DHCP server, and the netmask of the dmz interface is
255.255.254.0:
ip address dmz 10.0.1.1 255.255.254.0
dhcpd address 10.0.1.2-10.0.1.254 dmz
dhcpd auto_config outside
dhcpd enable dmz
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-15
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
dhcpd
The following partial configuration example shows how to use three new features that are associated
with each other: DHCP server, DHCP client, and PAT using interface IP to configure a PIX Firewall in
a small office, home office (SOHO) environment with the inside interface as the DHCP server:
! use dhcp to configure the outside interface and default route
ip address outside dhcp setroute
! enable dhcp server daemon on the inside interface
ip address inside 10.0.1.2 255.255.255.0
dhcpd address 10.0.1.100-10.0.1.108 inside
dhcpd dns 209.165.201.2 209.165.202.129
dhcpd wins 209.165.201.5
dhcpd lease 3600
dhcpd domain example.com
dhcpd enable inside
! use outside interface IP as PAT global address
nat (inside) 1 0 0
global (outside) 1 interface
The following is sample output from the show dhcpd command:
pixfirewall(config)# show dhcpd
dhcpd address 10.0.1.100-10.0.1.108 inside
dhcpd lease 3600
dhcpd ping_timeout 750
dhcpd dns 209.165.201.2 209.165.202.129
dhcpd enable inside
The following is sample output from the show dhcpd binding command:
pixfirewall(config)# show dhcpd binding
IP Address Hardware Address Lease Expiration Type
10.0.1.100 0100.a0c9.868e.43 84985 seconds automatic
The following is sample output from the show dhcpd statistics command:
show dhcpd statistics
Address Pools 1
Automatic Bindings 1
Expired Bindings 1
Malformed messages 0
Message Received
BOOTREQUEST 0
DHCPDISCOVER 1
DHCPREQUEST 2
DHCPDECLINE 0
DHCPRELEASE 0
DHCPINFORM 0
Message Sent
BOOTREPLY 0
DHCPOFFER 1
DHCPACK 1
DHCPNAK 1
Related Commands
ip address
Configures the IP address and mask for an interface, or defines a local address
pool.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-16
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
dhcprelay
dhcprelay
Configures the DHCP relay agent, which relays requests between the firewall interface of the DCHP
server and DHCP clients on a different firewall interface.
[no] dhcprelay enable client_ifc
[no] dhcprelay server dhcp_server_ip server_ifc
[no] dhcprelay setroute client_ifc
[no] dhcprelay timeout seconds
[clear|show] dhcprelay [statistics]
Syntax Description
Defaults
client_ifc
The name of the interface on which the DHCP relay agent accepts client
requests.
dhcp_server_ip
The IP address of the DHCP server to which the DHCP relay agent forwards
client requests.
enable
Enables the DHCP relay agent to accept DHCP requests from clients on the
specified interface.
seconds
The number of seconds allowed for DHCP relay address negotiation.
server_ifc
The name of the firewall interface on which the DHCP server resides.
statistics
The DHCP relay statistics, incremented until a clear dhcprelay statistics
command is issued.
By default, the DHCP relay agent is disabled.
The default DHCP relay timeout value is 60 seconds.
Command Modes
Configuration mode. The show dhcprelay commands are also available in privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
Use the dhcprelay enable, dhcprelay server, and dhcprelay timeout commands to configure the
DHCP relay agent to relay requests between the firewall interface of the DCHP server and DHCP clients
on a different firewall interface.
Note
Use network extension mode for DHCP clients whose DHCP server is on the other side of an Easy VPN
tunnel. Otherwise, if the DHCP client is behind a PIX Firewall VPN Easy Remote device connected to
an Easy VPN Server using client mode, then the DHCP client will not be able to get a DHCP IP address
from the DHCP server on the other side of the Easy VPN Server.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-17
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
dhcprelay
dhcprelay enable
For the firewall to start the DHCP relay agent with the dhcprelay enable client_ifc command, you must
have a dhcprelay server command already in your configuration. Otherwise, the firewall displays an
error message similar to the following:
DHCPRA:Warning - There are no DHCP servers configured!
No relaying can be done without a server!
Use the 'dhcprelay server <server_ip> <server_ifc>' command
The dhcprelay enable client_ifc command starts a DHCP server task on the specified interface. If this
dhcprelay enable command is the first dhcprelay enable command to be issued, and there are
dhcprelay server commands in the configuration, then the ports for the DHCP servers referenced are
opened and the DHCP relay task starts.
When a dhcprelay enable client_ifc command is removed with a no dhcprelay enable client_ifc
command, the DHCP server task for that interface stops. When the dhcprelay enable command being
removed is the last dhcprelay enable command in the configuration, all of the ports for the servers
specified in the dhcprelay server commands are closed and the DHCP relay task stops.
dhcprelay server
Add at least one dhcprelay server command to your firewall configuration before you enter a
dhcprelay enable command or the firewall will issue an error message.
The dhcprelay server command opens a UDP port 67 on the specified interface for the specified server
and starts the DHCP relay task as soon as a dhcprelay enable command is added to the configuration.
If there is no dhcprelay enable command in the configuration, then the sockets are not opened and the
DHCP relay task does not start.
When a dhcprelay server dhcp_server_ip [server_ifc] command is removed, the port for that server is
closed. If the dhcprelay server command being removed is the last dhcprelay server command in the
configuration, then the DHCP relay task stops.
dhcprelay setroute
The dhcprelay setroute client_ifc command enables you to configure the DHCP Relay Agent to change
the first default router address (in the packet sent from the DHCP server) to the address of client_ifc.
That is, the DHCP Relay Agent substitutes the address of the default router with the address of client_ifc.
If there is no default router option in the packet, the firewall adds one containing the address of
client_ifc. This allows the client to set its default route to point to the firewall.
When the dhcprelay setroute client_ifc command is not configured (and there is a default router option
in the packet) it passes through the firewall with the router address unaltered.
dhcprelay timeout
The dhcprelay timeout command sets the amount of time, in seconds, allowed for responses from the
DHCP server to pass to the DHCP client through the relay binding structure.
no dhcprelay commands
The no dhcprelay enable client_ifc command removes the DHCP relay agent configuration for the
interface specified by client_ifc only.
The no dhcprelay server dhcp_server_ip [server_ifc] command removes the DHCP relay agent
configuration for the DHCP server and specified by dhcp_server_ip [server_ifc] only.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-18
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
dhcprelay
show dhcprelay
The show dhcprelay command displays the DHCP relay agent configuration, and the show dhcprelay
statistics command displays counters for the packets relayed by the DHCP relay agent.
The clear dhcprelay command clears all DHCP relay configurations. The clear dhcprelay statistics
command clears the show dhcprelay statistics counters.
Examples
The following example configures the DHCP relay agent for a DHCP server with the IP address of
10.1.1.1 on the outside interface of the firewall and client requests on the inside interface of the firewall,
and sets the timeout value to 90 seconds:
pixfirewall(config)# dhcprelay server 10.1.1.1 outside
pixfirewall(config)# show dhcprelay
dhcprelay server 10.1.1.1 outside
dhcprelay timeout 50
pixfirewall(config)# dhcprelay timeout 60
pixfirewall(config)# show dhcprelay
dhcprelay server 10.1.1.1 outside
dhcprelay timeout 60
pixfirewall(config)# dhcprelay enable inside
pixfirewall(config)# show dhcprelay
dhcprelay server 10.1.1.1 outside
dhcprelay enable inside
dhcprelay timeout 60
The following example shows how to disable the DHCP relay agent if there is only one dhcprelay
enable command in the configuration:
pixfirewall(config)# no dhcprelay enable
pixfirewall(config)# show dhcprelay
dhcprelay server 10.1.1.1 outside
dhcprelay timeout 60
The following is sample output from the show dhcprelay statistics command:
Related Commands
pixfirewall(config)#
Packets Relayed
BOOTREQUEST
DHCPDISCOVER
DHCPREQUEST
DHCPDECLINE
DHCPRELEASE
DHCPINFORM
show dhcprelay statistics
BOOTREPLY
DHCPOFFER
DHCPACK
DHCPNAK
0
7
3
0
dhcpd
Controls the DHCP server feature.
0
7
3
0
0
0
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-19
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
disable
disable
Exit privileged mode and return to unprivileged mode.
enable
disable
Syntax Description
enable
Enter this at the PIX Firewall command-line interface prompt to enter privileged
mode.
disable
Enter this at the PIX Firewall command-line interface prompt to exit privileged mode.
Command Modes
Privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
Use the enable command to enter privileged mode. The disable command exits privileged mode and
returns you to unprivileged mode.
Examples
The following example shows how to enter privileged mode:
pixfirewall> enable
pixfirewall#
The following example shows how to exit privileged mode:
pixfirewall# disable
pixfirewall>
domain-name
Change the IPSec domain name.
domain-name name
Syntax Description
name
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The domain-name command lets you change the IPSec domain name.
A domain name, up to 63 characters.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-20
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
dynamic-map
Note
Examples
The change of the domain name causes the change of the fully qualified domain name. Once the fully
qualified domain name is changed, delete the RSA key pairs using the ca zeroize rsa command, and
delete related certificates using the no ca identity ca_nickname command.
The following example shows use of the domain-name command:
domain-name example.com
dynamic-map
View or delete a dynamic crypto map entry. To configure crypto dynamic map entries, see the crypto
dynamic-map command.
clear dynamic-map
show dynamic-map
Syntax Description
dynamic-map
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The clear dynamic-map command removes dynamic-map commands from the configuration. The
show dynamic-map command lists the dynamic-map commands in the configuration.
Note
A dynamic crypto map entry.
The dynamic-map command is the same as the crypto dynamic-map command. Refer to the crypto
dynamic-map command page for more information such as examples and other command options.
eeprom
This command applies only to PIX 525 models with serial numbers 44480380055 through 44480480044.
Displays and updates the contents of the EEPROM non-volatile storage devices used for low-level
Ethernet interface configuration information.
eeprom update
show eeprom
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-21
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
eeprom
Syntax Description
eeprom update
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The eeprom commands added in Version 5.2(4) and higher fix a caveat (CSCds76768) involving
corruption of the eeprom on the onboard Ethernet interfaces. For additional information, see the
December 20, 2000 Field Notice, “Cisco Secure PIX Firewall: PIX-525 Ethernet EEPROM
Programming Issue.” This field notice is available at the following website:
Modifies the EEPROM register settings, if necessary, after checking the
contents of EEPROM registers 6 and 10 to ensure they contain the
hexadecimal values 0x4701 and 0x40c0, respectively. If these registers
contain different values, then all EEPROM register settings, except the
MAC address registers, which were not affected by the problem, are reset
to the correct values.
http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/770/fn13021.shtml
The problem is summarized as follows:
If you configure the onboard Ethernet interfaces (ethernet0 and ethernet1) on a PIX 525 with a serial
number of 44480380055 through 44480480044 to full duplex, interface errors and throughput reductions
may occur. If you configure the interfaces to half duplex or to auto-sense, the speed and duplex function
normally without error.
The eeprom command is designed to fix the problem and performs the same function as the "eedisk"
utility without requiring access to the ROM monitor mode. The two variants of the eeprom command
are the show eeprom command and eeprom update command.
The eeprom update command performs the same function as the "eedisk" utility without requiring
access to the ROM monitor mode, whereas the show eeprom command indicates whether the Ethernet
EEPROM programming is correct or not.
The show eeprom command displays the current EEPROM setting, and the eeprom update command
modifies the settings if necessary. If the eeprom command does update the EEPROM settings, a reboot
of the PIX Firewall is recommended.
The eeprom command verifies the EEPROM register settings and updates them if they are not set to the
recommended values. The eeprom command does not update the settings if they are correct and does
not recommend a reboot unless the settings are changed.
The eeprom update command checks the contents of EEPROM registers 6 and 10 to ensure they contain
the hexadecimal values 0x4701 and 0x40c0, respectively. If these registers contain different values, then
all EEPROM register settings except the MAC address registers, which were not affected by the problem
causing CSCds76768, are reset to the correct values.
Each register is 16 bits. The correct register values are as follows:
Register
Name
Value
Register 0 to 2
MAC address
Differs on each system (unique)
Register 3
Compatibility Bits
0x3
Register 5
Controller and connector type
0x201
Register 6
Onboard PHY type
0x4701
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-22
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
eeprom
Examples
Register
Name
Value
Register 10
Onboard Prom ID
0x40C0
Register 12
Vendor ID, where 8086 is Intel
0x8086
The show eeprom command will display the current EEPROM register settings:
pix525# show eeprom
eeprom settings for ifc0:
reg0: 0x5000
reg1: 0xfe54
reg2: 0x65f6
reg3: 0x3
reg5: 0x201
reg6: 0x4702
reg10: 0x40c0
reg12: 0x8086
eeprom settings for ifc1:
reg0: 0x5000
reg1: 0xfe54
reg2: 0x66f6
reg3: 0x3
reg5: 0x201
reg6: 0x4702
reg10: 0x40c0
reg12: 0x8086reg12: 0x8086
If the command is run on a unit that is not a PIX 525, the following will be seen:
pix515# show eeprom
This unit is not a PIX-525.
Type help or '?' for a list of available commands.
If the update needs to be run on the PIX 525, the eeprom update command returns the following:
pix525# eeprom update
eeprom settings on ifc0 are being reset to defaults:
reg0: 0x5000
reg1: 0xfe54
reg2: 0x65f6
reg3: 0x3
reg5: 0x201
reg6: 0x4701
reg10: 0x40c0
reg12: 0x8086
eeprom settings on ifc1 are being reset to defaults:
reg0: 0x5000
reg1: 0xfe54
reg2: 0x66f6
reg3: 0x3
reg5: 0x201
reg6: 0x4701
reg10: 0x40c0
reg12: 0x8086
*** WARNING! *** WARNING! *** WARNING! *** WARNING! ***
The system should be restarted as soon as possible.
*** WARNING! *** WARNING! *** WARNING! *** WARNING! ***
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-23
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
enable
If the update has been run successfully, the eeprom command output will appear as follows:
pix525# eeprom update
eeprom settings on ifc0 are already up to date:
reg0: 0x5000
reg1: 0xfe54
reg2: 0x65f6
reg3: 0x3
reg5: 0x201
reg6: 0x4701
reg10: 0x40c0
reg12: 0x808
eeprom settings on ifc1 are already up to date:
reg0: 0x5000
reg1: 0xfe54
reg2: 0x66f6
reg3: 0x3
reg5: 0x201
reg6: 0x4701
reg10: 0x40c0
reg12: 0x80866
enable
Start privileged mode or access privilege levels.
enable [priv_1evel]
disable [priv_1evel]
enable password [pw] [level priv_1evel] [encrypted]
no enable password [level priv_1evel]
show enable
Syntax Description
enable
Specifies to activate a process, mode, or privilege level.
enable priv_level
Specifies to enable the privilege level, from 0 to 15.
encrypted
Specifies that the provided password is already encrypted.
level priv_level
Specifies to set the privilege level, from 0 to 15.
password
Specifies to configure privilege levels.
pw
The privilege level password string.
Command Modes
Unprivileged mode for enable, and configuration mode for enable password.
Usage Guidelines
The enable command starts privileged mode(s). The PIX Firewall prompts you for your privileged mode
password. By default, a password is not required—press the Enter key at the Password prompt to start
privileged mode. Use the disable command to exit privileged mode. Use the enable password command
to change the password.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-24
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
enable
The enable password command changes the privileged mode password, for which you are prompted
after you enter the enable command. When the PIX Firewall starts and you enter privileged mode, the
password prompt appears. There is not a default password (press the Enter key at the Password prompt).
You can return the enable password to its original value (press the Enter key at prompt) by entering the
following command:
pixfirewall# enable password
pixfirewall#
Note
If you change the password, write it down and store it in a manner consistent with your site’s security
policy. Once you change this password, you cannot view it again. Also, ensure that all who access the
PIX Firewall console are given this password.
Use the passwd command to set the password for Telnet access to the PIX Firewall console. The default
passwd value is cisco.
See the passwd command page for more information.
If no privilege level name is specified, then the highest privilege level is assumed.
The show enable command displays the password configuration for privilege levels.
Examples
The following example shows how to start privileged mode with the enable command and then
configuration mode with the configure terminal command.
pixfirewall> enable
Password:
pixfirewall# configure terminal
pixfirewall(config)#
The following examples show how to start privileged mode with the enable command, change the enable
password with the enable password command, enter configuration mode with the configure terminal
command, and display the contents of the current configuration with the write terminal command:
pixfirewall> enable
Password:
pixfirewall# enable password w0ttal1fe
pixfirewall# configure terminal
pixfirewall(config)# write terminal
Building configuration...
...
enable password 2oifudsaoid.9ff encrypted
...
The following example shows the use of the encrypted option:
enable password 1234567890123456 encrypted
show enable password
enable password 1234567890123456 encrypted
enable password 1234567890123456
show enable password
enable password feCkwUGktTCAgIbD encrypted
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-25
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
established
The following example shows how to configure enable passwords for levels other than the default level
of 15:
pixfirewall(config)# enable password cisco level 10
pixfirewall(config)# show enable
enable password wC38a.EQklqK3ZqY level 10 encrypted
enable password 8Ry2YjIyt7RRXU24 encrypted
pixfirewall(config)# enable password wC38a.EQklqK3ZqY level 12 encrypted
pixfirewall(config)# show enable
enable password wC38a.EQklqK3ZqY level 10 encrypted
enable password wC38a.EQklqK3ZqY level 12 encrypted
enable password 8Ry2YjIyt7RRXU24 encrypted
pixfirewall(config)# no enable password level 12
pixfirewall(config)# show enable
enable password wC38a.EQklqK3ZqY level 10 encrypted
enable password 8Ry2YjIyt7RRXU24 encrypted
pixfirewall(config)# no enable password level 10
pixfirewall(config)# show enable
enable password 8Ry2YjIyt7RRXU24 encrypted
However, notice that defining privilege levels 10 and 12 does not change or remove the level 15
password.
established
Permit return connections on ports other than those used for the originating connection based on an
established connection.
[no] established <est_protocol> <dport> [sport] [permitto <protocol> <port>[-<port>]] [permitfrom
<protocol> <port>[-<port>]]
clear established
show established
Syntax Description
dest_port
Specifies the destination port to use for the established connection lookup. This is the
originating traffic's destination port and may be specified as 0 if the protocol does not
specify which destination port(s) will be used. Use wildcard ports (0) only when
necessary.
permitfrom
Used to specify the return traffic's protocol and from which source port(s) the traffic
will be permitted.
permitto
Used to specify the return traffic's protocol and to which destination port(s) the traffic
will be permitted.
src_port
Specifies the source port to use for the established connection lookup. This is the
originating traffic's source port and may be specified as 0 if the protocol does not
specify which source port(s) will be used. Use wildcard ports (0) only when necessary.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-26
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
established
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The established command allows outbound connections return access through the PIX Firewall. This
command works with two connections, an original connection outbound from a network protected by
the PIX Firewall and a return connection inbound between the same two devices on an external host.
The first protocol, destination port, and optional source port specified are for the initial outbound
connection. The permitto and permitfrom options refine the return inbound connection.
Note
We recommend that you always specify the established command with the permitto and permitfrom
options. Without these options, the use of the established command opens a security hole that can be
exploited for attack of your internal systems. See the “Security Problem” section that follows for more
information.
The permitto option lets you specify a new protocol or port for the return connection at the PIX Firewall.
The permitfrom option lets you specify a new protocol or port at the remote server.
The no established command disables the established feature.
The clear established command removes all establish command statements from your configuration.
Note
For the established command to work properly, the client must listen on the port specified with the
permitto option.
You can use the established command with the nat 0 command statement (where there are no global
command statements).
Note
The established command cannot be used with Port Address Translation (PAT).
The established command works as shown in the following format:
established A B C permitto D E permitfrom D F
This command works as though it were written “If there exists a connection between two hosts using
protocol A from src port B destined for port C, permit return connections through the PIX Firewall via
protocol D (D can be different from A), if the source port(s) correspond to F and the destination port(s)
correspond to E.”
For example:
established tcp 6060 0 permitto tcp 6061 permitfrom tcp 6059
In this case, if a connection is started by an internal host to an external host using TCP source port 6060
and any destination port, the PIX Firewall permits return traffic between the hosts via TCP destination
port 6061 and TCP source port 6059.
For example:
established udp 0 6060 permitto tcp 6061 permitfrom tcp 1024-65535
In this case, if a connection is started by an internal host to an external host using UDP destination port
6060 and any source port, the PIX Firewall permits return traffic between the hosts via TCP destination
port 6061 and TCP source port 1024-65535.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-27
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
established
Security Problem
The established command has been enhanced to optionally specify the destination port used for
connection lookups. Only the source port could be specified previously with the destination port being
0 (a wildcard). This addition allows more control over the command and provides support for protocols
where the destination port is known, but the source port is not.
The established command can potentially open a large security hole in the PIX Firewall if not used with
discretion. Whenever you use this command, if possible, also use the permitto and permitfrom options
to indicate ports to which and from which access is permitted. Without these options, external systems
to which connections are made could make unrestricted connections to the internal host involved in the
connection. The following are examples of potentially serious security violations that could be allowed
when using the established command.
For example:
established tcp 0 4000
In this example, if an internal system makes a TCP connection to an external host on port 4000, then the
external host could come back in on any port using any protocol:
established tcp 0 0
Examples
(Same as previous releases established tcp 0 command.)
The following example occurs when a local host 10.1.1.1 starts a TCP connection on port 9999 to a
foreign host 209.165.201.1. The example allows packets from the foreign host 209.165.201.1 on port
4242 back to local host 10.1.1.1 on port 5454.
established tcp 9999 permitto tcp 5454 permitfrom tcp 4242
The next example allows packets from foreign host 209.165.201.1 on any port back to local host 10.1.1.1
on port 5454:
established tcp 9999 permitto tcp 5454
XDMCP Support
PIX Firewall now provides support for XDMCP (X Display Manager Control Protocol) with assistance
from the established command.
XDMCP is on by default, but will not complete the session unless the established command is used.
For example:
established tcp 0 6000 permitto tcp 6000 permitfrom tcp 1024-65535
This enables the internal XDMCP equipped (UNIX or ReflectionX) hosts to access external XDMCP
equipped XWindows servers. UDP/177 based XDMCP negotiates a TCP based XWindows session and
subsequent TCP back connections will be permitted. Because the source port(s) of the return traffic is
unknown, the src_port field should be specified as 0 (wildcard). The destination port, dest_port, will
typically be 6000; the well-known XServer port. The dest_port should be 6000 + n; where n represents
the local display number. Use the following UNIX command to change this value.
setenv DISPLAY hostname:displaynumber.screennumber
The established command is needed because many TCP connections are generated (based on user
interaction) and the source port for these connection is unknown. Only the destination port will be static.
The PIX Firewall does XDMCP fixups transparently. No configuration is required, but the established
command is necessary to accommodate the TCP session. Be advised that using applications like this
through the PIX Firewall may open up security holes. The XWindows system has been exploited in the
past and newly introduced exploits are likely to be discovered.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-28
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
exit
exit
Exit an access mode.
exit
enable
Syntax Description
exit
Exits the current command mode.
enable
Enables privileged mode.
Command Modes
All modes.
Usage Guidelines
Use the exit command to exit from an access mode. This command is the same as the quit command.
Examples
The following example shows how to exit configuration mode and then privileged mode:
pixfirewall(config)# exit
pixfirewall# exit
pixfirewall>
failover
Enable or disable the PIX Firewall failover feature on a standby PIX Firewall.
[no] failover [active]
[no] failover ip address if_name ip_address
[no] failover lan unit primary | secondary
[no] failover lan interface lan_if_name
[no] failover lan key key_secret
[no] failover lan enable
[no] failover link [stateful_if_name]
[no] failover mac address mif_name act_mac stn_mac
[no] failover poll seconds
[no] failover replicate http
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-29
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
failover
failover reset
show failover [lan [detail]]
Syntax Description
act_mac
The interface MAC address for the active PIX Firewall.
active
Make a PIX Firewall the active unit. Use this command when you need to force
control of the connection back to the unit you are accessing, such as when you
want to switch control back from a unit after you have fixed a problem and want
to restore service to the primary unit. Either enter the no failover active command
on the secondary unit to switch service to the primary or the failover active
command on the primary unit.
detail
Displays LAN-based failover configuration information.
enable
Enables LAN-based failover; otherwise, serial cable failover is used.
if_name
The interface name for the failover IP address.
ip_address
The IP address used by the standby unit to communicate with the active unit. Use
this IP address with the ping command to check the status of the standby unit. This
address must be on the same network as the system IP address. For example, if the
system IP address is 192.159.1.3, set the failover IP address to 192.159.1.4.
key
Enables encryption and authentication of LAN-based failover messages between
PIX Firewalls.
key_secret
The shared secret key.
lan
Specifies LAN-based failover.
lan interface
lan_if_name
The name of the firewall interface dedicated to LAN-based failover. The interface
name of a VLAN logical interface cannot be used for lan_if_name.
link
Specify the interface where a Fast Ethernet or Gigabit LAN link is available for
Stateful Failover. A VLAN logical interface cannot be used.
mif_name
The name of the interface to set the MAC address.
poll seconds
Specify how long failover waits before sending special failover “hello” packets
between the primary and standby units over all network interfaces and the failover
cable. The default is 15 seconds. The minimum value is 3 seconds and the
maximum is 15 seconds. Set to a lower value for Stateful Failover. With a faster
poll time, PIX Firewall can detect failure and trigger failover faster. However,
faster detection may cause unnecessary switchovers when the network is
temporarily congested or a network card starts slowly.
primary
Specifies the primary PIX Firewall to use for LAN-based failover.
replicate http
The [no] failover replicate http command allows the stateful replication of HTTP
sessions in a Stateful Failover environment. The no form of this command disables
HTTP replication in a Stateful Failover configuration. When HTTP replication is
enabled, the show failover command displays the failover replicate http
command configuration.
reset
Force both units back to an unfailed state. Use this command once the fault has
been corrected. The failover reset command can be entered from either unit, but
it is best to always enter commands at the active unit. Entering the failover reset
command at the active unit will “unfail” the standby unit.
secondary
Specifies the secondary PIX Firewall to use for LAN-based failover.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-30
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
failover
stateful_if_name
In addition to the failover cable, a dedicated Fast Ethernet or Gigabit LAN link is
required to support Stateful Failover. The interface name of a VLAN logical
interface cannot be used for stateful_if_name.
stn_mac
The interface MAC address for the standby PIX Firewall.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The default failover setup uses serial cable failover. LAN-based failover requires explicit LAN-based
failover configuration. Additionally, for LAN-based failover, you must install a dedicated 100 Mbps or
Gigabit Ethernet, full-duplex VLAN switch connection for failover operations. Failover is not
supported using a crossover Ethernet cable between two PIX Firewall units.
Note
The PIX 506/506E cannot be used for failover in any configuration.
The primary unit in the PIX 515/515E, PIX 525, or PIX 535 failover pair must have an Unrestricted
(UR) license. The secondary unit can have Failover (FO) or UR license. However, the failover pair must
be two otherwise identical units with the same PIX Firewall hardware and software.
For a Stateful Failover link, use the mtu command to set the interface maximum transmission unit
(MTU) to 1500 bytes or greater.
For serial cable failover, use the failover command without an argument after you connect the optional
failover cable between your primary PIX Firewall and a secondary PIX Firewall. The default
configuration has failover enabled. Enter no failover in the configuration file for the PIX Firewall if you
will not be using the failover feature. Use the show failover command to verify the status of the
connection and to determine which unit is active.
For LAN-based failover, use the failover lan commands. The show failover lan command displays
LAN-based failover information (only), and show failover lan detail supplies debugging information
for your LAN-based failover configuration.
Note
Refer to the Cisco PIX Firewall and VPN Configuration Guide for configuration information.
For failover, the PIX Firewall requires that you configure any unused interfaces with one of the
following methods:
•
Shutdown the interface and do not configure its IP or failover IP address. If these addresses are
configured, use the no ip address and no failover ip address commands to remove the
configuration.
•
Configure the interface like other interfaces but use a cross-over Ethernet cable to connect the
interface to the Standby unit. Do not connect the interface to an external switch or hub device.
Set the speed of the Stateful Failover dedicated interface to 100full for a Fast Ethernet interface or
1000fullsx for a Gigabit Ethernet interface.
Use the failover active command to initiate a failover switch from the standby unit, or the no failover
active command from the active unit to initiate a failover switch. You can use this feature to return a
failed unit to service, or to force an active unit off line for maintenance. Because the standby unit does
not keep state information on each connection, all active connections will be dropped and must be
re-established by the clients.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-31
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
failover
Use the failover link command to enable Stateful Failover. Enter the no failover link command to
disable the Stateful Failover feature.
If a failover IP address has not been entered, the show failover command will display 0.0.0.0 for the IP
address, and monitoring of the interfaces will remain in “waiting” state. A failover IP address must be
set for failover to work.
The failover mac address command enables you to configure a virtual MAC address for a PIX Firewall
failover pair. The failover mac address command sets the PIX Firewall to use the virtual MAC address
stored in the PIX Firewall configuration after failover, instead of obtaining a MAC address by contacting
its failover peer. This enables the PIX Firewall failover pair to maintain the correct MAC addresses after
failover. If a virtual MAC address is not specified, the PIX Firewall failover pair uses the burned in
network interface card (NIC) address as the MAC address. However, the failover mac address
command is unnecessary (and therefore cannot be used) on an interface configured for LAN-based
failover because the failover lan interface lan_if_name command does not change the IP and MAC
addresses when failover occurs.
When adding the failover mac address command to your configuration, it is best to configure the virtual
MAC address, save the configuration to Flash memory, and then reload the PIX Firewall pair. If the
virtual MAC address is added when there are active connections, then those connections will stop. Also,
you must write the complete PIX Firewall configuration, including the failover mac address command,
into the Flash memory of the secondary PIX Firewall for the virtual MAC addressing to take effect.
The failover poll seconds command lets you determine how long failover waits before sending special
failover “hello” packets between the primary and standby units over all network interfaces and the
failover cable. The default is 15 seconds. The minimum value is 3 seconds and the maximum is 15
seconds. Set to a lower value for Stateful Failover. With a faster poll time, PIX Firewall can detect
failure and trigger failover faster. However, faster detection may cause unnecessary switchovers when
the network is temporarily congested or a network card starts slowly.
When a failover cable connects two PIX Firewall units, the no failover command now disables failover
until you enter the failover command to explicitly enable failover. Previously, when the failover cable
connected two PIX Firewall units and you entered the no failover command, failover would
automatically re-enable after 15 seconds.
You can also view the information from the show failover command using SNMP. Refer to the Cisco
PIX Firewall and VPN Configuration Guide for more information on configuring failover.
Usage Notes
Examples
1.
LAN-based failover requires a dedicated interface, but the same interface can also be used for
Stateful Failover. However, the interface needs enough capacity to handle both the LAN-based
failover and Stateful Failover traffic; otherwise, use two separate dedicated interfaces.
2.
If you reboot the PIX Firewall without entering the write memory command and the failover cable
is connected, failover mode automatically enables.
Serial Cable (Default) Failover
The following sample output shows that failover is enabled, and that the primary unit state is active:
show failover
pixfirewall (config)# show failover
Failover On
Cable status:Normal
Reconnect timeout 0:00:00
Poll frequency 15 seconds
Last Failover at: 18:32:16 UTC Mon Apr 7 2003
failover replication http
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-32
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
failover
This host:Secondary - Standby
Active time:0 (sec)
Interface FailLink (209.165.201.6):Normal
Interface 4th (209.165.200.230):Normal
Interface int5 (209.165.200.226):Normal
Interface intf2 (192.168.1.1):Normal
Interface outside (209.165.200.225):Normal
Interface inside (10.1.1.4):Normal
Other host:Primary - Active
Active time:242145 (sec)
Interface FailLink (172.16.31.1):Normal
The rest of command output is omitted.
The “Cable status” has these values:
•
Normal—Indicates that the active unit is working and that the standby unit is ready.
•
Waiting—Indicates that monitoring of the other unit’s network interfaces has not yet started.
•
Failed—Indicates that the PIX Firewall has failed.
The “Stateful Obj” has these values:
•
Xmit—Indicates the number of packets transmitted.
•
Xerr—Indicates the number of transmit errors.
•
Rcv—Indicates the number of packets received.
•
Rcv—Indicates the number of receive errors.
Each row is for a particular object static count:
•
General—The sum of all stateful objects.
•
Sys cmd—Refers to logical update system commands, such as login or stay alive.
•
Up time—The value for PIX Firewall up time which the active PIX Firewall unit will pass on to the
standby unit.
•
Xlate—The PIX Firewall translation information.
•
Tcp conn—The PIX Firewall dynamic TCP connection information.
•
Udp conn—The PIX Firewall dynamic UDP connection information.
•
ARP tbl—The PIX Firewall dynamic ARP table information.
•
RIF tbl—The dynamic router table information.
The Standby Logical Update Statistics output displayed when you use the show failover command only
describes Stateful Failover. The “xerrs” value does not indicate an error in failover, but rather the
number of packet transmit errors.
You can view the IP addresses of the standby unit with the show ip address command:
show ip address
System IP Addresses:
ip address outside 209.165.201.2 255.255.255.224
ip address inside 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0
ip address perimeter 192.168.70.3 255.255.255.0
Current IP Addresses:
ip address outside 209.165.201.2 255.255.255.224
ip address inside 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0
ip address perimeter 192.168.70.3 255.255.255.0
The Current IP Addresses are the same as the System IP Addresses on the failover active unit. When the
primary unit fails, the Current IP Addresses become those of the standby unit.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-33
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
failover
LAN-Based Failover
To make sure LAN-based failover starts properly, follow these configuration steps:
Step 1
Configure the primary PIX Firewall unit before connecting the failover LAN interface.
Step 2
Save the primary unit configuration to Flash memory.
Step 3
Configure the PIX Firewall secondary unit using the appropriate failover lan commands before
connecting the LAN-based failover interface.
Step 4
Save the secondary unit configuration to Flash memory.
Step 5
Reboot both units and connect the LAN-based failover interfaces to the designated failover switch, hub,
or VLAN.
Step 6
If any item in a failover lan command needs to be changed, then disconnect the LAN-based failover
interface, and repeat the preceeding steps.
Note
When properly configured, the LAN-based failover configurations for your primary and secondary
PIX Firewall units should be different, reflecting which is primary and which is secondary.
The following example outlines how to configure LAN-based failover between two PIX Firewall units.
Primary PIX Firewall configuration:
:
pix(config)#
pix(config)#
pix(config)#
pix(config)#
nameif
nameif
nameif
nameif
ethernet0
ethernet1
ethernet2
ethenret3
outside security0
inside security100
stateful security20
lanlink security30
:
pix(config)#interface
pix(config)#interface
pix(config)#interface
pix(config)#interface
pix(config)#interface
ethernet0
ethernet1
ethernet2
ethenret3
ethernet4
100full
100full
100full
100full
100full
:
pix(config)#
pix(config)#
pix(config)#
pix(config)#
pix(config)#
pix(config)#
pix(config)#
pix(config)#
pix(config)#
pix(config)#
pix(config)#
pix(config)#
pix(config)#
pix(config)#
ip address outside 172.23.58.70 255.255.255.0
ip address inside
10.0.0.2 255.255.255.0
ip address stateful 10.0.1.2 255.255.255.0
ip address lanlink 10.0.2.2 255.255.255.0
failover ip address outside 172.23.58.51
failover ip address inside 10.0.0.4
failover ip address stateful 10.0.1.4
failover ip address lanlink 10.0.2.4
failover
failover poll 15
failover lan unit primary
failover lan interface lanlink
failover lan key 12345678
failover lan enable
:
Secondary PIX Firewall configuration:
Pix2(config)# nameif ethernet3 lanlink security30
pix2(config)# interface ethernet3 100full
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-34
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
failover
pix2(config)#
pix2(config)#
pix2(config)#
pix2(config)#
pix2(config)#
pix2(config)#
pix2(config)#
ip address lanlink 10.0.2.2 255.255.255.0
failover ip address lanlink 10.0.2.4
failover
failover lan unit secondary
(optional)
failover lan interface lanlink
failover lan key 12345678
failover lan enable
The following example illustrates how to use the failover mac address command:
ip address outside 172.23.58.50 255.255.255.224
ip address inside 192.168.2.11 255.255.255.0
ip address intf2 192.168.10.11 255.255.255.0
failover
failover ip address outside 172.23.58.51
failover ip address inside 192.168.2.12
failover ip address intf2 192.168.10.12
failover mac address outside 00a0.c989.e481 00a0.c969.c7f1
failover mac address inside 00a0.c976.cde5 00a0.c922.9176
failover mac address intf2 00a0.c969.87c8 00a0.c918.95d8
failover link intf2
...:
The output of the show failover command includes a section for LAN-based failover if it is enabled as
follows:
pix(config)# show failover
Failover On
Cable status: Unknown
Reconnect timeout 0:00:00
Poll frequency 15 seconds
Last Failover at: 18:32:16 UTC Mon Apr 7 2003
This host: Primary - Standby
Active time: 255 (sec)
Interface outside (192.168.1.232): Normal
Interface inside (192.168.5.2): Normal
Other host: Secondary - Active
Active time: 256305 (sec)
Interface outside (192.168.1.231): Normal
Interface inside (192.168.5.1): Normal
Stateful Failover Logical Update Statistics
Link : Unconfigured.
Lan Based Failover is Active
interface dmz (209.165.200.226): Normal, peer (209.165.201.1): Normal
The show failover lan command displays only the LAN-based failover section, as follows:
pix(config)# show failover lan
Lan Based Failover is Active
interface dmz (209.165.200.226): Normal, peer (209.165.201.1): Normal
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-35
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
filter
The show failover lan detail command is used mainly for debugging purposes and displays information
similar to the following:
pix(config)# show failover lan detail
Lan Failover is Active
This Pix is Primary
Command Interface is dmz
Peer Command Interface IP is 209.165.201.1
My interface status is 0x1
Peer interface status is 0x1
Peer interface downtime is 0x0
Total msg send: 103093, rcvd: 103031, droped: 0, retrans: 13, send_err: 0
Total/Cur/Max of 51486:0:5 msgs on retransQ
...
LAN FO cmd queue, count: 0, head: 0x0, tail: 0x0
Failover config state is 0x5c
Failover config poll cnt is 0
Failover pending tx msg cnt is 0
Failover Fmsg cnt is 0
:
filter
Enable, disable, or view URL, FTP, HTTPS, Java, and ActiveX filtering
[no] filter activex port local_ip mask foreign_ip mask
[no] filter ftp dest-port | except local_ip local_mask foreign_ip foreign_mask [allow]
[interact-block]
[no] filter java port[-port]| except local_ip mask foreign_ip mask
[no] filter https dest-port | except local_ip local_mask foreign_ip foreign_mask [allow]
[no] filter url [http | port[-port]] except local_ip local_mask foreign_ip foreign_mask [allow]
[proxy-block] [longurl-truncate | longurl-deny] [cgi-truncate]
[no] filter url except local_ip local_mask foreign_ip foreign_mask
[no] filter url port | except local_ip mask foreign_ip mask [allow] [proxy-block]
[longurl-truncate | longurl-deny] [cgi-truncate]
clear filter
show filter
Syntax Description
activex
Block inbound ActiveX, and other HTML <object> tags from outbound packets.
allow
filter url only: When the server is unavailable, let outbound connections pass
through the firewall without filtering. If you omit this option, and if the N2H2 or
Websense server goes off line, PIX Firewall stops outbound port 80 (Web) traffic
until the N2H2 or Websense server is back on line.
cgi_truncate
Sends a CGI script as an URL.
dest-port
The destination port number.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-36
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
filter
except
Creates an exception to a previously specified set of IP addresses.
foreign_ip
The IP address of the lowest security level interface to which access is sought.
You can use 0.0.0.0 (or in shortened form, 0) to specify all hosts.
foreign_mask
Network mask of foreign_ip. Always specify a specific mask value. You can use
0.0.0.0 (or in shortened form, 0) to specify all hosts.
ftp
Enables File Transfer Protocol (FTP) filtering. Available with Websense URL
filtering only.
http
Specifies port 80. You can enter http or www instead of 80 to specify port 80.)
https
Enables HTTPS filtering. Available with Websense URL filtering only.
interact-block
Prevents users from connecting to the FTP server through an interactive FTP
program.
java
Specifies to filter out Java applets returning from an outbound connection.
local_ip
The IP address of the highest security level interface from which access is sought.
You can set this address to 0.0.0.0 (or in shortened form, 0) to specify all hosts.
local_mask
Network mask of local_ip. You can use 0.0.0.0 (or in shortened form, 0) to
specify all hosts.
longurl-deny
Denies the URL request if the URL is over the URL buffer size limit or the URL
buffer is not available.
longurl-truncate
Sends only the originating host name or IP address to the Websense server if the
URL is over the URL buffer limit.
mask
Any mask.
port
The port that receives Internet traffic on the PIX Firewall. Typically, this is port
80, but other values are accepted. The http or url literal can be used for port 80.
proxy-block
Prevents users from connecting to an HTTP proxy server.
url
Filter Universal Resource Locators (URLs) from data moving through the
PIX Firewall.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The clear filter command removes all filter commands from the configuration.
filter activex
The filter activex command filters out ActiveX, Java applets, and other HTML <object> usages from
outbound packets. ActiveX controls, formerly known as OLE or OCX controls, are components you can
insert in a web page or other application. These controls include custom forms, calendars, or any of the
extensive third-party forms for gathering or displaying information.
As a technology, it creates many potential problems for the network clients including causing
workstations to fail, introducing network security problems, or be used to attack servers.
This feature blocks the HTML <object> tag and comments it out within the HTML web page.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-37
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
filter
Note
The <object> tag is also used for Java applets, image files, and multimedia objects, which will also be
blocked by the filter activex command. If the <object> or </object> HTML tags split across network
packets or if the code in the tags is longer than the number of bytes in the MTU, the PIX Firewall cannot
block the tag.
ActiveX blocking does not occur when users access an IP address referenced by the alias command.
To specify that all outbound connections have ActiveX blocking, use the following command:
filter activex 80 0 0 0 0
This command specifies that the ActiveX blocking applies to Web traffic on port 80 from any local host
and for connections to any foreign host.
filter java
The filter java command filters out Java applets that return to the PIX Firewall from an outbound
connection. The user still receives the HTML page, but the web page source for the applet is commented
out so that the applet cannot execute. Use 0 for the local_ip or foreign_ip IP addresses to mean all hosts.
Note
If Java applets are known to be in <object> tags, use the filter activex command to remove them.
To specify that all outbound connections have Java applet blocking, use the following command:
filter java 80 0 0 0 0
This command specifies that the Java applet blocking applies to Web traffic on port 80 from any local
host and for connections to any foreign host.
filter url
The filter url command lets you prevent outbound users from accessing World Wide Web URLs that
you designate using the N2H2 or Websense filtering application.
Note
The url-server command must be configured before issuing the filter command for HTTPS and FTP,
and if all URL servers are removed from the server list, then all filter commands related to URL filtering
are also removed.
The allow option to the filter command determines how the PIX Firewall behaves in the event that the
N2H2 or Websense server goes off line. If you use the allow option with the filter command and the
N2H2 or Websense server goes offline, port 80 traffic passes through the PIX Firewall without filtering.
Used without the allow option and with the server off line, PIX Firewall stops outbound port 80 (Web)
traffic until the server is back on line, or if another URL server is available, passes control to the next
URL server.
Note
With the allow option set, PIX Firewall now passes control to an alternate server if the N2H2 or
Websense server goes off line.
The N2H2 or Websense server works with the PIX Firewall to deny users from access to websites based
on the company security policy.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-38
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
fixup protocol
Websense protocol Version 4 enables group and username authentication between a host and a
PIX Firewall. The PIX Firewall performs a username lookup, and then Websense server handles URL
filtering and username logging.
The N2H2 server must be a Windows workstation (2000, NT, or XP), running an IFP Server, with a
recommended minimum of 512 MB of RAM. Also, the long URL support for the N2H2 service is
capped at 3 KB, less than the cap for Websense.
Websense protocol Version 4 contains the following enhancements:
•
URL filtering allows the PIX Firewall to check outgoing URL requests against the policy defined
on the Websense server.
•
Username logging tracks username, group, and domain name on the Websense server.
•
Username lookup enables the PIX Firewall to use the user authentication table to map the host's IP
address to the username.
Follow these steps to filter URLs:
Step 1
Designate an N2H2 or Websense server with the appropriate vendor-specific form of the url-server
command.
Step 2
Enable filtering with the filter command.
Step 3
If needed, improve throughput with the url-cache command. However, this command does not update
Websense logs, which may affect Websense accounting reports. Accumulate Websense run logs before
using the url-cache command.
Step 4
Use the show url-cache stats and the show perfmon commands to view run information.
Information on Websense is available at the following website:
http://www.websense.com/
Examples
The following example filters all outbound HTTP connections except those from the 10.0.2.54 host:
url-server (perimeter) host 10.0.1.1
filter url 80 0 0 0 0
filter url except 10.0.2.54 255.255.255.255 0 0
The following example blocks all outbound HTTP connections destined to a proxy server that listens on
port 8080:
filter url 8080 0 0 0 0 proxy-block
fixup protocol
Modifies PIX Firewall protocol fixups to add, delete, or change services and feature defaults.
fixup protocol ctiqbe 2748
[no] fixup protocol dns [maximum-length length]
fixup protocol esp-ike
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-39
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
fixup protocol
fixup protocol ftp [strict] [port]
fixup protocol http [port[-port]
fixup protocol h323 {h225 | ras} port [-port]
fixup protocol icmp error
fixup protocol ils [port[-port]]
[no] fixup protocol mgcp [port[-port]]
fixup protocol pptp 1723
fixup protocol rsh [514]
fixup protocol rtsp [port]
fixup protocol sip [port[-port]
[no] fixup protocol sip udp 5060
fixup protocol skinny [port[-port]
fixup protocol smtp [port[-port]]
fixup protocol snmp [161[-162]]
fixup protocol sqlnet [port[-port]]
fixup protocol tftp [port[-port]]
no fixup protocol [protocol_name] [port]
clear fixup
show ctiqbe
show fixup
show fixup protocol protocol [protocol]
show conn state [protocol]
show h225
show h245
show h323-ras
show mgcp
show sip
show skinny
show timeout protocol
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-40
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
fixup protocol
Syntax Description
ctiqbe
Enables the Computer Telephony Interface Quick Buffer Encoding (CTIQBE)
fixup. Used with Cisco TAPI/JTAPI applications.
dns
Enables the DNS fixup.
esp-ike
Enables PAT for Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP), single tunnel.
fixup protocol ils
Provides support for Microsoft NetMeeting, SiteServer, and Active Directory
products that use LDAP to exchange directory information with an ILS server.
fixup protocol
protocol [protocol]
[port[-port]]
Modifies PIX Firewall protocol fixups to add, delete, or change services and
feature defaults.
ftp
Specifies to change the ftp port number.
h323 h225
Specifies to use H.225, the ITU standard that governs H.225.0 session
establishment and packetization, with H.323. H.225.0 actually describes several
different protocols: RAS, use of Q.931, and use of RTP.
h323 ras
Specifies to use RAS with H.323 to enable dissimilar communication devices to
communicate with each other. H.323 defines a common set of CODECs, call
setup and negotiating procedures, and basic data transport methods.
http [port[-port]
The default port for HTTP is 80. Use the port option to change the HTTP port,
or the port-port option to specify a range of HTTP ports.
ils
Specifies the Internet Locator Service. The default port is TCP LDAP server port
389.
dns
maximum-length
length
Specifies the maximum DNS packet length allowed. Default is 512 bytes.
mgcp
Enables the Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) fixup. (Use the mgcp
command to configure additional support for the MGCP fixup.)
no
Disables the fixup of a protocol by removing all fixups of the protocol from the
configuration using the no fixup command. After removing all fixups for a
protocol, the no fixup form of the command or the default port is stored in the
configuration.
port
The port on which to enable the fixup (application inspection). You can use port
numbers or supported port literals. The default ports are: TCP 21 for ftp, TCP
LDAP server port 389 for ils, TCP 80 for http, TCP 1720 for h323 h225, UDP
1718-1719 for h323 ras, TCP 514 for rsh, TCP 554 for rtsp, TCP 2000 for
skinny, TCP 25 for smtp, TCP 1521 for sqlnet, TCP 5060 for sip, and UDP 69
for TFTP. The default port value for rsh cannot be changed, but additional port
statements can be added. See the “Ports” section in Chapter 2, “Using
PIX Firewall Commands” for a list of valid port literal names. The port over
which the designated protocol travels.
port-port
Specifies a port range.
pptp
Enables Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) application inspection. The
default port is 1723.
protocol
Specifies the protocol to fix up.
protocol_name
The protocol name.
ras
Registration, admission, and status (RAS) is a signaling protocol that performs
registration, admissions, bandwidth changes, status, and disengage procedures
between the VoIP gateway and the gatekeeper.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-41
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
fixup protocol
sip
Enable or change the port assignment for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) for
Voice over IP TCP connections. UDP SIP is on by default and can be disabled
and the port assignment is nonconfigurable. PIX Firewall Version 6.2 introduced
PAT support for SIP.
skinny
Enable SCCP application inspection. The default port is 2000. SCCP protocol
supports IP telephony and can coexist in an H.323 environment. An application
layer ensures that all SCCP signaling and media packets can traverse the
PIX Firewall and interoperate with H.323 terminals.
Skinny is the short name form for Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP).
Command Modes
snmp
Disabled by default. Enables SNMP inspection if enabled.
strict
Prevent web browsers from sending embedded commands in FTP requests. Each
FTP command must be acknowledged before a new command is allowed.
Connections sending embedded commands are dropped.
tftp
Enable TFTP application inspection. The default port is 69.
upd
Specifies the UDP port number.
All fixup protocol commands are available in configuration mode unless otherwise specified.
The show fixup protocol mgcp command is available in privileged mode.
Defaults
The default ports for the PIX Firewall fixup protocols are as follows:
pixHA(config)#
fixup protocol
fixup protocol
fixup protocol
fixup protocol
fixup protocol
fixup protocol
fixup protocol
fixup protocol
fixup protocol
fixup protocol
fixup protocol
fixup protocol
fixup protocol
pixHA(config)#
sh fix
dns maximum-length 512
ftp 21
h323 h225 1720
h323 ras 1718-1719
http 80
rsh 514
rtsp 554
sip 5060
sip udp 5060
skinny 2000
smtp 25
sqlnet 1521
tftp 69
(These are the defaults enabled on a PIX Firewall running software Version 6.3(4).)
The fixup for MGCP is disabled by default.
Usage Guidelines
The fixup protocol commands let you view, change, enable, or disable the use of a service or protocol
through the PIX Firewall. The ports you specify are those that the PIX Firewall listens at for each
respective service. You can change the port value for every service except rsh. The fixup protocol
commands are always present in the configuration and are enabled by default.
The fixup protocol command performs the Adaptive Security Algorithm based on different port
numbers other than the defaults. This command is global and changes things for both inbound and
outbound connections, and cannot be restricted to any static command statements.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-42
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
fixup protocol
The clear fixup command resets the fixup configuration to its default. It does not remove the default
fixup protocol commands.
You can disable the fixup of a protocol by removing all fixups of the protocol from the configuration
using the no fixup command. After you remove all fixups for a protocol, the no fixup form of the
command or the default port is stored in the configuration.
show fixup commands
The show fixup command displays the current fixup configuration and port values.
The show fixup protocol protocol [protocol] command displays the port values for the individual
protocol specified.
The show conn state [sip] command displays the connection state of the designated protocol.
The show h225, show h245, and show h323-ras commands display connection information for
troubleshooting H.323 fixup issues, and are described with the fixup protocol h323 {h225 | ras}
commands.
The show skinny command assists in troubleshooting SKINNY fixup issues and is described with the
fixup protocol skinny command.
The show sip command assists in troubleshooting SIP fixup issues and is described with the fixup
protocol sip udp 5060 command. The show timeout sip command displays the timeout value of the
designated protocol.
fixup protocol ctiqbe 2748
The fixup protocol ctiqbe 2748 command enables CTIQBE protocol inspection that supports NAT,
PAT, and bi-directional NAT. This enables Cisco IP SoftPhone and other Cisco TAPI/JTAPI
applications to work successfully with Cisco CallManager for call setup across the firewall.
By default, fixup protocol ctiqbe 2748 is disabled. You enable the CTIQBE fixup as shown in the
following example:
pixfirewall(config)# fixup protocol ctiqbe 2748
pixfirewall(config)# show fixup protocol ctiqbe
fixup protocol ctiqbe 2748
The no fixup protocol ctiqbe 2748 command disables the CTIQBE fixup.
The show ctiqbe command displays information of CTIQBE sessions established across the
PIX Firewall. Along with debug ctiqbe and show local-host, this command is used for troubleshooting
CTIQBE fixup issues.
Note
We recommend that you have the pager command configured before using the show ctiqbe command.
If there are a lot of CTIQBE sessions and the pager command is not configured, it can take a while for
the show ctiqbe command output to reach the end.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-43
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
fixup protocol
The following is sample output from the show ctiqbe command under the following conditions. There
is only one active CTIQBE session setup across the PIX Firewall. It is established between an internal
CTI device (for example, a Cisco IP SoftPhone) at local address 10.0.0.99 and an external Cisco Call
Manager at 172.29.1.77, where TCP port 2748 is the Cisco CallManager. The heartbeat interval for the
session is 120 seconds.
pixfirewall(config)# show ctiqbe
Total: 1
LOCAL
FOREIGN
STATE
HEARTBEAT
--------------------------------------------------------------1
10.0.0.99/1117 172.29.1.77/2748
1
120
---------------------------------------------RTP/RTCP: PAT xlates: mapped to 172.29.1.99(1028 - 1029)
---------------------------------------------MEDIA: Device ID 27
Call ID 0
Foreign 172.29.1.99
(1028 - 1029)
Local
172.29.1.88
(26822 - 26823)
----------------------------------------------
The CTI device has already registered with the CallManager. The device’s internal address and RTP
listening port is PATed to 172.29.1.99 UDP port 1028. Its RTCP listening port is PATed to UDP 1029.
The line beginning with RTP/RTCP: PAT xlates: appears only if an internal CTI device has registered
with an external CallManager and the CTI device’s address and ports are PATed to that external
interface. This line does not appear if the CallManager is located on an internal interface, or if the
internal CTI device’s address and ports are NATed to the same external interface that is used by the
CallManager.
The output indicates a call has been established between this CTI device and another phone at
172.29.1.88. The RTP and RTCP listening ports of the other phone are UDP 26822 and 26823. The
other phone locates on the same interface as the CallManager because the PIX Firewall does not
maintain a CTIQBE session record associated with the second phone and CallManager. The active call
leg on the CTI device side can be identified with Device ID 27 and Call ID 0.
The following is the xlate information for these CTIBQE connections:
pixfirewall(config)# show xlate debug
3 in use, 3 most used
Flags: D - DNS, d - dump, I - identity, i - inside, n - no random,
o - outside, r - portmap, s - static
TCP PAT from inside:10.0.0.99/1117 to outside:172.29.1.99/1025 flags ri idle 0:00:22
timeout 0:00:30
UDP PAT from inside:10.0.0.99/16908 to outside:172.29.1.99/1028 flags ri idle 0:00:00
timeout 0:04:10
UDP PAT from inside:10.0.0.99/16909 to outside:172.29.1.99/1029 flags ri idle 0:00:23
timeout 0:04:10
fixup protocol dns
Use the fixup protocol dns command to specify the maximum DNS packet length. DNS requires
application inspection so that DNS queries will not be subject to the generic UDP handling based on
activity timeouts. Instead, the UDP connections associated with DNS queries and responses are torn
down as soon as a reply to a DNS query has been received. This functionality is called DNS Guard.
The port assignment for the Domain Name System (DNS) is not configurable.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-44
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
fixup protocol
Set the maximum length for the DNS fixup as shown in the following example:
pixfirewall(config)# fixup protocol dns maximum-length 1500
pixfirewall(config)# show fixup protocol dns
fixup protocol dns maximum length 1500
Note
The PIX Firewall drops DNS packets sent to UDP port 53 that are larger than the configured maximum
length. The default value is 512 bytes. A syslog message will be generated when a DNS packet is
dropped.
The no fixup protocol dns command disables the DNS fixup. The clear fixup protocol dns resets the
DNS fixup to its default settings (512 byte maximum packet length).
Note
If the DNS fixup is disabled, the A-record is not NATed and the DNS ID is not matched in requests and
responses. By disabling the DNS fixup, the maximum length check on UDP DNS packets can be
bypassed and packets greater than the maximum length configured will be permitted.
fixup protocol esp-ike
The fixup protocol esp-ike command enables PAT for Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP), single
tunnel.
The fixup protocol esp-ike command is disabled by default. If a fixup protocol esp-ike command is
issued, the fixup is turned on, and the firewall preserves the source port of the Internet Key Exchange
(IKE) and creates a PAT translation for ESP traffic. Additionally, if the esp-ike fixup is on, ISAKMP
cannot be turned on any interface.
fixup protocol ftp
Use the fixup protocol ftp command to specify the listening port or ports for the File Transfer Protocol
(FTP). The following list describes the features and usage of this command:
•
The PIX Firewall listens to port 21 for FTP by default.
•
Mutliple ports can be specified.
•
Only specify the port for the FTP control connection and not the data connection. The PIX Firewall
stateful inspection will dynamically prepare the data connection as necessary. For example, the
following is incorrect:
INCORRECT
fixup protocol ftp 21
fixup protocol ftp 20
and is the following is correct:
CORRECT
fixup protocol ftp 21
•
Use caution when moving FTP to a higher port. For example, if you set the FTP port to 2021 by
entering fixup protocol ftp 2021 all connections that initiate to port 2021 will have their data
payload interpreted as FTP commands.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-45
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
fixup protocol
The following is an example of a fixup protocol ftp command configuration that uses multiple FTP
fixups:
:
: For a PIX Firewall with two interfaces
:
ip address outside 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
ip address inside 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
:
: There is an inside host 10.1.1.15 that will be
: exported as 192.168.1.15. This host runs the FTP
: services at port 21 and 1021
:
static (inside, outside) 192.168.1.15 10.1.1.15
:
: Construct an access list to permit inbound FTP traffic to
: port 21 and 1021
:
access-list outside permit tcp any host 192.168.1.15 eq ftp
access-list outside permit tcp any host 192.168.1.15 eq 1021
access-group outside in interface outside
:
: Specify that traffic to port 21 and 1021 are FTP traffic
:
fixup protocol ftp 21
fixup protocol ftp 1021
If you disable FTP fixups with the no fixup protocol ftp command, outbound users can start connections
only in passive mode, and all inbound FTP is disabled.
The strict option in the fixup protocol ftp command performs two seperate functions:
•
The strict option prevents web browsers from sending embedded commands in FTP requests. Each
FTP command must be acknowledged before a new command is allowed. Connections sending
embedded commands are dropped.The strict option only lets an FTP server generate the 227
command and only lets an FTP client generate the PORT command. The 227 and PORT commands
are checked to ensure they do not appear in an error string.
•
The strict option also prevents the PIX from opening up return connections based solely on the
information sent in the PORT command. The strict option enables the PIX to make sure a successful
reply is sent from the server in addition to the PORT command before opening the connection. If an
error is seen, the PORT command is ignored by the PIX and the connection is never established.
This keeps the PIX from opening data connections for communication that will never occur.
fixup protocol h323 {h225 | ras}
The fixup protocol h323 {h225 | ras} command provides support for H.323 compliant applications such
as Cisco CallManager and VocalTec Gatekeeper. H.323 is a suite of protocols defined by the
International Telecommunication Union (ITU) for multimedia conferences over LANs.
PIX Firewall software Version 5.3 and higher supports H.323 v2 with Fast Connect or Fast Start
Procedure for faster call setup and H.245 tunneling for resource conservation, call synchronization, and
reduced set up time.
PIX Firewall software Versions 6.2 and higher support PAT for H.323. When upgrading from any
pre-PIX Firewall software Version 6.2 release, the following will be added to the configuration:
fixup protocol h323 ras 1718-1719
Additionally, fixup protocol h323 port becomes fixup protocol h323 h225 port. You can disable H.225
signaling or RAS fixup (or both) with the no fixup protocol h323 {h225 | ras} port [-port] command.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-46
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
fixup protocol
PIX Firewall software Version 6.3 and higher supports H.323 v3 and v4 messages as well as the H.323
v3 feature Multiple Calls on One Call Signaling Channel.
The show h225, show h245, and show h323-ras commands display connection information for
troubleshooting H.323 fixup issues.
Note
Before using the show h225, show h245, or show h323-ras commands, we recommend that you
configure the pager command. If there are a lot of session records and the pager command is not
configured, it may take a while for the show output to reach its end. If there is an abnormally large
number of connections, check that the sessions are timing out based on the default timeout values or the
values set by you. If they are not, then there is a problem that needs to be investigated.
The show h225 command displays information for H.225 sessions established across the PIX Firewall.
Along with the debug h323 h225 event, debug h323 h245 event, and show local-host commands, this
command is used for troubleshooting H.323 fixup issues.
The following is sample output from the show h225 command:
pixfirewall(config)# show h225
Total H.323 Calls: 1
1 Concurrent Call(s) for
Local:
10.130.56.3/1040
1. CRV 9861
Local:
10.130.56.3/1040
0 Concurrent Call(s) for
Local:
10.130.56.4/1050
Foreign: 172.30.254.203/1720
Foreign: 172.30.254.203/1720
Foreign: 172.30.254.205/1720
This output indicates that there is currently 1 active H.323 call going through the PIX Firewall between
the local endpoint 10.130.56.3 and foreign host 172.30.254.203, and for these particular endpoints, there
is 1 concurrent call between them, with a CRV (Call Reference Value) for that call of 9861.
For the local endpoint 10.130.56.4 and foreign host 172.30.254.205, there are 0 concurrent Calls. This
means that there is no active call between the endpoints even though the H.225 session still exists. This
could happen if, at the time of the show h225 command, the call has already ended but the H.225 session
has not yet been deleted. Alternately, it could mean that the two endpoints still have a TCP connection
opened between them because they set “maintainConnection” to TRUE, so the session is kept open until
they set it to FALSE again, or until the session times out based on the H.225 timeout value in your
configuration.
The show h245 command displays information for H.245 sessions established across the PIX Firewall
by endpoints using slow start. (Slow start is when the two endpoints of a call open another TCP control
channel for H.245. Fast start is where the H.245 messages are exchanged as part of the H.225 messages
on the H.225 control channel.) Along with the debug h323 h245 event, debug h323 h225 event, and
show local-host commands, this command is used for troubleshooting H.323 fixup issues.
The following is sample output from the show h245 command:
pixfirewall(config)# show h245
Total: 1
LOCAL
TPKT
FOREIGN
TPKT
1
10.130.56.3/1041
0
172.30.254.203/1245
0
MEDIA: LCN 258 Foreign 172.30.254.203 RTP 49608 RTCP 49609
Local
10.130.56.3 RTP 49608 RTCP 49609
MEDIA: LCN 259 Foreign 172.30.254.203 RTP 49606 RTCP 49607
Local
10.130.56.3 RTP 49606 RTCP 49607
There is currently one H.245 control session active across the PIX Firewall. The local endpoint is
10.130.56.3, and we are expecting the next packet from this endpoint to have a TPKT header since the
TPKT value is 0. (The TKTP header is a 4-byte header preceding each H.225/H.245 message. It gives
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-47
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
fixup protocol
the length of the message, including the 4-byte header.) The foreign host endpoint is 172.30.254.203,
and we are expecting the next packet from this endpoint to have a TPKT header since the TPKT value
is 0.
The media negotiated between these endpoints have a LCN (logical channel number) of 258 with the
foreign RTP IP address/port pair of 172.30.254.203/49608 and a RTCP IP address/port of
172.30.254.203/49609 with a local RTP IP address/port pair of 10.130.56.3/49608 and a RTCP port of
49609.
The second LCN of 259 has a foreign RTP IP address/port pair of 172.30.254.203/49606 and a RTCP
IP address/port pair of 172.30.254.203/49607 with a local RTP IP address/port pair of
10.130.56.3/49606 and RTCP port of 49607.
The show h323-ras command displays information for H.323 RAS sessions established across the
PIX Firewall between a gatekeeper and its H.323 endpoint. Along with the debug h323 ras event and
show local-host commands, this command is used for troubleshooting H.323 RAS fixup issues.
The following is sample output from the show h323-ras command:
pixfirewall(config)# show h323-ras
Total: 1
GK
Caller
172.30.254.214 10.130.56.14
This output shows that there is one active registration between the gatekeeper 172.30.254.214 and its
client 10.130.56.14.
fixup protocol http
The fixup protocol http command sets the port for Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) traffic
application inspection. The default port for HTTP is 80.
Use the port option to change the default port assignments from 80. Use the port-port option to apply
HTTP application inspection to a range of port numbers.
Note
The no fixup protocol http command statement also disables the filter url command.
HTTP inspection performs several functions:
•
URL logging of GET messages
•
URL screening through N2H2 or Websense
•
Java and ActiveX filtering
The latter two features must be configured in conjuction with the filter command.
fixup protocol icmp error
The fixup protocol icmp error command enables NAT of ICMP error messages. This creates
translations for intermediate hops based on the static or network address translation configuration on the
firewall.
The no fixup protocol icmp error disables the creation of a translation (xlate) for the intermediate
nodes which generate ICMP error messages.
By default fixup protocol icmp error is disabled.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-48
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
fixup protocol
fixup protocol ils
The fixup protocol ils command provides NAT support for Microsoft NetMeeting, SiteServer, and Active
Directory products that use LightWeight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) to exchange directory
information with an for Internet Locator Service (ILS) server.
By default, fixup protocol ils is disabled. You enable the ILS fixup as shown in the following example:
pixfirewall(config)# fixup protocol ils
The no fixup protocol ils command disables the ILS fixup.
fixup protocol mgcp
If a user wishes to use MGCP, they will usually need to configure at least two fixup protocol commands:
one for the port on which the gateway receives commands, and one for the port on which the Call Agent
receives commands.
Normally, a Call Agent sends commands to the default MGCP port for gateways, 2427, and a gateway
sends commands to the default MGCP port for Call Agents, 2727.
The following example adds fixup support for Call Agents and gateways that use the default ports:
fixup protocol mgcp 2427
fixup protocol mgcp 2727
The no fixup protocol mgcp command removes the MGCP fixup configuration.
The show fixup protocol mgcp command displays the configured MGCP fixups. Please refer to the
mgcp command for information on the show mgcp command.
fixup protocol pptp
The fixup protocol pptp [1723] command inspects PPTP protocol packets and dynamically creates the
GRE connections and xlates necessary to permit PPTP traffic.
Specifically, the firewall inspects the PPTP version announcements and the outgoing call
request/response sequence. Only PPTP Version 1, as defined in RFC 2637, is inspected. Further
inspection on the TCP control channel is disabled if the version announced by either side is not Version
1. In addition, the outgoing-call request and reply sequence are tracked. Connections and/or xlates are
dynamic allocated as necessary to permit subsequent secondary GRE data traffic.
The fixup protocol pptp 1723 command is disabled by default. Enter the following command to enable
the PPTP fixup:
pixfirewall(config)# fixup protocol pptp 1723
pixfirewall(config)# show fixup
fixup protocol ftp 21
fixup protocol http 80
fixup protocol h323 h225 1720
fixup protocol h323 ras 1718-1719
fixup protocol ils 389
fixup protocol rsh 514
fixup protocol rtsp 554
fixup protocol smtp 25
fixup protocol sqlnet 1521
fixup protocol sip 5060
fixup protocol skinny 2000
fixup protocol pptp 1723
fixup protocol sip udp 5060
fixup protocol tftp 69
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-49
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
fixup protocol
The PPTP fixup must be enabled for PPTP traffic to be translated by PAT. Additionally, PAT is only
performed for a modified version of GRE (RFC2637) and only if it is negotiated over the PPTP TCP
control channel. PAT is not performed for the unmodified version of GRE (RFC 1701 and RFC 1702).
fixup protocol rtsp
The fixup protocol rtsp command lets PIX Firewall pass Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP)
packets. RTSP is used by RealAudio, RealNetworks, Apple QuickTime 4, RealPlayer, and Cisco IP/TV
connections.
If you are using Cisco IP/TV, use RTSP TCP port 554 and TCP 8554:
fixup protocol rtsp 554
fixup protocol rtsp 8554
The following restrictions apply to the fixup protocol rtsp command:
1.
This PIX Firewall will not fix RTSP messages passing through UDP ports.
2.
PAT is not supported with the fixup protocol rtsp command.
3.
PIX Firewall does not have the ability to recognize HTTP cloaking where RTSP messages are
hidden in the HTTP messages.
4.
PIX Firewall cannot perform NAT on RTSP messages because the embedded IP addresses are
contained in the SDP files as part of HTTP or RTSP messages. Packets could be fragmented and
PIX Firewall cannot perform NAT on fragmented packets.
5.
With Cisco IP/TV, the number of NATs the PIX Firewall performs on the SDP part of the message
is proportional to the number of program listings in the Content Manager (each program listing can
have at least six embedded IP addresses).
6.
You can configure NAT for Apple QuickTime 4 or RealPlayer. Cisco IP/TV only works with NAT
if the Viewer and Content Manager are on the outside network and the server is on the inside
network.
7.
When using RealPlayer, it is important to properly configure transport mode. For the PIX Firewall,
add an access-list command statement from the server to the client or vice versa. For RealPlayer,
change transport mode by clicking Options>Preferences>Transport>RTSP Settings.
If using TCP mode on the RealPlayer, select the Use TCP to Connect to Server and Attempt to
use TCP for all content check boxes. On the PIX Firewall, there is no need to configure the fixup.
If using UDP mode on the RealPlayer, select the Use TCP to Connect to Server and Attempt to
use UDP for static content check boxes, and for live content not available via Multicast. On the
PIX Firewall, add a fixup protocol rtsp port command statement.
fixup protocol sip
Use the fixup protocol sip [port[-port]] command to enable SIP-over-TCP application inspection, or the
fixup protocol sip udp 5060 command to enable SIP-over-UDP application inspection. If either SIP
fixup method is enabled, SIP packets are inspected and then NAT is provided for the appropriate IP
addresses. The SIP fixups are enabled by default on TCP or UDP port 5060, respectively. However, only
the TCP SIP fixup port is configurable in PIX Firewall software Version 6.3. You cannot change ports
on the firewall for the SIP-over-UDP fixup, but you can disable the SIP-over-UDP fixup with the no
fixup protocol sip udp 5060 command.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-50
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
fixup protocol
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), as defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), enables call
handling sessions and two-party audio conferences (calls). SIP works with Session Description Protocol
(SDP) for call signaling. SDP specifies the ports for the media stream. Using SIP, the PIX Firewall can
support any SIP Voice over IP (VoIP) gateway or VoIP proxy server. SIP and SDP are defined in the
following RFCs:
•
SIP: Session Initiation Protocol, RFC 2543
•
SDP: Session Description Protocol, RFC 2327
To support SIP, the following must be inspected: calls through the PIX Firewall, signaling messages for
the media connection addresses, media ports, and embryonic connections for the media. This is because
while the signaling is sent over a well known destination port (UDP/TCP 5060), the media streams are
dynamically allocated and because SIP is a text-based protocol that contains IP addresses throughout the
text.
PIX Firewall software Version 6.2 and higher supports PAT for SIP. In PIX Firewall software Version
6.3 and later, you can disable the SIP fixup for both UDP and TCP signaling with the commands no
fixup protocol sip udp 5060 and no fixup protocol sip [port[-port] respectively.
For additional information about the SIP protocol see RFC 2543. For additional information about the
Session Description Protocol (SDP), see RFC 2327.
The show sip command displays information for SIP sessions established across the PIX Firewall.
Along with the debug sip and show local-host commands, this command is used for troubleshooting
SIP fixup issues.
Note
We recommend that you configure the pager command before using the show sip command. If there are
a lot of SIP session records and the pager command is not configured, it will take a while for the show
sip command output to reach its end.
The following is sample output from the show sip command:
pixfirewall(config)# show sip
Total: 2
call-id c3943000-960ca-2e43-228f@10.130.56.44
state Call init, idle 0:00:01
call-id c3943000-860ca-7e1f-11f7@10.130.56.45
state Active, idle 0:00:06
This sample shows two active SIP sessions on the PIX Firewall (as shown in the Total field). Each
call-id represents a call.
The first session, with the call-id c3943000-960ca-2e43-228f@10.130.56.44, is in the state Call
Init , which means the session is still in call setup. Call setup is not complete until a final response to
the call has been received. For instance, the caller has already sent the INVITE, and maybe received a
100 Response, but has not yet seen the 200 OK, so the call setup is not complete yet. Any non-1xx
response message is considered a final response. This session has been idle for 1 second.
The second session is in the state Active, in which call setup is complete and the endpoints are
exchanging media. This session has been idle for 6 seconds.
fixup protocol skinny
Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP or “skinny”) protocol supports IP telephony and can coexist in
an H.323 environment. An application layer ensures that all SCCP signaling and media packets can
traverse the PIX Firewall and interoperate with H.323 terminals. The skinny fixup supports both NAT
and PAT configurations.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-51
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
fixup protocol
Note
If the address of an internal Cisco CallManager is configured for NAT or PAT to a different IP address
or port, registrations for external Cisco IP Phones will fail because the PIX Firewall currently does not
support NAT or PAT for the file content transferred via TFTP. Although the PIX Firewall does support
NAT of TFTP messages, and opens a pinhole for the TFTP file to traverse the firewall, the PIX Firewall
cannot translate the Cisco CallManager IP address and port embedded in the Cisco IP Phone's
configuration files that are being transferred using TFTP during phone registration.
If skinny messages are fragmented, then the firewall does not recognize or inspect them. Skinny message
fragmentation can occur when a call is established that includes a conference bridge. The firewall tracks
the skinny protocol to open conduits for RTP traffic to flow through, however, with the skinny messages
fragmented, the firewall cannot correctly set up this conduit.
The show skinny command displays information of Skinny (SCCP) sessions established across the
PIX Firewall. Along with debug skinny and show local-host, this command is used for troubleshooting
Skinny fixup issues.
Note
We recommend that you have the pager command configured before using the show skinny command.
If there are a lot of Skinny sessions and the pager command is not configured, it can take a while for the
show skinny command output to reach the end.
The following is sample output from the show skinny command under the following conditions. There
are two active Skinny sessions set up across the PIX Firewall. The first one is established between an
internal Cisco IP Phone at local address 10.0.0.11 and an external Cisco CallManager at 172.18.1.33.
TCP port 2000 is the CallManager. The second one is established between another internal Cisco IP
Phone at local address 10.0.0.22 and the same Cisco CallManager.
pixfirewall(config)# show skinny
LOCAL
FOREIGN
STATE
--------------------------------------------------------------1
10.0.0.11/52238
172.18.1.33/2000
1
MEDIA 10.0.0.11/22948
172.18.1.22/20798
2
10.0.0.22/52232
172.18.1.33/2000
1
MEDIA 10.0.0.22/20798
172.18.1.11/22948
The output indicates a call has been established between both internal Cisco IP Phones. The RTP
listening ports of the first and second phones are UDP 22948 and 20798 respectively.
The following is the xlate information for these Skinny connections:
pixfirewall(config)# show xlate debug
2 in use, 2 most used
Flags: D - DNS, d - dump, I - identity, i - inside, n - no random,
o - outside, r - portmap, s - static
NAT from inside:10.0.0.11 to outside:172.18.1.11 flags si idle 0:00:16 timeout 0:05:00
NAT from inside:10.0.0.22 to outside:172.18.1.22 flags si idle 0:00:14 timeout 0:05:00
fixup protocol smtp
The fixup protocol smtp command enables the Mail Guard feature, which only lets mail servers receive
the RFC 821, section 4.5.1, commands of HELO, MAIL, RCPT, DATA, RSET, NOOP, and QUIT. All
other commands are translated into X's which are rejected by the internal server. This results in a
message such as “500 Command unknown: 'XXX'.” Incomplete commands are discarded.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-52
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
fixup protocol
Note
During an interactive SMTP session, various SMTP security rules may reject or deadlock your Telnet
session. These rules include the following: SMTP commands must be at least four characters in length;
must be terminated with carriage return and line feed; and must wait for a response before issuing the
next reply.
As of PIX Firewall software Version 5.1 and higher, the fixup protocol smtp command changes the
characters in the SMTP banner to asterisks except for the “2”, “0”, “0 ” characters. Carriage return (CR)
and linefeed (LF) characters are ignored.
In PIX Firewall software Version 4.4, all characters in the SMTP banner are converted to asterisks.
fixup protocol snmp
This snmp fixup command fixup protocol snmp 161-162 is disabled by default. This command provides
the ability to configure a drop of SNMP packets based on protocol version.
The no fixup protocol snmp command removes the SNMP fixup configuration.
Fixup can be enabled or disabled with the following command:
[no] fixup protocol snmp 161-162
Note
Existing connections will retain present fixup configurations from their initial creation.
So, if you toggle the configuration, you need to either:
•
Wait for the connections to time out
•
Manually clear the connections
Use clear xlate or clear local to clear connections for the fixup configuration to take effect.
fixup protocol sqlnet
PIX Firewall uses port 1521 for SQL*Net. This is the default port used by Oracle for SQL*Net;
however, this value does not agree with IANA port assignments.
fixup protocol tftp
PIX Firewall Version 6.3(2) introduced application inspection for Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP).
The default port is 69. Use the port-port option to apply TFTP application inspection to a range of port
numbers.
The PIX Firewall inspects TFTP traffic and dynamically creates connections and translations, if
necessary, to permit file transfer between a TFTP client and server with the fixup protocol tftp
command. Specifically, the fixup inspects TFTP read request (RRQ), write request (WRQ), and error
notification (ERROR).
A dynamic secondary channel and a PAT translation, if necessary, are allocated on a reception of a valid
read (RRQ) or write (WRQ) request. This secondary channel is subsequently used by TFTP for file
transfer or error notification.
Only the TFTP server can initiate traffic over the secondary channel, and at most one incomplete
secondary channel can exist between the TFTP client and server. An error notification from the server
closes the secondary channel.
The show fixup protocol tftp command displays the ports on which TFTP is inspected.
pixdoc515(config)# show fixup protocol tftp
fixup protocol tftp 69
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-53
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
fixup protocol
Examples
The following example enables access to an inside server running Mail Guard:
static (inside,outside) 209.165.201.1 192.168.42.1 netmask 255.255.255.255
access-list acl_out permit tcp any host 209.165.201.1 eq smtp
access-group acl_out in interface outside
fixup protocol smtp 25
The following example shows the commands to disable Mail Guard:
static (dmz1,outside) 209.165.201.1 10.1.1.1 netmask 255.255.255.255
access-list acl_out permit tcp any host 209.165.201.1 eq smtp
access-group acl_out in interface outside
no fixup protocol smtp 25
In this example, the static command sets up a global address to permit outside hosts access to the
10.1.1.1 mail server host on the dmz1 interface. (The MX record for DNS needs to point to the
209.165.201.1 address so that mail is sent to this address.) The access-list command lets any outside
users access the global address through the SMTP port (25). The no fixup protocol command disables
the Mail Guard feature.
The following example shows how to enable the MGCP fixup on your firewall:
pixfirewall(config)# fixup protocol mgcp 2427
pixfirewall(config)# fixup protocol mgcp 2727
pixfirewall(config)# show running-config
: Saved
:
PIX Version 6.3
interface ethernet0 auto
interface ethernet1 auto
interface ethernet2 auto shutdown
nameif ethernet0 outside security0
nameif ethernet1 inside security100
nameif ethernet2 intf2 security10
enable password 8Ry2YjIyt7RRXU24 encrypted
passwd 2KFQnbNIdI.2KYOU encrypted
hostname pixfirewall
domain-name cisco.com
fixup protocol ftp 21
fixup protocol http 80
fixup protocol h323 h225 1720
fixup protocol h323 ras 1718-1719
fixup protocol ils 389
fixup protocol rsh 514
fixup protocol rtsp 554
fixup protocol smtp 25
fixup protocol sqlnet 1521
fixup protocol sip 5060
fixup protocol skinny 2000
fixup protocol mgcp 2427
fixup protocol mgcp 2727
fixup protocol sip udp 5060
fixup protocol tftp 69
names
access-list 101 permit tcp any host 10.1.1.3 eq www
access-list 101 permit tcp any host 10.1.1.3 eq smtp
pager lines 24
mtu outside 1500
mtu inside 1500
mtu intf2 1500
ip address outside 172.23.59.232 255.255.0.0
ip address inside 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
ip address intf2 127.0.0.1 255.255.255.255
ip audit info action alarm
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-54
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
flashfs
ip audit attack action alarm
pdm history enable
arp timeout 14400
global (outside) 1 interface
nat (inside) 1 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0 0
routing interface inside
route outside 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 172.23.59.225 1
timeout xlate 3:00:00
timeout conn 1:00:00 half-closed 0:10:00 udp 0:02:00 rpc 0:10:00 h225 1:00:00
timeout h323 0:05:00 mgcp 0:05:00 sip 0:30:00 sip_media 0:02:00
timeout uauth 0:05:00 absolute
aaa-server TACACS+ protocol tacacs+
aaa-server RADIUS protocol radius
aaa-server LOCAL protocol local
http server enable
http 10.1.1.2 255.255.255.255 inside
no snmp-server location
no snmp-server contact
snmp-server community public
no snmp-server enable traps
floodguard enable
telnet timeout 5
ssh timeout 5
console timeout 0
dhcprelay server 10.1.1.1 outside
terminal width 80
Cryptochecksum:00000000000000000000000000000000
: end
The following example shows how to remove the MGCP fixup from your configuration:
pixfirewall(config)# show fixup protocol mgcp
fixup protocol mgcp 2427
fixup protocol mgcp 2727
pixfirewall(config)# no fixup protocol mgcp
pixfirewall(config)#
Related Commands
debug
Displays debug information for Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP)
traffic.
mgcp
Configures additional support for the Media Gateway Control Protocol fixup
(packet application inspection) and is used with the fixup protocol mgcp
command.
show conn
Displays all active connections. There is an MGCP show conn option and
connection flag, “g”.
timeout
Sets the maximum idle time duration. (There is an MGCP timeout option.)
flashfs
Clear, display, or downgrade filesystem information.
flashfs downgrade {4.x | 5.0 | 5.1}
clear flashfs
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-55
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
flashfs
show flashfs
Syntax Description
downgrade 4.x
Clear the filesystem information from Flash memory before downgrading to
PIX Firewall software Version 4.0, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, or 4.4.
downgrade 5.0 |
5.1
Write the filesystem to Flash memory before downgrading to the appropriate
PIX Firewall software Version 5.0 or higher.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The clear flashfs and the flashfs downgrade 4.x commands clear the filesystem part of Flash memory
in the PIX Firewall. Versions 4.n cannot use the information in the filesystem; it needs to be cleared to
let the earlier version operate correctly.
The flashfs downgrade 5.x command reorganizes the filesystem part of Flash memory so that
information stored in the filesystem can be accessed by the earlier version. The PIX Firewall maintains
a filesystem in Flash memory to store system information, IPSec private keys, certificates, and CRLs. It
is crucial that you clear or reformat the filesystem before downgrading to a previous PIX Firewall
version. Otherwise, your filesystem will get out of sync with the actual contents of the Flash memory
and cause problems when the unit is later upgraded.
Note
When downgrading to PIX Firewall Versions 5.0 or 5.1, which support a maximum 4 MB of Flash
memory, configuration files larger than 4 MB will be truncated and some configuration information
will be lost.
You only need to use the flashfs downgrade 5.x command if your PIX Firewall has 16 MB of Flash
memory, if you have IPSec private keys, certificates, or CRLs stored in Flash memory, and you used the
ca save all command to save these items in Flash memory. The flashfs downgrade 5.x command fails
if the filesystem indicates that any part of the image, configuration, or private data in the Flash memory
device is unusable.
The clear flashfs and flashfs downgrade commands do not affect the configuration stored in Flash
memory.
The clear flashfs command is the same as the flashfs downgrade 4.x command.
The show flashfs command displays the size in bytes of each filesystem sector and the current state of
the filesystem. The data in each sector is as follows:
Examples
•
file 0—PIX Firewall binary image, where the .bin file is stored.
•
file 1—PIX Firewall configuration data that you can view with the show config command.
•
file 2—PIX Firewall datafile that stores IPSec key and certificate information.
•
file 3—flashfs downgrade information for the show flashfs command.
•
file 4—The compressed PIX Firewall image size in Flash memory.
The following is sample output from the show flashfs command:
pixfirewall(config)# show flashfs
flash file system: version:2 magic:0x12345679
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-56
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
floodguard
file
file
file
file
file
0:
1:
2:
3:
4:
origin:
0 length:1511480
origin: 2883584 length:3264
origin:
0 length:0
origin: 3014656 length:4444164
origin: 8257536 length:280
Use the following command to write the filesystem to Flash memory before downgrading to a lower
version of software:
pixfirewall(config)# flashfs downgrade 5.3
The following commands display the filesystem sector sizes:
pixfirewall(config)# show flashfs
flash file system: version:1 magic:0x12345679
file 0: origin:
0 length:1794104
file 1: origin: 2095104 length:1496
file 2: origin:
0 length:0
file 3: origin: 2096640 length:140
file 4: origin: 8257536 length:280
pixfirewall(config)# flashfs downgrade 5.3
pixfirewall(config)# show flashfs
flash file system: version:0 magic:0x0
file 0: origin:
0 length:0
file 1: origin:
0 length:0
file 2: origin:
0 length:0
file 3: origin:
0 length:0
file 4: origin: 8257536 length:280
The origin values are integer multiples of the underlying filesystem sector size.
floodguard
Enable or disable Flood Guard to protect against flood attacks.
floodguard enable
floodguard disable
clear floodguard
show floodguard
Syntax Description
enable
Enable Flood Guard.
disable
Disable Flood Guard.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The floodguard command lets you reclaim PIX Firewall resources if the user authentication (uauth)
subsystem runs out of resources. If an inbound or outbound uauth connection is being attacked or
overused, the PIX Firewall will actively reclaim TCP user resources.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-57
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
floodguard
When the resources deplete, the PIX Firewall lists messages about it being out of resources or out of
tcpusers.
If the PIX Firewall uauth subsystem is depleted, TCP user resources in different states are reclaimed
depending on urgency in the following order:
1.
Timewait
2.
LastAck
3.
FinWait
4.
Embryonic
5.
Idle
The floodguard command is enabled by default.
Examples
The following example enables the floodguard command and lists the floodguard command statement
in the configuration:
floodguard enable
show floodguard
floodguard enable
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-58
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
fragment
fragment
The fragment command provides additional management of packet fragmentation and improves
compatibility with NFS.
fragment size database-limit [interface]
fragment chain chain-limit [interface]
fragment timeout seconds [interface]
clear fragment
show fragment [interface]
Syntax Description
chain
Specifies the maximum number of packets into which a full IP packet can be
fragmented. The default is 24.
chain-limit
The default is 24. The maximum is 8200.
clear
Resets the fragment databases and defaults. All fragments currently waiting
for reassembly are discarded and the size, chain, and timeout options are
reset to their default values.
database-limit
The default is 200. The maximum is 1,000,000 or the total number of blocks.
interface
The PIX Firewall interface. If not specified, the command will apply to all
interfaces.
seconds
The default is 5 seconds. The maximum is 30 seconds.
show
Command Modes
•
Displays the state of the fragment database:
•
Size—Maximum packets set by the size option.
•
Chain—Maximum fragments for a single packet set by the chain option.
•
Timeout—Maximum seconds set by the timeout option.
•
Queue—Number of packets currently awaiting reassembly.
•
Assemble—Number of packets successfully reassembled.
•
Fail—Number of packets which failed to be reassembled.
•
Overflow—Number of packets which overflowed the fragment
database.
size
Sets the maximum number of packets in the fragment database. The default
is 200.
timeout
Specifies the maximum number of seconds that a packet fragment will wait
to be reassembled after the first fragment is received before being discarded.
The default is 5 seconds.
Configuration mode.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-59
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
fragment
Usage Guidelines
By default the PIX Firewall accepts up to 24 fragments to reconstruct a full IP packet. Based on your
network security policy, you should consider configuring the PIX Firewall to prevent fragmented
packets from traversing the firewall by entering the fragment chain 1 interface command on each
interface. Setting the limit to 1 means that all packets must be whole; that is, unfragmented.
If a large percentage of the network traffic through the PIX Firewall is NFS, additional tuning may be
necessary to avoid database overflow. See system log message 209003 for additional information.
In an environment where the MTU between the NFS server and client is small, such as a WAN interface,
the chain option may require additional tuning. In this case, NFS over TCP is highly recommended to
improve efficiency.
Setting the database-limit of the size option to a large value can make the PIX Firewall more vulnerable
to a DoS attack by fragment flooding. Do not set the database-limit equal to or greater than the total
number of blocks in the 1550 or 16384 pool. See the show block command for more details. The default
values will limit DoS due to fragment flooding to that interface only.
The show fragment [interface] command displays the states of the fragment databases. If the interface
name is specified, only displays information for the database residing at the specified interface.
Examples
For example, to prevent fragmented packets on the outside and inside interfaces enter the following
commands:
pixfirewall(config)# fragment chain 1 outside
pixfirewall(config)# fragment chain 1 inside
Continue entering the fragment chain 1 interface command for each additional interface on which you
want to prevent fragmented packets.
The following example configures the outside fragment database to limit a maximum size of 2000, a
maximum chain length of 45, and a wait time of 10 seconds:
pixfirewall(config)#
pixfirewall(config)# fragment outside size 2000
pixfirewall(config)# fragment chain 45 outside
pixfirewall(config)# fragment outside timeout 10
pixfirewall(config)#
The clear fragment command resets the fragment databases. Specifically, all fragments awaiting
re-assembly are discarded. In addition, the size is reset to 200; the chain limit is reset to 24; and the
timeout is reset to 5 seconds.
The show fragment command display the states of the fragment databases. If the interface name is
specified, only the database residing at the specified interface is displayed.
pixfirewall(config)# show fragment outside
Interface:outside
Size:2000, Chain:45, Timeout:10
Queue:1060, Assemble:809, Fail:0, Overflow:0
The preceding example shows that the "outside" fragment database has the following:
•
A database size limit of 2000 packets.
•
The chain length limit of 45 fragments.
•
A timeout of ten seconds.
•
1060 packets is currently awaiting re-assembly.
•
809 packets has been fully reassembled.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-60
78-14890-01
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
fragment
•
No failure.
•
No overflow.
This fragment database is under heavy usage.
The PIX Firewall also includes FragGuard for additional IP fragmentation protection. For more
information refer to the Cisco PIX Firewall and VPN Configuration Guide.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
5-61
Chapter 5
D through F Commands
fragment
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
5-62
78-14890-01
C H A P T E R
6
G through L Commands
global
Create or delete entries from a pool of global addresses.
[no] global [(if_name)] nat_id {global_ip [-global_ip] [netmask global_mask]} | interface
clear global
show global
Syntax Description
clear
Removes global command statements from the configuration.
global_ip
One or more global IP addresses that the PIX Firewall shares among its connections.
If the external network is connected to the Internet, each global IP address must be
registered with the Network Information Center (NIC). You can specify a range of
IP addresses by separating the addresses with a dash (-).
You can create a Port Address Translation (PAT) global command statement by
specifying a single IP address. You can have more than one PAT global command
statement per interface. A PAT can support up to 65,535 xlate objects.
Command Modes
global_mask
The network mask for global_ip. If subnetting is in effect, use the subnet mask; for
example, 255.255.255.128. If you specify an address range that overlaps subnets,
global will not use the broadcast or network addresses in the pool of global addresses.
For example, if you use 255.255.255.224 and an address range of
209.165.201.1-209.165.201.30, the 209.165.201.31 broadcast address and the
209.165.201.0 network address will not be included in the pool of global addresses.
if_name
The external network where you use these global addresses.
interface
Specifies PAT using the IP address at the interface.
nat_id
A positive number shared with the nat command that groups the nat and global
command statements together. The valid ID numbers can be any positive number up to
2,147,483,647.
netmask
Reserved word that prefaces the network global_mask variable.
Configuration mode.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
6-1
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
global
Usage Guidelines
The global command defines a pool of global addresses. The global addresses in the pool provide an IP
address for each outbound connection, and for those inbound connections resulting from outbound
connections. Ensure that associated nat and global command statements have the same nat_id.
Use caution with names that contain a “-” (dash) character because the global command interprets the last
(or only) “-” character in the name as a range specifier instead of as part of the name. For example, the
global command treats the name “host-net2” as a range from “ host” to “net2”. If the name is
“host-net2-section3” then it is interpreted as a range from “host-net2” to “ section3”.
The following command form is used for Port Address Translation (PAT) only:
global [(if_name)] nat_id {{global_ip} [netmask global_mask] | interface}
After changing or removing a global command statement, use the clear xlate command.
Use the no global command to remove access to a nat_id, or to a Port Address Translation (PAT)
address, or address range within a nat_id.
The show global command displays the global command statements in the configuration.
PAT
You can enable the Port Address Translation (PAT) feature by entering a single IP address with the
global command. PAT lets multiple outbound sessions appear to originate from a single IP address.
With PAT enabled, the PIX Firewall chooses a unique port number from the PAT IP address for each
outbound xlate (translation slot). This feature is valuable when an Internet service provider cannot
allocate enough unique IP addresses for your outbound connections. An IP address you specify for a
PAT cannot be used in another global address pool.
When a PAT augments a pool of global addresses, first the addresses from the global pool are used, then
the next connection is taken from the PAT address. If a global pool address is available, the next
connection takes that address. The global pool addresses always come first, before a PAT address is
used. Augment a pool of global addresses with a PAT by using the same nat_id in the global command
statements that create the global pools and the PAT.
For example:
global (outside) 1 209.165.201.1-209.165.201.10 netmask 255.255.255.224
global (outside) 1 209.165.201.22 netmask 255.255.255.224
PAT does not work with H.323 applications and caching nameservers. Do not use a PAT when
multimedia applications need to be run through the PIX Firewall. Multimedia applications can conflict
with port mappings provided by PAT.
The firewall does not PAT all ICMP message types; it only PATs ICMP echo and echo-reply packets
(types 8 and 0). Specifically, only ICMP echo or echo-reply packets create a PAT xlate. So, when the
other ICMP messages types are dropped, syslog message 305006 (on the PIX Firewall) is generated.
PAT does not work with the established command. PAT works with DNS, FTP and passive FTP, HTTP,
email, RPC, rshell, Telnet, URL filtering, and outbound traceroute.
However, for use with passive FTP, use the fixup protocol ftp strict command statement with an
access-list command statement to permit outbound FTP traffic, as shown in the following example:
fixup protocol ftp strict ftp
access-list acl_in permit tcp any any eq ftp
access-group acl_in in interface inside
nat (inside) 1 0 0
global (outside) 1 209.165.201.5 netmask 255.255.255.224
To specify PAT using the IP address of an interface, specify the interface keyword in the global
[(int_name)] nat_id address | interface command.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
6-2
78-14890-01
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
global
The following example enables PAT using the IP address at the outside interface in global configuration
mode:
ip address outside 192.150.49.1
nat (inside) 1 0 0
global (outside) 1 interface
The interface IP address used for PAT is the address associated with the interface when the xlate
(translation slot) is created. This is important for configuring DHCP, allowing for the DHCP retrieved
address to be used for PAT.
When PAT is enabled on an interface, there should be no loss of TCP, UDP, and ICMP services. These
services allow for termination at the PIX Firewall unit's outside interface.
To track usage among different subnets, you can specify multiple PATs using the following supported
configurations:
The following example maps hosts on the internal network 10.1.0.0/24 to global address 192.168.1.1 and
hosts on the internal network 10.1.1.1/24 to global address 209.165.200.225 in global configuration
mode.
nat (inside) 1 10.1.0.0 255.255.255.0
nat (inside) 2 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
global (outside) 1 192.168.1.1 netmask 255.255.255.0
global (outside) 2 209.165.200.225 netmask 255.255.255.224
The following example configures two port addresses for setting up PAT on hosts from the internal
network 10.1.0.0/16 in global configuration mode.
nat (inside) 1 10.1.0.0 255.255.0.0
global (outside) 1 209.165.200.225 netmask 255.255.255.224
global (outside) 1 192.168.1.1 netmask 255.255.255.0
With this configuration, address 192.168.1.1 will only be used when the port pool from address
209.165.200.225 is at maximum capacity.
PAT and DNS
IP addresses in the pool of global addresses specified with the global command require reverse DNS
entries to ensure that all external network addresses are accessible through the PIX Firewall. To create
reverse DNS mappings, use a DNS PTR record in the address-to-name mapping file for each global
address. For more information on DNS, refer to DNS and BIND, by Paul Albitz and Cricket Liu,
O’Reilly & Associates, Inc., ISBN 1-56592-010-4. Without the PTR entries, sites can experience slow
or intermittent Internet connectivity and FTP requests that consistently fail. For example, if a global IP
address is 209.165.201.1 and the domain for the PIX Firewall is pix.example.com, the PTR record would
be as follows.
1.201.165.209.in-addr.arpa. IN PTR pix.example.com
A DNS server on a higher level security interface needing to get updates from a root name server on the
outside interface cannot use PAT. Instead, a static command statement must be added to map the DNS
server to a global address on the outside interface.
For example, PAT is enabled with these commands:
nat (inside) 1 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0
global (inside) 1 209.165.202.128 netmask 255.255.255.224
However, a DNS server on the inside at IP address 192.168.1.5 cannot correctly reach the root name
server on the outside at IP address 209.165.202.130.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
6-3
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
help
To ensure that the inside DNS server can access the root name server, insert the following static
command statement:
static (inside,outside) 209.165.202.129 192.168.1.5
The global address 209.165.202.129 provides a translated address for the inside server at IP address
192.168.1.5.
Examples
The following example declares two global pool ranges and a PAT address. Then the nat command
permits all inside users to start connections to the outside network:
global (outside) 1 209.165.201.1-209.165.201.10 netmask 255.255.255.224
global (outside) 1 209.165.201.12 netmask 255.255.255.224
Global 209.165.201.12 will be Port Address Translated
nat (inside) 1 0 0
clear xlate
The next example creates a global pool from two contiguous pieces of a Class C address and gives the
perimeter hosts access to this pool of addresses to start connections on the outside interface:
global (outside) 1000 209.165.201.1-209.165.201.14 netmask 255.255.255.240
global (outside) 1000 209.165.201.17-209.165.201.30 netmask 255.255.255.240
nat (perimeter) 1000 0 0
help
Display help information.
help command
?
Syntax Description
?
Displays all commands available in the current privilege level and mode.
command
Specifies the PIX Firewall command for which to display the PIX Firewall
command-line interface (CLI) help.
help
If no command name is specified, displays all commands available in the current
privilege level and mode; otherwise, displays the PIX Firewall CLI help for the
command specified.
Command Modes
Unprivileged, privileged, and configuration modes.
Usage Guidelines
The help or ? command displays help information about all commands. You can view help for an
individual command by entering the command name followed by a “?”(question mark).
If the pager command is enabled and when 24 lines display, the listing pauses, and the following prompt
appears:
<--- More --->
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
6-4
78-14890-01
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
hostname
The More prompt uses syntax similar to the UNIX more command:
Examples
•
To view another screenful, press the Space bar.
•
To view the next line, press the Enter key.
•
To return to the command line, press the q key.
The following example shows how you can display help information by following the command name
with a question mark:
enable ?
usage: enable password <pw> [encrypted]
Help information is available on the core commands (not the show, no, or clear commands) by
entering ? at the command prompt:
?
aaa Enable, disable, or view TACACS+ or RADIUS
user authentication, authorization and accounting
…
hostname
Change the host name in the PIX Firewall command-line prompt.
hostname newname
Syntax Description
newname
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The hostname command changes the host name label on prompts. The default host name is pixfirewall.
Note
Examples
Specifies a new host name for the firewall and is displayed in the firewall prompt. This
name can be up to 63 characters, including alphanumeric characters, spaces or any of
the following special characters: ‘( ) + - , . / : = ?
The change of the host name causes the change of the fully qualified domain name. Once the fully
qualified domain name is changed, delete the RSA key pairs with the ca zeroize rsa command and delete
related certificates with the no ca identity ca_nickname command.
The following example shows how to change a host name:
pixfirewall(config)# hostname spinner
spinner(config)# hostname pixfirewall
pixfirewall(config)#
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
6-5
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
http
http
Enables the PIX Firewall HTTP server and specifies the clients that are permitted to access it.
Additionally, for access, the Cisco PIX Device Manager (PDM) requires that the PIX Firewall have an
enabled HTTP server.
[no] http ip_address [netmask] [if_name]
[no] http server enable
clear http
show http
Syntax Description
clear http
Removes all HTTP hosts and disables the server.
http
Relating to the Hypertext Transfer Protocol.
http server enable
Enables the HTTP server required to run PDM.
if_name
PIX Firewall interface name on which the host or network initiating the HTTP
connection resides.
ip_address
Specifies the host or network authorized to initiate an HTTP connection to the
PIX Firewall.
netmask
Specifies the network mask for the http ip_address.
Defaults
If you do not specify a netmask, the default is 255.255.255.255 regardless of the class of IP address. The
default if_name is inside.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
Access from any host will be allowed if 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 (or 0 0) is specified for ip_address and netmask.
The show http command displays the allowed hosts and whether or not the HTTP server is enabled.
Examples
The following http command example is used for one host:
http 16.152.1.11 255.255.255.255 outside
The following http command example is used for any host:
http 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 inside
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
6-6
78-14890-01
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
icmp
icmp
Configure access rules for Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) traffic that terminates at an
interface.
[no] icmp {permit | deny} ip_address net_mask [icmp_type] if_name
clear icmp
show icmp
Syntax Description
deny
Deny access if the conditions are matched.
icmp_type
ICMP message type as described in Table 6-1.
if_name
The interface name.
ip_address
The IP address of the host sending ICMP messages to the interface.
net_mask
The mask to be applied to ip_address.
permit
Permit access if the conditions are matched.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
By default, the PIX Firewall denies all inbound traffic through the outside interface. Based on your
network security policy, you should consider configuring the PIX Firewall to deny all ICMP traffic at
the outside interface, or any other interface you deem necessary, by using the icmp command.
The icmp command controls ICMP traffic that received by the firewall. If no ICMP control list is
configured, then the PIX Firewall accepts all ICMP traffic that terminates at any interface (including the
outside interface), except that the PIX Firewall does not respond to ICMP echo requests directed to a
broadcast address.
The icmp deny command disables pinging to an interface, and the icmp permit command enables
pinging to an interface. With pinging disabled, the PIX Firewall cannot be detected on the network. This
is also referred to as configurable proxy pinging.
For traffic that is routed through the PIX Firewall only, you can use the access-list or access-group
commands to control the ICMP traffic routed through the PIX Firewall.
We recommend that you grant permission for ICMP unreachable message type (type 3). Denying ICMP
unreachable messages disables ICMP Path MTU discovery, which can halt IPSec and PPTP traffic. See
RFC 1195 and RFC 1435 for details about Path MTU Discovery.
If an ICMP control list is configured, then the PIX Firewall uses a first match to the ICMP traffic
followed by an implicit deny all. That is, if the first matched entry is a permit entry, the ICMP packet
continues to be processed. If the first matched entry is a deny entry or an entry is not matched,
PIX Firewall discards the ICMP packet and generates the %PIX-3-313001 syslog message. An
exception is when an ICMP control list is not configured; in that case, a permit is assumed.
The syslog message is as follows:
%PIX-3-313001: Denied ICMP type=type, code=code from source_address on interface
interface_number
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
6-7
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
igmp
If this message appears, contact the peer’s administrator.
ICMP Message Types
Table 6-1 lists possible ICMP type values.
Table 6-1
Examples
ICMP Type Literals
ICMP Type
Literal
0
echo-reply
3
unreachable
4
source-quench
5
redirect
6
alternate-address
8
echo
9
router-advertisement
10
router-solicitation
11
time-exceeded
12
parameter-problem
13
timestamp-request
14
timestamp-reply
15
information-request
16
information-reply
17
mask-request
18
mask-reply
31
conversion-error
32
mobile-redirect
1.
Deny all ping requests and permit all unreachable messages at the outside interface:
icmp permit any unreachable outside
The default behavior of the PIX Firewall is to deny ICMP messages to the outside interface.
2.
Permit host 172.16.2.15 or hosts on subnet 172.22.1.0/16 to ping the outside interface:
icmp permit host 172.16.2.15 echo-reply outside
icmp permit 172.22.1.0 255.255.0.0 echo-reply outside
icmp permit any unreachable outside
igmp
Refer to the multicast command for the igmp subcommands.
The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) enables IP hosts to report their multicast group
memberships to an adjacent multicast router. On the PIX Firewall, IGMP support is implemented as a
subcommand to the multicast command.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
6-8
78-14890-01
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
interface
interface
Sets network interface parameters and configures VLANs.
interface hardware_id [hardware_speed [shutdown]]
[no] interface hardware_id vlan_id [logical | physical] [shutdown]
interface hardware_id change-vlan old_vlan_id new_vlan_id
clear interface
show interface hardware_id [hardware_speed] [shutdown]
Syntax Description
change-vlan
Keyword to change the VLAN identifier for an interface.
hardware_id
Identifies the network interface type. Possible values are ethernet0, ethernet1 to
ethernetn, or gb-ethernetn, depending on how many network interfaces are in the
PIX Firewall.
hardware_speed Network interface speed (optional).
aui—Set 10 for Mbps Ethernet half-duplex communication with an AUI cable
interface.
auto—Negotiates Ethernet speed and duplex settings automatically. The auto
keyword can only be used with the Intel 10/100 automatic speed-sensing network
interface card.
bnc—Set for 10 Mbps Ethernet half-duplex communication with a BNC cable
interface.
Possible Ethernet values are:
10baseT—To set for 10 Mbps Ethernet half-duplex communication.
10full—To set for 10 Mbps Ethernet full-duplex communication.
100baseTX—To set for 100 Mbps Ethernet half-duplex communication.
100full—To set for 100 Mbps Ethernet full-duplex communication.
Possible Gigabit Ethernet (gb-ethernetX) values are:
1000auto—To auto negotiate speed and duplex.
1000full—To auto negotiate, advertising 1000 Mbps full duplex.
1000full nonegotiate—To force link to 1000 Mbps full duplex.
Command Modes
logical
Creates a logical interface and applies the VLAN.
new_vlan_id
The new VLAN indentifier.
old_vlan_id
The current VLAN indentifier.
physical
Apply VLAN to physical interface.
shutdown
Disable an interface.
vlan_id
The VLAN identifier. For example: vlan10, vlan20, and so on.
Configuration mode.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
6-9
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
interface
Defaults
When configured, VLAN logical interfaces are enabled by default.
Usage Guidelines
The interface command sets the speed and duplex settings of the network interface boards, and brings
up the interfaces specified. After changing an interface command, use the clear xlate command.
Note
For Stateful Failover to work properly, set the Stateful Failover dedicated interface to 100 Mbps full
duplex using the 100full option to the interface command.
The i82542 Gigabit Ethernet interface currently used in the PIX Firewall does not support half duplex;
as a result, 1000auto is equivalent to 1000full when using this interface.
VLAN interfaces
With Version 6.3, you can assign VLANs to physical interfaces on the PIX Firewall, or you can
configure multiple logical interfaces on a single physical interface and assign each logical interface to a
specific VLAN.
Physical interfaces are one per each NIC, in place at boot time, and non-removable. Logical interfaces
that can be many-to-one for each NIC, are created at run time, and can be removed through software
reconfiguration. A minimum of two physical interfaces are required for all PIX Firewall platforms to
support VLANs.
A logical interface is similar in many respects to a so-called physical interface. Both logical and physical
interfaces are software objects (the actual physical object is the network interface card on the
PIX Firewall unit). What is called the physical interface for the purpose of configuration is a software
object that has both Layer 2 (Data link) and Layer 3 (Network) attributes. Layer 2 attributes include
maximum transmission unit (MTU) size and failover status, while Layer 3 attributes include IP address
and security level.
A logical interface has only Layer 3 attributes. As a result, you can issue certain commands, such as
failover link if_name or failover lan interface if_name on a physical interface that you cannot use with
a logical interface. When you disable a physical interface, all the associated logical interfaces are also
disabled. When you disable a logical interface, it only affects the logical interface.
The number of logical interfaces that you can configure varies according to the model. The minimum
number of interfaces for any PIX Firewall is two. Table 6-2 lists the maximum number of logical
interfaces supported on a specific PIX Firewall model:
Table 6-2
Maximum Number of Interfaces Supported on PIX Firewall Models
Restricted License1
Model
Unrestricted License
Total
Interfaces
Physical
Interfaces
Logical
Interfaces
Total
Interfaces
Physical
Interfaces
Logical
Interfaces
PIX 501 2
NA
NA
NA
2
2
Not
supported
PIX 506/506E
NA
NA
NA
2
2
Not
supported
PIX 515/515E
5
3
3
10
6
8
NA
NA
NA
12
6
10
PIX 520
3
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
6-10
78-14890-01
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
interface
Table 6-2
Model
Maximum Number of Interfaces Supported on PIX Firewall Models (continued)
Restricted License1
Unrestricted License
Total
Interfaces
Physical
Interfaces
Logical
Interfaces
Total
Interfaces
Physical
Interfaces
Logical
Interfaces
PIX 525
8
6
6
12
8
10
PIX 535
10
8
8
24
10
22
1. PIX 501 and PIX 506/506E do not support Restricted/Unrestricted licenses.
2. One interface of the PIX 501 connects to an integrated 4-port switch.
3. PIX 520 supports a connection license and the number of interfaces does not vary with the connection license.
Note
To determine the maximum number of logical interfaces that you can use, subtract the number of
physical interfaces in use on your PIX Firewall from the number of total interfaces.
Use the show interface command to display information about the VLAN configuration.
Use the interface hardware_id vlan_id logical shutdown command to temporarily disable a logical
interface.
Use the interface hardware_id change-vlan old_vlan_id new_vlan_id command to reassign a VLAN.
Use the no interface hardware_id vlan_id logical command to remove the VLAN configuration.
no and clear commands
The clear interface command clears all interface statistics except the number of input bytes. This
command no longer shuts down all system interfaces. The clear interface command works with all
interface types except Gigabit Ethernet. The clear interface command also clears the packet drop count
of Unicast RPF for all interfaces.
Use the no interface command to remove logical interfaces and VLAN definitions. (However, a no
interface command does not negate an interface shutdown command.)
Note
Using a no interface command on a logical interface (used for VLAN configuration) removes the logical
interface from the system. Removing the logical interface also deletes all configuration rules applied to
that interface, so exercise caution when using no interface commands with logical interfaces.
The shutdown option lets you disable an interface. When you first install PIX Firewall, all interfaces
are shut down by default. You must explicitly enable an interface by entering the command without the
shutdown option. If the shutdown option does not exist in the command, packets are passed by the
driver to and from the card.
If the shutdown option does exist, packets are dropped in either direction. Inserting a new card defaults
to the default interface command containing the shutdown option. (That is, if you add a new card and
then enter the write memory command, the shutdown option is saved into Flash memory for the
interface.) When upgrading from a previous version to the current version, interfaces are enabled.
The configuration of the interface affects buffer allocation (the PIX Firewall will allocate more buffers
for higher line speeds). Buffer allocation can be checked with the show blocks command.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
6-11
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
interface
Note
Even though the default is to set automatic speed sensing for the interfaces with the
interface hardware_id auto command, we recommend that you specify the speed of the network
interfaces; for example, 10baseT or 100baseTX. This lets PIX Firewall operate in network
environments that may include switches or other devices that do not handle auto sensing correctly.
show interface
The show interface command lets you view network interface information for Ethernet. This is one of
the first commands you should use when establishing network connectivity after installing a
PIX Firewall.
Note
The PIX 501 switch interface always indicates 100000 Kbit full duplex (100,000 Kbps full duplex)
even though the switch ports have negotiated the speed and duplex settings. The PIX Firewall
automatically negotiates the inside interface setting at 100full and this is not configurable.
Gigabit interface cards do not provide information for the extended show interface command counters
introduced in Version 5.0(3). For Gigabit Ethernet interfaces, the current and maximum count for the
number of blocks on the input (receive) queue will always be the same (63).
The information in the show interface command is as follows in Table 6-3:
Table 6-3
show interface Description
Show Interface Command
Output
Description
Ethernet string
Indicates that you have used the interface command to configure the
interface. The statement indicates either outside or inside, and whether
the interface is available (“up”) or not available (“down”).
line protocol up
The message “line protocol up” means a working cable is plugged into
the network interface. If the message is “line protocol down,” either the
cable is incorrect or not plugged into the interface connector. The show
interface command reports “line protocol down” for BNC cable
connections and for 3Com cards.
or
line protocol down
Network interface type
Indicates type of network interface.
Interrupt vector
Note: It is acceptable for interface cards to have the same interrupts.
MAC address
Intel cards start with “i” and 3Com cards with “3c.”
Maximum transmission
unit (MTU)
The size, in bytes, that data can best be sent over the network.
nn packets input
Indicates that packets are being received in the PIX Firewall.
nn packets output
Indicates that packets are being sent from the PIX Firewall.
Line duplex status
Half duplex indicates that the network interface switches back and forth
between sending and receiving information; full duplex indicates that the
network interface can send or receive information simultaneously.
Line speed
10baseT is listed as 10,000 Kb; 100baseTX is listed as 100,000 Kb.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
6-12
78-14890-01
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
interface
•
The show interface command includes eight status counters (valid only for Ethernet interfaces).
The following example shows sample output:
show interface
interface ethernet0 "outside" is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is i82559 ethernet, address is 00aa.0000.003b
IP address 209.165.201.7, subnet mask 255.255.255.224
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit half duplex
1184342 packets input, 1222298001 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 26 broadcasts, 27 runts, 0 giants
4 input errors, 0 CRC, 4 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
1310091 packets output, 547097270 bytes, 0 Andorrans, 0 unicast repave drops
0 output errors, 28075 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 babbles, 0 late collisions, 117573 deferred
0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier
input queue (cure/max blocks): hardware (128/128) software (0/1)
output queue (cure/max blocks): hardware (0/2) software (0/1)
The show interface counter descriptions are as follows in Table 6-4:
Table 6-4
show interface Counters
Counter
Description
output errors
The number of frames not transmitted because the configured maximum
number of collisions was exceeded. This counter should only increment
during heavy network traffic.
collisions
The number of messages retransmitted due to an Ethernet collision
(single and multiple collisions). This usually occurs on an overextended
LAN (Ethernet or transceiver cable too long, more than two repeaters
between stations, or too many cascaded multiport transceivers). A
packet that collides is counted only once by the output packets.
interface resets
The number of times an interface has been reset. If an interface is unable
to transmit for three seconds, PIX Firewall resets the interface to restart
transmission. During this interval, connection state is maintained. An
interface reset can also happen when an interface is looped back or shut
down.
babbles
Unused. (“babble” means that the transmitter has been on the interface
longer than the time taken to transmit the largest frame.)
late collisions
The number of frames that were not transmitted because a collision
occurred outside the normal collision window. A late collision is a
collision that is detected late in the transmission of the packet.
Normally, these should never happen. When two Ethernet hosts try to
talk at once, they should collide early in the packet and both back off, or
the second host should see that the first one is talking and wait.
If you get a late collision, a device is jumping in and trying to send the
packet on the Ethernet while the PIX Firewall is partly finished sending
the packet. The PIX Firewall does not resend the packet, because it may
have freed the buffers that held the first part of the packet. This is not a
real problem because networking protocols are designed to cope with
collisions by resending packets. However, late collisions indicate a
problem exists in your network. Common problems are large repeated
networks and Ethernet networks running beyond the specification.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
6-13
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
interface
Table 6-4
show interface Counters (continued)
Counter
Description
deferred
The number of frames that were deferred before transmission due to
activity on the link.
lost carrier
The number of times the carrier signal was lost during transmission.
no carrier
Unused.
input queue (curr/max
blocks)
Input queue—The input (receive) hardware and software queue.
output queue (curr/max
blocks)
Examples
•
hardware—(current and maximum blocks). The number of blocks
currently present on the input hardware queue, and the maximum
number of blocks previously present on that queue. In the example,
there are currently 128 blocks on the input hardware queue, and the
maximum number of blocks ever present on this queue was 128.
•
software—(current and maximum blocks). The number of blocks
currently present on the input software queue, and the maximum
number of blocks previously present on that queue. In the example,
there are currently 0 blocks on the input software queue, and the
maximum number of blocks ever present on this queue was 1.
Output queue—The output (transmit) hardware and software queue.
•
hardware—(current and maximum blocks). The number of blocks
currently present on the output hardware queue, and the maximum
number of blocks previously present on that queue. In the example,
there are currently 0 blocks on the output hardware queue, and the
maximum number of blocks ever present on this queue was 2.
•
software—(current and maximum blocks). The number of blocks
currently present on the output software queue, and the maximum
number of blocks previously present on that queue. In the example,
there are currently 0 blocks on the output software queue, and the
maximum number of blocks ever present on this queue was 1.
The following example shows interface activity on the interface ethernet0, which has been named
outside:
show interface
interface ethernet0 "outside" is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is i82559 ethernet, address is 0000.0001.0001
IP address 209.165.201.17, subnet mask 255.255.255.0
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit full duplex
4203 packets input, 376390 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 3894 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
1320 packets output, 123652 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 babbles, 0 late collisions, 0 deferred
0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier
input queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (35/128) software (0/2)
output queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (0/1) software (0/1)
The following example sets a Gigabit Ethernet interface named gb0 to 1000full nonegotiate:
pixfirewall(config)# interface gb0 1000full nonegotiate
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
6-14
78-14890-01
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
ip address
Sample output from the subsequent show interface command is as follows:
pixfirewall(config)# show interface gb0
interface gb-ethernet0 "intf2" is up, line protocol is down
Hardware is i82543 rev02 gigabit ethernet, address is 0003.47df.1e1c
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 1 Gbit full duplex, Force link-up
5133 packets input, 628176 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 4202 broadcasts, 2 runts, 8 giants
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
1832 packets output, 124948 bytes, 0 underruns
input queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (41/128) software (0/2)
output queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (0/2) software (0/4)
The “ Force link-up” keyword indicates that the link was forced and not negotiated.
The following is sample output from the show interface command on a PIX 501. Notice that the
interface speed and settings are always displayed as 100000 Kbit half duplex.
pixfirewall(config)# show interface
interface ethernet0 “outside” is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is i82559 ethernet, address is 0007.eb9b.56aa
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit half duplex
114 packets input, 6840 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 114 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
62982 packets output, 78915110 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 babbles, 0 late collisions, 0 deferred
1483 lost carrier, 0 no carrier
input queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (128/128) software (0/1)
output queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (0/115) software (0/64)
interface ethernet1 “inside” is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is i82559 ethernet, address is 0007.eb9b.56ab
IP address 192.168.1.1, subnet mask 255.255.255.0
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit full duplex
55005197 packets input, 903916376 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
2 packets output, 120 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 babbles, 0 late collisions, 0 deferred
0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier
input queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (128/128) software (0/59)
output queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (0/1) software (0/1)
Related Commands
nameif
Assigns a name to an interface.
ip address
Configures the IP address and mask for an interface, or defines a local address
pool.
ip address
Identifies addresses for network interfaces, and enables you to set the number of times the PIX Firewall
will poll for DHCP information.
[no] ip address if_name ip_address [netmask]
[no] ip address outside dhcp [setroute] [retry retry_cnt]
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
6-15
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
ip address
[no] ip address if_name pppoe [setroute]
[no] ip address if_name ip_address netmask pppoe [setroute]
clear ip
show ip
show ip address if_name dhcp
show ip address if_name pppoe
Syntax Description
clear ip
Clears all interface IP addresses. The clear ip command does not affect the ip
local pool or ip verify reverse-route commands.
dhcp
Specifies PIX Firewall will use DHCP to poll for information. Enables the DHCP
client feature on the specified interface.
if_name
The internal or external interface name designated by the nameif command.
ip_address
PIX Firewall unit’s network interface IP address. Each interface IP address must
be unique. Two or more interfaces must not be given the same IP address or IP
addresses which are on the same IP network.
netmask
Network mask of ip_address.
outside
Interface from which the PIX Firewall will poll for information.
pppoe
Specifies to use Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) to assign an IP
address.
retry
Enables PIX Firewall to retry a poll for DHCP information.
retry_cnt
Specifies the number of times PIX Firewall will poll for DHCP information. The
values available are 4 to 16. If no value is specified, the default is 4.
setroute
This option tells the PIX Firewall to set the default route using the default
gateway parameter the DHCP or PPPoE server returns.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Defaults
By default, the PIX Firewall will not retry to poll for DHCP information. The default value for retry_cnt
is 4.
Usage Guidelines
The ip address command lets you assign an IP address to each interface.
Note
Each interface IP address must be unique and not on the same network as any another interface on the
firewall.
Use the show ip command to view which addresses are assigned to the network interfaces. If you make
a mistake while entering this command, reenter the command with the correct information. The clear ip
command clears all interface IP addresses. The clear ip command does not affect the ip local pool or ip
verify reverse-route commands.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
6-16
78-14890-01
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
ip address
Note
The clear ip command stops all traffic through the PIX Firewall unit.
After changing an ip address command, use the clear xlate command.
Always specify a network mask with the ip address command. If you let PIX Firewall assign a network
mask based on the IP address, you may not be permitted to enter subsequent IP addresses if another
interface’s address is in the same range as the first address. For example, if you specify an inside
interface address of 10.1.1.1 without specifying a network mask and then try to specify 10.1.2.2 for a
perimeter interface mask, PIX Firewall displays the error message, “Sorry, not allowed to enter IP
address on same network as interface n.” To fix this problem, reenter the first command specifying the
correct network mask.
Do not set the netmask to all 255s, such as 255.255.255.255. This stops access on the interface. Instead,
use a network address of 255.255.255.0 for Class C addresses, 255.255.0.0 for Class B addresses, or
255.0.0.0 for Class A addresses.
PIX Firewall configurations using failover require a separate IP address for each network interface on
the standby unit. The system IP address is the address of the active unit. When the show ip command is
executed on the active unit, the current IP address is the same as the system IP address. When the show
ip command is executed on the standby unit, the system IP address is the failover IP address configured
for the standby unit.
Note
If an IP address has not been configured for a physical or VLAN interface, or the IP address for the
interface has been deleted using the clear ip command, the IP address for that interface is no longer set
to 127.0.0.1 by default. In this case, the interface is does not have an IP address.
Note
When using the IP address of an interface as the device ID in logging messages sent to a syslog server
and the IP address of that interface is cleared, the device ID uses 0.0.0.0.
show ip address commands
The show ip command isplays IP addresses assigned to the network interfaces.
The show ip address if_name dhcp command displays detailed information about the DHCP lease.
The show ip address if_name pppoe command displays detailed information about the PPPOE
connection.
DHCP client
The ip address dhcp command enables the DHCP client feature within the PIX Firewall. This command
allows the PIX Firewall to be a DHCP client to a DHCP server that provides configuration parameters
to the client. In this case, the configuration parameters the DHCP server provides is an IP address and a
subnet mask to the interface on which the DHCP client feature is enabled. The optional setroute
argument tells the PIX Firewall to set the default route using the default gateway parameter the DHCP
server returns. If the setroute argument is configured, the show route command output shows the
default route as being set by a DHCP server. To reset the interface and delete the DHCP lease from
PIX Firewall, configure a static IP address with the ip address if_name ip_address [netmask] or ip
address if_name pppoe | dhcp [setroute] command, or use the clear ip command.
The ip address dhcp and pppoe command options are mutually exclusive.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
6-17
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
ip address
Note
Do not configure the PIX Firewall with a default route when using the setroute argument of the ip
address dhcp or ip address pppoe command.
PPPoE client
The PPPoE client functionality is turned off by default, and you must first use the vpdn commands to
configure the PIX Firewall for PPPoE; the vpdn commands set the username, password, and
authentication protocol for PPPoE access.
PPPoE is only supported on the PIX Firewall outside interface in PIX Firewall software Version 6.2.
The ip address pppoe command enables the PPPoE client feature within the PIX Firewall. (You can
also use this command to clear and restart a PPPoE session; the current session shuts down and a new
one restarts after entering this command.) You must enter the PPPoE configuration using the vpdn
commands before enabling PPPoE with the ip address pppoe command.
You can also enable PPPoE by manually entering the IP address, using the ip address if_name
ip_address netmask pppoe command. This command sets the PIX Firewall to use the specified address
instead of negotiating with the PPPoE server to assign an address.
The ip address setroute command enables an access concentrator to set the default routes for the PPPoE
client.
The ip address pppoe and dhcp command options are mutually exclusive.
For more information
See the Cisco PIX Firewall and VPN Configuration Guide for more information about the DHCP and
PPPoE client features.
Examples
The following is sample output from the show ip command:
show ip
System IP Addresses:
ip address outside 209.165.201.2 255.255.255.224
ip address inside 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0
ip address perimeter 192.168.70.3 255.255.255.0
Current IP Addresses:
ip address outside 209.165.201.2 255.255.255.224
ip address inside 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0
ip address perimeter 192.168.70.3 255.255.255.0
The Current IP Addresses are the same as the System IP Addresses on the failover active unit. When the
primary unit fails, the Current IP Addresses become those of the standby unit.
The following is sample output from the show ip address dhcp command:
show ip address outside dhcp
Temp IP Addr:209.165.201.57 for peer on interface:outside
Temp sub net mask:255.255.255.224
DHCP Lease server:209.165.200.225, state:3 Bound
DHCP Transaction id:0x4123
Lease:259200 secs, Renewal:129600 secs, Rebind:226800 secs
Temp default-gateway addr:209.165.201.1
Next timer fires after:111797 secs
Retry count:0, Client-ID:cisco-0000.0000.0000-outside
ip address outside dhcp retry 10
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
6-18
78-14890-01
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
ip audit
Related Commands
dhcpd
Configures the DHCP server.
vpdn
Configures VPDN (PPTP, L2TP, PPPoE) policy.
ip audit
Configures IDS signature use.
[no] ip audit attack [action [alarm] [drop] [reset]]
[no] ip audit info [action [alarm] [drop] [reset]]
[no] ip audit interface if_name audit_name
[no] ip audit name audit_name attack [action [alarm] [drop] [reset]]
[no] ip audit name audit_name info [action [alarm] [drop] [reset]]
[no] ip audit signature signature_number disable
show ip audit count [global] [interface interface]
show ip audit {info | attack}
show ip audit interface [if_name]
show ip audit name [audit_name [info|attack]]
show ip audit signature [signature_number]
clear ip audit [configuration]
clear ip audit count [global | interface interface]
Syntax Description
action [alarm]
[drop] [reset]
The alarm option reports to all configured syslog servers that a signature match is
detected in a packet. The drop option drops the offending packet. The reset option
drops the offending packet and closes the connection if it is part of an active
connection. The default is alarm. When no option is specified (you enter “ ip
audit info action” only), all actions are disabled.
audit attack
Specify the default actions to be taken for attack signatures.
audit info
Specify the default actions to be taken for informational signatures or disable all
actions.
audit interface
Apply an audit specification or policy (via the ip audit name command) to an
interface.
audit name
Specify informational signatures, except those disabled or excluded by the ip
audit signature command, as part of the policy.
audit signature
Specify which messages to display, attach a global policy to a signature, and
disable or exclude a signature from auditing.
audit_name
Audit policy name viewed with the show ip audit name command.
clear
Resets name, signature, interface, attack, info to their default values.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
6-19
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
ip audit
configuration
The already configured ip audit commands.
count
The number of signature matches.
global
All firewall interfaces.
interface interface
The name of a firewall interface, defined by the nameif command.
signature_number
An IDS signature number.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
Cisco Intrusion Detection System (Cisco IDS) provides the following for IP-based systems:
•
Traffic auditing. Application-level signatures will only be audited as part of an active session.
•
Applies the audit to an interface.
•
Supports different audit policies. Traffic matching a signature triggers a range of configurable
actions.
•
Disables the signature audit.
•
Enables IDS and still disables actions of a signature class (informational, attack).
Auditing is performed by looking at the IP packets as they arrive at an input interface, if a packet triggers
a signature and the configured action does not drop the packet, then the same packet can trigger other
signatures.
PIX Firewall supports both inbound and outbound auditing.
For a complete list of supported Cisco IDS signatures, their wording, and whether they are attack or
informational messages, refer to Cisco PIX Firewall System Log Messages.
Refer to the Cisco Secure Intrusion Detection System Version 2.2.1 User Guide for detailed information
on each signature. You can view the “NSDB and Signatures” chapter of this guide at the following
website:
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/iaabu/csids/csids1/csidsug/sigs.htm
The ip audit commands are described in the sections that follow.
ip audit attack
The ip audit attack [action [alarm] [drop] [reset]] command specifies the default actions to be taken
for attack signatures. An audit policy (audit rule) defines the attributes for all signatures that can be
applied to an interface along with a set of actions. Using an audit policy may limit the traffic that is
audited or specify actions to be taken when the signature matches. Each audit policy is identified by a
name and can be defined for informational or attack signatures. Each interface can have two policies;
one for informational signatures and one for attack signatures. If a policy is defined without actions, then
the configured default actions will take effect. Each policy requires a different name.
The no ip audit attack command resets the action to be taken for attack signatures to the default action.
ip audit info
The ip audit info [action [alarm] [drop] [reset]] command specifies the default action to be taken for
signatures classified as informational signatures. The ip audit info action command disables all actions.
For example,
pixfirewall(config)# ip audit info action
Warning: no actions specified. All actions disabled.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
6-20
78-14890-01
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
ip audit
The no ip audit info command sets the action to be taken for signatures classified as informational and
reconnaissance to the default action.
ip audit interface
The ip audit interface if_name audit_name command applies an audit specification or policy (via the
ip audit name command) to an interface. The no ip audit interface [if_name] command removes a policy
from an interface.
ip audit name
The ip audit name audit_name info [action [alarm] [drop] [reset]] command specifies the
informational signatures except those disabled or excluded by the ip audit signature command that are
considered part of the policy. The no ip audit name audit_name [info] command removes the audit
policy audit_name.
ip audit signature
The ip audit signature signature_number disable command specifies which messages to display,
attaches a global policy to a signature, and disables or excludes a signature from auditing. The no ip
audit signature signature_number command removes the policy from a signature. It is used to reenable
a signature.
show ip audit commands
The show ip audit attack command displays the default attack actions.
The show ip audit info command displays the default informational actions.
The show ip audit interface command displays the interface configuration.
The show ip audit name command displays all audit policies or specific policies referenced by name
and type where possible.
The show ip audit signature command displays disabled signatures.
Supported IDS Signatures
PIX Firewall lists the following single-packet IDS signature messages: 1000-1006, 1100, 1102, 1103,
2000-2012, 2150, 2151, 2154, 3040-3042, 4050-4052, 6050-6053, 6100-6103, 6150-6155, 6175, 6180,
and 6190. All signature messages are not supported by PIX Firewall in this release. IDS syslog messages
all start wit
PIX-4-4000nn and have the following format:
%PIX-4-4000nn IDS:sig_num sig_msg from faddr to laddr on interface int_name
where the options are as follows:
sig_num
The signature number.
sig_msg
The signature message—approximately the same as the Cisco IDS signature message.
faddr
The IP address of the foreign host initiating the attack. (“Foreign” is relative; attacks can be
perpetrated either from outside to an inside host, or from the inside to an outside host.)
laddr
The IP address of the local host to which the attack is directed. (“Local” is relative; attacks
can be perpetrated either from the outside to an inside host, or from the inside to an outside
host.)
int_name
The name of the interface on which the signature originated.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
6-21
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
ip local pool
For example:
%PIX-4-400013 IDS:2003 ICMP redirect from 10.4.1.2 to 10.2.1.1 on interface dmz
%PIX-4-400032 IDS:4051 UDP Snork attack from 10.1.1.1 to 192.168.1.1 on interface outside
Examples
The following example disables the signature 6102 globally:
ip audit signature 6102 disable
The following example specifies default informational actions:
ip audit name attack1 info
The following example specifies an attack policy:
ip audit name attack2 attack action alarm drop reset
The following example applies a policy to an interface:
ip audit interface outside attack1
ip audit interface inside attack2
ip local pool
Identify addresses for a local pool.
ip local pool pool_name pool_start_address[-pool_end_address] [mask mask]
clear ip local pool pool_name ip_address[-ip_address]
show ip local pool pool_name ip_address[-ip_address]
[no] ip local pool pool_name pool_start-address[-pool_end-address]
clear ip local pool Removes all ip local pool configurations.
ip local pool
Creates a pool of local addresses to be used for assigning dynamic IP addresses
to remote VPN clients. The address range of this pool of local addresses must
not overlap with any command statement that lets you specify an IP address.
ip_address
Specify as a single IP address or use with -ip_address to specify a range of IP
addresses.
-ip_address
Optional ending IP address.
no ip local pool
Deletes a local address pool.
pool_name
Local pool name.
pool_start_address Local pool IP address range.
pool_end_address
[mask <mask>]
Add an optional netmask. If the netmask is configured then the PIX Firewall
headend will return it to the VPN client.
If the netmask is not configured, PIX Firewall will retain backward
compatibility with its previous behavior by not returning the netmask. If
netmask is not configured, the PIX Firewall will use netmask 255.255.255.0.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
6-22
78-14890-01
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
ip verify reverse-path
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The ip local pool command lets you create a pool of local addresses to be used for assigning dynamic
IP addresses to remote VPN clients. The address range of this pool of local addresses must not overlap
with any command statement that lets you specify an IP address. To delete an address pool, use the no
ip local pool command.
When a pool of addresses set by the ip local pool command is empty, the following syslog message
appears:
%PIX-4-404101: ISAKMP: Failed to allocate address for client from pool poolname
To reference this pool of local addresses, use the isakmp client configuration address-pool command.
Refer to the Cisco PIX Firewall and VPN Configuration Guide for information on the isakmp command.
pool_name ip_address [mask <mask>]
Because newer versions of VPN Client software might not work as expected without assigning a
netmask drectly through the PIX Firewall, this feature allows the user to assign the netmask to the VPN
client. The operating system software will attempt to calculate what the netmask is if a netmask is not
assigned, based on the class of the IP from "ip local pool". Using this default value may not be
appropriate for network routing to work properly.
For example, 10.x.x.x. is a class A, and the windows routing table sets the netmask as 255.0.0.0.
The following example creates a pool of IP addresses and then displays the pool contents:
ip local pool mypool 10.0.0.10-10.0.0.20
show ip local pool mypool
Pool
mypool
Begin
10.0.0.10
End
10.0.0.20
Mask
Not configured
Free
11
In use
0
Available Addresses:
10.0.0.10
10.0.0.11
10.0.0.12
10.0.0.13
10.0.0.14
10.0.0.15
10.0.0.16
10.0.0.17
10.0.0.18
10.0.0.19
10.0.0.20
for ip local pool <name> <range> [mask <mask>], a typical example range would be:
ip local pool <name> 10.1.1.1-10.1.1.254
ip verify reverse-path
Implements Unicast RPF IP spoofing protection.
ip verify reverse-path interface int_name
no ip verify reverse-path interface int_name
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
6-23
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
ip verify reverse-path
clear ip verify reverse-path interface int_name
clear ip verify
show ip verify [reverse-path [interface int_name]]
show ip verify statistics
Syntax Description
clear ip verify
Removes ip verify commands from the configuration.
clear ip verify
reverse-path
interface
Removes ip verify reverse-path commands for an individual interface from the
configuration.
int_name
Name of an interface you want to protect from a DoS attack.
ip verify
reverse-path
interface
Protects an individual interface against IP spoofing by enabling both ingress and
egress filtering to verify addressing and route integrity. This command depends
upon a default route previously defined in the configuration. See RFC 2267 for
more information.
no ip verify
reverse-path
interface
Disables ip verify reverse-path filtering for an individual interface from the
configuration.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The ip verify reverse-path command is a security feature that does a route lookup based on the source
address. Usually, the route lookup is based on the destination address. This is why it is called reverse
path forwarding. With this command enabled, packets are dropped if there is no route found for the
packet or the route found does not match the interface on which the packet arrived.
The ip verify reverse-path command lets you specify which interfaces to protect from an IP spoofing
attack using network ingress and egress filtering, which is described in RFC 2267. This command is
disabled by default and provides Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding (Unicast RPF) functionality for the
PIX Firewall.
The clear ip verify command removes ip verify commands from the configuration. Unicast RPF is a
unidirectional input function that screens inbound packets arriving on an interface. Outbound packets
are not screened.
Because of the danger of IP spoofing in the IP protocol, measures need to be taken to reduce this risk
when possible. Unicast RPF, or reverse route lookup, prevents such manipulation under certain
circumstances.
Note
The ip verify reverse-path command depends on the existence of a default route statement in the
configuration for the outside interface that has 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 in the route command statement for the
IP address and network mask.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
6-24
78-14890-01
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
ip verify reverse-path
The ip verify reverse-path command provides both ingress and egress filtering. Ingress filtering checks
inbound packets for IP source address integrity, and is limited to addresses for networks in the enforcing
entity's local routing table. If the incoming packet does not have a source address represented by a route,
then it is impossible to know whether the packet has arrived on the best possible path back to its origin.
This is often the case when routing entities cannot maintain routes for every network.
Egress filtering verifies that packets destined for hosts outside the managed domain have IP source
addresses verifiable by routes in the enforcing entity's local routing table. If an exiting packet does not
arrive on the best return path back to the originator, then the packet is dropped and the activity is logged.
Egress filtering prevents internal users from launching attacks using IP source addresses outside of the
local domain because most attacks use IP spoofing to hide the identity of the attacking host. Egress
filtering makes the task of tracing the origin of an attack much easier. When employed, egress filtering
enforces what IP source addresses are obtained from a valid pool of network addresses. Addresses are
kept local to the enforcing entity and are therefore easily traceable.
Unicast RPF is implemented as follows:
Note
•
ICMP packets have no session, so each packet is checked.
•
UDP and TCP have sessions, so the initial packet requires a reverse route lookup. Subsequent
packets arriving during the session are checked using an existing state maintained as part of the
session. Non-initial packets are checked to ensure they arrived on the same interface used by the
initial packet.
Before using this command, add static route command statements for every network that can be
accessed on the interfaces you wish to protect. Only enable this command if routing is fully specified.
Otherwise, PIX Firewall will stop traffic on the interface you specify if routing is not in place.
Use the show interface command to view the number dropped packets, which appears in the “unicast
rpf drops” counter.
Examples
The following example protects traffic between the inside and outside interfaces and provides route
command statements for two networks, 10.1.2.0 and 10.1.3.0, that connect to the inside interface via a
hub:
ip address inside 10.1.1.1 255.255.0.0
route inside 10.1.2.0 255.255.0.0 10.1.1.1 1
route inside 10.1.3.0 255.255.0.0 10.1.1.1 1
ip verify reverse-path interface outside
ip verify reverse-path interface inside
The ip verify reverse-path interface outside command statement protects the outside interface from
network ingress attacks from the Internet, whereas the ip verify reverse-path interface inside
command statement protects the inside interface from network egress attacks from users on the internal
network.
The following is sample output from the show ip verify statistics and clear ip verify statistics
commands:
pixfirewall(config)# show ip verify statistics
interface outside: 2 unicast rpf drops
interface inside: 1 unicast rpf drops
interface intf2: 3 unicast rpf drops
pixfirewall(config)# clear ip verify statistics
pixfirewall(config)# show ip verify statistics
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
6-25
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
isakmp
interface outside: 0 unicast rpf drops
interface inside: 0 unicast rpf drops
interface intf2: 0 unicast rpf drops
isakmp
Configures the Internet Security Association Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) for IPSec Internet
Key Exchange (IKE). See also the isakmp policy command.
[no] isakmp client configuration address-pool local pool-name [interface-name]
[no] isakmp enable interface-name
[no] isakmp identity {address | hostname | [key-id key_id_string]}
isakmp keepalive seconds [retry_seconds]
[no] isakmp key keystring address peer-address [netmask mask] [no-xauth] [no-config-mode]
isakmp log <#events>
isakmp nat-traversal [natkeepalive]
[no] isakmp peer fqdn fqdn no-xauth no-config-mode
clear [crypto] isakmp sa
clear isakmp
show isakmp identity
show isakmp sa [detail]
Syntax Description
address
The IP address of the host exchanging ISAKMP identity information.
fqdn fqdn
The fully qualified domain name of the peer. This is used to identify a peer that is
a security gateway.
hostname
The name of the host exchanging ISAKMP identity information.
interface-name
The name of the interface on which to enable ISAKMP negotiation.
keepalive seconds The keepalive interval can be between 10 and 3600 seconds. The retry interval can
be between 2 and 10 seconds, with the default being 2 seconds. The retry interval
is the interval between retries after a keepalive response has not been received.
You can specify the keepalive interval without specifying the retry interval, but
cannot specify the retry interval without specifying the keepalive interval.
key
Specifies the authentication pre-shared key. Use any combination of alphanumeric
characters up to 128 bytes. This pre-shared key must be identical at both peers.
key-id
key_id_string
String used by the remote peer to look up the pre-shared key. (This is intended for
use with third-party VPN headend devices that do not support the Unity protocol.)
log
Sets the size of the log buffer.
<#events>
(Min 0, max 50,000, default 0 (disabled); each event uses 20 bytes)
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
6-26
78-14890-01
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
isakmp
netmask mask
(Optional) The netmask of 0.0.0.0. can be entered as a wildcard indicating the key
could be used for any peer that does not have a key associated with its specific IP
address.
natkeepalive
Sets the NAT keep alive interval, from 10 to 3600 seconds. The default is 20
seconds.
nat-traversal
Turns on or off NAT traversal. (NAT traversal is off by default.)
no-config-mode
This is only to be used if you enabled the IKE Mode Configuration feature, and
you have an IPSec peer that is a gateway. This option associates a given pre-shared
key with a gateway and allows an exception to the IKE Mode Configuration
feature enabled by the crypto map client configuration address command.
no-xauth
This is only to be used if you enabled the Xauth feature, and you have an IPSec
peer that is a gateway. This option associates a given pre-shared key with a
gateway and allows an exception to the Xauth feature enabled by the crypto map
client authentication command.
peer-address
Specifies the IPSec peer’s IP address for the pre-shared key.
pool-name
Specify the name of a local address pool to allocate the dynamic client IP.
retry_seconds
Specifies the time interval before a keepalive message is sent if a keepalive
response is not received from the previous request.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Defaults
By default, NAT traversal (isakmp nat-traversal) is disabled.
The default ISAKMP identity is isakmp identity hostname.
Usage Guidelines
The show isakmp identity command displays the current ISAKMP identity.
The show isakmp sa command displays all current IKE security associations between the PIX Firewall
and its peer.
The sections that follow describe each isakmp command.
isakmp client configuration address-pool local
The isakmp client configuration address-pool local command is used to configure the IP address local
pool to reference IKE. Use the no crypto isakmp client configuration address-pool local command to
restore to the default value.
Before using this command, use the ip local pool command to define a pool of local addresses to be
assigned to a remote IPSec peer.
Examples
The following example references IP address local pools to IKE with “mypool” as the pool-name:
isakmp client configuration address-pool local mypool outside
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
6-27
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
isakmp
isakmp enable
Use the isakmp enable interface-name command to enable ISAKMP negotiation on the interface on
which the IPSec peer will communicate with the PIX Firewall. Use the no isakmp enable command to
disable IKE.
The following example shows how to disable IKE on the inside interface:
no isakmp enable inside
isakmp identity
To define the ISAKMP identity the PIX Firewall uses when participating in the IKE protocol, use the
isakmp identity command. Use no isakmp identity command to reset the ISAKMP identity to the
default value of IP address. The default ISAKMP identity is hostname.
When two peers use IKE to establish IPSec security associations, each peer sends its ISAKMP identity
to the remote peer. It will send either its IP address or host name depending on how each has its ISAKMP
identity set. By default, the PIX Firewall unit’s ISAKMP identity is set to the IP address. As a general
rule, set the PIX Firewall and its peer’s identities in the same way to avoid an IKE negotiation failure.
This failure could be due to either the PIX Firewall or its peer not recognizing its peer’s identity.
Note
If you are using RSA signatures as your authentication method in your IKE policies, we recommend that
you set each participating peer’s identity to hostname. Otherwise, the ISAKMP security association to
be established during Phase 1 of IKE may fail.
The following example uses pre-shared keys between the two PIX Firewall units (PIX Firewall 1 and
PIX Firewall 2) that are peers, and sets both their ISAKMP identities to host name.
At the PIX Firewall 1, the ISAKMP identity is set to hostname:
isakmp identity hostname
At the PIX Firewall 2, the ISAKMP identity is set to hostname:
isakmp identity hostname
isakmp identity key-id
The isakmp identity key-id key_id_string command sends the specified key_id_string using aggressive
mode. This is intended to enable third-party VPN headend devices that do not support the Unity protocol
to interoperate with a DHCP-enabled firewall at a remote site.
Note
If the VPN client feature is enabled on the firewall, the vpnclient group name takes precedence over the
isakmp identity key-id setting, and the firewall sends vpnclient group name as the key-id.
isakmp keepalive
The isakmp keepalive seconds [retry_seconds] command sets the keepalive lifetime interval. The keepalive
interval can be between 10 and 3600 seconds. The retry interval can be between 2 and 10 seconds, with the
default being 2 seconds. The retry interval is the interval between retries after a keepalive response has not
been received. You can specify the keepalive lifetime interval without specifying the retry interval, but cannot
specify the retry interval without specifying the keepalive lifetime interval.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
6-28
78-14890-01
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
isakmp
isakmp key address
To configure a pre-shared authentication key and associate the key with an IPSec peer address or host
name, use the isakmp key address command. Use the no isakmp key address command to delete a
pre-shared authentication key and its associated IPSec peer address.
You would configure the pre-shared key at both peers whenever you specify pre-shared key in an IKE
policy. Otherwise, the policy cannot be used because it will not be submitted for matching by the IKE
process.
A netmask of 0.0.0.0. can be entered as a wildcard indicating that any IPSec peer with a given valid
pre-shared key is a valid peer.
Note
The PIX Firewall or any IPSec peer can use the same authentication key with multiple peers, but this is
not as secure as using a unique authentication key between each pair of peers.
Configure a pre-shared key associated with a given security gateway to be distinct from a wildcard,
pre-shared key (pre-shared key plus a netmask of 0.0.0.0) used to identify and authenticate the remote
VPN clients.
The no-xauth or no-config-mode command options are to be used only if the following criteria are met:
•
You are using the pre-shared key authentication method within your IKE policy.
•
The security gateway and VPN client peers terminate on the same interface.
•
The Xauth or IKE Mode Configuration feature is enabled for VPN client peers.
The isakmp key keystring address ip-address [no-xauth] [no-config-mode] command lets you
configure a pre-shared authentication key, associate the key with a given security gateway’s address, and
make an exception to the enabled Xauth feature, IKE Mode Configuration feature, or both (the most
common case) for this peer.
Both the Xauth and IKE Mode Configuration features are specifically designed for remote VPN clients.
The Xauth feature allows the PIX Firewall to challenge the peer for a username and password during
IKE negotiation. The IKE Mode Configuration enables the PIX Firewall to download an IP address to
the peer for dynamic IP address assignment. Most security gateways do not support the Xauth and IKE
Mode Configuration features.
You cannot enable Xauth or IKE Mode Configuration on a interface when terminating an L2TP/IPSec
tunnel using the Microsoft L2TP/IPSec client v1.0 (which is available on Windows NT, Windows XP,
Windows 98 and Windows ME OS). Instead, you can do either of the following:
•
Use a Windows 2000 L2TP/IPSec client, or
•
Use the isakmp key keystring address ip-address netmask mask no-xauth no-config-mode
command to exempt the L2TP client from Xauth and IKE Mode Configuration. However, if you
exempt the L2TP client from Xauth or IKE Mode Configuration, all the L2TP clients must be
grouped with the same ISAKMP pre-shared key or certificate and have the same fully qualified
domain name.
If you have the no-xauth command option configured, the PIX Firewall will not challenge the peer for
a username and password. Similarly, if you have the no-config-mode command option configured, the
PIX Firewall will not attempt to download an IP address to the peer for dynamic IP address assignment.
Use the no key keystring address ip-address [no-xauth] [no-config-mode] command to disable the key
keystring address ip-address [no-xauth] [no-config-mode] command that you previously enabled.
See the crypto map client authentication command within the crypto map command page for more
information about the Xauth feature. See the crypto map client configuration address command within
the crypto map command page for more information about the IKE Mode Config feature.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
6-29
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
isakmp
The following example shows “sharedkeystring” as the authentication key to share between the
PIX Firewall and its peer specified by an IP address of 10.1.0.0:
isakmp key sharedkeystring address 10.1.0.0
The following example shows use of a wildcard, pre-shared key. The “sharedkeystring” is the
authentication key to share between the PIX Firewall and its peer (in this case a VPN client) specified
by an IP address of 0.0.0.0. and a netmask of 0.0.0.0.
isakmp key sharedkeystring address 0.0.0.0 netmask 0.0.0.0
The following example shows use of the command options no-xauth and no-config-mode in relation
to three PIX Firewall peers that are security gateways. These security gateways terminate IPSec on the
same interface as the VPN clients. Both the Xauth and IKE Mode Config features are enabled. This
means there is a need to make an exception to these two features for each security gateway. The example
shows each security gateway peer has a unique pre-shared key to share with the PIX Firewall. The peers’
IP addresses are 10.1.1.1, 10.1.1.2, 10.1.1.3, and the netmask of 255.255.255.255 is specified.
isakmp key secretkey1234 address 10.1.1.1 netmask 255.255.255.255 no-xauth no-config-mode
isakmp key secretkey4567 address 10.1.1.2 netmask 255.255.255.255 no-xauth no-config-mode
isakmp key secretkey7890 address 10.1.1.3 netmask 255.255.255.255 no-xauth no-config-mode
isakmp log <#events>
A circular event tracing buffer has been added to assist in troubleshooting when syslogs are unavailable.
The event buffer is disabled by default. After it is enabled, the following events will be recorded in the
buffer.
DPD_TX
DPD_RX
DPD_ACK_TX
DPD_ACK_RX
DPD_FAIL
P1_RETRAN
P2_RETRAN
VPNC_CONNECT
VPNC_DISCONNECT
IKE_DELETE_TX
IKE_DELETE_RX
MALFORMED_PAYLOAD
DUPLICATE_PACKET
P1_INIT
P1_RESP
P1_DONE
P2_INIT
P2_RESP
P2_DONE
P1_REKEY
mypix# show isakmp log
16:18:31.964
16:18:31.774
16:18:31.774
16:18:30.234
02:11:23.762
02:11:22.982
02:11:22.762
02:11:22.692
02:11:22.682
02:11:22.592
02:11:21.702
UTC
UTC
UTC
UTC
UTC
UTC
UTC
UTC
UTC
UTC
UTC
Fri
Fri
Fri
Fri
Fri
Fri
Fri
Fri
Fri
Fri
Fri
May
May
May
May
May
May
May
May
May
May
May
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
2004,
2004,
2004,
2004,
2004,
2004,
2004,
2004,
2004,
2004,
2004,
peer
peer
peer
peer
peer
peer
peer
peer
peer
peer
peer
63.67.72.161,
63.67.72.161,
63.67.72.161,
63.67.72.161,
63.67.72.161,
63.67.72.161,
63.67.72.161,
63.67.72.161,
63.67.72.161,
63.67.72.161,
63.67.72.161,
P2_INIT
VPNC_CONNECT
P1_DONE
P1_INIT
IKE_DELETE_TX
P1_RESP
VPNC_DISCONNECT
P2_RETRAN (1)
P2_RETRAN (1)
P2_RETRAN (1)
P2_DONE
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
6-30
78-14890-01
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
isakmp
02:11:21.682
02:11:21.432
02:11:21.422
02:11:18.782
02:11:16.701
02:11:16.321
02:11:13.781
02:11:13.141
UTC
UTC
UTC
UTC
UTC
UTC
UTC
UTC
Fri
Fri
Fri
Fri
Fri
Fri
Fri
Fri
May
May
May
May
May
May
May
May
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
2004,
2004,
2004,
2004,
2004,
2004,
2004,
2004,
peer
peer
peer
peer
peer
peer
peer
peer
63.67.72.161,
63.67.72.161,
63.67.72.161,
63.67.72.161,
63.67.72.161,
63.67.72.161,
63.67.72.161,
63.67.72.161,
P2_DONE
P2_RESP
P2_RESP
DPD_TX (1074122247)
P2_DONE
P2_RESP
DPD_TX (1074122246)
P2_RESP
isakmp nat-traversal
Network Address Translation (NAT), including Port Address Translation (PAT), is used in many
networks where IPSec is also used, but there are a number of incompatibilities that prevent IPSec packets
from successfully traversing NAT devices. NAT traversal enables ESP packets to pass through one or
more NAT devices.
The firewall supports NAT traversal as described by Version 2 and Version 3 of the IETF “UDP
Encapsulation of IPsec Packets” draft, available at http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/ipsec-charter.html,
and NAT traversal is supported for both dynamic and static crypto maps. NAT traversal is disabled by
default on the firewall.
To enable NAT traversal, check that ISAKMP is enabled (you can enable it with the isakmp enable
if_name command) and then use the isakmp nat-traversal [natkeepalive] command. (This command
appears in the configuration if both ISAKMP is enabled and NAT traversal is enabled.) If you have
enabled NAT traversal, you can disable it with the no isakmp nat-traversal command. Valid values for
natkeepalive are from 10 to 3600 seconds. The default is 20 seconds.
If needed, the show isakmp sa detail command assists in debugging NAT traversal.
isakmp peer fqdn no-xauth | no-config-mode
The isakmp peer fqdn fqdn no-xauth | no-config-mode command is to be used only if the following
criteria are met:
•
You are using the RSA signatures authentication method within your IKE policy.
•
The security gateway and VPN client peers terminate on the same interface.
•
The Xauth or IKE Mode Configuration feature is enabled for VPN client peers.
The isakmp peer fqdn fqdn no-xauth | no-config-mode command lets you identify a peer that is a
security gateway and make an exception to the enabled Xauth feature, IKE Mode Configuration feature,
or both (the most common case) for this peer.
Both the Xauth and IKE Mode Configuration features are specifically designed for remote VPN clients.
The Xauth feature allows the PIX Firewall to challenge the peer for a username and password during
IKE negotiation. The IKE Mode Configuration feature enables the PIX Firewall to download an IP
address to the peer for dynamic IP address assignment. Most security gateways do not support the Xauth
and IKE Mode Configuration features.
If you have the no-xauth command option configured, the PIX Firewall will not challenge the peer for
a username and password. Similarly, if you have the no-config-mode command option configured, the
PIX Firewall will not attempt to download an IP address to the peer for dynamic IP address assignment.
Note
If you are using RSA signatures as your authentication method in your IKE policies, we recommend that
you set each participating peer’s identity to hostname using the isakmp identity hostname command.
Otherwise, the ISAKMP security association to be established during Phase 1 of IKE may fail.
Use the no isakmp peer fqdn fqdn no-xauth | no-config-mode command to disable the isakmp peer
fqdn fqdn no-xauth | no-config-mode command that you previously enabled.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
6-31
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
isakmp
See the crypto map client authentication within the crypto map command page for more information
about the Xauth feature. See the crypto map client configuration address command within the crypto
map command page for more information about the IKE Mode Config feature.
The following example shows use of the command options no-xauth and no-config-mode in relation
to three PIX Firewall peers that are security gateways. These security gateways terminate IPSec on the
same interface as the VPN clients. Both the Xauth and IKE Mode Config features are enabled. This
means there is a need to make an exception to these two features for each security gateway. Each security
gateway peer’s fully qualified domain name is specified.
isakmp peer fqdn hostname1.example.com no-xauth no-config-mode
isakmp peer fqdn hostname2.example.com no-xauth no-config-mode
isakmp peer fqdn hostname3.example.com no-xauth no-config-mode
show isakmp sa
To view all current IKE security associations between the PIX Firewall and its peer, use the show
isakmp sa command.
The following is sample output from the show isakmp sa command after IKE negotiations were
successfully completed between the PIX Firewall and its peer:
pixfirewall# show isakmp sa
dst src statependingcreated
16.132.40.216.132.30.2QM_IDLE01
The following is sample output from the show isakmp sa detail command (used for debugging NAT
traversal):
pixfirewall# show isakmp sa detail
Total
: 1
Embryonic : 0
Local
Remote
Encr
192.168.10.2:4500
192.168.10.5:1178 3des
Hash
sha
Auth State
psk QM_IDLE
Lifetime
117
Local is the IP address and port of the firewall on which the command is run (the format is
IP_Address:port); Remote is the peer IP address and port; Encr is the encryption algorithm; Hash is the
hash algorithm; Auth is the authorization method, preshared key, or rsa; State is the state of the
connection, and Lifetime is either the time until re-key or until expiration and deletion.
clear isakmp
The clear isakmp command removes all isakmp command statements from the configuration.
clear [crypto] isakmp sa
The clear [crypto] isakmp sa command deletes active IKE security associations. The keyword crypto
is optional.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
6-32
78-14890-01
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
isakmp policy
isakmp policy
Configures specific Internet Key Exchange (IKE) algorithms and parameters, within the IPSec Internet
Security Association Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) framework, for the Authentication Header
(AH) and Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) IPSec protocols. See also the isakmp command.
[no] isakmp policy priority authentication pre-share | rsa-sig
[no] isakmp policy priority encryption aes | aes-192| aes-256 | des | 3des
[no] isakmp policy priority group 1 | 2 | 5
[no] isakmp policy priority hash md5 | sha
[no] isakmp policy priority lifetime seconds
show isakmp policy
Syntax Description
3des
Specifies that the Triple DES encryption algorithm is to be used in the IKE policy.
aes
Selecting this option means that encrypted IKE messages protected by this suite
are encrypted using AES with a 128-bit key.
aes-192
Selecting this option means that encrypted IKE messages protected by this suite
are encrypted using AES with a 192-bit key.
aes-256
Selecting this option means that encrypted IKE messages protected by this suite
are encrypted using AES with a 256-bit key.
des
Specifies 56-bit DES-CBC as the encryption algorithm to be used in the IKE
policy.
group 1
Specify that the 768-bit Diffie-Hellman group is to be used in the IKE policy.
This is the default value.
group 2
Specifies that the 1024-bit Diffie-Hellman group 2 be used in the IKE policy.
group 5
Specifies that the 1536-bit Diffie-Hellman group 5 be used in the IKE policy.
lifetime seconds
Specify how many seconds each security association should exist before expiring.
To propose a finite lifetime, use an integer from 120 to 86,400 seconds (one day).
Specify 0 seconds for infinite lifetime.
md5
Specify MD5 (HMAC variant) as the hash algorithm to be used in the IKE policy.
pre-share
Specify pre-shared keys as the authentication method.
priority
Uniquely identifies the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) policy and assigns a priority
to the policy. Use an integer from 1 to 65,534, with 1 being the highest priority
and 65,534 the lowest.
rsa-sig
Specify RSA signatures as the authentication method.
RSA signatures provide non-repudiation for the IKE negotiation. This basically
means you can prove to a third party whether you had an IKE negotiation with the
peer.
sha
Specify SHA-1 (HMAC variant) as the hash algorithm to be used in the IKE
policy. This is the default hash algorithm.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
6-33
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
isakmp policy
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Defaults
The default ISAKMP policy encryption is des.
The default hash algorithm is SHA-1 (HMAC variant).
Usage Guidelines
The isakmp policy command lets you negotiate IPSec security associations and enable IPSec secure
communications.
The following is an example of the isakmp policy command:
isakmp policy 93 group 2
Note
The Cisco VPN Client Version 3.x requires isakmp policy to have DH group 2 configured. (If you have
DH group 1 configured, the Cisco VPN Client cannot connect.)
AES support is available on firewalls licensed for VPN-3DES only. Due to the large key sizes provided
by AES, ISAKMP negotiation should use Diffie-Hellman (DH) group 5 instead of group 1 or group 2.
This is done with the isakmp policy priority group 5 command.
The show isakmp policy command displays parameters for each IKE policy, including defaults.
isakmp policy authentication
The isakmp policy authentication command lets you specify the authentication method within an IKE
policy. IKE policies define a set of parameters to be used during IKE negotiation.
If you specify RSA signatures, you must configure the PIX Firewall and its peer to obtain certificates
from a CA. If you specify pre-shared keys, you must separately configure these pre-shared keys within
the PIX Firewall and its peer.
Use the no isakmp policy authentication command to reset the authentication method to the default
value of RSA signatures.
The following example shows use of the isakmp policy authentication command. This example sets
the authentication method of rsa-signatures to be used within the IKE policy with the priority number of
40.
isakmp policy 40 authentication rsa-sig
isakmp policy encryption
To specify the encryption algorithm to be used within an IKE policy, use the isakmp policy encryption
command. AES with a 128-bit key (aes), AES with a 192-bit key (aes-192), AES with a 256-bit key
(aes-256), DES (des), and 3DES (3des) are the supported encryption algorithms. (IKE policies define
the set of parameters to be used during IKE negotiation.)
Use the no isakmp policy encryption command to reset the encryption algorithm to the default value,
which is des.
The following example shows use of the isakmp policy encryption command; it sets 128-bit key AES
encryption as the algorithm to be used within the IKE policy with the priority number of 25.
isakmp policy 25 encryption aes
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
6-34
78-14890-01
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
isakmp policy
The following example sets the 3DES algorithm to be used within the IKE policy with the priority
number of 40.
isakmp policy 40 encryption 3des
isakmp policy group
Use the isakmp policy group command to specify the Diffie-Hellman group to be used in an IKE policy.
IKE policies define a set of parameters to be used during IKE negotiation.
There are three group options: 768-bit (DH Group 1), 1024-bit (DH Group 2), or 1536-bit (DH Group
5). The 1024-bit and 1536-bit Diffie-Hellman Groups provide stronger security, but it require more CPU
time to execute.
Use the no isakmp policy group command to reset the Diffie-Hellman group identifier to the default
value of group 1 (768-bit Diffie Hellman).
The following example shows use of the isakmp policy group command. This example sets group 2,
the 1024-bit Diffie Hellman, to be used within the IKE policy with the priority number of 40.
isakmp policy 40 group 2
Note
Cisco VPN Client Version 3.x uses Diffie-Hellman group 2 and Cisco VPN Client 3000 Version 2.5/2.6
uses Diffie-Hellman group 1. If you are using Cisco VPN Client Version 3.x, configure Diffie-Hellman
group 2 by using the isakmp policy group 2 command.
isakmp policy hash
Use the isakmp policy hash command to specify the hash algorithm to be used in an IKE policy. IKE
policies define a set of parameters to be used during IKE negotiation.
There are two hash algorithm options: SHA-1 and MD5. MD5 has a smaller digest and is considered to
be slightly faster than SHA-1.
To reset the hash algorithm to the default value of SHA-1, use the no isakmp policy hash command.
The following example shows use of the isakmp policy hash command. This example sets the MD5
hash algorithm to be used within the IKE policy with the priority number of 40.
isakmp policy 40 hash md5
isakmp policy lifetime
To specify the lifetime of an IKE security association before it expires, use the isakmp policy lifetime
command. An infinite lifetime can also be specified in case the peer does not propose a lifetime. Use the
no isakmp policy lifetime command to reset the security association lifetime to the default value of
86,400 seconds (one day).
When IKE begins negotiations, it looks to agree upon the security parameters for its own session. The
agreed-upon parameters are then referenced by a security association at each peer. The security
association is retained by each peer until the security association’s lifetime expires. Before a security
association expires, it can be reused by subsequent IKE negotiations, which can save time when setting
up new IPSec security associations. New security associations are negotiated before current security
associations expire.
To save setup time for IPSec, configure a longer IKE security association lifetime. However, the shorter
the lifetime (up to a point), the more secure the IKE negotiation is likely to be.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
6-35
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
isakmp policy
Note
If the IKE security association is set to an infinite lifetime, but the peer proposes a finite lifetime, then
the negotiated finite lifetime from the peer will be used.
Note
When PIX Firewall initiates an IKE negotiation between itself and an IPSec peer, an IKE policy can be
selected only if the lifetime of the peer’s policy is shorter than or equal to the lifetime of its policy. Then,
if the lifetimes are not equal, the shorter lifetime will be selected.
The following example shows use of the isakmp policy lifetime command. This example sets the
lifetime of the IKE security association to 50,400 seconds (14 hours) within the IKE policy with the
priority number of 40.
isakmp policy 40 lifetime 50400
The following example sets the IKE security association to an infinite lifetime.
isakmp policy 40 lifetime 0
show isakmp policy
To view the parameters for each IKE policy including the default parameters, use the show isakmp
policy command.
The following is sample output from the show isakmp policy command after two IKE policies were
configured (with priorities 70 and 90 respectively):
show isakmp policy
Protection suite priority 70
encryption algorithm:
DES - Data Encryption Standard (56 bit keys)
hash algorithm: Message Digest 5
authentication method: Rivest-Shamir-Adleman Signature
Diffie-Hellman group:
#2 (1024 bit)
lifetime:
5000 seconds, no volume limit
Protection suite priority 90
encryption algorithm:
DES - Data Encryption Standard (56 bit keys)
hash algorithm: Secure Hash Standard
authentication method: Pre-Shared Key
Diffie-Hellman group:
#1 (768 bit)
lifetime:
10000 seconds, no volume limit
Default protection suite
encryption algorithm:
DES - Data Encryption Standard (56 bit keys)
hash algorithm: Secure Hash Standard
authentication method: Rivest-Shamir-Adleman Signature
Diffie-Hellman group:
#1 (768 bit)
lifetime:
86400 seconds, no volume limit
Note
Although the output shows “no volume limit” for the lifetimes, you can currently only configure a time
lifetime (such as 86,400 seconds) or infinity; volume limit lifetimes are not currently configurable.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
6-36
78-14890-01
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
kill
Examples
The following is sample output from the show isakmp and show isakmp policy commands for a
configuration using Diffie-Hellman group 5 in its ISAKMP policy:
pixfirewall(config)# show isakmp
isakmp enable outside
isakmp key ******** address 0.0.0.0 netmask 0.0.0.0
isakmp policy 1 authentication pre-share
isakmp policy 1 encryption 3des
isakmp policy 1 hash md5
isakmp policy 1 group 5
isakmp policy 1 lifetime 86400
pixfirewall(config)# show isakmp policy
Protection suite of priority 8
encryption algorithm:
Three key triple DES
hash algorithm:
Message Digest 5
authentication method: Rivest-Shamir-Adleman Signature
Diffie-Hellman group:
#5 (1536 bit)
lifetime:
86400 seconds, no volume limit
Related Commands
ca
For Certificate Enrollment Protocol (CEP), creates and enrolls RSA key pairs
into a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI).
crypto
dynamic-map
Configures the IPSec crypto dynamic-map policy.
crypto ipsec
Configures the transform set and IPSec security association (SA) lifetime.
crypto map
Configures the IPsec crypto map policy.
kill
Terminate a Telnet session.
kill telnet_id
Syntax Description
telnet_id
Command Modes
Privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The kill command terminates a Telnet session. Use the who command to view the Telnet session ID
value. When you kill a Telnet session, the PIX Firewall lets any active commands terminate and then
drops the connection without warning the user.
Examples
The following is sample output from the show who command, which is used to list the active Telnet
sessions, and the use of the kill command to end Telnet session 2:
Telnet session ID.
show who
2: From 10.10.54.0
kill 2
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
6-37
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
logging
Related Commands
who
Shows the active administration sessions on the firewall.
telnet
Adds Telnet access to the firewall console and sets the idle timeout.
logging
Enable or disable syslog and SNMP logging.
[no] logging on
[no] logging buffered level
[no] logging console level
logging device-id {hostname | ipaddress if_name | string text}
no logging device-id
[no] logging facility facility
[no] logging history level
[no] logging host [in_if_name] ip_address [protocol /port] [format emblem]
[no] logging message syslog_id [level level]
[no] logging monitor level
[no] logging queue queue_size
[no] logging standby
[no] logging timestamp
[no] logging trap level
clear logging [disable]
show logging [message {syslog_id | all} | level | disabled]
show logging queue
Syntax Description
all
All syslog message IDs.
buffered
Send syslog messages to an internal buffer that can be viewed with the
show logging command. Use the clear logging command to clear the message
buffer. New messages append to the end of the buffer.
clear
Clear the buffer for use with the logging buffered command.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
6-38
78-14890-01
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
logging
console
Specify that syslog messages appear on the PIX Firewall console as each message
occurs. You can limit the types of messages that appear on the console with level.
We recommend that you do not use this command in production mode because its
use degrades PIX Firewall performance.
device-id
The device ID of the PIX Firewall to include in the syslog message.
disabled
Clear or display suppressed messages. You can suppress messages with the no
logging message command.
facility
Specify the syslog facility. The default is 20.
facility
Eight facilities LOCAL0(16) through LOCAL7(23); the default is LOCAL4(20).
Hosts file the messages based on the facility number in the message.
format emblem
This option enables EMBLEM format logging on a per-syslog-server basis.
EMBLEM format logging is available for UDP syslog messages only and is
disabled by default.
history
Set the SNMP message level for sending syslog traps.
host
Specify a syslog server that will receive the messages sent from the PIX Firewall.
You can use multiple logging host commands to specify additional servers that
would all receive the syslog messages. A PIX Firewall Syslogs Server can be
configured to receive syslogs over UDP or TCP, not both. Likewise the PIX
Firewall can send either UDP or TCP syslog messages to the PIX Firewall Syslog
Server.
hostname
Specifies to use the host name of the PIX Firewall to uniquely identify the syslog
messages from the PIX Firewall.
if_name
Specifies the name of the interface whose IP address is used to uniquely identify
the syslog messages from the PIX Firewall.
in_if_name
Interface on which the syslog server resides.
ip_address
Syslog server’s IP address.
ipaddress
Specifies to use the IP address of the specified PIX Firewall interface to uniquely
identify the syslog messages from the PIX Firewall.
level
Specify the syslog message level as a number or string. The level you specify
means that you want that level and those less than the level. For example, if level
is 3, syslog displays 0, 1, 2, and 3 messages. Possible number and string level
values are:
•
0—emergencies—System unusable messages
•
1—alerts—Take immediate action
•
2—critical—Critical condition
•
3—errors—Error message
•
4—warnings—Warning message
•
5—notifications—Normal but significant condition
•
6—informational—Information message
•
7—debugging—Debug messages and log FTP commands and WWW URLs
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
6-39
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
logging
Defaults
message
Specify a message to be allowed. Use the no logging message command to
suppress a syslog message. Use the clear logging disabled command to reset the
disallowed messages to the original set. Use the show message disabled
command to list the suppressed messages. All syslog messages are permitted
unless explicitly disallowed. The “PIX Startup begin” message cannot be blocked
and neither can more than one message per command statement.
monitor
Specify that syslog messages appear on Telnet sessions to the PIX Firewall
console.
on
Start sending syslog messages to all output locations. Stop all logging with the no
logging on command.
port
The port from which the PIX Firewall sends either UDP or TCP syslog messages.
This must be same port at which the syslog server listens. For the UDP port, the
default is 514 and the allowable range for changing the value is 1025 through
65535. For the TCP port, the default is 1470, and the allowable range is 1025
through 65535. TCP ports only work with the PIX Firewall Syslog Server.
protocol
The protocol over which the syslog message is sent; either tcp or udp.
PIX Firewall only sends TCP syslog messages to the PIX Firewall Syslog Server.
You can only view the port and protocol values you previously entered by using
the write terminal command and finding the command in the listing—the TCP
protocol is listed as 6 and the UDP protocol is listed as 17.
queue
queue_size
Specifies the size of the queue for storing syslog messages. Use this parameter before
the syslog messages are processed. The queue parameter defaults to 512 messages,
0 (zero) indicates unlimited (subject to available block memory), and the
minimum is one message.
standby
Let the failover standby unit also send syslog messages. This option is disabled by
default. You can enable it to ensure that the standby unit’s syslog messages stay
synchronized should failover occur. However, this option causes twice as much
traffic on the syslog server. Disable with the no logging standby command.
syslog_id
Specify a message number to disallow or allow. If a message is listed in syslog
as %PIX-1-101001, use “101001” as the syslog_id. Refer to Cisco PIX Firewall
System Log Messages for message numbers.
text
Specifies the text string to uniquely identify the syslog messages from the PIX
Firewall. The maximum length is 16 characters with no whitespace (blanks)
allowed.
timestamp
Specify that syslog messages sent to the syslog server should have a time stamp
value on each message.
trap
Set logging level only for syslog messages.
EMBLEM format logging is disabled by default.
The logging device-id command is disabled by default.
Console logging (the logging console command) is disabled by default.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
6-40
78-14890-01
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
logging
Usage Guidelines
The logging command lets you enable or disable sending informational messages to the console, to a
syslog server, or to an SNMP management station.
The PIX Firewall provides more information in messages sent to a syslog server than at the console, but
the console provides enough information to permit effective troubleshooting.
Note
Do not use the logging console command when the PIX Firewall is in production mode because it
degrades system performance. Instead, use the logging buffered command to start logging, the show
logging command to view the messages, and the clear logging command to clear the buffer to make
viewing the most current messages easier.
The aaa accounting authentication enable console command causes syslog messages to be sent (at
syslog level 4) each time the configuration is changed from the serial console.
The show logging command displays which logging options are enabled. If the logging buffered
command is in use, the show logging command lists the current message buffer. The show logging
disabled command displays suppressed syslog messages.
logging device-id
The logging device-id command displays a unique device ID in non-EMBLEM format syslog messages
that are sent to the syslog server. This command is available in PIX Firewall software Version 6.2.2.115
and higher.
If enabled, the PIX Firewall displays the device ID in all non-EMBLEM-formatted syslog messages.
However, it does not affect the syslog message text that is in EMBLEM format.
Note
The device ID part of the syslog message is viewed through the syslog server only and not directly on
the firewall.
If the ipaddress option is used, the device ID becomes the specified PIX Firewall interface IP address,
regardless of the interface from which the message is sent. This provides a single consistent device ID
for all messages sent from the device.
logging history
Set the SNMP message level with the logging history command.
logging host
The logging host ip_address format emblem command enables EMBLEM format logging on a
per-syslog-server basis. EMBLEM format logging is available for UDP syslog messages only (because
the RME syslog analyzer only supports UDP syslog messages). If EMBLEM format logging is enabled
for a particular syslog host, then EMBLEM format messages are sent to that host. If the logging
timestamp option is also enabled, then EMBLEM format messages with a time stamp are sent.
EMBLEM format logging is disabled by default.
logging message
To change the level of a syslog message, use the logging message syslog_id level level command. The
no logging message command cannot block the “ %PIX-6-199002: PIX startup completed. Beginning
operation. ” syslog message.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
6-41
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
logging
logging queue
The logging queue command lets you specify the size of the syslog message queue for the messages
waiting to be processed. When traffic is heavy, messages may be discarded.
The show logging queue command lists:
•
Number of messages in the queue
•
Highest number of messages recorded in the queue
•
Number of messages discarded because block memory was not available to process them
logging standby
The logging standby command lets the failover standby unit send syslog messages. This option is
disabled by default. You can enable it to ensure that the standby unit’s syslog messages stay
synchronized should failover occur. However, this option causes twice as much traffic on the syslog
server. Disable with the no logging standby command.
logging timestamp
The logging timestamp command requires that the clock command be set.
logging trap
Set the syslog message level with the logging trap command.
Troubleshooting
If you are using TCP as the logging transport protocol, the PIX Firewall stops passing traffic as a
security measure if any of the following error conditions occur: the PIX Firewall is unable to reach the
syslog server; the syslog server is misconfigured (such as with PFSS, for example); or the disk is full.
(UDP-based logging does not prevent the PIX Firewall from passing traffic if the syslog server fails.)
To enable the PIX Firewall to pass traffic again, do the following:
Step 1
Identify and correct the syslog server connectivity, misconfiguration, or disk space error condition.
Step 2
Enter the command logging host inside 10.1.1.1 tcp/1468 to enable the logging again.
Alternately, you can change the logging to default logging on UDP/514 by issuing the command
UDP-based logging passes traffic even if the syslog server fails.
logging host inside 10.1.1.1 .
For more information
For more information on syslog and the use of the logging command, refer to Cisco PIX Firewall System
Log Messages. You can also use Cisco PIX Firewall System Log Messages to get the message numbers
that can be individually suppressed with the logging message command.
Examples
The following example shows how to start console logging and view the results:
pixfirewall(config)# logging buffered debugging
pixfirewall(config)# show logging
Syslog logging: enabled
Timestamp logging: disabled
Console logging: disabled
Monitor logging: disabled
Buffer logging: level debugging, 37 messages logged
Trap logging: disabled
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
6-42
78-14890-01
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
logging
305001: Portmapped translation built for gaddr 209.165.201.5/0 laddr 192.168.1.2/256
...
The line of output starting with 305001 shows a translation to a PAT global through global address
209.165.201.5 from a host at 192.168.1.2. The “305001” identifies a syslog message for creating a
translation through a PAT global. Refer to Cisco PIX Firewall System Log Messages for more
information on syslog messages.
The following is sample output from the show logging command with the logging device-id hostname
command configured on a host named pixfirewall-1 (notice the last line):
pixfirewall-1(config)# logging device-id hostname
pixfirewall-1(config)# show logging
Syslog logging: disabled
Facility: 20
Timestamp logging: disabled
Standby logging: disabled
Console logging: level debugging, 0 messages logged
Monitor logging: level debugging, 0 messages logged
Buffer logging: disabled
Trap logging: disabled
History logging: disabled
Device ID: hostname "pixfirewall-1"
The next example lists the output of the logging queue and show logging queue commands:
pixfirewall(config)# logging queue 0
pixfirewall(config)# show logging queue
Logging Queue length limit : Unlimited
Current 5 msg on queue, 3513 msgs most on queue, 1 msg discard.
In this example, the logging queue command is set to 0, which means you want an unlimited number of
messages; in other words, all syslog messages, to be processed. The show logging queue command
shows that 5 messages are queued, 3513 messages was the greatest number of messages in the queue at
one time since the PIX Firewall was last booted, and that 1 message was discarded. Even though set for
unlimited, should the amount of block memory be exhausted, messages can still be discarded.
The following is sample output from the show logging command output when the TCP syslog server is
unreachable. Consequently, the PIX Firewall stops passing traffic and logging to the inside is set as
disabled:
pixfirewall(config)# show logging
Syslog logging: enabled
Timestamp logging: enabled
Standby logging: disabled
Console logging: disabled
Monitor logging: disabled
Buffer logging: level debugging, 827 messages logged
Trap logging: level debugging, facility 20, 840 messages logged
Logging to inside 10.1.1.1 tcp/1468 disabled
The following examples show how to change the level of a syslog message and display its current and
default level:
pixfirewall(config)# logging message 403503
pixfirewall(config)# show logging message 403503
syslog 403503: default-level errors (enabled)
pixfirewall(config)# logging message 403503 level 1
pixfirewall(config)# show logging message 403503
syslog 403503: default-level errors, current-level alerts (enabled)
pixfirewall(config)# logging message 403503 level 6
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
6-43
Chapter 6
G through L Commands
login
pixfirewall(config)# show logging message 403503
syslog 403503: default-level errors, current-level informational (enabled)
pixfirewall(config)# logging message 403503 level 3
pixfirewall(config)# show logging message 403503
syslog 403503: default-level errors (enabled)
Related Commands
auto-update
Configures auto update support.
telnet
Adds Telnet access to the firewall console and sets the idle timeout.
terminal
Sets terminal line parameters.
login
Initiates the log-in prompt on the PIX Firewall for starting a session, accessing another privilege level,
or command mode as a specific user.
login
Syntax Description
login
Command Modes
Unprivileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The login command logs the user into the PIX Firewall, another privilege level, or command mode using
the local user authentication database created with the username command. This command is available
in unprivileged mode.
Specifies to log in as a particular user.
A user who has logged in can use the logout, exit, or quit commands to go back to unprivileged mode.
Examples
The following example shows the prompt after you enter the login command:
pixfirewall> login
Username:
Related Commands
privilege
Configures privilege levels for commands.
username
Configures the local user authentication database.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
6-44
78-14890-01
C H A P T E R
7
M through R Commands
mac-list
Adds a list of MAC addresses using a first match search. This command is used by the firewall VPN
client in performing MAC-based authentication.
[no] mac-list id deny|permit mac macmask
show mac-list [id]
clear mac-list [id]
Syntax Description
deny
Traffic matching deny is not included in the MAC list and is subjected to both
authentication and authorization.
id
MAC access list number.
mac
Source MAC address in aabbcc.ddeeff.gghhii form.
macmask
Applies the netmask to mac, which is a string of 1's followed by 0's in the form
aabbcc.ddeeff.gghhii, and allows the grouping of MAC addresses.
permit
Traffic matching permit is included in the MAC list and is exempt from
authentication and authorization.
Defaults
None.
Command Modes
The mac-list command is available in configuration mode.
The show mac-list command is available in privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The mac-list command, similar to the access-list command, can be entered multiple times with same id
to group a set of MAC addresses.
Only AAA exemption is provided. Authorization is automatically exempted for MACs for which
authentication is exempted. Other types of AAA with mac-list are not supported.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-1
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
management-access
The clear aaa command removes the mac-list command statements along with the rest of the AAA
configuration.
The show aaa command displays mac-list command statements as part of the AAA configuration.
Note
Examples
When configuring mac-exempt, do not use the same IP address for two MACs. If a mac-exempt
command is configured for two MACs, M1 and M2, and both attempt to use the same ip address, only
the traffic from M1 would be permitted. If a mac-exempt is configured for M1 or M2, or if one of them
is not configured at all, then the traffic from second host would be allowed to pass. A syslog alerting you
to a possible spoof attack, is generated.
The following example shows how to configure a MAC access list:
pixfirewall(config)#
pixfirewall(config)#
pixfirewall(config)#
pixfirewall(config)#
pixfirewall(config)#
mac-list
mac-list
mac-list
mac-list
mac-list
adc permit 00a0.c95d.0282 ffff.ffff.ffff
adc deny 00a1.c95d.0282 ffff.ffff.ffff
ac permit 0050.54ff.0000 ffff.ffff.0000
ac deny 0061.54ff.b440 ffff.ffff.ffff
ac deny 0072.54ff.b440 ffff.ffff.ffff
pixfirewall(config)# show mac-list
mac-list adc permit 00a0.c95d.0282 ffff.ffff.ffff
mac-list adc deny 00a1.c95d.0282 ffff.ffff.ffff
mac-list ac permit 0050.54ff.0000 ffff.ffff.0000
mac-list ac deny 0061.54ff.b440 ffff.ffff.ffff
mac-list ac deny 0072.54ff.b440 ffff.ffff.ffff
Related Commands
aaa authentication
Enable, disable, or view LOCAL, TACACS+, or RADIUS user authentication
on a server designated by the aaa-server command, or PDM user
authentication.
aaa authorization
Enable or disable LOCAL or TACACS+ user authorization services.
Exempts a list of MAC addresses from authentication and authorization.
access-list
Create an access list, or use downloadable access lists. (Downloadable access
lists are supported for RADIUS servers only.)
management-access
Enables access to an internal management interface on the firewall.
[no] management-access mgmt_if
show management-access
Syntax Description
mgmt_if
Defaults
None.
The name of the firewall interface to be used as the internal management
interface.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-2
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
mgcp
Command Modes
The management-access mgmt_if command is available in configuration mode.
The show management-access is available in privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The management-access mgmt_if command enables you to define an internal management interface
using the IP address of the firewall interface specified in mgmt_if. (The firewall interface names are
defined by the nameif command and displayed in quotes, “ ”, in the show interface output.)
In PIX Firewall software Version 6.3, this command is supported for the following through an IPSec
VPN tunnel only, and only one management interface can be defined globally:
•
SNMP polls to the mgmt_if
•
HTTPS requests to the mgmt_if
•
PDM access to the mgmt_if
•
Telnet access to the mgmt_if
•
SSH access to the mgmt_if
•
Ping to the mgmt_if
The show management-access command displays the firewall management access configuration.
Examples
The following example shows how to configure a firewall interface named “inside” as the management
access interface:
pixfirewall(config)# management-access inside
pixfirewall(config)# show management-access
management-access inside
mgcp
Configures additional support for the Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) fixup (packet
application inspection) and is used with the fixup protocol mgcp command.
[no] mgcp call-agent ip_address group_id
[no] mgcp command-queue limit
[no] mgcp gateway ip_address group_id
show mgcp {commands | sessions} [detail]
clear mgcp
Syntax Description
commands
The MGCP commands in the MGCP configuration on the firewall.
group_id
The ID of the Call Agent group, from 0 to 4294967295.
ip_address
The IP address of the gateway.
limit
Maximum number of commands to queue, from 1 to 4294967295.
sessions
The MGCP active sessions.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-3
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
mgcp
Defaults
The default for the MGCP command queue is 200.
Command Modes
The mgcp command is available in configuration mode.
The show mgcp command is available in privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The mgcp commands are used to provide additional support for the MGCP fixup. The MGCP fixup itself
is enabled with the fixup protocol mgcp command.
mgcp call-agent
The mgcp call-agent command is used to specify a group of Call Agents that can manage one or more
gateways. The Call Agent group information is used to open connections for the Call Agents in the group
(other than the one a gateway sends a command to) so that any of the Call Agents can send the response.
Call Agents with the same group_id belong to the same group. A Call Agent may belong to more than
one group. The group_id option is a number from 0 to 4294967295. The ip_address option specifies the
IP address of the Call Agent.
mgcp command-queue
The mgcp command-queue command specifies the maximum number of MGCP commands that are
queued while waiting for a response. The range of allowed values is from 1 to 4294967295. The default
is 200. When the limit has been reached and a new command arrives, the command that has been in the
queue for the longest time is removed.
mgcp gateway
The mgcp gateway command is used to specify which group of Call Agents are managing a particular
gateway. The IP address of the gateway is specified with the ip_address option. The group_id option is
a number from 0 to 4294967295 that must correspond with the group_id of the Call Agents that are
managing the gateway. A gateway may only belong to one group.
clear mgcp and show mgcp
The clear mgcp command removes the MGCP configuration and resets the command queue limit to the
default of 200.
The show mgcp commands command lists the number of MGCP commands in the command queue. The
show mgcp sessions command lists the number of existing MGCP sessions. The detail option includes
additional information about each command (or session) in the output.
Examples
The following example limits the MGCP command queue to 150 commands, allows Call Agents 10.10.11.5
and 10.10.11.6 to control gateway 10.10.10.115, and allows Call Agents 10.10.11.7 and 10.10.11.8 to control both gateways 10.10.10.116 and 10.10.10.117:
pixfirewall(config)#
pixfirewall(config)#
pixfirewall(config)#
pixfirewall(config)#
pixfirewall(config)#
pixfirewall(config)#
pixfirewall(config)#
pixfirewall(config)#
mgcp
mgcp
mgcp
mgcp
mgcp
mgcp
mgcp
mgcp
call-agent 10.10.11.5 101
call-agent 10.10.11.6 101
call-agent 10.10.11.7 102
call-agent 10.10.11.8 102
command-queue 150
gateway 10.10.10.115 101
gateway 10.10.10.116 102
gateway 10.10.10.117 102
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-4
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
mroute
The following are examples of the show mgcp command options:
pixfirewall# show mgcp commands
1 in use, 1 most used, 200 maximum allowed
CRCX, gateway IP: host-pc-2, transaction ID: 2052, idle: 0:00:07
pixfirewall# show mgcp commands detail
1 in use, 1 most used, 200 maximum allowed
CRCX, idle: 0:00:10
Gateway IP
host-pc-2
Transaction ID 2052
Endpoint name
aaln/1
Call ID
9876543210abcdef
Connection ID
Media IP
192.168.5.7
Media port
6058
pixfirewall# show mgcp sessions
1 in use, 1 most used
Gateway IP host-pc-2, connection ID 6789af54c9, active 0:00:11
pixfirewall# show mgcp
1 in use, 1 most used
Session active 0:00:14
Gateway IP
Call ID
Connection ID
Endpoint name
Media lcl port
Media rmt IP
Media rmt port
Related Commands
sessions detail
host-pc-2
9876543210abcdef
6789af54c9
aaln/1
6166
192.168.5.7
6058
debug
Displays debug information for Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP)
traffic.
fixup protocol
Enables the Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) fixup. Use with the
mgcp command to configure additional support for the MGCP fixup.
show conn
Displays all active connections. There is an MGCP show conn option and
connection flag, “g”.
timeout
Sets the maximum idle time duration. (There is an MGCP timeout option.)
mroute
Configures a static multicast route.
[no] mroute src smask in_if_name dst dmask out_if_name
show mroute [dst [src]]
Syntax Description
dmask
The destination network address mask.
dst
The Class D address of the multicast group.
in_if_name
The input interface name to pass multicast traffic.
out_if_name
The output interface name to pass multicast traffic.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-5
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
mtu
smask
The multicast source network address mask.
src
The IP address of the multicast source.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The mroute command supports routing multicast traffic through the PIX Firewall.
The show mroute command displays the current multicast route table.
Examples
In the following example, the multicast sources are the inside interface and DMZ with no internal
receivers:
multicast interface outside
multicast interface inside
multicast interface dmz
mroute 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 inside 230.1.1.2 255.255.255.255 outside
mroute 2.2.2.2 255.255.255.255 dmz 230.1.1.2 255.255.255.255 outside
mtu
Specify the maximum transmission unit (MTU) for an interface.
[no] mtu if_name bytes
show mtu
Syntax Description
bytes
The number of bytes in the MTU, in the range of 64 to 65,535 bytes. The value
specified depends on the type of network connected to the interface.
if_name
The internal or external network interface name.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The mtu command sets the size of data sent on a connection. Data larger than the maximum transmission
unit (MTU) value is fragmented before being sent. The minimum value for bytes is 64 and the maximum
is 65,535 bytes.
For PIX Firewall software Version 6.2, MTU size must be greater than or equal to 1500 for the Stateful
Failover link and greater than or equal to 576 for the LAN-based failover link.
For PIX Firewall software Versions 5.2 through 6.1, MTU size must be greater than or equal to 256 bytes
for the Stateful Failover link.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-6
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
multicast
PIX Firewall supports the IP Path MTU Discovery mechanism, as defined in RFC 1191. IP Path MTU
Discovery allows a host to dynamically discover and cope with differences in the maximum allowable
maximum transmission unit (MTU) size of the various links along the path. Sometimes a PIX Firewall
is unable to forward a datagram because it requires fragmentation (the packet is larger than the MTU you
set for the interface), but the “don't fragment” (DF) bit is set. The network software sends a message to
the sending host, alerting it to the problem. The host will have to fragment packets for the destination so
that they fit the smallest packet size of all the links along the path.
For Ethernet interfaces, the default MTU is 1500 bytes in a block, which is also the maximum. This value
is sufficient for most applications, but you can pick a lower number if network conditions warrant it.
The no mtu command resets the MTU block size to 1500 for Ethernet interfaces. The show mtu
command displays the current block size. The show interface command also shows the MTU value.
Note
Examples
For the MTU fragmentation to work properly when using L2TP, we recommend that the MTU size be
set to 1380, in order to account for the L2TP header and IPSec header length.
The following example shows the use of the mtu command with Ethernet:
interface ethernet1 auto
mtu inside 8192
show mtu
mtu outside 1500
mtu inside 8192
multicast
Enables multicast traffic to pass through the PIX Firewall. Includes an igmp subcommand mode for
multicast support.
[no] multicast interface interface_name
clear multicast
show igmp [group | interface interface_name] [detail]
show multicast [interface interface_name]
Subcommands to the multicast command:
igmp forward interface interface_name
igmp access-group id
igmp version {1 | 2}
igmp join-group group
igmp max-groups number
igmp query-interval seconds
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-7
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
multicast
igmp query-max-response-time seconds
no igmp
clear igmp [group | interface interface_name]
Syntax Description
detail
Displays all information in the IGMP table.
id
Access control list ID.
group
The address of the multicast group.
igmp
Internet Group Management Protocol.
interface_name
The name of the interface on which to enable multicast traffic.
join-group
The multicast group to join.
max-groups
Specifies the maximum number of groups, from 0 to 2000. The default value is
500.
number
The maximum number of groups that can be joined.
query-interval
The query response time interval.
query-maxresponse-time
The maximum query response time interval.
seconds
Specifies the number of seconds to wait.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The multicast command supports routing multicast traffic through the PIX Firewall.
The PIX Firewall igmp commands are subcommands of the multicast command.
The clear igmp [group | interface interface_name] command clears IGMP entries.
Note
The PIX Firewall acts as an IGMP proxy but is not a multicast router.
The show igmp [group | interface interface_name] [detail] command displays the IGMP information
for a multicast group, whether statically configured or dynamically created.
The show multicast [interface interface_name] command displays all or per-interface multicast settings.
Also displays the IGMP configuration for any interface that is specified.
Examples
The following example shows use of the multicast command with corresponding igmp subcommands:
multicast interface outside
multicast interface inside
igmp forward interface outside
igmp join-group 224.1.1.1
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-8
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
name /names
The following is sample output from the show igmp command:
pixfirewall(config)# show igmp
IGMP is enabled on interface inside
Current IGMP version is 2
IGMP query interval is 60 seconds
IGMP querier timeout is 125 seconds
IGMP max query response time is 10 seconds
Last member query response interval is 1 seconds
Inbound IGMP access group is
IGMP activity: 0 joins, 0 leaves
IGMP querying router is 10.1.3.1 (this system)
IGMP Connected Group Membership
Group Address
Interface
Uptime
Expires
Last Reported
name/names
Associate a name with an IP address.
[no] name ip_address name
[no] names
clear names
show names
Syntax Description
ip_address
The IP address of the host being named.
name
The name assigned to the IP address. Allowable characters are a to z, A to Z, 0 to 9, a
dash, and an underscore. The name cannot start with a number. If the name is over 63
characters long, the name command fails.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
Use the name command to identify a host by a text name. The names you define become like a host table
local to the PIX Firewall. Because there is no connection to DNS or /etc/hosts on UNIX servers, use of
this command is a mixed blessing—it makes configurations much more readable but introduces another
level of abstraction to administer; not only do you have to add and delete IP addresses to your
configuration as you do now, but with this command, you must ensure that the host names either match
existing names or you have a map to list the differences.
The name command maps text strings to IP addresses. The clear names command clears the list of
names from the PIX Firewall configuration. The no names command disables the use of the text names,
but does not remove them from the configuration. The show names command lists the name command
statements in the configuration.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-9
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
name /names
Usage Notes
1.
You must first use the names command before using the name command. Use the name command
immediately after the names command and before you use the write memory command.
2.
To disable displaying name values, use the no names command.
3.
Only one name can be associated with an IP address.
4.
Both the name and names command statements are saved in the configuration.
5.
While the name command will let you assign a name to a network mask, no other PIX Firewall
command requiring a mask will let you use the name as a mask value. For example, the following
command is accepted.
name 255.255.255.0 class-C-mask
Note
Examples
None of the commands in which a mask is required can process the “class-C-mask” as an accepted
network mask.
In the example that follows, the names command enables use of the name command. The name
command substitutes pix_inside for references to 192.168.42.3, and pix_outside for 209.165.201.3. The
ip address commands use these names while assigning IP addresses to the network interfaces. The no
names command disables the name command values from displaying. Subsequent use of the names
command restores their display.
pixfirewall(config)#
pixfirewall(config)#
pixfirewall(config)#
pixfirewall(config)#
pixfirewall(config)#
names
name 192.168.42.3 pix_inside
name 209.165.201.3 pix_outside
ip address inside pix_inside 255.255.255.0
ip address outside pix_outside 255.255.255.224
pixfirewall(config)# show ip address
System IP Addresses:
inside ip address pix_inside mask 255.255.255.0
outside ip address pix_outside mask 255.255.255.224
pixfirewall(config)# no names
pixfirewall(config)# show ip address
System IP Addresses:
inside ip address 192.168.42.3 mask 255.255.255.0
outside ip address 209.165.201.3 mask 255.255.255.224
pixfirewall(config)# names
pixfirewall(config)# show ip address
System IP Addresses:
inside ip address pix_inside mask 255.255.255.0
outside ip address pix_outside mask 255.255.255.224
pixfirewall(config)# show names
System IP Addresses:
name 192.168.42.3 pix_inside
name 209.165.201.3 pix_outside
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-10
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
nameif
nameif
Name interfaces and assign security level.
nameif {hardware_id | vlan_id} if_name security_level
clear nameif
show nameif
Syntax Description
hardware_id
The hardware name for the network interface that specifies the interface’s slot
location on the PIX Firewall motherboard. For more information on PIX Firewall
hardware configuration, refer to the Cisco PIX Firewall Hardware Installation
Guide.
A logical choice for an Ethernet interface is ethernetn. These names can also be
abbreviated with any leading characters in the name, for example, ether1 or e2.
if_name
A name for the internal or external network interface of up to 48 characters in length.
By default, PIX Firewall names the inside interface “inside,” the outside interface
“outside,” and any perimeter interface “intfn” where n is 2 through 5.
security_level
Enter 0 for the outside network or 100 for the inside network. Perimeter interfaces
can use any number between 1 and 99. By default, PIX Firewall sets the security
level for the inside interface to security100 and the outside interface to security0.
The first perimeter interface is initially set to security10, the second to security15,
the third to security20, and the fourth perimeter interface to security25 (a total of 6
interfaces are permitted, with a total of 4 perimeter interfaces permitted). The word
security in this command can also be abbreviated as sec, for example sec10.
For access from a higher security to a lower security level, nat and global commands
or static commands must be present. For access from a lower security level to a
higher security level, static and access-list commands must be present.
Interfaces with the same security level cannot communicate with each other. We
recommend that every interface have a unique security level.
vlan_id
The VLAN identifier. For example: vlan10, vlan20, etc. (vlan_id is configured with
the interface command.)
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The nameif command lets you assign a name to an interface. You can use this command to assign
interface names if you have more than two network interface circuit boards in your PIX Firewall. The
first two interfaces have the default names inside and outside. The inside interface has a default security
level of 100, the outside interface has a default security level of 0. The clear nameif command reverts
nameif command statements to default interface names and security levels.
Use nameif hardware_id if_name security_level to set name of a physical interface and use the nameif
vlan_id if_name security_level command to set the name of a logical interface. Physical interfaces are
one per each NIC, in place at boot time, and non-removable. Logical interfaces can be many-to-one for
each NIC, are created at run time, and can be removed through software reconfiguration.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-11
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
nat
Usage Notes
Examples
1.
If you change the hardware_id of the outside interface; for example, from ethernet0 to ethernet1,
PIX Firewall changes every reference to the outside interface in your configuration to inside, which
can cause problems with route, ip, and other command statements that affect the flow of traffic
through the PIX Firewall.
2.
After changing a nameif command, use the clear xlate command.
3.
The inside interface cannot be renamed or given a different security level. The outside interface can
be renamed, but not given a different security level.
4.
An interface is always “external” with respect to another interface that has a higher security level.
The following example shows how to use the nameif hardware_id if_name security_level command:
nameif ethernet2 perimeter1 sec50
nameif ethernet3 perimeter2 sec20
The following example shows how to use the nameif
nameif vlan10 perimeter3 sec10
vlan_id if_name security_level command:
The following example is a configuration that uses both physical and VLAN interfaces:
nameif ethernet0 outside security0
nameif ethernet1 intf6 security90
nameif ethernet2 dmz security50
nameif vlan4 intf4 security10
nameif vlan5 intf5 security10
nameif vlan10 intf5 security10
Related Commands
interface
Sets network interface parameters and configures VLANs.
nat
Associate a network with a pool of global IP addresses.
[no] nat [(local_interface)] id local_ip [mask [dns] [outside |
[norandomseq] [max_conns [emb_limit]]]]
[no] nat [(local_interface)] id access-list acl_name [dns] [outside |
[norandomseq] [max_conns [emb_limit]]]
[no] nat [(local_interface)] 0 access-list acl_name [outside]
clear nat
show nat
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-12
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
nat
Syntax Description
access-list
Lets you identify local traffic for network address translation (NAT) by specifying
the local and destination addresses (or ports). This feature is known as
policy NAT.
Note
Even though NAT exemption (nat 0 access-list) uses an access list, this
function is not the same as policy NAT. NAT exemption does not use ports
in the access list.
You can only include permit statements in the access list.
Local traffic is matched to the first matching policy NAT statement. See the
“Order of NAT Commands Used to Match Local Addresses” section on page 7-17
for more information.
acl_id
Specifies the access list name.
clear nat
Removes nat command statements from the configuration.
dns
Specifies to use the created translation to rewrite the DNS address record.
emb_limit
Specifies the maximum number of embryonic connections per host. An
embryonic connection is a connection request that has not finished the necessary
handshake between source and destination. Set a small value for slower systems,
and a higher value for faster systems. The default is 0, which means unlimited
embryonic connections.
The embryonic connection limit lets you prevent a type of attack where processes
are started without being completed. When the embryonic limit has been
surpassed, the TCP intercept feature intercepts TCP synchronization (SYN)
packets from clients to servers on a higher security level. The software establishes
a connection with the client on behalf of the destination server, and if successful,
establishes the connection with the server on behalf of the client and combines the
two half-connections together transparently. Thus, connection attempts from
unreachable hosts will never reach the server. The PIX firewall accomplishes TCP
intercept functionality using SYN cookies.
Note
This option does not apply to outside NAT. The TCP intercept feature only
applies to hosts or servers on a higher security level. If you set the
emb_limit as well as the outside option, the emb_limit is ignored.
(local_interface)
Specifies the name of the network interface, as defined by the nameif command,
through which the hosts or network designated by local_ip or access-list acl_id
are accessed. You must enter the interface name in parentheses. If you do not enter
the interface name, then the default is inside.
local_ip
Specifies the addresses to translate. You can use 0.0.0.0 (or 0 for short) to identify
all hosts. Local traffic is matched to a nat statement using the best match. See the
“Order of NAT Commands Used to Match Local Addresses” section on page 7-17
for more information.
mask
Specifies the IP netmask to apply to local_ip. If you do not specify a mask, the
PIX Firewall derives the network mask from the class of the IP address. For
example, the command nat 0 10.130.36.0 causes all addresses in the 10.0.0.0
network to be translated and not only those in the 10.130.36.0 network. For this
reason, you should specify the network mask when configuring an IP address that
is not classful. You must also specify the mask to set other options, such as
outside.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-13
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
nat
max_conns
Specifies the maximum number of simultaneous TCP and UDP connections for
the entire subnet. The default is 0, which means unlimited connections. (Idle
connections are closed after the idle timeout specified by the timeout conn
command.)
Note
nat_id
This option does not apply to outside NAT. The firewall only tracks
connections from a higher security interface to a lower security interface.
If you set max_conns as well as the outside option, the max_conns option
is ignored.
Specifies an integer for the NAT ID. For regular NAT, this integer is between
1 and 2147483647. For policy NAT (nat id access-list), this integer is between
1 and 65535.
Identity NAT (nat 0) and NAT exemption (nat 0 access-list) use the NAT ID of 0.
See the “nat 0 (Identity NAT)” section on page 7-16 and the “nat 0 access-list
(NAT Exemption)” section on page 7-16 for more information about NAT identity
and exemption.
norandomseq
Disables TCP Initial Sequence Number (ISN) randomization protection. Only use
this option if another inline firewall is also randomizing sequence numbers and
the result is scrambling the data. Without this protection, inside hosts with weak
self-ISN protection become more vulnerable to TCP connection hijacking.
Note
outside
This option does not apply to outside NAT. The firewall only randomizes
the ISN that is generated by the host/server on the higher security
interface. If you set norandomseq as well as the outside option, the
norandomseq option is ignored.
If this interface is on a lower security level than the interface you identify by the
matching global statement, then you must enter outside. This feature is called
outside NAT or bidirectional NAT.
Note
Starting with PIX Firewall 6.3.2, source translation is performed before
destination translation. For this reason, if the source NAT policy allows
the connection, the xlate will be created, even if the traffic is denied by
the destination policy.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
Network Address Translation (NAT) substitutes the local address of a packet with a global address that
is routable on the destination network.
When hosts on a higher security interface (inside) access hosts on a lower security interface (outside),
you must configure NAT on the inside hosts or specifically configure the inside interface to bypass NAT.
An inside host can communicate with the untranslated local address of the outside host without any
special configuration on the outside interface. However, you can also optionally perform NAT on the
outside network.
The nat command identifies the local addresses for translation using dynamic NAT or port address
translation (PAT). The global command identifies the global addresses used for translation on a given
destination interface. Each nat statement matches a global statement by comparing the NAT ID on each
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-14
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
nat
statement. If you bypass NAT using identity NAT or NAT exemption, then no global command is
required. See the “nat 0 (Identity NAT)” section on page 7-16 and the “nat 0 access-list (NAT
Exemption)” section on page 7-16 for more information on bypassing NAT.
After changing or removing a nat command statement, use the clear xlate command.
You can use the no nat command to remove a nat command statement.
Note
The firewall does not support NAT for a Call Manager (CM) inside the firewall with IP phones outside
the firewall (that need to register with it). This is because when the IP phone needs to register with the
CM it does so through TFTP, but the firewall does not NAT TFTP messages.
The PIX Firewall does not support outside NAT for non-H.323 multimedia applications or between
overlapping network addresses.
Dynamic NAT and PAT
Dynamic NAT translates a group of local addresses to a pool of global addresses that are routable on the
destination network. The global pool can include fewer addresses than the local group. When a local host
accesses the destination network, the FWSM assigns it an IP address from the global pool. Because the
translation is only in place for the duration of the connection, a given user does not keep the same
IP address between connections. Users on the destination network, therefore, cannot reliably initiate a
connection to a host that uses dynamic NAT (even if the connection is allowed by an access list). Not
only can you not predict the IP address of the host, but the host does not have a global address unless
the host is the initiator. See the static command for reliable access to hosts.
PAT translates a group of local addresses to a single global IP address combined with a unique source
port (above 1024). When a local host accesses the destination network, the FWSM assigns it the global
IP address and then a unique port number. Each host receives the same IP address, but because the source
port numbers are unique, the responding traffic, which includes the IP address and port number as the
destination, can be assigned to the correct host. Because there are over 64,000 ports available, you are
unlikely to run out of addresses, which can happen with dynamic NAT.
Like dynamic NAT, the translation is only in place for the duration of the connection, so a given user
does not keep the same port number between connections.
PAT allows you to use a single global address, thus conserving routable addresses. You can even use the
destination interface IP address as the PAT address. PAT does not work with multimedia applications
that have an inbound data stream different from the outgoing control path.
Dynamic NAT has these disadvantages:
•
If the global pool has fewer addresses than the local group, you could run out of addresses if the
traffic is more than expected.
Use PAT if this event occurs often.
•
You have to use a large number of routable addresses in the global pool; if the destination network
requires registered addresses, such as the Internet, you might encounter a shortage of usable
addresses.
The advantage of dynamic NAT is that some protocols cannot use PAT, which does not work with
applications that have an inbound data stream on one port and the outgoing control path on another, such
as multimedia applications.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-15
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
nat
nat Vs. static Commands
The rule of thumb is that for access from a higher security level interface to a lower security level
interface, use the nat command. From lower security level interface to a higher security level interface,
use the static command.
Table 7-1 helps you decide when to use the nat or static commands for access between the various
interfaces in the PIX Firewall. For this table, assume that the security levels are 40 for dmz1 and 60 for
dmz2.
Table 7-1
Interface Access Commands by Interface
From This Interface
To This Interface
Use This Command
inside
outside
nat
inside
dmz1
nat
inside
dmz2
nat
dmz1
outside
nat
dmz1
dmz2
static
dmz1
inside
static
dmz2
outside
nat
dmz2
dmz1
nat
dmz2
inside
static
outside
dmz1
static
outside
dmz2
static
outside
inside
static
nat 0 (Identity NAT)
The nat 0 command enables identity NAT. Use this command to bypass NAT and allow the local
addresses to be used unchanged. Adaptive Security remains in effect with the nat 0 command. Both the
nat 0 command and the nat 0 access-list command (NAT exemption) may be configured concurrently
in PIX Firewall software Version 5.3 and higher.
It is important to understand the difference between identity NAT and NAT exemption. With identity
NAT, you can accept the inbound traffic only when the traffic is initiated from the inside and after the
xlate is created. NAT exemption allows traffic whenever it matches the referenced ACL, regardless of
whether or not there is already an xlate. Identity NAT allows you to set additional NAT parameters, such
as norandomseq. NAT exemption allows only the outside option.
The nat 0 10.2.3.0 command means let those IP addresses in the 10.2.3.0 net appear on the outside
without translation. All other hosts are translated depending on how their nat or static command
statements appear in the configuration.
nat 0 access-list (NAT Exemption)
The nat 0 access-list command disables NAT, specifically proxy ARPing, for the IP addresses specified
by the ACL referenced by acl_id. (The acl_id is the name you use to identify the access-list command
statement.) This feature is known as NAT exemption. NAT exemption is not backward compatible with
PIX Firewall software Version 5.2 or earlier versions.
This feature is useful in a Virtual Private Network (VPN) configuration where traffic between private
networks should be exempted from NAT.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-16
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
nat
While NAT exemption lets you exempt traffic that is matched by the access-list command statement from
NAT services, Adaptive Security remains in effect. The extent to which the inside hosts are accessible
from the outside depends on the access-list command statements that permit inbound access; NAT
exemption allows both inbound and outbound traffic no matter which side initiates, as long as it is
permitted by the referenced ACL.
The ACL must have only permit statements. Unlike policy NAT, the PIX Firewall ignores any port
setting in your ACL command statement and so NAT exemption cannot be used to permit or deny traffic
on a per-port basis.
nat outside (Outside NAT)
The nat outside option lets you enable or disable outside NAT, which translates the source address of a
connection coming from a lower security interface to higher interface. This feature is also called
bidirectional NAT.
If you enable outside dynamic NAT on an interface, then you must configure explicit NAT policy for all
hosts on the interface that need to initiate connections to inside networks. If you want to translate some
hosts, but not others, then use identity NAT or NAT exemption (nat 0 or nat 0 access-list) to disable
address translation for these additional hosts.
Do not specify the norandomseq or emb_limit options for outside NAT. These options only apply to
traffic initiated from a higher security interface.
Note
Enabling outside PAT can make the firewall more susceptible to flood DoS attack. To mitigate this, we
recommend that the address range selected with the nat nat_id local_ip mask outside command be as
restrictive as possible. In addition, the connection limit should be set to a value that takes into
consideration the memory capacity of the firewall. In general, a PAT session is composed of a PAT xlate
and a UDP or TCP connection. A PAT xlate consumes about 120 bytes and a TCP or UDP connection
consumes about 250 bytes.
nat nat_id access-list (Policy NAT)
When you use an access list with the nat command for any NAT ID other than 0, then you enable
policy NAT.
Policy NAT lets you identify local traffic for address translation by specifying the source and destination
addresses (or ports) in an access list. Regular NAT uses source addresses/ports only, whereas policy NAT
uses both source and destination addresses/ports.
Note
All types of NAT support policy NAT except for NAT exemption (nat 0 access-list). NAT exemption uses
an ACL to identify the local addresses, but differs from policy NAT in that the ports are not considered.
With policy NAT, you can create multiple NAT or static statements that identify the same local address
as long as the source/port and destination/port combination is unique for each statement. You can then
match different global addresses to each source/port and destination/port pair.
Order of NAT Commands Used to Match Local Addresses
The firewall matches local traffic to NAT commands in the following order:
1.
nat 0 access-list (NAT exemption)—In order, until the first match. For example, you could have
overlapping local/destination addresses in multiple nat commands, but only the first command is
matched.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-17
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
nat
2.
static (static NAT)—In order, until the first match. Because you cannot use the same local address
in static NAT or static PAT commands, the order of static commands does not matter. Similarly, for
static policy NAT, you cannot use the same local/destination address and port across multiple
statements.
3.
static {tcp | udp} (static PAT)—In order, until the first match. Because you cannot use the same
local address in static NAT or static PAT commands, the order of static commands does not matter.
Similarly, for static policy NAT, you cannot use the same local/destination address and port across
multiple statements.
4.
nat nat_id access-list (policy NAT)—In order, until the first match. For example, you could have
overlapping local/destination ports and addresses in multiple nat commands, but only the first
command is matched.
5.
nat (regular NAT)—Best match. The order of the NAT commands does not matter. The nat
statement that best matches the local traffic is used. For example, you can create a general statement
to translate all addresses (0.0.0.0) on an interface. If you also create a statement to translate only
10.1.1.1, when 10.1.1.1 makes a connection, the specific statement for 10.1.1.1 is used because it
matches the local traffic best.
If you configure multiple global statements on the same NAT ID, the global statements are used in this
order:
Examples
1.
No global if using nat 0 (identity NAT).
2.
Dynamic NAT global.
3.
PAT global.
The nat 0 (identity NAT) command allows traffic to be initiated from the local host only.
If you want the addresses to be visible from the outside network, use NAT exemption, or use the static
command as follows:
nat (inside) 0 209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224
static (inside, outside) 209.165.201.0 209.165.201.0 netmask 255.255.255.224
access-list acl_out permit host 10.0.0.1 209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224 eq ftp
access-group acl_out in interface outside
nat (inside) 0 209.165.202.128 255.255.255.224
static (inside, outside) 209.165.202.128 209.165.202.128 netmask 255.255.255.255
access-list acl_out permit tcp host 10.0.0.1 209.165.202.128 255.255.255.224 eq ftp
access-group acl_out in interface outside
The following example shows use of the nat 0 access-list command (NAT exemption) to permit internal
host 10.1.1.15, which is accessible through the inside interface, to bypass NAT when connecting to
outside host 10.2.1.3.
access-list no-nat permit ip host 10.1.1.15 host 10.2.1.3
nat (inside) 0 access-list no-nat
The following commands use NAT exemption on a PIX Firewall with three interfaces:
access-list all-ip-packet permit ip 0 0 0 0
nat (dmz) 0 access-list all-ip-packet
nat (inside) 0 access-list all-ip-packet
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-18
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
nat
Given outbound traffic and the following example, for the nat command statements with a nat_id of 1,
any of the hosts on the 10.1.1.0 network are translated to the range of 209.165.201.25-209.165.201.27.
After all three addresses have been used, the translation rule starts using 209.165.201.30 as the PAT
address. For the nat command statements with a nat_id of 3, all of the hosts on the 10.1.3.0 network are
translated to the outside IP address of the FWSM using PAT.
nat (inside) 1 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
global (outside) 1 209.165.201.25-209.165.201.27 netmask 255.255.255.224
global (outside) 1 209.165.201.30
nat (inside) 3 10.1.3.0 255.255.255.0
global (outside) 3 209.165.201.30
The following example specifies with nat command statements that all the hosts on the 10.0.0.0 and
10.3.3.0 inside networks can start outbound connections. The global command statements create unique
pools of global addresses for those hosts that cannot overlap.
nat (inside) 1 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0
global (outside) 1 209.165.201.24-209.165.201.27 netmask 255.255.255.224
global (outside) 1 209.165.201.30
nat (inside) 3 10.3.3.0 255.255.255.0
global (outside) 3 209.165.201.10-209.165.201.23 netmask 255.255.255.224
The following policy NAT example shows a host on the 10.1.2.0/24 network accessing two different
servers. When the host accesses the server at 209.165.201.11, the local address is translated to
209.165.202.129. When the host accesses the server at 209.165.200.225, the local address is translated
to 209.165.202.130.
access-list NET1 permit ip 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224
access-list NET2 permit ip 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 209.165.200.224 255.255.255.224
nat (inside) 1 access-list NET1
global (outside) 1 209.165.202.129 255.255.255.255
nat (inside) 2 access-list NET2
global (outside) 2 209.165.202.130 255.255.255.255
The following policy NAT example shows the use of source and destination ports. The host on the
10.1.2.0/24 network accesses a single host for both web services and Telnet services. When the host
accesses the server for web services, the local address is translated to 209.165.202.129. When the host
accesses the same server for Telnet services, the local address is translated to 209.165.202.130.
access-list WEB permit tcp 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 209.165.201.11 255.255.255.255 eq 80
access-list TELNET permit tcp 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 209.165.201.11 255.255.255.255 eq 23
nat (inside) 1 access-list WEB
global (outside) 1 209.165.202.129 255.255.255.255
nat (inside) 2 access-list TELNET
global (outside) 2 209.165.202.130 255.255.255.255
Related Commands
access-list
Configures access control.
global
Configures global address pools, or designates a PAT (Port Address
Translation) address.
interface
Sets network interface parameters and configures VLANs.
nameif
Assigns a name to an interface.
static
Configures a one-to-one address translation rule.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-19
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
ntp
ntp
Synchronizes the PIX Firewall with a network time server using the Network Time Protocol (NTP).
[no] ntp authenticate
[no] ntp authentication-key number md5 value
ntp server ip_address [key number] source if_name [prefer]
no ntp server ip_address
[no] ntp trusted-key number
clear ntp
show ntp
show ntp associations [detail]
show ntp status
Syntax Description
Command Modes
associations
The network time server associations.
authenticate
Enables NTP authentication. If enabled, the PIX Firewall requires
authentication before synchronizing with an NTP server.
authentication-key
Defines the authentication keys for use with other NTP commands.
detail
Provides additional detail on the network time servers.
if_name
Specifies the interface to use to send packets to the network time server.
ip_address
The IP address of the network time server with which to synchronize.
key
Specifies the authentication key.
md5
The encryption algorithm.
number
The authentication key number (1 to 4294967295).
prefer
Designates the network time server specified as the preferred server with which
to synchronize time.
server
The network time server.
source
Specifies the network time source.
status
Displays NTP clock information.
trusted-key
Specifies the trusted key against which to authenticate.
value
The key value, an arbitrary string of up to 32 characters. The key value is
displayed as “***********” when the configuration is viewed by the write
terminal or show tech-support commands.
Configuration mode.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-20
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
ntp
Usage Guidelines
The ntp command synchronizes the PIX Firewall with the network time server that is specified and
authenticates according to the authentication options that are set.
The authentication keys for the ntp commands are defined in the ntp authentication-key command. If
authentication is used, the PIX Firewall and NTP server must be configured with the same key.
If authentication is enabled, use the ntp trusted-key command to define one or more key numbers that
the NTP server needs to provide in its NTP packets for the PIX Firewall to accept synchronization with
the NTP server.
The PIX Firewall listens for NTP packets (port 123) only on interfaces that have an NTP server
configured through the ntp server command. NTP packets that are not responses from a request by the
PIX Firewall are dropped.
The ntp authenticate command enables NTP authentication.
The clear ntp command removes the NTP configuration, including disabling authentication and
removing all authentication keys and NTP server designations.
show ntp commands
To view information about the NTP configuration and status, use the show ntp, show ntp associations
[detail], or show ntp status commands.
The show ntp command displays the current NTP configuration.
The show ntp associations [detail] command displays the configured network time server associations.
The show ntp status command displays the NTP clock information.
The following is sample output from the show ntp associations command:
pixfirewall> show ntp associations
address
ref clock
st when poll reach delay offset
disp
~172.31.32.2
172.31.32.1
5
29 1024 377
4.2
-8.59
1.6
+~192.168.13.33
192.168.1.111
3
69
128 377
4.1
3.48
2.3
*~192.168.13.57
192.168.1.111
3
32
128 377
7.9
11.18
3.6
* master (synced), # master (unsynced), + selected, - candidate, ~ configured
Table 7-2 describes the values in the show ntp associations command output:
Table 7-2
Output Description from ntp association Command
Output
Description
*
Synchronized to this peer
#
Almost synchronized to this peer
+
Peer selected for possible synchronization
-
Peer is a candidate for selection
~
Peer is statically configured
address
Address of peer.
ref clock
Address of reference clock of peer.
st
Stratum of peer.
when
Time since last NTP packet was received from peer.
poll
Polling interval (in seconds).
reach
Peer reachability (bit string, in octal).
delay
Round-trip delay to peer (in milliseconds).
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-21
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
ntp
Table 7-2
Output Description from ntp association Command
Output
Description
offset
Relative time of peer clock to local clock (in milliseconds).
disp
Dispersion.
The following is sample output from the show ntp association detail command:
pixfirewall(config)# show ntp associations detail
172.23.56.249 configured, our_master, sane, valid, stratum 4
ref ID 172.23.56.225, time c0212639.2ecfc9e0 (20:19:05.182 UTC Fri Feb 22
2002)
our mode client, peer mode server, our poll intvl 128, peer poll intvl 128
root delay 38.04 msec, root disp 9.55, reach 177, sync dist 156.021
delay 4.47 msec, offset -0.2403 msec, dispersion 125.21
precision 2**19, version 3
org time c02128a9.731f127b (20:29:29.449 UTC Fri Feb 22 2002)
rcv time c02128a9.73c1954b (20:29:29.452 UTC Fri Feb 22 2002)
xmt time c02128a9.6b3f729e (20:29:29.418 UTC Fri Feb 22 2002)
filtdelay =
4.47
4.58
4.97
5.63
4.79
5.52
5.87
0.00
filtoffset =
-0.24
-0.36
-0.37
0.30
-0.17
0.57
-0.74
0.00
filterror =
0.02
0.99
1.71
2.69
3.66
4.64
5.62
16000.0
Table 7-3 describes the values in the show ntp association detail command output:
Table 7-3
Output Description from ntp association detail Command
Output
Description
configured
Peer was statically configured.
dynamic
Peer was dynamically discovered.
our_master
Local machine is synchronized to this peer.
selected
Peer is selected for possible synchronization.
candidate
Peer is a candidate for selection.
sane
Peer passes basic sanity checks.
insane
Peer fails basic sanity checks.
valid
Peer time is believed to be valid.
invalid
Peer time is believed to be invalid.
leap_add
Peer is signalling that a leap second will be added.
leap-sub
Peer is signalling that a leap second will be subtracted.
unsynced
Peer is not synchronized to any other machine.
ref ID
Address of machine peer is synchronized to.
time
Last time stamp peer received from its master.
our mode
Our mode relative to peer (active/passive/client/server/bdcast/bdcast client).
peer mode
Peer's mode relative to us.
our poll intvl
Our poll interval to peer.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-22
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
ntp
Table 7-3
Output Description from ntp association detail Command (continued)
Output
Description
peer poll intvl
Peer's poll interval to us.
root delay
Delay along path to root (ultimate stratum 1 time source).
root disp
Dispersion of path to root.
reach
Peer reachability (bit string in octal).
sync dist
Peer synchronization distance.
delay
Round-trip delay to peer.
offset
Offset of peer clock relative to our clock.
dispersion
Dispersion of peer clock.
precision
Precision of peer clock in hertz.
version
NTP version number that peer is using.
org time
Originate time stamp.
rcv time
Receive time stamp.
xmt time
Transmit time stamp.
filtdelay
Round-trip delay (in milliseconds) of each sample.
filtoffset
Clock offset (in milliseconds) of each sample.
filterror
Approximate error of each sample.
The following is sample output from the show ntp status command:
pixfirewall(config)# show ntp status
Clock is synchronized, stratum 5, reference is 172.23.56.249
nominal freq is 99.9984 Hz, actual freq is 100.0266 Hz, precision is 2**6
reference time is c02128a9.73c1954b (20:29:29.452 UTC Fri Feb 22 2002)
clock offset is -0.2403 msec, root delay is 42.51 msec
root dispersion is 135.01 msec, peer dispersion is 125.21 msec
Table 7-4 describes the values in the show ntp status command output:
Table 7-4
Output Description from ntp status Command
Output
Description
synchronized
System is synchronized to an NTP peer.
unsynchronized
System is not synchronized to any NTP peer.
stratum
NTP stratum of this system.
reference
Address of peer to which the system is synchronized.
nominal freq
Nominal frequency of system hardware clock.
actual freq
Measured frequency of system hardware clock.
precision
Precision of the clock of this system (in hertz).
reference time
Reference time stamp.
clock offset
Offset of the system clock to synchronized peer.
root delay
Total delay along path to root clock.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-23
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
ntp
Table 7-4
Examples
Output Description from ntp status Command (continued)
Output
Description
root dispersion
Dispersion of root path.
peer dispersion
Dispersion of synchronized peer.
The following is sample output from the show ntp command:
pixfirewall(config)# show ntp
ntp authentication-key 1234 md5 ********
ntp authenticate
ntp trusted-key 1234
ntp server 10.10.1.2 key 1234 source inside prefer
pixfirewall(config)#
The following is sample output from the show ntp associations command:
pixfirewall(config)# show ntp associations
address
ref clock
st when poll reach
delay offset disp
*~172.23.56.249
172.23.56.225
4
113
128 177
4.5
-0.24
125.2
* master (synced), # master (unsynced), + selected, - candidate, ~ configured
The following is sample output from the show ntp associations detail command:
pixfirewall(config)# show ntp associations detail
172.23.56.249 configured, our_master, sane, valid, stratum 4
ref ID 172.23.56.225, time c0212639.2ecfc9e0 (20:19:05.182 UTC Fri Feb
our mode client, peer mode server, our poll intvl 128, peer poll intvl
root delay 38.04 msec, root disp 9.55, reach 177, sync dist 156.021
delay 4.47 msec, offset -0.2403 msec, dispersion 125.21
precision 2**19, version 3
org time c02128a9.731f127b (20:29:29.449 UTC Fri Feb 22 2002)
rcv time c02128a9.73c1954b (20:29:29.452 UTC Fri Feb 22 2002)
xmt time c02128a9.6b3f729e (20:29:29.418 UTC Fri Feb 22 2002)
filtdelay =
4.47
4.58
4.97
5.63
4.79
5.52
5.87
filtoffset =
-0.24
-0.36
-0.37
0.30
-0.17
0.57
-0.74
filterror =
0.02
0.99
1.71
2.69
3.66
4.64
5.62
22 2002)
128
0.00
0.00
16000.0
The following is sample output from the show ntp status command:
pixfirewall(config)# show ntp status
Clock is synchronized, stratum 5, reference is 172.23.56.249
nominal freq is 99.9984 Hz, actual freq is 100.0266 Hz, precision is 2**6
reference time is c02128a9.73c1954b (20:29:29.452 UTC Fri Feb 22 2002)
clock offset is -0.2403 msec, root delay is 42.51 msec
root dispersion is 135.01 msec, peer dispersion is 125.21 msec
Related Commands
clock
Sets the date and time of firewall.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-24
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
object-group
object-group
Defines object groups that you can use to optimize your configuration. Objects such as hosts, protocols,
or services can be grouped, and then you can issue a single command using the group name to apply to
every item in the group.
[no] object-group icmp-type grp_id
ICMP type group subcommands:
description description_text
icmp-object icmp_type
group-object grp_id
[no] object-group network grp_id
network group subcommands:
description description_text
network-object host host_addr
network-object host_addr mask
group-object grp_id
[no] object-group protocol grp_id
protocol group subcommands:
description description_text
protocol-object protocol
group-object grp_id
[no] object-group service grp_id {tcp | udp | tcp-udp}
service group subcommands:
description description_text
port-object range begin_service end_service
port-object eq service
group-object grp_id
clear object-group [grp_type]
show object-group [id grp_id | grp_type]
Note
Syntax Description.
Enter no in front of a subcommand to remove the configuration within an object group.
begin_service
Used with the range keyword, the decimal number or name of a TCP or UDP port
that is the beginning value for a range of services.
description
description_text
A subcommand of the object-group command that enables users to add a
description of up to 200 characters to an object-group. The starting position of the
description text is the character right after the whitespace (a blank or a tab)
following the description keyword.
end_service
Used with the range keyword, the decimal number or name of a TCP or UDP port
that is the ending value for a range of services.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-25
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
object-group
eq service
Specifies the decimal number or name of a TCP or UDP port for a particular
service object.
group-object
The group-object subcommand is used to add a group of objects that are
themselves members of another object group.
grp_id
Required parameter that identifies the object group (one to 64 characters). Can be
any combination of letters, digits, and the “_”, “-”, “.” characters.
grp_type
The type of group, either ICMP type, network, protocol, or service.
host
Keyword used with the host_addr parameter to define a host object.
host_addr
The host IP address or host name (if the host name is already defined using the
name command).
icmp-object
The object-group icmp-type subcommand used to add ICMP objects to an
ICMP-type object group.
icmp-type
Defines a group of ICMP types such as echo and echo-reply. After entering the
main object-group icmp-type command, add ICMP objects to the ICMP type
group with the icmp-object and the group-object subcommand.
icmp_type
The decimal number or name of an ICMP type.
mask
The netmask. Used with net_addr to define a subnet object.
net_addr
The network address. Used with netmask to define a subnet object.
network
Defines a group of hosts or subnet IP addresses. After entering the main
object-group network command, add network objects to the network group with
the network-object and the group-object subcommand.
network-object
The object-group network subcommand used to add network objects to a network
object group.
obj_grp_id
The name of a previously defined object group. For object groups to be grouped
together, they must be of the same type. For example, you can group two or more
network object groups together, but you cannot group a protocol group and a
network group together.
object-group
The main object grouping command. The keyword after it specifies the type of
object group that is being defined. After entering this main command with the type
indicator keyword, you are in subcommand mode where you explicitly define
individual group members using the object-group subcommands.
port-object
The object-group service subcommand used to add port objects to a service object
group.
protocol
Defines a group of protocols such as TCP and UDP. After entering the main
object-group protocol command, add protocol objects to the protocol group with
the protocol-object and the group-object subcommand.
protocol
The protocol name or number. (For example, UDP is 17 and TCP is 6.)
protocol-object
The object-group protocol subcommand used to add protocol objects to a
protocol object group.
range
Keyword indicating that the range parameters follow.
service
Defines a group of TCP/UDP port specifications such as “eq smtp” and “range
2000 2010.” After entering the main object-group service command, add port
objects to the service group with the port-object and the group-object
subcommand.
tcp
Specifies that service group is used for TCP.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-26
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
object-group
tcp-udp
Specifies that service group can be used for TCP and UDP.
udp
Specifies that service group is used for UDP.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
When a group is defined with the object-group command and then used in a PIX Firewall command, the
command applies to every item in that group. This can significantly reduce your configuration size.
Once an object group is defined, the keyword object-group must be used before the group name in all
applicable PIX Firewall commands, for example:
show object-group
group_name
where group_name is the name of the group.
The following are two examples of the use of an object group once it is defined:
conduit permit tcp object-group group_name any
access-list acl_id permit tcp any object-group group_name
Additionally, the access-list and conduit command parameters can be grouped as follows in Table 7-5.
Table 7-5
Object Groups to Replace Individual Parameters
Instead of using individual parameters...
...use the following object group:
protocol
object-group protocol
host and subnet
object-group network
service
object-group service
icmp_type
object-group icmp_type
You can group commands hierarchically; an object group can be a member of another object group.
To use object groups, you must do the following:
•
The keyword object-group must be used before the object group name in all commands.
For example:
access-list acl permit tcp object-group remotes object-group locals object-group
eng_svc
where remotes and locals are sample object group names.
•
The object group must be non-empty.
•
An object group cannot be removed or emptied if it is currently being used in a command.
After a main object-group command is entered, the command mode changes to its corresponding
subcommand mode. The object group is then defined in the subcommand mode. The active mode is
indicated in the command prompt format. For example, the prompt in the configuration terminal mode
appears as follows:
pix_name (config)#
where pix_name is the name of the PIX Firewall.
However, when the object-group command is entered, the prompt appears as follows:
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-27
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
object-group
pix_name (config-type)#
where pix_name is the name of the PIX Firewall and type is the object-group type.
Use exit, quit, or any valid config-mode command such as the access-list command to close an
object-group subcommand mode and exit the object-group main command.
object groupingUse the no object-group command form to remove a group of previously defined
object-group commands. The clear object-group command form can also be used.
The show object-group command displays all defined object groups by their grp_id when the show
object-group id grp_id command form is entered, and by their group type when the show object-group
grp_type command form is entered. When you enter the show object-group command without a
parameter, all defined object groups are shown.
When entered without a parameter, the clear object-group command removes all defined object groups
that are not being used in a command. Using grp_type parameter removes all defined object groups that
that are not being used in a command for that group type only.
For use in the object-group icmp-type command, Table 7-6 lists ICMP type numbers and names:
Table 7-6
object groupingICMP Types
Number
Name of ICMP Type
0
echo-reply
3
unreachable
4
source-quench
5
redirect
6
alternate-address
8
echo
9
router-advertisement
10
router-solicitation
11
time-exceeded
12
parameter-problem
13
timestamp-request
14
timestamp-reply
15
information-request
16
information-reply
17
mask-request
18
mask-reply
31
conversion-error
32
mobile-redirect
Usage Notes
1.
You can use all other PIX Firewall commands in subcommand mode, including the show and clear
commands.
2.
Subcommands appear indented when displayed or saved by the show config, write, or config
commands.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-28
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
object-group
Examples
3.
Subcommands have the same command privilege level as the main command.
4.
When more than one object group is used in an access-list or conduit command, the elements of all
object groups used in the command are cross-concatenated together, starting with the first group’s
elements concatenated the second group’s elements, then the first and second group’s elements
concatentated together with the third group’s elements, and so on.
The following example shows how to use the object-group icmp-type subcommand mode to create a
new icmp-type object group:
pixfirewall(config)# object-group icmp-type icmp-allowed
pixfirewall(config-icmp-type)#icmp-object echo
pixfirewall(config-icmp-type)#icmp-object time-exceeded
pixfirewall(config-icmp-type)#exit
The following example shows how to use the object-group network subcommand to create a new
network object group:
pixfirewall(config)# object-group network sjc_eng_ftp_servers
pixfirewall(config-network)#network-object host sjc.eng.ftp.servcers
pixfirewall(config-network)#network-object host 172.23.56.194
pixfirewall(config-network)#network-object 192.1.1.0 255.255.255.224
pixfirewall(config-network)#exit
The following example shows how to use the object-group network subcommand to create a new
network object group and map it to a existing object-group:
pixfirewall(config)# object-group network sjc_ftp_servers
pixfirewall(config-network)#network-object host sjc.ftp.servers
pixfirewall(configpixfirewall(config-network)#network-object host 172.23.56.195
pixfirewall(config-network)#network-object 193.1.1.0 255.255.255.224
pixfirewall(config-network)#group-object sjc_eng_ftp_servers
pixfirewall(config-network)#exit
The following example shows how to use the object-group protocol subcommand mode to create a new
protocol object group:
pixfirewall(config)# object-group protocol proto_grp_1
pixfirewall(config-protocol)#protocol-object udp
pixfirewall(config-protocol)#protocol-object ipsec
pixfirewall(config-protocol)#exit
pixfirewall(config)# object-group protocol proto_grp_2
pixfirewall(config-protocol)#protocol-object tcp
pixfirewall(config-protocol)#group-object proto_grp_1
pixfirewall(config-protocol)#exit
The following example shows how to use the object-group service subcommand mode to create a new
port (service) object group:
pixfirewall(config)# object-group service eng_service tcp
pixfirewall(config-service)#group-object eng_www_service
pixfirewall(config-service)#port-object eq ftp
pixfirewall(config-service)#port-object range 2000 2005
pixfirewall(config-service)#exit
The following example shows how to add and remove a text description to an object group:
pixfirewall(config)# object-group protocol protos1
pixfirewall(config-protocol)# description This group of protocols is for our internal
network
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-29
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
object-group
pixfirewall(config-protocol)# show object-group id protos1
object-group protocol protos1
description: This group of protocols is for our internal network
pixdocipsec1(config-protocol)# no description
pixdocipsec1(config-protocol)# show object-group id protos1
object-group protocol protos1
The following example shows how to use the object groupinggroup-object subcommand mode to
create a new object group that consists of previously defined objects:
pixfirewall(config)# object-group network host_grp_1
pixfirewall(config-network)# network-object host 192.168.1.1
pixfirewall(config-network)# network-object host 192.168.1.2
pixfirewall(config-network)# exit
pixfirewall(config)# object-group network host_grp_2
pixfirewall(config-network)# network-object host 172.23.56.1
pixfirewall(config-network)# network-object host 172.23.56.2
pixfirewall(config-network)# exit
pixfirewall(config)# object-group network all_hosts
pixfirewall(config-network)# group-object host_grp_1
pixfirewall(config-network)# group-object host_grp_2
pixfirewall(config-network)# exit
pixfirewall(config)# access-list grp_1 permit tcp object-group host_grp_1 any eq ftp
pixfirewall(config)# access-list grp_2 permit tcp object-group host_grp_2 any eq smtp
pixfirewall(config)# access-list all permit tcp object-group all_hosts any eq www
As shown in this example, without the group-object command the all_hosts group has to be defined to
include all the IP addresses that have already defined in host_grp_1 and host_grp_2, but with the
group-object command, the duplicated definitions of the hosts are eliminated.
The following example illustrates how use object groups to simplify access list configuration:
object-group network remote
network-object host kqk.suu.dri.ixx
network-object host kqk.suu.pyl.gnl
object-group network locals
network-object host 172.23.56.10
network-object host 172.23.56.20
network-object host 172.23.56.194
network-object host 172.23.56.195
object-group service eng_svc ftp
port-object eq www
port-object eq smtp
port-object range 25000 25100
This grouping then enables the access list to be configured in one line instead of 24 lines, which would
be needed if no grouping is used. Instead, with the grouping, the access list configuration is as follows:
access-list acl permit tcp object-group remote object-group locals object-group eng_svc
Note
The show config and write commands display the access list as configured with the object group names.
However, the show access-list command displays the access list entries expanded out into individual
statements without their object groupings.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-30
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
outbound/ apply
outbound/apply
Create an access list for controlling Internet use.
[no] apply [(if_name)] list_ID outgoing_src | outgoing_dest
clear apply
[no] outbound list_ID permit | deny ip_address [netmask [port[-port]] [protocol]
[no] outbound list_ID except ip_address [netmask [port[-port]] [protocol]
clear outbound
show apply [(if_name)] [list_ID outgoing_src | outgoing_dest]
show outbound
Syntax Description
apply
Specifies whether the access control list applies to inside users’ ability to start
outbound connections with apply command’s outgoing_src option, or whether the
access list applies to inside users’ ability to access servers on the outside network
with the apply command’s outgoing_dest option.
clear apply
Removes all the apply command statements from the configuration.
clear
outbound
Removes all outbound command statements from the configuration.
deny
Deny the access list access to the specified IP address and port.
except
Create an exception to a previous outbound command. An except command
statement applies to permit or deny command statements only with the same access
list ID.
When used with apply outgoing_src, the IP address of an except command
statement applies to the destination address.
When used with apply outgoing_dest, the IP address of an except command
statement applies to the source address.
See “Outbound List Rules” for more information.
if_name
The network interface originating the connection.
ip_address
The IP address for this access list entry. Do not specify a range of addresses. The
0.0.0.0 ip_address can be abbreviated as 0.
list_ID
A tag number for the access list. The access list number you use must be the same
for the apply and outbound commands. This value must be a positive number from
1 to 1599. This number can be the same as what you use with the nat and global
commands. This number is just an arbitrary number that groups outbound command
statements to an apply command statement. List_IDs are processed sequentially in
descending order.
For more information, see “Outbound List Rules.”
netmask
The network mask for comparing with the IP address; 255.255.255.0 causes the
access list to apply to an entire Class C address. 0.0.0.0 indicates all access. The
0.0.0.0 netmask can be abbreviated as 0.
no outbound
Removes a single outbound command statement from the configuration.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-31
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
outbound /apply
no apply
Removes a single apply command statement from the configuration.
outbound
The outbound command, in conjunction with the apply command, uses access lists
to control a filtering function on outgoing packets from the PIX Firewall. The filters
can be based on the source IP address, the destination IP address, and the destination
port/protocol as specified by the rules.
The use of an outbound command requires use of the apply command. The apply
command lets you specify whether the access control list applies to inside users’
ability to start outbound connections with the apply command’s outgoing_src
option, or whether the access list applies to inside users’ ability to access servers on
the outside network with the apply command’s outgoing_dest option.
For more information, see “Outbound List Rules” and the access-list command. The
outbound command has been superseded by the access-list command.
outgoing_dest
Deny or permit access to an external IP address using the service(s) specified in the
outbound command.
outgoing_src
Deny or permit an internal IP address the ability to start outbound connections using
the service(s) specified in the outbound command.
permit
Allow the access list to access the specified IP address and port.
port
A port or range of ports that the access list is permitted or denied access to. See the
“Ports” section in Chapter 2, “Using PIX Firewall Commands” for a list of valid port
literal names.
protocol
Limit outbound access to udp, tcp, or icmp protocols. If a protocol is not specified,
the default is tcp.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The outbound command creates an access list that lets you specify the following:
•
Whether inside users can create outbound connections
•
Whether inside users can access specific outside servers
•
What services inside users can use for outbound connections and for accessing outside servers
•
Whether outbound connections can execute Java applets on the inside network
Outbound lists are filters on outgoing packets from the PIX Firewall. The filter can be based on the
source IP address, the destination IP address, and the destination port/protocol as specified by the rules.
The use of an outbound command requires use of the apply command. The apply command enables
you to specify whether the access control list applies to inside users’ ability to start outbound
connections with apply command’s outgoing_src option, or whether the access list applies to inside
users’ ability to access servers on the outside network with the apply command’s outgoing_dest option.
Note
The outbound command has been superseded by the access-list command. We recommend that you
migrate your outbound command statements to access-list command statements to maintain future
compatibility.
The java option has been replaced by the filter java command.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-32
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
outbound/ apply
After adding, removing, or changing outbound command statements, use the clear xlate command.
Use the no outbound command to remove a single outbound command statement from the
configuration. Use the clear outbound command to remove all outbound command statements from the
configuration. The show outbound command displays the outbound command statements in the
configuration.
Use the no apply command to remove a single apply command statement from the configuration. Use
the clear apply command statement to remove all the apply command statements from the
configuration. The show apply command displays the apply command statements in the configuration.
Outbound List Rules
Rules, written as outbound list_ID command statements are global to the PIX Firewall; they are
activated by apply list_ID outgoing_src | outgoing_dest command statements. When applied to
outgoing_src, the source IP address, the destination port, and protocol are filtered. When applied to
outgoing_dest, the destination IP address, port, and protocol are filtered.
The outgoing_src option and outgoing_dest outbound lists are filtered independently. If any one of the
filters contain the deny option, the outbound packet is denied. When multiple rules are used to filter the
same packet, the best matched rule takes effect. The best match is based on the IP address mask and the
port range check. More strict IP address masks and smaller port ranges are considered a better match. If
there is a tie, a permit option overrides a deny option.
Rules are grouped by a list_ID. Within each list_ID, except rules (that is, outbound n except …) can
be set. The except option reverses the best matched rule of deny or permit. In addition, PIX Firewall
filters the specified IP address and mask in the rule for the destination IP address of the outbound packet
if the list is applied to the outbound_src. Alternatively, PIX Firewall filters the source IP address if the
list is applied to the outgoing_dest. Furthermore, the except rules only apply to rules with the same
list_ID. A single except rule within a list_ID without another permit or deny rule has no effect. If
multiple except rules are set, the best match is checked for which except to apply.
The outbound command rules are now sorted by the best match checking. Use the show outbound
command to see how the best match is judged by the PIX Firewall.
Usage Notes
1.
If outbound commands are not specified, the default behavior is to permit all outbound traffic and
services from inside hosts.
2.
After adding, changing, or removing an outbound and apply command statement group, use the
clear xlate command to make the IP addresses available in the translation table.
3.
The outbound commands are processed linearly within a list_ID. In addition, list_IDs are processed
sequentially in descending order. For example, the first command statement you specify in an
outbound list is processed first, then the next outbound command statement in that list, and so on.
Similarly, list_ID 10 is processed before list_ID 20, and so on.
4.
When using outbound commands, it is often helpful to deny or permit access to the many before
you deny or permit access to the specific. Start with an interface-wide specification such as the
following command that denies all hosts from starting connections.
outbound 1 deny 0 0 0
apply (inside) 1 outgoing_src
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-33
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
outbound /apply
Then add command statements that permit or deny hosts access to specific ports.
For example:
outbound 1 deny 0 0 0
outbound 1 permit 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 23 tcp
outbound 1 permit 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 80 tcp
apply (inside) 1 outgoing_src
You could state this same example as follows with the except option:
outbound 1 deny 0 0 0
outbound 1 except 209.165.201.11 255.255.255.255 23 tcp
outbound 1 except 209.165.201.11 255.255.255.255 80 tcp
apply (inside) 1 outgoing_src
In the preceding outbound except command statement, IP address 209.165.201.11 is the destination
IP address, not the source address. This means that everyone is denied outbound access, except those
users going to 209.165.201.11 via Telnet (port 23) or HTTP (port 80).
Examples
5.
If you permit access to port 80 (http), this also permits Java applets to be downloaded.
You must have a specific deny command statement to block Java applets.
6.
The maximum number of outbound list entries in a configuration is 1599.
7.
Outbound lists have no effect on access-list command statement groups.
8.
The use of the access-group command statement overrides the conduit and outbound command
statements for the specified interface name.
In the following example, the first outbound group sets inside hosts so that they can only see and Telnet
to perimeter hosts, and do DNS lookups. The perimeter network address is 209.165.201.0 and the
network mask is 255.255.255.224.
outbound 9 deny 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0 0
outbound 9 except 209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224 23 tcp
outbound 9 except 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 53 udp
The next outbound group lets hosts 10.1.1.11 and 10.1.1.12 go anywhere:
outbound
outbound
outbound
outbound
outbound
11
11
11
11
11
deny 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0 0
permit 10.1.1.11 255.255.255.255 0 0
permit 10.1.1.12 255.255.255.255 0 0
permit 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 21 tcp
permit 10.3.3.3 255.255.255.255 143 tcp
This last outbound group lets hosts on the perimeter only access TCP ports 389 and 30303 and UDP
port 53 (DNS).
Note
The PIX Firewall drops DNS packets sent to UDP port 53 that have a packet size larger than 512 bytes.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-34
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
outbound/ apply
Finally, the apply command statements set the outbound groups so that the permit and deny rules affect
access to all external addresses.
outbound
outbound
outbound
outbound
13 deny 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0 0
13 permit 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 389 tcp
13 permit 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 30303 tcp
13 permit 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 53 udp
apply (inside) 9 outgoing_src
apply (inside) 11 outgoing_src
apply (perim) 13 outgoing_src
Controlling Outbound Connections
The following example prevents all inside hosts from starting outbound connections:
outbound 1 deny 0 0 0
apply (inside) 1 outgoing_src
The 0 0 0 at the end of the command means all IP addresses (0 is the same as 0.0.0.0), with a
0.0.0.0 subnet mask and for all services (port value is zero).
Conversely, the following example permits all inside hosts to start connections to the outside (this is the
default if an access list is not created):
outbound 1 permit 0 0 0
apply (inside) 1 outgoing_src
Controlling Inside Hosts’ Access to Outbound Services
The following example prevents inside host 192.168.1.49 from accessing the World Wide Web
(port 80):
outbound 11 deny 192.168.1.49 255.255.255.255 80 tcp
apply (inside) 11 outgoing_src
Controlling Inside Hosts’ Access to Outside Servers
If your employees are spending too much time examining GIF images on a particular website with two
web servers, you can use the following example to restrict this access:
outbound 12 deny 192.168.146.201 255.255.255.255 80 tcp
outbound 12 deny 192.168.146.202 255.255.255.255 80 tcp
apply (inside) 12 outgoing_dest
Using except Command Statements
An except command statement only provides exception to items with the same list_ID, as shown in the
following example:
outbound
outbound
outbound
outbound
outbound
outbound
outbound
outbound
outbound
outbound
outbound
outbound
9 deny 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0 0
9 except 10.100.0.0 255.255.0.0 23 tcp
9 except 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 53 udp
11 deny 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0 0
11 permit 10.1.1.11 255.255.255.255 0 0
11 permit 10.1.1.12 255.255.255.255 0 0
11 permit 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 21 tcp
11 permit 10.3.3.3 255.255.255.255 143 tcp
13 deny 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0 0
13 permit 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 389 tcp
13 permit 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 30303 tcp
13 permit 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 53 udp
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-35
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
pager
In the preceding examples, the following two command statements work against other command
statements in list 9 but not in lists 11 and 13:
outbound 9 except 10.100.0.0 255.255.0.0 23 tcp
outbound 9 except 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 53 udp
In the following example, the set of deny, permit, and except option command statements denies
everybody from connecting to external hosts except for DNS queries and Telnet connections to hosts on
10.100.0.0. The host with IP address 10.1.1.11 is permitted outbound access, and has access to
everywhere except to 10.100.0.0 via Telnet and anywhere to use DNS.
outbound
1 deny 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0 tcp
outbound
1 permit 10.1.1.11 255.255.255.255 0 tcp
outbound
1 except 10.100.0.0 255.255.0.0 23 tcp
outbound
1 except 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 53 udp
apply (inside) outgoing_src
pager
Enable or disable screen paging.
[no] pager [lines number]
clear pager
show pager
Syntax Description
number
Command Modes
Privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The pager lines command let you specify the number of lines in a page before the “---more---” prompt
appears. The pager command enables display paging, and the no pager command disables paging and
lets output display completely without interruption. If you set the pager lines command to some value
and want to revert back to the default, enter the pager command without options. The clear pager
command resets the number of lines in a page to 24.
The number of lines before the “---more---” prompt appears. The minimum is 1. Use 0
to disable paging.
When paging is enabled, the following prompt appears:
<--- more --->
The “---more---” prompt uses syntax similar to the UNIX more command:
•
To view another screenful, press the Space bar.
•
To view the next line, press the Enter key.
•
To return to the command line, press the q key.
Use the pager 0 command to disable paging.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-36
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
password
Examples
The following example shows use of the pager command:
pixfirewall# pager lines 2
pixfirewall# ping inside 10.0.0.42
10.0.0.42 NO response received -- 1010ms
10.0.0.42 NO response received -- 1000ms
<--- more --->
password
Set password for Telnet access to the PIX Firewall console.
{password | passwd} password [encrypted]
clear {password | passwd}
show {password | passwd}
Syntax Description
encrypted
Specifies that the password you entered is already encrypted. The password you
specify with the encrypted option must be 16 characters in length.
password
A case-sensitive password of up to 16 alphanumeric and special characters. Any
character can be used in the password except a question mark and a space.
Command Modes
Privileged and configuration modes.
Usage Guidelines
The password command sets a password for Telnet access to the PIX Firewall console. The keyword
passwd is also accepted as a shortened form of password. Additionally, the firewall configuration
displays the password using the short form, passwd.
An empty password is changed into an encrypted string. However, any use of a write command displays
or writes the passwords in encrypted form. Once passwords are encrypted, they are not reversible back
to plain text. The clear password command resets the password to “cisco.”
Note
Write down the new password and store it in a manner consistent with your site’s security policy. Once
you change this password, you cannot view it again.
The show password command displays the Telnet password.
Examples
The following example shows use of the password command:
pixfirwall(config)# password watag00s1am
pixfirwall(config)# show passwd
passwd jMorNbK0514fadBh encrypted
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-37
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
pdm
Related Commands
enable
Configures enable passwords.
telnet
Adds Telnet access to the firewall console and sets the idle timeout.
pdm
These commands support communication between the PIX Firewall and a browser running the Cisco
PIX Device Manager (PDM).
show pdm sessions
pdm disconnect session_id
pdm history enable
pdm history [view {all | 12h | 5d | 60m | 10m}] [snapshot] [feature {all | blocks | cpu | failover |
ids | interface if_name | memory | perfmon | xlates}] [pdmclient]
pdm group real_group_name associated_intf_name
pdm group ref_group_name ref_intf_name reference real_group_name
pdm location ip_address netmask if_name
pdm logging [level [messages]]
show pdm history
show pdm logging
show pdm sessions
clear pdm
Syntax Description
12h | 5d | 60m | 10m |
all
Specifies the PDM history view to display: 12 hours (12h), 5 days (5d),
60 minutes (60m),10 minutes (10m), or all history contents in the PDM
history buffer.
associated_intf_name
The name of the interface to which the specified object group is associated.
This name must have been defined by the nameif command.
blocks
History for system buffers. Similar to output from the show blocks
command.
clear pdm
Removes all locations, disables logging, and clears the PDM buffer. Internal
PDM command.
cpu
History for CPU usage. Similar to output from the show cpu usage
command.
failover
History for failover. Similar to output from the show failover command.
feature
This specifies to display history for a single feature (selected with one of
the following). Otherwise, all of them are displayed.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-38
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
pdm
history enable
Internal PDM command. Take a data sample and store the sample data to
the PDM history buffer. The no version of this command disables PDM data
sampling.
ids
History for IDS (Intrusion Detection System).
if_name
Specifies the interface name on which PDM resides.
ip_address
Specifies the host or network on which PDM resides.
level
Specifies the priority level of syslog messages displayed in the PDM syslog
option.
location
Assists PDM with network topology discovery by associating an external
network object with an interface. Note: The pdm location command does
not control which host can launch PDM. See [no] http ip_address [netmask]
[if_name] for this function.
logging
Internal PDM command. Specifies the type and number of syslog messages
displayed through the PDM syslog option.
memory
History for memory. Similar to output from the show memory command.
messages
Specifies the number of messages stored in the PDM buffer. Once the buffer
is full, old messages will be discarded.
netmask
Specifies the network mask for the pdm location ip_address.
pdm
Specifies the Cisco PIX Device Manager.
pdm disconnect
Disconnects the specified PDM session from the PIX Firewall.
pdmclient
Displays the PDM history in PDM-display format.
perfmon
History for performance. Similar to output from the show perfmon
command.
session_id
PDM session ID number available from the show pdm sessions command.
snapshot
Displays only the last PDM history data point.
real_group_name
The name of a PDM object group that contains real IP addresses.
ref_group_name
The name of an object group which contains network address translated
(NATed) IP addresses of the object group specified by real_group_name.
ref_intf_name
The name of the interface from which the destination IP address of inbound
traffic is network address translated (NATed). This name must have been
defined by the nameif command.
xlates
History for translation slot information. Similar to output from the show
xlate command.
Defaults
Default PDM syslog level is 0. Default logging messages is 100 and the maximum is 512.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The pdm disconnect command and the show pdm sessions commands are accessible through the
PIX Firewall command-line interface (CLI). The show pdm sessions command lists all the active PDM
sessions connected to the PIX Firewall by a unique session_id, beginning with session number 0. The
pdm disconnect command lets you disconnect a specific PDM session using its session_id.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-39
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
pdm
The show pdm history command displays the contents of the PDM history buffer.
The show pdm logging command displays the contents of the PDM logging buffer (located within
PDM). PDM syslog messages are stored separately from the PIX Firewall syslog messages. The clear
pdm logging command clears the PDM log without disabling PDM logging.
The clear pdm, pdm group, pdm history, pdm location, and pdm logging commands may appear in
your configuration, but they are designed to work as internal PDM-to-PIX Firewall commands
accessible only to PDM.
The pdm location command associates an interface to an ip_address /netmask pair. Specifying a new
pair replaces the old definition. The clear pdm location command removes all of the PDM locations.
Note
Note: The pdm location command does not control which host can launch PDM. See [no] http
ip_address [netmask] [if_name] for this function.
PDM location is not actually a PIX command, but rather a PDM bookkeeping command. When PDM
opens it discovers the network topology surrounding the PIX from which it was launched. PDM then
stores its discovered topology database in the PIX config file using pdm location commands to record
ip address to interface associations. For example:
pdm
pdm
pdm
pdm
pdm
location
location
location
location
location
10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 inside
10.1.1.2 255.255.255.255 inside
10.1.3.0 255.255.255.0 inside
10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 outside
InsideRouter 255.255.255.255 inside
PDM rules are built on top of the network topology it can discover or has explicitly defined. Ideally, the
topology is clearly defined first via the Host/Network and Network Object functions before policy Rules
are applied.
You may use the CLI command clear pdm location to remove pdm location commands from your
configuration, and it will not affect the operation of the PIX. However the next time PDM is run, it will
again have to rediscover the network topology and update the configuration file with pdm location
commands.
If you have an existing configuration before migrating to PDM, or use both the CLI and PDM to
configure your PIX Firewall, PDM will derive much of the topology information from the current config
file. For example:
static (inside,outside) 2.2.2.2 1.1.1.2 netmask 255.255.255.255 0 0
This command implies that host 1.1.1.2 resides on the inside network.
Why is pdm location needed if PDM can derive or discover the topology information at runtime?
•
The static command can be removed. If the location of 1.1.1.2 is not defined elsewhere in the config,
the interface association will not be available to PDM. This can happen if you implicitly changed
topology while editing an Access Rule or Translation Rule.
•
PDM may not be able to resolve all the IP addresses shown in a configuration. For example, a PIX
with three interfaces uses the CLI command acl permit ip any 1.1.1.1 applied to inside interface.
Where is 1.1.1.1, dmz or outside? If you manually resolve 1.1.1.1 to the outside interface, for
example, PDM will need to “remember” the interface to IP address association to allow Rules to be
accurately displayed and edited.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-40
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
pdm
The following example shows how to report the last data point in PDM-display format:
pix(config)# pdm history enable
pix(config)# show pdm history view 10m snapshot pdmclient
INTERFACE|outside|up|IBC|0|OBC|1088|IPC|0|OPC|0|IBR|17|OBR|
0|IPR|0|OPR|0|IERR|1|NB|0|RB|0|RNT|0|GNT|0|CRC|0|FRM|0|OR|
0|UR|0|OERR|0|COLL|0|LCOLL|0|RST|0|DEF|0|LCR|
0:PIXoutsideINTERFACE:METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|IBR|VIEW|10|1952|
METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|OBR|VIEW|10|64|METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|IPR|
VIEW|10|17|METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|OPR|VIEW|10|1|METRIC_HISTORY|
SNAP|IERR|VIEW|10|0|METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|OERR|VIEW|10|0|
:PIXinsideINTERFACE:METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|IBR|VIEW|10|0|
METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|OBR|VIEW|10|64|METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|IPR|
VIEW|10|0|METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|OPR|VIEW|10|1|METRIC_HISTORY|
SNAP|IERR|VIEW|10|0|METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|OERR|VIEW|10|0|
:PixSYS:METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|MEM|VIEW|10|52662272|
METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|BLK4|VIEW|10|1600|METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|
BLK80|VIEW|10|400|METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|BLK256|VIEW|10|998|
METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|BLK1550|VIEW|10|676|METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|
XLATES|VIEW|10|0|METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|CONNS|VIEW|10|0|
METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|TCPCONNS|VIEW|10|0|METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|
UDPCONNS|VIEW|10|0|METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|URLS|VIEW|10|0|
METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|WEBSNS|VIEW|10|0|METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|
TCPFIXUPS|VIEW|10|0|METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|TCPINTERCEPTS|VIEW|
10|0|METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|HTTPFIXUPS|VIEW|10|0|METRIC_HISTORY|
SNAP|FTPFIXUPS|VIEW|10|0|METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|AAAAUTHENUPS|VIEW|
10|0|METRIC_HISTORY|SNAP|AAAAUTHORUPS|VIEW|10|0|METRIC_HISTORY|
SNAP|AAAACCOUNTS|VIEW|10|0|
The following example shows how to report the data, formatted for the PIX Firewall CLI:
pix(config)# pdm history enable
pix(config)# show pdm history view 10m snapshot
Available 4 byte Blocks: [ 10s] : 1600
Used 4 byte Blocks: [ 10s] : 0
Available 80 byte Blocks: [ 10s] : 400
Used 80 byte Blocks: [ 10s] : 0
Available 256 byte Blocks: [ 10s] : 500
Used 256 byte Blocks: [ 10s] : 0
Available 1550 byte Blocks: [ 10s] : 931
Used 1550 byte Blocks: [ 10s] : 385
Available 1552 byte Blocks: [ 10s] : 0
Used 1552 byte Blocks: [ 10s] : 0
Available 2560 byte Blocks: [ 10s] : 0
Used 2560 byte Blocks: [ 10s] : 0
Available 4096 byte Blocks: [ 10s] : 0
Used 4096 byte Blocks: [ 10s] : 0
Available 8192 byte Blocks: [ 10s] : 0
Used 8192 byte Blocks: [ 10s] : 0
Available 16384 byte Blocks: [ 10s] : 0
Used 16384 byte Blocks: [ 10s] : 0
Available 65536 byte Blocks: [ 10s] : 0
Used 65536 byte Blocks: [ 10s] : 0
CPU Utilization: [ 10s] : 0
IP Options Bad: [ 10s] : 0
Record Packet Route: [ 10s] : 0
IP Options Timestamp: [ 10s] : 0
Provide s,c,h,tcc: [ 10s] : 0
Loose Source Route: [ 10s] : 0
SATNET ID: [ 10s] : 0
Strict Source Route: [ 10s] : 0
IP Fragment Attack: [ 10s] : 0
Impossible IP Attack: [ 10s] : 0
IP Teardrop: [ 10s] : 0
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-41
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
pdm
ICMP Echo Reply: [ 10s] : 0
ICMP Unreachable: [ 10s] : 0
ICMP Source Quench: [ 10s] : 0
ICMP Redirect: [ 10s] : 0
ICMP Echo Request: [ 10s] : 0
ICMP Time Exceeded: [ 10s] : 0
ICMP Parameter Problem: [ 10s] : 0
ICMP Time Request: [ 10s] : 0
ICMP Time Reply: [ 10s] : 0
ICMP Info Request: [ 10s] : 0
ICMP Info Reply: [ 10s] : 0
ICMP Mask Request: [ 10s] : 0
ICMP Mask Reply: [ 10s] : 0
Fragmented ICMP: [ 10s] : 0
Large ICMP: [ 10s] : 0
Ping of Death: [ 10s] : 0
No Flags: [ 10s] : 0
SYN & FIN Only: [ 10s] : 0
FIN Only: [ 10s] : 0
FTP Improper Address: [ 10s] : 0
FTP Improper Port: [ 10s] : 0
Bomb: [ 10s] : 0
Snork: [ 10s] : 0
Chargen: [ 10s] : 0
DNS Host Info: [ 10s] : 0
DNS Zone Transfer: [ 10s] : 0
DNS Zone Transfer High Port: [ 10s] : 0
DNS All Records: [ 10s] : 0
Port Registration: [ 10s] : 0
Port Unregistration: [ 10s] : 0
RPC Dump: [ 10s] : 0
Proxied RPC: [ 10s] : 0
ypserv Portmap Request: [ 10s] : 0
ypbind Portmap Request: [ 10s] : 0
yppasswd Portmap Request: [ 10s] : 0
ypupdated Portmap Request: [ 10s] : 0
ypxfrd Portmap Request: [ 10s] : 0
mountd Portmap Request: [ 10s] : 0
rexd Portmap Request: [ 10s] : 0
rexd Attempt: [ 10s] : 0
statd Buffer Overflow: [ 10s] : 0
Input KByte Count: [ 10s] : 41804
Output KByte Count: [ 10s] : 526456
Input KPacket Count: [ 10s] : 364
Output KPacket Count: [ 10s] : 450
Input Bit Rate: [ 10s] : 0
Output Bit Rate: [ 10s] : 0
Input Packet Rate: [ 10s] : 0
Output Packet Rate: [ 10s] : 0
Input Error Packet Count: [ 10s] : 0
No Buffer: [ 10s] : 0
Received Broadcasts: [ 10s] : 90076
Runts: [ 10s] : 0
Giants: [ 10s] : 0
CRC: [ 10s] : 0
Frames: [ 10s] : 0
Overruns: [ 10s] : 0
Underruns: [ 10s] : 0
Output Error Packet Count: [ 10s] : 0
Collisions: [ 10s] : 8895
LCOLL: [ 10s] : 0
Reset: [ 10s] : 0
Deferred: [ 10s] : 3138
Lost Carrier: [ 10s] : 0
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-42
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
pdm
Hardware Input Queue: [ 10s] : 128
Software Input Queue: [ 10s] : 0
Hardware Output Queue: [ 10s] : 0
Software Output Queue: [ 10s] : 0
Input KByte Count: [ 10s] : 61835
Output KByte Count: [ 10s] : 26722
Input KPacket Count: [ 10s] : 442
Output KPacket Count: [ 10s] : 418
Input Bit Rate: [ 10s] : 0
Output Bit Rate: [ 10s] : 0
Input Packet Rate: [ 10s] : 0
Output Packet Rate: [ 10s] : 0
Input Error Packet Count: [ 10s] : 0
No Buffer: [ 10s] : 0
Received Broadcasts: [ 10s] : 308607
Runts: [ 10s] : 0
Giants: [ 10s] : 0
CRC: [ 10s] : 0
Frames: [ 10s] : 0
Overruns: [ 10s] : 0
Underruns: [ 10s] : 0
Output Error Packet Count: [ 10s] : 0
Collisions: [ 10s] : 0
LCOLL: [ 10s] : 0
Reset: [ 10s] : 0
Deferred: [ 10s] : 2
Lost Carrier: [ 10s] : 707
Hardware Input Queue: [ 10s] : 128
Software Input Queue: [ 10s] : 0
Hardware Output Queue: [ 10s] : 0
Software Output Queue: [ 10s] : 0
Available Memory: [ 10s] : 45293568
Used Memory: [ 10s] : 21815296
Xlate Count: [ 10s] : 0
Connection Count: [ 10s] : 0
TCP Connection Count: [ 10s] : 0
UDP Connection Count: [ 10s] : 0
URL Filtering Count: [ 10s] : 0
URL Server Filtering Count: [ 10s] : 0
TCP Fixup Count: [ 10s] : 0
TCP Intercept Count: [ 10s] : 0
HTTP Fixup Count: [ 10s] : 0
FTP Fixup Count: [ 10s] : 0
AAA Authentication Count: [ 10s] : 0
AAA Authorzation Count: [ 10s] : 0
AAA Accounting Count: [ 10s] : 0
Current Xlates: [ 10s] : 0
Max Xlates: [ 10s] : 0
ISAKMP SAs: [ 10s] : 0
IPSec SAs: [ 10s] : 0
L2TP Sessions: [ 10s] : 0
L2TP Tunnels: [ 10s] : 0
PPTP Sessions: [ 10s] : 0
PPTP Tunnels: [ 10s] : 0
Related Commands
setup
Preconfigures the firewall through interactive prompts.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-43
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
perfmon
perfmon
View performance information.
perfmon verbose
perfmon interval seconds
perfmon quiet
perfmon settings
show perfmon
Syntax Description
interval seconds
Specify the number of seconds the performance display is refreshed on the
console. The default is 120 seconds.
quiet
Disable performance monitor displays.
settings
Displays the interval and whether it is quiet or verbose.
verbose
Enable displaying performance monitor information at the PIX Firewall console.
Command Modes
Privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The perfmon command lets you monitor the PIX Firewall unit’s performance. Use the show perfmon
command to view the information immediately. Use the perfmon verbose command to display the
information every two minutes continuously. Use the perfmon interval seconds command with the
perfmon verbose command to display the information continuously every number of seconds you
specify.
Use the perfmon quiet command to disable the display.
The show perfmon command displays PIX Firewall performance information. (However, this command
output does not display in a Telnet console session.)
An example of the performance information follows:
PERFMON STATS:
Current
Average
Xlates
33/s
20/s
Connections
110/s
10/s
TCP Conns
50/s
42/s
WebSns Req
4/s
2/s
TCP Fixup
20/s
15/s
HTTP Fixup
5/s
5/s
FTP Fixup
7/s
4/s
AAA Authen
10/s
5/s
AAA Author
9/s
5/s
AAA Account
3/s
3/s
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-44
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
ping
This information lists the number of translations, connections, Websense requests, address translations
(called “fixups”), and AAA transactions that occur each second.
Examples
The following commands display the performance monitor statistics every 30 seconds on the
PIX Firewall console:
perfmon interval 30
perfmon verbose
ping
Determine if other IP addresses are visible from the PIX Firewall.
ping [if_name] ip_address
Syntax Description
if_name
The internal or external network interface name. The address of the specified interface
is used as the source address of the ping.
ip_address
The IP address of a host on the inside or outside networks.
Command Modes
Privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The ping command determines if the PIX Firewall has connectivity or if a host is available on the
network. The command output shows if the response was received; that is, that a host is participating on
the network. If a host is not responding, ping displays “NO response received.” Use the show interface
command to ensure that the PIX Firewall is connected to the network and is passing traffic.
If you want internal hosts to be able to ping external hosts, you must create an ICMP access-list
command statement for echo reply; for example, to give ping access to all hosts, use the access-list
acl_grp permit icmp any any command and bind the access-list command statement to the interface
you want to test using an access-group command statement.
If you are pinging through PIX Firewall between hosts or routers, but the pings are not successful, use
the debug icmp trace command to monitor the success of the ping. If pings are both inbound and
outbound, they are successful.
The PIX Firewall ping command no longer requires an interface name. If an interface name is not
specified, PIX Firewall checks the routing table to find the address you specify. You can specify an
interface name to indicate through which interface the ICMP echo requests are sent.
An example of the usage follows:
ping 10.0.0.1
10.0.0.1 response received -- 10ms
10.0.0.1 response received -- 10ms
10.0.0.1 response received -- 0ms
Or you can still enter the command specifying the interface:
ping outside 10.0.0.1
10.0.0.1 response received -- 10ms
10.0.0.1 response received -- 10ms
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-45
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
prefix-list
10.0.0.1 response received -- 0ms
Examples
In the following example, the ping command makes three attempts to reach an IP address:
ping 192.168.42.54
192.168.42.54 response received -- 0Ms
192.168.42.54 response received -- 0Ms
192.168.42.54 response received -- 0Ms
prefix-list
Configures a prefix list for Area Border Router (ABR) type 3 link-state advertisement (LSA) filtering
(to be used in OSPF routing areas).
[no] prefix-list list_name [seq seq_number] {permit | deny prefix / len} [ge min_value] [le
max_value]
[no] prefix-list sequence-number
prefix-list list_name description text
Syntax Description
/
A required separator between the prefix and len values.
deny
Denies access for a matching condition.
ge
Applies the min_value to the range specified.
le
Applies the max_value to the range specified.
len
The network length (in bits) of the network mask, from 0 to 32.
list_name
The name of the prefix list. The list_name and seq_number together must be
less than 64 characters combined.
max_value
Specifies the greater value of a range (the “to” portion of the range
description). Ranges values can be from 0 to 32.
min_value
Specifies the lesser value of a range (the “from” portion of the range
description). Ranges values can be from 0 to 32.
permit
Permits access for a matching condition.
prefix
The network number.
seq seq_number
Specifies the sequence number for the prefix list entry, from 1 to 4294967295.
However, the list_name and seq_number together must be less than 64
characters combined.
sequence-number
Enables the generation of sequence numbers for entries in an OSPF prefix list.
text
The text of the description, with a maximum of 80 characters.
Defaults
None.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-46
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
privilege
Usage Guidelines
The prefix-list commands are Area Border Router (ABR) type 3 link-state advertisement (LSA) filtering
commands. ABR type 3 LSA filtering extends the capability of an ABR that is running OSPF to filter
type 3 LSAs between different OSPF areas. This filtering is based on a prefix list defined by you, using
the prefix-list commands. Once configured, only the specified prefixes are sent from one area to another
area, and all other prefixes are restricted to their OSPF area. This type of area filtering can be applied to
traffic going into or coming out of an OSPF area, or to both the incoming and outgoing traffic for that
area.
To create an entry in a prefix list, use the prefix-list list_name command. To delete the entry, use the no
prefix-list list_name command.
Use the prefix-list list_name description text command to add a text description to the prefix list name.
To remove the text description, use the no prefix-list list_name description text command.
The prefix-list list_name seq seq_number command designates sequence numbers for entries in a prefix
list.
Use the prefix-list sequence-number command to enable the generation of sequence numbers for
entries in a OSPF prefix list.
Examples
The following example shows how to configure a prefix list:
pixfirewall(config)# prefix-list t-prelist permit 5/0001
pixfirewall(config)# show prefix-list
prefix-list t-prelist seq 5 permit 0.0.0.0/1
Related Commands
area filter-list
A subcommand to the router ospf command that uses the prefix list that you
configure with the prefix-list command.
route-map
Creates a route map for redistributing routes from one routing protocol to
another. Used in configuring OSPF routing on the firewall.
router ospf
Configures global parameters for the OSPF routing processes on the firewall,
and enables or disables OSPF routing through the firewall.
routing interface
Configures interface-specific OSPF routing parameters.
privilege
Configures or displays command privilege levels.
[no] privilege [show | clear | configure] level level [mode enable | configure] command command
show curpriv
show privilege [all | command command | level level]
Syntax Description
clear
Sets the privilege level for the clear command corresponding to the
command specified.
command
The command to allow. (Use the no command form to disallow.)
command
The command on which to set the privilege level.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-47
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
privilege
configure
Sets the privilege level for the configure command corresponding to the
command specified.
configure
For commands with both enable and configure modes, this indicates that the
level is for the configure mode of the command.
curpriv
Displays the current privilege level.
detail
Displays privilege debugging information.
enable
For commands with both enable and configure modes, this indicates that the
level is for the enable mode of the command.
level
The privilege level, from 0 to 15. (Lower numbers are lower privilege
levels.)
level
Specifies the privilege level.
show
Sets the privilege level for the show command corresponding to the
command specified.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The privilege command sets user-defined privilege levels for PIX Firewall commands. This is
especially useful for setting different privilege levels for related configuration, show, and clear
commands. However, be sure to verify privilege level changes in your commands with your security
policies before implementing the new privilege levels.
When commands have privilege levels set, and users have privilege levels set, then the two are compared
to determine if a given user can execute a given command. If the user's privilege level is lower than the
privilege level of the command, the user is prevented from executing the command. This is modeled
after Cisco IOS software.
To change between privilege levels, use the login command to access another privilege level and the
appropriate logout, exit, or quit command to exit that level.
Note
Your aaa authentication and aaa authorization commands need to include any new privilege levels you
define before you can use them in your AAA server configuration.
The show curpriv command displays the current privileges for a user.
The show privilege [all | command command | level level] command displays the privileges for a
command or set of commands.
Examples
You can set the privilege level “5” for an individual user as follows:
username intern1 password pass1 privilege 5
You can also define a set of show commands with the privilege level “5” as follows:
level:
privilege
privilege
privilege
privilege
privilege
show
show
show
show
show
level
level
level
level
level
5
5
5
5
5
command
command
command
command
command
alias
apply
arp
auth-prompt
blocks
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-48
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
quit
The following examples show output from the show curpriv command when a user named enable_15
is at different privilege levels. Username indicates the name the user entered when he or she logged in,
P_PRIV indicates that the user has entered the enable command, and P_CONF indicates the user has
entered the config terminal command.
pixfirewall(config)# show curpriv
Username : enable_15
Current privilege level : 15
Current Mode/s : P_PRIV P_CONF
pixfirewall(config)# exit
pixfirewall# show curpriv
Username : enable_15
Current privilege level : 15
Current Mode/s : P_PRIV
pixfirewall# exit
pixfirewall> show curpriv
Username : enable_1
Current privilege level : 1
Current Mode/s : P_UNPR
pixfirewall>
The following is an example of applying a privilege level of 11 to a complete AAA authorization
configuration:
privilege
privilege
privilege
privilege
privilege
privilege
privilege
privilege
Related Commands
configure
configure
configure
configure
configure
configure
configure
configure
level
level
level
level
level
level
level
level
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
command
command
command
command
command
command
command
command
aaa
aaa-server
access-group
access-list
activation-key
age
alias
apply
aaa authentication
Enable, disable, or view LOCAL, TACACS+, or RADIUS user authentication,
on a server designated by the aaa-server command, or PDM user
authentication
login
Logs into a new privilege level.
object-group
Create an object group for use in other commands, such as access-list
statements.
username
Configures local user authentication database.
quit
Exit configuration or privileged mode.
quit
Syntax Description
quit
Exits the current privilege level or mode.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-49
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
reload
Command Modes
All modes.
Usage Guidelines
Use the quit command to exit configuration or privileged mode.
Examples
The following example shows use of the quit command:
pixfirewall(config)# quit
pixfirewall# quit
pixfirewall>
reload
Reboot and reload the configuration.
reload [noconfirm]
Syntax Description
noconfirm
Permits the PIX Firewall to reload without user confirmation.
reload
Reboot and reload configuration.
Command Modes
Privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The reload command reboots the PIX Firewall and reloads the configuration from a bootable floppy
disk or, if a diskette is not present, from Flash memory.
The PIX Firewall does not accept abbreviations to the keyword noconfirm.
You are prompted for confirmation before starting with “Proceed with reload?”.
Any response other than n causes the reboot to occur.
Note
Examples
Configuration changes not written to Flash memory are lost after reload. Before rebooting, store the
current configuration in Flash memory with the write memory command.
The following example shows use of the reload command:
reload
Proceed with reload?
[confirm] y
Rebooting...
PIX Bios V2.7
...
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-50
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
rip
rip
Change Routing Information Protocol (RIP) settings.
[no] rip if_name default | passive [version [1 | 2]] [authentication [text | md5 key (key_id)]]
debug rip [if_name]
clear rip
show rip [if_name]
Syntax Description
authentication
Enable RIP Version 2 authentication.
default
Broadcast a default route on the interface.
if_name
The internal or external network interface name.
key
Key to encrypt RIP updates. This value must be the same on the routers and any
other device that provides RIP Version 2 updates. The key is a text string of up
to 16 characters in length.
key_id
Key identification value. The key_id can be a number from 1 to 255. Use the
same key_id that is in use on the routers and any other device that provides RIP
Version 2 updates.
md5
Send RIP updates using MD5 encryption.
passive
Enable passive RIP on the interface. The PIX Firewall listens for RIP routing
broadcasts and uses that information to populate its routing tables.
text
Send RIP updates as clear text (not recommended).
version
RIP version. Use version 2 for RIP update encryption. Use version 1 to provide
backward compatibility with the older version.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The rip command enables IP routing table updates from received Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
broadcasts. Use the no rip command to disable the PIX Firewall IP routing table updates. The default
is to enable IP routing table updates. If you specify RIP Version 2, you can encrypt RIP updates using
MD5 encryption.
The clear rip command removes all the rip commands from the configuration.
Ensure that the key and key_id values are the same as in use on any other device in your network that
makes RIP Version 2 updates.
The PIX Firewall cannot pass RIP updates between interfaces.
When RIP Version 2 is configured in passive mode with PIX Firewall software Version 5.3 and higher,
the PIX Firewall accepts RIP Version 2 multicast updates with an IP destination of 224.0.0.9. For RIP
Version 2 default mode, the PIX Firewall will transmit default route updates using an IP destination of
224.0.0.9. Configuring RIP Version 2 registers the multicast address 224.0.0.9 on the respective interface
to be able to accept multicast RIP Version 2 updates.
Only Intel 10/100 and Gigabit interfaces support multicasting.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-51
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
rip
When the RIP Version 2 commands for an interface are removed, the multicast address is unregistered
from the interface card.
Examples
The following is sample output from the Version 1 show rip and rip inside default commands:
show rip
rip outside passive
no rip outside default
rip inside passive
no rip inside default
rip inside default
show rip
rip outside passive
no rip outside default
rip inside passive
rip inside default
The next example combines Version 1 and Version 2 commands and shows listing the information with
the show rip command after entering the RIP commands that do the following:
•
Enable Version 2 passive RIP using MD5 authentication on the outside interface to encrypt the key
used by the PIX Firewall and other RIP peers, such as routers.
•
Enable Version 1 passive RIP listening on the inside interface of the PIX Firewall.
•
Enable Version 2 passive RIP listening on the dmz interface of the PIX Firewall.
rip
rip
rip
rip
outside passive version 2 authentication md5 thisisakey 2
outside default version 2 authentication md5 thisisakey 2
inside passive
dmz passive version 2
show rip
rip outside passive version 2 authentication md5 thisisakey 2
rip outside default version 2 authentication md5 thisisakey 2
rip inside passive version 1
rip dmz passive version 2
The next example shows how use of the clear rip command clears all the previous rip commands from
the current configuration:
clear rip
show rip
The following example shows use of the Version 2 feature that passes the encryption key in text form:
rip out default version 2 authentication text thisisakey 3
show rip
rip outside default version 2 authentication text thisisakey 3
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-52
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
route
route
Enter a static or default route for the specified interface.
[no] route if_name ip_address netmask gateway_ip [metric]
clear route [if_name ip_address [netmask gateway_ip]]
show route
Syntax Description
gateway_ip
Specify the IP address of the gateway router (the next hop address for this route).
if_name
The internal or external network interface name.
ip_address
The internal or external network IP address. Use 0.0.0.0 to specify a default route.
The 0.0.0.0 IP address can be abbreviated as 0.
metric
Specify the number of hops to gateway_ip. If you are not sure, enter 1. Your network
administrator can supply this information or you can use a traceroute command to
obtain the number of hops. The default is 1 if a metric is not specified.
netmask
Specify a network mask to apply to ip_address. Use 0.0.0.0 to specify a default
route. The 0.0.0.0 netmask can be abbreviated as 0.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
Use the route command to enter a default or static route for an interface. To enter a default route, set
ip_address and netmask to 0.0.0.0, or the shortened form of 0. All routes entered using the route
command are stored in the configuration when it is saved. The clear route command removes route
command statements from the configuration that do not contain the CONNECT keyword.
Create static routes to access networks connected outside a router on any interface. The effect of a static
route is like stating “to send a packet to the specified network, give it to this router.” For example,
PIX Firewall sends all packets destined to the 192.168.42.0 network through the 192.168.1.5 router with
this static route command statement.
route dmz 192.168.42.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.5 1
The routing table automatically specifies the IP address of a PIX Firewall interface in the route
command. Once you enter the IP address for each interface, PIX Firewall creates a route statement entry
that is not deleted when you use the clear route command.
Note
As of PIX Firewall Version 6.3(2), the show route command displays the route information only for
active routes. Routes that are configured on interfaces and administratively or physically shut down do
not display with the show route command.
If the route command statement uses the IP address from one interface of the PIX Firewall unit as the
gateway IP address, PIX Firewall will ARP for the destination IP address in the packet instead of
ARPing for the gateway IP address.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-53
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
route-map
The following steps show how PIX Firewall handles routing:
Step 1
PIX Firewall receives a packet from the inside interface destined to IP address X.
Step 2
Because a default route is set to itself, PIX Firewall sends out an ARP for address X.
Step 3
Any Cisco router on the outside interface LAN which has a route to address X (Cisco IOS software has
proxy ARP enabled by default) replies back to the PIX Firewall with its own MAC address as the next
hop.
Step 4
PIX Firewall sends the packet to router (just like a default gateway).
Step 5
PIX Firewall adds the entry to its ARP cache for IP address X with the MAC address being that of the
router.
•
The CONNECT route entry is supported. (This identifier appears when you use the show route
command.) The CONNECT identifier is assigned to an interface’s local network and the interface
IP address, which is in the IP local subnet. PIX Firewall will ARP for the destination address. The
CONNECT identifier cannot be removed, but changes when you change the IP address on the
interface.
•
If you enter duplicate routes with different metrics for the same gateway, PIX Firewall changes the
metric for that route and updates the metric for the route.
For example, if the following command statement is in the configuration:
route inside 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.2 2 OTHER
If you enter the following statement:
route inside 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.2 3
PIX Firewall converts the command statement to the following:
route inside 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.2 3 OTHER
Examples
Specify one default route command statement for the outside interface, which in this example is for the
router on the outside interface that has an IP address of 209.165.201.1:
route outside 0 0 209.165.201.1 1
For static routes, if two networks, 10.1.2.0 and 10.1.3.0 connect via a hub to the dmz1 interface router
at 10.1.1.4, add these static route command statements to provide access to the networks:
route dmz1 10.1.2.0 255.0.0.0 10.1.1.4 1
route dmz1 10.1.3.0 255.0.0.0 10.1.1.4 1
route-map
Defines the conditions for redistributing routes from one routing protocol into another. (Used in
configuring OSPF routing on the firewall.) OSPF routing is not supported on the PIX 501.
[no] route-map map_tag [permit | deny] [seq_num]
show route-map [map_tag]
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-54
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
route-map
Subcommands to the route-map command:
[no] match [interface interface_name | metric metric_value | ip address acl_id | route-type {local
| internal | [external [type-1 | type-2]]}| nssa-external [type-1 | type-2] | ip next-hop acl_id
| ip route-source acl_id ]
[no] set metric value
[no] set metric-type {type-1 | type-2 | internal | external}
[no] set ip next-hop ip-address [ip-address]
Syntax Description
acl_id
The name of an ACL. The match ip next-hop and match ip route-source
commands can accept more than one acl_id. That is, they accept acl_id [...acl_id ].
deny
If the match criteria are met for the route map and the deny option is specified, the
route is not redistributed.
external
The OSPF metric routes external to a specified autonomous system.
interface_name
The name of the interface.
internal
Routes that are internal to a specified autonomous system.
ip next-hop
ip-address
[ip-address]
Indicates where to output packets that pass a match clause of the route map.
ip route-source
Redistributes routes that have been advertised by routers and access servers at the
address specified by the acl_id.
local
Specifies a preference value for the autonomous system path.
map_tag
The text for the route map tag, meant to define a meaningful name for the route
map, up to 58 characters in length. Multiple route maps may share the same map
tag name.
metric_value
A metric value, from 0 to 2147483647.
nssa-external
[type-1 | type-2]
The OSPF metric type for routes that are external to a not-so-stubby area (NSSA),
either type 1 or 2. The default is type 2.
permit
If the match criteria are met for this route map, and the permit option is specified,
the route is redistributed as controlled by the set actions. If the match criteria are
not met, and the permit keyword is specified, the next route map with the same
map_tag is tested. If a route passes none of the match criteria for the set of route
maps sharing the same name, it is not redistributed by that set. The permit option
is the default.
seq_num
If there are any route maps with the same map_tag, then you must also specify a
seq_num for the route-maps to differentiate between them. The seq_num can be
any number from 0 to 65535. Otherwise, no seq_num needs to be specified. A
default value of 10 is assigned to the first route map if no seq_num is specified.
If given in the no route-map map_tag seq_num command, seq_num is the route
map to be deleted.
type-1 | type-2
The OSPF metric routes external to a specified autonomous system, either type 1
or 2. The default is type 2.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-55
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
route-map
Defaults
The permit option is the default for the route-map command.
Command Modes
The route-map command is available in configuration mode.
The show route-map command is available in privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
To define the conditions for redistributing routes from one routing protocol into another, use the
route-map map_tag command and the match and set route-map configuration commands. To delete an
entry, use the no route-map map_tag command.
set metric value
To set the metric value for a routing protocol, use the set metric value subcommand. To return to the
default metric value, use the no set metric value subcommand. In this context, the value is an integer
from -2147483647 to 2147483647.
set metric-type { type-1 | type-2}
To set the metric type for the destination routing protocol, use the set metric-type {type-1 | type-2}
subcommand. To return to the default, use the no set metric-type {type-1 | type-2} subcommand.
set ip next-hop ip-address
To indicate where to output packets that pass a match clause of a route map, use the set ip next-hop
ip_address subcommand. To delete an entry, use the no set ip next-hop ip-address subcommand. In this
context, ip_address is the IP address of the next hop to which to output packets. It must be the address
of an adjacent router.
Examples
The following example show how to configure a route map for use in OSPF routing:
pixfirewall(config)# route-map
pixfirewall(config-route-map)#
pixfirewall(config-route-map)#
pixfirewall(config-route-map)#
pixfirewall(config-route-map)#
route-map maptag1 permit 8
set metric 5
set metric-type type-2
match metric 5
pixfirewall(config-route-map)#
pixfirewall(config)#
Related Commands
maptag1 permit 8
set metric 5
match metric 5
set metric-type type-2
show route-map
exit
prefix-list
Configures a prefix list to be used for OSPF routing.
router ospf
Configures global parameters for the OSPF routing processes on the firewall,
and enables or disables OSPF routing through the firewall.
routing interface
Configures interface-specific OSPF routing parameters.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-56
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
router ospf
router ospf
Configures global parameters for the OSPF routing processes on the firewall, and enables or disables
OSPF routing through the firewall. (Use the routing interface command for interface-specific OSPF
configration.) OSPF routing is not supported on the PIX 501.
[no] router ospf pid
show router ospf pid
Subcommands to the router ospf command:
[no] area area_id
[no] area area_id authentication [message-digest]
[no] area area_id default-cost cost
[no] area area_id filter-list prefix {prefix_list_name in | out}
[no] area area_id nssa [no-redistribution] [default-information-originate [metric-type 1 | 2]
[metric metric_value]]
[no] area area_id range ip_address netmask [advertise | not-advertise]
area area_id stub [no-summary]
[no] area area_id virtual-link router_id [authentication [message-digest | null]] [hello-interval
seconds] [retransmit-interval seconds] [transmit-delay seconds] [dead-interval seconds]
[authentication-key password] [message-digest-key id md5 password]
[no] compatible rfc1583
default-information originate [always] [metric metric_value] [metric-type {1 | 2}] [route-map
map_name]
[no] distance ospf [intra-area d1][inter-area d2][external d3]
[no] ignore lsa mospf
[no] log-adj-changes [detail]
[no] network prefix ip_address netmask area area_id
[no] redistribute {static | connected} [metric metric_value ] [metric-type metric_type]
[route-map map_name] [tag tag_value] [subnets]
[no] redistribute ospf pid [match {internal | external [1|2] | nssa-external [1|2]}] [metric
metric_value ] [metric-type metric_type] [route-map map_name] [tag tag_value] [subnets]
[no] router-id ip_address
[no] summary-address addr netmask [not-advertise] [tag tag_value]
[no] timers {spf spf_delay spf_holdtime | lsa-group-pacing seconds}
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-57
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
router ospf
Syntax Description
addr
The value of the summary address designated for a range of addresses.
advertise
Sets the address range status to advertise and generates a Type 3 summary
link-state advertisements (LSA).
area area_id
Configures a regular OSPF area.
area_id
For all contexts, area_id can be specified as either a decimal value or as an IP
address.
The ID of the area that is to be associated with the OSPF address range. If you
intend to associate areas with IP subnets, you can specify a subnet address as
the area_id.
When used in the context of authentication, area_id is the identifier of the area
on which authentication is to be enabled.
When using a cost context, area_id is the identifier for the stub or NSSA.
When used in the context of a prefix list, area_id is the identifier of the area on
which filtering is configured.
When used in a stub area or not-so-stubby area (NSSA) context, area_id is the
identifier for the stub or NSSA area.
When used in the context of an area range, area_id is the identifier of the area
at whose boundary to summarize routes.
authentication
(Optional) Specifies the authentication type.
compatible
Runs OSPF in RFC 1583 compatible mode.
cost
The cost for the default summary route used for a stub or NSSA, from 0 to
65535. The default value for cost is 1.
d1, d2, and d3
The distance for different area route types. The default for d1, d2, and d3 is 110.
default-information Distributes a default route according to the parameters specified.
default-information Used to generate a Type 7 default in the NSSA area. This keyword only takes
-originate
effect on an NSSA ABR or an NSSA Autonomous System Boundary Router
(ASBR).
distance
Configures administrative distances for the OSPF process.
external
Sets the distance for routes from other routing domains, learned by
redistribution.
external 1 | 2
The OSPF metric routes external to a specified autonomous system, either type
1 or 2. The default is type 2.
ignore
Supresses syslog for receipt of type 6 Multicast OSPF LSAs.
in
Applies the configured prefix list to prefixes advertised inbound to the
specified area.
inter-area
Sets the distance for all routes from one area to another area.
internal
Routes that are internal to a specified autonomous system.
ip_address
The router ID in IP address format.
log-adj-changes
Logs OSPF adjacency changes.
lsa-group-pacing
seconds
The interval at which OSPF link-state advertisements (LSAs) are collected into
a group and refreshed, checksummed, or aged, from 10 to 1800 seconds. The
default value is 240 seconds.
map_name
The name of the route map to apply.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-58
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
router ospf
message-digest
(Optional) Enables Message Digest 5 (MD5) authentication on the area
specified by the area_id.
metric metric_value Specifies the OSPF default metric value, from 0 to 16777214.
netmask
An IP address mask, or IP subnet mask used for a summary route.
network
Adds/removes interfaces to/from the OSPF routing process.
no-redistribution
When the OSPF router is an NSSA Area Border Router (ABR) and you want
the redistribute command to import routes only into the normal areas, and not
into the NSSA area, use this option.
no-summary
Prevents an Area Border Router (ABR) from sending summary link-state
advertisements into the stub area.
not-advertise
Sets the address range status to DoNotAdvertise. The Type 3 summary LSA is
suppressed, and the component networks remain hidden from other networks.
In the summary-address command, not-advertise suppresses routes that
match the specified prefix/mask pair.
nssa-external 1 | 2
The OSPF metric type for routes that are external to a not-so-stubby area
(NSSA), either type 1 or 2. The default is type 2.
null
(Optional) Specifies that no authentication is used. Overrides password or
message digest authentication if configured for the OSPF area.
out
Applies the configured prefix list to prefixes advertised outbound from the
specified area.
pid
Internally used identification parameter for an OSPF routing process. You
assign it locally on the firewall, and it can be from 1 to 65535. A unique value
must be assigned for each OSPF routing process. PIX Firewall software
Version 6.3 supports a maximum of two (2) OSPF processes.
prefix
Indicates that a prefix list is used. (Prefix lists are configured with the
prefix-list command.)
prefix
An IP address.
prefix_list_name
Name of a prefix list.
redistribute
Configures redistribution between OSPF processes according to the parameters
specified.
router-id
Configures the router ID for an OSPF process.
seconds
The interval at which OSPF link-state advertisements (LSAs) are collected into
a group and refreshed, checksummed, or aged, from 10 to 1800 seconds. The
default is 240 seconds.
spf_delay
The delay time between when OSPF receives a topology change and when it
starts a shortest path first (SPF) calculation in seconds, from 0 to 65535. The
default is 5 seconds.
spf_holdtime
The hold time between two consecutive SPF calculations in seconds, from 0 to
65535. The default is 10 seconds.
stub
An OSPF area that carries a default route and intra- and inter-area routes but
does not carry external routes. Virtual links cannot be configured across a stub
area, and they cannot contain an autonomous system boundary router (ASBR).
subnets
(Optional) For redistributing routes into OSPF, scopes the redistribution for the
specified protocol.
summary-address
Configures the summary address for OSPF redistribution.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-59
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
router ospf
Defaults
tag_value
The value to match (for controlling redistribution with route maps).
timers
Configures timers for the OSPF process.
The default is for OSPF routing to be disabled on the firewall.
The default value for cost is 1.
The default authentication type for an area is 0, which means no authentication.
By default, OSPF routing through the firewall is compatible with RFC 1583.
The default for the area area_id range ip_address netmask [advertise | not-advertise] command is
advertise.
The default for d1, d2, and d3 in the distance ospf [intra-area d1][inter-area d2][external d3]
subcommand is is 110.
By default, the log-adj-changes subcommand is enabled.
The default for spf_delay is 5 seconds, and the default for spf_holdtime is 10 seconds.
The default for the timers lsa-group-pacing seconds subcommand is 240 seconds.
No area is defined by default for the area area_id nssa no-redistribution or area area_id
default-information-originate subcommands.
Command Modes
The router ospf command is available in configuration mode.
The show router ospf command is available in privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
Note
The router ospf command is the global configuration command for OSPF routing processes running on
the firewall. This is the main command for all of the OSPF configuration commands.
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is used instead of Routing Information Protocol (RIP). Do not attempt
to configure the firewall for both OSPF and RIP simeltaneously.
When using the no form of a router ospf command, optional arguments need not be specified unless
they provide necessary information. The no router ospf command terminates the OSPF routing process
specified by its pid.
PIX Firewall software Version 6.3 supports a maximum of two (2) OSPF processes.
The show ospf command displays the configured router ospf subcommands.
OSPF areas
The area area_id subcommand creates a regular OSPF area. The no area area_id command removes the
OSPF area, whether it is regular, stubby, or not-so-stubby.
area area_id authentication message-digest
The default authentication type for an area is 0, which means no authentication. To enable authentication
for an OSPF area, use the area area_id authentication message-digest subcommand. To remove an
authentication configuration from an area, use the no area area_id authentication message-digest
subcommand.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-60
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
router ospf
area area_id default-cost cost
To specify a cost for the default summary route sent into a stub or not-so-stubby area (NSSA), use the
area area_id default-cost cost subcommand. To remove the assigned default route cost, use the no area
area_id default-cost subcommand. The default value for cost is 1.
area area_id filter-list prefix prefix_list_name [ in | out]
To filter prefixes advertised in type 3 link-state advertisements (LSAs) between Open Shortest Path First
(OSPF) areas of an Area Border Router (ABR), use the area area_id filter-list prefix prefix_list_name
[in | out] subcommand. To change or cancel the filter, use the no area area_id filter-list prefix
prefix_list_name [in | out] subcommand.
area area_id nssa [no-redistribution] [default-information-originate [metric-type 1 | 2] [metric
metric_value]]
Routes that originate from other routing protocols (or different OSPF processes) and that are injected
into OSPF through redistribution are called external routes. There are two forms of external metrics: type
1 and type 2. These routes are represented by O E2 (for type 2) or O E1 (for type 1) in the IP routing table,
and they are examined after the firewall is done building its internal routing table. After they are
examined, they are flooded throughout the autonomous systems (AS), unaltered. (Autonomous systems
are a collection of networks, subdivided by areas, under a common administration sharing a common
routing strategy.)
OSPF type 1 metrics result in routes adding the internal OSPF metric to the external route metric; they
are also expressed in the same terms as an OSPF link-state metric. The internal OSPF metric is the total
cost of reaching the external destination, including whatever internal OSPF network costs are incurred
to get there. (These costs are calculated by the device wanting to reach the external route.) Because it is
calculated this way, the OSPF type 1 metric is generally preferred.
OSPF type 2 metrics do not add the internal OSPF metric to the cost of external routes and are the default
type used by OSPF. The use of OSPF type 2 metrics assumes that you are routing between autonomous
systems (AS); therefore, the cost is considered greater than any internal metrics. This eliminates the need
to add the internal OSPF metrics.
To configure an area as a not-so-stubby area (NSSA), use the area area_id nssa [no-redistribution]
[default-information-originate [metric-type 1 | 2] [metric metric_value]] subcommand. To remove
the entire NSSA configuration, use the no area area_id nssa subcommand. To remove a single NSSA
configuration option, specify the option in the no subcommand. For example, to remove the
no-redistribution option, use the no area area_id nssa no-redistribution command. By default, no
NSSA is defined.
area area_id range address netmask [advertise | not-advertise]
To consolidate and summarize routes at an area boundary, use the area area_id range address netmask
[advertise | not-advertise] subcommand. To disable this function, use the no area area_id range
ip_address netmask subcommand. The no area area_id range ip_address netmask not-advertise
subcommand removes only the not-advertise option.
area area_id stub [no-summary]
To define an area as a stub area, use the area area_id stub [no-summary] subcommand. To remove the
stub area function, use the no area area_id stub [no-summary] subcommand. When area area_id stub
no-summary is configured, you must use no area area_id stub no-summary to remove the no summary
option. The default is for no stub areas to be defined.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-61
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
router ospf
[ no] area area_id virtual-link router_id [ hello-interval seconds] [ retransmit-interval seconds] [transmit-delay
seconds ] [dead-interval seconds] [ authentication-key password] [ message-digest-key id md5] password
To define an OSPF virtual link, use the area area_id virtual-link router-id subcommand with the
optional parameters. To remove a virtual link, use the no area area_id virtual-link router_id
subcommand.
compatible rfc1583
To restore the method used to calculate summary route costs per RFC 1583, use the compatible rfc1583
subcommand. To disable RFC 1583 compatibility, use the no compatible rfc1583 subcommand.
By default, OSPF routing through the firewall is compatible with RFC 1583. The compatible rfc1583
subcommand is displayed in the configuration only if disabled by the no compatible rfc1583
subcommand, and then as “ no compatible rfc1583”.
distance ospf [ intra-area d1][ inter-area d2][external d3]
To define OSPF route administrative distances based on route type, use the distance ospf [intra-area
d1][inter-area d2][external d3] subcommand. To restore the default value, use the no distance ospf
subcommand. The default for d1, d2, and d3 is 110.
ignore lsa mospf
To suppress the sending of syslog messages when the router receives link-state advertisement (LSA) for
Type 6 Multicast OSPF (MOSPF) packets, which are unsupported, use the ignore lsa mospf
subcommand. To restore the sending of these syslog messages, use the no ignore lsa mospf
subcommand.
log-adj-changes
To configure the router to send a syslog message when an OSPF neighbor goes up or down, use the
log-adj-changes [detail] subcommand. To turn off this function, use the no log-adj-changes
subcommand. The detail option sends a syslog message for each state change, not just when a neighbor
goes up or down.
By default, the log-adj-changes subcommand is enabled, but the log-adj-changes subcommand is only
displayed in the OSPF configuration when the detail option is specified or when it has been disabled.
network prefix ip_address netmask area area_id
To define the interfaces on which OSPF runs and the area ID for those interfaces, use the network prefix
ip_address netmask area area_id subcommand. To disable OSPF routing for the interfaces defined with
the prefix ip_address netmask pair, use the no network prefix ip_address netmask area area_id
subcommand.
summary-address addr netmask
To create aggregate addresses for OSPF, use the summary-address addr netmask [not-advertise] [tag
tag] subcommand. To restore the default, use the no summary-address addr netmask subcommand. The
addr value is the summary address designated for a range of addresses, and netmask is the IP subnet
mask used for the summary route.
router-id
To use a fixed router ID, use the router-id address subcommand. To reset OSPF to use the previous
OSPF router ID behavior, use the no router-id subcommand.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-62
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
routing interface
Note
If the highest-level IP address on the firewall is a private address, then this address is sent in hello packets
and database definitions (DBDs). To prevent this, set the router-id ip_ddress to a global address.
timers { spf spf_delay spf_holdtime | lsa-group-pacing seconds}
To configure the delay time between when OSPF receives a topology change and when it starts a shortest
path first (SPF) calculation, and the hold time between two consecutive SPF calculations, use the timers
spf spf_delay spf_holdtime subcommand. To return to the default timer values, use the no timers spf
subcommand.
To change the interval at which OSPF link-state advertisements (LSAs) are collected into a group and
refreshed, checksummed, or aged, use the timers lsa-group-pacing seconds subcommand. To restore
the default value, use the no timers lsa-group-pacing seconds subcommand. The default for seconds is
240.
Examples
To enter subcommand mode on the outside interface of the firewall (needed to configure OSPF routing),
enter the following command:
pixfirewall(config)# router ospf 5
pixfirewall(config-router)#
When in the routing subcommand mode, the command prompt appears as “(config-router)#”.
Related Commands
prefix-list
Configures a prefix list to be used for OSPF routing.
route-map
Creates a route map for redistributing routes from one routing protocol to
another. Used in configuring OSPF routing on the firewall.
routing interface
Configures interface-specific OSPF routing parameters.
routing interface
Configures interface-specific OSPF routing parameters. This command is the main command for all
OSPF interface submode commands. (Use the router ospf command to configure global parameters and
to enable OSPF routing through the firewall.) OSPF routing is not supported on the PIX 501.
[no] routing interface interface_name
Subcommands to the routing interface command:
[no] ospf authentication [message-digest | null]
[no] ospf authentication-key password
[no] ospf cost interface_cost
[no] ospf database-filter all out
[no] ospf dead-interval seconds
[no] ospf hello-interval seconds
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-63
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
routing interface
[no] ospf message-digest-key key-id md5 key
[no] ospf mtu-ignore
[no] ospf priority number
[no] ospf retransmit-interval seconds
[no] ospf transmit-delay seconds
Syntax Description
authenticationkey password
Assigns an OSPF authentication password for use by neighboring routing devices.
This can be any continuous string of keyboard characters, except for whitespace
characters such as tabs or spaces, up to 8 bytes in length.
database-filter
all out
Filters out outgoing link-state advertisements (LSAs) to an OSPF interface.
dead-interval
seconds
Sets the interval before declaring a neighboring routing device is down if no hello
packets are received, from 1 to 65535 seconds. This value must be the same for all
nodes on the network. The default is four times the interval set by the ospf
hello-interval command.
hello-interval
seconds
Specifies the interval between hello packets sent on the interface, from 1 to 65535
seconds. The default is 10 seconds.
interface_cost
The cost (a link-state metric) of sending a packet through an interface. This is an
unsigned integer value from 0 to 65535. 0 represents a network that is directly
connected to the interface, and the higher the interface bandwidth, the lower the
associated cost to send packets across that interface. In other words, a large cost
value represents a low bandwidth interface and a small cost value represents a high
bandwidth interface.
The OSPF interface default cost on the firewall is 10. This default differs from
Cisco IOS software, where the default cost is 1 for fast Ethernet (FE) and Gigabit
Ethernet (GE) and 10 for 10BaseT. This is important to take into account if you
are using Equal Cost Multi-Path (ECMP) in your network.
interface_name
The name of the interface to configure.
key_id
A numerical ID number, from 1 to 255, for the authentication key.
md5 key
An alphanumeric password of up to 16 bytes. However, whitespaces characters
such as a tab or space are not supported.
message-digest
Specifies to use OSPF message digest authentication.
message-digestkey
Enables Message Digest 5 (MD5) authentication. (MD5 verifies the integrity of
the communication, authenticates the origin, and checks for timeliness.)
null
Specifies to not use OSPF authentication. This overrides password or message
digest authentication (if configured) for an OSPF area.
ospf
Keyword for configuring interface-specific OSPF parameters.
priority number
A positive integer from 0 to 255 that specifies the priority of the router. The default
is 1.
retransmitinterval seconds
Specifies the time between link-state advertisement (LSA) retransmissions for
adjacent routers belonging to the interface, from 1 to 65535 seconds. The default
is 5 seconds.
transmit-delay
seconds
Sets the estimated time required to send a link-state update packet on the interface,
from 1 to 65535 seconds. The default is 1 second.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-64
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
routing interface
Defaults
By default, OSPF routing is disabled on the firewall interfaces.
By default, the mtu-ignore subcommand is enabled.
The default value for the ospf authentication [message-digest | null] subcommand is null, which means
no area authentication.
The default value for the ospf dead-interval subcommand is four times the interval set by the ospf
hello-interval command.
The default value for the ospf hello-interval subcommand is 10 seconds.
The default value for the ospf retransmit-interval subcommand is 5 seconds.
The default value for the ospf transmit-delay subcommand is 1 second.
Command Modes
The routing command is available in configuration mode.
The show routing command is available in privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The routing interface interface_name command is the main command for all interface-specific OSPF
interface mode commands. Enter this command with the name of the firewall interface (interface_name)
that you want to configure, and then proceed with interface-specific configuration through the routing
interface subcommands. You do not need to specify optional arguments in the no forms of the routing
interface subcommands (unless they provide necessary information).
The no routing interface interface_name command removes the routing configuration for the interface
specified only.
The clear routing command resets the interface-specific routing configuration to its defaults and
removes the interface-specific routing configuration. However, this command does not remove any
OSPF data structures that have been defined.
The clear ospf [pid] {process | counters | neighbor [neighbor-intf] [neighbr-id]} command resets the
OSPF routing process ID, counters, neighbor interface router designation, or neighbor router ID,
depending on the option selected. This command does not remove any configuration. Use the no form
of the router ospf or routing interface command to remove the OSPF configuration.
The show routing interface interface_name command displays the configuration for the interface
specified.
ospf authentication
To specify the authentication type for an interface, use the ospf authentication [message-digest | null]
subcommand. To remove the authentication type for an interface, use the no ospf authentication
[message-digest | null] subcommand. The default area authentication is null, which means no
authentication.
ospf authentication-key
To assign a password to be used by neighboring routers that are using the OSPF simple password
authentication, use the ospf authentication-key password subcommand. The variable password can be
any continuous string of characters that can be entered from the keyboard, up to 8 bytes in length.
To remove a previously assigned OSPF password, use the no ospf authentication-key subcommand.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-65
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
routing interface
ospf cost
To explicitly specify the cost of sending a packet on an interface, use the ospf cost interface_cost
subcommand. The interface_cost parameter is an unsigned integer value from 0 to 255, expressed as the
link-state metric.
To reset the path cost to the default value, use the no ospf cost subcommand.
ospf database-filter all out
To filter outgoing link-state advertisements (LSAs) to an OSPF interface, use the ospf database-filter
subcommand. To restore the forwarding of LSAs to the interface, use the no ospf database-filter all out
subcommand.
ospf dead-interval
To set the dead interval before neighbors declare the router down (the length of time during which no
hello packets are seen), use the ospf dead-interval seconds subcommand. The variable seconds specifies
the dead interval and must be the same for all nodes on the network. The default for seconds is four times
the interval set by the ospf hello-interval command, from 1 to 65535. To return to the default interval
value, use the no ospf dead-interval subcommand.
ospf hello-interval
To specify the interval between hello packets that the firewall sends on the interface, use the ospf
hello-interval seconds subcommand. To return to the default interval, use the no ospf hello-interval
subcommand. The default is 10 seconds, with a range from 1 to 65535.
ospf mtu-ignore
The ospf mtu-ignore subcommand disables OSPF MTU mismatch detection on receiving DBD packets
and is enbled by default.
ospf message-digest-key key_id md5 key
To enable OSPF Message Digest 5 (MD5) authentication, use the ospf message-digest-key key_id md5
key subcommand. To remove an old MD5 key, use the no ospf message-digest-key key_id md5 key
subcommand. The key_id variable is a numerical identifier, from 1 to 255, for the authentication key, and
the key variable is an alphanumeric password of up to 16 bytes.
ospf priority
To set the router priority, which helps determine the designated router for this network, use the ospf
priority number subcommand. To return to the default value, use the no ospf priority number
subcommand.
ospf retransmit-interval
To specify the time between link-state advertisement (LSA) retransmissions for adjacencies belonging
to the interface, use the ospf retransmit-interval seconds subcommand. To return to the default value,
use the no ospf retransmit-interval subcommand. The default value is 5 seconds, with a range from 1
to 65535.
ospf transmit-delay
To set the estimated time required to send a link-state update packet on the interface, use the ospf
transmit-delay seconds subcommand. To return to the default value, use the no ospf transmit-delay
subcommand. The default value is 1 second, with a range from 1 to 65535.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-66
78-14890-01
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
routing interface
Examples
To enter subcommand mode on the outside interface of the firewall (needed to configure OSPF routing),
enter the following command:
pixfirewall(config)# routing interface outside
pixdocipsec1(config-routing)#
When in the routing subcommand mode, the command prompt appears as “(config-routing)#”.
The following example shows the configuration for two concurrently running OSPF processes, with the
IDs 5 and 12, on the outside interface of the firewall:
pixfirewall(config)# routing interface
pixfirewall(config-routing)# show ospf
Routing Process "ospf 5" with ID 127.0.0.1 and Domain ID 0.0.0.5
Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes
Supports opaque LSA
SPF schedule delay 5 secs, Hold time between two SPFs 10 secs
Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1 secs
Number of external LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x
0
Number of opaque AS LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x
0
Number of DCbitless external and opaque AS LSA 0
Number of DoNotAge external and opaque AS LSA 0
Number of areas in this router is 0. 0 normal 0 stub 0 nssa
External flood list length 0
Routing Process "ospf 12" with ID 172.23.59.232 and Domain ID 0.0.0.12
Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes
Supports opaque LSA
SPF schedule delay 5 secs, Hold time between two SPFs 10 secs
Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1 secs
Number of external LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x
0
Number of opaque AS LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x
0
Number of DCbitless external and opaque AS LSA 0
Number of DoNotAge external and opaque AS LSA 0
Number of areas in this router is 0. 0 normal 0 stub 0 nssa
External flood list length 0
The following example changes the retransmit interval to 15 seconds:
pixdocipsec1(config-routing)# ospf retransmit-interval 15
Related Commands
prefix-list
Configures a prefix list to be used for OSPF routing.
route-map
Creates a route map for redistributing routes from one routing protocol to
another. Used in configuring OSPF routing on the firewall.
router ospf
Configures global parameters for the OSPF routing processes on the firewall,
and enables or disables OSPF routing through the firewall.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
7-67
Chapter 7
M through R Commands
routing interface
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
7-68
78-14890-01
C H A P T E R
8
S Commands
service
Enable system services.
[no] service {resetinbound | resetoutside}
clear service
show service
Syntax Description
resetinbound
Send a reset to a denied inbound TCP packet.
resetoutside
Send a reset to a denied TCP packet to outside interface.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The service command works with all inbound TCP connections to statics whose access lists or uauth
(user authorization) do not allow inbound. One use is for resetting IDENT connections. If an inbound
TCP connection is attempted and denied, you can use the service resetinbound command to return an
RST (reset flag in the TCP header) to the source. Without the option, the PIX Firewall drops the packet
without returning an RST.
For use with IDENT, the PIX Firewall sends a TCP RST to the host connecting inbound and stops the
incoming IDENT process so that email outbound can be transmitted without having to wait for IDENT
to time out. In this case, the PIX Firewall sends a syslog message stating that the incoming connection
was a denied connection. Without service resetinbound, the PIX Firewall drops packets that are denied
and generates a syslog message stating that the SYN was a denied connection. However, outside hosts
keep retransmitting the SYN until the IDENT times out.
When an IDENT connection is timing out, you will notice that connections slow down. Perform a trace
to determine that IDENT is causing the delay and then invoke the service command.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-1
Chapter 8
S Commands
session enable
The service resetinbound command provides a safer way to handle an IDENT connection through the
PIX Firewall. Ranked in order of security from most secure to less secure are these methods for handling
IDENT connections:
1.
Use the service resetinbound command.
2.
Use the established command with the permitto tcp 113 options.
3.
Enter static and access-list command statements to open TCP port 113.
When using the aaa command, if the first attempt at authorization fails and a second attempt causes a
timeout, use the service resetinbound command to reset the client that failed the authorization so that
it will not retransmit any connections. An example authorization timeout message in Telnet follows:
Unable to connect to remote host: Connection timed out
Examples
The following example shows use of the service resetinbound command:
service resetinbound
show service
service resetinbound
If you use the resetoutside command, the PIX Firewall actively resets denied TCP packets that terminate
at the PIX Firewall unit’s least-secure interface. By default, these packets are silently discarded. The
resetoutside option is highly recommended with dynamic or static interface Port Address Translation
(PAT). The static interface PAT is available with PIX Firewall Version 6.0 and higher. This option allows
the PIX Firewall to quickly terminate the identity request (IDENT) from an external SMTP or FTP
server. Actively resetting these connections avoids the thirty-second time-out delay.
If you wish to remove service command statements from the configuration, use the clear service
command.
session enable
The session enable command is a deprecated command.
setup
The setup command prompts you to enter the information needed to use the Cisco PIX Device Manager
(PDM) with a new PIX Firewall.
setup
Syntax Description
setup
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Asks for the information needed to start using a new PIX Firewall unit if
no configuration is found in the Flash memory.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-2
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
setup
Usage Guidelines
The PIX Firewall requires some pre-configuration before PDM can connect to it. (The setup dialog
automatically appears at boot time if there is no configuration in the Flash memory.) Once you enter the
setup command, you will be asked for the setup information in Table 8-1.
Table 8-1
PIX Firewall Setup Information
Prompt
Description
Enable password:
Specify an enable password for this PIX Firewall. (The password must be
at least three characters long.)
Clock (UTC)
Set the PIX Firewall clock to Universal Coordinated Time (also known as
Greenwich Mean Time).
Year [system year]:
Specify current year, or default to the year stored in the host computer.
Month [system month]:
Specify current month, or default to the month stored in the host computer.
Day [system day]:
Specify current day, or default to the day stored in the host computer.
Time [system time]
Specify current time in hh:mm:ss format, or default to the time stored in
the host computer.
Inside IP address:
Network interface IP address of the PIX Firewall.
Inside network mask:
A network mask that applies to the inside IP address must be a valid mask
such as 255.0.0.0, 255.255.0.0, or 255.255.x.x, etc. Use 0.0.0.0 to specify
a default route. The 0.0.0.0 netmask can be abbreviated as 0.
Host name:
The host name you want to display in the PIX Firewall command line
prompt.
Domain name:
The DNS domain name of the network on which the PIX Firewall runs, for
example example.com.
IP address of host
running PIX Device
Manager:
IP address on which PDM connects to the PIX Firewall.
Use this configuration
and write to flash?
Store the new configuration to Flash memory. Same as the write memory
command. If the answer is yes, the inside interface will be enabled and the
requested configuration will be written to Flash memory. If the user
answers anything else, the setup dialog repeats using the values already
entered as the defaults for the questions.
The host and domain names are used to generate the default certificate for the SSL connection. The
interface type is determined by the hardware.
Examples
The following example shows how to complete the setup command prompts.
router (config)# setup
Pre-configure PIX Firewall now through interactive prompts [yes]? y
Enable Password [<use current password>]: ciscopix
Clock (UTC)
Year [2001]: 2001
Month [Aug]: Sep
Day [27]: 12
Time [22:47:37]: <Enter>
Inside IP address: 192.168.1.1
Inside network mask: 255.255.255.0
Host name: accounting_pix
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-3
Chapter 8
S Commands
show
Domain name: example.com
IP address of host running PIX Device Manager: 192.168.1.2
The following configuration will be used:
Enable Password: ciscopix
Clock (UTC): 22:47:37 Sep 12 2001
Inside IP address: ...192.168.1.1
Inside network mask: ...255.255.255.0
Host name: ...accounting_pix
Domain name: ...example.com
IP address of host running PIX Device Manager: ...192.168.1.2
Use this configuration and write to flash? y
Related Commands
pdm
Configures PIX Device Manager (PDM).
show
View command information.
show command_keywords [ | {include | exclude | begin | grep [-v]} regexp]
show ?
Syntax Description
Command Modes
command_key
words
Any argument or list of arguments that specifies the information to display. Most
commands have a show command form where the command name is used as show
argument. For example, the global command has an associated show global
command.
|
The UNIX pipe symbol, “|”. This character represents piping output to the filter.
When “|” is present, a filtering option and a regular expression must also be present.
(Only the first “|” is a pipe character in the syntax.)
include
Includes all output lines that match the specified regular expression.
exclude
Excludes all output lines that match the specified regular expression.
grep
Displays all output lines that match the specified regular expression. grep is
equivalent to include and grep -v is equivalent to exclude.
begin
Displays all output lines starting from the line that matches the specified regular
expression.
regexp
A Cisco IOS software style regular expression. Do not enclose in quotes or
double-quotes. Additionally, trailing white spaces (between keywords) are taken as
part of the regular expression.
All modes.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-4
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show
Usage Guidelines
The show command_keywords [ | {include | exclude | begin | grep} regexp] command runs the show
command options specified. See individual commands for their show options. (Only the first “|” is a pipe
character in this syntax.) The CLI syntax and semantics of the show output filtering options are the same
as in Cisco IOS software, and are available through console, Telnet, or SSH sessions.
The show ? command displays a list of all commands available on the PIX Firewall.
Explanations for the specific show commands are documented with the corresponding command. For
example, the show arp command description is included with the arp command.
Examples
The following example illustrates how to use a show command output filter option, where the “|” is the
UNIX pipe symbol:
pixfirewall(config)# show config | grep access-list
access-list 101 permit tcp any host 10.1.1.3 eq www
access-list 101 permit tcp any host 10.1.1.3 eq smtp
The following is sample output from the show ? command:
pixfirewall(config)# show ?
At the end of show <command>, use the pipe character '|' followed by:
begin|include|exclude|grep [-v] <regular_exp>, to filter show output.
aaa
Enable, disable, or view TACACS+, RADIUS or LOCAL
user authentication, authorization and accounting
aaa-server
access-group
access-list
activation-key
age
alias
apply
arp
auth-prompt
auto-update
banner
blocks
ca
Define AAA Server group
Bind an access-list to an interface to filter inbound traffic
Add an access list
Modify activation-key.
This command is deprecated. See ipsec, isakmp, map, ca commands
Administer overlapping addresses with dual NAT.
Apply outbound lists to source or destination IP addresses
Change or view arp table, set arp timeout value and view statiss
Customize authentication challenge, reject or acceptance prompt
Configure auto update support
Configure login/session banners
Show system buffer utilization
CEP (Certificate Enrollment Protocol)
Create and enroll RSA key pairs into a PKI (Public Key Infrastr.
Capture inbound and outbound packets on one or more interfaces
View configuration information cryptochecksum
Display chunk stats
Show and set the date and time of PIX
Add conduit access to higher security level network or ICMP
Configure from terminal, floppy, memory, network, or
factory-default. The configuration will be merged with the
active configuration except for factory-default in which case
the active configuration is cleared first.
Display connection information
Set idle timeout for the serial console of the PIX
Display cpu usage
Read, write and configure crash write to flash.
Configure IPsec, IKE, and CA
Show the current data stored for each CTIQBE session.
Display current privilege level
Debug packets or ICMP tracings through the PIX Firewall.
Configure DHCP Server
Configure DHCP Relay Agent
Change domain name
capture
checksum
chunkstat
clock
conduit
configure
conn
console
cpu
Crashinfo
crypto
ctiqbe
curpriv
debug
dhcpd
dhcprelay
domain-name
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-5
Chapter 8
S Commands
show
dynamic-map
eeprom
enable
established
failover
filter
fips-mode
fixup
flashfs
fragment
global
Specify a dynamic crypto map template
show or reprogram the 525 onboard i82559 devices
Configure enable passwords
Allow inbound connections based on established connections
Enable/disable PIX failover feature to a standby PIX
Enable, disable, or view URL, FTP, HTTPS, Java, and ActiveX filg
Enable or disable FIPS mode
Add or delete PIX service and feature defaults
Show, destroy, or preserve filesystem information
Configure the IP fragment database
Specify, delete or view global address pools,
or designate a PAT(Port Address Translated) address
h225
Show the current h225 data stored for each connection.
h245
List the h245 connections.
h323-ras
Show the current h323 ras data stored for each connection.
history
Display the session command history
http
Configure HTTP server
icmp
Configure access for ICMP traffic that terminates at an interface
interface
Set network interface parameters and configure VLANs
igmp
Clear or display IGMP groups
ip
Set the ip address and mask for an interface
Define a local address pool
Configure Unicast RPF on an interface
Configure the Intrusion Detection System
ipsec
Configure IPSEC policy
isakmp
Configure ISAKMP policy
isakmp log
Clear events in the isakmp log buffer
local-host
Display or clear the local host network information
logging
Enable logging facility
mac-list
Add a list of mac addresses using first match search
map
Configure IPsec crypto map
memory
System memory utilization
mgcp
Configure the Media Gateway Control Protocol fixup
mroute
Configure a multicast route
mtu
Specify MTU(Maximum Transmission Unit) for an interface
multicast
Configure multicast on an interface
name
Associate a name with an IP address
nameif
Assign a name to an interface
names
Enable, disable or display IP address to name conversion
nat
Associate a network with a pool of global IP addresses
ntp
Configure Network Time Protocol
object-group
Create an object group for use in 'access-list', 'conduit', etc
ospf
Show OSPF information or clear ospf items.
outbound
Create an outbound access list
pager
Control page length for pagination
passwd
Change Telnet console access password
pdm
Configure Pix Device Manager
prefix-list
Configure a prefix-list
privilege
Configure/Display privilege levels for commands
processes
Display processes
rip
Broadcast default route or passive RIP
route
Enter a static route for an interface
route-map
Create a route-map.
router
Create/configure OSPF routing process
routing
Configure interface specific unicast routing parameters.
running-config Display the current running configuration
service
Enable system services
session
Access an internal AccessPro router console
shun
Manages the filtering of packets from undesired hosts
sip
Show the current data stored for each SIP session.
skinny
Show the current data stored for each Skinny session.
snmp-server
Provide SNMP and event information
ssh
Add SSH access to PIX console, set idle timeout, display
list of active SSH sessions & terminate a SSH session
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-6
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show blocks /clear blocks
startup-config
static
sysopt
tcpstat
tech-support
telnet
terminal
tftp-server
timeout
traffic
uauth
url-cache
url-block
url-server
username
version
virtual
vpdn
vpnclient
vpngroup
who
xlate
Display the startup configuration
Configure one-to-one address translation rule
Set system functional option
Display status of tcp stack and tcp connections
Tech support
Add telnet access to PIX console and set idle timeout
Set terminal line parameters
Specify default TFTP server address and directory
Set the maximum idle times
Counters for traffic statistics
Display or clear current user authorization information
Enable URL caching
Enable URL pending block buffer and long URL support
Specify a URL filter server
Configure user authentication local database
Display PIX system software version
Set address for authentication virtual servers
Configure VPDN (PPTP, L2TP, PPPoE) Policy
Configure Easy VPN Remote
Configure group settings for Cisco VPN Clients and
Cisco Easy VPN Remote products
Show active administration sessions on PIX
Display current translation and connection slot information
show blocks/clear blocks
Show system buffer utilization.
show blocks
clear blocks
Syntax Description
blocks
Command Modes
Privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The show blocks command lists preallocated system buffer utilization. In the show blocks command
listing, the SIZE column displays the block type. The MAX column is the maximum number of allocated
blocks. The LOW column is the fewest blocks available since last reboot. The CNT column is the current
number of available blocks. A zero in the LOW column indicates a previous event where memory
exhausted. A zero in the CNT column means memory is exhausted now. Exhausted memory is not a
problem as long as traffic is moving through the PIX Firewall. You can use the show conn command to
see if traffic is moving. If traffic is not moving and the memory is exhausted, a problem may be indicated.
The blocks in the preallocated system buffer.
The clear blocks command keeps the maximum count to whatever number is allocated in the system and
equates the low count to the current count.
You can also view the information from the show blocks command using SNMP.
Examples
The following is sample output from the show blocks command:
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-7
Chapter 8
S Commands
show checksum
show blocks
SIZE
MAX
4
1600
80
100
256
80
1550
788
65536
8
LOW
1600
97
79
402
8
CNT
1600
97
79
404
8
show checksum
Display the configuration checksum.
show checksum
Syntax Description
checksum
Command Modes
Unprivileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The show checksum command displays four groups of hexadecimal numbers that act as a digital
summary of the contents of the configuration. This same information stores with the configuration when
you store it in Flash memory. By using the show config command and viewing the checksum at the end
of the configuration listing and using the show checksum command, you can compare the numbers to
see if the configuration has changed. The PIX Firewall tests the checksum to determine if a configuration
has not been corrupted.
The hexadecimal numbers that act as a digital summary of the contents of
the configuration.
If a dot (“.”) appears before the checksum in the show config or show checksum command output, this
is a normal configuration load or write mode indicator (when loading from or writing to the firewall
Flash memory). This “.” is provided to show that the firewall is preoccupied with the operation but not
“hung up”. It is analogous to a “system processing, please wait” message.
Examples
The following is sample output from the show checksum command:
show checksum
Cryptochecksum: 1a2833c0 129ac70b 1a88df85 650dbb81
show chunkstat
Displays information about management of memory chunks.
show chunkstat
Syntax Description
chunkstat
Displays internal information about management of memory chunks.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-8
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show chunkstat
Command Modes
Unprivileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The command show chunkstat displays summary information about chunk management, followed by a
dump showing the address, content, links, flags and other details.
Examples
The following is sample output from the show chunkstat command:
show chunkstat
Result of firewall command: "show chunkstat"
Chunk statistics: created 1, destroyed: 0,sibs created: 0, sibs trimmed: 0
Dump of chunk at 0100e09c, name "OSPF redist route node chunks", data start @ 0100e504,
end @ 01010904
flink: 01008f6c, blink: 01008f6c
next: cccccccc, next_sibling: 00000000, prev_sibling: 00000000
flags 00000005
maximum chunk elt's: 256, elt size: 36, index first free 256
# chunks in use: 0, HWM of total used: 1, alignment: 8
Chunk statistics: created 1, destroyed: 0,sibs created: 0, sibs trimmed: 0
Dump of chunk at 00eb4cbc, name "ulimit chunk", data start @ 00eb4d8c, end @ 00eb4f8c
flink: 00578910, blink: 00578910
next: cccccccc, next_sibling: 00000000, prev_sibling: 00000000
flags 00000001
maximum chunk elt's: 32, elt size: 16, index first free 32
# chunks in use: 0, HWM of total used: 0, alignment: 0
Chunk statistics: created 1, destroyed: 0,sibs created: 0, sibs trimmed: 0
Dump of chunk at 00ea0cd4, name "uauth chunk", data start @ 00ea0da4, end @ 00eb4ca4
flink: 005793a0, blink: 005793a0
next: cccccccc, next_sibling: 00000000, prev_sibling: 00000000
flags 00000001
maximum chunk elt's: 32, elt size: 2552, index first free 32
# chunks in use: 0, HWM of total used: 1, alignment: 0
Chunk statistics: created 1, destroyed: 0,sibs created: 0, sibs trimmed: 0
Dump of chunk at 00df706c, name "IP subnet NDB entry", data start @ 00df788c, end @
00e8522c
flink: 00527914, blink: 00527914
next: cccccccc, next_sibling: 00000000, prev_sibling: 00000000
flags 00000009
maximum chunk elt's: 500, elt size: 1156, index first free 498
# chunks in use: 2, HWM of total used: 2, alignment: 0
Chunk statistics: created 1, destroyed: 0,sibs created: 0, sibs trimmed: 0
Dump of chunk at 00de56c4, name "IP single NDB entry", data start @ 00de5ee4, end @
00df7054
flink: 005278f4, blink: 005278f4
next: cccccccc, next_sibling: 00000000, prev_sibling: 00000000
flags 00000009
maximum chunk elt's: 500, elt size: 136, index first free 497
# chunks in use: 3, HWM of total used: 3, alignment: 0
Chunk statistics: created 1, destroyed: 0,sibs created: 0, sibs trimmed: 0
Dump of chunk at 00dd9f34, name "mroute chunk", data start @ 00dd9fa4, end @ 00dda064
flink: 0056bf10, blink: 0056bf10
next: cccccccc, next_sibling: 00000000, prev_sibling: 00000000
flags 00000001
maximum chunk elt's: 8, elt size: 24, index first free 8
# chunks in use: 0, HWM of total used: 0, alignment: 0
Chunk statistics: created 1, destroyed: 0,sibs created: 0, sibs trimmed: 0
Dump of chunk at 00dd76cc, name "radix trie", data start @ 00dd7b1c, end @ 00dd9f1c
flink: 00dd7684, blink: 00dd7684
next: cccccccc, next_sibling: 00000000, prev_sibling: 00000000
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-9
Chapter 8
S Commands
show conn
show conn
Display all active connections.
show conn [count] | [detail] | [protocol tcp | udp | protocol] [{foreign | local} ip [-ip2]] [netmask
mask]] [{lport | fport} port1 [-port2]]
show conn state [up] [,conn_inbound][,ctiqbe][,data_in][,data_out][,dump][,finin]
[,finout][,h225][,h323][,http_get][,mgcp][,nojava][,rpc][,sip][,skinny][,smtp_data]
[,smtp_banner] [,sqlnet_fixup_data][,smtp_incomplete]
Syntax Description
count
Display only the number of used connections. The precision of the
displayed count may vary depending on traffic volume and the type of
traffic passing through the PIX Firewall unit.
detail
If specified, displays translation type and interface information.
{foreign | local} ip [-ip2]
netmask mask
Display active connections by the foreign IP address or by local IP
address. Qualify foreign or local active connections by network mask.
fixup
Display whether or not RTP traffic is flowing through the PIX Firewall.
{lport | fport} port1
[-port2]
Display foreign or local active connections by port. See “Ports” in
Chapter 2, “Using PIX Firewall Commands” for a list of valid port literal
names.
protocol tcp | udp |
protocol
Display active connections by protocol type. protocol is a protocol
specified by number. See “Protocols” in Chapter 2, “Using PIX Firewall
Commands” for a list of valid protocol literal names.
state
Display active connections by their current state: up (up), inbound
connection (conn_inbound), Computer Telephony Interface Quick
Buffer Encoding (CTIQBE) connection (ctiqbe), inbound data (data_in),
outbound data (data_out), dump clean up connection (dump), FIN
inbound (finin), FIN outbound (finout), H.225 connection (h225), H.323
connection (h323), HTTP get (http_get), Media Gateway Control
Protocol (MGCP) connection (mgcp), an outbound command denying
access to Java applets (nojava), RPC connection (rpc), SIP connection
(sip), Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP) connection (skinny),
SMTP mail banner (smtp_banner), SMTP mail data (smtp_data),
SQL*Net data fix up (sqlnet_fixup_data), and incomplete SMTP mail
connection (smtp_incomplete).
Command Modes
Privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The show conn command displays the number of, and information about, active TCP connections. When
specifying multiple show conn state options, use commas without spaces to the list states to be
displayed. For example, the following is correct:
pixfirewall(config)# show conn state up,rpc,h323,sip
If you insert spaces, the firewall will not recognize the command.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-10
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show conn
You can also view the connection count information from the show conn command using SNMP.
Note
For connections using a DNS server, the source port of the connection may be replaced by the IP address
of DNS server in the show conn output.
The show conn detail command displays the following information:
{UDP | TCP} outside_ifc:real_addr/real-port [(map_addr/port)] inside_ifc:real_addr/real_port
[(map-addr/port)] flags flags
The connection flags are defined in Table 8-2.
Table 8-2
Connection Flags
Flag
Description
a
awaiting outside ACK to SYN
A
awaiting inside ACK to SYN
B
initial SYN from outside
C
Computer Telephony Interface Quick Buffer Encoding (CTIQBE) media connection
d
dump
D
DNS
E
outside back connection
f
inside FIN
F
outside FIN
g
Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) connection
G
connection is part of a group 1
h
H.225
H
H.323
i
incomplete TCP or UDP connection
I
inbound data
k
Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP) media connection
m
SIP media connection
M
SMTP data
O
outbound data
p
replicated (unused)
P
inside back connection
q
SQL*Net data
r
inside acknowledged FIN
R
outside acknowledged FIN for TCP connection
R
UDP RPC 2
s
awaiting outside SYN
S
awaiting inside SYN
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-11
Chapter 8
S Commands
show conn
Table 8-2
Connection Flags (continued)
Flag
Description
t
SIP transient connection3
T
SIP connection 4
U
up
1. The G flag indicates the connection is part of a group. It is set by the GRE and FTP Strict fixups to designate the control
connection and all its associated secondary connections. If the control connection terminates, then all associated secondary
connections are also terminated.
2. Because each row of show conn command output represents one connection (TCP or UDP ), there will be only one R flag
per row.
3. For UDP connections, the value t indicates that it will timeout after one minute.
4. For UDP connections, the value T indicates that the connection will timeout according to the value specified using the
timeout sip command.
Examples
The following example shows a TCP session connection from inside host 10.1.1.15 to the outside Telnet
server at 192.150.49.10. Because there is no B flag, the connection is initiated from the inside. The “U”,
“I”, and “O” flags denote that the connection is active and has received inbound and outbound data.
pixfirewall(config)# show conn
2 in use, 2 most used
TCP out 192.150.49.10:23 in 10.1.1.15:1026 idle 0:00:22
Bytes 1774 flags UIO
UDP out 192.150.49.10:31649 in 10.1.1.15:1028 idle 0:00:14
flags D-
The following example shows a UDP connection from outside host 192.150.49.10 to inside host
10.1.1.15. The D flag denotes that this is a DNS connection. The number 1028 is the DNS ID over the
connection.
pixfirewall(config)# show conn detail
2 in use, 2 most used
Flags: A - awaiting inside ACK to SYN, a - awaiting outside ACK to SYN,
B - initial SYN from outside, C - CTIBQE media, D - DNS, d - dump,
E - outside back connection, f - inside FIN, F - outside FIN,
G - group, g - MGCP, H - H.323, h - H.255.0, I - inbound data, i - incomplete,
k - Skinny media, M - SMTP data, m - SIP media
O - outbound data, P - inside back connection,
q - SQL*Net data, R - outside acknowledged FIN,
R - UDP RPC, r - inside acknowledged FIN, S - awaiting inside SYN,
s - awaiting outside SYN, T - SIP, t - SIP transient, U - up
TCP outside:192.150.49.10/23 inside:10.1.1.15/1026 flags UIO
UDP outside:192.150.49.10/31649 inside:10.1.1.15/1028 flags dD
The following is sample output from the show conn command:
show conn
6 in use,
TCP out
TCP out
TCP out
TCP out
TCP out
TCP out
UDP out
UDP out
UDP out
6 most used
209.165.201.1:80
209.165.201.1:80
209.165.201.1:80
209.165.201.1:80
209.165.201.1:80
209.165.201.1:80
209.165.201.7:24
209.165.201.7:23
209.165.201.7:22
in
in
in
in
in
in
in
in
in
10.3.3.4:1404
10.3.3.4:1405
10.3.3.4:1406
10.3.3.4:1407
10.3.3.4:1403
10.3.3.4:1408
10.3.3.4:1402
10.3.3.4:1397
10.3.3.4:1395
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
0:00:00
0:00:00
0:00:01
0:00:01
0:00:00
0:00:00
0:01:30
0:01:30
0:01:30
Bytes
Bytes
Bytes
Bytes
Bytes
Bytes
11391
3709
2685
2683
15199
2688
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-12
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show cpu usage
In this example, host 10.3.3.4 on the inside has accessed a website at 209.165.201.1. The global address
on the outside interface is 209.165.201.7.
show cpu usage
The show cpu usage command displays CPU utilization.
show cpu usage
Syntax Description
cpu usage
Command Modes
Privileged or configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The show cpu usage command displays the central processing unit (CPU) usage information.
Examples
The following is sample output from the show cpu usage command:
The central processing unit (CPU) usage data.
pixfirewall# show cpu usage
CPU utilization for 5 seconds: p1%; 1 minute: p2%; 5 minutes: p3%
The percentage usage prints as NA (not applicable) if the usage is unavailable for the specified time
interval. This can happen if the user asks for CPU usage before the 5-second, 1-minute, or 5-minute time
interval has elapsed.
show crypto engine [verify]
Shows cryptography engine statistics or runs the Known Answer Test (KAT).
show crypto engine [verify]
Syntax Description
crypto engine
Displays usage statistics for the firewall cryptography engine.
verify
Runs the Known Answer Test (KAT).
Command Modes
Privileged or configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The show crypto engine command displays usage statistics for the cryptography engine used by the
firewall.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-13
Chapter 8
S Commands
show crypto engine [verify]
The show crypto engine verify command runs the Known Answer Test (KAT) from the firewall CLI.
Additionally, when booted for the first time or after a reload, the firewall performs the Know Answer
Test (KAT) before any configuration information is read from the Flash memory. If the KAT fails, then
the firewall issues an error message and reloads. The KAT is performed to check the integrity of the
cryptography engine used by the firewall.
Examples
The following example shows sample output for the show crypto engine command:
pixfirewall# show crypto engine
Crypto Engine Connection Map:
size = 8, free = 6, used = 1, active = 1
In this command output, size is total number of undirectional IPSec tunnels, free is the number of unused
undirectional IPSec tunnels, used is the number of allocated undirectional IPSec tunnels, and active is
the number of active undirectional IPSec tunnels. Because tunnel 0 is reserved for system use, size is
equal to free plus used plus one.
The following example shows sample output for the show crypto engine command when output is
specified for a VAC or a VAC+:
VAC+:
pixfirewall# show crypto interface
Encryption hardware device : VAC+ (Crypto5823 revision 0x1)
VAC:
pixfirewall# show crypto interface
Encryption hardware device : VAC (IRE2141 with 2048KB, HW:1.0, CGXROM:1.9, FW:6.5)
The following example shows the show crypto engine verify command output for a successful KAT:
pixfirewall# show crypto engine verify
FIPS: Known Answer Test begin
FIPS: software DES
FIPS: software SHA
FIPS: software RSA
FIPS:
success
success
success
software to software
DES/SHA1 tunnel check success.
FIPS: Known Answer Test finish
The following is sample output from a KAT that failed during start up of the firewall:
Cisco PIX Firewall Version 6.3(1)
Licensed Features:
Failover: Enabled
VPN-DES: Enabled
VPN-3DES-AES: Enabled
Maximum Interfaces: 6
Cut-through Proxy: Enabled
Guards: Enabled
URL-filtering: Enabled
Inside Hosts: Unlimited
Throughput: Unlimited
IKE peers: Unlimited
This PIX has an Unrestricted (UR) license.
FIPS: software AES fail
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-14
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show crypto interface [counters]
An internal error occurred. Specifically, a programming assertion was
violated. Copy the error message exactly as it appears, and get the
output of the show version command and the contents of the configuration
file. Then call your technical support representative.
assertion "result != FALSE" failed: file "crypto_nist_tests.c", line 529
No thread name
Traceback:
0: 0040d84d
1: 00260608
...
show crypto interface [counters]
Displays the VPN accelerator cards (VACs) installed in the firewall chassis and, for the VAC+, the
packet, payload byte, queue length, and moving average counters for traffic moving through the card.
show crypto interface [counters]
clear crypto interface counters
Syntax Description
counters
Displays packet count, byte queue, and moving averages for traffic
through a VAC+.
crypto interface
Displays the VPN accelerator cards (VACs) installed in the firewall
chassis.
Command Modes
Privileged or configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The show crypto interface command lists VPN accelerator cards (VACs) installed in the firewall
chassis. (This same information is also displayed in show version output.)
The show crypto interface counters command displays information, as described in Table 8-3, for the
PIX Firewall VAC+ card only.
Table 8-3
show crypto interface counters
Counter
Description
interfaces
The number and type of crypto interface cards installed.
packet count
The number of packets sent to the installed crypto interface
card(s).
payload bytes
The number of bytes of payload either after decapsulation or
before encapsulation.
input queue (curr/max)
The total number of packets that are awaiting service from the
crypto interface card(s).
interface queue (curr/max)
The total number of packets that have been queued at the crypto
interface card(s) for service.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-15
Chapter 8
S Commands
show crypto interface [counters]
Table 8-3
show crypto interface counters
Counter
Description
output queue (curr/max)
The total number of packets that have been released by the crypto
interface card(s) and are awaiting dispatch to the packet path.
moving averages
5second
1minute
5minute
5 second, 1 minute, and 5 minute moving averages of the packet
count and payload bytes through all crypto interface cards.
The clear crypto interface counters command clears only the packet, payload byte, queue length, and
moving average counters. It does not affect any actual packets queued.
Examples
The following is sample output from the show crypto interface and show crypto interface counters
commands when a VAC+ card is installed:
pixfirewall# show crypto interface
Encryption hardware device : Crypto5823 (revision 0x1)
pixfirewall(config)# show crypto interface counters
interfaces: 1
Crypto5823 (revision 0x1), maximum queue size 64
packet count:
318657093
payload bytes:
89861300946
input
queue (curr/max): 1336/1584
interface queue (curr/max): 64/64
output
queue (curr/max): 0/64
moving averages
5second
128273 pkts/sec
1minute
128326 pkts/sec
5minute
128279 pkts/sec
289 Mbits/sec
290 Mbits/sec
289 Mbits/sec
The following is the same sample output after the clear crypto interface counters command has been
used:
pixfirewall# clear crypto interface counters
pixfirewall# show crypto interface counters
interfaces: 1
Crypto5823 (revision 0x1), maximum queue size 64
packet count:
355968
payload bytes:
100382976
input
queue (curr/max): 1317/1537
interface queue (curr/max): 64/64
output
queue (curr/max): 0/64
moving averages
5second
NA pkts/sec
1minute
NA pkts/sec
5minute
NA pkts/sec
NA Mbits/sec
NA Mbits/sec
NA Mbits/sec
The following is sample output from the show crypto interface and show crypto interface counters
commands when a VAC card is installed:
pixfirewall# show crypto interface
Encryption hardware device : IRE2141 with 2048KB, HW:1.0, CGXROM:1.9, FW:6.5
pixfirewall# show crypto interface counters
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-16
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show ip local pool
no crypto interface counters available
The following is sample output from the show crypto interface and show crypto interface counters
commands when no crypto interface card is installed (neither a VAC nor a VAC+):
pixfirewall# show crypto interface
pixfirewall# show crypto interface counters
no crypto interface counters available
show ip local pool
The show ip local pool command displays:
•
any included netmask if it is configured.
•
fixes an alignment problem if present with possible varied length pool names.
Syntax Description
ip local pool
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The show ip local pool command can now output the netmask if it is configured. The show ip local pool
command displays previously configured local pool addresses.
List of configured local pool IP addresses
The following is sample output from the show ip local pool command:
argus-520(config)# sh ip local pool
Pool
Begin
End
VPNClient
10.1.0.1
10.1.0.25
...
Pool
Begin
End
ReallyReallyReallyLongPoolName
192.168.0.1
192.168.64.0
Mask
Not configured
Free
25
In use
0
Mask
Free
In use
16384
0
255.255.0.0
show history
Display previously entered commands.
show history
Syntax Description
history
Command Modes
Available in unprivileged mode, privileged mode, and configuration mode.
The list of previous entries.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-17
Chapter 8
S Commands
show local-host/clear local host
Usage Guidelines
The show history command displays previously entered commands. You can examine commands
individually with the up and down arrows or by entering ^p to view previously entered lines or ^n to
view the next line.
Examples
The following is sample output from the show history command when run in unprivileged mode:
pixfirewall> show history
show history
help
show history
The following is sample output from the show history command when run in privileged mode:
pixfirewall# show history
show history
help
show history
enable
show history
The following is sample output from the show history command when run in configuration mode:
pixfirewall(config)# show history
show history
help
show history
enable
show history
config t
show history
show local-host/clear local host
View local host network states.
show local-host [ip_address]
clear local-host [ip_address]
Syntax Description
ip_address
Command Modes
Privileged mode for the show commands and configuration mode for the clear commands.
Usage Guidelines
The show local-host command displays the translation and connection slots for all local hosts. This
command also provides information for hosts configured with the nat 0 command when normal
translation and connection states may not apply. The show local-host detail command displays more
information about active xlates and connections. Use the ip_address option to limit the display to a
single host.
Local host IP address.
The clear local-host command stops traffic on all local hosts. The clear local-host ip_address command
stops traffic on the local host specified by its IP address.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-18
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show local-host/clear local host
On a PIX 501, cleared hosts are released from the license limit. You can view the number of hosts that
are counted toward the license limit with the show local-host command.
Note
Examples
Clearing the network state of a local host stops all connections and xlates associated with the local hosts.
The following is sample output from the show local-host command:
show local-host 10.1.1.15
local host: <10.1.1.15>, conn(s)/limit = 2/0, embryonic(s)/limit = 0/0
Xlate(s):
PAT Global 172.16.3.200(1024) Local 10.1.1.15(55812)
PAT Global 172.16.3.200(1025) Local 10.1.1.15(56836)
PAT Global 172.16.3.200(1026) Local 10.1.1.15(57092)
PAT Global 172.16.3.200(1027) Local 10.1.1.15(56324)
PAT Global 172.16.3.200(1028) Local 10.1.1.15(7104)
Conn(s):
TCP out 192.150.49.10:23 in 10.1.1.15:1246 idle 0:00:20 Bytes 449 flags UIO
TCP out 192.150.49.10:21 in 10.1.1.15:1247 idle 0:00:10 Bytes 359 flags UIO
The xlate describes the translation slot information and the Conn is the connection state information.
The following is sample command output from the show local-host command:
pixfirewall(config)# show local-host
local host: <10.1.1.15>, conn(s)/limit = 2/0, embryonic(s)/limit = 0/0
Xlate(s):
PAT Global 192.150.49.1(1024) Local 10.1.1.15(516)
PAT Global 192.150.49.1(0) Local 10.1.1.15 ICMP id 340
PAT Global 192.150.49.1(1024) Local 10.1.1.15(1028)
Conn(s):
TCP out 192.150.49.10:23 in 10.1.1.15:1026 idle 0:00:25
Bytes 1774 flags UIO
UDP out 192.150.49.10:31649 in 10.1.1.15:1028 idle 0:00:17
flags D-
For comparison, the following is sample command output from the show local-host detail command:
pixfirewall(config)# show local-host detail
local host: <10.1.1.15>,
TCP connection count/limit = 0/unlimited
TCP embryonic count = 0
TCP intercept watermark = unlimited
UDP connection count/limit = 0/unlimited
Xlate(s):
TCP PAT from inside:10.1.1.15/1026 to outside:192.150.49.1/1024
flags ri
ICMP PAT from inside:10.1.1.15/21505 to outside:192.150.49.1/0
flags ri
UDP PAT from inside:10.1.1.15/1028 to outside:192.150.49.1/1024
flags ri
Conn(s):
TCP outside:192.150.49.10/23 inside:10.1.1.15/1026 flags UIO
UDP outside:192.150.49.10/31649 inside:10.1.1.15/1028 flags dD
The next example shows how the clear local-host command clears the local host information:
clear local-host 10.1.1.15
show local-host 10.1.1.15
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-19
Chapter 8
S Commands
show memory
Once the information is cleared, nothing more displays until the hosts reestablish their connections,
which were stopped by the clear local-host command, and more data is produced.
show memory
Show system memory utilization.
show memory[detail]
Syntax Description
memory
The system memory data.
detail
Additional detail on system memory data.
Command Modes
Privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The show memory command displays a summary of the maximum physical memory and current free
memory available to the PIX Firewall operating system. Memory in the PIX Firewall is allocated as
needed.
You can also view the information from the show memory command using SNMP.
Examples
The following is sample output from the show memory command:
Result of firewall command: "show memory"
Free memory:
Used memory:
------------Total memory:
17149656 bytes
16404776 bytes
---------------33554432 bytes
The following is sample output from the show memory detail command:
Result of firewall command: "show memory detail"
Free memory:
49734280 bytes
Used memory:
Allocated memory in use:
11175212 bytes
Reserved memory:
6199372 bytes
-------------------------------------------Total memory:
67108864 bytes
----- fragmented memory statistics ----fragment size
count
total
(bytes)
(bytes)
---------------- ---------- -------------16
9
144
24
2
48
80
2
160
128
1
128
216
1
216
224
3
672
232
1
232
240
1
240
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-20
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show memory
296
2
592
312
1
312
320
1
320
816
1
816
1136
1
1136
1336
1
1336
5504
3
16528
5784
4
23280
9024
1
9024
13744
1
13744*
14768
4
61400
21872
1
21872
49582080
1
49582080**
* - top most releasable chunk.
** - contiguous memory on top of heap.
----- allocated memory statistics ----fragment size
count
total
(bytes)
(bytes)
---------------- ---------- -------------24
20
480
32
1426
45632
40
1439
57560
48
197
9456
56
1013
56728
64
110
7040
72
69
4968
80
35
2800
88
56
4928
96
10
960
104
12
1248
112
15
1680
120
19
2280
128
7
896
136
35
4760
144
3
432
152
61
9272
160
7
1120
168
1
168
176
1
176
184
1
184
200
6
1200
216
1
216
224
4
896
256
1
256
264
706
186384
272
2
544
280
4
1120
288
2
576
296
1
296
304
1
304
328
1
328
344
2
688
352
62
21824
360
3
1080
392
1
392
424
4
1696
464
1
464
512
21
10752
576
4
2304
640
1
640
704
2
1408
768
2
1536
832
1
832
896
1
896
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-21
Chapter 8
S Commands
show ospf
1024
1088
1152
1408
1536
1600
1664
1856
1920
2048
2112
2240
2368
3072
4096
4608
8192
9728
10240
10752
14848
18944
23040
27136
31232
39424
76288
141824
174592
436736
698880
7
1
2
6
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
16
51
1
14
1
1
1
3
28
1
2
4
3
15
7
4
10
3
7168
1088
2304
8448
1536
4800
1664
1856
1920
2048
2112
2240
2368
49152
208896
4608
114688
9728
10240
10752
44544
530432
23040
54272
124928
118272
1144320
992768
698368
4367360
2096640
show ospf
Displays general information about OSPF routing processes.
show ospf [pid]
Syntax Description
pid
Defaults
The default is to list all OSPF processes if no pid is specified.
Command Modes
The show ospf command is available in privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The OSPF routing-related show commands are available in privileged command mode on the firewall.
You do not need to be in an OSPF configuration subcommand mode to use the OSPF-related show
commands.
The ID of the OSPF process.
If the pid is included, only information for the specified routing process is included.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-22
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show ospf border-routers
Examples
The following examples are sample output from the show ospf [pidpid] (with a pid of 5)and show ospf
commands:
pixfirewall# show ospf 5
Routing Process "ospf 5" with ID 127.0.0.1 and Domain ID 0.0.0.5
Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes
Supports opaque LSA
SPF schedule delay 5 secs, Hold time between two SPFs 10 secs
Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1 secs
Number of external LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x
0
Number of opaque AS LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x
0
Number of DCbitless external and opaque AS LSA 0
Number of DoNotAge external and opaque AS LSA 0
Number of areas in this router is 0. 0 normal 0 stub 0 nssa
External flood list length 0
pixfirewall# show ospf
Routing Process "ospf 5" with ID 127.0.0.1 and Domain ID 0.0.0.5
Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes
Supports opaque LSA
SPF schedule delay 5 secs, Hold time between two SPFs 10 secs
Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1 secs
Number of external LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x
0
Number of opaque AS LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x
0
Number of DCbitless external and opaque AS LSA 0
Number of DoNotAge external and opaque AS LSA 0
Number of areas in this router is 0. 0 normal 0 stub 0 nssa
External flood list length 0
Routing Process "ospf 12" with ID 172.23.59.232 and Domain ID 0.0.0.12
Supports only single TOS(TOS0) routes
Supports opaque LSA
SPF schedule delay 5 secs, Hold time between two SPFs 10 secs
Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1 secs
Number of external LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x
0
Number of opaque AS LSA 0. Checksum Sum 0x
0
Number of DCbitless external and opaque AS LSA 0
Number of DoNotAge external and opaque AS LSA 0
Number of areas in this router is 0. 0 normal 0 stub 0 nssa
External flood list length 0
Related Commands
prefix-list
Configures a prefix list to be used for OSPF routing.
route-map
Creates a route map for redistributing routes from one routing protocol to
another. Used in configuring OSPF routing on the firewall.
router ospf
Configures global parameters for the OSPF routing processes on the firewall,
and enables or disables OSPF routing through the firewall.
routing interface
Configures interface-specific OSPF routing parameters.
show ospf border-routers
Displays the internal OSPF routing table entries to an Area Border Router (ABR) and Autonomous
System Boundary Router (ASBR).
show ospf border-routers
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-23
Chapter 8
S Commands
show ospf database
Syntax Description
border-routers
Defaults
None.
Command Modes
The show ospf border-routers command is available in privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The OSPF routing-related show commands are available in privileged command mode on the firewall.
You do not need to be in an OSPF configuration subcommand mode to use the OSPF-related show
commands.
Examples
The following is sample output from the show ospf border-routers command:
Area Border Routers (ABRs) and Autonomous System Boundary Routers
(ASBRs).
pixfirewall# show ospf border-routers
OSPF Process 109 internal Routing Table
Destination Next Hop Cost Type Rte Type Area SPF No
192.168.97.53 172.16.1.53 10 ABR INTRA 0.0.0.3 3
192.168.103.51 192.168.96.51 10 ABR INTRA 0.0.0.3 3
192.168.103.52 192.168.96.51 20 ASBR INTER 0.0.0.3 3
192.168.103.52 172.16.1.53 22 ASBR INTER 0.0.0.3 3
Related Commands
prefix-list
Configures a prefix list to be used for OSPF routing.
route-map
Creates a route map for redistributing routes from one routing protocol to
another. Used in configuring OSPF routing on the firewall.
router ospf
Configures global parameters for the OSPF routing processes on the firewall,
and enables or disables OSPF routing through the firewall.
routing interface
Configures interface-specific OSPF routing parameters.
show ospf database
Displays LSA information in the OSPF database for a specific network area or router.
show ospf [pid] database [internal] [adv-router [ip_address]]
show ospf [pid [area_id]] database [internal] [self-originate] [lsid]
show ospf [pid [area_id]] database {router | network | summary | asbr-summary | external |
nssa-external | database-summary}]
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-24
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show ospf database
Syntax Description
adv-router
[ip_address]
Displays all the link-state advertisements (LSAs) of the specified router. If no
IP address is included, the information is about the local router itself (in that
case, the output is the same as with the self-originate keyword).
area_id
The ID of the area that is associated with the OSPF address range. If you
intend to associate areas with IP subnets, you can specify a subnet address as
the area_id.
When used in the context of authentication, area_id is the identifier of the area
on which authentication is to be enabled.
When using a cost context, area_id is the identifier for the stub or NSSA.
When used in the context of a prefix list, area_id is the identifier of the area
on which filtering is configured.
When used in a stub area or not-so-stubby area (NSSA) context, area_id is the
identifier for the stub or NSSA area.
When used in the context of an area range, area_id is the identifier of the area
at whose boundary to summarize routes.
asbr-summary
Displays information only about the Autonomous System Boundary Router
(ASBR) summary LSAs.
database-summary
Displays how many of each type of LSA for each area there are in the
database, and the total.
external
Routes external to a specified autonomous system.
internal
Routes that are internal to a specified autonomous system.
ip_address
The IP address of the OSPF router.
lsid
The link state ID, specified as an IP address. The lsid describes the portion of
the Internet environment that is being described by the link-state
advertisement (LSA).
The value entered depends on the type of the LSA, but the value must be
entered in the form of an IP address, as follows:
•
When the LSA is describing a network, set lsid to the network IP address
(for Type 3 summary link advertisements and for autonomous system
external link advertisements) or a derived IP address with the network
subnet mask (from which the OSPF process interprets the network IP
address).
•
When the LSA is describing a router, set lsid to the OSPF router ID of the
router.
•
When an autonomous system external advertisement (Type 5) is
describing a default route, set lsid to the default destination (0.0.0.0).
network
Displays information only about the network LSAs.
nssa-external
Displays information only about the not-so-stubby area (NSSA) external
LSAs.
pid
The ID of the OSPF process.
router
Displays information only about the router LSAs.
self-originate
Displays only self-originated LSAs (from the local router).
summary
Displays information only about the summary LSAs.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-25
Chapter 8
S Commands
show ospf database
Defaults
None.
Command Modes
The show ospf database command is available in privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The OSPF routing-related show commands are available in privileged command mode on the firewall.
You do not need to be in an OSPF configuration subcommand mode to use the OSPF-related show
commands.
The various forms of this command deliver information about different OSPF link-state advertisements
(LSAs).
Examples
The following is sample output from the show ospf database command:
pixfirewall# show ospf database
OSPF Router with ID(192.168.1.11) (Process ID 1)
Router Link States(Area 0)
Link ID
ADV Router
Age
Seq# Checksum Link count
192.168.1.8 192.168.1.8 1381 0x8000010D
0xEF60 2
192.168.1.11 192.168.1.11 1460 0x800002FE
0xEB3D 4
192.168.1.12 192.168.1.12 2027 0x80000090
0x875D 3
192.168.1.27 192.168.1.27 1323 0x800001D6
0x12CC 3
Net Link States(Area 0)
Link ID ADV Router
Age
Seq# Checksum
172.16.1.27 192.168.1.27 1323 0x8000005B
0xA8EE
172.17.1.11 192.168.1.11 1461 0x8000005B
0x7AC
Type-10 Opaque Link Area Link States (Area 0)
Link ID ADV Router
Age Seq# Checksum Opaque ID
10.0.0.0 192.168.1.11 1461 0x800002C8
0x8483
0
10.0.0.0 192.168.1.12 2027 0x80000080
0xF858
0
10.0.0.0 192.168.1.27 1323 0x800001BC
0x919B
0
10.0.0.1 192.168.1.11 1461 0x8000005E
0x5B43
1
The following is sample output from the show ospf database asbr-summary command:
pixfirewall# show ospf database asbr-summary
OSPF Router with ID(192.168.239.66) (Process ID 300)
Summary ASB Link States(Area 0.0.0.0)
Routing Bit Set on this LSA
LS age: 1463
Options: (No TOS-capability)
LS Type: Summary Links(AS Boundary Router)
Link State ID: 172.16.245.1 (AS Boundary Router address)
Advertising Router: 172.16.241.5
LS Seq Number: 80000072
Checksum: 0x3548
Length: 28
Network Mask: 0.0.0.0
TOS: 0 Metric: 1
The following is sample output from the show ospf database router command:
pixfirewall# show ospf database router
OSPF Router with id(192.168.239.66) (Process ID 300)
Router Link States(Area 0.0.0.0)
Routing Bit Set on this LSA
LS age: 1176
Options: (No TOS-capability)
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-26
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show ospf database
LS Type: Router Links
Link State ID: 10.187.21.6
Advertising Router: 10.187.21.6
LS Seq Number: 80002CF6
Checksum: 0x73B7
Length: 120
AS Boundary Router
Number of Links: 8
Link connected to: another Router (point-to-point)
(link ID) Neighboring Router ID: 10.187.21.5
(Link Data) Router Interface address: 10.187.21.6
Number of TOS metrics: 0
TOS 0 Metrics: 2
The following is sample output from the show ospf database network command:
pixfirewall# show ospf database network
OSPF Router with id(192.168.239.66) (Process ID 300)
Displaying Net Link States(Area 0.0.0.0)
LS age: 1367
Options: (No TOS-capability)
LS Type: Network Links
Link State ID: 10.187.1.3 (address of Designated Router)
Advertising Router: 192.168.239.66
LS Seq Number: 800000E7
Checksum: 0x1229
Length: 52
Network Mask: 255.255.255.0
Attached Router: 192.168.239.66
Attached Router: 10.187.241.5
Attached Router: 10.187.1.1
Attached Router: 10.187.54.5
Attached Router: 10.187.1.5
The following is sample output from the show ospf database summary command:
pixfirewall# show ospf database summary
OSPF Router with id(192.168.239.66) (Process ID 300)
Displaying Summary Net Link States(Area 0.0.0.0)
LS age: 1401
Options: (No TOS-capability)
LS Type: Summary Links(Network)
Link State ID: 10.187.240.0 (summary Network Number)
Advertising Router: 10.187.241.5
LS Seq Number: 80000072
Checksum: 0x84FF
Length: 28
Network Mask: 255.255.255.0 TOS: 0 Metric: 1
The following is sample output from the show ospf database external command:
pixfirewall# show ospf database external
OSPF Router with id(192.168.239.66) (Autonomous system 300)
Displaying AS External Link States
LS age: 280
Options: (No TOS-capability)
LS Type: AS External Link
Link State ID: 143.10.0.0 (External Network Number)
Advertising Router: 10.187.70.6
LS Seq Number: 80000AFD
Checksum: 0xC3A
Length: 36
Network Mask: 255.255.0.0
Metric Type: 2 (Larger than any link state path)
TOS: 0
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-27
Chapter 8
S Commands
show ospf flood-list
Metric: 1
Forward Address: 0.0.0.0
External Route Tag: 0
Related Commands
prefix-list
Configures a prefix list to be used for OSPF routing.
route-map
Creates a route map for redistributing routes from one routing protocol to
another. Used in configuring OSPF routing on the firewall.
router ospf
Configures global parameters for the OSPF routing processes on the firewall,
and enables or disables OSPF routing through the firewall.
routing interface
Configures interface-specific OSPF routing parameters.
show ospf flood-list
Displays a list of OSPF link-state advertisements (LSAs) waiting to be flooded over an interface.
show ospf flood-list if_name
Syntax Description
flood-list
The list of link-state advertisements (LSAs) waiting to be flooded over an
interface.
if_name
The name of the interface for which to display neighbor information.
Defaults
None.
Command Modes
The show ospf flood-list command is available in privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The OSPF routing-related show commands are available in privileged command mode on the firewall.
You do not need to be in an OSPF configuration subcommand mode to use the OSPF-related show
commands.
Examples
The following is sample output from the show ospf flood-list command, where the if_name is outside:
pixfirewall# show ospf flood-list outside
Interface outside, Queue length 20
Link state flooding due in 12 msec
Type LS ID ADV RTR
Seq NO Age Checksum
5 10.2.195.0 192.168.0.163 0x80000009 0 0xFB61
5 10.1.192.0 192.168.0.163 0x80000009 0 0x2938
5 10.2.194.0 192.168.0.163 0x80000009 0 0x757
5 10.1.193.0 192.168.0.163 0x80000009 0 0x1E42
5 10.2.193.0 192.168.0.163 0x80000009 0 0x124D
5 10.1.194.0 192.168.0.163 0x80000009 0 0x134C
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-28
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show ospf interface
Related Commands
prefix-list
Configures a prefix list to be used for OSPF routing.
route-map
Creates a route map for redistributing routes from one routing protocol to
another. Used in configuring OSPF routing on the firewall.
router ospf
Configures global parameters for the OSPF routing processes on the firewall,
and enables or disables OSPF routing through the firewall.
routing interface
Configures interface-specific OSPF routing parameters.
show ospf interface
Displays OSPF-related interface information.
show ospf interface if_name
Syntax Description
if_name
Defaults
None.
Command Modes
The show ospf interface if_name command is available in privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The OSPF routing-related show commands are available in privileged command mode on the firewall.
You do not need to be in an OSPF configuration subcommand mode to use the OSPF-related show
commands.
Examples
The following is sample output from the show ospf interface if_name command, where the if_name is
inside:
The name of the interface for which to display OSPF-related information.
pixfirewall# show ospf interface inside
inside is up, line protocol is up
Internet Address 192.168.254.202, Mask 255.255.255.0, Area 0.0.0.0
AS 201, Router ID 192.77.99.1, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost: 10
Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State OTHER, Priority 1
Designated Router id 192.168.254.10, Interface address 192.168.254.10
Backup Designated router id 192.168.254.28, Interface addr 192.168.254.28
Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 60, Wait 40, Retransmit 5
Hello due in 0:00:05
Neighbor Count is 8, Adjacent neighbor count is 2
Adjacent with neighbor 192.168.254.28 (Backup Designated Router)
Adjacent with neighbor 192.168.254.10 (Designated Router)
Related Commands
prefix-list
Configures a prefix list to be used for OSPF routing.
route-map
Creates a route map for redistributing routes from one routing protocol to
another. Used in configuring OSPF routing on the firewall.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-29
Chapter 8
S Commands
show ospf neighbor
router ospf
Configures global parameters for the OSPF routing processes on the firewall,
and enables or disables OSPF routing through the firewall.
routing interface
Configures interface-specific OSPF routing parameters.
show ospf neighbor
Displays OSPF-neighbor information on a per-interface basis.
show ospf neighbor [if_name] [nbr_router_id] [detail]
Syntax Description
detail
List all neighbors.
if_name
The name of the interface for which to display neighbor information.
nbr_router_id
The IP address of the neighbor router.
Defaults
None.
Command Modes
The show ospf neighbor command is available in privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The OSPF routing-related show commands are available in privileged command mode on the firewall.
You do not need to be in an OSPF configuration subcommand mode to use the OSPF-related show
commands.
Examples
The following is sample output from the show ospf neighbor if_name nbr_router_id command, where
the if_name is inside and the nbr_router_id is 10.199.199.137:
pixfirewall# show ospf neighbor inside 10.199.199.137
Neighbor 10.199.199.137, interface address 192.168.80.37
In the area 0.0.0.0 via interface inside
Neighbor priority is 1, State is FULL
Options 2
Dead timer due in 0:00:37
Link State retransmission due in 0:00:04
The following is sample output from the show ospf neighbor detail command, where the if_name is
outside:
pixfirewall# show ospf neighbor outside detail
Neighbor 192.168.5.2, interface address 10.225.200.28
In the area 0 via interface outside
Neighbor priority is 1, State is FULL, 6 state changes
DR is 10.225.200.28 BDR is 10.225.200.30
Options is 0x42
Dead timer due in 00:00:36
Neighbor is up for 00:09:46
Index 1/1, retransmission queue length 0, number of retransmission 1
First 0x0(0)/0x0(0) Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)
Last retransmission scan length is 1, maximum is 1
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-30
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show ospf request-list
Last retransmission scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec
Related Commands
prefix-list
Configures a prefix list to be used for OSPF routing.
route-map
Creates a route map for redistributing routes from one routing protocol to
another. Used in configuring OSPF routing on the firewall.
router ospf
Configures global parameters for the OSPF routing processes on the firewall,
and enables or disables OSPF routing through the firewall.
routing interface
Configures interface-specific OSPF routing parameters.
show ospf request-list
Displays a list of all link-state advertisements (LSAs) requested by a router.
show ospf request-list nbr_router_id if_name
Syntax Description
if_name
The name of the interface for which to display neighbor information. Displays
the list of all LSAs requested by the router from this interface.
nbr_router_id
The ID of the neighbor router, specified by IP address. Displays the list of all
LSAs requested by the router from this neighbor.
Defaults
None.
Command Modes
The show ospf request-list nbr_router_id if_name command is available in privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The OSPF routing-related show commands are available in privileged command mode on the firewall.
You do not need to be in an OSPF configuration subcommand mode to use the OSPF-related show
commands.
Examples
The following is sample output from the show ospf request-list command, where the nbr_router_id is
192.168.1.12 and the if_name is inside:
pixfirewall# show ospf request-list 192.168.1.12 inside
OSPF Router with ID (192.168.1.11) (Process ID 1)
Neighbor 192.168.1.12, interface inside address 172.16.1.12
Type LS ID
ADV RTR
Seq NO Age Checksum
1 192.168.1.12 192.168.1.12 0x8000020D 8 0x6572
Related Commands
prefix-list
Configures a prefix list to be used for OSPF routing.
route-map
Creates a route map for redistributing routes from one routing protocol to
another. Used in configuring OSPF routing on the firewall.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-31
Chapter 8
S Commands
show ospf retransmission-list
router ospf
Configures global parameters for the OSPF routing processes on the firewall,
and enables or disables OSPF routing through the firewall.
routing interface
Configures interface-specific OSPF routing parameters.
show ospf retransmission-list
Displays a list of all link-state advertisements (LSAs) waiting to be resent.
show retransmission-list nbr_router_id if_name
Syntax Description
if_name
The name of the interface for which to display neighbor information. Displays
the list of all LSAs waiting to be resent for this neighbor.
nbr_router_id
The ID of the neighbor router, specified by IP address. Displays the list of all
LSAs waiting to be resent for this interface.
Defaults
None.
Command Modes
The show retransmission-list nbr_router_id if_name command is available in privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The OSPF routing-related show commands are available in privileged command mode on the firewall.
You do not need to be in an OSPF configuration subcommand mode to use the OSPF-related show
commands.
Examples
The following is sample output from the show ospf retransmission-list command, where the
nbr_router_id is 192.168.1.11 and the if_name is outside:
pixfirewall# show ospf retransmission-list 192.168.1.11 outside
OSPF Router with ID (192.168.1.12) (Process ID 1)
Neighbor 192.168.1.11, interface outside address 172.16.1.11
Link state retransmission due in 3764 msec, Queue length 2
Type LS ID
ADV RTR
Seq NO Age Checksum
1 192.168.1.12 192.168.1.12 0x80000210 0 0xB196
Related Commands
prefix-list
Configures a prefix list to be used for OSPF routing.
route-map
Creates a route map for redistributing routes from one routing protocol to
another. Used in configuring OSPF routing on the firewall.
router ospf
Configures global parameters for the OSPF routing processes on the firewall,
and enables or disables OSPF routing through the firewall.
routing interface
Configures interface-specific OSPF routing parameters.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-32
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show ospf summary-address
show ospf summary-address
Displays a list of all summary address redistribution information configured under an OSPF process.
show ospf summary-address
Syntax Description
summary-address
Defaults
None.
Command Modes
The show command is available in privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The OSPF routing-related show commands are available in privileged command mode on the firewall.
You do not need to be in an OSPF configuration subcommand mode to use the OSPF-related show
commands.
Examples
The following is sample output from the show ospf summary-address command for an OSPF process
with the pid of 5:
An address representing multiple (aggregated) addresses.
pixfirewall# show ospf summary-address
OSPF Process 5, Summary-address
10.2.0.0/255.255.0.0 Metric -1, Type 0, Tag 0
10.2.0.0/255.255.0.0 Metric -1, Type 0, Tag 10
Related Commands
prefix-list
Configures a prefix list to be used for OSPF routing.
route-map
Creates a route map for redistributing routes from one routing protocol to
another. Used in configuring OSPF routing on the firewall.
router ospf
Configures global parameters for the OSPF routing processes on the firewall,
and enables or disables OSPF routing through the firewall.
routing interface
Configures interface-specific OSPF routing parameters.
show ospf virtual links
Displays parameters and the current state of OSPF virtual links.
show ospf virtual-links
Syntax Description
virtual-links
OSPF virtual links.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-33
Chapter 8
S Commands
show processes
Defaults
None.
Command Modes
The show ospf virtual-links command is available in privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The OSPF routing-related show commands are available in privileged command mode on the firewall.
You do not need to be in an OSPF configuration subcommand mode to use the OSPF-related show
commands.
Examples
The following is sample output from the show ospf virtual-links command:
pixfirewall# show ospf virtual-links
Virtual Link to router 192.168.101.2 is up
Transit area 0.0.0.1, via interface Ethernet0, Cost of using 10
Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_POINT
Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5
Hello due in 0:00:08
Adjacency State FULL
Related Commands
prefix-list
Configures a prefix list to be used for OSPF routing.
route-map
Creates a route map for redistributing routes from one routing protocol to
another. Used in configuring OSPF routing on the firewall.
router ospf
Configures global parameters for the OSPF routing processes on the firewall,
and enables or disables OSPF routing through the firewall.
routing interface
Configures interface-specific OSPF routing parameters.
show processes
Display processes.
show processes
Syntax Description
processes
Command Modes
Privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The show processes command displays a list of the running processes. Processes are lightweight threads
requiring only a few instructions. In the listing, PC is the program counter, SP is the stack pointer,
STATE is the address of a thread queue, Runtime is the number of milliseconds that the thread has been
running, SBASE is the stack base address, Stack is the current number of bytes used and the total size
of the stack, and Process lists the thread’s function.
The processes running on the PIX Firewall.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-34
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show routing
Examples
The following is sample output from the show processes command:
pixfirewall(config)# show processes
Hsi
Lsi
Lwe
Lwe
Hwe
Hwe
Lsi
Lsi
Mwe
Lsi
Hsi
Hwe
Lsi
Mwe
Hwe
Mwe
Lwe
Lwe
H*
Csi
Hwe
Hwe
Hwe
Hsi
Crd
Lsi
Cwe
Mwe
Msi
Cwe
Mwe
Msi
Cwe
Mwe
Msi
Hwe
Mwe
Mrd
Mrd
PC
001e7de9
001ecf55
00119af7
003da59d
003de658
003de5d1
002f8611
002f851f
002ef7ff
0042fb65
002e0b9c
00213ad9
002de91c
0020b339
00391143
0025d205
002f0302
002f051e
0011f4ef
002e923b
002d63d1
003dd0e5
003f2c62
001dfcf2
001dfca7
001dfd5d
001e1785
003f29d2
0039a3a1
001e1785
003f29d2
0039a3a1
001ea085
003f29d2
0039a3a1
003dd379
00367556
002650c9
00265869
SP
0074e3ac
007f15a4
009bd7ec
009bf97c
009c2a74
009c4b24
00af8e94
00af9f34
00c6e304
00d18b5c
00d19bec
00d2391c
00d3cc84
00d670b4
00d7b9fc
00d92594
00e44ee4
00e45f94
0009fefc
00e5348c
00ef7324
00ef9424
00efa574
00efc22c
00efd2ec
00efe38c
00f1440c
00f154fc
00f1660c
00f1c744
00f1d854
00f1e964
00f24b0c
00f25bac
00f26cbc
00f4c3b4
00f4e60c
00f7bf3c
00f7960c
STATE
0054c8e0
0054c8e0
00550040
00545218
005454c8
005454c8
0054c8e0
0054c8e0
0054c8e0
0054c8e0
0054c8e0
0054c8e0
0054c8e0
0054c8e0
005668f0
0054c8e0
00561c08
00562338
0054c8c8
0054c8e0
0052bc98
00811bf8
00545818
0054c8e0
0054cd58
0054c8e0
0085b790
0085a420
0054c8e0
008d0d00
0085a3d8
0054c8e0
0071aa6c
0085a390
0054c8e0
007fd000
0054c8e0
0054c918
0054c918
Runtime
0
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1580
0
0
0
0
0
764174020
0
770
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4780
4760
SBASE
0074d424
007f062c
009bc984
009bda34
009c0afc
009c2bac
00af7f0c
00af8fbc
00c6c36c
00d17bd4
00d18c84
00d1f9b4
00d3bcfc
00d6513c
00d79ab4
00d91e2c
00e4406c
00e4511c
00e4e484
00e52534
00ef349c
00ef754c
00ef95fc
00efb2b4
00efc364
00efd414
00f12514
00f145c4
00f15694
00f1a84c
00f1c91c
00f1d9ec
00f22ba4
00f24c74
00f25d44
00f4c10c
00f4c694
00f79fc4
00f78ed4
Stack Process
3884/4096 arp_timer
3800/4096 FragDBGC
3688/4096 dbgtrace
8008/8192 Logger
8024/8192 tcp_fast
8024/8192 tcp_slow
3944/4096 xlate clean
3884/4096 uxlate clean
7908/8192 tcp_intercept_times
3768/4096 route_process
3780/4096 PIX Garbage Collecr
16048/16384 isakmp_time_keepr
3944/4096 perfmon
7860/8192 IPsec timer handler
6904/8192 qos_metric_daemon
1436/2048 IP Background
3704/4096 pix/trace
3704/4096 pix/tconsole
13548/16384 ci/console
3432/4096 update_cpu_usage
15884/16384 uauth_in
7896/8192 uauth_thread
3960/4096 udp_timer
3928/4096 557mcfix
3688/4096 557poll
3700/4096 557timer
7344/8192 pix/intf0
3896/4096 riprx/0
3888/4096 riptx/0
7928/8192 pix/intf1
3896/4096 riprx/1
3888/4096 riptx/1
8040/8192 pix/intf2
3896/4096 riprx/2
3888/4096 riptx/2
300/1024 listen/http1
7640/8192 Crypto CA
7744/8192 OSPF Router
1608/2048 OSPF Hello
show routing
Displays the (non-default) interface-specific routing configuration.
show routing [interface if_name]
Syntax Description
if_name
Defaults
None.
The name of the interface for which to display the configuration.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-35
Chapter 8
S Commands
show running-config
Command Modes
The show routing command is available in privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The OSPF routing-related show commands are available in privileged command mode on the firewall.
You do not need to be in an OSPF configuration subcommand mode to use the OSPF-related show
commands.
Examples
The following is sample output from the show routing command:
pixfirewall# show routing
routing interface outside
ospf retransmit-interval 15
routing interface inside
ospf cost 206
The following is sample output from the show routing [interface if_name] command:
pixfirewall# show routing interface outside
routing interface outside
ospf retransmit-interval 15
Related Commands
prefix-list
Configures a prefix list to be used for OSPF routing.
route-map
Creates a route map for redistributing routes from one routing protocol to
another. Used in configuring OSPF routing on the firewall.
router ospf
Configures global parameters for the OSPF routing processes on the firewall,
and enables or disables OSPF routing through the firewall.
routing interface
Configures interface-specific OSPF routing parameters.
show running-config
Display the PIX Firewall running configuration.
show running-config
Syntax Description
running-config
Command Modes
Privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The show running-config command displays the current running configuration. The keyword
running-config is used to match the Cisco IOS software command. The show running-config command
output is the same as the pre-existing PIX Firewall write terminal command.
The configuration running on the PIX Firewall.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-36
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show running-config
The running-config keyword can be used only in the show running-config command. It cannot be used
with no or clear, or as a standalone command. If it is, the CLI treats it as a non-supported command.
Also, for this reason, when ?, no ?, or clear ? are entered, a running-config option is not listed in the
command list.
Note
Examples
PIX Device Manager (PDM) commands will appear in your configuration after you use PDM to connect
to or configure your PIX Firewall.
The following is sample output from the show running-config command:
pixfirewall# show running-config
: Saved
:
PIX Version 6.2(1)
nameif ethernet0 outside security0
nameif ethernet1 inside security100
nameif ethernet2 intf2 security10
enable password 8Ry2YjIyt7RRXU24 encrypted
passwd 2KFQnbNIdI.2KYOU encrypted
hostname pixdoc515
domain-name cisco.com
fixup protocol ftp 21
fixup protocol http 80
fixup protocol h323 h225 1720
fixup protocol h323 ras 1718-1719
fixup protocol ils 389
fixup protocol rsh 514
fixup protocol rtsp 554
fixup protocol smtp 25
fixup protocol snmp 161-162
fixup protocol sqlnet 1521
fixup protocol sip 5060
fixup protocol skinny 2000
names
access-list inside_outbound_nat0_acl permit ip 10.1.3.0 255.255.255.0 10.1.2.0
access-list inside_outbound_nat0_acl permit ip any any
access-list outside_cryptomap_20 permit ip 10.1.3.0 255.255.255.0 10.1.2.0 255.
access-list outside_cryptomap_40 permit ip any any
access-list 101 permit ip any any
pager lines 24
logging on
interface ethernet0 10baset
interface ethernet1 100full
interface ethernet2 100full shutdown
icmp permit any outside
icmp permit any inside
mtu outside 1500
mtu inside 1500
mtu intf2 1500
ip address outside 172.23.59.230 255.255.0.0 pppoe
ip address inside 10.1.3.1 255.255.255.0
ip address intf2 127.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
multicast interface inside
ip audit info action alarm
ip audit attack action alarm
no failover
failover timeout 0:00:00
failover poll 15
failover ip address outside 0.0.0.0
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-37
Chapter 8
S Commands
show running-config
failover ip address inside 0.0.0.0
failover ip address intf2 0.0.0.0
pdm location 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.255 outside
pdm location 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 outside
pdm logging alerts 100
pdm history enable
arp timeout 14400
global (inside) 6 192.168.1.2-192.168.1.3
global (inside) 3 192.168.4.1
nat (inside) 0 access-list inside_outbound_nat0_acl
access-group 101 in interface outside
route outside 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 172.23.59.225 1
timeout xlate 3:00:00
timeout conn 1:00:00 half-closed 0:10:00 udp 0:02:00 rpc 0:10:00 h323 0:05:00 s0
timeout uauth 0:05:00 absolute
aaa-server TACACS+ protocol tacacs+
aaa-server RADIUS protocol radius
aaa-server LOCAL protocol local
http server enable
http 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 outside
no snmp-server location
no snmp-server contact
snmp-server community public
no snmp-server enable traps
floodguard enable
sysopt connection permit-ipsec
crypto ipsec transform-set ESP-DES-SHA esp-des esp-sha-hmac
crypto map outside_map 20 ipsec-isakmp
crypto map outside_map 20 match address outside_cryptomap_20
crypto map outside_map 20 set peer 172.23.59.231
crypto map outside_map 20 set transform-set ESP-DES-SHA
crypto map outside_map 40 ipsec-isakmp
crypto map outside_map 40 match address outside_cryptomap_40
crypto map outside_map 40 set peer 123.5.5.5
isakmp key ******** address 172.23.59.231 netmask 255.255.255.255 no-xauth no-c
isakmp peer fqdn no-xauth no-config-mode
isakmp policy 20 authentication pre-share
isakmp policy 20 encryption des
isakmp policy 20 hash sha
isakmp policy 20 group 2
isakmp policy 20 lifetime 86400
isakmp policy 40 authentication rsa-sig
isakmp policy 40 encryption 3des
isakmp policy 40 hash sha
isakmp policy 40 group 2
isakmp policy 40 lifetime 86400
telnet timeout 5
ssh timeout 5
console timeout 10
dhcprelay timeout 60
terminal width 80
Cryptochecksum:4d600490f46b5d335c0fbf2eda0015a2
: end
Note
A configuration error at bootup will cause the cryptochecksum to display all zeros. Perform the write
memory command, then the show running-config command again to diplay the proper checksum.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-38
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show startup-config
show startup-config
Display the PIX Firewall startup configuration.
show startup-config
Syntax Description
startup-config
Command Modes
Privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The show startup-config command displays the startup configuration of the PIX Firewall. The keyword
startup-config is used to match the Cisco IOS software command. The show startup-config command
output is the same as the pre-existing PIX Firewall show configure command. The show startup-config
command is not needed for PDM but is provided for compatibility with Cisco IOS software.
The configuration present at startup on the PIX Firewall.
The startup-config keyword can be used only in the show startup-config command. It cannot be used
with no or clear, or as a standalone command. If it is, the CLI treats it as a non-supported command.
Also, for this reason, when ?, no ?, or clear ? are entered, a startup-config option is not listed in the
command list.
Examples
The following is sample output from the show startup-config command:
pixfirewall# show startup-config
: Saved
: Written by enable_15 at 17:14:09.092 UTC Tue Apr 9 2002
PIX Version 6.2(0)227
nameif ethernet0 outside security0
nameif ethernet1 inside security100
nameif ethernet2 intf2 security10
enable password 8Ry2YjIyt7RRXU24 encrypted
passwd 2KFQnbNIdI.2KYOU encrypted
hostname pixdoc515
domain-name cisco.com
fixup protocol ftp 21
fixup protocol http 80
fixup protocol h323 h225 1720
fixup protocol h323 ras 1718-1719
fixup protocol ils 389
fixup protocol rsh 514
fixup protocol rtsp 554
fixup protocol smtp 25
fixup protocol sqlnet 1521
fixup protocol sip 5060
fixup protocol skinny 2000
names
access-list inside_outbound_nat0_acl permit ip 10.1.3.0 255.255.255.0 10.1.2.0
access-list inside_outbound_nat0_acl permit ip any any
access-list outside_cryptomap_20 permit ip 10.1.3.0 255.255.255.0 10.1.2.0 255.
access-list outside_cryptomap_40 permit ip any any
access-list 101 permit ip any any
pager lines 24
logging on
interface ethernet0 10baset
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-39
Chapter 8
S Commands
show startup-config
interface ethernet1 100full
interface ethernet2 100full shutdown
icmp permit any outside
icmp permit any inside
mtu outside 1500
mtu inside 1500
mtu intf2 1500
ip address outside 172.23.59.230 255.255.0.0 pppoe
ip address inside 10.1.3.1 255.255.255.0
ip address intf2 127.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
multicast interface inside
ip audit info action alarm
ip audit attack action alarm
no failover
failover timeout 0:00:00
failover poll 15
failover ip address outside 0.0.0.0
failover ip address inside 0.0.0.0
failover ip address intf2 0.0.0.0
pdm location 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.255 outside
pdm location 10.1.2.0 255.255.255.0 outside
pdm logging alerts 100
pdm history enable
arp timeout 14400
global (inside) 6 192.168.1.2-192.168.1.3
global (inside) 3 192.168.4.1
nat (inside) 0 access-list inside_outbound_nat0_acl
access-group 101 in interface outside
route outside 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 172.23.59.225 1
timeout xlate 3:00:00
timeout conn 1:00:00 half-closed 0:10:00 udp 0:02:00 rpc 0:10:00 h323 0:05:00 s0
timeout uauth 0:05:00 absolute
aaa-server TACACS+ protocol tacacs+
aaa-server RADIUS protocol radius
aaa-server LOCAL protocol local
http server enable
http 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 outside
no snmp-server location
no snmp-server contact
snmp-server community public
no snmp-server enable traps
floodguard enable
sysopt connection permit-ipsec
crypto ipsec transform-set ESP-DES-SHA esp-des esp-sha-hmac
crypto map outside_map 20 ipsec-isakmp
crypto map outside_map 20 match address outside_cryptomap_20
crypto map outside_map 20 set peer 172.23.59.231
crypto map outside_map 20 set transform-set ESP-DES-SHA
crypto map outside_map 40 ipsec-isakmp
crypto map outside_map 40 match address outside_cryptomap_40
crypto map outside_map 40 set peer 123.5.5.5
isakmp key ******** address 172.23.59.231 netmask 255.255.255.255 no-xauth no-c
isakmp peer fqdn no-xauth no-config-mode
isakmp policy 20 authentication pre-share
isakmp policy 20 encryption des
isakmp policy 20 hash sha
isakmp policy 20 group 2
isakmp policy 20 lifetime 86400
isakmp policy 40 authentication rsa-sig
isakmp policy 40 encryption 3des
isakmp policy 40 hash sha
isakmp policy 40 group 2
isakmp policy 40 lifetime 86400
telnet timeout 5
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-40
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show startup-config
ssh timeout 5
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-41
Chapter 8
S Commands
show tech-support
show tech-support
View information to help a support analyst.
show tech-support [no-config]
Syntax Description
no-config
Excludes the output of the running configuration.
tech-support
The data used for diagnosis by technical support analysts.
Command Modes
Privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The show tech-support command lists information that technical support analysts need to help you
diagnose PIX Firewall problems. This command combines the output from the show commands that
provide the most information to a technical support analyst.
Examples
The following is sample output from the show tech-support no-config command, which excludes the
running configuration:
pixfirewall(config)# show tech-support no-config
Cisco PIX Firewall Version 6.3(1)
Cisco PIX Device Manager Version 2.1(1)
Compiled on Fri 15-Nov-02 14:35 by root
pixfirewall up 2 days 8 hours
Hardware:
PIX-515, 64 MB RAM, CPU Pentium 200 MHz
Flash i28F640J5 @ 0x300, 16MB
BIOS Flash AT29C257 @ 0xfffd8000, 32KB
0: ethernet0: address is 0003.e300.73fd, irq 10
1: ethernet1: address is 0003.e300.73fe, irq 7
2: ethernet2: address is 00d0.b7c8.139e, irq 9
Licensed Features:
Failover:
Disabled
VPN-DES:
Enabled
VPN-3DES-AES:
Disabled
Maximum Interfaces: 3
Cut-through Proxy: Enabled
Guards:
Enabled
URL-filtering:
Enabled
Inside Hosts:
Unlimited
Throughput:
Unlimited
IKE peers:
Unlimited
This PIX has a Restricted (R) license.
Serial Number: 480430455 (0x1ca2c977)
Running Activation Key: 0xc2e94182 0xc21d8206 0x15353200 0x633f6734
Configuration last modified by enable_15 at 23:05:24.264 UTC Sat Nov 16 2002
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-42
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show tech-support
------------------ show clock -----------------00:08:14.911 UTC Sun Nov 17 2002
------------------ show memory -----------------Free memory:
Used memory:
------------Total memory:
50708168 bytes
16400696 bytes
---------------67108864 bytes
------------------ show conn count -----------------0 in use, 0 most used
------------------ show xlate count -----------------0 in use, 0 most used
------------------ show blocks -----------------SIZE
4
80
256
1550
MAX
1600
400
500
1188
LOW
1600
400
499
795
CNT
1600
400
500
919
------------------ show interface -----------------interface ethernet0 "outside" is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is i82559 ethernet, address is 0003.e300.73fd
IP address 172.23.59.232, subnet mask 255.255.0.0
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit half duplex
1267 packets input, 185042 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 1248 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
20 packets output, 1352 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 babbles, 0 late collisions, 9 deferred
0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier
input queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (13/128) software (0/2)
output queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (0/1) software (0/1)
interface ethernet1 "inside" is up, line protocol is down
Hardware is i82559 ethernet, address is 0003.e300.73fe
IP address 10.1.1.1, subnet mask 255.255.255.0
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit half duplex
0 packets input, 0 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
1 packets output, 60 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 babbles, 0 late collisions, 0 deferred
1 lost carrier, 0 no carrier
input queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (128/128) software (0/0)
output queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (0/1) software (0/1)
interface ethernet2 "intf2" is administratively down, line protocol is down
Hardware is i82559 ethernet, address is 00d0.b7c8.139e
IP address 127.0.0.1, subnet mask 255.255.255.255
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit half duplex
0 packets input, 0 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
0 packets output, 0 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-43
Chapter 8
S Commands
show tech-support
0 babbles, 0 late collisions, 0 deferred
0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier
input queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (128/128) software (0/0)
output queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (0/0) software (0/0)
------------------ show cpu usage -----------------CPU utilization for 5 seconds = 0%; 1 minute: 0%; 5 minutes: 0%
------------------ show process ------------------
Hsi
Lsi
Lwe
Lwe
Hwe
Hwe
Lsi
Lsi
Mwe
Lsi
Hsi
Hwe
Lsi
Hwe
Mwe
Hwe
Mwe
Lwe
Lwe
Hwe
Hwe
Hwe
H*
Csi
Hwe
Hwe
Hwe
Hsi
Crd
Lsi
Hwe
Cwe
Hwe
Hwe
Hwe
Hwe
Cwe
Hwe
Hwe
Hwe
Hwe
Cwe
Hwe
Hwe
Hwe
Hwe
Mwe
PC
001e3329
001e80e9
00117e3a
003cee95
003d2d18
003d2c91
002ec97d
002ec88b
002e3a17
00423dd5
002d59fc
0020e301
002d377c
0020bd07
00205e25
003864e3
00255a65
002e450e
002e471e
001e5368
001e5368
001e5368
0011d7f7
002dd8ab
002cb4d1
003d17d1
003e71d4
001db3ca
001db37f
001db435
001e5398
001dcdad
001e5398
001e5398
001e5398
001e5398
001dcdad
001e5398
001e5398
001e5398
001e5398
001e542d
001e5398
001e5398
001e5398
003d1a65
0035cafa
SP
00763e7c
00807074
009dc2e4
009de464
009e155c
009e360c
00b1a464
00b1b504
00c8f8d4
00d3a22c
00d3b2bc
00d5957c
00d7292c
00d9c12c
00d9e1ec
00db26bc
00dc9244
00e7bb94
00e7cc44
00e7ed44
00e80e14
00e82ee4
0009ff2c
00e8a124
00f2bfbc
00f2e0bc
00f2f20c
00f30fc4
00f32084
00f33124
00f441dc
00f4523c
00f4633c
00f47404
00f4849c
00f495bc
00f4a61c
00f4b71c
00f4c7e4
00f4d87c
00f4e99c
00f4fa6c
00f50afc
00f51bc4
00f52c5c
00f78284
00f7a63c
STATE
0053e5c8
0053e5c8
00541d18
00537718
005379c8
005379c8
0053e5c8
0053e5c8
0053e5c8
0053e5c8
0053e5c8
0053e5c8
0053e5c8
0050bb90
0053e5c8
00557920
0053e5c8
00552c30
00553368
00730674
007305d4
00730534
0053e5b0
0053e5c8
0051e360
00828cf0
00537d20
0053e5c8
0053ea40
0053e5c8
008121e0
00872b48
008121bc
00812198
00812174
00812150
008ea850
0081212c
00812108
008120e4
008120c0
00730534
0081209c
00812078
00812054
008140f8
0053e5c8
Runtime
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2470
780
0
0
0
0
0
121094970
0
0
20
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SBASE
00762ef4
008060fc
009db46c
009dc51c
009df5e4
009e1694
00b194dc
00b1a58c
00c8d93c
00d392a4
00d3a354
00d55614
00d719a4
00d9b1c4
00d9c274
00db0764
00dc8adc
00e7ad1c
00e7bdcc
00e7ce9c
00e7ef6c
00e8103c
00e8511c
00e891cc
00f2a134
00f2c1e4
00f2e294
00f3004c
00f310fc
00f321ac
00f43294
00f44344
00f453f4
00f464cc
00f475a4
00f48674
00f49724
00f4a7d4
00f4b8ac
00f4c984
00f4da54
00f4eb04
00f4fbb4
00f50c8c
00f51d64
00f77fdc
00f786c4
Stack Process
3784/4096 arp_timer
3832/4096 FragDBGC
3704/4096 dbgtrace
8008/8192 Logger
8008/8192 tcp_fast
8008/8192 tcp_slow
3928/4096 xlate clean
3888/4096 uxlate clean
7908/8192 tcp_intercept_times
3900/4096 route_process
3780/4096 PIX Garbage Collecr
16048/16384 isakmp_time_keepr
3928/4096 perfmon
3944/4096 IPSec
7860/8192 IPsec timer handler
6952/8192 qos_metric_daemon
1436/2048 IP Background
3704/4096 pix/trace
3704/4096 pix/tconsole
7228/8192 pix/intf0
7228/8192 pix/intf1
4892/8192 pix/intf2
13004/16384 ci/console
3396/4096 update_cpu_usage
7692/8192 uauth_in
7896/8192 uauth_thread
3960/4096 udp_timer
3784/4096 557mcfix
3744/4096 557poll
3700/4096 557timer
3912/4096 fover_ip0
3528/4096 ip/0:0
3532/4096 icmp0
3896/4096 udp_thread/0
3832/4096 tcp_thread/0
3912/4096 fover_ip1
3832/4096 ip/1:1
3912/4096 icmp1
3896/4096 udp_thread/1
3832/4096 tcp_thread/1
3912/4096 fover_ip2
3944/4096 ip/2:2
3912/4096 icmp2
3896/4096 udp_thread/2
3832/4096 tcp_thread/2
300/1024 listen/http1
7640/8192 Crypto CA
------------------ show failover -----------------No license for Failover
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-44
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show tech-support
------------------ show traffic -----------------outside:
received (in 205213.390 secs):
1267 packets
185042 bytes
0 pkts/sec
0 bytes/sec
transmitted (in 205213.390 secs):
20 packets
1352 bytes
0 pkts/sec
0 bytes/sec
inside:
received (in 205215.800 secs):
0 packets
0 bytes
0 pkts/sec
0 bytes/sec
transmitted (in 205215.800 secs):
1 packets
60 bytes
0 pkts/sec
0 bytes/sec
intf2:
received (in 205215.810 secs):
0 packets
0 bytes
0 pkts/sec
0 bytes/sec
transmitted (in 205215.810 secs):
0 packets
0 bytes
0 pkts/sec
0 bytes/sec
------------------ show perfmon ------------------
PERFMON STATS:
Xlates
Connections
TCP Conns
UDP Conns
URL Access
URL Server Req
TCP Fixup
TCPIntercept
HTTP Fixup
FTP Fixup
AAA Authen
AAA Author
AAA Account
Current
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
Average
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
The following is sample output from the show tech-support command, which includes the running
configuration:
pixfirewall(config)# show tech-support
Cisco PIX Firewall Version 6.3(1)
Cisco PIX Device Manager Version 2.1(1)
Compiled on Fri 15-Nov-02 14:35 by root
pixfirewall up 2 days 9 hours
Hardware:
PIX-515, 64 MB RAM, CPU Pentium 200 MHz
Flash i28F640J5 @ 0x300, 16MB
BIOS Flash AT29C257 @ 0xfffd8000, 32KB
0: ethernet0: address is 0003.e300.73fd, irq 10
1: ethernet1: address is 0003.e300.73fe, irq 7
2: ethernet2: address is 00d0.b7c8.139e, irq 9
Licensed Features:
Failover:
Disabled
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-45
Chapter 8
S Commands
show tech-support
VPN-DES:
VPN-3DES-AES:
Maximum Interfaces:
Cut-through Proxy:
Guards:
URL-filtering:
Inside Hosts:
Throughput:
IKE peers:
Enabled
Disabled
3
Enabled
Enabled
Enabled
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
This PIX has a Restricted (R) license.
Serial Number: 480430455 (0x1ca2c977)
Running Activation Key: 0xc2e94182 0xc21d8206 0x15353200 0x633f6734
Configuration last modified by enable_15 at 23:05:24.264 UTC Sat Nov 16 2002
------------------ show clock -----------------00:08:39.591 UTC Sun Nov 17 2002
------------------ show memory -----------------Free memory:
Used memory:
------------Total memory:
50708168 bytes
16400696 bytes
---------------67108864 bytes
------------------ show conn count -----------------0 in use, 0 most used
------------------ show xlate count -----------------0 in use, 0 most used
------------------ show blocks -----------------SIZE
4
80
256
1550
MAX
1600
400
500
1188
LOW
1600
400
499
795
CNT
1600
400
500
919
------------------ show interface -----------------interface ethernet0 "outside" is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is i82559 ethernet, address is 0003.e300.73fd
IP address 172.23.59.232, subnet mask 255.255.0.0
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit half duplex
1267 packets input, 185042 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 1248 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
20 packets output, 1352 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 babbles, 0 late collisions, 9 deferred
0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier
input queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (13/128) software (0/2)
output queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (0/1) software (0/1)
interface ethernet1 "inside" is up, line protocol is down
Hardware is i82559 ethernet, address is 0003.e300.73fe
IP address 10.1.1.1, subnet mask 255.255.255.0
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit half duplex
0 packets input, 0 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-46
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show tech-support
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
1 packets output, 60 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 babbles, 0 late collisions, 0 deferred
1 lost carrier, 0 no carrier
input queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (128/128) software (0/0)
output queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (0/1) software (0/1)
interface ethernet2 "intf2" is administratively down, line protocol is down
Hardware is i82559 ethernet, address is 00d0.b7c8.139e
IP address 127.0.0.1, subnet mask 255.255.255.255
MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit half duplex
0 packets input, 0 bytes, 0 no buffer
Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants
0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort
0 packets output, 0 bytes, 0 underruns
0 output errors, 0 collisions, 0 interface resets
0 babbles, 0 late collisions, 0 deferred
0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier
input queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (128/128) software (0/0)
output queue (curr/max blocks): hardware (0/0) software (0/0)
------------------ show cpu usage -----------------CPU utilization for 5 seconds = 0%; 1 minute: 0%; 5 minutes: 0%
------------------ show process ------------------
Hsi
Lsi
Lwe
Lwe
Hwe
Hwe
Lsi
Lsi
Mwe
Lsi
Hsi
Hwe
Lsi
Hwe
Mwe
Hwe
Mwe
Lwe
Lwe
Hwe
Hwe
Hwe
H*
Csi
Hwe
Hwe
Hwe
Hsi
Crd
Lsi
Hwe
Cwe
Hwe
Hwe
Hwe
PC
001e3329
001e80e9
00117e3a
003cee95
003d2d18
003d2c91
002ec97d
002ec88b
002e3a17
00423dd5
002d59fc
0020e301
002d377c
0020bd07
00205e25
003864e3
00255a65
002e450e
002e471e
001e5368
001e5368
001e5368
0011d7f7
002dd8ab
002cb4d1
003d17d1
003e71d4
001db3ca
001db37f
001db435
001e5398
001dcdad
001e5398
001e5398
001e5398
SP
00763e7c
00807074
009dc2e4
009de464
009e155c
009e360c
00b1a464
00b1b504
00c8f8d4
00d3a22c
00d3b2bc
00d5957c
00d7292c
00d9c12c
00d9e1ec
00db26bc
00dc9244
00e7bb94
00e7cc44
00e7ed44
00e80e14
00e82ee4
0009ff2c
00e8a124
00f2bfbc
00f2e0bc
00f2f20c
00f30fc4
00f32084
00f33124
00f441dc
00f4523c
00f4633c
00f47404
00f4849c
STATE
0053e5c8
0053e5c8
00541d18
00537718
005379c8
005379c8
0053e5c8
0053e5c8
0053e5c8
0053e5c8
0053e5c8
0053e5c8
0053e5c8
0050bb90
0053e5c8
00557920
0053e5c8
00552c30
00553368
00730674
007305d4
00730534
0053e5b0
0053e5c8
0051e360
00828cf0
00537d20
0053e5c8
0053ea40
0053e5c8
008121e0
00872b48
008121bc
00812198
00812174
Runtime
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2470
950
0
0
0
0
0
121109610
0
0
20
0
0
0
SBASE
00762ef4
008060fc
009db46c
009dc51c
009df5e4
009e1694
00b194dc
00b1a58c
00c8d93c
00d392a4
00d3a354
00d55614
00d719a4
00d9b1c4
00d9c274
00db0764
00dc8adc
00e7ad1c
00e7bdcc
00e7ce9c
00e7ef6c
00e8103c
00e8511c
00e891cc
00f2a134
00f2c1e4
00f2e294
00f3004c
00f310fc
00f321ac
00f43294
00f44344
00f453f4
00f464cc
00f475a4
Stack Process
3784/4096 arp_timer
3832/4096 FragDBGC
3704/4096 dbgtrace
8008/8192 Logger
8008/8192 tcp_fast
8008/8192 tcp_slow
3928/4096 xlate clean
3888/4096 uxlate clean
7908/8192 tcp_intercept_times
3900/4096 route_process
3780/4096 PIX Garbage Collecr
16048/16384 isakmp_time_keepr
3928/4096 perfmon
3944/4096 IPSec
7860/8192 IPsec timer handler
6952/8192 qos_metric_daemon
1436/2048 IP Background
3704/4096 pix/trace
3704/4096 pix/tconsole
7228/8192 pix/intf0
7228/8192 pix/intf1
4892/8192 pix/intf2
13004/16384 ci/console
3396/4096 update_cpu_usage
7692/8192 uauth_in
7896/8192 uauth_thread
3960/4096 udp_timer
3784/4096 557mcfix
3744/4096 557poll
3700/4096 557timer
3912/4096 fover_ip0
3528/4096 ip/0:0
3532/4096 icmp0
3896/4096 udp_thread/0
3832/4096 tcp_thread/0
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-47
Chapter 8
S Commands
show tech-support
Hwe
Cwe
Hwe
Hwe
Hwe
Hwe
Cwe
Hwe
Hwe
Hwe
Hwe
Mwe
001e5398
001dcdad
001e5398
001e5398
001e5398
001e5398
001e542d
001e5398
001e5398
001e5398
003d1a65
0035cafa
00f495bc
00f4a61c
00f4b71c
00f4c7e4
00f4d87c
00f4e99c
00f4fa6c
00f50afc
00f51bc4
00f52c5c
00f78284
00f7a63c
00812150
008ea850
0081212c
00812108
008120e4
008120c0
00730534
0081209c
00812078
00812054
008140f8
0053e5c8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
00f48674
00f49724
00f4a7d4
00f4b8ac
00f4c984
00f4da54
00f4eb04
00f4fbb4
00f50c8c
00f51d64
00f77fdc
00f786c4
3912/4096
3832/4096
3912/4096
3896/4096
3832/4096
3912/4096
3944/4096
3912/4096
3896/4096
3832/4096
300/1024
7640/8192
fover_ip1
ip/1:1
icmp1
udp_thread/1
tcp_thread/1
fover_ip2
ip/2:2
icmp2
udp_thread/2
tcp_thread/2
listen/http1
Crypto CA
------------------ show failover -----------------No license for Failover
------------------ show traffic -----------------outside:
received (in 205238.740 secs):
1267 packets
185042 bytes
0 pkts/sec
0 bytes/sec
transmitted (in 205238.740 secs):
20 packets
1352 bytes
0 pkts/sec
0 bytes/sec
inside:
received (in 205242.200 secs):
0 packets
0 bytes
0 pkts/sec
0 bytes/sec
transmitted (in 205242.200 secs):
1 packets
60 bytes
0 pkts/sec
0 bytes/sec
intf2:
received (in 205242.200 secs):
0 packets
0 bytes
0 pkts/sec
0 bytes/sec
transmitted (in 205242.200 secs):
0 packets
0 bytes
0 pkts/sec
0 bytes/sec
------------------ show perfmon ------------------
PERFMON STATS:
Xlates
Connections
TCP Conns
UDP Conns
URL Access
URL Server Req
TCP Fixup
TCPIntercept
HTTP Fixup
FTP Fixup
AAA Authen
AAA Author
AAA Account
Current
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
Average
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
0/s
------------------ show running-config -----------------: Saved
:
PIX Version 6.3(1)
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-48
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show tech-support
interface ethernet0 auto
interface ethernet1 auto
interface ethernet2 auto shutdown
nameif ethernet0 outside security0
nameif ethernet1 inside security100
nameif ethernet2 intf2 security10
enable password 8Ry2YjIyt7RRXU24 encrypted
passwd 2KFQnbNIdI.2KYOU encrypted
hostname pixfirewall
domain-name cisco.com
fixup protocol ftp 21
fixup protocol http 80
fixup protocol h323 h225 1720
fixup protocol h323 ras 1718-1719
fixup protocol ils 389
fixup protocol rsh 514
fixup protocol rtsp 554
fixup protocol smtp 25
fixup protocol sqlnet 1521
fixup protocol sip 5060
fixup protocol skinny 2000
fixup protocol sip udp 5060
names
access-list 101 permit tcp any host 10.1.1.3 eq www
access-list 101 permit tcp any host 10.1.1.3 eq smtp
pager lines 24
mtu outside 1500
mtu inside 1500
mtu intf2 1500
ip address outside 172.23.59.232 255.255.0.0
ip address inside 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
ip address intf2 127.0.0.1 255.255.255.255
ip audit info action alarm
ip audit attack action alarm
pdm history enable
arp timeout 14400
global (outside) 1 interface
nat (inside) 1 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0 0
route-map maptag1 permit 8
set metric 5
set metric-type type-2
match metric 5
route outside 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 172.23.59.225 1
timeout xlate 3:00:00
timeout conn 1:00:00 half-closed 0:10:00 udp 0:02:00 rpc 0:10:00 h225 1:00:00
timeout h323 0:05:00 mgcp 0:05:00 sip 0:30:00 sip_media 0:02:00
timeout uauth 0:05:00 absolute
aaa-server TACACS+ protocol tacacs+
aaa-server RADIUS protocol radius
aaa-server LOCAL protocol local
http server enable
http 10.1.1.2 255.255.255.255 inside
no snmp-server location
no snmp-server contact
snmp-server community public
no snmp-server enable traps
floodguard enable
telnet timeout 5
ssh timeout 5
console timeout 0
terminal width 80
banner exec working...
banner motd Haveagoodday
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-49
Chapter 8
S Commands
show tcpstat
Cryptochecksum:00000000000000000000000000000000
: end
show tcpstat
Displays the status of the firewall TCP stack and the TCP connections terminated on the firewall (for
debugging).
show tcpstat
Syntax Description
tcpstat
Defaults
None.
Command Modes
The show tcpstat command is available in privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The show tcpstat command displays the status of the TCP stack and TCP connections terminated on the
firewall. The TCP statistics displayed are described in Table 8-4:
Table 8-4
TCP connection statistics.
TCP Statistics in the show tcpstat Command
Statistic
Description
tcb_cnt
The number of TCP users.
proxy_cnt
The number of TCP proxies. TCP proxies are used by user
authorization.
tcp_xmt pkts
The number of packets that were transmitted by the TCP
stack.
tcp_rcv good pkts
The number of good packets that were received by the TCP
stack.
tcp_rcv drop pkts
The number of received packets that the TCP stack dropped.
tcp bad chksum
The number of received packets that had a bad checksum.
tcp user hash add
The number of TCP users that were added to the hash table.
tcp user hash add dup
The number of times a TCP user was already in the hash table
when trying to add a new user.
tcp user srch hash hit
The number of times a TCP user was found in the hash table
when searching.
tcp user srch hash miss
The number of times a TCP user was not found in the hash
table when searching.
tcp user hash delete
The number of times a TCP user was deleted from the hash
table.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-50
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show tcpstat
Table 8-4
TCP Statistics in the show tcpstat Command (continued)
Statistic
Description
tcp user hash delete miss
The number of times a TCP user was not found in the hash
table when trying to delete the user.
lip
The local IP address of the TCP user.
fip
The foreign IP address of the TCP user.
lp
The local port of the TCP user.
fp
The foreign port of the TCP user.
st
The state (see RFC 793) of the TCP user. The possible values
are as follows:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Examples
CLOSED
LISTEN
SYN_SENT
SYN_RCVD
ESTABLISHED
FIN_WAIT_1
FIN_WAIT_2
CLOSE_WAIT
CLOSING
LAST_ACK
TIME_WAIT
rexqlen
The length of the retransmit queue of the TCP user.
inqlen
The length of the input queue of the TCP user.
tw_timer
The value of the time_wait timer (in milliseconds) of the TCP
user.
to_timer
The value of the inactivity timeout timer (in milliseconds) of
the TCP user.
cl_timer
The value of the close request timer (in milliseconds) of the
TCP user.
per_timer
The value of the persist timer (in milliseconds) of the TCP
user.
rt_timer
The value of the retransmit timer (in milliseconds) of the TCP
user.
tries
The retransmit count of the TCP user.
The following example shows the output from the show tcpstat command:
pixfirewall(config)# show tcpstat
CURRENT MAX
TOTAL
tcb_cnt
2
12
320
proxy_cnt
0
0
160
tcp_xmt pkts = 540591
tcp_rcv good pkts = 6583
tcp_rcv drop pkts = 2
tcp bad chksum = 0
tcp user hash add = 2028
tcp user hash add dup = 0
tcp user srch hash hit = 316753
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-51
Chapter 8
S Commands
show traffic/clear traffic
tcp user srch hash miss = 6663
tcp user hash delete = 2027
tcp user hash delete miss = 0
lip = 172.23.59.230 fip = 10.21.96.254 lp = 443 fp = 2567 st
= 4 rexqlen = 0
in0
tw_timer = 0 to_timer = 179000 cl_timer = 0 per_timer = 0
rt_timer = 0
tries 0
Related Commands
show conn
Displays all active connections.
show traffic/clear traffic
Shows interface transmit and receive activity.
clear traffic
show traffic
Syntax Description
traffic
Command Modes
Privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The show traffic command lists the number of packets and bytes moving through each interface. The
number of seconds is the duration the PIX Firewall has been online since the last reboot. The clear
traffic command clears counters for the show traffic command output.
Examples
The following is sample output from the show traffic command:
The packets and bytes moving through an interface.
show traffic
outside:
received (in 3786 secs):
97 packets
6191 bytes
42 pkts/sec
1 bytes/sec
transmitted (in 3786 secs):
99 packets
10590 bytes
0 pkts/sec
2 bytes/sec
…
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-52
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show uauth/clear uauth
show uauth/clear uauth
Display or delete all authorization caches for a user.
clear uauth [username]
show uauth [username]
Syntax Description
username
Command Modes
Privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The show uauth command displays one or all currently authenticated users, the host IP to which they
are bound, and, if applicable, any cached IP and port authorization information.
Clear or view user authentication information by username.
The clear uauth command deletes one user’s, or all users, AAA authorization and authentication caches,
which forces the user or users to reauthenticate the next time they create a connection. The show uauth
command also lists CiscoSecure 2.1 and later idletime and timeout values, which can be set for different
user groups.
This command is used in conjunction with the timeout command.
Each user host’s IP address has an authorization cache attached to it. If the user attempts to access a
service that has been cached from the correct host, the firewall considers it preauthorized and
immediately proxies the connection. This means that once you are authorized to access a website, for
example, the authorization server is not contacted for each of the images as they are loaded (assuming
they come from the same IP address). This significantly increases performance and reduces load on the
authorization server.
The cache allows up to 16 address and service pairs for each user host.
The output from the show uauth command displays the username provided to the authorization server
for authentication and authorization purposes, the IP address that the username is bound to, and whether
the user is authenticated only, or has cached services.
Note
Normally, when Xauth is enabled, an entry is added to the uauth table (as shown by the show
uauth/clear uauth command) for the IP address assigned to the client. However, when using Xauth with
the Easy VPN Remote feature in Network Extension Mode, the IPSec tunnel is created from
network-to-network, so the users behind the firewall cannot be associated with a single IP address. For
this reason, a uauth entry cannot be created upon completion of Xauth. If AAA authorization or
accounting services are required, you can enable the AAA authentication proxy to authenticate users
behind the firewall. For more information on AAA authentication proxies, please refer to the aaa
commands.
Use the timeout uauth command to specify how long the cache should be kept after the user connections
become idle. Use the clear uauth command to delete all authorization caches for all users, which will
cause them to have to reauthenticate the next time they create a connection.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-53
Chapter 8
S Commands
show version
Examples
The following is sample output from the show uauth command when no users are authenticated and one
user authentication is in progress:
pixfirewall(config)# show uauth
Current
Authenticated Users
0
Authen In Progress
0
Most Seen
0
1
The following is sample output from the show uauth command when three users are authenticated and
authorized to use services through the PIX Firewall:
pixfirewall(config)# show uauth
user ‘pat’ from 209.165.201.2 authenticated
user ‘robin’ from 209.165.201.4 authorized to:
port 192.168.67.34/telnet
192.168.67.11/http
192.168.67.56/tcp/25
192.168.67.42/ftp
user ‘terry’ from 209.165.201.7 authorized to:
port 192.168.1.50/http
209.165.201.8/http
192.168.67.33/tcp/8001
In this example, Pat has authenticated with the server but has not completed authorization. Robin has
preauthorized connections to the Telnet, Web (HTTP), sendmail, FTP services, and to TCP port 8001 on
192.168.67.33.
Terry has been browsing the Web and is authorized for Web browsing to the two sites shown.
The next example causes Pat to reauthenticate:
clear uauth pat
Related Commands
aaa authorization
Enable or disable LOCAL or TACACS+ user authorization services.
timeout
Sets the maximum idle times.
show version
View the PIX Firewall operating information.
show version
Syntax Description
version
Command Modes
Unprivileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The show version command displays the PIX Firewall unit’s software version, operating time since last
reboot, processor type, Flash memory type, interface boards, serial number (BIOS ID), activation key
value, license type (R or UR), and timestamp for when the configuration was last modified.
The PIX Firewall software version, hardware configuration, license key, and related
uptime data.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-54
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show version
The serial number listed with the show version command in PIX Firewall software Version 5.3 and
higher is for the Flash memory BIOS. This number is different from the serial number on the chassis.
When you get a software upgrade, you will need the serial number that appears in the show version
command, not the chassis number.
For PIX Firewall software Version 6.3(2) and higher, the show version command shows the maximum
number of physical interfaces as well as the maximum number of logical interfaces for use with VLANs.
For PIX Firewall software Version 6.2 and higher, the show version command output appears as follows:
Running Activation Key: activation-key-four-tuple
to indicate the activation key that is currently running PIX Firewall image.
The amount of Flash memory is indicated at the end of the line showing the version of Flash installed
on the PIX Firewall.
Throughput Limited indicates that the speed of the PIX Firewall interface is limited due to platform or
version restrictions. ISAKMP peers Limited indicates that the number of IPSec peers is limited due to
platform restrictions.
Note
Examples
The uptime value indicates how long a failover set has been running. If one unit stops running, the uptime
value will continue to increase as long as the other unit continues to operate.
The following is sample output from the version command:
pixfirewall(config)# show version
Cisco PIX Firewall Version 6.3(1)
Cisco PIX Device Manager Version 3.0(1)
Compiled on Wed 06-Nov-02 11:22 by root
pixfirewall up 4 days 22 hours
Hardware:
PIX-515E, 64 MB RAM, CPU Pentium 200 MHz
Flash i28F640J5 @ 0x300, 16MB
BIOS Flash AT29C257 @ 0xfffd8000, 32KB
0: ethernet0: address is 0003.e300.73fd, irq 10
1: ethernet1: address is 0003.e300.73fe, irq 7
2: ethernet2: address is 00d0.b7c8.139e, irq 9
Licensed Features:
Failover: Disabled
VPN-DES: Enabled
VPN-3DES-AES:
Disabled
Maximum Physical Interfaces: 6
Maximum Interfaces: 10
Cut-through Proxy: Enabled
Guards:
Enabled
URL-filtering:
Enabled
Inside Hosts:
Unlimited
Throughput:
Unlimited
IKE peers:
Unlimited
This PIX has a Restricted (R) license.
Serial Number: 480430455 (0x1ca2c977)
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-55
Chapter 8
S Commands
show xlate/clear xlate
Running Activation Key: 0xc2e94182 0xc21d8206 0x15353200 0x633f6734
Configuration last modified by enable_15 at 16:36:30.480 UTC Mon Nov 11 2002
Note
The output of the show version command indicates whether the PIX Firewall has a Restricted (R) or
Unrestricted (UR) license. A PIX Firewall with an R license cannot be used in a failover pair, and it has
one half as much RAM as a PIX Firewall of the same platform with a UR license. Also, a PIX Firewall
with an R license supports fewer physical interfaces and fewer logical interfaces (VLANs) than the same
platform with a UR license. The number of interfaces allowed varies by platform.
show xlate/clear xlate
View or clear translation slot information.
clear xlate [global | local ip1[-ip2] [netmask mask]] lport | gport port[-port]]
[interface if1[,if2][,ifn]] [state static [,dump] [,portmap] [,norandomseq] [,identity]]
show xlate [detail] [global | local ip1 [-ip2] [netmask mask]] lport | gport port [-port]]
[interface if1 [,if2] [,ifn]] [state static [,dump] [,portmap] [,norandomseq] [,identity]]
[debug] [count]
Syntax Description
detail
If specified, displays translation type and interface information.
[global | local ip1 [-ip2]
[netmask mask]
Display active translations by global IP address or local IP address
using the network mask to qualify the IP addresses.
interface if1 [,if2] [,ifn]
Display active translations by interface.
lport | gport port [-port]
Display active translations by local and global port specifications. See
“Ports” in Chapter 2, “Using PIX Firewall Commands” for a list of
valid port literal names.
state
Display active translations by state; static translation (static), dump
(cleanup), PAT global (portmap), a nat or static translation with the
norandomseq setting (norandomseq), or the use of the nat 0, identity
feature (identity).
debug
Display translation type and interface information.
count
Display the number of active translations.
Command Modes
Privileged mode.
Usage Guidelines
The clear xlate command clears the contents of the translation slots. (“xlate” means translation slot.)
The show xlate command displays the contents of only the translation slots.
Translation slots can persist after key changes have been made. Always use the clear xlate command
after adding, changing, or removing the aaa-server, access-list, alias, conduit, global, nat, route, or
static commands in your configuration.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-56
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
show xlate/clear xlate
Note
When the vpnclient configuration is enabled and the inside host is sending out DNS requests, the show
xlate command may list multiple xlates for a static translation.
The show xlate detail command displays the following information:
{ICMP|TCP|UDP} PAT from interface:real-address/real-port to interface
[acl-name]:mapped-address/mapped-port flags translation-flags
NAT from interface:real-address/real-port to interface [acl-name]:mapped-address/mapped-port
flags translation-flags
The translation flags are defined in Table 8-5.
Table 8-5
Flag
Examples
Translation Flags
Description
s
static translation slot
d
dump translation slot on next cleaning cycle
r
portmap translation (Port Address Translation)
n
no randomization of TCP sequence number
o
outside address translation
i
inside address translation
D
DNS A RR rewrite
I
identity translation from nat 0
The following is sample output from the show xlate command with three active Port Address
Translations (PATs):
pixfirewall(config)# show xlate
3 in use, 3 most used
PAT Global 192.150.49.1(0) Local 10.1.1.15 ICMP id 340
PAT Global 192.150.49.1(1024) Local 10.1.1.15(1028)
PAT Global 192.150.49.1(1024) Local 10.1.1.15(516)
The following is sample output from the show xlate detail command with three active Port Address
Translations (PATs):
pixfirewall(config)# show xlate detail
3 in use, 3 most used
Flags: D - DNS, d - dump, I - identity, i - inside, n - no random,
o - outside, r - portmap, s - static
TCP PAT from inside:10.1.1.15/1026 to outside:192.150.49.1/1024 flags ri
UDP PAT from inside:10.1.1.15/1028 to outside:192.150.49.1/1024 flags ri
ICMP PAT from inside:10.1.1.15/21505 to outside:192.150.49.1/0 flags ri
The first entry is a TCP Port Address Translation for host-port (10.1.1.15, 1025) on the inside network
to host-port (192.150.49.1, 1024) on the outside network. The flag "r" denotes the translation is a Port
Address Translation. The "i" flags denotes that the translation applies to the inside address-port.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-57
Chapter 8
S Commands
shun
The second entry is a UDP Port Address Translation for host-port (10.1.1.15, 1028) on the inside
network to host-port (192.150.49.1, 1024) on the outside network. The flag "r" denotes the translation
is a Port Address Translation. The "i" flags denotes that the translation applies to the inside address-port.
The third entry is an ICMP Port Address Translation for host-ICMP-id (10.1.1.15, 21505) on the inside
network to host-ICMP-id (192.150.49.1, 0) on the outside network. The flag "r" denotes the translation
is a Port Address Translation. The "i" flags denotes that the translation applies to the inside
address-ICMP-id.
The inside address fields appear as source addresses on packets traversing from the more secure interface
to the less secure interface. Conversely, they appear as destination addresses on packets traversing from
the less secure interface to the more secure interface.
The following is sample output from two static translations, the first with two associated connections
(called “nconns”) and the second with four.
show xlate
Global 209.165.201.10 Local 209.165.201.10 static nconns 1 econns 0
Global 209.165.201.30 Local 209.165.201.30 static nconns 4 econns 0
The following is sample output from the show xlate debug command:
show xlate debug
1 in use, 1 most used
Flags: D - DNS, d - dump, I - identity, i - inside, n - no random,
o - outside, r - portmap, s - static
NAT from inside:8.0.0.2 to outside:11.0.0.254 flags si idle 0:00:06 timeout 3:00:00
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Related Commands
show conn
Display all active connections.
show uauth/clear
uauth
Display or delete all authorization caches for a user.
timeout
Sets the maximum idle times.
shun
The shun command enables a dynamic response to an attacking host by preventing new connections and
disallowing packets from any existing connection.
[no] shun src_ip [dst_ip sport dport [protocol]]
clear shun [statistics]
show shun [src_ip | statistics]
Syntax Description
clear
Disable all shuns currently enabled and clears shun statistics. Specifying
statistics only clears the counters for that interface.
dport
The destination port of the connection causing the shun.
dst_ip
The address of the of the target host.
no
Disable a shun based on src_ip, the actual address used by the PIX Firewall
for shun lookups.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-58
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
sip ip-address-privacy
protocol
The optional IP protocol, such as UDP or TCP.
shun
Enable a blocking function (shun) based on src_ip.
sport
The source port of the connection causing the shun.
src_ip
The address of the attacking host.
statistics
Clear only interface counters.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The shun command applies a blocking function to the interface receiving the attack. Packets containing
the IP source address of the attacking host will be dropped and logged until the blocking function is
removed manually or by the Cisco IDS master unit. No traffic from the IP source address will be allowed
to traverse the PIX Firewall unit and any remaining connections will time out as part of the normal
architecture. The blocking function of the shun command is applied whether or not a connection with
the specified host address is currently active.
If the shun command is used only with the source IP address of the host, then the other defaults will be
0. No further traffic from the offending host will be allowed.
Because the shun command is used to block attacks dynamically, it is not displayed in your PIX Firewall
configuration.
Examples
In the following example, the offending host (10.1.1.27) makes a connection with the victim (10.2.2.89)
with TCP. The connection in the PIX Firewall connection table reads:
10.1.1.27, 555-> 10.2.2.89, 666 PROT TCP
If the shun command is applied in the following way:
shun 10.1.1.27 10.2.2.89 555 666 tcp
The preceding command would delete the connection from the PIX Firewall connection table, and it
would also prevent packets from 10.1.1.27 from going through the PIX Firewall. The offending host can
be inside or outside of the PIX Firewall.
The following is sample output of the show shun command with the shun command applied to the
outside interface:
outside=ON, cnt=4,time=(0:04:13)
The first value indicates if the shun command is applied to the interface, the second value (cnt) indicates
the number of packets that have been dropped since the shun command was applied. The third value
(time) indicates the elapsed time since the shun command was applied to the interface.
sip ip-address-privacy
SIP address privacy provides the ability to hide phone IP addresses from one another. SIP fixup will
retain outside IP addresses in the SIP header and SDP data of inbound packets. By default this command
is turned off. When the command is turned on, SIP fixup will retain outside IP addresses in the SIP
header and SDP data of inbound SIP packets.
sip ip-address privacy
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-59
Chapter 8
S Commands
sip ip-address-privacy
[no] sip ip-address-privacy
Syntax Description
Field Name
Field Description
Via
The phone which originates the call puts in its IP
address in the Via field.
From( if it contains an IP address)
If PAT is configured and this field does not
contain a port, this field is not NATted (in the
outbound direction).
Call-ID ( if it contains an IP address)
If PAT is configured and this field does not
contain a port, this field is not NATted.
o=
This contains the originator's IP address. This is a
best effort in case of PAT. i.e, this field does not
contain a port, so we do a 'best effort ' to PAT it by
checking to see if it matches the connection
address, and if it does, we use the m= port as the
port to do the PAT. The SDP specification
specifies the o= and m= as mandatory parameters
in the SDP portion of the SIP packet. So, in a SIP
packet conforming to the SDP specification, we
will NAT/PAT the o= field with the port from the
m= field (as described above).
·c=
This contains the connection IP address.
·m=
If PAT is configured, the PATted port should be
retained.
Record-route contains IP address.
Note
By default, this feature is not turned on.
Command Modes
Global configuration
Usage Guidelines
The fixup can be enabled or disabled via the [no] sip ip-address privacy command.
Examples
INVITE sip:bob@Proxy SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP A:5060 ===============> A':patport#
From: terry@A =========================> terry@A'
To: robin@Proxy
Call-ID:
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-60
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
snmp deny version
Contact:terry@A =======================> terry@A'
SDP
o=A ==================================> A'
c=IN IP4 A ===========================> A'
m=port# ==============================> patport# (if applicable)
When the Proxy sends the INVITE to B:
INVITE sip:robin@Proxy SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP A':5060 ===========>Has to remain as A':patport#
From: terry@A' =====================>Has to remain as A'
To:robin@Proxy
Call-ID:
Contact:terry@A' ===================>Has to remain as A'
SDP
o=A' =============================>Has to remain as A'
c=IN IP4 A' =======================>Has to remain as A'
m=patport#
Note
Related Commands
When this feature is turned on outside NAT will not work. When a packet from the lower security level
(eg., outside) comes to the higher security level (eg., inside), since we retain the NATted IP addresses in
it and don't send the packet through the NAT engine, outside NAT will not be performed for the inbound
SIP packets.
•
·When this feature is off, regular SIP Fixup will work as it does under PIX 6.3.3
•
·When this feature is turned on with sip ip-address privacy, all messages/responses are inspected and
NATted IP addresses are retained for all relevant fields.
•
· RTP traffic between phones on the same interface must go through the PIX Firewall. Thus,
necessary pinholes for RTP traffic must be opened on the PIX.
show running-config can be used to see if the sip ip-address privacy command is turned on. Debug
messages are available when outside IP addresses are retained in a system message when this feature is
enabled.
snmp deny version
snmp deny version filters out traffic based on the protocol version field in SNMP packets with the
variable <version-string>. To disable, use the no form of this command.
[no] snmp deny version [1 | 2 | 2c | 3]
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-61
Chapter 8
S Commands
snmp-server
Syntax Description
1
Specifies SNMP Version 1.
2
Specifies SNMP Version 2.
2c
Specifies SNMP Version 2c.
3
Specifies SNMP Version 3.
Defaults
No default behavior or values.
Command Modes
Global configuration
Usage Guidelines
The fixup can be enabled or disable via the fixup cmd:
[no] fixup protocol snmp 161-162
Note
Existing connections will retain present fixup configurations fromtheir initial creation.
So, if you toggle the configuration, you need to either:
•
Wait for the connections to time out
•
Manually clear the connections
Use clear xlate or clear local to clear connections for the fixup configuration to take effect.
fixup protocol sqlnet
PIX Firewall uses port 1521 for SQL*Net. This is the default port used by Oracle for SQL*Net; however,
this value does not agree with IANA port assignments.
Examples
The following example filters out SNMP Version 2c traffic:
pix# snmp deny version 2c
Related Commands
fixup protocol snmp
snmp-server
Provide PIX Firewall event information through SNMP.
[no] snmp-server community key
[no] snmp-server {contact | location} text
[no] snmp-server host [if_name] ip_addr [trap | poll]
[no] snmp-server enable traps
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-62
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
snmp-server
clear snmp-server
show snmp-server
Syntax Description
community key
Enter the password key value in use at the SNMP management station. The SNMP
community string is a shared secret among the SNMP management station and the
network nodes being managed. PIX Firewall uses the key to determine if the
incoming SNMP request is valid. For example, you could designate a site with a
community string and then configure the routers, firewall, and the management
station with this same string. The PIX Firewall then honors SNMP requests using
this string and does not respond to requests with an invalid community string.
The key is a case-sensitive value up to 32 characters in length. Spaces are not
permitted. The default is public if key is not set. Consequently, it is important to
specify a (new) value for key for security reasons.
contact text
Supply your name or that of the PIX Firewall system administrator. The text is
case-sensitive and can be up to 127 characters. Spaces are accepted, but multiple
spaces are shortened to a single space.
enable traps
Enable or disable sending log messages as SNMP trap notifications.
host
Specify an IP address of the SNMP management station to which traps should be
sent and/or from which the SNMP requests come. You can specify up to 32 SNMP
management stations.
if_name
The interface name where the SNMP management station resides.
ip_addr
The IP address of a host to which SNMP traps should be sent and/or from which
the SNMP requests come.
location text
Specify your PIX Firewall location. The text is case-sensitive and can be up to 127
characters. Spaces are accepted, but multiple spaces are shortened to a single space.
trap | poll
Specify whether traps, polls, or both are acted upon. Use with these parameters:
•
trap—Only traps will be sent. This host will not be allowed to poll.
•
poll—Traps will not be sent. This host will be allowed to poll.
The default allows both traps and polls to be acted upon.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
Use the snmp-server command to identify site, management station, community string, and user
information.
Note
In the snmp-server community key command, the default value for key is public. Consequently, it is
important to specify a (new) value for key for security reasons.
The clear snmp-server and no snmp-server commands disable the SNMP commands in the
configuration as follows:
no snmp-server location
no snmp-server contact
snmp-server community public
no snmp-server enable traps
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-63
Chapter 8
S Commands
snmp-server
In understanding SNMP use, the PIX Firewall is considered the SNMP agent or SNMP server. The
management station is the system running the SNMP program that receives and processes the SNMP
information that the PIX Firewall sends.
An SNMP object ID (OID) for PIX Firewall displays in SNMP event traps sent from the PIX Firewall.
The OIDs for the PIX Firewall platforms are listed in Table 8-6.
Table 8-6
System OID in PIX Firewall Platforms
PIX Firewall Platform
System OID
PIX 501
.1.3.6.1.4.1.9.1.417
PIX 506
.1.3.6.1.4.1.9.1.389
PIX 506E
.1.3.6.1.4.1.9.1.450
PIX 515
.1.3.6.1.4.1.9.1.390
PIX 515E
.1.3.6.1.4.1.9.1.451
PIX 520
.1.3.6.1.4.1.9.1.391
PIX 525
.1.3.6.1.4.1.9.1.392
PIX 535
.1.3.6.1.4.1.9.1.393
Others
.1.3.6.1.4.1.9.1.227
Use the trap and poll command options to configure hosts to participate only in specific SNMP
activities. Poll responses and traps are sent only to the configured entities. Hosts configured with the
trap command option will have traps sent to them, but will not be allowed to poll. Hosts configured with
the poll command option will be allowed to poll, but will not have traps sent to them. Refer to the Cisco
PIX Firewall and VPN Configuration Guide for more information on how to access and monitor the
PIX Firewall using SNMP traps.
Accessibility to PIX Firewall Management Information Bases (MIBs) is based on configuration, MIB
support, and authentication based on the community string. Unsuccessful polling attempts, except for
failed community string authentication, are not logged or otherwise indicated. Community
authentication failures result in a trap where applicable.
MIB Support
You can browse the System and Interface groups of MIB-II. All SNMP values in the PIX Firewall are
read only (RO). The PIX Firewall does not support browsing of the Cisco syslog MIB.
Browsing a MIB is different from sending traps. Browsing means doing an snmpget or snmpwalk of
the MIB tree from the management station to determine values. Traps are different; they are unsolicited
“comments” from the managed device to the management station for certain events, such as link up, link
down, syslog event generated, and so on.
The Cisco Firewall MIB, Cisco Memory Pool MIB, Cisco Process MIB provide the following
PIX Firewall information through SNMP:
•
Buffer usage from the show block command
•
Connection count from the show conn command
•
CPU usage through the show cpu usage command
•
Failover status
•
Memory usage from the show memory command
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-64
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
snmp-server
Receiving SNMP Requests from an SNMP Management Station
To receive SNMP requests from a management station, perform the following steps:
Step 1
Identify the management station with an snmp-server host command statement.
Step 2
Specify snmp-server command options for the location, contact, and community.
Step 3
Start the SNMP software on the management station and begin issuing SNMP requests to the
PIX Firewall.
Defaults
If you do not specify an option, the snmp-server host command behaves as in previous versions. The
polling is permitted from all configured hosts on the affected interface. Traps are sent to all configured
hosts on the affected interface.
Examples
The following example shows commands you would enter to start receiving SNMP requests from a
management station:
snmp-server
snmp-server
snmp-server
snmp-server
community wallawallabingbang
location Building 42, Sector 54
contact Sherlock Holmes
host perimeter 10.1.2.42
The next example is sample output from the show snmp-server command:
show snmp
snmp-server
snmp-server
snmp-server
snmp-server
host perimeter 10.1.2.42
location Building 42, Sector 54
contact Sherlock Holmes
community wallawallabingbang
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-65
Chapter 8
S Commands
ssh
ssh
Specify a host for PIX Firewall console access through Secure Shell (SSH).
[no] ssh ip_address [netmask] [interface_name]
ssh timeout mm
ssh disconnect session_id
clear ssh
show ssh [sessions [ip_address]]
show ssh timeout
Syntax Description
interface_name
PIX Firewall interface name on which the host or network initiating the SSH
connection resides.
ip_address
IP address of the host or network authorized to initiate an SSH connection to the
PIX Firewall.
mm
The duration in minutes that a session can be idle before being disconnected. The
default duration is 5 minutes. The allowable range is from 1 to 60 minutes.
netmask
Network mask for ip_address. If you do not specify a netmask, the default is
255.255.255.255 regardless of the class of ip_address.
session_id
SSH session ID number, viewable with the show ssh sessions command.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The ssh ip_address command specifies the host or network authorized to initiate an SSH connection to the
PIX Firewall. The ssh timeout command lets you specify the duration in minutes that a session can be idle
before being disconnected. The default duration is 5 minutes. Use the show ssh sessions command to list
all active SSH sessions on the PIX Firewall. The ssh disconnect command lets you disconnect a specific
session you observed from the show ssh sessions command. Use the clear ssh command to remove all
ssh command statements from the configuration. Use the no ssh command to remove selected ssh
command statements from the configuration.
Note
You must generate an RSA key-pair for the PIX Firewall before clients can connect to the PIX Firewall
console. After generating the RSA key-pair, save the key-pair using the ca save all command. To use
SSH, your PIX Firewall must have a DES or 3DES activation key.
To gain access to the PIX Firewall console via SSH, at the SSH client, enter the username as pix and
enter the Telnet password. You can set the Telnet password with the passwd command; the default Telnet
password is cisco. To authenticate using the AAA server instead, configure the aaa authenticate ssh
console command.
SSH permits up to 100 characters in a username and up to 50 characters in a password.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-66
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
ssh
When starting an SSH session, a dot (.) displays on the PIX Firewall console before the SSH user
authentication prompt appears.
The dot appears as follows:
pixfirewall(config)# .
pixfirewall(config)# .
The display of the dot does not affect the functionality of SSH. The dot appears on at the console when
generating a server key or decrypting a message using private keys during SSH key exchange, before
user authentication occurs. These tasks can take up to two minutes or longer. The dot is a progress
indicator that verifies that the PIX Firewall is busy and has not hung.
show ssh sessions Command
The show ssh sessions command provides the following display:
Session ID
0
1
2
Client IP
172.16.25.15
172.16.38.112
172.16.25.11
Version
1.5
1.5
1.5
Encryption
3DES
DES
3DES
State
4
6
4
Username
pix
-
The Session ID is a unique number that identifies an SSH session. The Client IP is the IP address of the
system running an SSH client. The Version lists the protocol version number that the SSH client
supports. The Encryption column lists the type of encryption the SSH client is using. The State column
lists the progress the client is making as it interacts with the PIX Firewall. The Username column lists
the login username that has been authenticated for the session. The "pix" username appears when
non-AAA authentication is used.
The following table lists the SSH states that appear in the State column:
Number
SSH State
0
SSH_CLOSED
1
SSH_OPEN
2
SSH_VERSION_OK
3
SSH_SESSION_KEY_RECEIVED
4
SSH_KEYS_EXCHANGED
5
SSH_AUTHENTICATED
6
SSH_SESSION_OPEN
7
SSH_TERMINATE
8
SSH_SESSION_DISCONNECTING
9
SSH_SESSION_DISCONNECTED
10
SSH_SESSION_CLOSED
SSH Syslog Messages
Syslog messages 315001, 315002, 315003, 315004, 315005, and 315011 were added for SSH. Refer to
Cisco PIX Firewall System Log Messages for more information.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-67
Chapter 8
S Commands
ssh
Obtaining an SSH Client
The following sites let you download an SSH v1.x client. Because SSH Version 1.x and 2 are entirely
different protocols and are not compatible, be sure you download a client that supports SSH v1.x.
•
Windows 3.1, Windows CE, Windows 95, and Windows NT 4.0—download the free Tera Term Pro
SSH v1.x client from the following website:
http://hp.vector.co.jp/authors/VA002416/teraterm.html
The TTSSH security enhancement for Tera Term Pro is available at the following website:
http://www.zip.com.au/~roca/ttssh.html
Note
•
You must download TTSSH to use Tera Term Pro with SSH. TTSSH provides a Zip file you
copy to your system. Extract the zipped files into the same folder that you installed Tera
Term Pro. For a Windows 95 system, by default, this would be the C:\Program Files\Ttempro
folder.
Linux, Solaris, OpenBSD, AIX, IRIX, HP/UX, FreeBSD, and NetBSD—download the SSH v1.x
client from the following website:
http://www.openssh.com
•
Macintosh (international users only)—download the Nifty Telnet 1.1 SSH client from the following
website:
http://www.lysator.liu.se/~jonasw/freeware/niftyssh/
Changed aaa Command for SSH
The aaa command adds the ssh option for use with SSH:
aaa authentication [serial | enable | telnet | ssh] console group_tag
The new ssh option specifies the group of AAA servers to be used for SSH user authentication. The
authentication protocol and AAA server IP addresses are defined with the aaa-server command
statement.
Similar to the Telnet model, if the aaa authentication ssh console group_tag command statement is not
defined, you can gain access to the PIX Firewall console with the username pix and with the PIX Firewall
Telnet password (set with the passwd command). If the aaa command is defined, but the SSH
authentication request times out, this implies that the AAA server may be down or not available. You can
gain access to the PIX Firewall using the username pix and the enable password (set with the enable
password command). By default, the Telnet password is cisco and the enable password is not set. If the
enable password is empty (null), even if you enter the password correctly, you are not granted access to
the SSH session.
The user authentication attempt limit is set to 3. Note that the Linux version of the SSH Version 1 client
available from http://www.openssh.com only allows one user authentication attempt.
Examples
Create an RSA key-pair with a modulus size of 1024 bits (recommended for use with Cisco IOS
software):
hostname cisco-pix
domain-name example.com
ca generate rsa key 1024
show ca mypubkey rsa
ca save all
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-68
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
static
These command statements set the host name and domain name for the PIX Firewall, generate the RSA
key-pair, display the RSA key-pair, and save the RSA key-pair to Flash memory.
Start an SSH session so clients on the outside interface can access the PIX Firewall console remotely
over a secure shell:
ssh 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 outside
ssh timeout 60
Configure the PIX Firewall to perform user authentication using AAA servers. The protocol is the
protocol used by the AAA-server to perform the authentication. The following example uses the
TACACS+ authentication protocol.
aaa-server ssh123 (inside) host 10.1.1.200 mysecure
aaa-server ssh123 protocol tacacs+
aaa authenticate ssh console ssh123
Related Commands
•
aaa accounting
•
ca
•
domain-name
•
hostname
•
password
static
Configure a one-to-one address translation rule by mapping a local IP address to a global IP address, or
a local port to a global port.
[no] static [(local_ifc,global_ifc)] {global_ip | interface} {local_ip [netmask mask] |
access-list acl_name} [dns] [norandomseq] [max_conns [emb_limit]]
[no] static [(local_ifc,global_ifc)] {tcp | udp} {global_ip | interface} global_port
{local_ip local_port [netmask mask] | access-list acl_name} [dns] [norandomseq]
[max_conns [emb_limit]]
show static
Syntax Description
access-list
Lets you identify local traffic for network address translation (NAT) by specifying
the local and destination addresses (or ports). This feature is known as policy NAT.
The subnet mask used in the access list is also used for the global_ip.
You can only include permit statements in the access list.
acl_name
Specifies the access list name.
dns
Rewrites the local address in DNS replies to the global address.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-69
Chapter 8
S Commands
static
emb_limit
Specifies the maximum number of embryonic connections per host. An embryonic
connection is a connection request that has not finished the necessary handshake
between source and destination. Set a small value for slower systems, and a higher
value for faster systems. The default is 0, which means unlimited embryonic
connections.
The embryonic connection limit lets you prevent a type of attack where processes
are started without being completed. When the embryonic limit is surpassed, the
TCP intercept feature intercepts TCP synchronization (SYN) packets from clients
to servers on a higher security level. The software establishes a connection with the
client on behalf of the destination server, and if successful, establishes the
connection with the server on behalf of the client and combines the two
half-connections together transparently. Thus, connection attempts from
unreachable hosts never reach the server. The PIX firewall accomplishes TCP
intercept functionality using SYN cookies.
Note
This option does not apply to outside NAT. The TCP intercept feature
applies only to hosts or servers on a higher security level. If you set the
embryonic limit for outside NAT, the embryonic limit is ignored.
global_ifc
Specifies the interface where you want to use the global address. For example, if
you want to translate an inside address when it exits the outside interface, then the
outside interface is the global interface. If this interface is a higher security level
than the local interface, then this translation is known as outside NAT. Some options
do not apply to outside NAT.
global_ip
Specifies the global IP address(es) to which you want to translate the local
address(es). You can map a single global address to a single local address, or map
a range of global addresses to a range of local addresses.
This address cannot be used as a dynamic Port Address Translation (PAT)
IP address in the global command unless you use static PAT, in which case the two
addresses can be the same.
global_port
Specifies the global TCP or UDP port. You can specify ports by either a literal name
or a number in the range of 0 to 65535.
You can view valid port numbers online at the following website:
http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers
See “Ports” in “Using PIX Firewall Commands” for a list of valid port literal names
in port ranges; for example, ftp or h323. You can also specify numbers.
interface
Specifies the interface IP address for the global address. Use this keyword if you
want to use the interface address, but the address is dynamically assigned using
DHCP.
local_ifc
Specifies the interface that is connected to the local address. For example, if you
want to translate an inside address when it exits the outside interface, then the
inside interface is the local interface. If this interface is a lower security level than
the global interface, then this translation is known as outside NAT. Some options
do not apply to outside NAT (such as norandomseq and emb_limit).
local_ip
Specifies the addresses to translate. You can map a single local address to a single
global address or map a range of local addresses to a range of global addresses.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-70
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
static
local_port
Specifies the local TCP or UDP port. You can specify ports by either a literal name
or a number in the range of 0 to 65535.
You can view valid port numbers online at the following website:
http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers
See “Ports” in “Using PIX Firewall Commands” for a list of valid port literal names
in port ranges; for example, ftp or h323. You can also specify numbers.
mask
Specifies the network mask used for both global_ip and local_ip. For single hosts,
use 255.255.255.255. If you use the access-list option instead of the local_ip, then
the subnet mask used in the access list is also used for the global_ip.
max_conns
Specifies the maximum number of simultaneous TCP and UDP connections for the
entire subnet. The default is 0, which means unlimited connections. (Idle
connections are closed after the idle timeout specified by the timeout conn
command.)
Note
This option does not apply to outside NAT. The firewall only tracks
connections from a higher security interface to a lower security interface. If
you set max_conns for outside NAT, the max_conns option is ignored.
netmask
Specifies the keyword required before specifying the network mask. If you do not
enter a mask, then the default mask for the IP address class is used.
norandomseq
Disables TCP Initial Sequence Number (ISN) randomization protection. Only use
this option if another inline firewall is also randomizing sequence numbers and the
result is scrambling the data. Without this protection, inside hosts with weak
self-ISN protection become more vulnerable to TCP connection hijacking.
Note
This option does not apply to outside NAT. The firewall only randomizes
the ISN that is generated by the host/server on the higher security interface.
If you set norandomseq for outside NAT, the norandomseq option is
ignored.
tcp
Specifies a TCP port.
udp
Specifies a UDP port.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The static command creates a one-to-one address translation rule (called a static translation slot or
“xlate”). Each local address is translated to a fixed global address. With dynamic NAT and PAT, each
host uses a different address or port for each consecutive connection. Because the global address is the
same for each consecutive connection, and a persistent translation rule exists, the static command allows
hosts on the global network to initiate traffic to a local host (if the access list allows it).
Static Port Address Translation (PAT) is the same as static NAT, except it allows you to specify the
protocol (TCP or UDP) and port for the local and global addresses.
After changing or removing a static command statement, use the clear xlate command to clear the
translations.
Unless you use static PAT, you cannot create multiple static commands with the same global IP
addresses.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-71
Chapter 8
S Commands
static
Static Port Address Translation (Static PAT)
This feature allows you to identify the same global address across many different static statements, so
long as the port is different for each statement (you cannot use the same global address for multiple static
NAT statements). For example, if you want to provide a single address for global users to access FTP,
HTTP, and SMTP, but these are all actually different servers on the local network, you can specify static
statements for:
•
local_ip_A/global_ip_A/FTP
•
local_ip_B/global_ip_A/HTTP
•
local_ip_C/global_ip_A/SMTP
You can also use this feature to translate a well-known port to a lesser-known port or vice versa. For
example, if your inside web servers use port 8080, you can allow outside users to connect to port 80, and
then translate them to the correct port. Similarly, if you want to provide extra security, you can tell your
web users to connect to lesser-known port 6785, and then translate them to port 80 on the local network.
Note
PIX Firewall Version 6.2 introduced support for PAT and static PAT of H.323 application traffic; PAT is
not supported for H.323 in earlier versions.
Static PAT supports all applications that are supported by dynamic PAT, including the same application
constraints. The Telnet port 23 and PFM port 1467 of the PIX Firewall interface cannot be used for Static
PAT because the PIX Firewall requires that traffic to these ports be protected by IPSec.
static access-list (Policy NAT)
When you use an access list with the static command, then you enable policy NAT.
Policy NAT lets you identify local traffic for address translation by specifying the source and destination
addresses (or ports) in an access list. Regular NAT uses source addresses/ports only, whereas policy NAT
uses both source and destination addresses/ports.
With policy NAT, you can create multiple static statements that identify the same local address as long
as the source/port and destination/port combination is unique for each statement. You can then match
different global addresses to each source/port and destination/port pair.
While static PAT already allowed you to identify the local and global ports, policy NAT enhances this
feature (as well as static NAT) by allowing you to identify the destination address for the local traffic.
Identity NAT
If you want to bypass NAT and allow the local address to appear unchanged on the global network, you
can enter the same address for the local and global addresses:
static
( local_ifc, global_ifc) local_ip local_ip ...
You can use policy NAT with identity NAT to bypass NAT only for traffic going to a particular
destination.
Permitting Inbound Traffic with Access Lists
In addition to using the static command, you must also use an access-list command to allow outside
traffic to access inside hosts or servers.
For example, the host you want to make accessible on the dmz2 network is 192.168.1.1. The static
command maps this address to 10.1.1.1:
static (dmz2,dmz1) 10.1.1.1 192.168.1.1 netmask 255.255.255.255
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-72
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
static
The access-list and access-group commands allow traffic from the dmz1 network to access this host on
the dmz2 network. Note that the host that dmz1 users want to access is the translated global address
10.1.1.1.
access-list acl_dmz1 permit tcp 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 host 10.1.1.1
access-group acl_dmz1 in interface dmz1
Note
Always make access-list command statements as specific as possible. Using the any option to allow any
host access should be used with caution for access lists used with statics.
Order of NAT Commands Used to Match Local Addresses
The firewall matches local traffic to NAT commands in the following order:
1.
nat 0 access-list (NAT exemption)—In order, until the first match. For example, you could have
overlapping local/destination addresses in multiple nat commands, but only the first command is
matched.
2.
static (static NAT)—In order, until the first match. Because you cannot use the same local address
in static NAT or static PAT commands, the order of static commands does not matter. Similarly, for
static policy NAT, you cannot use the same local/destination address and port across multiple
statements.
3.
static {tcp | udp} (static PAT)—In order, until the first match. Because you cannot use the same
local address in static NAT or static PAT commands, the order of static commands does not matter.
Similarly, for static policy NAT, you cannot use the same local/destination address and port across
multiple statements.
4.
nat nat_id access-list (policy NAT)—In order, until the first match. For example, you could have
overlapping local/destination ports and addresses in multiple nat commands, but only the first
command is matched.
5.
nat (regular NAT)—Best match. The order of the NAT commands does not matter. The nat
statement that best matches the local traffic is used. For example, you can create a general statement
to translate all addresses (0.0.0.0) on an interface. If you also create a statement to translate only
10.1.1.1, when 10.1.1.1 makes a connection, the specific statement for 10.1.1.1 is used because it
matches the local traffic best.
Failover and the static command
The static command, without a port specified, translates all traffic received on the interface, including
failover messages sent by a standby failover unit. In this case, the standby failover unit sends messages
to the active unit, but they bypass the active unit, so the standby failover unit receives no replies from
the active unit and it assumes that the interface is down and becomes the active unit. When you specify
the port number, only traffic to that port is translated, and this situation is avoided. (Because failover
uses a unique port number, port 105, it is not translated when other specific ports are.)
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-73
Chapter 8
S Commands
static
statics and VoIP
In networks with VoIP traffic, pay close attention to any static translations in your configuration. VoIP
calls can fail to pass through the firewall if, after configuring a static translation for a network, the third
party endpoint has a global IP address that matches the static translation. For example, if the IP addresses
are as follows:
inside IP phone: 10.132.60.231
outside IP phone 10.130.60.215
outside CM: 10.130.60.111
and the following command is used:
static (inside,outside) 10.130.60.0 10.132.60.0 netmask 255.255.255.0
Then, when the firewall receives a message from the outside CM to the inside phone, the firewall sees
the outside phone’s IP address as a global IP address of an inside phone and translates it (so the call does
not connect).
TCP Intercept
Prior to Version 5.3, the PIX Firewall offered no mechanism to protect systems reachable via a static and
TCP conduit from TCP SYN attacks. Previously, if an embryonic connection limit was configured in a
static command statement, the firewall simply dropped new connection attempts once the embryonic
threshold was reached. Given this, a modest attack could stop web traffic. For static command
statements without an embryonic connection limit, the firewall passes all traffic. If the affected system
does not have TCP SYN attack protection, and most operating systems do not offer sufficient protection,
then the affected system's embryonic connection table overloads and all traffic stops.
With the TCP intercept feature, once the optional embryonic connection limit is reached, and until the
embryonic connection count falls below this threshold, every SYN bound for the affected server is
intercepted. For each SYN, PIX Firewall responds on behalf of the server with an empty SYN/ACK
segment. PIX Firewall retains pertinent state information, drops the packet, and waits for the client’s
acknowledgement. If the ACK is received, then a copy of the client’s SYN segment is sent to the server
and the TCP three-way handshake is performed between PIX Firewall and the server. If and only if, this
three-way handshake completes, may the connection resume as normal. If the client does not respond
during any part of the connection phase, then PIX Firewall retransmits the necessary segment using
exponential back-offs.
TCP intercept requires no change to the PIX Firewall command set. Note only that the embryonic
connection limit on the static command now has a new behavior.
Note
The TCP intercept feature applies only to hosts or servers on a higher security level. If you set the
embryonic limit for outside NAT, the embryonic limit is ignored.
Deny Xlate for Network or Broadcast Address for Inbound Traffic
For all inbound traffic, the firewall denies translations for destination IP addresses identified as network
address or broadcast addresses. The firewall utilizes the global IP and mask from a static command
statement to differentiate regular IP addresses from network or broadcast addresses. If a global IP
address is a valid network address with a matching network mask, then the firewall disallows the
translation for network or broadcast IP addresses with inbound packet.
Interfaces on Which to Use Static NAT or Dynamic NAT
The rules for which command to use with an interface is summarized in Table 8-7. Table 8-7 assumes
that the security levels are 40 for dmz1 and 60 for dmz2.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-74
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
static
Table 8-7
Examples
Interface Access Commands by Interface
From This
Interface
To This
Interface
Use This
Command
inside
outside
nat
inside
dmz1
nat
inside
dmz2
nat
dmz1
outside
nat
dmz1
dmz2
static
dmz1
inside
static
dmz2
outside
nat
dmz2
dmz1
nat
dmz2
inside
static
outside
dmz1
static
outside
dmz2
static
outside
inside
static
Basic Static NAT Examples
The following example permits a finite number of users to call in through H.323 using an Intel Internet
Phone, CU-SeeMe, CU-SeeMe Pro, MeetingPoint, or MS NetMeeting. The static command maps
addresses 209.165.201.1 through 209.165.201.30 to local addresses 10.1.1.1 through 10.1.1.30
(209.165.201.2 maps to 10.1.1.2, 209.165.201.10 maps to 10.1.1.10, and so on). The accompanying
access-list and access-group commands allow traffic from a lower security interface to a higher security
interface.
static (inside,outside) 209.165.201.0 10.1.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.224
access-list acl_out permit tcp any 209.165.201.0 255.255.255.224 eq h323
access-group acl_out in interface outside
The following example shows the commands used to disable Mail Guard:
static (dmz1,outside) 209.165.201.1 10.1.1.1 netmask 255.255.255.255
access-list acl_out permit tcp any host 209.165.201.1 eq smtp
access-group acl_out in interface outside
no fixup protocol smtp 25
In this example, the static command sets up a global address to permit outside hosts access to the
10.1.1.1 mail server host on the dmz1 interface. (The MX record for DNS needs to point to the
209.165.201.1 address so that mail is sent to this address.) The access-list command lets any outside
users access the global address through the SMTP port (25). The no fixup protocol command disables
Mail Guard.
Static PAT Examples
To redirect Telnet traffic from the PIX Firewall outside interface to the inside host at 10.1.1.15, enter:
static (inside,outside) tcp interface telnet 10.1.1.15 telnet netmask 255.255.255.255
To redirect FTP traffic from the PIX Firewall outside interface to the inside host at 10.1.1.30, enter:
static (inside,outside) tcp interface ftp 10.1.1.30 ftp netmask 255.255.255.255
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-75
Chapter 8
S Commands
static
To redirect DNS traffic from the PIX Firewall outside interface to the inside host at 10.1.1.30, enter:
static (inside,outside) udp interface domain 10.1.1.30 domain netmask 255.255.255.255
To allow the local Telnet server to initiate connections other than Telnet, you need to provide additional
translation. For example, to translate all other types of traffic to the same address used in the static
translation for Telnet (the interface address, for example), enter the following commands:
static (inside,outside) tcp 10.1.2.14 telnet 10.1.1.15 telnet netmask 255.255.255.255
nat (inside) 1 10.1.1.15 255.255.255.255
global (outside) 1 10.1.2.14 netmask 255.255.255.255
The static command provides the translation for Telnet. The nat and global commands provide PAT for
all other outbound connections from the server.
If you have a separate translation for all inside traffic that uses a different global address, you can still
configure the Telnet server to use the same address as the static statement by creating a more exclusive
nat statement just for that server. Because nat statements are read for the best match, more exclusive nat
statements are matched before general statements.
static (inside,outside) tcp 10.1.2.14 telnet 10.1.1.15 telnet netmask 255.255.255.255
nat (inside) 1 10.1.1.15 255.255.255.255
global (outside) 1 10.1.2.14 netmask 255.255.255.255
nat (inside) 2 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
global (outside) 2 10.1.2.78 netmask 255.255.255.255
To translate a well-known port (80) to another port (8080), enter:
static (inside,outside) tcp 10.1.2.45 80 10.1.1.16 8080 netmask 255.255.255.255
Policy NAT Examples
The following example shows a Policy NAT configuration. In this example, traffic destined for the
172.16.1.0/24 from host 10.1.1.10 is translated as 192.150.49.10, and traffic destined for the
172.16.2.0/24 from host 10.1.1.10 is translated as 192.150.49.20:
access-list network-1 permit ip host 10.1.1.10 172.16.1.0 255.255.255.0
access-list network-2 permit ip host 10.1.1.10 172.16.2.0 255.255.255.0
static (inside,outside) 192.150.49.10 access-list network-1
static (inside,outside) 192.150.49.20 access-list network-2
If you want to use identity NAT from traffic going from 10.1.1.1 to 10.2.2.3, but you want to translate
10.1.1.1 to 10.4.5.6 when going to 10.3.1.0/24, you could enter:
access-list IDENTITY permit ip host 10.1.1.1 host 10.2.2.3
access-list TRANSLATE permit ip host 10.1.1.1 10.3.1.0 255.255.255.0
static (inside,outside) 10.1.1.1 access-list IDENTITY
static (inside,outside) 10.4.5.6 access-list TRANSLATE
Identity NAT Examples
For example, a web server on the dmz, 209.165.201.5 needs to be accessible by users on the outside. The
static and access-list command statements are as follows:
static (dmz,outside) 209.165.201.5 209.165.201.5 netmask 255.255.255.255
access-list acl_out permit tcp any host 209.165.201.5 eq www
access-group acl_out in interface outside
The static command presents the 209.165.201.5 address on the outside interface. The DNS server on the
outside would map this IP address to the domain of the company; for example, example.com. Users
accessing example.com are permitted to access the web server via port 80 by the access-list command.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-76
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
syslog
Another example of identity NAT statics is when users on dmz1 need to access a web server on dmz2.
The network uses a Class C address and the .240 subnet. Addresses 209.165.201.1 to 209.165.201.14
are on dmz1, and addresses 209.165.201.17 to 209.165.201.30 are on dmz2. The web server is at
209.165.201.25. The static and access-list command statements are as follows:
static (dmz2,dmz1) 209.165.201.25 209.165.201.25 netmask 255.255.255.255
access-list acl_dmz1 permit tcp any host 209.165.201.25 eq www
access-group acl_dmz1 in interface dmz1
The static command statement opens access to the web server at 209.165.201.25. The access-list
command statement permits access to the web server only on port 80 (www).
Related Commands
•
access-list
•
show xlate/clear xlate
syslog
Enable syslog message facility. Obsolete command replaced by the logging command.
See the logging command for more information. The syslog command is available for backward
compatibility.
sysopt
Change PIX Firewall system options.
[no] sysopt connection {permit-pptp | permit-l2tp | permit-ipsec}
[no] sysopt connection tcpmss [minimum] bytes
[no] sysopt connection timewait
[no] sysopt ipsec pl-compatible
[no] sysopt nodnsalias {inbound | outbound}
[no] sysopt noproxyarp if_name
[no] sysopt radius ignore-secret
[no] sysopt uauth allow-http-cache
clear sysopt
show sysopt
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-77
Chapter 8
S Commands
sysopt
Syntax Description
connection permit-ipsec
Implicitly permit any packet that came from an IPSec tunnel and bypass
the checking of an associated access-list, conduit, or access-group
command statement for IPSec connections.
connection permit-l2tp
Implicitly permit any packet that came from an L2TP/IPSec tunnel and
bypass the checking of an associated access-list, conduit, or access-group
command statement for L2TP/IPSec connections.
connection permit-pptp
Allow PPTP traffic to bypass conduit or access-list command statement
checking.
connection tcpmss
[minimum] bytes
Overrides the maximum TCP segment size to be no greater than bytes. The
minimum keyword overrides the maximum segment size to be no less than
bytes. The minimum value is 48 bytes. The default value is 1380 bytes.
connection timewait
Force each TCP connection to linger in a shortened TIME_WAIT state of
at least 15 seconds after the final normal TCP close-down sequence.
ipsec pl-compatible
Enable IPSec packets to bypass the PIX Firewall unit’s NAT and ASA
features and allows incoming IPSec packets to terminate on the inside
interface.
nodnsalias inbound
Disable inbound embedded DNS A record fixups according to aliases that
apply to the A record address.
nodnsalias outbound
Disable outbound DNS A record replies.
noproxyarp if_name
Disable proxy-ARPs on a PIX Firewall interface.
radius ignore-secret
Ignore authenticator key to avoid retransmit caveat.
uauth allow-http-cache
Allows the web browser to supply a username and password from its cache
for AAA authentication.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The sysopt commands let you tune various PIX Firewall security and configuration features. In addition,
you can use this command to disable the PIX Firewall IP Frag Guard feature.
There is no need to enter the sysopt connection permit-12tp command if the sysopt connection
permit-ipsec command is present.
sysopt connection permit-ipsec
Use the sysopt connection permit-ipsec command in IPSec configurations to permit IPSec traffic to
pass through the PIX Firewall without a check of conduit or access-list command statements.
An access-list or conduit command statement must be available for inbound sessions.
By default, any inbound session must be explicitly permitted by a conduit or access-list command
statement. With IPSec protected traffic, the secondary access list check could be redundant. To enable
IPSec authenticated/cipher inbound sessions to always be permitted, use the sysopt connection
permit-ipsec command.
If both the sysopt ipsec pl-compatible command and the sysopt connection permit-ipsec command are
used within your configuration, the sysopt ipsec pl-compatible command will take precedence.
Note
The sysopt ipsec pl-compatible command is deprecated. In its place, we recommend using the nat 0
access-list command to exempt IPSec from NAT.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-78
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
sysopt
If the sysopt connection permit-ipsec command is not configured, you must explicitly configure an
access-list command statement to permit IPSec traffic to traverse the PIX Firewall.
The no sysopt connection permit-ipsec command disables the option.
sysopt connection permit-pptp
Let PPTP traffic bypass conduit and access-list command statement checking. Use the vpdn command
to implement PPTP.
sysopt connection permit-l2tp
This command allows L2TP traffic to bypass conduit or access list checking. Because L2TP traffic can
only come from IPSec, the sysopt connection permit-ipsec command will allow L2TP traffic to pass as
well.
sysopt ipsec pl-compatible
Note
The sysopt ipsec pl-compatible command provides a migration path for Private Link users from Private
Link tunnels to IPSec tunnels.
The sysopt ipsec pl-compatible command enables the IPSec feature to simulate the Private Link feature
supported in PIX Firewall Version 4. The Private Link feature provides encrypted tunnels to be
established across an unsecured network between Private-Link equipped PIX Firewall units. The sysopt
ipsec pl-compatible command allows IPSec packets to bypass the NAT and ASA features and enables
incoming IPSec packets to terminate on the sending interface.
The sysopt ipsec pl-compatible command is not available on a PIX 501.
The no sysopt ipsec pl-compatible command disables the option, which is off by default.
Note
When using the sysopt ipsec pl-compatible command, all PIX Firewall features, such as access list
control, stateful inspection, and user authentication, are bypassed for IPSec packets only.
If both the sysopt ipsec pl-compatible command and the sysopt connection permit-ipsec command are
used within your configuration, the sysopt ipsec pl-compatible command will take precedence.
If the alias command is used with the sysopt ipsec pl-compatible command, a static route command statement must be
added for each IP address specified in the alias command statement.
sysopt connection tcpmss
The sysopt connection tcpmss command allows you to set the minimum and the maximum TCP
segment size. Both the host and the server can set the maximum segment size when they first establish
a connection. If either maximum exceeds the value you set with the sysopt connection tcpmss
command, then the PIX firewall overrides the maximum and inserts the value you set. If either maximum
is less than the value you set with the sysopt connection tcpmss minimum command, then the
PIX firewall overrides the maximum and inserts the minimum value you set. For example, if you set a
maximum size of 1200 bytes and a minimum size of 400 bytes, when a host requests a maximum size of
1300 bytes, then the PIX firewall alters the packet to request 1200 bytes (the maximum). If another host
requests a maximum value of 300 bytes, then the PIX firewall alters the packet to request 400 bytes (the
minimum).
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-79
Chapter 8
S Commands
sysopt
The bytes value can be a minimum of 48 and any maximum number. You can disable this feature by
setting bytes to 0. By default, the PIX firewall sets 1380 bytes as the sysopt connection tcpmss
maximum limit and 48 bytes as the minimum limit, even though this command does not appear in the
default configuration. The default of 1380 bytes allows room for header information so that the total
packet size does not exceed 1500 bytes, which is the default MTU for Ethernet. See the following
calculation:
1380 data + 20 TCP + 20 IP + 24 AH + 24 ESP_CIPHER + 12 ESP_AUTH + 20 IP = 1500 bytes
If the host or server does not request a maximum segment size, the PIX firewall assumes that the
RFC 793 default value of 536 bytes is in effect.
You might want to set the maximum segment size using this command so that the size is less than the
MTU and packets are not fragmented. Large numbers of fragments can impact the performance of the
PIX firewall when it uses the Frag Guard feature. Setting the minimum size prevents the TCP server from
sending many small TCP data packets to the client and impacting the performance of the server and the
network.
Note
Although, not advised for normal use of this feature, if you encounter the syslog IPFRAG messages
209001 and 209002, you can raise the bytes value.
sysopt connection timewait
By default the PIX Firewall does not use the timewait option.
Use the sysopt connection timewait command to enable the timewait option when you have an end host
application whose default TCP terminating sequence is a simultaneous close.
This is recommended because the default behavior of the PIX Firewall is to track the shutdown sequence
and release the connection after two FINs and the ACK (acknowledgment) of the last FIN segment. This
quick release heuristic enables the PIX Firewall to sustain a high connection rate, based on the most
common closing sequence, known as the normal close sequence. However, in a simultaneous close, both
ends of the transaction initiate the closing sequence, as opposed to the normal close sequence where one
end closes and the other end acknowledges prior to initiating its own closing sequence (see RFC 793).
Thus, in a simultaneous close, the quick release forces one side of the connection to linger in the
CLOSING state. Having many sockets in the CLOSING state can degrade the performance of an end
host. For instance, some WinSock mainframe clients are known to exhibit this behavior and degrade the
performance of the mainframe server. Old versions of HP/UX are also susceptible to this behavior. Using
the sysopt connection timewait command creates a window for the simultaneous close down sequence
to complete.
The no sysopt connection timewait command removes the sysopt connection timewait command from
your configuration. In other words, if you enable the timewait option with the sysopt connection
timewait command, you can disable it using the no sysopt connection timewait command.
Note
The sysopt connection timewait command requires more system resources than default processing and,
when in use, may impact PIX Firewall performance. Noticeable performance impact is most likely when
there is limited memory available, and when there is highly dynamic traffic such as HTTP.
sysopt nodnsalias
The sysopt nodnsalias inbound disables inbound embedded DNS A record fixups according to aliases
that apply to the A record address. sysopt nodnsalias outbound affects outbound replies.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-80
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
sysopt
This command remedies the case when a DNS server is on the outside and users on the inside need to
access a server on a perimeter interface. In the past, you would use the alias command to permit DNS
responses to resolve correctly through the PIX Firewall, but formerly you had to reverse the parameters
for the local IP address and foreign IP address.
For example, you would normally code the alias command as follows:
alias (inside) 192.168.1.4 209.165.201.11 255.255.255.255
Inside host 192.168.1.5 needs access to www.example.com, which resolves at an outside ISP DNS to
209.165.201.11. The PIX Firewall fixes this DNS response sending the host a response of 192.168.1.4.
The host uses its gateway (the PIX Firewall) to go to 192.168.1.4, which the PIX Firewall now aliases
back to the 209.165.201.11. Because this is actually 192.168.1.4, a server on the perimeter interface of
the PIX Firewall, the packet is dropped because the PIX Firewall sent the packet to the outside interface,
which is the incorrect interface.
The sysopt nodnsalias inbound command has the same effect as reversing the alias command statement
parameters as follows:
alias (inside) 209.165.201.11 192.168.1.4 255.255.255.255
This works properly because everything happens in reverse. The DNS is now modified to
209.165.201.11 and the host inside uses its gateway (the PIX Firewall) to get there, the PIX Firewall
aliases this back to 192.168.1.4 and routes it out the perimeter interface to the correct host and the TCP
connection is established.
sysopt noproxyarp
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) is a layer two protocol that resolves an IP address to a physical
address, also called a Media Access Controller (MAC) address. A host sends an ARP request asking
“Who is this IP?” The device owning the IP should reply with “Hey, I am the one, here's my MAC
address.”
Proxy ARP refers to a gateway device, in this case, the firewall, “impersonating” an IP address and
returning its own MAC address to answer an ARP request for another device.
The firewall builds a table from responses to ARP requests to map physical addresses to IP addresses. A
periodic ARP function is enabled in the default configuration. The presence of entries in the ARP cache
indicates that the firewall has network connectivity. The show arp command lists the entries in the ARP
table. Usually, administrators do not need to manually manipulate ARP entries on the firewall. This is
done only when troubleshooting or solving network connectivity problems.
The arp command is used to add a permanent entry for host on a network. If one host is exchanged for
another host with the same IP address then the “clear arp” command can be used to clear the ARP cache
on the PIX. Alternatively, you can wait for the duration specified with the arp timeout command to expire
and the ARP table rebuilds itself automatically with the new host information.
The sysopt noproxyarp command is used to disable Proxy ARPs on an interface from the command-line
interface. By default, the PIX Firewall responds to ARP requests directed at the PIX Firewall’s interface
IP addresses as well as to ARP requests for any static or global address defined on the PIX Firewall
interface (which are proxy ARP requests).
The sysopt noproxyarp if_name command lets you disable proxy ARP request responses on a
PIX Firewall interface. However, this command does not disable (non-proxy) ARP requests on the
PIX Firewall interface itself. Consequently, if you use the sysopt noproxyarp if_name command, the
PIX Firewall no longer responds to ARP requests for the addresses in the static, global, and nat 0
commands for that interface but does respond to ARP requests for its interface IP addresses.
To disable Proxy ARPs on the inside interface:
sysopt noproxyarp inside
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-81
Chapter 8
S Commands
sysopt
To enable Proxy ARPs on the inside interface:
no sysopt noproxyarp inside
sysopt radius ignore-secret
Some commonly used RADIUS servers, such as Livingston Version 1.16, have a usage caveat where they
do not include the key in the authenticator hash in the accounting acknowledgment response. This can
cause the PIX Firewall to continually retransmit the accounting request. Use the sysopt radius
ignore-secret command to cause the PIX Firewall to ignore the key in the authenticator of accounting
acknowledgments thus avoiding the retransmit problem. (The key described here is the key you set with
the aaa-server command.)
show sysopt
The show sysopt command lists the sysopt commands in the configuration. The clear sysopt command
resets the sysopt command to default settings.
Deprecated Commands
The sysopt route dnat and sysopt security fragguard commands are deprecated commands.
Examples
The following displays the default sysopt configuration:
pixfirewall(config)# show sysopt
no sysopt connection timewait
sysopt connection tcpmss 1380
sysopt connection tcpmss minimum 0
no sysopt nodnsalias inbound
no sysopt nodnsalias outbound
no sysopt radius ignore-secret
no sysopt uauth allow-http-cache
no sysopt connection permit-ipsec
no sysopt connection permit-pptp
no sysopt connection permit-l2tp
no sysopt ipsec pl-compatible
In the following example, a PPTP client authenticates using MS-CHAP, negotiates MPPE encryption,
receives the DNS and WINS server addresses, and Telnets to the host 192.168.0.2 directly through the
nat 0 command.
ip local pool my-addr-pool 10.1.1.1-10.1.1.254
aaa-server my-aaa-server-group (inside) host 192.168.0.10 key 12345678
aaa-server my-aaa-server-group protocol radius
vpdn group 1 accept dialin pptp
vpdn group 1 ppp authentication mschap
vpdn group 1 ppp encryption mppe auto required
vpdn group 1 client configuration address local my-addr-pool
vpdn group 1 client authentication aaa my-aaa-server-group
vpdn group 1 client configuration dns 10.2.2.99
vpdn group 1 client configuration wins 10.2.2.100
vpdn enable outside
access-list nonat permit ip 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 host 192.168.0.2
access-list nonat permit ip 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 host 10.2.2.99
access-list nonat permit ip 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 host 10.2.2.100
nat (inside) 0 access-list nonat
sysopt connection permit-pptp
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-82
78-14890-01
Chapter 8
S Commands
sysopt
sysopt connection permit-ipsec
The following is a minimal IPSec configuration to enable a session to be connected from host
172.21.100.123 to host 172.21.200.67 across an IPSec tunnel that terminates from peer 209.165.201.1
to peer 201.165.200.225.
With sysopt connection permit-ipsec and access-list command statements:
On peer 209.165.201.1:
static 172.21.100.123 172.21.100.123
access-list 10 permit ip host 172.21.200.67 host 172.21.100.123
crypto ipsec transform-set t1 esp-des esp-md5-hmac
crypto map mymap 10 ipsec-isakmp
crypto map mymap 10 match address 10
crypto map mymap 10 set transform-set t1
crypto map mymap 10 set peer 172.21.200.1
crypto map mymap interface outside
On peer 201.165.200.225:
static 172.21.200.67 172.21.200.67
access-list 10 permit ip host 172.21.100.123 host 172.21.200.67
crypto ipsec transform-set t1 esp-des esp-md5-hmac
crypto map mymap 10 ipsec-isakmp
crypto map mymap 10 match address 10
crypto map mymap 10 set transform-set t1
crypto map mymap 10 set peer 172.21.100.1
crypto map mymap interface outside
With sysopt connection permit-ipsec and without conduit command statements:
On peer 209.165.201.1:
static 172.21.100.123 172.21.100.123
access-list 10 permit ip host 172.21.200.67 host 172.21.100.123
crypto ipsec transform-set t1 esp-des esp-md5-hmac
crypto map mymap 10 ipsec-isakmp
crypto map mymap 10 match address 10
crypto map mymap 10 set transform-set t1
crypto map mymap 10 set peer 172.21.200.1
crypto map mymap interface outside
sysopt connection permit-ipsec
On peer 201.165.200.225:
static 172.21.200.67 172.21.200.67
access-list 10 permit ip host 172.21.100.123 host 172.21.200.67
crypto ipsec transform-set t1 esp-des esp-md5-hmac
crypto map mymap 10 ipsec-isakmp
crypto map mymap 10 match address 10
crypto map mymap 10 set transform-set t1
crypto map mymap 10 set peer 172.21.100.1
crypto map mymap interface outside
sysopt connection permit-ipsec
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
8-83
Chapter 8
S Commands
sysopt
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
8-84
78-14890-01
C H A P T E R
9
T through Z Commands
telnet
Specify the host for PIX Firewall console access via Telnet.
telnet ip_address [netmask] [if_name]
clear telnet [ip_address [netmask] [if_name]]
no telnet [ip_address [netmask] [if_name]]
telnet timeout minutes
show telnet
show telnet timeout
Syntax Description
Command Modes
if_name
If IPSec is operating, PIX Firewall lets you specify an unsecure interface name,
typically, the outside interface. At a minimum, the crypto map command must be
configured to specify an interface name with the telnet command.
ip_address
An IP address of a host or network that can access a PIX Firewall Telnet
management session. If an interface name is not specified, the address is assumed
to be on an internal interface. PIX Firewall automatically verifies the IP address
against the IP addresses specified by the ip address commands to ensure that the
address you specify is on an internal interface. If an interface name is specified,
PIX Firewall only checks the host against the interface you specify.
netmask
Bit mask of ip_address. To limit access to a single IP address, use 255 in each
octet; for example, 255.255.255.255. If you do not specify netmask, it defaults to
255.255.255.255 regardless of the class of local_ip. Do not use the subnetwork
mask of the internal network. The netmask is only a bit mask for the IP address in
ip_address.
timeout minutes
The number of minutes that a Telnet session can be idle before being closed by
PIX Firewall. The default is 5 minutes. The range is 1 to 60 minutes.
Configuration mode.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
9-1
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
telnet
Usage Guidelines
The telnet command lets you specify which hosts can access the PIX Firewall console with Telnet. You
can enable Telnet to the PIX Firewall on all interfaces. However, the PIX Firewall enforces that all
Telnet traffic to the outside interface be IPSec protected. Therefore, to enable Telnet session to the
outside interface, configure IPSec on the outside interface to include IP traffic generated by the
PIX Firewall and enable Telnet on the outside interface.
A maximum of five (5) active Telnet management sessions to the PIX Firewall are allowed at the same
time. The show telnet command displays the current list of IP addresses authorized to Telnet to the
PIX Firewall. Use the no telnet or clear telnet command to remove Telnet access from a previously set
IP address. Use the telnet timeout feature to set the maximum time a console Telnet session can be idle
before being logged off by PIX Firewall. The clear telnet command does not affect the telnet timeout
command duration. The no telnet command cannot be used with the telnet timeout command.
Use the passwd command to set a password for Telnet access to the console. The default is cisco. Use
the who command to view which IP addresses are currently accessing the PIX Firewall console. Use the
kill command to terminate an active Telnet management session.
If the aaa command is used with the console option, Telnet management access must be authenticated
with an authentication server.
Note
If you have configured the aaa command to require authentication for PIX Firewall Telnet management
access and the console login request times out, you can gain access to the PIX Firewall from the serial
console by entering the pix username and the password that was set with the enable password
command.
Usage Notes
1.
If you do not specify the interface name, the telnet command adds command statements to the
configuration to let the host or network access the Telnet management session from all internal
interfaces.
When you use the show telnet command, this assumption may not seem to make sense. For
example, if you enter the following command without a netmask or interface name.
telnet 192.168.1.1
If you then use the show telnet command, you see that not just one command statement is specified,
but all internal interfaces are represented with a command statement:
show telnet
192.168.1.1 255.255.255.255 inside
192.168.1.1 255.255.255.255 intf2
192.168.1.1 255.255.255.255 intf3
The purpose of the show telnet command is that, were it possible, the 192.168.1.1 host could access
the Telnet management session from any of these internal interfaces. An additional facet of this
behavior is that you must delete each of these command statements individually with the following
commands.
no telnet 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.255 inside
no telnet 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.255 intf2
no telnet 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.255 intf3
2.
To access the PIX Firewall with Telnet from the intf2 perimeter interface, use the following
command:
telnet 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.255 int2
3.
The default password to access the PIX Firewall console via Telnet is cisco.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
9-2
78-14890-01
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
telnet
4.
Some Telnet applications such as the Windows 95 or Windows NT Telnet sessions may not support
access to the PIX Firewall unit’s command history feature via the arrow keys. However, you can
access the last entered command by pressing Ctrl-P.
5.
The telnet timeout command affects the next session started but not the current session.
6.
If you connect a computer directly to the inside interface of the PIX Firewall with Ethernet to test
Telnet access, you must use a cross-over cable and the computer must have an IP address on the
same subnet as the inside interface. The computer must also have its default route set to be the inside
interface of the PIX Firewall.
7.
If you need to access the PIX Firewall console from outside the PIX Firewall, you can use a static
and access-list command pair to permit a Telnet session to a Telnet server on the inside interface,
and then from the server to the PIX Firewall. In addition, you can attach the console port to a modem
but this may add a security problem of its own. You can use the same terminal settings as for
HyperTerminal, which is described in the Cisco PIX Firewall and VPN Configuration Guide.
If you have IPSec configured, you can access the PIX Firewall console with Telnet from outside the
PIX Firewall. Once an IPSec tunnel is created from an outside host to the PIX Firewall, you can
access the console from the outside host.
8.
Examples
Output from the debug crypto ipsec, debug crypto isakmp, and debug ssh commands do not
display in a Telnet or SSH console session. For information about the debug crypto ipsec and
debug crypto isakmp commands, refer to the debug command page.
The following examples permit hosts 192.168.1.3 and 192.168.1.4 to access the PIX Firewall console
via Telnet. In addition, all the hosts on the 192.168.2.0 network are given access:
telnet 192.168.1.3 255.255.255.255 inside
telnet 192.168.1.4 255.255.255.255 inside
telnet 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 inside
show telnet
192.168.1.3 255.255.255.255 inside
192.168.1.4 255.255.255.255 inside
192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 inside
You can remove individual entries with the no telnet command or all telnet command statements with
the clear telnet command:
no telnet 192.168.1.3 255.255.255.255 inside
show telnet
192.168.1.4 255.255.255.255 inside
192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 inside
clear telnet
show telnet
You can change the maximum session idle duration as follows:
telnet timeout 10
show telnet timeout
telnet timeout 10 minutes
An example Telnet login session appears as follows (the password does not display when entered):
PIX passwd: cisco
Welcome to the PIX Firewall
…
Type help or ‘?’ for a list of available commands.
pixfirewall>
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
9-3
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
terminal
Related Commands
•
aaa accounting
•
kill
•
password
•
who
terminal
Change console terminal settings.
terminal monitor
terminal no monitor
terminal width characters
Syntax Description
characters
Permissible values are 0, which means 511 characters, or a value in the range of 40 to
511.
monitor
Enable or disable syslog message displays on the console.
width
Set the width for displaying information during console sessions.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The terminal monitor command lets you enable or disable the display of syslog messages in the current
session for either Telnet or serial access to the PIX Firewall console. Use the logging monitor command
to enable or disable various levels of syslog messages to the console; use the terminal no monitor
command to disable the messages on a per session basis. Use terminal monitor to restart the syslog
messages for the current session.
The terminal width command sets the width for displaying command output. The terminal width is
controlled by the command: terminal width nn, where nn is the width in characters. If you enter a line
break, it is not possible to backspace to the previous line.
Examples
The following example shows enabling logging and then disabling logging only in the current session
with the terminal no monitor command:
logging monitor
…
terminal no monitor
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
9-4
78-14890-01
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
tftp-server
tftp-server
Specify the IP address of the TFTP configuration server.
[no] tftp-server [if_name] ip_address path
clear tftp-server [[if_name] ip_address path]
show tftp-server
Syntax Description
if_name
Interface name on which the TFTP server resides. If not specified, an internal interface
is assumed. If you specify the outside interface, a warning message informs you that
the outside interface is unsecure.
ip_address
The IP address or network of the TFTP server.
path
The path and filename of the configuration file. The format for path differs by the type
of operating system on the server. The contents of path are passed directly to the server
without interpretation or checking. The configuration file must exist on the TFTP
server. Many TFTP servers require the configuration file to be world-writable to write
to it and world-readable to read from it.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The tftp-server command lets you specify the IP address of the server that you use to propagate
PIX Firewall configuration files to your firewalls. Use the tftp-server command with the configure net
command to read from the configuration or with the write net command to store the configuration in the
file you specify. The clear tftp-server command removes the tftp-server command from your
configuration.
PIX Firewall supports only one TFTP server.
The path name you specify in the tftp-server is appended to the end of the IP address you specify in the
configure net and write net commands. The more you specify of a file and path name with the
tftp-server command, the less you need to specify with the configure net and write net commands. If
you specify the full path and filename in the tftp-server command, the IP address in the configure net
and write net commands can be represented with a colon ( : ).
The no tftp server command disables access to the server. The show tftp-server command lists the
tftp-server command statements in the current configuration.
Note
Examples
If the TFTP server to which the firewall is trying to connect is not running the TFTP service, the firewall
hangs and does not timeout. Press "ESC" key on the firewall console to abort the TFTP session and
return to the firewall command line prompt.
The following example specifies a TFTP server and then reads the configuration from
/pixfirewall/config/test_config:
tftp-server 10.1.1.42 /pixfirewall/config/test_config
...
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
9-5
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
timeout
configure net :
timeout
Set the maximum idle time duration.
timeout [xlate hh[:mm[:ss]]] [conn hh[:mm[:ss]]] [half-closed hh[:mm[:ss]]] [udp hh[:mm[:ss]]]
[rpc hh[:mm[:ss]]] [h225 hh[:mm[:ss]]] [h323 hh[:mm[:ss]]] [mgcp hh[:mm[:ss]]]
[sip hh[:mm[:ss]]] [sip_media hh[:mm[:ss]]][uauth hh[:mm[:ss]] [absolute | inactivity]]
clear timeout
show timeout
Syntax Description
absolute
Run uauth timer continuously, but after timer elapses, wait to reprompt the
user until the user starts a new connection, such as clicking a link in a web
browser. The default uauth timer is absolute. To disable absolute, set the
uauth timer to 0 (zero).
conn hh[:mm[:ss]]
Idle time after which a connection closes. Use 0:0:0 for the time value to
never time out a connection. This duration must be at least 5 minutes. The
default is 1 hour.
h225 hh[:mm[:ss]]
The idle time after which H.225 signalling closes, where hh is hours, mm
is minutes, and ss is seconds. The default is 1 hour. A timeout value of
h225 00:00:00 means never tear down H.225 signalling. A timeout value
of h225 00:00:01 disables the timer and closes the TCP connection
immediately after all calls are cleared.
h323 hh[:mm[:ss]]
The idle time after which an H.323 media connection closes. The default
is 5 minutes. (This is the H.323 UDP inactivity timer.)
half-closed hh[:mm[:ss]]
Idle time until a TCP half-close connection is freed. The default is 10
minutes. Use 0:0:0 to never time out a half-closed connection. The
minimum is 5 minutes.
inactivity
Start uauth timer after a connection becomes idle.
mgcp hh[:mm[:ss]]
Sets the duration for the Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP)
inactivity timer. The default is 5 minutes.
rpc hh[:mm[:ss]]
Idle time until an RPC slot is freed. This duration must be at least 1 minute.
The default is 10 minutes.
sip hh[:mm[:ss]]
Modifies the SIP timer which is used for UDP signalling connections
identified by the value T in the output from the show conn detail
command. The default timeout value is 30 seconds.
sip_media hh[:mm[:ss]]
Modifies the media timer, which is used for SIP RTP/RTCP with SIP UDP
media packets, instead of the UDP inactivity timeout. SIP media port is set
to 2 minutes in the list of protocol timers.
uauth hh[:mm[:ss]]
Duration before authentication and authorization cache times out and user
has to re authenticate next connection. This duration must be shorter than
the xlate values. Set to 0 to disable caching. Do not set to zero if passive
FTP is used on the connections.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
9-6
78-14890-01
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
timeout
udp hh[:mm[:ss]]
Idle time until a UDP slot is freed. This duration must be at least 1 minute.
The default is 2 minutes.
xlate hh[:mm[:ss]]
Idle time until a translation slot is freed. This duration must be at least 1
minute. The default is 3 hours.
Note
PIX Firewall clears UDP PAT connections 30 seconds after the
connection is closed, regardless of the setting of the timeout xlate
command.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The timeout command sets the idle time for connection, translation UDP, RPC, and H.323 slots. If the
slot has not been used for the idle time specified, the resource is returned to the free pool. TCP
connection slots are freed approximately 60 seconds after a normal connection close sequence.
The clear timeout command sets the durations to their default values.
This command is used in conjunction with the show and clear uauth commands.
Note
Do not use the timeout uauth 0:0:0 command if passive FTP is used for the connection, or if the virtual
command is used for Web authentication.
The connection timer takes precedence over the translation timer, such that the translation timer only
works after all connections have timed out.
timeout mgcp
The timeout mgcp hh:mm:ss command sets the duration for the MGCP inactivity timer. If this time
elapses before new activity occurs, the MGCP media ports close. The default is five minutes. For
example, to set the MGCP timeout to five minutes, enter the following:
pixfirewall(config)# timeout mgcp 00:05:00
Uauth Inactivity and Absolute Qualifiers
The uauth inactivity and absolute qualifiers cause users to have to reauthenticate after either a period
of inactivity or an absolute duration.
If you set the inactivity timer to a duration, but the absolute timer to zero, then users are only
reauthenticated after the inactivity timer elapses. If you set both timers to zero, then users have to
reauthenticate on every new connection.
The inactivity timer starts after a connection becomes idle. If a user establishes a new connection before
the duration of the inactivity timer, the user is not required to reauthenticate. If a user establishes a new
connection after the inactivity timer expires, the user must reauthenticate. The default durations are zero
for the inactivity timer and 5 minutes for the absolute timer; that is, the default behavior is to cause the
user to reauthenticate every 5 minutes.
The absolute timer runs continuously, but waits to reprompt the user when the user starts a new
connection, such as clicking a link and the absolute timer has elapsed, then the user is prompted to
reauthenticate. The absolute timer must be shorter than the xlate timer; otherwise, a user could be
reprompt after their session already ended.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
9-7
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
url-block
Inactivity timers give users the best Web access because they are not prompted to regularly
reauthenticate. Absolute timers provide security and manage the PIX Firewall connections better. By
being prompted to reauthenticate regularly, users manage their use of the resources more efficiently.
Also by being reprompted, you minimize the risk that someone will attempt to use another user’s access
after they leave their workstation, such as in a college computer lab. You may want to set an absolute
timer during peak hours and an inactivity timer thereafter.
Both an inactivity timer and an absolute timer can operate at the same time, but you should set the
absolute timer duration longer than the inactivity timer. If the absolute timer is less than the inactivity
timer, the inactivity timer never occurs. For example, if you set the absolute timer to 10 minutes and the
inactivity timer to an hour, the absolute timer reprompts the user every 10 minutes; therefore, the
inactivity timer will never be started.
Note
Examples
RPC and NFS are very unsecure protocols and should be used with caution.
The following is sample output from the show timeout command:
show timeout
timeout xlate 3:00:00
timeout conn 1:00:00 half-closed 0:10:00 udp 0:02:00 rpc 0:10:00 h323 0:05:00
sip 0:30:00 sip_media 0:02:00
timeout uauth 0:05:00 absolute
The following is sample output from the timeout command in which variables are changed and then
displayed with the show timeout command:
timeout uauth 0:5:00 absolute uauth 0:4:00 inactivity
show timeout
timeout xlate 3:00:00
timeout conn 1:00:00 half-closed 0:10:00 udp 0:02:00 rpc 0:10:00 h323 0:05:00
sip 0:30:00 sip_media 0:02:00
timeout uauth 0:05:00 absolute uauth 0:04:00 inactivity
Related Commands
•
show xlate/clear xlate
•
show uauth/clear uauth
url-block
For Websense filtering servers, the url-block url-size command allows filtering of long URLs, up to 4
KB. For both Websense and N2H2 filtering servers, the url-block block command causes the
PIX Firewall to buffer packets received from a web server in response to a web client request while
waiting for a response from the URL filtering server. This improves performance for the web client
compared to the default PIX Firewall behavior, which is to drop the packets and to require the web server
to retransmit the packets if the connection is permitted.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
9-8
78-14890-01
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
url-block
If you use the url-block block command and the filtering server permits the connection, the
PIX Firewall sends the blocks to the web client from the HTTP response buffer and removes the blocks
from the buffer. If the filtering server denies the connection, the PIX Firewall sends a deny message to
the web client and removes the blocks from the HTTP response buffer.
[no] url-block block block_buffer_limit
clear url-block block stat
show url-block block stat
Websense only:
[no] url-block url-mempool memory_pool_size
[no] url-block url-size long_url_size
Syntax Description
block
block_buffer_limit
Creates an HTTP response buffer to store web server responses while
waiting for a filtering decision from the filtering server. The permitted
values are from 0 to 128, with specifies the number of 1550-byte blocks.
stat
Displays block buffer usage statistics.
url-mempool
memory_pool_size
For Websense URL filtering only. The size of the URL buffer memory pool
in Kilobytes (KB). The permitted values are from 2 to 10240, which
specifies a URL buffer memory pool from 2 KB to 10240 KB.
url-size long_url_size
For Websense URL filtering only. The maximum allowed URL size in KB.
The permitted values are 2, 3, or 4, which specifies a maximum URL size
of 2 KB, 3 KB, or 4KB.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
Use the url-block block command to specify the number of blocks to use for buffering web server
responses while waiting for a filtering decision from the filtering server.
Use the url-block url-size command with the url-block url-mempool command to specify the
maximum length of a URL to be filtered by a Websense filtering server and the maximum memory to
assign to the URL buffer. Use these commands to pass URLs longer than 1159 bytes, up to a maximum
of 4096 bytes, to the Websense server. The url-block url-size command stores URLs longer than 1159
bytes in a buffer and then passes the URL to the Websense server (through a TCP packet stream) so that
the Websense server can grant or deny access to that URL.
The clear url-block block stat command clears the block buffer usage counters, except for the Current
counter.
number of packets held (global)
The show url-block block stat command displays the number of packets held in the url-block buffer
and the number (if any) dropped due to exceeding the buffer limit or retransmission.
Examples
The following example illustrates the use of the show url-block block stat and clear url-block block
stat commands:
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
9-9
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
url-cache
pixfirewall(config)# sh url-block block stat
URL Pending Packet Buffer Stats with max block 128
----------------------------------------------------Cumulative number of packets held:
896
Maximum number of packets held (per URL):
3
Current number of packets held (global):
38
Packets dropped due to
exceeding url-block buffer limit:
7546
HTTP server retransmission:
10
Number of packets released back to client:
0
pixfirewall(config)# sh url-block
url-block url-mempool 128
url-block url-size 4
url-block block 128
pixfirewall(config)# clear url-block block stat
pixdocipsec1(config)# show url-block block stat
URL Pending Packet Buffer Stats with max block 0
----------------------------------------------------Cumulative number of packets held:
0
Maximum number of packets held (per URL):
0
Current number of packets held (global):
38
Packets dropped due to
exceeding url-block buffer limit:
0
HTTP server retransmission:
0
Number of packets released back to client:
0
url-cache
Caches URL access privileges that were previously retrieved from a Websense or N2H2 server.
[no] url-cache {dst | src_dst} size kbytes
clear url-cache
show url-cache stats
Syntax Description
Command Modes
dst
Cache entries based on the URL destination address. Select this mode if all users
share the same URL filtering policy on the N2H2 or Websense server.
size kbytes
Specifies a value for the cache size within the range 1 to 128 KB.
src_dst
Cache entries based on the both the source address initiating the URL request as
well as the URL destination address. Select this mode if users do not share the
same URL filtering policy on the N2H2 or Websense server.
stat
Use the stat option to display additional URL cache statistics, including the
number of cache lookups and hit rate.
Configuration mode.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
9-10
78-14890-01
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
url-cache
Usage Guidelines
The url-cache command provides a configuration option to allow the PIX to cache previously retrieved
URL access privileges from a Websense or N2H2 server.
Use the url-cache command to enable URL caching, set the size of the cache, and display cache
statistics.
Caching stores URL access privileges in memory on the PIX Firewall. When a host requests a
connection, the PIX Firewall first looks in the URL cache for matching access privileges instead of
forwarding the request to the N2H2 or Websense server. Disable caching with the no url-cache
command.
The clear url-cache command removes url-cache command statements from the configuration.
Using the URL cache does not update the Websense accounting logs for Websense protocol Version 1.
If you are using Websense protocol Version 1, let Websense run to accumulate logs so you can view the
Websense accounting information. After you get a usage profile that meets your security needs, enable
url-cache to increase throughput. Accounting logs are updated for Websense protocol Version 4 and for
N2H2 URL filtering while using the url-cache command.
Note
If you change settings on the N2H2 or Websense server, disable the cache with the no url-cache
command and then reenable the cache with the url-cache command.
The show url-cache command with the stats option displays the following entries:
•
Size—The size of the cache in kilobytes, set with the url-cache size option.
•
Entries—The maximum number of cache entries based on the cache size.
•
In Use—The current number of entries in the cache.
•
Lookups—The number of times the PIX Firewall has looked for a cache entry.
•
Hits—The number of times the PIX Firewall has found an entry in the cache.
You can view additional information about N2H2 or Websense filtering acitivity with the
show perfmon command.
Examples
The following example caches all outbound HTTP connections based on the source and destination
addresses:
url-cache src_dst 128
The following is sample output from the show url-cache stat command:
show url-cache stat
URL Filter Cache Stats
---------------------Size :
1KB
Entries :
36
In Use :
30
Lookups :
300
Hits :
290
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
9-11
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
url-server
url-server
Designate a server running either N2H2 or Websense for use with the filter command; you cannot run
both of these URL filtering services simultaneously.
N2H2
[no] url-server [(if_name)] vendor n2h2 host local_ip [port number] [timeout seconds] [protocol
{TCP | UDP}]
Websense
[no] url-server [(if_name)] vendor websense host local_ip [timeout seconds] [protocol {TCP |
UDP} version]
show url-server
show url-server stats
Syntax Description
N2H2
host local_ip
The server that runs the URL filtering application.
if_name
The network interface where the authentication server resides. If not specified, the
default is inside.
port number
The N2H2 server port. The PIX Firewall also listens for UDP replies on this port.
The default port number is 4005.
protocol
The protocol can be configured using TCP or UDP keywords. The default is TCP.
timeout seconds
The maximum idle time permitted before PIX Firewall switches to the next server
you specified. The default is 5 seconds.
vendor n2h2
Indicates URL filtering service vendor is N2H2.
Websense
if_name
The network interface where the authentication server resides. If not specified, the
default is inside.
host local_ip
The server that runs the URL filtering application.
timeout seconds
The maximum idle time permitted before PIX Firewall switches to the next server
you specified. The default is 5 seconds.
protocol
The protocol can be configured using TCP or UDP keywords. The default is TCP
protocol, Version 1.
vendor
websense
Indicates URL filtering service vendor is Websense.
version
Specifies protocol Version 1 or 4. The default is TCP protocol Version 1. TCP can
be configured using Version 1 or Version 4. UDP can be configured using Version
4 only.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
9-12
78-14890-01
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
url-server
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The url-server command designates the server running the N2H2 or Websense URL filtering
application. The limit is 16 URL servers; however, and you can use only one application at a time, either
N2H2 or Websense. Additionally, changing your configuration on the PIX Firewall does not update the
configuration on the application server; this must be done separately, according to the individual
vendor’s instructions.
Once you designate the server, enable the URL filtering service with the filter command.
Follow these steps to filter URLs:
Step 1
Designate the URL filtering application server with the appropriate form of the vendor-specific
url-server command.
Step 2
Enable URL filtering with the filter command.
Step 3
(Optional) Use the url-cache command to enable URL caching to improve perceived response time.
Step 4
(Optional) Enable long URL and HTTP buffering support using the url-block commands.
Step 5
Use the show url-block block stats, show url-cache stats, show url-server stats, and the show pdm
commands to view run information.
For more information about Filtering by N2H2, visit N2H2's website at:
http://www.n2h2.com
For more information on Websense filtering services, visit the following website:
http://www.websense.com/
The url-server command must be configured before issuing the filter command for HTTPS and FTP. If
all URL servers are removed from the server list, then all filter commands related to URL filtering are
also removed.
show url-server commands
The show url-server stats command displays the URL server vendor; number of URLs total, allowed,
and denied; number of HTTPS connections total, allowed, and denied; number of TCP connections total,
allowed, and denied; and the URL server status.
The show url-server command displays the following information:
Examples
•
For N2H2, url-server (if_name) vendor n2h2 host local_ip port number timeout seconds protocol
[{TCP | UDP}{version 1 | 4}]
•
For Websense, url-server (if_name) vendor websense host local_ip timeout seconds protocol
[{TCP | UDP}]
Using N2H2, the following example filters all outbound HTTP connections except those from the
10.0.2.54 host:
url-server (perimeter) vendor n2h2 host 10.0.1.1
filter url http 0 0 0 0
filter url except 10.0.2.54 255.255.255.255 0 0
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
9-13
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
username
Using Websense, the following example filters all outbound HTTP connections except those from the
10.0.2.54 host:
url-server (perimeter) vendor websense host 10.0.1.1
filter url http 0 0 0 0
filter url except 10.0.2.54 255.255.255.255 0 0
The following is sample output from the show url-server stats command:
pixfirewall# show url-server stats
URL Server Statistics:
---------------------Vendor websense
HTTPs total/allowed/denied 0/0/0
HTTPSs total/allowed/denied 0/0/0
FTPs total/allowed/denied 0/0/0
URL Server Status:
-----------------172.23.58.103 UP
URL Packets Send and Recieve Stats:
-----------------------------------Message Send Recieve
STATUS_REQUEST 200 200
LOOKUP_REQUEST 10 10
LOG_REQUEST 20 NA
Related Commands
•
aaa authorization
•
filter
•
show
username
Sets the username for the specified privilege level.
username username {[{nopassword | password password} [encrypted]] [privilege level]}
no username username
clear username
show username username
Syntax Description
username
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Specifies the name of a specific user in the local PIX Firewall authentication
database.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
9-14
78-14890-01
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
virtual
Usage Guidelines
The local PIX Firewall user authentication database consists of the users entered with the username
command. The PIX Firewall login command uses this database for authentication.
The show username username command displays users entered in the local PIX Firewall user
authentication database.
Related Commands
•
login
•
privilege
virtual
Access the PIX Firewall virtual server.
virtual http ip_address [warn]
virtual telnet ip_address
Syntax Description
ip_address
For outbound use, ip_address must be an address routed to the PIX Firewall. Use an
RFC 1918 address that is not in use on any interface.
For inbound use, ip_address must be an unused global address. An access-list and
static command pair must provide access to ip_address, as well as an aaa accounting
authentication command statement. See the “Examples” section for more
information.
For example, if an inside client at 192.168.0.100 has a default gateway set to the inside
interface of the PIX Firewall at 192.168.0.1, the ip_address can be any IP address not
in use on that segment (such as 10.2.3.4). As another example, if the inside client at
192.168.0.100 has a default gateway other than the PIX Firewall (such as a router at
192.168.0.254), then the ip_address would need to be set to a value that would get
statically routed to the PIX Firewall. This might be accomplished by using a value of
10.0.0.1 for the ip_address, then on the client, setting the PIX Firewall at 192.168.0.1
as the route to host 10.0.0.1.
warn
Let virtual http command users know that the command was redirected. This option
is only applicable for text-based browsers where the redirect cannot happen
automatically.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The virtual http command lets web browsers work correctly with the PIX Firewall aaa command. The
aaa command assumes that the AAA server database is shared with a web server. PIX Firewall
automatically provides the AAA server and web server with the same information. The virtual http
command works with the aaa command to authenticate the user, separate the AAA server information
from the web client’s URL request, and direct the web client to the web server. Use the show virtual
http command to list commands in the configuration. Use the no virtual http command to disable its
use.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
9-15
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
virtual
The virtual http command works by redirecting the web browser’s initial connection to the ip_address,
which resides in the PIX Firewall, authenticating the user, then redirecting the browser back to the URL
which the user originally requested. This mechanism comprises the PIX Firewall unit’s new virtual
server feature. The reason this command is named as it is, is because the virtual http command accesses
the virtual server for use with HTTP, another name for the Web. This command is especially useful for
PIX Firewall interoperability with Microsoft IIS, but is useful for other authentication servers.
When using HTTP authentication to a site running Microsoft IIS that has “Basic text authentication” or
“NT Challenge” enabled, users may be denied access from the Microsoft IIS server. This occurs because
the browser appends the string: “Authorization: Basic=Uuhjksdkfhk==” to the HTTP GET commands.
This string contains the PIX Firewall authentication credentials.
Windows NT Microsoft IIS servers respond to the credentials and assume that a Windows NT user is
trying to access privileged pages on the server. Unless the PIX Firewall username password
combination is exactly the same as a valid Windows NT username and password combination on the
Microsoft IIS server, the HTTP GET command is denied.
To solve this problem, PIX Firewall provides the virtual http command which redirects the browser's
initial connection to another IP address, authenticates the user, then redirects the browser back to the
URL which the user originally requested.
Once authenticated, a user never has to reauthenticate no matter how low the PIX Firewall uauth timeout
is set. This is because the browser caches the “Authorization: Basic=Uuhjksdkfhk==” string in every
subsequent connection to that particular site. This can only be cleared when the user exits all instances
of Netscape Navigator or Internet Explorer and restarts. Flushing the cache is of no use.
If you want double authentication through the authentication and web browser, configure the
authentication server to not accept anonymous connections.
Note
Do not set the timeout uauth duration to 0 seconds when using the virtual command because this will
prevent HTTP connections to the real web server.
For both the virtual http and virtual telnet commands, if the connection is started on either an outside
or perimeter interface, a static and access-list command pair is required for the fictitious IP address.
The virtual telnet command allows the Virtual Telnet server to provide a way to pre-authenticate users
who require connections through the PIX Firewall using services or protocols that do not support
authentication.
The virtual telnet command can be used both to log in and log out of the PIX Firewall. When an
unauthenticated user Telnets to the virtual IP address, they are challenged for their username and
password, and then authenticated with the TACACS+ or RADIUS server. Once authenticated, they see
the message “Authentication Successful” and their authentication credentials are cached in the
PIX Firewall for the duration of the uauth timeout.
If a user wishes to log out and clear their entry in the PIX Firewall uauth cache, the user can again Telnet
to the virtual address. The user is prompted for their username and password, the PIX Firewall removes
the associated credentials from the uauth cache, and the user will receive a “Logout Successful”
message.
If inbound users on either the perimeter or outside interfaces need access to the Virtual Telnet server, a
static and access-list command pair must accompany use of the virtual telnet command.
The Virtual Telnet server provides a way to pre-authenticate users who require connections through the
PIX Firewall using services or protocols that do not support authentication. Users first connect to the
Virtual Telnet server IP address, where the user is prompted for a username and password.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
9-16
78-14890-01
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
virtual
Examples
•
virtual http—The following example shows the commands required to use the virtual http
command for an inbound connection:
static (inside, outside) 209.165.201.1 209.165.201.1 netmask 255.255.255.255
access-list acl_out permit tcp any host 209.165.201.1 eq 80
access-group acl_out in interface outside
aaa authentication include any inbound 209.165.201.1 255.255.255.255 0 0 tacacs+
virtual http 209.165.201.1
This configuration uses an identity static, where both the global IP address and the local address in
the static command is the IP address of the virtual server.
The next example is sample output from the show virtual command:
show virtual http
virtual http 209.165.201.1
•
virtual telnet—After adding the virtual telnet command to the configuration and writing the
configuration to Flash memory, users wanting to start PPTP sessions through PIX Firewall use
Telnet to access the ip_address as shown in the following example:
On the PIX Firewall:
virtual telnet 209.165.201.25
static (inside, outside) 209.165.201.25 209.165.201.25 netmask 255.255.255.255
access-list acl_out permit tcp any host 209.165.201.25 eq telnet
access-group acl_out in interface outside
write memory
This configuration uses an identity static, where both the global IP address and the local address in
the static command is the IP address of the virtual server.
On an inside host:
/unix/host%telnet 209.165.201.30
Trying 209.165.201.25...
Connected to 209.165.201.25.
Escape character is ‘^]’.
username: username
TACACS+ Password: password
Authentication Successful
Connection closed by foreign host.
/unix/host%
The username and password are those for the user on the TACACS+ server.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
9-17
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
vpdn
vpdn
Configure Virtual Private Dial-up Networking using the L2TP, PPTP, or PPPoE.
vpdn group group_name [[accept dialin pptp | l2tp] | request dialout pppoe] | [ ppp
authentication pap|chap|mschap] | [ppp encryption mppe 40 | 128| auto [required]] | [
client configuration address local address_pool_name ] | [client configuration dns dns_ip1
[dns_ip2]] | [ client configuration wins wins_ip1 [wins_ip2]] | [client authentication local |
aaa auth_aaa_group] | [ client accounting acct_aaa_group] | [pptp echo echo_time] | [ l2tp
tunnel hello hello_time]
vpdn username name password passwd [store-local]
vpdn enable if_name
show vpdn tunnel [l2tp|pptp|pppoe] [id tnl_id | packets | state | summary | transport]
show vpdn session [l2tp|pptp|pppoe] [id sess_id | packets | state| window]
show vpdn pppinterface [id dev_id]
show vpdn group [group_name]
show vpdn username [user_name]
clear vpdn [group | interface| tunnel tnl_id | username]
Syntax Description
accept dialin pptp|l2tp
pptp
Accept a dial-in request using PPTP or L2TP.
all
[clear command only]—Removes all L2TP or PPTP tunnels from the
configuration.
client accounting
aaa-server-group
Specifies the AAA server group for accounting. The accounting AAA
server group can be different from the AAA server group for user
authentication.
client authentication aaa Specifies the AAA server group for user authentication.
aaa_server_group
client authentication
local
Authenticate using the local username and password entries you specify
in the PIX Firewall configuration.
client configuration
address local
address_pool_name
Specifies the local address pool used to allocate an IP address to a client.
Use the ip local pool command to specify the IP addresses for use by the
clients.
client configuration dns
dns_server_ip1
[dns_server_ip2]
Specifies up to two DNS server IP addresses. If set, the PIX Firewall
sends this information to the Windows client during the IPCP phase of
PPP negotiation.
client configuration wins Specifies up to two WINS server IP addresses.
wins_server_ip1
[wins_server_ip2]
enable if_name
Enable the VPDN function on a PIX Firewall interface. Specifies the
interface in if_name where L2TP or PPTP traffic is received. Only
inbound connections are supported.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
9-18
78-14890-01
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
vpdn
group
[clear command only]—Removes all vpdn group commands from the
configuration.
group group_name
Specifies the VPDN group name. The VPDN group_name is an ASCII
string to denote a VPDN group. You can make up the name. The
maximum length is 63 characters.
id
Identify tunnel or session.
id session_id
Unique session identifier.
id tnl_id
Unique tunnel identifier.
l2tp | pptp | pppoe
Select either l2tp, pptp, or pppoe to display information for only that tunnel
type.
l2tp tunnel hello
hello_timeout
Specifies L2TP tunnel keep-alive hello timeout value in seconds. Default is
60 seconds if not specified. The value can be between10 to 300 seconds.
Assigns a name to the group for PPPoE use. This is also the name in the
vpdn username command.
localname username
packets
Packet and byte count.
passwd
Specifies the password for the local group used for PPPoE.
password
Specifies local user password.
ppp authentication PAP
| CHAP | MSCHAP
Specifies the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) authentication protocol. The
Windows client dial-up networking settings lets you specify what
authentication protocol to use (PAP, CHAP, or MS-CHAP). Whatever
you specify on the client must match the setting you use on the
PIX Firewall. Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) lets PPP peers
authenticate each other. PAP passes the host name or username in clear
text. Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) lets PPP
peers prevent unauthorized access through interaction with an access
server. MS-CHAP is a Microsoft derivation of CHAP. PIX Firewall
supports MS-CHAP Version 1 only (not Version 2.0).
If an authentication protocol is not specified on the host, do not specify
the ppp authentication option in your configuration.
ppp encryption mppe 40 Specifies the number of session key bits used for MPPE (Microsoft
| 128 | auto [required]
Point-to-Point Encryption) negotiation. The domestic version of the
Windows client can support 40- and 128-bit session keys, but
international version of the Windows client only supports 40-bit session
keys. On the PIX Firewall, use auto to accommodate both. Use required
to indicate that MPPE must be negotiated or the connection will be
terminated.
pppinterface id intf_id
A PPP virtual interface is created for each PPTP or PPPoE tunnel.
pptp echo echo_timeout
Specifies the PPTP keep-alive echo timeout value in seconds.
PIX Firewall terminates a tunnel if an echo reply is not received within
the timeout period you specify.
request dialout pppoe
Specifies to allow dialout PPPoE requests.
state
Session state.
store-local
Store in local Flash memory instead of using external configuration.
summary
Tunnel summary information.
transport
Tunnel transport information.
tunnel
[clear command only]—Removes one or more L2TP or PPTP tunnels
from the configuration.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
9-19
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
vpdn
tunnel tnl_id
[clear command only]—Removes PPTP tunnels from the configuration
that match tnl_id. You can view the tunnel IDs with the show vpdn
tunnel command.
username name
Enter or display local username. However, when used as a clear
command option, username removes all vpdn username commands
from the configuration.
window
Window information.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
Virtual Private Dial-up Networking (VPDN) is used to provide long distance, point-to-point connections
between remote dial-in users and a private network. VDPN uses Layer 2 tunnelling technologies (L2TP,
PPTP, and PPPOE) to establish dial-up networking connections from the remote user to the private
network across a public network.
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a Layer 2 protocol that tunnels the IP protocol. (For more
details on PPTP, see RFC 2637, which describes the PPTP protocol.)
L2TP supports PPP by managing communications transactions. (There is a one-to-one relationship
between a PPP connection and L2TP session.)
PPPOE is the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) over Ethernet. PPP is designed to work with network layer
protocols such as IP, IPX, and ARA. PPP also has CHAP and PAP as built-in security mechanisms.
The vpdn command implements the L2TP, PPTP, and PPPoE features for the inbound connections.
Refer to the Cisco PIX Firewall and VPN Configuration Guide for L2TP, PPTP, and PPPOE
configuration examples.
Note
The PIX Firewall is a PPTP and L2TP Server and a PPPoE client.
The show vpdn tunnel and show vpdn session commands display tunnel and session information
(respectively) for LT2P (l2tp), PPTP (pptp), and PPPOE (pppoe). If you want to display information for
only one protocol, use the option for that protocol. For example, the show vpdn session pppoe command
displays session information for PPPOE sessions only.
The clear vpdn command removes all vpdn commands from the configuration and stops all the active
PPTP, L2TP, and PPPoE tunnels. The clear vpdn all command lets you remove all tunnels, and the clear
vpdn id tnl_id command lets you remove tunnels associated with tnl_id. (You can view the tnl_id with
the show vpdn command.) The clear vpdn group command removes all the vpdn group commands
from the configuration. The clear vpdn username command removes all the vpdn username
commands from the configuration.
PPPoE
Because PPPoE encapsulates PPP, PPPoE relies on PPP to perform authentication and ECP and CCP
functions for client sessions operating within the VPN tunnel. Additionally, PPPoE is not supported in
conjunction with DHCP because PPP assigns the IP address for PPPoE.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
9-20
78-14890-01
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
vpdn
The following are PPPoE restrictions on the PIX Firewall:
Note
•
The PIX Firewall acts as a PPPoE client only.
•
The PPPoE client is only supported on the outside interface of the PIX Firewall in PIX Firewall
software Version 6.2.
Unless the VPDN group for PPPoE is configured, PPPoE will not be able to establish a connection.
To define a VPDN group to be used for PPPoE, use the vpdn group group_name request dialout pppoe
command.
If your ISP requires authentication, use the vpdn group group_name ppp authentication
PAP | CHAP | MSCHAP command to select the authentication protocol used by your ISP.
Use the vpdn group group_name localname username command to associate the username assigned by
your ISP with the VPDN group.
Use the vpdn username username password pass command to create a username and password pair for
the PPPoE connection. The username must be a username that is already associated with the VPDN
group specified for PPPoE.
Note
If your ISP is using CHAP or MS-CHAP, the username may be called the remote system name and the
password may be called the CHAP secret.
The PPPoE client functionality is turned off by default, so after VPDN configuration, enable PPPoE with
the ip address if_name pppoe [setroute] command. The setroute option causes a default route to be
created if no default route exists.
As soon as PPPoE is configured, the PIX Firewall attempts to find a PPPoE access concentrator with
which to communicate. When a PPPoE connection is terminated, either normally or abnormally, the
PIX Firewall attempts to find a new access concentrator with which to communicate.
The following ip address commands should not be used after a PPPoE session is initiated because they
will terminate the PPPoE session:
•
ip address outside pppoe, because it attempts to initiate a new PPPoE session.
•
ip address outside dhcp, because it disables the interface until the interface gets its DHCP
configuration.
•
ip address outside address netmask, because it brings up the interface as a normally initialized
interface.
PPTP
Use the vpdn command with the sysopt connection permit-pptp to allow PPTP traffic to bypass
checking of conduit or access-list command statements.
You can troubleshoot PPTP traffic with the debug ppp and debug vpdn commands.
PPTP is an alternative to IPSec handling for VPN clients or Easy VPN Remote devices. While PPTP is
less secure than IPSec, PPTP is easier to implement and maintain. Only inbound PPTP connections are
supported and only one PIX Firewall interface can have the vpdn command enabled.
Supported authentication protocols include: PAP, CHAP, and MS-CHAP using external AAA (RADIUS
or TACACS+) servers or the PIX Firewall local username and password database. Through the PPP
IPCP protocol negotiation, PIX Firewall assigns a dynamic internal IP address to the PPTP client
allocated from a locally defined IP address pool.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
9-21
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
vpdn
PIX Firewall PPTP VPN supports standard PPP CCP negotiations with Microsoft Point-To-Point
Encryption (MPPE) extensions using RSA/RC4 algorithm. MPPE currently supports 40-bit and 128-bit
session keys. MPPE generates an initial key during user authentication and refreshes the key regularly.
In this release, compression is not supported.
When you specify MPPE, you must use the MS-CHAP PPP authentication protocol. If you are using an
external AAA server, the protocol must be RADIUS and the external RADIUS server must be able to
return the Microsoft MSCHAP_MPPE_KEY attribute to the PIX Firewall in the RADIUS
Authentication Accept packet. See RFC 2548, “Microsoft Vendor Specific RADIUS Attributes,” for
more information on the MSCHAP_MPPE_KEY attribute.
Cisco Secure ACS 2.5 and higher versions support the MSCHAP/MPPE encryption.
PIX Firewall PPTP VPN has been tested with the following Microsoft Windows products: Windows 95
with DUN 1.3, Windows 98, Windows NT 4.0 with Service Pack (SP) 6, and Windows 2000.
Note
Examples
If you configure PIX Firewall for 128-bit encryption and if a Windows 95 or Windows 98 client does
not support 128-bit or greater encryption, then the connection to the PIX Firewall is refused. When this
occurs, the Windows client moves the dial-up connection menu down to the screen corner while the PPP
negotiation is in progress. This gives the appearance that the connection is accepted when it is not. When
the PPP negotiation completes, the tunnel terminates and PIX Firewall ends the connection. The
Windows client eventually times out and disconnects.
The following is a sample PPPoE configuration:
vpdn
vpdn
vpdn
vpdn
group pppoegroup request dialout pppoe
group pppoegroup localname myusername
group pppoegroup ppp authentication pap
username myusername password mypassword
ip address outside pppoe setroute
The VPDN commands configure a VPDN group for PPPoE, and the ip address outside pppoe setroute
command enables the PPPoE session.
The following is sample output from the show vpdn tunnel l2tp command:
pix# show vpdn tunnel l2tp
L2TP Tunnel Information (Total tunnels=1 sessions=1)
Tunnel id 1 is up, remote id is 7, 1 active sessions
Tunnel state is established, time since change 12 secs
Remote Internet Address 172.122.16.8, port 1701
Local Internet Address 172.23.58.48, port 1701
15 packets sent, 48 received, 377 bytes sent, 4368 received
Control Ns 3, Nr 4
Local RWS 16, Remote RWS 8
Retransmission time 1, max 1 seconds
Unsent queuesize 0, max 0
Resend queuesize 0, max 1
Total resends 0, ZLB ACKs 2
Retransmit time distribution: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
pix#
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
9-22
78-14890-01
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
vpdn
The following is sample output from the show vpdn tunnel command:
pix# show vpdn tunnel
L2TP Tunnel Information (Total tunnels=1 sessions=1)
Tunnel id 1 is up, remote id is 7, 1 active sessions
Tunnel state is established, time since change 12 secs
Remote Internet Address 172.122.16.8, port 1701
Local Internet Address 172.23.58.48, port 1701
15 packets sent, 48 received, 377 bytes sent, 4368 received
Control Ns 3, Nr 4
Local RWS 16, Remote RWS 8
Retransmission time 1, max 1 seconds
Unsent queuesize 0, max 0
Resend queuesize 0, max 1
Total resends 0, ZLB ACKs 2
Retransmit time distribution: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
% No active PPTP tunnels
pix#
The following is sample output from the show vpdn tunnel packet command:
show vpdn tunnel packet
PPTP Tunnel Information (Total tunnels=1 sessions=1)
LocID
1
Pkts-In
1196
Pkts-Out
13
Bytes-In Bytes-Out
113910
420
The following is sample output from the show vpdn tunnel state command:
show vpdn tunnel state
PPTP Tunnel Information (Total tunnels=1 sessions=1)
LocID RemID
1
1
State
estabd
Time-Since-Event-Chg
6 secs
The following is sample output from the show vpdn tunnel summary command:
show vpdn tunnel summary
PPTP Tunnel Information (Total tunnels=1 sessions=1)
LocID RemID
1
1
State Remote Address
estabd
172.16.38.194
Port
1723
Sessions
1
The following is sample output from the show vpdn tunnel transport command:
show vpdn tunnel transport
PPTP Tunnel Information (Total tunnels=1 sessions=1)
LocID Type Local Address
1 IP
172.16.1.209
Port
1723
Remote Address
172.16.38.194
Port
1723
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
9-23
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
vpdn
The following is sample output from the show vpdn session command:
pix# show vpdn session
L2TP Session Information (Total tunnels=1 sessions=1)
Call id 1 is up on tunnel id 1
Remote tunnel name is abc-win2ke2
Internet Address is 172.122.16.8
Session username is guest, state is established
Time since change 158 secs, interface outside
Remote call id is 1
PPP interface id is 1
15 packets sent, 83 received, 377 bytes sent, 8412 received
Sequencing is off
% No active PPTP tunnels
The following is sample output of a simple configuration that allows Windows PPTP clients to dial in
without any authentication (not recommended). The Windows client can Telnet to internal host
192.168.0.2 through the static global address 209.165.201.2.
ip local pool my-addr-pool 10.1.1.1-10.1.1.254
vpdn group 1 accept dialin pptp
vpdn group 1 client configuration address local my-addr-pool
vpdn enable outside
static (inside, outside) 209.165.201.2 192.168.0.2
access-list acl_out permit tcp 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 host 209.165.201.2 eq telnet
access-group acl_out in interface outside
In the next example, PPTP clients authenticate using MS-CHAP and negotiate MPPE encryption with
the PIX Firewall. The PPTP client can Telnet to host 192.168.0.2 through the static global
209.165.201.2. The Telnet session will be encrypted.
ip local pool my-addr-pool 10.1.1.1-10.1.1.254
aaa-server my-aaa-server-group (inside) host 192.168.0.10 key 12345678
aaa-server my-aaa-server-group protocol radius
vpdn group 1 accept dialin pptp
vpdn group 1 ppp authentication mschap
vpdn group 1 client authentication aaa my-aaa-server-group
vpdn group 1 ppp encryption mppe auto required
vpdn group 1 client configuration address local my-addr-pool
vpdn enable outside
static (inside, outside) 209.165.201.2 192.168.0.2
access-list acl_out permit tcp 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 host 209.165.201.2 eq telnet
access-group acl_out in interface outside
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
9-24
78-14890-01
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
vpdn
In the next example, PPTP clients authenticate using MS-CHAP, negotiate MPPE encryption, receive
the DNS and WINS server addresses, and can Telnet to the host 192.168.0.2 directly through the nat 0
command statement.
ip local pool my-addr-pool 10.1.1.1-10.1.1.254
aaa-server my-aaa-server-group (inside) host 192.168.0.10 key 12345678
aaa-server my-aaa-server-group protocol radius
vpdn group 1 accept dialin pptp
vpdn group 1 ppp authentication mschap
vpdn group 1 ppp encryption mppe auto required
vpdn group 1 client configuration address local my-addr-pool
vpdn group 1 client authentication aaa my-aaa-server-group
vpdn group 1 client configuration dns 10.2.2.99
vpdn group 1 client configuration wins 10.2.2.100
vpdn enable outside
access-list nonat permit ip host 192.168.0.2 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
access-list nonat permit ip host 10.2.2.99 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
access-list nonat permit ip host 10.2.2.100 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
nat (inside) 0 access-list nonat
access-list acl_out permit tcp 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 host 192.168.0.2 eq telnet
access-list acl_out permit udp 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 host 10.2.2.99 eq domain
access-list acl_out permit udp 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0 host 10.2.2.100 eq netbios-ns
access-group acl_out in interface outside
In the next example, PPTP clients authenticate using MS-CHAP, negotiate MPPE encryption, receive
the DNS and WINS server addresses, and can Telnet to the host 192.168.0.2 directly through the nat 0
command statement. An access-group command statement is not present because the sysopt connection
permit-pptp command statement allows all the PPTP traffic through the tunnel.
ip local pool my-addr-pool 10.1.1.1-10.1.1.254
aaa-server my-aaa-server-group (inside) host 192.168.0.10 key 12345678
aaa-server my-aaa-server-group protocol radius
vpdn group 1 accept dialin pptp
vpdn group 1 ppp authentication mschap
vpdn group 1 ppp encryption mppe auto required
vpdn group 1 client configuration address local my-addr-pool
vpdn group 1 client authentication aaa my-aaa-server-group
vpdn group 1 client configuration dns 10.2.2.99
vpdn group 1 client configuration wins 10.2.2.100
vpdn enable outside
access-list nonat permit ip host 192.168.0.2 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
access-list nonat permit ip host 10.2.2.99 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
access-list nonat permit ip host 10.2.2.100 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
nat (inside) 0 access-list nonat
sysopt connection permit-pptp
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
9-25
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
vpnclient
In the next example, PPTP clients authenticate using MS-CHAP, negotiate MPPE encryption, receive
the DNS and WINS server addresses, and can Telnet to the host 192.168.0.2 directly through the nat 0
command. The PPTP authenticates using the PIX Firewall local username and password database you
create with the vpdn username command. Users are reauthenticated again by the aaa command when
they start a Telnet session. An access-group command statement is not present because the sysopt
connection permit-pptp command statement allows all the PPTP traffic through the tunnel.
ip local pool my-addr-pool 10.1.1.1-10.1.1.254
aaa-server my-aaa-server-group (inside) host 192.168.0.10 key 12345678
aaa-server my-aaa-server-group protocol radius
vpdn username usrname1 password password1
vpdn group 1 accept dialin pptp
vpdn group 1 ppp authentication mschap
vpdn group 1 ppp encryption mppe auto required
vpdn group 1 client configuration address local my-addr-pool
vpdn group 1 client authentication local
vpdn group 1 client configuration dns 10.2.2.99
vpdn group 1 client configuration wins 10.2.2.100
vpdn enable outside
access-list nonat permit ip host 192.168.0.2 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
access-list nonat permit ip host 10.2.2.99 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
access-list nonat permit ip host 10.2.2.100 10.1.1.0 255.255.255.0
nat (inside) 0 access-list nonat
sysopt connection permit-pptp
aaa authentication include telnet inbound 192.168.0.2 255.255.255.255 10.1.1.0
255.255.255.0
vpnclient
Configures Easy VPN Remote.
vpnclient vpngroup group_name password preshared_key
vpnclient username xauth_username password xauth_password
vpnclient server ip_primary [ip_secondary_1 ip_secondary_2 ... ip_secondary_10]
vpnclient mac-exempt mac_addr_1 mac_mask_1 [mac_addr_2 mac_mask_2]
vpnclient mode client-mode | network-extension-mode
vpnclient management {[tunnel {ip_addr_1 ip_mask_1} [{ip_addr_2 ip_mask_1}...]] | [clear]}
no vpnclient management
[no] vpnclient connect
vpnclient disconnect
[no] vpnclient nem-st-autoconnect
vpnclient enable
no vpnclient {server | mode | vpngroup | username | mac-exempt | management | enable}
clear vpnclient
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
9-26
78-14890-01
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
vpnclient
show vpnclient [detail]
Syntax Description
group_name
The name of the VPN group configured on the VPN headend. The
maximum length is 63 characters and no spaces are permitted.
ip_addr_1, ip_addr_2, ...
The IP address of the remote network managing the client through the
VPN tunnel.
ip_mask_1, ip_mask_2, ... The IP mask of the remote network managing the client through the VPN
tunnel.
ip_primary
The IP address of the primary Cisco Easy VPN Server.
ip_secondary_1,
ip_secondary_2, ... ,
ip_secondary_10
The IP address of a secondary Cisco Easy VPN Server.
mac_addr_n
The MAC address for user authentication exemption.
mac_mask_n
The MAC mask for user authentication exemption.
management clear
Specifies to use clear network traffic for management access to an Easy
VPN Remote device.
management tunnel
{ip_addr_1 ip_mask_1}
[{ip_addr_2
ip_mask_1}...]
Specifies to use a VPN tunnel for management access to an Easy VPN
Remote device.
nem-st-autoconnect
Specifies to automatically initiate IPSec data tunnels when split tunneling
is configured. Note that IPSec data tunnels are automatically initiated and
sustained when in network extension mode, except when split tunneling
is configured.
password
Specifies to set the password.
preshared_key
The IKE pre-shared key used for authentication by the Easy VPN Server.
The maximum length is 127 characters.
xauth_password
The user password to be used for XAUTH. The maximum length is 127
characters.
xauth_username
The username to be used for XAUTH. The maximum length is 127
characters.
There can be from 1 to 10 secondary Cisco Easy VPN Servers (backup
VPN headends) configured. However, check your platform-specific
documentation for applicable peer limits on your PIX Firewall platform.
Defaults
Easy VPN management is through the network by default.
Command Modes
Configuration mode.
Usage Guidelines
The vpnclient command stores non-transitory Easy VPN Remote device configuration information in
the Flash memory of the PIX Firewall so that it is preserved whether or not the PIX Firewall reboots.
Cisco PIX Firewall Command Reference
78-14890-01
9-27
Chapter 9
T through Z Commands
vpnclient
Note
The PIX 501 and PIX 506/506E are both Easy VPN Remote and Easy VPN Server devices. The
PIX 515/515E, PIX 525, and PIX 535 act as Easy VPN Servers only.
The PIX 501 and PIX 506/506E can act as Easy VPN Remote devices or Easy VPN Servers so that they
can be used either as a client device or VPN headend in a remote office installation. The PIX 515/515E,
PIX 525, and PIX 535 act as Easy VPN Servers only because the capacity of these devices makes them
appropriate VPN headends for higher traffic environments.
Easy VPN management is through clear network traffic by default (vpnclient management clear).
However, if Easy VPN management through a VPN tunnel is desired, use the vpnclient management
tunnel {ip_addr_1 ip_mask_1} [{ip_addr_2 ip_mask_1}...] command.
You must specify all variables for the vpnclient configuration prior to enabling a Easy VPN Remote
connection, except for the xauth_username and xauth_password. Also, you must configure NAT, IKE
(using the isakmp and isakmp policy commands), the crypto ipsec transform set, crypto map, and an
access control list (to trigger building the VPN tunnel) to enable Easy VPN Remote.
The no vpnclient enable command closes all established VPN tunnels and prevents new VPN tunnels
from initiating until you enter a vpnclient enable command. The no vpnclient connect and vpnclient
disconnect commands disconnect the existing VPN sessions but do not prevent new VPN tunnels from
initiating.
The clear vpnclient command clears the Easy VPN Remote configuration and security policy stored in
Flash memory.
The show vpnclient [detail] command displays VPN client or Easy VPN Remote device configuration
information.The show vpnclient [detail] option disp