GEL-1061 and GEP-1061 / GEL-2861 User Manual

GEL-1061
10-Port L2 Managed Gigabit Switch, 2 x SFP
GEP-1061
10-Port L2 Managed Gigabit PoE Switch, 2 x SFP,
802.3at PoE+, 125W
GEL-2861
28-Port L2 Managed Gigabit Switch, 4 x SFP
User Manual
V2.0
Digital Data Communications Asia Co., Ltd.
U se r M a n u a l
GEL-1061
10-Port L2 Managed Gigabit Switch
with 8 10/100/1000BASE-T (RJ-45) Ports
and 2 Gigabit SFP Ports
GEP-1061
10-Port L2 Managed Gigabit PoE Switch
with 8 10/100/1000BASE-T (RJ-45) 802.3 af/at PoE Ports
and 2 Gigabit SFP Ports
(PoE Power Budget: 125 W)
GEL-2861 Managed Gigabit Switch
with 24 10/100/1000BASE-T (RJ-45) Ports
and 4 Gigabit SFP Ports
E052016/ST-R02
150200001416A
How to Use This Guide
This guide includes detailed information on the switch software, including how to
operate and use the management functions of the switch. To deploy this switch
effectively and ensure trouble-free operation, you should first read the relevant
sections in this guide so that you are familiar with all of its software features.
Who Should Read This guide is for network administrators who are responsible for operating and
this Guide? maintaining network equipment. The guide assumes a basic working knowledge of
LANs (Local Area Networks), the Internet Protocol (IP), and Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP).
How this Guide This guide provides detailed information about the switch’s key features. It also
is Organized describes the switch’s web browser interface. For information on the command line
interface refer to the CLI Reference Guide.
The guide includes these sections:
◆
Section I “Getting Started” — Includes an introduction to switch management,
and the basic settings required to access the management interface.
◆
Section II “Web Configuration” — Includes all management options available
through the web browser interface.
◆
Section III “Appendices” — Includes information on troubleshooting switch
management access.
Related This guide focuses on switch software configuration through the web browser.
Documentation
For information on how to manage the switch through the command line interface,
see the following guide:
CLI Reference Guide
Note: For a description of how to initialize the switch for management access via
the CLI, web interface or SNMP, refer to “Initial Switch Configuration” in the CLI
Reference Guide.
– 3 –
How to Use This Guide
For information on how to install the switch, see the following guide:
Installation Guide
For all safety information and regulatory statements, see the following documents:
Quick Start Guide
Safety and Regulatory Information
Conventions The following conventions are used throughout this guide to show information:
Note: Emphasizes important information or calls your attention to related features
or instructions.
Caution: Alerts you to a potential hazard that could cause loss of data, or damage
the system or equipment.
Warning: Alerts you to a potential hazard that could cause personal injury.
Revision History This section summarizes the changes in each revision of this guide.
May 2016 Revision
This is the second version of this guide. This guide is valid for software release
v1.1.2.0. It includes the following change:
◆
Added GEL-2861 model.
March 2016 Revision
This is the first version of this guide. This guide is valid for software release v1.1.2.0.
– 4 –
Contents
Section I
How to Use This Guide
3
Contents
5
Figures
15
Tables
25
Getting Started
27
1 Introduction
29
Key Features
29
Description of Software Features
30
Address Resolution Protocol
34
System Defaults
Section II
35
Web Configuration
39
2 Using the Web Interface
41
Connecting to the Web Interface
41
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
42
Dashboard
42
Home Page
44
Configuration Options
44
Panel Display
45
Main Menu
46
3 Basic Management Tasks
61
Displaying System Information
62
Displaying Hardware/Software Versions
63
Configuring Support for Jumbo Frames
64
– 5 –
Contents
Displaying Bridge Extension Capabilities
65
Managing System Files
67
Copying Files via FTP/ TFTP or HTTP
67
Saving the Running Configuration to a Local File
69
Setting the Start-up File
70
Showing System Files
71
Automatic Operation Code Upgrade
71
Setting the System Clock
75
Setting the Time Manually
76
Setting the SNTP Polling Interval
77
Configuring NTP
77
Configuring Time Servers
78
Setting the Time Zone
82
Configuring Summer Time
83
Configuring the Console Port
85
Configuring Telnet Settings
87
Displaying CPU Utilization
88
Configuring CPU Guard
89
Displaying Memory Utilization
90
Resetting the System
91
4 Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
95
96
Configuring by Port List
96
Configuring by Port Range
98
Displaying Connection Status
99
Showing Port or Trunk Statistics
100
Displaying Statistical History
104
Displaying Transceiver Data
108
Configuring Transceiver Thresholds
109
Trunk Configuration
111
Configuring a Static Trunk
113
Configuring a Dynamic Trunk
115
Displaying LACP Port Counters
121
Displaying LACP Settings and Status for the Local Side
122
– 6 –
Contents
Displaying LACP Settings and Status for the Remote Side
124
Configuring Load Balancing
125
Saving Power
127
Configuring Local Port Mirroring
129
Configuring Remote Port Mirroring
130
Traffic Segmentation
135
Enabling Traffic Segmentation
135
Configuring Uplink and Downlink Ports
136
5 VLAN Configuration
139
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
139
Configuring VLAN Groups
142
Adding Static Members to VLANs
144
Protocol VLANs
148
Configuring Protocol VLAN Groups
149
Mapping Protocol Groups to Interfaces
150
Configuring MAC-based VLANs
6 Address Table Settings
152
155
Configuring MAC Address Learning
155
Setting Static Addresses
157
Changing the Aging Time
159
Displaying the Dynamic Address Table
159
Clearing the Dynamic Address Table
161
Issuing MAC Address Traps
162
7 Spanning Tree Algorithm
165
Overview
165
Configuring Loopback Detection
167
Configuring Global Settings for STA
169
Displaying Global Settings for STA
174
Configuring Interface Settings for STA
175
Displaying Interface Settings for STA
180
Configuring Multiple Spanning Trees
183
Configuring Interface Settings for MSTP
187
– 7 –
Contents
8 Congestion Control
189
Rate Limiting
189
Storm Control
190
9 Class of Service
193
Layer 2 Queue Settings
193
Setting the Default Priority for Interfaces
193
Selecting the Queue Mode
194
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
197
Setting Priority Processing to DSCP or CoS
198
Mapping Ingress DSCP Values to Internal DSCP Values
199
Mapping CoS Priorities to Internal DSCP Values
201
10 Quality of Service
205
Overview
205
Configuring a Class Map
206
Creating QoS Policies
210
Attaching a Policy Map to a Port
214
11 VoIP Traffic Configuration
217
Overview
217
Configuring VoIP Traffic
218
Configuring Telephony OUI
219
Configuring VoIP Traffic Ports
220
12 Security Measures
223
AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting)
224
Configuring Local/Remote Logon Authentication
225
Configuring Remote Logon Authentication Servers
226
Configuring AAA Accounting
231
Configuring AAA Authorization
237
Configuring User Accounts
241
Network Access (MAC Address Authentication)
243
Configuring Global Settings for Network Access
245
Configuring Network Access for Ports
246
Configuring a MAC Address Filter
248
Displaying Secure MAC Address Information
249
– 8 –
Contents
Configuring HTTPS
251
Configuring Global Settings for HTTPS
251
Replacing the Default Secure-site Certificate
252
Configuring the Secure Shell
254
Configuring the SSH Server
256
Generating the Host Key Pair
258
Importing User Public Keys
259
Access Control Lists
261
Showing TCAM Utilization
262
Setting the ACL Name and Type
264
Configuring a Standard IPv4 ACL
266
Configuring an Extended IPv4 ACL
267
Configuring a Standard IPv6 ACL
269
Configuring an Extended IPv6 ACL
271
Configuring a MAC ACL
273
Configuring an ARP ACL
275
Binding a Port to an Access Control List
277
Showing ACL Hardware Counters
278
ARP Inspection
279
Configuring Global Settings for ARP Inspection
280
Configuring VLAN Settings for ARP Inspection
282
Configuring Interface Settings for ARP Inspection
284
Displaying ARP Inspection Statistics
285
Displaying the ARP Inspection Log
286
Filtering IP Addresses for Management Access
287
Configuring Port Security
289
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
291
Configuring 802.1X Global Settings
293
Configuring Port Authenticator Settings for 802.1X
294
Displaying 802.1X Statistics
298
DHCP Snooping
299
DHCP Snooping Global Configuration
302
DHCP Snooping VLAN Configuration
303
Configuring Ports for DHCP Snooping
304
Displaying DHCP Snooping Binding Information
306
– 9 –
Contents
DoS Protection
307
IPv4 Source Guard
308
Configuring Ports for IPv4 Source Guard
308
Configuring Static Bindings for IPv4 Source Guard
311
Displaying Information for Dynamic IPv4 Source Guard Bindings
313
13 Basic Administration Protocols
Configuring Event Logging
315
316
System Log Configuration
316
Remote Log Configuration
318
Sending Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Alerts
319
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
321
Setting LLDP Timing Attributes
321
Configuring LLDP Interface Attributes
323
Configuring LLDP Interface Civic-Address
327
Displaying LLDP Local Device Information
329
Displaying LLDP Remote Device Information
333
Displaying Device Statistics
341
Power over Ethernet
343
Setting the Switch’s Overall PoE Power Budget
344
Setting the Port PoE Power Budget
345
Simple Network Management Protocol
347
Configuring Global Settings for SNMP
349
Setting the Local Engine ID
350
Specifying a Remote Engine ID
351
Setting SNMPv3 Views
353
Configuring SNMPv3 Groups
355
Setting Community Access Strings
362
Configuring Local SNMPv3 Users
363
Configuring Remote SNMPv3 Users
366
Specifying Trap Managers
368
Creating SNMP Notification Logs
372
Showing SNMP Statistics
374
Remote Monitoring
376
Configuring RMON Alarms
– 10 –
377
Contents
Configuring RMON Events
379
Configuring RMON History Samples
381
Configuring RMON Statistical Samples
384
Setting a Time Range
387
LBD Configuration
389
Configuring Global Settings for LBD
390
Configuring Interface Settings for LBD
392
14 Multicast Filtering
393
Overview
393
Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query for IPv4)
394
Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query Parameters
396
Specifying Static Interfaces for a Multicast Router
400
Assigning Interfaces to Multicast Services
402
Setting IGMP Snooping Status per Interface
404
Filtering IGMP Query Packets and Multicast Data
410
Displaying Multicast Groups Discovered by IGMP Snooping
411
Displaying IGMP Snooping Statistics
412
Filtering and Throttling IGMP Groups
416
Enabling IGMP Filtering and Throttling
416
Configuring IGMP Filter Profiles
417
Configuring IGMP Filtering and Throttling for Interfaces
419
MLD Snooping (Snooping and Query for IPv4)
421
Configuring MLD Snooping and Query Parameters
421
Setting Immediate Leave Status for MLD Snooping per Interface
423
Specifying Static Interfaces for an IPv6 Multicast Router
424
Assigning Interfaces to IPv6 Multicast Services
426
Showing MLD Snooping Groups and Source List
428
15 IP Tools
431
Using the Ping Function
431
Using the Trace Route Function
433
Address Resolution Protocol
434
Displaying Dynamic or Local ARP Entries
– 11 –
435
Contents
16 IP Services
437
Domain Name Service
437
Configuring General DNS Service Parameters
437
Configuring a List of Domain Names
438
Configuring a List of Name Servers
440
Configuring Static DNS Host to Address Entries
441
Displaying the DNS Cache
442
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Specifying a DHCP Client Identifier
444
Configuring DHCP Relay Service
445
Enabling DHCP Dynamic Provision
449
17 IP Configuration
451
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 4)
451
Configuring the IPv4 Default Gateway
451
Configuring IPv4 Interface Settings
452
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)
Section III
443
455
Configuring the IPv6 Default Gateway
456
Configuring IPv6 Interface Settings
457
Configuring an IPv6 Address
461
Showing IPv6 Addresses
464
Showing the IPv6 Neighbor Cache
465
Showing IPv6 Statistics
466
Showing the MTU for Responding Destinations
472
Appendices
473
A Software Specifications
475
Software Features
475
Management Features
476
Standards
477
Management Information Bases
477
B Troubleshooting
479
Problems Accessing the Management Interface
– 12 –
479
Contents
Using System Logs
480
C License Information
481
The GNU General Public License
481
Glossary
485
Index
493
– 13 –
Contents
– 14 –
Figures
Figure 1: Dashboard
42
Figure 2: Home Page
44
Figure 3: Front Panel Indicators
45
Figure 4: System Information
62
Figure 5: General Switch Information
64
Figure 6: Configuring Support for Jumbo Frames
65
Figure 7: Displaying Bridge Extension Configuration
66
Figure 8: Copy Firmware
68
Figure 9: Saving the Running Configuration
70
Figure 10: Setting Start-Up Files
70
Figure 11: Displaying System Files
71
Figure 12: Configuring Automatic Code Upgrade
75
Figure 13: Manually Setting the System Clock
76
Figure 14: Setting the Polling Interval for SNTP
77
Figure 15: Configuring NTP
78
Figure 16: Specifying SNTP Time Servers
79
Figure 17: Adding an NTP Time Server
80
Figure 18: Showing the NTP Time Server List
80
Figure 19: Adding an NTP Authentication Key
81
Figure 20: Showing the NTP Authentication Key List
82
Figure 21: Setting the Time Zone
83
Figure 22: Configuring Summer Time
85
Figure 23: Console Port Settings
86
Figure 24: Telnet Connection Settings
88
Figure 25: Displaying CPU Utilization
89
Figure 26: Configuring CPU Guard
90
Figure 27: Displaying Memory Utilization
91
Figure 28: Restarting the Switch (Immediately)
93
Figure 29: Restarting the Switch (In)
93
– 15 –
Figures
Figure 30: Restarting the Switch (At)
94
Figure 31: Restarting the Switch (Regularly)
94
Figure 32: Configuring Connections by Port List
98
Figure 33: Configuring Connections by Port Range
99
Figure 34: Displaying Port Information
100
Figure 35: Showing Port Statistics (Table)
103
Figure 36: Showing Port Statistics (Chart)
104
Figure 37: Configuring a History Sample
106
Figure 38: Showing Entries for History Sampling
106
Figure 39: Showing Status of Statistical History Sample
107
Figure 40: Showing Current Statistics for a History Sample
107
Figure 41: Showing Ingress Statistics for a History Sample
108
Figure 42: Displaying Transceiver Data
109
Figure 43: Configuring Transceiver Thresholds
111
Figure 44: Configuring Static Trunks
113
Figure 45: Creating Static Trunks
114
Figure 46: Adding Static Trunks Members
114
Figure 47: Configuring Connection Parameters for a Static Trunk
115
Figure 48: Showing Information for Static Trunks
115
Figure 49: Configuring Dynamic Trunks
115
Figure 50: Configuring the LACP Aggregator Admin Key
118
Figure 51: Enabling LACP on a Port
119
Figure 52: Configuring LACP Parameters on a Port
120
Figure 53: Showing Members of a Dynamic Trunk
120
Figure 54: Configuring Connection Settings for a Dynamic Trunk
121
Figure 55: Showing Connection Parameters for Dynamic Trunks
121
Figure 56: Displaying LACP Port Counters
122
Figure 57: Displaying LACP Port Internal Information
124
Figure 58: Displaying LACP Port Remote Information
125
Figure 59: Configuring Load Balancing
127
Figure 60: Enabling Power Savings
128
Figure 61: Configuring Local Port Mirroring
129
Figure 62: Configuring Local Port Mirroring
130
Figure 63: Displaying Local Port Mirror Sessions
130
Figure 64: Configuring Remote Port Mirroring
131
– 16 –
Figures
Figure 65: Configuring Remote Port Mirroring (Source)
134
Figure 66: Configuring Remote Port Mirroring (Intermediate)
134
Figure 67: Configuring Remote Port Mirroring (Destination)
134
Figure 68: Enabling Traffic Segmentation
136
Figure 69: Configuring Members for Traffic Segmentation
137
Figure 70: Showing Traffic Segmentation Members
138
Figure 71: VLAN Compliant and VLAN Non-compliant Devices
140
Figure 72: Creating Static VLANs
143
Figure 73: Modifying Settings for Static VLANs
143
Figure 74: Showing Static VLANs
144
Figure 75: Configuring Static Members by VLAN Index
146
Figure 76: Configuring Static VLAN Members by Interface
147
Figure 77: Configuring Static VLAN Members by Interface Range
148
Figure 78: Configuring Protocol VLANs
150
Figure 79: Displaying Protocol VLANs
150
Figure 80: Assigning Interfaces to Protocol VLANs
152
Figure 81: Showing the Interface to Protocol Group Mapping
152
Figure 82: Configuring MAC-Based VLANs
154
Figure 83: Showing MAC-Based VLANs
154
Figure 84: Configuring MAC Address Learning
156
Figure 85: Configuring Static MAC Addresses
158
Figure 86: Displaying Static MAC Addresses
158
Figure 87: Setting the Address Aging Time
159
Figure 88: Displaying the Dynamic MAC Address Table
160
Figure 89: Clearing Entries in the Dynamic MAC Address Table
161
Figure 90: Issuing MAC Address Traps (Global Configuration)
162
Figure 91: Issuing MAC Address Traps (Interface Configuration)
163
Figure 92: STP Root Ports and Designated Ports
166
Figure 93: MSTP Region, Internal Spanning Tree, Multiple Spanning Tree
166
Figure 94: Spanning Tree – Common Internal, Common, Internal
167
Figure 95: Configuring Port Loopback Detection
169
Figure 96: Configuring Global Settings for STA (STP)
173
Figure 97: Configuring Global Settings for STA (RSTP)
173
Figure 98: Configuring Global Settings for STA (MSTP)
174
Figure 99: Displaying Global Settings for STA
175
– 17 –
Figures
Figure 100: Determining the Root Port
177
Figure 101: Configuring Interface Settings for STA
180
Figure 102: STA Port Roles
181
Figure 103: Displaying Interface Settings for STA
182
Figure 104: Creating an MST Instance
184
Figure 105: Displaying MST Instances
184
Figure 106: Modifying the Priority for an MST Instance
185
Figure 107: Displaying Global Settings for an MST Instance
185
Figure 108: Adding a VLAN to an MST Instance
186
Figure 109: Displaying Members of an MST Instance
186
Figure 110: Configuring MSTP Interface Settings
188
Figure 111: Displaying MSTP Interface Settings
188
Figure 112: Configuring Rate Limits
190
Figure 113: Configuring Storm Control
191
Figure 114: Setting the Default Port Priority
194
Figure 115: Setting the Queue Mode (Strict)
196
Figure 116: Setting the Queue Mode (WRR)
196
Figure 117: Setting the Queue Mode (Strict and WRR)
197
Figure 118: Setting the Trust Mode
199
Figure 119: Configuring DSCP to DSCP Internal Mapping
200
Figure 120: Showing DSCP to DSCP Internal Mapping
201
Figure 121: Configuring CoS to DSCP Internal Mapping
202
Figure 122: Showing CoS to DSCP Internal Mapping
203
Figure 123: Configuring a Class Map
207
Figure 124: Showing Class Maps
208
Figure 125: Adding Rules to a Class Map
209
Figure 126: Showing the Rules for a Class Map
209
Figure 127: Configuring a Policy Map
212
Figure 128: Showing Policy Maps
212
Figure 129: Adding Rules to a Policy Map
213
Figure 130: Showing the Rules for a Policy Map
214
Figure 131: Attaching a Policy Map to a Port
215
Figure 132: Configuring a Voice VLAN
219
Figure 133: Configuring an OUI Telephony List
220
Figure 134: Showing an OUI Telephony List
220
– 18 –
Figures
Figure 135: Configuring Port Settings for a Voice VLAN
222
Figure 136: Configuring the Authentication Sequence
226
Figure 137: Authentication Server Operation
226
Figure 138: Configuring Remote Authentication Server (RADIUS)
229
Figure 139: Configuring Remote Authentication Server (TACACS+)
230
Figure 140: Configuring AAA Server Groups
230
Figure 141: Showing AAA Server Groups
231
Figure 142: Configuring Global Settings for AAA Accounting
233
Figure 143: Configuring AAA Accounting Methods
234
Figure 144: Showing AAA Accounting Methods
235
Figure 145: Configuring AAA Accounting Service for 802.1X Service
235
Figure 146: Configuring AAA Accounting Service for Command Service
236
Figure 147: Configuring AAA Accounting Service for Exec Service
236
Figure 148: Displaying a Summary of Applied AAA Accounting Methods
237
Figure 149: Displaying Statistics for AAA Accounting Sessions
237
Figure 150: Configuring AAA Authorization Methods
239
Figure 151: Showing AAA Authorization Methods
239
Figure 152: Configuring AAA Authorization Methods for Exec Service
240
Figure 153: Displaying the Applied AAA Authorization Method
240
Figure 154: Configuring User Accounts
242
Figure 155: Showing User Accounts
243
Figure 156: Configuring Global Settings for Network Access
246
Figure 157: Configuring Interface Settings for Network Access
247
Figure 158: Configuring a MAC Address Filter for Network Access
248
Figure 159: Showing the MAC Address Filter Table for Network Access
249
Figure 160: Showing Addresses Authenticated for Network Access
250
Figure 161: Configuring HTTPS
252
Figure 162: Downloading the Secure-Site Certificate
254
Figure 163: Configuring the SSH Server
257
Figure 164: Generating the SSH Host Key Pair
258
Figure 165: Showing the SSH Host Key Pair
259
Figure 166: Copying the SSH User’s Public Key
260
Figure 167: Showing the SSH User’s Public Key
261
Figure 168: Showing TCAM Utilization
264
Figure 169: Creating an ACL
265
– 19 –
Figures
Figure 170: Showing a List of ACLs
265
Figure 171: Configuring a Standard IPv4 ACL
267
Figure 172: Configuring an Extended IPv4 ACL
269
Figure 173: Configuring a Standard IPv6 ACL
270
Figure 174: Configuring an Extended IPv6 ACL
273
Figure 175: Configuring a MAC ACL
275
Figure 176: Configuring a ARP ACL
277
Figure 177: Binding a Port to an ACL
278
Figure 178: Showing ACL Statistics
279
Figure 179: Configuring Global Settings for ARP Inspection
282
Figure 180: Configuring VLAN Settings for ARP Inspection
283
Figure 181: Configuring Interface Settings for ARP Inspection
284
Figure 182: Displaying Statistics for ARP Inspection
286
Figure 183: Displaying the ARP Inspection Log
287
Figure 184: Creating an IP Address Filter for Management Access
288
Figure 185: Showing IP Addresses Authorized for Management Access
289
Figure 186: Configuring Port Security
291
Figure 187: Configuring Port Authentication
292
Figure 188: Configuring Global Settings for 802.1X Port Authentication
293
Figure 189: Configuring Interface Settings for 802.1X Port Authenticator
297
Figure 190: Showing Statistics for 802.1X Port Authenticator
299
Figure 191: Configuring Global Settings for DHCP Snooping
303
Figure 192: Configuring DHCP Snooping on a VLAN
304
Figure 193: Configuring the Port Mode for DHCP Snooping
305
Figure 194: Displaying the Binding Table for DHCP Snooping
307
Figure 195: Protecting Against DoS Attacks
308
Figure 196: Setting the Filter Type for IPv4 Source Guard
310
Figure 197: Configuring Static Bindings for IPv4 Source Guard
313
Figure 198: Configuring Static Bindings for IPv4 Source Guard
313
Figure 199: Showing the IPv4 Source Guard Binding Table
314
Figure 200: Configuring Settings for System Memory Logs
317
Figure 201: Showing Error Messages Logged to System Memory
318
Figure 202: Configuring Settings for Remote Logging of Error Messages
319
Figure 203: Configuring SMTP Alert Messages
320
Figure 204: Configuring LLDP Timing Attributes
323
– 20 –
Figures
Figure 205: Configuring LLDP Interface Attributes
327
Figure 206: Configuring the Civic Address for an LLDP Interface
328
Figure 207: Showing the Civic Address for an LLDP Interface
329
Figure 208: Displaying Local Device Information for LLDP (General)
332
Figure 209: Displaying Local Device Information for LLDP (Port)
332
Figure 210: Displaying Local Device Information for LLDP (Port Details)
332
Figure 211: Displaying Remote Device Information for LLDP (Port)
339
Figure 212: Displaying Remote Device Information for LLDP (Port Details)
340
Figure 213: Displaying Remote Device Information for LLDP (End Node)
341
Figure 214: Displaying LLDP Device Statistics (General)
343
Figure 215: Displaying LLDP Device Statistics (Port)
343
Figure 216: Setting the Switch’s PoE Budget
345
Figure 217: Setting a Port’s PoE Budget
347
Figure 218: Configuring Global Settings for SNMP
350
Figure 219: Configuring the Local Engine ID for SNMP
351
Figure 220: Configuring a Remote Engine ID for SNMP
352
Figure 221: Showing Remote Engine IDs for SNMP
352
Figure 222: Creating an SNMP View
354
Figure 223: Showing SNMP Views
354
Figure 224: Adding an OID Subtree to an SNMP View
355
Figure 225: Showing the OID Subtree Configured for SNMP Views
355
Figure 226: Creating an SNMP Group
361
Figure 227: Showing SNMP Groups
361
Figure 228: Setting Community Access Strings
362
Figure 229: Showing Community Access Strings
363
Figure 230: Configuring Local SNMPv3 Users
364
Figure 231: Showing Local SNMPv3 Users
365
Figure 232: Changing a Local SNMPv3 User Group
365
Figure 233: Configuring Remote SNMPv3 Users
367
Figure 234: Showing Remote SNMPv3 Users
368
Figure 235: Configuring Trap Managers (SNMPv1)
371
Figure 236: Configuring Trap Managers (SNMPv2c)
371
Figure 237: Configuring Trap Managers (SNMPv3)
372
Figure 238: Showing Trap Managers
372
Figure 239: Creating SNMP Notification Logs
374
– 21 –
Figures
Figure 240: Showing SNMP Notification Logs
374
Figure 241: Showing SNMP Statistics
376
Figure 242: Configuring an RMON Alarm
378
Figure 243: Showing Configured RMON Alarms
379
Figure 244: Configuring an RMON Event
381
Figure 245: Showing Configured RMON Events
381
Figure 246: Configuring an RMON History Sample
383
Figure 247: Showing Configured RMON History Samples
383
Figure 248: Showing Collected RMON History Samples
384
Figure 249: Configuring an RMON Statistical Sample
385
Figure 250: Showing Configured RMON Statistical Samples
386
Figure 251: Showing Collected RMON Statistical Samples
386
Figure 252: Setting the Name of a Time Range
388
Figure 253: Showing a List of Time Ranges
388
Figure 254: Add a Rule to a Time Range
389
Figure 255: Showing the Rules Configured for a Time Range
389
Figure 256: Configuring Global Settings for LBD
391
Figure 257: Configuring Interface Settings for LBD
392
Figure 258: Multicast Filtering Concept
393
Figure 259: Configuring General Settings for IGMP Snooping
399
Figure 260: Configuring a Static Interface for a Multicast Router
401
Figure 261: Showing Static Interfaces Attached a Multicast Router
401
Figure 262: Showing Current Interfaces Attached a Multicast Router
402
Figure 263: Assigning an Interface to a Multicast Service
403
Figure 264: Showing Static Interfaces Assigned to a Multicast Service
404
Figure 265: Configuring IGMP Snooping on a VLAN
409
Figure 266: Showing Interface Settings for IGMP Snooping
409
Figure 267: Dropping IGMP Query or Multicast Data Packets
410
Figure 268: Showing Multicast Groups Learned by IGMP Snooping
411
Figure 269: Displaying IGMP Snooping Statistics – Query
414
Figure 270: Displaying IGMP Snooping Statistics – VLAN
415
Figure 271: Displaying IGMP Snooping Statistics – Port
415
Figure 272: Enabling IGMP Filtering and Throttling
417
Figure 273: Creating an IGMP Filtering Profile
418
Figure 274: Showing the IGMP Filtering Profiles Created
418
– 22 –
Figures
Figure 275: Adding Multicast Groups to an IGMP Filtering Profile
419
Figure 276: Showing the Groups Assigned to an IGMP Filtering Profile
419
Figure 277: Configuring IGMP Filtering and Throttling Interface Settings
421
Figure 278: Configuring General Settings for MLD Snooping
423
Figure 279: Configuring Immediate Leave for MLD Snooping
424
Figure 280: Configuring a Static Interface for an IPv6 Multicast Router
425
Figure 281: Showing Static Interfaces Attached an IPv6 Multicast Router
425
Figure 282: Showing Current Interfaces Attached an IPv6 Multicast Router
425
Figure 283: Assigning an Interface to an IPv6 Multicast Service
427
Figure 284: Showing Static Interfaces Assigned to an IPv6 Multicast Service
427
Figure 285: Showing Current Interfaces Assigned to an IPv6 Multicast Service
428
Figure 286: Showing IPv6 Multicast Services and Corresponding Sources
429
Figure 287: Pinging a Network Device
432
Figure 288: Tracing the Route to a Network Device
434
Figure 289: Displaying ARP Entries
435
Figure 290: Configuring General Settings for DNS
438
Figure 291: Configuring a List of Domain Names for DNS
439
Figure 292: Showing the List of Domain Names for DNS
440
Figure 293: Configuring a List of Name Servers for DNS
441
Figure 294: Showing the List of Name Servers for DNS
441
Figure 295: Configuring Static Entries in the DNS Table
442
Figure 296: Showing Static Entries in the DNS Table
442
Figure 297: Showing Entries in the DNS Cache
443
Figure 298: Specifying a DHCP Client Identifier
445
Figure 299: Layer 3 DHCP Relay Service
446
Figure 300: Configuring DHCP Relay Service
449
Figure 301: Enabling Dynamic Provisioning via DHCP
450
Figure 302: Configuring the IPv4 Default Gateway
452
Figure 303: Configuring a Static IPv4 Address
454
Figure 304: Configuring a Dynamic IPv4 Address
454
Figure 305: Showing the Configured IPv4 Address for an Interface
455
Figure 306: Configuring the IPv6 Default Gateway
456
Figure 307: Configuring General Settings for an IPv6 Interface
461
Figure 308: Configuring an IPv6 Address
463
Figure 309: Showing Configured IPv6 Addresses
465
– 23 –
Figures
Figure 310: Showing IPv6 Neighbors
466
Figure 311: Showing IPv6 Statistics (IPv6)
470
Figure 312: Showing IPv6 Statistics (ICMPv6)
471
Figure 313: Showing IPv6 Statistics (UDP)
471
Figure 314: Showing Reported MTU Values
472
– 24 –
Tables
Table 1: Key Features
29
Table 2: System Defaults
35
Table 3: Web Page Configuration Buttons
44
Table 4: Switch Main Menu
46
Table 5: Predefined Summer-Time Parameters
84
Table 6: Port Statistics
100
Table 7: LACP Port Counters
121
Table 8: LACP Internal Configuration Information
122
Table 9: LACP Remote Device Configuration Information
124
Table 10: Traffic Segmentation Forwarding
136
Table 11: Recommended STA Path Cost Range
176
Table 12: Default STA Path Costs
177
Table 13: Default Mapping of DSCP Values to Internal PHB/Drop Values
200
Table 14: Default Mapping of CoS/CFI to Internal PHB/Drop Precedence
202
Table 15: Dynamic QoS Profiles
244
Table 16: HTTPS System Support
251
Table 17: ARP Inspection Statistics
285
Table 18: ARP Inspection Log
286
Table 19: 802.1X Statistics
298
Table 20: Logging Levels
316
Table 21: LLDP MED Location CA Types
327
Table 22: Chassis ID Subtype
329
Table 23: System Capabilities
330
Table 24: Port ID Subtype
331
Table 25: Remote Port Auto-Negotiation Advertised Capability
334
Table 26: Maximum Number of Ports Providing Simultaneous Power
345
Table 27: SNMPv3 Security Models and Levels
348
Table 28: Supported Notification Messages
357
Table 29: Address Resolution Protocol
434
– 25 –
Tables
Table 30: Options 60, 66 and 67 Statements
444
Table 31: Options 55 and 124 Statements
444
Table 32: Show IPv6 Neighbors - display description
465
Table 33: Show IPv6 Statistics - display description
467
Table 34: Show MTU - display description
472
Table 35: Troubleshooting Chart
479
– 26 –
Section I
Getting Started
This section provides an overview of the switch, and introduces some basic
concepts about network switches. It also describes the basic settings required to
access the management interface.
This section includes these chapters:
◆
"Introduction" on page 29
– 27 –
Section I | Getting Started
– 28 –
1
Introduction
This switch provides a broad range of features for Layer 2 switching and Layer 3
routing. It includes a management agent that allows you to configure the features
listed in this manual. The default configuration can be used for most of the features
provided by this switch. However, there are many options that you should
configure to maximize the switch’s performance for your particular network
environment.
Key Features
Table 1: Key Features
Feature
Description
Configuration Backup and
Restore
Using management station or TFTP server
Authentication
Console, Telnet, web – user name/password, RADIUS, TACACS+
Port – IEEE 802.1X, MAC address filtering
SNMP v1/2c - Community strings
SNMP version 3 – MD5 or SHA password
Telnet – SSH
Web – HTTPS
General Security Measures
AAA
ARP Inspection
DHCP Snooping (with Option 82 relay information)
DoS Protection
IP Source Guard
Port Authentication – IEEE 802.1X
Port Security – MAC address filtering
Access Control Lists
Supports up to 256 ACLs, 128 rules per ACL, and 512 rules per system
DHCP/DHCPv6
Client, Relay, Relay Option 82
Port Configuration
Speed, duplex mode, and flow control
Port Trunking
Supports up to 8 trunks – static or dynamic trunking (LACP)
Port Mirroring
3 sessions, one or more source ports to an analysis port
Congestion Control
Rate Limiting
Throttling for broadcast, multicast, unknown unicast storms
Address Table
8K MAC addresses in the forwarding table
(shared with L2 unicast, L2 multicast, IPv4 multicast, IPv6 multicast);
1K static MAC addresses;
512 L2 IPv4 multicast groups (shared with MAC address table)
IP Version 4 and 6
Supports IPv4 and IPv6 addressing and management
– 29 –
Chapter 1 | Introduction
Description of Software Features
Table 1: Key Features (Continued)
Feature
Description
IEEE 802.1D Bridge
Supports dynamic data switching and addresses learning
Store-and-Forward
Switching
Supported to ensure wire-speed switching while eliminating bad
frames
Spanning Tree Algorithm
Supports standard STP, Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP), and
Multiple Spanning Trees (MSTP)
Virtual LANs
Up to 4094 using IEEE 802.1Q, port-based, protocol-based, voice VLANs,
and QinQ tunnel
Traffic Prioritization
Default port priority, traffic class map, queue scheduling, IP Precedence,
or Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP)
Qualify of Service
Supports Differentiated Services (DiffServ)
Link Layer Discovery
Protocol
Used to discover basic information about neighboring devices
Multicast Filtering
Supports IGMP snooping and query for Layer 2
Description of Software Features
The switch provides a wide range of advanced performance enhancing features.
Flow control eliminates the loss of packets due to bottlenecks caused by port
saturation. Storm suppression prevents broadcast, multicast, and unknown unicast
traffic storms from engulfing the network. Untagged (port-based), tagged, and
protocol-based VLANs, plus support for automatic GVRP VLAN registration provide
traffic security and efficient use of network bandwidth. CoS priority queueing
ensures the minimum delay for moving real-time multimedia data across the
network. While multicast filtering provides support for real-time network
applications.
Some of the management features are briefly described below.
Configuration Backup You can save the current configuration settings to a file on the management station
and Restore (using the web interface) or an TFTP server (using the web or console interface),
and later download this file to restore the switch configuration settings.
Authentication This switch authenticates management access via the console port, Telnet, or a web
browser. User names and passwords can be configured locally or can be verified via
a remote authentication server (i.e., RADIUS or TACACS+). Port-based
authentication is also supported via the IEEE 802.1X protocol. This protocol uses
Extensible Authentication Protocol over LANs (EAPOL) to request user credentials
from the 802.1X client, and then uses the EAP between the switch and the
authentication server to verify the client’s right to access the network via an
authentication server (i.e., RADIUS or TACACS+ server).
– 30 –
Chapter 1 | Introduction
Description of Software Features
Other authentication options include HTTPS for secure management access via the
web, SSH for secure management access over a Telnet-equivalent connection,
SNMP Version 3, IP address filtering for SNMP/Telnet/web management access.
MAC address filtering and IP source guard also provide authenticated port access.
While DHCP snooping is provided to prevent malicious attacks from insecure ports.
Access Control Lists ACLs provide packet filtering for IP frames (based on address, protocol, TCP/UDP
port number or TCP control code) or any frames (based on MAC address or Ethernet
type). ACLs can be used to improve performance by blocking unnecessary network
traffic or to implement security controls by restricting access to specific network
resources or protocols.
Port Configuration You can manually configure the speed, duplex mode, and flow control used on
specific ports, or use auto-negotiation to detect the connection settings used by
the attached device. Use full-duplex mode on ports whenever possible to double
the throughput of switch connections. Flow control should also be enabled to
control network traffic during periods of congestion and prevent the loss of
packets when port buffer thresholds are exceeded. The switch supports flow
control based on the IEEE 802.3x standard (now incorporated in IEEE 802.3-2002).
Rate Limiting This feature controls the maximum rate for traffic transmitted or received on an
interface. Rate limiting is configured on interfaces at the edge of a network to limit
traffic into or out of the network. Packets that exceed the acceptable amount of
traffic are dropped.
Port Mirroring The switch can unobtrusively mirror traffic from any port to a monitor port. You can
then attach a protocol analyzer or RMON probe to this port to perform traffic
analysis and verify connection integrity.
Port Trunking Ports can be combined into an aggregate connection. Trunks can be manually set
up or dynamically configured using Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP – IEEE
802.3-2005). The additional ports dramatically increase the throughput across any
connection, and provide redundancy by taking over the load if a port in the trunk
should fail. The switch supports up to 8 trunks.
Storm Control Broadcast, multicast and unknown unicast storm suppression prevents traffic from
overwhelming the network.When enabled on a port, the level of traffic passing
through the port is restricted. If traffic rises above a pre-defined threshold, it will be
throttled until the level falls back beneath the threshold.
– 31 –
Chapter 1 | Introduction
Description of Software Features
Static MAC Addresses A static address can be assigned to a specific interface on this switch. Static
addresses are bound to the assigned interface and will not be moved. When a static
address is seen on another interface, the address will be ignored and will not be
written to the address table. Static addresses can be used to provide network
security by restricting access for a known host to a specific port.
IP Address Filtering Access to insecure ports can be controlled using DHCP Snooping which filters
ingress traffic based on static IP addresses and addresses stored in the DHCP
Snooping table. Traffic can also be restricted to specific source IP addresses or
source IP/MAC address pairs based on static entries or entries stored in the DHCP
Snooping table.
IEEE 802.1D Bridge The switch supports IEEE 802.1D transparent bridging. The address table facilitates
data switching by learning addresses, and then filtering or forwarding traffic based
on this information. The address table supports up to 16K addresses.
Store-and-Forward The switch copies each frame into its memory before forwarding them to another
Switching port. This ensures that all frames are a standard Ethernet size and have been
verified for accuracy with the cyclic redundancy check (CRC). This prevents bad
frames from entering the network and wasting bandwidth.
To avoid dropping frames on congested ports, the switch provides 12 Mbits for
frame buffering. This buffer can queue packets awaiting transmission on congested
networks.
Spanning Tree The switch supports these spanning tree protocols:
Algorithm
◆
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP, IEEE 802.1D) – This protocol provides loop
detection. When there are multiple physical paths between segments, this
protocol will choose a single path and disable all others to ensure that only one
route exists between any two stations on the network. This prevents the
creation of network loops. However, if the chosen path should fail for any
reason, an alternate path will be activated to maintain the connection.
◆
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP, IEEE 802.1w) – This protocol reduces the
convergence time for network topology changes to about 3 to 5 seconds,
compared to 30 seconds or more for the older IEEE 802.1D STP standard. It is
intended as a complete replacement for STP, but can still interoperate with
switches running the older standard by automatically reconfiguring ports to
STP-compliant mode if they detect STP protocol messages from attached
devices.
◆
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP, IEEE 802.1s) – This protocol is a direct
extension of RSTP. It can provide an independent spanning tree for different
VLANs. It simplifies network management, provides for even faster
convergence than RSTP by limiting the size of each region, and prevents VLAN
– 32 –
Chapter 1 | Introduction
Description of Software Features
members from being segmented from the rest of the group (as sometimes
occurs with IEEE 802.1D STP).
Virtual LANs The switch supports up to 4094 VLANs. A Virtual LAN is a collection of network
nodes that share the same collision domain regardless of their physical location or
connection point in the network. The switch supports tagged VLANs based on the
IEEE 802.1Q standard. Members of VLAN groups can be dynamically learned via
GVRP, or ports can be manually assigned to a specific set of VLANs. This allows the
switch to restrict traffic to the VLAN groups to which a user has been assigned. By
segmenting your network into VLANs, you can:
◆
Eliminate broadcast storms which severely degrade performance in a flat
network.
◆
Simplify network management for node changes/moves by remotely
configuring VLAN membership for any port, rather than having to manually
change the network connection.
◆
Provide data security by restricting all traffic to the originating VLAN, except
where a connection is explicitly defined via the switch's routing service.
◆
Use private VLANs to restrict traffic to pass only between data ports and the
uplink ports, thereby isolating adjacent ports within the same VLAN, and
allowing you to limit the total number of VLANs that need to be configured.
◆
Use protocol VLANs to restrict traffic to specified interfaces based on protocol
type.
Traffic Prioritization This switch prioritizes each packet based on the required level of service, using
eight priority queues with strict priority, Weighted Round Robin (WRR) scheduling,
or a combination of strict and weighted queuing. It uses IEEE 802.1p and 802.1Q
tags to prioritize incoming traffic based on input from the end-station application.
These functions can be used to provide independent priorities for delay-sensitive
data and best-effort data.
This switch also supports several common methods of prioritizing layer 3/4 traffic
to meet application requirements. Traffic can be prioritized based on the priority
bits in the IP frame’s Type of Service (ToS) octet using DSCP, or IP Precedence. When
these services are enabled, the priorities are mapped to a Class of Service value by
the switch, and the traffic then sent to the corresponding output queue.
Quality of Service Differentiated Services (DiffServ) provides policy-based management mechanisms
used for prioritizing network resources to meet the requirements of specific traffic
types on a per-hop basis. Each packet is classified upon entry into the network
based on access lists, IP Precedence or DSCP values, or VLAN lists. Using access lists
– 33 –
Chapter 1 | Introduction
Description of Software Features
allows you select traffic based on Layer 2, Layer 3, or Layer 4 information contained
in each packet. Based on network policies, different kinds of traffic can be marked
for different kinds of forwarding.
Address Resolution The switch uses ARP to convert between IP addresses and MAC (hardware)
Protocol addresses. This switch supports conventional ARP, which locates the MAC address
corresponding to a given IP address. This allows the switch to use IP addresses for
routing decisions and the corresponding MAC addresses to forward packets from
one hop to the next.
Multicast Filtering Specific multicast traffic can be assigned to its own VLAN to ensure that it does not
interfere with normal network traffic and to guarantee real-time delivery by setting
the required priority level for the designated VLAN. The switch uses IGMP Snooping
and Query for IPv4,and MLD Snooping and Query for IPv6 to manage multicast
group registration.
Link Layer Discovery LLDP is used to discover basic information about neighboring devices within the
Protocol local broadcast domain. LLDP is a Layer 2 protocol that advertises information
about the sending device and collects information gathered from neighboring
network nodes it discovers.
Advertised information is represented in Type Length Value (TLV) format according
to the IEEE 802.1ab standard, and can include details such as device identification,
capabilities and configuration settings. Media Endpoint Discovery (LLDP-MED) is an
extension of LLDP intended for managing endpoint devices such as Voice over IP
phones and network switches. The LLDP-MED TLVs advertise information such as
network policy, power, inventory, and device location details. The LLDP and LLDPMED information can be used by SNMP applications to simplify troubleshooting,
enhance network management, and maintain an accurate network topology.
– 34 –
Chapter 1 | Introduction
System Defaults
System Defaults
The switch’s system defaults are provided in the configuration file
“Factory_Default_Config.cfg.” To reset the switch defaults, this file should be set as
the startup configuration file.
The following table lists some of the basic system defaults.
Table 2: System Defaults
Function
Parameter
Default
Console Port Connection
Baud Rate
115200 bps
Data bits
8
Stop bits
1
Parity
none
Local Console Timeout
600 seconds
Privileged Exec Level
Username “admin”
Password “admin”
Normal Exec Level
Username “guest”
Password “guest”
Enable Privileged Exec from
Normal Exec Level
Password “super”
RADIUS Authentication
Disabled
TACACS+ Authentication
Disabled
802.1X Port Authentication
Disabled
MAC Authentication
Disabled
HTTPS
Enabled
SSH
Disabled
Port Security
Disabled
IP Filtering
Disabled
DHCP Snooping
Disabled
IP Source Guard
Disabled (all ports)
HTTP Server
Enabled
HTTP Port Number
80
HTTP Secure Server
Enabled
HTTP Secure Server Port
443
Authentication and
Security Measures
Web Management
– 35 –
Chapter 1 | Introduction
System Defaults
Table 2: System Defaults (Continued)
Function
Parameter
Default
SNMP
SNMP Agent
Enabled
Community Strings
“public” (read only)
“private” (read/write)
Traps
Authentication traps: enabled
Link-up-down events: enabled
SNMP V3
View: defaultview
Group: public (read only); private
(read/write)
Admin Status
Enabled
Auto-negotiation
Enabled
Flow Control
Disabled
Static Trunks
None
LACP (all ports)
Disabled
Rate Limiting
Disabled
Storm Control
Broadcast: Enabled
(64 kbits/sec)
Multicast: Disabled
Unknown Unicast: Disabled
Address Table
Aging Time
300 seconds
Spanning Tree Algorithm
Status
Enabled, RSTP
(Defaults: RSTP standard)
Edge Ports
Auto
LLDP
Status
Enabled
Virtual LANs
Default VLAN
1
PVID
1
Acceptable Frame Type
All
Ingress Filtering
Disabled
Switchport Mode (Egress Mode)
Hybrid
GVRP (global)
Disabled
GVRP (port interface)
Disabled
QinQ Tunneling
Disabled
Ingress Port Priority
0
Queue Mode
WRR
Queue Weight
Queue: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Weight: 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Class of Service
Enabled
IP DSCP Priority
Disabled
Port Configuration
Port Trunking
Congestion Control
Traffic Prioritization
– 36 –
Chapter 1 | Introduction
System Defaults
Table 2: System Defaults (Continued)
Function
Parameter
Default
IP Settings
Management. VLAN
VLAN 1
IP Address
192.168.1.1
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0
Default Gateway
Not configured
DHCP
Client: Enabled
BOOTP
Disabled
ARP
Enabled
Cache Timeout: 20 minutes
IGMP Snooping (Layer 2)
Snooping: Enabled
Querier: Disabled
MLD Snooping (Layer 2 IPv6)
Snooping: Enabled
Querier: Disabled
IGMP Proxy Reporting
Disabled
Status
Enabled
Messages Logged to RAM
Levels 0-7 (all)
Messages Logged to Flash
Levels 0-3
SMTP Email Alerts
Event Handler
Enabled (but no server defined)
SNTP
Clock Synchronization
Disabled
Multicast Filtering
System Log
– 37 –
Chapter 1 | Introduction
System Defaults
– 38 –
Section II
Web Configuration
This section describes the basic switch features, along with a detailed description of
how to configure each feature via a web browser.
This section includes these chapters:
◆
"Using the Web Interface" on page 41
◆
"Basic Management Tasks" on page 61
◆
"Interface Configuration" on page 95
◆
"VLAN Configuration" on page 139
◆
"Address Table Settings" on page 155
◆
"Spanning Tree Algorithm" on page 165
◆
"Congestion Control" on page 189
◆
"Class of Service" on page 193
◆
"Quality of Service" on page 205
◆
"VoIP Traffic Configuration" on page 217
◆
"Security Measures" on page 223
◆
"Basic Administration Protocols" on page 315
◆
"Multicast Filtering" on page 393
◆
"IP Tools" on page 431
◆
"IP Services" on page 437
◆
"IP Configuration" on page 451
– 39 –
Section II | Web Configuration
– 40 –
2
Using the Web Interface
This switch provides an embedded HTTP web agent. Using a web browser you can
configure the switch and view statistics to monitor network activity. The web agent
can be accessed by any computer on the network using a standard web browser
(Internet Explorer 9, Mozilla Firefox 39, or Google Chrome 44, or more recent
versions).
Note: You can also use the Command Line Interface (CLI) to manage the switch
over a serial connection to the console port or via Telnet. For more information on
using the CLI, refer to the CLI Reference Guide.
Connecting to the Web Interface
Prior to accessing the switch from a web browser, be sure you have first performed
the following tasks:
1. Configure the switch with a valid IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway
using an out-of-band serial connection, BOOTP or DHCP protocol. (See “Initial
Switch Configuration” in the CLI Reference Guide.)
2. Set user names and passwords using an out-of-band serial connection. Access
to the web agent is controlled by the same user names and passwords as the
onboard configuration program. (See “Configuring User Accounts” on
page 241.)
3. After you enter a user name and password, you will have access to the system
configuration program.
Note: You are allowed three attempts to enter the correct password; on the third
failed attempt the current connection is terminated.
Note: If you log into the web interface as guest (Normal Exec level), you can view
the configuration settings or change the guest password. If you log in as “admin”
(Privileged Exec level), you can change the settings on any page.
Note: If the path between your management station and this switch does not pass
through any device that uses the Spanning Tree Algorithm, then you can set the
switch port attached to your management station to fast forwarding (i.e., enable
Admin Edge Port) to improve the switch’s response time to management
– 41 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
commands issued through the web interface. See “Configuring Interface Settings
for STA” on page 175.
Note: Users are automatically logged off of the HTTP server or HTTPS server if no
input is detected for 600 seconds.
Note: Connection to the web interface is not supported for HTTPS using an IPv6
link local address.
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
To access the web-browser interface you must first enter a user name and
password. The administrator has Read/Write access to all configuration parameters
and statistics. The default user name and password for the administrator is “admin.”
The administrator has full access privileges to configure any parameters in the web
interface. The default user name and password for guest access is “guest.” The guest
only has read access for most configuration parameters. Refer to “Configuring User
Accounts” on page 241 for more details.
Dashboard When your web browser connects with the switch’s web agent, the Dashboard is
displayed as shown below. The Dashboard displays the main menu on the left side
of the screen. Switch Information, CPU Utilization, Switch Events, Memory
Utilization, Recent 5 Event Information, Port Utilization, Dynamic Address Count,
and LLDP Remote Device Port List are displayed on the right side. The main menu
links are used to navigate to other menus, and display configuration parameters
and statistics.
Figure 1: Dashboard
– 42 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Note: You can open a connection to the vendor’s web site by clicking on the
Level 1 logo.
– 43 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Home Page When your web browser connects with the switch’s web agent, the home page is
displayed as shown below. The home page displays the Main Menu on the left side
of the screen and System Information on the right side. The Main Menu links are
used to navigate to other menus, and display configuration parameters and
statistics.
Figure 2: Home Page
Note: This manual covers the GEL-1061 Gigabit Ethernet switch, the GEP-1061
Gigabit Ethernet PoE switch, and the GEL 2861 Gigabit Ethernet switch. Other than
the difference in port count, and support for PoE, there are no significant
differences. Therefore most of the screen display examples are based on the
GEP-1061.
Note: You can open a connection to the vendor’s web site by clicking on the
Level 1 logo.
Configuration Options Configurable parameters have a dialog box or a drop-down list. Once a
configuration change has been made on a page, be sure to click on the Apply
button to confirm the new setting. The following table summarizes the web page
configuration buttons.
Table 3: Web Page Configuration Buttons
Button
Action
Apply
Sets specified values to the system.
Revert
Cancels specified values and restores current
values prior to pressing “Apply.”
– 44 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Table 3: Web Page Configuration Buttons (Continued)
Button
Action
Saves current configuration settings
Displays help for the selected page.
Refreshes the current page.
Displays the site map.
Logs out of the management interface.
Sends mail to the vendor.
Links to the vendor’s web site.
Panel Display The web agent displays an image of the switch’s ports. The Mode can be set to
display different information for the ports, including Active (i.e., up or down),
Duplex (i.e., half or full duplex), or Flow Control (i.e., with or without flow control).
Figure 3: Front Panel Indicators
GEL 1061
GEP 1061
GEL 2861
– 45 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Main Menu Using the onboard web agent, you can define system parameters, manage and
control the switch, and all its ports, or monitor network conditions. The following
table briefly describes the selections available from this program.
Table 4: Switch Main Menu
Menu
Description
Page
Dashboard
Display switch Information, CPU utilization, switch events, memory
42
utilization, recent 5 event information, port utilization, dynamic address
count, and LLDP remote device port list
System
General
Provides basic system description, including contact information
62
Switch
Shows the number of ports, hardware version, power status, and
firmware version numbers
63
IP
Sets IPv4 address for management interface and gateway
451
Configure Global
Sets IP address of the gateway router between this device and
management stations that exist on other network segments
451
Configure Interface
Configures IP address for management access
452
Add Address
Sets the IPv4 address for management access
452
Show Address
Shows the IPv4 address for management access
452
IPv6 Configuration
455
Configure Global
Sets an IPv6 default gateway for traffic with no known next hop
Configure Interface
Configures IPv6 interface address using auto-configuration or link-local 457
address, and sets related protocol settings
Add IPv6 Address
Adds an global unicast, EUI-64, or link-local IPv6 address to an interface 461
Show IPv6 Address
Show the IPv6 addresses assigned to an interface
464
Show IPv6 Neighbor Cache
Displays information in the IPv6 neighbor discovery cache
465
Show Statistics
456
466
IPv6
Shows statistics about IPv6 traffic
466
ICMPv6
Shows statistics about ICMPv6 messages
466
UDP
Shows statistics about UDP messages
466
Shows the maximum transmission unit (MTU) cache for destinations
that have returned an ICMP packet-too-big message along with an
acceptable MTU to this switch
472
Enables support for jumbo frames;
shows the bridge extension parameters
64,
65
Show MTU
Capability
File
67
Copy
Allows the transfer and copying files
67
Set Startup
Sets the startup file
70
Show
Shows the files stored in flash memory; allows deletion of files
71
– 46 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Table 4: Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
Page
Time
75
Configure General
Manual
Manually sets the current time
76
SNTP
Configures SNTP polling interval
77
NTP
Configures NTP authentication parameters
77
Configures a list of SNTP servers
78
Configure SNTP Server
Sets the IP address for SNTP time servers
78
Add NTP Server
Adds NTP time server and index of authentication key
79
Show NTP Server
Shows list of configured NTP time servers
79
Add NTP Authentication Key
Adds key index and corresponding MD5 key
81
Show NTP Authentication Key
Shows list of configured authentication keys
81
Configure Time Zone
Sets the local time zone for the system clock
82
Configure Summer Time
Configures summer time settings
83
Console
Sets console port connection parameters
85
Telnet
Sets Telnet connection parameters
87
CPU Utilization
Displays information on CPU utilization
88
CPU Guard
Sets the CPU utilization watermark and threshold
89
Memory Status
Shows memory utilization parameters
90
Reset
Restarts the switch immediately, at a specified time, after a specified
delay, or at a periodic interval
91
Configure Time Server
Interface
95
Port
96
General
96
Configure by Port List
Configures connection settings per port
96
Configure by Port Range
Configures connection settings for a range of ports
98
Show Information
Displays port connection status
99
Statistics
Shows Interface, Etherlike, and RMON port statistics
100
Chart
Shows Interface, Etherlike, and RMON port statistics
100
History
Shows statistical history for specified interfaces
104
Transceiver
Shows identifying information and operational parameters for optical
transceivers which support Digital Diagnostic Monitoring (DDM), and
configures thresholds for alarm and warning messages for optical
transceivers which support DDM
108
109
– 47 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Table 4: Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
Page
Trunk
111
Static
113
Configure Trunk
113
Add
Creates a trunk, along with the first port member
113
Show
Shows the configured trunk identifiers
113
Add Member
Specifies ports to group into static trunks
113
Show Member
Shows the port members for the selected trunk
113
Configure General
113
Configure
Configures trunk connection settings
113
Show Information
Displays trunk connection settings
113
Dynamic
Configure Aggregator
115
Configures administration key and timeout for specific LACP
groups
Configure Aggregation Port
115
115
Configure
115
General
Allows ports to dynamically join trunks
115
Actor
Configures parameters for link aggregation group members on the
local side
115
Partner
Configures parameters for link aggregation group members on the
remote side
115
Show Information
121
Counters
Displays statistics for LACP protocol messages
121
Internal
Displays configuration settings and operational state for the local side
of a link aggregation
122
Neighbors
Displays configuration settings and operational state for the remote
side of a link aggregation
124
Configure Trunk
115
Configure
Configures connection settings
115
Show
Displays port connection status
115
Show Member
Shows the active members in a trunk
115
Statistics
Shows Interface, Etherlike, and RMON port statistics
100
Chart
Shows Interface, Etherlike, and RMON port statistics
100
Load Balance
Sets the load-distribution method among ports in aggregated links
125
History
Shows statistical history for specified interfaces
104
Adjusts the power provided to ports based on the length of the cable
used to connect to other devices
127
Green Ethernet
– 48 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Table 4: Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
Page
Mirror
129
Add
Sets the source and target ports for mirroring
129
Show
Shows the configured mirror sessions
129
RSPAN
Mirrors traffic from remote switches for analysis at a destination port on 130
the local switch
Traffic Segmentation
135
Configure Global
Enables traffic segmentation globally
135
Configure Session
Configures the uplink and down-link ports for a segmented group of
ports
136
Virtual LAN
139
VLAN
Static
142
Add
Creates VLAN groups
142
Show
Displays configured VLAN groups
142
Modify
Configures group name and administrative status
142
Edit Member by VLAN
Specifies VLAN attributes per VLAN
144
Edit Member by Interface
Specifies VLAN attributes per interface
144
Edit Member by Interface Range
Specifies VLAN attributes per interface range
144
Protocol
148
Configure Protocol
149
Add
Creates a protocol group, specifying supported protocols
149
Show
Shows configured protocol groups
149
Configure Interface
150
Add
Maps a protocol group to a VLAN
150
Show
Shows the protocol groups mapped to each VLAN
150
MAC-Based
152
Add
Maps traffic with specified source MAC address to a VLAN
152
Show
Shows source MAC address to VLAN mapping
152
MAC Address
155
Dynamic
Configure Aging
Sets timeout for dynamically learned entries
159
Show Dynamic MAC
Displays dynamic entries in the address table
159
Clear Dynamic MAC
Removes any learned entries from the forwarding database and clears
the transmit and receive counts for any static or system configured
entries
161
Enables MAC address learning on selected interfaces
155
Learning Status
– 49 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Table 4: Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
Page
Static
157
Add
Configures static entries in the address table
157
Show
Displays static entries in the address table
157
MAC Notification
162
Configure Global
Issues a trap when a dynamic MAC address is added or removed
162
Configure Interface
Enables MAC authentication traps on the current interface
162
Spanning Tree
165
Loopback Detection
Configures Loopback Detection parameters
STA
Spanning Tree Algorithm
167
Configure Global
Configure
Configures global bridge settings for STP, RSTP and MSTP
169
Show Information
Displays STA values used for the bridge
174
Configure
Configures interface settings for STA
175
Show Information
Displays interface settings for STA
180
Multiple Spanning Tree Algorithm
183
Configure Interface
MSTP
Configure Global
183
Add
Configures initial VLAN and priority for an MST instance
183
Modify
Configures the priority or an MST instance
183
Show
Configures global settings for an MST instance
183
Add Member
Adds VLAN members for an MST instance
183
Show Member
Adds or deletes VLAN members for an MST instance
183
Show Information
Displays MSTP values used for the bridge
Configure Interface
187
Configure
Configures interface settings for an MST instance
187
Show Information
Displays interface settings for an MST instance
187
Rate Limit
Sets the input and output rate limits for a port
189
Storm Control
Sets the broadcast storm threshold for each interface
190
Default Priority
Sets the default priority for each port or trunk
193
Queue
Sets queue mode for the switch; sets the service weight for each queue 194
that will use a weighted or hybrid mode
Trust Mode
Selects DSCP or CoS priority processing
Traffic
Priority
– 50 –
198
Chapter 2 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Table 4: Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
Page
DSCP to DSCP
199
Add
Maps DSCP values in incoming packets to per-hop behavior and drop
precedence values for internal priority processing
199
Show
Shows the DSCP to DSCP mapping list
199
CoS to DSCP
201
Add
Maps CoS/CFI values in incoming packets to per-hop behavior and drop 201
precedence values for priority processing
Show
Shows the CoS to DSCP mapping list
DiffServ
201
205
Configure Class
206
Add
Creates a class map for a type of traffic
206
Show
Shows configured class maps
206
Modify
Modifies the name of a class map
206
Add Rule
Configures the criteria used to classify ingress traffic
206
Show Rule
Shows the traffic classification rules for a class map
206
Configure Policy
210
Add
Creates a policy map to apply to multiple interfaces
210
Show
Shows configured policy maps
210
Modify
Modifies the name of a policy map
210
Add Rule
Sets the boundary parameters used for monitoring inbound traffic, and 210
the action to take for conforming and non-conforming traffic
Show Rule
Shows the rules used to enforce bandwidth policing for a policy map
210
Applies a policy map to an ingress port
214
Voice over IP
217
Configure Interface
VoIP
Configure Global
Configures auto-detection of VoIP traffic, sets the Voice VLAN, and VLAN 218
aging time
Configure OUI
219
Add
Maps the OUI in the source MAC address of ingress packets to the VoIP 219
device manufacturer
Show
Shows the OUI telephony list
Configure Interface
Configures VoIP traffic settings for ports, including the way in which a 220
port is added to the Voice VLAN, filtering of non-VoIP packets, the
method of detecting VoIP traffic, and the priority assigned to the voice
traffic
Security
AAA
System Authentication
219
223
Authentication, Authorization and Accounting
224
Configures authentication sequence – local, RADIUS, and TACACS
225
– 51 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Table 4: Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
Page
Server
Configure Server
226
Configures RADIUS and TACACS server message exchange settings
Configure Group
226
226
Add
Specifies a group of authentication servers and sets the priority
sequence
226
Show
Shows the authentication server groups and priority sequence
226
Enables accounting of requested services for billing or security
purposes
231
Specifies the interval at which the local accounting service updates
information to the accounting server
231
Accounting
Configure Global
Configure Method
231
Add
Configures accounting for various service types
231
Show
Shows the accounting settings used for various service types
231
Sets the accounting method applied to specific interfaces for 802.1X,
CLI command privilege levels for the console port, and for Telnet
231
Configure Service
Show Information
231
Summary
Shows the configured accounting methods, and the methods applied
to specific interfaces
231
Statistics
Shows basic accounting information recorded for user sessions
231
Enables authorization of requested services
237
Authorization
Configure Method
237
Add
Configures authorization for various service types
237
Show
Shows the authorization settings used for various service types
237
Configure Service
Sets the authorization method applied used for the console port, and
for Telnet
237
Show Information
Shows the configured authorization methods, and the methods applied 237
to specific interfaces
User Accounts
241
Add
Configures user names, passwords, and access levels
241
Show
Shows authorized users
241
Modify
Modifies user attributes
241
MAC address-based network access authentication
243
Network Access
Configure Global
Enables aging for authenticated MAC addresses, and sets the time
245
period after which a connected MAC address must be reauthenticated
Configure Interface
General
246
Enables MAC authentication on a port; sets the maximum number of
246
address that can be authenticated, the guest VLAN, dynamic VLAN and
dynamic QoS
– 52 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Table 4: Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
Page
Configure MAC Filter
248
Add
Specifies MAC addresses exempt from authentication
248
Show
Shows the list of exempt MAC addresses
248
Shows the authenticated MAC address list
249
Secure HTTP
251
Configure Global
Enables HTTPs, and specifies the UDP port to use
251
Copy Certificate
Replaces the default secure-site certificate
252
Secure Shell
254
Configures SSH server settings
256
Show Information
HTTPS
SSH
Configure Global
Configure Host Key
258
Generate
Generates the host key pair (public and private)
258
Show
Displays RSA and DSA host keys; deletes host keys
258
Configure User Key
259
Copy
Imports user public keys from a TFTP server
259
Show
Displays RSA and DSA user keys; deletes user keys
259
Access Control Lists
261
ACL
Configure ACL
264
Show TCAM
Shows utilization parameters for TCAM
262
Add
Adds an ACL based on IP or MAC address filtering
264
Show
Shows the name and type of configured ACLs
264
Add Rule
Configures packet filtering based on IP or MAC addresses and other
packet attributes
264
Show Rule
Shows the rules specified for an ACL
264
Configure Interface
Binds a port to the specified ACL and time range
Configure
Binds a port to the specified ACL and time range
277
Show Hardware Counters
Shows statistics for ACL hardware counters
278
ARP Inspection
279
Configure General
Enables inspection globally, configures validation of additional address 280
components, and sets the log rate for packet inspection
Configure VLAN
Enables ARP inspection on specified VLANs
282
Configure Interface
Sets the trust mode for ports, and sets the rate
limit for packet inspection
284
Show Information
285
Show Statistics
Displays statistics on the inspection process
285
Show Log
Shows the inspection log list
286
– 53 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Table 4: Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
Page
IP Filter
287
Add
Sets IP addresses of clients allowed management access via the web,
SNMP, and Telnet
287
Show
Shows the addresses to be allowed management access
287
Port Security
Configures per port security, including status, response for security
breach, and maximum allowed MAC addresses
289
Port Authentication
IEEE 802.1X
291
Configure Global
Enables authentication and EAPOL pass-through
293
Configure Interface
Sets authentication parameters for individual ports
294
Show Statistics
Displays protocol statistics for the selected port
298
Protects against Denial-of-Service attacks
307
DoS Protection
DHCP Snooping
299
Configure Global
Enables DHCP snooping globally, MAC-address verification,
information option; and sets the information policy
302
Configure VLAN
Enables DHCP snooping on a VLAN
303
Configure Interface
Sets the trust mode for an interface
304
Show Information
Displays the DHCP Snooping binding information
306
Filters IP traffic based on static entries in the IP Source Guard table, or
dynamic entries in the DHCP Snooping table
308
Enables IP source guard and selects filter type per port
308
IP Source Guard
General
Static Binding
311
Configure ACL Table
311
Add
Adds static addresses to the source guard ACL binding table
311
Show
Shows static addresses in the source guard ACL binding table
311
Configure MAC Table
311
Add
Adds static addresses to the source guard MAC address binding table
Show
Shows static addresses in the source guard MAC address binding table 311
Dynamic Binding
Displays the source-guard binding table for a selected interface
Administration
311
313
315
Log
316
System
316
Configure Global
Stores error messages in local memory
316
Show System Logs
Shows logged error messages
316
Remote
Configures the logging of messages to a remote logging process
318
SMTP
Sends an SMTP client message to a participating server
319
– 54 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Table 4: Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
Page
LLDP
Configure Global
321
Configures global LLDP timing parameters
Configure Interface
321
323
Configure General
Sets the message transmission mode; enables SNMP notification; and
sets the LLDP attributes to advertise
323
Add CA-Type
Specifies the physical location of the device attached to an interface
327
Show Local Device Information
329
General
Displays general information about the local device
329
Port/Trunk
Displays information about each interface
329
Show Remote Device Information
333
Port/Trunk
Displays information about a remote device connected to a port on this 333
switch
Port/Trunk Details
Displays detailed information about a remote device connected to this 333
switch
Show Device Statistics
341
General
Displays statistics for all connected remote devices
341
Port/Trunk
Displays statistics for remote devices on a selected port or trunk
341
Power over Ethernet
343
Power sourcing equipment
343
PoE*
PSE
Configure Global
Set the maximum PoE power budget for the switch (power available to
all Gigabit Ethernet ports)
Configure Interface
Configures port power parameters
SNMP
Configure Global
Simple Network Management Protocol
347
Enables SNMP agent status, and sets related trap functions
349
Configure Community
362
Add
Configures community strings and access mode
362
Show
Shows community strings and access mode
362
Configure Engine
350
Set Engine ID
Sets the SNMP v3 engine ID on this switch
350
Add Remote Engine
Sets the SNMP v3 engine ID for a remote device
351
Show Remote Engine
Shows configured engine ID for remote devices
351
Configure View
353
Add View
Adds an SNMP v3 view of the OID MIB
353
Show View
Shows configured SNMP v3 views
353
Add OID Subtree
Specifies a part of the subtree for the selected view
353
Show OID Subtree
Shows the subtrees assigned to each view
353
– 55 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Table 4: Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
Page
Configure Group
355
Add
Adds a group with access policies for assigned users
355
Show
Shows configured groups and access policies
355
Add SNMPv3 Local User
Configures SNMPv3 users on this switch
363
Show SNMPv3 Local User
Shows SNMPv3 users configured on this switch
363
Change SNMPv3 Local User Group
Assign a local user to a new group
363
Add SNMPv3 Remote User
Configures SNMPv3 users from a remote device
366
Show SNMPv3 Remote User
Shows SNMPv3 users set from a remote device
363
Configure User
Configure Trap
368
Add
Configures trap managers to receive messages on key events that occur 368
on this switch
Show
Shows configured trap managers
368
Add
Creates an SNMP notification log
372
Show
Shows the configured notification logs
372
Shows the status of SNMP communications
374
Remote Monitoring
376
Alarm
Sets threshold bounds for a monitored variable
377
Event
Creates a response event for an alarm
379
Alarm
Shows all configured alarms
377
Event
Shows all configured events
379
History
Periodically samples statistics on a physical interface
381
Statistics
Enables collection of statistics on a physical interface
384
History
Shows sampling parameters for each entry in the history group
381
Statistics
Shows sampling parameters for each entry in the statistics group
384
History
Shows sampled data for each entry in the history group
381
Statistics
Shows sampled data for each entry in the history group
384
Configure Notify Filter
Show Statistics
RMON
Configure Global
Add
Show
Configure Interface
Add
Show
Show Details
– 56 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Table 4: Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
Page
Configures the time to apply an ACL or PoE port
387
Add
Specifies the name of a time range
387
Show
Shows the name of configured time ranges
387
Time Range
Add Rule
387
Absolute
Sets exact time or time range
387
Periodic
Sets a recurrent time
387
Loopback Detection
389
Configure Global
Enables loopback detection globally, specifies the interval at which to
transmit control frames, specifies the interval to wait before releasing
an interface from shutdown state, specifies response to detect
loopback, and traps to send
390
Configure Interface
Enables loopback detection per interface
392
LDB
Tools
431
Ping
Sends ICMP echo request packets to another node on the network
431
Trace Route
Shows the route packets take to the specified
destination
433
ARP
Shows entries in the Address Resolution Protocol cache
434
Shows entries in the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache
435
Show Information
IP Service
DNS
437
Domain Name Service
General
437
437
Configure Global
Enables DNS lookup; defines the default domain name appended to
incomplete host names
438
Add Domain Name
Defines a list of domain names that can
be appended to incomplete host names
438
Show Domain Names
Shows the configured domain name list
438
Add Name Server
Specifies IP address of name servers for dynamic lookup
440
Show Name Servers
Shows the name server address list
440
Static Host Table
441
Add
Configures static entries for domain name to address mapping
441
Show
Shows the list of static mapping entries
441
Modify
Modifies the static address mapped to the selected host name
441
Displays cache entries discovered by designated
name servers
442
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
443
Client
Specifies the DHCP client identifier for an interface
444
Relay
Specifies DHCP relay servers
445
Cache
DHCP
– 57 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Table 4: Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Dynamic Provision
Description
Page
Enables dynamic provisioning via DHCP
449
Multicast
393
IGMP Snooping
General
394
Enables multicast filtering; configures parameters for multicast
snooping
Multicast Router
396
400
Add Static Multicast Router
Assigns ports that are attached to a neighboring multicast router
400
Show Static Multicast Router
Displays ports statically configured as attached to a neighboring
multicast router
400
Show Current Multicast Router
Displays ports attached to a neighboring multicast router, either
through static or dynamic configuration
400
IGMP Member
402
Add Static Member
Statically assigns multicast addresses to the selected VLAN
402
Show Static Member
Shows multicast addresses statically configured on the selected VLAN
402
Interface
404
Configure VLAN
Configures IGMP snooping per VLAN interface
404
Show VLAN Information
Shows IGMP snooping settings per VLAN interface
404
Configure Port
Configures the interface to drop IGMP query packets or all multicast
data packets
410
Configure Trunk
Configures the interface to drop IGMP query packets or all multicast
data packets
410
Forwarding Entry
Displays the current multicast groups learned through IGMP Snooping 411
Filter
Configure General
416
Enables IGMP filtering for the switch
Configure Profile
416
417
Add
Adds IGMP filter profile; and sets access mode
417
Show
Shows configured IGMP filter profiles
417
Add Multicast Group Range
Assigns multicast groups to selected profile
417
Show Multicast Group Range
Shows multicast groups assigned to a profile
417
Configure Interface
Assigns IGMP filter profiles to port interfaces and sets throttling action 419
Statistics
412
Show Query Statistics
Shows statistics for query-related messages
412
Show VLAN Statistics
Shows statistics for protocol messages, number of active groups
412
Show Port Statistics
Shows statistics for protocol messages, number of active groups
412
Show Trunk Statistics
Shows statistics for protocol messages, number of active groups
412
– 58 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Table 4: Switch Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
Page
MLD Snooping
421
General
Enables multicast filtering; configures parameters for IPv6 multicast
snooping
421
Interface
Configures Immediate Leave status for a VLAN
423
Multicast Router
424
Add Static Multicast Router
Assigns ports that are attached to a neighboring multicast router
424
Show Static Multicast Router
Displays ports statically configured as attached to a neighboring
multicast router
424
Show Current Multicast Router
Displays ports attached to a neighboring multicast router, either
through static or dynamic configuration
424
MLD Member
Add Static Member
Statically assigns multicast addresses to the selected VLAN
426
Show Static Member
Shows multicast addresses statically configured on the selected VLAN
426
Show Current Member
Shows multicast addresses associated with the selected VLAN, either
through static or dynamic configuration
426
Displays known multicast groups, member ports, the means by which
each group was learned, and the corresponding source list
428
Group Information
*
426
GEP-1061
– 59 –
Chapter 2 | Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
– 60 –
3
Basic Management Tasks
This chapter describes the following topics:
◆
Displaying System Information – Provides basic system description, including
contact information.
◆
Displaying Hardware/Software Versions – Shows the hardware version, power
status, and firmware versions
◆
Configuring Support for Jumbo Frames – Enables support for jumbo frames.
◆
Displaying Bridge Extension Capabilities – Shows the bridge extension
parameters.
◆
Managing System Files – Describes how to upgrade operating software or
configuration files, and set the system start-up files.
◆
Setting the System Clock – Sets the current time manually or through specified
NTP or SNTP servers.
◆
Configuring the Console Port – Sets console port connection parameters.
◆
Configuring Telnet Settings – Sets Telnet connection parameters.
◆
Displaying CPU Utilization – Displays information on CPU utilization.
◆
Configuring CPU Guard – Sets thresholds in terms of CPU usage time and
number of packets processed per second.
◆
Displaying Memory Utilization – Shows memory utilization parameters.
◆
Resetting the System – Restarts the switch immediately, at a specified time,
after a specified delay, or at a periodic interval.
– 61 –
Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Displaying System Information
Displaying System Information
Use the System > General page to identify the system by displaying information
such as the device name, location and contact information.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
System Description – Brief description of device type.
◆
System Object ID – MIB II object ID for switch’s network management
subsystem.
◆
System Up Time – Length of time the management agent has been up.
◆
System Name – Name assigned to the switch system.
◆
System Location – Specifies the system location.
◆
System Contact – Administrator responsible for the system.
Web Interface
To configure general system information:
1. Click System, General.
2. Specify the system name, location, and contact information for the system
administrator.
3. Click Apply.
Figure 4: System Information
– 62 –
Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Displaying Hardware/Software Versions
Displaying Hardware/Software Versions
Use the System > Switch page to display hardware/firmware version numbers for
the main board and management software, as well as the power status of the
system.
Parameters
The following parameters are displayed:
Main Board Information
◆
Serial Number – The serial number of the switch.
◆
Number of Ports – Number of built-in ports.
◆
Hardware Version – Hardware version of the main board.
◆
Main Power Status – Displays the status of the internal power supply.
Management Software Information
◆
Role – Shows that this switch is operating as Master or Slave.
◆
EPLD Version – Version number of EEPROM Programmable Logic Device.
◆
Loader Version – Version number of loader code.
◆
Diagnostics Code Version – Version of Power-On Self-Test (POST) and boot
code.
◆
Operation Code Version – Version number of runtime code.
– 63 –
Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Configuring Support for Jumbo Frames
Web Interface
To view hardware and software version information.
1. Click System, then Switch.
Figure 5: General Switch Information
Configuring Support for Jumbo Frames
Use the System > Capability page to configure support for layer 2 jumbo frames.
The switch provides more efficient throughput for large sequential data transfers
by supporting jumbo frames up to 10240 bytes for Gigabit Ethernet and 10 Gigabit
Ethernet ports or trunks. Compared to standard Ethernet frames that run only up to
1.5 KB, using jumbo frames significantly reduces the per-packet overhead required
to process protocol encapsulation fields.
Usage Guidelines
To use jumbo frames, both the source and destination end nodes (such as a
computer or server) must support this feature. Also, when the connection is
operating at full duplex, all switches in the network between the two end nodes
must be able to accept the extended frame size. And for half-duplex connections,
all devices in the collision domain would need to support jumbo frames.
Parameters
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
Jumbo Frame – Configures support for jumbo frames. (Default: Disabled)
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Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Displaying Bridge Extension Capabilities
Web Interface
To configure support for jumbo frames:
1. Click System, then Capability.
2. Enable or disable support for jumbo frames.
3. Click Apply.
Figure 6: Configuring Support for Jumbo Frames
Displaying Bridge Extension Capabilities
Use the System > Capability page to display settings based on the Bridge MIB. The
Bridge MIB includes extensions for managed devices that support Multicast
Filtering, Traffic Classes, and Virtual LANs. You can access these extensions to
display default settings for the key variables.
Parameters
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
Extended Multicast Filtering Services – This switch does not support the
filtering of individual multicast addresses based on GMRP (GARP Multicast
Registration Protocol).
◆
Traffic Classes – This switch provides mapping of user priorities to multiple
traffic classes. (Refer to “Class of Service” on page 193.)
◆
Static Entry Individual Port – This switch allows static filtering for unicast and
multicast addresses. (Refer to “Setting Static Addresses” on page 157.)
◆
VLAN Version Number – Based on IEEE 802.1Q, “1” indicates Bridges that
support only single spanning tree (SST) operation, and “2” indicates Bridges
that support multiple spanning tree (MST) operation.
◆
VLAN Learning – This switch uses Independent VLAN Learning (IVL), where
each port maintains its own filtering database.
◆
Local VLAN Capable – This switch does not support multiple local bridges
outside of the scope of 802.1Q defined VLANs.
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Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Displaying Bridge Extension Capabilities
◆
Configurable PVID Tagging – This switch allows you to override the default
Port VLAN ID (PVID used in frame tags) and egress status (VLAN-Tagged or
Untagged) on each port. (Refer to “VLAN Configuration” on page 139.)
◆
Max Supported VLAN Numbers – The maximum number of VLANs supported
on this switch.
◆
Max Supported VLAN ID – The maximum configurable VLAN identifier
supported on this switch.
Web Interface
To view Bridge Extension information:
1. Click System, then Capability.
Figure 7: Displaying Bridge Extension Configuration
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Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Managing System Files
Managing System Files
This section describes how to upgrade the switch operating software or
configuration files, and set the system start-up files.
Copying Files via FTP/ Use the System > File (Copy) page to upload/download firmware or configuration
TFTP or HTTP settings using FTP, TFTP or HTTP. By backing up a file to an FTP/TFTP server or
management station, that file can later be downloaded to the switch to restore
operation. Specify the method of file transfer, along with the file type and file
names as required.
You can also set the switch to use new firmware or configuration settings without
overwriting the current version. Just download the file using a different name from
the current version, and then set the new file as the startup file.
Command Usage
◆ When logging into an FTP server, the interface prompts for a user name and
password configured on the remote server. Note that “Anonymous” is set as the
default user name.
◆
The reset command will not be accepted during copy operations to flash
memory.
Parameters
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
Copy Type – The firmware copy operation includes these options:
■
HTTP Upload – Copies a file from a management station to the switch.
■
HTTP Download – Copies a file from the switch to a management station
■
TFTP Upload – Copies a file from a TFTP server to the switch.
■
TFTP Download – Copies a file from the switch to a TFTP server.
■
FTP Upload – Copies a file from an FTP server to the switch.
■
FTP Download – Copies a file from the switch to an FTP server.
◆
FTP/TFTP Server IP Address – The IP address of an FTP/TFTP server.
◆
User Name – The user name for FTP server access.
◆
Password – The password for FTP server access.
◆
File Type – Specify Operation Code to copy firmware or Config File to copy
configuration settings.
◆
File Name – The file name should not contain slashes (\ or /), the leading letter
of the file name should not be a period (.), and the maximum length for file
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Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Managing System Files
names is 32 characters for files on the switch or 127 characters for files on the
server. (Valid characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
Note: Up to two copies of the system software (i.e., the runtime firmware) can be
stored in the file directory on the switch.
Note: The maximum number of user-defined configuration files is limited only by
available flash memory space.
Note: The file “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” can be copied to a file server or
management station, but cannot be used as the destination file name on the
switch.
Web Interface
To copy firmware files:
1. Click System, then File.
2. Select Copy from the Action list.
3. Select FTP Upload, HTTP Upload or TFTP Upload as the file transfer method.
4. If FTP or TFTP Upload is used, enter the IP address of the file server.
5. If FTP Upload is used, enter the user name and password for your account on
the FTP server.
6. Set the file type to Operation Code.
7. Enter the name of the file to download.
8. Select a file on the switch to overwrite or specify a new file name.
9. Click Apply.
Figure 8: Copy Firmware
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Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Managing System Files
If you replaced a file currently used for startup and want to start using the new file,
reboot the system via the System > Reset menu.
Saving the Running Use the System > File (Copy) page to save the current configuration settings to a
Configuration to a local file on the switch. The configuration settings are not automatically saved by
Local File the system for subsequent use when the switch is rebooted. You must save these
settings to the current startup file, or to another file which can be subsequently set
as the startup file.
Parameters
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
Copy Type – The copy operation includes this option:
■
◆
Running-Config – Copies the current configuration settings to a local file on
the switch.
Destination File Name – Copy to the currently designated startup file, or to a
new file. The file name should not contain slashes (\ or /), the leading letter of
the file name should not be a period (.), and the maximum length for file names
is 32 characters. (Valid characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
Note: The maximum number of user-defined configuration files is limited only by
available flash memory space.
Web Interface
To save the running configuration file:
1. Click System, then File.
2. Select Copy from the Action list.
3. Select Running-Config from the Copy Type list.
4. Select the current startup file on the switch to overwrite or specify a new file
name.
5. Then click Apply.
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Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Managing System Files
Figure 9: Saving the Running Configuration
If you replaced a file currently used for startup and want to start using the new file,
reboot the system via the System > Reset menu.
Setting the Use the System > File (Set Start-Up) page to specify the firmware or configuration
Start-up File file to use for system initialization.
Web Interface
To set a file to use for system initialization:
1. Click System, then File.
2. Select Set Start-Up from the Action list.
3. Mark the operation code or configuration file to be used at startup
4. Then click Apply.
Figure 10: Setting Start-Up Files
To start using the new firmware or configuration settings, reboot the system via the
System > Reset menu.
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Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Managing System Files
Showing System Files Use the System > File (Show) page to show the files in the system directory, or to
delete a file.
Note: Files designated for start-up, and the Factory_Default_Config.cfg file, cannot
be deleted.
Web Interface
To show the system files:
1. Click System, then File.
2. Select Show from the Action list.
3. To delete a file, mark it in the File List and click Delete.
Figure 11: Displaying System Files
Automatic Operation Use the System > File (Automatic Operation Code Upgrade) page to automatically
Code Upgrade download an operation code file when a file newer than the currently installed one
is discovered on the file server. After the file is transferred from the server and
successfully written to the file system, it is automatically set as the startup file, and
the switch is rebooted.
Usage Guidelines
◆ If this feature is enabled, the switch searches the defined URL once during the
bootup sequence.
◆
FTP (port 21) and TFTP (port 69) are both supported. Note that the TCP/UDP
port bindings cannot be modified to support servers listening on non-standard
ports.
◆
The host portion of the upgrade file location URL must be a valid IPv4 IP
address. DNS host names are not recognized. Valid IP addresses consist of four
numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods.
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Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Managing System Files
◆
The path to the directory must also be defined. If the file is stored in the root
directory for the FTP/TFTP service, then use the “/” to indicate this (e.g., ftp://
192.168.0.1/).
◆
The file name must not be included in the upgrade file location URL. The file
name of the code stored on the remote server must be level1-xx61.bix (using
upper case and lower case letters exactly as indicated here). Enter the file name
for other switches described in this manual exactly as shown on the web
interface.
◆
The FTP connection is made with PASV mode enabled. PASV mode is needed to
traverse some fire walls, even if FTP traffic is not blocked. PASV mode cannot be
disabled.
◆
The switch-based search function is case-insensitive in that it will accept a file
name in upper or lower case (i.e., the switch will accept LEVEL 1-xx61.BIX from
the server even though LEVEL 1-xx61.bix was requested). However, keep in
mind that the file systems of many operating systems such as Unix and most
Unix-like systems (FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, and most Linux distributions,
etc.) are case-sensitive, meaning that two files in the same directory, level 1xx61.bix and LEVEL 1-xx61.bix are considered to be unique files. Thus, if the
upgrade file is stored as LEVEL 1-xx61.bix (or even LeveL 1-xx61.bix) on a casesensitive server, then the switch (requesting gel-1061-series.bix) will not be
upgraded because the server does not recognize the requested file name and
the stored file name as being equal. A notable exception in the list of casesensitive Unix-like operating systems is Mac OS X, which by default is caseinsensitive. Please check the documentation for your server’s operating system
if you are unsure of its file system’s behavior.
◆
Note that the switch itself does not distinguish between upper and lower-case
file names, and only checks to see if the file stored on the server is more recent
than the current runtime image.
◆
If two operation code image files are already stored on the switch’s file system,
then the non-startup image is deleted before the upgrade image is transferred.
◆
The automatic upgrade process will take place in the background without
impeding normal operations (data switching, etc.) of the switch.
◆
During the automatic search and transfer process, the administrator cannot
transfer or update another operation code image, configuration file, public key,
or HTTPS certificate (i.e., no other concurrent file management operations are
possible).
◆
The upgrade operation code image is set as the startup image after it has been
successfully written to the file system.
◆
The switch will send an SNMP trap and make a log entry upon all upgrade
successes and failures.
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Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Managing System Files
◆
The switch will immediately restart after the upgrade file is successfully written
to the file system and set as the startup image.
Parameters
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
Automatic Opcode Upgrade – Enables the switch to search for an upgraded
operation code file during the switch bootup process. (Default: Disabled)
◆
Automatic Upgrade Location URL – Defines where the switch should search
for the operation code upgrade file. The last character of this URL must be a
forward slash (“/”). The GEL-1061-series.bix filename must not be included since
it is automatically appended by the switch. (Options: ftp, tftp)
The following syntax must be observed:
tftp://host[/filedir]/
■
tftp:// – Defines TFTP protocol for the server connection.
■
host – Defines the IP address of the TFTP server. Valid IP addresses consist of
four numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods. DNS host names are not
recognized.
■
filedir – Defines the directory, relative to the TFTP server root, where the
upgrade file can be found. Nested directory structures are accepted. The
directory name must be separated from the host, and in nested directory
structures, from the parent directory, with a prepended forward slash “/”.
■
/ – The forward slash must be the last character of the URL.
ftp://[username[:password@]]host[/filedir]/
■
ftp:// – Defines FTP protocol for the server connection.
■
username – Defines the user name for the FTP connection. If the user name
is omitted, then “anonymous” is the assumed user name for the
connection.
If no user name nor password is required for the connection, then the “@”
character cannot be used in the path name.
■
password – Defines the password for the FTP connection. To differentiate
the password from the user name and host portions of the URL, a colon (:)
must precede the password, and an “at” symbol (@), must follow the
password. If the password is omitted, then “” (an empty string) is the
assumed password for the connection.
■
host – Defines the IP address of the FTP server. Valid IP addresses consist of
four numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods. DNS host names are not
recognized.
■
filedir – Defines the directory, relative to the FTP server root, where the
upgrade file can be found. Nested directory structures are accepted. The
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Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Managing System Files
directory name must be separated from the host, and in nested directory
structures, from the parent directory, with a prepended forward slash “/”.
■
/ – The forward slash must be the last character of the URL.
Examples
The following examples demonstrate the URL syntax for a TFTP server at IP
address 192.168.0.1 with the operation code image stored in various locations:
■
tftp://192.168.0.1/
The image file is in the TFTP root directory.
■
tftp://192.168.0.1/switch-opcode/
The image file is in the “switch-opcode” directory, relative to the TFTP root.
■
tftp://192.168.0.1/switches/opcode/
The image file is in the “opcode” directory, which is within the “switches”
parent directory, relative to the TFTP root.
The following examples demonstrate the URL syntax for an FTP server at IP
address 192.168.0.1 with various user name, password and file location options
presented:
■
ftp://192.168.0.1/
The user name and password are empty, so “anonymous” will be the user
name and the password will be blank. The image file is in the FTP root
directory.
■
ftp://switches:upgrade@192.168.0.1/
The user name is “switches” and the password is “upgrade”. The image file is
in the FTP root.
■
ftp://switches:upgrade@192.168.0.1/switches/opcode/
The user name is “switches” and the password is “upgrade”. The image file is
in the “opcode” directory, which is within the “switches” parent directory,
relative to the FTP root.
Web Interface
To configure automatic code upgrade:
1. Click System, then File.
2. Select Automatic Operation Code Upgrade from the Action list.
3. Mark the check box to enable Automatic Opcode Upgrade.
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Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Setting the System Clock
4. Enter the URL of the FTP or TFTP server, and the path and directory containing
the operation code.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 12: Configuring Automatic Code Upgrade
If a new image is found at the specified location, the following type of messages
will be displayed during bootup.
.
.
.
Automatic Upgrade is looking for a new image
New image detected: current version 1.2.1.3; new version 1.2.1.6
Image upgrade in progress
The switch will restart after upgrade succeeds
Downloading new image
Flash programming started
Flash programming completed
The switch will now restart
.
.
.
Setting the System Clock
Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) allows the switch to set its internal clock
based on periodic updates from a time server (SNTP or NTP). Maintaining an
accurate time on the switch enables the system log to record meaningful dates and
times for event entries. You can also manually set the clock. If the clock is not set
manually or via SNTP, the switch will only record the time from the factory default
set at the last bootup.
When the SNTP client is enabled, the switch periodically sends a request for a time
update to a configured time server. You can configure up to three time server IP
addresses. The switch will attempt to poll each server in the configured sequence.
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Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Setting the System Clock
Setting the Time Use the System > Time (Configure General - Manual) page to set the system time on
Manually the switch manually without using SNTP.
Parameters
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
Current Time – Shows the current time set on the switch.
◆
Hours – Sets the hour. (Range: 0-23)
◆
Minutes – Sets the minute value. (Range: 0-59)
◆
Seconds – Sets the second value. (Range: 0-59)
◆
Month – Sets the month. (Range: 1-12)
◆
Day – Sets the day of the month. (Range: 1-31)
◆
Year – Sets the year. (Range: 1970-2037)
Web Interface
To manually set the system clock:
1. Click System, then Time.
2. Select Configure General from the Step list.
3. Select Manual from the Maintain Type list.
4. Enter the time and date in the appropriate fields.
5. Click Apply
Figure 13: Manually Setting the System Clock
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Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Setting the System Clock
Setting the SNTP Use the System > Time (Configure General - SNTP) page to set the polling interval at
Polling Interval which the switch will query the specified time servers.
Parameters
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
Current Time – Shows the current time set on the switch.
◆
SNTP Polling Interval – Sets the interval between sending requests for a time
update from a time server. (Range: 16-16384 seconds; Default: 16 seconds)
Web Interface
To set the polling interval for SNTP:
1. Click System, then Time.
2. Select Configure General from the Step list.
3. Select SNTP from the Maintain Type list.
4. Modify the polling interval if required.
5. Click Apply
Figure 14: Setting the Polling Interval for SNTP
Configuring NTP Use the System > Time (Configure General - NTP) page to configure NTP
authentication and show the polling interval at which the switch will query the
specified time servers.
Parameters
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
Current Time – Shows the current time set on the switch.
◆
Authentication Status – Enables authentication for time requests and updates
between the switch and NTP servers. (Default: Disabled)
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Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Setting the System Clock
You can enable NTP authentication to ensure that reliable updates are received
from only authorized NTP servers. The authentication keys and their associated
key number must be centrally managed and manually distributed to NTP
servers and clients. The key numbers and key values must match on both the
server and client.
◆
Polling Interval – Shows the interval between sending requests for a time
update from NTP servers. (Fixed: 1024 seconds)
Web Interface
To set the clock maintenance type to NTP:
1. Click System, then Time.
2. Select Configure General from the Step list.
3. Select NTP from the Maintain Type list.
4. Enable authentication if required.
5. Click Apply
Figure 15: Configuring NTP
Configuring Use the System > Time (Configure Time Server) pages to specify the IP address for
Time Servers NTP/SNTP time servers, or to set the authentication key for NTP time servers.
Specifying SNTP Time Servers
Use the System > Time (Configure Time Server – Configure SNTP Server) page to
specify the IP address for up to three SNTP time servers.
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Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Setting the System Clock
Parameters
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
SNTP Server IP Address – Sets the IPv4 or IPv6 address for up to three time
servers. The switch attempts to update the time from the first server, if this fails
it attempts an update from the next server in the sequence.
Web Interface
To set the SNTP time servers:
1. Click System, then Time.
2. Select Configure Time Server from the Step list.
3. Select Configure SNTP Server from the Action list.
4. Enter the IP address of up to three time servers.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 16: Specifying SNTP Time Servers
Specifying NTP Time Servers
Use the System > Time (Configure Time Server – Add NTP Server) page to add the IP
address for up to 50 NTP time servers.
Parameters
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
NTP Server IP Address – Adds the IPv4 or IPv6 address for up to 50 time
servers. The switch will poll the specified time servers for updates when the
clock maintenance type is set to NTP on the System > Time (Configure General)
page. It issues time synchronization requests at a fixed interval of 1024 seconds.
The switch will poll all the time servers configured, the responses received are
filtered and compared to determine the most reliable and accurate time update
for the switch.
◆
Version – Specifies the NTP version supported by the server. (Fixed: Version 3)
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Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Setting the System Clock
◆
Authentication Key – Specifies the number of the key in the NTP
Authentication Key List to use for authentication with the configured server.
NTP authentication is optional. If enabled on the System > Time (Configure
General) page, you must also configure at least one key on the System > Time
(Add NTP Authentication Key) page. (Range: 1-65535)
Web Interface
To add an NTP time server to the server list:
1. Click System, then Time.
2. Select Configure Time Server from the Step list.
3. Select Add NTP Server from the Action list.
4. Enter the IP address of an NTP time server, and specify the index of the
authentication key if authentication is required.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 17: Adding an NTP Time Server
To show the list of configured NTP time servers:
1. Click System, then Time.
2. Select Configure Time Server from the Step list.
3. Select Show NTP Server from the Action list.
Figure 18: Showing the NTP Time Server List
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Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Setting the System Clock
Specifying NTP Authentication Keys
Use the System > Time (Configure Time Server – Add NTP Authentication Key) page
to add an entry to the authentication key list.
Parameters
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
Authentication Key – Specifies the number of the key in the NTP
Authentication Key List to use for authentication with a configured server. NTP
authentication is optional. When enabled on the System > Time (Configure
General) page, you must also configure at least one key on this page. Up to 255
keys can be configured on the switch. (Range: 1-65535)
◆
Key Context – An MD5 authentication key string. The key string can be up to
32 case-sensitive printable ASCII characters (no spaces).
NTP authentication key numbers and values must match on both the server
and client.
Web Interface
To add an entry to NTP authentication key list:
1. Click System, then Time.
2. Select Configure Time Server from the Step list.
3. Select Add NTP Authentication Key from the Action list.
4. Enter the index number and MD5 authentication key string.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 19: Adding an NTP Authentication Key
To show the list of configured NTP authentication keys:
1. Click System, then Time.
2. Select Configure Time Server from the Step list.
3. Select Show NTP Authentication Key from the Action list.
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Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Setting the System Clock
Figure 20: Showing the NTP Authentication Key List
Setting the Time Zone Use the System > Time (Configure Time Zone) page to set the time zone. SNTP uses
Coordinated Universal Time (or UTC, formerly Greenwich Mean Time, or GMT)
based on the time at the Earth’s prime meridian, zero degrees longitude, which
passes through Greenwich, England. To display a time corresponding to your local
time, you must indicate the number of hours and minutes your time zone is east
(before) or west (after) of UTC. You can choose one of the 80 predefined time zone
definitions, or your can manually configure the parameters for your local time zone.
Parameters
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
Predefined Configuration – A drop-down box provides access to the 80
predefined time zone configurations. Each choice indicates it’s offset from UTC
and lists at least one major city or location covered by the time zone.
◆
User-defined Configuration – Allows the user to define all parameters of the
local time zone.
■
Direction – Configures the time zone to be before (east of ) or after (west
of ) UTC.
■
Name – Assigns a name to the time zone. (Range: 1-30 characters)
■
Hours (0-13) – The number of hours before or after UTC. The maximum
value before UTC is 12. The maximum value after UTC is 13.
■
Minutes (0-59) – The number of minutes before/after UTC.
Web Interface
To set your local time zone:
1. Click System, then Time.
2. Select Configure Time Zone from the Step list.
3. Set the offset for your time zone relative to the UTC in hours and minutes.
4. Click Apply.
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Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Setting the System Clock
Figure 21: Setting the Time Zone
Configuring Use the Summer Time page to set the system clock forward during the summer
Summer Time months (also known as daylight savings time).
In some countries or regions, clocks are adjusted through the summer months so
that afternoons have more daylight and mornings have less. This is known as
Summer Time, or Daylight Savings Time (DST). Typically, clocks are adjusted
forward one hour at the start of spring and then adjusted backward in autumn.
Parameters
The following parameters are displayed in the web interface:
General Configuration
◆
Summer Time in Effect – Shows if the system time has been adjusted.
◆
Status – Shows if summer time is set to take effect during the specified period.
◆
Name – Name of the time zone while summer time is in effect, usually an
acronym. (Range: 1-30 characters)
◆
Mode – Selects one of the following configuration modes. (The Mode option
can only be managed when the Summer Time Status option has been set to
enabled for the switch.)
Predefined Mode – Configures the summer time status and settings for the switch
using predefined configurations for several major regions of the world. To specify
the time corresponding to your local time when summer time is in effect, select the
predefined summer-time zone appropriate for your location.
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Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Setting the System Clock
Table 5: Predefined Summer-Time Parameters
Region
Start Time, Day, Week, & Month
End Time, Day, Week, & Month
Australia
00:00:00, Sunday, Week 5 of October 23:59:59, Sunday, Week 5 of March
60 min
Europe
00:00:00, Sunday, Week 5 of March
60 min
23:59:59, Sunday, Week 5 of October
New Zealand 00:00:00, Sunday, Week 1 of October 23:59:59, Sunday, Week 3 of March
USA
02:00:00, Sunday, Week 2 of March
Rel.
Offset
60 min
02:00:00, Sunday, Week 1 of November 60 min
Date Mode – Sets the start, end, and offset times of summer time for the switch on a
one-time basis. This mode sets the summer-time zone relative to the currently
configured time zone. To specify a time corresponding to your local time when
summer time is in effect, you must indicate the number of minutes your summertime zone deviates from your regular time zone.
◆
Offset – Summer-time offset from the regular time zone, in minutes.
(Range: 1-120 minutes)
◆
From – Start time for summer-time offset.
◆
To – End time for summer-time offset.
Recurring Mode – Sets the start, end, and offset times of summer time for the switch
on a recurring basis. This mode sets the summer-time zone relative to the currently
configured time zone. To specify a time corresponding to your local time when
summer time is in effect, you must indicate the number of minutes your summertime zone deviates from your regular time zone.
◆
Offset – Summer-time offset from the regular time zone, in minutes.
(Range: 1-120 minutes)
◆
From – Start time for summer-time offset.
◆
To – End time for summer-time offset.
Web Interface
To specify summer time settings:
1. Click SNTP, Summer Time.
2. Select one of the configuration modes, configure the relevant attributes,
enable summer time status.
3. Click Apply.
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Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Configuring the Console Port
Figure 22: Configuring Summer Time
Configuring the Console Port
Use the System > Console menu to configure connection parameters for the
switch’s console port. You can access the onboard configuration program by
attaching a VT100 compatible device to the switch’s serial console port.
Management access through the console port is controlled by various parameters,
including a password (only configurable through the CLI), time outs, and basic
communication settings. Note that these parameters can be configured via the
web or CLI interface.
Parameters
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
Login Timeout – Sets the interval that the system waits for a user to log into
the CLI. If a login attempt is not detected within the timeout interval, the
connection is terminated for the session. (Range: 10-300 seconds; Default: 300
seconds)
◆
Exec Timeout – Sets the interval that the system waits until user input is
detected. If user input is not detected within the timeout interval, the current
session is terminated. (Range: 60-65535 seconds; Default: 600 seconds)
◆
Password Threshold – Sets the password intrusion threshold, which limits the
number of failed logon attempts. When the logon attempt threshold is
reached, the system interface becomes silent for a specified amount of time
(set by the Silent Time parameter) before allowing the next logon attempt.
(Range: 1-120; Default: 3 attempts)
◆
Silent Time – Sets the amount of time the management console is inaccessible
after the number of unsuccessful logon attempts has been exceeded.
(Range: 1-65535 seconds; Default: Disabled)
◆
Data Bits – Sets the number of data bits per character that are interpreted and
generated by the console port. If parity is being generated, specify 7 data bits
– 85 –
Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Configuring the Console Port
per character. If no parity is required, specify 8 data bits per character.
(Default: 8 bits)
◆
Stop Bits – Sets the number of the stop bits transmitted per byte.
(Range: 1-2; Default: 1 stop bit)
◆
Parity – Defines the generation of a parity bit. Communication protocols
provided by some terminals can require a specific parity bit setting. Specify
Even, Odd, or None. (Default: None)
◆
Speed – Sets the terminal line’s baud rate for transmit (to terminal) and receive
(from terminal). Set the speed to match the baud rate of the device connected
to the serial port. (Range: 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, or 115200 baud;
Default: 115200 baud)
Note: The password for the console connection can only be configured through
the CLI (see the “password” command in the CLI Reference Guide).
Note: Password checking can be enabled or disabled for logging in to the console
connection (see the “login” command in the CLI Reference Guide). You can select
authentication by a single global password as configured for the password
command, or by passwords set up for specific user-name accounts. The default is
for local passwords configured on the switch.
Web Interface
To configure parameters for the console port:
1. Click System, then Console.
2. Specify the connection parameters as required.
3. Click Apply
Figure 23: Console Port Settings
– 86 –
Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Configuring Telnet Settings
Configuring Telnet Settings
Use the System > Telnet menu to configure parameters for accessing the CLI over a
Telnet connection. You can access the onboard configuration program over the
network using Telnet (i.e., a virtual terminal). Management access via Telnet can be
enabled/disabled and other parameters set, including the TCP port number, time
outs, and a password. Note that the password is only configurable through the CLI.)
These parameters can be configured via the web or CLI interface.
Parameters
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
Telnet Status – Enables or disables Telnet access to the switch.
(Default: Enabled)
◆
TCP Port – Sets the TCP port number for Telnet on the switch. (Range: 1-65535;
Default: 23)
◆
Max Sessions – Sets the maximum number of Telnet sessions that can
simultaneously connect to this system. (Range: 0-8; Default: 8)
A maximum of eight sessions can be concurrently opened for Telnet and
Secure Shell (i.e., both Telnet and SSH share a maximum number of eight
sessions).
◆
Login Timeout – Sets the interval that the system waits for a user to log into
the CLI. If a login attempt is not detected within the timeout interval, the
connection is terminated for the session. (Range: 10-300 seconds; Default: 300
seconds)
◆
Exec Timeout – Sets the interval that the system waits until user input is
detected. If user input is not detected within the timeout interval, the current
session is terminated. (Range: 60-65535 seconds; Default: 600 seconds)
◆
Password Threshold – Sets the password intrusion threshold, which limits the
number of failed logon attempts. When the logon attempt threshold is
reached, the system interface becomes silent for a specified amount of time
(set by the Silent Time parameter) before allowing the next logon attempt.
(Range: 1-120; Default: 3 attempts)
◆
Silent Time – Sets the amount of time the management interface is
inaccessible after the number of unsuccessful logon attempts has been
exceeded. (Range: 1-65535 seconds; Default: Disabled)
Note: The password for the Telnet connection can only be configured through the
CLI (see the “password” command in the CLI Reference Guide).
Note: Password checking can be enabled or disabled for login to the console
connection (see the “login” command in the CLI Reference Guide). You can select
– 87 –
Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Displaying CPU Utilization
authentication by a single global password as configured for the password
command, or by passwords set up for specific user-name accounts. The default is
for local passwords configured on the switch.
Web Interface
To configure parameters for the console port:
1. Click System, then Telnet.
2. Specify the connection parameters as required.
3. Click Apply
Figure 24: Telnet Connection Settings
Displaying CPU Utilization
Use the System > CPU Utilization page to display information on CPU utilization.
Parameters
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
Time Interval – The interval at which to update the displayed utilization rate.
(Options: 1, 5, 10, 30, 60 seconds; Default: 1 second)
◆
CPU Utilization – CPU utilization over specified interval.
Web Interface
To display CPU utilization:
1. Click System, then CPU Utilization.
2. Change the update interval if required. Note that the interval is changed as
soon as a new setting is selected.
– 88 –
Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Configuring CPU Guard
Figure 25: Displaying CPU Utilization
Configuring CPU Guard
Use the System > CPU Guard page to set the CPU utilization high and low
watermarks in percentage of CPU time utilized and the CPU high and low
thresholds in the number of packets being processed per second.
Parameters
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
CPU Guard Status – Enables CPU Guard. (Default: Disabled)
◆
High Watermark – If the percentage of CPU usage time is higher than the
high-watermark, the switch stops packet flow to the CPU (allowing it to catch
up with packets already in the buffer) until usage time falls below the low
watermark. (Range: 40-100%; Default: 90%)
◆
Low Watermark – If packet flow has been stopped after exceeding the high
watermark, normal flow will be restored after usage falls beneath the low
watermark. (Range: 40-100%; Default: 70%)
◆
Maximum Threshold – If the number of packets being processed by the CPU is
higher than the maximum threshold, the switch stops packet flow to the CPU
(allowing it to catch up with packets already in the buffer) until the number of
packets being processed falls below the minimum threshold. (Range: 50-500
pps; Default: 500 pps)
◆
Minimum Threshold – If packet flow has been stopped after exceeding the
maximum threshold, normal flow will be restored after usage falls beneath the
minimum threshold. (Range: 50-500 pps; Default: 50 pps)
– 89 –
Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Displaying Memory Utilization
◆
Trap Status – If enabled, an alarm message will be generated when utilization
exceeds the high watermark or exceeds the maximum threshold.
(Default: Disabled)
Once the high watermark is exceeded, utilization must drop beneath the low
watermark before the alarm is terminated, and then exceed the high
watermark again before another alarm is triggered.
Once the maximum threshold is exceeded, utilization must drop beneath the
minimum threshold before the alarm is terminated, and then exceed the
maximum threshold again before another alarm is triggered.
◆
Current Threshold – Shows the configured threshold in packets per second.
Web Interface
To configure CPU Guard:
1. Click System, CPU Guard.
2. Set CPU guard status, configure the watermarks or threshold parameter, enable
traps if required.
3. Click Apply.
Figure 26: Configuring CPU Guard
Displaying Memory Utilization
Use the System > Memory Status page to display memory utilization parameters.
Parameters
The following parameters are displayed:
◆
Free Size – The amount of memory currently free for use.
◆
Used Size – The amount of memory allocated to active processes.
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Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Resetting the System
◆
Total – The total amount of system memory.
Web Interface
To display memory utilization:
1. Click System, then Memory Status.
Figure 27: Displaying Memory Utilization
Resetting the System
Use the System > Reset menu to restart the switch immediately, at a specified time,
after a specified delay, or at a periodic interval.
Command Usage
◆ This command resets the entire system.
◆
When the system is restarted, it will always run the Power-On Self-Test. It will
also retain all configuration information stored in non-volatile memory. (See
“Saving the Running Configuration to a Local File” on page 69).
Parameters
The following parameters are displayed:
System Reload Information
◆
Reload Settings – Displays information on the next scheduled reload and
selected reload mode as shown in the following example:
“The switch will be rebooted at March 9 12:00:00 2012. Remaining
Time: 0 days, 2 hours, 46 minutes, 5 seconds.
Reloading switch regularly time: 12:00 everyday.”
◆
Refresh – Refreshes reload information. Changes made through the console or
to system time may need to be refreshed to display the current settings.
◆
Cancel – Cancels the current settings shown in this field.
System Reload Configuration
◆
Reset Mode – Restarts the switch immediately or at the specified time(s).
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Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Resetting the System
■
Immediately – Restarts the system immediately.
■
In – Specifies an interval after which to reload the switch. (The specified
time must be equal to or less than 24 days.)
■
■
■
hours – The number of hours, combined with the minutes, before the
switch resets. (Range: 0-576)
■
minutes – The number of minutes, combined with the hours, before the
switch resets. (Range: 0-59)
At – Specifies a time at which to reload the switch.
■
DD - The day of the month at which to reload. (Range: 01-31)
■
MM - The month at which to reload. (Range: 01-12)
■
YYYY - The year at which to reload. (Range: 1970-2037)
■
HH - The hour at which to reload. (Range: 00-23)
■
MM - The minute at which to reload. (Range: 00-59)
Regularly – Specifies a periodic interval at which to reload the switch.
Time
■
HH - The hour at which to reload. (Range: 00-23)
■
MM - The minute at which to reload. (Range: 00-59)
Period
■
Daily - Every day.
■
Weekly - Day of the week at which to reload.
(Range: Sunday ... Saturday)
■
Monthly - Day of the month at which to reload. (Range: 1-31)
Web Interface
To restart the switch:
1. Click System, then Reset.
2. Select the required reset mode.
3. For any option other than to reset immediately, fill in the required parameters
4. Click Apply.
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Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Resetting the System
5. When prompted, confirm that you want reset the switch.
Figure 28: Restarting the Switch (Immediately)
Figure 29: Restarting the Switch (In)
– 93 –
Chapter 3 | Basic Management Tasks
Resetting the System
Figure 30: Restarting the Switch (At)
Figure 31: Restarting the Switch (Regularly)
– 94 –
4
Interface Configuration
This chapter describes the following topics:
◆
Port Configuration – Configures connection settings, including autonegotiation, or manual setting of speed, duplex mode, and flow control.
◆
Displaying Statistics – Shows Interface, Etherlike, and RMON port statistics in
table or chart form.
◆
Displaying Statistical History – Displays statistical history for the specified
interfaces.
◆
Displaying Transceiver Data – Displays identifying information, and operational
parameters for optical transceivers which support DDM.
◆
Configuring Transceiver Thresholds – Configures thresholds for alarm and
warning messages for optical transceivers which support DDM.
◆
Trunk Configuration – Configures static or dynamic trunks.
◆
Saving Power – Adjusts the power provided to ports based on the length of the
cable used to connect to other devices.
◆
Local Port Mirroring – Sets the source and target ports for mirroring on the local
switch.
◆
Remote Port Mirroring – Configures mirroring of traffic from remote switches
for analysis at a destination port on the local switch.
◆
Traffic Segmentation – Configures the uplinks and down links to a segmented
group of ports.Port Configuration
– 95 –
Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
Port Configuration
This section describes how to configure port connections, mirror traffic from one
port to another, and run cable diagnostics.
Configuring by Use the Interface > Port > General (Configure by Port List) page to enable/disable
Port List an interface, set auto-negotiation and the interface capabilities to advertise, or
manually fix the speed, duplex mode, and flow control.
Command Usage
◆ Auto-negotiation must be disabled before you can configure or force a Gigabit
RJ-45 interface to use the Speed/Duplex mode or Flow Control options.
◆
When using auto-negotiation, the optimal settings will be negotiated between
the link partners based on their advertised capabilities. To set the speed, duplex
mode, or flow control under auto-negotiation, the required operation modes
must be specified in the capabilities list for an interface.
◆
The 1000BASE-T standard does not support forced mode. Auto-negotiation
should always be used to establish a connection over any 1000BASE-T port or
trunk. If not used, the success of the link process cannot be guaranteed when
connecting to other types of switches.
Note: Auto-negotiation is not supported for 1000BASE SFP transceivers.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – Port identifier. (Range: 1-10/28)
◆
Type – Indicates the port type. (1000BASE-T or 1000BASE SFP)
◆
Name – Allows you to label an interface. (Range: 1-64 characters)
◆
Admin – Allows you to manually disable an interface. You can disable an
interface due to abnormal behavior (e.g., excessive collisions), and then reenable it after the problem has been resolved. You may also disable an
interface for security reasons. (Default: Enabled)
◆
Autonegotiation (Port Capabilities) – Allows auto-negotiation to be enabled/
disabled. When auto-negotiation is enabled, you need to specify the
capabilities to be advertised. When auto-negotiation is disabled, you can force
the settings for speed, mode, and flow control.The following capabilities are
supported.
■
10h - Supports 10 Mbps half-duplex operation.
– 96 –
Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
■
10f - Supports 10 Mbps full-duplex operation.
■
100h - Supports 100 Mbps half-duplex operation.
■
100f - Supports 100 Mbps full-duplex operation.
■
1000f - Supports 1000 Mbps full-duplex operation.
■
Sym - Symmetric exchange of transmit and receive pause frames.
■
FC - Flow control can eliminate frame loss by “blocking” traffic from end
stations or segments connected directly to the switch when its buffers fill.
When enabled, back pressure is used for half-duplex operation and IEEE
802.3-2005 (formally IEEE 802.3x) for full-duplex operation.
Default: Autonegotiation enabled;
Advertised capabilities for
1000BASE-T – 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full
1000BASE-SX/LX/ZX (SFP) – 1000full
◆
Speed/Duplex – Allows you to manually set the port speed and duplex mode.
(i.e., with auto-negotiation disabled)
◆
Flow Control – Allows automatic or manual selection of flow control.
(Default: Enabled)
◆
Link Up Down Trap – Issues a notification message whenever a port link is
established or broken. (Default: Disabled)
Web Interface
To configure port connection parameters:
1. Click Interface, Port, General.
2. Select Configure by Port List from the Action List.
3. Modify the required interface settings.
4. Click Apply.
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Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
Figure 32: Configuring Connections by Port List
Configuring by Use the Interface > Port > General (Configure by Port Range) page to enable/
Port Range disable an interface, set auto-negotiation and the interface capabilities to
advertise, or manually fix the speed, duplex mode, and flow control.
Parameters
Except for the trap command, refer to “Configuring by Port List” on page 96 for
more information on command usage and a description of the parameters.
Web Interface
To configure port connection parameters:
1. Click Interface, Port, General.
2. Select Configure by Port Range from the Action List.
3. Enter a range of ports to which your configuration changes apply.
4. Modify the required interface settings.
5. Click Apply.
– 98 –
Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
Figure 33: Configuring Connections by Port Range
Displaying Use the Interface > Port > General (Show Information) page to display the current
Connection Status connection status, including link state, speed/duplex mode, flow control, and autonegotiation.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – Port identifier. (Range: 1-10/28)
◆
Type – Indicates the port type. (1000BASE-T or 1000BASE SFP)
◆
Name – Interface label.
◆
Admin – Shows if the port is enabled or disabled.
◆
Oper Status – Indicates if the link is Up or Down.
◆
Shutdown Reason – Shows the reason this interface has been shut down if
applicable. Some of the reasons for shutting down an interface include being
administratively disabled, or exceeding traffic boundary limits set by auto
traffic control.
◆
Autonegotiation – Shows if auto-negotiation is enabled or disabled.
◆
Oper Speed Duplex – Shows the current speed and duplex mode.
◆
Oper Flow Control – Shows the flow control type used.
◆
Link Up Down Trap – Shows if a notification message will be sent whenever a
port link is established or broken. (Default: Enabled)
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Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
Web Interface
To display port connection parameters:
1. Click Interface, Port, General.
2. Select Show Information from the Action List.
Figure 34: Displaying Port Information
Showing Port or Trunk Use the Interface > Port/Trunk > Statistics or Chart page to display standard
Statistics statistics on network traffic from the Interfaces Group and Ethernet-like MIBs, as
well as a detailed breakdown of traffic based on the RMON MIB. Interfaces and
Ethernet-like statistics display errors on the traffic passing through each port. This
information can be used to identify potential problems with the switch (such as a
faulty port or unusually heavy loading). RMON statistics provide access to a broad
range of statistics, including a total count of different frame types and sizes passing
through each port. All values displayed have been accumulated since the last
system reboot, and are shown as counts per second. Statistics are refreshed every
60 seconds by default.
Note: RMON groups 2, 3 and 9 can only be accessed using SNMP management
software.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Table 6: Port Statistics
Parameter
Description
Interface Statistics
Received Octets
The total number of octets received on the interface, including framing
characters.
Transmitted Octets
The total number of octets transmitted out of the interface, including
framing characters.
– 100 –
Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
Table 6: Port Statistics (Continued)
Parameter
Description
Received Errors
The number of inbound packets that contained errors preventing them
from being deliverable to a higher-layer protocol.
Transmitted Errors
The number of outbound packets that could not be transmitted
because of errors.
Received Unicast Packets
The number of subnetwork-unicast packets delivered to a higher-layer
protocol.
Transmitted Unicast
Packets
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted to a subnetwork-unicast address, including those that
were discarded or not sent.
Received Discarded Packets The number of inbound packets which were chosen to be discarded
even though no errors had been detected to prevent their being
deliverable to a higher-layer protocol. One possible reason for
discarding such a packet could be to free up buffer space.
Transmitted Discarded
Packets
The number of outbound packets which were chosen to be discarded
even though no errors had been detected to prevent their being
transmitted. One possible reason for discarding such a packet could be
to free up buffer space.
Received Multicast Packets
The number of packets, delivered by this sub-layer to a higher (sub)layer, which were addressed to a multicast address at this sub-layer.
Transmitted Multicast
Packets
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted, and which were addressed to a multicast address at this
sub-layer, including those that were discarded or not sent.
Received Broadcast Packets The number of packets, delivered by this sub-layer to a higher (sub)layer, which were addressed to a broadcast address at this sub-layer.
Transmitted Broadcast
Packets
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted, and which were addressed to a broadcast address at this
sub-layer, including those that were discarded or not sent.
Received Unknown Packets The number of packets received via the interface which were discarded
because of an unknown or unsupported protocol.
Etherlike Statistics
Single Collision Frames
The number of successfully transmitted frames for which transmission
is inhibited by exactly one collision.
Multiple Collision Frames
A count of successfully transmitted frames for which transmission is
inhibited by more than one collision.
Late Collisions
The number of times that a collision is detected later than 512 bit-times
into the transmission of a packet.
Excessive Collisions
A count of frames for which transmission on a particular interface fails
due to excessive collisions. This counter does not increment when the
interface is operating in full-duplex mode.
Deferred Transmissions
A count of frames for which the first transmission attempt on a
particular interface is delayed because the medium was busy.
Frames Too Long
A count of frames received on a particular interface that exceed the
maximum permitted frame size.
Alignment Errors
The number of alignment errors (missynchronized data packets).
FCS Errors
A count of frames received on a particular interface that are an integral
number of octets in length but do not pass the FCS check. This count
does not include frames received with frame-too-long or frame-tooshort error.
– 101 –
Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
Table 6: Port Statistics (Continued)
Parameter
Description
SQE Test Errors
A count of times that the SQE TEST ERROR message is generated by the
PLS sublayer for a particular interface.
Carrier Sense Errors
The number of times that the carrier sense condition was lost or never
asserted when attempting to transmit a frame.
Internal MAC Receive Errors A count of frames for which reception on a particular interface fails due
to an internal MAC sublayer receive error.
Internal MAC Transmit
Errors
A count of frames for which transmission on a particular interface fails
due to an internal MAC sublayer transmit error.
RMON Statistics
Drop Events
The total number of events in which packets were dropped due to lack
of resources.
Jabbers
The total number of frames received that were longer than 1518 octets
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets), and had either an
FCS or alignment error.
Fragments
The total number of frames received that were less than 64 octets in
length (excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and had either
an FCS or alignment error.
Collisions
The best estimate of the total number of collisions on this Ethernet
segment.
Received Octets
Total number of octets of data received on the network. This statistic
can be used as a reasonable indication of Ethernet utilization.
Received Packets
The total number of packets (bad, broadcast and multicast) received.
Broadcast Packets
The total number of good packets received that were directed to the
broadcast address. Note that this does not include multicast packets.
Multicast Packets
The total number of good packets received that were directed to this
multicast address.
Undersize Packets
The total number of packets received that were less than 64 octets long
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and were otherwise
well formed.
Oversize Packets
The total number of packets received that were longer than 1518 octets
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and were otherwise
well formed.
64 Bytes Packets
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received and
transmitted that were 64 octets in length (excluding framing bits but
including FCS octets).
65-127 Byte Packets
128-255 Byte Packets
256-511 Byte Packets
512-1023 Byte Packets
1024-1518 Byte Packets
1519-1536 Byte Packets
The total number of packets (including bad packets) received and
transmitted where the number of octets fall within the specified range
(excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
Utilization Statistics
Input Octets in kbits per
second
Number of octets entering this interface in kbits/second.
Input Packets per second
Number of packets entering this interface per second.
Input Utilization
The input utilization rate for this interface.
– 102 –
Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
Table 6: Port Statistics (Continued)
Parameter
Description
Output Octets in kbits per
second
Number of octets leaving this interface in kbits/second.
Output Packets per second Number of packets leaving this interface per second.
Output Utilization
The output utilization rate for this interface.
Web Interface
To show a list of port statistics:
1. Click Interface, Port, Statistics.
2. Select the statistics mode to display (Interface, Etherlike, RMON or Utilization).
3. Select a port from the drop-down list.
4. Use the Refresh button to update the screen.
Figure 35: Showing Port Statistics (Table)
To show a chart of port statistics:
1. Click Interface, Port, Chart.
2. Select the statistics mode to display (Interface, Etherlike, RMON or All).
3. If Interface, Etherlike, RMON statistics mode is chosen, select a port from the
drop-down list. If All (ports) statistics mode is chosen, select the statistics type
to display.
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Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
Figure 36: Showing Port Statistics (Chart)
Displaying Statistical Use the Interface > Port > History or Interface > Trunk > History page to display
History statistical history for the specified interfaces.
Command Usage
◆
For a description of the statistics displayed on these pages, see
“Showing Port or Trunk Statistics” on page 100.
◆
To configure statistical history sampling, use the “Displaying Statistical
History” on page 104.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Add
◆
Port – Port number. (Range: 1-10/28)
– 104 –
Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
◆
History Name – Name of sample interval. (Range: 1-32 characters)
◆
Interval - The interval for sampling statistics. (Range: 1-86400 minutes)
◆
Requested Buckets - The number of samples to take. (Range: 1-96)
Show
◆
Port – Port number. (Range: 1-10/28)
◆
History Name – Name of sample interval. (Default settings: 15min, 1day)
◆
Interval - The interval for sampling statistics.
◆
Requested Buckets - The number of samples to take.
Show Details
◆
Mode
■
Status – Shows the sample parameters.
■
Current Entry – Shows current statistics for the specified port and named
sample.
■
Input Previous Entries – Shows statistical history for ingress traffic.
■
Output Previous Entries – Shows statistical history for egress traffic.
◆
Port – Port number. (Range: 1-10/28)
◆
Name – Name of sample interval.
Web Configuration
To configure a periodic sample of statistics:
1. Click Interface, Port, Statistics, or Interface, Trunk, Statistics.
2. Select Add from the Action menu.
3. Select an interface from the Port or Trunk list.
4. Enter the sample name, the interval, and the number of buckets requested.
5. Click Apply.
– 105 –
Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
Figure 37: Configuring a History Sample
To show the configured entries for a history sample:
1. Click Interface, Port, Statistics, or Interface, Trunk, Statistics.
2. Select Show from the Action menu.
3. Select an interface from the Port or Trunk list.
Figure 38: Showing Entries for History Sampling
To show the configured parameters for a sampling entry:
1. Click Interface, Port, Statistics, or Interface, Trunk, Statistics.
2. Select Show Details from the Action menu.
3. Select Status from the options for Mode.
4. Select an interface from the Port or Trunk list.
5. Select an sampling entry from the Name list.
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Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
Figure 39: Showing Status of Statistical History Sample
To show statistics for the current interval of a sample entry:
1. Click Interface, Port, Statistics, or Interface, Trunk, Statistics.
2. Select Show Details from the Action menu.
3. Select Current Entry from the options for Mode.
4. Select an interface from the Port or Trunk list.
5. Select an sampling entry from the Name list.
Figure 40: Showing Current Statistics for a History Sample
– 107 –
Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
To show ingress or egress traffic statistics for a sample entry:
1. Click Interface, Port, Statistics, or Interface, Trunk, Statistics.
2. Select Show Details from the Action menu.
3. Select Input Previous Entry or Output Previous Entry from the options for
Mode.
4. Select an interface from the Port or Trunk list.
5. Select an sampling entry from the Name list.
Figure 41: Showing Ingress Statistics for a History Sample
Displaying Use the Interface > Port > Transceiver page to display identifying information, and
Transceiver Data operational for optical transceivers which support Digital Diagnostic Monitoring
(DDM).
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – Port number. (Range: 9-10/25-28)
◆
General – Information on connector type and vendor-related parameters.
◆
DDM Information – Information on temperature, supply voltage, laser bias
current, laser power, and received optical power.
The switch can display diagnostic information for SFP modules which support
the SFF-8472 Specification for Diagnostic Monitoring Interface for Optical
Transceivers. This information allows administrators to remotely diagnose
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Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
problems with optical devices. This feature, referred to as Digital Diagnostic
Monitoring (DDM) provides information on transceiver parameters.
Web Interface
To display identifying information and functional parameters for optical
transceivers:
1. Click Interface, Port, Transceiver.
2. Select a port from the scroll-down list.
Figure 42: Displaying Transceiver Data
Configuring Use the Interface > Port > Transceiver page to configure thresholds for alarm and
Transceiver warning messages for optical transceivers which support Digital Diagnostic
Thresholds Monitoring (DDM). This page also displays identifying information for supported
transceiver types, and operational parameters for transceivers which support DDM.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – Port number. (Range: 9-10/25-28)
◆
General – Information on connector type and vendor-related parameters.
◆
DDM Information – Information on temperature, supply voltage, laser bias
current, laser power, and received optical power.
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Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Port Configuration
The switch can display diagnostic information for SFP modules which support
the SFF-8472 Specification for Diagnostic Monitoring Interface for Optical
Transceivers. This information allows administrators to remotely diagnose
problems with optical devices. This feature, referred to as Digital Diagnostic
Monitoring (DDM) provides information on transceiver parameters.
◆
Trap – Sends a trap when any of the transceiver’s operation values falls outside
of specified thresholds. (Default: Disabled)
◆
Auto Mode – Uses default threshold settings obtained from the transceiver to
determine when an alarm or trap message should be sent. (Default: Enabled)
◆
DDM Thresholds – Information on alarm and warning thresholds. The switch
can be configured to send a trap when the measured parameter falls outside of
the specified thresholds.
The following alarm and warning parameters are supported:
■
High Alarm – Sends an alarm message when the high threshold is crossed.
■
High Warning – Sends a warning message when the high threshold is
crossed.
■
Low Warning – Sends a warning message when the low threshold is
crossed.
■
Low Alarm – Sends an alarm message when the low threshold is crossed.
The configurable ranges are:
■
Temperature: -128.00-128.00 °C
■
Voltage: 0.00-6.55 Volts
■
Current: 0.00-131.00 mA
■
Power: -40.00-8.20 dBm
The threshold value for Rx and Tx power is calculated as the power ratio in
decibels (dB) of the measured power referenced to one milliwatt (mW).
Threshold values for alarm and warning messages can be configured as
described below.
■
A high-threshold alarm or warning message is sent if the current value is
greater than or equal to the threshold, and the last sample value was less
than the threshold. After a rising event has been generated, another such
event will not be generated until the sampled value has fallen below the
high threshold and reaches the low threshold.
■
A low-threshold alarm or warning message is sent if the current value is less
than or equal to the threshold, and the last sample value was greater than
the threshold. After a falling event has been generated, another such event
will not be generated until the sampled value has risen above the low
threshold and reaches the high threshold.
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Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
■
Threshold events are triggered as described above to avoid a hysteresis
effect which would continuously trigger event messages if the power level
were to fluctuate just above and below either the high threshold or the low
threshold.
■
Trap messages configured by this command are sent to any management
station configured as an SNMP trap manager using the Administration >
SNMP (Configure Trap) page.
Web Interface
To configure threshold values for optical transceivers:
1. Click Interface, Port, Transceiver.
2. Select a port from the scroll-down list.
3. Set the switch to send a trap based on default or manual settings.
4. Set alarm and warning thresholds if manual configuration is used.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 43: Configuring Transceiver Thresholds
Trunk Configuration
This section describes how to configure static and dynamic trunks.
You can create multiple links between devices that work as one virtual, aggregate
link. A port trunk offers a dramatic increase in bandwidth for network segments
where bottlenecks exist, as well as providing a fault-tolerant link between two
devices. You can create up to 16 trunks at a time on the switch, or up to 32 across
the stack.
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Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
The switch supports both static trunking and dynamic Link Aggregation Control
Protocol (LACP). Static trunks have to be manually configured at both ends of the
link, and the switches must comply with the Cisco EtherChannel standard. On the
other hand, LACP configured ports can automatically negotiate a trunked link with
LACP-configured ports on another device. You can configure any number of ports
on the switch as LACP, as long as they are not already configured as part of a static
trunk. If ports on another device are also configured as LACP, the switch and the
other device will negotiate a trunk link between them. If an LACP trunk consists of
more than eight ports, all other ports will be placed in standby mode. Should one
link in the trunk fail, one of the standby ports will automatically be activated to
replace it.
Command Usage
Besides balancing the load across each port in the trunk, the other ports provide
redundancy by taking over the load if a port in the trunk fails. However, before
making any physical connections between devices, use the web interface or CLI to
specify the trunk on the devices at both ends. When using a trunk, take note of the
following points:
◆
Finish configuring trunks before you connect the corresponding network
cables between switches to avoid creating a loop.
◆
You can create up to 16 trunks on a switch or 32 trunks in the stack, with up to
eight ports per trunk.
◆
The ports at both ends of a connection must be configured as trunk ports.
◆
When configuring static trunks on switches of different types, they must be
compatible with the Cisco EtherChannel standard.
◆
The ports at both ends of a trunk must be configured in an identical manner,
including communication mode (i.e., speed, duplex mode and flow control),
VLAN assignments, and CoS settings.
◆
Any of the Gigabit ports on the front panel can be trunked together, including
ports of different media types.
◆
All the ports in a trunk have to be treated as a whole when moved from/to,
added or deleted from a VLAN.
◆
STP, VLAN, and IGMP settings can only be made for the entire trunk.
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Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
Configuring a Use the Interface > Trunk > Static page to create a trunk, assign member ports, and
Static Trunk configure the connection parameters.
Figure 44: Configuring Static Trunks
}
statically
configured
active
links
Command Usage
◆ When configuring static trunks, you may not be able to link switches of
different types, depending on the vendor’s implementation. However, note
that the static trunks on this switch are Cisco EtherChannel compatible.
◆
To avoid creating a loop in the network, be sure you add a static trunk via the
configuration interface before connecting the ports, and also disconnect the
ports before removing a static trunk via the configuration interface.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Trunk ID – Trunk identifier. (Range: 1-8)
◆
Member – The initial trunk member. Use the Add Member page to configure
additional members.
■
Unit – Unit identifier. (Range: 1)
■
Port – Port identifier. (Range: 1-10/28)
Web Interface
To create a static trunk:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Static.
2. Select Configure Trunk from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Enter a trunk identifier.
5. Set the unit and port for the initial trunk member.
6. Click Apply.
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Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
Figure 45: Creating Static Trunks
To add member ports to a static trunk:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Static.
2. Select Configure Trunk from the Step list.
3. Select Add Member from the Action list.
4. Select a trunk identifier.
5. Set the unit and port for an additional trunk member.
6. Click Apply.
Figure 46: Adding Static Trunks Members
To configure connection parameters for a static trunk:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Static.
2. Select Configure General from the Step list.
3. Select Configure from the Action list.
4. Modify the required interface settings. (Refer to “Configuring by Port List” on
page 96 for a description of the parameters.)
5. Click Apply.
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Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
Figure 47: Configuring Connection Parameters for a Static Trunk
To display trunk connection parameters:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Static.
2. Select Configure General from the Step list.
3. Select Show Information from the Action list.
Figure 48: Showing Information for Static Trunks
Configuring a Use the Interface > Trunk > Dynamic pages to set the administrative key for an
Dynamic Trunk aggregation group, enable LACP on a port, configure protocol parameters for local
and partner ports, or to set Ethernet connection parameters.
Figure 49: Configuring Dynamic Trunks
}
dynamically
enabled
active
links
}
backup
link
configured
members
Command Usage
◆ To avoid creating a loop in the network, be sure you enable LACP before
connecting the ports, and also disconnect the ports before disabling LACP.
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Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
◆
If the target switch has also enabled LACP on the connected ports, the trunk
will be activated automatically.
◆
A trunk formed with another switch using LACP will automatically be assigned
the next available trunk ID.
◆
If more than eight ports attached to the same target switch have LACP enabled,
the additional ports will be placed in standby mode, and will only be enabled if
one of the active links fails.
◆
All ports on both ends of an LACP trunk must be configured for full duplex, and
auto-negotiation.
◆
Ports are only allowed to join the same Link Aggregation Group (LAG) if (1) the
LACP port system priority matches, (2) the LACP port admin key matches, and
(3) the LAG admin key matches (if configured). However, if the LAG admin key is
set, then the port admin key must be set to the same value for a port to be
allowed to join that group.
Note: If the LACP admin key is not set when a channel group is formed (i.e., it has a
null value of 0), the operational value of this key is set to the same value as the port
admin key used by the interfaces that joined the group (see the “show lacp
internal” command in the CLI Reference Guide).
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Configure Aggregator
◆
Admin Key – LACP administration key is used to identify a specific link
aggregation group (LAG) during local LACP setup on the switch.
(Range: 0-65535)
If the port channel admin key is not set when a channel group is formed (i.e., it
has the null value of 0), this key is set to the same value as the port admin key
(see Configure Aggregation Port - Actor/Partner) used by the interfaces that
joined the group. Note that when the LAG is no longer used, the port channel
admin key is reset to 0.
If the port channel admin key is set to a non-default value, the operational key
is based upon LACP PDUs received from the partner, and the channel admin
key is reset to the default value. The trunk identifier will also be changed by this
process.
◆
Timeout Mode – The timeout to wait for the next LACP data unit (LACPDU):
■
Long Timeout – Specifies a slow timeout of 90 seconds. (This is the default
setting.)
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Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
■
Short Timeout – Specifies a fast timeout of 3 seconds.
The timeout is set in the LACP timeout bit of the Actor State field in transmitted
LACPDUs. When the partner switch receives an LACPDU set with a short
timeout from the actor switch, the partner adjusts the transmit LACPDU
interval to 1 second. When it receives an LACPDU set with a long timeout from
the actor, it adjusts the transmit LACPDU interval to 30 seconds.
If the actor does not receive an LACPDU from its partner before the configured
timeout expires, the partner port information will be deleted from the LACP
group.
When a dynamic port-channel member leaves a port-channel, the default
timeout value will be restored on that port.
When a dynamic port-channel is torn down, the configured timeout value will
be retained. When the dynamic port-channel is constructed again, that timeout
value will be used.
◆
System Priority – LACP system priority is used to determine link aggregation
group (LAG) membership, and to identify this device to other switches during
LAG negotiations.
◆
System MAC Address – The device MAC address assigned to each trunk.
Configure Aggregation Port - General
◆
Port – Port identifier. (Range: 1-10/28)
◆
LACP Status – Enables or disables LACP on a port.
Configure Aggregation Port - Actor/Partner
◆
Port – Port number. (Range: 1-10/28)
◆
Admin Key – The LACP administration key must be set to the same value for
ports that belong to the same LAG. (Range: 0-65535; Default – Actor: 1,
Partner: 0)
Once the remote side of a link has been established, LACP operational settings
are already in use on that side. Configuring LACP settings for the partner only
applies to its administrative state, not its operational state.
Note: Configuring the partner admin-key does not affect remote or local switch
operation. The local switch just records the partner admin-key for user reference.
By default, the actor’s operational key is determined by port's link speed
(1000f - 4, 100f - 3, 10f - 2), and copied to the admin key.
◆
System Priority – LACP system priority is used to determine link aggregation
group (LAG) membership, and to identify this device to other switches during
LAG negotiations. (Range: 0-65535; Default: 32768)
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Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
System priority is combined with the switch’s MAC address to form the LAG
identifier. This identifier is used to indicate a specific LAG during LACP
negotiations with other systems.
◆
Port Priority – If a link goes down, LACP port priority is used to select a backup
link. (Range: 0-65535; Default: 32768)
■
Setting a lower value indicates a higher effective priority.
■
If an active port link goes down, the backup port with the highest priority is
selected to replace the downed link. However, if two or more ports have the
same LACP port priority, the port with the lowest physical port number will
be selected as the backup port.
■
If an LAG already exists with the maximum number of allowed port
members, and LACP is subsequently enabled on another port using a
higher priority than an existing member, the newly configured port will
replace an existing port member that has a lower priority.
Note: Configuring LACP settings for a port only applies to its administrative state,
not its operational state, and will only take effect the next time an aggregate link is
established with that port.
Note: Configuring the port partner sets the remote side of an aggregate link; i.e.,
the ports on the attached device. The command attributes have the same meaning
as those used for the port actor.
Web Interface
To configure the admin key for a dynamic trunk:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Dynamic.
2. Select Configure Aggregator from the Step list.
3. Set the Admin Key and timeout mode for the required LACP group.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 50: Configuring the LACP Aggregator Admin Key
– 118 –
Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
To enable LACP for a port:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Dynamic.
2. Select Configure Aggregation Port from the Step list.
3. Select Configure from the Action list.
4. Click General.
5. Enable LACP on the required ports.
6. Click Apply.
Figure 51: Enabling LACP on a Port
To configure LACP parameters for group members:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Dynamic.
2. Select Configure Aggregation Port from the Step list.
3. Select Configure from the Action list.
4. Click Actor or Partner.
5. Configure the required settings.
6. Click Apply.
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Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
Figure 52: Configuring LACP Parameters on a Port
To show the active members of a dynamic trunk:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Dynamic.
2. Select Configure Trunk from the Step list.
3. Select Show Member from the Action list.
4. Select a Trunk.
Figure 53: Showing Members of a Dynamic Trunk
To configure connection parameters for a dynamic trunk:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Dynamic.
2. Select Configure Trunk from the Step list.
3. Select Configure from the Action list.
4. Modify the required interface settings. (See “Configuring by Port List” on
page 96 for a description of the interface settings.)
5. Click Apply.
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Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
Figure 54: Configuring Connection Settings for a Dynamic Trunk
To show connection parameters for a dynamic trunk:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Dynamic.
2. Select Configure Trunk from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 55: Showing Connection Parameters for Dynamic Trunks
Displaying LACP Use the Interface > Trunk > Dynamic (Configure Aggregation Port - Show
Port Counters Information - Counters) page to display statistics for LACP protocol messages.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Table 7: LACP Port Counters
Parameter
Description
LACPDUs Sent
Number of valid LACPDUs transmitted from this channel group.
LACPDUs Received
Number of valid LACPDUs received on this channel group.
Marker Sent
Number of valid Marker PDUs transmitted from this channel group.
Marker Received
Number of valid Marker PDUs received by this channel group.
Marker Unknown Pkts
Number of frames received that either (1) Carry the Slow Protocols
Ethernet Type value, but contain an unknown PDU, or (2) are addressed
to the Slow Protocols group MAC Address, but do not carry the Slow
Protocols Ethernet Type.
Marker Illegal Pkts
Number of frames that carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet Type value,
but contain a badly formed PDU or an illegal value of Protocol Subtype.
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Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
Web Interface
To display LACP port counters:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Dynamic.
2. Select Configure Aggregation Port from the Step list.
3. Select Show Information from the Action list.
4. Click Counters.
5. Select a group member from the Port list.
Figure 56: Displaying LACP Port Counters
Displaying LACP Use the Interface > Trunk > Dynamic (Configure Aggregation Port - Show
Settings and Status Information - Internal) page to display the configuration settings and operational
for the Local Side state for the local side of a link aggregation.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Table 8: LACP Internal Configuration Information
Parameter
Description
LACP System Priority
LACP system priority assigned to this port channel.
LACP Port Priority
LACP port priority assigned to this interface within the channel group.
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the key for the aggregation port.
Oper Key
Current operational value of the key for the aggregation port.
LACPDUs Interval
Number of seconds before invalidating received LACPDU information.
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Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
Table 8: LACP Internal Configuration Information (Continued)
Parameter
Description
Admin State,
Oper State
◆
Admin State,
Oper State
(continued)
Administrative or operational values of the actor’s state parameters:
Expired – The actor’s receive machine is in the expired state;
◆
Defaulted – The actor’s receive machine is using defaulted operational
partner information, administratively configured for the partner.
◆
Distributing – If false, distribution of outgoing frames on this link is
disabled; i.e., distribution is currently disabled and is not expected to
be enabled in the absence of administrative changes or changes in
received protocol information.
◆
Collecting – Collection of incoming frames on this link is enabled; i.e.,
collection is currently enabled and is not expected to be disabled in the
absence of administrative changes or changes in received protocol
information.
◆
Synchronization – The System considers this link to be IN_SYNC; i.e., it
has been allocated to the correct Link Aggregation Group, the group
has been associated with a compatible Aggregator, and the identity of
the Link Aggregation Group is consistent with the System ID and
operational Key information transmitted.
◆
◆
◆
Aggregation – The system considers this link to be aggregatable; i.e., a
potential candidate for aggregation.
Long timeout – Periodic transmission of LACPDUs uses a slow
transmission rate.
LACP-Activity – Activity control value with regard to this link.
(0: Passive; 1: Active)
Web Interface
To display LACP settings and status for the local side:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Dynamic.
2. Select Configure Aggregation Port from the Step list.
3. Select Show Information from the Action list.
4. Click Internal.
5. Select a group member from the Port list.
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Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
Figure 57: Displaying LACP Port Internal Information
Displaying LACP Use the Interface > Trunk > Dynamic (Configure Aggregation Port - Show
Settings and Status Information - Neighbors) page to display the configuration settings and
for the Remote Side operational state for the remote side of a link aggregation.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Table 9: LACP Remote Device Configuration Information
Parameter
Description
Partner Admin System LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the user.
ID
Partner Oper System
ID
LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the LACP protocol.
Partner Admin
Port Number
Current administrative value of the port number for the protocol Partner.
Partner Oper
Port Number
Operational port number assigned to this aggregation port by the port’s
protocol partner.
Port Admin Priority
Current administrative value of the port priority for the protocol partner.
Port Oper Priority
Priority value assigned to this aggregation port by the partner.
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Oper Key
Current operational value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Admin State
Administrative values of the partner’s state parameters. (See preceding
table.)
Oper State
Operational values of the partner’s state parameters. (See preceding table.)
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Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
Web Interface
To display LACP settings and status for the remote side:
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Dynamic.
2. Select Configure Aggregation Port from the Step list.
3. Select Show Information from the Action list.
4. Click Neighbors.
5. Select a group member from the Port list.
Figure 58: Displaying LACP Port Remote Information
Configuring Use the Interface > Trunk > Load Balance page to set the load-distribution method
Load Balancing used among ports in aggregated links.
Command Usage
◆ This command applies to all static and dynamic trunks on the switch.
◆
To ensure that the switch traffic load is distributed evenly across all links in a
trunk, select the source and destination addresses used in the load-balance
calculation to provide the best result for trunk connections:
■
Destination IP Address: All traffic with the same destination IP address is
output on the same link in a trunk. This mode works best for switch-torouter trunk links where traffic through the switch is destined for many
– 125 –
Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Trunk Configuration
different hosts. Do not use this mode for switch-to-server trunk links where
the destination IP address is the same for all traffic.
■
Destination MAC Address: All traffic with the same destination MAC
address is output on the same link in a trunk. This mode works best for
switch-to-switch trunk links where traffic through the switch is destined for
many different hosts. Do not use this mode for switch-to-router trunk links
where the destination MAC address is the same for all traffic.
■
Source and Destination IP Address: All traffic with the same source and
destination IP address is output on the same link in a trunk. This mode
works best for switch-to-router trunk links where traffic through the switch
is received from and destined for many different hosts.
■
Source and Destination MAC Address: All traffic with the same source
and destination MAC address is output on the same link in a trunk. This
mode works best for switch-to-switch trunk links where traffic through the
switch is received from and destined for many different hosts.
■
Source IP Address: All traffic with the same source IP address is output on
the same link in a trunk. This mode works best for switch-to-router or
switch-to-server trunk links where traffic through the switch is received
from many different hosts.
■
Source MAC Address: All traffic with the same source MAC address is
output on the same link in a trunk. This mode works best for switch-toswitch trunk links where traffic through the switch is received from many
different hosts.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed for the load balance mode:
◆
Destination IP Address - Load balancing based on destination IP address.
◆
Destination MAC Address - Load balancing based on destination MAC
address.
◆
Source and Destination IP Address - Load balancing based on source and
destination IP address.
◆
Source and Destination MAC Address - Load balancing based on source and
destination MAC address.
◆
Source IP Address - Load balancing based on source IP address.
◆
Source MAC Address - Load balancing based on source MAC address.
Web Interface
To display the load-distribution method used by ports in aggregated links:
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Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Saving Power
1. Click Interface, Trunk, Load Balance.
2. Select the required method from the Load Balance Mode list.
3. Click Apply.
Figure 59: Configuring Load Balancing
Saving Power
Use the Interface > Green Ethernet page to enable power savings mode on the
selected port.
Command Usage
◆ IEEE 802.3 defines the Ethernet standard and subsequent power requirements
based on cable connections operating at 100 meters. Enabling power saving
mode can reduce power used for cable lengths of 60 meters or less, with more
significant reduction for cables of 20 meters or less, and continue to ensure
signal integrity.
◆
The power-saving methods provided by this switch include:
■
Power saving when there is no link partner:
Under normal operation, the switch continuously auto-negotiates to find a
link partner, keeping the MAC interface powered up even if no link
connection exists. When using power-savings mode, the switch checks for
energy on the circuit to determine if there is a link partner. If none is
detected, the switch automatically turns off the transmitter, and most of
the receive circuitry (entering Sleep Mode). In this mode, the low-power
energy-detection circuit continuously checks for energy on the cable. If
none is detected, the MAC interface is also powered down to save
additional energy. If energy is detected, the switch immediately turns on
both the transmitter and receiver functions, and powers up the MAC
interface.
■
Power saving when there is a link partner:
Traditional Ethernet connections typically operate with enough power to
support at least 100 meters of cable even though average network cable
length is shorter. When cable length is shorter, power consumption can be
reduced since signal attenuation is proportional to cable length. When
power-savings mode is enabled, the switch analyzes cable length to
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Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Saving Power
determine whether or not it can reduce the signal amplitude used on a
particular link.
Note: Power savings can only be implemented on Gigabit Ethernet ports when
using twisted-pair cabling. Power-savings mode on a active link only works when
connection speed is 1 Gbps, and line length is less than 60 meters.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – Power saving mode only applies to the Gigabit Ethernet ports using
copper media. (Range: 1-8/24)
◆
Power Saving Status – Adjusts the power provided to ports based on the
length of the cable used to connect to other devices. Only sufficient power is
used to maintain connection requirements. (Default: Enabled on Gigabit
Ethernet RJ-45 ports)
Web Interface
To enable power savings:
1. Click Interface, Green Ethernet.
2. Mark the Enabled check box for a port.
3. Click Apply.
Figure 60: Enabling Power Savings
– 128 –
Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Configuring Local Port Mirroring
Configuring Local Port Mirroring
Use the Interface > Mirror page to mirror traffic from any source port to a target
port for real-time analysis. You can then attach a logic analyzer or RMON probe to
the target port and study the traffic crossing the source port in a completely
unobtrusive manner.
Figure 61: Configuring Local Port Mirroring
Source
port(s)
Single
target
port
Command Usage
◆ Traffic can be mirrored from one or more source ports to a destination port on
the same switch (local port mirroring as described in this section), or from one
or more source ports on remote switches to a destination port on this switch
(remote port mirroring as described in “Configuring Remote Port Mirroring” on
page 130).
◆
Monitor port speed should match or exceed source port speed, otherwise
traffic may be dropped from the monitor port.
◆
The destination port cannot be a trunk or trunk member port.
◆
Note that Spanning Tree BPDU packets are not mirrored to the target port.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Source Port – The port whose traffic will be monitored.
◆
Target Port – The port that will mirror the traffic on the source port.
◆
Type – Allows you to select which traffic to mirror to the target port, Rx
(receive), Tx (transmit), or Both. (Default: Both)
Web Interface
To configure a local mirror session:
1. Click Interface, Mirror.
2. Select Add from the Action List.
3. Specify the source port.
4. Specify the monitor port.
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Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Configuring Remote Port Mirroring
5. Specify the traffic type to be mirrored.
6. Click Apply.
Figure 62: Configuring Local Port Mirroring
To display the configured mirror sessions:
1. Click Interface, Port, Mirror.
2. Select Show from the Action List.
Figure 63: Displaying Local Port Mirror Sessions
Configuring Remote Port Mirroring
Use the Interface > RSPAN page to mirror traffic from remote switches for analysis
at a destination port on the local switch. This feature, also called Remote Switched
Port Analyzer (RSPAN), carries traffic generated on the specified source ports for
each session over a user-specified VLAN dedicated to that RSPAN session in all
participating switches. Monitored traffic from one or more sources is copied onto
the RSPAN VLAN through IEEE 802.1Q trunk or hybrid ports that carry it to any
RSPAN destination port monitoring the RSPAN VLAN as shown in the figure below.
– 130 –
Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Configuring Remote Port Mirroring
Figure 64: Configuring Remote Port Mirroring
Intermediate Switch
Uplink Port
Uplink Port
Destination Switch
Source Switch
Source Port
RPSAN VLAN
Uplink Port
Uplink Port
Destination Port
Tagged or untagged traffic
from the RSPAN VLAN is
analyzed at this port.
Ingress or egress traffic
is mirrored onto the RSPAN
VLAN from here.
Command Usage
◆ Traffic can be mirrored from one or more source ports to a destination port on
the same switch (local port mirroring as described in “Configuring
Local Port Mirroring” on page 129), or from one or more source ports on
remote switches to a destination port on this switch (remote port mirroring as
described in this section).
◆
Configuration Guidelines
Take the following step to configure an RSPAN session:
1. Use the VLAN Static List (see “Configuring VLAN Groups” on page 142) to
reserve a VLAN for use by RSPAN (marking the “Remote VLAN” field on this
page. (Default VLAN 1 is prohibited.)
2. Set up the source switch on the RSPAN configuration page by specifying
the mirror session, the switch’s role (Source), the RSPAN VLAN, and the
uplink port1. Then specify the source port(s), and the traffic type to monitor
(Rx, Tx or Both).
3. Set up all intermediate switches on the RSPAN configuration page, entering
the mirror session, the switch’s role (Intermediate), the RSPAN VLAN, and
the uplink port(s).
4. Set up the destination switch on the RSPAN configuration page by
specifying the mirror session, the switch’s role (Destination), the destination
port1, whether or not the traffic exiting this port will be tagged or
untagged, and the RSPAN VLAN. Then specify each uplink port where the
mirrored traffic is being received.
1.
Only 802.1Q trunk or hybrid (i.e., general use) ports can be configured as an RSPAN uplink or
destination ports – access ports are not allowed (see “Adding Static Members to VLANs” on
page 144).
– 131 –
Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Configuring Remote Port Mirroring
◆
RSPAN Limitations
The following limitations apply to the use of RSPAN on this switch:
■
RSPAN Ports – Only ports can be configured as an RSPAN source,
destination, or uplink; static and dynamic trunks are not allowed. A port can
only be configured as one type of RSPAN interface – source, destination, or
uplink. Also, note that the source port and destination port cannot be
configured on the same switch.
■
Local/Remote Mirror – The destination of a local mirror session (created on
the Interface > Port > Mirror page) cannot be used as the destination for
RSPAN traffic.
■
Spanning Tree – If the spanning tree is disabled, BPDUs will not be flooded
onto the RSPAN VLAN.
■
MAC address learning is not supported on RSPAN uplink ports when RSPAN
is enabled on the switch. Therefore, even if spanning tree is enabled after
RSPAN has been configured, MAC address learning will still not be restarted on the RSPAN uplink ports.
■
IEEE 802.1X – RSPAN and 802.1X are mutually exclusive functions. When
802.1X is enabled globally, RSPAN uplink ports cannot be configured, even
though RSPAN source and destination ports can still be configured. When
RSPAN uplink ports are enabled on the switch, 802.1X cannot be enabled
globally.
■
Port Security – If port security is enabled on any port, that port cannot be
set as an RSPAN uplink port, even though it can still be configured as an
RSPAN source or destination port. Also, when a port is configured as an
RSPAN uplink port, port security cannot be enabled on that port.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Session – A number identifying this RSPAN session. (Range: 1-3)
Three sessions are allowed, including both local and remote mirroring, using
different VLANs for RSPAN sessions.
◆
Operation Status – Indicates whether or not RSPAN is currently functioning.
◆
Switch Role – Specifies the role this switch performs in mirroring traffic.
■
None – This switch will not participate in RSPAN.
■
Source - Specifies this device as the source of remotely mirrored traffic.
– 132 –
Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Configuring Remote Port Mirroring
■
Intermediate - Specifies this device as an intermediate switch,
transparently passing mirrored traffic from one or more sources to one or
more destinations.
■
Destination - Specifies this device as a switch configured with a
destination port which is to receive mirrored traffic for this session.
◆
Remote VLAN – The VLAN to which traffic mirrored from the source port will
be flooded. The VLAN specified in this field must first be reserved for the RSPAN
application using the VLAN > Static page (see page 142).
◆
Uplink Port – A port on any switch participating in RSPAN through which
mirrored traffic is passed on to or received from the RSPAN VLAN.
Only one uplink port can be configured on a source switch, but there is no
limitation on the number of uplink ports1 configured on an intermediate or
destination switch.
Only destination and uplink ports will be assigned by the switch as members of
the RSPAN VLAN. Ports cannot be manually assigned to an RSPAN VLAN
through the VLAN > Static page. Nor can GVRP dynamically add port members
to an RSPAN VLAN. Also, note that the VLAN > Static (Show) page will not
display any members for an RSPAN VLAN, but will only show configured RSPAN
VLAN identifiers.
◆
Type – Specifies the traffic type to be mirrored remotely. (Options: Rx, Tx, Both)
◆
Destination Port – Specifies the destination port1 to monitor the traffic
mirrored from the source ports. Only one destination port can be configured
on the same switch per session, but a destination port can be configured on
more than one switch for the same session. Also note that a destination port
can still send and receive switched traffic, and participate in any Layer 2
protocols to which it has been assigned.
◆
Tag – Specifies whether or not the traffic exiting the destination port to the
monitoring device carries the RSPAN VLAN tag.
Web Interface
To configure a remote mirror session:
1. Click Interface, RSPAN.
2. Set the Switch Role to None, Source, Intermediate, or Destination.
3. Configure the required settings for each switch participating in the RSPAN
VLAN.
4. Click Apply.
– 133 –
Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Configuring Remote Port Mirroring
Figure 65: Configuring Remote Port Mirroring (Source)
Figure 66: Configuring Remote Port Mirroring (Intermediate)
Figure 67: Configuring Remote Port Mirroring (Destination)
– 134 –
Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Traffic Segmentation
Traffic Segmentation
If tighter security is required for passing traffic from different clients through
downlink ports on the local network and over uplink ports to the service provider,
port-based traffic segmentation can be used to isolate traffic for individual clients.
Data traffic on downlink ports is only forwarded to, and from, uplink ports.
Traffic belonging to each client is isolated to the allocated downlink ports. But the
switch can be configured to either isolate traffic passing across a client’s allocated
uplink ports from the uplink ports assigned to other clients, or to forward traffic
through the uplink ports used by other clients, allowing different clients to share
access to their uplink ports where security is less likely to be compromised.
Enabling Traffic Use the Interface > Traffic Segmentation (Configure Global) page to enable traffic
Segmentation segmentation.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Status – Enables port-based traffic segmentation. (Default: Disabled)
◆
Uplink-to-Uplink Mode – Specifies whether or not traffic can be forwarded
between uplink ports assigned to different client sessions.
■
Blocking – Blocks traffic between uplink ports assigned to different
sessions.
■
Forwarding – Forwards traffic between uplink ports assigned to different
sessions.
Web Interface
To enable traffic segmentation:
1. Click Interface, Traffic Segmentation.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Mark the Status check box, and set the required uplink-to-uplink mode.
4. Click Apply.
– 135 –
Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Traffic Segmentation
Figure 68: Enabling Traffic Segmentation
Configuring Uplink Use the Interface > Traffic Segmentation (Configure Session) page to assign the
and Downlink Ports downlink and uplink ports to use in the segmented group. Ports designated as
downlink ports can not communicate with any other ports on the switch except for
the uplink ports. Uplink ports can communicate with any other ports on the switch
and with any designated downlink ports.
Command Usage
◆ When traffic segmentation is enabled, the forwarding state for the uplink and
downlink ports assigned to different client sessions is shown below.
Table 10: Traffic Segmentation Forwarding
Destination
Source
Session #1
Downlinks
Session #1
Uplinks
Session #2
Downlinks
Session #2
Uplinks
Normal
Ports
Session #1
Downlink Ports
Blocking
Forwarding
Blocking
Blocking
Blocking
Session #1
Uplink Ports
Forwarding
Forwarding
Blocking
Blocking/
Forwarding*
Forwarding
Session #2
Downlink Ports
Blocking
Blocking
Blocking
Forwarding
Blocking
Session #2
Uplink Ports
Blocking
Blocking/
Forwarding*
Forwarding
Forwarding
Forwarding
Normal Ports
Forwarding
Forwarding
Forwarding
Forwarding
Forwarding
*
The forwarding state for uplink-to-uplink ports is configured on the Configure Global
page (see page 135).
◆
When traffic segmentation is disabled, all ports operate in normal forwarding
mode based on the settings specified by other functions such as VLANs and
spanning tree protocol.
◆
A port cannot be configured in both an uplink and downlink list.
◆
A port can only be assigned to one traffic-segmentation session.
◆
A downlink port can only communicate with an uplink port in the same session.
Therefore, if an uplink port is not configured for a session, the assigned
downlink ports will not be able to communicate with any other ports.
– 136 –
Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Traffic Segmentation
◆
If a downlink port is not configured for the session, the assigned uplink ports
will operate as normal ports.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Session ID – Traffic segmentation session. (Range: 1-4)
◆
Direction – Adds an interface to the segmented group by setting the direction
to uplink or downlink. (Default: Uplink)
◆
Interface – Displays a list of ports or trunks.
◆
Port – Port Identifier. (Range: 1-10/28)
◆
Trunk – Trunk Identifier. (Range: 1-8)
Web Interface
To configure the members of the traffic segmentation group:
1. Click Interface, Traffic Segmentation.
2. Select Configure Session from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Enter the session ID, set the direction to uplink or downlink, and select the
interface to add.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 69: Configuring Members for Traffic Segmentation
– 137 –
Chapter 4 | Interface Configuration
Traffic Segmentation
To show the members of the traffic segmentation group:
1. Click Interface, Traffic Segmentation.
2. Select Configure Session from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 70: Showing Traffic Segmentation Members
– 138 –
5
VLAN Configuration
This chapter includes the following topics:
◆
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs – Configures static and dynamic VLANs.
◆
Protocol VLANs2 – Configures VLAN groups based on specified protocols.
◆
MAC-based VLANs2 – Maps untagged ingress frames to a specified VLAN if the
source MAC address is found in the IP MAC address-to-VLAN mapping table.
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
In large networks, routers are used to isolate broadcast traffic for each subnet into
separate domains. This switch provides a similar service at Layer 2 by using VLANs
to organize any group of network nodes into separate broadcast domains. VLANs
confine broadcast traffic to the originating group, and can eliminate broadcast
storms in large networks. This also provides a more secure and cleaner network
environment.
An IEEE 802.1Q VLAN is a group of ports that can be located anywhere in the
network, but communicate as though they belong to the same physical segment.
VLANs help to simplify network management by allowing you to move devices to a
new VLAN without having to change any physical connections. VLANs can be easily
organized to reflect departmental groups (such as Marketing or R&D), usage
groups (such as e-mail), or multicast groups (used for multimedia applications such
as video conferencing).
VLANs provide greater network efficiency by reducing broadcast traffic, and allow
you to make network changes without having to update IP addresses or IP subnets.
VLANs inherently provide a high level of network security since traffic must pass
through a configured Layer 3 link to reach a different VLAN.
2.
If a packet matches the rules defined by more than one of these functions, only one of them is
applied, with the precedence being MAC-based, protocol-based, and then native port-based.
– 139 –
Chapter 5 | VLAN Configuration
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
This switch supports the following VLAN features:
◆
Up to 4094 VLANs based on the IEEE 802.1Q standard
◆
Distributed VLAN learning across multiple switches using explicit or implicit
tagging and GVRP protocol
◆
Port overlapping, allowing a port to participate in multiple VLANs
◆
End stations can belong to multiple VLANs
◆
Passing traffic between VLAN-aware and VLAN-unaware devices
◆
Priority tagging
Assigning Ports to VLANs
Before enabling VLANs for the switch, you must first assign each port to the VLAN
group(s) in which it will participate. By default all ports are assigned to VLAN 1 as
untagged ports. Add a port as a tagged port if you want it to carry traffic for one or
more VLANs, and any intermediate network devices or the host at the other end of
the connection supports VLANs. Then assign ports on the other VLAN-aware
network devices along the path that will carry this traffic to the same VLAN(s),
either manually or dynamically using GVRP. However, if you want a port on this
switch to participate in one or more VLANs, but none of the intermediate network
devices nor the host at the other end of the connection supports VLANs, then you
should add this port to the VLAN as an untagged port.
Note: VLAN-tagged frames can pass through VLAN-aware or VLAN-unaware
network interconnection devices, but the VLAN tags should be stripped off before
passing it on to any end-node host that does not support VLAN tagging.
Figure 71: VLAN Compliant and VLAN Non-compliant Devices
tagged frames
VA
VA
VA: VLAN Aware
VU: VLAN Unaware
tagged
frames
VA
untagged
frames
VA
– 140 –
VU
Chapter 5 | VLAN Configuration
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
VLAN Classification – When the switch receives a frame, it classifies the frame in
one of two ways. If the frame is untagged, the switch assigns the frame to an
associated VLAN (based on the default VLAN ID of the receiving port). But if the
frame is tagged, the switch uses the tagged VLAN ID to identify the port broadcast
domain of the frame.
Port Overlapping – Port overlapping can be used to allow access to commonly
shared network resources among different VLAN groups, such as file servers or
printers. Note that if you implement VLANs which do not overlap, but still need to
communicate, you can connect them by enabled routing on this switch.
Untagged VLANs – Untagged VLANs are typically used to reduce broadcast traffic
and to increase security. A group of network users assigned to a VLAN form a
broadcast domain that is separate from other VLANs configured on the switch.
Packets are forwarded only between ports that are designated for the same VLAN.
Untagged VLANs can be used to manually isolate user groups or subnets. However,
you should use IEEE 802.3 tagged VLANs with GVRP whenever possible to fully
automate VLAN registration.
Forwarding Tagged/Untagged Frames
If you want to create a small port-based VLAN for devices attached directly to a
single switch, you can assign ports to the same untagged VLAN. However, to
participate in a VLAN group that crosses several switches, you should create a VLAN
for that group and enable tagging on all ports.
Ports can be assigned to multiple tagged or untagged VLANs. Each port on the
switch is therefore capable of passing tagged or untagged frames. When
forwarding a frame from this switch along a path that contains any VLAN-aware
devices, the switch should include VLAN tags. When forwarding a frame from this
switch along a path that does not contain any VLAN-aware devices (including the
destination host), the switch must first strip off the VLAN tag before forwarding the
frame. When the switch receives a tagged frame, it will pass this frame onto the
VLAN(s) indicated by the frame tag. However, when this switch receives an
untagged frame from a VLAN-unaware device, it first decides where to forward the
frame, and then inserts a VLAN tag reflecting the ingress port’s default VID.
– 141 –
Chapter 5 | VLAN Configuration
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
Configuring VLAN Use the VLAN > Static (Add) page to create or remove VLAN groups, set
Groups administrative status, or specify Remote VLAN type (see “Configuring Remote Port
Mirroring” on page 130). To propagate information about VLAN groups used on
this switch to external network devices, you must specify a VLAN ID for each of
these groups.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Add
◆
VLAN ID – ID of VLAN or range of VLANs (1-4094).
VLAN 1 is the default untagged VLAN.
◆
Status – Enables or disables the specified VLAN.
◆
Remote VLAN – Reserves this VLAN for RSPAN (see “Configuring Remote Port
Mirroring” on page 130).
Modify
◆
VLAN ID – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094).
◆
VLAN Name – Name of the VLAN (1 to 32 characters).
◆
Status – Enables or disables the specified VLAN.
Show
◆
VLAN ID – ID of configured VLAN.
◆
VLAN Name – Name of the VLAN.
◆
Status – Operational status of configured VLAN.
◆
Remote VLAN – Shows if RSPAN is enabled on this VLAN (see “Configuring
Remote Port Mirroring” on page 130).
Web Interface
To create VLAN groups:
1. Click VLAN, Static.
2. Select Add from the Action list.
3. Enter a VLAN ID or range of IDs.
4. Check Status to configure the VLAN as operational.
5. Specify whether the VLANs are to be used for remote port mirroring.
– 142 –
Chapter 5 | VLAN Configuration
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
6. Click Apply.
Figure 72: Creating Static VLANs
To modify the configuration settings for VLAN groups:
1. Click VLAN, Static.
2. Select Modify from the Action list.
3. Select the identifier of a configured VLAN.
4. Modify the VLAN name or operational status as required.
5. Enable the L3 Interface field to specify that a VLAN will be used as a Layer 3
interface.
6. Click Apply.
Figure 73: Modifying Settings for Static VLANs
– 143 –
Chapter 5 | VLAN Configuration
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
To show the configuration settings for VLAN groups:
1. Click VLAN, Static.
2. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 74: Showing Static VLANs
Adding Static Use the VLAN > Static (Edit Member by VLAN, Edit Member by Interface, or Edit
Members to VLANs Member by Interface Range) pages to configure port members for the selected
VLAN index, interface, or a range of interfaces. Use the menus for editing port
members to configure the VLAN behavior for specific interfaces, including the
mode of operation (Hybrid or 1Q Trunk), the default VLAN identifier (PVID),
accepted frame types, and ingress filtering. Assign ports as tagged if they are
connected to 802.1Q VLAN compliant devices, or untagged they are not connected
to any VLAN-aware devices. Or configure a port as forbidden to prevent the switch
from automatically adding it to a VLAN via the GVRP protocol.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Edit Member by VLAN
◆
VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094).
◆
Interface – Displays a list of ports or trunks.
◆
Port – Port Identifier. (Range: 1-10/28)
◆
Trunk – Trunk Identifier. (Range: 1-8)
◆
Mode – Indicates VLAN membership mode for an interface. (Default: Hybrid)
■
Access - Sets the port to operate as an untagged interface. The port
transmits and receives untagged frames on a single VLAN only.
■
Hybrid – Specifies a hybrid VLAN interface. The port may transmit tagged
or untagged frames.
■
1Q Trunk – Specifies a port as an end-point for a VLAN trunk. A trunk is a
direct link between two switches, so the port transmits tagged frames that
– 144 –
Chapter 5 | VLAN Configuration
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
identify the source VLAN. Note that frames belonging to the port’s default
VLAN (i.e., associated with the PVID) are also transmitted as tagged frames.
◆
PVID – VLAN ID assigned to untagged frames received on the interface.
(Default: 1)
When using Access mode, and an interface is assigned to a new VLAN, its PVID
is automatically set to the identifier for that VLAN. When using Hybrid mode,
the PVID for an interface can be set to any VLAN for which it is an untagged
member.
◆
Acceptable Frame Type – Sets the interface to accept all frame types,
including tagged or untagged frames, or only tagged frames. When set to
receive all frame types, any received frames that are untagged are assigned to
the default VLAN. (Options: All, Tagged; Default: All)
◆
Ingress Filtering – Determines how to process frames tagged for VLANs for
which the ingress port is not a member. (Default: Enabled)
◆
■
Ingress filtering only affects tagged frames.
■
If ingress filtering is disabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs
for which it is not a member, these frames will be flooded to all other ports
(except for those VLANs explicitly forbidden on this port).
■
If ingress filtering is enabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs
for which it is not a member, these frames will be discarded.
■
Ingress filtering does not affect VLAN independent BPDU frames, such as
GVRP or STP. However, they do affect VLAN dependent BPDU frames, such as
GMRP.
Membership Type – Select VLAN membership for each interface by marking
the appropriate radio button for a port or trunk:
■
Tagged: Interface is a member of the VLAN. All packets transmitted by the
port will be tagged, that is, carry a tag and therefore carry VLAN or CoS
information.
■
Untagged: Interface is a member of the VLAN. All packets transmitted by
the port will be untagged, that is, not carry a tag and therefore not carry
VLAN or CoS information. Note that an interface must be assigned to at
least one group as an untagged port.
■
Forbidden: Interface cannot be included as a member of the VLAN.
■
None: Interface is not a member of the VLAN. Packets associated with this
VLAN will not be transmitted by the interface.
Note: VLAN 1 is the default untagged VLAN containing all ports on the switch
using Hybrid mode.
– 145 –
Chapter 5 | VLAN Configuration
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
Edit Member by Interface
All parameters are the same as those described under the preceding section for
Edit Member by VLAN.
Edit Member by Interface Range
All parameters are the same as those described under the earlier section for Edit
Member by VLAN, except for the items shown below.
◆
Port Range – Displays a list of ports. (Range: 1-10/28)
◆
Trunk Range – Displays a list of ports. (Range: 1-8)
Note: The PVID, acceptable frame type, and ingress filtering parameters for each
interface within the specified range must be configured on either the Edit Member
by VLAN or Edit Member by Interface page.
Web Interface
To configure static members by the VLAN index:
1. Click VLAN, Static.
2. Select Edit Member by VLAN from the Action list.
3. Select a VLAN from the scroll-down list.
4. Set the Interface type to display as Port or Trunk.
5. Modify the settings for any interface as required.
6. Click Apply.
Figure 75: Configuring Static Members by VLAN Index
– 146 –
Chapter 5 | VLAN Configuration
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
To configure static members by interface:
1. Click VLAN, Static.
2. Select Edit Member by Interface from the Action list.
3. Select a port or trunk configure.
4. Modify the settings for any interface as required.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 76: Configuring Static VLAN Members by Interface
To configure static members by interface range:
1. Click VLAN, Static.
2. Select Edit Member by Interface Range from the Action list.
3. Set the Interface type to display as Port or Trunk.
4. Enter an interface range.
5. Modify the VLAN parameters as required. Remember that the PVID, acceptable
frame type, and ingress filtering parameters for each interface within the
specified range must be configured on either the Edit Member by VLAN or Edit
Member by Interface page.
6. Click Apply.
– 147 –
Chapter 5 | VLAN Configuration
Protocol VLANs
Figure 77: Configuring Static VLAN Members by Interface Range
Protocol VLANs
The network devices required to support multiple protocols cannot be easily
grouped into a common VLAN. This may require non-standard devices to pass
traffic between different VLANs in order to encompass all the devices participating
in a specific protocol. This kind of configuration deprives users of the basic benefits
of VLANs, including security and easy accessibility.
To avoid these problems, you can configure this switch with protocol-based VLANs
that divide the physical network into logical VLAN groups for each required
protocol. When a frame is received at a port, its VLAN membership can then be
determined based on the protocol type being used by the inbound packets.
Command Usage
◆ To configure protocol-based VLANs, follow these steps:
1. First configure VLAN groups for the protocols you want to use (see
“Configuring VLAN Groups” on page 142). Although not mandatory, we
suggest configuring a separate VLAN for each major protocol running on
your network. Do not add port members at this time.
2. Create a protocol group for each of the protocols you want to assign to a
VLAN using the Configure Protocol (Add) page.
3. Then map the protocol for each interface to the appropriate VLAN using
the Configure Interface (Add) page.
◆
When MAC-based, IP subnet-based, or protocol-based VLANs are supported
concurrently, priority is applied in this sequence, and then port-based VLANs
last.
– 148 –
Chapter 5 | VLAN Configuration
Protocol VLANs
Configuring Protocol Use the VLAN > Protocol (Configure Protocol - Add) page to create protocol groups.
VLAN Groups
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Frame Type – Choose either Ethernet, RFC 1042, or LLC Other as the frame type
used by this protocol.
◆
Protocol Type – Specifies the protocol type to match. The available options are
IP, ARP, RARP and IPv6. If LLC Other is chosen for the Frame Type, the only
available Protocol Type is IPX Raw.
◆
Protocol Group ID – Protocol Group ID assigned to the Protocol VLAN Group.
(Range: 1-2147483647)
Note: Traffic which matches IP Protocol Ethernet Frames is mapped to the VLAN
(VLAN 1) that has been configured with the switch's administrative IP. IP Protocol
Ethernet traffic must not be mapped to another VLAN or you will lose
administrative network connectivity to the switch. If lost in this manner, network
access can be regained by removing the offending Protocol VLAN rule via the
console. Alternately, the switch can be power-cycled, however all unsaved
configuration changes will be lost.
Web Interface
To configure a protocol group:
1. Click VLAN, Protocol.
2. Select Configure Protocol from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Select an entry from the Frame Type list.
5. Select an entry from the Protocol Type list.
6. Enter an identifier for the protocol group.
7. Click Apply.
– 149 –
Chapter 5 | VLAN Configuration
Protocol VLANs
Figure 78: Configuring Protocol VLANs
To configure a protocol group:
1. Click VLAN, Protocol.
2. Select Configure Protocol from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 79: Displaying Protocol VLANs
Mapping Protocol Use the VLAN > Protocol (Configure Interface - Add) page to map a protocol group
Groups to Interfaces to a VLAN for each interface that will participate in the group.
Command Usage
◆ When creating a protocol-based VLAN, only assign interfaces using this
configuration screen. If you assign interfaces using any of the other VLAN
menus such as the VLAN Static table (page 144), these interfaces will admit
traffic of any protocol type into the associated VLAN.
◆
When a frame enters a port that has been assigned to a protocol VLAN, it is
processed in the following manner:
■
If the frame is tagged, it will be processed according to the standard rules
applied to tagged frames.
– 150 –
Chapter 5 | VLAN Configuration
Protocol VLANs
■
If the frame is untagged and the protocol type matches, the frame is
forwarded to the appropriate VLAN.
■
If the frame is untagged but the protocol type does not match, the frame is
forwarded to the default VLAN for this interface.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Interface – Displays a list of ports or trunks.
◆
Port – Port Identifier. (Range: 1-10/28)
◆
Trunk – Trunk Identifier. (Range: 1-8)
◆
Protocol Group ID – Protocol Group ID assigned to the Protocol VLAN Group.
(Range: 1-2147483647)
◆
VLAN ID – VLAN to which matching protocol traffic is forwarded.
(Range: 1-4094)
◆
Priority – The priority assigned to untagged ingress traffic.
(Range: 0-7, where 7 is the highest priority)
Web Interface
To map a protocol group to a VLAN for a port or trunk:
1. Click VLAN, Protocol.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Select a port or trunk.
5. Enter the identifier for a protocol group.
6. Enter the corresponding VLAN to which the protocol traffic will be forwarded.
7. Set the priority to assign to untagged ingress frames.
8. Click Apply.
– 151 –
Chapter 5 | VLAN Configuration
Configuring MAC-based VLANs
Figure 80: Assigning Interfaces to Protocol VLANs
To show the protocol groups mapped to a port or trunk:
1. Click VLAN, Protocol.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
4. Select a port or trunk.
Figure 81: Showing the Interface to Protocol Group Mapping
Configuring MAC-based VLANs
Use the VLAN > MAC-Based page to configure VLAN based on MAC addresses. The
MAC-based VLAN feature assigns VLAN IDs to ingress untagged frames according
to source MAC addresses.
When MAC-based VLAN classification is enabled, untagged frames received by a
port are assigned to the VLAN which is mapped to the frame’s source MAC address.
When no MAC address is matched, untagged frames are assigned to the receiving
port’s native VLAN ID (PVID).
Command Usage
◆ The MAC-to-VLAN mapping applies to all ports on the switch.
– 152 –
Chapter 5 | VLAN Configuration
Configuring MAC-based VLANs
◆
Source MAC addresses can be mapped to only one VLAN ID.
◆
Configured MAC addresses cannot be broadcast or multicast addresses.
◆
When MAC-based, IP subnet-based, or protocol-based VLANs are supported
concurrently, priority is applied in this sequence, and then port-based VLANs
last.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
MAC Address – A source MAC address which is to be mapped to a specific
VLAN. The MAC address must be specified in the format xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx.
◆
Mask – Identifies a range of MAC addresses. (Range: 00-00-00-00-00-00 to
ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff )
The binary equivalent mask matching the characters in the front of the first
non-zero character must all be 1s (e.g., 111, i.e., it cannot be 101 or 001...). A
mask for the MAC address: 00-50-6e-00-5f-b1 translated into binary:
MAC: 00000000-01010000-01101110-00000000-01011111-10110001
could be: 11111111-11xxxxxx-xxxxxxxx-xxxxxxxx-xxxxxxxx-xxxxxxxx
So the mask in hexadecimal for this example could be:
ff-fx-xx-xx-xx-xx/ff-c0-00-00-00-00/ff-e0-00-00-00-00
◆
VLAN – VLAN to which ingress traffic matching the specified source MAC
address is forwarded. (Range: 1-4094)
◆
Priority – The priority assigned to untagged ingress traffic. (Range: 0-7, where
7 is the highest priority; Default: 0)
Web Interface
To map a MAC address to a VLAN:
1. Click VLAN, MAC-Based.
2. Select Add from the Action list.
3. Enter an address in the MAC Address field, and a mask to indicate a range of
addresses if required.
4. Enter an identifier in the VLAN field. Note that the specified VLAN need not
already be configured.
5. Enter a value to assign to untagged frames in the Priority field.
6. Click Apply.
– 153 –
Chapter 5 | VLAN Configuration
Configuring MAC-based VLANs
Figure 82: Configuring MAC-Based VLANs
To show the MAC addresses mapped to a VLAN:
1. Click VLAN, MAC-Based.
2. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 83: Showing MAC-Based VLANs
– 154 –
6
Address Table Settings
Switches store the addresses for all known devices. This information is used to pass
traffic directly between the inbound and outbound ports. All the addresses learned
by monitoring traffic are stored in the dynamic address table. You can also
manually configure static addresses that are bound to a specific port.
This chapter describes the following topics:
◆
MAC Address Learning – Enables or disables address learning on an interface.
◆
Static MAC Addresses – Configures static entries in the address table.
◆
Address Aging Time – Sets timeout for dynamically learned entries.
◆
Dynamic Address Cache – Shows dynamic entries in the address table.
◆
MAC Notification Traps – Issue trap when a dynamic MAC address is added or
removed.
Configuring MAC Address Learning
Use the MAC Address > Learning Status page to enable or disable MAC address
learning on an interface.
Command Usage
◆ When MAC address learning is disabled, the switch immediately stops learning
new MAC addresses on the specified interface. Only incoming traffic with
source addresses stored in the static address table (see “Setting Static
Addresses” on page 157) will be accepted as authorized to access the network
through that interface.
◆
Dynamic addresses stored in the address table when MAC address learning is
disabled are flushed from the system, and no dynamic addresses are
subsequently learned until MAC address learning has been re-enabled. Any
device not listed in the static address table that attempts to use the interface
after MAC learning has been disabled will be prevented from accessing the
switch.
– 155 –
Chapter 6 | Address Table Settings
Configuring MAC Address Learning
◆
Also note that MAC address learning cannot be disabled if any of the following
conditions exist:
■
802.1X Port Authentication has been globally enabled on the switch (see
“Configuring 802.1X Global Settings” on page 293).
■
Security Status (see “Configuring Port Security” on page 289) is enabled on
the same interface.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Interface – Displays a list of ports or trunks.
◆
Port – Port Identifier. (Range: 1-10/28)
◆
Trunk – Trunk Identifier. (Range: 1-8)
◆
Status – The status of MAC address learning. (Default: Enabled)
Web Interface
To enable or disable MAC address learning:
1. Click MAC Address, Learning Status.
2. Set the learning status for any interface.
3. Click Apply.
Figure 84: Configuring MAC Address Learning
– 156 –
Chapter 6 | Address Table Settings
Setting Static Addresses
Setting Static Addresses
Use the MAC Address > Static page to configure static MAC addresses. A static
address can be assigned to a specific interface on this switch. Static addresses are
bound to the assigned interface and will not be moved. When a static address is
seen on another interface, the address will be ignored and will not be written to the
address table.
Command Usage
The static address for a host device can be assigned to a specific port within a
specific VLAN. Use this command to add static addresses to the MAC Address Table.
Static addresses have the following characteristics:
◆
Static addresses are bound to the assigned interface and will not be moved.
When a static address is seen on another interface, the address will be ignored
and will not be written to the address table.
◆
Static addresses will not be removed from the address table when a given
interface link is down.
◆
A static address cannot be learned on another port until the address is removed
from the table.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Add Static Address
◆
VLAN – ID of configured VLAN. (Range: 1-4094)
◆
Interface – Port or trunk associated with the device assigned a static address.
◆
MAC Address – Physical address of a device mapped to this interface. Enter an
address in the form of xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx or xxxxxxxxxxxx.
◆
Static Status – Sets the time to retain the specified address.
■
Delete-on-reset - Assignment lasts until the switch is reset.
■
Permanent - Assignment is permanent. (This is the default.)
Show Static Address
The following additional fields are displayed on this web page:
Type – Displays the address configuration method. (Values: CPU, Config, or
Security, the last of which indicates Port Security)
Life Time – The duration for which this entry applies. (Values: Delete On Reset,
Delete On Timeout, Permanent)
– 157 –
Chapter 6 | Address Table Settings
Setting Static Addresses
Web Interface
To configure a static MAC address:
1. Click MAC Address, Static.
2. Select Add from the Action list.
3. Specify the VLAN, the port or trunk to which the address will be assigned, the
MAC address, and the time to retain this entry.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 85: Configuring Static MAC Addresses
To show the static addresses in MAC address table:
1. Click MAC Address, Static.
2. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 86: Displaying Static MAC Addresses
– 158 –
Chapter 6 | Address Table Settings
Changing the Aging Time
Changing the Aging Time
Use the MAC Address > Dynamic (Configure Aging) page to set the aging time for
entries in the dynamic address table. The aging time is used to age out dynamically
learned forwarding information.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Aging Status – Enables/disables the function.
◆
Aging Time – The time after which a learned entry is discarded. (Range: 6-7200
seconds; Default: 300 seconds)
Web Interface
To set the aging time for entries in the dynamic address table:
1. Click MAC Address, Dynamic.
2. Select Configure Aging from the Action list.
3. Modify the aging status if required.
4. Specify a new aging time.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 87: Setting the Address Aging Time
Displaying the Dynamic Address Table
Use the MAC Address > Dynamic (Show Dynamic MAC) page to display the MAC
addresses learned by monitoring the source address for traffic entering the switch.
When the destination address for inbound traffic is found in the database, the
packets intended for that address are forwarded directly to the associated port.
Otherwise, the traffic is flooded to all ports.
– 159 –
Chapter 6 | Address Table Settings
Displaying the Dynamic Address Table
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Sort Key - You can sort the information displayed based on MAC address, VLAN
or interface (port or trunk).
◆
MAC Address – Physical address associated with this interface.
◆
VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094).
◆
Interface – Indicates a port or trunk.
◆
Type – Shows that the entries in this table are learned.
(Values: Learned or Security, the last of which indicates Port Security)
◆
Life Time – Shows the time to retain the specified address.
Web Interface
To show the dynamic address table:
1. Click MAC Address, Dynamic.
2. Select Show Dynamic MAC from the Action list.
3. Select the Sort Key (MAC Address, VLAN, or Interface).
4. Enter the search parameters (MAC Address, VLAN, or Interface).
5. Click Query.
Figure 88: Displaying the Dynamic MAC Address Table
– 160 –
Chapter 6 | Address Table Settings
Clearing the Dynamic Address Table
Clearing the Dynamic Address Table
Use the MAC Address > Dynamic (Clear Dynamic MAC) page to remove any learned
entries from the forwarding database.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Clear by – All entries can be cleared; or you can clear the entries for a specific
MAC address, all the entries in a VLAN, or all the entries associated with a port
or trunk.
Web Interface
To clear the entries in the dynamic address table:
1. Click MAC Address, Dynamic.
2. Select Clear Dynamic MAC from the Action list.
3. Select the method by which to clear the entries (i.e., All, MAC Address, VLAN, or
Interface).
4. Enter information in the additional fields required for clearing entries by MAC
Address, VLAN, or Interface.
5. Click Clear.
Figure 89: Clearing Entries in the Dynamic MAC Address Table
– 161 –
Chapter 6 | Address Table Settings
Issuing MAC Address Traps
Issuing MAC Address Traps
Use the MAC Address > MAC Notification pages to send SNMP traps (i.e., SNMP
notifications) when a dynamic MAC address is added or removed.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Configure Global
◆
MAC Notification Traps – Issues a trap when a dynamic MAC address is added
or removed. (Default: Disabled)
◆
MAC Notification Trap Interval – Specifies the interval between issuing two
consecutive traps. (Range: 1-3600 seconds; Default: 1 second)
Configure Interface
◆
Port – Port Identifier. (Range: 1-10/28)
◆
MAC Notification Trap – Enables MAC authentication traps on the current
interface. (Default: Disabled)
MAC authentication traps must be enabled at the global level for this attribute
to take effect.
Web Interface
To enable MAC address traps at the global level:
1. Click MAC Address, MAC Notification.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Configure MAC notification traps and the transmission interval.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 90: Issuing MAC Address Traps (Global Configuration)
– 162 –
Chapter 6 | Address Table Settings
Issuing MAC Address Traps
To enable MAC address traps at the interface level:
1. Click MAC Address, MAC Notification.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Enable MAC notification traps for the required ports.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 91: Issuing MAC Address Traps (Interface Configuration)
– 163 –
Chapter 6 | Address Table Settings
Issuing MAC Address Traps
– 164 –
7
Spanning Tree Algorithm
This chapter describes the following basic topics:
◆
Loopback Detection – Configures detection and response to loopback BPDUs.
◆
Global Settings for STA – Configures global bridge settings for STP, RSTP and
MSTP.
◆
Interface Settings for STA – Configures interface settings for STA, including
priority, path cost, link type, and designation as an edge port.
◆
Global Settings for MSTP – Sets the VLANs and associated priority assigned to
an MST instance
◆
Interface Settings for MSTP – Configures interface settings for MSTP, including
priority and path cost.
Overview
The Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) can be used to detect and disable network
loops, and to provide backup links between switches, bridges or routers. This
allows the switch to interact with other bridging devices (that is, an STA-compliant
switch, bridge or router) in your network to ensure that only one route exists
between any two stations on the network, and provide backup links which
automatically take over when a primary link goes down.
The spanning tree algorithms supported by this switch include these versions:
◆
STP – Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D)
◆
RSTP – Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w)
◆
MSTP – Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1s)
STP – STP uses a distributed algorithm to select a bridging device (STP-compliant
switch, bridge or router) that serves as the root of the spanning tree network. It
selects a root port on each bridging device (except for the root device) which incurs
the lowest path cost when forwarding a packet from that device to the root device.
Then it selects a designated bridging device from each LAN which incurs the lowest
path cost when forwarding a packet from that LAN to the root device. All ports
connected to designated bridging devices are assigned as designated ports. After
determining the lowest cost spanning tree, it enables all root ports and designated
ports, and disables all other ports. Network packets are therefore only forwarded
between root ports and designated ports, eliminating any possible network loops.
– 165 –
Chapter 7 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Overview
Figure 92: STP Root Ports and Designated Ports
Designated
Root
x
x
x
Designated
Bridge
x
Designated
Port
Root
Port
x
Once a stable network topology has been established, all bridges listen for Hello
BPDUs (Bridge Protocol Data Units) transmitted from the Root Bridge. If a bridge
does not get a Hello BPDU after a predefined interval (Maximum Age), the bridge
assumes that the link to the Root Bridge is down. This bridge will then initiate
negotiations with other bridges to reconfigure the network to reestablish a valid
network topology.
RSTP – RSTP is designed as a general replacement for the slower, legacy STP. RSTP is
also incorporated into MSTP. RSTP achieves much faster reconfiguration (i.e.,
around 1 to 3 seconds, compared to 30 seconds or more for STP) by reducing the
number of state changes before active ports start learning, predefining an alternate
route that can be used when a node or port fails, and retaining the forwarding
database for ports insensitive to changes in the tree structure when
reconfiguration occurs.
MSTP – When using STP or RSTP, it may be difficult to maintain a stable path
between all VLAN members. Frequent changes in the tree structure can easily
isolate some of the group members. MSTP (which is based on RSTP for fast
convergence) is designed to support independent spanning trees based on VLAN
groups. Using multiple spanning trees can provide multiple forwarding paths and
enable load balancing. One or more VLANs can be grouped into a Multiple
Spanning Tree Instance (MSTI). MSTP builds a separate Multiple Spanning Tree
(MST) for each instance to maintain connectivity among each of the assigned VLAN
groups. MSTP then builds a Internal Spanning Tree (IST) for the Region containing
all commonly configured MSTP bridges.
Figure 93: MSTP Region, Internal Spanning Tree, Multiple Spanning Tree
IST
(for this Region)
MST 1
Region R
MST 2
– 166 –
Chapter 7 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Loopback Detection
An MST Region consists of a group of interconnected bridges that have the same
MST Configuration Identifiers (including the Region Name, Revision Level and
Configuration Digest – see “Configuring Multiple Spanning Trees” on page 183). An
MST Region may contain multiple MSTP Instances. An Internal Spanning Tree (IST)
is used to connect all the MSTP switches within an MST region. A Common
Spanning Tree (CST) interconnects all adjacent MST Regions, and acts as a virtual
bridge node for communications with STP or RSTP nodes in the global network.
Figure 94: Spanning Tree – Common Internal, Common, Internal
Region 1
Region 1
CIST
CST
IST
Region 4
Region 2
Region 4
Region 3
Region 2
Region 3
MSTP connects all bridges and LAN segments with a single Common and Internal
Spanning Tree (CIST). The CIST is formed as a result of the running spanning tree
algorithm between switches that support the STP, RSTP, MSTP protocols.
Once you specify the VLANs to include in a Multiple Spanning Tree Instance (MSTI),
the protocol will automatically build an MSTI tree to maintain connectivity among
each of the VLANs. MSTP maintains contact with the global network because each
instance is treated as an RSTP node in the Common Spanning Tree (CST).
Configuring Loopback Detection
Use the Spanning Tree > Loopback Detection page to configure loopback
detection on an interface. When loopback detection is enabled and a port or trunk
receives it’s own BPDU, the detection agent drops the loopback BPDU, sends an
SNMP trap, and places the interface in discarding mode. This loopback state can be
released manually or automatically. If the interface is configured for automatic
loopback release, then the port will only be returned to the forwarding state if one
of the following conditions is satisfied:
◆
The interface receives any other BPDU except for it’s own, or;
◆
The interfaces’s link status changes to link down and then link up again, or;
◆
The interface ceases to receive it’s own BPDUs in a forward delay interval.
Note: If loopback detection is not enabled and an interface receives it's own BPDU,
then the interface will drop the loopback BPDU according to IEEE Standard 802.1w2001 9.3.4 (Note 1).
– 167 –
Chapter 7 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Loopback Detection
Note: Loopback detection will not be active if Spanning Tree is disabled on the
switch.
Note: When configured for manual release mode, then a link down/up event will
not release the port from the discarding state.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Interface – Displays a list of ports or trunks.
◆
Status – Enables loopback detection on this interface. (Default: Enabled)
◆
Trap – Enables SNMP trap notification for loopback events on this interface.
(Default: Disabled)
◆
Release Mode – Configures the interface for automatic or manual loopback
release. (Default: Auto)
◆
Release – Allows an interface to be manually released from discard mode. This
is only available if the interface is configured for manual release mode.
◆
Action – Sets the response for loopback detection to shut down the interface.
(Default: Shutdown)
◆
Shutdown Interval – The duration to shut down the interface.
(Range: 60-86400 seconds; Default: 60 seconds)
If an interface is shut down due to a detected loopback, and the release mode
is set to “Auto,” the selected interface will be automatically enabled when the
shutdown interval has expired.
If an interface is shut down due to a detected loopback, and the release mode
is set to “Manual,” the interface can be re-enabled using the Release button.
Web Interface
To configure loopback detection:
1. Click Spanning Tree, Loopback Detection.
2. Click Port or Trunk to display the required interface type.
3. Modify the required loopback detection attributes.
4. Click Apply
– 168 –
Chapter 7 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Global Settings for STA
Figure 95: Configuring Port Loopback Detection
Configuring Global Settings for STA
Use the Spanning Tree > STA (Configure Global - Configure) page to configure
global settings for the spanning tree that apply to the entire switch.
Command Usage
◆ Spanning Tree Protocol3
This option uses RSTP set to STP forced compatibility mode. It uses RSTP for the
internal state machine, but sends only 802.1D BPDUs. This creates one
spanning tree instance for the entire network. If multiple VLANs are
implemented on a network, the path between specific VLAN members may be
inadvertently disabled to prevent network loops, thus isolating group
members. When operating multiple VLANs, we recommend selecting the MSTP
option.
◆
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol3
RSTP supports connections to either STP or RSTP nodes by monitoring the
incoming protocol messages and dynamically adjusting the type of protocol
messages the RSTP node transmits, as described below:
◆
■
STP Mode – If the switch receives an 802.1D BPDU (i.e., STP BPDU) after a
port’s migration delay timer expires, the switch assumes it is connected to
an 802.1D bridge and starts using only 802.1D BPDUs.
■
RSTP Mode – If RSTP is using 802.1D BPDUs on a port and receives an RSTP
BPDU after the migration delay expires, RSTP restarts the migration delay
timer and begins using RSTP BPDUs on that port.
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
MSTP generates a unique spanning tree for each instance. This provides
multiple pathways across the network, thereby balancing the traffic load,
3. STP and RSTP BPDUs are transmitted as untagged frames, and will cross any VLAN
boundaries.
– 169 –
Chapter 7 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Global Settings for STA
preventing wide-scale disruption when a bridge node in a single instance fails,
and allowing for faster convergence of a new topology for the failed instance.
■
To allow multiple spanning trees to operate over the network, you must
configure a related set of bridges with the same MSTP configuration,
allowing them to participate in a specific set of spanning tree instances.
■
A spanning tree instance can exist only on bridges that have compatible
VLAN instance assignments.
■
Be careful when switching between spanning tree modes. Changing
modes stops all spanning-tree instances for the previous mode and restarts
the system in the new mode, temporarily disrupting user traffic.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Basic Configuration of Global Settings
◆
Spanning Tree Status – Enables/disables STA on this switch.
(Default: Disabled)
When spanning tree is enabled globally or enabled on an interface
(Configuring Interface Settings for STA), loopback detection is disabled.
◆
◆
Spanning Tree Type – Specifies the type of spanning tree used on this switch:
■
STP: Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D); i.e., when this option is selected,
the switch will use RSTP set to STP forced compatibility mode).
■
RSTP: Rapid Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1w); RSTP is the default.
■
MSTP: Multiple Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1s)
Priority – Bridge priority is used in selecting the root device, root port, and
designated port. The device with the highest priority becomes the STA root
device. However, if all devices have the same priority, the device with the
lowest MAC address will then become the root device. (Note that lower
numeric values indicate higher priority.)
■
■
■
◆
Default: 32768
Range: 0-61440, in steps of 4096
Options: 0, 4096, 8192, 12288, 16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864,
40960, 45056, 49152, 53248, 57344, 61440
BPDU Flooding – Configures the system to flood BPDUs to all other ports on
the switch or just to all other ports in the same VLAN when spanning tree is
disabled globally on the switch or disabled on a specific port.
■
To VLAN: Floods BPDUs to all other ports within the receiving port’s native
VLAN (i.e., as determined by port’s PVID). This is the default.
■
To All: Floods BPDUs to all other ports on the switch.
– 170 –
Chapter 7 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Global Settings for STA
The setting has no effect if BPDU flooding is disabled on a port (see
"Configuring Interface Settings for STA").
◆
Cisco Prestandard Status – Configures spanning tree operation to be
compatible with Cisco prestandard versions. (Default: Disabled)
Cisco prestandard versions prior to Cisco IOS Release 12.2(25)SEC do not fully
follow the IEEE standard, causing some state machine procedures to function
incorrectly. This command forces the spanning tree protocol to function in a
manner compatible with Cisco prestandard versions.
Advanced Configuration Settings
The following attributes are based on RSTP, but also apply to STP since the switch
uses a backwards-compatible subset of RSTP to implement STP, and also apply to
MSTP which is based on RSTP according to the standard:
◆
◆
Path Cost Method – The path cost is used to determine the best path between
devices. The path cost method is used to determine the range of values that
can be assigned to each interface.
■
Long: Specifies 32-bit based values that range from 1-200,000,000.
(This is the default.)
■
Short: Specifies 16-bit based values that range from 1-65535.
Transmission Limit – The maximum transmission rate for BPDUs is specified by
setting the minimum interval between the transmission of consecutive
protocol messages. (Range: 1-10; Default: 3)
When the Switch Becomes Root
◆
Hello Time – Interval (in seconds) at which the root device transmits a
configuration message.
■
■
■
◆
Default: 2
Minimum: 1
Maximum: The lower of 10 or [(Max. Message Age / 2) -1]
Maximum Age – The maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without
receiving a configuration message before attempting to reconverge. All device
ports (except for designated ports) should receive configuration messages at
regular intervals. Any port that ages out STA information (provided in the last
configuration message) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it
is a root port, a new root port is selected from among the device ports attached
to the network. (References to “ports” in this section mean “interfaces,” which
includes both ports and trunks.)
■
■
■
Default: 20
Minimum: The higher of 6 or [2 x (Hello Time + 1)]
Maximum: The lower of 40 or [2 x (Forward Delay - 1)]
– 171 –
Chapter 7 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Global Settings for STA
◆
Forward Delay – The maximum time (in seconds) this device will wait before
changing states (i.e., discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is
required because every device must receive information about topology
changes before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to
listen for conflicting information that would make it return to a discarding
state; otherwise, temporary data loops might result.
■
■
■
Default: 15
Minimum: The higher of 4 or [(Max. Message Age / 2) + 1]
Maximum: 30
RSTP does not depend on the forward delay timer in most cases. It is able to
confirm that a port can transition to the forwarding state without having to rely
on any timer configuration. To achieve fast convergence, RSTP relies on the use
of edge ports, and automatic detection of point-to-point link types, both of
which allow a port to directly transition to the forwarding state.
Configuration Settings for MSTP
◆
Max Instance Numbers – The maximum number of MSTP instances to which
this switch can be assigned.
◆
Configuration Digest – An MD5 signature key that contains the VLAN ID to
MST ID mapping table. In other words, this key is a mapping of all VLANs to the
CIST.
◆
Region Revision4 – The revision for this MSTI. (Range: 0-65535; Default: 0)
◆
Region Name4 – The name for this MSTI. (Maximum length: 32 characters;
Default: switch’s MAC address)
◆
Max Hop Count – The maximum number of hops allowed in the MST region
before a BPDU is discarded. (Range: 1-40; Default: 20)
NOTE: Region Revision and Region Name and are both required to uniquely
identify an MST region.
Web Interface
To configure global STA settings:
1. Click Spanning Tree, STA.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Select Configure from the Action list.
4. The MST name and revision number are both required to uniquely identify an MST region.
– 172 –
Chapter 7 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Global Settings for STA
4. Modify any of the required attributes. Note that the parameters displayed for
the spanning tree types (STP, RSTP, MSTP) varies as described in the preceding
section.
5. Click Apply
Figure 96: Configuring Global Settings for STA (STP)
Figure 97: Configuring Global Settings for STA (RSTP)
– 173 –
Chapter 7 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Displaying Global Settings for STA
Figure 98: Configuring Global Settings for STA (MSTP)
Displaying Global Settings for STA
Use the Spanning Tree > STA (Configure Global - Show Information) page to display
a summary of the current bridge STA information that applies to the entire switch.
Parameters
The parameters displayed are described in the preceding section, except for the
following items:
◆
Bridge ID – A unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of the bridge priority,
the MST Instance ID 0 for the Common Spanning Tree when spanning tree type
is set to MSTP, and MAC address (where the address is taken from the switch
system).
◆
Designated Root – The priority and MAC address of the device in the Spanning
Tree that this switch has accepted as the root device.
◆
Root Port – The number of the port on this switch that is closest to the root.
This switch communicates with the root device through this port. If there is no
root port, then this switch has been accepted as the root device of the
Spanning Tree network.
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Chapter 7 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Interface Settings for STA
◆
Root Path Cost – The path cost from the root port on this switch to the root
device.
◆
Configuration Changes – The number of times the Spanning Tree has been
reconfigured.
◆
Last Topology Change – Time since the Spanning Tree was last reconfigured.
Web Interface
To display global STA settings:
1. Click Spanning Tree, STA.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Select Show Information from the Action list.
Figure 99: Displaying Global Settings for STA
Configuring Interface Settings for STA
Use the Spanning Tree > STA (Configure Interface - Configure) page to configure
RSTP and MSTP attributes for specific interfaces, including port priority, path cost,
link type, and edge port. You may use a different priority or path cost for ports of
the same media type to indicate the preferred path, link type to indicate a point-topoint connection or shared-media connection, and edge port to indicate if the
attached device can support fast forwarding. (References to “ports” in this section
means “interfaces,” which includes both ports and trunks.)
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Chapter 7 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Interface Settings for STA
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Interface – Displays a list of ports or trunks.
◆
Spanning Tree – Enables/disables STA on this interface. (Default: Enabled)
When spanning tree is enabled globally (Configuring Global Settings for STA) or
enabled on an interface by this command, loopback detection is disabled.
◆
BPDU Flooding - Enables/disables the flooding of BPDUs to other ports when
global spanning tree is disabled (page 169) or when spanning tree is disabled
on a specific port. When flooding is enabled, BPDUs are flooded to all other
ports on the switch or to all other ports within the receiving port’s native VLAN
as specified by the Spanning Tree BPDU Flooding attribute (page 169).
(Default: Enabled)
◆
Priority – Defines the priority used for this port in the Spanning Tree Protocol.
If the path cost for all ports on a switch are the same, the port with the highest
priority (i.e., lowest value) will be configured as an active link in the Spanning
Tree. This makes a port with higher priority less likely to be blocked if the
Spanning Tree Protocol is detecting network loops. Where more than one port
is assigned the highest priority, the port with lowest numeric identifier will be
enabled.
■
■
◆
Default: 128
Range: 0-240, in steps of 16
Admin Path Cost – This parameter is used by the STA to determine the best
path between devices. Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports
attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to ports with slower
media. Note that path cost takes precedence over port priority. (Range: 0 for
auto-configuration, 1-65535 for the short path cost method5, 1-200,000,000 for
the long path cost method)
By default, the system automatically detects the speed and duplex mode used
on each port, and configures the path cost according to the values shown
below. Path cost “0” is used to indicate auto-configuration mode. When the
short path cost method is selected and the default path cost recommended by
the IEEE 8021w standard exceeds 65,535, the default is set to 65,535.
Table 11: Recommended STA Path Cost Range
Port Type
IEEE 802.1D-1998
IEEE 802.1w-2001
Ethernet
50-600
200,000-20,000,000
Fast Ethernet
10-60
20,000-2,000,000
5. Refer to “Configuring Global Settings for STA” on page 169 for information on setting the
path cost method.The range displayed on the STA interface configuration page shows the
maximum value for path cost. However, note that the switch still enforces the rules for path
cost based on the specified path cost method (long or short)
– 176 –
Chapter 7 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Interface Settings for STA
Table 11: Recommended STA Path Cost Range (Continued)
Port Type
IEEE 802.1D-1998
IEEE 802.1w-2001
Gigabit Ethernet
3-10
2,000-200,000
10G Ethernet
1-5
200-20,000
Table 12: Default STA Path Costs
Port Type
Short Path Cost
(IEEE 802.1D-1998)
Long Path Cost
(IEEE 802.1D-2004)
Ethernet
65,535
1,000,000
Fast Ethernet
65,535
100,000
Gigabit Ethernet
10,000
10,000
10G Ethernet
1,000
1,000
Administrative path cost cannot be used to directly determine the root port on
a switch. Connections to other devices use IEEE 802.1Q-2005 to determine the
root port as in the following example.
Figure 100: Determining the Root Port
For BPDU messages received by i1 on SW3, the path cost is 0.
For BPDU messages received by i2 on SW3, the path cost is that of i1 on SW2.
The root path cost for i1 on SW3 used to compete for the role of root port is
0 + path cost of i1 on SW3; 0 since i1 is directly connected to the root bridge.
If the path cost of i1 on SW2 is never configured/changed, it is 10000.
Then the root path cost for i2 on SW3 used to compete for the role of root port
is 10000 + path cost of i2 on SW3.
The path cost of i1 on SW3 is also 10000 if not configured/changed.
Then even if the path cost of i2 on SW3 is configured/changed to 0, these ports
will still have the same root path cost, and it will be impossible for i2 to become
the root port just by changing its path cost on SW3.
For RSTP mode, the root port can be determined simply by adjusting the path
cost of i1 on SW2. However, for MSTP mode, it is impossible to achieve this only
by changing the path cost because external path cost is not added in the same
region, and the regional root for i1 is SW1, but for i2 is SW2.
◆
Admin Link Type – The link type attached to this interface.
■
Point-to-Point – A connection to exactly one other bridge.
■
Shared – A connection to two or more bridges.
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Chapter 7 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Interface Settings for STA
■
Auto – The switch automatically determines if the interface is attached to a
point-to-point link or to shared media. (This is the default setting.)
◆
Root Guard – STA allows a bridge with a lower bridge identifier (or same
identifier and lower MAC address) to take over as the root bridge at any time.
Root Guard can be used to ensure that the root bridge is not formed at a
suboptimal location. Root Guard should be enabled on any designated port
connected to low-speed bridges which could potentially overload a slower link
by taking over as the root port and forming a new spanning tree topology. It
could also be used to form a border around part of the network where the root
bridge is allowed. (Default: Disabled)
◆
Admin Edge Port – Since end nodes cannot cause forwarding loops, they can
pass directly through to the spanning tree forwarding state. Specifying Edge
Ports provides quicker convergence for devices such as workstations or servers,
retains the current forwarding database to reduce the amount of frame
flooding required to rebuild address tables during reconfiguration events, does
not cause the spanning tree to initiate reconfiguration when the interface
changes state, and also overcomes other STA-related timeout problems.
However, remember that Edge Port should only be enabled for ports
connected to an end-node device. (Default: Auto)
■
Enabled – Manually configures a port as an Edge Port.
■
Disabled – Disables the Edge Port setting.
■
Auto – The port will be automatically configured as an edge port if the
edge delay time expires without receiving any RSTP or MSTP BPDUs. Note
that edge delay time (802.1D-2004 17.20.4) equals the protocol migration
time if a port's link type is point-to-point (which is 3 seconds as defined in
IEEE 802.3D-2004 17.20.4); otherwise it equals the spanning tree’s
maximum age for configuration messages (see maximum age under
“Configuring Global Settings for STA” on page 169).
An interface cannot function as an edge port under the following conditions:
■
If spanning tree mode is set to STP (page 169), edge-port mode cannot
automatically transition to operational edge-port state using the automatic
setting.
■
If loopback detection is enabled (page 167) and a loopback BPDU is
detected, the interface cannot function as an edge port until the loopback
state is released.
■
If an interface is in forwarding state and its role changes, the interface
cannot continue to function as an edge port even if the edge delay time
has expired.
■
If the port does not receive any BPDUs after the edge delay timer expires,
its role changes to designated port and it immediately enters forwarding
state (see “Displaying Interface Settings for STA” on page 180).
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Chapter 7 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Interface Settings for STA
When edge port is set as auto, the operational state is determined
automatically by the Bridge Detection State Machine described in 802.1D-2004,
where the edge port state may change dynamically based on environment
changes (e.g., receiving a BPDU or not within the required interval).
◆
BPDU Guard – This feature protects edge ports from receiving BPDUs. It
prevents loops by shutting down an edge port when a BPDU is received instead
of putting it into the spanning tree discarding state. In a valid configuration,
configured edge ports should not receive BPDUs. If an edge port receives a
BPDU an invalid configuration exists, such as a connection to an unauthorized
device. The BPDU guard feature provides a secure response to invalid
configurations because an administrator must manually enable the port.
(Default: Disabled)
BPDU guard can only be configured on an interface if the edge port attribute is
not disabled (that is, if edge port is set to enabled or auto).
◆
BPDU Guard Auto Recovery – Automatically re-enables an interface after the
specified interval. (Range: 30-86400 seconds; Default: Disabled)
◆
BPDU Guard Auto Recovery Interval – The time to wait before re-enabling an
interface. (Range: 30-86400 seconds; Default: 300 seconds)
◆
BPDU Filter – BPDU filtering allows you to avoid transmitting BPDUs on
configured edge ports that are connected to end nodes. By default, STA sends
BPDUs to all ports regardless of whether administrative edge is enabled on a
port. BPDU filtering is configured on a per-port basis. (Default: Disabled)
BPDU filter can only be configured on an interface if the edge port attribute is
not disabled (that is, if edge port is set to enabled or auto).
◆
Migration – If at any time the switch detects STP BPDUs, including
Configuration or Topology Change Notification BPDUs, it will automatically set
the selected interface to forced STP-compatible mode. However, you can also
use the Protocol Migration button to manually re-check the appropriate BPDU
format (RSTP or STP-compatible) to send on the selected interfaces.
(Default: Disabled)
◆
TC Propagate Stop – Stops the propagation of topology change notifications
(TCN). (Default: Disabled)
Web Interface
To configure interface settings for STA:
1. Click Spanning Tree, STA.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Configure from the Action list.
4. Modify any of the required attributes.
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Chapter 7 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Displaying Interface Settings for STA
5. Click Apply.
Figure 101: Configuring Interface Settings for STA
Displaying Interface Settings for STA
Use the Spanning Tree > STA (Configure Interface - Show Information) page to
display the current status of ports or trunks in the Spanning Tree.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Spanning Tree – Shows if STA has been enabled on this interface.
◆
BPDU Flooding – Shows if BPDUs will be flooded to other ports when
spanning tree is disabled globally on the switch or disabled on a specific port.
◆
STA Status – Displays current state of this port within the Spanning Tree:
■
Discarding - Port receives STA configuration messages, but does not
forward packets.
■
Learning - Port has transmitted configuration messages for an interval set
by the Forward Delay parameter without receiving contradictory
information. Port address table is cleared, and the port begins learning
addresses.
■
Forwarding - Port forwards packets, and continues learning addresses.
The rules defining port status are:
■
A port on a network segment with no other STA compliant bridging device
is always forwarding.
■
If two ports of a switch are connected to the same segment and there is no
other STA device attached to this segment, the port with the smaller ID
forwards packets and the other is discarding.
– 180 –
Chapter 7 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Displaying Interface Settings for STA
■
All ports are discarding when the switch is booted, then some of them
change state to learning, and then to forwarding.
◆
Forward Transitions – The number of times this port has transitioned from the
Learning state to the Forwarding state.
◆
Designated Cost – The cost for a packet to travel from this port to the root in
the current Spanning Tree configuration. The slower the media, the higher the
cost.
◆
Designated Bridge – The bridge priority and MAC address of the device
through which this port must communicate to reach the root of the Spanning
Tree.
◆
Designated Port – The port priority and number of the port on the designated
bridging device through which this switch must communicate with the root of
the Spanning Tree.
◆
Oper Path Cost – The contribution of this port to the path cost of paths
towards the spanning tree root which include this port.
◆
Oper Link Type – The operational point-to-point status of the LAN segment
attached to this interface. This parameter is determined by manual
configuration or by auto-detection, as described for Admin Link Type in STA
Port Configuration on page 175.
◆
Oper Edge Port – This parameter is initialized to the setting for Admin Edge
Port in STA Port Configuration on page 175 (i.e., true or false), but will be set to
false if a BPDU is received, indicating that another bridge is attached to this
port.
◆
Port Role – Roles are assigned according to whether the port is part of the
active topology, that is the best port connecting a non-root bridge to the root
bridge (i.e., root port), connecting a LAN through the bridge to the root bridge
(i.e., designated port), is the MSTI regional root (i.e., master port), or is an
alternate or backup port that may provide connectivity if other bridges,
bridge ports, or LANs fail or are removed. The role is set to disabled (i.e.,
disabled port) if a port has no role within the spanning tree.
Figure 102: STA Port Roles
R: Root Port
A: Alternate Port
D: Designated Port
B: Backup Port
Alternate port receives more
useful BPDUs from another
bridge and is therefore not
selected as the designated
R
port.
A
x
– 181 –
R
D
B
Chapter 7 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Displaying Interface Settings for STA
R
A
x
Backup port receives more
useful BPDUs from the same
bridge and is therefore not
selected as the designated
port.
R
D
B
The criteria used for determining the port role is based on root bridge ID, root
path cost, designated bridge, designated port, port priority, and port number,
in that order and as applicable to the role under question.
Web Interface
To display interface settings for STA:
1. Click Spanning Tree, STA.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Show Information from the Action list.
Figure 103: Displaying Interface Settings for STA
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Chapter 7 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Multiple Spanning Trees
Configuring Multiple Spanning Trees
Use the Spanning Tree > MSTP (Configure Global) page to create an MSTP instance,
or to add VLAN groups to an MSTP instance.
Command Usage
MSTP generates a unique spanning tree for each instance. This provides multiple
pathways across the network, thereby balancing the traffic load, preventing widescale disruption when a bridge node in a single instance fails, and allowing for
faster convergence of a new topology for the failed instance.
By default all VLANs are assigned to the Internal Spanning Tree (MST Instance 0)
that connects all bridges and LANs within the MST region. This switch supports up
to 33 instances. You should try to group VLANs which cover the same general area
of your network. However, remember that you must configure all bridges within
the same MSTI Region (page 169) with the same set of instances, and the same
instance (on each bridge) with the same set of VLANs. Also, note that RSTP treats
each MSTI region as a single node, connecting all regions to the Common Spanning
Tree.
To use multiple spanning trees:
1. Set the spanning tree type to MSTP (page 169).
2. Enter the spanning tree priority for the selected MST instance on the Spanning
Tree > MSTP (Configure Global - Add) page.
3. Add the VLANs that will share this MSTI on the Spanning Tree > MSTP
(Configure Global - Add Member) page.
Note: All VLANs are automatically added to the IST (Instance 0).
To ensure that the MSTI maintains connectivity across the network, you must
configure a related set of bridges with the same MSTI settings.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
MST ID – Instance identifier to configure. (Range: 0-4094)
◆
VLAN ID – VLAN to assign to this MST instance. (Range: 1-4094)
◆
Priority – The priority of a spanning tree instance. (Range: 0-61440 in steps of
4096; Options: 0, 4096, 8192, 12288, 16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864,
40960, 45056, 49152, 53248, 57344, 61440; Default: 32768)
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Chapter 7 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Multiple Spanning Trees
Web Interface
To create instances for MSTP:
1. Click Spanning Tree, MSTP.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Specify the MST instance identifier and the initial VLAN member. Additional
member can be added using the Spanning Tree > MSTP (Configure Global Add Member) page. If the priority is not specified, the default value 32768 is
used.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 104: Creating an MST Instance
To show the MSTP instances:
1. Click Spanning Tree, MSTP.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 105: Displaying MST Instances
– 184 –
Chapter 7 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Multiple Spanning Trees
To modify the priority for an MST instance:
1. Click Spanning Tree, MSTP.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Select Modify from the Action list.
4. Modify the priority for an MSTP Instance.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 106: Modifying the Priority for an MST Instance
To display global settings for MSTP:
1. Click Spanning Tree, MSTP.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Select Show Information from the Action list.
4. Select an MST ID. The attributes displayed on this page are described under
“Displaying Global Settings for STA” on page 174.
Figure 107: Displaying Global Settings for an MST Instance
– 185 –
Chapter 7 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Multiple Spanning Trees
To add additional VLAN groups to an MSTP instance:
1. Click Spanning Tree, MSTP.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Select Add Member from the Action list.
4. Select an MST instance from the MST ID list.
5. Enter the VLAN group to add to the instance in the VLAN ID field. Note that the
specified member does not have to be a configured VLAN.
6. Click Apply
Figure 108: Adding a VLAN to an MST Instance
To show the VLAN members of an MSTP instance:
1. Click Spanning Tree, MSTP.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Select Show Member from the Action list.
Figure 109: Displaying Members of an MST Instance
– 186 –
Chapter 7 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Interface Settings for MSTP
Configuring Interface Settings for MSTP
Use the Spanning Tree > MSTP (Configure Interface - Configure) page to configure
the STA interface settings for an MST instance.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
MST ID – Instance identifier to configure. (Default: 0)
◆
Interface – Displays a list of ports or trunks.
◆
STA Status – Displays the current state of this interface within the Spanning
Tree. (See “Displaying Interface Settings for STA” on page 180 for additional
information.)
■
Discarding – Port receives STA configuration messages, but does not
forward packets.
■
Learning – Port has transmitted configuration messages for an interval set
by the Forward Delay parameter without receiving contradictory
information. Port address table is cleared, and the port begins learning
addresses.
■
Forwarding – Port forwards packets, and continues learning addresses.
◆
Priority – Defines the priority used for this port in the Spanning Tree Protocol.
If the path cost for all ports on a switch are the same, the port with the highest
priority (i.e., lowest value) will be configured as an active link in the Spanning
Tree. This makes a port with higher priority less likely to be blocked if the
Spanning Tree Protocol is detecting network loops. Where more than one port
is assigned the highest priority, the port with lowest numeric identifier will be
enabled. (Default: 128; Range: 0-240, in steps of 16)
◆
Admin MST Path Cost – This parameter is used by the MSTP to determine the
best path between devices. Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports
attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to ports with slower
media. (Path cost takes precedence over port priority.) Note that when the Path
Cost Method is set to short (page 169), the maximum path cost is 65,535.
By default, the system automatically detects the speed and duplex mode used
on each port, and configures the path cost according to the values shown
below. Path cost “0” is used to indicate auto-configuration mode. When the
short path cost method is selected and the default path cost recommended by
the IEEE 8021w standard exceeds 65,535, the default is set to 65,535.
The recommended range is listed in Table 11 on page 176.
The default path costs are listed in Table 12 on page 177.
– 187 –
Chapter 7 | Spanning Tree Algorithm
Configuring Interface Settings for MSTP
Web Interface
To configure MSTP parameters for a port or trunk:
1. Click Spanning Tree, MSTP.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Configure from the Action list.
4. Enter the priority and path cost for an interface
5. Click Apply.
Figure 110: Configuring MSTP Interface Settings
To display MSTP parameters for a port or trunk:
1. Click Spanning Tree, MSTP.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Show Information from the Action list.
Figure 111: Displaying MSTP Interface Settings
– 188 –
8
Congestion Control
The switch can set the maximum upload or download data transfer rate for any
port. It can also control traffic storms by setting a maximum threshold for broadcast
traffic or multicast traffic. It can also set bounding thresholds for broadcast and
multicast storms which can be used to automatically trigger rate limits or to shut
down a port.
Congestion Control includes following options:
◆
Rate Limiting – Sets the input and output rate limits for a port.
◆
Storm Control – Sets the traffic storm threshold for each interface.
Rate Limiting
Use the Traffic > Rate Limit page to apply rate limiting to ingress or egress ports.
This function allows the network manager to control the maximum rate for traffic
received or transmitted on an interface. Rate limiting is configured on interfaces at
the edge of a network to limit traffic into or out of the network. Packets that exceed
the acceptable amount of traffic are dropped.
Rate limiting can be applied to individual ports or trunks. When an interface is
configured with this feature, the traffic rate will be monitored by the hardware to
verify conformity. Non-conforming traffic is dropped, conforming traffic is
forwarded without any changes.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Interface – Displays the switch’s ports or trunks.
◆
Type – Indicates the port type (1000BASE-T, 1000BASE SFP, or 10GBASE SFP+).
◆
Status – Enables or disables the rate limit. (Default: Disabled)
◆
Rate – Sets the rate limit level.
(Range: 64 - 1,000,000 kbits per second for Gigabit Ethernet ports;
64 - 10,000,000 kbits per second for 10 Gigabit Ethernet ports)
◆
Resolution – Indicates the resolution at which the rate can be configured.
– 189 –
Chapter 8 | Congestion Control
Storm Control
Web Interface
To configure rate limits:
1. Click Traffic, Rate Limit.
2. Set the interface type to Port or Trunk.
3. Enable the Rate Limit Status for the required interface.
4. Set the rate limit for required interfaces.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 112: Configuring Rate Limits
Storm Control
Use the Traffic > Storm Control page to configure broadcast, multicast, and
unknown unicast storm control thresholds. Traffic storms may occur when a device
on your network is malfunctioning, or if application programs are not well
designed or properly configured. If there is too much traffic on your network,
performance can be severely degraded or everything can come to complete halt.
You can protect your network from traffic storms by setting a threshold for
broadcast, multicast or unknown unicast traffic. Any packets exceeding the
specified threshold will then be dropped.
Command Usage
◆ Broadcast Storm Control is enabled by default.
◆
When traffic exceeds the threshold specified for broadcast and multicast or
unknown unicast traffic, packets exceeding the threshold are dropped until the
rate falls back down beneath the threshold.
◆
Using both rate limiting and storm control on the same interface may lead to
unexpected results. It is therefore not advisable to use both of these features on
the same interface.
– 190 –
Chapter 8 | Congestion Control
Storm Control
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Interface – Displays a list of ports or trunks.
◆
Type – Indicates the port type (1000BASE-T, 1000BASE SFP, or 10GBASE SFP+).
◆
Unknown Unicast – Specifies storm control for unknown unicast traffic.
◆
Multicast – Specifies storm control for multicast traffic.
◆
Broadcast – Specifies storm control for broadcast traffic.
◆
Status – Enables or disables storm control. (Default: Disabled)
◆
Rate – Threshold level in packets per second.
(Range: 500-262142 pps; Default: 500 pps)
◆
Resolution – Indicates the resolution at which the rate can be configured.
Web Interface
To configure broadcast storm control:
1. Click Traffic, Storm Control.
2. Set the interface type to Port or Trunk.
3. Set the Status field to enable or disable storm control.
4. Set the required threshold beyond which the switch will start dropping
packets.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 113: Configuring Storm Control
– 191 –
Chapter 8 | Congestion Control
Storm Control
– 192 –
9
Class of Service
Class of Service (CoS) allows you to specify which data packets have greater
precedence when traffic is buffered in the switch due to congestion. This switch
supports CoS with eight priority queues for each port. Data packets in a port’s highpriority queue will be transmitted before those in the lower-priority queues. You
can set the default priority for each interface, and configure the mapping of frame
priority tags to the switch’s priority queues.
This chapter describes the following basic topics:
◆
Layer 2 Queue Settings – Configures each queue, including the default priority,
queue mode, queue weight, and mapping of packets to queues based on CoS
tags.
◆
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings – Selects the method by which inbound packets are
processed (DSCP or CoS), and sets the per-hop behavior and drop precedence
for internal processing.
Layer 2 Queue Settings
This section describes how to configure the default priority for untagged frames,
set the queue mode, set the weights assigned to each queue, and map class of
service tags to queues.
Setting the Default Use the Traffic > Priority > Default Priority page to specify the default port priority
Priority for Interfaces for each interface on the switch. All untagged packets entering the switch are
tagged with the specified default port priority, and then sorted into the
appropriate priority queue at the output port.
Command Usage
◆ This switch provides eight priority queues for each port. It uses Weighted
Round Robin to prevent head-of-queue blockage, but can be configured to
process each queue in strict order, or use a combination of strict and weighted
queueing.
◆
The default priority applies for an untagged frame received on a port set to
accept all frame types (i.e, receives both untagged and tagged frames). This
priority does not apply to IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagged frames. If the incoming
frame is an IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagged frame, the IEEE 802.1p User Priority bits
will be used.
– 193 –
Chapter 9 | Class of Service
Layer 2 Queue Settings
◆
If the output port is an untagged member of the associated VLAN, these frames
are stripped of all VLAN tags prior to transmission.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Interface – Displays a list of ports or trunks.
◆
CoS – The priority that is assigned to untagged frames received on the
specified interface. (Range: 0-7; Default: 0)
Web Interface
To configure the queue mode:
1. Click Traffic, Priority, Default Priority.
2. Select the interface type to display (Port or Trunk).
3. Modify the default priority for any interface.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 114: Setting the Default Port Priority
Selecting the Use the Traffic > Priority > Queue page to set the queue mode for the egress
Queue Mode queues on any interface. The switch can be set to service the queues based on a
strict rule that requires all traffic in a higher priority queue to be processed before
the lower priority queues are serviced, or Weighted Round-Robin (WRR) queuing
which specifies a scheduling weight for each queue. It can also be configured to
use a combination of strict and weighted queuing.
Command Usage
◆ Strict priority requires all traffic in a higher priority queue to be processed
before lower priority queues are serviced.
◆
WRR queuing specifies a relative weight for each queue. WRR uses a predefined
relative weight for each queue that determines the percentage of service time
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Chapter 9 | Class of Service
Layer 2 Queue Settings
the switch services each queue before moving on to the next queue. This
prevents the head-of-line blocking that can occur with strict priority queuing.
◆
If Strict and WRR mode is selected, a combination of strict service is used for the
high priority queues and weighted service for the remaining queues. The
queues assigned to use strict priority should be specified using the Strict Mode
field parameter.
◆
A weight can be assigned to each of the weighted queues (and thereby to the
corresponding traffic priorities). This weight sets the frequency at which each
queue is polled for service, and subsequently affects the response time for
software applications assigned a specific priority value.
Service time is shared at the egress ports by defining scheduling weights for
WRR, or one of the queuing modes that use a combination of strict and
weighted queuing.
◆
The specified queue mode applies to all interfaces.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Queue Mode
■
Strict – Services the egress queues in sequential order, transmitting all
traffic in the higher priority queues before servicing lower priority queues.
This ensures that the highest priority packets are always serviced first,
ahead of all other traffic.
■
WRR – Weighted Round-Robin shares bandwidth at the egress ports by
using scheduling weights, and servicing each queue in a round-robin
fashion. (This is the default setting.)
■
Strict and WRR – Uses strict priority on the high-priority queues and WRR
on the remaining queues.
◆
Queue ID – The ID of the priority queue. (Range: 0-7)
◆
Strict Mode – If “Strict and WRR” mode is selected, then a combination of strict
service is used for the high priority queues and weighted service for the
remaining queues. Use this parameter to specify the queues assigned to use
strict priority when using the strict-weighted queuing mode.
(Default: Disabled)
◆
Weight – Sets a weight for each queue which is used by the WRR scheduler.
(Range: 1-127; Default: Weights 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 are assigned to
queues 0 - 7 respectively)
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Chapter 9 | Class of Service
Layer 2 Queue Settings
Web Interface
To configure the queue mode:
1. Click Traffic, Priority, Queue.
2. Set the queue mode.
3. If the weighted queue mode is selected, the queue weight can be modified if
required.
4. If the queue mode that uses a combination of strict and weighted queueing is
selected, the queues which are serviced first must be specified by enabling
strict mode parameter in the table.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 115: Setting the Queue Mode (Strict)
Figure 116: Setting the Queue Mode (WRR)
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Chapter 9 | Class of Service
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
Figure 117: Setting the Queue Mode (Strict and WRR)
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
Mapping Layer 3/4 Priorities to CoS Values
The switch supports several common methods of prioritizing layer 3/4 traffic to
meet application requirements. Traffic priorities can be specified in the IP header of
a frame, using the priority bits in the Type of Service (ToS) octet, or the number of
the TCP/UDP port. If priority bits are used, the ToS octet may contain three bits for
IP Precedence or six bits for Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) service.
When these services are enabled, the priorities are mapped to a Class of Service
value by the switch, and the traffic then sent to the corresponding output queue.
Because different priority information may be contained in the traffic, this switch
maps priority values to the output queues in the following manner – The
precedence for priority mapping is DSCP Priority and then Default Port Priority.
Note: The default settings used for mapping priority values from ingress traffic to
internal DSCP values are used to determine the hardware queues used for egress
traffic, not to replace the priority values. These defaults are designed to optimize
priority services for the majority of network applications. It should not be necessary
to modify any of the default settings, unless a queuing problem occurs with a
particular application.
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Chapter 9 | Class of Service
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
Setting Priority The switch allows a choice between using DSCP or CoS priority processing
Processing to methods. Use the Priority > Trust Mode page to select the required processing
DSCP or CoS method.
Command Usage
◆ If the QoS mapping mode is set to DSCP, and the ingress packet type is IPv4,
then priority processing will be based on the DSCP value in the ingress packet.
◆
If the QoS mapping mode is set to DSCP, and a non-IP packet is received, the
packet’s CoS and CFI (Canonical Format Indicator) values are used for priority
processing if the packet is tagged. For an untagged packet, the default port
priority (see page 193) is used for priority processing.
◆
If the QoS mapping mode is set to CoS, and the ingress packet type is IPv4, then
priority processing will be based on the CoS and CFI values in the ingress
packet.
For an untagged packet, the default port priority (see page 193) is used for
priority processing.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – Port identifier. (Range: 1-10/28)
◆
Trust Mode
■
CoS – Maps layer 3/4 priorities using Class of Service values. (This is the
default setting.)
■
DSCP – Maps layer 3/4 priorities using Differentiated Services Code Point
values.
Web Interface
To configure the trust mode:
1. Click Traffic, Priority, Trust Mode.
2. Set the trust mode for any port.
3. Click Apply.
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Chapter 9 | Class of Service
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
Figure 118: Setting the Trust Mode
Mapping
Ingress DSCP Values
to Internal DSCP
Values
Use the Traffic > Priority > DSCP to DSCP page to map DSCP values in incoming
packets to per-hop behavior and drop precedence values for internal priority
processing.
The DSCP is six bits wide, allowing coding for up to 64 different forwarding
behaviors. The DSCP replaces the ToS bits, but it retains backward compatibility
with the three precedence bits so that non-DSCP compliant, ToS-enabled devices,
will not conflict with the DSCP mapping. Based on network policies, different kinds
of traffic can be marked for different kinds of forwarding.
Command Usage
◆ Enter per-hop behavior and drop precedence for any of the DSCP values 0 - 63.
◆
This map is only used when the priority mapping mode is set to DSCP (see
page 198), and the ingress packet type is IPv4. Any attempt to configure the
DSCP mutation map will not be accepted by the switch, unless the trust mode
has been set to DSCP.
◆
Two QoS domains can have different DSCP definitions, so the DSCP-to-PHB/
Drop Precedence mutation map can be used to modify one set of DSCP values
to match the definition of another domain. The mutation map should be
applied at the receiving port (ingress mutation) at the boundary of a QoS
administrative domain.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – Specifies a port.
◆
DSCP – DSCP value in ingress packets. (Range: 0-63)
◆
PHB – Per-hop behavior, or the priority used for this router hop. (Range: 0-7)
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Chapter 9 | Class of Service
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
◆
Drop Precedence – Drop precedence used for controlling traffic congestion.
(Range: 0 - Green, 3 - Yellow, 1 - Red)
Table 13: Default Mapping of DSCP Values to Internal PHB/Drop Values
ingressdscp1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
0,0
0,1
0,0
0,3
0,0
0,1
0,0
0,3
1,0
1,1
1
1,0
1,3
1,0
1,1
1,0
1,3
2,0
2,1
2,0
2,3
2
2,0
2,1
2,0
2,3
3,0
3,1
3,0
3,3
3.0
3,1
3
3,0
3,3
4,0
4,1
4,0
4,3
4,0
4,1
4.0
4,3
4
5,0
5,1
5,0
5,3
5,0
5,1
6,0
5,3
6,0
6,1
5
6,0
6,3
6,0
6,1
6,0
6,3
7,0
7,1
7.0
7,3
6
7,0
7,1
7,0
7,3
ingressdscp10
The ingress DSCP is composed of ingress-dscp10 (most significant digit in the left column) and
ingress-dscp1 (least significant digit in the top row (in other words,
ingress-dscp = ingress-dscp10 * 10 + ingress-dscp1);
and the corresponding internal-dscp is shown at the intersecting cell in the table.
The ingress DSCP is bitwise ANDed with the binary value 11 to determine the drop precedence. If the
resulting value is 10 binary, then the drop precedence is set to 0.
Web Interface
To map DSCP values to internal PHB/drop precedence:
1. Click Traffic, Priority, DSCP to DSCP.
2. Select Configure from the Action list.
3. Select the port to configure.
4. Set the PHB and drop precedence for any DSCP value.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 119: Configuring DSCP to DSCP Internal Mapping
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Chapter 9 | Class of Service
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
To show the DSCP to internal PHB/drop precedence map:
1. Click Traffic, Priority, DSCP to DSCP.
2. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 120: Showing DSCP to DSCP Internal Mapping
Mapping Use the Traffic > Priority > CoS to DSCP page to maps CoS/CFI values in incoming
CoS Priorities to packets to per-hop behavior and drop precedence values for priority processing.
Internal DSCP Values
Command Usage
◆ The default mapping of CoS to PHB values is shown in Table 14 on page 202.
◆
Enter up to eight CoS/CFI paired values, per-hop behavior and drop
precedence.
◆
If a packet arrives with a 802.1Q header but it is not an IP packet, then the CoS/
CFI-to-PHB/Drop Precedence mapping table is used to generate priority and
drop precedence values for internal processing. Note that priority tags in the
original packet are not modified by this command.
◆
The internal DSCP consists of three bits for per-hop behavior (PHB) which
determines the queue to which a packet is sent; and two bits for drop
precedence (namely color) which is used to control traffic congestion.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – Specifies a port. (Range: 1-10/28)
◆
CoS – CoS value in ingress packets. (Range: 0-7)
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Chapter 9 | Class of Service
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
◆
CFI – Canonical Format Indicator. Set to this parameter to “0” to indicate that
the MAC address information carried in the frame is in canonical format.
(Range: 0-1)
◆
PHB – Per-hop behavior, or the priority used for this router hop. (Range: 0-7)
◆
Drop Precedence – Drop precedence used in controlling traffic congestion.
(Range: 0 - Green, 3 - Yellow, 1 - Red)
Table 14: Default Mapping of CoS/CFI to Internal PHB/Drop Precedence
CFI
0
1
0
(0,0)
(0,0)
1
(1,0)
(1,0)
2
(2,0)
(2,0)
3
(3,0)
(3,0)
4
(4,0)
(4,0)
5
(5,0)
(5,0)
6
(6,0)
(6,0)
7
(7,0)
(7,0)
CoS
Web Interface
To map CoS/CFI values to internal PHB/drop precedence:
1. Click Traffic, Priority, CoS to DSCP.
2. Select Configure from the Action list.
3. Set the PHB and drop precedence for any of the CoS/CFI combinations.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 121: Configuring CoS to DSCP Internal Mapping
– 202 –
Chapter 9 | Class of Service
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
To show the CoS/CFI to internal PHB/drop precedence map:
1. Click Traffic, Priority, CoS to DSCP.
2. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 122: Showing CoS to DSCP Internal Mapping
– 203 –
Chapter 9 | Class of Service
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
– 204 –
10
Quality of Service
This chapter describes the following tasks required to apply QoS policies:
◆
Class Map – Creates a map which identifies a specific class of traffic.
◆
Policy Map – Sets the boundary parameters used for monitoring inbound
traffic, and the action to take for conforming and non-conforming traffic.
◆
Binding to a Port – Applies a policy map to an ingress port.
Overview
The commands described in this section are used to configure Quality of Service
(QoS) classification criteria and service policies. Differentiated Services (DiffServ)
provides policy-based management mechanisms used for prioritizing network
resources to meet the requirements of specific traffic types on a per hop basis.
Each packet is classified upon entry into the network based on access lists, IP
Precedence, DSCP values, VLAN lists, CoS values, or source ports. Using access lists
allows you select traffic based on Layer 2, Layer 3, or Layer 4 information contained
in each packet. Based on configured network policies, different kinds of traffic can
be marked for different kinds of forwarding.
All switches or routers that access the Internet rely on class information to provide
the same forwarding treatment to packets in the same class. Class information can
be assigned by end hosts, or switches or routers along the path. Priority can then
be assigned based on a general policy, or a detailed examination of the packet.
However, note that detailed examination of packets should take place close to the
network edge so that core switches and routers are not overloaded.
Switches and routers along the path can use class information to prioritize the
resources allocated to different traffic classes. The manner in which an individual
device handles traffic in the DiffServ architecture is called per-hop behavior. All
devices along a path should be configured in a consistent manner to construct a
consistent end-to-end QoS solution.
Note: You can configure up to 16 rules per class map. You can also include multiple
classes in a policy map.
Note: You should create a class map before creating a policy map. Otherwise, you
will not be able to select a class map from the policy rule settings screen (see
page 210).
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Chapter 10 | Quality of Service
Configuring a Class Map
Command Usage
To create a service policy for a specific category or ingress traffic, follow these steps:
1. Use the Configure Class (Add) page to designate a class name for a specific
category of traffic.
2. Use the Configure Class (Add Rule) page to edit the rules for each class which
specify a type of traffic based on an access list, a DSCP or IP Precedence value, a
VLAN, or a CoS value.
3. Use the Configure Policy (Add) page to designate a policy name for a specific
manner in which ingress traffic will be handled.
4. Use the Configure Policy (Add Rule) page to add one or more classes to the
policy map. Assign policy rules to each class by “setting” the QoS value (CoS or
PHB) to be assigned to the matching traffic class. The policy rule can also be
configured to monitor the maximum throughput and burst rate. Then specify
the action to take for conforming traffic, or the action to take for a policy
violation.
5. Use the Configure Interface page to assign a policy map to a specific interface.
Note: Up to 16 classes can be included in a policy map.
Configuring a Class Map
A class map is used for matching packets to a specified class. Use the Traffic >
DiffServ (Configure Class) page to configure a class map.
Command Usage
◆ The class map is used with a policy map (page 210) to create a service policy
(page 214) for a specific interface that defines packet classification, service
tagging, and bandwidth policing. Note that one or more class maps can be
assigned to a policy map.
◆
Up to 32 class maps can be configured.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Add
◆
Class Name – Name of the class map. (Range: 1-32 characters)
◆
Type – Only one match command is permitted per class map, so the match-any
field refers to the criteria specified by the lone match command.
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Chapter 10 | Quality of Service
Configuring a Class Map
◆
Description – A brief description of a class map. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Add Rule
◆
Class Name – Name of the class map.
◆
Type – Only one match command is permitted per class map, so the match-any
field refers to the criteria specified by the lone match command.
◆
ACL – Name of an access control list. Any type of ACL can be specified,
including standard or extended IPv4/IPv6 ACLs and MAC ACLs.
◆
IP DSCP – A DSCP value. (Range: 0-63)
◆
IP Precedence – An IP Precedence value. (Range: 0-7)
◆
IPv6 DSCP – A DSCP value contained in an IPv6 packet. (Range: 0-63)
◆
VLAN ID – A VLAN. (Range:1-4094)
◆
CoS – A CoS value. (Range: 0-7)
Web Interface
To configure a class map:
1. Click Traffic, DiffServ.
2. Select Configure Class from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Enter a class name.
5. Enter a description.
6. Click Add.
Figure 123: Configuring a Class Map
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Chapter 10 | Quality of Service
Configuring a Class Map
To show the configured class maps:
1. Click Traffic, DiffServ.
2. Select Configure Class from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 124: Showing Class Maps
To edit the rules for a class map:
1. Click Traffic, DiffServ.
2. Select Configure Class from the Step list.
3. Select Add Rule from the Action list.
4. Select the name of a class map.
5. Specify type of traffic for this class based on an access list, DSCP or IP
Precedence value, VLAN, or CoS value. You can specify up to 16 items to match
when assigning ingress traffic to a class map.
6. Click Apply.
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Chapter 10 | Quality of Service
Configuring a Class Map
Figure 125: Adding Rules to a Class Map
To show the rules for a class map:
1. Click Traffic, DiffServ.
2. Select Configure Class from the Step list.
3. Select Show Rule from the Action list.
Figure 126: Showing the Rules for a Class Map
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Chapter 10 | Quality of Service
Creating QoS Policies
Creating QoS Policies
Use the Traffic > DiffServ (Configure Policy) page to create a policy map that can be
attached to multiple interfaces. A policy map is used to group one or more class
map statements (page 206). A policy map can then be bound by a service policy to
one or more interfaces (page 214).
Configuring QoS policies requires several steps. A class map must first be
configured which indicates how to match the inbound packets according to an
access list, a DSCP or IP Precedence value, or a member of a specific VLAN. A policy
map is then configured which indicates the boundary parameters used for
monitoring inbound traffic. A policy map may contain one or more classes based
on previously defined class maps.
The class of service or per-hop behavior (i.e., the priority used for internal queue
processing) can be assigned to matching packets.
Meter Mode – Defines the committed information rate (maximum throughput).
◆
Policing is based on a token bucket, where bucket depth is the maximum burst
before the bucket overflows, and the average rate tokens that are added to the
bucket is by specified by the committed-rate option. Note that the token bucket
functions similar to that described in RFC 2697 and RFC 2698.
◆
The behavior of the meter is specified in terms of its mode and two token
buckets, C and E, which both share the common rate CIR. The maximum size of
the token bucket C is BC and the maximum size of the token bucket E is BE.
The token buckets C and E are initially full, that is, the token count Tc(0) = BC
and the token count Te(0) = BE. Thereafter, the token counts Tc and Te are
updated CIR times per second as follows:
■
If Tc is less than BC, Tc is incremented by one, else
■
if Te is less then BE, Te is incremented by one, else
■
neither Tc nor Te is incremented.
When a packet of size B bytes arrives at time t, the following happens if srTCM is
configured to operate in Color-Blind mode:
■
■
■
If Tc(t)-B ≥ 0, the packet is green and Tc is decremented by B down to the
minimum value of 0, else
if Te(t)-B ≥ 0, the packets is yellow and Te is decremented by B down to the
minimum value of 0,
else the packet is red and neither Tc nor Te is decremented.
When a packet of size B bytes arrives at time t, the following happens if srTCM is
configured to operate in Color-Aware mode:
■
If the packet has been precolored as green and Tc(t)-B ≥ 0, the packet is
green and Tc is decremented by B down to the minimum value of 0, else
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Chapter 10 | Quality of Service
Creating QoS Policies
■
If the packet has been precolored as yellow or green and if
Te(t)-B ≥ 0, the packets is yellow and Te is decremented by B down to the
minimum value of 0, else
■
the packet is red and neither Tc nor Te is decremented.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Add
◆
Policy Name – Name of policy map. (Range: 1-32 characters)
◆
Description – A brief description of a policy map. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Add Rule
◆
Policy Name – Name of policy map.
◆
Class Name – Name of a class map that defines a traffic classification upon
which a policy can act. A policy map can contain up to 32 class maps.
◆
Action – This attribute is used to set an internal QoS value in hardware for
matching packets. The PHB label is composed of five bits, three bits for per-hop
behavior, and two bits for the color scheme used to control queue congestion
with the srTCM and trTCM metering functions.
■
Set CoS – Configures the service provided to ingress traffic by setting an
internal CoS value for a matching packet (as specified in rule settings for a
class map). (Range: 0-7)
See Table 14, “Default Mapping of CoS/CFI to Internal PHB/Drop
Precedence,” on page 202).
■
Set PHB – Configures the service provided to ingress traffic by setting the
internal per-hop behavior for a matching packet (as specified in rule
settings for a class map). (Range: 0-7)
See Table 13, “Default Mapping of DSCP Values to Internal PHB/Drop
Values,” on page 200).
■
◆
Set IP DSCP – Configures the service provided to ingress traffic by setting
an IP DSCP value for a matching packet (as specified in rule settings for a
class map). (Range: 0-63)
Meter – Check this to define the maximum throughput.
■
Meter Mode (Rate) – Defines the committed information rate. Policing is
based on a token bucket, where the average rate tokens that are removed
from the bucket is specified by the “Rate” option. The committed rate is in
kilobits per second. (Range: 16-1000000 kbps at a granularity of 64 kbps or
maximum port speed, whichever is lower)
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Chapter 10 | Quality of Service
Creating QoS Policies
Web Interface
To configure a policy map:
1. Click Traffic, DiffServ.
2. Select Configure Policy from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Enter a policy name.
5. Enter a description.
6. Click Apply.
Figure 127: Configuring a Policy Map
To show the configured policy maps:
1. Click Traffic, DiffServ.
2. Select Configure Policy from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 128: Showing Policy Maps
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Chapter 10 | Quality of Service
Creating QoS Policies
To edit the rules for a policy map:
1. Click Traffic, DiffServ.
2. Select Configure Policy from the Step list.
3. Select Add Rule from the Action list.
4. Select the name of a policy map.
5. Click on the Action field, and set the CoS or per-hop behavior for matching
packets to specify the quality of service to be assigned to the matching traffic
class.
6. Use the metering option to define the maximum throughput.
7. Click Apply.
Figure 129: Adding Rules to a Policy Map
– 213 –
Chapter 10 | Quality of Service
Attaching a Policy Map to a Port
To show the rules for a policy map:
1. Click Traffic, DiffServ.
2. Select Configure Policy from the Step list.
3. Select Show Rule from the Action list.
Figure 130: Showing the Rules for a Policy Map
Attaching a Policy Map to a Port
Use the Traffic > DiffServ (Configure Interface) page to bind a policy map to a port.
Command Usage
First define a class map, define a policy map, and then bind the service policy to the
required interface.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – Specifies a port. (Range: 1-10/28)
◆
Ingress – Applies the selected rule to ingress traffic.
Web Interface
To bind a policy map to a port:
1. Click Traffic, DiffServ.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Check the box under the Ingress field to enable a policy map for a port.
4. Select a policy map from the scroll-down box.
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Chapter 10 | Quality of Service
Attaching a Policy Map to a Port
5. Click Apply.
Figure 131: Attaching a Policy Map to a Port
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Chapter 10 | Quality of Service
Attaching a Policy Map to a Port
– 216 –
11
VoIP Traffic Configuration
This chapter covers the following topics:
◆
Global Settings – Enables VOIP globally, sets the Voice VLAN, and the aging
time for attached ports.
◆
Telephony OUI List – Configures the list of phones to be treated as VOIP devices
based on the specified Organization Unit Identifier (OUI).
◆
Port Settings – Configures the way in which a port is added to the Voice VLAN,
the filtering of non-VoIP packets, the method of detecting VoIP traffic, and the
priority assigned to voice traffic.
Overview
When IP telephony is deployed in an enterprise network, it is recommended to
isolate the Voice over IP (VoIP) network traffic from other data traffic. Traffic
isolation can provide higher voice quality by preventing excessive packet delays,
packet loss, and jitter. This is best achieved by assigning all VoIP traffic to a single
Voice VLAN.
The use of a Voice VLAN has several advantages. It provides security by isolating the
VoIP traffic from other data traffic. End-to-end QoS policies and high priority can be
applied to VoIP VLAN traffic across the network, guaranteeing the bandwidth it
needs. VLAN isolation also protects against disruptive broadcast and multicast
traffic that can seriously affect voice quality.
The switch allows you to specify a Voice VLAN for the network and set a CoS priority
for the VoIP traffic. The VoIP traffic can be detected on switch ports by using the
source MAC address of packets, or by using LLDP (IEEE 802.1AB) to discover
connected VoIP devices. When VoIP traffic is detected on a configured port, the
switch automatically assigns the port as a tagged member the Voice VLAN.
Alternatively, switch ports can be manually configured.
– 217 –
Chapter 11 | VoIP Traffic Configuration
Configuring VoIP Traffic
Configuring VoIP Traffic
Use the Traffic > VoIP (Configure Global) page to configure the switch for VoIP
traffic. First enable automatic detection of VoIP devices attached to the switch
ports, then set the Voice VLAN ID for the network. The Voice VLAN aging time can
also be set to remove a port from the Voice VLAN when VoIP traffic is no longer
received on the port.
Command Usage
All ports are set to VLAN hybrid mode by default. Prior to enabling VoIP for a port
(by setting the VoIP mode to Auto or Manual as described below), first ensure that
VLAN membership is not set to access mode (see “Adding Static Members to
VLANs” on page 144).
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Auto Detection Status – Enables the automatic detection of VoIP traffic on
switch ports. (Default: Disabled)
◆
Voice VLAN – Sets the Voice VLAN ID for the network. Only one Voice VLAN is
supported and it must already be created on the switch. (Range: 1-4094)
◆
Voice VLAN Aging Time – The time after which a port is removed from the
Voice VLAN when VoIP traffic is no longer received on the port.
(Range: 5-43200 minutes; Default: 1440 minutes)
Note: The Voice VLAN ID cannot be modified when the global Auto Detection
Status is enabled.
Web Interface
To configure global settings for a Voice VLAN:
1. Click Traffic, VoIP.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Enable Auto Detection.
4. Specify the Voice VLAN ID.
5. Adjust the Voice VLAN Aging Time if required.
6. Click Apply.
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Chapter 11 | VoIP Traffic Configuration
Configuring Telephony OUI
Figure 132: Configuring a Voice VLAN
Configuring Telephony OUI
VoIP devices attached to the switch can be identified by the vendor’s
Organizational Unique Identifier (OUI) in the source MAC address of received
packets. OUI numbers are assigned to vendors and form the first three octets of
device MAC addresses. The MAC OUI numbers for VoIP equipment can be
configured on the switch so that traffic from these devices is recognized as VoIP.
Use the Traffic > VoIP (Configure OUI) page to configure this feature.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Telephony OUI – Specifies a MAC address range to add to the list.
(Format: xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx)
◆
Mask – Identifies a range of MAC addresses. Setting a mask of FF-FF-FF-00-0000 identifies all devices with the same OUI (the first three octets). Other masks
restrict the MAC address range. Setting a mask of FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF specifies a
single MAC address. (Format: xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx or xxxxxxxxxxxx;
Default: FF-FF-FF-00-00-00)
◆
Description – User-defined text that identifies the VoIP devices.
Web Interface
To configure MAC OUI numbers for VoIP equipment:
1. Click Traffic, VoIP.
2. Select Configure OUI from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Enter a MAC address that specifies the OUI for VoIP devices in the network.
5. Select a mask from the pull-down list to define a MAC address range.
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Configuring VoIP Traffic Ports
6. Enter a description for the devices.
7. Click Apply.
Figure 133: Configuring an OUI Telephony List
To show the MAC OUI numbers used for VoIP equipment:
1. Click Traffic, VoIP.
2. Select Configure OUI from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 134: Showing an OUI Telephony List
Configuring VoIP Traffic Ports
Use the Traffic > VoIP (Configure Interface) page to configure ports for VoIP traffic,
you need to set the mode (Auto or Manual), specify the discovery method to use,
and set the traffic priority. You can also enable security filtering to ensure that only
VoIP traffic is forwarded on the Voice VLAN.
Command Usage
All ports are set to VLAN hybrid mode by default. Prior to enabling VoIP for a port
(by setting the VoIP mode to Auto or Manual as described below), first ensure that
VLAN membership is not set to access mode (see “Adding Static Members to
VLANs” on page 144).
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Configuring VoIP Traffic Ports
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Mode – Specifies if the port will be added to the Voice VLAN when VoIP traffic is
detected. (Default: None)
■
None – The Voice VLAN feature is disabled on the port. The port will not
detect VoIP traffic or be added to the Voice VLAN.
■
Auto – The port will be added as a tagged member to the Voice VLAN
when VoIP traffic is detected on the port. You must select a method for
detecting VoIP traffic, either OUI or 802.1AB (LLDP). When OUI is selected,
be sure to configure the MAC address ranges in the Telephony OUI list.
■
Manual – The Voice VLAN feature is enabled on the port, but the port must
be manually added to the Voice VLAN.
◆
Security – Enables security filtering that discards any non-VoIP packets
received on the port that are tagged with the voice VLAN ID. VoIP traffic is
identified by source MAC addresses configured in the Telephony OUI list, or
through LLDP that discovers VoIP devices attached to the switch. Packets
received from non-VoIP sources are dropped. (Default: Disabled)
◆
Discovery Protocol – Selects a method to use for detecting VoIP traffic on the
port. (Default: OUI)
■
OUI – Traffic from VoIP devices is detected by the Organizationally Unique
Identifier (OUI) of the source MAC address. OUI numbers are assigned to
vendors and form the first three octets of a device MAC address. MAC
address OUI numbers must be configured in the Telephony OUI list so that
the switch recognizes the traffic as being from a VoIP device.
■
LLDP – Uses LLDP (IEEE 802.1AB) to discover VoIP devices attached to the
port. LLDP checks that the “telephone bit” in the system capability TLV is
turned on. See “Link Layer Discovery Protocol” on page 321 for more
information on LLDP.
◆
Priority – Defines a CoS priority for port traffic on the Voice VLAN. The priority
of any received VoIP packet is overwritten with the new priority when the Voice
VLAN feature is active for the port. (Range: 0-6; Default: 6)
◆
Remaining Age – Number of minutes before this entry is aged out.
The Remaining Age starts to count down when the OUI’s MAC address expires
from the MAC address table. Therefore, the MAC address aging time should be
added to the overall aging time. For example, if you configure the MAC address
table aging time to 30 seconds, and the voice VLAN aging time to 5 minutes,
then after 5.5 minutes, a port will be removed from voice VLAN when VoIP
traffic is no longer received on the port. Alternatively, if you clear the MAC
address table manually, then the switch will also start counting down the
Remaining Age.
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Chapter 11 | VoIP Traffic Configuration
Configuring VoIP Traffic Ports
When VoIP Mode is set to Auto, the Remaining Age will be displayed.
Otherwise, if the VoIP Mode is Disabled or set to Manual, the remaining age will
display “NA.”
Web Interface
To configure VoIP traffic settings for a port:
1. Click Traffic, VoIP.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Configure any required changes to the VoIP settings each port.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 135: Configuring Port Settings for a Voice VLAN
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12
Security Measures
You can configure this switch to authenticate users logging into the system for
management access using local or remote authentication methods. Port-based
authentication using IEEE 802.1X can also be configured to control either
management access to the uplink ports or client access to the data ports. This
switch provides secure network management access using the following options:
◆
AAA – Use local or remote authentication to configure access rights, specify
authentication servers, configure remote authentication and accounting.
◆
User Accounts – Manually configure access rights on the switch for specified
users.
◆
Network Access - Configure MAC authentication, intrusion response, dynamic
VLAN assignment, and dynamic QoS assignment.
◆
HTTPS – Provide a secure web connection.
◆
SSH – Provide a secure shell (for secure Telnet access).
◆
ACL – Access Control Lists provide packet filtering for IP frames (based on
address, protocol, Layer 4 protocol port number or TCP control code).
◆
ARP Inspection – Security feature that validates the MAC Address bindings for
Address Resolution Protocol packets. Provides protection against ARP traffic
with invalid MAC to IP Address bindings, which forms the basis for certain
“man-in-the-middle” attacks.
◆
IP Filter – Filters management access to the web, SNMP or Telnet interface.
◆
Port Security – Configure secure addresses for individual ports.
◆
Port Authentication – Use IEEE 802.1X port authentication to control access to
specific ports.
◆
DHCP Snooping – Filter IP traffic on insecure ports for which the source address
cannot be identified via DHCP snooping.
◆
DoS Protection – Protects against Denial-of-Service attacks.
◆
IPv4 Source Guard – Filters IPv4 traffic on insecure ports for which the source
address cannot be identified via DHCPv4 snooping nor static source bindings.
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AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting)
Note: The priority of execution for the filtering commands is Port Security, Port
Authentication, Network Access, Web Authentication, Access Control Lists, IP
Source Guard, and then DHCP Snooping.
AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting)
The authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) feature provides the main
framework for configuring access control on the switch. The three security
functions can be summarized as follows:
◆
Authentication — Identifies users that request access to the network.
◆
Authorization — Determines if users can access specific services.
◆
Accounting — Provides reports, auditing, and billing for services that users
have accessed on the network.
The AAA functions require the use of configured RADIUS or TACACS+ servers in the
network. The security servers can be defined as sequential groups that are applied
as a method for controlling user access to specified services. For example, when the
switch attempts to authenticate a user, a request is sent to the first server in the
defined group, if there is no response the second server will be tried, and so on. If at
any point a pass or fail is returned, the process stops.
The switch supports the following AAA features:
◆
Accounting for IEEE 802.1X authenticated users that access the network
through the switch.
◆
Accounting for users that access management interfaces on the switch through
the console and Telnet.
◆
Accounting for commands that users enter at specific CLI privilege levels.
◆
Authorization of users that access management interfaces on the switch
through the console and Telnet.
To configure AAA on the switch, you need to follow this general process:
1. Configure RADIUS and TACACS+ server access parameters. See “Configuring
Local/Remote Logon Authentication” on page 225.
2. Define RADIUS and TACACS+ server groups to support the accounting and
authorization of services.
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AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting)
3. Define a method name for each service to which you want to apply accounting
or authorization and specify the RADIUS or TACACS+ server groups to use.
4. Apply the method names to port or line interfaces.
Note: This guide assumes that RADIUS and TACACS+ servers have already been
configured to support AAA. The configuration of RADIUS and TACACS+ server
software is beyond the scope of this guide, refer to the documentation provided
with the RADIUS or TACACS+ server software.
Configuring Local/ Use the Security > AAA > System Authentication page to specify local or remote
Remote Logon authentication. Local authentication restricts management access based on user
Authentication names and passwords manually configured on the switch. Remote authentication
uses a remote access authentication server based on RADIUS or TACACS+ protocols
to verify management access.
Command Usage
◆ By default, management access is always checked against the authentication
database stored on the local switch. If a remote authentication server is used,
you must specify the authentication sequence. Then specify the corresponding
parameters for the remote authentication protocol using the Security > AAA >
Server page. Local and remote logon authentication control management
access via the console port, web browser, or Telnet.
◆
You can specify up to three authentication methods for any user to indicate the
authentication sequence. For example, if you select (1) RADIUS, (2) TACACS and
(3) Local, the user name and password on the RADIUS server is verified first. If
the RADIUS server is not available, then authentication is attempted using the
TACACS+ server, and finally the local user name and password is checked.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Authentication Sequence – Select the authentication, or authentication
sequence required:
■
Local – User authentication is performed only locally by the switch.
■
RADIUS – User authentication is performed using a RADIUS server only.
■
TACACS – User authentication is performed using a TACACS+ server only.
■
[authentication sequence] – User authentication is performed by up to
three authentication methods in the indicated sequence.
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Web Interface
To configure the method(s) of controlling management access:
1. Click Security, AAA, System Authentication.
2. Specify the authentication sequence (i.e., one to three methods).
3. Click Apply.
Figure 136: Configuring the Authentication Sequence
Configuring Use the Security > AAA > Server page to configure the message exchange
Remote Logon parameters for RADIUS or TACACS+ remote access authentication servers.
Authentication
Servers Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS) and Terminal Access
Controller Access Control System Plus (TACACS+) are logon authentication
protocols that use software running on a central server to control access to RADIUSaware or TACACS-aware devices on the network. An authentication server contains
a database of multiple user name/password pairs with associated privilege levels
for each user that requires management access to the switch.
Figure 137: Authentication Server Operation
Web
Telnet
RADIUS/
TACACS+
server
console
1. Client attempts management access.
2. Switch contacts authentication server.
3. Authentication server challenges client.
4. Client responds with proper password or key.
5. Authentication server approves access.
6. Switch grants management access.
RADIUS uses UDP while TACACS+ uses TCP. UDP only offers best effort delivery,
while TCP offers a more reliable connection-oriented transport. Also, note that
RADIUS encrypts only the password in the access-request packet from the client to
the server, while TACACS+ encrypts the entire body of the packet.
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AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting)
Command Usage
◆ If a remote authentication server is used, you must specify the message
exchange parameters for the remote authentication protocol. Both local and
remote logon authentication control management access via the console port,
web browser, or Telnet.
◆
RADIUS and TACACS+ logon authentication assign a specific privilege level for
each user name/password pair. The user name, password, and privilege level
must be configured on the authentication server. The encryption methods
used for the authentication process must also be configured or negotiated
between the authentication server and logon client. This switch can pass
authentication messages between the server and client that have been
encrypted using MD5 (Message-Digest 5), TLS (Transport Layer Security), or
TTLS (Tunneled Transport Layer Security).
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Configure Server
◆
RADIUS
■
Global – Provides globally applicable RADIUS settings.
■
Server Index – Specifies one of five RADIUS servers that may be
configured. The switch attempts authentication using the listed sequence
of servers. The process ends when a server either approves or denies access
to a user.
■
Server IP Address – Address of authentication server.
(A Server Index entry must be selected to display this item.)
■
Accounting Server UDP Port – Network (UDP) port on authentication
server used for accounting messages. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 1813)
■
Authentication Server UDP Port – Network (UDP) port on authentication
server used for authentication messages. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 1812)
■
Authentication Timeout – The number of seconds the switch waits for a
reply from the RADIUS server before it resends the request.
(Range: 1-65535; Default: 5)
■
Authentication Retries – Number of times the switch tries to authenticate
logon access via the authentication server. (Range: 1-30; Default: 2)
■
Set Key – Mark this box to set or modify the encryption key.
■
Authentication Key – Encryption key used to authenticate logon access
for client. Enclose any string containing blank spaces in double quotes.
(Maximum length: 48 characters)
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AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting)
■
◆
Confirm Authentication Key – Re-type the string entered in the previous
field to ensure no errors were made. The switch will not change the
encryption key if these two fields do not match.
TACACS+
■
Global – Provides globally applicable TACACS+ settings.
■
Server Index – Specifies the index number of the server to be configured.
The switch currently supports only one TACACS+ server.
■
Server IP Address – Address of the TACACS+ server.
(A Server Index entry must be selected to display this item.)
■
Authentication Server TCP Port – Network (TCP) port of TACACS+ server
used for authentication messages. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 49)
■
Authentication Timeout – The number of seconds the switch waits for a
reply from the TACACS+ server before it resends the request.
(Range: 1-65535; Default: 5)
■
Authentication Retries – Number of times the switch tries to authenticate
logon access via the authentication server. (Range: 1-30; Default: 2)
■
Set Key – Mark this box to set or modify the encryption key.
■
Authentication Key – Encryption key used to authenticate logon access
for client. Enclose any string containing blank spaces in double quotes.
(Maximum length: 48 characters)
■
Confirm Authentication Key – Re-type the string entered in the previous
field to ensure no errors were made. The switch will not change the
encryption key if these two fields do not match.
Configure Group
◆
Server Type – Select RADIUS or TACACS+ server.
◆
Group Name - Defines a name for the RADIUS or TACACS+ server group.
(Range: 1-64 characters)
◆
Sequence at Priority - Specifies the server and sequence to use for the group.
(Range: 1-5 for RADIUS; 1 for TACACS)
When specifying the priority sequence for a sever, the server index must
already be defined (see “Configuring Local/Remote Logon Authentication” on
page 225).
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AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting)
Web Interface
To configure the parameters for RADIUS or TACACS+ authentication:
1. Click Security, AAA, Server.
2. Select Configure Server from the Step list.
3. Select RADIUS or TACACS+ server type.
4. Select Global to specify the parameters that apply globally to all specified
servers, or select a specific Server Index to specify the parameters that apply to
a specific server.
5. To set or modify the authentication key, mark the Set Key box, enter the key,
and then confirm it
6. Click Apply.
Figure 138: Configuring Remote Authentication Server (RADIUS)
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting)
Figure 139: Configuring Remote Authentication Server (TACACS+)
To configure the RADIUS or TACACS+ server groups to use for accounting and
authorization:
1. Click Security, AAA, Server.
2. Select Configure Group from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Select RADIUS or TACACS+ server type.
5. Enter the group name, followed by the index of the server to use for each
priority level.
6. Click Apply.
Figure 140: Configuring AAA Server Groups
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting)
To show the RADIUS or TACACS+ server groups used for accounting and
authorization:
1. Click Security, AAA, Server.
2. Select Configure Group from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 141: Showing AAA Server Groups
Configuring Use the Security > AAA > Accounting page to enable accounting of requested
AAA Accounting services for billing or security purposes, and also to display the configured
accounting methods, the methods applied to specific interfaces, and basic
accounting information recorded for user sessions.
Command Usage
AAA authentication through a RADIUS or TACACS+ server must be enabled before
accounting is enabled.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Configure Global
◆
Periodic Update - Specifies the interval at which the local accounting service
updates information for all users on the system to the accounting server.
(Range: 1-2147483647 minutes)
Configure Method
◆
Accounting Type – Specifies the service as:
■
802.1X – Accounting for end users.
■
Command – Administrative accounting to apply to commands entered at
specific CLI privilege levels.
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AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting)
■
Exec – Administrative accounting for local console, Telnet, or SSH
connections.
◆
Privilege Level – The CLI privilege levels (0-15). This parameter only applies to
Command accounting.
◆
Method Name – Specifies an accounting method for service requests. The
“default” methods are used for a requested service if no other methods have
been defined. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Note that the method name is only used to describe the accounting method
configured on the specified RADIUS or TACACS+ servers. No information is sent
to the servers about the method to use.
◆
Accounting Notice – Records user activity from log-in to log-off point.
◆
Server Group Name - Specifies the accounting server group. (Range: 1-64
characters)
The group names “radius” and “tacacs+” specifies all configured RADIUS and
TACACS+ hosts (see “Configuring Local/Remote Logon Authentication” on
page 225). Any other group name refers to a server group configured on the
Security > AAA > Server (Configure Group) page.
Configure Service
◆
Accounting Type – Specifies the service as 802.1X, Command or Exec as
described in the preceding section.
◆
802.1X
■
◆
◆
Method Name – Specifies a user defined accounting method to apply to
an interface. This method must be defined in the Configure Method page.
(Range: 1-64 characters)
Command
■
Privilege Level – The CLI privilege levels (0-15).
■
Console Method Name – Specifies a user-defined method name to apply
to commands entered at the specified CLI privilege level through the
console interface.
■
VTY Method Name – Specifies a user-defined method name to apply to
commands entered at the specified CLI privilege level through Telnet or
SSH.
Exec
■
Console Method Name – Specifies a user defined method name to apply
to console connections.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting)
■
VTY Method Name – Specifies a user defined method name to apply to
Telnet and SSH connections.
Show Information – Summary
◆
Accounting Type - Displays the accounting service.
◆
Method Name - Displays the user-defined or default accounting method.
◆
Server Group Name - Displays the accounting server group.
◆
Interface - Displays the port, console or Telnet interface to which these rules
apply. (This field is null if the accounting method and associated server group
has not been assigned to an interface.)
Show Information – Statistics
◆
User Name - Displays a registered user name.
◆
Accounting Type - Displays the accounting service.
◆
Interface - Displays the receive port number through which this user accessed
the switch.
◆
Time Elapsed - Displays the length of time this entry has been active.
Web Interface
To configure global settings for AAA accounting:
1. Click Security, AAA, Accounting.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Enter the required update interval.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 142: Configuring Global Settings for AAA Accounting
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting)
To configure the accounting method applied to various service types and the
assigned server group:
1. Click Security, AAA, Accounting.
2. Select Configure Method from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Select the accounting type (802.1X, Command, Exec).
5. Specify the name of the accounting method and server group name.
6. Click Apply.
Figure 143: Configuring AAA Accounting Methods
To show the accounting method applied to various service types and the assigned
server group:
1. Click Security, AAA, Accounting.
2. Select Configure Method from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting)
Figure 144: Showing AAA Accounting Methods
To configure the accounting method applied to specific interfaces, console
commands entered at specific privilege levels, and local console, Telnet, or SSH
connections:
1. Click Security, AAA, Accounting.
2. Select Configure Service from the Step list.
3. Select the accounting type (802.1X, Command, Exec).
4. Enter the required accounting method.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 145: Configuring AAA Accounting Service for 802.1X Service
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting)
Figure 146: Configuring AAA Accounting Service for Command Service
Figure 147: Configuring AAA Accounting Service for Exec Service
To display a summary of the configured accounting methods and assigned server
groups for specified service types:
1. Click Security, AAA, Accounting.
2. Select Show Information from the Step list.
3. Click Summary.
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AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting)
Figure 148: Displaying a Summary of Applied AAA Accounting Methods
To display basic accounting information and statistics recorded for user sessions:
1. Click Security, AAA, Accounting.
2. Select Show Information from the Step list.
3. Click Statistics.
Figure 149: Displaying Statistics for AAA Accounting Sessions
Configuring Use the Security > AAA > Authorization page to enable authorization of requested
AAA Authorization services, and also to display the configured authorization methods, and the
methods applied to specific interfaces.
Command Usage
◆ This feature performs authorization to determine if a user is allowed to run an
Exec shell.
◆
AAA authentication through a RADIUS or TACACS+ server must be enabled
before authorization is enabled.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting)
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Configure Method
◆
Authorization Type – Specifies the service as:
■
Command – Administrative authorization to apply to commands entered
at specific CLI privilege levels.
■
Exec – Administrative authorization for local console, Telnet, or SSH
connections.
◆
Method Name – Specifies an authorization method for service requests. The
“default” method is used for a requested service if no other methods have been
defined. (Range: 1-64 characters)
◆
Server Group Name - Specifies the authorization server group.
(Range: 1-64 characters)
The group name “tacacs+” specifies all configured TACACS+ hosts (see
“Configuring Local/Remote Logon Authentication” on page 225). Any other
group name refers to a server group configured on the TACACS+ Group
Settings page. Authorization is only supported for TACACS+ servers.
Configure Service
◆
Authorization Type – Specifies the service as Exec, indicating administrative
authorization for local console, Telnet, or SSH connections.
◆
Console Method Name – Specifies a user defined method name to apply to
console connections.
◆
VTY Method Name – Specifies a user defined method name to apply to Telnet
and SSH connections.
Show Information
◆
Authorization Type - Displays the authorization service.
◆
Method Name - Displays the user-defined or default accounting method.
◆
Server Group Name - Displays the authorization server group.
◆
Interface - Displays the console or Telnet interface to which these rules apply.
(This field is null if the authorization method and associated server group has
not been assigned to an interface.)
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Web Interface
To configure the authorization method applied to the Exec service type and the
assigned server group:
1. Click Security, AAA, Authorization.
2. Select Configure Method from the Step list.
3. Specify the name of the authorization method and server group name.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 150: Configuring AAA Authorization Methods
To show the authorization method applied to the EXEC service type and the
assigned server group:
1. Click Security, AAA, Authorization.
2. Select Configure Method from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 151: Showing AAA Authorization Methods
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AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting)
To configure the authorization method applied to local console, Telnet, or SSH
connections:
1. Click Security, AAA, Authorization.
2. Select Configure Service from the Step list.
3. Enter the required authorization method.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 152: Configuring AAA Authorization Methods for Exec Service
To display a the configured authorization method and assigned server groups for
The Exec service type:
1. Click Security, AAA, Authorization.
2. Select Show Information from the Step list.
Figure 153: Displaying the Applied AAA Authorization Method
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Configuring User Accounts
Configuring User Accounts
Use the Security > User Accounts page to control management access to the switch
based on manually configured user names and passwords.
Command Usage
◆ The default guest name is “guest” with the password “guest.” The default
administrator name is “admin” with the password “admin.”
◆
The guest only has read access for most configuration parameters. However,
the administrator has write access for all parameters governing the onboard
agent. You should therefore assign a new administrator password as soon as
possible, and store it in a safe place.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
User Name – The name of the user.
(Maximum length: 32 characters; maximum number of users: 16)
◆
Access Level – Specifies command access privileges. (Range: 0-15)
Level 0, 8 and 15 are designed for users (guest), managers (network
maintenance), and administrators (top-level access). The other levels can be
used to configured specialized access profiles.
Level 0-7 provide the same default access to a limited number of commands
which display the current status of the switch, as well as several database clear
and reset functions. These commands are equivalent to those available under
Normal Exec command mode in the CLI.
Level 8-14 provide the same default access privileges, including additional
commands beyond those provided for Levels 0-7 (equivalent to CLI Normal
Exec command mode), and a subset of the configuration commands provided
for Level 15 (equivalent to CLI Privileged Exec command mode).
Level 15 provides full access to all commands.
The privilege level associated with any command can be changed using the
“privilege” command described in the CLI Reference Guide.
Any privilege level can access all of the commands assigned to lower privilege
levels. For example, privilege level 8 can access all commands assigned to
privilege levels 7-0 according to default settings, and to any other commands
assigned to levels 7-0 using the “privilege” command described in the CLI
Reference Guide.
◆
Password Type – Specifies the following options:
■
No Password – No password is required for this user to log in.
■
Plain Password – Plain text unencrypted password.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Configuring User Accounts
■
Encrypted Password – Encrypted password.
The encrypted password is required for compatibility with legacy password
settings (i.e., plain text or encrypted) when reading the configuration file
during system bootup or when downloading the configuration file from a
TFTP or FTP server. There is no need for you to manually configure
encrypted passwords.
◆
Password – Specifies the user password. (Range: 0-32 characters, case
sensitive)
◆
Confirm Password – Re-type the string entered in the previous field to ensure
no errors were made. The switch will not change the password if these two
fields do not match.
Web Interface
To configure user accounts:
1. Click Security, User Accounts.
2. Select Add from the Action list.
3. Specify a user name, select the user's access level, then enter a password if
required and confirm it.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 154: Configuring User Accounts
To show user accounts:
1. Click Security, User Accounts.
2. Select Show from the Action list.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Network Access (MAC Address Authentication)
Figure 155: Showing User Accounts
Network Access (MAC Address Authentication)
Some devices connected to switch ports may not be able to support 802.1X
authentication due to hardware or software limitations. This is often true for
devices such as network printers, IP phones, and some wireless access points. The
switch enables network access from these devices to be controlled by
authenticating device MAC addresses with a central RADIUS server.
Note: RADIUS authentication must be activated and configured properly for the
MAC Address authentication feature to work properly. (See “Configuring
Remote Logon Authentication Servers” on page 226.)
Note: MAC authentication cannot be configured on trunk ports.
Command Usage
◆ MAC address authentication controls access to the network by authenticating
the MAC address of each host that attempts to connect to a switch port. Traffic
received from a specific MAC address is forwarded by the switch only if the
source MAC address is successfully authenticated by a central RADIUS server.
While authentication for a MAC address is in progress, all traffic is blocked until
authentication is completed. On successful authentication, the RADIUS server
may optionally assign VLAN and quality of service settings for the switch port.
◆
When enabled on a port, the authentication process sends a Password
Authentication Protocol (PAP) request to a configured RADIUS server. The user
name and password are both equal to the MAC address being authenticated.
On the RADIUS server, PAP user name and passwords must be configured in the
MAC address format XX-XX-XX-XX-XX-XX (all in upper case).
◆
Authenticated MAC addresses are stored as dynamic entries in the switch
secure MAC address table and are removed when the aging time expires. The
maximum number of secure MAC addresses supported for the switch system is
1024.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Network Access (MAC Address Authentication)
◆
Configured static MAC addresses are added to the secure address table when
seen on a switch port. Static addresses are treated as authenticated without
sending a request to a RADIUS server.
◆
When port status changes to down, all MAC addresses mapped to that port are
cleared from the secure MAC address table. Static VLAN assignments are not
restored.
◆
The RADIUS server may optionally return a VLAN identifier list to be applied to
the switch port. The following attributes need to be configured on the RADIUS
server.
■
Tunnel-Type = VLAN
■
Tunnel-Medium-Type = 802
■
Tunnel-Private-Group-ID = 1u,2t [VLAN ID list]
The VLAN identifier list is carried in the RADIUS “Tunnel-Private-Group-ID”
attribute. The VLAN list can contain multiple VLAN identifiers in the format
“1u,2t,3u” where “u” indicates an untagged VLAN and “t” a tagged VLAN.
◆
The RADIUS server may optionally return dynamic QoS assignments to be
applied to a switch port for an authenticated user. The “Filter-ID” attribute
(attribute 11) can be configured on the RADIUS server to pass the following
QoS information:
Table 15: Dynamic QoS Profiles
◆
Profile
Attribute Syntax
Example
DiffServ
service-policy-in=policy-map-name
service-policy-in=p1
Rate Limit
rate-limit-input=rate
rate-limit-input=100 (kbps)
rate-limit-output=rate
rate-limit-output=200 (kbps)
802.1p
switchport-priority-default=value
switchport-priority-default=2
IP ACL
ip-access-group-in=ip-acl-name
ip-access-group-in=ipv4acl
IPv6 ACL
ipv6-access-group-in=ipv6-acl-name
ipv6-access-group-in=ipv6acl
MAC ACL
mac-access-group-in=mac-acl-name
mac-access-group-in=macAcl
Multiple profiles can be specified in the Filter-ID attribute by using a semicolon
to separate each profile.
For example, the attribute “service-policy-in=pp1;rate-limit-input=100”
specifies that the diffserv profile name is “pp1,” and the ingress rate limit profile
value is 100 kbps.
◆
If duplicate profiles are passed in the Filter-ID attribute, then only the first
profile is used.
For example, if the attribute is “service-policy-in=p1;service-policy-in=p2”, then
the switch applies only the DiffServ profile “p1.”
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Network Access (MAC Address Authentication)
◆
Any unsupported profiles in the Filter-ID attribute are ignored.
For example, if the attribute is “map-ip-dscp=2:3;service-policy-in=p1,” then
the switch ignores the “map-ip-dscp” profile.
◆
◆
When authentication is successful, the dynamic QoS information may not be
passed from the RADIUS server due to one of the following conditions
(authentication result remains unchanged):
■
The Filter-ID attribute cannot be found to carry the user profile.
■
The Filter-ID attribute is empty.
■
The Filter-ID attribute format for dynamic QoS assignment is
unrecognizable (can not recognize the whole Filter-ID attribute).
Dynamic QoS assignment fails and the authentication result changes from
success to failure when the following conditions occur:
■
Illegal characters found in a profile value (for example, a non-digital
character in an 802.1p profile value).
■
Failure to configure the received profiles on the authenticated port.
◆
When the last user logs off on a port with a dynamic QoS assignment, the
switch restores the original QoS configuration for the port.
◆
When a user attempts to log into the network with a returned dynamic QoS
profile that is different from users already logged on to the same port, the user
is denied access.
◆
While a port has an assigned dynamic QoS profile, any manual QoS
configuration changes only take effect after all users have logged off the port.
Configuring MAC address authentication is configured on a per-port basis, however there are
Global Settings for two configurable parameters that apply globally to all ports on the switch. Use the
Network Access Security > Network Access (Configure Global) page to configure MAC address
authentication aging and reauthentication time.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Aging Status – Enables aging for authenticated MAC addresses stored in the
secure MAC address table. (Default: Disabled)
This parameter applies to authenticated MAC addresses configured by the MAC
Address Authentication process described in this section, as well as to any
secure MAC addresses authenticated by 802.1X, regardless of the 802.1X
Operation Mode (Single-Host, Multi-Host, or MAC-Based authentication as
described on page 294).
Authenticated MAC addresses are stored as dynamic entries in the switch’s
secure MAC address table and are removed when the aging time expires.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Network Access (MAC Address Authentication)
The maximum number of secure MAC addresses supported for the switch
system is 1024.
Web Interface
To configure aging status and reauthentication time for MAC address
authentication:
1. Click Security, Network Access.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Enable or disable aging for secure addresses, and modify the reauthentication
time as required.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 156: Configuring Global Settings for Network Access
Configuring Use the Security > Network Access (Configure Interface - General) page to
Network Access configure MAC authentication on switch ports, including enabling address
for Ports authentication, setting the maximum MAC count, and enabling dynamic VLAN or
dynamic QoS assignments.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Guest VLAN – Specifies the VLAN to be assigned to the port when 802.1X
Authentication or MAC authentication fails. (Range: 0-4094, where 0 means
disabled; Default: Disabled)
The VLAN must already be created and active (see “Configuring VLAN Groups”
on page 142). Also, when used with 802.1X authentication, intrusion action
must be set for “Guest VLAN” (see “Configuring Port Authenticator Settings for
802.1X” on page 294).
A port can only be assigned to the guest VLAN in case of failed authentication,
and switchport mode is set to Hybrid. (See “Adding Static Members to VLANs”
on page 144.)
◆
Dynamic VLAN – Enables dynamic VLAN assignment for an authenticated
port. When enabled, any VLAN identifiers returned by the RADIUS server
through the 802.1X authentication process are applied to the port, providing
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Network Access (MAC Address Authentication)
the VLANs have already been created on the switch. (GVRP is not used to create
the VLANs.) (Default: Enabled)
The VLAN settings specified by the first authenticated MAC address are
implemented for a port. Other authenticated MAC addresses on the port must
have the same VLAN configuration, or they are treated as authentication
failures.
If dynamic VLAN assignment is enabled on a port and the RADIUS server
returns no VLAN configuration (to the 802.1X authentication process), the
authentication is still treated as a success, and the host is assigned to the
default untagged VLAN.
When the dynamic VLAN assignment status is changed on a port, all
authenticated addresses mapped to that port are cleared from the secure MAC
address table.
◆
MAC Filter ID – Allows a MAC Filter to be assigned to the port. MAC addresses
or MAC address ranges present in a selected MAC Filter are exempt from
authentication on the specified port (as described under "Configuring a
MAC Address Filter"). (Range: 1-64; Default: None)
Web Interface
To configure MAC authentication on switch ports:
1. Click Security, Network Access.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Click the General button.
4. Set the guest VLAN to use when MAC Authentication or 802.1X Authentication
fails, the dynamic VLAN, and the MAC filter.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 157: Configuring Interface Settings for Network Access
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Network Access (MAC Address Authentication)
Configuring a Use the Security > Network Access (Configure MAC Filter) page to designate
MAC Address Filter specific MAC addresses or MAC address ranges as exempt from authentication.
MAC addresses present in MAC Filter tables activated on a port are treated as preauthenticated on that port.
Command Usage
◆ Specified MAC addresses are exempt from authentication.
◆
Up to 65 filter tables can be defined.
◆
There is no limitation on the number of entries used in a filter table.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Filter ID – Adds a filter rule for the specified filter. (Range: 1-64)
◆
MAC Address – The filter rule will check ingress packets against the entered
MAC address or range of MAC addresses (as defined by the MAC Address Mask).
◆
MAC Address Mask – The filter rule will check for the range of MAC addresses
defined by the MAC bit mask. If you omit the mask, the system will assign the
default mask of an exact match. (Range: 000000000000 - FFFFFFFFFFFF;
Default: FFFFFFFFFFFF)
Web Interface
To add a MAC address filter for MAC authentication:
1. Click Security, Network Access.
2. Select Configure MAC Filter from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Enter a filter ID, MAC address, and optional mask.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 158: Configuring a MAC Address Filter for Network Access
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Network Access (MAC Address Authentication)
To show the MAC address filter table for MAC authentication:
1. Click Security, Network Access.
2. Select Configure MAC Filter from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 159: Showing the MAC Address Filter Table for Network Access
Displaying Secure Use the Security > Network Access (Show Information) page to display the
MAC Address authenticated MAC addresses stored in the secure MAC address table. Information
Information on the secure MAC entries can be displayed and selected entries can be removed
from the table.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
◆
Query By – Specifies parameters to use in the MAC address query.
■
Sort Key – Sorts the information displayed based on MAC address, port
interface, or attribute.
■
MAC Address – Specifies a specific MAC address.
■
Interface – Specifies a port interface.
■
Attribute – Displays static or dynamic addresses.
Authenticated MAC Address List
■
MAC Address – The authenticated MAC address.
■
Interface – The port interface associated with a secure MAC address.
■
RADIUS Server – The IP address of the RADIUS server that authenticated
the MAC address.
■
Time – The time when the MAC address was last authenticated.
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Network Access (MAC Address Authentication)
■
Attribute – Indicates a static or dynamic address.
Web Interface
To display the authenticated MAC addresses stored in the secure MAC address
table:
1. Click Security, Network Access.
2. Select Show Information from the Step list.
3. Use the sort key to display addresses based MAC address, interface, or attribute.
4. Restrict the displayed addresses by entering a specific address in the MAC
Address field, specifying a port in the Interface field, or setting the address type
to static or dynamic in the Attribute field.
5. Click Query.
Figure 160: Showing Addresses Authenticated for Network Access
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Configuring HTTPS
Configuring HTTPS
You can configure the switch to enable the Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol
(HTTPS) over the Secure Socket Layer (SSL), providing secure access (i.e., an
encrypted connection) to the switch’s web interface.
Configuring Global Use the Security > HTTPS (Configure Global) page to enable or disable HTTPS and
Settings for HTTPS specify the TCP port used for this service.
Command Usage
◆ Both the HTTP and HTTPS service can be enabled independently on the switch.
However, you cannot configure both services to use the same TCP port. (HTTP
can only be configured through the CLI using the “ip http server” command
described in the CLI Reference Guide.)
◆
If you enable HTTPS, you must indicate this in the URL that you specify in your
browser: https://device[:port_number]
◆
When you start HTTPS, the connection is established in this way:
◆
■
The client authenticates the server using the server’s digital certificate.
■
The client and server negotiate a set of security protocols to use for the
connection.
■
The client and server generate session keys for encrypting and decrypting
data.
The client and server establish a secure encrypted connection.
A padlock icon should appear in the status bar for Internet Explorer 9, Mozilla
Firefox 39, or Google Chrome 44, or more recent versions.
◆
The following web browsers and operating systems currently support HTTPS:
Table 16: HTTPS System Support
◆
Web Browser
Operating System
Internet Explorer 9.x or later
Windows 7, 8, 10
Mozilla Firefox 39 or later
Windows 7, 8, 10, Linux
Google Chrome 44 or later
Windows 7, 8, 10
To specify a secure-site certificate, see “Replacing the Default Secure-site
Certificate” on page 252.
Note: Connection to the web interface is not supported for HTTPS using an IPv6
link local address.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Configuring HTTPS
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
HTTPS Status – Allows you to enable/disable the HTTPS server feature on the
switch. (Default: Enabled)
◆
HTTPS Port – Specifies the TCP port number used for HTTPS connection to the
switch’s web interface. (Default: Port 443)
Web Interface
To configure HTTPS:
1. Click Security, HTTPS.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Enable HTTPS and specify the port number if required.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 161: Configuring HTTPS
Replacing the Default Use the Security > HTTPS (Copy Certificate) page to replace the default secure-site
Secure-site Certificate certificate.
When you log onto the web interface using HTTPS (for secure access), a Secure
Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate appears for the switch. By default, the certificate that
the web browser displays will be associated with a warning that the site is not
recognized as a secure site. This is because the certificate has not been signed by an
approved certification authority. If you want this warning to be replaced by a
message confirming that the connection to the switch is secure, you must obtain a
unique certificate and a private key and password from a recognized certification
authority.
Caution: For maximum security, we recommend you obtain a unique Secure
Sockets Layer certificate at the earliest opportunity. This is because the default
certificate for the switch is not unique to the hardware you have purchased.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Configuring HTTPS
When you have obtained these, place them on your TFTP server and transfer them
to the switch to replace the default (unrecognized) certificate with an authorized
one.
Note: The switch must be reset for the new certificate to be activated. To reset the
switch, see “Resetting the System” on page 91 or type “reload” at the command
prompt: Console#reload
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
TFTP Server IP Address – IP address of TFTP server which contains the
certificate file.
◆
Certificate Source File Name – Name of certificate file stored on the TFTP
server.
◆
Private Key Source File Name – Name of private key file stored on the TFTP
server.
◆
Private Password – Password stored in the private key file. This password is
used to verify authorization for certificate use, and is verified when
downloading the certificate to the switch.
◆
Confirm Password – Re-type the string entered in the previous field to ensure
no errors were made. The switch will not download the certificate if these two
fields do not match.
Web Interface
To replace the default secure-site certificate:
1. Click Security, HTTPS.
2. Select Copy Certificate from the Step list.
3. Fill in the TFTP server, certificate and private key file name, and private
password.
4. Click Apply.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Configuring the Secure Shell
Figure 162: Downloading the Secure-Site Certificate
Configuring the Secure Shell
The Berkeley-standard includes remote access tools originally designed for Unix
systems. Some of these tools have also been implemented for Microsoft Windows
and other environments. These tools, including commands such as rlogin (remote
login), rsh (remote shell), and rcp (remote copy), are not secure from hostile attacks.
Secure Shell (SSH) includes server/client applications intended as a secure
replacement for the older Berkeley remote access tools. SSH can also provide
remote management access to this switch as a secure replacement for Telnet. When
the client contacts the switch via the SSH protocol, the switch generates a publickey that the client uses along with a local user name and password for access
authentication. SSH also encrypts all data transfers passing between the switch and
SSH-enabled management station clients, and ensures that data traveling over the
network arrives unaltered.
Note: You need to install an SSH client on the management station to access the
switch for management via the SSH protocol.
Note: The switch supports both SSH Version 1.5 and 2.0 clients.
Command Usage
The SSH server on this switch supports both password and public key
authentication. If password authentication is specified by the SSH client, then the
password can be authenticated either locally or via a RADIUS or TACACS+ remote
authentication server, as specified on the System Authentication page (page 225). If
public key authentication is specified by the client, then you must configure
authentication keys on both the client and the switch as described in the following
section. Note that regardless of whether you use public key or password
authentication, you still have to generate authentication keys on the switch (SSH
Host Key Settings) and enable the SSH server (Authentication Settings).
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Configuring the Secure Shell
To use the SSH server, complete these steps:
1. Generate a Host Key Pair – On the SSH Host Key Settings page, create a host
public/private key pair.
2. Provide Host Public Key to Clients – Many SSH client programs automatically
import the host public key during the initial connection setup with the switch.
Otherwise, you need to manually create a known hosts file on the management
station and place the host public key in it. An entry for a public key in the
known hosts file would appear similar to the following example:
10.1.0.54 1024 35 15684995401867669259333946775054617325313674890836547254
15020245593199868544358361651999923329781766065830956 10825913212890233
76546801726272571413428762941301196195566782
595664104869574278881462065194174677298486546861571773939016477935594230357741
309802273708779454524083971752646358058176716709574804776117
3. Import Client’s Public Key to the Switch – See “Importing User Public Keys” on
page 259 to copy a file containing the public key for all the SSH client’s granted
management access to the switch. (Note that these clients must be configured
locally on the switch via the User Accounts page as described on page 241.) The
clients are subsequently authenticated using these keys. The current firmware
only accepts public key files based on standard UNIX format as shown in the
following example for an RSA Version 1 key:
1024 35
134108168560989392104094492015542534763164192187295892114317388005553616163105
177594083868631109291232226828519254374603100937187721199696317813662774141689
851320491172048303392543241016379975923714490119380060902539484084827178194372
288402533115952134861022902978982721353267131629432532818915045306393916643
steve@192.168.1.19
4. Set the Optional Parameters – On the SSH Settings page, configure the optional
parameters, including the authentication timeout, the number of retries, and
the server key size.
5. Enable SSH Service – On the SSH Settings page, enable the SSH server on the
switch.
6. Authentication – One of the following authentication methods is employed:
Password Authentication (for SSH v1.5 or V2 Clients)
a. The client sends its password to the server.
b. The switch compares the client's password to those stored in memory.
c. If a match is found, the connection is allowed.
Note: To use SSH with only password authentication, the host public key must still
be given to the client, either during initial connection or manually entered into the
known host file. However, you do not need to configure the client’s keys.
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Configuring the Secure Shell
Public Key Authentication – When an SSH client attempts to contact the switch,
the SSH server uses the host key pair to negotiate a session key and encryption
method. Only clients that have a private key corresponding to the public keys
stored on the switch can access it. The following exchanges take place during
this process:
Authenticating SSH v1.5 Clients
a. The client sends its RSA public key to the switch.
b. The switch compares the client's public key to those stored in memory.
c. If a match is found, the switch uses its secret key to generate a random
256-bit string as a challenge, encrypts this string with the user’s public
key, and sends it to the client.
d. The client uses its private key to decrypt the challenge string, computes
the MD5 checksum, and sends the checksum back to the switch.
e. The switch compares the checksum sent from the client against that
computed for the original string it sent. If the two checksums match,
this means that the client's private key corresponds to an authorized
public key, and the client is authenticated.
Authenticating SSH v2 Clients
a. The client first queries the switch to determine if DSA public key
authentication using a preferred algorithm is acceptable.
b. If the specified algorithm is supported by the switch, it notifies the
client to proceed with the authentication process. Otherwise, it rejects
the request.
c. The client sends a signature generated using the private key to the
switch.
d. When the server receives this message, it checks whether the supplied
key is acceptable for authentication, and if so, it then checks whether
the signature is correct. If both checks succeed, the client is
authenticated.
Note: The SSH server supports up to eight client sessions. The maximum number
of client sessions includes both current Telnet sessions and SSH sessions.
Note: The SSH server can be accessed using any configured IPv4 or IPv6 interface
address on the switch.
Configuring the Use the Security > SSH (Configure Global) page to enable the SSH server and
SSH Server configure basic settings for authentication.
Note: You must generate DSA and RSA host keys before enabling the SSH server.
See “Generating the Host Key Pair” on page 258.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Configuring the Secure Shell
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
SSH Server Status – Allows you to enable/disable the SSH server on the switch.
(Default: Disabled)
◆
Version – The Secure Shell version number. Version 2.0 is displayed, but the
switch supports management access via either SSH Version 1.5 or 2.0 clients.
◆
Authentication Timeout – Specifies the time interval in seconds that the SSH
server waits for a response from a client during an authentication attempt.
(Range: 1-120 seconds; Default: 120 seconds)
◆
Authentication Retries – Specifies the number of authentication attempts
that a client is allowed before authentication fails and the client has to restart
the authentication process. (Range: 1-5 times; Default: 3)
◆
Server-Key Size – Specifies the SSH server key size. (Range: 512-896 bits;
Default:768)
■
The server key is a private key that is never shared outside the switch.
■
The host key is shared with the SSH client, and is fixed at 1024 bits.
Web Interface
To configure the SSH server:
1. Click Security, SSH.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Enable the SSH server.
4. Adjust the authentication parameters as required.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 163: Configuring the SSH Server
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Configuring the Secure Shell
Generating the Use the Security > SSH (Configure Host Key - Generate) page to generate a host
Host Key Pair public/private key pair used to provide secure communications between an SSH
client and the switch. After generating this key pair, you must provide the host
public key to SSH clients and import the client’s public key to the switch as
described in the section “Importing User Public Keys” on page 259.
Note: A host key pair must be configured on the switch before you can enable the
SSH server. See “Configuring the SSH Server” on page 256.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Host-Key Type – The key type used to generate the host key pair (i.e., public
and private keys). (Range: RSA (Version 1), DSA (Version 2), Both; Default: Both)
The SSH server uses RSA or DSA for key exchange when the client first
establishes a connection with the switch, and then negotiates with the client to
select either DES (56-bit) or 3DES (168-bit) for data encryption.
Note: The switch uses only RSA Version 1 for SSHv1.5 clients and DSA Version 2 for
SSHv2 clients.
◆
Save – Saves the host key from RAM (i.e., volatile memory) to flash memory.
Otherwise, the host key pair is stored to RAM by default. Note that you must
select this item from the Show page. (Default: Disabled)
Web Interface
To generate the SSH host key pair:
1. Click Security, SSH.
2. Select Configure Host Key from the Step list.
3. Select Generate from the Action list.
4. Select the host-key type from the drop-down box.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 164: Generating the SSH Host Key Pair
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Configuring the Secure Shell
To display or clear the SSH host key pair:
1. Click Security, SSH.
2. Select Configure Host Key from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
4. Select the option to save the host key from memory to flash by clicking Save, or
select the host-key type to clear and click Clear.
Figure 165: Showing the SSH Host Key Pair
Importing Use the Security > SSH (Configure User Key - Copy) page to upload a user’s public
User Public Keys key to the switch. This public key must be stored on the switch for the user to be
able to log in using the public key authentication mechanism. If the user’s public
key does not exist on the switch, SSH will revert to the interactive password
authentication mechanism to complete authentication.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
User Name – This drop-down box selects the user who’s public key you wish to
manage. Note that you must first create users on the User Accounts page (see
“Configuring User Accounts” on page 241).
◆
User Key Type – The type of public key to upload.
■
RSA: The switch accepts a RSA version 1 encrypted public key.
■
DSA: The switch accepts a DSA version 2 encrypted public key.
The SSH server uses RSA or DSA for key exchange when the client first
establishes a connection with the switch, and then negotiates with the client to
select either DES (56-bit) or 3DES (168-bit) for data encryption.
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Configuring the Secure Shell
The switch uses only RSA Version 1 for SSHv1.5 clients and DSA Version 2 for
SSHv2 clients.
◆
TFTP Server IP Address – The IP address of the TFTP server that contains the
public key file you wish to import.
◆
Source File Name – The public key file to upload.
Web Interface
To copy the SSH user’s public key:
1. Click Security, SSH.
2. Select Configure User Key from the Step list.
3. Select Copy from the Action list.
4. Select the user name and the public-key type from the respective drop-down
boxes, input the TFTP server IP address and the public key source file name.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 166: Copying the SSH User’s Public Key
To display or clear the SSH user’s public key:
1. Click Security, SSH.
2. Select Configure User Key from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
4. Select a user from the User Name list.
5. Select the host-key type to clear.
6. Click Clear.
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Figure 167: Showing the SSH User’s Public Key
Access Control Lists
Access Control Lists (ACL) provide packet filtering for IPv4/IPv6 frames (based on
address, protocol, Layer 4 protocol port number or TCP control code), IPv6 frames
(based on address, DSCP traffic class, or next header type), or any frames (based on
MAC address or Ethernet type). To filter incoming packets, first create an access list,
add the required rules, and then bind the list to a specific port.
Configuring Access Control Lists –
An ACL is a sequential list of permit or deny conditions that apply to IP addresses,
MAC addresses, or other more specific criteria. This switch tests ingress or egress
packets against the conditions in an ACL one by one. A packet will be accepted as
soon as it matches a permit rule, or dropped as soon as it matches a deny rule. If no
rules match, the packet is accepted.
Command Usage
The following restrictions apply to ACLs:
◆
The maximum number of ACLs is 512.
◆
The maximum number of rules per system is 2048 rules.
◆
An ACL can have up to 2048 rules. However, due to resource restrictions, the
average number of rules bound to the ports should not exceed 20.
◆
The maximum number of rules that can be bound to the ports is 64 for each of
the following list types: MAC ACLs, IP ACLs (including Standard and Extended
ACLs), IPv6 Standard ACLs, and IPv6 Extended ACLs.
The maximum number of rules (Access Control Entries, or ACEs) stated above is
the worst case scenario. In practice, the switch compresses the ACEs in TCAM (a
hardware table used to store ACEs), but the actual maximum number of ACEs
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possible depends on too many factors to be precisely determined. It depends
on the amount of hardware resources reserved at runtime for this purpose.
Auto ACE Compression is a software feature used to compress all the ACEs of an
ACL to utilize hardware resources more efficiency. Without compression, one
ACE would occupy a fixed number of entries in TCAM. So if one ACL includes 25
ACEs, the ACL would need (25 * n) entries in TCAM, where “n” is the fixed
number of TCAM entries needed for one ACE. When compression is employed,
before writing the ACE into TCAM, the software compresses the ACEs to reduce
the number of required TCAM entries. For example, one ACL may include 128
ACEs which classify a continuous IP address range like 192.168.1.0~255. If
compression is disabled, the ACL would occupy (128*n) entries of TCAM, using
up nearly all of the hardware resources. When using compression, the 128 ACEs
are compressed into one ACE classifying the IP address as 192.168.1.0/24,
which requires only “n” entries in TCAM. The above example is an ideal case for
compression. The worst case would be if no any ACE can be compressed, in
which case the used number of TCAM entries would be the same as without
compression. It would also require more time to process the ACEs.
◆
If no matches are found down to the end of the list, the traffic is denied. For this
reason, frequently hit entries should be placed at the top of the list. There is an
implied deny for traffic that is not explicitly permitted. Also, note that a singleentry ACL with only one deny entry has the effect of denying all traffic. You
should therefore use at least one permit statement in an ACL or all traffic will be
blocked.
Because the switch stops testing after the first match, the order of the
conditions is critical. If no conditions match, the packet will be denied.
The order in which active ACLs are checked is as follows:
1. User-defined rules in IP and MAC ACLs for ingress or egress ports are checked in
parallel.
2. Rules within an ACL are checked in the configured order, from top to bottom.
3. If the result of checking an IP ACL is to permit a packet, but the result of a MAC
ACL on the same packet is to deny it, the packet will be denied (because the
decision to deny a packet has a higher priority for security reasons). A packet
will also be denied if the IP ACL denies it and the MAC ACL accepts it.
Showing Use the Security > ACL (Configure ACL - Show TCAM) page to show utilization
TCAM Utilization parameters for TCAM (Ternary Content Addressable Memory), including the
number policy control entries in use, the number of free entries, and the overall
percentage of TCAM in use.
Command Usage
Policy control entries (PCEs) are used by various system functions which rely on
rule-based searches, including Access Control Lists (ACLs), IP Source Guard filter
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rules, Quality of Service (QoS) processes, QinQ, MAC-based VLANs, VLAN
translation, or traps.
For example, when binding an ACL to a port, each rule in an ACL will use two PCEs;
and when setting an IP Source Guard filter rule for a port, the system will also use
two PCEs.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Pool Capability Code – Abbreviation for processes shown in the TCAM List.
◆
Unit – Stack unit identifier.
◆
Device – Memory chip used for indicated pools.
◆
Pool – Rule slice (or call group). Each slice has a fixed number of rules that are
used for the specified features.
◆
Total – The maximum number of policy control entries allocated to the each
pool.
◆
Used – The number of policy control entries used by the operating system.
◆
Free – The number of policy control entries available for use.
◆
Capability – The processes assigned to each pool.
Web Interface
To show information on TCAM utilization:
1. Click Security, ACL.
2. Select Configure ACL from the Step list.
3. Select Show TCAM from the Action list.
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Figure 168: Showing TCAM Utilization
Setting the Use the Security > ACL (Configure ACL - Add) page to create an ACL.
ACL Name and Type
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
ACL Name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 32 characters)
◆
Type – The following filter modes are supported:
■
IP Standard: IPv4 ACL mode filters packets based on the source IPv4
address.
■
IP Extended: IPv4 ACL mode filters packets based on the source or
destination IPv4 address, as well as the protocol type and protocol port
number. If the “TCP” protocol is specified, then you can also filter packets
based on the TCP control code.
■
IPv6 Standard: IPv6 ACL mode filters packets based on the source IPv6
address.
■
IPv6 Extended: IPv6 ACL mode filters packets based on the source or
destination IP address, as well as DSCP, and the next header type.
■
MAC – MAC ACL mode filters packets based on the source or destination
MAC address and the Ethernet frame type (RFC 1060).
■
ARP – ARP ACL specifies static IP-to-MAC address bindings used for ARP
inspection (see “ARP Inspection” on page 279).
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Web Interface
To configure the name and type of an ACL:
1. Click Security, ACL.
2. Select Configure ACL from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Fill in the ACL Name field, and select the ACL type.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 169: Creating an ACL
To show a list of ACLs:
1. Click Security, ACL.
2. Select Configure ACL from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 170: Showing a List of ACLs
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Configuring a Use the Security > ACL (Configure ACL - Add Rule - IP Standard) page to configure a
Standard IPv4 ACL Standard IPv4 ACL.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Type – Selects the type of ACLs to show in the Name list.
◆
Name – Shows the names of ACLs matching the selected type.
◆
Action – An ACL can contain any combination of permit or deny rules.
◆
Address Type – Specifies the source IP address. Use “Any” to include all
possible addresses, “Host” to specify a specific host address in the Address field,
or “IP” to specify a range of addresses with the Address and Subnet Mask fields.
(Options: Any, Host, IP; Default: Any)
◆
Source IP Address – Source IP address.
◆
Source Subnet Mask – A subnet mask containing four integers from 0 to 255,
each separated by a period. The mask uses 1 bits to indicate “match” and 0 bits
to indicate “ignore.” The mask is bitwise ANDed with the specified source IP
address, and compared with the address for each IP packet entering the port(s)
to which this ACL has been assigned.
◆
Time Range – Name of a time range.
Web Interface
To add rules to an IPv4 Standard ACL:
1. Click Security, ACL.
2. Select Configure ACL from the Step list.
3. Select Add Rule from the Action list.
4. Select IP Standard from the Type list.
5. Select the name of an ACL from the Name list.
6. Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny).
7. Select the address type (Any, Host, or IP).
8. If you select “Host,” enter a specific address. If you select “IP,” enter a subnet
address and the mask for an address range.
9. Click Apply.
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Figure 171: Configuring a Standard IPv4 ACL
Configuring an Use the Security > ACL (Configure ACL - Add Rule - IP Extended) page to configure
Extended IPv4 ACL an Extended IPv4 ACL.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Type – Selects the type of ACLs to show in the Name list.
◆
Name – Shows the names of ACLs matching the selected type.
◆
Action – An ACL can contain any combination of permit or deny rules.
◆
Source/Destination Address Type – Specifies the source or destination IP
address type. Use “Any” to include all possible addresses, “Host” to specify a
specific host address in the Address field, or “IP” to specify a range of addresses
with the Address and Subnet Mask fields. (Options: Any, Host, IP; Default: Any)
◆
Source/Destination IP Address – Source or destination IP address.
◆
Source/Destination Subnet Mask – Subnet mask for source or destination
address. (See the description for Subnet Mask on page 266.)
◆
Source/Destination Port – Source/destination port number for the specified
protocol type. (Range: 0-65535)
◆
Source/Destination Port Bit Mask – Decimal number representing the port
bits to match. (Range: 0-65535)
◆
Protocol – Specifies the protocol type to match as TCP, UDP or Others, where
others indicates a specific protocol number (0-255). (Options: TCP, UDP, Others;
Default: Others)
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The following items are under TCP
■
Control Code – Decimal number (representing a bit string) that specifies
flag bits in byte 14 of the TCP header. (Range: 0-63)
■
Control Code Bit Mask – Decimal number representing the code bits to
match. (Range: 0-63)
The control bit mask is a decimal number (for an equivalent binary bit mask)
that is applied to the control code. Enter a decimal number, where the
equivalent binary bit “1” means to match a bit and “0” means to ignore a bit.
The following bits may be specified:
■
1 (fin) – Finish
■
2 (syn) – Synchronize
■
4 (rst) – Reset
■
8 (psh) – Push
■
16 (ack) – Acknowledgement
■
32 (urg) – Urgent pointer
For example, use the code value and mask below to catch packets with the
following flags set:
◆
◆
■
SYN flag valid, use control-code 2, control bit mask 2
■
Both SYN and ACK valid, use control-code 18, control bit mask 18
■
SYN valid and ACK invalid, use control-code 2, control bit mask 18
Service Type – Packet priority settings based on the following criteria:
■
Precedence – IP precedence level. (Range: 0-7)
■
DSCP – DSCP priority level. (Range: 0-63)
Time Range – Name of a time range.
Web Interface
To add rules to an IPv4 Extended ACL:
1. Click Security, ACL.
2. Select Configure ACL from the Step list.
3. Select Add Rule from the Action list.
4. Select IP Extended from the Type list.
5. Select the name of an ACL from the Name list.
6. Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny).
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7. Select the address type (Any, Host, or IP).
8. If you select “Host,” enter a specific address. If you select “IP,” enter a subnet
address and the mask for an address range.
9. Set any other required criteria, such as service type, protocol type, or control
code.
10. Click Apply.
Figure 172: Configuring an Extended IPv4 ACL
Configuring a Use the Security > ACL (Configure ACL - Add Rule - IPv6 Standard) page to
Standard IPv6 ACL configure a Standard IPv6ACL.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Type – Selects the type of ACLs to show in the Name list.
◆
Name – Shows the names of ACLs matching the selected type.
◆
Action – An ACL can contain any combination of permit or deny rules.
◆
Source Address Type – Specifies the source IP address. Use “Any” to include all
possible addresses, “Host” to specify a specific host address in the Address field,
or “IPv6-Prefix” to specify a range of addresses. (Options: Any, Host, IPv6-Prefix;
Default: Any)
◆
Source IPv6 Address – An IPv6 source address or network class. The address
must be formatted according to RFC 2373 “IPv6 Addressing Architecture,” using
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8 colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal values. One double colon may be used in
the address to indicate the appropriate number of zeros required to fill the
undefined fields.
◆
Source Prefix-Length – A decimal value indicating how many contiguous bits
(from the left) of the address comprise the prefix (i.e., the network portion of
the address). (Range: 0-128 bits)
◆
Time Range – Name of a time range.
Web Interface
To add rules to a Standard IPv6 ACL:
1. Click Security, ACL.
2. Select Configure ACL from the Step list.
3. Select Add Rule from the Action list.
4. Select IPv6 Standard from the Type list.
5. Select the name of an ACL from the Name list.
6. Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny).
7. Select the source address type (Any, Host, or IPv6-prefix).
8. If you select “Host,” enter a specific address. If you select “IPv6-prefix,” enter a
subnet address and the prefix length.
9. Click Apply.
Figure 173: Configuring a Standard IPv6 ACL
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Configuring an Use the Security > ACL (Configure ACL - Add Rule - IPv6 Extended) page to
Extended IPv6 ACL configure an Extended IPv6 ACL.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Type – Selects the type of ACLs to show in the Name list.
◆
Name – Shows the names of ACLs matching the selected type.
◆
Action – An ACL can contain any combination of permit or deny rules.
◆
Source Address Type – Specifies the source IP address type. Use “Any” to
include all possible addresses, “Host” to specify a specific host address in the
Address field, or “IPv6-Prefix” to specify a range of addresses. (Options: Any,
Host, IPv6-Prefix; Default: Any)
◆
Destination Address Type – Specifies the destination IP address type. Use
“Any” to include all possible addresses, or “IPv6-Prefix” to specify a range of
addresses. (Options: Any, IPv6-Prefix; Default: Any)
◆
Source/Destination IPv6 Address – An IPv6 address or network class. The
address must be formatted according to RFC 2373 “IPv6 Addressing
Architecture,” using 8 colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal values. One double
colon may be used in the address to indicate the appropriate number of zeros
required to fill the undefined fields.
◆
Source/Destination Prefix-Length – A decimal value indicating how many
contiguous bits (from the left) of the address comprise the prefix; i.e., the
network portion of the address. (Range: 0-128 bits for the source prefix; 0-8 bits
for the destination prefix)
◆
DSCP – DSCP traffic class. (Range: 0-63)
◆
Source Port – Protocol6 source port number. (Range: 0-65535)
◆
Source Port Bit Mask – Decimal number representing the port bits to match.
(Range: 0-65535)
◆
Destination Port – Protocol6 destination port number. (Range: 0-65535)
◆
Destination Port Bit Mask – Decimal number representing the port bits to
match. (Range: 0-65535)
◆
Next Header – Identifies the type of header immediately following the IPv6
header. (Range: 0-255)
Optional internet-layer information is encoded in separate headers that may be
placed between the IPv6 header and the upper-layer header in a packet. There
6. Includes TCP, UDP or other protocol types.
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are a small number of such extension headers, each identified by a distinct Next
Header value. IPv6 supports the values defined for the IPv4 Protocol field in
RFC 1700, and includes these commonly used headers:
0
6
17
43
44
50
51
60
◆
: Hop-by-Hop Options (RFC 2460)
: TCP Upper-layer Header (RFC 1700)
: UDP Upper-layer Header (RFC 1700)
: Routing (RFC 2460)
: Fragment (RFC 2460)
: Encapsulating Security Payload (RFC 2406)
: Authentication (RFC 2402)
: Destination Options (RFC 2460)
Time Range – Name of a time range.
Web Interface
To add rules to an Extended IPv6 ACL:
1. Click Security, ACL.
2. Select Configure ACL from the Step list.
3. Select Add Rule from the Action list.
4. Select IPv6 Extended from the Type list.
5. Select the name of an ACL from the Name list.
6. Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny).
7. Select the address type (Any or IPv6-prefix).
8. If you select “Host,” enter a specific address. If you select “IPv6-prefix,” enter a
subnet address and prefix length.
9. Set any other required criteria, such as DSCP or next header type.
10. Click Apply.
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Figure 174: Configuring an Extended IPv6 ACL
Configuring a Use the Security > ACL (Configure ACL - Add Rule - MAC) page to configure a MAC
MAC ACL ACL based on hardware addresses, packet format, and Ethernet type.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Type – Selects the type of ACLs to show in the Name list.
◆
Name – Shows the names of ACLs matching the selected type.
◆
Action – An ACL can contain any combination of permit or deny rules.
◆
Source/Destination Address Type – Use “Any” to include all possible
addresses, “Host” to indicate a specific MAC address, or “MAC” to specify an
address range with the Address and Bit Mask fields. (Options: Any, Host, MAC;
Default: Any)
◆
Source/Destination MAC Address – Source or destination MAC address.
◆
Source/Destination Bit Mask – Hexadecimal mask for source or destination
MAC address.
◆
Packet Format – This attribute includes the following packet types:
■
Any – Any Ethernet packet type.
■
Untagged-eth2 – Untagged Ethernet II packets.
■
Untagged-802.3 – Untagged Ethernet 802.3 packets.
■
Tagged-eth2 – Tagged Ethernet II packets.
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■
Tagged-802.3 – Tagged Ethernet 802.3 packets.
◆
VID – VLAN ID. (Range: 1-4094)
◆
VID Bit Mask – VLAN bit mask. (Range: 0-4095)
◆
Ethernet Type – This option can only be used to filter Ethernet II formatted
packets. (Range: 0-ffff hex.)
A detailed listing of Ethernet protocol types can be found in RFC 1060. A few of
the more common types include 0800 (IP), 0806 (ARP), 8137 (IPX).
◆
Ethernet Type Bit Mask – Protocol bit mask. (Range: 0-ffff hex)
◆
CoS – CoS value. (Range: 0-7, where 7 is the highest priority)
◆
CoS Bit Mask – CoS bitmask. (Range: 0-7)
◆
Time Range – Name of a time range.
Web Interface
To add rules to a MAC ACL:
1. Click Security, ACL.
2. Select Configure ACL from the Step list.
3. Select Add Rule from the Action list.
4. Select MAC from the Type list.
5. Select the name of an ACL from the Name list.
6. Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny).
7. Select the address type (Any, Host, or MAC).
8. If you select “Host,” enter a specific address (e.g., 11-22-33-44-55-66). If you
select “MAC,” enter a base address and a hexadecimal bit mask for an address
range.
9. Set any other required criteria, such as VID, Ethernet type, or packet format.
10. Click Apply.
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Figure 175: Configuring a MAC ACL
Configuring an Use the Security > ACL (Configure ACL - Add Rule - ARP) page to configure ACLs
ARP ACL based on ARP message addresses. ARP Inspection can then use these ACLs to filter
suspicious traffic (see “Configuring Global Settings for ARP Inspection” on
page 280).
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Type – Selects the type of ACLs to show in the Name list.
◆
Name – Shows the names of ACLs matching the selected type.
◆
Action – An ACL can contain any combination of permit or deny rules.
◆
Packet Type – Indicates an ARP request, ARP response, or either type.
(Range: IP, Request, Response; Default: IP)
◆
Source/Destination IP Address Type – Specifies the source or destination
IPv4 address. Use “Any” to include all possible addresses, “Host” to specify a
specific host address in the Address field, or “IP” to specify a range of addresses
with the Address and Mask fields. (Options: Any, Host, IP; Default: Any)
◆
Source/Destination IP Address – Source or destination IP address.
◆
Source/Destination IP Subnet Mask – Subnet mask for source or destination
address. (See the description for Subnet Mask on page 266.)
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◆
Source/Destination MAC Address Type – Use “Any” to include all possible
addresses, “Host” to indicate a specific MAC address, or “MAC” to specify an
address range with the Address and Mask fields. (Options: Any, Host, MAC;
Default: Any)
◆
Source/Destination MAC Address – Source or destination MAC address.
◆
Source/Destination MAC Bit Mask – Hexadecimal mask for source or
destination MAC address.
◆
Log – Logs a packet when it matches the access control entry.
Web Interface
To add rules to an ARP ACL:
1. Click Security, ACL.
2. Select Configure ACL from the Step list.
3. Select Add Rule from the Action list.
4. Select ARP from the Type list.
5. Select the name of an ACL from the Name list.
6. Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny).
7. Select the packet type (Request, Response, All).
8. Select the address type (Any, Host, or IP).
9. If you select “Host,” enter a specific address (e.g., 11-22-33-44-55-66). If you
select “IP,” enter a base address and a hexadecimal bit mask for an address
range.
10. Enable logging if required.
11. Click Apply.
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Figure 176: Configuring a ARP ACL
Binding a Port to an After configuring ACLs, use the Security > ACL (Configure Interface – Configure)
Access Control List page to bind the ports that need to filter traffic to the appropriate ACLs.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Type – Selects the type of ACLs to bind to a port.
◆
Port – Port identifier. {Range: 1-10/28}
◆
ACL – ACL used for ingress packets.
◆
Time Range – Name of a time range.
◆
Counter – Enables counter for ACL statistics.
Web Interface
To bind an ACL to a port:
1. Click Security, ACL.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Configure from the Action list.
4. Select IP, MAC or IPv6 from the Type options.
5. Select a port.
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6. Select the name of an ACL from the ACL list.
7. Click Apply.
Figure 177: Binding a Port to an ACL
Showing ACL Use the Security > ACL > Configure Interface (Show Hardware Counters) page to
Hardware Counters show statistics for ACL hardware counters.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – Port identifier. (Range: 1-10/28)
◆
Type – Selects the type of ACL.
◆
Direction – Displays statistics for ingress or egress traffic.
◆
Query – Displays statistics for selected criteria.
◆
ACL Name – The ACL bound this port.
◆
Action – Shows if action is to permit or deny specified packets.
◆
Rules – Shows the rules for the ACL bound to this port.
◆
Time-Range – Name of a time range.
◆
Hit – Shows the number of packets matching this ACL.
◆
Clear Counter – Clears the hit counter for the specified ACL.
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ARP Inspection
Web Interface
To show statistics for ACL hardware counters:
1. Click Security, ACL.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Show Hardware Counters from the Action list.
4. Select a port.
5. Select ingress or egress traffic.
Figure 178: Showing ACL Statistics
ARP Inspection
ARP Inspection is a security feature that validates the MAC Address bindings for
Address Resolution Protocol packets. It provides protection against ARP traffic with
invalid MAC-to-IP address bindings, which forms the basis for certain “man-in-themiddle” attacks. This is accomplished by intercepting all ARP requests and
responses and verifying each of these packets before the local ARP cache is
updated or the packet is forwarded to the appropriate destination. Invalid ARP
packets are dropped.
ARP Inspection determines the validity of an ARP packet based on valid IP-to-MAC
address bindings stored in a trusted database – the DHCP snooping binding
database (see “DHCP Snooping Global Configuration” on page 302). This database
is built by DHCP snooping if it is enabled on globally on the switch and on the
required VLANs. ARP Inspection can also validate ARP packets against userconfigured ARP access control lists (ACLs) for hosts with statically configured
addresses (see “Configuring an ARP ACL” on page 275).
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ARP Inspection
Command Usage
Enabling & Disabling ARP Inspection
◆
ARP Inspection is controlled on a global and VLAN basis.
◆
By default, ARP Inspection is disabled both globally and on all VLANs.
◆
■
If ARP Inspection is globally enabled, then it becomes active only on the
VLANs where it has been enabled.
■
When ARP Inspection is enabled globally, all ARP request and reply packets
on inspection-enabled VLANs are redirected to the CPU and their switching
behavior handled by the ARP Inspection engine.
■
If ARP Inspection is disabled globally, then it becomes inactive for all
VLANs, including those where inspection is enabled.
■
When ARP Inspection is disabled, all ARP request and reply packets will
bypass the ARP Inspection engine and their switching behavior will match
that of all other packets.
■
Disabling and then re-enabling global ARP Inspection will not affect the
ARP Inspection configuration of any VLANs.
■
When ARP Inspection is disabled globally, it is still possible to configure
ARP Inspection for individual VLANs. These configuration changes will only
become active after ARP Inspection is enabled globally again.
The ARP Inspection engine in the current firmware version does not support
ARP Inspection on trunk ports.
Configuring Use the Security > ARP Inspection (Configure General) page to enable ARP
Global Settings for inspection globally for the switch, to validate address information in each packet,
ARP Inspection and configure logging.
Command Usage
ARP Inspection Validation
◆
By default, ARP Inspection Validation is disabled.
◆
Specifying at least one of the following validations enables ARP Inspection
Validation globally. Any combination of the following checks can be active
concurrently.
■
Destination MAC – Checks the destination MAC address in the Ethernet
header against the target MAC address in the ARP body. This check is
performed for ARP responses. When enabled, packets with different MAC
addresses are classified as invalid and are dropped.
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ARP Inspection
■
IP – Checks the ARP body for invalid and unexpected IP addresses. These
addresses include 0.0.0.0, 255.255.255.255, and all IP multicast addresses.
Sender IP addresses are checked in all ARP requests and responses, while
target IP addresses are checked only in ARP responses.
■
Source MAC – Checks the source MAC address in the Ethernet header
against the sender MAC address in the ARP body. This check is performed
on both ARP requests and responses. When enabled, packets with different
MAC addresses are classified as invalid and are dropped.
ARP Inspection Logging
◆
By default, logging is active for ARP Inspection, and cannot be disabled.
◆
The administrator can configure the log facility rate.
◆
When the switch drops a packet, it places an entry in the log buffer, then
generates a system message on a rate-controlled basis. After the system
message is generated, the entry is cleared from the log buffer.
◆
Each log entry contains flow information, such as the receiving VLAN, the port
number, the source and destination IP addresses, and the source and
destination MAC addresses.
◆
If multiple, identical invalid ARP packets are received consecutively on the
same VLAN, then the logging facility will only generate one entry in the log
buffer and one corresponding system message.
◆
If the log buffer is full, the oldest entry will be replaced with the newest entry.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
ARP Inspection Status – Enables ARP Inspection globally. (Default: Disabled)
◆
ARP Inspection Validation – Enables extended ARP Inspection Validation if
any of the following options are enabled. (Default: Disabled)
■
Dst-MAC – Validates the destination MAC address in the Ethernet header
against the target MAC address in the body of ARP responses.
■
IP – Checks the ARP body for invalid and unexpected IP addresses. Sender
IP addresses are checked in all ARP requests and responses, while target IP
addresses are checked only in ARP responses.
■
Allow Zeros – Allows sender IP address to be 0.0.0.0.
■
Src-MAC – Validates the source MAC address in the Ethernet header
against the sender MAC address in the ARP body. This check is performed
on both ARP requests and responses.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
ARP Inspection
◆
Log Message Number – The maximum number of entries saved in a log
message. (Range: 0-256; Default: 5)
◆
Log Interval – The interval at which log messages are sent. (Range: 0-86400
seconds; Default: 1 second)
Web Interface
To configure global settings for ARP Inspection:
1. Click Security, ARP Inspection.
2. Select Configure General from the Step list.
3. Enable ARP inspection globally, enable any of the address validation options,
and adjust any of the logging parameters if required.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 179: Configuring Global Settings for ARP Inspection
Configuring Use the Security > ARP Inspection (Configure VLAN) page to enable ARP inspection
VLAN Settings for for any VLAN and to specify the ARP ACL to use.
ARP Inspection
Command Usage
ARP Inspection VLAN Filters (ACLs)
◆
By default, no ARP Inspection ACLs are configured and the feature is disabled.
◆
ARP Inspection ACLs are configured within the ARP ACL configuration page
(see page 275).
◆
ARP Inspection ACLs can be applied to any configured VLAN.
◆
ARP Inspection uses the DHCP snooping bindings database for the list of valid
IP-to-MAC address bindings. ARP ACLs take precedence over entries in the
DHCP snooping bindings database. The switch first compares ARP packets to
any specified ARP ACLs.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
ARP Inspection
◆
If Static is specified, ARP packets are only validated against the selected ACL –
packets are filtered according to any matching rules, packets not matching any
rules are dropped, and the DHCP snooping bindings database check is
bypassed.
◆
If Static is not specified, ARP packets are first validated against the selected ACL;
if no ACL rules match the packets, then the DHCP snooping bindings database
determines their validity.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
VLAN – Identifier for configured VLANs.
◆
DAI Status – Enables Dynamic ARP Inspection for the selected VLAN.
(Default: Disabled)
◆
ACL Name – Allows selection of any configured ARP ACLs. (Default: None)
◆
Static – When an ARP ACL is selected, and static mode also selected, the switch
only performs ARP Inspection and bypasses validation against the DHCP
Snooping Bindings database. When an ARP ACL is selected, but static mode is
not selected, the switch first performs ARP Inspection and then validation
against the DHCP Snooping Bindings database. (Default: Disabled)
Web Interface
To configure VLAN settings for ARP Inspection:
1. Click Security, ARP Inspection.
2. Select Configure VLAN from the Step list.
3. Enable ARP inspection for the required VLANs, select an ARP ACL filter to check
for configured addresses, and select the Static option to bypass checking the
DHCP snooping bindings database if required.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 180: Configuring VLAN Settings for ARP Inspection
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
ARP Inspection
Configuring Use the Security > ARP Inspection (Configure Interface) page to specify the ports
Interface Settings for that require ARP inspection, and to adjust the packet inspection rate.
ARP Inspection
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Interface – Port or trunk identifier.
◆
Trust Status – Configures the port as trusted or untrusted. (Default: Untrusted)
By default, all untrusted ports are subject to ARP packet rate limiting, and all
trusted ports are exempt from ARP packet rate limiting.
Packets arriving on trusted interfaces bypass all ARP Inspection and ARP
Inspection Validation checks and will always be forwarded, while those arriving
on untrusted interfaces are subject to all configured ARP inspection tests.
◆
Packet Rate Limit – Sets the maximum number of ARP packets that can be
processed by CPU per second on trusted or untrusted ports.
(Range: 0-2048; Default: 15)
Setting the rate limit to “0” means that there is no restriction on the number of
ARP packets that can be processed by the CPU.
The switch will drop all ARP packets received on a port which exceeds the
configured ARP-packets-per-second rate limit.
Web Interface
To configure interface settings for ARP Inspection:
1. Click Security, ARP Inspection.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Specify any untrusted ports which require ARP inspection, and adjust the
packet inspection rate.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 181: Configuring Interface Settings for ARP Inspection
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
ARP Inspection
Displaying Use the Security > ARP Inspection (Show Information - Show Statistics) page to
ARP Inspection display statistics about the number of ARP packets processed, or dropped for
Statistics various reasons.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Table 17: ARP Inspection Statistics
Parameter
Description
Received ARP packets before
ARP inspection rate limit
Count of ARP packets received but not exceeding the ARP
Inspection rate limit.
Dropped ARP packets in the
process of ARP inspection rate
limit
Count of ARP packets exceeding (and dropped by) ARP rate
limiting.
ARP packets dropped by
additional validation (IP)
Count of ARP packets that failed the IP address test.
ARP packets dropped by
Count of packets that failed the destination MAC address test.
additional validation (Dst-MAC)
Total ARP packets processed by Count of all ARP packets processed by the ARP Inspection engine.
ARP inspection
ARP packets dropped by
additional validation (Src-MAC)
Count of packets that failed the source MAC address test.
ARP packets dropped by ARP
ACLs
Count of ARP packets that failed validation against ARP ACL rules.
ARP packets dropped by DHCP
snooping
Count of packets that failed validation against the DHCP Snooping
Binding database.
Web Interface
To display statistics for ARP Inspection:
1. Click Security, ARP Inspection.
2. Select Show Information from the Step list.
3. Select Show Statistics from the Action list.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
ARP Inspection
Figure 182: Displaying Statistics for ARP Inspection
Displaying the Use the Security > ARP Inspection (Show Information - Show Log) page to show
ARP Inspection Log information about entries stored in the log, including the associated VLAN, port,
and address components.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Table 18: ARP Inspection Log
Parameter
Description
VLAN ID
The VLAN where this packet was seen.
Port
The port where this packet was seen.
Src. IP Address
The source IP address in the packet.
Dst. IP Address
The destination IP address in the packet.
Src. MAC Address
The source MAC address in the packet.
Dst. MAC Address
The destination MAC address in the packet.
Web Interface
To display the ARP Inspection log:
1. Click Security, ARP Inspection.
2. Select Show Information from the Step list.
3. Select Show Log from the Action list.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Filtering IP Addresses for Management Access
Figure 183: Displaying the ARP Inspection Log
Filtering IP Addresses for Management Access
Use the Security > IP Filter page to create a list of up to 15 IP addresses or IP address
groups that are allowed management access to the switch through the web
interface, SNMP, or Telnet.
Command Usage
◆ The management interfaces are open to all IP addresses by default. Once you
add an entry to a filter list, access to that interface is restricted to the specified
addresses.
◆
If anyone tries to access a management interface on the switch from an invalid
address, the switch will reject the connection, enter an event message in the
system log, and send a trap message to the trap manager.
◆
IP address can be configured for SNMP, web and Telnet access respectively.
Each of these groups can include up to five different sets of addresses, either
individual addresses or address ranges.
◆
When entering addresses for the same group (i.e., SNMP, web or Telnet), the
switch will not accept overlapping address ranges. When entering addresses
for different groups, the switch will accept overlapping address ranges.
◆
You cannot delete an individual address from a specified range. You must
delete the entire range, and reenter the addresses.
◆
You can delete an address range just by specifying the start address, or by
specifying both the start address and end address.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Mode
■
Web – Configures IP address(es) for the web group.
■
SNMP – Configures IP address(es) for the SNMP group.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Filtering IP Addresses for Management Access
■
Telnet – Configures IP address(es) for the Telnet group.
■
All – Configures IP address(es) for all groups.
◆
Start IP Address – A single IP address, or the starting address of a range.
◆
End IP Address – The end address of a range.
Web Interface
To create a list of IP addresses authorized for management access:
1. Click Security, IP Filter.
2. Select Add from the Action list.
3. Select the management interface to filter (Web, SNMP, Telnet, All).
4. Enter the IP addresses or range of addresses that are allowed management
access to an interface.
5. Click Apply
Figure 184: Creating an IP Address Filter for Management Access
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Configuring Port Security
To show a list of IP addresses authorized for management access:
1. Click Security, IP Filter.
2. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 185: Showing IP Addresses Authorized for Management Access
Configuring Port Security
Use the Security > Port Security page to configure the maximum number of device
MAC addresses that can be learned by a switch port, stored in the address table,
and authorized to access the network.
When port security is enabled on a port, the switch stops learning new MAC
addresses on the specified port when it has reached a configured maximum
number. Only incoming traffic with source addresses already stored in the address
table will be authorized to access the network through that port. If a device with an
unauthorized MAC address attempts to use the switch port, the intrusion will be
detected and the switch can automatically take action by disabling the port and
sending a trap message.
Command Usage
◆ The default maximum number of MAC addresses allowed on a secure port is
zero (that is, disabled). To use port security, you must configure the maximum
number of addresses allowed on a port.
◆
To configure the maximum number of address entries which can be learned on
a port, and then specify the maximum number of dynamic addresses allowed.
The switch will learn up to the maximum number of allowed address pairs
<source MAC address, VLAN> for frames received on the port. When the port
has reached the maximum number of MAC addresses, the port will stop
learning new addresses. The MAC addresses already in the address table will be
retained and will not be aged out.
Note that you can manually add additional secure addresses to a port using the
Static Address Table (page 157).
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Configuring Port Security
◆
When the port security state is changed from enabled to disabled, all
dynamically learned entries are cleared from the address table.
◆
If port security is enabled, and the maximum number of allowed addresses are
set to a non-zero value, any device not in the address table that attempts to use
the port will be prevented from accessing the switch.
◆
If a port is disabled (shut down) due to a security violation, it must be manually
re-enabled from the Interface > Port > General page (page 95).
◆
A secure port has the following restrictions:
■
It cannot be used as a member of a static or dynamic trunk.
■
It should not be connected to a network interconnection device.
■
RSPAN and port security are mutually exclusive functions. If port security is
enabled on a port, that port cannot be set as an RSPAN uplink port. Also,
when a port is configured as an RSPAN uplink port, source port, or
destination port, port security cannot be enabled on that port.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – Port identifier. (Range: 1-10/28)
◆
Security Status – Enables or disables port security on a port.
(Default: Disabled)
◆
Port Status – The operational status:
◆
◆
■
Secure/Down – Port security is disabled.
■
Secure/Up – Port security is enabled.
■
Shutdown – Port is shut down due to a response to a port security violation.
Action – Indicates the action to be taken when a port security violation is
detected:
■
None: No action should be taken. (This is the default.)
■
Trap: Send an SNMP trap message.
■
Shutdown: Disable the port.
■
Trap and Shutdown: Send an SNMP trap message and disable the port.
Max MAC Count – The maximum number of MAC addresses that can be
learned on a port. (Range: 0 - 1024, where 0 means disabled)
The maximum address count is effective when port security is enabled or
disabled.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
◆
Current MAC Count – The number of MAC addresses currently associated with
this interface.
◆
MAC Filter – Shows if MAC address filtering has been set under Security >
Network Access (Configure MAC Filter) as described on page 248.
◆
MAC Filter ID – The identifier for a MAC address filter.
◆
Last Intrusion MAC – The last unauthorized MAC address detected.
◆
Last Time Detected Intrusion MAC – The last time an unauthorized MAC
address was detected.
Web Interface
To configure port security:
1. Click Security, Port Security.
2. Mark the check box in the Security Status column to enable security, set the
action to take when an invalid address is detected on a port, and set the
maximum number of MAC addresses allowed on the port.
3. Click Apply
Figure 186: Configuring Port Security
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
Network switches can provide open and easy access to network resources by
simply attaching a client PC. Although this automatic configuration and access is a
desirable feature, it also allows unauthorized personnel to easily intrude and
possibly gain access to sensitive network data.
The IEEE 802.1X (dot1X) standard defines a port-based access control procedure
that prevents unauthorized access to a network by requiring users to first submit
credentials for authentication. Access to all switch ports in a network can be
centrally controlled from a server, which means that authorized users can use the
same credentials for authentication from any point within the network.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
This switch uses the Extensible Authentication Protocol over LANs (EAPOL) to
exchange authentication protocol messages with the client, and a remote RADIUS
authentication server to verify user identity and access rights. When a client (i.e.,
Supplicant) connects to a switch port, the switch (i.e., Authenticator) responds with
an EAPOL identity request. The client provides its identity (such as a user name) in
an EAPOL response to the switch, which it forwards to the RADIUS server. The
RADIUS server verifies the client identity and sends an access challenge back to the
client. The EAP packet from the RADIUS server contains not only the challenge, but
the authentication method to be used. The client can reject the authentication
method and request another, depending on the configuration of the client
software and the RADIUS server. The encryption method used to pass
authentication messages can be MD5 (Message-Digest 5), TLS (Transport Layer
Security), PEAP (Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol), or TTLS (Tunneled
Transport Layer Security). The client responds to the appropriate method with its
credentials, such as a password or certificate. The RADIUS server verifies the client
credentials and responds with an accept or reject packet. If authentication is
successful, the switch allows the client to access the network. Otherwise, non-EAP
traffic on the port is blocked or assigned to a guest VLAN based on the “intrusionaction” setting. In “multi-host” mode, only one host connected to a port needs to
pass authentication for all other hosts to be granted network access. Similarly, a
port can become unauthorized for all hosts if one attached host fails reauthentication or sends an EAPOL logoff message.
Figure 187: Configuring Port Authentication
802.1x
client
RADIUS
server
1. Client attempts to access a switch port.
2. Switch sends client an identity request.
3. Client sends back identity information.
4. Switch forwards this to authentication server.
5. Authentication server challenges client.
6. Client responds with proper credentials.
7. Authentication server approves access.
8. Switch grants client access to this port.
The operation of 802.1X on the switch requires the following:
◆
The switch must have an IP address assigned.
◆
RADIUS authentication must be enabled on the switch and the IP address of
the RADIUS server specified.
◆
802.1X must be enabled globally for the switch.
◆
Each switch port that will be used must be set to dot1X “Auto” mode.
◆
Each client that needs to be authenticated must have dot1X client software
installed and properly configured.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
◆
The RADIUS server and 802.1X client support EAP. (The switch only supports
EAPOL in order to pass the EAP packets from the server to the client.)
◆
The RADIUS server and client also have to support the same EAP authentication
type – MD5, PEAP, TLS, or TTLS. (Native support for these encryption methods is
provided in Windows 8, 7, Vista and XP, and in Windows 2000 with Service Pack
4. To support these encryption methods in Windows 95 and 98, you can use the
AEGIS dot1x client or other comparable client software)
Configuring 802.1X Use the Security > Port Authentication (Configure Global) page to configure IEEE
Global Settings 802.1X port authentication. The 802.1X protocol must be enabled globally for the
switch system before port settings are active.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
System Authentication Control – Sets the global setting for 802.1X.
(Default: Disabled)
◆
Default – Sets all configurable 802.1X global and port settings to their default
values.
Web Interface
To configure global settings for 802.1X:
1. Click Security, Port Authentication.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Enable 802.1X globally for the switch.
4. Click Apply
Figure 188: Configuring Global Settings for 802.1X Port Authentication
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
Configuring Use the Security > Port Authentication (Configure Interface – Authenticator) page
Port Authenticator to configure 802.1X port settings for the switch as the local authenticator. When
Settings for 802.1X 802.1X is enabled, you need to configure the parameters for the authentication
process that runs between the client and the switch (i.e., authenticator), as well as
the client identity lookup process that runs between the switch and authentication
server.
Command Usage
◆ When the switch functions as a local authenticator between supplicant devices
attached to the switch and the authentication server, configure the parameters
for the exchange of EAP messages between the authenticator and clients on
the Authenticator configuration page.
◆
This switch can be configured to serve as the authenticator on selected ports
by setting the Control Mode to Auto on this configuration page, and as a
supplicant on other ports by the setting the control mode to Force-Authorized
on this page and enabling the PAE supplicant on the Supplicant configuration
page.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – Port number.
◆
Status – Indicates if authentication is enabled or disabled on the port. The
status is disabled if the control mode is set to Force-Authorized.
◆
Authorized – Displays the 802.1X authorization status of connected clients.
◆
◆
■
Yes – Connected client is authorized.
■
N/A – Connected client is not authorized, or port is not connected.
Control Mode – Sets the authentication mode to one of the following options:
■
Auto – Requires a dot1x-aware client to be authorized by the
authentication server. Clients that are not dot1x-aware will be denied
access.
■
Force-Authorized – Forces the port to grant access to all clients, either
dot1x-aware or otherwise. (This is the default setting.)
■
Force-Unauthorized – Forces the port to deny access to all clients, either
dot1x-aware or otherwise.
Operation Mode – Allows single or multiple hosts (clients) to connect to an
802.1X-authorized port. (Default: Single-Host)
■
Single-Host – Allows only a single host to connect to this port.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
■
Multi-Host – Allows multiple host to connect to this port.
In this mode, only one host connected to a port needs to pass
authentication for all other hosts to be granted network access. Similarly, a
port can become unauthorized for all hosts if one attached host fails reauthentication or sends an EAPOL logoff message.
■
MAC-Based – Allows multiple hosts to connect to this port, with each host
needing to be authenticated.
In this mode, each host connected to a port needs to pass authentication.
The number of hosts allowed access to a port operating in this mode is
limited only by the available space in the secure address table (i.e., up to
1024 addresses).
◆
Max Count – The maximum number of hosts that can connect to a port when
the Multi-Host operation mode is selected. (Range: 1-1024; Default: 5)
◆
Max Request – Sets the maximum number of times the switch port will
retransmit an EAP request packet to the client before it times out the
authentication session. (Range: 1-10; Default 2)
◆
Quiet Period – Sets the time that a switch port waits after the Max Request
Count has been exceeded before attempting to acquire a new client.
(Range: 1-65535 seconds; Default: 60 seconds)
◆
Tx Period – Sets the time period during an authentication session that the
switch waits before re-transmitting an EAP packet. (Range: 1-65535;
Default: 30 seconds)
◆
Supplicant Timeout – Sets the time that a switch port waits for a response to
an EAP request from a client before re-transmitting an EAP packet.
(Range: 1-65535; Default: 30 seconds)
This command attribute sets the timeout for EAP-request frames other than
EAP-request/identity frames. If dot1x authentication is enabled on a port, the
switch will initiate authentication when the port link state comes up. It will
send an EAP-request/identity frame to the client to request its identity,
followed by one or more requests for authentication information. It may also
send other EAP-request frames to the client during an active connection as
required for reauthentication.
◆
Server Timeout – Sets the time that a switch port waits for a response to an
EAP request from an authentication server before re-transmitting an EAP
packet. (Default: 0 seconds)
A RADIUS server must be set before the correct operational value of 10 seconds
will be displayed in this field. (See “Configuring Remote Logon Authentication
Servers” on page 226.)
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
◆
Re-authentication Status – Sets the client to be re-authenticated after the
interval specified by the Re-authentication Period. Re-authentication can be
used to detect if a new device is plugged into a switch port. (Default: Disabled)
◆
Re-authentication Period – Sets the time period after which a connected
client must be re-authenticated. (Range: 1-65535 seconds; Default: 3600
seconds)
◆
Re-authentication Max Retries – The maximum number of times the switch
port will retransmit an EAP request/identity packet to the client before it times
out the authentication session. (Range: 1-10; Default: 2)
◆
Intrusion Action – Sets the port’s response to a failed authentication.
■
Block Traffic – Blocks all non-EAP traffic on the port. (This is the default
setting.)
■
Guest VLAN – All traffic for the port is assigned to a guest VLAN. The guest
VLAN must be separately configured (See “Configuring VLAN Groups” on
page 142) and mapped on each port (See “Configuring Network Access
for Ports” on page 246).
Supplicant List
◆
Supplicant – MAC address of authorized client.
Authenticator PAE State Machine
◆
State – Current state (including initialize, disconnected, connecting,
authenticating, authenticated, aborting, held, force_authorized,
force_unauthorized).
◆
Reauth Count – Number of times connecting state is re-entered.
◆
Current Identifier – Identifier sent in each EAP Success, Failure or Request
packet by the Authentication Server.
Backend State Machine
◆
State – Current state (including request, response, success, fail, timeout, idle,
initialize).
◆
Request Count – Number of EAP Request packets sent to the Supplicant
without receiving a response.
◆
Identifier (Server) – Identifier carried in the most recent EAP Success, Failure or
Request packet received from the Authentication Server.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
Reauthentication State Machine
◆
State – Current state (including initialize, reauthenticate).
Web Interface
To configure port authenticator settings for 802.1X:
1. Click Security, Port Authentication.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Modify the authentication settings for each port as required.
4. Click Apply
Figure 189: Configuring Interface Settings for 802.1X Port Authenticator
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
Displaying Use the Security > Port Authentication (Show Statistics) page to display statistics for
802.1X Statistics dot1x protocol exchanges for any port.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Table 19: 802.1X Statistics
Parameter
Description
Authenticator
Rx EAPOL Start
The number of EAPOL Start frames that have been received by this
Authenticator.
Rx EAPOL Logoff
The number of EAPOL Logoff frames that have been received by
this Authenticator.
Rx EAPOL Invalid
The number of EAPOL frames that have been received by this
Authenticator in which the frame type is not recognized.
Rx EAPOL Total
The number of valid EAPOL frames of any type that have been
received by this Authenticator.
Rx Last EAPOLVer
The protocol version number carried in the most recent EAPOL
frame received by this Authenticator.
Rx Last EAPOLSrc
The source MAC address carried in the most recent EAPOL frame
received by this Authenticator.
Rx EAP Resp/Id
The number of EAP Resp/Id frames that have been received by this
Authenticator.
Rx EAP Resp/Oth
The number of valid EAP Response frames (other than Resp/Id
frames) that have been received by this Authenticator.
Rx EAP LenError
The number of EAPOL frames that have been received by this
Authenticator in which the Packet Body Length field is invalid.
Tx EAP Req/Id
The number of EAP Req/Id frames that have been transmitted by
this Authenticator.
Tx EAP Req/Oth
The number of EAP Request frames (other than Rq/Id frames) that
have been transmitted by this Authenticator.
Tx EAPOL Total
The number of EAPOL frames of any type that have been
transmitted by this Authenticator.
Supplicant
Rx EAPOL Invalid
The number of EAPOL frames that have been received by this
Supplicant in which the frame type is not recognized.
Rx EAPOL Total
The number of valid EAPOL frames of any type that have been
received by this Supplicant.
Rx Last EAPOLVer
The protocol version number carried in the most recent EAPOL
frame received by this Supplicant.
Rx Last EAPOLSrc
The source MAC address carried in the most recent EAPOL frame
received by this Supplicant.
Rx EAP Resp/Id
The number of EAP Resp/Id frames that have been received by this
Supplicant.
Rx EAP Resp/Oth
The number of valid EAP Response frames (other than Resp/Id
frames) that have been received by this Supplicant.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
DHCP Snooping
Table 19: 802.1X Statistics (Continued)
Parameter
Description
Rx EAP LenError
The number of EAPOL frames that have been received by this
Supplicant in which the Packet Body Length field is invalid.
Tx EAPOL Total
The number of EAPOL frames of any type that have been
transmitted by this Supplicant.
Tx EAPOL Start
The number of EAPOL Start frames that have been transmitted by
this Supplicant.
Tx EAPOL Logoff
The number of EAPOL Logoff frames that have been transmitted by
this Supplicant.
Tx EAP Req/Id
The number of EAP Req/Id frames that have been transmitted by
this Supplicant.
Tx EAP Req/Oth
The number of EAP Request frames (other than Req/Id frames) that
have been transmitted by this Supplicant.
Web Interface
To display port authenticator statistics for 802.1X:
1. Click Security, Port Authentication.
2. Select Show Statistics from the Step list.
Figure 190: Showing Statistics for 802.1X Port Authenticator
DHCP Snooping
The addresses assigned to DHCP clients on insecure ports can be carefully
controlled using the dynamic bindings registered with DHCP Snooping (or using
the static bindings configured with IP Source Guard). DHCP snooping allows a
switch to protect a network from rogue DHCP servers or other devices which send
port-related information to a DHCP server. This information can be useful in
tracking an IP address back to a physical port.
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DHCP Snooping
Command Usage
DHCP Snooping Process
◆
Network traffic may be disrupted when malicious DHCP messages are received
from an outside source. DHCP snooping is used to filter DHCP messages
received on a non-secure interface from outside the network or fire wall. When
DHCP snooping is enabled globally and enabled on a VLAN interface, DHCP
messages received on an untrusted interface from a device not listed in the
DHCP snooping table will be dropped.
◆
Table entries are only learned for trusted interfaces. An entry is added or
removed dynamically to the DHCP snooping table when a client receives or
releases an IP address from a DHCP server. Each entry includes a MAC address,
IP address, lease time, VLAN identifier, and port identifier.
◆
The rate limit for the number of DHCP messages that can be processed by the
switch is 100 packets per second. Any DHCP packets in excess of this limit are
dropped.
◆
When DHCP snooping is enabled, DHCP messages entering an untrusted
interface are filtered based upon dynamic entries learned via DHCP snooping.
◆
Filtering rules are implemented as follows:
■
If the global DHCP snooping is disabled, all DHCP packets are forwarded.
■
If DHCP snooping is enabled globally, and also enabled on the VLAN where
the DHCP packet is received, all DHCP packets are forwarded for a trusted
port. If the received packet is a DHCP ACK message, a dynamic DHCP
snooping entry is also added to the binding table.
■
If DHCP snooping is enabled globally, and also enabled on the VLAN where
the DHCP packet is received, but the port is not trusted, it is processed as
follows:
■
If the DHCP packet is a reply packet from a DHCP server (including
OFFER, ACK or NAK messages), the packet is dropped.
■
If the DHCP packet is from a client, such as a DECLINE or RELEASE
message, the switch forwards the packet only if the corresponding
entry is found in the binding table.
■
If the DHCP packet is from a client, such as a DISCOVER, REQUEST,
INFORM, DECLINE or RELEASE message, the packet is forwarded if MAC
address verification is disabled. However, if MAC address verification is
enabled, then the packet will only be forwarded if the client’s hardware
address stored in the DHCP packet is the same as the source MAC
address in the Ethernet header.
■
If the DHCP packet is not a recognizable type, it is dropped.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
DHCP Snooping
■
If a DHCP packet from a client passes the filtering criteria above, it will only
be forwarded to trusted ports in the same VLAN.
■
If a DHCP packet is from server is received on a trusted port, it will be
forwarded to both trusted and untrusted ports in the same VLAN.
■
If the DHCP snooping is globally disabled, all dynamic bindings are
removed from the binding table.
■
Additional considerations when the switch itself is a DHCP client – The port(s)
through which the switch submits a client request to the DHCP server must
be configured as trusted. Note that the switch will not add a dynamic entry
for itself to the binding table when it receives an ACK message from a DHCP
server. Also, when the switch sends out DHCP client packets for itself, no
filtering takes place. However, when the switch receives any messages from
a DHCP server, any packets received from untrusted ports are dropped.
DHCP Snooping Option 82
◆
DHCP provides a relay mechanism for sending information about its DHCP
clients or the relay agent itself to the DHCP server. Also known as DHCP Option
82, it allows compatible DHCP servers to use the information when assigning IP
addresses, or to set other services or policies for clients. It is also an effective
tool in preventing malicious network attacks from attached clients on DHCP
services, such as IP Spoofing, Client Identifier Spoofing, MAC Address Spoofing,
and Address Exhaustion.
◆
DHCP Snooping must be enabled for Option 82 information to be inserted into
request packets.
◆
When the DHCP Snooping Information Option 82 is enabled, the requesting
client (or an intermediate relay agent that has used the information fields to
describe itself ) can be identified in the DHCP request packets forwarded by the
switch and in reply packets sent back from the DHCP server. This information
may specify the MAC address or IP address of the requesting device (that is, the
switch in this context).
By default, the switch also fills in the Option 82 circuit-id field with information
indicating the local interface over which the switch received the DHCP client
request, including the port and VLAN ID. This allows DHCP client-server
exchange messages to be forwarded between the server and client without
having to flood them to the entire VLAN.
◆
If DHCP Snooping Information Option 82 is enabled on the switch, information
may be inserted into a DHCP request packet received over any VLAN
(depending on DHCP snooping filtering rules). The information inserted into
the relayed packets includes the circuit-id and remote-id, as well as the
gateway Internet address.
◆
When the switch receives DHCP packets from clients that already include DHCP
Option 82 information, the switch can be configured to set the action policy for
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
DHCP Snooping
these packets. The switch can either drop the DHCP packets, keep the existing
information, or replace it with the switch’s relay information.
DHCP Snooping Use the Security > DHCP Snooping (Configure Global) page to enable DHCP
Global Configuration Snooping globally on the switch, or to configure MAC Address Verification.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
General
◆
DHCP Snooping Status – Enables DHCP snooping globally. (Default: Disabled)
◆
DHCP Snooping MAC-Address Verification – Enables or disables MAC
address verification. If the source MAC address in the Ethernet header of the
packet is not same as the client's hardware address in the DHCP packet, the
packet is dropped. (Default: Enabled)
Information
◆
DHCP Snooping Information Option Status – Enables or disables DHCP
Option 82 information relay. (Default: Disabled)
◆
DHCP Snooping Information Option Sub-option Format – Enables or
disables use of sub-type and sub-length fields in circuit-ID (CID) and remote-ID
(RID) in Option 82 information. (Default: Enabled)
◆
DHCP Snooping Information Option Remote ID – Specifies the MAC address,
IP address, or arbitrary identifier of the requesting device (i.e., the switch in this
context).
◆
■
MAC Address – Inserts a MAC address in the remote ID sub-option for the
DHCP snooping agent (i.e., the MAC address of the switch’s CPU). This
attribute can be encoded in Hexadecimal or ASCII.
■
IP Address – Inserts an IP address in the remote ID sub-option for the
DHCP snooping agent (i.e., the IP address of the management interface).
This attribute can be encoded in Hexadecimal or ASCII.
■
string - An arbitrary string inserted into the remote identifier field.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
DHCP Snooping Information Option Policy – Specifies how to handle DHCP
client request packets which already contain Option 82 information.
■
Drop – Drops the client’s request packet instead of relaying it.
■
Keep – Retains the Option 82 information in the client request, and
forwards the packets to trusted ports.
■
Replace – Replaces the Option 82 information circuit-id and remote-id
fields in the client’s request with information about the relay agent itself,
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
DHCP Snooping
inserts the relay agent’s address (when DHCP snooping is enabled), and
forwards the packets to trusted ports. (This is the default policy.)
Web Interface
To configure global settings for DHCP Snooping:
1. Click Security, DHCP Snooping.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Select the required options for the general DHCP snooping process and for the
DHCP snooping information option.
4. Click Apply
Figure 191: Configuring Global Settings for DHCP Snooping
DHCP Snooping Use the Security > DHCP Snooping (Configure VLAN) page to enable or disable
VLAN Configuration DHCP snooping on specific VLANs.
Command Usage
◆ When DHCP snooping is enabled globally on the switch, and enabled on the
specified VLAN, DHCP packet filtering will be performed on any untrusted ports
within the VLAN.
◆
When the DHCP snooping is globally disabled, DHCP snooping can still be
configured for specific VLANs, but the changes will not take effect until DHCP
snooping is globally re-enabled.
◆
When DHCP snooping is globally enabled, and DHCP snooping is then disabled
on a VLAN, all dynamic bindings learned for this VLAN are removed from the
binding table.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
DHCP Snooping
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
VLAN – ID of a configured VLAN. (Range: 1-4094)
◆
DHCP Snooping Status – Enables or disables DHCP snooping for the selected
VLAN. When DHCP snooping is enabled globally on the switch, and enabled on
the specified VLAN, DHCP packet filtering will be performed on any untrusted
ports within the VLAN. (Default: Disabled)
Web Interface
To configure global settings for DHCP Snooping:
1. Click Security, DHCP Snooping.
2. Select Configure VLAN from the Step list.
3. Enable DHCP Snooping on any existing VLAN.
4. Click Apply
Figure 192: Configuring DHCP Snooping on a VLAN
Configuring Ports Use the Security > DHCP Snooping (Configure Interface) page to configure switch
for DHCP Snooping ports as trusted or untrusted.
Command Usage
◆ A trusted interface is an interface that is configured to receive only messages
from within the network. An untrusted interface is an interface that is
configured to receive messages from outside the network or fire wall.
◆
When DHCP snooping is enabled both globally and on a VLAN, DHCP packet
filtering will be performed on any untrusted ports within the VLAN.
◆
When an untrusted port is changed to a trusted port, all the dynamic DHCP
snooping bindings associated with this port are removed.
◆
Set all ports connected to DHCP servers within the local network or fire wall to
trusted state. Set all other ports outside the local network or fire wall to
untrusted state.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
DHCP Snooping
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Trust Status – Enables or disables a port as trusted. (Default: Disabled)
◆
Max Number – The maximum number of DHCP clients which can be
supported per interface. (Range: 1-32; Default: 16)
◆
Circuit ID – Specifies DHCP Option 82 circuit ID suboption information.
■
Mode – Specifies the default string “VLAN-Unit-Port” or an arbitrary string.
(Default: VLAN-Unit-Port)
■
Value – An arbitrary string inserted into the circuit identifier field.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
Web Interface
To configure global settings for DHCP Snooping:
1. Click Security, DHCP Snooping.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Display the list of ports or trunks.
4. Configure the trust status, maximum number of supported clients, and the
circuit identifier.
5. Click Apply
Figure 193: Configuring the Port Mode for DHCP Snooping
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
DHCP Snooping
Displaying DHCP Use the Security > DHCP Snooping (Show Information) page to display entries in
Snooping Binding the binding table.
Information
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
MAC Address – Physical address associated with the entry.
◆
IP Address – IP address corresponding to the client.
◆
Lease Time – The time for which this IP address is leased to the client.
◆
Type – Entry types include:
■
DHCP-Snooping – Dynamically snooped.
■
Static-DHCPSNP – Statically configured.
◆
VLAN – VLAN to which this entry is bound.
◆
Interface – Port or trunk to which this entry is bound.
◆
Store – Writes all dynamically learned snooping entries to flash memory. This
function can be used to store the currently learned dynamic DHCP snooping
entries to flash memory. These entries will be restored to the snooping table
when the switch is reset. However, note that the lease time shown for a
dynamic entry that has been restored from flash memory will no longer be
valid.
◆
Clear – Removes all dynamically learned snooping entries from flash memory.
Web Interface
To display the binding table for DHCP Snooping:
1. Click Security, DHCP Snooping.
2. Select Show Information from the Step list.
3. Use the Store or Clear function if required.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
DoS Protection
Figure 194: Displaying the Binding Table for DHCP Snooping
DoS Protection
Use the Security > DoS Protection page to protect against denial-of-service (DoS)
attacks. A DoS attack is an attempt to block the services provided by a computer or
network resource. This kind of attack tries to prevent an Internet site or service from
functioning efficiently or at all. In general, DoS attacks are implemented by either
forcing the target to reset, to consume most of its resources so that it can no longer
provide its intended service, or to obstruct the communication media between the
intended users and the target so that they can no longer communicate adequately.
This section describes how to protect against DoS attacks.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Smurf Attack – Attacks in which a perpetrator generates a large amount of
spoofed ICMP Echo Request traffic to the broadcast destination IP address
(255.255.255.255), all of which uses a spoofed source address of the intended
victim. The victim should crash due to the many interrupts required to send
ICMP Echo response packets. (Default: Disabled)
◆
TCP Null Scan – A TCP NULL scan message is used to identify listening TCP
ports. The scan uses a series of strangely configured TCP packets which contain
a sequence number of 0 and no flags. If the target's TCP port is closed, the
target replies with a TCP RST (reset) packet. If the target TCP port is open, it
simply discards the TCP NULL scan. (Default: Disabled)
◆
TCP-SYN/FIN Scan – A TCP SYN/FIN scan message is used to identify listening
TCP ports. The scan uses a series of strangely configured TCP packets which
contain SYN (synchronize) and FIN (finish) flags. If the target's TCP port is
closed, the target replies with a TCP RST (reset) packet. If the target TCP port is
open, it simply discards the TCP SYN FIN scan. (Default: Disabled)
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
IPv4 Source Guard
◆
TCP Xmas Scan – A so-called TCP XMAS scan message is used to identify
listening TCP ports. This scan uses a series of strangely configured TCP packets
which contain a sequence number of 0 and the URG, PSH and FIN flags. If the
target's TCP port is closed, the target replies with a TCP RST packet. If the target
TCP port is open, it simply discards the TCP XMAS scan. (Default: Disabled)
Web Interface
To protect against DoS attacks:
1. Click Security, DoS Protection.
2. Enable protection for specific DoS attacks, and set the maximum allowed rate
as required.
3. Click Apply
Figure 195: Protecting Against DoS Attacks
IPv4 Source Guard
IPv4 Source Guard is a security feature that filters IP traffic on network interfaces
based on manually configured entries in the IP Source Guard table, or dynamic
entries in the DHCP Snooping table when enabled (see “DHCP Snooping” on
page 299). IP source guard can be used to prevent traffic attacks caused when a
host tries to use the IPv4 address of a neighbor to access the network. This section
describes how to configure IPv4 Source Guard.
Configuring Ports Use the Security > IP Source Guard > General page to set the filtering type based on
for IPv4 Source Guard source IP address, or source IP address and MAC address pairs. It also specifies
lookup within the ACL binding table or the MAC address binding table, as well as
the maximum number of allowed binding entries for the lookup tables.
IP Source Guard is used to filter traffic on an insecure port which receives messages
from outside the network or fire wall, and therefore may be subject to traffic attacks
caused by a host trying to use the IP address of a neighbor.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
IPv4 Source Guard
Command Usage
Filter Type
◆
Setting source guard mode to SIP (Source IP) or SIP-MAC (Source IP and MAC)
enables this function on the selected port. Use the SIP option to check the
VLAN ID, source IP address, and port number against all entries in the binding
table. Use the SIP-MAC option to check these same parameters, plus the source
MAC address. If no matching entry is found, the packet is dropped.
Note: Multicast addresses cannot be used by IP Source Guard.
◆
When enabled, traffic is filtered based upon dynamic entries learned via DHCP
snooping (see “DHCP Snooping” on page 299), or static addresses configured in
the source guard binding table.
◆
If IP source guard is enabled, an inbound packet’s IP address (SIP option) or
both its IP address and corresponding MAC address (SIP-MAC option) will be
checked against the binding table. If no matching entry is found, the packet
will be dropped.
◆
An entry with same MAC address and a different VLAN ID cannot be added to
the binding table.
◆
Filtering rules are implemented as follows:
■
If DHCP snooping is disabled (see page 302), IP source guard will check the
VLAN ID, source IP address, port number, and source MAC address (for the
SIP-MAC option). If a matching entry is found in the binding table and the
entry type is static IP source guard binding, the packet will be forwarded.
■
If DHCP snooping is enabled, IP source guard will check the VLAN ID, source
IP address, port number, and source MAC address (for the SIP-MAC option).
If a matching entry is found in the binding table and the entry type is static
IP source guard binding, or dynamic DHCP snooping binding, the packet
will be forwarded.
■
If IP source guard is enabled on an interface for which IP source bindings
have not yet been configured (neither by static configuration in the IP
source guard binding table nor dynamically learned from DHCP snooping),
the switch will drop all IP traffic on that port, except for DHCP packets
allowed by DHCP snooping.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Filter Type – Configures the switch to filter inbound traffic based source IP
address, or source IP address and corresponding MAC address. (Default: None)
■
Disabled – Disables IP source guard filtering on the port.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
IPv4 Source Guard
■
SIP – Enables traffic filtering based on IP addresses stored in the binding
table.
■
SIP-MAC – Enables traffic filtering based on IP addresses and
corresponding MAC addresses stored in the binding table.
◆
Filter Table – Sets the source guard learning model to search for addresses in
the ACL binding table or the MAC address binding table. (Default: ACL binding
table)
◆
Max Binding Entry – The maximum number of entries that can be bound to an
interface. (ACL Table: 1-5, Default: 5; MAC Table: 1-32, Default: 16)
This parameter sets the maximum number of address entries that can be
mapped to an interface in the binding table, including both dynamic entries
discovered by DHCP snooping (see “DHCP Snooping” on page 299) and static
entries set by IP source guard (see “Configuring Static Bindings for IPv4 Source
Guard” on page 311).
Web Interface
To set the IP Source Guard filter for ports:
1. Click Security, IP Source Guard, General.
2. Set the required filtering type, set the table type to use ACL or MAC address
binding, and then set the maximum binding entries for each port.
3. Click Apply.
Figure 196: Setting the Filter Type for IPv4 Source Guard
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
IPv4 Source Guard
Configuring Use the Security > IP Source Guard > Static Binding (Configure ACL Table and
Static Bindings Configure MAC Table) pages to bind a static address to a port. Table entries include
for IPv4 Source Guard a MAC address, IP address, lease time, entry type (Static, Dynamic), VLAN identifier,
and port identifier. All static entries are configured with an infinite lease time,
which is indicated with a value of zero in the table.
Command Usage
◆ Table entries include a MAC address, IP address, lease time, entry type (Static-IPSG-Binding, Dynamic-DHCP-Binding), VLAN identifier, and port identifier.
◆
Static addresses entered in the source guard binding table are automatically
configured with an infinite lease time.
◆
When source guard is enabled, traffic is filtered based upon dynamic entries
learned via DHCP snooping, or static addresses configured in the source guard
binding table.
◆
An entry with same MAC address and a different VLAN ID cannot be added to
the binding table.
◆
Static bindings are processed as follows:
■
■
■
A valid static IP source guard entry will be added to the binding table in
ACL mode if one of the following conditions is true:
■
If there is no entry with the same VLAN ID and MAC address, a new
entry is added to the binding table using the type “static IP source
guard binding.”
■
If there is an entry with the same VLAN ID and MAC address, and the
type of entry is static IP source guard binding, then the new entry will
replace the old one.
■
If there is an entry with the same VLAN ID and MAC address, and the
type of the entry is dynamic DHCP snooping binding, then the new
entry will replace the old one and the entry type will be changed to
static IP source guard binding.
A valid static IP source guard entry will be added to the binding table in
MAC mode if one of the following conditions are true:
■
If there is no binding entry with the same IP address and MAC address,
a new entry will be added to the binding table using the type of static
IP source guard binding entry.
■
If there is a binding entry with same IP address and MAC address, then
the new entry shall replace the old one.
Only unicast addresses are accepted for static bindings.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
IPv4 Source Guard
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Add – Configure ACL Table
◆
Port – The port to which a static entry is bound.
◆
VLAN – ID of a configured VLAN (Range: 1-4094)
◆
MAC Address – A valid unicast MAC address.
◆
IP Address – A valid unicast IP address, including classful types A, B or C.
Add – Configure MAC Table
◆
MAC Address – A valid unicast MAC address.
◆
VLAN – ID of a configured VLAN or a range of VLANs. (Range: 1-4094)
◆
IP Address – A valid unicast IP address, including classful types A, B or C.
◆
Port – The port to which a static entry is bound. Specify a physical port number
or list of port numbers. Separate nonconsecutive port numbers with a comma
and no spaces; or use a hyphen to designate a range of port numbers.
(Range: 1-10/28)
Show
◆
MAC Address – Physical address associated with the entry.
◆
IP Address – IP address corresponding to the client.
◆
VLAN – VLAN to which this entry is bound.
◆
Interface – The port to which this entry is bound.
Web Interface
To configure static bindings for IP Source Guard:
1. Click Security, IP Source Guard, Static Binding.
2. Select Configure ACL Table or Configure MAC Table from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Enter the required bindings for each port.
5. Click Apply
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
IPv4 Source Guard
Figure 197: Configuring Static Bindings for IPv4 Source Guard
To display static bindings for IP Source Guard:
1. Click Security, IP Source Guard, Static Binding.
2. Select Configure ACL Table or Configure MAC Table from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 198: Configuring Static Bindings for IPv4 Source Guard
Displaying Use the Security > IP Source Guard > Dynamic Binding page to display the sourceInformation for guard binding table for a selected interface.
Dynamic IPv4 Source
Guard Bindings Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Query by
◆
Port – A port on this switch. (Range: 1-10/28)
◆
VLAN – ID of a configured VLAN (Range: 1-4094)
◆
MAC Address – A valid unicast MAC address.
◆
IP Address – A valid unicast IP address, including classful types A, B or C.
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Chapter 12 | Security Measures
IPv4 Source Guard
Dynamic Binding List
◆
VLAN – VLAN to which this entry is bound.
◆
MAC Address – Physical address associated with the entry.
◆
Interface – Port to which this entry is bound.
◆
IP Address – IP address corresponding to the client.
◆
Type – Entry types include DHCP-Snooping or BOOTP-Snooping.
Web Interface
To display the binding table for IP Source Guard:
1. Click Security, IP Source Guard, Dynamic Binding.
2. Mark the search criteria, and enter the required values.
3. Click Query
Figure 199: Showing the IPv4 Source Guard Binding Table
– 314 –
13
Basic Administration Protocols
This chapter describes basic administration tasks including:
◆
Event Logging – Sets conditions for logging event messages to system memory
or flash memory, configures conditions for sending trap messages to remote
log servers, and configures trap reporting to remote hosts using Simple Mail
Transfer Protocol (SMTP).
◆
Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) – Configures advertisement of basic
information about the local switch, or discovery of information about
neighboring devices on the local broadcast domain.
◆
Power over Ethernet7 – Sets the priority and power budget for each port.
◆
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) – Configures switch
management through SNMPv1, SNMPv2c or SNMPv3.
◆
Remote Monitoring (RMON) – Configures local collection of detailed statistics
or events which can be subsequently retrieved through SNMP.
◆
Time Range – Sets a time range during which various functions are applied,
including applied ACLs or PoE
◆
Loopback Detection (LBD) – Detects general loopback conditions caused by
hardware problems or faulty protocol settings.
7. GEP-1061
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Configuring Event Logging
Configuring Event Logging
The switch allows you to control the logging of error messages, including the type
of events that are recorded in switch memory, logging to a remote System Log
(syslog) server, and displays a list of recent event messages.
System Log Use the Administration > Log > System (Configure Global) page to enable or
Configuration disable event logging, and specify which levels are logged to RAM or flash memory.
Severe error messages that are logged to flash memory are permanently stored in
the switch to assist in troubleshooting network problems. Up to 4096 log entries
can be stored in the flash memory, with the oldest entries being overwritten first
when the available log memory (256 kilobytes) has been exceeded.
The System Logs page allows you to configure and limit system messages that are
logged to flash or RAM memory. The default is for event levels 0 to 3 to be logged
to flash and levels 0 to 7 to be logged to RAM.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
System Log Status – Enables/disables the logging of debug or error messages
to the logging process. (Default: Enabled)
◆
Flash Level – Limits log messages saved to the switch’s permanent flash
memory for all levels up to the specified level. For example, if level 3 is
specified, all messages from level 0 to level 3 will be logged to flash.
(Range: 0-7, Default: 3)
Table 20: Logging Levels
Level
Severity Name
Description
7*
Debug
Debugging messages
6
Informational
Informational messages only
5
Notice
Normal but significant condition, such as cold start
4
Warning
Warning conditions (e.g., return false, unexpected
return)
3
Error
Error conditions (e.g., invalid input, default used)
2
Critical
Critical conditions (e.g., memory allocation, or free
memory error - resource exhausted)
1
Alert
Immediate action needed
0
Emergency
System unusable
* There are only Level 2, 5 and 6 error messages for the current firmware release.
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Configuring Event Logging
◆
RAM Level – Limits log messages saved to the switch’s temporary RAM
memory for all levels up to the specified level. For example, if level 7 is
specified, all messages from level 0 to level 7 will be logged to RAM.
(Range: 0-7, Default: 7)
Note: The Flash Level must be equal to or less than the RAM Level.
Note: All log messages are retained in RAM and Flash after a warm restart (i.e.,
power is reset through the command interface).
Note: All log messages are retained in Flash and purged from RAM after a cold
restart (i.e., power is turned off and then on through the power source).
◆
Command Log Status – Records the commands executed from the CLI,
including the execution time and information about the CLI user including the
user name, user interface (console port, telnet or SSH), and user IP address. The
severity level for this record type is 6 (a number that indicates the facility used
by the syslog server to dispatch log messages to an appropriate service).
Web Interface
To configure the logging of error messages to system memory:
1. Click Administration, Log, System.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Enable or disable system logging, set the level of event messages to be logged
to flash memory and RAM.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 200: Configuring Settings for System Memory Logs
To show the error messages logged to system or flash memory:
1. Click Administration, Log, System.
2. Select Show System Logs from the Step list.
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Configuring Event Logging
3. Click RAM to display log messages stored in system memory, or Flash to display
messages stored in flash memory.
This page allows you to scroll through the logged system and event messages.
The switch can store up to 2048 log entries in temporary random access
memory (RAM; i.e., memory flushed on power reset) and up to 4096 entries in
permanent flash memory.
Figure 201: Showing Error Messages Logged to System Memory
Remote Log Use the Administration > Log > Remote page to send log messages to syslog
Configuration servers or other management stations. You can also limit the event messages sent
to only those messages below a specified level.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Remote Log Status – Enables/disables the logging of debug or error messages
to the remote logging process. (Default: Disabled)
◆
Logging Facility – Sets the facility type for remote logging of syslog messages.
There are eight facility types specified by values of 16 to 23. The facility type is
used by the syslog server to dispatch log messages to an appropriate service.
The attribute specifies the facility type tag sent in syslog messages (see
RFC 3164). This type has no effect on the kind of messages reported by the
switch. However, it may be used by the syslog server to process messages, such
as sorting or storing messages in the corresponding database. (Range: 16-23,
Default: 23)
◆
Logging Trap Level – Limits log messages that are sent to the remote syslog
server for all levels up to the specified level. For example, if level 3 is specified,
all messages from level 0 to level 3 will be sent to the remote server.
(Range: 0-7, Default: 7)
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Configuring Event Logging
◆
Server IP Address – Specifies the IPv4 or IPv6 address of a remote server which
will be sent syslog messages.
◆
Port - Specifies the UDP port number used by the remote server.
(Range: 1-65535; Default: 514)
Web Interface
To configure the logging of error messages to remote servers:
1. Click Administration, Log, Remote.
2. Enable remote logging, specify the facility type to use for the syslog messages.
and enter the IP address of the remote servers.
3. Click Apply.
Figure 202: Configuring Settings for Remote Logging of Error Messages
Sending Simple Mail Use the Administration > Log > SMTP page to alert system administrators of
Transfer Protocol problems by sending SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) email messages when
Alerts triggered by logging events of a specified level. The messages are sent to specified
SMTP servers on the network and can be retrieved using POP or IMAP clients.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
SMTP Status – Enables/disables the SMTP function. (Default: Enabled)
◆
Severity – Sets the syslog severity threshold level (see table on page 316) used
to trigger alert messages. All events at this level or higher will be sent to the
configured email recipients. For example, using Level 7 will report all events
from level 7 to level 0. (Default: Level 7)
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Configuring Event Logging
◆
Email Source Address – Sets the email address used for the “From” field in
alert messages. You may use a symbolic email address that identifies the
switch, or the address of an administrator responsible for the switch.
(Range: 1-41 characters)
◆
Email Destination Address – Specifies the email recipients of alert messages.
You can specify up to five recipients.
◆
Server IP Address – Specifies a list of up to three recipient SMTP servers. IPv4
or IPv6 addresses may be specified. The switch attempts to connect to the
listed servers in sequential order if the first server fails to respond.
Web Interface
To configure SMTP alert messages:
1. Click Administration, Log, SMTP.
2. Enable SMTP, specify a source email address, and select the minimum severity
level. Specify the source and destination email addresses, and one or more
SMTP servers.
3. Click Apply.
Figure 203: Configuring SMTP Alert Messages
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) is used to discover basic information about
neighboring devices on the local broadcast domain. LLDP is a Layer 2 protocol that
uses periodic broadcasts to advertise information about the sending device.
Advertised information is represented in Type Length Value (TLV) format according
to the IEEE 802.1AB standard, and can include details such as device identification,
capabilities and configuration settings. LLDP also defines how to store and
maintain information gathered about the neighboring network nodes it discovers.
Link Layer Discovery Protocol - Media Endpoint Discovery (LLDP-MED) is an
extension of LLDP intended for managing endpoint devices such as Voice over IP
phones and network switches. The LLDP-MED TLVs advertise information such as
network policy, power, inventory, and device location details. LLDP and LLDP-MED
information can be used by SNMP applications to simplify troubleshooting,
enhance network management, and maintain an accurate network topology.
Setting LLDP Use the Administration > LLDP (Configure Global) page to set attributes for general
Timing Attributes functions such as globally enabling LLDP on the switch, setting the message
ageout time, and setting the frequency for broadcasting general advertisements or
reports about changes in the LLDP MIB.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
LLDP – Enables LLDP globally on the switch. (Default: Enabled)
◆
Transmission Interval – Configures the periodic transmit interval for LLDP
advertisements. (Range: 5-32768 seconds; Default: 30 seconds)
◆
Hold Time Multiplier – Configures the time-to-live (TTL) value sent in LLDP
advertisements as shown in the formula below. (Range: 2-10; Default: 4)
The time-to-live tells the receiving LLDP agent how long to retain all
information pertaining to the sending LLDP agent if it does not transmit
updates in a timely manner.
TTL in seconds is based on the following rule:
minimum value ((Transmission Interval * Holdtime Multiplier), or 65535)
Therefore, the default TTL is 4*30 = 120 seconds.
◆
Delay Interval – Configures a delay between the successive transmission of
advertisements initiated by a change in local LLDP MIB variables.
(Range: 1-8192 seconds; Default: 2 seconds)
The transmit delay is used to prevent a series of successive LLDP transmissions
during a short period of rapid changes in local LLDP MIB objects, and to
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Link Layer Discovery Protocol
increase the probability that multiple, rather than single changes, are reported
in each transmission.
This attribute must comply with the rule:
(4 * Delay Interval) ≤ Transmission Interval
◆
Reinitialization Delay – Configures the delay before attempting to re-initialize
after LLDP ports are disabled or the link goes down. (Range: 1-10 seconds;
Default: 2 seconds)
When LLDP is re-initialized on a port, all information in the remote systems
LLDP MIB associated with this port is deleted.
◆
Notification Interval – Configures the allowed interval for sending SNMP
notifications about LLDP MIB changes. (Range: 5-3600 seconds;
Default: 5 seconds)
This parameter only applies to SNMP applications which use data stored in the
LLDP MIB for network monitoring or management.
Information about changes in LLDP neighbors that occur between SNMP
notifications is not transmitted. Only state changes that exist at the time of a
notification are included in the transmission. An SNMP agent should therefore
periodically check the value of lldpStatsRemTableLastChangeTime to detect
any lldpRemTablesChange notification-events missed due to throttling or
transmission loss.
◆
MED Fast Start Count – Configures the amount of LLDP MED Fast Start
LLDPDUs to transmit during the activation process of the LLDP-MED Fast Start
mechanism. (Range: 1-10 packets; Default: 4 packets)
The MED Fast Start Count parameter is part of the timer which ensures that the
LLDP-MED Fast Start mechanism is active for the port. LLDP-MED Fast Start is
critical to the timely startup of LLDP, and therefore integral to the rapid
availability of Emergency Call Service.
Web Interface
To configure LLDP timing attributes:
1. Click Administration, LLDP.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Enable LLDP, and modify any of the timing parameters as required.
4. Click Apply.
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
Figure 204: Configuring LLDP Timing Attributes
Configuring LLDP Use the Administration > LLDP (Configure Interface - Configure General) page to
Interface Attributes specify the message attributes for individual interfaces, including whether
messages are transmitted, received, or both transmitted and received, whether
SNMP notifications are sent, and the type of information advertised.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Admin Status – Enables LLDP message transmit and receive modes for LLDP
Protocol Data Units. (Options: Tx only, Rx only, TxRx, Disabled; Default: TxRx)
◆
SNMP Notification – Enables the transmission of SNMP trap notifications
about LLDP and LLDP-MED changes. (Default: Enabled)
This option sends out SNMP trap notifications to designated target stations at
the interval specified by the Notification Interval in the preceding section. Trap
notifications include information about state changes in the LLDP MIB
(IEEE 802.1AB), the LLDP-MED MIB (ANSI/TIA-1057), or vendor-specific LLDPEXT-DOT1 and LLDP-EXT-DOT3 MIBs.
For information on defining SNMP trap destinations, see “Specifying
Trap Managers” on page 368.
Information about additional changes in LLDP neighbors that occur between
SNMP notifications is not transmitted. Only state changes that exist at the time
of a trap notification are included in the transmission. An SNMP agent should
therefore periodically check the value of lldpStatsRemTableLastChangeTime to
detect any lldpRemTablesChange notification-events missed due to throttling
or transmission loss.
◆
MED Notification – Enables the transmission of SNMP trap notifications about
LLDP-MED changes. (Default: Disabled)
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
◆
Basic Optional TLVs – Configures basic information included in the TLV field of
advertised messages.
■
Management Address – The management address protocol packet
includes the IPv4 address of the switch. If no management address is
available, the address should be the MAC address for the CPU or for the
port sending this advertisement. (Default: Enabled)
The management address TLV may also include information about the
specific interface associated with this address, and an object identifier
indicating the type of hardware component or protocol entity associated
with this address. The interface number and OID are included to assist
SNMP applications in the performance of network discovery by indicating
enterprise specific or other starting points for the search, such as the
Interface or Entity MIB.
Since there are typically a number of different addresses associated with a
Layer 3 device, an individual LLDP PDU may contain more than one
management address TLV.
Every management address TLV that reports an address that is accessible
on a port and protocol VLAN through the particular port should be
accompanied by a port and protocol VLAN TLV that indicates the VLAN
identifier (VID) associated with the management address reported by this
TLV.
◆
■
Port Description – The port description is taken from the ifDescr object in
RFC 2863, which includes information about the manufacturer, the product
name, and the version of the interface hardware/software.
(Default: Enabled)
■
System Capabilities – The system capabilities identifies the primary
function(s) of the system and whether or not these primary functions are
enabled. The information advertised by this TLV is described in
IEEE 802.1AB. (Default: Enabled)
■
System Description – The system description is taken from the sysDescr
object in RFC 3418, which includes the full name and version identification
of the system's hardware type, software operating system, and networking
software. (Default: Enabled)
■
System Name – The system name is taken from the sysName object in
RFC 3418, which contains the system’s administratively assigned name. To
configure the system name, see “Displaying System Information” on
page 62. (Default: Enabled)
802.1 Organizationally Specific TLVs – Configures IEEE 802.1 information
included in the TLV field of advertised messages.
■
Protocol Identity – The protocols that are accessible through this interface
(see “Protocol VLANs” on page 148). (Default: Enabled)
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
◆
◆
■
VLAN ID – The port’s default VLAN identifier (PVID) indicates the VLAN with
which untagged or priority-tagged frames are associated (see “IEEE 802.1Q
VLANs” on page 139). (Default: Enabled)
■
VLAN Name – The name of all VLANs to which this interface has been
assigned (see “IEEE 802.1Q VLANs” on page 139. (Default: Enabled)
■
Port and Protocol VLAN ID – The port-based protocol VLANs configured
on this interface (see “Protocol VLANs” on page 148). (Default: Enabled)
802.3 Organizationally Specific TLVs – Configures IEEE 802.3 information
included in the TLV field of advertised messages.
■
Link Aggregation – The link aggregation capabilities, aggregation status
of the link, and the IEEE 802.3 aggregated port identifier if this interface is
currently a link aggregation member. (Default: Enabled)
■
Max Frame Size – The maximum frame size. (See “Configuring Support for
Jumbo Frames” on page 64 for information on configuring the maximum
frame size for this switch. (Default: Enabled)
■
MAC/PHY Configuration/Status – The MAC/PHY configuration and status
which includes information about auto-negotiation support/capabilities,
and operational Multistation Access Unit (MAU) type. (Default: Enabled)
■
PoE8 – Power-over-Ethernet capabilities, including whether or not PoE is
supported, currently enabled, if the port pins through which power is
delivered can be controlled, the port pins selected to deliver power, and
the power class. (Default: Enabled)
MED TLVs – Configures general information included in the MED TLV field of
advertised messages.
■
Capabilities – This option advertises LLDP-MED TLV capabilities, allowing
Media Endpoint and Connectivity Devices to efficiently discover which
LLDP-MED related TLVs are supported on the switch. (Default: Enabled)
■
Extended Power8 – This option advertises extended Power-over-Ethernet
capability details, such as power availability from the switch, and power
state of the switch, including whether the switch is operating from primary
or backup power (the Endpoint Device could use this information to decide
to enter power conservation mode). (Default: Enabled)
■
Inventory – This option advertises device details useful for inventory
management, such as manufacturer, model, software version and other
pertinent information. (Default: Enabled)
■
Location – This option advertises location identification details.
(Default: Enabled)
8. GEP-1061
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
■
◆
Network Policy – This option advertises network policy configuration
information, aiding in the discovery and diagnosis of VLAN configuration
mismatches on a port. Improper network policy configurations frequently
result in voice quality degradation or complete service disruption.
(Default: Enabled)
MED-Location Civic Address – Configures information for the location of the
attached device included in the MED TLV field of advertised messages,
including the country and the device type.
■
Country – The two-letter ISO 3166 country code in capital ASCII letters.
(Example: DK, DE or US)
■
Device entry refers to – The type of device to which the location applies:
■
Location of DHCP server.
■
Location of network element closest to client.
■
Location of client. (This is the default.)
Web Interface
To configure LLDP interface attributes:
1. Click Administration, LLDP.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Configure General from the Action list.
4. Select an interface from the Port or Trunk list.
5. Set the LLDP transmit/receive mode, specify whether or not to send SNMP trap
messages, and select the information to advertise in LLDP messages.
6. Click Apply.
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
Figure 205: Configuring LLDP Interface Attributes
Configuring Use the Administration > LLDP (Configure Interface – Add CA-Type) page to specify
LLDP Interface the physical location of the device attached to an interface.
Civic-Address
Command Usage
◆ Use the Civic Address type (CA-Type) to advertise the physical location of the
device attached to an interface, including items such as the city, street number,
building and room information. The address location is specified as a type and
value pair, with the civic address type defined in RFC 4776. The following table
describes some of the CA type numbers and provides examples.
Table 21: LLDP MED Location CA Types
CA Type
Description
CA Value Example
1
National subdivisions (state, canton, province)
California
2
County, parish
Orange
3
City, township
Irvine
4
City division, borough, city district
West Irvine
5
Neighborhood, block
Riverside
6
Group of streets below the neighborhood level
Exchange
18
Street suffix or type
Avenue
19
House number
320
20
House number suffix
A
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
Table 21: LLDP MED Location CA Types (Continued)
◆
CA Type
Description
CA Value Example
21
Landmark or vanity address
Tech Center
26
Unit (apartment, suite)
Apt 519
27
Floor
5
28
Room
509B
Any number of CA type and value pairs can be specified for the civic address
location, as long as the total does not exceed 250 characters.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
CA-Type – Descriptor of the data civic address value. (Range: 0-255)
◆
CA-Value – Description of a location. (Range: 1-32 characters)
Web Interface
To specify the physical location of the attached device:
1. Click Administration, LLDP.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Add CA-Type from the Action list.
4. Select an interface from the Port or Trunk list.
5. Specify a CA-Type and CA-Value pair.
6. Click Apply.
Figure 206: Configuring the Civic Address for an LLDP Interface
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
To show the physical location of the attached device:
1. Click Administration, LLDP.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Show CA-Type from the Action list.
4. Select an interface from the Port or Trunk list.
Figure 207: Showing the Civic Address for an LLDP Interface
Displaying LLDP Use the Administration > LLDP (Show Local Device Information) page to display
Local Device information about the switch, such as its MAC address, chassis ID, management IP
Information address, and port information.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
General Settings
◆
Chassis Type – Identifies the chassis containing the IEEE 802 LAN entity
associated with the transmitting LLDP agent. There are several ways in which a
chassis may be identified and a chassis ID subtype is used to indicate the type
of component being referenced by the chassis ID field.
Table 22: Chassis ID Subtype
ID Basis
Reference
Chassis component
EntPhysicalAlias when entPhysClass has a value of ‘chassis(3)’ (IETF
RFC 2737)
Interface alias
IfAlias (IETF RFC 2863)
Port component
EntPhysicalAlias when entPhysicalClass has a value ‘port(10)’ or
‘backplane(4)’ (IETF RFC 2737)
MAC address
MAC address (IEEE Std 802-2001)
Network address
networkAddress
Interface name
ifName (IETF RFC 2863)
Locally assigned
locally assigned
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
◆
Chassis ID – An octet string indicating the specific identifier for the particular
chassis in this system.
◆
System Name – A string that indicates the system’s administratively assigned
name (see “Displaying System Information” on page 62).
◆
System Description – A textual description of the network entity. This field is
also displayed by the show system command.
◆
System Capabilities Supported – The capabilities that define the primary
function(s) of the system.
Table 23: System Capabilities
ID Basis
Reference
Other
—
Repeater
IETF RFC 2108
Bridge
IETF RFC 2674
WLAN Access Point
IEEE 802.11 MIB
Router
IETF RFC 1812
Telephone
IETF RFC 2011
DOCSIS cable device
IETF RFC 2669 and IETF RFC 2670
End Station Only
IETF RFC 2011
◆
System Capabilities Enabled – The primary function(s) of the system which
are currently enabled. Refer to the preceding table.
◆
Management Address – The management address associated with the local
system. If no management address is available, the address should be the MAC
address for the CPU or for the port sending this advertisement.
Interface Settings
The attributes listed below apply to both port and trunk interface types. When a
trunk is listed, the descriptions apply to the first port of the trunk.
◆
Port/Trunk Description – A string that indicates the port or trunk description.
If RFC 2863 is implemented, the ifDescr object should be used for this field.
◆
Port/Trunk ID – A string that contains the specific identifier for the port or
trunk from which this LLDPDU was transmitted.
Interface Details
The attributes listed below apply to both port and trunk interface types. When a
trunk is listed, the descriptions apply to the first port of the trunk.
◆
Local Port/Trunk – Local interface on this switch.
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
◆
Port/Trunk ID Type – There are several ways in which a port may be identified.
A port ID subtype is used to indicate how the port is being referenced in the
Port ID TLV.
Table 24: Port ID Subtype
ID Basis
Reference
Interface alias
IfAlias (IETF RFC 2863)
Chassis component
EntPhysicalAlias when entPhysClass has a value of ‘chassis(3)’ (IETF
RFC 2737)
Port component
EntPhysicalAlias when entPhysicalClass has a value ‘port(10)’ or
‘backplane(4)’ (IETF RFC 2737)
MAC address
MAC address (IEEE Std 802-2001)
Network address
networkAddress
Interface name
ifName (IETF RFC 2863)
Agent circuit ID
agent circuit ID (IETF RFC 3046)
Locally assigned
locally assigned
◆
Port/Trunk ID – A string that contains the specific identifier for the local
interface based on interface subtype used by this switch.
◆
Port/Trunk Description – A string that indicates the port or trunk description.
If RFC 2863 is implemented, the ifDescr object should be used for this field.
◆
MED Capability – The supported set of capabilities that define the primary
function(s) of the interface:
■
LLDP-MED Capabilities
■
Network Policy
■
Location Identification
■
Extended Power via MDI – PSE
■
Extended Power via MDI – PD
■
Inventory
Web Interface
To display LLDP information for the local device:
1. Click Administration, LLDP.
2. Select Show Local Device Information from the Step list.
3. Select General, Port, Port Details, Trunk, or Trunk Details.
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
Figure 208: Displaying Local Device Information for LLDP (General)
Figure 209: Displaying Local Device Information for LLDP (Port)
Figure 210: Displaying Local Device Information for LLDP (Port Details)
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
Displaying LLDP Use the Administration > LLDP (Show Remote Device Information) page to display
Remote Device information about devices connected directly to the switch’s ports which are
Information advertising information through LLDP, or to display detailed information about an
LLDP-enabled device connected to a specific port on the local switch.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Port
◆
Local Port – The local port to which a remote LLDP-capable device is attached.
◆
Chassis ID – An octet string indicating the specific identifier for the particular
chassis in this system.
◆
Port ID – A string that contains the specific identifier for the port from which
this LLDPDU was transmitted.
◆
System Name – A string that indicates the system’s administratively assigned
name.
Port Details
◆
Port – Port identifier on local switch. (Range: 1-10/28)
◆
Remote Index – Index of remote device attached to this port.
◆
Local Port – The local port to which a remote LLDP-capable device is attached.
◆
Chassis Type – Identifies the chassis containing the IEEE 802 LAN entity
associated with the transmitting LLDP agent. There are several ways in which a
chassis may be identified and a chassis ID subtype is used to indicate the type
of component being referenced by the chassis ID field. (See Table 22, "Chassis
ID Subtype," on page 329.)
◆
Chassis ID – An octet string indicating the specific identifier for the particular
chassis in this system.
◆
System Name – A string that indicates the system’s assigned name.
◆
System Description – A textual description of the network entity.
◆
Port Type – Indicates the basis for the identifier that is listed in the Port ID field.
See Table 24, “Port ID Subtype,” on page 331.
◆
Port Description – A string that indicates the port’s description. If RFC 2863 is
implemented, the ifDescr object should be used for this field.
◆
Port ID – A string that contains the specific identifier for the port from which
this LLDPDU was transmitted.
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
◆
System Capabilities Supported – The capabilities that define the primary
function(s) of the system. (See Table 23, "System Capabilities," on page 330.)
◆
System Capabilities Enabled – The primary function(s) of the system which
are currently enabled. (See Table 23, "System Capabilities," on page 330.)
◆
Management Address List – The management addresses for this device. Since
there are typically a number of different addresses associated with a Layer 3
device, an individual LLDP PDU may contain more than one management
address TLV.
If no management address is available, the address should be the MAC address
for the CPU or for the port sending this advertisement.
Port Details – 802.1 Extension Information
◆
Remote Port VID – The port’s default VLAN identifier (PVID) indicates the VLAN
with which untagged or priority-tagged frames are associated.
◆
Remote Port-Protocol VLAN List – The port-based protocol VLANs configured
on this interface, whether the given port (associated with the remote system)
supports port-based protocol VLANs, and whether the port-based protocol
VLANs are enabled on the given port associated with the remote system.
◆
Remote VLAN Name List – VLAN names associated with a port.
◆
Remote Protocol Identity List – Information about particular protocols that
are accessible through a port. This object represents an arbitrary local integer
value used by this agent to identify a particular protocol identity, and an octet
string used to identify the protocols associated with a port of the remote
system.
Port Details – 802.3 Extension Port Information
◆
Remote Port Auto-Neg Supported – Shows whether the given port
(associated with remote system) supports auto-negotiation.
◆
Remote Port Auto-Neg Adv-Capability – The value (bitmap) of the
ifMauAutoNegCapAdvertisedBits object (defined in IETF RFC 3636) which is
associated with a port on the remote system.
Table 25: Remote Port Auto-Negotiation Advertised Capability
Bit
Capability
0
other or unknown
1
10BASE-T half duplex mode
2
10BASE-T full duplex mode
3
100BASE-T4
4
100BASE-TX half duplex mode
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Link Layer Discovery Protocol
Table 25: Remote Port Auto-Negotiation Advertised Capability (Continued)
Bit
Capability
5
100BASE-TX full duplex mode
6
100BASE-T2 half duplex mode
7
100BASE-T2 full duplex mode
8
PAUSE for full-duplex links
9
Asymmetric PAUSE for full-duplex links
10
Symmetric PAUSE for full-duplex links
11
Asymmetric and Symmetric PAUSE for full-duplex links
12
1000BASE-X, -LX, -SX, -CX half duplex mode
13
1000BASE-X, -LX, -SX, -CX full duplex mode
14
1000BASE-T half duplex mode
15
1000BASE-T full duplex mode
◆
Remote Port Auto-Neg Status – Shows whether port auto-negotiation is
enabled on a port associated with the remote system.
◆
Remote Port MAU Type – An integer value that indicates the operational MAU
type of the sending device. This object contains the integer value derived from
the list position of the corresponding dot3MauType as listed in IETF RFC 3636
and is equal to the last number in the respective dot3MauType OID.
Port Details – 802.3 Extension Power Information
◆
Remote Power Class – The port Class of the given port associated with the
remote system (PSE – Power Sourcing Equipment or PD – Powered Device).
◆
Remote Power MDI Status – Shows whether MDI power is enabled on the
given port associated with the remote system.
◆
Remote Power Pairs – “Signal” means that the signal pairs only are in use, and
“Spare” means that the spare pairs only are in use.
◆
Remote Power MDI Supported – Shows whether MDI power is supported on
the given port associated with the remote system.
◆
Remote Power Pair Controllable – Indicates whether the pair selection can be
controlled for sourcing power on the given port associated with the remote
system.
◆
Remote Power Classification – This classification is used to tag different
terminals on the Power over LAN network according to their power
consumption. Devices such as IP telephones, WLAN access points and others,
will be classified according to their power requirements.
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Port Details – 802.3 Extension Trunk Information
◆
Remote Link Aggregation Capable – Shows if the remote port is not in link
aggregation state and/or it does not support link aggregation.
◆
Remote Link Aggregation Status – The current aggregation status of the link.
◆
Remote Link Port ID – This object contains the IEEE 802.3 aggregated port
identifier, aAggPortID (IEEE 802.3-2002, 30.7.2.1.1), derived from the ifNumber
of the ifIndex for the port component associated with the remote system. If the
remote port is not in link aggregation state and/or it does not support link
aggregation, this value should be zero.
Port Details – 802.3 Extension Frame Information
◆
Remote Max Frame Size – An integer value indicating the maximum
supported frame size in octets on the port component associated with the
remote system.
Port Details – LLDP-MED Capability 9
◆
◆
◆
Device Class – Any of the following categories of endpoint devices:
■
Class 1 – The most basic class of endpoint devices.
■
Class 2 – Endpoint devices that supports media stream capabilities.
■
Class 3 – Endpoint devices that directly supports end users of the IP
communication systems.
■
Network Connectivity Device – Devices that provide access to the IEEE 802
based LAN infrastructure for LLDP-MED endpoint devices. These may be
any LAN access device including LAN switch/router, IEEE 802.1 bridge, IEEE
802.3 repeater, IEEE 802.11 wireless access point, or any device that
supports the IEEE 802.1AB and MED extensions defined by this Standard
and can relay IEEE 802 frames via any method.
Supported Capabilities – The supported set of capabilities that define the
primary function(s) of the port:
■
LLDP-MED Capabilities
■
Network Policy
■
Location Identification
■
Extended Power via MDI – PSE
■
Extended Power via MDI – PD
■
Inventory
Current Capabilities – The set of capabilities that define the primary
function(s) of the port which are currently enabled.
9. These fields are only displayed for end-node devices advertising LLDP-MED TLVs.
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Link Layer Discovery Protocol
Port Details – Network Policy9
◆
Application Type – The primary application) defined for this network policy:
■
Voice
■
Voice Signaling
■
Guest Signaling
■
Guest Voice Signaling
■
Softphone Voice
■
Video Conferencing
■
Streaming Video
■
Video Signaling
◆
Tagged Flag – Indicates whether the specified application type is using a
tagged or untagged VLAN.
◆
Layer 2 Priority – The Layer 2 priority to be used for the specified application
type. This field may specify one of eight priority levels (0-7), where a value of 0
represents use of the default priority.
◆
Unknown Policy Flag – Indicates that an endpoint device wants to explicitly
advertise that this policy is required by the device, but is currently unknown.
◆
VLAN ID – The VLAN identifier (VID) for the port as defined in IEEE 802.1Q. A
value of zero indicates that the port is using priority tagged frames, meaning
that only the IEEE 802.1D priority level is significant and the default PVID of the
ingress port is used instead.
◆
DSCP Value – The DSCP value to be used to provide Diffserv node behavior for
the specified application type. This field may contain one of 64 code point
values (0-63). A value of 0 represents use of the default DSCP value as defined in
RFC 2475.
Port Details – Location Identification9
◆
Location Data Format – Any of these location ID data formats:
■
Coordinate-based LCI10 – Defined in RFC 3825, includes latitude resolution,
latitude, longitude resolution, longitude, altitude type, altitude resolution,
altitude, and datum.
■
Civic Address LCI10 – Includes What, Country code, CA type, CA length and
CA value. “What” is described as the field entry “Device entry refers to”
under “Configuring LLDP Interface Attributes.” The other items and
described under “Configuring LLDP Interface Civic-Address.”
10. Location Configuration Information
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Link Layer Discovery Protocol
■
ECS ELIN – Emergency Call Service Emergency Location Identification
Number supports traditional PSAP-based Emergency Call Service in North
America.
◆
Country Code – The two-letter ISO 3166 country code in capital ASCII letters.
(Example: DK, DE or US)
◆
What – The type of device to which the location applies as described for the
field entry “Device entry refers to” under “Configuring LLDP Interface
Attributes.”
Port Details – Extended Power-via-MDI
◆
Power Type – Power Sourcing Entity (PSE) or Power Device (PD).
◆
Power Priority – Shows power priority for a port. (Unknown, Low, High,
Critical)
◆
Power Source – Shows information based on the type of device:
◆
■
PD – Unknown, PSE, Local, PSE and Local
■
PSE – Unknown, Primary Power Source, Backup Power Source - Power
conservation mode
Power Value – The total power in watts required by a PD device from a PSE
device, or the total power a PSE device is capable of sourcing over a maximum
length cable based on its current configuration. This parameter supports a
maximum power required or available value of 102.3 Watts to allow for future
expansion. (Range: 0 - 102.3 Watts)
Port Details – Inventory9
◆
Hardware Revision – The hardware revision of the end-point device.
◆
Software Revision – The software revision of the end-point device.
◆
Manufacture Name – The manufacturer of the end-point device
◆
Asset ID – The asset identifier of the end-point device. End-point devices are
typically assigned asset identifiers to facilitate inventory management and
assets tracking.
◆
Firmware Revision – The firmware revision of the end-point device.
◆
Serial Number – The serial number of the end-point device.
◆
Model Name – The model name of the end-point device.
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Link Layer Discovery Protocol
Web Interface
To display LLDP information for a remote port:
1. Click Administration, LLDP.
2. Select Show Remote Device Information from the Step list.
3. Select Port, Port Details, Trunk, or Trunk Details.
4. When the next page opens, select a port on this switch and the index for a
remote device attached to this port.
5. Click Query.
Figure 211: Displaying Remote Device Information for LLDP (Port)
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Link Layer Discovery Protocol
Figure 212: Displaying Remote Device Information for LLDP (Port Details)
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Link Layer Discovery Protocol
Additional information displayed by an end-point device which advertises LLDPMED TLVs is shown in the following figure.
Figure 213: Displaying Remote Device Information for LLDP (End Node)
Displaying Use the Administration > LLDP (Show Device Statistics) page to display statistics for
Device Statistics LLDP-capable devices attached to the switch, and for LLDP protocol messages
transmitted or received on all local interfaces.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
General Statistics on Remote Devices
◆
Neighbor Entries List Last Updated – The time the LLDP neighbor entry list
was last updated.
◆
New Neighbor Entries Count – The number of LLDP neighbors for which the
remote TTL has not yet expired.
◆
Neighbor Entries Deleted Count – The number of LLDP neighbors which have
been removed from the LLDP remote systems MIB for any reason.
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Link Layer Discovery Protocol
◆
Neighbor Entries Dropped Count – The number of times which the remote
database on this switch dropped an LLDPDU because of insufficient resources.
◆
Neighbor Entries Age-out Count – The number of times that a neighbor’s
information has been deleted from the LLDP remote systems MIB because the
remote TTL timer has expired.
Port/Trunk
◆
Frames Discarded – Number of frames discarded because they did not
conform to the general validation rules as well as any specific usage rules
defined for the particular TLV.
◆
Frames Invalid – A count of all LLDPDUs received with one or more detectable
errors.
◆
Frames Received – Number of LLDP PDUs received.
◆
Frames Sent – Number of LLDP PDUs transmitted.
◆
TLVs Unrecognized – A count of all TLVs not recognized by the receiving LLDP
local agent.
◆
TLVs Discarded – A count of all LLDPDUs received and then discarded due to
insufficient memory space, missing or out-of-sequence attributes, or any other
reason.
◆
Neighbor Ageouts – A count of the times that a neighbor’s information has
been deleted from the LLDP remote systems MIB because the remote TTL timer
has expired.
Web Interface
To display statistics for LLDP-capable devices attached to the switch:
1. Click Administration, LLDP.
2. Select Show Device Statistics from the Step list.
3. Select General, Port, or Trunk.
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Power over Ethernet
Figure 214: Displaying LLDP Device Statistics (General)
Figure 215: Displaying LLDP Device Statistics (Port)
Power over Ethernet
The GEP-1061 switch can provide DC power to a wide range of connected devices,
eliminating the need for an additional power source and cutting down on the
amount of cables attached to each device. Once configured to supply power, an
automatic detection process is initialized by the switch that is authenticated by a
PoE signature from the connected device. Detection and authentication prevent
damage to non-compliant devices (prior to IEEE 802.3af ).
The switch’s power management enables individual port power to be controlled
within the switch’s power budget. Port power can be automatically turned on and
off for connected devices, and a per-port power priority can be set so that the
switch never exceeds its power budget. When a device is connected to a switch
port, its power requirements are detected by the switch before power is supplied. If
the power required by a device exceeds the power budget of the port or the whole
switch, power is not supplied.
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Power over Ethernet
Ports can be set to one of three power priority levels, critical, high, or low. To control
the power supply within the switch’s budget, ports set at critical to high priority
have power enabled in preference to those ports set at low priority. For example,
when a device connected to a port is set to critical priority, the switch supplies the
required power, if necessary by denying power to ports set for a lower priority
during bootup.
Note: For more information on using the PoE provided by this switch refer to the
Installation Guide.
Setting the Switch’s Use the Administration > PoE > PSE (Configure Global) page to set the maximum
Overall PoE Power PoE power budget for the switch (power available to all Gigabit Ethernet ports).
Budget
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
PoE Maximum Available Power – The power budget for the switch (i.e., power
available to all switch ports). If devices connected to the switch require more
power than the switch budget, the port power priority settings are used to
control the supplied power.
◆
PoE Maximum Allocation Power – Sets a power budget for the switch.
(Range: 50000-740000 milliwatts; Default: 125000 milliwatts)
◆
Compatible Mode – Allows the switch to detect and provide power to
powered devices that were designed prior to the IEEE 802.3af PoE standard.
(Default: Disabled)
The switch automatically detects attached PoE devices by periodically
transmitting test voltages that over the Gigabit Ethernet copper-media ports.
When an IEEE 802.3af or 802.3at compatible device is plugged into one of these
ports, the powered device reflects the test voltage back to the switch, which
may then turn on the power to this device. When the compatibility mode is
enabled, this switch can detect IEEE 802.3af or 802.3at compliant devices and
the more recent 802.3af non-compliant devices that also reflect the test
voltages back to the switch. It cannot detect other legacy devices that do not
reflect back the test voltages.
For legacy devices to be supported by this switch, they must be able to accept
power over the data pairs connected to the RJ-45 ports.
Web Interface
To set the overall PoE power budget for switch:
1. Click Administration, PoE, PSE.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
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Power over Ethernet
3. Set the maximum PoE power provided by the switch, and enable the
compatible mode if required.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 216: Setting the Switch’s PoE Budget
Setting the Port Use the Administration > PoE > PSE page to set the maximum power provided to a
PoE Power Budget port.
Command Usage
◆ This switch supports both the IEEE 802.3af PoE and IEEE 802.3at-2009 PoE Plus
standards. To ensure that the correct power is supplied to powered devices
(PD) compliant with these standards, the first detection pulse from the switch is
based on 802.3af to which the 802.3af PDs will respond normally. It then sends
a second PoE Plus pulse that causes an 802.3at PD to respond as a Class 4
device and draw Class 4 current. Afterwards, the switch exchanges information
with the PD such as duty-cycle, peak and average power needs.
◆
All the RJ-45 ports support both the IEEE 802.3af and IEEE 802.3at standards.
For the GEP-1061, the total PoE power delivered by all ports cannot exceed the
maximum power budget of 125W.
The number of ports which can supply maximum power simultaneously to
connected devices is listed in the following table. In this table, EPS refers to the
optional external power supply.
Table 26: Maximum Number of Ports Providing Simultaneous Power
◆
Switch
30W (802.3at)
15.4W (802.3af)
7.5W (802.3af)
GEP-1061
4
8
8
If a device is connected to a switch port and the switch detects that it requires
more than the power budget set for the port or to the overall switch, no power
is supplied to the device (i.e., port power remains off ).
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Power over Ethernet
◆
If the power demand from devices connected to all switch ports exceeds the
power budget set for the switch, the port power priority settings are used to
control the supplied power. For example:
■
If a device is connected to a low-priority port and causes the switch to
exceed its budget, power to this port is not turned on.
■
If a device is connected to a critical or high-priority port and would cause
the switch to exceed its power budget as determined during bootup,
power is provided to the port only if the switch can drop power to one or
more lower-priority ports and thereby remain within its overall budget.
■
If a device is connected to a port after the switch has finished booting up
and would cause the switch to exceed its budget, power will not be
provided to that port regardless of its priority setting.
■
If priority is not set for any ports, and there is not sufficient power to supply
all of the ports, port priority defaults to Port 1, Port 2, Port 3 ... Port 24, with
available power being supplied in that sequence.
■
If priority is not set for any ports, and PoE consumption exceeds the
maximum power provided by the switch, power is shut down in the reverse
sequence, starting from Port 24.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – The port number on the switch. (Range: 1-8)
◆
Admin Status – Enables PoE power on a port. Power is automatically supplied
when a device is detected on a port, providing that the power demanded does
not exceed the switch or port power budget. (Default: Enabled)
◆
Mode – Shows whether or not PoE power is being supplied to a port.
◆
Time Range Name – Name of a time range. If a time range is set, then PoE will
be provided to an interface during the specified period.
◆
Time Range Status – Indicates if a time range has been applied to an interface,
and whether it is currently active or inactive.
◆
Priority – Sets the power priority for a port. (Options: Low, High or Critical;
Default: Low)
◆
Power Allocation – Sets the power budget for a port. (Range: 3000-30000
milliwatts; Default: 30000 milliwatts)
◆
Power Consumption – Current power consumption on a port.
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Web Interface
To set the PoE power budget for a port:
1. Click Administration, PoE, PSE.
2. Enable PoE power on selected ports. Set the priority and the power budget.
And specify a time range during which PoE will be provided to an interface.
3. Click Apply.
Figure 217: Setting a Port’s PoE Budget
Simple Network Management Protocol
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a communication protocol
designed specifically for managing devices on a network. Equipment commonly
managed with SNMP includes switches, routers and host computers. SNMP is
typically used to configure these devices for proper operation in a network
environment, as well as to monitor them to evaluate performance or detect
potential problems.
Managed devices supporting SNMP contain software, which runs locally on the
device and is referred to as an agent. A defined set of variables, known as managed
objects, is maintained by the SNMP agent and used to manage the device. These
objects are defined in a Management Information Base (MIB) that provides a
standard presentation of the information controlled by the agent. SNMP defines
both the format of the MIB specifications and the protocol used to access this
information over the network.
The switch includes an onboard agent that supports SNMP versions 1, 2c, and 3.
This agent continuously monitors the status of the switch hardware, as well as the
traffic passing through its ports. A network management station can access this
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Simple Network Management Protocol
information using network management software. Access to the onboard agent
from clients using SNMP v1 and v2c is controlled by community strings. To
communicate with the switch, the management station must first submit a valid
community string for authentication.
Access to the switch from clients using SNMPv3 provides additional security
features that cover message integrity, authentication, and encryption; as well as
controlling user access to specific areas of the MIB tree.
The SNMPv3 security structure consists of security models, with each model having
it’s own security levels. There are three security models defined, SNMPv1, SNMPv2c,
and SNMPv3. Users are assigned to “groups” that are defined by a security model
and specified security levels. Each group also has a defined security access to set of
MIB objects for reading and writing, which are known as “views.” The switch has a
default view (all MIB objects) and default groups defined for security models v1 and
v2c. The following table shows the security models and levels available and the
system default settings.
Table 27: SNMPv3 Security Models and Levels
Model Level
Group
Read View
Write View
Notify View
Security
v1
noAuthNoPriv
public
(read only)
defaultview
none
none
Community string only
v1
noAuthNoPriv
private
(read/write)
defaultview
defaultview
none
Community string only
v1
noAuthNoPriv
user defined
user defined
user defined
user defined
Community string only
v2c
noAuthNoPriv
public
(read only)
defaultview
none
none
Community string only
v2c
noAuthNoPriv
private
(read/write)
defaultview
defaultview
none
Community string only
v2c
noAuthNoPriv
user defined
user defined
user defined
user defined
Community string only
v3
noAuthNoPriv
user defined
user defined
user defined
user defined
A user name match only
v3
AuthNoPriv
user defined
user defined
user defined
user defined
Provides user authentication via MD5 or SHA
algorithms
v3
AuthPriv
user defined
user defined
user defined
user defined
Provides user authentication via MD5 or SHA
algorithms and data privacy using DES 56bit encryption
Note: The predefined default groups and view can be deleted from the system.
You can then define customized groups and views for the SNMP clients that require
access.
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Command Usage
Configuring SNMPv1/2c Management Access
To configure SNMPv1 or v2c management access to the switch, follow these steps:
1. Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure Global) page to enable SNMP on the
switch, and to enable trap messages.
2. Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure User - Add Community) page to
configure the community strings authorized for management access.
3. Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure Trap) page to specify trap managers
so that key events are reported by this switch to your management station.
Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
1. Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure Global) page to enable SNMP on the
switch, and to enable trap messages.
2. Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure Trap) page to specify trap managers
so that key events are reported by this switch to your management station.
3. Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure Engine) page to change the local
engine ID. If you want to change the default engine ID, it must be changed
before configuring other parameters.
4. Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure View) page to specify read and write
access views for the switch MIB tree.
5. Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure User) page to configure SNMP user
groups with the required security model (i.e., SNMP v1, v2c or v3) and security
level (i.e., authentication and privacy).
6. Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure Group) page to assign SNMP users
to groups, along with their specific authentication and privacy passwords.
Configuring Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure Global) page to enable SNMPv3 service
Global Settings for all management clients (i.e., versions 1, 2c, 3), and to enable trap messages.
for SNMP
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Agent Status – Enables SNMP on the switch. (Default: Enabled)
◆
Authentication Traps11 – Issues a notification message to specified IP trap
managers whenever an invalid community string is submitted during the
SNMP access authentication process. (Default: Enabled)
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Web Interface
To configure global settings for SNMP:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Enable SNMP and the required trap types.
4. Click Apply
Figure 218: Configuring Global Settings for SNMP
Setting the Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure Engine - Set Engine ID) page to change
Local Engine ID the local engine ID. An SNMPv3 engine is an independent SNMP agent that resides
on the switch. This engine protects against message replay, delay, and redirection.
The engine ID is also used in combination with user passwords to generate the
security keys for authenticating and encrypting SNMPv3 packets.
Command Usage
A local engine ID is automatically generated that is unique to the switch. This is
referred to as the default engine ID. If the local engine ID is deleted or changed, all
SNMP users will be cleared. You will need to reconfigure all existing users.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Engine ID – A new engine ID can be specified by entering 9 to 64 hexadecimal
characters (5 to 32 octets in hexadecimal format). If an odd number of
characters are specified, a trailing zero is added to the value to fill in the last
octet. For example, the value “123456789” is equivalent to “1234567890”.
◆
Engine Boots – The number of times that the engine has (re-)initialized since
the SNMP Engine ID was last configured.
11. These are legacy notifications and therefore when used for SNMPv3 hosts, they must be
enabled in conjunction with the corresponding entries in the Notification View (page 353).
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Web Interface
To configure the local SNMP engine ID:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure Engine from the Step list.
3. Select Set Engine ID from the Action list.
4. Enter an ID of a least 9 hexadecimal characters.
5. Click Apply
Figure 219: Configuring the Local Engine ID for SNMP
Specifying a Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure Engine - Add Remote Engine) page to
Remote Engine ID configure a engine ID for a remote management station. To allow management
access from an SNMPv3 user on a remote device, you must first specify the engine
identifier for the SNMP agent on the remote device where the user resides. The
remote engine ID is used to compute the security digest for authentication and
encryption of packets passed between the switch and a user on the remote host.
Command Usage
SNMP passwords are localized using the engine ID of the authoritative agent. For
informs, the authoritative SNMP agent is the remote agent. You therefore need to
configure the remote agent’s SNMP engine ID before you can send proxy requests
or informs to it. (See “Configuring Remote SNMPv3 Users” on page 366.)
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Remote Engine ID – The engine ID can be specified by entering 9 to 64
hexadecimal characters (5 to 32 octets in hexadecimal format). If an odd
number of characters are specified, a trailing zero is added to the value to fill in
the last octet. For example, the value “123456789” is equivalent to
“1234567890”.
◆
Remote IP Host – The IPv4 address of a remote management station which is
using the specified engine ID.
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Simple Network Management Protocol
Web Interface
To configure a remote SNMP engine ID:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure Engine from the Step list.
3. Select Add Remote Engine from the Action list.
4. Enter an ID of a least 9 hexadecimal characters, and the IP address of the
remote host.
5. Click Apply
Figure 220: Configuring a Remote Engine ID for SNMP
To show the remote SNMP engine IDs:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure Engine from the Step list.
3. Select Show Remote Engine from the Action list.
Figure 221: Showing Remote Engine IDs for SNMP
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Simple Network Management Protocol
Setting SNMPv3 Views Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure View) page to configure SNMPv3 views
which are used to restrict user access to specified portions of the MIB tree. The
predefined view “defaultview” includes access to the entire MIB tree.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Add View
◆
View Name – The name of the SNMP view. (Range: 1-32 characters)
◆
OID Subtree – Specifies the initial object identifier of a branch within the MIB
tree. Wild cards can be used to mask a specific portion of the OID string. Use the
Add OID Subtree page to configure additional object identifiers. (Range: 1-64
characters)
◆
Type – Indicates if the object identifier of a branch within the MIB tree is
included or excluded from the SNMP view.
Add OID Subtree
◆
View Name – Lists the SNMP views configured in the Add View page.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
◆
OID Subtree – Adds an additional object identifier of a branch within the MIB
tree to the selected View. Wild cards can be used to mask a specific portion of
the OID string. (Range: 1-64 characters)
◆
Type – Indicates if the object identifier of a branch within the MIB tree is
included or excluded from the SNMP view.
Web Interface
To configure an SNMP view of the switch’s MIB database:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure View from the Step list.
3. Select Add View from the Action list.
4. Enter a view name and specify the initial OID subtree in the switch’s MIB
database to be included or excluded in the view. Use the Add OID Subtree page
to add additional object identifier branches to the view.
5. Click Apply
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Simple Network Management Protocol
Figure 222: Creating an SNMP View
To show the SNMP views of the switch’s MIB database:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure View from the Step list.
3. Select Show View from the Action list.
Figure 223: Showing SNMP Views
To add an object identifier to an existing SNMP view of the switch’s MIB database:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure View from the Step list.
3. Select Add OID Subtree from the Action list.
4. Select a view name from the list of existing views, and specify an additional OID
subtree in the switch’s MIB database to be included or excluded in the view.
5. Click Apply
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Simple Network Management Protocol
Figure 224: Adding an OID Subtree to an SNMP View
To show the OID branches configured for the SNMP views of the switch’s MIB
database:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure View from the Step list.
3. Select Show OID Subtree from the Action list.
4. Select a view name from the list of existing views.
Figure 225: Showing the OID Subtree Configured for SNMP Views
Configuring Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure Group) page to add an SNMPv3 group
SNMPv3 Groups which can be used to set the access policy for its assigned users, restricting them to
specific read, write, and notify views. You can use the pre-defined default groups or
create new groups to map a set of SNMP users to SNMP views.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Group Name – The name of the SNMP group to which the user is assigned.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
◆
Security Model – The user security model; SNMP v1, v2c or v3.
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Simple Network Management Protocol
◆
Security Level – The following security levels are only used for the groups
assigned to the SNMP security model:
■
noAuthNoPriv – There is no authentication or encryption used in SNMP
communications. (This is the default security level.)
■
AuthNoPriv – SNMP communications use authentication, but the data is
not encrypted.
■
AuthPriv – SNMP communications use both authentication and
encryption.
◆
Read View – The configured view for read access. (Range: 1-32 characters)
◆
Write View – The configured view for write access. (Range: 1-32 characters)
◆
Notify View – The configured view for notifications. (Range: 1-32 characters)
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Table 28: Supported Notification Messages
Model
Level
Group
newRoot
1.3.6.1.2.1.17.0.1
The newRoot trap indicates that the sending agent
has become the new root of the Spanning Tree; the
trap is sent by a bridge soon after its election as the
new root, e.g., upon expiration of the Topology
Change Timer immediately subsequent to its
election.
topologyChange
1.3.6.1.2.1.17.0.2
A topologyChange trap is sent by a bridge when
any of its configured ports transitions from the
Learning state to the Forwarding state, or from the
Forwarding state to the Discarding state. The trap is
not sent if a newRoot trap is sent for the same
transition.
coldStart
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.1
A coldStart trap signifies that the SNMPv2 entity,
acting in an agent role, is reinitializing itself and that
its configuration may have been altered.
warmStart
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.2
A warmStart trap signifies that the SNMPv2 entity,
acting in an agent role, is reinitializing itself such
that its configuration is unaltered.
linkDown*
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.3
A linkDown trap signifies that the SNMP entity,
acting in an agent role, has detected that the
ifOperStatus object for one of its communication
links is about to enter the down state from some
other state (but not from the notPresent state). This
other state is indicated by the included value of
ifOperStatus.
linkUp*
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.4
A linkUp trap signifies that the SNMP entity, acting
in an agent role, has detected that the ifOperStatus
object for one of its communication links left the
down state and transitioned into some other state
(but not into the notPresent state). This other state
is indicated by the included value of ifOperStatus.
authenticationFailure*
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.5
An authenticationFailure trap signifies that the
SNMPv2 entity, acting in an agent role, has received
a protocol message that is not properly
authenticated. While all implementations of the
SNMPv2 must be capable of generating this trap,
the snmpEnableAuthenTraps object indicates
whether this trap will be generated.
risingAlarm
1.3.6.1.2.1.16.0.1
The SNMP trap that is generated when an alarm
entry crosses its rising threshold and generates an
event that is configured for sending SNMP traps.
fallingAlarm
1.3.6.1.2.1.16.0.2
The SNMP trap that is generated when an alarm
entry crosses its falling threshold and generates an
event that is configured for sending SNMP traps.
RFC 1493 Traps
SNMPv2 Traps
RMON Events (V2)
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Table 28: Supported Notification Messages (Continued)
Model
Level
Group
swPowerStatusChangeTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.1
This trap is sent when the power state changes.
swPortSecurityTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.36
This trap is sent when the port is being intruded.
This trap will only be sent when the
portSecActionTrap is enabled.
swIpFilterRejectTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.40
This trap is sent when an incorrect IP address is
rejected by the IP Filter.
pethPsePortOnOffNotification
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.43
This notification indicates if a PSE port is delivering
power to the PD. This notification should be sent on
every status change except in searching mode.
pethPsePortPowerMaintenanceStatusN 1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.44
otification
This notification indicates a Port Change Status and
should be sent on every status change.
pethMainPowerUsageOnNotification
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.45
This notification indicates PSE threshold usage
indication is on; and the power usage is above the
threshold.
pethMainPowerUsageOffNotification
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.46
This notification indicates that the PSE threshold
usage indication is off; and the usage power is
below the threshold.
swAtcBcastStormAlarmFireTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.70
When broadcast traffic is detected as a storm, this
trap is fired.
swAtcBcastStormAlarmClearTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.71
When a broadcast storm is detected as normal
traffic, this trap is fired.
swAtcBcastStormTcApplyTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.72
When ATC is activated, this trap is fired.
swAtcBcastStormTcReleaseTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.73
When ATC is released, this trap is fired.
swAtcMcastStormAlarmFireTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.74
When multicast traffic is detected as the storm, this
trap is fired.
swAtcMcastStormAlarmClearTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.75
When multicast storm is detected as normal traffic,
this trap is fired.
swAtcMcastStormTcApplyTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.76
When ATC is activated, this trap is fired.
swAtcMcastStormTcReleaseTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.77
When ATC is released, this trap is fired.
stpBpduGuardPortShutdownTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.91
This trap will be sent when an interface is shut down
because of BPDU guard.
swLoopbackDetectionTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.95
This trap is sent when loopback BPDUs have been
detected.
networkAccessPortLinkDetectionTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.96
This trap is sent when a
networkAccessPortLinkDetection event is
triggered.
dot1agCfmMepUpTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.97
This trap is sent when a new remote MEP is
discovered.
dot1agCfmMepDownTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.98
This trap is sent when port status or interface status
TLV received from remote MEP indicates it is not up.
dot1agCfmConfigFailTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.99
This trap is sent when a MEP receives a CCM with
MPID which already exists on the same MA in this
switch.
Private Traps
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
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Table 28: Supported Notification Messages (Continued)
Model
Level
Group
dot1agCfmLoopFindTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.100
This trap is sent when a MEP receives its own CCMs.
dot1agCfmMepUnknownTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.101
This trap is sent when a CCM is received from an
unexpected MEP.
dot1agCfmMepMissingTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.102
This trap is sent when the cross-check enable timer
expires and no CCMs were received from an
expected (configured) MEP.
dot1agCfmMaUpTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.103
This trap is sent when all expected remote MEPs are
up.
autoUpgradeTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.104
This trap is sent when auto upgrade is executed.
swCpuUtiRisingNotification
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.107
This notification indicates that the CPU utilization
has risen from cpuUtiFallingThreshold to
cpuUtiRisingThreshold.
swCpuUtiFallingNotification
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.108
This notification indicates that the CPU utilization
has fallen from cpuUtiRisingThreshold to
cpuUtiFallingThreshold.
swMemoryUtiRisingThreshold
Notification
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.109
This notification indicates that the memory
utilization has risen from
memoryUtiFallingThreshold to
memoryUtiRisingThreshold.
swMemoryUtiFallingThreshold
Notification
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.110
This notification indicates that the memory
utilization has fallen from
memoryUtiRisingThreshold to
memoryUtiFallingThreshold.
dhcpRougeServerAttackTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.114
This trap is sent when receiving a DHCP packet from
a rouge server.
macNotificationTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.138
This trap is sent when there are changes of the
dynamic MAC addresses on the switch.
lbdDetectionTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.141
This trap is sent when a loopback condition is
detected by LBD.
lbdRecoveryTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.142
This trap is sent when a recovery is done by LBD.
sfpThresholdAlarmWarnTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.189
This trap is sent when the SFP's A/D quantity is not
within alarm/warning thresholds.
udldPortShutdownTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.192
This trap is sent when the port is shut down by
UDLD.
userAuthenticationFailureTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.199
This trap will be triggered if authentication fails.
userAuthenticationSuccessTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.200
This trap will be triggered if authentication is
successful.
loginTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.201
This trap is sent when user logs in.
logoutTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.202
This trap is sent when user logs out.
fileCopyTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.208
This trap is sent when file copy is executed.
If the copy action is triggered by the system, the
login user information (trapVarLoginUserName/
trapVarSessionType/
trapVarLoginInetAddressTypes/
trapVarLoginInetAddres) will be a null value.
userauthCreateUserTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.209
This trap is sent when a user account is created.
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Table 28: Supported Notification Messages (Continued)
Model
Level
Group
userauthDeleteUserTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.210
This trap is sent when a user account is deleted.
userauthModifyUserPrivilegeTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.211
This trap is sent when user privilege is modified.
cpuGuardControlTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.213
This trap is sent when CPU utilization rises above
the high-watermark the first time or when CPU
utilization rises from below the low-watermark to
above the high-watermark.
cpuGuardReleaseTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.22426.43.103.2.1.0.214
This trap is sent when CPU utilization falls from
above the high-watermark to below the lowwatermark.
* These are legacy notifications and therefore must be enabled in conjunction with the corresponding traps on the SNMP
Configuration menu.
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Web Interface
To configure an SNMP group:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure Group from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Enter a group name, assign a security model and level, and then select read,
write, and notify views.
5. Click Apply
Figure 226: Creating an SNMP Group
To show SNMP groups:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure Group from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 227: Showing SNMP Groups
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Setting Community Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure Community – Add) page to configure
Access Strings up to five community strings authorized for management access by clients using
SNMP v1 and v2c. For security reasons, you should consider removing the default
strings.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Community String – A community string that acts like a password and permits
access to the SNMP protocol.
Range: 1-32 characters, case sensitive
Default strings: “public” (Read-Only), “private” (Read/Write)
◆
Access Mode – Specifies the access rights for the community string:
■
Read-Only – Authorized management stations are only able to retrieve
MIB objects.
■
Read/Write – Authorized management stations are able to both retrieve
and modify MIB objects.
Web Interface
To set a community access string:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure Community from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Add new community strings as required, and select the corresponding access
rights from the Access Mode list.
5. Click Apply
Figure 228: Setting Community Access Strings
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To show the community access strings:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure Community from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 229: Showing Community Access Strings
Configuring Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure User - Add SNMPv3 Local User) page to
Local SNMPv3 Users authorize management access for SNMPv3 clients, or to identify the source of
SNMPv3 trap messages sent from the local switch. Each SNMPv3 user is defined by
a unique name. Users must be configured with a specific security level and
assigned to a group. The SNMPv3 group restricts users to a specific read, write, and
notify view.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
User Name – The name of user connecting to the SNMP agent.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
◆
Group Name – The name of the SNMP group to which the user is assigned.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
◆
Security Model – The user security model; SNMP v1, v2c or v3.
◆
Security Level – The following security levels are only used for the groups
assigned to the SNMP security model:
■
noAuthNoPriv – There is no authentication or encryption used in SNMP
communications. (This is the default security level.)
■
AuthNoPriv – SNMP communications use authentication, but the data is
not encrypted.
■
AuthPriv – SNMP communications use both authentication and
encryption.
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◆
Authentication Protocol – The method used for user authentication.
(Options: MD5, SHA; Default: MD5)
◆
Authentication Password – A minimum of eight plain text characters is
required. (Range: 8-32 characters)
◆
Privacy Protocol – The encryption algorithm use for data privacy; only 56-bit
DES is currently available.
◆
Privacy Password – A minimum of eight plain text characters is required.
Web Interface
To configure a local SNMPv3 user:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure User from the Step list.
3. Select Add SNMPv3 Local User from the Action list.
4. Enter a name and assign it to a group. If the security model is set to SNMPv3
and the security level is authNoPriv or authPriv, then an authentication
protocol and password must be specified. If the security level is authPriv, a
privacy password must also be specified.
5. Click Apply
Figure 230: Configuring Local SNMPv3 Users
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To show local SNMPv3 users:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure User from the Step list.
3. Select Show SNMPv3 Local User from the Action list.
Figure 231: Showing Local SNMPv3 Users
To change a local SNMPv3 local user group:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Change SNMPv3 Local User Group from the Action list.
3. Select the User Name.
4. Enter a new group name.
5. Click Apply
Figure 232: Changing a Local SNMPv3 User Group
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Configuring Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure User - Add SNMPv3 Remote User) page
Remote SNMPv3 Users to identify the source of SNMPv3 inform messages sent from the local switch. Each
SNMPv3 user is defined by a unique name. Users must be configured with a specific
security level and assigned to a group. The SNMPv3 group restricts users to a
specific read, write, and notify view.
Command Usage
◆ To grant management access to an SNMPv3 user on a remote device, you must
first specify the engine identifier for the SNMP agent on the remote device
where the user resides. The remote engine ID is used to compute the security
digest for authentication and encryption of packets passed between the switch
and the remote user. (See “Specifying Trap Managers” on page 368 and
“Specifying a Remote Engine ID” on page 351.)
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
User Name – The name of user connecting to the SNMP agent.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
◆
Group Name – The name of the SNMP group to which the user is assigned.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
◆
Remote IP – IPv4 address of the remote device where the user resides.
◆
Security Model – The user security model; SNMP v1, v2c or v3. (Default: v3)
◆
Security Level – The following security levels are only used for the groups
assigned to the SNMP security model:
■
noAuthNoPriv – There is no authentication or encryption used in SNMP
communications. (This is the default security level.)
■
AuthNoPriv – SNMP communications use authentication, but the data is
not encrypted.
■
AuthPriv – SNMP communications use both authentication and
encryption.
◆
Authentication Protocol – The method used for user authentication.
(Options: MD5, SHA; Default: MD5)
◆
Authentication Password – A minimum of eight plain text characters is
required.
◆
Privacy Protocol – The encryption algorithm use for data privacy; only 56-bit
DES is currently available.
◆
Privacy Password – A minimum of eight plain text characters is required.
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Web Interface
To configure a remote SNMPv3 user:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure User from the Step list.
3. Select Add SNMPv3 Remote User from the Action list.
4. Enter a name and assign it to a group. Enter the IP address to identify the source
of SNMPv3 inform messages sent from the local switch. If the security model is
set to SNMPv3 and the security level is authNoPriv or authPriv, then an
authentication protocol and password must be specified. If the security level is
authPriv, a privacy password must also be specified.
5. Click Apply
Figure 233: Configuring Remote SNMPv3 Users
To show remote SNMPv3 users:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure User from the Step list.
3. Select Show SNMPv3 Remote User from the Action list.
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Figure 234: Showing Remote SNMPv3 Users
Specifying Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure Trap) page to specify the host devices to
Trap Managers be sent traps and the types of traps to send. Traps indicating status changes are
issued by the switch to the specified trap managers. You must specify trap
managers so that key events are reported by this switch to your management
station (using network management software). You can specify up to five
management stations that will receive authentication failure messages and other
trap messages from the switch.
Command Usage
◆ Notifications are issued by the switch as trap messages by default. The recipient
of a trap message does not send a response to the switch. Traps are therefore
not as reliable as inform messages, which include a request for
acknowledgement of receipt. Informs can be used to ensure that critical
information is received by the host. However, note that informs consume more
system resources because they must be kept in memory until a response is
received. Informs also add to network traffic. You should consider these effects
when deciding whether to issue notifications as traps or informs.
To send an inform to a SNMPv2c host, complete these steps:
1. Enable the SNMP agent (page 349).
2. Create a view with the required notification messages (page 353).
3. Configure the group (matching the community string specified on the
Configure Trap - Add page) to include the required notify view (page 355).
4. Enable trap informs as described in the following pages.
To send an inform to a SNMPv3 host, complete these steps:
1. Enable the SNMP agent (page 349).
2. Create a remote SNMPv3 user to use in the message exchange process
(page 363). If the user specified in the trap configuration page does not
exist, an SNMPv3 group will be automatically created using the name of the
specified remote user, and default settings for the read, write, and notify
view.
3. Create a view with the required notification messages (page 353).
4. Create a group that includes the required notify view (page 355).
5. Enable trap informs as described in the following pages.
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Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
SNMP Version 1
◆
IP Address – IPv4 or IPv6 address of a new management station to receive
notification message (i.e., the targeted recipient).
◆
Version – Specifies whether to send notifications as SNMP v1, v2c, or v3 traps.
(Default: v1)
◆
Community String – Specifies a valid community string for the new trap
manager entry. (Range: 1-32 characters, case sensitive)
Although you can set this string in the Configure Trap – Add page, we
recommend defining it in the Configure User – Add Community page.
◆
UDP Port – Specifies the UDP port number used by the trap manager.
(Default: 162)
SNMP Version 2c
◆
IP Address – IPv4 or IPv6 address of a new management station to receive
notification message (i.e., the targeted recipient).
◆
Version – Specifies whether to send notifications as SNMP v1, v2c, or v3 traps.
◆
Notification Type
◆
■
Traps – Notifications are sent as trap messages.
■
Inform – Notifications are sent as inform messages. Note that this option is
only available for version 2c and 3 hosts. (Default: traps are used)
■
Timeout – The number of seconds to wait for an acknowledgment
before resending an inform message. (Range: 0-2147483647
centiseconds; Default: 1500 centiseconds)
■
Retry times – The maximum number of times to resend an inform
message if the recipient does not acknowledge receipt.
(Range: 0-255; Default: 3)
Community String – Specifies a valid community string for the new trap
manager entry. (Range: 1-32 characters, case sensitive)
Although you can set this string in the Configure Trap – Add page, we
recommend defining it in the Configure User – Add Community page.
◆
UDP Port – Specifies the UDP port number used by the trap manager.
(Default: 162)
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SNMP Version 3
◆
IP Address – IPv4 or IPv6 address of a new management station to receive
notification message (i.e., the targeted recipient).
◆
Version – Specifies whether to send notifications as SNMP v1, v2c, or v3 traps.
◆
Notification Type
◆
■
Traps – Notifications are sent as trap messages.
■
Inform – Notifications are sent as inform messages. Note that this option is
only available for version 2c and 3 hosts. (Default: traps are used)
■
Timeout – The number of seconds to wait for an acknowledgment
before resending an inform message. (Range: 0-2147483647
centiseconds; Default: 1500 centiseconds)
■
Retry times – The maximum number of times to resend an inform
message if the recipient does not acknowledge receipt.
(Range: 0-255; Default: 3)
Local User Name – The name of a local user which is used to identify the
source of SNMPv3 trap messages sent from the local switch. (Range: 1-32
characters)
If an account for the specified user has not been created (page 363), one will be
automatically generated.
◆
Remote User Name – The name of a remote user which is used to identify the
source of SNMPv3 inform messages sent from the local switch. (Range: 1-32
characters)
If an account for the specified user has not been created (page 366), one will be
automatically generated.
◆
UDP Port – Specifies the UDP port number used by the trap manager.
(Default: 162)
◆
Security Level – When trap version 3 is selected, you must specify one of the
following security levels. (Default: noAuthNoPriv)
■
noAuthNoPriv – There is no authentication or encryption used in SNMP
communications.
■
AuthNoPriv – SNMP communications use authentication, but the data is
not encrypted.
■
AuthPriv – SNMP communications use both authentication and
encryption.
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Web Interface
To configure trap managers:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure Trap from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Fill in the required parameters based on the selected SNMP version.
5. Click Apply
Figure 235: Configuring Trap Managers (SNMPv1)
Figure 236: Configuring Trap Managers (SNMPv2c)
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Figure 237: Configuring Trap Managers (SNMPv3)
To show configured trap managers:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure Trap from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 238: Showing Trap Managers
Creating SNMP Use the Administration > SNMP (Configure Notify Filter - Add) page to create an
Notification Logs SNMP notification log.
Command Usage
◆ Systems that support SNMP often need a mechanism for recording Notification
information as a hedge against lost notifications, whether there are Traps or
Informs that may be exceeding retransmission limits. The Notification Log MIB
(NLM, RFC 3014) provides an infrastructure in which information from other
MIBs may be logged.
◆
Given the service provided by the NLM, individual MIBs can now bear less
responsibility to record transient information associated with an event against
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the possibility that the Notification message is lost, and applications can poll
the log to verify that they have not missed any important Notifications.
◆
If notification logging is not configured, when the switch reboots, some SNMP
traps (such as warm start) cannot be logged.
◆
To avoid this problem, notification logging should be configured as described
in this section, and these commands stored in the startup configuration file
using the System > File (Copy – Running-Config) page as described on page 69.
Then when the switch reboots, SNMP traps (such as warm start) can now be
logged.
◆
Based on the default settings used in RFC 3014, a notification log can contain
up to 256 entries, and the entry aging time is 1440 minutes. Information
recorded in a notification log, and the entry aging time can only be configured
using SNMP from a network management station.
◆
When a trap host is created using the Administration > SNMP (Configure Trap –
Add) page described on page 368, a default notify filter will be created.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
IP Address – The IPv4 or IPv6 address of a remote device. The specified target
host must already have been configured using the Administration > SNMP
(Configure Trap – Add) page.
The notification log is stored locally. It is not sent to a remote device. This
remote host parameter is only required to complete mandatory fields in the
SNMP Notification MIB.
◆
Filter Profile Name – Notification log profile name. (Range: 1-32 characters)
Web Interface
To create an SNMP notification log:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure Notify Filter from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Fill in the IP address of a configured trap manager and the filter profile name.
5. Click Apply
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Figure 239: Creating SNMP Notification Logs
To show configured SNMP notification logs:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Configure Notify Filter from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 240: Showing SNMP Notification Logs
Showing Use the Administration > SNMP (Show Statistics) page to show counters for SNMP
SNMP Statistics input and output protocol data units.
Parameters
The following counters are displayed:
◆
SNMP packets input – The total number of messages delivered to the SNMP
entity from the transport service.
◆
Bad SNMP version errors – The total number of SNMP messages which were
delivered to the SNMP entity and were for an unsupported SNMP version.
◆
Unknown community name – The total number of SNMP messages delivered
to the SNMP entity which used a SNMP community name not known to said
entity.
◆
Illegal operation for community name supplied – The total number of SNMP
messages delivered to the SNMP entity which represented an SNMP operation
which was not allowed by the SNMP community named in the message.
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Simple Network Management Protocol
◆
Encoding errors – The total number of ASN.1 or BER errors encountered by the
SNMP entity when decoding received SNMP messages.
◆
Number of requested variables – The total number of MIB objects which have
been retrieved successfully by the SNMP protocol entity as the result of
receiving valid SNMP Get-Request and Get-Next PDUs.
◆
Number of altered variables – The total number of MIB objects which have
been altered successfully by the SNMP protocol entity as the result of receiving
valid SNMP Set-Request PDUs.
◆
Get-request PDUs – The total number of SNMP Get-Request PDUs which have
been accepted and processed, or generated, by the SNMP protocol entity.
◆
Get-next PDUs – The total number of SNMP Get-Next PDUs which have been
accepted and processed, or generated, by the SNMP protocol entity.
◆
Set-request PDUs – The total number of SNMP Set-Request PDUs which have
been accepted and processed, or generated, by the SNMP protocol entity.
◆
SNMP packets output – The total number of SNMP Messages which were
passed from the SNMP protocol entity to the transport service.
◆
Too big errors – The total number of SNMP PDUs which were generated by the
SNMP protocol entity and for which the value of the error-status field is
“tooBig.”
◆
No such name errors – The total number of SNMP PDUs which were delivered
to, or generated by, the SNMP protocol entity and for which the value of the
error-status field is “noSuchName.”
◆
Bad values errors – The total number of SNMP PDUs which were delivered to,
or generated by, the SNMP protocol entity and for which the value of the errorstatus field is “badValue.”
◆
General errors – The total number of SNMP PDUs which were delivered to, or
generated by, the SNMP protocol entity and for which the value of the errorstatus field is “genErr.”
◆
Response PDUs – The total number of SNMP Get-Response PDUs which have
been accepted and processed by, or generated by, the SNMP protocol entity.
◆
Trap PDUs – The total number of SNMP Trap PDUs which have been accepted
and processed by, or generated by, the SNMP protocol entity.
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Remote Monitoring
Web Interface
To show SNMP statistics:
1. Click Administration, SNMP.
2. Select Show Statistics from the Step list.
Figure 241: Showing SNMP Statistics
Remote Monitoring
Remote Monitoring allows a remote device to collect information or respond to
specified events on an independent basis. This switch is an RMON-capable device
which can independently perform a wide range of tasks, significantly reducing
network management traffic. It can continuously run diagnostics and log
information on network performance. If an event is triggered, it can automatically
notify the network administrator of a failure and provide historical information
about the event. If it cannot connect to the management agent, it will continue to
perform any specified tasks and pass data back to the management station the
next time it is contacted.
The switch supports mini-RMON, which consists of the Statistics, History, Event and
Alarm groups. When RMON is enabled, the system gradually builds up information
about its physical interfaces, storing this information in the relevant RMON
database group. A management agent then periodically communicates with the
switch using the SNMP protocol. However, if the switch encounters a critical event,
it can automatically send a trap message to the management agent which can then
respond to the event if so configured.
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Remote Monitoring
Configuring Use the Administration > RMON (Configure Global - Add - Alarm) page to define
RMON Alarms specific criteria that will generate response events. Alarms can be set to test data
over any specified time interval, and can monitor absolute or changing values (such
as a statistical counter reaching a specific value, or a statistic changing by a certain
amount over the set interval). Alarms can be set to respond to rising or falling
thresholds. (However, note that after an alarm is triggered it will not be triggered
again until the statistical value crosses the opposite bounding threshold and then
back across the trigger threshold.
Command Usage
◆ If an alarm is already defined for an index, the entry must be deleted before any
changes can be made.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Index – Index to this entry. (Range: 1-65535)
◆
Variable – The object identifier of the MIB variable to be sampled. Only
variables of the type etherStatsEntry.n.n may be sampled.
Note that etherStatsEntry.n uniquely defines the MIB variable, and
etherStatsEntry.n.n defines the MIB variable, plus the etherStatsIndex. For
example, 1.3.6.1.2.1.16.1.1.1.6.1 denotes etherStatsBroadcastPkts, plus the
etherStatsIndex of 1.
◆
Interval – The polling interval. (Range: 1-31622400 seconds)
◆
Sample Type – Tests for absolute or relative changes in the specified variable.
■
Absolute – The variable is compared directly to the thresholds at the end
of the sampling period.
■
Delta – The last sample is subtracted from the current value and the
difference is then compared to the thresholds.
◆
Rising Threshold – If the current value is greater than or equal to the rising
threshold, and the last sample value was less than this threshold, then an alarm
will be generated. After a rising event has been generated, another such event
will not be generated until the sampled value has fallen below the rising
threshold, reaches the falling threshold, and again moves back up to the rising
threshold. (Range: 0-2147483647)
◆
Rising Event Index – The index of the event to use if an alarm is triggered by
monitored variables reaching or crossing above the rising threshold. If there is
no corresponding entry in the event control table, then no event will be
generated. (Range: 0-65535)
◆
Falling Threshold – If the current value is less than or equal to the falling
threshold, and the last sample value was greater than this threshold, then an
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Remote Monitoring
alarm will be generated. After a falling event has been generated, another such
event will not be generated until the sampled value has risen above the falling
threshold, reaches the rising threshold, and again moves back down to the
failing threshold. (Range: 0-2147483647)
◆
Falling Event Index – The index of the event to use if an alarm is triggered by
monitored variables reaching or crossing below the falling threshold. If there is
no corresponding entry in the event control table, then no event will be
generated. (Range: 0-65535)
◆
Owner – Name of the person who created this entry. (Range: 1-32 characters)
Web Interface
To configure an RMON alarm:
1. Click Administration, RMON.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Click Alarm.
5. Enter an index number, the MIB object to be polled (etherStatsEntry.n.n), the
polling interval, the sample type, the thresholds, and the event to trigger.
6. Click Apply
Figure 242: Configuring an RMON Alarm
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Remote Monitoring
To show configured RMON alarms:
1. Click Administration, RMON.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
4. Click Alarm.
Figure 243: Showing Configured RMON Alarms
Configuring RMON Use the Administration > RMON (Configure Global - Add - Event) page to set the
Events action to take when an alarm is triggered. The response can include logging the
alarm or sending a message to a trap manager. Alarms and corresponding events
provide a way of immediately responding to critical network problems.
Command Usage
◆ If an alarm is already defined for an index, the entry must be deleted before any
changes can be made.
◆
One default event is configured as follows:
event Index = 1
Description: RMON_TRAP_LOG
Event type: log & trap
Event community name is public
Owner is RMON_SNMP
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Index – Index to this entry. (Range: 1-65535)
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Remote Monitoring
◆
◆
Type – Specifies the type of event to initiate:
■
None – No event is generated.
■
Log – Generates an RMON log entry when the event is triggered. Log
messages are processed based on the current configuration settings for
event logging (see “System Log Configuration” on page 316).
■
Trap – Sends a trap message to all configured trap managers (see
“Specifying Trap Managers” on page 368).
■
Log and Trap – Logs the event and sends a trap message.
Community – A password-like community string sent with the trap operation
to SNMP v1 and v2c hosts.
Although the community string can be set on this configuration page, it is
recommended that it be defined on the SNMP trap configuration page (see
“Setting Community Access Strings” on page 362) prior to configuring it here.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
◆
Description – A comment that describes this event. (Range: 1-127 characters)
◆
Owner – Name of the person who created this entry. (Range: 1-32 characters)
Web Interface
To configure an RMON event:
1. Click Administration, RMON.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Click Event.
5. Enter an index number, the type of event to initiate, the community string to
send with trap messages, the name of the person who created this event, and a
brief description of the event.
6. Click Apply
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Remote Monitoring
Figure 244: Configuring an RMON Event
To show configured RMON events:
1. Click Administration, RMON.
2. Select Configure Global from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
4. Click Event.
Figure 245: Showing Configured RMON Events
Configuring RMON Use the Administration > RMON (Configure Interface - Add - History) page to collect
History Samples statistics on a physical interface to monitor network utilization, packet types, and
errors. A historical record of activity can be used to track down intermittent
problems. The record can be used to establish normal baseline activity, which may
reveal problems associated with high traffic levels, broadcast storms, or other
unusual events. It can also be used to predict network growth and plan for
expansion before your network becomes too overloaded.
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Remote Monitoring
Command Usage
◆ Each index number equates to a port on the switch.
◆
If history collection is already enabled on an interface, the entry must be
deleted before any changes can be made.
◆
The information collected for each sample includes:
input octets, packets, broadcast packets, multicast packets, undersize packets,
oversize packets, fragments, jabbers, CRC alignment errors, collisions, drop
events, and network utilization.
For a description of the statistics displayed on the Show Details page, refer to
“Showing Port or Trunk Statistics” on page 100.
◆
The switch reserves two index entries for each port. If a default index entry is reassigned to another port using the Add page, this index will not appear in the
Show nor Show Details page for the port to which is normally assigned. For
example, if control entry 15 is assigned to port 5, this index entry will be
removed from the Show and Show Details page for port 8.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – The port number on the switch. (Range: 1-10/28)
◆
Index - Index to this entry. (Range: 1-65535)
◆
Interval - The polling interval. (Range: 1-3600 seconds; Default: 1800 seconds)
◆
Buckets - The number of buckets requested for this entry. (Range: 1-65536;
Default: 8)
The number of buckets granted are displayed on the Show page.
◆
Owner - Name of the person who created this entry. (Range: 1-32 characters)
Web Interface
To periodically sample statistics on a port:
1. Click Administration, RMON.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Click History.
5. Select a port from the list as the data source.
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Remote Monitoring
6. Enter an index number, the sampling interval, the number of buckets to use,
and the name of the owner for this entry.
7. Click Apply
Figure 246: Configuring an RMON History Sample
To show configured RMON history samples:
1. Click Administration, RMON.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
4. Select a port from the list.
5. Click History.
Figure 247: Showing Configured RMON History Samples
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Remote Monitoring
To show collected RMON history samples:
1. Click Administration, RMON.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Show Details from the Action list.
4. Select a port from the list.
5. Click History.
Figure 248: Showing Collected RMON History Samples
Configuring RMON Use the Administration > RMON (Configure Interface - Add - Statistics) page to
Statistical Samples collect statistics on a port, which can subsequently be used to monitor the network
for common errors and overall traffic rates.
Command Usage
◆ If statistics collection is already enabled on an interface, the entry must be
deleted before any changes can be made.
◆
The information collected for each entry includes:
input octets, packets, broadcast packets, multicast packets, undersize packets,
oversize packets, CRC alignment errors, jabbers, fragments, collisions, drop
events, and frames of various sizes.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Port – The port number on the switch. (Range: 1-10/28)
◆
Index - Index to this entry. (Range: 1-65535)
◆
Owner - Name of the person who created this entry. (Range: 1-32 characters)
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Remote Monitoring
Web Interface
To enable regular sampling of statistics on a port:
1. Click Administration, RMON.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Click Statistics.
5. Select a port from the list as the data source.
6. Enter an index number, and the name of the owner for this entry
7. Click Apply
Figure 249: Configuring an RMON Statistical Sample
To show configured RMON statistical samples:
1. Click Administration, RMON.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
4. Select a port from the list.
5. Click Statistics.
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Remote Monitoring
Figure 250: Showing Configured RMON Statistical Samples
To show collected RMON statistical samples:
1. Click Administration, RMON.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Show Details from the Action list.
4. Select a port from the list.
5. Click Statistics.
Figure 251: Showing Collected RMON Statistical Samples
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Setting a Time Range
Setting a Time Range
Use the Administration > Time Range page to set a time range during which
various functions are applied, including applied ACLs or PoE.
Command Usage
◆ If both an absolute rule and one or more periodic rules are configured for the
same time range (i.e., named entry), that entry will only take effect if the current
time is within the absolute time range and one of the periodic time ranges.
◆
A maximum of eight rules can be configured for a time range.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Add
◆
Time-Range Name – Name of a time range. (Range: 1-32 characters)
Add Rule
◆
Time-Range – Name of a time range.
◆
Mode
■
Absolute – Specifies a specific time or time range.
■
■
Start/End – Specifies the hours, minutes, month, day, and year at which
to start or end.
Periodic – Specifies a periodic interval.
■
Start/To – Specifies the days of the week, hours, and minutes at which
to start or end.
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
Setting a Time Range
Web Interface
To configure a time range:
1. Click Administration, Time Range.
2. Select Add from the Action list.
3. Enter the name of a time range.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 252: Setting the Name of a Time Range
To show a list of time ranges:
1. Click Administration, Time Range.
2. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 253: Showing a List of Time Ranges
To configure a rule for a time range:
1. Click Administration, Time Range.
2. Select Add Rule from the Action list.
3. Select the name of time range from the drop-down list.
4. Select a mode option of Absolute or Periodic.
5. Fill in the required parameters for the selected mode.
6. Click Apply.
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
LBD Configuration
Figure 254: Add a Rule to a Time Range
To show the rules configured for a time range:
1. Click Administration, Time Range.
2. Select Show Rule from the Action list.
Figure 255: Showing the Rules Configured for a Time Range
LBD Configuration
The switch can be configured to detect general loopback conditions caused by
hardware problems or faulty protocol settings. When enabled, a control frame is
transmitted on the participating ports, and the switch monitors inbound traffic to
see if the frame is looped back.
Usage Guidelines
◆ The default settings for the control frame transmit interval and recover time
may be adjusted to improve performance for your specific environment. The
shutdown mode may also need to be changed once you determine what kind
of packets are being looped back.
◆
General loopback detection provided by the commands described in this
section and loopback detection provided by the spanning tree protocol cannot
both be enabled at the same time. If loopback detection is enabled for the
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
LBD Configuration
spanning tree protocol, general loopback detection cannot be enabled on the
same interface.
◆
When a loopback event is detected on an interface or when a interface is
released from a shutdown state caused by a loopback event, a trap message is
sent and the event recorded in the system log.
◆
Loopback detection must be enabled both globally and on an interface for
loopback detection to take effect.
Configuring Global Use the Administration > LBD (Configure Global) page to enable loopback
Settings for LBD detection globally, specify the interval at which to transmit control frames, the
interval to wait before releasing an interface from shutdown state, the response to
a detected loopback, and the traps to send.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Global Status – Enables loopback detection globally on the switch.
(Default: Enabled)
◆
Transmit Interval – Specifies the interval at which to transmit loopback
detection control frames. (Range: 1-32767 seconds; Default: 10 seconds)
◆
Recover Time – Specifies the interval to wait before the switch automatically
releases an interface from shutdown state. (Range: 60-1,000,000 seconds;
Default: 60 seconds)
When the loopback detection mode is changed, any ports placed in shutdown
state by the loopback detection process will be immediately restored to
operation regardless of the remaining recover time.
If the recover time is not enabled (checkbox unmarked), all ports placed in
shutdown state can be restored to operation using the Release button. To
restore a specific port, re-enable Admin status on the Configure Interface page.
◆
Action – Specifies the protective action the switch takes when a loopback
condition is detected. (Options: None, Shutdown; Default: Shutdown)
■
None - No action is taken.
■
Shutdown – When the response to a detected loopback condition is set to
shut down a port, and a port receives a control frame sent by itself, this
means that the port is in looped state, and the VLAN in the frame payload is
also in looped state with the wrong VLAN tag. The looped port is therefore
shut down.
When the loopback detection response is changed, any ports placed in
shutdown state by the loopback detection process will be immediately
restored to operation regardless of the remaining recover time.
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
LBD Configuration
◆
◆
Trap – Sends a trap when a loopback condition is detected, or when the switch
recovers from a loopback condition. (Options: Both, Detect, None, Recover;
Default: None)
■
Both – Sends an SNMP trap message when a loopback condition is
detected, or when the switch recovers from a loopback condition.
■
Detect – Sends an SNMP trap message when a loopback condition is
detected.
■
None – Does not send an SNMP trap for loopback detection or recovery.
■
Recover – Sends an SNMP trap message when the switch recovers from a
loopback condition.
Release – Releases all interfaces currently shut down by the loopback
detection feature.
Web Interface
To configure global settings for LBD:
1. Click Administration, LBD, Configure Global.
2. Make the required configuration changes.
3. Click Apply.
Figure 256: Configuring Global Settings for LBD
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Chapter 13 | Basic Administration Protocols
LBD Configuration
Configuring Interface Use the Administration > LBD (Configure Interface) page to enable loopback
Settings for LBD detection on an interface, to display the loopback operational state, and the VLANs
which are looped back.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Interface – Displays a list of ports or trunks.
■
Port – Port Identifier. (Range: 1-10/28)
■
Trunk – Trunk Identifier. (Range: 1-8)
◆
Admin State – Manually enables or disables an interface. (Default: Enabled)
◆
Operation State – Valid states include Normal or Looped.
◆
Looped VLAN – Shows the VLANs which are in looped state.
Web Interface
To configure interface settings for LBD:
1. Click Administration, LBD, Configure Interface.
2. Make the required configuration changes.
3. Click Apply.
Figure 257: Configuring Interface Settings for LBD
– 392 –
14
Multicast Filtering
This chapter describes how to configure the following multicast services:
◆
IGMP Snooping – Configures snooping and query parameters.
◆
Filtering and Throttling – Filters specified multicast service, or throttles the
maximum of multicast groups allowed on an interface.
◆
MLD Snooping – Configures snooping and query parameters for IPv6.
Overview
Multicasting is used to support real-time applications such as video conferencing
or streaming audio. A multicast server does not have to establish a separate
connection with each client. It merely broadcasts its service to the network, and
any hosts that want to receive the multicast register with their local multicast
switch/router. Although this approach reduces the network overhead required by a
multicast server, the broadcast traffic must be carefully pruned at every multicast
switch/router it passes through to ensure that traffic is only passed on to the hosts
which subscribed to this service.
Figure 258: Multicast Filtering Concept
Unicast
Flow
Multicast
Flow
This switch can use Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) to filter multicast
traffic. IGMP Snooping can be used to passively monitor or “snoop” on exchanges
between attached hosts and an IGMP-enabled device, most commonly a multicast
router. In this way, the switch can discover the ports that want to join a multicast
group, and set its filters accordingly.
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Chapter 14 | Multicast Filtering
Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query for IPv4)
If there is no multicast router attached to the local subnet, multicast traffic and
query messages may not be received by the switch. In this case (Layer 2) IGMP
Query can be used to actively ask the attached hosts if they want to receive a
specific multicast service. IGMP Query thereby identifies the ports containing hosts
requesting to join the service and sends data out to those ports only. It then
propagates the service request up to any neighboring multicast switch/router to
ensure that it will continue to receive the multicast service.
The purpose of IP multicast filtering is to optimize a switched network’s
performance, so multicast packets will only be forwarded to those ports containing
multicast group hosts or multicast routers/switches, instead of flooding traffic to all
ports in the subnet (VLAN).
You can also configure a single network-wide multicast VLAN shared by hosts
residing in other standard or private VLAN groups, preserving security and data
isolation.
Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query for IPv4)
IGMP Snooping and Query – If multicast routing is not supported on other switches
in your network, you can use IGMP Snooping and IGMP Query (page 396) to
monitor IGMP service requests passing between multicast clients and servers, and
dynamically configure the switch ports which need to forward multicast traffic.
IGMP Snooping conserves bandwidth on network segments where no node has
expressed interest in receiving a specific multicast service. For switches that do not
support multicast routing, or where multicast routing is already enabled on other
switches in the local network segment, IGMP Snooping is the only service required
to support multicast filtering.
When using IGMPv3 snooping, service requests from IGMP Version 1, 2 or 3 hosts
are all forwarded to the upstream router as IGMPv3 reports. The primary
enhancement provided by IGMPv3 snooping is in keeping track of information
about the specific multicast sources which downstream IGMPv3 hosts have
requested or refused. The switch maintains information about both multicast
groups and channels, where a group indicates a multicast flow for which the hosts
have not requested a specific source (the only option for IGMPv1 and v2 hosts
unless statically configured on the switch), and a channel indicates a flow for which
the hosts have requested service from a specific source. For IGMPv1/v2 hosts, the
source address of a channel is always null (indicating that any source is acceptable),
but for IGMPv3 hosts, it may include a specific address when requested.
Only IGMPv3 hosts can request service from a specific multicast source. When
downstream hosts request service from a specific source for a multicast service,
these sources are all placed in the Include list, and traffic is forwarded to the hosts
from each of these sources. IGMPv3 hosts may also request that service be
forwarded from any source except for those specified. In this case, traffic is filtered
from sources in the Exclude list, and forwarded from all other available sources.
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Chapter 14 | Multicast Filtering
Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query for IPv4)
Note: When the switch is configured to use IGMPv3 snooping, the snooping
version may be downgraded to version 2 or version 1, depending on the version of
the IGMP query packets detected on each VLAN.
Note: IGMP snooping will not function unless a multicast router port is enabled on
the switch. This can accomplished in one of two ways. A static router port can be
manually configured (see “Specifying Static Interfaces for a Multicast Router” on
page 400). Using this method, the router port is never timed out, and will continue
to function until explicitly removed. The other method relies on the switch to
dynamically create multicast routing ports whenever multicast routing protocol
packets or IGMP query packets are detected on a port.
Note: A maximum of up to 1023 multicast entries can be maintained for IGMP
snooping. Once the table is full, no new entries are learned. Any subsequent
multicast traffic not found in the table is dropped if unregistered-flooding is
disabled (default behavior) and no router port is configured in the attached VLAN,
or flooded throughout the VLAN if unregistered-flooding is enabled (see
“Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query Parameters” on page 396).
Static IGMP Router Interface – If IGMP snooping cannot locate the IGMP querier,
you can manually designate a known IGMP querier (i.e., a multicast router/switch)
connected over the network to an interface on your switch (page 400). This
interface will then join all the current multicast groups supported by the attached
router/switch to ensure that multicast traffic is passed to all appropriate interfaces
within the switch.
Static IGMP Host Interface – For multicast applications that you need to control
more carefully, you can manually assign a multicast service to specific interfaces on
the switch (page 402).
IGMP Snooping with Proxy Reporting – The switch supports last leave, and query
suppression (as defined in DSL Forum TR-101, April 2006):
◆
When proxy reporting is disabled, all IGMP reports received by the switch are
forwarded natively to the upstream multicast routers.
◆
Last Leave: Intercepts, absorbs and summarizes IGMP leaves coming from IGMP
hosts. IGMP leaves are relayed upstream only when necessary, that is, when the
last user leaves a multicast group.
◆
Query Suppression: Intercepts and processes IGMP queries in such a way that
IGMP specific queries are never sent to client ports.
The only deviation from TR-101 is that the marking of IGMP traffic initiated by the
switch with priority bits as defined in R-250 is not supported.
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Chapter 14 | Multicast Filtering
Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query for IPv4)
Configuring IGMP Use the Multicast > IGMP Snooping > General page to configure the switch to
Snooping and Query forward multicast traffic intelligently. Based on the IGMP query and report
Parameters messages, the switch forwards multicast traffic only to the ports that request it. This
prevents the switch from broadcasting the traffic to all ports and possibly
disrupting network performance.
Command Usage
◆ IGMP Snooping – This switch can passively snoop on IGMP Query and Report
packets transferred between IP multicast routers/switches and IP multicast host
groups to identify the IP multicast group members. It simply monitors the IGMP
packets passing through it, picks out the group registration information, and
configures the multicast filters accordingly.
Note: If unknown multicast traffic enters a VLAN which has been configured with a
router port, the traffic is forwarded to that port. However, if no router port exists on
the VLAN, the traffic is dropped if unregistered data flooding is disabled (default
behavior), or flooded throughout the VLAN if unregistered data flooding is enabled
(see “Unregistered Data Flooding” in the Command Attributes section).
◆
IGMP Querier – A router, or multicast-enabled switch, can periodically ask their
hosts if they want to receive multicast traffic. If there is more than one router/
switch on the LAN performing IP multicasting, one of these devices is elected
“querier” and assumes the role of querying the LAN for group members. It then
propagates the service requests on to any upstream multicast switch/router to
ensure that it will continue to receive the multicast service.
Note: Multicast routers use this information from IGMP snooping and query
reports, along with a multicast routing protocol such as DVMRP or PIM, to support
IP multicasting across the Internet.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
IGMP Snooping Status – When enabled, the switch will monitor network
traffic to determine which hosts want to receive multicast traffic. This is referred
to as IGMP Snooping. (Default: Disabled)
When IGMP snooping is enabled globally, the per VLAN interface settings for
IGMP snooping take precedence (see “Setting IGMP Snooping Status
per Interface” on page 404).
When IGMP snooping is disabled globally, snooping can still be configured per
VLAN interface, but the interface settings will not take effect until snooping is
re-enabled globally.
◆
Proxy Reporting Status – Enables IGMP Snooping with Proxy Reporting.
(Default: Disabled)
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When proxy reporting is enabled with this command, the switch performs
“IGMP Snooping with Proxy Reporting” (as defined in DSL Forum TR-101, April
2006), including last leave, and query suppression.
Last leave sends out a proxy query when the last member leaves a multicast
group, and query suppression means that specific queries are not forwarded
from an upstream multicast router to hosts downstream from this device.
When proxy reporting is disabled, all IGMP reports received by the switch are
forwarded natively to the upstream multicast routers.
◆
TCN Flood – Enables flooding of multicast traffic if a spanning tree topology
change notification (TCN) occurs. (Default: Disabled)
When a spanning tree topology change occurs, the multicast membership
information learned by switch may be out of date. For example, a host linked to
one port before the topology change (TC) may be moved to another port after
the change. To ensure that multicast data is delivered to all receivers, by
default, a switch in a VLAN (with IGMP snooping enabled) that receives a Bridge
Protocol Data Unit (BPDU) with TC bit set (by the root bridge) will enter into
“multicast flooding mode” for a period of time until the topology has stabilized
and the new locations of all multicast receivers are learned.
If a topology change notification (TCN) is received, and all the uplink ports are
subsequently deleted, a time out mechanism is used to delete all of the
currently learned multicast channels.
When a new uplink port starts up, the switch sends unsolicited reports for all
currently learned channels out the new uplink port.
By default, the switch immediately enters into “multicast flooding mode” when
a spanning tree topology change occurs. In this mode, multicast traffic will be
flooded to all VLAN ports. If many ports have subscribed to different multicast
groups, flooding may cause excessive packet loss on the link between the
switch and the end host. Flooding may be disabled to avoid this, causing
multicast traffic to be delivered only to those ports on which multicast group
members have been learned. Otherwise, the time spent in flooding mode can
be manually configured to reduce excessive loading.
When the spanning tree topology changes, the root bridge sends a proxy
query to quickly re-learn the host membership/port relations for multicast
channels. The root bridge also sends an unsolicited Multicast Router Discover
(MRD) request to quickly locate the multicast routers in this VLAN.
The proxy query and unsolicited MRD request are flooded to all VLAN ports
except for the receiving port when the switch receives such packets.
◆
TCN Query Solicit – Sends out an IGMP general query solicitation when a
spanning tree topology change notification (TCN) occurs. (Default: Disabled)
When the root bridge in a spanning tree receives a TCN for a VLAN where IGMP
snooping is enabled, it issues a global IGMP leave message (or query
solicitation). When a switch receives this solicitation, it floods it to all ports in
the VLAN where the spanning tree change occurred. When an upstream
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multicast router receives this solicitation, it immediately issues an IGMP general
query.
A query solicitation can be sent whenever the switch notices a topology
change, even if it is not the root bridge in spanning tree.
◆
Router Alert Option – Discards any IGMPv2/v3 packets that do not include the
Router Alert option. (Default: Disabled)
As described in Section 9.1 of RFC 3376 for IGMP Version 3, the Router Alert
Option can be used to protect against DOS attacks. One common method of
attack is launched by an intruder who takes over the role of querier, and starts
overloading multicast hosts by sending a large number of group-and-sourcespecific queries, each with a large source list and the Maximum Response Time
set to a large value.
To protect against this kind of attack, (1) routers should not forward queries.
This is easier to accomplish if the query carries the Router Alert option. (2) Also,
when the switch is acting in the role of a multicast host (such as when using
proxy routing), it should ignore version 2 or 3 queries that do not contain the
Router Alert option.
◆
Unregistered Data Flooding – Floods unregistered multicast traffic into the
attached VLAN. (Default: Disabled)
Once the table used to store multicast entries for IGMP snooping and multicast
routing is filled, no new entries are learned. If no router port is configured in the
attached VLAN, and unregistered-flooding is disabled, any subsequent
multicast traffic not found in the table is dropped, otherwise it is flooded
throughout the VLAN.
◆
Forwarding Priority – Assigns a CoS priority to all multicast traffic. (Range: 0-7,
where 7 is the highest priority; Default: Disabled)
This parameter can be used to set a high priority for low-latency multicast
traffic such as a video-conference, or to set a low priority for normal multicast
traffic not sensitive to latency.
◆
Version Exclusive – Discards any received IGMP messages which use a version
different to that currently configured by the IGMP Version attribute. (Default:
Disabled)
◆
IGMP Unsolicited Report Interval – Specifies how often the upstream
interface should transmit unsolicited IGMP reports when proxy reporting is
enabled. (Range: 1-65535 seconds, Default: 400 seconds)
When a new upstream interface (that is, uplink port) starts up, the switch sends
unsolicited reports for all currently learned multicast channels via the new
upstream interface.
This command only applies when proxy reporting is enabled.
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◆
Router Port Expire Time – The time the switch waits after the previous querier
stops before it considers it to have expired. (Range: 1-65535, Recommended
Range: 300-500 seconds, Default: 300)
◆
IGMP Snooping Version – Sets the protocol version for compatibility with
other devices on the network. This is the IGMP Version the switch uses to send
snooping reports. (Range: 1-3; Default: 2)
This attribute configures the IGMP report/query version used by IGMP
snooping. Versions 1 - 3 are all supported, and versions 2 and 3 are backward
compatible, so the switch can operate with other devices, regardless of the
snooping version employed.
◆
Querier Status – When enabled, the switch can serve as the Querier, which is
responsible for asking hosts if they want to receive multicast traffic. This feature
is not supported for IGMPv3 snooping. (Default: Disabled)
Web Interface
To configure general settings for IGMP Snooping and Query:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, General.
2. Adjust the IGMP settings as required.
3. Click Apply.
Figure 259: Configuring General Settings for IGMP Snooping
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Specifying Static Use the Multicast > IGMP Snooping > Multicast Router (Add Static Multicast Router)
Interfaces for a page to statically attach an interface to a multicast router/switch.
Multicast Router
Depending on network connections, IGMP snooping may not always be able to
locate the IGMP querier. Therefore, if the IGMP querier is a known multicast router/
switch connected over the network to an interface (port or trunk) on the switch, the
interface (and a specified VLAN) can be manually configured to join all the current
multicast groups supported by the attached router. This can ensure that multicast
traffic is passed to all the appropriate interfaces within the switch.
Command Usage
IGMP Snooping must be enabled globally on the switch (see “Configuring IGMP
Snooping and Query Parameters” on page 396) before a multicast router port can
take effect.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Add Static Multicast Router
◆
VLAN – Selects the VLAN which is to propagate all multicast traffic coming
from the attached multicast router. (Range: 1-4094)
◆
Interface – Activates the Port or Trunk scroll down list.
◆
Port or Trunk – Specifies the interface attached to a multicast router.
Show Static Multicast Router
◆
VLAN – Selects the VLAN for which to display any configured static multicast
routers.
◆
Interface – Shows the interface to which the specified static multicast routers
are attached.
Show Current Multicast Router
◆
VLAN – Selects the VLAN for which to display any currently active multicast
routers.
◆
Interface – Shows the interface to which an active multicast router is attached.
◆
Type – Shows if this entry is static or dynamic.
◆
Expire – Time until this dynamic entry expires.
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Web Interface
To specify a static interface attached to a multicast router:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Multicast Router.
2. Select Add Static Multicast Router from the Action list.
3. Select the VLAN which will forward all the corresponding multicast traffic, and
select the port or trunk attached to the multicast router.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 260: Configuring a Static Interface for a Multicast Router
To show the static interfaces attached to a multicast router:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Multicast Router.
2. Select Show Static Multicast Router from the Action list.
3. Select the VLAN for which to display this information.
Figure 261: Showing Static Interfaces Attached a Multicast Router
Multicast routers that are attached to ports on the switch use information obtained
from IGMP, along with a multicast routing protocol (such as PIM) to support IP
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multicasting across the Internet. These routers may be dynamically discovered by
the switch or statically assigned to an interface on the switch.
To show the all interfaces attached to a multicast router:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Multicast Router.
2. Select Current Multicast Router from the Action list.
3. Select the VLAN for which to display this information. Ports in the selected
VLAN which are attached to a neighboring multicast router/switch are
displayed.
Figure 262: Showing Current Interfaces Attached a Multicast Router
Assigning Interfaces Use the Multicast > IGMP Snooping > IGMP Member (Add Static Member) page to
to Multicast Services statically assign a multicast service to an interface.
Multicast filtering can be dynamically configured using IGMP Snooping and IGMP
Query messages (see “Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query Parameters” on
page 396). However, for certain applications that require tighter control, it may be
necessary to statically configure a multicast service on the switch. First add all the
ports attached to participating hosts to a common VLAN, and then assign the
multicast service to that VLAN group.
Command Usage
◆ Static multicast addresses are never aged out.
◆
When a multicast address is assigned to an interface in a specific VLAN, the
corresponding traffic can only be forwarded to ports within that VLAN.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
VLAN – Specifies the VLAN which is to propagate the multicast service.
(Range: 1-4094)
◆
Interface – Activates the Port or Trunk scroll down list.
◆
Port or Trunk – Specifies the interface assigned to a multicast group.
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◆
Multicast IP – The IP address for a specific multicast service.
Web Interface
To statically assign an interface to a multicast service:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, IGMP Member.
2. Select Add Static Member from the Action list.
3. Select the VLAN that will propagate the multicast service, specify the interface
attached to a multicast service (through an IGMP-enabled switch or multicast
router), and enter the multicast IP address.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 263: Assigning an Interface to a Multicast Service
To show the static interfaces assigned to a multicast service:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, IGMP Member.
2. Select Show Static Member from the Action list.
3. Select the VLAN for which to display this information.
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Figure 264: Showing Static Interfaces Assigned to a Multicast Service
Setting IGMP Use the Multicast > IGMP Snooping > Interface (Configure VLAN) page to configure
Snooping Status IGMP snooping attributes for a VLAN. To configure snooping globally, refer to
per Interface “Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query Parameters” on page 396.
Command Usage
Multicast Router Discovery
There have been many mechanisms used in the past to identify multicast routers.
This has lead to interoperability issues between multicast routers and snooping
switches from different vendors. In response to this problem, the Multicast Router
Discovery (MRD) protocol has been developed for use by IGMP snooping and
multicast routing devices. MRD is used to discover which interfaces are attached to
multicast routers, allowing IGMP-enabled devices to determine where to send
multicast source and group membership messages. (MRD is specified in draft-ietfmagma-mrdisc-07.)
Multicast source data and group membership reports must be received by all
multicast routers on a segment. Using the group membership protocol query
messages to discover multicast routers is insufficient due to query suppression.
MRD therefore provides a standardized way to identify multicast routers without
relying on any particular multicast routing protocol.
Note: The default values recommended in the MRD draft are implemented in the
switch.
Multicast Router Discovery uses the following three message types to discover
multicast routers:
◆
Multicast Router Advertisement – Advertisements are sent by routers to
advertise that IP multicast forwarding is enabled. These messages are sent
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unsolicited periodically on all router interfaces on which multicast forwarding
is enabled. They are sent upon the occurrence of these events:
■
Upon the expiration of a periodic (randomized) timer.
■
As a part of a router's start up procedure.
■
During the restart of a multicast forwarding interface.
■
On receipt of a Solicitation message.
◆
Multicast Router Solicitation – Devices send Solicitation messages in order to
solicit Advertisement messages from multicast routers. These messages are
used to discover multicast routers on a directly attached link. Solicitation
messages are also sent whenever a multicast forwarding interface is initialized
or re-initialized. Upon receiving a solicitation on an interface with IP multicast
forwarding and MRD enabled, a router will respond with an Advertisement.
◆
Multicast Router Termination – These messages are sent when a router stops IP
multicast routing functions on an interface. Termination messages are sent by
multicast routers when:
■
Multicast forwarding is disabled on an interface.
■
An interface is administratively disabled.
■
The router is gracefully shut down.
Advertisement and Termination messages are sent to the All-Snoopers multicast
address. Solicitation messages are sent to the All-Routers multicast address.
Note: MRD messages are flooded to all ports in a VLAN where IGMP snooping or
routing has been enabled. To ensure that older switches which do not support MRD
can also learn the multicast router port, the switch floods IGMP general query
packets, which do not have a null source address (0.0.0.0), to all ports in the
attached VLAN. IGMP packets with a null source address are only flooded to all
ports in the VLAN if the system is operating in multicast flooding mode, such as
when a new VLAN or new router port is being established, or an spanning tree
topology change has occurred. Otherwise, this kind of packet is only forwarded to
known multicast routing ports.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
VLAN – ID of configured VLANs. (Range: 1-4094)
◆
IGMP Snooping Status – When enabled, the switch will monitor network
traffic on the indicated VLAN interface to determine which hosts want to
receive multicast traffic. This is referred to as IGMP Snooping.
(Default: Disabled)
When IGMP snooping is enabled globally (see page 396), the per VLAN
interface settings for IGMP snooping take precedence.
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When IGMP snooping is disabled globally, snooping can still be configured per
VLAN interface, but the interface settings will not take effect until snooping is
re-enabled globally.
◆
Version Exclusive – Discards any received IGMP messages (except for multicast
protocol packets) which use a version different to that currently configured by
the IGMP Version attribute. (Options: Enabled, Using Global Status;
Default: Using Global Status)
If version exclusive is disabled on a VLAN, then this setting is based on the
global setting configured on the Multicast > IGMP Snooping > General page. If
it is enabled on a VLAN, then this setting takes precedence over the global
setting.
◆
Immediate Leave Status – Immediately deletes a member port of a multicast
service if a leave packet is received at that port and immediate leave is enabled
for the parent VLAN. (Default: Disabled)
If immediate leave is not used, a multicast router (or querier) will send a groupspecific query message when an IGMPv2 group leave message is received. The
router/querier stops forwarding traffic for that group only if no host replies to
the query within the specified time out period. Note that this time out is set to
Last Member Query Interval * Robustness Variable (fixed at 2) as defined in RFC
2236.
If immediate leave is enabled, the switch assumes that only one host is
connected to the interface. Therefore, immediate leave should only be enabled
on an interface if it is connected to only one IGMP-enabled device, either a
service host or a neighbor running IGMP snooping.
This attribute is only effective if IGMP snooping is enabled, and IGMPv2 or
IGMPv3 snooping is used.
If immediate leave is enabled, the following options are provided:
■
By Group – The switch assumes that only one host is connected to the
interface. Therefore, immediate leave should only be enabled on an
interface if it is connected to only one IGMP-enabled device, either a
service host or a neighbor running IGMP snooping.
■
By Host IP – The switch will not send out a group-specific query when an
IGMPv2/v3 leave message is received. But will check if there are other hosts
joining the multicast group. Only when all hosts on that port leave the
group will the member port be deleted.
◆
Multicast Router Discovery – MRD is used to discover which interfaces are
attached to multicast routers. (Default: Disabled)
◆
General Query Suppression – Suppresses general queries except for ports
attached to downstream multicast hosts. (Default: Disabled)
By default, general query messages are flooded to all ports, except for the
multicast router through which they are received.
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If general query suppression is enabled, then these messages are forwarded
only to downstream ports which have joined a multicast service.
◆
Proxy Reporting – Enables IGMP Snooping with Proxy Reporting.
(Options: Enabled, Disabled, Using Global Status; Default: Using Global Status)
When proxy reporting is enabled with this command, the switch performs
“IGMP Snooping with Proxy Reporting” (as defined in DSL Forum TR-101, April
2006), including last leave, and query suppression.
Last leave sends out a proxy query when the last member leaves a multicast
group, and query suppression means that specific queries are not forwarded
from an upstream multicast router to hosts downstream from this device.
Rules Used for Proxy Reporting
When IGMP Proxy Reporting is disabled, the switch will use a null IP address for
the source of IGMP query and report messages unless a proxy query address
has been set.
When IGMP Proxy Reporting is enabled, the source address is based on the
following criteria:
◆
■
If a proxy query address is configured, the switch will use that address as
the source IP address in general and group-specific query messages sent to
downstream hosts, and in report and leave messages sent upstream from
the multicast router port.
■
If a proxy query address is not configured, the switch will use the VLAN’s IP
address as the IP source address in general and group-specific query
messages sent downstream, and use the source address of the last IGMP
message received from a downstream host in report and leave messages
sent upstream from the multicast router port.
Interface Version – Sets the protocol version for compatibility with other
devices on the network. This is the IGMP Version the switch uses to send
snooping reports. (Options: 1-3, Using Global Version; Default: Using Global
Version)
This attribute configures the IGMP report/query version used by IGMP
snooping. Versions 1 - 3 are all supported, and versions 2 and 3 are backward
compatible, so the switch can operate with other devices, regardless of the
snooping version employed.
◆
Query Interval – The interval between sending IGMP general queries.
(Range: 2-31744 seconds; Default: 125 seconds)
An IGMP general query message is sent by the switch at the interval specified
by this attribute. When this message is received by downstream hosts, all
receivers build an IGMP report for the multicast groups they have joined.
This attribute applies when the switch is serving as the querier (page 396), or as
a proxy host when IGMP snooping proxy reporting is enabled (page 396).
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◆
Query Response Interval – The maximum time the system waits for a
response to general queries. (Range: 10-31740 tenths of a second in multiples
of 10; Default: 10 seconds)
This attribute applies when the switch is serving as the querier (page 396), or as
a proxy host when IGMP snooping proxy reporting is enabled (page 396).
◆
Last Member Query Interval – The interval to wait for a response to a groupspecific or group-and-source-specific query message. (Range: 1-31744 tenths
of a second in multiples of 10; Default: 1 second)
When a multicast host leaves a group, it sends an IGMP leave message. When
the leave message is received by the switch, it checks to see if this host is the
last to leave the group by sending out an IGMP group-specific or group-andsource-specific query message, and starts a timer. If no reports are received
before the timer expires, the group record is deleted, and a report is sent to the
upstream multicast router.
A reduced value will result in reduced time to detect the loss of the last
member of a group or source, but may generate more burst traffic.
This attribute will take effect only if IGMP snooping proxy reporting is enabled
(page 396) or IGMP querier is enabled (page 396).
◆
Last Member Query Count – The number of IGMP proxy group-specific or
group-and-source-specific query messages that are sent out before the system
assumes there are no more local members. (Range: 1-255; Default: 2)
This attribute will take effect only if IGMP snooping proxy reporting or IGMP
querier is enabled.
◆
Proxy Query Address – A static source address for locally generated query and
report messages used by IGMP Proxy Reporting. (Range: Any valid IP unicast
address; Default: 0.0.0.0)
IGMP Snooping uses a null IP address of 0.0.0.0 for the source of IGMP query
messages which are proxied to downstream hosts to indicate that it is not the
elected querier, but is only proxying these messages as defined in RFC 4541.
The switch also uses a null address in IGMP reports sent to upstream ports.
Many hosts do not implement RFC 4541, and therefore do not understand
query messages with the source address of 0.0.0.0. These hosts will therefore
not reply to the queries, causing the multicast router to stop sending traffic to
them.
To resolve this problem, the source address in proxied IGMP query messages
can be replaced with any valid unicast address (other than the router’s own
address).
Web Interface
To configure IGMP snooping on a VLAN:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Interface.
2. Select Configure VLAN from the Action list.
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3. Select the VLAN to configure and update the required parameters.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 265: Configuring IGMP Snooping on a VLAN
To show the interface settings for IGMP snooping:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Interface.
2. Select Show VLAN Information from the Action list.
Figure 266: Showing Interface Settings for IGMP Snooping
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Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query for IPv4)
Filtering IGMP Query Use the Multicast > IGMP Snooping > Interface (Configure Interface) page to
Packets and Multicast configure an interface to drop IGMP query packets or multicast data packets.
Data
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Interface – Port or Trunk identifier.
◆
IGMP Query Drop – Configures an interface to drop any IGMP query packets
received on the specified interface. If this switch is acting as a Querier, this
prevents it from being affected by messages received from another Querier.
◆
Multicast Data Drop – Configures an interface to stop multicast services from
being forwarded to users attached to the downstream port (i.e., the interfaces
specified by this command).
Web Interface
To drop IGMP query packets or multicast data packets:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Interface.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Action list.
3. Select Port or Trunk interface.
4. Enable the required drop functions for any interface.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 267: Dropping IGMP Query or Multicast Data Packets
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Displaying Multicast Use the Multicast > IGMP Snooping > Forwarding Entry page to display the
Groups Discovered forwarding entries learned through IGMP Snooping.
by IGMP Snooping
Command Usage
To display information about multicast groups, IGMP Snooping must first be
enabled on the switch (see page 396).
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
VLAN – An interface on the switch that is forwarding traffic to downstream
ports for the specified multicast group address.
◆
Group Address – IP multicast group address with subscribers directly attached
or downstream from the switch, or a static multicast group assigned to this
interface.
◆
Interface – A downstream port or trunk that is receiving traffic for the specified
multicast group. This field may include both dynamically and statically
configured multicast router ports.
◆
Up Time – Time that this multicast group has been known.
◆
Expire – Time until this entry expires.
◆
Count – The number of times this address has been learned by IGMP snooping.
Web Interface
To show multicast groups learned through IGMP snooping:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Forwarding Entry.
Figure 268: Showing Multicast Groups Learned by IGMP Snooping
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Displaying IGMP Use the Multicast > IGMP Snooping > Statistics pages to display IGMP snooping
Snooping Statistics protocol-related statistics for the specified interface.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
VLAN – VLAN identifier. (Range: 1-4094)
◆
Port – Port identifier. (Range: 1-10/28)
◆
Trunk – Trunk identifier. (Range: 1-8)
Query Statistics
◆
Other Querier – IP address of remote querier on this interface.
◆
Other Querier Expire – Time after which remote querier is assumed to have
expired.
◆
Other Querier Uptime – Time remote querier has been up.
◆
Self Querier – IP address of local querier on this interface.
◆
Self Querier Expire – Time after which local querier is assumed to have
expired.
◆
Self Querier Uptime – Time local querier has been up.
◆
General Query Received – The number of general queries received on this
interface.
◆
General Query Sent – The number of general queries sent from this interface.
◆
Specific Query Received – The number of specific queries received on this
interface.
◆
Specific Query Sent – The number of specific queries sent from this interface.
◆
Warn Rate Limit – The rate at which received query messages of the wrong
version type cause the Vx warning count to increment. Note that “0 sec” means
that the Vx warning count is incremented for each wrong message version
received.
◆
V1 Warning Count – The number of times the query version received
(Version 1) does not match the version configured for this interface.
◆
V2 Warning Count – The number of times the query version received
(Version 2) does not match the version configured for this interface.
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◆
V3 Warning Count – The number of times the query version received
(Version 3) does not match the version configured for this interface.
VLAN, Port, and Trunk Statistics
Input Statistics
◆
Report – The number of IGMP membership reports received on this interface.
◆
Leave – The number of leave messages received on this interface.
◆
G Query – The number of general query messages received on this interface.
◆
G(-S)-S Query – The number of group specific or group-and-source specific
query messages received on this interface.
◆
Drop – The number of times a report, leave or query was dropped. Packets may
be dropped due to invalid format, rate limiting, packet content not allowed, or
IGMP group report received.
◆
Join Success – The number of times a multicast group was successfully joined.
◆
Group – The number of IGMP groups active on this interface.
Output Statistics
◆
Report – The number of IGMP membership reports sent from this interface.
◆
Leave – The number of leave messages sent from this interface.
◆
G Query – The number of general query messages sent from this interface.
◆
G(-S)-S Query – The number of group specific or group-and-source specific
query messages sent from this interface.
Web Interface
To display statistics for IGMP snooping query-related messages:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Statistics.
2. Select Show Query Statistics from the Action list.
3. Select a VLAN.
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Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query for IPv4)
Figure 269: Displaying IGMP Snooping Statistics – Query
To display IGMP snooping protocol-related statistics for a VLAN:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Statistics.
2. Select Show VLAN Statistics from the Action list.
3. Select a VLAN.
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Chapter 14 | Multicast Filtering
Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query for IPv4)
Figure 270: Displaying IGMP Snooping Statistics – VLAN
To display IGMP snooping protocol-related statistics for a port:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Statistics.
2. Select Show Port Statistics from the Action list.
3. Select a Port.
Figure 271: Displaying IGMP Snooping Statistics – Port
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Chapter 14 | Multicast Filtering
Filtering and Throttling IGMP Groups
Filtering and Throttling IGMP Groups
In certain switch applications, the administrator may want to control the multicast
services that are available to end users. For example, an IP/TV service based on a
specific subscription plan. The IGMP filtering feature fulfills this requirement by
restricting access to specified multicast services on a switch port, and IGMP
throttling limits the number of simultaneous multicast groups a port can join.
IGMP filtering enables you to assign a profile to a switch port that specifies
multicast groups that are permitted or denied on the port. An IGMP filter profile
can contain one or more addresses, or a range of multicast addresses; but only one
profile can be assigned to a port. When enabled, IGMP join reports received on the
port are checked against the filter profile. If a requested multicast group is
permitted, the IGMP join report is forwarded as normal. If a requested multicast
group is denied, the IGMP join report is dropped.
IGMP throttling sets a maximum number of multicast groups that a port can join at
the same time. When the maximum number of groups is reached on a port, the
switch can take one of two actions; either “deny” or “replace.” If the action is set to
deny, any new IGMP join reports will be dropped. If the action is set to replace, the
switch randomly removes an existing group and replaces it with the new multicast
group.
Enabling IGMP Use the Multicast > IGMP Snooping > Filter (Configure General) page to enable
Filtering and IGMP filtering and throttling globally on the switch.
Throttling
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
IGMP Filter Status – Enables IGMP filtering and throttling globally for the
switch. (Default: Disabled)
Web Interface
To enable IGMP filtering and throttling on the switch:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Filter.
2. Select Configure General from the Step list.
3. Enable IGMP Filter Status.
4. Click Apply.
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Filtering and Throttling IGMP Groups
Figure 272: Enabling IGMP Filtering and Throttling
Configuring IGMP Use the Multicast > IGMP Snooping > Filter (Configure Profile – Add) page to create
Filter Profiles an IGMP profile and set its access mode. Then use the (Add Multicast Group Range)
page to configure the multicast groups to filter.
Command Usage
Specify a range of multicast groups by entering a start and end IP address; or
specify a single multicast group by entering the same IP address for the start and
end of the range.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Add
◆
Profile ID – Creates an IGMP profile. (Range: 1-4294967295)
◆
Access Mode – Sets the access mode of the profile; either permit or deny.
(Default: Deny)
When the access mode is set to permit, IGMP join reports are processed when a
multicast group falls within the controlled range. When the access mode is set
to deny, IGMP join reports are only processed when the multicast group is not
in the controlled range.
Add Multicast Group Range
◆
Profile ID – Selects an IGMP profile to configure.
◆
Start Multicast IP Address – Specifies the starting address of a range of
multicast groups.
◆
End Multicast IP Address – Specifies the ending address of a range of
multicast groups.
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Filtering and Throttling IGMP Groups
Web Interface
To create an IGMP filter profile and set its access mode:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Filter.
2. Select Configure Profile from the Step list.
3. Select Add from the Action list.
4. Enter the number for a profile, and set its access mode.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 273: Creating an IGMP Filtering Profile
To show the IGMP filter profiles:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Filter.
2. Select Configure Profile from the Step list.
3. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 274: Showing the IGMP Filtering Profiles Created
To add a range of multicast groups to an IGMP filter profile:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Filter.
2. Select Configure Profile from the Step list.
3. Select Add Multicast Group Range from the Action list.
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Filtering and Throttling IGMP Groups
4. Select the profile to configure, and add a multicast group address or range of
addresses.
5. Click Apply.
Figure 275: Adding Multicast Groups to an IGMP Filtering Profile
To show the multicast groups configured for an IGMP filter profile:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Filter.
2. Select Configure Profile from the Step list.
3. Select Show Multicast Group Range from the Action list.
4. Select the profile for which to display this information.
Figure 276: Showing the Groups Assigned to an IGMP Filtering Profile
Configuring IGMP
Filtering and
Throttling for
Interfaces
Use the Multicast > IGMP Snooping > Filter (Configure Interface) page to assign and
IGMP filter profile to interfaces on the switch, or to throttle multicast traffic by
limiting the maximum number of multicast groups an interface can join at the
same time.
Command Usage
◆ IGMP throttling sets a maximum number of multicast groups that a port can
join at the same time. When the maximum number of groups is reached on a
port, the switch can take one of two actions; either “deny” or “replace.” If the
action is set to deny, any new IGMP join reports will be dropped. If the action is
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Chapter 14 | Multicast Filtering
Filtering and Throttling IGMP Groups
set to replace, the switch randomly removes an existing group and replaces it
with the new multicast group.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Interface – Port or trunk identifier.
An IGMP profile or throttling setting can be applied to a port or trunk. When
ports are configured as trunk members, the trunk uses the settings applied to
the first port member in the trunk.
◆
Profile ID – Selects an existing profile to assign to an interface.
◆
Max Multicast Groups – Sets the maximum number of multicast groups an
interface can join at the same time. (Range: 1-511; Default: 511)
◆
Current Multicast Groups – Displays the current multicast groups the
interface has joined.
◆
Throttling Action Mode – Sets the action to take when the maximum number
of multicast groups for the interface has been exceeded. (Default: Deny)
◆
■
Deny - The new multicast group join report is dropped.
■
Replace - The new multicast group replaces an existing group.
Throttling Status – Indicates if the throttling action has been implemented on
the interface. (Options: True or False)
Web Interface
To configure IGMP filtering or throttling for a port or trunk:
1. Click Multicast, IGMP Snooping, Filter.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select a profile to assign to an interface, then set the maximum number of
allowed multicast groups and the throttling response.
4. Click Apply.
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Chapter 14 | Multicast Filtering
MLD Snooping (Snooping and Query for IPv4)
Figure 277: Configuring IGMP Filtering and Throttling Interface Settings
MLD Snooping (Snooping and Query for IPv4)
Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) snooping operates on IPv6 traffic and performs
a similar function to IGMP snooping for IPv4. That is, MLD snooping dynamically
configures switch ports to limit IPv6 multicast traffic so that it is forwarded only to
ports with users that want to receive it. This reduces the flooding of IPv6 multicast
packets in the specified VLANs.
There are two versions of the MLD protocol, version 1 and version 2. MLDv1 control
packets include Listener Query, Listener Report, and Listener Done messages
(equivalent to IGMPv2 query, report, and leave messages). MLDv2 control packets
include MLDv2 query and report messages, as well as MLDv1 report and done
messages.
Remember that IGMP Snooping and MLD Snooping are independent functions,
and can therefore both function at the same time.
Configuring MLD Use the Multicast > MLD Snooping > General page to configure the switch to
Snooping and Query forward multicast traffic intelligently. Based on the MLD query and report
Parameters messages, the switch forwards multicast traffic only to the ports that request it. This
prevents the switch from broadcasting the traffic to all ports and possibly
disrupting network performance.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
MLD Snooping Status – When enabled, the switch will monitor network traffic
to determine which hosts want to receive multicast traffic. (Default: Disabled)
◆
Querier Status – When enabled, the switch can serve as the querier for MLDv2
snooping if elected. The querier is responsible for asking hosts if they want to
receive multicast traffic. (Default: Disabled)
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Chapter 14 | Multicast Filtering
MLD Snooping (Snooping and Query for IPv4)
An IPv6 address must be configured on the VLAN interface from which the
querier will act if elected. When serving as the querier, the switch uses this IPv6
address as the query source address.
The querier will not start or will disable itself after having started if it detects an
IPv6 multicast router on the network.
◆
Robustness – MLD Snooping robustness variable. A port will be removed from
the receiver list for a multicast service when no MLD reports are detected in
response to a number of MLD queries. The robustness variable sets the number
of queries on ports for which there is no report. (Range: 2-10 Default: 2)
◆
Query Interval – The interval between sending MLD general queries.
(Range: 60-125 seconds; Default: 125 seconds)
This attribute applies when the switch is serving as the querier.
An MLD general query message is sent by the switch at the interval specified by
this attribute. When this message is received by downstream hosts, all receivers
build an MLD report for the multicast groups they have joined.
◆
Query Max Response Time – The maximum response time advertised in MLD
general queries. (Range: 5-25 seconds; Default: 10 seconds)
This attribute controls how long the host has to respond to an MLD Query
message before the switch deletes the group if it is the last member.
◆
Router Port Expiry Time – The time the switch waits after the previous querier
stops before it considers the router port (i.e., the interface that had been
receiving query packets) to have expired. (Range: 300-500 seconds;
Default: 300 seconds)
◆
MLD Snooping Version – The protocol version used for compatibility with
other devices on the network. This is the MLD version the switch uses to send
snooping reports. (Range: 1-2; Default: 2)
◆
Unknown Multicast Mode – The action for dealing with unknown multicast
packets. Options include:
■
Flood – Floods any received IPv6 multicast packets that have not been
requested by a host to all ports in the VLAN.
■
To Router Port – Forwards any received IPv6 multicast packets that have
not been requested by a host to ports that are connected to a detected
multicast router. (This is the default action.)
Web Interface
To configure general settings for MLD Snooping:
1. Click Multicast, MLD Snooping, General.
2. Adjust the settings as required.
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MLD Snooping (Snooping and Query for IPv4)
3. Click Apply.
Figure 278: Configuring General Settings for MLD Snooping
Setting Immediate Use the Multicast > MLD Snooping > Interface page to configure Immediate Leave
Leave Status for status for a VLAN.
MLD Snooping
per Interface Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
VLAN – A VLAN identification number. (Range: 1-4094)
◆
Immediate Leave Status – Immediately deletes a member port of an IPv6
multicast service when a leave packet is received at that port and immediate
leave is enabled for the parent VLAN. (Default: Disabled)
If MLD immediate-leave is not used, a multicast router (or querier) will send a
group-specific query message when an MLD group leave message is received.
The router/querier stops forwarding traffic for that group only if no host replies
to the query within the specified timeout period.
If MLD immediate-leave is enabled, the switch assumes that only one host is
connected to the interface. Therefore, immediate leave should only be enabled
on an interface if it is connected to only one MLD-enabled device, either a
service host or a neighbor running MLD snooping.
Web Interface
To configure immediate leave for MLD Snooping:
1. Click Multicast, MLD Snooping, Interface.
2. Select a VLAN, and set the status for immediate leave.
3. Click Apply.
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Chapter 14 | Multicast Filtering
MLD Snooping (Snooping and Query for IPv4)
Figure 279: Configuring Immediate Leave for MLD Snooping
Specifying Static Use the Multicast > MLD Snooping > Multicast Router (Add Static Multicast Router)
Interfaces for an page to statically attach an interface to an IPv6 multicast router/switch.
IPv6 Multicast Router
Depending on your network connections, MLD snooping may not always be able
to locate the MLD querier. Therefore, if the MLD querier is a known multicast router/
switch connected over the network to an interface (port or trunk) on the switch,
you can manually configure that interface to join all the current multicast groups.
Command Usage
MLD Snooping must be enabled globally on the switch (see “Configuring MLD
Snooping and Query Parameters” on page 421) before a multicast router port can
take effect.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
VLAN – Selects the VLAN which is to propagate all IPv6 multicast traffic coming
from the attached multicast router. (Range: 1-4094)
◆
Interface – Activates the Port or Trunk scroll down list.
◆
Port or Trunk – Specifies the interface attached to a multicast router.
Web Interface
To specify a static interface attached to a multicast router:
1. Click Multicast, MLD Snooping, Multicast Router.
2. Select Add Static Multicast Router from the Action list.
3. Select the VLAN which will forward all the corresponding IPv6 multicast traffic,
and select the port or trunk attached to the multicast router.
4. Click Apply.
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Chapter 14 | Multicast Filtering
MLD Snooping (Snooping and Query for IPv4)
Figure 280: Configuring a Static Interface for an IPv6 Multicast Router
To show the static interfaces attached to a multicast router:
1. Click Multicast, MLD Snooping, Multicast Router.
2. Select Show Static Multicast Router from the Action list.
3. Select the VLAN for which to display this information.
Figure 281: Showing Static Interfaces Attached an IPv6 Multicast Router
To show all the interfaces attached to a multicast router:
1. Click Multicast, MLD Snooping, Multicast Router.
2. Select Current Multicast Router from the Action list.
3. Select the VLAN for which to display this information. Ports in the selected
VLAN which are attached to a neighboring multicast router/switch are
displayed.
Figure 282: Showing Current Interfaces Attached an IPv6 Multicast Router
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Chapter 14 | Multicast Filtering
MLD Snooping (Snooping and Query for IPv4)
Assigning Interfaces Use the Multicast > MLD Snooping > MLD Member (Add Static Member) page to
to IPv6 Multicast statically assign an IPv6 multicast service to an interface.
Services
Multicast filtering can be dynamically configured using MLD snooping and query
messages (see “Configuring MLD Snooping and Query Parameters” on page 421).
However, for certain applications that require tighter control, it may be necessary to
statically configure a multicast service on the switch. First add all the ports attached
to participating hosts to a common VLAN, and then assign the multicast service to
that VLAN group.
Command Usage
◆ Static multicast addresses are never aged out.
◆
When a multicast address is assigned to an interface in a specific VLAN, the
corresponding traffic can only be forwarded to ports within that VLAN.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
VLAN – Specifies the VLAN which is to propagate the multicast service.
(Range: 1-4094)
◆
Multicast IPv6 Address – The IP address for a specific multicast service.
◆
Interface – Activates the Port or Trunk scroll down list.
◆
Port or Trunk – Specifies the interface assigned to a multicast group.
◆
Type (Show Current Member) – Shows if this multicast stream was statically
configured by the user, discovered by MLD Snooping, or is a data stream to
which no other ports are subscribing (i.e., the stream is flooded onto VLAN
instead of being trapped to the CPU for processing, or is being processed by
MVR6).
Web Interface
To statically assign an interface to an IPv6 multicast service:
1. Click Multicast, MLD Snooping, MLD Member.
2. Select Add Static Member from the Action list.
3. Select the VLAN that will propagate the multicast service, specify the interface
attached to a multicast service (through an MLD-enabled switch or multicast
router), and enter the multicast IP address.
4. Click Apply.
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Chapter 14 | Multicast Filtering
MLD Snooping (Snooping and Query for IPv4)
Figure 283: Assigning an Interface to an IPv6 Multicast Service
To show the static interfaces assigned to an IPv6 multicast service:
1. Click Multicast, MLD Snooping, MLD Member.
2. Select Show Static Member from the Action list.
3. Select the VLAN for which to display this information.
Figure 284: Showing Static Interfaces Assigned to an IPv6 Multicast Service
To display information about all IPv6 multicast groups, MLD Snooping or multicast
routing must first be enabled on the switch. To show all of the interfaces statically
or dynamically assigned to an IPv6 multicast service:
1. Click Multicast, MLD Snooping, MLD Member.
2. Select Show Current Member from the Action list.
3. Select the VLAN for which to display this information.
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Chapter 14 | Multicast Filtering
MLD Snooping (Snooping and Query for IPv4)
Figure 285: Showing Current Interfaces Assigned to an IPv6 Multicast Service
Showing MLD Use the Multicast > MLD Snooping > Group Information page to display known
Snooping Groups multicast groups, member ports, the means by which each group was learned, and
and Source List the corresponding source list.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
VLAN – VLAN identifier. (Range: 1-4094)
◆
Interface – Port or trunk identifier.
◆
Group Address – The IP address for a specific multicast service.
◆
Type – The means by which each group was learned – MLD Snooping or
Multicast Data.
◆
Filter Mode – The filter mode is used to summarize the total listening state of a
multicast address to a minimum set such that all nodes' listening states are
respected. In Include mode, the router only uses the request list, indicating that
the reception of packets sent to the specified multicast address is requested
only from those IP source addresses listed in the hosts’ source-list. In Exclude
mode, the router uses both the request list and exclude list, indicating that the
reception of packets sent to the given multicast address is requested from all IP
source addresses, except for those listed in the exclude source-list and for any
other sources where the source timer status has expired.
◆
Filter Timer Elapse – The Filter timer is only used when a specific multicast
address is in Exclude mode. It represents the time for the multicast address
filter mode to expire and change to Include mode.
◆
Request List – Sources included on the router’s request list.
◆
Exclude List – Sources included on the router’s exclude list.
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MLD Snooping (Snooping and Query for IPv4)
Web Interface
To display known MLD multicast groups:
1. Click Multicast, MLD Snooping, Group Information.
2. Select the port or trunk, and then select a multicast service assigned to that
interface.
Figure 286: Showing IPv6 Multicast Services and Corresponding Sources
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MLD Snooping (Snooping and Query for IPv4)
– 430 –
15
IP Tools
This chapter provides information on network functions including:
◆
Ping – Sends ping message to another node on the network.
◆
Trace Route – Sends ICMP echo request packets to another node on the
network.
◆
Address Resolution Protocol – Describes how to configure ARP aging time,
proxy ARP, or static addresses. Also shows how to display dynamic entries in the
ARP cache.
Using the Ping Function
Use the Tools > Ping page to send ICMP echo request packets to another node on
the network.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Host Name/IP Address – Alias or IPv4/IPv6 address of the host.
◆
Probe Count – Number of packets to send. (Range: 1-16)
◆
Packet Size – Number of bytes in a packet. (Range: 32-512 bytes for IPv4,
0-1500 bytes for IPv6)
The actual packet size will be eight bytes larger than the size specified because
the switch adds header information.
Command Usage
Use the ping command to see if another site on the network can be reached.
◆
◆
The following are some results of the ping command:
■
Normal response - The normal response occurs in one to ten seconds,
depending on network traffic.
■
Destination does not respond - If the host does not respond, a “timeout”
appears in ten seconds.
■
Destination unreachable - The gateway for this destination indicates that
the destination is unreachable.
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Chapter 15 | IP Tools
Using the Ping Function
■
◆
Network or host unreachable - The gateway found no corresponding entry
in the route table.
The same link-local address may be used by different interfaces/nodes in
different zones (RFC 4007). Therefore, when specifying a link-local address,
include zone-id information indicating the VLAN identifier after the % delimiter.
For example, FE80::7272%1 identifies VLAN 1 as the interface.
Web Interface
To ping another device on the network:
1. Click Tools, Ping.
2. Specify the target device and ping parameters.
3. Click Apply.
Figure 287: Pinging a Network Device
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Chapter 15 | IP Tools
Using the Trace Route Function
Using the Trace Route Function
Use the Tools > Trace Route page to show the route packets take to the specified
destination.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Destination IP Address – Alias or IPv4/IPv6 address of the host.
◆
IPv4 Max Failures – The maximum number of failures before which the trace
route is terminated. (Fixed: 5)
◆
IPv6 Max Failures – The maximum number of failures before which the trace
route is terminated. (Range: 1-255; Default: 5)
Command Usage
Use the trace route function to determine the path taken to reach a specified
destination.
◆
◆
A trace terminates when the destination responds, when the maximum
timeout (TTL) is exceeded, or the maximum number of hops is exceeded.
◆
The trace route function first sends probe datagrams with the TTL value set at
one. This causes the first router to discard the datagram and return an error
message. The trace function then sends several probe messages at each
subsequent TTL level and displays the round-trip time for each message. Not all
devices respond correctly to probes by returning an “ICMP port unreachable”
message. If the timer goes off before a response is returned, the trace function
prints a series of asterisks and the “Request Timed Out” message. A long
sequence of these messages, terminating only when the maximum timeout
has been reached, may indicate this problem with the target device.
◆
The same link-local address may be used by different interfaces/nodes in
different zones (RFC 4007). Therefore, when specifying a link-local address,
include zone-id information indicating the VLAN identifier after the % delimiter.
For example, FE80::7272%1 identifies VLAN 1 as the interface from which the
trace route is sent.
Web Interface
To trace the route to another device on the network:
1. Click Tools, Trace Route.
2. Specify the target device.
3. Click Apply.
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Chapter 15 | IP Tools
Address Resolution Protocol
Figure 288: Tracing the Route to a Network Device
Address Resolution Protocol
If IP routing is enabled (page 673), the router uses its routing tables to make routing
decisions, and uses Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) to forward traffic from one
hop to the next. ARP is used to map an IP address to a physical layer (i.e., MAC)
address. When an IP frame is received by this router (or any standards-based
router), it first looks up the MAC address corresponding to the destination IP
address in the ARP cache. If the address is found, the router writes the MAC address
into the appropriate field in the frame header, and forwards the frame on to the
next hop. IP traffic passes along the path to its final destination in this way, with
each routing device mapping the destination IP address to the MAC address of the
next hop toward the recipient, until the packet is delivered to the final destination.
If there is no entry for an IP address in the ARP cache, the router will broadcast an
ARP request packet to all devices on the network. The ARP request contains the
following fields similar to that shown in this example:
Table 29: Address Resolution Protocol
destination IP address
10.1.0.19
destination MAC address
?
source IP address
10.1.0.253
source MAC address
00-00-ab-cd-00-00
When devices receive this request, they discard it if their address does not match
the destination IP address in the message. However, if it does match, they write
their own hardware address into the destination MAC address field and send the
message back to the source hardware address. When the source device receives a
reply, it writes the destination IP address and corresponding MAC address into its
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Chapter 15 | IP Tools
Address Resolution Protocol
cache, and forwards the IP traffic on to the next hop. As long as this entry has not
timed out, the router will be able forward traffic directly to the next hop for this
destination without having to broadcast another ARP request.
Also, if the switch receives a request for its own IP address, it will send back a
response, and also cache the MAC of the source device's IP address.
Displaying Dynamic Use the Tools > ARP page to display dynamic or local entries in the ARP cache. The
or Local ARP Entries ARP cache contains static entries, and entries for local interfaces, including subnet,
host, and broadcast addresses. However, most entries will be dynamically learned
through replies to broadcast messages.
Web Interface
To display all dynamic and local entries in the ARP cache:
1. Click IP, ARP.
2. Select Show Information from the Step List.
3. Click ARP Addresses.
Figure 289: Displaying ARP Entries
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Chapter 15 | IP Tools
Address Resolution Protocol
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16
IP Services
This chapter describes the following IP services:
◆
DNS – Configures default domain names, identifies servers to use for dynamic
lookup, and shows how to configure static entries.
◆
DHCP Client – Specifies the DHCP client identifier for an interface.
◆
DHCP Relay – Enables DHCP relay service for attached host devices, including
DHCP option 82 information, and defines the servers to which client requests
are forwarded.
◆
DHCP Dynamic Provision – Enables dynamic provision via DHCP.
Note: For information on DHCP snooping which is included in this folder, see
“DHCP Snooping” on page 299.
Domain Name Service
DNS service on this switch allows host names to be mapped to IP addresses using
static table entries or by redirection to other name servers on the network. When a
client device designates this switch as a DNS server, the client will attempt to
resolve host names into IP addresses by forwarding DNS queries to the switch, and
waiting for a response.
You can manually configure entries in the DNS table used for mapping domain
names to IP addresses, configure default domain names, or specify one or more
name servers to use for domain name to address translation.
Configuring General Use the IP Service > DNS - General (Configure Global) page to enable domain
DNS Service lookup and set the default domain name.
Parameters
Command Usage
◆ To enable DNS service on this switch, enable domain lookup status, and
configure one or more name servers (see “Configuring a List of Name Servers”
on page 440).
◆
If one or more name servers are configured, but DNS is not yet enabled and the
switch receives a DHCP packet containing a DNS field with a list of DNS servers,
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Domain Name Service
then the switch will automatically enabled DNS host name-to-address
translation.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Domain Lookup – Enables DNS host name-to-address translation.
(Default: Disabled)
◆
Default Domain Name – Defines the default domain name appended to
incomplete host names. Do not include the initial dot that separates the host
name from the domain name. (Range: 1-127 alphanumeric characters)
Web Interface
To configure general settings for DNS:
1. Click IP Service, DNS.
2. Select Configure Global from the Action list.
3. Enable domain lookup, and set the default domain name.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 290: Configuring General Settings for DNS
Configuring a List Use the IP Service > DNS - General (Add Domain Name) page to configure a list of
of Domain Names domain names to be tried in sequential order.
Command Usage
◆ Use this page to define a list of domain names that can be appended to
incomplete host names (i.e., host names passed from a client that are not
formatted with dotted notation).
◆
If there is no domain list, the default domain name is used (see “Configuring
General DNS Service Parameters” on page 437). If there is a domain list, the
system will search it for a corresponding entry. If none is found, it will use the
default domain name.
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Domain Name Service
◆
When an incomplete host name is received by the DNS service on this switch
and a domain name list has been specified, the switch will work through the
domain list, appending each domain name in the list to the host name, and
checking with the specified name servers for a match (see “Configuring a List
of Name Servers” on page 440).
◆
If all name servers are deleted, DNS will automatically be disabled.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Domain Name – Name of the host. Do not include the initial dot that separates the
host name from the domain name. (Range: 1-68 characters)
Web Interface
To create a list domain names:
1. Click IP Service, DNS.
2. Select Add Domain Name from the Action list.
3. Enter one domain name at a time.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 291: Configuring a List of Domain Names for DNS
To show the list domain names:
1. Click IP Service, DNS.
2. Select Show Domain Names from the Action list.
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Chapter 16 | IP Services
Domain Name Service
Figure 292: Showing the List of Domain Names for DNS
Configuring a List Use the IP Service > DNS - General (Add Name Server) page to configure a list of
of Name Servers name servers to be tried in sequential order.
Command Usage
◆ To enable DNS service on this switch, configure one or more name servers, and
enable domain lookup status (see “Configuring General DNS Service
Parameters” on page 437).
◆
When more than one name server is specified, the servers are queried in the
specified sequence until a response is received, or the end of the list is reached
with no response.
◆
If all name servers are deleted, DNS will automatically be disabled. This is done
by disabling the domain lookup status.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Name Server IP Address – Specifies the IPv4 or IPv6 address of a domain name
server to use for name-to-address resolution. Up to six IP addresses can be added
to the name server list.
Web Interface
To create a list name servers:
1. Click IP Service, DNS.
2. Select Add Name Server from the Action list.
3. Enter one name server at a time.
4. Click Apply.
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Chapter 16 | IP Services
Domain Name Service
Figure 293: Configuring a List of Name Servers for DNS
To show the list name servers:
1. Click IP Service, DNS.
2. Select Show Name Servers from the Action list.
Figure 294: Showing the List of Name Servers for DNS
Configuring Use the IP Service > DNS - Static Host Table (Add) page to manually configure static
Static DNS Host entries in the DNS table that are used to map domain names to IP addresses.
to Address Entries
Command Usage
◆ Static entries may be used for local devices connected directly to the attached
network, or for commonly used resources located elsewhere on the network.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Host Name – Name of a host device that is mapped to one or more IP
addresses. (Range: 1-127 characters)
◆
IP Address – IPv4 or IPv6 address(es) associated with a host name.
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Domain Name Service
Web Interface
To configure static entries in the DNS table:
1. Click IP Service, DNS, Static Host Table.
2. Select Add from the Action list.
3. Enter a host name and the corresponding address.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 295: Configuring Static Entries in the DNS Table
To show static entries in the DNS table:
1. Click IP Service, DNS, Static Host Table.
2. Select Show from the Action list.
Figure 296: Showing Static Entries in the DNS Table
Displaying the Use the IP Service > DNS - Cache page to display entries in the DNS cache that have
DNS Cache been learned via the designated name servers.
Command Usage
Servers or other network devices may support one or more connections via
multiple IP addresses. If more than one IP address is associated with a host name
via information returned from a name server, a DNS client can try each address in
succession, until it establishes a connection with the target device.
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Chapter 16 | IP Services
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
No. – The entry number for each resource record.
◆
Flag – The flag is always “4” indicating a cache entry and therefore unreliable.
◆
Type – This field includes CNAME which specifies the host address for the
owner, and ALIAS which specifies an alias.
◆
IP – The IP address associated with this record.
◆
TTL – The time to live reported by the name server.
◆
Host – The host name associated with this record.
Web Interface
To display entries in the DNS cache:
1. Click IP Service, DNS, Cache.
Figure 297: Showing Entries in the DNS Cache
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) can dynamically allocate an
IP address and other configuration information to network clients when they boot
up. If a subnet does not already include a BOOTP or DHCP server, you can relay
DHCP client requests to a DHCP server on another subnet, or configure the DHCP
server on this switch to support that subnet.
When configuring the DHCP server on this switch, you can configure an address
pool for each unique IP interface, or manually assign a static IP address to clients
based on their hardware address or client identifier. The DHCP server can provide
the host’s IP address, domain name, gateway router and DNS server, information
about the host’s boot image including the TFTP server to access for download and
the name of the boot file, or boot information for NetBIOS Windows Internet
Naming Service (WINS).
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Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Specifying a DHCP Use the IP Service > DHCP > Client page to specify the DHCP client identifier for a
Client Identifier VLAN interface.
Command Usage
◆ The class identifier is used identify the vendor class and configuration of the
switch to the DHCP server, which then uses this information to decide on how
to service the client or the type of information to return.
◆
The general framework for this DHCP option is set out in RFC 2132 (Option 60).
This information is used to convey configuration settings or other identification
information about a client, but the specific string to use should be supplied by
your service provider or network administrator. Options 60, 66 and 67
statements can be added to the server daemon’s configuration file.
Table 30: Options 60, 66 and 67 Statements
Statement
Option
◆
Keyword
Parameter
60
vendor-class-identifier
a string indicating the vendor class identifier
66
tftp-server-name
a string indicating the tftp server name
67
bootfile-name
a string indicating the bootfile name
By default, DHCP option 66/67 parameters are not carried in a DHCP server
reply. To ask for a DHCP reply with option 66/67 information, the DHCP client
request sent by this switch includes a “parameter request list” asking for this
information. Besides, the client request also includes a “vendor class identifier”
that allows the DHCP server to identify the device, and select the appropriate
configuration file for download. This information is included in Option 55 and
124.
Table 31: Options 55 and 124 Statements
Statement
Option
Keyword
Parameter
55
dhcp-parameter-request-list
a list of parameters, separated by ','
124
vendor-class-identifier
a string indicating the vendor class identifier
◆
The server should reply with the TFTP server name and boot file name.
◆
Note that the vendor class identifier can be formatted in either text or
hexadecimal, but the format used by both the client and server must be the
same.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
VLAN – ID of configured VLAN.
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Chapter 16 | IP Services
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
◆
Vendor Class ID – The following options are supported when the check box is
marked to enable this feature:
■
Default – The default string is the model number.
■
Text – A text string. (Range: 1-32 characters)
■
Hex – A hexadecimal value. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Web Interface
To configure a DHCP client identifier:
1. Click IP Service, DHCP, Client.
2. Mark the check box to enable this feature. Select the default setting, or the
format for a vendor class identifier. If a non-default value is used, enter a text
string or hexadecimal value.
3. Click Apply.
Figure 298: Specifying a DHCP Client Identifier
Configuring DHCP Use the IP Service > DHCP > Relay page to configure DHCP relay service for
Relay Service attached host devices, including DHCP option 82 information. DHCP provides an
option for sending information about its DHCP clients to the DHCP server
(specifically, the interface on the relay server through which the DHCP client
request was received). Also known as DHCP Relay Option 82, it allows compatible
DHCP servers to use this information when assigning IP addresses, or to set other
services or policies for clients.
If DHCP relay is enabled, and this switch sees a DHCP request broadcast, it inserts its
own IP address into the request so that the DHCP server will know the subnet
where the client is located. Then, the switch forwards the packet to the DHCP
server. When the server receives the DHCP request, it allocates a free IP address for
the DHCP client from its defined scope for the DHCP client’s subnet, and sends a
DHCP response back to the DHCP relay agent (i.e., this switch). This switch then
passes the DHCP response received from the server to the client.
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Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Option 82 information contains information which can identify both the relay
agent and the interface through which the DHCP request was received:
◆
The DHCP Relay Information Option Remote ID (RID) is the access node
identifier – a string used to identify the switch to the DHCP server.
◆
The DHCP Relay Information Option Fields are the Option 82 circuit
identification fields (CID – including VLAN ID, stack unit, and port). These fields
identify the requesting device by indicating the interface through which the
relay agent received the request.
Figure 299: Layer 3 DHCP Relay Service
Provides IP address
compatible with switch
segment to which client
is attached
DHCP
Server
Command Usage
You must specify the IP address for at least one active DHCP server. Otherwise,
the switch’s DHCP relay agent will not be able to forward client requests to a
DHCP server. Up to five DHCP servers can be specified in order of preference.
◆
If any of the specified DHCP server addresses are not located in the same
network segment with this switch, specify the default router through which
this switch can reach other IP subnetworks (see “Configuring the IPv4 Default
Gateway” or “Configuring the IPv6 Default Gateway”).
◆
DHCP relay configuration will be disabled if an active DHCP server is detected
on the same network segment.
◆
DHCP Snooping Information Option 82 (see page 299) and DHCP Relay
Information Option 82 cannot both be enabled at the same time.
◆
DHCP request packets received by the switch are handled as follows:
■
If a DHCP relay server has been set on the switch, when the switch receives
a DHCP request packet without option 82 information from the
management VLAN or a non-management VLAN, it will add option 82 relay
information and the relay agent’s address to the DHCP request packet, and
then unicast it to the DHCP server.
■
If a DHCP relay server has been set on the switch, when the switch receives
a DHCP request packet with option 82 information from the management
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Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
VLAN or a non-management VLAN, it will process it according to the
configured relay information option policy:
◆
■
If the policy is “replace,” the DHCP request packet’s option 82 content
(the RID and CID sub-option) is replaced with information provided by
the switch. The relay agent address is inserted into the DHCP request
packet, and the switch then unicasts this packet to the DHCP server.
■
If the policy is “keep,” the DHCP request packet's option 82 content will
be retained. The relay agent address is inserted into the DHCP request
packet, and the switch then unicasts this packet to the DHCP server.
■
If the policy is “drop,” the original DHCP request packet is flooded onto
the VLAN which received the packet but is not relayed.
DHCP reply packets received by the relay agent are handled as follows:
When the relay agent receives a DHCP reply packet with Option 82 information
over the management VLAN, it first ensures that the packet is destined for it.
◆
■
If the RID in the DHCP reply packet is not identical with that configured on
the switch, the option 82 information is retained, and the packet is flooded
onto the VLAN through which it was received.
■
If the RID in the DHCP reply packet matches that configured on the switch,
it then removes the Option 82 information from the packet, and sends it on
as follows:
■
If the DHCP packet’s broadcast flag is on, the switch uses the circuit-id
information contained in the option 82 information fields to identify
the VLAN connected to the requesting client and then broadcasts the
DHCP reply packet to this VLAN.
■
If the DHCP packet’s broadcast flag is off, the switch uses the circuit-id
information in option 82 fields to identify the interface connected to
the requesting client and unicasts the reply packet to the client.
DHCP packets are flooded onto the VLAN which received them if DHCP relay
service is enabled on the switch and any of the following situations apply:
■
There is no DHCP relay server set on the switch, when the switch receives a
DHCP packet.
■
A DHCP relay server has been set on the switch, when the switch receives a
DHCP request packet with a non-zero relay agent address field (that is not
the address of this switch).
■
A DHCP relay server has been set on the switch, when the switch receives
DHCP reply packet without option 82 information from the management
VLAN.
■
The reply packet contains a valid relay agent address field (that is not the
address of this switch), or receives a reply packet with a zero relay agent
address through the management VLAN.
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Chapter 16 | IP Services
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
■
A DHCP relay server has been set on the switch, and the switch receives a
reply packet on a non-management VLAN.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Insertion of Relay Information – Enable DHCP Option 82 information relay.
(Default: Disabled)
◆
DHCP Option Policy – Specifies how to handle client requests which already
contain DHCP Option 82 information:
■
Drop - Floods the original request packet onto the VLAN that received it
instead of relaying it. (This is the default.)
■
Keep - Retains the Option 82 information in the client request, inserts the
relay agent’s address, and unicasts the packet to the DHCP server.
■
Replace - Replaces the Option 82 information circuit-id and remote-id
fields in the client’s request with information provided by the relay agent
itself, inserts the relay agent’s address, and unicasts the packet to the DHCP
server.
◆
DHCP Sub-option Format – Specifies whether or not to use the sub-type and
sub-length fields in the circuit-ID (CID) and remote-ID (RID) in Option 82
information. (Default: Included)
◆
Server IP Address – Addresses of DHCP servers or relay servers to be used by
the switch’s DHCP relay agent in order of preference.
◆
Restart DHCP Relay – Use this button to re-initialize DHCP relay service.
Web Interface
To configure DHCP relay service:
1. Click IP Service, DHCP, Relay.
2. Enable or disable Option 82 relay information.
3. Set the Option 82 policy to specify how to handle Option 82 information
already contained in DHCP client request packets.
4. Select wether or not to include the use of sub-type and sub-length fields for the
circuit-ID (CID) and remote-ID (RID) in Option 82 information generated by the
switch.
5. Enter up to five IP addresses for DHCP servers or relay servers in order of
preference for any VLAN.
6. Click Apply.
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Chapter 16 | IP Services
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Figure 300: Configuring DHCP Relay Service
Enabling DHCP Use the IP Service > DHCP > Dynamic Provision to enable dynamic provisioning via
Dynamic Provision DHCP.
Command Usage
DHCPD is the daemon used by Linux to dynamically configure TCP/IP information
for client systems. To support DHCP option 66/67, you have to add corresponding
statements to the configuration file of DHCPD. Information on how to complete
this process are described in “Downloading a Configuration File and Other
Parameters Provided by a DHCP Server” as described in the CLI Reference Guide.
Some alternative commands which can be added to the DHCPD to complete the
dynamic provisioning process are also described under the ip dhcp dynamicprovision command in the CLI Reference Guide.
By default, the parameters for DHCP option 66/67 are not carried by the reply sent
from the DHCP server. To ask for a DHCP reply with option 66/67, the client can
inform the server that it is interested in option 66/67 by sending a DHCP request
that includes a 'parameter request list' option. Besides this, the client can also send
a DHCP request that includes a 'vendor class identifier' option to the server so that
the DHCP server can identify the device, and determine what information should
be given to requesting device.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Dynamic Provision via DHCP Status – Enables dynamic provisioning via
DHCP. (Default: Disabled)
Web Interface
To enable dynamic provisioning via DHCP:
1. Click IP Service, DHCP, Dynamic Provision.
2. Mark the Enable box if dynamic provisioning is configured on the DHCP
deamon, and required for bootup.
3. Click Apply.
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Chapter 16 | IP Services
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Figure 301: Enabling Dynamic Provisioning via DHCP
– 450 –
17
IP Configuration
This chapter describes how to configure an IP interface for management access to
the switch over the network. This switch supports both IP Version 4 and Version 6,
and can be managed simultaneously through either of these address types. You
can manually configure a specific IPv4 or IPv6 address, or direct the switch to obtain
an IPv4 address from a BOOTP or DHCP server. An IPv6 address can either be
manually configured or dynamically generated.
This chapter provides information on network functions including:
◆
IPv4 Configuration – Sets an IPv4 address for management access.
◆
IPv6 Configuration – Sets an IPv6 address for management access.
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 4)
This section describes how to configure an IPv4 interface for management access
over the network. This switch supports both IPv4 and IPv6, and can be managed
through either of these address types. For information on configuring the switch
with an IPv6 address, see “Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)” on
page 455.
Configuring the IPv4 Use the System > IP (Configure Global) page to configure an IPv4 default gateway
Default Gateway for the switch.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Gateway IP Address – IP address of the gateway router between the switch
and management stations that exist on other network segments.
(Default: None)
An IP default gateway must be defined if the management station is located in
a different IP segment.
An IP default gateway can only be successfully set when a network interface
that directly connects to the gateway has been configured on the switch.
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Chapter 17 | IP Configuration
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 4)
Web Interface
To configure an IPv4 default gateway for the switch:
1. Click System, IP.
2. Select Configure Global from the Action list.
3. Enter the IPv4 default gateway.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 302: Configuring the IPv4 Default Gateway
Configuring IPv4 Use the System > IP (Configure Interface – Add Address) page to configure an IPv4
Interface Settings address for the switch. The default IPv4 address for VLAN 1 is set to 192.168.1.1
using the subnet mask 255.255.255.0. To change the switch’s default settings to
values that are compatible with your network, you may need to a establish a
default gateway between the switch and management stations that exist on
another network segment.
You can direct the device to obtain an address from a BOOTP or DHCP server, or
manually configure a static IP address. Valid IP addresses consist of four decimal
numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods. Anything other than this format will not
be accepted.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
VLAN – ID of the VLAN to be used for management access. By default, all ports
on the switch are members of VLAN 1. However, the management station can
be attached to a port belonging to any VLAN, as long as that VLAN has been
assigned an IP address. (Range: 1-4094; Default: VLAN 1)
◆
IP Address Mode – Specifies whether IP functionality is enabled via manual
configuration (User Specified), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), or
Boot Protocol (BOOTP). If DHCP/BOOTP is enabled, IP will not function until a
reply has been received from the server. Requests will be broadcast periodically
by the switch for an IP address. DHCP/BOOTP responses can include the IP
address, subnet mask, and default gateway. (Default: User Specified)
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Chapter 17 | IP Configuration
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 4)
◆
IP Address Type – Specifies a primary or secondary IP address. An interface can
have only one primary IP address, but can have many secondary IP addresses.
In other words, secondary addresses need to be specified if more than one IP
subnet can be accessed through this interface. For initial configuration, set this
parameter to Primary. (Options: Primary, Secondary; Default: Primary)
Note that a secondary address cannot be configured prior to setting the
primary IP address, and the primary address cannot be removed if a secondary
address is still present. Also, if any router or switch in a network segment uses a
secondary address, all other routers/switches in that segment must also use a
secondary address from the same network or subnet address space.
◆
IP Address – IP Address of the VLAN. Valid IP addresses consist of four
numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods. (Default: 192.168.1.1)
◆
Subnet Mask – This mask identifies the host address bits used for routing to
specific subnets. (Default: 255.255.255.0)
◆
Restart DHCP – Requests a new IP address from the DHCP server.
Web Interface
To set a static IPv4 address for the switch:
1. Click System, IP.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Add Address from the Action list.
4. Select any configured VLAN, set IP Address Mode to “User Specified,” set IP
Address Type to “Primary” if no address has yet been configured for this
interface, and then enter the IP address and subnet mask.
5. Select Primary or Secondary Address Type.
6. Click Apply.
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Chapter 17 | IP Configuration
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 4)
Figure 303: Configuring a Static IPv4 Address
To obtain an dynamic IPv4 address through DHCP/BOOTP for the switch:
1. Click System, IP.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Add Address from the Action list.
4. Select any configured VLAN, and set IP Address Mode to “BOOTP” or “DHCP.”
5. Click Apply to save your changes.
6. Then click Restart DHCP to immediately request a new address.
IP will be enabled but will not function until a BOOTP or DHCP reply is received.
Requests are broadcast every few minutes using exponential backoff until IP
configuration information is obtained from a BOOTP or DHCP server.
Figure 304: Configuring a Dynamic IPv4 Address
Note: The switch will also broadcast a request for IP configuration settings on each
power reset.
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Chapter 17 | IP Configuration
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)
Note: If you lose the management connection, make a console connection to the
switch and enter “show ip interface” to determine the new switch address.
Renewing DCHP – DHCP may lease addresses to clients indefinitely or for a specific
period of time. If the address expires or the switch is moved to another network
segment, you will lose management access to the switch. In this case, you can
reboot the switch or submit a client request to restart DHCP service via the CLI.
If the address assigned by DHCP is no longer functioning, you will not be able to
renew the IP settings via the web interface. You can only restart DHCP service via
the web interface if the current address is still available.
To show the IPv4 address configured for an interface:
1. Click System, IP.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Step list.
3. Select Show Address from the Action list.
4. Select an entry from the VLAN list.
Figure 305: Showing the Configured IPv4 Address for an Interface
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)
This section describes how to configure an IPv6 interface for management access
over the network. This switch supports both IPv4 and IPv6, and can be managed
through either of these address types. For information on configuring the switch
with an IPv4 address, see “Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 4)” on
page 451.
Command Usage
◆ IPv6 includes two distinct address types – link-local unicast and global unicast.
A link-local address makes the switch accessible over IPv6 for all devices
attached to the same local subnet. Management traffic using this kind of
address cannot be passed by any router outside of the subnet. A link-local
address is easy to set up, and may be useful for simple networks or basic
troubleshooting tasks. However, to connect to a larger network with multiple
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Chapter 17 | IP Configuration
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)
segments, the switch must be configured with a global unicast address. Both
link-local and global unicast address types can either be dynamically assigned
(using the Configure Interface page) or manually configured (using the Add
IPv6 Address page).
◆
An IPv6 global unicast or link-local address can be manually configured (using
the Add IPv6 Address page), or a link-local address can be dynamically
generated (using the Configure Interface page).
Configuring the Use the System > IPv6 Configuration (Configure Global) page to configure an IPv6
IPv6 Default Gateway default gateway for the switch.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
Default Gateway – Sets the IPv6 address of the default next hop router to use
when no routing information is known about an IPv6 address.
■
An IPv6 default gateway can only be successfully set when a network
interface that directly connects to the gateway has been configured on the
switch.
■
An IPv6 address must be configured according to RFC 2373 “IPv6
Addressing Architecture,” using 8 colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal
values. One double colon may be used in the address to indicate the
appropriate number of zeros required to fill the undefined fields.
Web Interface
To configure an IPv6 default gateway for the switch:
1. Click System, IPv6 Configuration.
2. Select Configure Global from the Action list.
3. Enter the IPv6 default gateway.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 306: Configuring the IPv6 Default Gateway
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Chapter 17 | IP Configuration
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)
Configuring IPv6 Use the System > IPv6 Configuration (Configure Interface) page to configure
Interface Settings general IPv6 settings for the selected VLAN, including auto-configuration of a
global unicast interface address, explicit configuration of a link local interface
address, the MTU size, and neighbor discovery protocol settings for duplicate
address detection and the neighbor solicitation interval.
Command Usage
◆ The switch must be configured with a link-local address. The switch’s address
auto-configuration function will automatically create a link-local address, as
well as an IPv6 global address if router advertisements are detected on the local
interface.
◆
The option to explicitly enable IPv6 creates a link-local address, but will not
generate a global IPv6 address if auto-configuration is not enabled. In this case,
you can manually configure a global unicast address (see “Configuring an
IPv6 Address” on page 461).
◆
IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol supersedes IPv4 Address Resolution Protocol
in IPv6 networks. IPv6 nodes on the same network segment use Neighbor
Discovery to discover each other's presence, to determine each other's linklayer addresses, to find routers and to maintain reachability information about
the paths to active neighbors. The key parameters used to facilitate this process
are the number of attempts made to verify whether or not a duplicate address
exists on the same network segment, and the interval between neighbor
solicitations used to verify reachability information.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
VLAN – ID of a configured VLAN that is to be used for management access. By
default, all ports on the switch are members of VLAN 1. However, the
management station can be attached to a port belonging to any VLAN, as long
as that VLAN has been assigned an IP address. (Range: 1-4094)
◆
Address Autoconfig – Enables stateless autoconfiguration of an IPv6 address
on an interface and enables IPv6 functionality on that interface. The network
portion of the address is based on prefixes received in IPv6 router
advertisement messages, and the host portion is automatically generated
using the modified EUI-64 form of the interface identifier (i.e., the switch’s MAC
address).
■
If a link local address has not yet been assigned to this interface, this
command will dynamically generate one. The link-local address is made
with an address prefix in the range of FE80~FEBF and a host portion based
the switch’s MAC address in modified EUI-64 format. It will also generate a
global unicast address if a global prefix is included in received router
advertisements.
■
When DHCPv6 is started, the switch may attempt to acquire an IP address
prefix through stateful address autoconfiguration. If router advertisements
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Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)
have the “other stateful configuration” flag set, the switch will attempt to
acquire other non-address configuration information (such as a default
gateway).
■
◆
If auto-configuration is not selected, then an address must be manually
configured using the Add IPv6 Address page described below.
Enable IPv6 Explicitly – Enables IPv6 on an interface and assigns it a link-local
address. Note that when an explicit address is assigned to an interface, IPv6 is
automatically enabled, and cannot be disabled until all assigned addresses
have been removed. (Default: Disabled)
Disabling this parameter does not disable IPv6 for an interface that has been
explicitly configured with an IPv6 address.
◆
◆
MTU – Sets the size of the maximum transmission unit (MTU) for IPv6 packets
sent on an interface. (Range: 1280-65535 bytes; Default: 1500 bytes)
■
The maximum value set in this field cannot exceed the MTU of the physical
interface, which is currently fixed at 1500 bytes.
■
If a non-default value is configured, an MTU option is included in the router
advertisements sent from this device. This option is provided to ensure that
all nodes on a link use the same MTU value in cases where the link MTU is
not otherwise well known.
■
IPv6 routers do not fragment IPv6 packets forwarded from other routers.
However, traffic originating from an end-station connected to an IPv6
router may be fragmented.
■
All devices on the same physical medium must use the same MTU in order
to operate correctly.
■
IPv6 must be enabled on an interface before the MTU can be set. If an IPv6
address has not been assigned to the switch, “N/A” is displayed in the MTU
field.
ND DAD Attempts – The number of consecutive neighbor solicitation
messages sent on an interface during duplicate address detection.
(Range: 0-600, Default: 3)
■
Configuring a value of 0 disables duplicate address detection.
■
Duplicate address detection determines if a new unicast IPv6 address
already exists on the network before it is assigned to an interface.
■
Duplicate address detection is stopped on any interface that has been
suspended (see “Configuring VLAN Groups” on page 142). While an
interface is suspended, all unicast IPv6 addresses assigned to that interface
are placed in a “pending” state. Duplicate address detection is
automatically restarted when the interface is administratively re-activated.
■
An interface that is re-activated restarts duplicate address detection for all
unicast IPv6 addresses on the interface. While duplicate address detection
is performed on the interface’s link-local address, the other IPv6 addresses
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remain in a “tentative” state. If no duplicate link-local address is found,
duplicate address detection is started for the remaining IPv6 addresses.
◆
■
If a duplicate address is detected, it is set to “duplicate” state, and a warning
message is sent to the console. If a duplicate link-local address is detected,
IPv6 processes are disabled on the interface. If a duplicate global unicast
address is detected, it is not used. All configuration commands associated
with a duplicate address remain configured while the address is in
“duplicate” state.
■
If the link-local address for an interface is changed, duplicate address
detection is performed on the new link-local address, but not for any of the
IPv6 global unicast addresses already associated with the interface.
ND NS Interval – The interval between transmitting IPv6 neighbor solicitation
messages on an interface. (Range: 1000-3600000 milliseconds)
Default: 1000 milliseconds is used for neighbor discovery operations,
0 milliseconds is advertised in router advertisements.
This attribute specifies the interval between transmitting neighbor solicitation
messages when resolving an address, or when probing the reachability of a
neighbor. Therefore, avoid using very short intervals for normal IPv6
operations.
When a non-default value is configured, the specified interval is used both for
router advertisements and by the router itself.
◆
ND Reachable-Time – The amount of time that a remote IPv6 node is
considered reachable after some reachability confirmation event has occurred.
(Range: 0-3600000 milliseconds)
Default: 30000 milliseconds is used for neighbor discovery operations,
0 milliseconds is advertised in router advertisements.
◆
■
The time limit configured by this parameter allows the router to detect
unavailable neighbors. During the neighbor discover process, an IPv6 node
will multicast neighbor solicitation messages to search for neighbor nodes.
For a neighbor node to be considered reachable, it must respond to the
neighbor soliciting node with a neighbor advertisement message to
become a confirmed neighbor, after which the reachable timer will be
considered in effect for subsequent unicast IPv6 layer communications.
■
This time limit is included in all router advertisements sent out through an
interface, ensuring that nodes on the same link use the same time value.
■
Setting the time limit to 0 means that the configured time is unspecified by
this router.
Restart DHCPv6 – When DHCPv6 is restarted, the switch may attempt to
acquire an IP address prefix through stateful address autoconfiguration. If the
router advertisements have the “other stateful configuration” flag set, the
switch may also attempt to acquire other non-address configuration
information (such as a default gateway) when DHCPv6 is restarted.
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Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)
Prior to submitting a client request to a DHCPv6 server, the switch should be
configured with a link-local address using the Address Autoconfig option. The
state of the Managed Address Configuration flag (M flag) and Other Stateful
Configuration flag (O flag) received in Router Advertisement messages will
determine the information this switch should attempt to acquire from the
DHCPv6 server as described below.
■
Both M and O flags are set to 1:
DHCPv6 is used for both address and other configuration settings.
This combination is known as DHCPv6 stateful autoconfiguration, in which
a DHCPv6 server assigns stateful addresses to IPv6 hosts.
■
The M flag is set to 0, and the O flag is set to 1:
DHCPv6 is used only for other configuration settings.
Neighboring routers are configured to advertise non-link-local address
prefixes from which IPv6 hosts derive stateless addresses.
This combination is known as DHCPv6 stateless autoconfiguration, in
which a DHCPv6 server does not assign stateful addresses to IPv6 hosts, but
does assign stateless configuration settings.
Web Interface
To configure general IPv6 settings for the switch:
1. Click System, IPv6 Configuration.
2. Select Configure Interface from the Action list.
3. Specify the VLAN to configure.
4. Enable address auto-configuration, or enable IPv6 explicitly to automatically
configure a link-local address and enable IPv6 on the selected interface. (To
manually configure the link-local address, use the Add IPv6 Address page.) Set
the MTU size, the maximum number of duplicate address detection messages,
the neighbor solicitation message interval, and the amount of time that a
remote IPv6 node is considered reachable.
5. Click Apply.
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Chapter 17 | IP Configuration
Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)
Figure 307: Configuring General Settings for an IPv6 Interface
Configuring an Use the System > IPv6 Configuration (Add IPv6 Address) page to configure an IPv6
IPv6 Address interface for management access over the network.
Command Usage
◆ All IPv6 addresses must be formatted according to RFC 2373 “IPv6 Addressing
Architecture,” using 8 colon-separated 16-bit hexadecimal values. One double
colon may be used in the address to indicate the appropriate number of zeros
required to fill the undefined fields.
◆
The switch must always be configured with a link-local address. Therefore any
configuration process that enables IPv6 functionality, or assigns a global
unicast address to the switch, including address auto-configuration or explicitly
enabling IPv6 (see “Configuring IPv6 Interface Settings” on page 457), will also
automatically generate a link-local unicast address. The prefix length for a linklocal address is fixed at 64 bits, and the host portion of the default address is
based on the modified EUI-64 (Extended Universal Identifier) form of the
interface identifier (i.e., the physical MAC address). Alternatively, you can
manually configure the link-local address by entering the full address with a
network prefix in the range of FE80~FEBF.
◆
To connect to a larger network with multiple subnets, you must configure a
global unicast address. There are several alternatives to configuring this
address type:
■
The global unicast address can be automatically configured by taking the
network prefix from router advertisements observed on the local interface,
and using the modified EUI-64 form of the interface identifier to
automatically create the host portion of the address (see “Configuring IPv6
Interface Settings” on page 457).
■
It can be manually configured by specifying the entire network prefix and
prefix length, and using the EUI-64 form of the interface identifier to
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Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)
automatically create the low-order 64 bits in the host portion of the
address.
■
You can also manually configure the global unicast address by entering the
full address and prefix length.
◆
You can configure multiple IPv6 global unicast addresses per interface, but only
one link-local address per interface.
◆
If a duplicate link-local address is detected on the local segment, this interface
is disabled and a warning message displayed on the console. If a duplicate
global unicast address is detected on the network, the address is disabled on
this interface and a warning message displayed on the console.
◆
When an explicit address is assigned to an interface, IPv6 is automatically
enabled, and cannot be disabled until all assigned addresses have been
removed.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
VLAN – ID of a configured VLAN which is to be used for management access. By
default, all ports on the switch are members of VLAN 1. However, the
management station can be attached to a port belonging to any VLAN, as long
as that VLAN has been assigned an IP address. (Range: 1-4094)
◆
Address Type – Defines the address type configured for this interface.
■
Global – Configures an IPv6 global unicast address with a full IPv6 address
including the network prefix and host address bits, followed by a forward
slash, and a decimal value indicating how many contiguous bits (from the
left) of the address comprise the prefix (i.e., the network portion of the
address).
■
EUI-64 (Extended Universal Identifier) – Configures an IPv6 address for an
interface using an EUI-64 interface ID in the low order 64 bits.
■
When using EUI-64 format for the low-order 64 bits in the host portion
of the address, the value entered in the IPv6 Address field includes the
network portion of the address, and the prefix length indicates how
many contiguous bits (starting at the left) of the address comprise the
prefix (i.e., the network portion of the address). Note that the value
specified in the IPv6 Address field may include some of the high-order
host bits if the specified prefix length is less than 64 bits. If the specified
prefix length exceeds 64 bits, then the bits used in the network portion
of the address will take precedence over the interface identifier.
■
IPv6 addresses are 16 bytes long, of which the bottom 8 bytes typically
form a unique host identifier based on the device’s MAC address. The
EUI-64 specification is designed for devices that use an extended 8byte MAC address. For devices that still use a 6-byte MAC address (also
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Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)
known as EUI-48 format), it must be converted into EUI-64 format by
inverting the universal/local bit in the address and inserting the
hexadecimal number FFFE between the upper and lower three bytes of
the MAC address.
For example, if a device had an EUI-48 address of 28-9F-18-1C-82-35,
the global/local bit must first be inverted to meet EUI-64 requirements
(i.e., 1 for globally defined addresses and 0 for locally defined
addresses), changing 28 to 2A. Then the two bytes FFFE are inserted
between the OUI (i.e., organizationally unique identifier, or company
identifier) and the rest of the address, resulting in a modified EUI-64
interface identifier of 2A-9F-18-FF-FE-1C-82-35.
■
■
◆
This host addressing method allows the same interface identifier to be
used on multiple IP interfaces of a single device, as long as those
interfaces are attached to different subnets.
Link Local – Configures an IPv6 link-local address.
■
The address prefix must be in the range of FE80~FEBF.
■
You can configure only one link-local address per interface.
■
The specified address replaces a link-local address that was
automatically generated for the interface.
IPv6 Address – IPv6 address assigned to this interface.
Web Interface
To configure an IPv6 address:
1. Click System, IPv6 Configuration.
2. Select Add IPv6 Address from the Action list.
3. Specify the VLAN to configure, select the address type, and then enter an IPv6
address and prefix length.
4. Click Apply.
Figure 308: Configuring an IPv6 Address
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Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)
Showing IPv6 Use the System > IPv6 Configuration (Show IPv6 Address) page to display the IPv6
Addresses addresses assigned to an interface.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
◆
VLAN – ID of a configured VLAN. By default, all ports on the switch are
members of VLAN 1. However, the management station can be attached to a
port belonging to any VLAN, as long as that VLAN has been assigned an IP
address. (Range: 1-4094)
◆
IPv6 Address Type – The address type (Global, EUI-64, Link Local).
◆
IPv6 Address – An IPv6 address assigned to this interface.
In addition to the unicast addresses assigned to an interface, a node is also
required to listen to the all-nodes multicast addresses FF01::1 (interface-local
scope) and FF02::1 (link-local scope).
FF01::1/16 is the transient interface-local multicast address for all attached IPv6
nodes, and FF02::1/16 is the link-local multicast address for all attached IPv6
nodes. The interface-local multicast address is only used for loopback
transmission of multicast traffic. Link-local multicast addresses cover the same
types as used by link-local unicast addresses, including all nodes (FF02::1), all
routers (FF02::2), and solicited nodes (FF02::1:FFXX:XXXX) as described below.
A node is also required to compute and join the associated solicited-node
multicast addresses for every unicast and anycast address it is assigned. IPv6
addresses that differ only in the high-order bits, e.g. due to multiple high-order
prefixes associated with different aggregations, will map to the same solicitednode address, thereby reducing the number of multicast addresses a node
must join. In this example, FF02::1:FF90:0/104 is the solicited-node multicast
address which is formed by taking the low-order 24 bits of the address and
appending those bits to the prefix.
Note that the solicited-node multicast address (link-local scope FF02) is used to
resolve the MAC addresses for neighbor nodes since IPv6 does not support the
broadcast method used by the Address Resolution Protocol in IPv4.
These additional addresses are displayed by the “show ip interface” command
described in the CLI Reference Guide).
◆
Configuration Mode – Indicates if this address was automatically generated or
manually configured.
Web Interface
To show the configured IPv6 addresses:
1. Click System, IPv6 Configuration.
2. Select Show IPv6 Address from the Action list.
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Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)
3. Select a VLAN from the list.
Figure 309: Showing Configured IPv6 Addresses
Showing the IPv6 Use the System > IPv6 Configuration (Show IPv6 Neighbor Cache) page to display
Neighbor Cache the IPv6 addresses detected for neighbor devices.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Table 32: Show IPv6 Neighbors - display description
Field
Description
IPv6 Address
IPv6 address of neighbor.
Age
The time since the address was verified as reachable (in seconds). A static entry is
indicated by the value “Permanent.”
Link-layer
Address
Physical layer MAC address.
State
The following states are used for dynamic entries:
Incomplete - Address resolution is being carried out on the entry.
A neighbor solicitation message has been sent to the multicast address of
the target, but it has not yet returned a neighbor advertisement message.
◆
Invalid - An invalidated mapping. Setting the state to invalid dis-associates
the interface identified with this entry from the indicated mapping (RFC
4293).
◆
Reachable - Positive confirmation was received within the last
ReachableTime interval that the forward path to the neighbor was
functioning. While in Reachable state, the device takes no special action
when sending packets.
◆
Stale - More than the ReachableTime interval has elapsed since the last
positive confirmation was received that the forward path was functioning.
While in Stale state, the device takes no action until a packet is sent.
◆
Delay - More than the ReachableTime interval has elapsed since the last
positive confirmation was received that the forward path was functioning. A
packet was sent within the last DELAY_FIRST_PROBE_TIME interval. If no
reachability confirmation is received within this interval after entering the
Delay state, the switch will send a neighbor solicitation message and
change the state to Probe.
◆
Probe - A reachability confirmation is actively sought by re-sending
neighbor solicitation messages every RetransTimer interval until
confirmation of reachability is received.
◆
Unknown - Unknown state.
◆
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Table 32: Show IPv6 Neighbors - display description (Continued)
Field
Description
The following states are used for static entries:
◆
Incomplete - The interface for this entry is down.
◆
Permanent - Indicates a static entry.
◆
Reachable - The interface for this entry is up. Reachability detection is not
applied to static entries in the IPv6 neighbor discovery cache.
VLAN
VLAN interface from which the address was reached.
Web Interface
To show neighboring IPv6 devices:
1. Click System, IPv6 Configuration.
2. Select Show IPv6 Neighbors from the Action list.
Figure 310: Showing IPv6 Neighbors
Showing Use the System > IPv6 Configuration (Show Statistics) page to display statistics
IPv6 Statistics about IPv6 traffic passing through this switch.
Command Usage
This switch provides statistics for the following traffic types:
◆
IPv6 – The Internet Protocol for Version 6 addresses provides a mechanism for
transmitting blocks of data (often called packets or frames) from a source to a
destination, where these network devices (that is, hosts) are identified by fixed
length addresses. The Internet Protocol also provides for fragmentation and
reassembly of long packets, if necessary, for transmission through “small
packet” networks.
◆
ICMPv6 – Internet Control Message Protocol for Version 6 addresses is a
network layer protocol that transmits message packets to report errors in
processing IPv6 packets. ICMP is therefore an integral part of the Internet
Protocol. ICMP messages may be used to report various situations, such as
when a datagram cannot reach its destination, when the gateway does not
have the buffering capacity to forward a datagram, and when the gateway can
direct the host to send traffic on a shorter route. ICMP is also used by routers to
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Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)
feed back information about more suitable routes (that is, the next hop router)
to use for a specific destination.
◆
UDP – User Datagram Protocol provides a datagram mode of packet switched
communications. It uses IP as the underlying transport mechanism, providing
access to IP-like services. UDP packets are delivered just like IP packets –
connection-less datagrams that may be discarded before reaching their
targets. UDP is useful when TCP would be too complex, too slow, or just
unnecessary.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Table 33: Show IPv6 Statistics - display description
Field
Description
IPv6 Statistics
IPv6 Received
Total
The total number of input datagrams received by the interface,
including those received in error.
Header Errors
The number of input datagrams discarded due to errors in their IPv6
headers, including version number mismatch, other format errors, hop
count exceeded, IPv6 options, etc.
Too Big Errors
The number of input datagrams that could not be forwarded because
their size exceeded the link MTU of outgoing interface.
No Routes
The number of input datagrams discarded because no route could be
found to transmit them to their destination.
Address Errors
The number of input datagrams discarded because the IPv6 address in
their IPv6 header's destination field was not a valid address to be
received at this entity. This count includes invalid addresses (e.g., ::0)
and unsupported addresses (e.g., addresses with unallocated prefixes).
For entities which are not IPv6 routers and therefore do not forward
datagrams, this counter includes datagrams discarded because the
destination address was not a local address.
Unknown Protocols
The number of locally-addressed datagrams received successfully but
discarded because of an unknown or unsupported protocol. This
counter is incremented at the interface to which these datagrams were
addressed which might not be necessarily the input interface for some
of the datagrams.
Truncated Packets
The number of input datagrams discarded because datagram frame
didn't carry enough data.
Discards
The number of input IPv6 datagrams for which no problems were
encountered to prevent their continued processing, but which were
discarded (e.g., for lack of buffer space). Note that this counter does not
include any datagrams discarded while awaiting re-assembly.
Delivers
The total number of datagrams successfully delivered to IPv6 userprotocols (including ICMP). This counter is incremented at the interface
to which these datagrams were addressed which might not be
necessarily the input interface for some of the datagrams.
Reassembly Request
Datagrams
The number of IPv6 fragments received which needed to be
reassembled at this interface. Note that this counter is increment ed at
the interface to which these fragments were addressed which might
not be necessarily the input interface for some of the fragments.
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Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)
Table 33: Show IPv6 Statistics - display description (Continued)
Field
Description
Reassembled Succeeded
The number of IPv6 datagrams successfully reassembled. Note that this
counter is incremented at the interface to which these datagrams were
addressed which might not be necessarily the input interface for some
of the fragments.
Reassembled Failed
The number of failures detected by the IPv6 re-assembly algorithm (for
whatever reason: timed out, errors, etc.). Note that this is not necessarily
a count of discarded IPv6 fragments since some algorithms (notably
the algorithm in RFC 815) can lose track of the number of fragments by
combining them as they are received. This counter is incremented at
the interface to which these fragments were addressed which might
not be necessarily the input interface for some of the fragments.
IPv6 Transmitted
Forwards Datagrams
The number of output datagrams which this entity received and
forwarded to their final destinations. In entities which do not act as IPv6
routers, this counter will include only those packets which were SourceRouted via this entity, and the Source-Route processing was successful.
Note that for a successfully forwarded datagram the counter of the
outgoing interface is incremented.
Requests
The total number of IPv6 datagrams which local IPv6 user-protocols
(including ICMP) supplied to IPv6 in requests for transmission. Note
that this counter does not include any datagrams counted in
ipv6IfStatsOutForwDatagrams.
Discards
The number of output IPv6 datagrams for which no problem was
encountered to prevent their transmission to their destination, but
which were discarded (e.g., for lack of buffer space). Note that this
counter would include datagrams counted in
ipv6IfStatsOutForwDatagrams if any such packets met this
(discretionary) discard criterion.
No Routes
The number of input datagrams discarded because no route could be
found to transmit them to their destination.
Generated Fragments
The number of output datagram fragments that have been generated
as a result of fragmentation at this output interface.
Fragment Succeeded
The number of IPv6 datagrams that have been successfully fragmented
at this output interface.
Fragment Failed
The number of IPv6 datagrams that have been discarded because they
needed to be fragmented at this output interface but could not be.
ICMPv6 Statistics
ICMPv6 received
Input
The total number of ICMP messages received by the interface which
includes all those counted by ipv6IfIcmpInErrors. Note that this
interface is the interface to which the ICMP messages were addressed
which may not be necessarily the input interface for the messages.
Errors
The number of ICMP messages which the interface received but
determined as having ICMP-specific errors (bad ICMP checksums, bad
length, etc.).
Destination Unreachable
Messages
The number of ICMP Destination Unreachable messages received by
the interface.
Packet Too Big Messages
The number of ICMP Packet Too Big messages received by the interface.
Time Exceeded Messages
The number of ICMP Time Exceeded messages received by the
interface.
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Table 33: Show IPv6 Statistics - display description (Continued)
Field
Description
Parameter Problem
Messages
The number of ICMP Parameter Problem messages received by the
interface.
Echo Request Messages
The number of ICMP Echo (request) messages received by the interface.
Echo Reply Messages
The number of ICMP Echo Reply messages received by the interface.
Router Solicit Messages
The number of ICMP Router Solicit messages received by the interface.
Router Advertisement
Messages
The number of ICMP Router Advertisement messages received by the
interface.
Neighbor Solicit Messages
The number of ICMP Neighbor Solicit messages received by the
interface.
Neighbor Advertisement
Messages
The number of ICMP Neighbor Advertisement messages received by
the interface.
Redirect Messages
The number of Redirect messages received by the interface.
Group Membership Query
Messages
The number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Query messages received
by the interface.
Group Membership
Response Messages
The number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Response messages
received by the interface.
Group Membership
Reduction Messages
The number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Reduction messages
received by the interface.
Multicast Listener
The number of MLDv2 reports received by the interface.
Discovery Version 2 Reports
ICMPv6 Transmitted
Output
The total number of ICMP messages which this interface attempted to
send. Note that this counter includes all those counted by
icmpOutErrors.
Destination Unreachable
Messages
The number of ICMP Destination Unreachable messages sent by the
interface.
Packet Too Big Messages
The number of ICMP Packet Too Big messages sent by the interface.
Time Exceeded Messages
The number of ICMP Time Exceeded messages sent by the interface.
Echo Request Messages
The number of ICMP Echo (request) messages sent by the interface.
Echo Reply Messages
The number of ICMP Echo Reply messages sent by the interface.
Router Solicit Messages
The number of ICMP Router Solicitation messages sent by the interface.
Router Advertisement
Messages
The number of ICMP Router Advertisement messages sent by the
interface.
Neighbor Solicit Messages
The number of ICMP Neighbor Solicit messages sent by the interface.
Neighbor Advertisement
Messages
The number of ICMP Router Advertisement messages sent by the
interface.
Redirect Messages
The number of Redirect messages sent. For a host, this object will
always be zero, since hosts do not send redirects.
Group Membership Query
Messages
The number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Query messages sent by
the interface.
Group Membership
Response Messages
The number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Response messages sent.
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Table 33: Show IPv6 Statistics - display description (Continued)
Field
Description
Group Membership
Reduction Messages
The number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Reduction messages sent.
Multicast Listener
The number of MLDv2 reports sent by the interface.
Discovery Version 2 Reports
UDP Statistics
Input
The total number of UDP datagrams delivered to UDP users.
No Port Errors
The total number of received UDP datagrams for which there was no
application at the destination port.
Other Errors
The number of received UDP datagrams that could not be delivered for
reasons other than the lack of an application at the destination port.
Output
The total number of UDP datagrams sent from this entity.
Web Interface
To show the IPv6 statistics:
1. Click System, IPv6 Configuration.
2. Select Show Statistics from the Action list.
3. Click IPv6, ICMPv6 or UDP.
Figure 311: Showing IPv6 Statistics (IPv6)
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Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)
Figure 312: Showing IPv6 Statistics (ICMPv6)
Figure 313: Showing IPv6 Statistics (UDP)
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Setting the Switch’s IP Address (IP Version 6)
Showing the MTU Use the System > IPv6 Configuration (Show MTU) page to display the maximum
for Responding transmission unit (MTU) cache for destinations that have returned an ICMP packetDestinations too-big message along with an acceptable MTU to this switch.
Parameters
These parameters are displayed:
Table 34: Show MTU - display description
Field
Description
MTU
Adjusted MTU contained in the ICMP packet-too-big message returned from this
destination, and now used for all traffic sent along this path.
Since
Time since an ICMP packet-too-big message was received from this destination.
Destination
Address
Address which sent an ICMP packet-too-big message.
Web Interface
To show the MTU reported from other devices:
1. Click System, IPv6 Configuration.
2. Select Show MTU from the Action list.
Figure 314: Showing Reported MTU Values
– 472 –
Section III
Appendices
This section provides additional information and includes these items:
◆
“Software Specifications” on page 475
◆
“Troubleshooting” on page 479
◆
“License Information” on page 481
– 473 –
Section III | Appendices
– 474 –
A
Software Specifications
Software Features
Management Local, RADIUS, TACACS+, Port Authentication (802.1X), HTTPS, SSH, Port Security, IP Filter
Authentication
General Security Access Control Lists (512 rules), Port Authentication (802.1X), MAC Authentication,
Measures Port Security, DHCP Snooping, IP Source Guard
Port Configuration 1000BASE-T: 10/100 Mbps at half/full duplex, 1000 Mbps at full duplex
1000BASE-SX/LX/ZX: 1000 Mbps at full duplex (SFP,)
Flow Control Full Duplex: IEEE 802.3-2005
Half Duplex: Back pressure
Storm Control Broadcast, multicast, or unknown unicast traffic throttled above a critical threshold
Port Mirroring 10 sessions, one or more source ports to one destination port
Rate Limits Input/Output Limits
Range configured per port
Port Trunking Static trunks (Cisco EtherChannel compliant)
Dynamic trunks (Link Aggregation Control Protocol)
Spanning Tree Spanning Tree Protocol (STP, IEEE 802.1D-2004)
Algorithm Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP, IEEE 802.1D-2004)
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP, IEEE 802.1D-2004)
– 475 –
Appendix A | Software Specifications
Management Features
VLAN Support Up to 4094 groups; port-based, protocol-based, tagged (802.1Q),
voice VLANs, MAC-based
Class of Service Supports four levels of priority
Strict, Weighted Round Robin (WRR), or a combination of strict and weighted queueing
Layer 3/4 priority mapping: IP DSCP
Quality of Service DiffServ12 supports class maps, policy maps, and service policies
Multicast Filtering IGMP Snooping (Layer 2 IPv4)
MLD Snooping (Layer 2 IPv6)
IP Routing ARP, CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing)
Additional Features BOOTP Client
DHCP Client, Option 82,
LLDP (Link Layer Discover Protocol)
RMON (Remote Monitoring, groups 1,2,3,9)
SMTP Email Alerts
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
SNTP (Simple Network Time Protocol)
Management Features
In-Band Management Telnet, web-based HTTP or HTTPS, SNMP manager, or Secure Shell
Out-of-Band RS-232 DB-9 console port
Management
Software Loading HTTP or TFTP in-band, or XModem out-of-band
SNMP Management access via MIB database
Trap management to specified hosts
RMON Groups 1, 2, 3, 9 (Statistics, History, Alarm, Event)
12. Only supported for IPv4.
– 476 –
Appendix A | Software Specifications
Standards
Standards
IEEE 802.1AB Link Layer Discovery Protocol
IEEE 802.1D-2004 Spanning Tree Algorithm and traffic priorities
Spanning Tree Protocol
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
IEEE 802.1p Priority tags
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN
IEEE 802.1v Protocol-based VLANs
IEEE 802.1X Port Authentication
IEEE 802.3-2005
Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet
Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP)
Full-duplex flow control (ISO/IEC 8802-3)
IEEE 802.3ac VLAN tagging
ARP (RFC 826)
DHCP Client (RFC 2131)
HTTPS
ICMP (RFC 792)
IGMP (RFC 1112)
IGMPv2 (RFC 2236)
IGMP Proxy (RFC 4541)
IPv4 IGMP (RFC 3228)
MLD Snooping (RFC 4541)
NTP (RFC 1305)
RADIUS+ (RFC 2618)
RMON (RFC 2819 groups 1,2,3,9)
SNMP (RFC 1157)
SNMPv2c (RFC 1901, 2571)
SNMPv3 (RFC DRAFT 2273, 2576, 3410, 3411, 3413, 3414, 3415)
SNTP (RFC 2030)
SSH (Version 2.0)
TELNET (RFC 854, 855, 856)
TFTP (RFC 1350)
Management Information Bases
Bridge MIB (RFC 1493)
Differentiated Services MIB (RFC 3289)
DNS Resolver MIB (RFC 1612)
Entity MIB (RFC 2737)
Ether-like MIB (RFC 2665)
– 477 –
Appendix A | Software Specifications
Management Information Bases
Extended Bridge MIB (RFC 2674)
Extensible SNMP Agents MIB (RFC 2742)
Forwarding Table MIB (RFC 2096)
IGMP MIB (RFC 2933)
Interface Group MIB (RFC 2233)
Interfaces Evolution MIB (RFC 2863)
IP MIB (RFC 2011)
IP Forwarding Table MIB (RFC 2096)
IP Multicasting related MIBs
IPV6-MIB (RFC 2065)
IPV6-ICMP-MIB (RFC 2066)
IPV6-TCP-MIB (RFC 2052)
IPV6-UDP-MIB (RFC2054)
Link Aggregation MIB (IEEE 802.3ad)
MAU MIB (RFC 3636)
MIB II (RFC 1213)
NTP (RFC 1305)
P-Bridge MIB (RFC 2674P)
Port Access Entity MIB (IEEE 802.1X)
Port Access Entity Equipment MIB
Power Ethernet MIB (RFC 3621)
Private MIB
Q-Bridge MIB (RFC 2674Q)
Quality of Service MIB
RADIUS Accounting Server MIB (RFC 2621)
RADIUS Authentication Client MIB (RFC 2619)
RMON MIB (RFC 2819)
RMON II Probe Configuration Group (RFC 2021, partial implementation)
SNMP Community MIB (RFC 3584)
SNMP Framework MIB (RFC 3411)
SNMP-MPD MIB (RFC 3412)
SNMP Target MIB, SNMP Notification MIB (RFC 3413)
SNMP User-Based SM MIB (RFC 3414)
SNMP View Based ACM MIB (RFC 3415)
SNMPv2 IP MIB (RFC 2011)
TACACS+ Authentication Client MIB
TCP MIB (RFC 2012)
Trap (RFC 1215)
UDP MIB (RFC 2013)
– 478 –
B
Troubleshooting
Problems Accessing the Management Interface
Table 35: Troubleshooting Chart
Symptom
Action
Cannot connect using
Telnet, web browser, or
SNMP software
◆
Be sure the switch is powered on.
◆
Check network cabling between the management station and the
switch. Make sure the ends are properly connected and there is no
damage to the cable. Test the cable if necessary.
◆
Check that you have a valid network connection to the switch and
that the port you are using has not been disabled.
◆
Be sure you have configured the VLAN interface through which the
management station is connected with a valid IP address, subnet
mask and default gateway.
◆
Be sure the management station has an IP address in the same
subnet as the switch’s IP interface to which it is connected.
◆
If you are trying to connect to the switch via the IP address for a
tagged VLAN group, your management station, and the ports
connecting intermediate switches in the network, must be
configured with the appropriate tag.
◆
If you cannot connect using Telnet, you may have exceeded the
maximum number of concurrent Telnet/SSH sessions permitted. Try
connecting again at a later time.
◆
If you cannot connect using SSH, you may have exceeded the
maximum number of concurrent Telnet/SSH sessions permitted. Try
connecting again at a later time.
◆
Be sure the control parameters for the SSH server are properly
configured on the switch, and that the SSH client software is
properly configured on the management station.
◆
Be sure you have generated both an RSA and DSA public key on the
switch, exported this key to the SSH client, and enabled SSH service.
Try using another SSH client or check for updates to your SSH client
application.
◆
Be sure you have set up an account on the switch for each SSH user,
including user name, authentication level, and password.
◆
Be sure you have imported the client’s public key to the switch (if
public key authentication is used).
Cannot access the onboard configuration
program via a serial port
connection
◆
Check to see if you have set the terminal emulator program to
VT100 compatible, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, no parity, and the baud
rate set to 115200 bps.
◆
Verify that you are using the DB-9 null-modem serial cable supplied
with the switch. If you use any other cable, be sure that it conforms
to the pin-out connections provided in the Installation Guide.
Forgot or lost the password
◆
Contact your local distributor.
Cannot connect using
Secure Shell
– 479 –
Appendix B | Troubleshooting
Using System Logs
Using System Logs
If a fault does occur, refer to the Installation Guide to ensure that the problem you
encountered is actually caused by the switch. If the problem appears to be caused
by the switch, follow these steps:
1. Enable logging.
2. Set the error messages reported to include all categories.
3. Enable SNMP.
4. Enable SNMP traps.
5. Designate the SNMP host that is to receive the error messages.
6. Repeat the sequence of commands or other actions that lead up to the error.
7. Make a list of the commands or circumstances that led to the fault. Also make a
list of any error messages displayed.
8. Set up your terminal emulation software so that it can capture all console
output to a file. Then enter the “show tech-support” command to record all
system settings in this file.
9. Contact your distributor’s service engineer, and send a detailed description of
the problem, along with the file used to record your system settings.
For example:
Console(config)#logging on
Console(config)#logging history flash 7
Console(config)#snmp-server host 192.168.1.23
.
.
.
– 480 –
C
License Information
This product includes copyrighted third-party software subject to the terms of the GNU General
Public License (GPL), GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), or other related free software licenses.
The GPL code used in this product is distributed WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY and is subject to the
copyrights of one or more authors. For details, refer to the section "The GNU General Public License"
below, or refer to the applicable license as included in the source-code archive.
The GNU General Public License
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
Version 2, June 1991
Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing
it is not allowed.
Preamble
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. By
contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change
free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This General Public License applies to
most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Library General Public
License instead.) You can apply it to your programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses
are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge
for this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can
change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs; and that you know you can do these
things.
To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to
ask you to surrender the rights. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for a fee, you must give the
recipients all the rights that you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source
code. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.
We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and (2) offer you this license which
gives you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the software.
Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain that everyone understands that
there is no warranty for this free software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on,
we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so that any problems
introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations.
Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. We wish to avoid the danger
that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for
everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
– 481 –
Appendix C | License Information
The GNU General Public License
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow.
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND
MODIFICATION
1.
This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the
copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. The
"Program", below, refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program" means
either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a work containing
the Program or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into
another language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in the term
"modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered by this License; they
are outside its scope. The act of running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the
Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of
having been made by running the Program). Whether that is true depends on what the Program
does.
2.
You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it, in
any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an
appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to
this License and to the absence of any warranty; and give any other recipients of the Program a
copy of this License along with the Program.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may at your option offer
warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
3.
You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it, thus forming a work
based on the Program, and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of
Section 1 above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
a.
You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the
files and the date of any change.
b.
You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in whole or in part contains or is
derived from the Program or any part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all
third parties under the terms of this License.
c.
If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run, you must cause
it, when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display
an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no
warranty (or else, saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the
program under these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this License.
(Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an
announcement, your work based on the Program is not required to print an
announcement.)
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work
are not derived from the Program, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate
works in themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you
distribute them as separate works. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole
which is a work based on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this
License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus to each and
every part regardless of who wrote it.
Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written
entirely by you; rather, the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
collective works based on the Program.
In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or
with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not
bring the other work under the scope of this License.
– 482 –
Appendix C | License Information
The GNU General Public License
4.
You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, under Section 2) in object code
or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of
the following:
a.
Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code, which must
be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for
software interchange; or,
b.
Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to give any third party, for a
charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be distributed under the
terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
c.
Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding
source code. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer, in accord with
Subsection b above.)
The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it.
For an executable work, complete source code means all the source code for all modules it
contains, plus any associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to control
compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a special exception, the source code
distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the operating system on which
the executable runs, unless that component itself accompanies the executable.
If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated
place, then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source
along with the object code.
5.
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program except as expressly provided
under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program
is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who
have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses
terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
6.
You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it. However, nothing else
grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions
are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or distributing
the Program (or any work based on the Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to
do so, and all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying the Program or
works based on it.
7.
Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program), the recipient
automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the
Program subject to these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further restrictions on
the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. You are not responsible for enforcing
compliance by third parties to this License.
8.
If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other
reason (not limited to patent issues), conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order,
agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you
from the conditions of this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your
obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent license would not permit royaltyfree redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through
you, then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from
distribution of the Program.
– 483 –
Appendix C | License Information
The GNU General Public License
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance,
the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in
other circumstances.
It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right
claims or to contest validity of any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
integrity of the free software distribution system, which is implemented by public license
practices. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software
distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system; it is up to the
author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and
a licensee cannot impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the
rest of this License.
9.
If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or
by copyrighted interfaces, the original copyright holder who places the Program under this
License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries, so
that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. In such case, this
License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
10. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public
License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but
may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.
11. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies a version number
of this License which applies to it and "any later version", you have the option of following the
terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software
Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose
any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.
12. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution
conditions are different, write to the author to ask for permission. For software which is
copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we
sometimes make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving
the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of
software generally.
NO WARRANTY
1.
BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE
PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED
IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS"
WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH
YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY
SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
2.
IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY
COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE
PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL,
SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO
USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED
INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM
TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN
ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
– 484 –
Glossary
ACL Access Control List. ACLs can limit network traffic and restrict access to certain users or
devices by checking each packet for certain IP or MAC (i.e., Layer 2) information.
ARP Address Resolution Protocol converts between IP addresses and MAC (hardware) addresses.
ARP is used to locate the MAC address corresponding to a given IP address. This allows the
switch to use IP addresses for routing decisions and the corresponding MAC addresses to
forward packets from one hop to the next.
BOOTP Boot Protocol. BOOTP is used to provide bootup information for network devices, including
IP address information, the address of the TFTP server that contains the devices system files,
and the name of the boot file.
CoS Class of Service is supported by prioritizing packets based on the required level of service,
and then placing them in the appropriate output queue. Data is transmitted from the
queues using weighted round-robin service to enforce priority service and prevent
blockage of lower-level queues. Priority may be set according to the port default, the
packet’s priority bit (in the VLAN tag), TCP/UDP port number, IP Precedence bit, or DSCP
priority bit.
DHCP Dynamic Host Control Protocol. Provides a framework for passing configuration information
to hosts on a TCP/IP network. DHCP is based on the Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP), adding the
capability of automatic allocation of reusable network addresses and additional
configuration options.
DHCP Option 82 A relay option for sending information about the requesting client (or an intermediate relay
agent) in the DHCP request packets forwarded by the switch and in reply packets sent back
from the DHCP server. This information can be used by DHCP servers to assign fixed IP
addresses, or set other services or policies for clients.
DHCP Snooping A technique used to enhance network security by snooping on DHCP server messages to
track the physical location of hosts, ensure that hosts only use the IP addresses assigned to
them, and ensure that only authorized DHCP servers are accessible.
– 485 –
Glossary
DiffServ Differentiated Services provides quality of service on large networks by employing a welldefined set of building blocks from which a variety of aggregate forwarding behaviors may
be built. Each packet carries information (DS byte) used by each hop to give it a particular
forwarding treatment, or per-hop behavior, at each network node. DiffServ allocates
different levels of service to users on the network with mechanisms such as traffic meters,
shapers/droppers, packet markers at the boundaries of the network.
DNS Domain Name Service. A system used for translating host names for network nodes into IP
addresses.
DSCP Differentiated Services Code Point Service. DSCP uses a six-bit tag to provide for up to 64
different forwarding behaviors. Based on network policies, different kinds of traffic can be
marked for different kinds of forwarding. The DSCP bits are mapped to the Class of Service
categories, and then into the output queues.
EAPOL Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN. EAPOL is a client authentication protocol used
by this switch to verify the network access rights for any device that is plugged into the
switch. A user name and password is requested by the switch, and then passed to an
authentication server (e.g., RADIUS) for verification. EAPOL is implemented as part of the
IEEE 802.1X Port Authentication standard.
EUI Extended Universal Identifier is an address format used by IPv6 to identify the host portion
of the network address. The interface identifier in EUI compatible addresses is based on the
link-layer (MAC) address of an interface. Interface identifiers used in global unicast and
other IPv6 address types are 64 bits long and may be constructed in the EUI-64 format. The
modified EUI-64 format interface ID is derived from a 48-bit link-layer address by inserting
the hexadecimal number FFFE between the upper three bytes (OUI field) and the lower 3
bytes (serial number) of the link layer address. To ensure that the chosen address is from a
unique Ethernet MAC address, the 7th bit in the high-order byte is set to 1 (equivalent to
the IEEE Global/Local bit) to indicate the uniqueness of the 48-bit address.
GARP Generic Attribute Registration Protocol. GARP is a protocol that can be used by endstations
and switches to register and propagate multicast group membership information in a
switched environment so that multicast data frames are propagated only to those parts of a
switched LAN containing registered endstations. Formerly called Group Address
Registration Protocol.
GMRP Generic Multicast Registration Protocol. GMRP allows network devices to register end
stations with multicast groups. GMRP requires that any participating network devices or
end stations comply with the IEEE 802.1p standard.
GVRP GARP VLAN Registration Protocol. Defines a way for switches to exchange VLAN
information in order to register necessary VLAN members on ports along the Spanning Tree
so that VLANs defined in each switch can work automatically over a Spanning Tree network.
– 486 –
Glossary
ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol is a network layer protocol that reports errors in
processing IP packets. ICMP is also used by routers to feed back information about better
routing choices.
IEEE 802.1D Specifies a general method for the operation of MAC bridges, including the Spanning Tree
Protocol.
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN Tagging—Defines Ethernet frame tags which carry VLAN information. It allows
switches to assign endstations to different virtual LANs, and defines a standard way for
VLANs to communicate across switched networks.
IEEE 802.1p An IEEE standard for providing quality of service (QoS) in Ethernet networks. The standard
uses packet tags that define up to eight traffic classes and allows switches to transmit
packets based on the tagged priority value.
IEEE 802.1s An IEEE standard for the Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) which provides
independent spanning trees for VLAN groups.
IEEE 802.1w An IEEE standard for the Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) which reduces the
convergence time for network topology changes to about 10% of that required by the older
IEEE 802.1D STP standard. (Now incorporated in IEEE 802.1D-2004)
IEEE 802.1X Port Authentication controls access to the switch ports by requiring users to first enter a
user ID and password for authentication.
IEEE 802.3ac Defines frame extensions for VLAN tagging.
IEEE 802.3x Defines Ethernet frame start/stop requests and timers used for flow control on full-duplex
links. (Now incorporated in IEEE 802.3-2002)
IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol. A protocol through which hosts can register with
their local router for multicast services. If there is more than one multicast switch/router on
a given subnetwork, one of the devices is made the “querier” and assumes responsibility for
keeping track of group membership.
IGMP Proxy Proxies multicast group membership information onto the upstream interface based on
IGMP messages monitored on downstream interfaces, and forwards multicast traffic based
on that information. There is no need for multicast routing protocols in an simple tree that
uses IGMP Proxy.
– 487 –
Glossary
IGMP Query On each subnetwork, one IGMP-capable device will act as the querier — that is, the device
that asks all hosts to report on the IP multicast groups they wish to join or to which they
already belong. The elected querier will be the device with the lowest IP address in the
subnetwork.
IGMP Snooping Listening to IGMP Query and IGMP Report packets transferred between IP Multicast Routers
and IP Multicast host groups to identify IP Multicast group members.
In-Band Management Management of the network from a station attached directly to the network.
IP Multicast Filtering A process whereby this switch can pass multicast traffic along to participating hosts.
IP Precedence The Type of Service (ToS) octet in the IPv4 header includes three precedence bits defining
eight different priority levels ranging from highest priority for network control packets to
lowest priority for routine traffic. The eight values are mapped one-to-one to the Class of
Service categories by default, but may be configured differently to suit the requirements for
specific network applications.
LACP Link Aggregation Control Protocol. Allows ports to automatically negotiate a trunked link
with LACP-configured ports on another device.
Layer 2 Data Link layer in the ISO 7-Layer Data Communications Protocol. This is related directly to
the hardware interface for network devices and passes on traffic based on MAC addresses.
Layer 3 Network layer in the ISO 7-Layer Data Communications Protocol. This layer handles the
routing functions for data moving from one open system to another.
Link Aggregation See Port Trunk.
LLDP Link Layer Discovery Protocol is used to discover basic information about neighboring
devices in the local broadcast domain by using periodic broadcasts to advertise information
such as device identification, capabilities and configuration settings.
MD5 MD5 Message-Digest is an algorithm that is used to create digital signatures. It is intended
for use with 32 bit machines and is safer than the MD4 algorithm, which has been broken.
MD5 is a one-way hash function, meaning that it takes a message and converts it into a
fixed string of digits, also called a message digest.
– 488 –
Glossary
MIB Management Information Base. An acronym for Management Information Base. It is a set of
database objects that contains information about a specific device.
MRD Multicast Router Discovery is a A protocol used by IGMP snooping and multicast routing
devices to discover which interfaces are attached to multicast routers. This process allows
IGMP-enabled devices to determine where to send multicast source and group
membership messages.
MSTP Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol can provide an independent spanning tree for different
VLANs. It simplifies network management, provides for even faster convergence than RSTP
by limiting the size of each region, and prevents VLAN members from being segmented
from the rest of the group.
Multicast Switching A process whereby the switch filters incoming multicast frames for services for which no
attached host has registered, or forwards them to all ports contained within the designated
multicast VLAN group.
NTP Network Time Protocol provides the mechanisms to synchronize time across the network.
The time servers operate in a hierarchical-master-slave configuration in order to
synchronize local clocks within the subnet and to national time standards via wire or radio.
Out-of-Band Management of the network from a station not attached to the network.
Management
Port Authentication See IEEE 802.1X.
Port Mirroring A method whereby data on a target port is mirrored to a monitor port for troubleshooting
with a logic analyzer or RMON probe. This allows data on the target port to be studied
unobstructively.
Port Trunk Defines a network link aggregation and trunking method which specifies how to create a
single high-speed logical link that combines several lower-speed physical links.
QoS Quality of Service. QoS refers to the capability of a network to provide better service to
selected traffic flows using features such as data prioritization, queuing, congestion
avoidance and traffic shaping. These features effectively provide preferential treatment to
specific flows either by raising the priority of one flow or limiting the priority of another
flow.
– 489 –
Glossary
RADIUS Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service. RADIUS is a logon authentication protocol that
uses software running on a central server to control access to RADIUS-compliant devices on
the network.
RMON Remote Monitoring. RMON provides comprehensive network monitoring capabilities. It
eliminates the polling required in standard SNMP, and can set alarms on a variety of traffic
conditions, including specific error types.
RSTP Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol. RSTP reduces the convergence time for network topology
changes to about 10% of that required by the older IEEE 802.1D STP standard.
SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is a standard host-to-host mail transport protocol that
operates over TCP, port 25.
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol. The application protocol in the Internet suite of
protocols which offers network management services.
SNTP
Simple Network Time Protocol allows a device to set its internal clock based on periodic
updates from a Network Time Protocol (NTP) server. Updates can be requested from a
specific NTP server, or can be received via broadcasts sent by NTP servers.
SSH Secure Shell is a secure replacement for remote access functions, including Telnet. SSH can
authenticate users with a cryptographic key, and encrypt data connections between
management clients and the switch.
STA Spanning Tree Algorithm is a technology that checks your network for any loops. A loop can
often occur in complicated or backup linked network systems. Spanning Tree detects and
directs data along the shortest available path, maximizing the performance and efficiency
of the network.
TACACS+ Terminal Access Controller Access Control System Plus. TACACS+ is a logon authentication
protocol that uses software running on a central server to control access to TACACScompliant devices on the network.
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. Protocol suite that includes TCP as the
primary transport protocol, and IP as the network layer protocol.
Telnet Defines a remote communication facility for interfacing to a terminal device over TCP/IP.
– 490 –
Glossary
TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol. A TCP/IP protocol commonly used for software downloads.
UDP User Datagram Protocol. UDP provides a datagram mode for packet-switched
communications. It uses IP as the underlying transport mechanism to provide access to IPlike services. UDP packets are delivered just like IP packets – connection-less datagrams that
may be discarded before reaching their targets. UDP is useful when TCP would be too
complex, too slow, or just unnecessary.
UTC Universal Time Coordinate. UTC is a time scale that couples Greenwich Mean Time (based
solely on the Earth’s rotation rate) with highly accurate atomic time. The UTC does not have
daylight saving time.
VLAN Virtual LAN. A Virtual LAN is a collection of network nodes that share the same collision
domain regardless of their physical location or connection point in the network. A VLAN
serves as a logical workgroup with no physical barriers, and allows users to share
information and resources as though located on the same LAN.
XModem A protocol used to transfer files between devices. Data is grouped in 128-byte blocks and
error-corrected.
– 491 –
Glossary
– 492 –
Index
Numerics
802.1X
authenticator, configuring 294
global settings 293
port authentication 291
port authentication accounting 231, 232
authentication
MAC address authentication 243
MAC, configuring ports 246
network access 243
public key 256
B
A
AAA
accounting 802.1X port settings 231, 232
accounting exec command privileges 231, 238
accounting exec settings 232, 238
accounting summary 233
accounting update 231
accounting, configuring 231
authentication, authorization, and accounting 224
authorization exec settings 238
authorization method 238
authorization settings 237
RADIUS group settings 232
TACACS+ group settings 232
acceptable frame type 145
ACL 261
ARP 264, 275
binding to a port 277
IPv4 Extended 264, 267
IPv4 Standard 264, 266
IPv6 Extended 264, 271
IPv6 Standard 264, 269
MAC 264, 273
time range 387
Address Resolution Protocol See ARP
address table 155
aging time 159
aging time, displaying 159
aging time, setting 159
ARP
description 434
ARP ACL 275
ARP inspection 279
ACL filter 282
additional validation criteria 281
ARP ACL 283
enabling globally 281
trusted ports 284
BOOTP 452
BPDU 166
filter 179
flooding when STA disabled on VLAN 170
flooding when STA globally disabled 170
ignoring superior BPDUs 178
selecting protocol based on message format 179
shut down port on receipt 179
bridge extension capabilities, displaying 65
broadcast storm, threshold 190, 191
C
canonical format indicator 202
class map
DiffServ 206
Class of Service See CoS
committed information rate, QoS policy 211
community string 362
configuration files, restoring defaults 67
configuration settings
restoring 69, 70
saving 69
CoS 193
configuring 193
default mapping to internal values 201
enabling 198
layer 3/4 priorities 197
priorities, mapping to internal values 201
queue mode 194
queue weights, assigning 195
CoS/CFI to PHB/drop precedence 201
CPU
status 88
utilization, showing 88
D
dashboard 42
– 493 –
Index
default IPv4 gateway, configuration 451
default IPv6 gateway, configuration 456
default priority, ingress port 193
default settings, system 35
DHCP 443, 452
class identifier 445
client 452
client identifier 444, 445
dynamic provision 449
option 82 information 301, 448
relay service 445
relay service, enabling 448
DHCP snooping
information option, circuit ID 305
information option, remote ID 302
DHCPv4 snooping 299
enabling 302
global configuration 302
information option 302
information option policy 302
information option, enabling 302
policy selection 302
specifying trusted interfaces 304
verifying MAC addresses 302
VLAN configuration 304
DHCPv6 restart 459
Differentiated Code Point Service See DSCP
Differentiated Services See DiffServ
DiffServ 205
binding policy to interface 214
class map 206
classifying QoS traffic 206
configuring 205
metering, configuring 210
policy map 210
policy map, description 207
QoS policy 210
service policy 214
setting CoS for matching packets 211
setting PHB for matching packets 211
DNS
default domain name 437
displaying the cache 442
domain name list 437
enabling lookup 437
name server list 437
static entries, IPv4 441
Domain Name Service See DNS
downloading software 67
automatically 71
using FTP or TFTP 71
drop precedence
CoS priority mapping 202
DSCP ingress map 200
DSA encryption 258, 259
DSCP 197
enabling 198
ingress map, drop precedence 200
mapping to internal values 199
DSCP to PHB/drop precedence 200
dynamic addresses
clearing 161
displaying 159
dynamic QoS assignment 244
dynamic VLAN assignment 243, 246
E
edge port, STA 178, 181
encryption
DSA 258, 259
RSA 258, 259
engine ID 350, 351
event logging 316
exec command privileges, accounting 231, 238
exec settings
accounting 232
authorization 238
F
firmware
displaying version 63
upgrading 67
upgrading automatically 71
upgrading with FTP or TFP 71
version, displaying 63
G
gateway, IPv4 default 451
gateway, IPv6 default 456
general security measures 223
H
hardware version, displaying 63
HTTPS 251, 252
configuring 251
replacing SSL certificate 252
secure-site certificate 252
HTTPS, secure server 251
I
IEEE 802.1D
IEEE 802.1s
IEEE 802.1w
IEEE 802.1X
– 494 –
165
165
165
291
Index
IGMP
filter profiles, configuration 417, 419
filter, parameters 417, 419
filtering & throttling 416
filtering & throttling, creating profile 417
filtering & throttling, enabling 416
filtering & throttling, interface configuration 419
filtering & throttling, status 416
groups, displaying 403
Layer 2 394
query 396
snooping 394
snooping & query, parameters 396
snooping, configuring 396
snooping, immediate leave 406
IGMP services, displaying 411
IGMP snooping
configuring 404
enabling per interface 404, 405
forwarding entries 411
immediate leave, status 406
interface attached to multicast router 402
last leave 395
last member query interval 408
proxy address 408
proxy reporting 407
querier timeout 399
query interval 407
query response interval 408
query suppression 395
router port expire time 399
static host interface 395
static multicast routing 400
static port assignment 402
static router interface 395
static router port, configuring 400
statistics, displaying 412
TCN flood 397
unregistered data flooding 398
version exclusive 398
version for interface, setting 407
version, setting 399
with proxy reporting 395
immediate leave, IGMP snooping 406
immediate leave, MLD snooping 423
importing user public keys 259
ingress filtering 145
IP address
BOOTP/DHCP 452
setting 451
IP filter, for management access 287
IP source guard
ACL table, learning mode 310
configuring static entries 311
learning mode, ACL table or MAC table 310
MAC table, learning mode 310
setting filter criteria 309
setting maximum bindings 310
IP statistics 466
IPv4 address
BOOTP/DHCP 452
setting 451
IPv6
displaying neighbors 465
duplicate address detection 465
enabling 458
MTU 458
IPv6 address
dynamic configuration (global unicast) 462
dynamic configuration (link-local) 458
EUI format 462
EUI-64 setting 462
explicit configuration 458
global unicast 462
link-local 463
manual configuration (global unicast) 462
manual configuration (link-local) 463
setting 455
J
jumbo frame 64
K
key
private 254
public 254
user public, importing 259
key pair
host 254
host, generating 258
L
LACP
configuration 115
group attributes, configuring 119
group members, configuring 117
load balancing 125
local parameters 122
partner parameters 124
protocol message statistics 121
protocol parameters 117
timeout, for LACPDU 116
last member query interval, IGMP snooping 408
license information 481
Link Layer Discovery Protocol - Media Endpoint Discovery
See LLDP-MED
– 495 –
Index
Link Layer Discovery Protocol See LLDP
link type, STA 177, 181
LLDP 321
device statistics details, displaying 343
device statistics, displaying 341
display device information 333
displaying remote information 333
interface attributes, configuring 323
message attributes 323
message statistics 341
remote information, displaying 340, 341
remote port information, displaying 333
timing attributes, configuring 321
TLV 321, 324
TLV, management address 324
TLV, port description 324
TLV, system capabilities 324
TLV, system description 324
TLV, system name 324
LLDP-MED 321
notification, status 323
TLV 325
TLV, extended PoE 325
TLV, inventory 325
TLV, location 325
TLV, MED capabilities 325
TLV, network policy 326
TLV, PoE 325
local engine ID 350
logging
messages, displaying 317
syslog traps 318
to syslog servers 319
log-in, web interface 42
logon authentication 241
encryption keys 228
RADIUS client 227
RADIUS server 227
sequence 225
settings 226, 228
TACACS+ client 226
TACACS+ server 226
loopback detection
STA 167
M
MAC address authentication 243
ports, configuring 246
main menu, web interface 46
management access, filtering per address 287
management access, IP filter 287
Management Information Bases (MIBs) 477
matching class settings, classifying QoS traffic 207
memory
status 90
utilization, showing 90
mirror port
configuring 129
configuring local traffic 129
configuring remote traffic 130
MLD snooping 421
configuring 421
enabling 421
groups, displaying 427, 428
immediate leave 423
immediate leave, status 423
interface attached to multicast router 424, 425
multicast static router port 424
querier 421
querier, enabling 421
query interval 422
query, maximum response time 422
robustness value 422
static port assignment 426
static router port 424
unknown multicast, handling 422
version 422
MSTP 183
global settings, configuring 169, 183
global settings, displaying 174
interface settings, configuring 175, 187
interface settings, displaying 188
path cost 187
MTU for IPv6 458
multicast filtering 393
enabling IGMP snooping 405
enabling IGMP snooping per interface 404
enabling MLD snooping 421
router configuration 400
multicast groups 403, 411, 427
displaying 403, 411, 427
static 402, 403, 426, 427
multicast router discovery 404
multicast router port, displaying 401, 425
multicast services
configuring 402, 426
displaying 403, 427
multicast static router port 400
configuring 400
configuring for MLD snooping 424
multicast storm, threshold 191
multicast, filtering and throttling 416
N
network access
authentication 243
dynamic VLAN assignment 246
– 496 –
Index
MAC address filter 247
port configuration 246
secure MAC information 249
NTP
authentication keys, specifying 81
client, enabling 77
setting the system clock 79
specifying servers 79
P
passwords 241
administrator setting 241
path cost 181
method 171
STA 181
per-hop behavior, DSCP ingress map 199
PoE time range 387
policing traffic, QoS policy 210, 211
policy map
DiffServ 210
port authentication 291
port power
displaying status 347
inline 345
inline status 347
maximum allocation 345
priority 346
showing main power 347
port priority
configuring 193
default ingress 193
STA 176
port security, configuring 289
port, statistics 100
ports
autonegotiation 96
broadcast storm threshold 190, 191
capabilities 96
configuring 95
duplex mode 97
flow control 97
mirroring 129
mirroring local traffic 129
mirroring remote traffic 130
multicast storm threshold 191
speed 97
statistics 100
transceiver threshold, auto-set 110
transceiver threshold, trap 110
unknown unicast storm threshold 191
power budgets
port 345
port priority 346
power savings
configuring 127
enabling per port 127
priority, default port ingress 193
private key 254
problems, troubleshooting 479
protocol migration 179
protocol VLANs 148
configuring 149
interface configuration 150
system configuration 149
proxy address, IGMP snooping 408
proxy reporting, IGMP snooping 407
public key 254
PVID, port native VLAN 145
Q
QoS 205
configuring 205
CoS/CFI to PHB/drop precedence 201
DSCP to PHB/drop precedence 199
matching class settings 207
selecting DSCP, CoS 198
QoS policy
policing flow 210, 211
QoS policy, committed information rate 211
Quality of Service See QoS
query interval, IGMP snooping 407
query response interval, IGMP snooping 408
queue weight, assigning to CoS 195
R
RADIUS
logon authentication 227
settings 227
rate limit
port 189
setting 189
remote engine ID 350
remote logging 318
restarting the system 91
at scheduled times 91
showing restart time 94
RMON 376
alarm, displaying settings 379
alarm, setting thresholds 377
event settings, displaying 381
response to alarm setting 379
statistics history, collection 381
statistics history, displaying 383
statistics, collection 384
statistics, displaying 385
RSA encryption 258, 259
– 497 –
Index
RSTP 165
global settings, configuring 169
global settings, displaying 174
interface settings, configuring 175
interface settings, displaying 180
S
secure shell 254
configuration 254
security, general measures 223
serial port, configuring 85
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol See SMTP
Simple Network Management Protocol See SNMP
SMTP
event handling 319
sending log events 319
SNMP 347
community string 362
enabling traps 368
enabling traps, mac-address changes 162
filtering IP addresses 287
global settings, configuring 349
trap manager 368
users, configuring 363, 366
SNMPv3 350–370
engine ID 350, 351
engine identifier, local 350
engine identifier, remote 350, 351
groups 355
local users, configuring 363
remote users, configuring 366
user configuration 363, 366
views 353
SNTP
setting the system clock 77
specifying servers 78
software
displaying version 63
downloading 67
version, displaying 63
Spanning Tree Protocol See STA
specifications, software 475
SSH 254
authentication retries 257
configuring 254
downloading public keys for clients 259
generating host key pair 258
server, configuring 256
timeout 257
SSL, replacing certificate 252
STA 165
BPDU auto recovery 179
BPDU filter 179
BPDU flooding 170, 176
BPDU shutdown 179
detecting loopbacks 167
edge port 178, 181
global settings, configuring 169
global settings, displaying 174
interface settings, configuring 175
interface settings, displaying 180
link type 177, 181
loopback detection 167
MSTP interface settings, configuring 187
MSTP path cost 187
path cost 181
path cost method 171
port priority 176
port/trunk loopback detection 167
protocol migration 179
transmission limit 171
standards, IEEE 477
startup files
creating 67
displaying 67
setting 67
static addresses, setting 157
statistics
history for port 104
history for trunk 104
statistics, port 100
STP 169
summary, accounting 233
summer time, setting 83
switch settings
restoring 69
saving 69
system clock
setting 75
setting manually 76
setting the time zone 82
setting with NTP 79
setting with SNTP 77
summer time 83
system software, downloading from server 67
T
TACACS+
logon authentication 226
settings 228
TCN
flood 397
general query solicitation 397
Telnet
configuring 87
server, enabling 87
time range, ACL 387
time range, PoE 387
– 498 –
Index
time zone, setting 82
time, setting 75
traffic segmentation 135
assigning ports 135
enabling 135
sessions, assigning ports 137
sessions, creating 136
transceiver data, displaying 108
transceiver thresholds
configuring 109
displaying 109
trap manager 368
troubleshooting 479, 481
trunk
configuration 111
LACP 115
static 113
Type Length Value
See LLDP TLV
U
unknown unicast storm, threshold 191
unregistered data flooding, IGMP snooping 398
upgrading software 67
user account 241
user password 241
V
VLANs 139–152
acceptable frame type 145
adding static members 144
creating 142
description 139
displaying port members by interface 147
displaying port members by interface range 148
displaying port members by VLAN index 146
dynamic assignment 246
egress mode 144
ingress filtering 145
interface configuration 144
MAC-based 152
protocol 148
protocol, configuring 149
protocol, configuring groups 149
protocol, interface configuration 150
protocol, system configuration 149
PVID 145
voice 217
voice VLANs 217
detecting VoIP devices 218
enabling for ports 221
identifying client devices 219
VoIP traffic 217
ports, configuring 220
telephony OUI, configuring 219
voice VLAN, configuring 218
VoIP, detecting devices 221
W
web interface
access requirements 41
configuration buttons 44
home page 44
menu list 46
panel display 45
– 499 –
E052016/ST-R02
150200001416A