Unclassified
DoD Biometrics
NDIA
Disruptive Technologies
5 Sep 2007
Mr Tom Dee
Director, Defense Biometrics
OSD AT&L, DDR&E
thomas..dee@osd.mil (osd.smil.mil)
703-746-1385
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Outline
• The Problem
• Traditional Solutions
• Disruptive Technology
• DoD Biometrics
Friend? Enemy? Neutral?
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Combat Identification
“Combat Identification is the process of attaining an accurate
characterization of detected objects in the battle space to the
extent that a high confidence, timely application of tactical
options, and weapons resources can occur. Depending on the
situation and the tactical decisions that must be made, this
characterization will be at least, but may not be limited to,
"friend," "enemy," or "neutral." Combat identification functions
encompass cooperative and non-cooperative identification
capabilities.”
Joint Pub 3-01, 5 Feb 2007
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Combat Identification
• How to classify and identify detected objects?
Shapes?
Platforms
People
Markings?
Signatures?
Signals?
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What if the “object” is a non-state actor?
Enemy?
Neutral?
Friend?
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Classification
• Tactical decisions require:
Friend / Enemy / Neutral ?
•Detection
•Classification
•But, how do you classify an anonymous individual?
• Something he’s wearing?
• Something he’s carrying?
• His behavior
• His identity
• Who he is
• Where he’s been
• Who’s he associated with
Post IED Blast
AR RAMADI, IRAQ Jun 04
Reuters Video photographer
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And… What If You Get It Wrong
• Consequences
USS Cole
– Tactical
– Operational
– Strategic
Friendly Fire
9-11
Iran Air 655
U.S. Bomb Dropped; 3 British Soldiers Die
NY Times, 25 Aug 2007
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Traditional Solutions
Detection technology
Perimeter Systems
Deterrence
Alert
Zone
Exclusion
Zone
Situational Awareness
Zone10-15 km
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The Disruptive ID Technology
Stealth, Columbia Pictures, 2005
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Terms of Reference
Biometrics – Biometrics are measurable physical characteristics
or personal behavioral traits used to recognize the identity, or
verify the claimed identity, of an individual.
Verification – a one-to-one matching process
Identification – a one-to-many matching process
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Why Biometrics in DoD?
In today’s Joint Operating Environment “an anonymous enemy individual can be a
tactical, operational, and even strategic threat.”
• Business Functions
Friend / Enemy / Neutral ?
– Physical and logical access controls
– Privilege management
• Confidence level of ID?
• Consequences of a
wrong ID?
• Operational situation?
• ROE?
• Health care, benefits, finance, time and
attendance, etc.
• Military operations
– “Combat Identification”
• Friend, Foe, Neutral?
– Offensive Operations
• Intelligence support to targeting
– Force Protection
• Base access
Post IED Blast
AR RAMADI, IRAQ Jun 04
– Detention Operations
– Civil-Military Operations
• Track target members of population.
– Personnel Recovery and identification
Reuters Video photographer
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DoD Use of Biometrics
INTEL EXPLOITATION
MATCHING & STORAGE
COLLECTION
4
3,7
1
ƒ ENROLLED
IN BAT ON
18 SEP 05,
SUSPECTED
SMALL
ARMS FIRE
DOD ABIS
CLARKSBURG WV
NGIC PRODUCES BIAR
LATENT MATCH NOTIFICATION
12 NOV 06 & 14 DEC 06
ACTIONS
PLACED ON BIOMETRICS WATCHLIST,
TIER 1 (DETAIN IF ENCOUNTERED)
29 MAY 07 RECORD FLAGGED IN ABIS
AND ALERTED IN BAT
• LATENT PRINTS RECOVERED
FROM IED MATERIALS
2
6
25-JUL-07
Additional latent
prints from same
materials
searched in ABIS
Enrolled in BAT
on 9 JUL 07 due
to capture as a
result of Tier 1
alert in HIIDE
5
**CAPTURED 26 JUN 07**
during Screening via HIIDE
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Supporting Requirements
Collect
Process
Act
Decide
Analyzed
Biometrics
BAT
(Finger, Iris, Face,
Voice, DNA)
Analyze
Match Report
BAT
Intelligence/
Analyze Match
FBI
Allegiance
Detain/TGT
BIAR
EBTS
Hold
DBIDS
ABIS
DHS
Context
Mission
Red
Gray
Release/
Blue
Grant access
BISA
Warfighter
Contextual Data
(who, what, where,
NGIC
Other
Other
?
Adjudicate
when, why)
Enrollment
RFI for existing data
Match
Store
Share
References
Intelligence Gap?
• Sensors to collect
• Databases to store
– Data to match
• Biometric forensics
• Applications to process
• Communications to share
• Analysis tools for decision support
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Biometrically Enabled Systems In
Theater
Source
Description
Biometric Type
Biometrics Automated Toolset
(BAT)
Enemy combatants, detainees, locally employed personnel
(LEP), misc. fingerprinted by the U.S. military; used for intel
functions, LEP processing, detention mgt
Various Flat or Rolled Fingerprint,
Photo, & Iris
Biometric Identification System for
Access (BISA)
Base Access System where biometrics are collected from
persons requiring access to U.S. installations in Iraqi; issues
biometrically-enabled badge as credential
Ten Rolled Fingerprint, Photo, &
Iris
Multi-Purpose Access Card
(MPAC)
Iraqi applying for a position of trust or privilege with Iraqi
Gov’t; some stations are being use for criminal processing
Ten Rolled Fingerprint, Photo, Iris,
& Voice
Expanded Maritime Interception
Operation (eMIO)
Deployed on Navy patrols performing interception and
boarding operations on the high seas
Ten Flat or Rolled Fingerprint,
Photo, & Iris
Special Operations Command
(SOCOM) Jump Kits
Deployed with SOF troops on tactical missions.
Various Flat or Rolled Fingerprint,
Photo, & Iris
Detainee Reporting Systems (DRS)
Detainee Management, collecting biometrics from all detainees
held for more than 14 days and assigned an ISN number; Red
Cross-compliant
Ten Rolled Fingerprint & Photo
Defense Biometric Identification
System (DBIDS)
Base access system; collects biometrics from all personnel
accessing US bases, including soldiers, government employees,
civilians, contractors, day workers, etc.
Ten Rolled Fingerprint, Photo, &
Iris
Hand-held Interagency Identity
Detection Equipment (HIIDE)
Tactical operations by OGA in Iraq, 10 Mtn Div in
Afghanistan; also used in detention facilities
th
Flat Fingerprint, Photo, & Iris
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DoD Biometric Strategy
FY 08
FY 07
Q1
Optimize What
We Have
Improve the
Existing
Architecture
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Support and sustain legacy systems
Increase capacity
Implement “Enterprise JUONS”
Down-Select
“family of systems”
Field and Sustain “family of systems”
Full CBA
Build What We
Need
Q2
FY 10
FY 09
PR09 Wedge
JCIDS
System Spiral Program of record
POM 10 Build
Biometrics S&T Plan
Support immediate needs while building for the future
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DOD Roles and Responsibilities
• DDR&E is Principle Staff Assistant
• Army is Executive Agent
• EXCOM established as final arbitration forum and
executive level collaborative forum
• Army established a joint governance structure
subordinate to EXCOM
– Full transparency of component biometrics programs
• Services retain Title 10 responsibilities
Promote unity of effort to deliver desired outcomes
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Technology Challenges
•
Improve Collection Devices
– Biometrics Sensors
•
Develop More Efficient and
Effective large Scale operational
Capabilities
– Biometrics Systems
•
Establish Standards for Plug and
Play Performance
– Systems interoperability
•
www.biometrics.gov
Informed Debate on Why, How,
and When Biometrics Should be
Used
– Biometrics Communications and
Privacy
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Challenge
• Biometrics is only a sub-set of Global Identity
Management
– Holistic program must support:
• Combat applications & Business Functions & Intelligence source
• Red Force & Blue Force & Neutrals
• U.S. Persons & Non-U.S. persons
• Verification & identification
• Voluntary & involuntary subjects
• Multi-service & Defense Agencies & Inter-agency & International
• Biometrics & Credentials & Contextual data & Forensics
• Privacy Data & Public Perceptions
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Goals
– 100% accuracy in identification and verification
– Interoperable biometrics systems within DoD &
with Other Government Agencies
– Reduce workload and manpower associated with
collection, storage, matching, analysis, & action
– Dramatically reduce latency in moving biometrics
data and accelerating decisions
¾ Hours … to minutes … to seconds (it was days & weeks)
Synchronized, Integrated, Coordinated
Program
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Discussion
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Human Genome
as the subject of forensic analysis
“Y Chromosomal” DNA
(yDNA)
Y STRs
Mitochondria
Nucleus
“Nuclear” DNA
(nucDNA)
Autosomal STRs
“Mitochondrial” DNA
(mtDNA)
Direct Sequencing or Base Composition
9/7/2007
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Integrated Automated Fingerprint
Identification System (IAFIS)
The five key IAFIS services are:
1. Ten-print Based Fingerprint Identification Services
• Criminal submissions, responses within 2 hours
• Civil submissions, responses within 24 hours
• Supports DoD ABIS
2. Latent Fingerprint Services (at Quantico, VA)
3. Subject Search and Criminal History Services
4. Document and Imaging Services
5. Remote Ten-print and Latent Fingerprint Search
Services
Owned by the FBI, IAFIS is the US National Fingerprint and Criminal History System
• Located at the Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division, Clarksburg, WV
• Maintains the world’s largest biometrics database currently holding about 66 million records
• Has been in operation since July 1999
• Model for the DoD Automated Biometric Identification System (ABIS)
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Automated Biometric Identification
System (ABIS)
ABIS Background:
– Operational since July 2004
– Modeled after highly successful FBI system, Integrated
Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS)
– Central repository for DoD biometric data
– Provides capability for searching, storing and matching
biometrics data
– Building multi-modal searching/matching capability
(NGEA)
– Located in Clarksburg, WV
NGIC
Naval Special
Warfare
Command
Suspects
–
–
–
–
–
Known and suspected terrorists
Bomb makers
Passport forgers
Individuals with US criminal convictions
Former Iraqi criminals (Hussein regime)
Terrorist/Crime
Scenes
Automated,
secure links
1991 PGW EPW
Force Protection
Initiative
BAT – Detainees,
Locally Employed
Personnel, misc.
USG
Organizations
DoD
Biometrics
Fusion Center
DoD
ABIS
FBI
CJIS
Multi -National
Force-Iraq
Operation Enduring Freedom /
Operation Iraqi Freedom
Persian Gulf War Enemy Prisoners of
War
Force Protection Initiatives
biometrics
Identification
System for Access
ABIS has made matches to:
DoD
Organizations
~55M records of
persons arrested in
the U.S.
Arrestees in U.S.
Iraqi Criminal
Master File
ABIS Operations Tasks:
–
–
–
–
Operate and maintain the ABIS repository
Provide 24x7 biometrics matching services
Share biometrics data with approved agencies
Provide latent match capabilities
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UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
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Automated Identity Management System
(AIMS)
Analyst Workflow
• Automated triage and
Prioritization
• Focus on most significant
Matches
• ~ 4% of matches go in queue
Production Tool
• Consistent BIAR format
WEB Application
• Portion Markings
• Standardized classifications
• Posting to the WEB
• Searchable database that
contains both BIARs and
BMRs
• Soundex function
• Full Text search capability
UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
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Defense Biometrics Identification
System (DBIDS)
System:
Future Status:
• Afghanistan – 10 Tier 1 sites long lead time items
orders sent to GSA
• Navy Europe fielding to start July 2007 – 6 sites
• Navy CENTCOM (the island of Bahrain) fielding to
begin August 2007
• Air Force CENTCOM – 6 sites to begin July 2007
• Japan – 2 sites in progress
• Guam – 3 sites planned
• Representatives from all services state they want
their physical access systems in CONUS to be
based on/interact with DBIDS
Data Footprint:
Levels of Commitment:
• Currently, DBIDS installed:
• 300 Gates
• 135 Installations (including USAREUR, SWA,
USFK, and CONUS)
• 1.4M registrants
• DBIDS is the installation access control solution USFK
and USAREUR-wide
• Attempted Accesses to DBIDS fielded Military
Installations – Over 200 Million
• Accesses Denied – 1.5 Million
• Navy has signed MOU and has $ to field DBIDS
Navy-wide
• CENTCOM has signed up for DBIDS at various sites
in the AOR and will fund
• USAREUR and USFK are long-standing customers
• Representatives from all services state they want
their physical access systems in CONUS to be
based on/interact with DBIDS
• DoD 5200.08R and 1000.25 both name DBIDS
Prediction:
•
By end of calendar year 2007 DBIDS will be fielded at
330 Gates at 150 Installations, including USAREUR,
SWA, USFK, USPACOM, and CONUS
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Biometric Identification System for Access - BISA
1. Enrollment Center and Kit
2. Iris-Scan and creation of digital
image
3. Fingerprint Scan and creation of
digital image
4. Digital
biometric data
loaded onto
‘smart-card’
BISA badge,
with other
contextual
data.
5. Biometric data on badge verified (‘one-toone’ match) by electronic readers at ECP.
Operational Concept
•
•
•
•
Collect biometric data on all local- and third-country nationals (LN/TCN) accessing US bases in Iraq.
Screens applicants against ABIS/IAFIS; If vetted then produces & issues access credential based on unique (person’s) fingerprint & photo. Digitally
verify biometric at each entry to assure identity.
Electronic storage of biometric characteristics on ‘smart-card’ biometric template provides tamper-proof, forge-proof base-access credential, which
also includes privilege (DFAC etc) eligibility and other commonly-required data. At verification (at ECP), electronically stored data is compared to
individual data by all-electronic means; one-to-one match performed between digital image vs actual fingerprint of holder.
Designed for turn-key deployment & operation in communications-austere and otherwise unfavorable (eg climate, dust, etc) environments.
Updated 08 JUN
2007
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National Detainee Reporting Center (NDRC)
Detainee Reporting System (DRS)
• Function: Provide total accountability and reporting of all biographic and biometric
data for persons detained in association with the GWOT
• Scope:
– DRS allows for real time data sharing with deployed systems
– Independent satellite communication packages enable rapid transmittal of detainee
information
• Capabilities:
– DRS (v5.0) is web based
– Issues Geneva Convention required Internment Serial Numbers
– Collects and submits biometric fingerprints and photos with biographic information
including medical and property files on all detainees
– Contains an ‘In Camp’ management system and a ‘Do Not Release’ detainer option
ensuring accuracy and preventing HVD releases
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Biometrics Automated
Toolset (BAT)
BAT Enrollment Station
Digital
Camera
CF-73/74
Toughbook
Fingerprint
Reader
Iris
Scanner
Optional
Equipment:
500GB
Hard Drive
Badge
Printer
Bar Code
Scanner
•
Function: BAT collects fingerprints, iris scans, facial photos and biographical information
of persons of interest into a searchable data base.
•
Scope: Over 2,000 systems deployed; 560,000+ biometrics enrollments
•
Mission Threads: Tactical Operations, Force Protection, Detainee Operations, Population
Control, Base Access, IED Forensics Operations, Special Operations, and Local Hire
Screening / Intelligence
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Handheld Interagency Identity
Detection Equipment (HIIDE)
Fingerprint Sensor
Digital Face Camera
Iris Camera
HIIDE Characteristics:
• Lightweight (2lbs, 3 oz)
• Multimodal collection and
matching device
5”
Flash
IR Bar
8”
Touch Screen
Data Interface
• Interoperable with BAT for
biometrics data exchange back to
DoD biometrics Data Repository
• Function: HIIDE collects and matches fingerprints, iris images, facial photos and
biographical contextual data of Persons of Interest against an internal database.
• Scope: Major HIIDE fieldings since Oct 06: 900 OIF, 450 OEF, 250 USMC, 89 ISAF,
and 45 SOF; planned total fielding of 6,664 devices
• Mission Threads: Tactical Operations, Force Protection, Detainee Operations,
Access Control, Special Operations, and Intelligence Operations
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Special Operations Identity Dominance
(SOID) – Biometric Identification Kits
COMPONENTS
• Organic CF-18 Laptop
I w/ SWIR
FUNDING INFORMATION
•
Procurement (934 kits at $2K
each): $1.9M
•
O&M: $846K
•
Total, FY 08-13: $2.7M
• Live Scan Management System (software)
• CrossMatch MV-5 Wand-style Print Reader
• Organic Team Comms Equipment
BOIP
75th Ranger Rgt: 80 (RGT = 14, BN = 21, CO = 18,
PLT = 27)
USASFC:
USACAPOC:
651 (GRP = 7, BN = 56, ODB = 84
ODA = 504)
84 (BN = 4, CAT-A = 80)
USAJFKSWCS: 119 (1 system / student)
BACKGROUND
• ARSOF have unfunded requirement to
capture, store, manipulate, transmit, & query
against REDFOR and GRAYFOR biometric
signatures in support of national strategic
objectives and the GWOT.
• Identification kits are used for hold/release
info in a tactical environment
• # 14 on USASOC Commander’s Priority List
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Special Operations Identity Dominance
(SOID) – Biometric Enrollment Kits
COMPONENTS
• Organic CF-18 Laptop
• Live Scan Management System (software)
• CrossMatch ID442 Scanner (10-print)
• Canon G-6 Digital Camera (f/ facial recognition)
• Iris Imager
• Organic Comms Equipment
FUNDING INFORMATION
•
Procurement (714 kits at $10K
each): $7.2M
•
O&M: $3.2M
•
Total, FY 08-13: $10.4M
BACKGROUND
75th Ranger Rgt: 16 (RGT = 7, CO = 9)
USASFC:
651 (GRP = 7, BN = 56, ODB = 84,
ODA = 504)
USACAPOC:
20 (BN = 4, CO = 16)
USAJFKSWCS:
27 (5 students / system)
• ARSOF have an unfunded requirement to
capture, store, manipulate, transmit, & query
against REDFOR and GRAYFOR biometric
signatures in support of national strategic
objectives and the GWOT.
• Enrollment kits are for full enrollments in
less austere environments
• # 15 on USASOC Commander’s Priority List
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Navy MIO Collection Systems
Operational Concept
The fundamental purpose of the Identity Dominance
System (IDS) is to provide the capability to
positively enroll, identify, and verify the identity of
personnel. This capability is expected to play a key
role in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) and
the full range of military operations. The Tactical
Biometrics Collection and Matching System
(TBCMS) will be fielded using the IDS spiral one
requirements as a quick reaction response to a
CENTCOM JUONS. The BFC provides Subject
Matter Experts to the Navy in support of IDS
Technical Approach & Milestones
Challenges
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Approved at eR3B – Nov06
Staffed in Joint Staffing Process; modified CDD due to
Joint Staff – 2 Mar 07
Significant modifications made
Back to Phase 1 staffing 18Jun07
BAWG – Aug07
FCB – Sep07
MS B – Jan 08
MS C – Oct 08
IOC – Dec 08
•
•
Responsibility for adjudication of matches currently
resides with the commanding officer of the vessel
dispatching the VBSS team (ONI will receive match
response)
System for passing data between boarded vessel and
host vessel in development
Funding for TBCMS follow on systems/IDS not yet
secured
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Expanded Maritime Interception
Operations (EMIO)
TALK / DATA
TALK
RS CS TR RD TD CD
Equipment Description:
• Pelican 1600 Case
• CMT ID442R
• 8.8Lbs
• Sealed Aluminum
• FBI Certified
• 500DPI Optical
• Slaps and Rolls
•BB2590/5590 Battery
• Panasonic CF-18F
• Panasonic IRIS
• Olympus D595 5.1 MPX Digital Camera
• Capable of 10 prints – rolls/slaps
• <18 Watts power requirement
• 12 VDC Battery with converter
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Biometrics S&T
•
Develop a DoD Science and Technology (S&T) Road-map
– Synchronized with interagency
– Transition goals to acquisition
•
Accelerate longer-range advanced technologies
•
Potential Opportunities:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Iris-at-a-Distance
Facial Recognition
Non-Obtrusive Biometrics
Rapid Fingerprint Capture
Enhanced Latent Fingerprint Detection
Natural Forensics for Backtracking Terrorists
Biometrics Operational Exchange
Multimodal Biometrics Fusion
Standards Development & Prototype Deployments
Improved Data Storage and Exchange
• Wireless systems, data architectures, data standards, system form factors to
permit expeditionary operations
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