an efficient resource planning and desktop

M.Tech. (Information and Communication Technology),
J.J. College of Engineering and Technology, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India.
Abstract- Virtualization has become apparent in the 1960s as a practice to enhance the use of expensive computing hardware.
Virtualization targets to reduce the complexity associated with deployment and maintenance of client devices, which
eventually helps IT Companies to reduce system management costs. In this paper, we propose the virtualization concept
expanding into many aspects of IT world. There are various virtualization technologies which include storage, desktop virtual
platforms, server consolidation, virtual desktop infrastructure and application virtualization. This is the basic prerequisite for
cloud computing and its applications. This paper highlights the benefits of virtualization and provides a comparative study on
the various products that have been derived from it. This paper also describes how to create virtual desktop .introducing
comprehensive desktop-virtualization solutions, thereby providing a high-level guidance to help develop a
desktop-virtualization strategy.
Index Terms- Virtualization, desktop virtualization, virtual desktop infrastructure, Cloud computing, Hypervisor
software as a service (SaaS) over internet. Cloud
computing is independent of Grid computing and
Utility computing but when cloud computing is
implemented publically then it is done as Utility
In the last decade, the advancement in VLSI
technology, increased usage of online services over the
internet and the evolution and adaptation of service
oriented architecture (SOA) model has been the major
driving force in the growth of IT. To support this,
major investments were made by industry in creating
huge IT infrastructure like grid computing, net
computing, server based computing, desktop
computing, ubiquitous computing, social computing
etc. which has not been optimized from the point view
of utilization all the resources.
Cloud provides the facility of renting the services
instead of buying or purchasing them and stores the
complete data at its data centers for future access. The
basic components of cloud computing are Clients,
Services, Application, Platform, Storage and
infrastructure. The essential characteristics a cloud
must possess are:
• On-demand self service
• Broad Network Access
• Rapid Elasticity
• Resource Pooling
• Measured services
Cloud computing with its acceptance also has some
growing needs which affect the complete working of
cloud, and one of those needs is the need for “security”.
Cloud at present is lacking in its security needs in
terms of data integrity, authorization and
confidentiality. The clouds at present are being
provided by specific vendors like Amazon
Google.web request with the subsequent DB queries.
Thus, Double Guard can build a causal mapping
profile by taking both the web server and DB traffic
into account. Virtualization is the act of decoupling
one computing resource from others without
impacting the usability across these resources. Rather
than connecting the various layers together the
operating system (OS) to the hardware, the
application to the OS, and the user interface and data
One of the major challenges faced today by all
business entities is to bringing down the operational
and maintenance cost of the IT infrastructure and
utilize all the existing available resources like
compute, storage, network in addition to legacy
systems. The virtualization technology provides the
road map for efficient usage of all the resources in
addition to cutting down the cost through on-demand
provisioning. Virtualization is a prerequisite for
setting up a cloud computing infrastructure which is
the buzz word of Tomorrow.
1.1 Cloud computing and Virtualization:
Cloud Computing can be defined as a computing
paradigm that provides dynamic computing
environment for end users that is reliable and
customized and also guarantees quality of service
(QoS). Being synonymous to “Internet” it provides
service oriented applications in form of infrastructure
as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), and
International Conf. on Electrical, Electronics, Mechanical & Computer Engineering, 06th July-2014, Cochin, India, ISBN: 978-93-84209-34-6
An Efficient Resource Planning And Desktop Virtualization In Cloud Environment Using Vm Migration
to the host machine, virtualization technologies loosen
the direct reliance these parts have on each other.
One of the biggest advantages of using a virtualized
environment is that it’s cost effective. Instead of
acquiring and maintaining several physical servers to
perform the actions of file, database and web servers,
for instance all of these can be put on single physical
A general representation of the architecture of a
desktop virtualization solution is shown in Fig. 2.
The term “desktop virtualization” has been used to
describe many approaches to delivering desktops,
including single remote desktops; shared desktops,
which enable many users to share a common PC
desktop environment on a centralized server.
This paper seeks to explain the basic architecture of a
desktop virtualization solution, introduce some of the
providers of desktop virtualization components,
discuss some of the design options which include
another promising technology popularly known as
NComputing, and explore the circumstances that best
lend themselves to this desktop delivery alternative.
In the desktop virtualization model, a hardware
virtualization layer is added to the centralized data
centre server (or servers). This virtualization layer
hosts numerous virtual machines (VMs), each with an
operating system, applications, device configurations,
and a unique desktop environment (or GUI). [2].The
desktop for a given VM can include
customizations, such as wallpapers and screen savers
of the Windows platform, for each user. The overall
structure of a desktop virtualization solution is shown
in Fig. 1 Because each virtual machine is an instance
of a PC,the user session functions just as a locally run
version of the operating system would thereby getting
dedicated operating system sessions on the shared
central server.
Fig. 2 Components of Desktop Virtualization
The physical machine is the computer that acts as a
host for the virtualized environment. In larger
corporate environments, multiple physical machines
can be networked to form a virtual network. The guest
OS is also known as the virtual machine, or VM,
because a VM cannot exist without a guest OS to
facilitate its functioning. A single virtual environment
can consist of more than one guest OS, if the physical
machine has the hardware capacity and memory to
host multiple VMs.
The hypervisor is the link between the physical host
machine and the virtualized environment. It enables
and manages the communication between the host
computer and the virtual environment and vice-versa.
The hypervisor is sometimes referred to as the Virtual
machine monitor (VMM). One of the main functions
of a hypervisor is to ensure a VM is secure.
Hypervisors limits a VM so it can only interact with
resources for which it has authorization.
This helps protect the integrity of data, because each
VM can only send or receive data from other
authorized VMs. There are two types of hypervisor
International Conf. on Electrical, Electronics, Mechanical & Computer Engineering, 06th July-2014, Cochin, India, ISBN: 978-93-84209-34-6
An Efficient Resource Planning And Desktop Virtualization In Cloud Environment Using Vm Migration
A) Hosted Hypervisor: A hosted hypervisor needs to be
compatible with the host OS on which it’s installed.
The host OS then acts as a go-between for the
hypervisor to communicate with the host computer’s
physical hardware as shown in Fig. 3.
When implementing virtualization, you should check
your CPU and hardware specifications to establish
whether it supports Intel VT or AMD-V. This is
important, because some virtualization application
software only runs on a system that has AMD-V or
Intel VT support. Occasionally, may have to
enable virtualization support for a chipset in the basic
input output system (BIOS).
There are two techniques that enable the concept of
desktop virtualization and they are as follows:
(A) Remote Desktop Services (RDS)
(B)Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) These
techniques provide the ability to centrally Host and
manage desktop environments, delivering services
remotely to the user’s endpoint devices.
(A) Remote Desktop Services (RDS):
RDS is traditionally known as terminal services. A
terminal service runs on top of a Windows installation.
It provides individual session to client systems.
Clients receive visuals of the desktop, and resource
consumption takes place on the server itself.
Fig. 3 Hosted Virtualization Model
The benefits of Remote Desktop Services are:
i. Applications are installed on the server and
delivered rapidly.
ii. Applications and data are stored in the server
and hence data redundancy is reduced thereby
enhancing the security.
iii. Centralized management.
iv.Low cost technology when compared to VDI.
With Remote
Examples for host-based hypervisors include
VMware Workstation, which can be installed in
Windows or Linux, and Microsoft Virtual PC (Virtual
Box) which is only supported in Windows, BHyVe
supported on Legacy-Free hypervisor developed by
(B) Bare Metal Hypervisor: When using a bare metal
hypervisor model as shown in Fig. 4, the hypervisor
does not require a compatible host OS and only has to
meet the host system’s hardware requirements. This is
because a bare metal hypervisors is installed in a way
that enables it to communicate with the host
computer’s physical hardware directly, without
requiring a host OS as a go-between.
Desktop Services (RDS) and Hyper-V in Windows
Server 2012, organizations get the following benefits:
Platform: A single platform is sufficient enough to
deploy any hosted desktop making it easily
manageable. Experience: RemoteFX provides a
seam-less experience for the users irrespective of their
location of access to the virtual environment.
Deployment choices: RDS can host either Session
based desktops, pooled VMs or personal VMs. So the
customers have the flexibility to deploy the right type
of VDI desktop for their users.
Fig. 4 Bare metal Virtualization Model Examples for
bare metal hypervisors include Citrix’s XEN Server,
VMware ESX Server; Kernel based virtual machine
(KVM) for Linux, Oracle VM server for SPARC,
Oracle VM server for x86 and Hyper-V in Microsoft’s
Server 2008 environments.
(B) Virtual Desktop Infrastructure:
Virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) can be used in
any network environment in order to run desktop PC’s
using virtualization.
Two of the most commonly used processor vendors,
Intel and AMD, provide hardware support specifically
for virtualization. AMD’s central processing unit, or
CPU, has added support for virtualization, and is
called AMD-V. Intel’s equivalent CPU solution is
known as Intel Virtualization Technology (VT).
When using VDI, desktop vms run from a central
server. At start up, the end user device contacts a VDI
server and the end user is presented with a VM
running in the data centre as shown in Fig. 5.
International Conf. on Electrical, Electronics, Mechanical & Computer Engineering, 06th July-2014, Cochin, India, ISBN: 978-93-84209-34-6
An Efficient Resource Planning And Desktop Virtualization In Cloud Environment Using Vm Migration
VMware Player: a freeware product for personal use to
allow the usage of VMware workstation and Fusion
without a license. VMware ESX: an enterprise-level
product that can deliver greater performance than the
freeware VMware Server, due to lower system
overhead. It runs directly on the server hardware,
allowing the virtual servers also to access the
hardware. In addition, VMware ESX integrates into
VMware vCenter, which provides a highly reliable
and easily manageable server deployment, such as
VMotion: enables live migration of VMSs from one
host to another. Storage VMotion: migration of VMs
from one storage device to another.
Fig. 5 Virtual Desktop Infrastructure
Virtual Desktop Infrastructure or VDI is ideal for
corporate environments where data integrity or
confidentiality is crucial, because the potential for data
loss is minimized by the fact that the desktop VMs
don’t have sufficient processing power or capacity to
store data. In a typical VDI environment, desktop
VMs are known as thin clients, because these clients
are stripped down, so all actual data processing and
storage occurs on the server. The VDI components
include End point devices, VM hosting/execution
Server and Connecting Broker (It is responsible
for establishing and managing the connection
between the endpoint device and the desktop VM).
VDI Benefits: Centralized deployment and
management, improved security and improved
Business Continuity and Disaster recovery.
Distributed Resource Scheduler:
Automatic load balancing of an ESX cluster using
VMotion. HA (High Availability): In case of hardware
failure in a cluster, the virtual servers will switch and
restart on another host in the same cluster. VMware
Server (GSX Server) was also provided as freeware for
non-commercial use which can be used to create new
virtual machines. It runs on a host compatible within
an existing Linux or Windows operating. VMware has
a range of file systems that it supports such s:config
files(.nvram),snapshot data file(.vmsd), template
file(.vmtx), disk descriptor(.vmdk) and many others.
VDI Considerations: Reliance on network
connection, unsuitable for high-end graphic
applications and requires additional infrastructure.
However the main disadvantage of this type of setup is
that in the event of network or power failure, the thin
client computers would not be able to perform any
work functions, which will cause potentially costly
(B) CISCO VXI Solutions:
The need to regain control over data and to rein in the
ever-increasing cost of maintaining a personal
computer for each employee has made desktop
virtualization a top priority in many companies. Cisco
Desktop Virtualization Solution with VMware
View(delivered as part of Cisco's Virtual
Experience Infrastructure (VXI))centralizes the
components of the desktop in the data centre to enable
exceptional control of applications and data while
improving IT's capability to manage and deliver
desktops. This solution helps reduce IT costs and
enables flexible access and an improved experience
for end-users. It provides the following features: Takes
Control of Desktop and Data Security: Centralized
virtual desktop solution that gives companies
superior control over security, infrastructure,
migration, and total cost of ownership while
maintaining an outstanding user experience that
comply with business, industry and government
regulations. It provides greater control over desktop
and laptop environments while adding an exceptional
level of security to the end-to-end infrastructure.
Collaboration of Cisco UCS Manager and VMware
View provides consistent security policies for
virtual desktops, regardless of the location.
There are two competing requirements: the needs of
users to access their desktop with responsive
performance and flexibility, and needs to protect
mission-critical data while avoiding the loss of
customer and employee personal information. For
this purpose, various solutions have been discovered to
service these requirements. The solutions are as
(A) VMWARE Solutions:
VMware is popularly known for its high ranking in
the server virtualization market especially for its
commercial product, Sphere however VMware also
dominates the desktop-level virtualization market
with its varied products such as: Desktop software
VMware Workstation: enables multiple instances of
x86 or x86-64 -compatible operating systems on a
single physical PC. VMware Fusion provides the same
for an Intel Mac platform, along with full
compatibility with other VMware products.
In addition, also provides exceptional backup and
recovery capabilities through centralized data
repositories and a high-speed 10-Gbps unified fabric.
International Conf. on Electrical, Electronics, Mechanical & Computer Engineering, 06th July-2014, Cochin, India, ISBN: 978-93-84209-34-6
An Efficient Resource Planning And Desktop Virtualization In Cloud Environment Using Vm Migration
(C) CITRIX Solutions:
Citrix was not very popular before, but now it owns the
world's most-used cloud vendor software: Xen (the
basis for its commercial XenServer). Citrix
market-leading desktop virtualization solutions
enable businesses to transform Windows desktops,
apps and data into a cloud-like service accessible on
any device.
physical GPU. Remote FX provides high end user
experience with support for LAN and WAN networks,
USB redirection and multi touch Remoteing.
NComputing is a desktop virtualization solution
shown in Fig. 6 allows organizations to share the
power of a single PC with multiple users, where each
user gets his individual session. It eliminates the need
of full-fledged PCs, thereby cutting down on cost of
space, power consumption and
maintenance. It is a desktop virtualization company
that manufactures hardware and software to create
virtual desktops (sometimes called zero clients or thin
which enable
multiple users to
simultaneously share a single operating system
Its features include:
• Delivers every type of virtual desktop from
simple and standardized, to high performance and
personalized having the ability to meet the
performance, security and flexibility requirements of
each user.
• Provides individual Windows, web and SaaS
applications: full virtual desktops, with a
high-definition user experience.
• Accelerates application migration and simplifies
application management for new operating systems,
including Windows 7 while maintaining complete
• Requires limited servers and cables for desktop
• Scalable, predictable performance with
uncompromised user experience.
Features of this solution are as follows:
Saves up to 70% on Hardware, maintenance.And90%
on Electricity. Easy to set up: Manages fewer
Cuts Electricity cost by up to 90% Saves on UPS
Reduces-power wastage by 98%. Compatible:
Uses standard PCs, softwares, and peripherals and is
deployable on Windows or Linux or Citrix
environment. Provides a Familiar environment (no
special training needed). Here are few versions
provided by this company namely: vSpace Client, Nseries N400 and N500,X-series - Direct Connect,
L-series - Ethernet connect, U-series - USB
connections, M-series - Multiple seats, vSpace Server
software[17]. However there are a few limitations that
cannot be neglected such as
Citrix supports ICA (Independent computing
Architecture) file format which configures
information transfer between client and server.
This solution helps users access virtually any
application and Windows environment anywhere,
while keeping their personalized experience even
when they change their devices.It
organizations to give employees the flexibility to work
everywhere, as it is through a centralized &
unified infrastructure on a more comprehensive
platform. It offers within its full spectrum the
following features: Efficient Management: Quick
Deploy helps customers get started with VDI fairly
easily, customers can set up a basic VM or session
based VDI; thereby reducing the complexity
associated with setting up such an environment.
Intelligent patching and scanning through task
randomization makes sure no single server gets
inundated at the same.
• The maximum distance between the PC and terminal
ranges only between 5 to 10 meters. •
Average video resolution.
• Unsuitable for demanding or high end
• Its performance directly depends on the power of
the host PC and deteriorates when the number of
terminals increases.
The NComputing solution takes advantage of the fact
that today’s PCs are so powerful that majority of users
only need a small fraction of the computing
capacity,thus tapping into unused capacity so that it
can be simultaneously shared by many users. Each
user’s hardware components such as monitor,
keyboard and mouse are connected to the
NComputing thin- client device, which is then
connected to the shared PC thereby minimizing
Best value for Virtual Desktops: ensures that no single
VM or session hogs all the machine resources thereby
providing high system performance. Hyper-V
provides a hypervisor platform that has been designed
to host large VDI deployments. And RDS has made
storing of VMs cheaper .Rich Experience Everywhere:
Remote FX now supports software GPU which is
readily encodes and decodes graphics and multimedia
which provides the exact experience as that of a
International Conf. on Electrical, Electronics, Mechanical & Computer Engineering, 06th July-2014, Cochin, India, ISBN: 978-93-84209-34-6
An Efficient Resource Planning And Desktop Virtualization In Cloud Environment Using Vm Migration
modern information security strategy. Desktop
virtualization enables organizations to transform their
approach to information security and compliance. By
centralizing data, applications and access control,
desktop virtualization delivers an unprecedented level
of information security management, even across the
complex IT environments typical of large
organizations. From the above comparative study, it is
difficult to conclude on a specific vendor as the current
scenario of the IT industry is ever- changing and the
end user requirements keep varying. Thus the survey
conducted indicating that vendor preference is
dependent on the specific features needed by the
company, the reputation of the vendor and the price.
For organizations considering hosted desktops, client
virtualization, or a combination of the two, it’s
necessary to first understand desktop virtualization’s
limitations. The virtual environment is highly
network- dependent, hence it is necessary to ensure
that the network can support the heavy graphics that
today's desktops demand or else the end-user
experience will be spoilt. The right balance of
protocols, bandwidth usage and third-party tools must
be found so as to facilitate an efficient virtual desktop
deployment. End- users sometimes experience
degraded performance when running applications
not native to their client device’s base operating
system. While considering storage facilities at the
server side, security issues will arise regarding the
redundancy of the information shared in the
client-server network. These must be taken into
consideration. Most vendors of desktop virtualization
virtualization. However, there are no integrated
solutions currently available in which any aspect of
virtualization can be managed from the single
interface and it is expected to be implemented in the
near future
Some other solutions for desktop virtualization
(F) DELL DVS: A collaboration of the citrix
solution and Vmware solution is the DELL DVS. On
the server end it incorporates Vmware and on the
desktop end it incorporates the beneficial of the citrix
Among the parameters listed in the table I, one must
consider some important parameters mandatorily for
the implementation of an desktop virtualization
solution, namely, number of users, CPU hosts,
primary(RAM) and secondary memory(disk space)
capacity, network interface cards, OS supports,
security management, migration and of virtual
machines and upgrading. Larger the number of users
and CPU hosts supported, stronger and more cost
effective is the solution which make it more prominent
than its counterparts. Greater the RAM space, faster
is the loading of data and response time resulting in
less memory swapping and page faults. Secondary
storage enables a dynamic provisioning of disk space
thus providing a seam-less user experience. The
network interface cards allow the efficient usage of the
available network resources and increased network
security collectively known as NIC teaming and
zoning. Compatibility with many operating systems
provides users flexibility in choosing their suited
platform and also allows them to switch between
platforms if required. Live migration of VM’s is a
process where resources are transferred from a host
machine to its clients, support for this technique is key
for an desktop virtualization solution and sets it
apart from conventional computing. The ability of
this solution is to facilitate automatic upgrading and
patching giving end users an added advantage of
acquiring the latest features and their advantages.
The research discussed in this paper makes it clear
that desktop virtualization is now at the heart of the
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International Conf. on Electrical, Electronics, Mechanical & Computer Engineering, 06th July-2014, Cochin, India, ISBN: 978-93-84209-34-6
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International Conf. on Electrical, Electronics, Mechanical & Computer Engineering, 06th July-2014, Cochin, India, ISBN: 978-93-84209-34-6