Configuring frame relay

HP A8800 Routers
Layer 2 - WAN
Configuration Guide
Part number: 5998-1741
Software version: A8800-CMW520-R3627
Document version: 6W102-20130906
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Contents
Configuring ATM ························································································································································· 1 Overview············································································································································································ 1 Introduction to ATM·················································································································································· 1 ATM connection ······················································································································································· 1 ATM architecture ······················································································································································ 1 Overview of IPoA, IPoEoA, and EoA ······························································································································ 3 IPoA ··········································································································································································· 3 IPoEoA ······································································································································································· 3 EoA ············································································································································································ 3 ATM service types ····························································································································································· 3 CBR ············································································································································································ 3 rt_VBR ········································································································································································ 4 nrt_VBR ······································································································································································ 4 UBR ············································································································································································ 4 Introduction to InARP························································································································································· 4 ATM OAM ········································································································································································· 4 OAM F5 loopback ··················································································································································· 5 OAM continuity check ············································································································································· 5 ATM configuration task list··············································································································································· 5 Configuring an ATM interface ········································································································································· 6 Configuring an ATM subinterface ··································································································································· 6 Associating the protocol state of an ATM P2P subinterface with the state of its PVC······································· 7 Configuring PVC parameters ··········································································································································· 7 Configuring applications carried by ATM ····················································································································· 9 Configuring VE interfaces ········································································································································ 9 Configuring IPoA ··················································································································································· 10 Configuring IPoEoA··············································································································································· 11 Configure EoA ······················································································································································· 11 Displaying and maintaining ATM ································································································································ 12 ATM configuration examples ········································································································································ 13 IPoA configuration example ································································································································· 13 IPoEoA configuration example····························································································································· 15 EoA configuration example ·································································································································· 16 Troubleshooting ATM····················································································································································· 18 An ATM interface is always down ······················································································································ 18 PVC state is down while ATM interface state is up ··························································································· 18 Excessive packet drops/CRC errors or interface flapping occurs ··································································· 18 Pinging opposite end attempts always fail ········································································································· 19 Configuring PPP and MP ··········································································································································· 20 Overview········································································································································································· 20 PPP ·········································································································································································· 20 MP ··········································································································································································· 22 Configuring PPP······························································································································································ 22 PPP configuration task list ····································································································································· 22 Enabling PPP encapsulation on an interface ······································································································ 22 Configuring PPP authentication ···························································································································· 23 Configuring the polling interval ··························································································································· 27 Configuring PPP negotiation ································································································································ 27 i
Configuring MP ······························································································································································ 29 Configuring an MP bundle through an MP-group interface ············································································· 29 Configuring short sequence number header format negotiation ····································································· 31 Configuring MP endpoint options ······················································································································· 31 Displaying and maintaining PPP/MP ··························································································································· 32 PPP and MP configuration examples ··························································································································· 32 One-way PAP authentication configuration example ························································································ 32 Two-way PAP authentication configuration example ························································································ 34 One-way CHAP authentication configuration example ···················································································· 35 MP binding mode configuration examples········································································································· 37 Troubleshooting PPP configuration ······························································································································· 40 A link cannot revert to the up state ······················································································································ 40 A physical link remains down ······························································································································ 40 A link remains down after IPv6CP negotiation fails ·························································································· 41 Configuring HDLC ······················································································································································ 42 Overview········································································································································································· 42 HDLC frame format and frame type ···················································································································· 42 Enabling HDLC encapsulation on an interface ··········································································································· 42 HDLC configuration example ········································································································································ 43 Verifying the configuration ··································································································································· 44 Configuring HDLC link bundling ······························································································································· 45 Overview········································································································································································· 45 Basic concepts of HDLC link bundling ················································································································ 45 How HDLC link bundling works ··························································································································· 46 Configuring an HDLC link bundle interface ················································································································ 47 Assigning an interface to an HDLC link bundle ·········································································································· 48 Displaying and maintaining HDLC link bundling ······································································································· 49 HDLC link bundling configuration example ················································································································ 50 Verify the configuration ········································································································································ 51 Configuring frame relay ············································································································································ 52 Overview········································································································································································· 52 Frame relay interface types ·································································································································· 52 Virtual circuit ·························································································································································· 53 Data link connection identifier ····························································································································· 53 LMI protocol ··························································································································································· 53 Frame relay address mapping ····························································································································· 55 Frame relay configuration task list ······························································································································· 55 Configuring DTE side frame relay ································································································································ 56 Configuring basic DTE side frame relay ············································································································· 56 Configuring frame relay address mappings······································································································· 56 Configuring frame relay local virtual circuit ······································································································· 57 Configuring frame relay subinterface ················································································································· 58 Configuring DCE side frame relay ······························································································································· 58 Configuring basic DCE side frame relay ············································································································ 58 Configuring frame relay address mapping ········································································································ 59 Configuring frame relay local virtual circuit ······································································································· 59 Configuring frame relay subinterface ················································································································· 59 Enabling the trap function ············································································································································· 59 Displaying and maintaining frame relay ····················································································································· 60 Frame relay configuration examples ···························································································································· 61 Connecting LANs through a frame relay network ····························································································· 61 Connecting LANs through a dedicated line ······································································································· 62 Troubleshooting frame relay ········································································································································· 63 ii
Configuring multilink frame relay······························································································································ 64 Overview········································································································································································· 64 Configuring an MFR bundle·········································································································································· 65 Configuring an MFR bundle link ·································································································································· 65 Displaying and maintaining multilink frame relay ······································································································ 66 Multilink frame relay configuration example ·············································································································· 66 Network requirements ··········································································································································· 66 Configuration procedure ······································································································································ 66 Managing a modem ·················································································································································· 68 Managing a modem ······················································································································································ 68 Troubleshooting ······························································································································································ 68 Support and other resources ····································································································································· 69 Contacting HP ································································································································································ 69 Subscription service ·············································································································································· 69 Related information ························································································································································ 69 Documents ······························································································································································ 69 Websites································································································································································· 69 Conventions ···································································································································································· 70 Index ··········································································································································································· 72 iii
Configuring ATM
Overview
Introduction to ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a technology based on packet transmission mode while
incorporating the high speed of circuit transmission mode. It can meet the needs of various
communication services. ATM was specified as a broadband ISDN transmission and switching mode by
the ITU-T in June 1992. Due to its flexibility and support for multimedia services, it is regarded as the core
technology for broadband communications.
As defined by the ITU-T, ATM encapsulates data in cells. Each ATM cell is 53 bytes long, among which
5 bytes are the cell header and the remaining 48 bytes are the payload. The major function of the cell
header is to identify virtual connection, with limited functions regarding flow control, congestion control,
and error control.
ATM connection
ATM is connection-oriented and ATM connections are logical connections, or virtual circuits. In an ATM
network, you can create logical connections called virtual paths (VPs) and virtual circuits (VCs) on
physical links. As shown in Figure 1, you can create multiple VPs on a physical link, and each VP can be
demultiplexed into multiple VCs. Cells from different users are transmitted over different VPs and VCs,
which are identified by virtual path identifier (VPI) and virtual channel identifier (VCI).
Figure 1 Physical link, VP, and VC
NOTE:
ATM uses VPI/VCI pairs to identify a logical connection. When a connection is released, all the involved
VPI/VCI pairs are reclaimed for new connections.
ATM interfaces of the router support permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) only.
ATM architecture
ATM has a three-dimensional architecture. It consists of three planes: user plane, control plane, and
management plane. Both the user plane and the control plane are broken down into four layers, namely,
1
physical layer, ATM layer, ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL), and upper layer, each of which are further
divided into sub-layers.
•
The control plane takes charge of establishing and tearing down connections using signaling
protocols.
•
The management plane consists of layer management and plane management. The former takes
charge of managing the layers in each plane and has a layered structure corresponding to other
planes. The latter is responsible for system management and communications between different
planes.
The following figure illustrates the relationships between the layers and the planes in ATM.
Figure 2 ATM architecture
The functions of the four ATM layers are as follows:
•
The physical layer mainly provides transmission channels for ATM cells. At this layer, cells passed
from the ATM layer become continuous bit stream after transmission overheads are added to them.
In addition, continuous bit streams received from the physical media are restored to cells on this,
which are then passed to the ATM layer.
•
The ATM layer, residing over the physical layer, implements cell-based communication with peer
layers by invoking the services provided by the physical layer. It is independent of physical media
and the implementation of the physical layer, as well as the types of the services being carried. Data
passed to this layer takes the form of 48-byte payloads, known as segmentation and reassembly
protocol data units (SAR-PDUs); and data passed from this layer to the physical layer is 53-byte cells,
with the 48-byte payload being encapsulated in a 5-byte header. Other functions of the ATM layer
include VPI/VCI transmission, cell multiplexing/demultiplexing, and generic flow control.
•
ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) provides interfaces between high-level protocols and the ATM Layer.
It is responsible for forwarding the information between ATM layer and upper layer protocols. At
present, four types of AAL are available: AAL1, AAL2, AAL3/4, and AAL5, each of which supports
specific services provided in an ATM network. Most ATM equipment vendors adopt AAL5 for data
communication services.
•
ATM upper layer protocols take charge of WAN interconnection, voice interconnection, Layer 3
interconnection, encapsulation, LAN emulation, multi-protocol over ATM, and traditional IP.
2
Overview of IPoA, IPoEoA, and EoA
ATM interfaces support IPoA, IPoEoA, and EoA.
IPoA
IP over ATM (IPoA) enables ATM to carry IP packets. In an IPoA implementation, ATM serves as the data
link layer protocol for the IP hosts on the same network. To enable these hosts to communicate across an
ATM network, IP packets must be encapsulated in ATM cells.
By making full use of the advantages of ATM, IPoA delivers excellent network performance and
ubiquitous mature QoS assurance.
IPoEoA
IPoE over ATM (IPoEoA) adopts a three-layer architecture, with IP at the uppermost layer, IP over Ethernet
(IPoE) in the middle, and IPoEoA at the bottom.
IPoEoA is suitable where Ethernet packets are to be forwarded through ATM interfaces. A typical
application of IPoEoA is using ATM PVCs to connect your router to a remote access server over a long
distance for high-speed access to the Internet. In this application, you must configure IPoEoA on the
connecting ATM interfaces.
As for IPoEoA, you can associate multiple PVCs with one Layer 3 virtual Ethernet (VE) interface. PVCs
associated with the same VE interface can communicate at Layer 2.
EoA
Ethernet over ATM (EoA) adopts a two-layer architecture, with Ethernet at the upper layer and EoA at the
lower layer. It requires that Ethernet packets be forwarded through ATM interfaces.
With EoA, a router can implement Layer 2 unicast, broadcast, and multicast.
You can associate only one PVC with one virtual Ethernet bridge (VE-bridge) interface (also referred to as
a Layer 2 VE interface).
ATM service types
ATM supports four service types: constant bit rate (CBR), unspecified bit rate (UBR), real-time variable bit
rate (rt_VBR) and non-real-time variable bit rate (nrt_VBR). They are used for the QoS purpose.
CBR
CBR provides ensured and constant bandwidth. The bandwidth assigned to the CBR service is decided
by the peak cell rate (PCR). For a station using the CBR service, ATM cells are sent at PCR continuously
with assured QoS.
Usually, CBR is suitable for jitter-sensitive real-time applications such as audio and video.
3
rt_VBR
The rt_VBR service is provided for applications that have strict restrictions on delay and jitter, such as
audio and video.
An rt_VBR connection is described by the PCR, sustainable cell rate (SCR) and maximum burst size (MBS).
A station using the rt_VBR service is allowed to send burst traffic at PCR with the maximum traffic size
being MBS without packet loss while the average cell rate being SCR.
nrt_VBR
The nrt_VBR service supports non-real-time applications with burst traffic. An nrt_VBR connection is
described by PCR, SCR and MBS. The nrt_VBR service is suitable for applications that are sensitive to cell
loss but not to delay.
UBR
The UBR service does not make any service quality commitment, guaranteeing neither CLR nor cell delay.
When traffic congestion occurs, cells of the UBR service are always dropped first. The UBR service is
suitable for applications that have low requirements for delay and bandwidth.
Introduction to InARP
On an ATM PVC connection, you can use the Inverse Address Resolution Protocol (InARP) to obtain the
IP address of the remote end connected to the PVC. Thus, you do not need to manually configure the IP
address of the remote end. The following figure shows how InARP works:
Figure 3 Inverse address resolution procedure of InARP
ATM OAM
OAM stands for Operation And Maintenance in the ITU-T I.610 recommendation (02/99) and
Operation Administration and Maintenance in LUCENT APC User Manual (03/99).
Whichever expansion is adopted, OAM provides a way of detecting faults, isolating faults, and
monitoring network performance without interrupting ongoing services. By inserting OAM cells, which
4
are constructed in the standard ATM cell format, in cell streams, you can obtain specific information
about the network.
OAM F5 loopback
The OAM F5 loopback function of ATM works as follows on a PVC:
Each side of the PVC sends OAM cells to its peer periodically. On receiving an OAM cell from the sender,
the receiver returns the OAM cell to the sender. If the sender receives the cell within the specified period
(or the OAM cell sending interval, frequency), it considers the PVC as normal. Otherwise, the link might
fail, and the sender performs retransmission detection by sending a specified number of OAM cells
consecutively at an interval of retry-frequency. If the sender still fails to receive an OAM cell returned by
the receiver, the link does fail.
Two approaches are available for implementing the OAM F5 Loopback function: manual (OAMPing)
and auto (OAM Frequency). In the OAMPing approach, you need to send OAM cells manually; this
approach is usually used for diagnosis. In the OAM Frequency approach, you need to configure an ATM
interface to send OAM cells regularly at a certain interval. The latter approach automatically checks link
status.
OAM continuity check
When enabled, the OAM Continuity Check (CC) function periodically sends OAM cells to check
whether a connection is idle or has failed.
The OAM CC function works as follows on a PVC:
One side of the PVC sends OAM cells to its peer, which checks the connection status based on these
OAM cells.
ATM configuration task list
Task
Remarks
Configuring an ATM interface
Required.
Configuring an ATM subinterface
Optional.
Associating the protocol state of an ATM P2P subinterface with the state of its PVC
Optional.
Configuring PVC parameters
Optional.
Configuring applications carried by ATM
The first task is
optional.
•
•
•
•
Configuring VE interfaces
Configuring IPoA
The last three tasks are
required. Perform at
least one of them.
Configuring IPoEoA
Configure EoA
5
Configuring an ATM interface
Depending on the actual networking environment and system requirements, you may be required to
modify certain parameters of an ATM interface.
Except the mtu command, which can be configured on a subinterface, the ATM settings in this section
must be modified in ATM main interface view, although they apply to the ATM main interface and
subinterfaces at the same time.
To configure an ATM interface:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter ATM main interface
view.
interface atm interface-number
N/A
3.
Set the clock mode.
clock { master | slave }
4.
Set the framing format.
frame-format { sdh | sonet }
5.
Enable payload scrambling.
scramble
6.
Enable loopback.
loopback { cell | local | remote }
7.
Configure the MTU.
mtu mtu-number
8.
Set the signal degrade (SD)
threshold and the signal fail
(SF) threshold.
9.
Set the protective action that
the ATM interface performs
for an alarm.
Optional.
Slave by default.
Optional.
SDH STM-1/STM-4 by default.
Optional.
Enabled by default.
Optional.
Disabled by default.
Optional.
1500 bytes by default.
Optional.
threshold { sd | sf } value
By default, the SD threshold is
10e-6, and the SF threshold is
10e-3.
Optional.
alarm-detect { rdi | sd | sf } action
link-down
By default, an ATM interface does
not perform any protective action
for an alarm.
Configuring an ATM subinterface
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Create an ATM subinterface
and enter its view.
interface atm
interface-number.subnumber
[ p2mp | p2p ]
By default, the connection type of
an ATM subinterface is
point-to-multipoint (P2MP).
3.
Set the MTU for the ATM
subinterface.
mtu mtu-number
6
Optional.
1500 bytes by default.
Step
4.
Command
Remarks
Optional.
Shut down the ATM
subinterface.
shutdown
By default, ATM subinterfaces are
up.
NOTE:
The keywords p2mp and p2p are available with the interface atm interface-number.subnumber only
when you are creating an ATM subinterface. If you are entering an existing ATM subinterface, the two
keywords are not available.
Associating the protocol state of an ATM P2P subinterface with
the state of its PVC
By default, the protocol of an ATM P2P subinterface goes up or comes down depending on the state of
the physical interface. However, you can configure the protocol state of an ATM P2P subinterface
adaptive to the protocol state of the PVC on it in addition to the state of the physical interface. Thus, the
protocol state of the subinterface is up only when both the physical interface and the PVC configured on
the subinterface are up. Otherwise, the protocol state of the subinterface is down.
To associate the protocol state of an ATM P2P subinterface with the state of the PVC on it:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Create an ATM subinterface
and enter its view.
interface atm
interface-number.subnumber p2p
By default, the connection type of a
subinterface is point-to-multipoint
(P2MP).
3.
Associate the protocol state of
the ATM P2P subinterface with
the state of the PVC on it.
atm-link check
By default, the protocol state of an
ATM P2P subinterface is consistent
with the state of its physical
interface.
Configuring PVC parameters
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter ATM main interface
view or ATM subinterface
view.
interface atm
{ interface-number |
interface-number.subnumbe
r}
N/A
7
Step
3.
4.
Command
Remarks
Optional.
Configure the maximum
number of PVCs allowed
on the ATM interface (only
available in ATM main
interface view).
pvc max-number
max-number
Create a PVC and enter
PVC view.
pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |
vpi/vci }
1024 by default.
This command restricts the total number of
PVCs that can be created on an ATM main
interface and its subinterfaces and is
available only in ATM main interface view.
By default, no PVC is created.
Optional.
5.
Start transmission and
retransmission detection
using OAM F5 Loopback
cells.
oam frequency frequency
[ up up-count down
down-count retry-frequency
retry-frequency ]
By default, OAM F5 Loopback cell
transmission is disabled. However, if an
OAM F5 Loopback cell is received, it should
be responded.
By default, up-count is 3, down-count is 5
and retry-frequency is 1 second.
Optional.
By default, OAM CC is disabled.
• When you configure OAM CC on a PVC,
you must configure one end of the PVC as
the source and the other end as the sink.
• On a PVC with the OAM CC function
6.
Enable the OAM
continuity check (CC)
function.
oam cc end-to-end { both |
sink | source }
enabled, if the detecting end fails to
receive CC cells within 3 seconds, the
state of the PVC changes to down and
will change to up only after CC cells or
packets are received again.
• When disabling OAM CC on a PVC, you
must make sure the role of the PVC in
continuity check is the same as the one
that has been enabled. For example, if
you have enabled the PVC as both the
CC cell source and the sink, you should
perform the undo oam cc end-to-end
both command rather than the undo oam
cc end-to-end sink command to disable
the function.
• This command cannot be configured on
the PVCs in a PVC group.
8
Step
Command
Remarks
• Set the service type to
constant bit rate (CBR):
service cbr output-pcr
[ cdvt cdvt-value ]
• Set the service type to
7.
Set the service type and
rate-related parameters for
the PVC.
unspecified bit rate
(UBR), and set the
rate-related parameters:
service ubr output-pcr
• Set the service type to
nrt_VBR, and set the
rate-related parameters:
service vbr-nrt
output-pcr output-scr
output-mbs
Optional.
By default, the service type of a PVC is UBR.
You can use any of these four commands to
configure a service type and its rate
parameters for a PVC.
Note the following:
• A newly configured service type
overwrites the old one.
• Setting of the arguments cdvt-value,
• Set the service type to
output-scr, and output-mbs does not take
effect on the router.
rt_VBR, and set the
rate-related parameters:
service vbr-rt output-pcr
output-scr output-mbs
Configuring applications carried by ATM
IPoA, IPoEoA, and EoA are mutually exclusive on an ATM PVC.
Configuring VE interfaces
You must create a Layer 3 VE interface for a PVC to carry IPoEoA or a Layer 2 VE interface for a PVC to
carry EoA. Otherwise, the PVC cannot be configured to carry them.
Configuring a Layer 3 VE interface
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Create a Layer 3 VE interface
and enter its view.
interface virtual-ethernet
interface-number
You can create a maximum of
1024 Layer 3 VE interfaces.
Optional.
3.
Set the interface description.
description text
9
By default, the description of an
interface is interface name
Interface, for example,
Virtual-Ethernet0 Interface.
Step
Command
Remarks
Optional.
For a modified MAC address to
take effect, execute the reset arp
command after this command.
Configure the MAC address
for the Layer 3 VE interface.
mac-address mac-address
5.
Restore the default settings for
the interface.
default
Optional.
6.
Shut down the interface.
shutdown
By default, a Layer 3 VE interface is
up.
Command
Remarks
4.
For more information about the
reset arp command, see Layer
3—IP Services Command
Reference.
Configuring a Layer 2 VE interface
Step
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Create a Layer 2 VE interface
and enter its view.
interface ve-bridge
interface-number
You can create a maximum of
1024 Layer 2 VE interfaces.
Optional.
By default, the description of an
interface is interface name
Interface, for example, VE-Bridge0
Interface.
3.
Set the interface description.
description text
4.
Restore the default settings for
the interface.
default
Optional.
5.
Shut down the interface.
shutdown
By default, a Layer 2 VE interface is
up.
Configuring IPoA
To configure IPoA on a PVC for it to carry IP packets:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter ATM interface view.
interface atm { interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber }
N/A
3.
Create a PVC, and enter PVC
view.
pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |
vpi/vci }
N/A
10
Step
4.
Command
Configure an IPoA mapping
for the PVC.
map ip { ip-address | default |
inarp [ minutes ] } [ broadcast ]
Remarks
By default, no IPoA mapping is
configured. If a mapping is
configured, pseudo-broadcast is
not supported by default.
On PVCs created on P2P ATM
subinterfaces, you must configure
the map ip default broadcast
command.
NOTE:
If you execute the map ip command with the broadcast keyword, which specifies pseudo broadcast, any
broadcast packets received by the port on which the PVC is created will be duplicated to the PVC.
Therefore, to propagate broadcast/multicast packets or enable broadcast/multicast on an ATM PVC, you
must specify the broadcast keyword.
Configuring IPoEoA
IPoEoA enables a PVC to carry Layer 3 Ethernet packets.
To configure IPoEoA on a PVC:
Step
1.
Enter system view.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
2.
Create a Layer 3 virtual
Ethernet (VE) interface.
interface virtual-ethernet
interface-number
Assign an IP address to the VE
interface rather than the ATM
interface. The IP address assigned
to the ATM interface is invalid for
IPoEoA.
3.
Return to system view.
quit
N/A
4.
Enter ATM interface view.
interface atm { interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber }
N/A
5.
Create a PVC and enter its
view.
pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] |
vpi/vci }
N/A
6.
Configure an IPoEoA
mapping on the PVC.
map bridge virtual-ethernet
interface-number
No IPoEoA mapping is configured
by default.
Configure EoA
EoA enables a PVC to carry Layer 2 Ethernet frames.
To configure EoA:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Create a VE-bridge interface.
interface ve-bridge interface-number
N/A
11
Step
Command
Remarks
3.
Return to system view.
quit
N/A
4.
Enter ATM interface view.
interface atm { interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber }
N/A
5.
Create a PVC and enter the PVC
view.
pvc { pvc-name [ vpi/vci ] | vpi/vci }
N/A
6.
Configure an EoA mapping for the
PVC.
map bridge ve-bridge interface-number
N/A
Displaying and maintaining ATM
Task
Command
Remarks
Display ATM interface
information.
display atm interface [ atm { interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber } ] [ | { begin |
exclude | include } regular-expression ]
Available in any view.
display interface [ atm ] [ brief [ down ] ] [ |
{ begin | exclude | include } regular-expression ]
Display the configuration and
state of ATM interfaces.
display interface [ atm [ interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber ] ] [ brief
[ description ] ] [ | { begin | exclude | include }
regular-expression ]
Available in any view.
Display information about
PVCs.
display atm pvc-info [ interface atm
{ interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber } [ pvc { pvc-name
[ vpi/vci ] | vpi/vci } ] ] [ | { begin | exclude |
include } regular-expression ]
Available in any view.
Display PVC mappings.
display atm map-info [ interface atm
{ interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber } [ pvc { pvc-name
[ vpi/vci ] | vpi/vci } ] ] [ | { begin | exclude |
include } regular-expression ]
Available in any view.
Available in ATM
interface view.
The link is considered as
having failed if no
response has been
returned before the
specified timeout time
expires.
Send OAM cells on a PVC on
an ATM interface to test
connectivity of the link.
oamping interface atm { interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber } pvc { pvc-name |
vpi /vci } [ number timeout ]
Shut down an ATM interface
view.
shutdown
Available in ATM
interface view.
Clear the statistics about all
PVCs on an ATM interface.
reset atm interface [ atm { interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber } ]
Available in user view.
12
Task
Display information about
Layer 2 VE interfaces.
Display information about
Layer 3 VE interfaces.
Command
Remarks
display interface [ ve-bridge ] [ brief [ down ] ]
[ | { begin | exclude | include }
regular-expression ]
display interface [ ve-bridge interface-number ]
[ brief [ description ] ] [ | { begin | exclude |
include } regular-expression ]
display interface [ virtual-ethernet ] [ brief
[ down ] ] [ | { begin | exclude | include }
regular-expression ]
display interface [ virtual-ethernet
interface-number ] [ brief [ description ] ] [ |
{ begin | exclude | include } regular-expression ]
Available in any view.
Available in any view.
Clear the statistics about Layer
2 VE interfaces.
reset counters interface [ ve-bridge
[ interface-number ] ]
Available in user view.
Clear the statistics about Layer
3 VE interfaces.
reset counters interface [ virtual-ethernet
[ interface-number ] ]
Available in user view.
ATM configuration examples
IPoA configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 4, Router A, B and C are connected to an ATM network. The IP addresses of their
ATM interfaces are 202.38.160.1/24, 202.38.160.2/24, and 202.38.160.3/24 respectively.
In the ATM network, the VPI/VCI pairs for the PVCs to Router B and Router C are 0/40 and 0/41 on
Router A; the VPI/VCI pairs for the PVCs to Router A and Router C are 0/50 and 0/51 on Router B; and
the VPI/VCI pairs for the PVCs to Router A and Router B on are 0/60 and 0/61 on Router C.
Configure IPoA encapsulation on all the PVCs on the ATM interfaces of the three routers.
13
Figure 4 Network diagram
Configuration procedure
1.
Configure Router A:
# Enter the ATM main interface, and configure an IP address for it.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface Atm 3/1/1
[RouterA-Atm3/1/1] ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0
# Create the PVCs to Router B and Router C and configure them to carry IP.
[RouterA-Atm3/1/1] pvc to_b 0/40
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm3/1/1-0/40-to_b] map ip 202.38.160.2 broadcast
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm3/1/1-0/40-to_b] quit
[RouterA-Atm3/1/1] pvc to_c 0/41
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm3/1/1-0/41-to_c] map ip 202.38.160.3 broadcast
2.
Configure Router B:
# Enter the ATM main interface, and configure an IP address for it.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface Atm 3/1/1
[RouterB-Atm3/1/1] ip address 202.38.160.2 255.255.255.0
# Create the PVCs to Router A and Router C and configure them to carry IP.
[RouterB-Atm3/1/1] pvc to_a 0/50
[RouterB-atm-pvc-Atm3/1/1-0/50-to_a] map ip 202.38.160.1 broadcast
[RouterB-atm-pvc-Atm3/1/1-0/50-to_a] quit
[RouterB-Atm3/1/1] pvc to_c 0/51
[RouterB-atm-pvc-Atm3/1/1-0/51-to_c] map ip 202.38.160.3 broadcast
3.
Configure Router C:
# Enter the ATM main interface, and configure an IP address for it.
<RouterC> system-view
[RouterC] interface Atm 3/1/1
[RouterC-Atm3/1/1] ip address 202.38.160.3 255.255.255.0
# Create the PVCs to Router A and Router B and configure them to carry IP.
14
[RouterC-Atm3/1/1] pvc to_a 0/60
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm3/1/1-0/60-to_a] map ip 202.38.160.1 broadcast
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm3/1/1-0/60-to_a] quit
[RouterC-Atm3/1/1] pvc to_b 0/61
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm3/1/1-0/61-to_b] map ip 202.38.160.2 broadcast
IPoEoA configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 5, Router A, B, and C are connected to an ATM network. The IP addresses of their
Layer 3 VE interfaces are 202.38.160.1/24, 202.38.160.2/24, and 202.38.160.3/24 respectively.
In the ATM network, the VPI/VCI pairs for the PVCs to Router B and Router C are 0/40 and 0/41 on
Router A; the VPI/VCI pairs for the PVCs to Router A and Router C are 0/50 and 0/51 on Router B; and
the VPI/VCI pairs for the PVCs to Router A and Router B on are 0/60 and 0/61 on Router C.
Configure IPoEoA encapsulation on all the PVCs on the ATM interfaces of the three routers.
Figure 5 Network diagram
Configuration procedure
1.
Configure Router A:
# Create a Layer 3 VE interface and configure an IP address for it.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface Virtual-Ethernet 3/0/1
[RouterA-Virtual-Ethernet3/0/1] ip address 202.38.160.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-Virtual-Ethernet3/0/1] quit
# Create a PVC and enable IPoEoA on it.
[RouterA] interface Atm 3/1/1
[RouterA-Atm3/1/1] pvc to_b 0/40
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm3/1/1-0/40-to_b] map bridge Virtual-Ethernet 3/0/1
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm3/1/1-0/40-to_b] quit
[RouterA-Atm3/1/1] pvc to_c 0/41
15
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm3/1/1-0/41-to_c] map bridge Virtual-Ethernet 3/0/1
2.
Configure Router B:
# Create a Layer 3 VE interface and configure an IP address for it.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface Virtual-Ethernet 3/0/1
[RouterB-Virtual-Ethernet3/0/1] ip address 202.38.160.2 255.255.255.0
[RouterB-Virtual-Ethernet3/0/1] quit
# Create the PVCs to Router A and Router C and configure them to carry IPoE.
[RouterB] interface Atm 3/1/1
[RouterB-Atm3/1/1] pvc to_a 0/50
[RouterB-atm-pvc-Atm3/1/1-0/50-to_a] map bridge Virtual-Ethernet 3/0/1
[RouterB-atm-pvc-Atm3/1/1-0/50-to_a] quit
[RouterB-Atm3/1/1] pvc to_c 0/51
[RouterB-atm-pvc-Atm3/1/1-0/51-to_c] map bridge Virtual-Ethernet 3/0/1
3.
Configure Router C:
# Create a Layer 3 VE interface and configure an IP address for it.
<RouterC> system-view
[RouterC] interface Virtual-Ethernet 3/0/1
[RouterC-Virtual-Ethernet3/0/1] ip address 202.38.160.3 255.255.255.0
[RouterC-Virtual-Ethernet3/0/1] quit
# Create the PVCs to Router A and Router B and configure them to carry IPoE.
[RouterC] interface Atm 3/1/1
[RouterC-Atm3/1/1] pvc to_a 0/60
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm3/1/1-0/60-to_a] map bridge Virtual-Ethernet 3/0/1
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm3/1/1-0/60-to_a] quit
[RouterC-Atm3/1/1] pvc to_b 0/61
[RouterC-atm-pvc-Atm3/1/1-0/61-to_b] map bridge Virtual-Ethernet 3/0/1
EoA configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 6, Router A and Router B are connected to an ATM network.
In the ATM network, the VPI/VCI pair for the PVC to Router B is 0/40 on Router A; the VPI/VCI pair for
the PVC to Router A is 0/50 on Router B.
Configure VE-bridge interfaces (Layer 2 interfaces) on Router A and Router B to enable them to
communicate at Layer 2 and configure EoA encapsulation on all the PVCs on the ATM interfaces of the
routers.
16
Figure 6 Network diagram
Router B
Host C
ATM3/1/1
ve-bridge 3/0/1
VPI/VCI:0/50
VLAN 100
Host D
Router A
ATM network
Host A
ATM3/1/1
Host B
ve-bridge 3/0/1
VPI/VCI:0/40
VLAN 100
Configuration procedure
1.
Configure Router A:
# Create Layer 2 VE interfaces and assign them to the specified VLAN.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] vlan 100
[RouterA-vlan100] quit
[RouterA] interface VE-Bridge 3/0/1
[RouterA-VE-Bridge3/0/1] port access vlan 100
[RouterA-VE-Bridge3/0/1] quit
# Create the PVCs to Router B and Router C and map them to the VE-bridge interfaces.
[RouterA] interface Atm 3/1/1
[RouterA-Atm3/1/1] pvc to_b 0/40
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm3/1/1-0/40-to_b] map bridge VE-Bridge 3/0/1
[RouterA-atm-pvc-Atm3/1/1-0/40-to_b] quit
2.
Configure Router B:
# Create Layer 2 VE interfaces and assign them to the specified VLAN.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] vlan 100
[RouterB-vlan100] quit
[RouterB] interface VE-Bridge 3/0/1
[RouterB-VE-Bridge3/0/1] port access vlan 100
[RouterB-VE-Bridge3/0/1] quit
# Create the PVCs to Router A and Router C and map them to the VE-bridge interfaces.
[RouterB] interface Atm 3/1/1
[RouterB-Atm3/1/1] pvc to_a 0/50
[RouterB-atm-pvc-Atm3/1/1-0/50-to_a] map bridge VE-Bridge 3/0/1
[RouterB-atm-pvc-Atm3/1/1-0/50-to_a] quit
17
Troubleshooting ATM
An ATM interface is always down
Symptom
The state of an ATM interface is always down.
Solution
Check the fiber connections of the ATM interface for inverse connections. The ATM interface can go up
only when the transmit fiber and receive fiber are correctly connected.
If two routers are connected back-to-back, check the ATM interfaces for the same clock mode. By default,
the clock mode on a router is slave, namely, adopting the line clock. If two routers are connected
back-to-back, you must configure the clock mode at one side as master to provide clock reference, while
the other side adopts the slave clock mode.
PVC state is down while ATM interface state is up
Symptom
The state of a PVC is down while its ATM interface is up.
Solution
Check if this fault results from enabling OAM F5 Loopback cell transmission and retransmission detection
or OAM continuity check. When two ATM routers are directly connected, the VPI/VCI value of the PVCs
on the two routers must be the same. Provided that OAM F5 cell transmission and retransmission
detection or OAM continuity check is enabled, and the VPI/VCI value of the remote node (connected
directly with the local node) is not the same as the local node, the local PVC state cannot change into UP.
Excessive packet drops/CRC errors or interface flapping
occurs
Symptom
Two routers are connected back-to-back and can ping each other, but excessive packet drops and CRC
errors or interface flapping up and down occurs occasionally.
Solution
Check the connecting ATM interfaces for fiber type inconsistency. If one side is a multi-mode fiber-optic
interface while the other side is a single-mode fiber-optic interface, replace one interface to make sure
the same fiber-mode interfaces are used.
The symptom is occasional with the connection between ATM interfaces of different fiber-optic modes,
which can work normally in most cases.
18
Pinging opposite end attempts always fail
Symptom
The physical layer and the line protocol of an ATM interface are both up, but the opposite end cannot be
pinged.
Solution
To resolve the problem, do the following:
•
If IPoA is used, make sure the IP protocol address mappings are configured correctly. If the
interfaces of two routers are connected back-to-back, the local PVC mapped to the remote IP must
be configured with the same VPI/VCI value as the remote PVC mapped to the local IP address. In
addition, the IP addresses of the two ends must be in the same network segment.
•
If two routers are connected back-to-back, make sure the connecting interfaces are configured with
different clock modes, that is, master at one end and slave at the other end. If you router is
connected to an ATM network, the clock mode on the ATM interface must be slave.
•
Check the connecting ATM interfaces to make sure they are of the same fiber-optic mode, that is,
both are multimode fiber interfaces or both are single mode fiber interfaces. In addition, make sure
the mode of the connecting fibers is the same as that of the interfaces. (A multi-mode fiber-optic
interface can communicate with a directly connected single-mode fiber-optic interface normally, but
occasional excessive packet loss and CRC errors may occur sometimes.)
•
If large ping packets cannot pass through while small ping packets can, check the MTU settings at
the two ends to make sure the same MTU is configured at the two ends.
•
Verify that the PVC is up.
•
Verify that the same AAL5 encapsulation format is used at the two ends.
•
Verify that the PVC mappings for the PVC are consistent at the two ends.
•
Verify that the same framing format is configured at the two ends.
•
Verify that the same overhead byte setting is adopted at the two ends.
•
Verify that the same scrambling mode is adopted at the two ends.
19
Configuring PPP and MP
Overview
PPP
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a link layer protocol that carries network layer packets over point-to-point
links. It gains popularity because it provides user authentication, supports synchronous/asynchronous
communication, and allows for easy extension.
PPP contains a set of protocols, including:
•
Link control protocol (LCP)—Establishes, tears down, and monitors data links.
•
Network control protocol (NCP)—Negotiates the packet format and type of data links.
•
Authentication protocols—Provides network security, consisting of Password Authentication
Protocol (PAP), Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP), Microsoft CHAP
(MS-CHAP), and Microsoft CHAP Version 2 (MS-CHAP-V2).
PPP link establishment process
Figure 7 shows the PPP link establishment process.
Figure 7 PPP link establishment process
Dead
Up
Establish
Opened
Fail
Down
Authenticate
Fail
Terminate
Closing
Success
/None
Network
1.
Initially, PPP is in Dead phase. After the physical layer goes up, PPP enters link establishment phase
(Establish).
2.
In the Link Establishment phase, LCP negotiation is performed. The LCP configuration options
include Authentication-Protocol, Async-Control-Character-Map (ACCM),
Protocol-Field-Compression (PFC), Address-and-Control-Field-Compression (ACFC), and MP. If the
negotiation fails, LCP reports a Fail event, and PPP returns to the Dead phase. If the negotiation
succeeds, LCP enters the Opened state and reports an Up event, indicating that the underlying
layer link has been established. (At this time, the PPP link is not established for the network layer,
and network layer packets cannot be transmitted over the link.)
3.
If authentication is configured, the PPP link enters the Authentication phase, where PAP, CHAP,
MS-CHAP, or MS-CHAP-V2 authentication is performed. If the supplicant fails to pass the
authentication, the link reports a Fail event and goes to the Termination phase, where the link is
torn down and LCP goes down. If the supplicant passes the authentication, a Success event is
reported.
4.
If a network layer protocol is configured, the PPP link enters the Network-Layer Protocol phase for
NCP negotiation, such as IPCP negotiation or IPv6CP negotiation. If the NCP negotiation succeeds,
20
the link goes up and becomes ready to carry negotiated network-layer protocol packets. If the
NCP negotiation fails, NCP reports a down event and enters the Terminate phase.
If the interface is configured with an IP address, IPCP negotiation is performed. IPCP configuration
options include IP addresses of the two ends, IP compression protocol, and DNS server address.
After IPCP negotiation succeeds, the link can carry IP packets.
5.
After the NCP negotiation is performed, the PPP link remains active until explicit LCP or NCP
frames close the link, or until some external events take place (for example, the intervention of a
user).
For more information about PPP, see RFC 1661.
PPP authentication
PPP provides authentication methods, which makes it viable to implement AAA on PPP links. Combining
PPP with AAA can perform authentication and accounting for peers and assign IP addresses to the peers
based on the authentication.
PPP supports the following authentication methods:
•
PAP—PAP is a two-way handshake authentication protocol using the username and password.
PAP sends passwords in plain text over the network. If authentication packets are intercepted in
transit, network security might be threatened. For this reason, it is suitable only for low-security
environments.
•
CHAP—CHAP is a three-way handshake authentication protocol using cipher text passwords.
Two types of CHAP authentication exist: one-way CHAP authentication and two-way CHAP
authentication. In one-way CHAP authentication, the authenticator may or may not be configured
with a username. HP recommends that you configure a username for the authenticator, which
makes it easier for the supplicant to verify the identity of the authenticator.
CHAP transmits usernames but not passwords over the network; or rather, it does not directly
transmit passwords and transmits the result calculated from the password and random packet ID
by using MD5 algorithm. Therefore, it is more secure than PAP.
•
MS-CHAP—MS-CHAP is a three-way handshake authentication.
MS-CHAP differs from CHAP as follows:
{
{
•
MS-CHAP is enabled by negotiating CHAP Algorithm 0x80 in LCP option 3, Authentication
Protocol.
MS-CHAP provides authentication retry. With this mechanism, if the supplicant fails
authentication, it is allowed to retransmit authentication information to the authenticator for
reauthentication. The authenticator allows a supplicant to retransmit three times.
MS-CHAP-V2—MS-CHAP-V2 is a three-way handshake authentication protocol.
MS-CHAP differs from CHAP as follows:
{
{
{
MS-CHAP-V2 is enabled by negotiating CHAP Algorithm 0x81 in LCP option 3, Authentication
Protocol.
MS-CHAP-V2 provides two-way authentication by piggybacking a peer challenge on the
Response packet and an authenticator response on the Acknowledge packet.
MS-CHAP-V2 supports authentication retry. With this mechanism, if the supplicant fails
authentication, it is allowed to retransmit authentication information to the authenticator for
reauthentication. The authenticator allows a supplicant to retransmit three times.
21
{
MS-CHAP-V2 supports password changing. If the supplicant fails authentication because of a
expired password, it will send the new password entered by the user to the authenticator for
reauthentication.
MP
Multilink PPP (MP) provides an approach to increasing bandwidth. It allows multiple PPP links to form an
MP bundle. After receiving a packet that is larger than the minimum packet size for fragmentation, MP
segments the packet into fragments and distributes them over multiple PPP links to the remote end. After
the remote end receives these fragments, it assembles them into a packet and passes the packet to the
network layer.
In addition to increasing bandwidth, MP also provides link-layer load sharing, which can implement
backup. MP fragmentation can reduce transmission delay, especially on low-speed links.
To sum up, MP delivers the following benefits:
•
Increased bandwidth
•
Load sharing
•
Backup
•
Reduced delay through fragmentation
Configuring PPP
PPP configuration task list
Task
Remarks
Enabling PPP encapsulation on an interface
Required
Configuring PPP authentication
Optional
Configuring the polling interval
Optional
Configuring PPP negotiation
Optional
Enabling PPP encapsulation on an interface
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
22
Step
Command
Remarks
Optional.
Enable PPP encapsulation on the
interface.
3.
By default, all
interfaces except
Ethernet interfaces
and VLAN interfaces
use PPP as the link
layer protocol.
link-protocol ppp
NOTE:
This chapter only discusses local authentication. For more information about remote AAA authentication,
see Security Configuration Guide.
Configuring PPP authentication
You can configure several authentication modes simultaneously. In LCP negotiation, the authenticator
negotiates with the supplicant in the sequence of configured authentication modes until the LCP
negotiation succeeds. If the response packet from the supplicant carries a recommended authentication
mode, the authenticator directly uses the authentication mode if it finds the mode configured.
Configuring PAP authentication
1.
Configuring the authenticator
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
3.
Configure the local router to
authenticate the peer by using
PAP.
ppp authentication-mode pap
[ [ call-in ] domain isp-name ]
By default, PPP authentication is
not performed.
For local AAA authentication, the
username and password of the
supplicant must be configured on
the authenticator.
Configure local AAA or
remote AAA authentication.
4.
For remote AAA authentication,
the username and password of the
supplicant must be configured on
the remote AAA server.
The username and password
configured for the supplicant must
be the same as those configured on
the supplicant.
For more information about AAA
authentication, see Security
Configuration Guide.
2.
Configuring the supplicant
Step
1.
Enter system view.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
23
Step
Command
Remarks
2.
Enter interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
3.
Configure the PAP username
and password sent by the
local router to the peer when
the local router is
authenticated by the peer by
using PAP.
ppp pap local-user username
password { cipher | simple }
password
By default, when being
authenticated by the peer using
PAP, the local router sends null
username and password to the
peer.
Configuring CHAP authentication
Depending on whether the authenticator is configured with a username, the configuration of CHAP
authentication includes the following two types:
1.
Configuring CHAP authentication when the authenticator name is configured
To configure the authenticator:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
3.
Configure the local router to
authenticate the peer by using
CHAP.
ppp authentication-mode chap
[ [ call-in ] domain isp-name ]
By default, PPP authentication is
not performed.
ppp chap user username
The username you assign to the
authenticator here must be the
same as the local username you
assign to the authenticator on the
supplicant.
Assign a username to the
CHAP authenticator.
4.
For local AAA authentication, the
username and password of the
supplicant must be configured on
the authenticator.
Configure local AAA or
remote AAA authentication.
5.
For remote AAA authentication,
the username and password of the
supplicant must be configured on
the remote AAA server.
For more information about AAA
authentication, see Security
Configuration Guide.
The username configured for the
supplicant must be the same as that
configured on the supplicant.
The passwords configured for the
authenticator and supplicant must
be the same.
To configure the supplicant:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
24
Step
Assign a username to the CHAP
supplicant.
3.
Command
Remarks
ppp chap user username
The username you assign to
the supplicant here must be
the same as the local
username you assign to the
supplicant on the
authenticator.
For local AAA authentication, the
username and password of the
supplicant must be configured on
the authenticator.
Configure local AAA or remote AAA
authentication.
4.
For remote AAA authentication,
the username and password of the
supplicant must be configured on
the remote AAA server.
For more information about AAA
authentication, see Security
Configuration Guide.
2.
The username configured for
the supplicant must be the
same as that configured on
the supplicant.
The passwords configured
for the authenticator and
supplicant must be the same.
Configuring CHAP authentication when no authenticator name is configured
To configure the authenticator:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
3.
Configure the local router to
authenticate the peer using CHAP.
ppp authentication-mode chap
[ [ call-in ] domain isp-name ]
By default, PPP
authentication is not
performed.
For local AAA authentication, the
username and password of the
supplicant must be configured on the
authenticator.
Configure local AAA or remote
AAA authentication.
4.
For remote AAA authentication, the
username and password of the
supplicant must be configured on the
remote AAA server.
For more information about AAA
authentication, see Security
Configuration Guide.
To configure the supplicant:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
25
The username configured for
the supplicant must be the
same as that configured on
the supplicant.
The passwords configured
for the authenticator and
supplicant must be the same.
Step
Command
Remarks
3.
Assign a username to the
CHAP supplicant.
ppp chap user username
The username you assign to the
supplicant here must be the same as
the local username you assign to the
supplicant on the authenticator.
4.
Set the CHAP
authentication password.
ppp chap password { cipher |
simple } password
The password you set for the
supplicant here must be the same as
the password you set for the supplicant
on the authenticator.
Configuring MS-CHAP or MS-CHAP-V2 authentication
In MS-CHAP or MS-CHAP-V2 authentication, an HP device can only be an authenticator.
MS-CHAP-V2 authentication supports password changing only when using RADIUS.
Depending on whether the authenticator is configured with a username, the configuration of MS-CHAP
or MS-CHAP-V2 authentication includes the following two types:
1.
Configuring MS-CHAP or MS-CHAP-V2 authentication when the authenticator name is configured
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
3.
Configure the local router to
authenticate the peer by using
MS-CHAP or MS-CHAP-V2.
ppp authentication-mode
{ ms-chap | ms-chap-v2 }
[ [ call-in ] domain isp-name ]
By default, PPP authentication is
not performed.
4.
Assign a username to the
MS-CHAP or MS-CHAP-V2
authenticator.
ppp chap user username
The username you assign to the
authenticator here must be the
same as the local username you
assign to the authenticator on the
supplicant.
For local AAA authentication, the
username and password of the
supplicant must be configured on
the authenticator.
Configure local AAA or
remote AAA authentication.
5.
For remote AAA authentication,
the username and password of the
supplicant must be configured on
the remote AAA server.
The username and password
configured for the supplicant must
be the same as those configured on
the supplicant.
For more information about AAA
authentication, see Security
Configuration Guide.
2.
Configuring MS-CHAP or MS-CHAP-V2 authentication when no authenticator name is configured
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter interface view.
interface interface-type interface-number
N/A
26
Step
Configure the local
device to
authenticate the peer
by using MS-CHAP
or MS-CHAP-V2.
3.
Command
Remarks
ppp authentication-mode { ms-chap |
ms-chap-v2 } [ [ call-in ] domain
isp-name ]
By default, PPP authentication is
disabled.
For local AAA, the username and
password of the supplicant must be
configured on the authenticator.
Configure local AAA
or remote AAA
authentication.
4.
For remote AAA authentication, the
username and password of the supplicant
must be configured on the remote AAA
server.
The username and password
configured for the supplicant must be
the same as those configured on the
supplicant.
For more information about AAA
authentication, see Security Configuration
Guide.
Configuring the polling interval
The polling interval specifies the interval at which an interface sends keepalive messages.
To disable sending of keepalive packets, set this interval to 0.
Do not set too small an interval for low-speed links. On a low-speed link, it might take a long time for
large packets to be delivered, which can delay sending and receiving of keepalive messages. If an
interface fails to receive keepalive messages from the peer within a specified number of polling intervals,
it considers the link faulty and closes the link.
To configure the polling interval:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter interface view.
interface interface-type interface-number
N/A
3.
Configure the polling
interval.
timer hold seconds
Optional.
The default setting is 10 seconds.
Configuring PPP negotiation
PPP negotiation parameters that can be configured include:
•
Negotiation timeout time
•
IP address negotiation
Configuring negotiation timeout time
Negotiation timeout time specifies the interval for sending request packets. During PPP negotiation, if no
response is received from the peer within the specified interval after the local router sends a packet, the
router sends the request packet again. The negotiation timeout time is in the range of 1 to 10 seconds.
To configure negotiation timeout time:
27
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
3.
Configure the negotiation
timeout time.
ppp timer negotiate seconds
Optional.
3 seconds by default.
Configuring IP address negotiation
IP address negotiation can be implemented in the following two modes:
•
The router operating as the client—This mode applies when a local interface uses PPP as its link
layer protocol but does not have an IP address, whereas the peer is configured with an IP address
and with an address pool. In this mode, the interface accepts an IP address allocated by its peer.
This mode is used for situations where the router accesses the Internet through an ISP.
•
The router operating as the server—In this mode, you must configure a local IP address pool in
domain view or system view to specify the range of the IP addresses to be allocated, and then bind
the address pool to the interface in interface view.
1.
Configuring the local end as the client
Step
Command
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
2.
Enter interface view.
interface interface-type interface-number
3.
Enable IP address negotiation.
ip address ppp-negotiate
2.
Configuring the local end as the server
To configure the local end as the server (for cases where PPP authentication is not enabled):
Step
1.
Enter system view.
Command
Remarks
system-view
N/A
• Method 1:
Define a global address pool
and bind it to the interface:
a. ip pool pool-number
low-ip-address
[ high-ip-address ]
2.
Assign an IP address of a global
address pool to the peer or
specify the IP address to be
allocated to the peer.
b. interface interface-type
interface-number
c. remote address pool
[ pool-number ]
• Method 2:
Specify the IP address to be
allocated to the peer:
a. interface interface-type
interface-number
b. remote address
ip-address
28
Use either method.
As for the remote address pool
command, if the pool-number
argument is not provided, the
global address pool numbered 0
is used.
To configure the local end as the server (for scenarios where PPP authentication is enabled):
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter ISP domain view.
domain domain-name
N/A
3.
Define the domain address
pool.
ip pool pool-number low-ip-address
[ high-ip-address ]
You must define an address pool in
a specified domain at the time of
PPP authentication.
4.
Return to system view.
quit
N/A
5.
Enter interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
remote address pool
[ pool-number ]
If you configure the remote address
pool command without the
pool-number argument, all the
address pools in the domain are
used in ascending order of pool
number for IP address allocation.
6.
Specify the address pool for
IP address allocation.
Optional.
7.
Disable the peer end from
using the locally configured IP
address.
ppp ipcp remote-address forced
By default, the peer end is allowed
to use the locally configured IP
address. In this case, the local end
does not allocate an IP address to
the peer end if the latter already
has an IP address.
Configuring MP
The system does not support multi-card MP bundles.
Configuring an MP bundle through an MP-group interface
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Create an MP-group interface
and enter its view.
interface mp-group
mp-number
N/A
3.
Set the interface description.
Optional.
description text
29
By default, the description of a MP-group
interface is interface name Interface.
Step
Command
Remarks
Optional.
16 by default. However, up to 12 links
can be brought up simultaneously in an
MP bundle.
4.
Set the maximum number of
links allowed in an MP
bundle.
ppp mp max-bind
max-bind-num
When you use this command to change
the maximum number of links, to make
the change take effect on the MP bundle,
you must re-enable every interface in the
MP bundle by executing the shutdown
command and then the undo shutdown
command.
5.
Set the MTU size of the
MP-group interface.
mtu size
Optional.
6.
Restore the default settings.
default
Optional.
Optional.
7.
Configure MP to use strict
load sharing.
ppp mp load-sharing mode
strict-round-robin
8.
Bring up the interface.
undo shutdown
By default, intelligent load sharing is
used.
When you change the load-sharing
mode, to make the change take effect,
you must execute the shutdown
command and then the undo shutdown
command on the MP-group interface.
Optional.
By default, the interface is up.
Optional.
Enabled by default.
9.
Enable MP fragmentation.
ppp mp fragment enable
When you change the MP fragmentation
enable status, to make the change take
effect on an MP bundle, you must
re-enable every physical interface in the
MP bundle by executing the shutdown
command and then the undo shutdown
command.
After you configure the undo ppp mp
fragment enable command on an
interface, the settings configured with the
ppp mp min-fragment command become
invalid on the interface.
Optional.
10. Set the minimum MP packet
size for fragmentation.
ppp mp min-fragment size
11. Return to system view.
quit
N/A
12. Enter interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
13. Add the interface to a
specified MP-group interface
so that the interface operates
in MP mode.
ppp mp mp-group
mp-number
N/A
30
512 bytes by default.
Configuring short sequence number header format negotiation
By default, an MP bundle receives and transmits fragments with long sequence numbers.
•
If the local end wants to receive fragments with short sequence numbers, it should request the peer
to transmit short sequence numbers during LCP negotiation. After the negotiation succeeds, the
peer transmits fragments with short sequence numbers.
•
If the local end wants to transmit fragments with short sequence numbers, it should ask the peer to
send a request for receiving short sequence numbers during LCP negotiation. After the negotiation
succeeds, the local end transmits fragments with short sequence numbers.
To configure short sequence number header format negotiation for MP:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
3.
Trigger MP short sequence
number header negotiation,
specifying that the interface
receive fragments with short
sequence numbers after the
negotiation succeeds.
ppp mp short-sequence
By default, long sequence number
header format negotiation is
performed.
NOTE:
• The sequence number format (long or short) of an MP bundle depends on the configuration of the first
channel joining the MP bundle.
• To negotiate the use of short sequence numbers, use the command on all its channels. Note that the
command will cause PPP re-negotiation.
Configuring MP endpoint options
During the LCP negotiation for MP, endpoint options are negotiated for bundling.
By default, the endpoint option in the packets sent out of an interface is the router name. After you use the
ppp mp mp-group command to add the interface to the specified MP-group interface, the endpoint
option in the packets sent out of the interface is always the MP-group interface name. In this case, the
user-configured endpoint option does not take effect.
The endpoint option cannot exceed 20 bytes in length, the first 20 bytes are taken if its content exceeds
20 bytes.
You can use the following commands to configure the endpoint option in the packets sent out of an
interface.
To configure the MP endpoint option:
Step
Command
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
2.
Enter interface view.
interface interface-type interface-number
31
Step
Command
Configure the MP endpoint option.
3.
ppp mp endpoint string char-string
Displaying and maintaining PPP/MP
Task
Display information about existing
MP-group interfaces.
Command
display interface [ mp-group [ mp-number ] ] [ brief
[ description ] ] [ | { begin | exclude | include }
regular-expression ]
display interface [ mp-group ] [ brief [ down ] ] [ | { begin |
exclude | include } regular-expression ]
Display the information and statistics of
MP-group interfaces.
display ppp mp [ interface mp-group mp-number ] [ |
{ begin | exclude | include } regular-expression ]
Clear the statistics of an interface.
reset counters interface [ interface-type [ interface-number ] ]
PPP and MP configuration examples
One-way PAP authentication configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 8, Router A and Router B are connected through their Serial 4/1/9/1:0 interfaces.
Configure Router A to authenticate Router B by using PAP, but Router B not to authenticate Router A.
Figure 8 Network diagram
Configuration procedure
1.
Configure Router A:
# Create a user account for Router B.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] local-user userb
# Set a password for the user account.
[RouterA-luser-userb] password simple passb
# Set the service type of the user account to PPP.
[RouterA-luser-userb] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-userb] quit
[RouterA] interface Serial 4/1/9/1:0
# Enable PPP encapsulation on interface Serial 4/1/9/1:0.
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/1:0] link-protocol ppp
32
# Set the authentication mode to PAP.
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
# Assign an IP address to Serial 4/1/9/1:0.
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ip address 200.1.1.1 16
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/1:0] quit
# Configure local authentication for the PPP users in the default ISP domain system.
[RouterA] domain system
[RouterA-isp-system] authentication ppp local
2.
Configure Router B:
# Enable PPP encapsulation on interface Serial 4/1/9/1:0.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface Serial 4/1/9/1:0
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/1:0] link-protocol ppp
# Configure the PAP username and password sent from Router B to Router A when Router B is
authenticated by Router A by using PAP.
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ppp pap local-user userb password simple passb
# Assign an IP address to Serial 4/1/9/1:0 of Router B.
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ip address 200.1.1.2 16
3.
Verify the configuration:
Use the display interface serial command to display information about Serial 4/1/9/1:0 of Router
B. The physical layer status and link layer status of the interface are both up, and the states of LCP
and IPCP are both Opened, indicating that PPP negotiation is successful. Router A and Router B
can ping each other.
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/1:0] display interface Serial 4/1/9/1:0
Serial4/1/9/1:0 current state: UP
Line protocol current state: UP
Description: Serial4/1/9/1:0 Interface
The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500, Hold timer is 10(sec)
Internet Address is 200.1.1.2/16 Primary
Link layer protocol is PPP
LCP opened, IPCP opened
CRC type is 16-bit
Last 300 seconds input:
Last 300 seconds output:
Input(total):
Input(Bad):
0 packets/sec,
367 packets,
0 Abort,
Output(total):
Output(Bad):
0 packets/sec,
2 bytes/sec
13212 bytes
0 FCS-Error,
654 packets,
3 bytes/sec
0 FIFO-Abort,
0 Giant,
0 Runt
9156 bytes
0 Abort
Peak value of input: 3 bytes/sec, at 2010-11-04 17:02:07
Peak value of output: 2 bytes/sec, at 2010-11-04 17:02:07
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ping 200.1.1.1
PING 200.1.1.1: 56
data bytes, press CTRL_C to break
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=103 ms
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=1 ms
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=1 ms
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=1 ms
33
Reply from 200.1.1.1: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=10 ms
--- 200.1.1.1 ping statistics --5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 1/23/103 ms
Two-way PAP authentication configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 9, Router A and Router B are connected through their Serial 4/1/9/1:0 interfaces.
Configure Router A and Router B to authenticate each other by using PAP.
Figure 9 Network diagram
Configuration procedure
1.
Configure Router A:
# Create a user account for Router B.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] local-user userb
# Set a password for the user account.
[RouterA-luser-userb] password simple passb
# Set the service type of the user account to PPP.
[RouterA-luser-userb] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-userb] quit
[RouterA] interface Serial 4/1/9/1:0
# Enable PPP encapsulation on interface Serial 4/1/9/1:0.
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/1:0] link-protocol ppp
# Set the authentication mode to PAP.
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
# Configure the PAP username and password sent from Router A to Router B when Router A is
authenticated by Router B using PAP.
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ppp pap local-user usera password simple passa
# Assign an IP address to Serial 4/1/9/1:0.
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ip address 200.1.1.1 16
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/1:0] quit
# Configure local authentication for the PPP users in the default ISP domain system.
[RouterA] domain system
[RouterA-isp-system] authentication ppp local
2.
Configure Router B:
# Create a user account for Router A on Router B.
34
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] local-user usera
# Set a password for the user account.
[RouterB-luser-usera] password simple passa
# Set the service type of the user account to PPP.
[RouterB-luser-usera] service-type ppp
[RouterB-luser-usera] quit
[RouterB] interface Serial 4/1/9/1:0
# Enable PPP encapsulation on interface Serial 4/1/9/1:0.
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/1:0] link-protocol ppp
# Set the authentication mode to PAP.
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
# Configure the PAP username and password sent from Router B to Router A when Router B is
authenticated by Router A using PAP.
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ppp pap local-user userb password simple passb
# Assign an IP address to Serial 4/1/9/1:0.
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ip address 200.1.1.2 16
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/1:0] quit
# Configure local authentication for the PPP users in the default ISP domain system.
[RouterB] domain system
[RouterB-isp-system] authentication ppp local
3.
Verify the configuration:
Use the display interface serial command to display information about Serial 4/1/9/1:0 of Router
B. The physical layer status and link layer status of the interface are both up, and the states of LCP
and IPCP are both Opened, indicating that PPP negotiation is successful. Router A and Router B
can ping each other.
One-way CHAP authentication configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 10, configure Router A to authenticate Router B by using CHAP.
Figure 10 Network diagram
Configuration procedure
Method 1: The authenticator configured with a username authenticates the remote end using CHAP
1.
Configure Router A:
# Create a user account for Router B.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] local-user userb
# Set a password for the user account.
[RouterA-luser-userb] password simple hello
35
# Set the service type of the user account to PPP.
[RouterA-luser-userb] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-userb] quit
[RouterA] interface Serial 4/1/9/1:0
# Enable PPP encapsulation on interface Serial 4/1/9/1:0.
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/1:0] link-protocol ppp
# Configure the username for Router A when Router A authenticates Router B.
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ppp chap user usera
# Set the authentication mode to CHAP.
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ppp authentication-mode chap domain system
# Assign an IP address to Serial 4/1/9/1:0.
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ip address 200.1.1.1 16
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/1:0] quit
# Configure local authentication for the PPP users in the default ISP domain system.
[RouterA] domain system
[RouterA-isp-system] authentication ppp local
2.
Configure Router B:
# Create a user account for Router A on Router B.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] local-user usera
# Set a password for the user account.
[RouterB-luser-usera] password simple hello
# Set the service type of the user account to PPP.
[RouterB-luser-usera] service-type ppp
[RouterB-luser-usera] quit
[RouterB] interface Serial 4/1/9/1:0
# Enable PPP encapsulation on interface Serial 4/1/9/1:0.
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/1:0] link-protocol ppp
# Configure the username for Router B when Router B is authenticated by using CHAP.
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ppp chap user userb
# Assign an IP address to Serial 4/1/9/1:0.
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ip address 200.1.1.2 16
Method 2: The authenticator with no username configured authenticates the remote end using CHAP.
3.
Configure Router A:
# Create a user account for Router B.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] local-user userb
# Set a password for the user account.
[RouterA-luser-userb] password simple hello
# Set the service type of the user account to PPP.
[RouterA-luser-userb] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-userb] quit
[RouterA] interface Serial 4/1/9/1:0
# Set the authentication mode to CHAP.
36
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ppp authentication-mode chap domain system
# Assign an IP address to Serial 4/1/9/1:0.
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ip address 200.1.1.1 16
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/1:0] quit
# Configure local authentication for the PPP users in the default ISP domain system.
[RouterA] domain system
[RouterA-isp-system] authentication ppp local
4.
Configure Router B:
# Configure the username of Router B when Router B is authenticated by using CHAP.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface Serial 4/1/9/1:0
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ppp chap user userb
# Set the default CHAP password.
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ppp chap password simple hello
# Assign an IP address to Serial 4/1/9/1:0.
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ip address 200.1.1.2 16
5.
Verify the configuration:
Use the display interface serial command to display information about Serial 4/1/9/1:0 of Router
B. The physical layer status and link layer status of the interface are both up, and the states of LCP
and IPCP are both Opened, indicating that PPP negotiation is successful. Router A and Router B
can ping each other.
MP binding mode configuration examples
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 11, Router A and Router B are connected together through interfaces Serial
4/1/9/1:0 and Serial 4/1/9/2:0. It is desired to bind the links in MP-group binding mode.
Figure 11 Network diagram
Configuration procedure
1.
Configure Router A:
# Configure the username and password of Router B on Router A.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] local-user rtb
[RouterA-luser-rtb] password simple rtbbbbbbbbb
[RouterA-luser-rtb] service-type ppp
[RouterA-luser-rtb] quit
# Create an MP-group interface, and assign an IP address to it.
[RouterA] interface Mp-group 4/1/1
[RouterA-Mp-group4/1/1] ip address 111.1.1.1 24
# Configure Serial 4/1/9/1:0.
37
[RouterA-Mp-group4/1/1] interface Serial 4/1/9/1:0
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/1:0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ppp pap local-user rta password simple rtaaaaaaaaa
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ppp mp Mp-group 4/1/1
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/1:0] shutdown
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/1:0] undo shutdown
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/1:0] quit
# Configure Serial 4/1/9/2:0.
[RouterA] interface Serial 4/1/9/2:0
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/2:0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/2:0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/2:0] ppp pap local-user rta password simple rtaaaaaaaaa
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/2:0] ppp mp Mp-group 4/1/1
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/2:0] shutdown
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/2:0] undo shutdown
[RouterA-Serial4/1/9/2:0] quit
# Configure local authentication for the PPP users in the default ISP domain system.
[RouterA] domain system
[RouterA-isp-system] authentication ppp local
[RouterA-isp-system] quit
2.
Configure Router B:
# Configure username and password for Router A on Router B.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] local-user rta
[RouterB-luser-rta] password simple rtaaaaaaaaa
[RouterB-luser-rta] service-type ppp
[RouterB-luser-rta] quit
# Create an MP-group interface and assign an IP address to it.
[RouterB] interface Mp-group 4/1/1
[RouterB-Mp-group4/1/1] ip address 111.1.1.2 24
[RouterB-Mp-group4/1/1] quit
# Configure Serial 4/1/9/1:0.
[RouterB] interface Serial 4/1/9/1:0
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/1:0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ppp pap local-user rtb password simple rtbbbbbbbbb
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/1:0] ppp mp Mp-group 4/1/1
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/1:0] shutdown
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/1:0] undo shutdown
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/1:0] quit
# Configure Serial 4/1/9/2:0.
[RouterB] interface Serial 4/1/9/2:0
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/2:0] link-protocol ppp
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/2:0] ppp authentication-mode pap domain system
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/2:0] ppp pap local-user rtb password simple rtbbbbbbbbb
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/2:0] ppp mp Mp-group 4/1/1
38
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/2:0] shutdown
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/2:0] undo shutdown
[RouterB-Serial4/1/9/2:0] quit
# Configure local authentication for the PPP users in the default ISP domain system.
[RouterB] domain system
[RouterB-isp-system] authentication ppp local
[RouterB-isp-system] quit
3.
Verify the configuration:
[RouterA] display ppp mp
Mp-group is Mp-group4/1/1
max-bind: 16, fragment:enable, min-fragment: 512
Bundle Multilink, 2 members, Master link is Mp-group4/1/1
Peer's endPoint descriptor: Mp-group4/1/1
Bundle Up Time: 2007/06/29
10:45:11:562
0 lost fragments, 0 reordered, 0 unassigned
Sequence: 0/0 rcvd/sent
The member channels bundled are:
Serial4/1/9/1:0
Up-Time:2007/06/29
Serial4/1/9/2:0
Up-Time:2007/06/29
11:07:29:167
11:07:29:192
# Check the state of MP-group 4/1/1.
[RouterA] display interface Mp-group 4/1/1
Mp-group4/1/1 current state: UP
Line protocol current state: UP
Description: Mp-group4/1/1 Interface
The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1200, Hold timer is 10(sec)
Internet Address is 6.0.0.1/24 Primary
Link layer protocol is PPP
LCP opened, MP opened, IPCP opened, OSICP opened
Physical is MP, baudrate: 18432000 bps
Last 300 seconds input:
Last 300 seconds output:
84 bytes/sec 1 packets/sec
80 bytes/sec 1 packets/sec
846 packets input, 61121 bytes, 0 drops
825 packets output, 61030 bytes, 0 drops
# Ping IP address 111.1.1.2 on Router A.
[RouterA] ping 111.1.1.2
PING 111.1.1.2: 56
data bytes, press CTRL_C to break
Reply from 111.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=29 ms
Reply from 111.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=31 ms
Reply from 111.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=29 ms
Reply from 111.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=30 ms
Reply from 111.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=30 ms
--- 111.1.1.2 ping statistics --5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 29/29/31 ms
39
Troubleshooting PPP configuration
A link cannot revert to the up state
Symptom
PPP authentication failed and the link cannot revert to the up state.
Analysis
This problem may arise if the parameters for authentication are incorrect.
Solution
Enable the debugging of PPP, and you will see the information describing that LCP went up upon a
successful LCP negotiation but went down after the PAP or CHAP negotiation. Check the PPP
authentication settings at the local and peer ends to make sure they are consistent.
A physical link remains down
Symptom
A physical link remains down.
Analysis
A physical link is in the down state:
•
The interface is not brought up.
•
The interface is administratively shut down.
•
LCP negotiation fails.
Solution
Execute the display interface serial command to check the state of the interface for the failure cause.
The following table describes the possible states of an interface.
Table 1 Description on the states of an interface and the corresponding output
Output
Description
Serial2/1/9/1:0 current state: Administratively
DOWN
Line protocol current state: DOWN
Serial2/1/9/2:0 current state: DOWN
The interface has been shut down by the
administrator.
The interface has not been brought up yet or the
physical layer is down.
Line protocol current state: DOWN
Serial2/1/9/2:0 current state: UP
LCP negotiation has succeeded.
Line protocol current state: UP
Serial2/1/9/2:0 current state: UP
The interface has been brought up but its LCP
negotiation failed.
Line protocol current state: DOWN
40
A link remains down after IPv6CP negotiation fails
Symptom
Configure an IPv6 address on a PPP-encapsulated interface when IPv6 is disabled. The PPP link fails
IPv6CP negotiation and cannot go up. After enabling IPv6, the interface still cannot go up.
Analysis
IPv6CP negotiation cannot succeed when IPv6 is disabled. As IPv6CP does not support re-negotiation,
IPv6CP negotiation cannot succeed even if you enable IPv6 subsequently.
Solution
To resolve the problem, do the following:
•
Enable IPv6 before configuring an IPv6 address on a PPP link.
•
If IPv6CP negotiation fails, execute the shutdown command and then the undo shutdown command
on the interface to re-enable IPv6CP negotiation.
41
Configuring HDLC
Overview
High-level Data Link Control (HDLC) is a bit-oriented link layer protocol. Its most prominent feature is that
it can transmit any types of bit stream transparently.
•
HDLC supports point-to-point link only and does not support point-to-multipoint link.
•
HDLC supports neither IP address negotiation nor authentication. It uses keepalive messages to
check link status.
•
HDLC works only on synchronous interfaces or synchronous/asynchronous interfaces in
synchronous mode. The router supports HDLC encapsulation only on POS interfaces.
HDLC frame format and frame type
HDLC frames fall into the following types: information frame (I frame), supervision frame (S frame) and
unnumbered frame (U frame).
•
Information frame transmits useful data or information.
•
Supervision frame is responsible for error control and flow control.
•
Unnumbered frame is responsible for the link establishment, teardown, and so on.
An HDLC frame is composed of flag field, address field, control field, information field and checksum
field:
•
The flag field, 01111110, marks the beginning and end of an HDLC frame. Each frame begins with
a 7E and ends with a 7E. The 7E between two neighboring frames functions both as the end of the
frame in the front and as the beginning of the following frame.
•
The address field is eight bits and identifies the source or destination where the frame is sent or
received.
•
The control field is eight bits and identifies the control type and defines the frame type (control or
data).
•
The information field can be an arbitrary binary bit set. The minimum length can be zero and the
maximum length is decided by the frame check sequence (FCS) field or the buffer size of the
communicating node. Usually, the maximum length is between 1000 and 2000 bits.
•
The checksum field can use a 16-bit CRC to check the content of a frame.
Enabling HDLC encapsulation on an interface
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
42
Step
3.
Enable HDLC encapsulation
on the interface.
Command
Remarks
link-protocol hdlc
PPP is the default.
Optional.
4.
Set the link status polling
interval.
timer hold seconds
HDLC uses timers to check link
status. HP recommends that you set
the same link status polling interval
on the two ends of a link. Setting
the link status polling interval to
zero on both ends disables link
status check.
The link status polling interval is 10
seconds by default.
NOTE:
Use the default link state polling interval or adjust it according to the network conditions. If the network has
a long delay or is experiencing congestion, you can increase the polling interval to avoid network
flapping.
HDLC configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 12, Router A and Router B are connected through their POS ports with HDLC enabled.
Configure POS 3/1/1 of Router A to borrow the IP address of the local loopback interface, whose IP
address is with 32-bit mask.
Configure Router A to learn the routing information of Router B through static routes, and enable Router
A to reach the network segment 12.1.2.0/24.
Figure 12 Network diagram
Configuration procedure
1.
Configure Router A:
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface LoopBack 1
[RouterA-LoopBack1] ip address 12.1.1.2 32
[RouterA-LoopBack1] quit
[RouterA] interface Pos 3/1/1
[RouterA-Pos3/1/1] clock master
[RouterA-Pos3/1/1] link-protocol hdlc
[RouterA-Pos3/1/1] ip address unnumbered interface LoopBack 1
43
[RouterA-Pos3/1/1] quit
2.
Configure Router B:
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface Pos 3/1/1
[RouterB-Pos3/1/1] link-protocol hdlc
[RouterB-Pos3/1/1] ip address 12.1.1.1 24
3.
Configure a static route on Router A:
[RouterA] ip route-static 12.1.1.0 24 Pos 3/1/1
[RouterA] ip route-static 12.1.2.0 24 12.1.1.1
Verifying the configuration
# After the configuration, Router A can ping network segment 12.1.2.0/24.
[RouterA] ping 12.1.2.1
PING 12.1.2.1: 56
data bytes, press CTRL_C to break
Reply from 12.1.2.1: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=35 ms
Reply from 12.1.2.1: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=1 ms
Reply from 12.1.2.1: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=10 ms
Reply from 12.1.2.1: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=1 ms
Reply from 12.1.2.1: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=1 ms
--- 12.1.2.1 ping statistics --5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 1/9/35 ms
# Execute the display ip routing-table command on Router A to view the routing table.
[RouterA] display ip routing-table
Routing Tables: Public
Destinations : 5
Routes : 5
Destination/Mask
Proto
Pre
Cost
NextHop
12.1.1.0/24
Static 60
0
12.1.1.2
POS3/1/1
12.1.1.2/32
Direct 0
0
127.0.0.1
InLoop0
12.1.2.0/24
Static 60
0
12.1.1.1
POS3/1/1
127.0.0.0/8
Direct 0
0
127.0.0.1
InLoop0
127.0.0.1/32
Direct 0
0
127.0.0.1
InLoop0
44
Interface
Configuring HDLC link bundling
Overview
HDLC link bundling allows you to bundle multiple interfaces that use HDLC encapsulation together to
form one logical link.
HDLC link bundling delivers the following benefits:
•
Load balancing—Incoming/outgoing traffic is distributed across multiple member interfaces of the
HDLC link bundle.
•
Increased bandwidth—The bandwidth on the HDLC link bundle interface is the total bandwidth of
all available member interfaces.
•
Improved connection reliability—When a member interface goes down, the traffic on it
automatically switches over to other available member interfaces. This avoids service interruption
and improves the connection reliability of the whole HDLC link bundle.
Basic concepts of HDLC link bundling
HDLC link bundle interface
An HDLC link bundle interface is a logical interface formed by a bundle of HDLC links.
HDLC link bundle
An HDLC link bundle is a group of HDLC interfaces. When you create an HDLC link bundle interface, an
HDLC link bundle numbered the same is automatically generated.
To bring up an HDLC link bundle, it must meet the requirements for the minimum number of selected links
(if set) and minimum amount of bandwidth (if set).
Member interface
An interface assigned to an HDLC link bundle is called an "HDLC link bundle member interface".
Only physical POS interfaces and serial interfaces using HDLC encapsulation can be assigned to HDLC
link bundles.
Bundling priority
When the number of active member interfaces in an HDLC link bundle is limited, only the higher-priority
links within the bundle are active. A lower bundling priority value is a higher priority. HP recommends
that you configure a higher priority on the link you want to configure as the active link.
States of member interfaces
An HDLC link bundle member interface can be in one of the following states:
•
Initial—The member interface is down at the link layer.
•
Negotiated—The member interface is up at the link layer, but does not meet the conditions for
being a selected interface in the HDLC link bundle.
45
•
Ready—The member interface is up at the link layer and meets the conditions for being a selected
interface, but is not selected yet due to the limitation on the maximum number of selected member
interfaces, the minimum number of selected member interfaces required to bring up the HDLC link
bundle, or the minimum amount of bandwidth required to bring up the HDLC link bundle.
•
Selected—The member interface is up at the link layer, meets the conditions for being a selected
interface, and conforms to the restrictions. Only member interfaces in this state can forward traffic.
The router allows interfaces with different rates to be selected at the same time. However, to avoid
traffic loss, the transmission capability of each selected interface must be reduced to the level of the
lowest-rate interface. HP does not recommend assigning interfaces with different rates to the same
HDLC link bundle.
For more information about how to determine the state of a member interface, see "How the router
determines the state of a member interface."
How HDLC link bundling works
How the router determines the state of a member interface
The states of HDLC link bundle member interfaces are determined following these rules:
1.
An interface is placed in initial state if its link layer protocol is down.
2.
An interface is placed in negotiated state when its link layer protocol goes up.
3.
An interface in negotiated state may transit to the selected or ready state after undergoing a
selection process. Suppose M member interfaces are selected:
{
{
4.
If the number of selected member interfaces is not restricted, the M member interfaces enter the
selected state.
If the maximum number of selected member interfaces is N on the switch: when N is no smaller
than M, all the M member interfaces enter the selected state; when N is smaller than M, the
member interfaces are first sorted in the descending order of rates/baud rates, member
interfaces with the same rate/baud rate are sorted in the descending order of bundling
priorities, and member interfaces with the same bundling priority are sorted in the ascending
order of interface numbers. The first N member interfaces enter the selected state, and the
remaining (M-N) member interfaces enter the ready state.
Suppose the number of member interfaces meet the conditions for being selected is P. If the number
of selected member interfaces required to bring up the HDLC link bundle is set to Q and P is smaller
than Q, none of the P member interfaces will be selected. Instead, they all stay in the ready state.
The same situation occurs when the sum of bandwidths of the P member interfaces is smaller than
the minimum amount of bandwidth required to bring up the HDLC link bundle.
If an HDLC link bundle does not contain any selected member interfaces, the HDLC link bundle interface
is brought down, and cannot forward traffic. It will not be brought up and forward traffic until selected
member interfaces are detected in the HDLC link bundle. The bandwidth of an HDLC link bundle is the
total bandwidth of all selected member interfaces.
Load balancing modes
An HDLC link bundle forwards traffic through its member interfaces. When multiple selected member
interfaces exist in an HDLC link bundle, the router chooses some of the selected member interfaces to
forward traffic according to its load balancing mode. The following load balancing modes are
available:
46
•
Per-flow load balancing, where packets of the same flow are forwarded on the same selected
member interface. A flow is identified by an IP quintuple of source IP address, destination IP
address, protocol ID, source port, and destination port.
•
Per-packet load balancing, where packets are distributed evenly across all selected member
interfaces in a round-robin way.
Configuring the global load-sharing mode by using the link-aggregation load-sharing mode command
will affect the load-sharing mode for unicast traffic on an HDLC link bundle interface. For information
about this command, see Layer 2—LAN Switching Command Reference.
NOTE:
• The router supports only per-flow load balancing.
• The value (valid range: 1 to 8) set by the bundle max-active links command, if configured, determines
the maximum number of selected member interfaces in an HDLC link bundle. When this command is not
configured, an HDLC link bundle can have a maximum of 8 selected member interfaces.
Configuring an HDLC link bundle interface
When you configure an HDLC link bundle interface, follow these restrictions and guidelines:
To guarantee normal traffic transmission, on the HDLC link bundle interfaces on both ends of an
HDLC link bundle, configure the same parameters, including the number of selected member
interfaces required to bring up the HDLC link bundle, limit on the number of selected member
interfaces in the HDLC link bundle, and minimum amount of bandwidth required to bring up the
HDLC link bundle.
•
To configure an HDLC link bundle interface:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Create an HDLC link bundle
interface and enter its view.
interface hdlc-bundle bundle-id
N/A
3.
Assign an IP address to the
HDLC link bundle interface.
ip address ip-address { mask |
mask-length } [ sub ]
By default, no IP address is
assigned to an HDLC link bundle
interface.
For more information about the ip
address command, see Layer 3—IP
Services Command Reference.
Optional.
4.
5.
Set the minimum number of
selected member interfaces
required to bring up the HDLC
link bundle.
bundle min-active links number
Limit the number of selected
member interfaces in the
HDLC link bundle.
bundle max-active links number
Not specified by default.
47
This value should be less than or
equal to the limit on the number of
selected member interfaces in the
HDLC link bundle.
Optional.
The default setting is 8.
Step
6.
Specify the minimum amount
of bandwidth required to
bring up the HDLC link
bundle.
Command
Remarks
bundle min-active bandwidth
bandwidth
Optional.
Not specified by default.
Optional.
7.
Configure a description for
the HDLC link bundle
interface.
description text
By default, the description of an
HDLC link bundle interface is the
interface name followed by the
Interface string.
Optional.
1500 bytes by default.
8.
Specify the MTU size on the
HDLC link bundle interface.
mtu size
9.
Restore the default settings for
the interface.
default
The MTU size specified here affects
the fragmentation and reassembly
of IP packets. Use this command to
set a proper MTU size according to
your network conditions.
Optional.
Optional.
Enabled by default.
10. Enable the HDLC link bundle
interface.
undo shutdown
Enabling/disabling an HDLC link
bundle interface does not enable or
disable any member interface in
the HDLC link bundle but may
affect the selected states of the
member interfaces.
Assigning an interface to an HDLC link bundle
When you assign an interface to an HDLC link bundle, follow these guidelines:
•
You cannot assign interfaces configured with the following features to an HDLC link bundle: IPv4
addresses, IPv4 unnumbered, IPv6 addresses, and Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding (uRPF). After
an interface is assigned to an HDLC link bundle, you cannot configure any of these features on the
interface either.
•
An interface can belong to only one HDLC link bundle at any point in time. To assign an HDLC link
bundle member interface to another HDLC link bundle, remove the interface from the current HDLC
link bundle first.
•
You can assign interfaces to a nonexistent HDLC link bundle as members.
•
You can assign interfaces on different cards to the same HDLC link bundle.
•
Before you assign an interface to an HDLC link bundle, do not configure Layer 3 features, such as
MPLS and VPN, on the interface. If the interface has been configured with Layer 3 features, remove
the Layer 3 feature configuration first. After you assign an interface to an HDLC link bundle, you can
configure Layer 3 features only on the HDLC link bundle interface. If you mistakenly configure Layer
3 features on a member interface, remove the Layer 3 feature configuration from the member
interface first, and then use the shutdown and undo shutdown commands on the HDLC link bundle
interface to completely remove the configuration.
48
•
The peer interface directly connected to an HDLC link bundle member interface must also join the
HDLC link bundle.
•
The bundle member-priority command and the bundle max-active links command usually need to
be used in conjunction, so that interconnected interfaces on two different routers can be both
selected at the same time and exchange traffic successfully.
To assign an interface to an HDLC link bundle:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter POS interface view or
serial interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
PPP by default.
3.
Set the link layer protocol of
the interface to HDLC.
link-protocol hdlc
4.
Assign the interface to an
HDLC link bundle.
bundle id bundle-id
The link layer protocol of an
interface to be assigned to an
HDLC link bundle can only be
HDLC. After the interface is
assigned to the HDLC link bundle,
you are not allowed to change its
link layer protocol.
N/A
Optional.
32768 by default.
5.
Set the bundling priority for
the member interface.
bundle member-priority priority
If you change the bundling priority
of a member interface after the
HDLC link bundle configuration is
finished, the router will determine
the state of each member interface
in the HDLC link bundle again.
Displaying and maintaining HDLC link bundling
Task
Command
Remarks
Display information about an
HDLC link bundle.
display bundle member hdlc-bundle
[ bundle-id ] [ slot slot-number ] [ |
{ begin | exclude | include }
regular-expression ]
Available in any view.
Display information about an
HDLC link bundle interface.
Clear statistics for an HDLC link
bundle interface.
display interface [ hdlc-bundle
[ bundle-id ] ] [ brief [ description ] ]
[ | { begin | exclude | include }
regular-expression ]
Available in any view.
display interface [ hdlc-bundle ]
[ brief [ down ] ] [ | { begin | exclude
| include } regular-expression ]
reset counters interface [ hdlc-bundle
[ bundle-id ] ]
49
Available in user view.
HDLC link bundling configuration example
Network requirements
To increase bandwidth and enhance connection reliability between Router A and Router B, create an
HDLC link bundle between Router A and Router B, as shown in Figure 13.
Figure 13 Network diagram
Configuration procedure
1.
Configure Router A:
# Create HDLC link bundle interface 1 and assign an IP address to it.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface Hdlc-bundle 1
[RouterA-Hdlc-bundle1] ip address 1.1.1.1 24
[RouterA-Hdlc-bundle1] quit
# Assign POS interfaces POS 5/1/1 and POS 5/1/2 to HDLC link bundle 1.
[RouterA] interface Pos 5/1/1
[RouterA-Pos5/1/1] clock master
[RouterA-Pos5/1/1] link-protocol hdlc
[RouterA-Pos5/1/1] bundle id 1
[RouterA-Pos5/1/1] quit
[RouterA] interface Pos 5/1/2
[RouterA-Pos5/1/2] clock master
[RouterA-Pos5/1/2] link-protocol hdlc
[RouterA-Pos5/1/2] bundle id 1
[RouterA-Pos5/1/2] quit
2.
Configure Router B:
# Create HDLC link bundle interface 1 and assign an IP address to it.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface Hdlc-bundle 1
[RouterB-Hdlc-bundle1] ip address 1.1.1.2 24
[RouterB-Hdlc-bundle1] quit
# Assign POS interfaces POS 5/1 and POS 5/2 (which both use the master clock mode) to HDLC
link bundle 1.
[RouterB] interface Pos 5/1/1
[RouterB-Pos5/1/1] link-protocol hdlc
[RouterB-Pos5/1/1] bundle id 1
[RouterB-Pos5/1/1] quit
[RouterB] interface Pos 5/1/2
[RouterB-Pos5/1/2] link-protocol hdlc
50
[RouterB-Pos5/1/2] bundle id 1
[RouterB-Pos5/1/2] quit
Verify the configuration
# Use the display interface hdlc-bundle command on Router A or Router B to verify that the state of
HDLC link bundle interface 1 is UP.
Take the output on Router A for example.
[RouterA] display interface Hdlc-bundle 1
Hdlc-bundle1 current state: UP
Line protocol current state: UP
Description: Hdlc-bundle1 Interface
The Maximum Transmit Unit is 1500
Internet Address is 1.1.1.1/24 Primary
Link layer protocol is HDLC
Physical is HDLC-BUNDLE, baudrate: 155520 kbps
Output queue : (Urgent queuing : Size/Length/Discards)
0/100/0
Output queue : (Protocol queuing : Size/Length/Discards)
Output queue : (FIFO queuing : Size/Length/Discards)
Last clearing of counters:
0/500/0
0/75/0
Never
Last 300 seconds input rate: 0 bytes/sec, 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
Last 300 seconds output rate: 0 bytes/sec, 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec
0 packets input, 0 bytes, 0 drops
0 packets output, 0 bytes, 0 drops
# Verify that the HDLC link bundle interfaces on Router A and Router B can ping each other.
[RouterA] ping –a 1.1.1.1 1.1.1.2
PING 1.1.1.2: 56
data bytes, press CTRL_C to break
Reply from 1.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=1 ttl=255 time=6 ms
Reply from 1.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=2 ttl=255 time=3 ms
Reply from 1.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=3 ttl=255 time=3 ms
Reply from 1.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=4 ttl=255 time=3 ms
Reply from 1.1.1.2: bytes=56 Sequence=5 ttl=255 time=3 ms
--- 1.1.1.2 ping statistics --5 packet(s) transmitted
5 packet(s) received
0.00% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 3/3/6 ms
51
Configuring frame relay
Overview
Frame relay is essentially simplified X.25 WAN technology. It uses statistical multiplexing technology and
can establish multiple virtual circuits over a single physical cable to make full use of network bandwidth.
Frame relay uses data link connection identifiers (DLCIs) to identify virtual circuits and maintain the status
of each virtual circuit with the Local Management Interface (LMI) protocol.
Frame relay interface types
As shown in Figure 14, frame relay enables communication between user devices such as routers and
hosts. The user devices are also called "data terminal equipment (DTE)". They are connected to a frame
relay network through the DTE interface. The devices that provide access to the frame relay network for
DTEs are called "data communications equipment (DCE)". A DCE is connected to a DTE with a DCE
interface on the user network interface (UNI) side and to a frame relay switch in the frame relay network
with a network-to-network interface (NNI) on the NNI side. The switches in the frame relay cloud are
interconnected with the NNI.
In actual applications, a DTE interface can connect to only a DCE interface, and an NNI interface can
connect to only an NNI interface. On a frame relay switch, the frame relay interface should be an NNI
or DCE interface.
As shown in Figure 14, Router B and Router C form a simple frame relay network, to which DTE devices
Router A and Router D are attached. You can see that the DTE and DCE are identified on only the UNI
interface; a virtual circuit between two DTE devices can be assigned different DLCIs on different
segments.
Figure 14 An example frame relay network
52
Virtual circuit
Virtual circuits fall into permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) and switched virtual circuits (SVCs), depending
on how they are set up. Virtual circuits configured manually are called "PVCs", and those created by
protocol negotiation are called "SVCs", which are automatically created and deleted by the frame relay
protocol. The most frequently used in frame relay is the PVC, which is a manually configured virtual
circuit.
The PVC status on DTE is completely determined by DCE, and the network determines the PVC status on
DCE. If two routers are directly connected, the equipment administrator sets the virtual circuit status of
DCE.
Data link connection identifier
A data link connection identifier (DLCI) is a unique number assigned to a virtual circuit endpoint in a
frame relay network for the addressing purpose.
A DLCI uniquely identifies a particular virtual circuit on a physical link and has local significance only to
that link. A DLCI can be used on different physical ports to address different virtual circuits and a virtual
circuit between two DTE devices may be addressed with different DLCIs at the two ends.
Because the virtual circuits in a frame relay network are connection oriented, each DLCI on a physical
port is destined for a distinct remote device. DLCIs can be regarded the frame relay addresses of remote
devices.
The maximum number of PVCs that can be created on a frame relay interface is 1024. The user
configurable DLCIs for the PVCs are in the range 16 to 1007. Other DLCIs are reserved for special
purposes. For example, DLCI 0 and DLCI 1023 are reserved for the LMI protocol to transfer control
messages.
LMI protocol
Frame relay uses the Local Management Interface (LMI) protocol to set up virtual circuits and maintain
their status between DTE and DCE.
The system supports the following LMI standards:
•
ITU-T Q.933 Annex A
•
ANSI T1.617 Annex D
•
Nonstandard LMI (compatible with other vendors)
To communicate properly, the DTE and the DCE must use the same type of LMI.
LMI uses the status inquiry message and the status messages to maintain the link status and PVC status,
for example, to advertise new PVCs, detect deleted PVCs, monitor PVC status changes, and verify link
integrity. For these purposes, the DTE sends status inquiry messages regularly to the DCE to request for
the availability of individual PVCs. On receiving a status inquiry, the DCE responds with a status
message that describes the status of each virtual circuit on the physical link.
For a DTE, the status of a PVC is determined by the DCE; as for DCE, by the frame relay network.
Table 2 lists the major parameters ITU-T Q.933 Annex A uses for message exchange. You can configure
these parameters to optimize device performance.
53
Table 2 Parameter description for frame relay protocol
Router role
DTE
DCE
Parameter description
Value range
Default value
PVC status enquiry counter (N391)
1 to 255
6
Error threshold (N392)
1 to 10
3
Event counter (N393)
1 to 10
4
User side polling timer (T391), the value 0
indicates that the LMI protocol is disabled.
0 to 32767
10
(in seconds)
(in seconds)
Error threshold (N392)
1 to 10
3
Event counter (N393)
1 to 10
4
5 to 30
15
(in seconds)
(in seconds)
Network side polling timer (T392)
These parameters are stipulated by Q.933 Appendix A, and their meanings are described in the
following sections.
Description on parameters related to DTE
The following parameters are related to DTE:
•
N391—Sets the full status polling interval. DTE sends Status-Enquiry messages at a certain interval
(determined by T391). Status-Enquiry messages fall into the following types: link integrity
verification messages and full link status enquiry messages. N391 defines that the ratio of sent link
integrity verification messages to sent full link status enquiry messages equals (N391–1):1.
•
N392—Sets the threshold for errors among the observed events.
•
N393—Sets the total of observed events.
•
T391—Sets the interval for a DTE to send State-Enquiry messages.
A DTE sends Status-Enquiry messages at a certain interval to query the link status. The DCE responds with
a Status response message on receiving the message. If the DTE fails to receive any response within a
specified period, it will record this error. If the number of errors exceeds a certain error threshold, DTE will
regard the physical channel and all virtual circuits unavailable (N392 and N393 together define the
error threshold). If the number of errors reaches N392 among the N393 Status-Enquiry messages sent by
DTE, DTE will consider that the number of errors has reached the threshold.
NOTE:
Status-Enquiry messages fall into the following types: link integrity verification messages and full link status
enquiry messages. The full link status enquiry messages query PVC status in addition to link integrity.
Description on parameters related to DCE
The following parameters are related to DCE:
•
N392 and N393—These two parameters have similar meanings to those related to DTE. However,
DCE requires that the fixed time interval for DTE sending a Status-Enquiry message should be
determined by T392, and DTE requires that this interval should be determined by T391. If DCE does
not receive the Status-Enquiry message from DTE within a period determined by T392, an error
recorder is created.
•
T392—Sets the time variable, which defines the maximum time that DCE waits for a Status-Enquiry
message and should be larger than the value of T391.
54
Frame relay address mapping
Frame relay address mapping associates the protocol address of a remote router with its frame relay
address (local DLCI). Through searching the frame relay address map by protocol address, the upper
layer protocol can locate a remote router. Frame relay can bear the IP protocol. When sending an IP
packet, the frame relay-enabled router can obtain its next hop address after consulting the routing table,
which is inadequate for sending the packet to the correct destination across a frame relay network. To
identify the DLCI of the next hop address, the router must search a frame relay address map retaining the
associations between remote IP addresses and next hop DLCIs.
A frame relay address map can be manually configured or maintained by Inverse Address Resolution
Protocol (InARP).
The following describes how frame relay uses InARP to create an address mapping:
Once a new virtual circuit is created, InARP sends an inverse ARP request over the circuit to request the
peer end for its protocol address. This request also conveys the local protocol address. When the peer
device receives the request, it creates an address mapping based on the protocol address in the request
and responds with its protocol address. When the local end receives the response, it creates the address
mapping for the peer.
For virtual circuits that have static address mappings, InARP will not be performed regardless of whether
the mappings are correct or not. In addition, the inverse ARP request recipient does not create a mapping
based on the protocol address in the request if a static entry is already available for the address.
Frame relay configuration task list
CAUTION:
• Only E-CPOS sub-cards providing E-CPOS interfaces which can be channelized into POS channels,
PIC-ET32G2L sub-cards, and POS sub-cards support Frame Relay.
• Before switching the link layer protocol of an interface (from PPP/HDLC to Frame Relay or the other way
around), manually remove alls configurations related to QoS and ACL policies on the interface first.
Task
Configuring DTE side frame
relay
Configuring DCE side frame
relay
Remarks
Configuring basic DTE side frame relay
Required.
Configuring frame relay address mappings
Required.
Configuring frame relay local virtual circuit
Required.
Configuring frame relay subinterface
Optional.
Configuring basic DCE side frame relay
Required.
Configuring frame relay address mapping
Required.
Configuring frame relay local virtual circuit
Required.
Configuring frame relay subinterface
Optional.
Enabling the trap function
Optional.
55
Configuring DTE side frame relay
Configuring basic DTE side frame relay
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
3.
Configure the interface
encapsulation protocol as
frame relay.
link-protocol fr [ ietf |
nonstandard ]
The default link layer protocol of an
interface is PPP. When frame relay
is configured as the link layer
protocol, the encapsulation format
is defaulted to IETF.
4.
Configure the frame relay
interface type as DTE.
fr interface-type dte
5.
Configure frame relay LMI
protocol type.
fr lmi type { ansi | nonstandard |
q933a }
6.
Configure user side N391.
fr lmi n391dte n391-value
7.
Configure user side N392.
fr lmi n392dte n392-value
8.
Configure user side N393.
fr lmi n393dte n393-value
9.
Configure user side T391.
timer hold seconds
Optional.
The default frame relay interface
type is DTE.
Optional.
The default frame relay LMI
protocol type is q933a.
Optional.
The default value is 6.
Optional.
The default value is 3.
Optional.
The default value is 4.
Optional.
The default value is 10 seconds.
Configuring frame relay address mappings
Configure frame relay address mappings in one of the following ways:
•
Manually creating static mappings between peer IP addresses and local DLCIs.
Use this approach when the network topology is relatively stable and no new users are expected
in a certain period of time. Because static mappings do not change, the network connections are
stable, and attacks from unknown users are avoided.
•
Using InARP to dynamically create mappings between peer IP addresses and local DLCIs.
Use this approach in complicated networks and make sure the peer router also supports InARP.
Configuration restrictions and guidelines
•
You do not need to configure DLCIs for PVCs, if static address mappings are configured.
•
Do not configure static address mapping on a P2P subinterface. A P2P subinterface carries only
one PVC.
56
Configuring static frame relay address mappings
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
3.
Create a static frame relay
address mapping.
fr map ip ip-address dlci-number
[ broadcast | [ ietf | nonstandard ] ] *
No static frame relay address
mappings are configured by
default.
Configuring dynamic frame relay address mapping
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
3.
Enable frame relay InARP for
dynamic address mapping.
Optional.
fr inarp [ ip [ dlci-number ] ]
By default, frame relay InARP is enabled
for dynamic address mapping.
Configuring frame relay local virtual circuit
Overview
When the frame relay interface type is DCE, the interface (either a main interface or subinterface) needs
to be manually configured with virtual circuits. When the frame relay interface type is DTE, for the main
interface, the virtual circuit can be determined by the system according to the peer router or through
manual configuration; for a subinterface, the virtual circuits must be manually configured.
A virtual circuit number is unique on a physical interface.
Configuration procedure
To configure frame relay local virtual circuit
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
3.
Configure a virtual circuit on
the interface.
fr dlci dlci-number
By default, no virtual circuits are
created on interfaces.
NOTE:
If the DLCI of a PVC is changed on the DCE interface, you can reset both the DCE and DTE interfaces or
execute the reset inarp command on both ends to enable the DTE to re-learn the correct address mappings
as soon as possible. Before doing that, make sure no services will be interrupted.
57
Configuring frame relay subinterface
Overview
Frame relay offers the following types of interfaces: main interface and subinterface. The subinterface is
of logical structure, which can be configured with protocol address and virtual circuit. One physical
interface can include multiple subinterfaces, which do not exist physically. However, for the network layer,
the subinterface and main interface make no difference and both can be configured with virtual circuits
to connect to remote routers.
The subinterface of frame relay falls into the following types: point-to-point (P2P) subinterface and
point-to-multipoint (P2MP) subinterface. A P2P subinterface connects a single remote router and a P2MP
subinterface connects multiple remote routers. A P2MP subinterface can be configured with multiple
virtual circuits, each of which sets up an address map with its connected remote network address to
distinguish different connections. Address maps can be set up manually or dynamically set up by InARP.
The methods to configure a virtual circuit and address map for P2P subinterfaces and P2MP
subinterfaces are different, as described below.
P2P subinterface
•
Because a P2P subinterface has only one peer address, the peer address is implicitly determined
when a virtual circuit is configured for the subinterface. As a result, you do not need to configure
dynamic or static address mapping for P2P subinterface.
P2MP subinterface
•
For a P2MP subinterface, a peer address can be mapped to the local DLCI through static address
mapping or InARP which only needs to be configured on the main interface. If static address
mapping is required, it is necessary to set up static address map for each virtual circuit.
Configuration procedure
To configure a frame relay subinterface:
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Create a subinterface and
enter subinterface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number.subnumber
[ p2mp | p2p ]
By default, no frame relay
subinterface is created. On
creation, the type of a frame relay
subinterface is p2mp by default.
3.
Configure a virtual circuit on
a frame relay subinterface.
See "Configuring frame relay local
virtual circuit."
N/A
4.
Configure address mapping.
See "Configuring frame relay
address mappings."
Configuring DCE side frame relay
Configuring basic DCE side frame relay
58
Optional.
For a P2MP subinterface, you must
set up an address map.
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter interface view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
The link layer protocol for interface
encapsulation is PPP by default.
When frame relay is configured as
the link layer protocol, the
encapsulation format is defaulted
to IETF.
3.
Configure interface
encapsulation protocol as
frame relay.
link-protocol fr [ ietf |
nonstandard ]
4.
Configure the frame relay
interface type to DCE.
fr interface-type dce
5.
Configure the frame relay LMI
protocol type.
fr lmi type { ansi | nonstandard |
q933a }
6.
Configure network side
N392.
fr lmi n392dce n392-value
Configure network side
N393.
fr lmi n393dce n393-value
Configure network side T392.
fr lmi t392dce t392-value
7.
8.
Optional.
The default frame relay interface
type is DTE.
Optional.
The default frame relay LMI
protocol type is q933a.
Optional.
The default value is 3.
Optional.
The default value is 4.
Optional.
The default value is 15 seconds.
Configuring frame relay address mapping
See "Configuring frame relay address mappings."
Configuring frame relay local virtual circuit
See "Configuring frame relay local virtual circuit."
Configuring frame relay subinterface
See "Configuring frame relay subinterface."
Enabling the trap function
With the trap function enabled for frame relay, notifications traps are generated for notifying critical
events that occur to frame relay. Thus, when events that should be notified occur to frame relay, traps will
be sent to the information center. You can configure the information center to output the trap information
matches certain criteria to a desired destination (the console for example) for analysis.
To enable the trap function for the frame relay module:
59
Step
Command
Remarks
N/A
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
2.
Enable trap for the frame relay
module.
snmp-agent trap enable fr
Optional.
By default, trap is enabled for the
frame relay module.
For more information about the snmp-agent trap enable fr command, see Network Management and
Monitoring Command Reference.
For information about configure the information center, see Network Management and Monitoring
Configuration Guide.
Displaying and maintaining frame relay
Task
Command
Remarks
Display frame relay protocol
status on an interface.
display fr interface [ interface-type
{ interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber } ] [ | { begin
| exclude | include } regular-expression ]
Available in any view.
Display the mapping table of
protocol address and frame
relay address.
display fr map-info [ interface
interface-type { interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber } ] [ | { begin
| exclude | include } regular-expression ]
Available in any view.
Display receiving/sending
statistics of frame relay LMI type
messages.
display fr lmi-info [ interface interface-type
interface-number ] [ | { begin | exclude |
include } regular-expression ]
Available in any view.
Display incoming and outgoing
frame relay data statistics.
display fr statistics [ interface
interface-type interface-number ] [ |
{ begin | exclude | include }
regular-expression ]
Available in any view.
Display frame relay permanent
virtual circuit table.
display fr pvc-info [ interface
interface-type { interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber } ]
[ dlci-number ] [ | { begin | exclude |
include } regular-expression ]
Available in any view.
Display statistics of frame relay
InARP messages.
display fr inarp-info [ interface
interface-type interface-number ] [ |
{ begin | exclude | include }
regular-expression ]
Available in any view.
Clear all the automatically
established frame relay address
mappings.
reset fr inarp
Available in user view.
Clear the statistics on an FR PVC.
reset fr pvc interface serial
interface-number [ dlci dlci-number ]
Available in user view.
60
Frame relay configuration examples
Connecting LANs through a frame relay network
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 15, connect LANs through the public frame relay network. In this implementation, the
routers can only operate as DTE.
Figure 15 Network diagram
Router A
Router B
S2/1/8:0
202.38.163.251/24
S2/1/8:0
202.38.163.252/24
DLCI=50
DLCI=70
Router C
DLCI=60
FR
S2/1/8:0
202.38.163.253/24
DLCI=80
Configuration procedure
1.
Configure Router A:
# Assign an IP address to interface Serial 2/1/8:0.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface Serial 2/1/8:0
[RouterA-Serial2/1/8:0] ip address 202.38.163.251 255.255.255.0
# Configure interface encapsulation protocol as frame relay.
[RouterA-Serial2/1/8:0] link-protocol fr
[RouterA-Serial2/1/8:0] fr interface-type dte
# If the opposite router supports InARP, configure dynamic address mapping.
[RouterA-Serial2/1/8:0] fr inarp
# Otherwise, configure static address mapping.
[RouterA-Serial2/1/8:0] fr map ip 202.38.163.252 50
[RouterA-Serial2/1/8:0] fr map ip 202.38.163.253 60
2.
Configure Router B:
# Assign an IP address.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface Serial 2/1/8:0
[RouterB-Serial2/1/8:0] ip address 202.38.163.252 255.255.255.0
# Configure interface encapsulation protocol as frame relay.
[RouterB-Serial2/1/8:0] link-protocol fr
[RouterB-Serial2/1/8:0] fr interface-type dte
# If the opposite router supports InARP, configure dynamic address mapping.
[RouterB-Serial2/1/8:0] fr inarp
61
# Otherwise, configure static address mapping.
[RouterB-Serial2/1/8:0] fr map ip 202.38.163.251 70
3.
Configure Router C:
# Assign an IP address.
<RouterC> system-view
[RouterC] interface Serial 2/1/8:0
[RouterC-Serial2/1/8:0] ip address 202.38.163.253 255.255.255.0
# Configure the interface encapsulation protocol as frame relay.
[RouterC-Serial2/1/8:0] link-protocol fr
[RouterC-Serial2/1/8:0] fr interface-type dte
# If the opposite router supports InARP, configure dynamic address mapping.
[RouterC-Serial2/1/8:0] fr inarp
# Otherwise, configure static address mapping.
[RouterC-Serial2/1/8:0] fr map ip 202.38.163.251 80
Connecting LANs through a dedicated line
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 16, two routers are directly connected through serial interfaces. Router A operates in
the frame relay DCE mode, and Router B operates in the frame relay DTE mode.
Figure 16 Network diagram
Configuration procedure
1.
Configure Router A:
# Set the link layer protocol on the interface to frame relay and interface type to DCE.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface Serial 2/1/8:0
[RouterA-Serial2/1/8:0] link-protocol fr
[RouterA-Serial2/1/8:0] fr interface-type dce
[RouterA-Serial2/1/8:0] quit
# Configure the IP address of the subinterface and local virtual circuit.
[RouterA] interface Serial 2/1/8:0.1 p2p
[RouterA-Serial2/1/8:0.1] ip address 202.38.13.251 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-Serial2/1/8:0.1] fr dlci 100
2.
Configure Router B:
# Set the link layer protocol on the interface to frame relay and interface type to DTE.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface Serial 2/1/8:0
[RouterB-Serial2/1/8:0] link-protocol fr
[RouterB-Serial2/1/8:0] quit
# Configure IP address of the subinterface and local virtual circuit.
62
[RouterB] interface Serial 2/1/8:0.1 p2p
[RouterB-Serial2/1/8:0.1] ip address 202.38.13.252 255.255.255.0
[RouterB-Serial2/1/8:0.1] fr dlci 100
Troubleshooting frame relay
Symptom 1:
The physical layer is in down status.
Solution:
•
Check whether the physical line is normal.
•
Check whether the remote router runs properly.
Symptom 2:
The physical layer is already up, but the link layer protocol is down.
Solution:
•
Make sure both local router and remote router have been encapsulated with frame relay protocol.
•
If two routers are directly connected, check the local router and remote router to make sure one end
is configured as frame relay DTE interface and the other end as frame relay DCE interface.
•
Make sure the LMI protocol type configuration at the two ends is the same.
•
If the conditions are satisfied, use the debugging lmi command to enable the monitoring function
for the frame relay LMI messages to see whether one Status Request message corresponds to one
Status Response message. If not, it indicates the physical layer data is not received/sent correctly.
Check the physical layer.
Symptom 3:
The link layer protocol is up, but the remote party cannot be pinged.
Solution:
•
Make sure the routers at both ends have configured (or created) correct address mapping for the
peer.
•
Make sure a route to the peer exists if the routers are not in the same subnet segment.
63
Configuring multilink frame relay
Overview
Multilink frame relay (MFR) is a cost effective bandwidth solution for frame relay users. Based on the
FRF.16 protocol of the frame relay forum, it implements the MFR function on DTE/DCE interfaces.
MFR function provides a kind of logical interface, MFR interface. The MFR interface is composed of
multiple frame relay physical links bound together, and you can configure subinterfaces for the MFR
interface. The MFR interface provides high-speed and broadband links on frame relay networks.
To maximize the bandwidth of bundled interface, bundle physical interfaces of the same rate for the
same MFR interface when you configure the MFR interface so as to reduce management cost.
Only PIC-ET32G2L sub-cards support MFR.
An MFR interface contains up to 16 physical interfaces, but only 12 of them can stay up at the same time.
To make sure a physical interface can join the bundle, make sure the number of time slots allocated for
each physical interface in a bundle is the same.
Bundle and bundle link
Bundle and bundle link are two basic concepts related to MFR.
One MFR interface corresponds to one bundle, which may contain multiple bundle links. One bundle
link corresponds to one physical interface. A bundle manages its bundle links. The interrelationship
between bundle and bundle link is illustrated in Figure 17.
Figure 17 Illustration of bundle and bundle links
Bundle
Bundle Link
Bundle Link
Bundle Link
For the actual physical layer, a bundle link is visible. For the actual data link layer, a bundle is visible.
MFR interface and physical interface
An MFR interface is a kind of logic interface. Multiple physical interfaces can be bundled into one MFR
interface. One MFR interface corresponds to one bundle and one physical interface corresponds to one
bundle link. The configuration on a bundle and bundle links is actually configuration on an MFR
interface and physical interfaces.
The function and configuration of the MFR interface is the same with that on the FR interface in common
sense. Like the FR interface, the MFR interface supports DTE and DCE interface types as well as QoS
queue mechanism. After physical interfaces are bundled into an MFR interface, their original network
layer and frame relay link layer parameters become ineffective and they use the parameter settings of the
MFR interface instead.
64
Configuring an MFR bundle
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Create an MFR interface and
enter MFR interface view.
interface mfr { interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber
[ p2mp | p2p ] }
No MFR interface or subinterface is
created by default. On creation,
the type of an MFR subinterface is
p2mp by default.
3.
Configure the MFR bundle
identifier.
mfr bundle-name [ name ]
4.
Configure MFR
fragmentation.
mfr fragment
5.
Configure maximum fragment
size for bundle link.
mfr fragment-size bytes
6.
Configure other parameters of
the MFR interface.
For more information about the
configuration procedure, see
"Configuring frame relay."
Optional.
By default, the bundle identifier is
MFR + frame relay bundle number.
Optional.
Fragmentation is disabled on MFR
bundles by default.
Optional.
The maximum fragment is of 300
bytes by default.
Optional.
Configuring an MFR bundle link
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter frame relay interface
view.
interface interface-type
interface-number
N/A
3.
Assign the current interface to
an MFR interface.
link-protocol fr mfr
interface-number
An interface is not assigned to any
MFR interface by default.
4.
Configure the MFR bundle link
identifier.
mfr link-name [ name ]
5.
Configure the hello message
sending interval for the MFR
bundle link.
mfr timer hello seconds
Configure the waiting time
before the MFR bundle link
resends hello messages.
mfr timer ack seconds
Configure the maximum times
that the MFR bundle link can
resend hello messages.
mfr retry number
6.
7.
Optional.
65
The name of the current interface is
used by default.
Optional.
The default setting is 10 seconds.
Optional.
The default setting is 4 seconds.
Optional.
The default setting is 2.
Displaying and maintaining multilink frame relay
Task
Display configuration and status of
an MFR interface.
Command
Remarks
display interface [ mfr [ interface-number |
interface-number:subnumber ] ] [ brief
[ description ] ] [ | { begin | exclude |
include } regular-expression ]
Available in any view.
display interface [ mfr ] [ brief [ down ] ] [ |
{ begin | exclude | include }
regular-expression ]
Display configuration and statistics
of an MFR bundle and bundle
links.
display mfr [ interface interface-type
interface-number | verbose ] [ | { begin |
exclude | include } regular-expression ]
Available in any view.
Clear statistics of MFR interfaces.
reset counters interface [ mfr
[ interface-number |
interface-number.subnumber ] ]
Available in user view.
Multilink frame relay configuration example
Network requirements
As shown in Figure 18, use the multilink frame relay protocol to bundle the two serial ports to provide
higher bandwidth.
Figure 18 Network diagram
Router A
Router B
S 3/1/7:0
S 3/1/8:0
MFR3/1/12
10.140.10.1/24
S 3/1/7:0
S 3/1/8:0
MFR3/1/12
10.140.10.2/24
Configuration procedure
1.
Configure Router A:
# Create and configure MFR interface MFR 3/1/12.
<RouterA> system-view
[RouterA] interface MFR 3/1/12
[RouterA-MFR3/1/12] ip address 10.140.10.1 255.255.255.0
[RouterA-MFR3/1/12] fr interface-type dte
[RouterA-MFR3/1/12] fr map ip 10.140.10.2 100
[RouterA-MFR3/1/12] quit
# Bundle serial interfaces to MFR 3/1/12.
[RouterA] interface Serial 3/1/7:0
[RouterA-Serial3/1/7:0] link-protocol fr MFR 3/1/12
[RouterA-Serial3/1/7:0] quit
66
[RouterA] interface Serial 3/1/8:0
[RouterA-Serial3/1/8:0] link-protocol fr MFR 3/1/12
2.
Configure Router B:
# Create and configure MFR interface MFR 3/1/12.
<RouterB> system-view
[RouterB] interface MFR 3/1/12
[RouterB-MFR3/1/12] ip address 10.140.10.2 255.255.255.0
[RouterB-MFR3/1/12] fr interface-type dce
[RouterB-MFR3/1/12] fr dlci 100
[RouterB-fr-dlci-MFR3/1/12-100] quit
[RouterB-MFR3/1/12] fr map ip 10.140.10.1 100
[RouterB-MFR3/1/12] quit
# Bundle serial interfaces to MFR 3/1/12.
[RouterB] interface Serial 3/1/7:0
[RouterB-Serial3/1/7:0] link-protocol fr MFR 3/1/12
[RouterB-Serial3/1/7:0] quit
[RouterB] interface Serial 3/1/8:0
[RouterB-Serial3/1/8:0] link-protocol fr MFR 3/1/12
67
Managing a modem
This chapter describes how to manage and control the modem connected to the router.
Managing a modem
Step
Command
Remarks
1.
Enter system view.
system-view
N/A
2.
Enter user interface view.
user-interface { first-num1
[ last-num1 ] | aux first-num2
[ last-num2 ] }
N/A
3.
Enable modem
call-in/call-out.
modem { both | call-in | call-out }
Modem call-in and call-out are
denied by default.
4.
Set the maximum interval
allowed between picking up
the handset and dialing when
a user tries to establish a
connection.
modem timer answer time
Optional.
60 seconds by default.
Optional.
5.
Set the modem to operate in
auto-answer mode.
modem auto-answer
If the modem answer mode
configured is not consistent with
the actual answer mode of the
modem, the modem may operate
improperly. Do not perform the
operation unless absolutely
needed.
Non-auto answer mode by default.
6.
Return to system view.
quit
7.
Enable modem callback.
service modem-callback
N/A
Optional.
Disabled by default.
Troubleshooting
Symptom
Modem is in abnormal status (for example, the dial tone or busy tone keeps humming).
Solution
•
Use the shutdown command and undo shutdown command on the router physical interface
connected to the modem to check whether the modem has been restored to normal status.
•
If the modem is still in abnormal status, you can re-power the modem.
68
Support and other resources
Contacting HP
For worldwide technical support information, see the HP support website:
http://www.hp.com/support
Before contacting HP, collect the following information:
•
Product model names and numbers
•
Technical support registration number (if applicable)
•
Product serial numbers
•
Error messages
•
Operating system type and revision level
•
Detailed questions
Subscription service
HP recommends that you register your product at the Subscriber's Choice for Business website:
http://www.hp.com/go/wwalerts
After registering, you will receive email notification of product enhancements, new driver versions,
firmware updates, and other product resources.
Related information
Documents
To find related documents, browse to the Manuals page of the HP Business Support Center website:
http://www.hp.com/support/manuals
•
For related documentation, navigate to the Networking section, and select a networking category.
•
For a complete list of acronyms and their definitions, see HP FlexNetwork Technology Acronyms.
Websites
•
HP.com http://www.hp.com
•
HP Networking http://www.hp.com/go/networking
•
HP manuals http://www.hp.com/support/manuals
•
HP download drivers and software http://www.hp.com/support/downloads
•
HP software depot http://www.software.hp.com
•
HP Education http://www.hp.com/learn
69
Conventions
This section describes the conventions used in this documentation set.
Command conventions
Convention
Description
Boldface
Bold text represents commands and keywords that you enter literally as shown.
Italic
Italic text represents arguments that you replace with actual values.
[]
Square brackets enclose syntax choices (keywords or arguments) that are optional.
{ x | y | ... }
Braces enclose a set of required syntax choices separated by vertical bars, from which
you select one.
[ x | y | ... ]
Square brackets enclose a set of optional syntax choices separated by vertical bars, from
which you select one or none.
{ x | y | ... } *
Asterisk-marked braces enclose a set of required syntax choices separated by vertical
bars, from which you select at least one.
[ x | y | ... ] *
Asterisk-marked square brackets enclose optional syntax choices separated by vertical
bars, from which you select one choice, multiple choices, or none.
&<1-n>
The argument or keyword and argument combination before the ampersand (&) sign can
be entered 1 to n times.
#
A line that starts with a pound (#) sign is comments.
GUI conventions
Convention
Description
Boldface
Window names, button names, field names, and menu items are in bold text. For
example, the New User window appears; click OK.
>
Multi-level menus are separated by angle brackets. For example, File > Create > Folder.
Convention
Description
Symbols
WARNING
An alert that calls attention to important information that if not understood or followed can
result in personal injury.
CAUTION
An alert that calls attention to important information that if not understood or followed can
result in data loss, data corruption, or damage to hardware or software.
IMPORTANT
An alert that calls attention to essential information.
NOTE
TIP
An alert that contains additional or supplementary information.
An alert that provides helpful information.
70
Network topology icons
Represents a generic network device, such as a router, switch, or firewall.
Represents a routing-capable device, such as a router or Layer 3 switch.
Represents a generic switch, such as a Layer 2 or Layer 3 switch, or a router that supports
Layer 2 forwarding and other Layer 2 features.
Port numbering in examples
The port numbers in this document are for illustration only and might be unavailable on your device.
71
Index
ACDEFHIMPRT
A
E
Assigning an interface to an HDLC link bundle,48
Enabling HDLC encapsulation on an interface,42
ATM configuration examples,13
Enabling the trap function,59
ATM configuration task list,5
F
ATM OAM,4
Frame relay configuration examples,61
ATM service types,3
Frame relay configuration task list,55
C
H
Configuring an ATM interface,6
HDLC configuration example,43
Configuring an ATM subinterface,6
HDLC link bundling configuration example,50
Configuring an HDLC link bundle interface,47
Configuring an MFR bundle,65
I
Configuring an MFR bundle link,65
Introduction to InARP,4
Configuring applications carried by ATM,9
M
Configuring DCE side frame relay,58
Managing a modem,68
Configuring DTE side frame relay,56
Multilink frame relay configuration example,66
Configuring MP,29
Configuring PPP,22
P
Configuring PVC parameters,7
PPP and MP configuration examples,32
Contacting HP,69
R
Conventions,70
Related information,69
D
T
Displaying and maintaining ATM,12
Troubleshooting,68
Displaying and maintaining frame relay,60
Troubleshooting ATM,18
Displaying and maintaining HDLC link bundling,49
Troubleshooting frame relay,63
Displaying and maintaining multilink frame relay,66
Troubleshooting PPP configuration,40
Displaying and maintaining PPP/MP,32
72
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