NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1

disclaimer
This manual and the software it describes are protected by copyright. The
manual and software as presented are the object of a license agreement and
may be used only in accordance with the license conditions. The licensee
bears all risk in regard to hazards and impairments of quality which may
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This manual and the software programs it describes may not be transmitted,
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parties only with the written permission of AVM Berlin.
All software and the manual have been produced with all due care and
inspected for correctness in accordance with the best available technology.
AVM Berlin disclaims all liability and warranties, whether express or
implied, relating to this product’s quality, performance or suitability for a
particular purpose which deviates from the performance specifications
contained in the product description.
AVM Berlin will not be liable for damages arising directly or indirectly from
the use of the manual or related software, nor for incidental or consequential
damages, except in case of intent or gross negligence. AVM expressly
disclaims all liability for loss of or damage to hardware, software or data as
a result of direct or indirect errors or destruction and for any costs, including
ISDN connection charges, related to the software and manual supplied and
due to incorrect installations not performed by AVM itself.
The information contained in this manual and the software it describes are
subject to change without notice for the purpose of technical improvement.
Copyright 1996 AVM GmbH Berlin. All rights reserved.
AVM Audiovisuelles Marketing
und Computersysteme GmbH
Alt-Moabit 95
D-10559 Berlin
Tel.: +49-(0)30-399 76-0
Fax.: +49-(0)30-399 76-299
AVM Computersysteme
Vertriebs-GmbH
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Tel.: +49-(0)30-399 76-0
Fax.: +49-(0)30-399 76-299
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1
Installation and ISDN Configuration Guide
June 1996
Printed in Germany.
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Trademarks
NetWAYS/ISDN is a registered trademark of AVM GmbH.
Novell, NetWare, the N-Design, DR DOS, LANalyzer, and LAN WorkPlace,
are registered trademarks of Novell, Inc.
The following are trademarks of Novell, Inc.: The NetWare Logotype (teeth
logo), HSM, IPX, IPXWAN, LSL, MLID, MSM, MacIPX, NCP, NDR, NDS,
NLM, NLSP, NMS, NPA, ODI, SPX, TSM, VLM, ElectroText, Hardware
Specific Module, Internetwork Packet Exchange, Link Support Layer, Media
Support Module, Multiple Link Interface Driver, NetExplorer, NetWare 3,
NetWare 4, NetWare 4.1, NetWare Client, NetWare Connect, NetWare Core
Protocol, NetWare Directory Services, NetWare DOS Requester, NetWare IPX
Router, NetWare Link Services Protocol, NetWare Link/Frame Relay,
NetWare Link/PPP, NetWare Link/SNA, NetWare Link/X.25, NetWare
Loadable Module, NetWare MHS, NetWare Management Agent, NetWare
Management System, NetWare MultiProtocol Router, NetWare MultiProtocol
Router Plus, NetWare Peripheral Architecture, NetWare Ready, NetWare
Runtime, NetWare WAN Links, Novell DOS, Novell Labs, Open Data-Link
Interface, Packet Burst, Personal NetWare, Red Box, Sequenced Packet
Exchange, Streams, System Fault Tolerant, Topology Specific Module, and
Virtual Loadable Module.
The following are registered service marks of Novell, Inc.: NetWire.
The following are service marks of Novell, Inc.: Novell Network Registry,
NSE Pro, Network Support Encyclopedia Professional Volume.
The following are collective marks of Novell, Inc.: Novell Authorized
Reseller.
4.3BSD is a trademark of the Regents of University of California, Berkeley.
Apple, AppleTalk, EtherTalk, LocalTalk, Macintosh, and are registered
trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
ARCNET is a registered trademark of Datapoint Corporation.
AS400, DOS, IBM, OS/2, Micro Channel, NetView, and PAL are registered
trademarks and AFP, SAA, and VTAM are trademarks of International
Business Machines Corporation.
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AST is a registered trademark of AST Research, Inc.
AT&T is a registered trademark of American Telephone & Telegraph.
MS-DOS, Microsoft, and Word are registered trademarks of Microsoft
Corporation.
NFS, Network File System, and Sun are registered trademarks and SunNet
Manager is a trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc.
All other trademarks, service marks, certification marks, and collective
marks - registered or not - are the property of their respective owners.
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Contents
About This Guide ................................................................................... 13
Chapter Summaries ..................................................................................................... 13
Conventions Used ........................................................................................................ 15
Graphic Symbols ................................................................................................ 16
Related Publications ..................................................................................................... 16
1
Introduction to NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 .............. 19
Routing Features .......................................................................................................... 19
Supported ISDN Protocols and Access Types .................................................... 21
ISDN D Channel Protocols ....................................................................... 21
ISDN B Channel Protocols and Options ................................................... 23
Direct Acess and Access through PBXs ................................................... 25
Survey of Important ISDN-Specific Features ................................................................ 25
Toll-Saving Features ........................................................................................... 25
Watch Your ISDN Links ............................................................................. 29
Performance-Enhancing Features ...................................................................... 30
Classic and Dynamic ISDN Interface Use .................................................................... 32
Classic WANs Involve Classic ISDN Interface Use ............................................. 32
Dial-Around Scenarios Involve Dynamic ISDN Interface Use .............................. 34
Be More Careful When Using ISDN Interfaces Dynamically ..................... 36
Related Products and Options ..................................................................................... 38
Remote Node Access over ISDN ....................................................................... 38
Routing Extension .............................................................................................. 39
Communications and Host Connectivity Software .............................................. 39
ISDN Management Software .............................................................................. 39
ADT - A CICC Application .................................................................................. 39
Further Product Options ..................................................................................... 40
Product Versions .......................................................................................................... 41
Configuration and Management ................................................................................... 41
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v
2
Preparing to Install ................................................................................ 43
What You Need ............................................................................................................ 43
Hardware Requirements ..................................................................................... 43
Software Requirements ...................................................................................... 45
Supplemental Files ................................................................................... 46
Interoperability Information ................................................................................. 47
Compatibility with Other Products ............................................................. 47
PPP Over ISDN ........................................................................................ 49
Setting Up the Hardware .............................................................................................. 51
Calculate Memory (RAM) Requirement .............................................................. 51
Prepare for ISDN Access ................................................................................... 52
Install ISDN-Controllers ............................................................................ 52
Test Your ISDN-Controllers ....................................................................... 52
Recording Hardware Configuration Information .................................................. 53
Where to Go from Here ................................................................................................ 54
3
Installing NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 ........................ 55
Installation Setup ......................................................................................................... 56
Copying the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 Files to a Local DOS
Partition ......................................................................................................... 57
Copying the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN Files to a Local NetWare
Volume .......................................................................................................... 57
Installing NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN on a Local Server ............................ 59
Editing the STARTUP.NCF File ........................................................................... 61
Remote Installation and Configuration .......................................................................... 63
Loading RSPAWN and SPXS from RCONSOLE ................................................ 63
Installing NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 on a Remote Server ........ 65
Editing STARTUP.NCF Remotely ........................................................................ 68
Deinstallation ............................................................................................................... 70
4
Basic Design of ISDN-WANs and Configuration Overview ................ 71
Routing Protocol or Static Routes - Basic Considerations ............................................ 71
General Recommendations ................................................................................ 72
Fixed Tariffs .............................................................................................. 72
TPC/IP ..................................................................................................... 72
Static Routes/Services ....................................................................................... 72
Choose Static Routes to Link Networks with Static "Nature" .................... 73
Classic and Dynamic ISDN Interface Usage with Static Routes/Services . 73
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Routing Protocols ............................................................................................... 73
Choose Routing Protocols to Link Networks with Dynamic "Nature" ......... 74
Routing Protocol to Choose for the Respective Network Protocols ........... 75
Classic and Dynamic ISDN Interface Usage with Routing Protocols ......... 77
Possible and Recommended Configurations for IPX ..................................................... 78
Configuration Overview ................................................................................................ 79
Configuring for LAN Support .............................................................................. 80
Configuring for ISDN Support ............................................................................. 80
Chapters Containing Further Configuration Information ...................................... 81
5
Configuring Boards ............................................................................... 83
Configuring an ISDN-Controller .................................................................................... 84
Enabling/Disabling an ISDN-Controller ......................................................................... 89
Deleting an ISDN-Controller ......................................................................................... 89
6
Configuring ISDN Interfaces ................................................................. 91
ISDN Network Interface Configuration .......................................................................... 94
Expert Configuration of ISDN Interface <Name> .......................................................... 99
Default Call Destination Configuration ........................................................................ 109
ISDN-Controller Configuration .................................................................................... 111
7
Configuring ISDN Call Destinations ................................................... 115
Configuring an ISDN Call Destination ......................................................................... 116
Changing ISDN Call Destination Parameters .............................................................. 150
Deleting an ISDN Call Destination .............................................................................. 151
8
Configuring Global Parameters .......................................................... 153
Global MPR for ISDN Configuration ........................................................................... 153
Completing the Call Acceptance Database ....................................................... 154
Automatically Loading NLMs at Specified Times .............................................. 155
ISDN Trap Propagation ..................................................................................... 156
Adjusting the Currency Display ......................................................................... 157
Writing Daily Log Files ..................................................................................... 158
Configuring SNMP Information ................................................................................... 159
Configuring SNMP Parameters ........................................................................ 159
Configuring SNMP Manager Tables .................................................................. 163
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9
Configuring IPX .................................................................................... 165
On-Demand IPX Calls with Static Routes and Services ............................................. 165
What You Need ................................................................................................. 166
Procedure ........................................................................................................ 166
Manual IPX Connections via CALLMGR .................................................................... 168
What You Need ................................................................................................. 168
Procedure ........................................................................................................ 169
Manual IPX Connections via Client Initiated Call Control (CICC) ................................ 169
CICC for NetWare ............................................................................................ 170
CICC for DOS .................................................................................................. 171
Call Set-Up - CICCON ............................................................................ 172
Call Clear-Down - CICCOFF .................................................................. 172
Display Status Information - CICCSTAT .................................................. 172
Returncodes via Errorlevel for Batch Routines ........................................ 173
CICC for Windows ............................................................................................ 174
CICC for OS/2 .................................................................................................. 174
What You Need ................................................................................................. 176
Procedure ........................................................................................................ 176
Automatic/Permanent IPX Connections ...................................................................... 177
What You Need ................................................................................................. 178
Procedure .............................................................................................. 178
Configuring Routed On-Demand Calls ....................................................................... 179
What You Need ................................................................................................. 180
Procedure .............................................................................................. 180
Reinitialize System and IPX Configuration Changes .................................................. 181
10
Configuring TCP/IP .............................................................................. 183
On-Demand IP Connections with Static Routes ......................................................... 183
What You Need ................................................................................................. 183
Procedure ........................................................................................................ 183
11
Configuring AppleTalk ........................................................................ 187
On-Demand AppleTalk Connections ........................................................................... 187
What You Need .......................................................................................................... 191
Procedure .................................................................................................................. 191
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Configuring Source Route Bridge ...................................................... 191
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Advanced Configuration ..................................................................... 193
Special Connection Types .......................................................................................... 193
Configuring 56-Kbps Connections .................................................................... 193
Using En-Bloc Dialing ....................................................................................... 193
DS01, DS02 and D64S Leased Line Connections ............................................ 194
Using Hunt Groups ........................................................................................... 195
Configuring Semipermanent Connections ........................................................ 196
Configuring Backup Calls for LAN-LAN Connections .................................................. 197
Configuring a Backup Call Association ............................................................. 197
14
Configuration Interdependencies ...................................................... 201
Interdependencies with Call Processing ................................................................. 201
Outbound Call Processing and Timeout Mechanisms ....................................... 201
Inbound Call Processing and Timeout Mechanisms .......................................... 202
Interdependencies with Timeout Mechanisms ............................................................ 203
Security Call-Back and Timeout Mechanisms ................................................... 203
Inactivity Timeout and Disconnect Timeout Set to Different Values ................... 203
Timeout Mechanisms and Spoofing/Filtering .................................................... 204
Unique MSN, EAZ or DDI Required for Each Interface ............................................... 205
Interface Status Time Restrictions .......................................................... 205
Inbound Call Processing Set Unequally On One ISDN-Controller ..................... 205
ISDN Connection Monitor Thresholds Set Unequally On One ISDNController .................................................................................................... 206
Using CLI Number Check ................................................................................. 206
The Remote Site Is Not Available ............................................................................... 207
Static Bundling and Channel On Demand ........................................................ 207
Operation of the Self-Learning Inactivity Timeout ....................................................... 208
Spoofing and Filtering on the ISDN Driver and Network Protocol Level ...................... 209
15
Configuring Remote Node Access ..................................................... 211
Enabling ISDNWAYS .................................................................................................. 212
Configuring an Interface for Remote Node Access ..................................................... 213
Configuring Protocols ................................................................................................. 214
Binding IPX to ISDNWAYS ......................................................................................... 215
Binding IP to ISDNWAYS ........................................................................................... 216
Configuring Global Remote Node Parameters ............................................................ 217
Access From Mobile NetWAYS/ISDN Clients ............................................................. 222
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Utilities .................................................................................................. 223
ISDN Budget Manager ............................................................................................... 223
ISDN Console (ISDNCON.NLM) ................................................................................ 223
ISDN Connection Monitor ........................................................................................... 223
ISDNU.NCF ............................................................................................................... 224
ISDNSNMP.NLM ........................................................................................................ 224
ISDN.CFG ................................................................................................................. 224
ISDNCONV.NLM ........................................................................................................ 225
ISDNCHK.NLM .......................................................................................................... 225
ISDNINFO.NLM ......................................................................................................... 225
NDS over ISDN Console (NDSCON.NLM) ................................................................. 227
17
Testing and Troubleshooting .............................................................. 229
Testing Possibilities .................................................................................................... 229
Calling the AVM Data Call Center ..................................................................... 230
Performing a TCP/IP Loopback Test ................................................................. 230
Using the IPXPING Utility ................................................................................. 232
Using the TPING Utility .................................................................................... 234
Using the PING Utility ...................................................................................... 234
Troubleshooting Tips .................................................................................................. 235
Problems with Call-Setup over ISDN (ISDN Error Messages 34xx and 33xx)
236
ISDN Errors 33xx and 34xx .................................................................... 236
Network Protocol Errors ......................................................................... 237
Problems with IPX ............................................................................................ 237
Problems with TCP/IP ...................................................................................... 238
Miscellaneous Problems ................................................................................... 239
Getting Information on Product Enhancements and Fixes ................................ 239
Before Calling Technical Support ...................................................................... 240
18
Monitoring ISDN Connections ............................................................ 241
Online Information via ISDN Console (ISDNCON.NLM) ............................................. 242
Loading ISDN Console ..................................................................................... 242
Statistics in ISDN Console ............................................................................... 244
"Connections 1h" and "Connections 24h": Connection-Oriented Information
244
"Interfaces": ISDN-Controller and Interface-Oriented Information ........... 246
"Remote Nodes": Remote Node-Oriented Information ............................ 254
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"Options": Enabling Traces ............................................................................... 257
"View File": Viewing Log Files and Trace Files .................................................. 259
Limiting ISDN Connections ........................................................................................ 259
ISDN Budget Manager ..................................................................................... 259
ISDN Connection Monitor ................................................................................. 260
NDS over ISDN Console - Monitoring NDS Traffic ...................................................... 261
A
System and Error Messages ............................................................... 263
ISDN Error Messages ................................................................................................ 263
Error Causes Sent by the Local Exchange ....................................................... 263
Error Messages Created by the ISDN-Controller .............................................. 265
ISDN Line Management Messages ............................................................................ 269
Messages Indicating Actions or Status Changes .............................................. 269
Messages Indicating Why an Incoming/Outgoing Call Was Rejected ................ 270
B
AVM Data Call Center .......................................................................... 279
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About This Guide
This guide is written for the network administrator responsible for
installing and configuring NetWare® software and NetWare®
MultiProtocol RouterTM for ISDN 3.1 software. It is not intended to
provide detailed information about LAN media, WAN media, or
network protocols.
As the administrator, you must plan and implement the connection
of the router to the physical internetwork. This task involves laying
the network cables, installing network interface boards, installing
ISDN-Controllers, adding and removing nodes, and placing routers.
To perform these tasks, you should have technical knowledge of
protocols, network addressing, routing, and operational issues.
There are four basic steps to getting your NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN installed and operating on your network:
-
First, install one or more AVM ISDN-Controllers.
-
Second, upgrade to or install new NetWare 3.12 (or NetWare 4.1)
operating system software.
-
Third, upgrade to or install the new NetWare MultiProtocol
Router 3.1 software.
-
Fourth, configure the network interfaces and protocols, then bind
the appropriate protocols to the appropriate interfaces.
Chapter Summaries
This section briefly summarizes each chapter in this guide. Use these
summaries to help you locate specific topics, or to help you decide
which portions of this guide contain new information.
Chapter 1, "Introduction to NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN
3.1," provides a detailed overview of the multiple features of the
product.
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Chapter 2, "Preparing to Install," describes site preparation and
equipment setup tasks that must be completed prior to installing
your NetWare operating system and NetWare MultiProtocol Router
for ISDN software.
Chapter 3, "Installing NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1,"
provides specific procedures for installing the NetWare
MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 software on a local and a remote
server.
Chapter 4, "Basic Design of ISDN-WANs and Configuration Overview," provides information on design and configuration issues for
setting up WANs over ISDN, lists the configuration tasks to be
performed and describes where to go for specific configuration
instructions.
Chapter 5, "Configuring Boards," provides specific procedures for
configuring your ISDN-Controllers used in the router.
Chapter 6, "Configuring ISDN Interfaces," provides specific procedures for configuring the ISDN interfaces and, due to INETCFG
restrictions, specific parameters for each ISDN-Controller.
Chapter 7, "Configuring ISDN Call Destinations," provides specific
procedures for configuring ISDN Call Destinations.
Chapter 8, "Configuring Global Parameters," describes configuration
of parameters that apply for the router as a whole such as the ISDN
Trap Propagation, global parameters for remote nodes and describes
completion of the Call Acceptance Database.
Chapter 9, "Configuring IPX," describes different configuration
possibilities for IPX over ISDN.
Chapter 10, "Configuring TCP/IP," describes different configuration
possibilities for IPX over ISDN.
Chapter 11, "Configuring AppleTalk," describes configuration of
AppleTalk over ISDN.
Chapter 12, "Configuring Source Route Bridge," describes configuration of a source route bridge over ISDN.
Chapter 13, "Advanced Configuration," discusses configuration of
special ISDN connection types such as leased lines and semi-permanent connections,and provides specific information on configuring
backup calls.
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Chapter 14, "Configuration Interdependencies," provides specific
information on interdependencies between configuration parameters.
Chapter 15, "Configuring Remote Node Access," provides specific
procedures to configure the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN
3.1 for remote node access from NetWAYS/ISDN or PPP-compatible
clients.
Chapter 16, "Utilities," describes special NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN 3.1 utilities which consist of console commands,
NetWare Loadable ModuleTM (NLMTM) and configuration files.
Chapter 17, "Testing the Configuration," provides specific procedures
for testing and troubleshooting the configurations associated with
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1.
Chapter 18, "Monitoring ISDN Connections," gives detailed information on monitoring ISDN interfaces and ISDN connections and
shows how you can limit connections to save charges.
Appendix A, "System and Error Messages," describes the causes and
solutions of the system and error messages for the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 product.
Appendix B, "AVM Data Call Center," provides specific access information for the AVM Data Call Center.
Conventions Used
The NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 Installation and ISDN
Configuration Guide uses the documentation conventions described in
this section.
The following typographical conventions are used:
-
Highlighted monospaced character strings represent user input,
which must be entered exactly as shown; for example:
LOAD TCPIP <Enter> or Load tcpip <Enter>
-
Highlighted and lowercase character strings show descriptive
names for items that you must replace with appropriate values.
For example, in the following NetWare console command, you
replace driver with the specific name of a driver:
UNBIND IP FROM driver <Enter>
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-
Regular (nonboldface, nonitalic) monospaced character strings
represent system prompts or responses; for example:
message example
This symbol identifies the first step of a procedure. To accomplish a
specific task, follow the steps in the procedure.
Graphic Symbols
Procedure
This symbol indicates lists of key points or elements that require
attention.
Checklist
This symbol indicates sidelights, discussions, and general points of
interest related to the current subject.
Note
This symbol points out key concepts or facts about the product.
Important
This symbol alerts you to situations that can produce critical or
irreversible errors if you do not follow instructions carefully.
Warning
This symbol points out hints, tips, or helpful information that you
should know.
The following AVM publications provide additional information and
should therefore be at your hand:
Suggestion
Related Publications
-
Technical Note on NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1
-
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 Quick Installation and
Configuration manual
-
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 Upgrade manual
-
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN Solutions Guide
The following Novell publications provide additional information
and should therefore be at your hand:
-
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-
NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Configuration
-
NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Management and Troubleshooting
-
NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Release Notes
-
NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Rules of Thumb
-
NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Readme
-
NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 NetWare Link/SNA Host
Programmer´s Guide
-
NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Glossary (delivered on CDROM)
-
Novell´s Guide to NLSP Migration (delivered on CD-ROM)
-
NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Concepts (delivered on CDROM)
-
NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 System Messages (delivered on
CD-ROM)
About This Guide
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chapter
to NetWare
1 Introduction
MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1
NetWare®MultiProtocol RouterTM for ISDN 3.1 lets you build global
networks over ISDN on the basis of proven NetWare, PC and ISDN
technology. Through its powerful combination of PC-based routing
and source-route bridging software with digital ISDN, the NetWare
MultiProtocol Router for ISDN permits modular, cost-efficient
integration of geographically distributed LANs and stand-alone PCs
and provides synergy from the expertise of Novell® in NetWarebased routing and AVM in ISDN and Mobile ISDN technology to
form global corporate networks over ISDN.
Routing Features
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 provides IPX, TCP/IP
and AppleTalk routing as well as Source Route Bridging over ISDN
Basic Rate as well as ISDN Primary Rate Interfaces (BRI and PRI).
LAN interfaces use Novell´s Open Data-Link InterfaceTM (ODI)
specification; therefore, you can choose LAN boards for many media
types, whether Arcnet, Ethernet, Token Ring or FDDI for example.
For ISDN access, NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN uses
AVM´s ISDN-Controllers, which support a wide range of ISDN
access features for international deployment, including internationally and nationally standardized D channel protocols such as the
ISDN signaling protocols DSS1, 1TR6, VN3/VN4, NI-1, 5ESS or
TS 03. On the B channel, two different protocols are supported AVM Proprietary and PPP over ISDN. AVM´s market-proven proprietary protocol has been in practical use for more than four years,
offering more powerful features than defined for PPP so far, such as
data compression (according to V.42bis), various line management
features and access over GSM-based cellular networks. PPP over
ISDN is an international standard intended to provide interoperability between remote access products of different manufacturers over ISDN. A further option, called Auto-Framing, enables the
Introduction to NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1
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NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN to automatically detect
whether an incoming call uses AVM Proprietary or PPP over ISDN.
The NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN can be used as a dedicated router, which is the common set-up in larger networks, at the
central sites and when PRI is used. It can also be installed on an
existing NetWare file server, which is the common set-up in smaller
networks and at branch offices. The following figure shows a sample
scenario of LANs and stand-alone PCs interconnected over ISDN:
Figure 1-1:
LANs and Stand-Alone PCs Interconnected via ISDN
Besides interconnecting LANs and PCs over ISDN and GSM-based
cellular networks to form company-wide networks, NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN can be used for Internet access or to
provide dial-up access to specific company-owned resources for
other companies over ISDN, for example access to information or
database services. For existing solutions with the NetWare Multi-
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Protocol Router for ISDN in a number of companies, refer to the
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN Solutions Guide by AVM.
Supported ISDN Protocols and Access Types
This section covers ISDN specific protocols and ISDN access types
supported by the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN. A detailed survey on the supported networking protocols is given in the
NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Rules of Thumb, pp. 4-7, and therefore not repeated here.
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN supports access from
terrestrial ISDN BRIs (Basic Rate Interface) and PRIs (Primary Rate
Interface) as well as access over GSM-based cellular networks from
remote nodes equipped with AVM´s Mobile ISDN-Controller M1
and a mobile phone. A number of ISDN D and B channel protocols
are supported. The ISDN protocols are software-implemented and
can be loaded as required; thus, future enhancements and protocol
changes can be effected through software without the need to replace ISDN hardware components. Additionally, NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 can also be equipped with an AVM Mobile
ISDN-Controller M1 and a mobile phone for direct mobile-to-mobile
links over GSM-based cellular networks. In Germany, for example,
mobile-to-mobile links cost half as much as standard ISDN links.
Table 1-1:
Overview of ISDN Standards
ISDN D Channel Protocols
An overview of the important ISDN standards and their position in
the OSI Reference Model is given in Table 1-1.
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ISDN D channel signaling protocols are used for negotiations and
connection set-up between the ISDN device, i.e. the router/ISDNController and the public ISDN switches of the respective PTTs. The
following D channel signaling protocols are supported:
-
DSS1 (Euro-ISDN)
-
1TR6 (Germany, support for "Vorbestellte
Dauerwählverbindungen" supported at BRI and PRI)
-
DS01, DS02 (leased line types offered by the German PTT; DS01
offers one B channel and the D channel; DS02 offers two B channels and the D channel)
-
D64S (leased line type offered by the German PTT, offering one B
channel and no D channel)
-
CT1 (Belgium, Norway)
-
VN3/VN4 (France)
-
NI-1 (USA)
-
5ESS (AT&T custom ISDN, USA)
-
TS 013, AUSTEL (Australia, support for "Semi Permanent Connections" at BRI)
Depending on the PTTs offerings, different options are available. The
following options are supported:
♦ Multipoint Access and MSNs/EAZs and SPIDs - BRI
Multipoint access is most commonly available at your Basic Rate
Access. This access type includes a set of predefined numbers
assigned to your access by your PTT and allows to set up a bus
structure to connect and address different devices. These predefined
numbers are, depending on the D channel protocol, called Multiple
Subscriber Numbers (MSN) or "Endgeräteauswahlziffern" (EAZ).
MSNs are supported by the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN
within DSS1, VN3/VN4, NI-1, 5ESS and TS 013 (AUSTEL). EAZs are
only used within 1TR6 and are also supported. Configuring an MSN
or EAZ for a device tells this device to listen exclusively to this MSN
or EAZ when a call comes in on the bus and to only react to incoming calls addressed to this number. Within the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN, you can and sometimes must configure an
MSN or EAZ for each of the two ISDN interfaces (see Chapter 14,
"Configuration Interdependencies").
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SPIDs are Service Profile Identifiers which are used at NI-1 and
AT&T custom ISDN switches in the USA to identify what sort of
services and features the switch provides to the ISDN device. When
a new subscriber is added, the service representative will allocate a
SPID just as they allocate a directory number. The subscriber needs
to input the SPIDs into their terminal device before they will be able
to connect to the central office switch (this is referred to as initializing the device).
♦ Point-to-Point Access - PRI, BRI
Point-to-Point access is common with Primary Rate Accesses. But if
you have more than one Basic Rate access, you may apply for this
option (see "Hunt Groups" below). The NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN supports Point-to Point accesses for PRI and with
all BRI D channel protocols except for D64S, DS01, DS02 and GSM.
♦ DDI (Direct Dial In), an option for Point-to-Point access - PRI,
BRI
At Primary Rate Interfaces and at Basic Rate Interfaces, you can
apply for direct dial-in numbers from your PTT. Direct dial-in
numbers can be compared with MSNs or EAZs. At PRI accesses, this
is the only possibility to direct calls to a specific interface and can be
compared to MSNs and EAZs at BRI accesses.
♦ Hunt Groups, an option for Point-to-Point access - BRI
If you applied for Hunt Group Numbers, you receive a single
number for different physical Basic Rate Accesses. The NetWare
MultiProtocol Router for ISDN supports Hunt Group Numbers at
Point-to Point accesses with all D channel protocols except for D64S,
DS01, DS02 and GSM.
ISDN B Channel Protocols and Options
ISDN B channel protocols are used for negotiations and connection
set-up between the ISDN devices, i.e. the routers/ISDN-Controllers
at each site, and to transmit network data. The following protocols
are supported on the ISDN B channel:
-
AVM Proprietary
AVM´s market-proven proprietary ISDN protocol has been in
practical use for more than four years. It is based on X.75SLP,
which is standardized in ISDN. Since it offers more powerful
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features than PPP over ISDN such as data compression (according to V.42bis) and various line management features, it is the
recommended protocol to be used for connections between
AVM´s NetWare MultiProtocol Routers for ISDN and NetWare
MultiProtocol Router for ISDN and AVM´s remote node product
NetWAYS/ISDN.
-
PPP over ISDN
PPP over ISDN is an international standard intended to provide
interoperability between remote access products of different
manufacturers over ISDN. Since existing RFCs do not yet cover
all features implemented in the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for
ISDN, only those features can be used with PPP over ISDN that
are already standardized through RFCs and are supported by the
respective remote device. For a list of RFCs supported with the
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1, refer to Chapter 9,
"Configuring PPP over ISDN."
-
Auto-Framing
The Auto-Framing option enables the NetWare MultiProtocol to
automatically detect whether an incoming call uses the AVM
Proprietary protocol or PPP over ISDN.
The following options are supported on the B channel:
♦ ISDN connections with 64 Kbps and with 56 Kbps
Some public switches, mostly in the USA, do not offer 64 Kbps, but
only 56 Kbps on the B channel. To decrease bandwidth to 56 Kbps, a
signaling character is used on the D channel ("r" for restricted) in
this case, which is added to the number dialed.
♦ GSM 04.22 (ISDN over GSM - Mobile ISDN)
This is not an option, but a protocol implementation on layer 1 of the
B channel that is supported by the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for
ISDN for remote node access with NetWAYS/ISDN and direct
mobile-to-mobile LAN links over GSM-based cellular networks. It
allows remote clients to use cellular mobile networks instead of
terrestrial ISDN lines when dialing in to the LAN via NetWare
MultiProtocol Router for ISDN. At the ISDN access of the LAN side,
nothing changes and no special or additional option has to be applied for for mobile-to-ISDN links. However, use of this option
depends on whether providers of GSM-based cellular networks offer
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access to ISDN from their networks and whether Unrestricted
Digital Information (UDI) is enabled on the switches, allowing the
service "data transmission" to be used in addition to voice transmission. This implementation is included in the NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN drivers for DSS1 and 1TR6.
Direct Acess and Access through PBXs
AVM´s ISDN-Controllers for both, BRI and PRI can be installed
directly at public ISDN accesses as well as at any PBX offering
internal BRI or PRI access and uses one of the standardized ISDN D
channel signaling protocols supported by the NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN.
Survey of Important ISDN-Specific Features
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN is dedicated to ISDN and
offers a large number of features especially designed for optimum
use of ISDN. The following sections give a survey and explanations
on important features and discuss conceptional issues on ISDN use
and functions that you should keep in mind.
Toll-Saving Features
ISDN is a circuit-switched public network. ISDN connections are
dialed up and charged by the PTT by the duration of the connection
from the first set-up of a B channel until the last B channel is cleared
down. This can be compared with making a phone call: you pick up
the phone and dial a number. As soon as the call is answered by the
remote site, charges accrue.
Some PTTs also charge call set-up over the D channel, disregarding
whether the B channel was set up or not. When compared with a
phone call, this means that as soon as the phone at the remote site
rings, a charge unit accrues.
Thus, all features that save charges are important. In the following,
toll-saving features are classified according to how they work,
whether they save charges by generally optimizing ISDN use for
internetworking via ISDN-specific timers, by optimizing network,
protocol or application-specific behavior through filters and spoof-
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ings or by avoiding critical situtations, configuration errors, undesired or too frequent use of B channels by functions that disable a B
channel for any physical action.
♦ Features clearing down the physical connection on the B
channel
Inactivity Timeout and Self-Learning Inactivity Timeout clear down
a B channel and are features that optimize ISDN generally for internetworking. In other words, they are indispensable for using ISDN
in a cost-efficient way. Another timer, the Disconnect Timeout, plays
a more specialized role, but is also described in this category.
The Inactivity Timeout functions exclusively clear down the physical
B channel, so that no further charges accrue until the B channel is set
up again physically. But it does not "touch" the logical ISDN B
channel connection. This means that everything that has been negotiated once during an initial set-up of a B channel with the remote site
over an ISDN interface for this connection remains active, and the
interface itself is logically reserved for this connection. For remote
node access, however, the interface reservation can be disabled to
allow more than one remote node access to a single interface. The
negotiated connection parameters nevertheless remain valid until
the Disconnect Timeout expires.
The Disconnect Timeout can also clear down a physical connection,
depending on how it is configured in relation to the Inactivity
Timeout, but its main purpose and function is to clear down the
logical ISDN connection on the B channel. This means that everything that has been negotiated once during an initial set-up of a B
channel with the remote site over an ISDN interface for this connection is deactivated and the interface itself is logically released and
available for any following dial-up operation to negotiate and set up
a connection. Since it releases an ISDN interface, the Disconnect
Timeout is one of the functions that can be used if an interface is not
to be used to maintain a classic WAN link to a remote site, but is to
be used dynamically to negotiate and set up different connections to
remote sites.
♦ Features preventing set-up of a physically idle B channel
For this purpose, the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1
provides a number of filter and spoofing mechanisms. They prevent
data packets addressed to a remote site from causing an idle B
channel to be set up in order to transmit the packets over ISDN.
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Besides their toll saving function, most of the filters are also used for
security purposes, i.e. to prevent access from remote sites to servers
or services. The NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN implements
filters and spoofings on the ISDN level as well as on the network
level. The ISDN-specific toll-saving filters and spoofings are listed
below:
-
Watchdog Spoofing
-
SPX Spoofing
-
NCP Spoofing
-
NW4/NDS Spoofing
-
WAN LSP Hello Spoofing
-
ARP Spoofing (only for IP remote nodes; always enabled)
-
NetWare serialization packets filter
-
NetBIOS (IPX packet type 20) broadcast filtering
-
IPX Message Waiting Filter
-
SNMP Over IPX filter
-
SNMP Over IP filter
-
NW4/NDS Filter
-
Timesync Filter
-
IPX Broadcast Filter (only for IPX remote nodes)
-
IP Broadcast Filter (only for IP remote nodes)
Please note that filters, such as the Packet Forwarding Filter
(FILTCFG.NLM) and several configurable timers that are very
important to save tolls, such as the RIP/SAP Periodic Update Timeout or the NLSP Hello Timeout, are provided on the network level.
You should check all filters, spoofings, and timers provided on the
network level in any case when configuring your router. Further
especially check the filters, when you use static routes instead of a
routing protocol to a remote site and you use the Disconnect Timeout for this connection, since all ISDN specific filters and spoofings
are negotiated during an initial set-up of a B channel and are only
activated after a B channel has been set up. They are deactivated
when the B channel is logically cleared down by the Disconnect
Timeout. After that, any packet not filtered on the network level will
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initiate another physical and logical ISDN connection set-up over the
B channel.
Note on bridging and NetWare for SAA:
Since NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN provides SPX Spoofing, it is much more cost-efficient to set up the NetWare for SAA
software at the site where the mainframes are located and let your
clients use IPX/SPX over ISDN up to the NetWare for SAA software
if you use NetWare for SAA for client-to-host access. The pollings of
the NetWare for SAA software to reassure that the session with the
clients is still alive are spoofed by the NetWare MultiProtocol Router
for ISDN. In general, you should only bridge traffic over ISDN if you
really have to, for example if you have two mainframes at two
remote sites that have to exchange data. Whenever routing is possible, use routing, since it is much more flexible and, as explained
above, can be more cost-effective.
♦ Features disabling B channels on the ISDN-Controller itself
for any action
The following features avoid that critical situations, configuration
errors, undesired or too frequent use of B channels cause undesired
tolls:
-
Time Restrictions for use of ISDN interfaces.
-
Disabling of Outbound Call Processing on ISDN interfaces.
-
ISDN Connection Monitor to configure thresholds on ISDN
interfaces. When one of the thresholds is reached, the interface is
barred for outgoing and incoming calls. To be on the safe side,
defaults are given for the parameters.
To treat B channels of an ISDN-Controller differently, MSNs, EAZs
or DDIs are required (see "Multipoint Access and MSNs/EAZs and
SPIDs - BRI" above). For more information, refer to Chapter 14,
"Configuration Interdependencies."
♦ Features disabling an ISDN call destination for any action
-
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ISDN Budget Manager to configure a daily, weekly and monthly
budget for a call destination. When the maximum value is
reached, the call destination is barred for incoming and outgoing
calls.
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Time Restrictions for use of specific call destinations.
♦ Reverse charging features
COSO (Charge One Site Only) lets you allocate the connection
charges either to your site or to the remote site or bar all outgoing
calls to a call destination.
Watch Your ISDN Links
This section is intended to sensitize network administrators responsible for the WAN for the most important task that comes after the
initial set up of the WAN itself: monitoring WAN links on a regular,
daily, basis. The NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN behaves
exactly the way it has been configured, and dials up remote sites
whenever a packet in a LAN is to be transferred to a remote site. In
order to keep ISDN links physically down as long as possible, it
provides a number of features - most of them have been described or
mentioned in the above sections - that can be customized according
to the networking needs and allow you to optimize your WAN
traffic.
♦ What can cause an ISDN link to become inefficient?
During the set up of a WAN over ISDN, but also, probably more
often, after the initial set-up, situations may appear that may very
rapidly turn formerly efficient ISDN links into a very expensive
affair. The causes for unnecessarily frequent call set-ups over ISDN
may be very diverse. It may happen that, due to incorrect configuration, the router endlessly attempts to set up a connection to a remote
site, if you configured the link to be set up automatically each time
the connection fails, but did not make sure that the interface on the
remote site is really available all the time. Other likely causes for
unnecessarily frequent call set-ups over ISDN are components
added to or already installed in the local networks themselves, for
example an antivirus program installed only on one LAN, which
automatically scans all servers of the WAN at very short intervals, a
Windows for Workgroups client that has been added to one network
and is sending NetBIOS broadcasts over IPX type 20 packets at
regular, very short intervals, causing all ISDN links to all other
remote sites to be set up in order to transmit such a broadcast
packet, or an e-mail software that is configured to poll the status of
remote "post-office boxes".
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♦ The only way out - monitoring!
Monitoring of WANs is in general important, but it should be performed especially carefully when using ISDN as the wide area
transport medium. Monitoring the WAN and all ISDN links maintained is extremely important and indispensable for keeping connection charges as low as possible. Only monitoring your WAN links
will give you information on the number of ISDN connections
established each day and allow to immediately detect "abnormal"
situations, i.e. extremely frequent call set-ups or an extremely long
physical up-time of an ISDN connection. Once you have detected the
critical situation, you can manage the WAN, check whether you used
all mechanisms provided by the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for
ISDN to optimize WAN traffic, sort out the node in the LAN producing the packets that cause an ISDN connection to be set up too often,
etc.
It is advisable in any case to make use of the ISDN Connection
Monitor and the ISDN Budget Manager. Cutting down an existing
ISDN link is a drastic measure, but they can be "there" also if you are
absent, and, even if you may have to sort out problems that appeared due to the cut-down of the WAN connection afterwards, it
will prevent high charges from accruing at your ISDN access.
Performance-Enhancing Features
ISDN provides 64 Kbps per B channel (except for some ISDN
switches in the USA with 56 Kbps). The NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN fully uses the given bandwidth on ISDN, i.e. it
reaches a net throughput of 60 to 62 Kbps out of the theoretical rate
of 64 Kbps. In addition, it offers various features to enhance
throughput over ISDN.
♦ Compression
The NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN implements software
data compression according to V.42bis, but compression is completely downloaded and processed on the ISDN-Controllers. Thus especially important when installing the router on a NetWare file
server to offer file, print and routing services - the server is not
burdened with the task of compressing and decompressing data,
which would require a considerable amount of power and could
slow down the file and print services. With compression according
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to V.42bis, ratios of 4:1 can be achieved, depending on the type of
data transferred. V.42bis works perfectly with ASCII files, but worse
with already compressed files, for example.
In addition to data compression, header compression is implemented for IPX (CIPX) and TCP/IP (van Jacobsen), also downloaded
and processed on the ISDN-Controllers.
Third, the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN supports packet
sizes of up to 4530 bytes. By joining or splitting packets depending
on their size before transmitting them over ISDN, throughput is
further optimized.
The performance-enhancing features described above could be
regarded at as "toll-saving" features too: the faster data is transferred
over a link, the less time it takes and the less you pay, since ISDN is
charged by the duration of a connection.
♦ Bandwidth aggregation
Performance-enhancing features also include both Static Bundling
and Channel On Demand. Static Bundling defines the number B
channels to be set up additionally whenever data is to be transmitted, whereas Channel On Demand only sets up additional B channels dynamically when the configured load threshold is reached.
With BRIs, up to 8 data channels can be bundled over several ISDNControllers. With PRIs, up to 16 data channels can be bundled.
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 also supports the PPP
Multilink protocol (PPP MP), which was developed by the Internet
Engineering Task Force (IETF) as an extension to PPP. PPP MP
extends PPP so that it can split and combine packets over multiple
parallel links in order to create a higher aggregate data rate. It can be
used to combine the two B channels in an ISDN Basic Rate Interface
line to provide an effective wire speed up to 128 Kbps.
Another method is routing protocol-based load balancing over
parallel links using NLSP; regarding ISDN B channel set-up, this
bandwidth expansion method can be compared with Static Bundling.
AVM is continuously working to enhance products and develope new
products, such as compression and support for Mobile ISDN on the ISDNController T1, encryption on the ISDN-Controllers B1 and T1, etc. As soon
as future enhancements to the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN are
available, a release note will be placed on the AVM Data Call Center (see
Note
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Appendix B for phone numbers and access information) and the new
features will be described in a Technical Note.
Classic and Dynamic ISDN Interface Use
The NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN allows you to set up
classic WANs over ISDN, for example to interconnect three remote
LANs permanently to form a company-wide WAN over ISDN.
Permanently of course does not mean that the physical ISDN connection is permanently up (Inactivity Timeout controls the physical
connection), but permanently available to be dialed and set up
whenever needed, since a basic assumption for classic WANs is that
all servers and services at all sites must be available all the time to
run any networking tasks over the WAN the same way as it is done
within the LAN.
But, since ISDN offers fast call set-up, new, additional requirements
come up that can be accomplished as well with the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN and are not common with classic routing
and classic WAN media: So-called dial-around tasks, where connections to remote sites are not required permanently but only needed
temporarily, for example twice a week to perform tasks such as
distributing software updates, e-mail or collating databases, as well
as to offer dial-up access to services or specific company-owned
resources over ISDN for other LANs and stand-alones, for example
access to information or database services.
Classic WANs Involve Classic ISDN Interface Use
When setting up classic WANs, you use the ISDN interfaces in this
classic way. When accomplishing dial-around scenarios, you use
ISDN interfaces and underlying B channels dynamically to connect
to multiple remote sites. You can mix both concepts with the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN, for example use three ISDN
interfaces and underlying B channels for classic WAN links and use
a fourth ISDN interface and underlying B channel to accomplish
dial-around tasks. The two are described in detail in the following.
Classic WANs over ISDN are set up by dedicating one ISDN interface to each destination. This guarantees that the underlying physi-
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cal B channel (or B channels) is (are) always available for the respective connection, the same way a leased line or a LAN media is.
♦ Initial call set-up
These classic WAN links are set up only once, mostly manually by
using CALLMGR, or, if static routes/services have been configured,
they are set up by a request from the respective network protocol
each time a packet is addressed to a remote destination.
♦ Physical clear-down
For control of all underlying physical ISDN connections over the B
channels, you configure the Inactivity Timeout for each destination.
It will clear down B channels physically when no packets are to be
transmitted to a destination. The B channel is always set up again
automatically within 1 to 2 seconds if data is to be transferred. Thus,
this process of underlying connection set-up is completely transparent to users or applications.
♦ ISDN interface stays reserved for the connection
Whereas you configure an Inactivity Timeout in this case, you do not
configure a Disconnect Timeout. Thus, although the Inactivity
Timeout clears down the B channel physically, the ISDN interface,
which has been assigned by the network administrator to handle the
link and treats one or more underlying B channels according to the
configuration for the specific connection, stays logically connected
and reserves underlying B channels for the connection. This means
that, even in times when the B channel is physically idle and could
theoretically be used for any other connection, the ISDN interface
will reject any call set-up request coming from either site of this
interface: If a call set-up request is issued from within the LAN using
another call destination over the same ISDN interface, manually
through CALLMGR or by a data packet for example, the request will
be rejected by this ISDN interface. If a remote site dials in and
addresses this ISDN interface, the call will "reach" the ISDN-Controller this interface belongs to, the physical B channel will be set up to
negotiate connection parameters (whenever a B channel is physically
idle, it is available and will listen to any call-set up request if not
configured differently) and, since the information on which ISDN
interface is addressed is transmitted over the B channel (AVM
Proprietary: by the Destination Subaddress; for PPP over ISDN, this
is different), the ISDN interface will then immediately reject the call
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set-up request and clear down the physical B channel. Thus, in any
case as long as the ISDN connection is not logically cleared by
another method than the Disconnect Timeout, the ISDN interface
remains reserved for the connection once set up over this interface.
For remote nodes, interface reservation can be achieved by setting
the parameter "Remote Node Usage" in the Expert Configuration for
Interface <Interface Name> to "Exclusive Interface Reservation".
This is the basic set-up of a classic WAN link over ISDN, disregarding whether you route and/or bridge and disregarding whether you
use routing protocols, such as RIP/SAP, NLSP or OSPF, or configure
static routes/services for IPX, IP or AppleTalk. Setting up WANs this
way guarantees that the physical link is always available when
needed, because the ISDN interface reserves the B channels for the
configured destinations.
Dial-Around Scenarios Involve Dynamic ISDN Interface Use
For dial-around scenarios, ISDN interfaces are not dedicated, but
used dynamically for multiple destinations. In these scenarios, it is
not guaranteed that a physical B channel (or B channels) is (are)
always available for a connection, since it may already be in use for
another connection that has been configured to be set up over the
same ISDN interface.
♦ Initial call set-up
Such dial-around links are set up on demand, rarely manually by
using CALLMGR, for IPX further by using CICC (rarely manually
from a client, but in most cases with the help of batch routines), and,
most commonly with TCP/IP but also possibly for IPX and AppleTalk, by configuring static routes/services for set-up by a request
from the respective network protocol each time a packet is addressed for a remote destination.
♦ Physical clear-down
For control of all underlying physical ISDN connections over the B
channels, you configure the Inactivity Timeout for each destination
the same way you do it for classic WAN links.
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♦ ISDN interface is released for any other connection
In addition to the Inactivity Timeout, you configure the Disconnect
Timeout for each destination. Both Timeouts are either set to the
same value for one destination or the Disconnect Timeout is set to a
significantly higher value. Whenever a connection is set up by one of
the above described mechanisms, the ISDN interface that has been
assigned by the network administrator to handle the link is activated
and the B channel is set up according to the configuration for the
specific connection. The B channel is cleared down physically by the
Inactivity Timeout and the ISDN interface stays logically connected
and reserves the underlying B channels for the specific connection
until the Disconnect Timeout expires. This may happen either at the
same time or two hours later for example, depending on what you
configured. During the logical up-time (if there is one), an underlying B channel would always be set up automatically to the same
destination and all ISDN line management and other ISDN specific
parameters configured by the network administrator for the specific
connection would be active. As soon as the Disconnect Timeout
expires, the logical ISDN connection is cleared, the ISDN interface is
released and all parameters negotiated during the initial call set-up
and assigned for the specific connection as well as all information
about this connection is "given up". The ISDN interface is then
available for any further connection set-up initiated by any of the
methods described above. Be aware that any following initial connection set-up over the ISDN interface will cause the B channel to be
set up and all ISDN specific features to be negotiated with the
remote site before they are activated, i.e. basically everything configured in the ISDN Network Interface Configuration and everything
configured in the Call Destination Configuration.
This is the basic set up of dial-around links over ISDN. In contrast to
the classic WAN set-up, this set-up cannot be used with bridging,
but it can be applied irrespective of whether you use routing protocols such as IPX RIP/SAP, NLSP or OSPF or configure static routes/
services for IPX, IP or AppleTalk. The two major differences to
classic WANs and interface usage are:
-
When setting up dial-around scenarios, it can never be guaranteed that the physical link is always available when needed,
because the ISDN interface only reserves the B channels for the
configured destinations until the Disconnect Timeout expires or
another method is used for clear down such as CICC for IPX or
CALLMGR.
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35
-
When setting up dial-around scenarios, all ISDN-specific configurations and parameters to handle a connection will not only be
negotiated once for each destination and then be active over
months or years, but will be negotiated as often as a logical ISDN
connection set-up to each destination is initiated by any method
and will be released as soon as the logical ISDN connection is
cleared down by any method.
Be More Careful When Using ISDN Interfaces Dynamically
When using ISDN interfaces dynamically, you have to be more
careful when designing your networks and configuring the ISDN
specifics and take a closer look at all configuration interdependencies arising from network and ISDN behavior.
♦ Networking processes corrupted
First, you must take care that no networking process is corrupted
because a physical link to a remote site is required for this process to
work, but is not available at that time since the ISDN interface and
the underlying B channel is already set up to another destination.
♦ Frequent call set-up due to packets not filtered or spoofed
on the network level
Second, and especially when using static routes/services instead of
any kind of "controlled" connection set-up (CALLMGR or CICC),
any packet addressed to a remote site results in a network request
processed to the ISDN interface. If the ISDN interface is available at
that time, i.e. not yet logically connected to any destination, it does
not know about any of the configured ISDN-related connection
specifics for the destination it is requested to set up the call to, since
all ISDN-specific parameters such as filters and spoofings are not
active to any remote site until the logical ISDN connection has been
negotiated and set up but do only apply afterwards until this logical
ISDN connection is cleared down again. Thus, for any packets you
do not want to have an ISDN line to be set up for, you must set the
appropriate filter already on the network level by using FILTCFG.
With static routes/services, further make sure that you only
configured those remote servers/services on your router that are
required for the networking processes that shall run over ISDN with
the remote site. This is an additional important method you can
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apply on the network level to decrease the possibility of unnecessary
packets to be generated for a remote server/service.
♦ Frequent call set-up due to ISDN security features and "training" time required for other features to get active
Third, due to the fact that all ISDN Interface and ISDN Call Destination Configurations are always negotiated first with the respective
remote site during initial logical ISDN connection set-up, Security
Call-Back is for example consequently performed each time a remote
site initially dials up the respective ISDN interface on your router to
set up a connection, the B channel is cleared and the remote site is
dialed back, resulting in charges accruing at your site for the call
back. Besides, some features require a training time to get active. For
example Recall Request does not apply for initial call set-up. Thus,
when your router initially dials up a remote site and you configured
Recall Request to have the remote site dial you back and assume the
charges for the connection, the remote site will not do so for this first
incoming call from your site but only for all subsequent incoming
calls from your site. Other features that require "training time" and
are only advantageous if a logical ISDN connection to a remote site
is up are Self-Learning Inactivity Timeout or SPX Spoofing.
♦ Two configurations that may increase the possibility of
critical situations
First, the more call destinations you configure to different remote
sites over a single ISDN interface without taking care about the
network and ISDN-specific behavior, the higher the possibility that a
networking process gets interrupted because the data cannot be
transfered to all sites and the higher the possibility of frequent call
set-ups. Second, setting Disconnect Timeout to the same value as
Inactivity Timeout has the advantage of a high ISDN interface
availability for multiple connections, but without taking care about
the network and ISDN-specific behavior, the chance of frequent call
set-ups increases as well, since all the ISDN-specific features especially implemented with NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN to
keep ISDN lines physically down, such as Watchdog Spoofing, SPX
Spoofing and IPX Message Filter, can only be active for a very short
time frame or cannot be activated at all.
The NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN supports both, static
and dynamic ISDN interface usage for classic WAN set-up and for
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dial-around scenarios and treats ISDN lines exactly the way you
configured your networks and the ISDN-specific features. The above
explanations were given here to make you aware of basics on network and ISDN behavior that you have to consider when deciding
to use ISDN interfaces dynamically. Keep these specifics in mind
when designing your WAN to avoid unnecessary ISDN connection
charges, irrespective of whether you use only one or all ISDN interfaces dynamically.
Related Products and Options
The NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN is based on the NetWare operating system. This allows unmatched scalability and
flexibility when further networking needs have to be met, since
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN can be installed together
with other services on a single NetWare server. A survey on possible
networking extensions is given below.
Remote Node Access over ISDN
The NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN allows stand-alone
PCs, laptops, notebooks or palmtops to dial into the LAN over
terrestrial ISDN or GSM-based cellular networks in order to become
remote nodes on the LAN. Remote nodes can use any servers,
services and resources of the LAN over ISDN - in the same way as
locally connected PCs use them. On the stand-alones, a remote node
software and ISDN adapter, for example AVM NetWAYS/ISDN
together with an AVM ISDN-Controller or any PPP-compliant
product combination for remote nodes, is required.
In addition to providing the server component for remote node
access, NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 also includes a
single-user license of AVM´s remote node product NetWAYS/ISDN
in the latest version 3.0 for Windows 95 and Windows NT. NetWAYS/ISDN supports both, IPX and TCP/IP, and together with any
of AVM´s ISDN-Controllers for Basic Rate Interface or AVM´s Mobile
ISDN-Controller M1 provides full-featured remote node access to
the LAN.
But besides NetWAYS/ISDN, you can use any remote node product
supporting IPX, TCP/IP or AppleTalk and the PPP over ISDN
protocol for dial-up.
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Routing Extension
The NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN is dedicated to ISDN
and provides extensive ISDN support and features. To extend
routing capabilities beyond ISDN, it can also be combined with
Novell´s WAN·Extensions 3.1 product, offering X.25, Frame Relay
and ATM support, or with Novell´s SNA·Extensions 3.1 product,
offering DLSw and multiprotocol routing across SNA backbones.
Communications and Host Connectivity Software
Since the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN can also be installed on a NetWare file server, it can run along with file and print
services as well as with other services, such as Novell´s NetWare for
SAA software for example, if client-to-host connectivity is required,
or AVM´s NetWare Connect for ISDN software and one or more
additional ISDN-Controllers, if access to remote services and resources from clients in or outside the LAN is required.
ISDN Management Software
The NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN itself provides access to
extensive ISDN-specific information on the use of ISDN links, ISDNControllers, the ISDN network itself over various NetWare-based
utilities as well as over any SNMP-based network management
consoles. For integrated management of all ISDN activities of the
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN under Novell´s Network
Management SoftwareTM (NMS) or the joint Novell/Intel product
ManageWiseTM, AVM´s MPR for ISDN Router Manager software can
be used. In this case, the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN
software is extended by the Router Agent software, and the ISDN
management console, a so-called snap-in module, is added to the
network management console software installed on a client in the
LAN.
ADT - A CICC Application
ADT by LANtana, Ahrensburg, Germany, is an application which
uses the CICC function of NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN
for automatic and time-controlled file transfer. The user defines socalled transfer sources including the required transfer information,
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39
such as the transfer time. By defining the transfer time (for example
during the night), large amounts of data can be transferred in a costefficient way.
At the configured transfer time, ADT first establishes an ISDN
connection between your NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN to
another NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN. Then, the program
logs into a server in the remote LAN and, if login was successful and
the server granted respective rights, transfers the selected files. After
wards, ADT logs out of the server and clears down the connection
between the routers.
Further Product Options
CAPIMGR:
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN includes the CAPIMGR
software, but does not make use of it. It exclusively uses AVM´s
ISDN-Controllers and CAPI and provides full-featured ISDN support. Thus, ignore all ISDN descriptions in the NetWare MultiProtocol
Router 3.1 guides coming with the product, since they do not apply
for NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1.
However, the CAPIMGR is included with NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN 3.1 and can be used for network applications
running on the same PC but on a different ISDN adapter than the
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN. Note that this option is not
actively supported by AVM. If you have any questions, contact the
manufacturer of the application you want to use.
PPP X.21-Stack:
Novell´s PPP implementation (X.21) for analog lines is included in
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1. However, since the
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN is dedicated to ISDN, this
PPP implementation not be loaded by default, and support for the
use of lines other that ISDN lines with the NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN will be restricted. If you want to use the Novell PPP
implementation to connect via one of the interfaces RS.232, V.35,
RS.422, X.21, you must use the NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1
manuals (hard copy and on CD) provided with the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 product for information on interface
and line types, configuration and all further issues of usage of
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synchronous or asynchronous communication lines with the PPP
implementation to interconnect LANs.
NetWare Mobile IPX:
Novell´s NetWare Mobile IPX software is also provided with NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1. It consists of router and
mobile client components that work in concert to shield users from
the protocol and network-layer interruptions that occur when a user
changes network interfaces or locations during a network session.
For information on this option, refer to the NetWare MultiProtocol
Router 3.1 manuals which are provided as a hard copy and on CDROM.
Product Versions
The NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 is available in the
following versions:
-
2 BRI for up to four ISDN ports,
-
4 BRI for up to 8 ISDN ports, and
-
PRI for up to 36 ISDN ports
Upgrade products are available for former versions of NetWare
MultiProtocol Router for ISDN (v2.0, v2.1, v2.11 and v3.0) as well as
within the current version (2 BRI -> 4 BRI; 2 BRI/4BRI -> PRI). For
upgrading information, refer to the special note included with your
upgrade product.
Configuration and Management
With NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1, first-time installation and configuration becomes easier for standard WANs. It offers
several preconfigured scenarios for both IPX and TCP/IP that
should apply for most standard network environments. You simply
select the file that most closely fits your network and copy it to the
router. Then, you have to enter ISDN and network numbers - and
that is it.
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41
For more complex networks and fine-tuning, configuration can be
effected as usual through INETCFG. Further information about
INETCFG, about configuration and management is provided in the
NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Configuration guide and is therefore
not repeated here.
The intelligent snap-in helps to prevent critical situations that can be
caused by misconfiguration.
To manage the router from an SNMP-based management console,
SNMP support for ISDN (MPR4ISDN.MIB) is included as well.
The NetWare-based and menu-assisted ISDN Console
(ISDNCON.NLM) provides detailed information on ISDN connections and on ISDN-Controllers and their interfaces. Use ISDN
Console instead of MONITOR. ISDN Console offers online 1h and
24h statistics on all ISDN connections established during that period,
and allows you to extract ISDN line management information and
ISDN error messages and to store such information. For detailed
information, refer to Chapter 18, "Monitoring ISDN Connections".
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2 Preparing to Install
chapter
This chapter describes the system requirements and installation
procedures for NetWare® MultiProtocol RouterTM for ISDN 3.1
software.
The NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 software can be
installed on either of the following platforms:
-
NetWare 3.12 or NetWare 4.1, as a combined router and server
-
NetWare 3.12 or NetWare 4.1, as a dedicated router
You must install or upgrade to NetWare 3.12 or NetWare 4.1 before
you install the router software.
Note
NetWare 3.12 RuntimeTM software (a special two-user version) and
NetWare 4.1 (also a special two-user version) software are included with
the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 software; you do not have to
purchase them separately.
Warning
The NetWare 4.1 platform does not provide backward compatibility for
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 2.x software.
This chapter describes preparations that must be made prior to
installing NetWare 3.12 Runtime (or NetWare 4.1) and NetWare
MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 software. It contains the following sections:
-
"What you need" on page 43
-
"Setting Up the Hardware" on page 51
-
"Where to Go from Here" on page 54
What You Need
Hardware Requirements
Checklist
You need the following hardware to install MultiProtocol Router for
ISDN 3.1:
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43
♦ A PC (or PC compatible) with a 386 or 486 (SX or DX) or higher
processor.
♦ The system must have 16 MB of RAM to run NetWare 3.12
Runtime (or NetWare 4.1) and the NetWare MultiProtocol Router
for ISDN 3.1 software.
♦ A hard disk with sufficient storage space for your network. The
minimum amount of storage space required is 90 MB: 15 MB for a
DOS partition plus 75 MB for a NetWare partition containing the
SYS: volume.
However, if all NetWare file groups are copied to the server, you
will need a minimum of 100 MB for the SYS: volume. A larger
NetWare partition is therefore recommended.
For more information on hard disk space requirements, refer to the
NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Release Notes, p. 17.
♦ At least one network board.
♦ Network cabling (Ethernet, token ring, FDDI, ARCNET, baseband,
and so on).
♦ A CD-ROM drive that can read ISO 9660 formatted CD-ROM
disks.
♦ At least one ISDN-Controller. Possible are:
Important
Preparin.pm6
one to four AVM ISDN-Controllers B1, B1 PCI*, B1-MCA,
PCMCIA B, or
-
one to four AVM Mobile ISDN-Controllers M1 or M2*
-
one to four AVM ISDN-Controller T1 or T1-B*, or
-
one AVM ISDN-Controller T1 or T1-B and up to three AVM
ISDN-Controllers B1.
If you want to install more than one AVM ISDN-Controller T1 or T1-B*,
please contact AVM for more information.
Note
44
-
AVM ISDN-Controllers marked with an asterisk (*) were not available as this
manual was printed. Release of these products is scheduled for the third
quarter of 1996. For more information, contact your distributor or AVM.
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Software Requirements
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 is based on the NetWare
Network Operating System (NOS) and is compatible with NetWare
3.12 and NetWare 4.1. For your convenience in building standalone
routers, NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 includes
Novell® DOSTM software, NetWare 3.12 Runtime, and NetWare 4.1
(two-user version); however, you can also install NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 on a server or router that is already configured with NetWare 3.12 or NetWare 4.1
Important
If the server you are upgrading has a NetWare license of more that two
users and you do not want to downgrade the number of users on that
server to two, you must get a NetWare license with the appropriate number
of users for that server before installing NetWare MultiProtocol Router for
ISDN 3.1.
If you are upgrading a multi-user version of NetWare 4.0x to NetWare 4.1, once you have a license with the number of users you
want, you can use the NetWare 4.1 installation to upgrade your
version of NetWare. When the installation program prompts you for
a License Disk, insert the License Disk containing the correct number
of users.
Warning
In some circumstances, installing to NetWare 4.1 more than once on the
same server might cause you to have duplicate binds in the INETCFG
database. If when using INETCFG you notice duplicate binds, delete the
duplicates. Selecting one of the duplicates might cause the server to abend.
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 can also be used in
combination with other NLM files that run on NetWare 3.12 or
NetWare 4.1. Some likely combinations include Novell´s
WAN Extensions 3.1 software, Novell´s NetWare for SAA software,
AVM´s NetWare Connect for ISDN software and network management products. See section "Integration with Other Products" below
for information on what to consider and which problems could arise.
To manage your NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1, the
MPR for ISDN Router Manager software may be purchased from
AVM for integration in Novell´s ManageWiseTM or NMSTM products.
To operate NetWare and NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN
3.1, your system software should be configured as follows:
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-♦ The system should start DOS from the hard disk. NetWare is
started from DOS before it takes over the system hardware
completely.
Checklist
It should run DR DOS® 6.0 software (or later) or Novell DOS 7.0
(or later).
Alternately, it should run MS-DOS version 3.1 (or later) if it has an
ISA or EISA bus.
Alternately, it should run MS-DOS version 3.3 (or later) if it has a
Micro Channel bus.
♦ The system must not load any modules that manage extended
memory, such as HIMEM, QEMM, or EMM386.
♦ The system must not load any modules that compress disk files,
such as Disk Doubler.
♦ The system must not load any terminate-and-stay-resident (TSR)
modules.
♦ The system should have at least 16 MB of RAM available if you
plan to run NetWare 3.12 The system should have at least 16 MB
of RAM available if you plan to run NetWare 3.12 Runtime (or
NetWare 4.1), the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1
software, and another networking product.
Supplemental Files
Several supplemental files are included on the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 CD-ROM. These supplemental files provide
a variety of updates to non-NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN
3.1 modules that corect problems and improve the performance of
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1. These files include
updates for tine synchronization and NDS synchronization, PBURST
updates and IPX and SPX connectivity updates. For more information, refer to the NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Release Notes, pp.
36-41.
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Interoperability Information
Compatibility with Other Products
♦ Former Versions of NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN
The NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN was introduced on the
market at the end of 1992 with v2.0. NetWare MultiProtocol Router
for ISDN 3.1 is compatible with all former version, i.e. NetWare
MultiProtocol Router for ISDN v2.0, v2.1, v2.11 and v3.0. Of course,
you can only use the features provided in both versions running at
each end of the ISDN link.
Known items are for example:
Static routes/services, NLSP or Unnumbered IPX WAN links for an
IPX connection or Unnumbered IP WAN links for a TCP/IP connection cannot be used for connections between version 3.1 and versions 2.x.
The OSI protocol is not supported with NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN 3.1.
For D64S connections between version 3.1 and versions 3.0 and 2.x, a
special solution is required, which is not inlcuded as standard. For
more information, refer to the Technical Note on NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1.
For "Vorbestellte Dauerwählverbindungen" (semipermanent connections within 1TR6) between version 3.1 and versions 3.1, 3.0 and 2.x,
a special solution is required, which is not inlcuded as standard. For
more information, refer to the Technical Note on NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1.
♦ AVM NetWAYS/ISDN
AVM´s remote node software NetWAYS/ISDN was introduced to
the market in the beginning of 1993 with v2.0. You can use NetWAYS/ISDN v2.0, 2.1 as well as the latest version 3.0, which is
included with the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1, of
NetWAYS/ISDN to dial in to the LAN via NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN 3.1.
♦ NetWare Connect for ISDN / NetWare Connect
AVM´s NetWare Connect for ISDN was introduced to the market at
the end of 1994 with version 1.0.
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NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 can be installed on one
server with NetWare Connect for ISDN and NetWare Connect
version 1.0 and 2.0.
When installing NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 together
with NetWare Connect or NetWare Connect for ISDN 1.0, refer to the
NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Release Notes for information on
problems with a new version of CSL (p. 28), with the NetWare Link/
X.25 feature of NetWare Connect (p. 31) and with the version of
STREAMS.NLM (p. 33).
♦ AVM MPR for ISDN Router Manager
AVM´s MPR for ISDN Router Manager v1.0 can be used to manage
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1. However, you have to
use the latest version of the MPR for ISDN Router Agent. For more
information, please contact AVM.
If you are running NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 as a
combined server and router with other server-based products rather
than as a standalone router, several issues must be accounted for .
♦ NetWare OSI Transport for X.400
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 does not work with
NetWare OSI Transport for X400, an add-on product to NetWare
Global MessagingTM software. Do not install NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN 3.1 software, if NetWare OSI Transport for X400is
installed on your system.
♦ NetWare for OS/2
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 software is incompatible
with NetWare for OS/2. Do not install NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN 3.1 software on a NetWare for OS/2 server.
♦ NetWare SFT III
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 software does not
operate on NetWare SFT IIITM servers. Do not install NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 software on a NetWare SFT III server.
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♦ NetWare for SAA
For information on problems with NetWare for SAA 1.3b, refer to the
NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Release Notes, pp. 28-29.
For information on problems with NetWare for SAA 2.0 and NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 on the same server, refer to
the NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Release Notes, pp. 4-5 and
pp. 29-30.
♦ NetWare Management System
The SNMP MIB definitions for IPX are not shipped with NetWare
Management SystemTM (NMSTM) 2.0b software. The MIB definition
for IPX (in ASN.1 format) and the ISDN-related MIBs are on the
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 CD-ROM in the /
IPXSERV/SUPP/REFMIBS directory. Install these MIBs to all systems running NMS 2.0b to display full information about any SNMP
traps generated by the IPX protocol.
PPP Over ISDN
PPP over ISDN (in the following referred to as PPP) is intended to
provide interoperability between routers of different manufacturers
over ISDN based on internationally accepted and open standards,
described in so-called Requests for Comment (RFCs). RFCs are
issued by manufactureres and/or interest groups in the form of RFC
drafts or informational RFCs and are ratified by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
For information on third-party router products that have been tested
with NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1, refer to the Technical Note included with the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN
3.1.
For information on whether or not your NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN 3.1 will interoperate with a third-party router
product, take the list of RFCs in Table 2-1 and check which of the
listed RFCs are supported by the third-party product.
The same is true for service providers offering ISDN access via
router products to any type of services, such as Internet Service
Providers like EUnet in Europe for example. Ask them which router
product they are using to provide ISDN access and which RFCs are
used by the routers.
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The following RFCs are supported by NetWare MultiProtocol Router
for ISDN 3.1:
Table 2-1:
Supported RFCs
Number
Title
RFC 1144
Compressing TCP/IP Headers
RFC 1332
The PPP Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP)
RFC 1334
PPP Authentication Protocols (PAP and CHAP)
RFC 1378
The PPP AppleTalk Control Protocol (ATCP)
RFC 1552
The PPP Internetwork Packet Exchange Protocol (IPXCP),
exclusively for remote node access
RFC 1553
Compressing IPX Headers Over WAN Media (CIPX)
RFC 1570
PPP LCP Extensions (incl. callback option)
RFC 1618
PPP over ISDN
RFC 1634
Novell IPX Over Various WAN Media (IPXWAN)
RFC 1661
The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
RFC 1662
PPP in HDLC Framing
RFC 1717
The PPP Multilink Protocol (MP)
RFC 1877
IPCP Extensions for Name Server Addresses
Since, as of writing, standards for some of the internetworking
features provided by the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1
do not yet exist or are still being developed, the following differences to the AVM Proprietary protocol apply:
-
Inactivity Timeout and Self-Learning Timeout:
As of writing, PPP does not include a method to differentiate
between logical and underlying pyhsical disconnection of an
ISDN link. Thus, when an ISDN connection is cleared due to
expiration of the Inactivity Timeout, the physical and logical
connection are cleared at the same time. This is why you should
set the Disconnect Timeout to "Same as Inactivity Timeout".
-
Spoofing mechanisms:
Since all parameter negotiations are cleared when the logical
connection is disestablished, the spoofing mechanisms on the
ISDN driver level have no meaning for PPP over ISDN.
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However, spoofing mechanisms on the network protocol level,
such as Watchdog Spoofing and SPX Spoofing for on-demand IPX
connections, can be used with PPP.
-
Origination Subaddress and Destination Subaddress:
They have no meaning for PPP. Per default, they are set to 1.
Important
-
Compression (according to V.42bis) cannot be used.
-
Security Call-Back cannot be used.
-
Encryption cannot be used.
Because of the differences listed above, PPP should never be used for
connections between NetWare MultiProtocol Routers for ISDN 3.1 and
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 and AVM´s NetWAYS/ISDN.
Use PPP over ISDN only for connections to remote routers from other
manufacturers.
Setting Up the Hardware
Calculate Memory (RAM) Requirement
Calculate the memory (RAM) requirement for your server /router as
follows:
-
For each loaded ISDN interface, allow for 2.5 KB of RAM.
-
For each active ISDN connection, allow for 2.0 KB of RAM.
-
For each active remote node, allow for 6 KB of RAM.
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1
-
Can be installed directly at public ISDN accesses as well as
through any ISDN-compatible PBX that supports BRI (S0) or PRI
(S2M) and one of the supported ISDN D channel protocols .
-
Supports ISDN Multipoint access and Point-to-Point access.
-
Supports MSNs, EAZs and SPIDs at Multipoint accesses.
-
Supports Direct Dial In (DDI) at Point-to-Point accesses.
-
Supports Hunt Group Numbers at Point-to Point accesses with all
D channel protocols except for D64S, DS01, DS02 and GSM.
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51
Prepare for ISDN Access
Before installing your ISDN-Controller(s), check the following:
♦ Normally, the transfer mode "unrestricted digital information",
Checklist
which stands for data transmission (instead of, e.g. voice transmission) and allows data transmission over ISDN, is provided by
standard for every ISDN access. To reassure that this transfer
mode has been enabled for your ISDN access, please check your
order form for your ISDN access or ISDN accesses, or contact
your local PTT’s office.
♦ Check with your local PTT whether Advice On Charge During Call
(AOCD) is enabled at your ISDN access. This is required for a
number of functions provided with the NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN.
Install ISDN-Controllers
Install, configure and test your AVM ISDN-Controller(s) as described
in the respective ISDN-Controller manual.
If you want to install more than one ISDN-Controller, make sure that
each ISDN-Controller has a unique I/O base address.
Write down all settings (PC bus parameters, such as I/O addresses
and slot numbers) and plug the ISDN-Controllers into the server/
router PC. You will have to provide this information when configuring the ISDN-Controllers later.
If you are using AVM ISDN-Controllers PCMCIA B or Mobile ISDN-Controllers M1 or M2, make sure that the card and socket services are enabled.
For information on how to do this, refer to your computer manual.
Important
Test Your ISDN-Controllers
Use the test software provided with the AVM ISDN-Controllers to
reassure that you installed the ISDN-Controllers properly and that
your ISDN access is working:
-
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Use the test programs to verify that your ISDN-Controller is
correctly installed and configured and whether it can be addressed by your PC.
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-
Use the CONNECT file transfer program to test whether you are
able to receive incoming calls and to make outgoing calls, especially when a Private Branch Exchange is used.
If you have D64S lines, you should use a separate .T4 file for
testing with the CONNECT program. This file, B1CBASE.T4, is
included on the software CD-ROM in the directory \D64S. Set
the following values in the CONNECT.CFG on both sides: EAZ 1
on your local side and EAZ 2 on the remote site. Use these numbers when dialing with the CONNECT software.
For more information, refer to the manual(s) coming with your AVM
ISDN-Controller.
Recording Hardware Configuration Information
To avoid hardware conflicts in your networks and to have important
configuration information at hand, you should record the following
information on a router worksheet:
-
ISDN-Controllers: I/O address, interrupt request level (IRQ) for
computers with ISA/EISA architecture, slot number for computers with EISA/MCA bus, and the D channel protocol provided at
your ISDN access.
-
Local numbers: all numbers describing the way the ISDNController(s) is (are) connected to your local ISDN access, i.e. the
parameters International Dialing Prefix, Country Code, Area
Code, ISDN subscriber number and, when a PBX is used, PBX
Extension and PBX Outside Line Access, and, in particular
situations, EAZ, MSN or SPIDs.
-
Remote numbers: for each remote site you want to set up connections to, you will have to specify the parameters ISDN Number
(maximally including PBX Outside Line Access, International
Dialing Prefix, Country Code, Area Code, ISDN Number and, if a
PBX is used, the PBX Extension to reach the ISDN-Controller at
the remote site) and Subaddress.
Also refer to the NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Installation guide,
pp. 12-13 for further details on hardware configuration information.
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Where to Go from Here
With the initial hardware preparation completed, you are ready to
upgrade or install the NetWare operating system, as follows:
Note
For information on upgrading from versions 2.0, 2.1, 2.11 and 3.0 to version
3.1 of the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN, refer to the special
upgrade manual coming with your upgrade product.
Note
If your system already has NetWare 3.12 or NetWare 4.1 software installed,
you should go directly to Chapter 3, "Installing NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN 3.1."
Installation of the NetWare operating system is not described in this
Guide. You have to refer to the NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1
Installation guide for information on this topic. Afterwards, come
back to Chapter 3 of this Guide to install NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN 3.1 !
-
If you want to install NetWare 3.12 Runtime for the first time, go
to "Installing NetWare 3.12" on p. 99 of the NetWare MultiProtocol
Router 3.1 Installation guide.
-
If you want to upgrade an existing server/router from NetWare
3.x or NetWare 4.x to NetWare 4.1 (two-user version), go to
"Upgrading to NetWare 4.1" on p. 117 of the NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Installation guide.
Warning
If your system has NetWare 3.x and NetWare MultiProtocol Router for
ISDN 2.x installed, upgrading to NetWare 4.1 will prevent NetWare
MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 2.x from functioning. Therefore, you
should always upgrade to NetWare 4.1 and upgrade to NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 at the same time. Do not terminate the
integrated INSTALL program after upgrading to NetWare 4.1. Refer to
the special upgrade note coming with your upgrade product for more
information on this topic.
-
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If you want to install NetWare 4.1 (two-user version) for the first
time, go to "Installing NetWare 4.1" on p. 113 of the NetWare
MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Installation guide.
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chapter
3
Installing NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN 3.1
This chapter tells you how to install the NetWare® MultiProtocol
RouterTM for ISDN 3.1 software on a local and on remote servers.
For remote and multiple server installation, see "Remote Installation
and Configuration" later in this Chapter.
If you are doing a first-time installation, you must have
♦ Installed LAN boards
Checklist
Refer to your LAN board manual for installation information.
♦ Installed one or more ISDN-Controller(s)
Refer to your ISDN-Controller manual and the information in
Chapter 2, "Prepare for ISDN Access", of this Guide.
♦ Installed the NetWare operating system
Refer to "Where to Go from Here" on p. 54 of this Guide for information on where to find installation instructions for the NetWare
operating system.
This chapter contains the following sections:
-
"Installation Setup" on page 56
-
"Installing NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN on a Local
Server" on page 59
-
"Remote Installation and Configuration" on page 63
-
"Deinstallation" on page 70
Important
For information on upgrading from versions 2.0, 2.1, 2.11 and 3.0 to version
3.1 of the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN, refer to the special
upgrading manual coming with your upgrade product.
Important
For information on interoperability with other products and PPP over ISDN,
refer to Chapter 2, "Preparing to Install" of this Guide.
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55
If you are installing any other Novell® products, do so before installing the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 software.
If you have the IPXTM Upgrade for NetWare Servers Beta software
running NLSPTM (NetWare Link Services ProtocolTM) software installed anywhere on your network, you must upgrade those servers
to IPX Upgrade for NetWare Servers 1.1 . Do this before installing
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 or IPX Upgrade for
NetWare Servers 1.1 software on any other server on the network.
Installation Setup
There are several options for installing NetWare MultiProtocol Router
for ISDN 3.1:
Type of installation:
♦ Local - Install to the local server.
♦ Remote - Install from a local server or client to a remote server.
Media type:
You can :
♦ Copy the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 software to a
local DOS partition.
See below for instructions.
♦ Copy the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 software to
the SYS: volume of a NetWare server.
See below for instructions.
♦ Mount the CD-ROM drive as a local DOS device and install
directly from CD-ROM.
♦ Mount the CD-ROM drive as a NetWare volume and install
directly from CD-ROM.
For information on mounting a CD-ROM drive as a NetWare
volume, refer to Appendix A of the NetWare MultiProtocol Router
3.1 Installation guide, "Mounting a CD-ROM as a NetWare Volume."
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Copying the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 Files to a Local
DOS Partition
Procedure
1.
Bring down the server by entering the following commands
at the system console prompt:
down
exit
2.
Copy the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN software
onto the DOS hard disk.
You must create directories on the server’s hard disk to contain
the installation files temporarily.
2a. Insert the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1
CD-ROM into the drive.
2b. Create a main directory on the hard disk called
NWMPRI31.
2c. Copy the files from the CD-ROM to the directory.
In the following command example, the NWMPRI31 directory is already created and the CD-ROM drive is designated
as drive E:.
> xcopy e:\NWMPRI31\*.* c:\NWMPRI31 /s /e /v
Because the files on the installation CD-ROM are located in
subdirectories, you must use the XCOPY command with the
/s option when copying files to the hard disk.
3.
Complete the rest of the installation by preceding to “Installing NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN on a Local
Server” or "Installing NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN
on a Remote Server" later in this Chapter.
Copying the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN Files to a Local NetWare Volume
To install NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN files from the
NetWare volume of your local server ’s hard disk, complete the
following steps:
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Procedure
1.
Log in from a workstation (equipped with a CD-ROM drive)
that is attached to the server.
You must log in as a user with enough privileges to create
directories where you want to copy the files.
2.
Create a directory on the server’s hard disk to copy the
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN files.
Create a main directory called NWMPRI31.
3.
Map a drive to the directory you created.
For example, if NWMPRI31 is the product directory you created,
and it is located on the SYS: volume at the same level as the
SYSTEM directory, use the following command:
> map j:=sys:\nwmpri31
4.
Copy the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN software.
4a. Insert the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1
CD-ROM into the drive, and copy the contents of the
CD-ROM to the NWMPRI31 directory.
For example, you would enter the following command at
the DOS prompt to copy the contents of the CD-ROM to the
NWMPRI31 directory:
> ncopy e:\NWMPRI31\*.* J: /s /e /v
Because the files on the installation CD-ROM are located in
subdirectories, you must use the NCOPY command with
the /s option when copying files to the hard disk.
You can perform the remainder of these steps from the
server console, or you can use RCONSOLE from the workstation. Refer to your NetWare documentation for more
information about RCONSOLE. However, the license
diskette must be physically available at the server’s diskette
drive.
5.
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Complete the rest of the installation by preceding to “Installing NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN on a Local
Server” or "Installing NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN
on a Remote Server" later in this Chapter.
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Installing NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN on a
Local Server
Complete the steps described in this procedure to install NetWare
MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 on a local server/router. For online
help, press <F1>.
Procedure
1.
Load the INSTALL program by typyng the following command at the NetWare server system console prompt:
LOAD INSTALL <Enter>
The Installation Options menu appears.
2.
From the Installation Options menu, select Product Options,
then press <Enter>.
If you are installing on an existing NetWare 3.12 server/router, a
list of the currently installed products (if any) is displayed.
If you are installing on an existing NetWare 4.1 server/router, a
menu labeled Other Installation Actions is displayed. Select the
View/Configure/Remove installed products option and press
<Enter>. A list of currently installed products (if any) is displayed.
3.
To install a new product, press <Ins>.
4.
Specify the correct path from which to load the source files.
Table 3-1:
Specifying INSTALL path names
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59
5.
From the Installation Options menu, select Install Product.
An Install to Servers menu displays the local server name.
6.
Select Yes to begin the installation.
7.
You are now asked whether you want to install preconfigured files to the local server.
If you want to install one of the preconfigurations delivered with
the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN, refer to the Quick
Installation and Setup Guide for information on the files. Choose
one, select Yes at this prompt and specify the path to install it.
If you have some experience with NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN and prepared a configuration you want to
install, select Yes, insert your site-specific diskette, and specify a
drive, if other than the default.
If you want to install the preconfiguration later, select No and
proceed to Step 8.
8.
To install the license, load the LICENSE diskette, or enter
the location of the license file.
9.
When the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 source
files have been copied, the following message is displayed:
"Installation was successful. Bring down and
restart each server on which you installed the
software to ensure that it uses the newest NLM
files."
10. Press <Enter> to continue.
The list of Currently Installed Products is displayed. Verify that the
version of the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1
software that you just installed is displayed in this list.
11. From the Installation Options menu, select Exit, then respond Yes to the prompt to exit the product installation.
12. For NetWare 4.1, use <Esc> to return to the Other Installation Actions menu. Select Return to the previous menu, then
Exit.
The newly installed version of NetWare MultiProtocol Router for
ISDN 3.1 is displayed in the list of Currently Installed Products.
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13. At the server console prompt, type
DOWN <Enter>
EXIT <Enter>
14. Restart NetWare from the DOS prompt by typing
SERVER <Enter>
15. Continue with "Editing the STARTUP.NCF File."
Editing the STARTUP.NCF File
To edit the STARTUP.NCF file, complete the following steps:
Procedure
1.
At the NetWare server system console prompt, type
LOAD INSTALL <Enter>
The Installation Options menu appears.
On a NetWare 3.12 server, select System Options, then press
<Enter>.
On a NetWare 4.x server, select NCF Files Options, then press
<Enter>.
2.
Warning
Select Edit STARTUP.NCF File, then press <Enter>.
Be sure you select Edit, and not Create, because a STARTUP.NCF file
already exists. If you select Create, all information in the existing file is
lost.
On a NetWare 3.12 server, the full path name of STARTUP.NCF is
displayed.
On a NetWare 4.x server, only the drive and directory are displayed.
3.
Press <Enter> to accept the default, or specify a boot path
location for the SERVER.EXE file.
4.
Press <Enter> to view the contents of the file.
Add the following lines to the end of the file:
SET MINIMUM PACKET RECEIVE BUFFERS=400
SET MAXIMUM PHYSICAL RECEIVE PACKET SIZE= <value>
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The value of this parameter should be set to the largest value
used by your LAN media or the largest value used by your
applications, whichever is smaller. Typical values for different
media types are shown in the following table.
Table 3-2:
Typical Values for Differnt Media Types:
Media Type
Value
Ethernet
1518
4 MB token ring
4530
16 MB token ring
4530
FDDI
4530
ARCNET
4202
LocalTalk
600
ISDN
4530
As you can see, ISDN is capable of handling packet sizes of up to
4530 Bytes. However, always enter the maximum value that the
weakest link can handle.
Example: Ethernet used with ISDN
-> Enter 1518 for the "maximum physical receive
packet size".
5.
Press <Esc>, select Yes to save your changes, then press
<Enter>.
The Available NCF Files Options menu appears.
6.
Press <Esc> to return to the Installation Options menu.
7.
From the Installation Options menu, select Exit, respond Yes
to the prompt, then press <Enter> to exit the installation
program.
8.
At the server console prompt, type
DOWN <Enter>
EXIT <Enter>
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9.
Restart NetWare from the DOS prompt by typing
SERVER <Enter>
The installation is complete. Go to Chapter 4, "Configuration Overview".
Remote Installation and Configuration
Remote installation is required when you want to install NetWare
MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 on more than one server or when
the server which you want to install the product on does not have a
local CD-ROM or floppy disk drive.
Note
Remote installation over ISDN takes about 30 minutes!
Before performing a remote installation, the RSPAWN.NLM and the
SPXS.NLM file must be copied from the CD-ROM directory,
SUPPS\ALL, to the SYS:SYSTEM directory of the server from which
you are installing and to all remote targets. If these files were previously loaded, you must unload them and reload the newer versions.
These files can be loaded locally at the server prompt or remotely
using RCONSOLE.
If the target servers are physically accessible, RSPAWN and SPXS can
be loaded manually from the server prompt. After copying new
versions of RSPAWN and SPXS to the SYS:SYSTEM directory, load the
files manually by entering
UNLOAD RSPAWN
UNLOAD SPXS
LOAD RSPAWN
RSPAWN automatically loads SPXS.
If SPXS does not unload, manually unload any NLMTM (NetWare Loadable
ModuleTM) files that depend on SPXS or down and restart the server.
Note
Important
Please keep in mind that for remote installation, the RSPAWN service must
not be filtered.
Loading RSPAWN and SPXS from RCONSOLE
To copy and load RSPAWN and SPXS remotely from a local NetWare
workstation to a remote server, complete the following steps:
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Procedure
1.
Run RCONSOLE.
If you are running a local NetWare 4.x server, the Connection Type
menu appears. Whether you are installing on a remote server
over a LAN medium or over ISDN, in either case select SPX.
Important
The files REMOTE.NLM and RSPX.NLM must be loaded on the remote
server before you can open a remote session to it with RCONSOLE. If
you are unfamiliar with RCONSOLE and are using NetWare 3.12, see
NetWare 3.12 System Administration. If you are using NetWare 4.x, see
NetWare 4.0 Supervising the Network.
A window displays a list of available servers.
2.
To open a session, select a remote server from the list of
available servers, then press <Enter>.
3.
To display the RCONSOLE Available Options menu:
On a local NetWare 3.12 server, press the asterisk key (*) on the
numeric keypad - not <Shift>+<8> - on the main keyboard.
On a local NetWare 4.x server, press <Alt>+<F1>.
4.
From the Available Options menu, select Transfer Files To
Server, then press <Enter>.
5.
Copy the RSPAWN.NLM and SPXS.NLM files from the CDROM SUPPS\ALL directory to the SYS:\SYSTEM directory
on the remote server.
6.
Press <Esc> to return to the remote server console prompt.
7.
From the remote server console prompt, unload old
RSPAWN and SPXS files, and load the new versions by
entering
UNLOAD RSPAWN
UNLOAD SPXS
LOAD RSPAWN
RSPAWN automatically loads SPXS.
Note
64
Installi.pm6
If SPXS does not unload, manually unload any NLMTM (NetWare
Loadable ModuleTM) files that depend on SPXS or down and restart the
server.
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8.
To terminate the remote session:
For NetWare 3.x versions of RCONSOLE, press <Shift>+<Esc>,
select Yes at the prompt, then press <Enter>.
For NetWare 4.x versions of RCONSOLE, press <Alt>+<F2>,
select Yes at the prompt, then press <Enter>.
9.
Press <Esc> and select Yes to exit RCONSOLE.
10. Continue the installation as described below.
Installing NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 on a Remote Server
If you want to perform a remote installation on a NetWare 4.1 server
from a NetWare 3.12 server, you must set the bindery context on the
remote NetWare 4.1 server. If the NetWare 4.1 server does not have a
bindery context set, the system will not accept a login attempt by any
directory services user.
After loading RSPAWN and SPXS on the remote server, complete the
following steps:
Procedure
1.
At the local server console prompt, type
LOAD INSTALL <Enter>
The Installation Options menu appears.
2.
From the Installation Options menu, select Product Options,
then press <Enter>.
If you are installing from a NetWare 3.12 server/router, a list of
installed products (if any) is displayed.
If you are installing from a NetWare 4.1 server/router, the Other
Installation Actions menu appears. Select the View/Configure/
Remove installed products option and press <Enter>. A list of
currently installed products (if any) is displayed.
3.
To install a new product to install, press <Ins>.
4.
Specify the correct path from which to load the source files.
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Table 3-4:
Specifying INSTALL path names
5.
From the Installation Options menu, select Install Product.
An Install to Servers menu displays the local server name. The
value in the title string reflects the number of servers to be
installed.
5a. To modify the list of servers, press <Ins> to launch the
Available File Servers menu. Edit the list using the
following keys:
<Del> removes a server.
<F5> marks a server to be added or removed.
<Enter> adds marked servers to the list and begins the
installation process.
6.
Select Yes to begin the installation.
7.
Enter the Administrator´s name and password for each of
the remote servers.
8.
You are now asked whether you want to install preconfigured files to the remote servers.
If you want to install one of the preconfigurations delivered with
the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN, refer to the Quick
Installation and Setup Guide for information on the files. Choose
one, select Yes at this prompt and specify the path to install it.
If you have some experience with NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN and prepared a configuration you want to
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install, select Yes, insert your site-specific diskette, and specify a
drive, if other than the default.
If you want to install the preconfiguration later, select No and
proceed to Step 8.
9.
To install the license, load the LICENSE diskette, or enter
the location of the license file.
10. When all the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1
source files have been copied to the local system, a sequential connection is established to each of the remote servers.
If any of the selected servers do not have the correct version of
RSPAWN installed, an error message is displayed. To continue,
press <Esc>, load the correct version of rspawn on the remote
server, and retry. For more information, see "Loading RSPAWN
and SPXS from RCONSOLE" above.
11. When all the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1
source files have been copied to all the selected servers, the
following message is displayed:
"Installation was successful. Bring down and
restart each server on which you installed the
software to ensure that it uses the newest NLM
files."
12. Press <Enter> to continue.
13. From the Installation Options menu, select Exit, then respond Yes to the prompt to exit the product installation.
The newly installed version of NetWare MultiProtocol Router for
ISDN 3.1 is displayed in the list of Currently Installed Products.
14. For NetWare 4.1, use <Esc> to return to the Other Installation Actions menu. Select Return to the previous menu, then
Exit.
15. Reboot the remote server. At the NetWare console prompt,
type the following commands:
DOWN <Enter>
EXIT <Enter>
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Suggestion
You can also use a reboot.ncf file with the following lines:
remove dos
down
exit
Make sure, however, that the server is automatically restarted from the
DOS prompt, i.e. that the ´server´ command is included in the
autoexec.bat file.
16. Continue with "Editing STARTUP.NCF Remotely."
Editing STARTUP.NCF Remotely
Procedure
To edit the STARTUP.NCF file remotely from a local NetWare workstation, complete the following steps:
1.
Run RCONSOLE.
If you are running a local NetWare 4.x server, the Connection
Type menu appears. Whether you are installing on a remote
server over a LAN medium or over ISDN, in either case select
SPX.
Important
The files REMOTE.NLM and RSPX.NLM must be loaded on the remote
server before you can open a remote session to it with RCONSOLE. If
you are unfamiliar with RCONSOLE and are using NetWare 3.12, see
NetWare 3.12 System Administration. If you are using NetWare 4.x, see
NetWare 4.0 Supervising the Network.
A window displays the list of available servers.
2.
To open a session, select a remote server from the list of
available servers, then press <Enter>.
3.
At the server or router console prompt, type
LOAD INSTALL <Enter>
On the remote NetWare 3.12 server, the Installation Options menu
appears. Select System Options, then press <Enter>.
On the remote NetWare 4.x server, select NCF Files Options, then
press <Enter>.
4.
Warning
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Select Edit STARTUP.NCF File, then press <Enter>.
Be sure you select Edit, and not Create, because a STARTUP.NCF file
already exists. If you select Create, all information in the existing file is
lost.
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On the remote NetWare 3.12 server, a new window displays the
full path name of STARTUP.NCF.
On the remote NetWare 4.x server, a new window displays the
drive and directory.
5.
Press <Enter> to view the contents of the file.
Add the following lines to the end of the file:
SET MINIMUM PACKET RECEIVE BUFFERS=400
SET MAXIMUM PHYSICAL RECEIVE PACKET SIZE=<value>
The value of this parameter should be set to the largest value
used by your LAN media or the largest value used by your
applications, whichever is less. Typical values for different media
types are shown in the following table:
Table 3-5:
Typical Values for Different Media Types
Media Type
Value
Ethernet
1518
4 MB token ring
4530
16 MB token ring
4530
FDDI
4530
ARCNET
4202
LocalTalk
600
ISDN
4530
As you can see, ISDN is capable of handling packet sizes of up to
4530 Bytes. However, always enter the maximum value that the
weakest link can handle.
Example: Ethernet used with ISDN
-> Enter 1518 for the "maximum physical receive
packet size".
6.
Press <Esc>, select Yes to save your changes, then press
<Enter> to return to the Available System Options menu.
7.
Press <Esc> to return to the Installation Options menu.
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8.
On the remote server, press <Esc> two times (on a NetWare
3.12 server) or three times (on a NetWare 4.x server) and
select Yes to exit INSTALL.
9.
At the server console prompt, type
REMOVE DOS <Enter>
DOWN <Enter>
EXIT <Enter>
Suggestion
You can also use a reboot.ncf file with the following lines:
remove dos
down
exit
Make sure, however, that the server is automatically restarted from the
DOS prompt, i.e. that the ´server´ command is included in the
autoexec.bat file.
10. To terminate the remote session:
On a local NetWare 3.12 server, press <Shift>+<Esc>, select Yes at
the prompt, then press <Enter> to return to the server console
prompt.
On a local NetWare 4.x server, press <Alt>+<F2>, select Yes at the
prompt, then press <Enter> to return to the server console
prompt.
The installation is complete.
Go to Chapter 4, "Basic Design of ISDN-WANs and Configuration Overview" for an overview of all required configuration
tasks.
Deinstallation
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 can be deinstalled using
INSTALL.NLM to remove product entries from the INSTALL.NLM
database. Removing the entries does not remove files or rename the
configuration. The router remains fully operational, and subsequent
installations are not treated as upgrades.
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chapter
4
Basic Design of ISDN-WANs and
Configuration Overview
In this chapter, design and configuration issues for setting up WANs
over ISDN are discussed.
At the end of the chapter, a configuration overview is given that lists
all steps that are necessary for configuring the NetWare® MultiProtocolTM Router for ISDN 3.1 and gives information on where to
find the related instructions.
This chapter contains the following sections:
-
"Routing Protocol or Static Routes - Basic Considerations" on
page 65
-
"Possible and Recommended Configurations for IPX" on page 72
-
"Configuration Overview" on page 73
Routing Protocol or Static Routes - Basic Considerations
The NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN enables you to decide
for all routable protocols, i.e. for IPX, TCP/IP and AppleTalk,
whether you want to route them over ISDN by using a routing
protocol or by configuring static routes/services.
This decision can be made for each ISDN interface handling a connection. This offers you the flexibility to customize your ISDN
connections according to two criteria: First, which applies best for
the network protocol you want to route to a remote site, and second,
which applies best to cover the nature of the remote site with regard
to servers and services available, i.e. if it is of a more static or a more
dynamic nature.
In the following, some general recommendations will be given.
Afterwards, advantages and drawbacks of each of the two methods,
static routes/services and routing protocol, are described and
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recommendations for the respective protocols and additional notes
on when and how to implement classic WAN links and dial-around
links will be given.
For the non-routable protocols SNA and NetBIOS you cannot configure
static routes, but can only use source route bridging. Therefore, SNA and
NetBIOS are not discussed in the following sections.
Important
General Recommendations
Fixed Tariffs
Whenever you use one of the ISDN accesses and line types that have
fixed tariffs and are not charged by the duration of a connection, i.e.
D64S, DS01, DS02, 1TR6 with "Vorbestellte Dauerwählverbindung"
or TS 03 with "Semi Permanent Connection", you may choose whatever applies best in your opinion.
All considerations in this section apply for normal circuit-switched
lines that are charged by the duration of each connection. They are
intended give you indications for the best way to set up your WAN
links in regard to cost-efficiency in this sense.
TPC/IP
When using TCP/IP, the general recommendation is to configure
static routes instead of using RIP, RIP II or OSPF, irrespective of
whether networks are of a static or dynamic nature. Using static
routes is common with TCP/IP, and routing protocols involve
exchange of routing information; the most critical is RIP exchanging
routing information every 60 seconds.
Static Routes/Services
Using static routes instead of a routing protocol over ISDN always
has the advantage that no routing and services information is exchanged over ISDN. The drawback is, that if servers and services
that shall be available in the WAN change frequently, i.e. new servers, segments and services are added, removed, or their status
changes, these changes have to be reflected in the static routes and
services configuration of each router involved.
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Choose Static Routes to Link Networks with Static "Nature"
When setting up your WAN links over ISDN, have a look at your
LAN and the LANs that you wanto to interconnect over your router
and decide whether they are of a more static or dynamic nature.
Whenever they are more static, it is recommended to use static
routes/service instead of a routing protocol to link them over ISDN,
disregarding whether you use IPX, TCP/IP or AppleTalk.
Further recommendations that go together with static routes/
services:
-
First, configure only those routes/services of your local and of
each remote site on your router that are required for your
internetworking purposes
-
Second, use FILTCFG to filter out single IPX nodes, IP hosts,
NICs, packet types and for IP in additon IP services (e.g. telnet,
ftp) that are on those routes you configured, but shall not gain
access to remote sites over ISDN or be transmitted over ISDN.
Note that for servers/services that only need to be available
sometimes, it can be more comfortable if you configure the
routes/services once and use FILTCFG to filter them out or let
them pass through.
Classic and Dynamic ISDN Interface Usage with Static Routes/Services
The recommendation to use static routes/services further applies
irrespective of whether you want to set up classic WAN links or use
ISDN interfaces dynamically. The only difference is, that with dynamic ISDN interface usage, you will configure more than one Call
Destination over an ISDN interface and will set the Disconnect
Timeout for each of these Call Destinations to release the ISDN
interface. Be aware that first, the Disconnect Timeout is the only
method to release an ISDN interface that makes sense with static
routes/services, and, further read through the section "Choose
Routing Protocols to Link Networks With Dynamic ´Nature´" carefully to know about what you have to consider with dynamic ISDN
interface usage.
Routing Protocols
With routing protocols, advantage and drawback are "turned
around": Using a routing protocol instead of static routes/services
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73
over ISDN has the advantage that you do not have to configure
routes/services manually (exchange of routing and services information is the task of routing protocols). Two drawbacks come up with
routing protocols. First, routing tables or link stati need to be verified/updated over ISDN and, depending on the routing protocol
implementation (distance vector or link state protocol for example),
this is done very frequently. Second, the advantage that network
changes are transmitted can get a drawback as well, because if
servers and services that shall be available in the WAN change very
frequently, ISDN lines are set up or kept up to transmit the changes.
However, a closer look at the behavior each routing protocol is
required, since various mechanisms are implemented with the
distinct routing protocols to optimize their behaviour. These are
discussed below together with recommendations on which routing
protocol to use for which network protocol.
Note
This chapter does not discuss any of the tunneling possibilities, for example
transport of IPX or AppleTalk (AURP) encapsulated/tunneled in TCP/IP.
Further, the various routing protocols are not described to their full extend,
but are only discussed in regard to what is important in conjunction with
ISDN use.
Choose Routing Protocols to Link Networks with Dynamic "Nature"
When setting up your WAN links over ISDN, have a look at your
LAN and the LANs that you wanto to interconnect over your router
and decide whether they are of a more static or dynamic nature.
Whenever they are more dynamic, it is more comfortable and therefore recommended to use a routing protocol to link them over ISDN,
disregarding whether you use IPX or AppleTalk. For TCP/IP, the
general recommendation to use static routes is still valid, but preferences can be made if you choose to use a routing protocol instead of
static routes.
Recommendations that go together with the use of any of the routing
protocols:
-
74
Use FILTCFG to filter out routes/services, single IPX nodes, IP
hosts, NICs, packet types and for IP in additon IP (e.g. telnet, ftp)
that shall not gain access to remote sites over ISDN or be
transmitted over ISDN.
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Routing Protocol to Choose for the Respective Network Protocols
♦ IPX - RIP/SAP, NSLP
For IPX, the routing protocols RIP/SAP and NLSP are supported.
RIP/SAP is a distance vector-based routing protocol implementation. RIP/SAP consistently exchanges routing and services information, i.e. updates routing and services tables in a periodic manner.
This is done per default every 60 seconds, whether changes appear
or not, and, in addition, exchanges information each time a change
occurs. The following mechanisms are implemented to reduce traffic
produced by this routing protocol.
-
RIP/SAP Periodic Update Timer
With RIP/SAP Periodic Update Timer you can - and over ISDN
you must - change the default of 60 seconds for exchange of
routing and services information to a higher value, best to the
max. value of 84 hours. However, since this would imply that
network changes would as well only be updated every 84 hours
and not at the time the change occurs, RIP/SAP on change is
implemented as an underlying mechanism.
-
RIP/SAP Only On Change mechanism
This mechanism does not have to be configured, it is always
active and guarantees that the network changes are transmitted
whenever they occur. It works independend of the update of all
routing and services tables defined through RIP/SAP Periodic
Update Timer.
NLSP is a link state protocol implementation. NLSP exchanges
routing and services information only when network changes occur.
NSLP further uses Non Broadcast or WAN LSP Hello packets to
reassure that the remote side of the link is available. The following
mechanisms are implemented to reduce traffic produced by this
routing protocol:
-
Non Broadcast Hello Timer Interval
The Non Broadcast Hello Timer Interval defines the frequency of
WAN LSP Hello packets. This timer can be set per router. The
default value is 20 seconds, but does not have to be changed if
you decide to use NLSP instead of RIP/SAP or static routes, since
LSP Hello Spoofing is provided.
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-
LSP Hello Spoofing
With LSP Hello Spoofing, LSP Hello packets are not transmitted
to the remote end of each NLSP link over ISDN, but are spoofed
locally on each router.
NLSP is the more advanced routing protocol implementation,
especially when compared in design with distance-vector protocol
implementations, which are of older style technology. However, the
following restriction must be considered:
-
The current version of NLSP does not support interarea (level 2)
routing, and routes or services cannot be filtered within a routing
area but between areas at the area boundaries.
You can create routing areas by running RIP on the network interfaces that link the areas, and therefore filtering of routes and services
over an ISDN link can be applied if NLSP is used in the LAN and
RIP/SAP is used over ISDN. Thus, although NLSP is the more
advanced routing protocol implementation, it has some drawbacks
as of today and the RIP/SAP mechanisms described above overcome
the major problem of this distance-vector protocol, i.e. the frequent
update of routing tables and services. Therefore, when compared
with IPX RIP/SAP, NLSP does not bring advantages over ISDN for
most standard internetworking scenarios as of today.
Recommendation
For IPX over ISDN, IPX RIP/SAP is the recommended routing
protocol.
♦ TCP/IP - RIP I, RIP II, EGP and OSPF
For TCP/IP, the routing protocols RIP I, RIP II, EGP and OSPF are
supported.
RIP is a distance vector-based routing protocol implementation. RIP
consistently exchanges routing information, i.e. updates routing
tables in a periodic manner. This is done per default every 60 seconds, whether changes appear or not. No mechanisms are implemented to reduce traffic produced by this routing protocol. Thus, do
not use RIP over ISDN if your connections are charged by connection time. RIP II is an extension of RIP allowing to transmit subnet
information.
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OSPF is a link state protocol implementation. OSPF exchanges
routing information only when network changes occur. OSPF further
uses OSPF Hello packets to reassure the remote side of the link is
available. The following mechanism is implemented to reduce traffic
produced by this routing protocol:
-
OSPF Hello Timer
The OSPF Hello Timer defines the frequency of OSPF Hello
packets. This timer can be set per interface. You can - and over
ISDN you must - change the default of 10 seconds to a higher
value if you decide to use OSPF instead of static routes. The
maximum value is approximatly 18 hours.
Recommendation
For TCP/IP over ISDN, the general recommendation is to use static
routes. If you want to use a routing protocol instead, use of OSPF is
recommended.
♦ AppleTalk - RTMP
For AppleTalk, the routing protocol RTMP is supported.
RTMP consistently exchanges routing information, i.e. updates
routing tables in a periodic manner. This is done per default every 10
seconds, whether changes appear or. The following mechanism is
implemented to reduce traffic produced by this routing protocol.
-
RTMP Routing Update Timer
With RTMP Routing Update Timer you can - and over ISDN you
must - change the default of 10 seconds for exchange of routing
information to a higher value, best to the max. value of 30
minutes.
Recommendation
For AppleTalk over ISDN, the general recommendation is to use
static routes. If you want to use RTMP be aware that routing information is at least exchanged every 30 minutes.
Classic and Dynamic ISDN Interface Usage with Routing Protocols
If you choose a routing protocol instead of static routes/services you
can set up classic WAN links, of course. You can also use ISDN
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77
interfaces dynamically, but not the same way it can be done with
static routes/services. When choosing classic WAN links and classic
ISDN interface usage with a routing protocol, you never set a Disconnect Timeout. Besides that, you have different possibilities for
configuring your Call Destinations. When choosing dynamic ISDN
interface usage with a routing protocol, the methods for call set-up
and clear-down are different when compared with the two methods
that come with static routes/services, i.e. logical ISDN connection
set-up by network protocol request and logical ISDN connection
clear-down by Disconnect Timeout. With routing protocols, you use
manual methods (CALLMGR on the router or via RCONSOLE) or,
for IPX also batch routines (CICC from any IPX client or batch
routines) for initial ISDN connection set-up. The remote site is only
known to your local site after initial logical ISDN connection set-up,
since at that time, routing protocol information is exchanged and
tables maintaining routes and services are build the very first time.
To clear down a logical ISDN connection and to release the ISDN
interface, you can use CALLMGR, CICC or Disconnect Timeout.
When the logical ISDN connection is cleared, the remote networks
"disappear" as well, i.e. entries about routes and services of the
remote network are cleared.
Possible and Recommended Configurations for IPX
Figure 4-1 shows the IPX protocol configuration and connection
handling and should help you to get an overview of the configuration possibilities for IPX.
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Figure 4-1:
IPX Protocol Configuration and Connection Handling
Static routes/services
Initial connection
set-up:
no
routing
protocol
RIP/SAP
RIP/SAP
NLSP with RIP/SAP compatibility
NLSP with
RIP/SAP
compatibility
YES
Automatic
Static On Demand
YES
YES
YES YES YES
Routed On Demand
Manual (CALLMGR, (Yes, but no sense)
CICC)
YES
YES
YES
On-Demand
Call Type
Permanent
YES, always set Inactivity Timeout
Inactivity Timeout
Recommended set-up for classic
and for dynamic WAN links
between static networks.
- For classic WAN links, do not use
Disconnect Timer.
- For dynamic WAN links to
multiple sites over a single ISDN
interface, set appropriate values
for Disconnect Timer.
Recommended set-up for dynamic
WAN links to multiple sites over a
single ISDN interface between
dynamic networks. Use of CICC
with batch routines is most
comfortable to automize initial call
set-up and clear down of logical
ISDN connections.
Recommended set-up for classic WAN
links between dynamic networks.
* IPX RIP/SAP is the only configuration possible for connections to NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN v2.0, 2.1 or 2.11
Configuration Overview
Configuration of the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1
software involves tasks that are described partly in the NetWare
MultiProtocol Router 3.1 guides and in this NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN 3.1 Installation and ISDN Configuration guide.
ISDN-related tasks are only described in the latter.
In the following, all steps that are necessary for configuring the
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 are listed and information on where to find the related instructions is given.
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Configuring for LAN Support
The steps involved in configuring NetWare MultiProtocol Router for
ISDN 3.1 and a LAN adapter board are as follows. They are all
described in the NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 guides:
1. Configure the LAN board´s hardware parameters.
Refer to the NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Configuration guide,
pp. 20-22.
2. Configure the protocol´s software parameters.
In most of the cases, it should be enough to enable the network
protocol and leave the default values.
If you need more information, refer to the respective chapters of
the NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Configuration guide for IPX
(8), TCP/IP (11), AppleTalk (12) and Source Route Bridge (14).
Ignore all instructions concerning WAN configuration. You will
find information on configuring protocols for WAN connections
in the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN Installation and ISDN
Configuration guide.
3. Bind the configured protocol to the configured LAN interface.
In most of the cases, you just have to enter your network address
(IPX network address for IPX, IP address and subnet mask for
TCP/IP) and can leave the default values.
For additional information, refer to the guide and chapters
mentioned in point 2.
Configuring for ISDN Support
The steps involved in configuring NetWare MultiProtocol Router for
ISDN 3.1 and an ISDN-Controller are as follows. Since this Guide
only describes the ISDN-related tasks, information is given on when
to use which Novell documentation to perform the required steps:
1. Configure the ISDN-Controller´s parameters.
Refer to Chapter 5 "Configuring Boards" of this Guide.
2. Configure network interfaces.
Refer to Chapter 6 "Configuring ISDN Interfaces" of this Guide.
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3. Configure ISDN call destinations.
Refer to Chapter 7 "Configuring ISDN Call Destinations" of this
Guide.
5. Configure global parameters for the NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN.
Refer to Chapter 8 "Configuring Global Parameters" of this
Guide.
4. Configure the protocol´s software parameters.
Refer to Chapters 9 (IPX), 10 (TCP/IP), 11 (AppleTalk) and 12
(Source Route Bridge) of this Guide.
5. Bind the configured protocol to the configured ISDN interface.
Chapters Containing Further Configuration Information
The following chapter of this Guide provides important additional
configuration information and should be read as careful as the other
configuration chapters:
-
Chapter 14, "Configuration Interdependencies"
The following chapters of this Guide contain information on special
configuration scenarios and should be read when required:
-
Chapter 9, "Configuring IPX"
-
Chapter 10, "Configuring TCP/IP"
-
Chapter 11, "Configuring AppleTalk"
-
Chapter 12, "Configuring Source Route Bridge"
-
Chapter 13, "Advanced Configuration"
-
Chapter 15, "Configuring Remote Node Access"
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chapter
5 Configuring Boards
When you select and configure a LAN board or an ISDN-Controller,
you are actually configuring one or more physical interfaces that
correspond to individual connections over which packets are routed.
Configuring a board causes the driver associated with the board to
load each time you initialize the router.
For information on how to configure your LAN boards, refer to the
NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Configuration guide, chapter 2,
"Configuring Drivers and Board Parameters."
Due to INETCFG restrictions, ISDN-Controller related parameters
must be configured in two separate menus. The parameter paths are
as follows: load INETCFG > select Boards; load INETCFG > select
Network Interfaces > select ISDN-Controller Configuration. For information on the latter, refer to Chapter 6, section "ISDN-Controller Configuration".
Changes in board parameters can be brought into effect by selecting
the Reinitialize System command from the Internetworking Configuration menu or by entering the command manually at the system
console prompt. When the system is reinitialized, the boards and all
interfaces are unloaded and reloaded again to bring the configuration
changes into effect.
This chapter contains the following sections:
-
"Configuring an ISDN-Controller" on page 84
-
"Enabling/Disabling an ISDN-Controller" on page 89
-
"Deleting an ISDN-Controller" on page 89
If you are using an AVM ISDN-Controller PCMCIA B or an AVM Mobile
ISDN-Controller M1 or M2, make sure that the card and socket services are
enabled before you start the server. For information on enabling card and
socket services, refer to your computer manual.
Important
To configure or reconfigure an ISDN-Controller, load INETCFG by
typing the following command at the server prompt:
LOAD INETCFG <Enter>
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83
The Internetworking Configuration menu is displayed:
Figure 5-1:
Internetworking Configuration Menu
Important
It is recommended not to use the Fast Setup option in this menu to configure
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1. NetWare MultiProtocol Router
for ISDN 3.1 provides preconfigured files for standard environments, which
are described in the separate Quick Installation and Configuration manual
coming with the product.
Configuring an ISDN-Controller
Procedure
1.
From the Internetworking Configuration menu, select
Boards, then press <Enter>.
The Configured Boards window is displayed.
If you are configuring a new ISDN-Controller, continue with
Step 2.
If you are changing an existing board configuration, select that
ISDN-Controller, press <Enter>, then continue with Step 5.
The Configured Boards window displays a list of configured
ISDN-Controllers with the following ISDN-Controller relevant
information:
Board Name Name you assign to the ISDN-Controller.
84
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Driver
The driver you selected for the ISDN-Controller.
Int
Interrupt request level (IRQ) used by the ISDNController.
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IOAddr
I/O Base Address used by the ISDN-Controller.
Slot
Slot number, if an AVM ISDN-Controller B1 PCI or
B1-MCA is used.
Status
Status of the ISDN-Controller, which is enabled by
default.
Comment
Comment you enter about the ISDN-Controller or
its configuration.
2.
Press <Ins> to display the list of available drivers.
3.
Scroll through the list, select the appropriate driver for the
first ISDN-Controller installed in your system, then press
<Enter>.
Options: ISDN-BRI, ISDN-PRI, ISDNWAYS.
Select ISDN-BRI, if you are using an AVM ISDN-Controller B1,
B1 PCI, B1-MCA, PCMCIA B, M1 or M2.
Select ISDN-PRI, if you are using an AVM ISDN-Controller T1 or
T1-B.
ISDNWAYS is provided to allow remote access to the NetWare
MultiProtocol Router for ISDN from NetWAYS/ISDN and PPP
clients. Special configuration information for providing remote
access is given in Chapter 15, "Configuring Remote Node Access". Follow the instructions in this chapter to configure boards,
then refer to Chapter 15 to configure for remote node access.
After you selected the ISDN driver, the following menu appears:
Figure 5-2:
Board Configuration menu
Configuring Boards
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85
4.
Enter a name in the Board Name field, then press <Enter>.
You can use up to 10 alphanumeric characters for the board
name.
5.
Specify the Controller parameters.
Highlight each field, press <Enter>, then select the appropriate
value for the parameter from the pop-up menu displayed.
6.
Check the I/O Base Address.
This parameter selects the base input/output port address used
by the ISDN-Controller. Verify that the base I/O address matches
what you noted during installation of your ISDN-Controller.
Change it, if necessary.
Important
B1, PCMCIA B, M1, M2:
Default: 150; Options: 150, 250, 300,
340
B1 PCI:
see your PCI configuration
T1, T1-B:
Default: 150
If you want to use a different I/O Base Address on your ISDN-Controller
T1 or T1-B, please contact AVM for more information.
Note
When the ISDN-Controller B1-MCA is used, INETCFG automatically
disables the parameters “I/O Base Address” and “Interrupt Request
Level” and prompts the parameter “Slot”, which is typical for configuration of adapters in MicroChannel bus systems. In case you use the
ISDN-Controllers B1-MCA, select the MCA slot number appropriate to
your configuration. Options: 1 to 8.
7.
Check the Interrupt Request Level.
This parameter specifies the interrupt request level (IRQ) used
by the ISDN-Controller configured for the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN. The Interrupt Level must not be used by
other hardware adapter boards, it has to be unique. If the default
value is already used by other boards, enter a new value. You do
not have to change hardware (jumpers), since this IRQ level is
software-configurable.
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Boards.pm6
B1, M1, PCMCIA B:
Default: A; Options: 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, A, B, C, F
B1 PCI:
see your PCI configuration
T1, T1-B:
Default: 5; Options: 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, A, B, C, F
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Important
If you want to use other interrupts than the default on your ISDNController T1 or T1-B, please contact AVM for more information.
8.
Check the ISDN D Channel Protocol.
This parameter specifies, which ISDN D channel protocol or
protocol stack shall be loaded for this ISDN-Controller to access
the ISDN network. The NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN,
in conjunction with the corresponding ISDN-Controllers, supports the internationally standardized D channel protocol DSS1,
often referred to as "Euro-ISDN", as well as various national D
channel protocols.
Make sure that you select the D channel protocol provided at
your ISDN access (direct access or via PBX).
B1, B1 PCI, B1-MCA,
PCMCIA B:
Default: DSS1
Options: DSS1, 1TR6, VN3, CT1, NI1,
5ESS, AUSTEL, D64S, DS01,
DS02, MDSS1, M1TR6
M1, M2:
GSM
T1, T1-B:
Default: DSS1T1
Options: DSS1T1, 1TR6T1
Table 5-1:
D Channel Protocols and protocol stacks
Protocol / Stack
Description
DSS1 / DSS1T1
internationally standardized ISDN D channel protocol, formerly called EuroISDN or E-DSS1. This ISDN D channel protocol is already or will soon be
provided by all European countries that agreed to the Memorandum of
Understanding in 1989.
1TR6 / 1TR6T1
national ISDN D channel protocol, provided in Germany.
VN3
national ISDN D channel protocol provided in France (also called NUMERIS).
Note that this driver also supports VN4!
CT1
national ISDN D channel protocol provided in Belgium (also called ALINE).
NI1
national ISDN D channel protocol in the USA (National ISDN-1).
5ESS
ISDN D channel protocol in the USA, provided at AT&T custom ISDN BRIs.
AUSTEL
national ISDN D channel protocol in Australia (according to TS 013).
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87
DS01 / DS02 / D64S
leased line types offered by the German Deutsche Telekom AG. DS01 stands
for 1 data channel, one signalling channel, DS02 for 2 data channels, 1
signalling channel. D64S stands for 1 B channel, no D channel.
MDSS1
D channel protocol to be selected if your local ISDN access provides the
DSS1 protocol and you want to allow access to your LAN from users over
Mobile ISDN.
M1TR6
D channel protocol to be selected if your local ISDN access provides the
1TR6 protocol and you want to allow access to your LAN from users over
Mobile ISDN.
GSM
protocol stack to be selected if you want to provide direct access to your
router over GSM-based cellular networks (Mobile ISDN-Controller M1 or M2
used).
9.
(Optional) Enter a Comment to this Board Configuration.
10. Check the Board Status.
Options:
Enabled; Disabled
Default:
Enabled
Enabled means that the board driver is loaded each time the
router is started.
When a board is disabled, the driver is not loaded and the board
cannot be used.
11. Press <Esc>, select Yes to save changes to the board configuration, then press <Enter>.
If there are any conflicts with the configuration parameters of
other plug-in boards, one or more messages describe them. You
must determine whether the conflict is acceptable or whether it
interferes with the operation of the router and, if necessary,
resolve it.
The Configured Boards window is redisplayed with the board you
just configured. Note that the board status is Enabled; you can
use the <Tab> key to toggle between Enabled and Disabled.
12. To configure the remaining boards, if any, repeat Step 2
through Step 11.
After you have configured the LAN boards and ISDNController(s) in your system, you have to configure interface
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parameters for the ISDN-Controller(s) next. To configure interfaces, go to the next Chapter, "Configuring ISDN Interfaces".
Enabling/Disabling an ISDN-Controller
To enable or disable an ISDN-Controller, complete the following
steps:
Procedure
1.
At the server prompt, type
LOAD INETCFG <Enter>
The Internetworking Configuration menu is displayed.
2.
From the Internetworking Configuration menu, select
Boards, then press <Enter>.
A new window displays the list of configured boards.
3.
Highlight the ISDN-Controller you want to enable (or disable), then press <Tab> .
The status of the ISDN-Controller is changed from Disabled to
Enabled (or Enabled to Disabled). The <Tab> key acts as a toggle
switch.
4.
Important
Press <Esc> to return to the Internetworking Configuration
menu.
After enabling or disabling an ISDN-Controller, select the Reinitialize
System command from the Internetworking Configuration to unload and
reload boards and their interfaces.
Deleting an ISDN-Controller
To delete an ISDN-Controller, complete the following steps:
Procedure
1.
At the server prompt, type
LOAD INETCFG <Enter>
The Internetworking Configuration menu is displayed.
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89
2.
From the Internetworking Configuration menu, select
Boards, then press <Enter>.
A new window displays the list of configured boards.
3.
Highlight the ISDN-Controller you want to delete, then press
<Delete>.
A message is displayed indicating that deleting the board also
deletes all existing binds to the ISDN-Controller's interfaces.
If ISDN Call Destinations are configured, another message is
displayed asking whether you want to delete ISDN Call Destinations that refer to this ISDN-Controller. If you answer No, the
ISDN Call Destinations remain, even though the ISDN-Controller is deleted.
4.
When prompted, select Yes, then press <Enter> to delete the
board.
The ISDN-Controller is removed from the list of configured
boards.
5.
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Press <Esc> to return to the Internetworking Configuration
menu.
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chapter
6 Configuring ISDN Interfaces
This chapter provides basic information on configuring the ISDN
interfaces. You should read through this chapter very carefully to
learn about the parameters and their configuration options.
Important
Due to INETCFG restrictions, board-related and global parameters are also
configured under Network Interfaces. Note that the board-related parameters, if required, only have to be configured once per ISDN-Controller, and
the global parameters must be configured only once for the whole NetWare
MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1.
This chapter contains the following sections:
-
"ISDN Network Interface Configuration" on page 94
-
"Expert Configuration of ISDN Interface <Name>" on page 99
-
"Default Call Destination Configuration" on page 109
-
"ISDN-Controller Configuration" on page 111
Special configuration scenarios are described in the following chapters of this Guide:
-
Chapter 9, "Configuring IPX"
-
Chapter 10, "Configuring TCP/IP"
-
Chapter 11, "Configuring AppleTalk"
-
Chapter 12, "Configuring Source Route Bridge"
-
Chapter 13, "Advanced Configuration"
-
Chapter 14, "Configuration Interdependencies"
-
Chapter 15, "Configuring Remote Node Access"
Since they provide important additional configuration information,
you should also read through them very carefully.
Configuring ISDN Interfaces
91
To configure ISDN interfaces, INETCFG is required. If INETCFG is
not already loaded, load it by typing the following command at the
server prompt:
LOAD INETCFG <Enter>
The Internetworking Configuration menu is displayed:
Figure 6-1:
Internetworking Configuration Menu
Procedure
1.
From the Internetworking Configuration menu, select Network Interfaces, then press <Enter>.
The Network Interfaces window is displayed.
If you are configuring a new interface, ensure that the appropriate ISDN-Controller has been configured (see Chapter 5, "Configuring Boards"), then continue with Step 2.
The Network Interfaces window displays a list of network interfaces associated with each configured ISDN-Controller with the
following information:
Board Name Name you gave to the ISDN-Controller when you
configured it.
92
Interface
Each interface is identified as BoardName_n,
where n is the interface number. An AVM ISDNController for BRI has 2 interfaces, an AVM ISDNController for PRI 30 interfaces.
Group
Interface group, if any, that the ISDN interface
belongs to.
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 Installation and ISDN Configuration Guide
2.
Media
Network medium or WAN protocol selected
(ISDN-BRI or ISDN-PRI).
Status
Current status of the interface.
Scroll to an unconfigured network interface, then press
<Enter> to select it.
The ISDN Network Interface Configuration window is displayed:
Figure 6-2:
ISDN Network Interface Configuration Menu
Interface Name: The name of the interface in the form of
BoardName_n, where n is the interface number.
♦ Expert Configuration: allows you to set values for more
specific interface-related parameters (Subaddress, Interface
Usage, Call Acceptance, Security Call-Back, etc.).
♦ Default Interface Call Destination: lets you define default
values for call parameters that apply on this interface for calls
from remote sites which you did not configure a call destination
for.
♦ ISDN-Controller Configuration: lets you define ISDNController related parameters that only apply in special situations (Hunt Groups, SPIDs, etc.). They have to be configured
only once for an ISDN-Controller.
Configuring ISDN Interfaces
93
♦ Global MPR for ISDN Configuration: lets you define global
parameters that are valid for the NetWare MultiProtocol Router
for ISDN as a whole (Logging, Accounting, Traps, etc.). For more
information, refer to Chapter 8, "Configuring Global Parameters".
♦ Global Remote Node Configuration: allows configuration of
parameters that apply for all remote nodes dialing into the
router (Dynamic Address Assignment, etc.). Global parameters
for remote nodes are set after configuring remote node access
and after binding the network protocol(s) to ISDNWAYS. For
more information on this menu, refer to Chapter 17, "Configuring Remote Node Access."
ISDN Network Interface Configuration
The ISDN Network Interface Configuration menu contains general
interface-related information such as the Interface Status and the
address of the ISDN-Controller interface. You should always fill in all
required parameters. From this menu, you can then skip to the other
configuration menus described above.
Changes in the ISDN Network Interface Configuration are brought into
effect by selecting the Reinitialize System command in the Internetworking Configuration. The message "Driver reconfiguration started" is
displayed on the system console. The drivers are not unloaded and
reloaded unlesss you changed the Interface Status.
Proceed as follows:
Procedure
1.
Select an Interface Group.
This parameter lets you assign an interface to an existing or a
new interface group. An interface group is a grouping of several
interfaces with similar characteristics, such as equal ISDN
number. A symbolic name identifies an interface group. They can
be used interchangeably. Thus, all interfaces belonging to an
interface group must have the same values in their Expert
Configurations.
Defining an interface group lets you make and accept on-demand calls on any of several network interfaces without creating
an individual ISDN Call Destination for each interface. All you
need to do is specify the interface group name instead of the
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NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 Installation and ISDN Configuration Guide
interface name in the ISDN Call Destination. When the call is
made or comes in, an available interface, and therefore any free B
channel, is selected from the group. Thus, you don't need to
dedicate interfaces to specific destinations.
Press <Enter> to display a list of already configured interface
groups. Select one and press <Enter> again.
2.
Check the Interface Status.
The interface status defines whether or not the respective interface is loaded when the router is brought up.
Default:
Enabled
Options:
Enabled, Disabled, Time Restricted
Enabled means that the interface is loaded into server memory
each time the system is started or reinitialized. If this is the first
interface of an ISDN-Controller, the controller is also loaded.
Disabled means that the interface is not loaded.
If you select "Time Restricted", you can configure the periods
during which the interface is enabled and disabled in a separate
menu (see Step 11 on page 105). For example, you can disable the
Interface Status during the weekends to make sure that no one is
able to dial into or out of your LAN. When the Interface Status
changes from Enabled to Disabled, all active connections over
this interface are cleared.
3.
Enter your International Dialing Prefix.
Specify the prefix you have to dial in your country to make
international calls.
For a complete configuration, you should always enter the
International Dialing Prefix and values for the parameters
Country Code, Area Code, ISDN Number and, if necessary, PBX
Extension, PBX Outside Line Access (or EAZ or MSN).
The International Dialing Prefix depends on the country in
which you are installing the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for
ISDN.
Example 1:
The International Dialing Prefix to dial out of
Germany is 00.
Configuring ISDN Interfaces
95
Example 2:
4.
The International Dialing Prefix to dial out of the
UK is 000.
Enter your Country Code.
Specify the number identifying your country when someone
calls you from abroad. Enter your Country Code, even if you do
not want to make international calls at the moment. The Country
Code depends on the country in which you are installing the
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN.
5.
Example 1:
The Country Code to reach Germany from abroad
is 49.
Example 2:
The Country Code to reach the UK from abroad is
44.
Enter your Area Code.
This parameter specifies the number identifying your area when
someone calls you from outside your area, but still within your
country. Enter your Area Code, even if you do not want to make
calls outside your local exchange area at the moment.
6.
Example 1:
The Area Code for Munich (Germany) is 089.
Example 2:
The Area Code for Inner London is 171.
Enter your ISDN Number.
This parameter specifies the ISDN number of your ISDN access.
If the ISDN-Controller in your router PC is directly connected to
the public ISDN, enter the ISDN subscriber number of your
ISDN access.
If the ISDN-Controller is connected to a private branch exchange
(PBX), enter the ISDN subscriber number of the PBX itself
(without the PBX extension).
If you want to use DDI numbering, enter the complete DDI
number in this field.
Example for DDI: Your ISDN access is assigned the number
range 39925910 to 39925918. Select one of the numbers, for
example 39925913, and enter it as ISDN Number.
Note
96
If you are not sure about your ISDN subscriber number, contact your
local PTT or, if a PBX is used, your PBX specialist.
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 Installation and ISDN Configuration Guide
7.
If your server/router PC is connected to the public ISDN via
a PBX, you have to enter
7a. the PBX Extension to reach the server/router PC.
This parameter specifies the concrete extension of the PBX
your ISDN-Controller is connected to. It must be dialed in
addition to the ISDN subscriber number of the PBX to reach
the ISDN-Controller in your router.
7b. your PBX Outside Line Access.
This is the number you have to dial to get access to the
public ISDN within a PBX.
The most common PBX Outside Line Access digit is "0".
8.
Enter the MSN (Multiple Subscriber Number), if:
-
The server/router PC is connected to an ISDN access with the
D channel protocols DSS1, MDSS1, VN3, CT1, NI1, 5ESS or
AUSTEL, and
-
You have to use MSNs to address the interfaces of your ISDNController and applied for MSNs at your local PTT.
If this applies to your situation, configure the MSN, to which the
interface of ISDN-Controller should listen, as follows:
-
MSNs with non-sequential numbers (8885951, 774840, etc.)
In this case, enter this number in the ISDN Number (see above)
and the MSN field.
Example: ISDN Number: 885951, MSN: 885951
-
MSNs where only the final digits differ (885951, 885952,
etc.):
In this case, the complete entry for ISDN Number (see above)
contains the whole number, and the final digits are repeated for
MSN.
Example: ISDN Number: 885951, MSN: 51.
9.
Enter the EAZ (Endgeräteauswahlziffer), if
-
The router PC is connected to a 1TR6 ISDN access, and
-
you have to use EAZs for one of the following reasons: a
second piece of terminal equipment using the same Service
Configuring ISDN Interfaces
97
Indicator is connected to the same ISDN bus or your router
PC is connected to a PBX that requires configuration of EAZs
to address the interfaces of an ISDN-Controller.
If this is true for your situation, configure the EAZ, to which the
interface of the ISDN-Controller should listen, as follows:
9a. No PBX, ISDN-Controller has direct access to the public
ISDN:
Replace the last digit (0) of your ISDN subscriber number
with the EAZ and enter the resulting number in the ISDN
Number field (see above). Repeat the EAZ here.
Example: EAZ: 7; ISDN subscriber number: 5502150
-> entry for ISDN Number: 5502157; entry for
EAZ: 7
9b. ISDN-Controller connected to a PBX:
How EAZs are configured in this case depends on the type
of PBX used. Therefore ask your PBX specialist, whether
you have to
-
replace the last digit of the PBX Extension with the EAZ.
The EAZ must be repeated here.
Example 1: EAZ: 7; PBX Extension: 210
-> entry for PBX Extension: 217; entry for EAZ: 7
or
-
add the EAZ to the PBX Extension. The EAZ must be
repeated here as well.
Example 2: EAZ: 7; PBX Extension: 210
-> entry for PBX Extension: 2107; entry for EAZ: 7
Possible values for EAZ range from 0 to 9.
10. Press <Enter> on Expert Configuration and continue with
"Expert Configuration of ISDN Interface <Name>".
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NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 Installation and ISDN Configuration Guide
Expert Configuration of ISDN Interface <Name>
The Expert Configuration menu allows you to set values for more
specific interface-related parameters (Subaddress, Interface Usage,
Call Acceptance, Security Call-Back, etc.)
Changes in the Interface Expert Configuration of an ISDN interface
are brought into effect by selecting the Reinitialize System command
from the Internetworking Configuration menu or by entering
REINITIALIZE SYSTEM at the server console prompt. The message
"Driver reconfiguration started" will be displayed at the server
console.
When you press <Enter> on Expert Configuration in the ISDN Network
Interface Configuration menu, the following window is displayed:
Figure 6-3:
Expert Configuration for ISDN Interface <Name> menu
Procedure
1.
Check the Origination Subaddress.
The Origination Subaddress is a supplement to the number that
is dialed to reach the configured ISDN-Controller itself and
specifies the concrete address of the currently selected logical
interface.
When you leave this field empty, incoming calls directed to any
subaddress will be accepted at this interface.
Configuring ISDN Interfaces
99
When you set the Origination Subaddress on all interfaces of an
ISDN-Controller to the same value, incoming calls directed to
this subaddress will be forwarded to any interface.
For PPP over ISDN, the origination subaddress has no meaning.
2.
Check the Interface Usage.
This parameter defines whether the respective interface is to be
used for connections between LANs only, for remote access by
NetWAYS/ISDN and PPP-compatible clients only or whether
both type of connections are allowed.
Default:
Both LAN-LAN and Remote Node-LAN
Options:
Both LAN-LAN and Remote Node-LAN, LAN-LAN,
Remote Node-LAN
If you select "LAN-LAN", no connections to remote nodes are
allowed over this interface. This means that the interface is
reserved for connections between LANs only.
"Remote Node-LAN" means that this interface can only be used
for connections to remote NetWAYS/ISDN and PPP-compatible
clients. If you choose this option, you also have to specify the
Remote Node Usage (see Step 3 below).
"Both LAN-LAN and Remote Node-LAN" allows both types of
connections over this interface. If you have connections with
remote PPP nodes, also read the description of "PPP Destination
Type" on page 110 of this chapter.
3.
If you chose Remote Node-LAN or Both LAN-LAN and
Remote Node-LAN for Interface Usage above, check the
Remote Node Usage.
This parameter describes how NetWare MultiProtocol Router for
ISDN interfaces are treated when used for remote node access.
Default:
Exclusive Interface Reservation
Options:
Exclusive Interface Reservation,
On Demand Interface Acquirement
"Exclusive Interface Reservation" means that an interface and the
underlying ISDN data channel will be reserved for a connection
from the first dial-in until the connection is cleared logically. The
logical connection between the remote client and the interface
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will be maintained in case of an Inactivity Timeout (physical
connection down), and any incoming call to the interface will be
rejected during this period. This guarantees that an ISDN data
channel will be physically available whenever data is to be
transmitted from or to the remote client, and is the recommended type of remote node usage.
"On Demand Interface Acquirement" means that an interface and
the underlying ISDN data channel will not be reserved for one
connection, but will be released and become available for any
other dial-in or dial-out operation as soon as the underlying
physical ISDN data channel between the remote client and the
interface is deactivated due to an Inactivity Timeout. This type is
more flexible, since it allows more than one remote clients to
share a single ISDN data channel. It cannot be guaranteed,
however, that an ISDN data channel is available whenever data
is to be transferred from or to the remote client, since the physical ISDN data channel might be in use for another remote client
communicating with the LAN.
4.
Check the Call Acceptance.
This parameter specifies whether a specific security mechanism
is to be placed ahead of the local network security mechanisms
(specific NetWare login scripts or TCP/IP based logins for each
remote user, for example) when a call is set up from a remote site
to this interface of the ISDN-Controller for the first time.
Default:
All Numbers
Options:
All Numbers, Only Registered Numbers: CallerSpecified, Only Registered Numbers: CLI, Only
Registered Numbers: CLI and Caller-Specified
If "All Numbers" is selected, no ISDN-specific security check is
performed and all incoming calls for the MSN, EAZ or DDI
configured for this ISDN interface are accepted.
"Only Registered Numbers" means that all incoming calls for the
MSN, EAZ or DDI configured for this ISDN interface are crosschecked by their transmitted number (or numbers), and access is
denied to all incoming calls not registered in the Call Acceptance
Database. The following options are possible:
-
Caller-Specified: the origination address (made up from the
components International Dialing Prefix, Country Code, Area
Configuring ISDN Interfaces
101
Code, ISDN Number, PBX Outside Line Access and PBX
Extension) of the remote site or the Dial-Back Number, if
configured, is compared with the number entered in the Call
Acceptance Database. This mode provides least security.
5.
-
CLI: only the number transmitted over the D channel is
compared with that entered in the Call Acceptance Database.
CLI (Call Line Identification) is a service of ISDN. To use CLI,
make sure that this service is enabled at all remote sites that
are allowed access to your router. Otherwise, they are denied
access by your router.
-
CLI and Caller-Specified: the number transmitted over the D
channel and the origination address (made up from the
components International Dialing Prefix, Country Code, Area
Code, ISDN Number, PBX Outside Line Access and PBX
Extension) of the remote site or the Dial-Back Number, if
configured, are compared with the entries in the Call
Acceptance Database. This security mode provides highest
security. Normally, the caller-specifed and the CLI number
are identical. However, they can differ in rare cases (e.g. the
CLI number transmitted may be incomplete). In either case,
you have to make two entries in the Call Acceptance
Database for the respective remote site.
Check the Security Call-Back.
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 provides a Security
Call-Back to provide highest network security. Call-back is
naturally only performed for an initial logical connection set-up
request from a remote site, and not for subsequent underlying
physical call set-ups from this site.
When one of the call-back modes is selected, the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN first disconnects an ISDN connection
coming in from a remote site and then dials back.
Default:
Disabled
Options:
Disabled, Force Call-Back to Caller-Specified Number,
Force Call-Back to CLI Number
With Force Call-Back to a Caller-Specified Number, the NetWare
MultiProtocol Router for ISDN takes the number delivered by
the remote site. This is either the origination address (made up
from the components International Dialing Prefix, Country
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NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 Installation and ISDN Configuration Guide
Code, Area Code, ISDN Number, PBX Outside Line Access and
PBX Extension) of the remote site or the Dial-Back Number, if
configured.
With Force Call-Back to CLI Number, the NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN dials back the number delivered over the D
channel of the ISDN network.
6.
Check the Number of Retries.
This parameter specifies the number of retries the ISDN-Controller will initiate an attempt to establish an ISDN connection.
Default:
3
Range:
0, 1, 2, 3, ... 10 (0=no retry)
If the ISDN network message "Network Congestion" is returned very
often (esp. for international calls), you should enter a higher value for
this parameter to compensate for short-term congestions in the ISDN
network.
Suggestion
7.
Check the Pause Between Retries.
This field specifies the pause (in seconds) between two attempts
to establish an ISDN connection.
8.
Default:
3
Range:
1, 2, 3, ... 30
Check the Inbound Call Processing.
This parameter specifies whether or not the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN listens for incoming calls on the configured
network interface.
Default:
Enabled
Options:
Enabled, Disabled, Time Restricted
When Inbound Call Processing is enabled, the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN listens to incoming calls on the currently configured network interface.
When inbound call processing is disabled, no incoming calls for
the MSN, EAZ or DDI configured on this interface are accepted.
If Inbound Call Processing is disabled on all interfaces of an
ISDN-Controller, no incoming calls will be accepted at the ISDN
bus. The ISDN network will return the message "No user re-
Configuring ISDN Interfaces
103
sponding". This feature is useful for central sites that want to
make circular calls to their branch offices and never want to be
called themselves.
Time Restricted lets you enable and disable Inbound Call
Processing at specific times for security purposes. Time Restrictions are configured in a different menu (see Step 11 below).
When the value changes from Enabled to Disabled, active connections will not be affected.
9.
Check the Outbound Call Processing.
This parameter defines whether or not outgoing calls are processed on this interface. It is useful for service providers, for
example, who offer online services and do not want to have
connection charges at their ISDN access. On the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN in AVM´s Data Call Center, Outbound
Call Processing is disabled, for example.
Default:
Enabled
Options:
Enabled, Disabled, Time Restricted
Enabled means that outgoing calls are allowed over this interface.
When Outbound Call Processing is disabled, no outgoing calls,
including underlying call set-ups, are allowed over this interface.
It can only be used for incoming calls.
Time Restricted lets you enable and disable Outbound Call
Processing at specific times. Time Restrictions are configured in a
different menu (see Step 11 below). For example, you can disable
Outbound Call Processing during the weekends to make sure
that no one is able to dial into or out of your LAN and no
charges accrue over the weekend.
When the value changes from Enabled to Disabled, active connections will not be affected.
10. Check theThresholds for the ISDN Connection Monitor or
enter new values.
The ISDN Connection Monitor lets you configure three different
interface-related thresholds on a 24 h basis: the maximum
physical up-time per interface, the maximum outgoing calls per
interface and the maximum charge units per interface. When one
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NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 Installation and ISDN Configuration Guide
of the thresholds is reached, the interface is barred for incoming
and outgoing calls until the bar is removed. For the initial phase,
you may take the given default values. For more information
and an explanation of how the default values have been calculated, refer to Chapter 18, section "ISDN Connection Monitor".
Later, to find out the appropriate threshold values for your
situation, watch the number of ISDN call set-ups, the physical
up-time and the charge units accruing daily for three or four
weeks. The threshold values then should be slightly higher than
the average to allow for deviations at peak times.
To view or modify the thresholds, press <Enter> on the parameter to display the following window:
Figure 6-5:
Thresholds Configuration
Important
To avoid unnecessary charges, you should adapt the defaults on all
ISDN interfaces to your situation.
10a. Physical Up-Time Threshold.
Default:
40 min
Enter the Physical Up-Time Threshold in hours, minutes
and seconds.
10b. Outgoing Calls Threshold.
Default:
200
Enter the Outgoing Calls Threshold.
10c. Chargings Threshold.
Default:
200
Enter the Chargings Threshold.
11. Check the Time Restrictions.
Press <Enter> on this parameter to display the following window:
Configuring ISDN Interfaces
105
Figure 6-6:
Interface Time Restrictions Configuration Menu
If you set the Interface Status, Inbound Call Processing and
Outbound Call Processing to "Time Restricted", you can define
times during which these parameters are enabled and times
during which they are disabled.
To view or modify the times, press <Enter> on the respective
parameter.
Figure 6-7:
Interface Status Time Restrictions Menu
As you can see, all the input fields are already filled in with
asterisks. This means the parameter is enabled each day of the
week and every hour of the day.
To disable the parameter at certain times, delete the corresponding asterisks by pressing <Del> or the Space Bar. To restore the
asterisks, press <Ins> or *.
The key assigment is similar to that in the SYSCON utility
(NetWare 3.12) and NETADMIN/NWADMIN utilities (NetWare
4.x).
Important
106
If the interfaces of an ISDN-Controller are not identified by a unique
MSN, EAZ or DDI, make sure that Time Restrictions are set identically
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 Installation and ISDN Configuration Guide
on each interface. For more information, refer to Chapter 14, "Configuration Interdependencies".
11a. Check the time restrictions for the Interface Status.
In this window you can determine the days and times
during which the given interface can be used. Outside these
periods, the interface is barred for outgoing as well as
incoming calls. The interface status in the ISDN Console
changes from UP to DOWN to indicate that outgoing calls
are not possible and incoming calls to this interface are
rejected. A connection configured as a backup router would
then be activated.
When the Interface Status changes from Enabled to Disabled, all active connections over this interface are cleared.
For example, you can disable the Interface Status during the
weekends to make sure that no one is able to dial into or out
of your LAN.
11b. Check the time restrictions for Inbound Call Processing.
Here you can define the days and times during which
Inbound Call Processing is enabled (asterisk) and disabled
(no asterisk).
When the value changes from Enabled to Disabled, active
connections will not be affected.
11c. Check the time restrictions for Outbound Call Processing.
Here you can define the days and times during which
Outbound Call Processing is enabled (asterisk) and disabled
(no asterisk).
When the value changes from Enabled to Disabled, active
connections will not be affected.
12. If you are using an AVM ISDN-Controller for PRI, check the
Setup Delay.
In some rare cases local exchanges have problems with multiple
call set-ups within short intervals at Primary Rate Interfaces.
If this is the case, define the Setup Delay in milliseconds.
Configuring ISDN Interfaces
107
Default:
0 (= disabled)
Options:
0 to 2000 (milliseconds)
13. For international connections, enter the Dialing Suffix.
For certain international connections, a special character is
needed to indicate the end of the phone number. This will
accelerate call set-up considerably from within about 12 to 15
seconds to 1 to 2 seconds.
Enter the required symbol in this place to accelerate call-set up to
abroad sites.
For connections from Belgium to Germany, the
character to enter is #.
Example:
14. Check the Statistics Period.
This parameter specifies the rate (in seconds) at which the ISDNcontroller updates the statistics gathered.
Default:
30
Range:
5, 6, 7 ... 300
These Statistics can be viewed through the ISDN Console or via
the MPR for ISDN Router Manager or any SNMP-based management console by displaying the specified tables as described in
MPR4ISDN.MIB.
15. Check the Starvation Timeout.
This parameter defines the period of time the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN will wait for replies from remote sites.
When a data channel is broken, a signal is sent over the D channel to report the event. Since there is no D channel in D64S lines,
this parameter is mainly used with D64S. However, it also
applies for other ISDN lines.
Default:
10 (seconds)
Options:
0 to 30 seconds (0=disabled)
16. Check the Queue Limit.
This parameter specifies the maximum number of outbound
data packets that can be queued within the NetWare operating
system and on the ISDN-Controller to this interface for transmission. When the limit is exceeded, subsequent outbound data
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NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 Installation and ISDN Configuration Guide
packets will be returned to the service requester instead of being
added to the transport queue of the interface. As a consequence,
the Dropped Packet counts in the ISDN Console (see Chapter 18)
increases.
Default:
100
Range:
0, 1, 2, ... 2000
A value of 0 defines unlimited queues. However, it is recommended not to change the default value.
17. Press <Esc> to return to the ISDN Network Interface Configuration menu.
18. Press <Enter> on Default Interface Call Destination and
continue with "Default Call Destination Configuration".
Default Call Destination Configuration
The Default Call Destination Configuration of an interface applies
when a call comes in from a remote site which you did not configure
a call destination for. In such a case, the router takes the parameter
values in the Default Call Destination Configuration of the respective
interface to control the connection.
For information on how incoming calls are accepted, refer to Chapter
7, "Configuring ISDN Call Destinations."
When you press <Enter> on Default Interface Call Destination, the
following menu is displayed:
Configuring ISDN Interfaces
109
Figure 6-8:
Default Call Destination Configuration for ISDN Interface <Interface Name> menu
Check all the values in this menu. For detailed information on each of
the parameters, refer to Chapter 7, "Configuring ISDN Call Destinations".
Note the following differences to the ISDN Call Destination
Configuration:
-
Encapsulation Protocol:
the default value is Auto-Framing to allow automatic detection of
the protocol used (AVM Proprietary or PPP over ISDN).
-
COSO:
the option "Local" is not available, since it would not make sense
to assume the charges for an unknown caller.
-
PPP Destination Type:
this parameter defines how PPP calls from "unknown" sites are
accepted. Options are "LAN" and "Remote-Node".
LAN means that for incoming PPP calls, parameters are
negotiated as defined in RFC 1634 (IPXWAN). In addition, the call
is visible through the Call Connection Manager (CALLMGR).
If you select Remote-Node, parameters will be negotiated as
defined in RFC 1552 (IPXCP) or RFC 1332 (IPCP), depending on
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NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 Installation and ISDN Configuration Guide
the network protocol. In addition, the call is visible in the ISDN
Console (Remote Nodes).
-
You should set the Disconnect Timeout to an appropriate value to
make sure that connections to unknown remote sites are
disconnected after a specified period of inactivity. Example: On
AVM´s Data Call Center, the Disconnect Timeout is set to 5 min.
-
To make sure that unknown remote sites are not allowed to use
channel bundling, it is recommended to leave the defaults
Channel On Demand=Disabled and Static Bundling=Disabled.
ISDN-Controller Configuration
In the ISDN-Controller Configuration you define special parameters
that apply for the current ISDN-Controller.
You only have to enter this menu, if
Important
-
You have a point-to-point ISDN access.
-
You want to accept all incoming calls on this ISDN-Controller as
Mobile ISDN calls only.
-
You have to use SPIDs (D channel protocols NI-1 and 5ESS).
-
You are using an AVM ISDN-Controller for PRI.
For each ISDN-Controller, you have to configure these parameters only
once!
Changes in the ISDN-Controller Configuration are brought into effect
by selecting the Reinitialize System command from the Internetworking
Configuration menu. The boards are unloaded and reloaded again
with the new settings.
When you press <Enter> on ISDN-Controller Configuration in the
ISDN Network Interface Configuration menu, the following menu is
displayed:
Figure 6-7:
ISDN-Controller Configuration menu
Configuring ISDN Interfaces
111
Procedure
1.
If you are using an AVM ISDN-Controller for BRI, check the
setting for Point-to-Point.
If you have a point-to-point ISDN access, you must enable Pointto-Point. At a point-to-point access, only one ISDN terminal
device can be operated.
Default:
Disabled
Options:
Disabled, Enabled
At a point-to-multipoint access, leave the default "Disabled". At
point-to-multipoint accesses, up to eight terminal devices can be
operated. They can be addressed with the help of MSNs or
EAZs.
2.
If you are using MDSS1 or M1TR6 as D Channel Protocol,
check the Mobile Call Detection.
Mobile Call Detection defines how incoming calls are treated
when you are using the D channel protocols MDSS1 and M1TR6.
These protocols support calls from remote sites over GSM-based
cellular networks as well as over terrestrial ISDN lines.
Default:
Auto-Framing
Options:
Auto-Framing, Mobile Calls Only
When Mobile Call Detection is set to Auto-Framing, both types
of calls are accepted on this interface.
Mobile Calls Only means that only calls from remote sites over
GSM-based cellular networks are accepted on this interface.
Calls over standard terrestrial ISDN lines are rejected.
3.
If you have an ISDN access with the D channel protocol NI-1
or 5ESS, enter your SPID1 and SPID2.
SPIDs are Service Profile Identifiers which are used to identify
what sort of services and features the switch provides to the
ISDN device. When a new subscriber is added, the service
representative will allocate a SPID just as they allocate a directory number. Subscribers must input the SPIDs into their terminal device before they will be able to connect to the central office
switch (this is referred to as initializing the device).
Your ISDN provider should be able to tell you what your SPID is
and how many SPIDs are required.
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NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 Installation and ISDN Configuration Guide
4.
If you are using an AVM ISDN-Controller for PRI, check the
CRC4 Multiframe Format.
Default:
Enabled
Options:
Enabled, Disabled
In some countries, there are two different types of PRI switching
stations which use different signalling formats on the D channel.
Newer stations use CRC4 Multiframe format, older ones
Doubleframe format. Call set-up problems may be the result,
which become apparent through the following: The D channel
LED on the AVM ISDN-Controller T1/T1-B flashes and the ISDN
network returns the error message 3301 or 3302.
In such a case, ask your local PTT if CRC4 Multiframe is supported at your local switching station. If not, you should disable
CRC4 Multiframe Format in this menu.
5.
Press <Esc> to return to the ISDN Network Interface Configuration menu.
When you are finished, press <Esc> twice, select Yes to save your
changes to the Interface Configuration, then press <Enter>.
The Network Interfaces menu reappears.
To configure the remaining interfaces, if any, repeat the steps described in the sections "ISDN Network Interface Configuration",
"Expert Configuration for ISDN Interface <Name>" and "Default
Interface Call Destination" above.
Then, proceed to Chapter 7, "Configuring ISDN-Call Destinations" to
configure your call destinations.
Configuring ISDN Interfaces
113
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NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 Installation and ISDN Configuration Guide
chapter
Configuring ISDN Call Destina7 tions
The WAN Call Directory is a list of ISDN Call Destination Configurations. In general, you have to create one ISDN Call Destination
configuration for each destination (LANs and remote nodes) your
router will communicate with.
Before you start configuring ISDN call destinations, you should be
aware of how the NetWare® MultiProtocol RouterTM for ISDN 3.1
identifies and treats outgoing and incoming calls.
Outgoing calls are identified by the unique Call Destination Name of
an ISDN call destination. The call destination names are for example
used within the protocol bindings and identify the target when calls
are set up with CICCON or CALLMGR.
Incoming calls are treated as follows:
-
First, the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN checks whether
it can find the CLI number transmitted over the D channel in a call
destination´s CLI List.
-
If not, it takes the Default Call Destination Configuration of the
interface to which the call is directed and switches through the B
channel with the parameters defined in the default destination.
-
In the next step, it compares the number transmitted over the B
channel (caller-specified number) with the entries for ISDN
Number in the configured ISDN call destinations.
-
If it does not find a corresponding entry, it checks the transmitted
system ID with the Remote System IDs configured in the call
destinations.
-
If this is not successful either, the call is accepted with the parameters defined in the Default Call Destination Configuration for the
specified interface.
If one of the checks is successful, the call is accepted with the parameters defined in the corresponding ISDN call destination configuration.
Configuring ISDN Call Destinations
115
Special configuration scenarios are described in the following chapters of this Guide:
-
Chapter 9, "Configuring IPX"
-
Chapter 10, "Configuring TCP/IP"
-
Chapter 11, "Configuring AppleTalk"
-
Chapter 12, "Configuring Source Route Bridge"
-
Chapter 13, "Advanced Configuration"
-
Chapter 14, "Configuration Interdependencies"
-
Chapter 15, "Configuring Remote Node Access"
This chapter contains the following sections:
-
"Configuring an ISDN Call Destination" on page 116
-
"Changing ISDN Call Destination Parameters" on page 150
-
"Deleting an ISDN Call Destination" on page 151
Configuring an ISDN Call Destination
To configure ISDN Call Destinations, INETCFG is required. If
INETCFG is not already loaded, load it by typing the following
command at the server prompt:
LOAD INETCFG <Enter>
The Internetworking Configuration menu is displayed.
Proceed as follows:
Procedure
1.
From the Internetworking Configuration menu, select WAN
Call Directory, then press <Enter>.
The Configured WAN Call Destinations window is displayed. This
window has no entries if no ISDN Call Destinations are configured.
2.
Press <Ins> to configure a new ISDN Call Destination.
The prompt New Call Destination Name: allows you to enter a
name of up to 47 alphanumeric characters for the new ISDN Call
Destination.
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NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 Installation and ISDN Configuration Guide
The ISDN Call Destination name entered here is used in several
other menu options when an ISDN Call Destination name needs
to be identified. You should use a descriptive name, such as the
name of the remote destination and whether it is a LAN or a
remote node or a branch or store number.
3.
Enter a name for the new ISDN Call Destination, then press
<Enter>.
A list of supported wide area media is displayed. These are
media available on previously configured ISDN interfaces. If you
have not yet configured such an interface, the respective medium
is not displayed in this list.
Note
If you have not installed an ISDN-Controller and configured an interface
before attempting to configure an ISDN Call Destination, you receive
this message:
WAN network interfaces must be configured
before WAN Call Destinations may be created.
4.
Select a Wide Area Medium and press <Enter>.
The wide area media listed depend on which version of the
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 you have installled:
the BRI version (ISDN-BRI), the PRI version (ISDN-PRI), or both.
Select ISDN-BRI for AVM ISDN-Controllers for Basic Rate
Interfaces (BRI).
Select ISDN-PRI for AVM ISDN-Controllers for Primary Rate
Interfaces (PRI).
The ISDN Call Destination Configuration menu is displayed:
Configuring ISDN Call Destinations
117
Figure 7-1:
ISDN Call Destination Configuration menu
5.
Check the Call Status.
The Call Status defines whether or not the call destination may
be used for outgoing and incoming calls. It allows you to disable
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NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 Installation and ISDN Configuration Guide
a call destination entry without having to delete it from the
WAN Call Directory.
Default:
Enabled
Options:
Enabled, Disabled, Time Restricted
Enabled means that outgoing and incoming calls to and from
this destination are allowed.
Disabled means that no outgoing call can be done using this
destination and incoming calls from this call destination are
rejected. If this call destination´s CLI number is in the CLI List,
incoming calls from this site are rejected on the D channel; i.e. no
charges accrue for the caller.
Time Restricted lets you enable and disable the Call Status at
specific times. Thus, you can disallow incoming and outgoing
calls at the weekends, for example, or configure a call destination
for occasional uploads or administration purposes. When a
connection to this call destination is active and the Call Status
changes to "Disabled", the connection is automatically terminated. A configured backup call destination would then be
activated.
For information on configuring Time Restrictions, see Step 29
below.
6.
Check the Call Type.
This parameter lets you specify how the outbound connection is
maintained on the network protocol level.
Default:
On Demand
Options:
On Demand, Permanent
An on-demand connection is activated by data and terminated
logically and physically when the Disconnect Timeout is
reached. The Inactivity Timeout controls the physical connection.
On Demand is the correct setting for circuit-switched lines.
A permanent connection is kept active continuously by reconnecting whenever the link goes down. The underlying physical
connection is controlled by the Inactivity Timeout.
For D64S, DS01 and DS02, you have to set the Call Type to
Permanent and set the Retry Mode (see Step 45) to an appropriate value.
Configuring ISDN Call Destinations
119
When configuring backup calls, the Call Type must also be set to
Permanent.
For detailed information on on-demand and permanent connections and classic and dynamic ISDN interface usage, refer to
Chapter 4, "Basic Design of ISDN-WANs and Configuration
Overview" in this Guide.
7.
Specify an Interface Group or an Interface Name.
Specify the name of the interface or the interface group to initiate
an outbound connection. The Interface Name or Interface Group
is selected from a list of previously configured ISDN interfaces.
You can specify an Interface Name or an Interface Group, but not
both.
When you specify an Interface Name, this interface is always
used for outgoing and incoming calls to and from this destination. If the interface is already in use for a different connection,
the call set-up attempt fails.
When you specify an Interface Group, the system selects any
available interface associated with the group for in- and outbound connection attempts.
8.
Specify the ISDN Number.
Enter the complete number to reach the remote site you want to
connect to.
Be sure that you enter the complete number. The complete
number to enter here depends on how the respective ISDN
device is connected to the public ISDN, on the location of the
remote site and how the addressed ISDN adapter/device there is
connected to the public ISDN. The ISDN Number of the remote
site can therefore maximally consist of the following "components":
120
-
PBX Outside Line Access (DO NOT FORGET !)
-
International Dialing Prefix
-
Country Code
-
Area Code
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 Installation and ISDN Configuration Guide
-
Warning
ISDN subscriber Number of the ISDN adapter/device in the
remote router or PC (including PBX Extension, if it is connected to a PBX).
Entering the numbers here might be compared with dialing a number
on the phone: if one digit is wrong you will get a wrong connection or no
connection at all. Therefore make sure that you have the correct
number of the remote site and that you enter it correctly.
For special connection types such as semipermanent and 56
Kbps connections, refer to Chapter 13, section "Special Connection Types" in this Guide.
9.
Check the Encapsulation Protocol.
Default:
AVM Proprietary
Options:
AVM Proprietary, PPP over ISDN
The AVM Proprietary and PPP over ISDN protocols are different
encapsulating methods for transferring network protocols over
the ISDN B channel.
AVM´s market-proven proprietary protocol has been in practical
use for more than four years. It is based on X.75SLP, which is
standardized in ISDN. Since it offers more powerful features
than PPP over ISDN such as data compression (according to
V.42bis) and various line management features, it is the recommended protocol to be used for connections between AVM´s
NetWare MultiProtocol Routers for ISDN and NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN and AVM´s remote node product
NetWAYS/ISDN. Both have been on the market since 1992 and
support channel bundling and compression according to V.42bis.
PPP over ISDN has been an international standard since 1994
and is intended to provide interoperability between remote
access products of different manufacturers over ISDN. Channel
bundling (PPP MP), for example, has been defined in 1995.
Note
PPP over ISDN is not supported with the GSM protocol stack.
10. Specify the Subaddress.
The Subaddress is a supplement to the number that is dialed to
reach the ISDN-Controller configured at the remote site, and
specifies the concrete address of its logical interface. The Subaddress is not used for PPP connections.
Configuring ISDN Call Destinations
121
Enter the address of the interface for this particular call destination.
The entry in this field must be identical with the Origination
Subaddress configured for the respective interface of the ISDNController at the opposite end of the link. Otherwise the call is
rejected and one charge unit is wasted.
11. Check the Inactivity Timeout.
Since charges accrue for the duration of a call whether data is
being transferred or not, this feature is essential for saving
connection charges.
The Inactivity Timeout deactivates an existing ISDN connection
physically if no data traffic is detected in either direction for the
specified period of time. This process is transparent to all
workstations linked over this ISDN connection, since the logical
(protocol specific) connection between both sites is maintained,
and the physical connection is automatically re-established
within 1 or 2 seconds, if data traffic is detected for the remote
site.
Default:
10 seconds
Options:
0 seconds to 59 min 59 sec (0=disabled);
Time-Controlled
You can either specify a fixed value for the Inactivity Timeout or
select Time-Controlled and configure different Inactivity Timeout
values for different times in the Time Restrictions menu (see Step
29). The latter is useful when you cannot use the Self-Learning
Timeout (for example Advice On Charge During Call not activated) and want to configure times at which the Inactivity
Timeout is changed to adapt it to the different day and night
tariffs of the ISDN network.
If you want to use a fixed Inactivity Timeout, set the value
appropriate for the call destination; i.e. take the meter clock
pulse valid for the current call destination and set the Inactivity
Timeout a little lower. Thus, the Inactivity Timeout will disconnect the ISDN connection physically shortly before the next
charge unit will be counted.
Note
122
For information on the charge intervals, please contact your local PTT.
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 Installation and ISDN Configuration Guide
Setting this timeout value to zero disables the Inactivity Timeout
facility.
Important
Note
If you disable the Inactivity Timeout, keep in mind that the ISDN line is
maintained physically from the first set up to the final clear down,
whether data is transferred or not. This means that charges accrue for
this whole period!!! Therefore, never set the Inactivity Timeout to "0" if
standard circuit-switched lines are used.
Please keep the following in mind: if the physical ISDN connection is
cleared by the Inactivity Timeout, the interface of the ISDN-Controller
maintains the logical connection and thus rejects all incoming calls from
any other remote sites (except when Remote Node Usage is set to On
Demand Interface Reservation). This means that if a different site tries
to establish an ISDN connection to that interface, the call will be
switched through by the local exchange, but the ISDN-Controller will
disconnect this incoming call and reject establishment of the logical
connection to this interface, since it is already in use.
12. Check the Self-Learning Timeout.
The Self-Learning Timeout automatically adjusts the Inactivity
Timeout for outgoing connections to different charge intervals
over the day. To calculate the appropriate timeout value, the
intervals between two charging pulses sent by the PTT are
measured.
To use the Self-Learning Timeout, the following requirements
must be met:
-
Advice On Charge During Call (AOCD) must be activated at
your ISDN access
-
the connection charges must be counted during the ISDN
connection and not only at the end of the connection.
Default:
Disabled
Options:
Enabled, Disabled
When the Self-Learning Timeout is enabled, the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN sets the Inactivity Timeout to one
charge interval minus two seconds. The new value is displayed
on the system console as "Calculated Self-Learning
Timeout <x>" when
Configuring ISDN Call Destinations
123
-
you set up a physical connection and the Self-Learning
Timeout has been calculated for the first time.
-
the meter clock pulse changes and a new Self-Learning
Timeout is calculated.
For information on the influence of the Self-Learning Timeout
and the Disconnect Timeout, refer to Chapter 14, section "Operation of the Self-Learning Inactivity Timeout" in this Guide.
13. Check the Disconnect Timeout.
When the Inactivity Timeout clears down an idle connection
physically, a logical connection is maintained, which means that
all line management parameters negotiated during the initial call
set-up remain valid. The logical connection is controlled by the
Disconnect Timeout. When the Disconnect Timeout expires, the
logical network connection to the remote LAN is cleared as well.
The interfaces of the ISDN-Controllers at both the local and the
remote site are no longer reserved for this connection, and, if a
routing protocol is used, the remote LAN "vanishes". This may
be compared to pressing <Del> on an entry with the status "InConnected" or "Out-Connected" in the CALLMGR to clear
connections.
Default:
0 (=disabled)
Range:
0 seconds to 18 hours (0=disabled);
Same as Inactivity Timeout
Set the Disconnect Timeout value appropriate for the ISDN Call
Destination, if necessary.
The value for Disconnect Timeout must be higher than or equal
to the value for Inactivity Timeout. The difference between the
two is the period after which the connection is cleared logically
as well.
Example:
Inactivity Timeout = 10 seconds; Disconnect
Timeout = 2 hours
-> The physical connection is cleared after 10
seconds whereas the interface is cleared logically
after 2 hours of inactivity. If data traffic is detected
within these 2 hours, the Inactivity Timeout and
Disconnect Timeout begin to count anew.
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If you want to clear interfaces for other connections after a
certain period of inactivity, set the Disconnect Timeout to "Same
as Inactivity Timeout".
Setting this timeout value to zero disables the Disconnect Timeout. For on-demand connections, the interface that has been
handling the connection to the current call destination will be
reserved for this call destination (except when Remote Node
Usage is set to "On Demand Interface Reservation") until: the
Inactivity Timeout expires, the connection is cleared manually
(CALLMGR or CICCOFF), the Call Status of this destination
expires (if Time Restrictions are configured), one of the interface
threshold values or one of the call destination´s budget values is
reached.
14. Check the Outbound Call Processing.
This parameter defines whether or not initial outgoing calls are
allowed to this destination.
Default:
Enabled
Options:
Enabled, Disabled, Time Restricted
When Outbound Call Processing is enabled, outgoing calls to
this destination are possible.
When this parameter is disabled, no initial outgoing calls are
allowed to this destination. Only incoming calls from this destination are allowed. This makes sense whenever the protocol
requires a local destination configuration (for examples for static
routes), but you do not want to allow initial outgoing calls to this
destination.
Note
Please note that this does not affect calls performed after an inactivity
timeout. These calls are allowed if the initial call was set-up by the
remote site and can be controlled via COSO or Interface Outbound Call
Processing.
Time Restricted lets you enable and disable Outbound Call
Processing at specified times. This can be used for security
purposes, to allow connections only at certain times (for example
to transfer e-mails only at the weekend) and to save connection
charges.
For more information on configuring Time Restrictions, refer to
Step 29.
Configuring ISDN Call Destinations
125
15. Check the setting for COSO.
COSO (Charge One Site Only) lets you define which site of an
ISDN connection is to assume the charges.
Default:
Disabled
Options:
Disabled, Local, Remote, No Dial-Out, Time Restricted
When COSO is disabled, the site that established the (underlying) physical connection assumes the charges.
When you set COSO to Local, your site assumes the total connection costs. In this case, your router identifies an incoming call
from this site by the number delivered on the D channel (CLI
number), rejects the call and calls back. This is why you must
enter the CLI number of this remote site in the CLI List (see Step
30).
When you set COSO to Remote, the following happens: Each
time your router has to transfer data to this remote site, it will
issue a call set-up request over the D channel. It expects that the
remote site rejects the call and calls back to assume the charges.
If the remote site does not reject the call on the D channel, the
connection is switched through on the B channel(s) and connection charges accrue for your site. In this case, COSO is automatically changed to "No Dial-Out" and the connection is cleared. No
further charges accrue for your site.
When you set COSO to No Dial-Out, no call set-up request is
issued over the D channel. All kinds of outgoing calls to this
destination are barred.
Time-Restricted lets you define times and days at which you
want to change COSO automatically. For information on how to
configure time restrictions, refer to Step 29.
For an example for the use of COSO, refer to the Technical Note on
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1.
16. Press <Enter> on Budget.
The following menu is displayed:
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Figure 7-2:
Call Destination Budget Configuration menu
Here you can specify the maximum amount of money or the
maximum number of charge units you want to spend for a call
destination per month, week and day.
The lower half of the menu shows the amounts that have been
spent so far in the specified period.
When one of the maximum values is reached, the connection to
the remote site is cleared and incoming and outgoing connections to this call destination are no longer allowed. To allow
connections again, either set the expired budget value to (None)
or configure a higher value. The current values are not reset
when one of the maximum values is reached!
16a. Select the Unit in which you want to configure the
budgets.
Default: Currency
Options: Currency, Charge Units
The currency display and the cost of one charge unit are
configured in the Global MPR for ISDN Configuration. For
more information, refer to Chapter 8, "Global Configuration".
16b. Monthly Budget.
Default: (None)
Enter the maximum amount of money or the maximum
number of charge units you want to spend for this call
destination per month.
Configuring ISDN Call Destinations
127
16c. Weekly Budget.
Default: (None)
Enter the maximum amount of money or the maximum
number of charge units you want to spend for this call
destination per week.
16d. Daily Budget.
Default: (None)
Enter the maximum amount of money or the maximum
number of charge units you want to spend for this call
destination per day.
17. To set spoofings and filters for this call destination, press
<Enter> on Spoofings/Filters to display the following menu:
Figure 7-4:
Spoofing/Filters Configuration menu
Warning
128
Please be very careful when changing the defaults for the parameters
in this menu. All these filter and spoofing mechanisms are provided to
hold the physical ISDN connection to remote LANs and remote node
clients and the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN down as long as
possible in order to avoid ISDN connection charges. Changing one of
the defaults will, in most cases, result in frequent ISDN call set-ups to
transmit the packets not filtered or spoofed. This will cause
unneccessarily high ISDN connection charges. Therefore, you should
never change one of the default values preconfigured for the above
listed parameters, unless you are sure you have to change one of the
defaults and are aware of the consequences.
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 Installation and ISDN Configuration Guide
Spoofing and filtering can be performed on both, the network
protocol and the ISDN driver layer. On the network layer, filters
and spoofings are configured via Bind Options or via FILTCFG.
For more information, refer to the NetWare MultiProtocol Router
3.1 documentations.
For connecting networks via ISDN, however, spoofing and
filtering on the ISDN driver level is much more effective. The
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 provides filter and
spoofing mechanisms for a large number of packets.
Spoofed and filtered packets can be made visible via a packet
trace. Packet Trace can be enabled in the ISDN Console or via the
MPR for ISDN Router Manager and Router Agent. Filtered
packets will be displayed as "Dropped-Send", spoofed packets as
either "Local-Send" or "Local-Receive".
18. Check the Watchdog Spoofing.
NetWare servers send out so called "Watchdog" packets at
regular intervals (default: every 5 minutes) to poll the status of
IPX clients; i.e. they check that clients that have logged into the
server are still "alive".
Watchdog packets can be spoofed on the network protocol level
by enabling the "On Demand Spoofing" parameter in the IPX
binding options, as well as on the ISDN driver level with the
parameter "Watchdog Spoofing".
Default:
Enabled
Options:
Enabled, Disabled
When Watchdog Spoofing is enabled, Watchdog packets are
confirmed by the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN on the
local site and will not be transmitted via ISDN to the remote site.
When this parameter is disabled, an ISDN connection will be set
up each time watchdog packets are to be transferred.
19. Check the SPX Spoofing.
Many applications use SPX besides IPX. When SPX is used, socalled "SPX keep-alive packets" are exchanged frequently (average every 50 seconds) between the client and the application
server (host) to check whether the same application is still
Configuring ISDN Call Destinations
129
running. These packets must be acknowledged on both sides in
order to maintain the session.
On the server, two solutions are provided: one on the network
protocol and on on the ISDN driver level.
On the network level, propagation of SPX Keep-Alive packets
can be turned off by using SPXWDOG.NLM on the server and
the corresponding mechanism on the client. See the NetWare
MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Release Notes, p. 40, for information
about using SPXWDOG.
The NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN provides SPX
Spoofing on the ISDN driver level to acknowledge SPX keepalive packets issued by the application server locally, and not to
transmit them over ISDN to the client site. If the ISDN connection to the client site is cleared, the NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN will stop acknowledging keep-alive packets
issued by the application server. In this way, the ressources
reserved for the client will be released after 75 minutes at the
latest if the user at the client site switches off the PC without
logging out properly. This is indispensible for host sessions and
database applications, since otherwise the reserved ressources
would never be released.
Default:
Enabled
Options:
Enabled, Disabled
When SPX Spoofing is enabled, SPX keep-alive packets issued by
the application server are never transmitted to the remote site,
but are acknowledged locally by the NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN.
If you select "Disabled", ISDN connections over this interface to
remote sites would be set up when SPX keep-alive packets,
generated by the server component, are to be transferred.
Warning
130
For the client application, it is absolutely necessary to transmit a keepalive packet at least every hour to check whether the server is still
there.
To minimize call set-ups initiated by the client, you must set the SPXspecific timers on the client to a value appropriate for use with ISDN.
This is done in the network configuration of the client. A value of 65 000
for "spx verify timeout" and "spx abort timeout" will let the client issue
appr. one SPX keep-alive packet per hour.
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 Installation and ISDN Configuration Guide
20. Check the NCP Spoofing.
Default:
Disabled
Options:
Enabled, Disabled
NCP Spoofing prevents the ISDN transmission of "get directory
path" and "end of job" requests (NCP request type 2222, transported over IPX packet type 17) often issued in conjunction with
a File Open box in any Windows, Windows for Workgroups or
Windows 95 application such as Word for Windows. The number
and frequency of such NCP requests depends on whether
Micosoft´s or Novell´s NetWare Requester is used.
When NCP Spoofing is disabled, all NCP requests type 2222 are
transmitted over ISDN to all remote servers this client has drive
mappings on.
21. Check the LSP Hello Spoofing.
When NLSP is used over ISDN links, the protocol regularly
sends out so-called LSP Hello Packets (default: every 20 seconds,
maximum: every 600 seconds). The interval in which these
packets are sent can be configured via the "NLSP Convergence
Rate Configuration" menu (parameter "Non-Broadcast Hello
Interval").
LSP Hello Spoofing is provided to confirm WAN LSP Hello
packets locally on the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN
for each interface. This avoids frequent call set-ups over ISDN
and thus saves connection charges.
Default:
Enabled
Options:
Enabled, Disabled
When LSP Hello Spoofing is enabled, LSP Hello Packets are
confirmed locally on the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN
and are not transmitted over ISDN.
If it is disabled, ISDN connections to remote sites would be set
up over this interface each time the router creates LSP Hello
Packets.
22. Check SNMP Over IPX Filter.
Many network management systems/applications use SNMP to
gather network information.
Configuring ISDN Call Destinations
131
This parameter specifies whether SNMP over IPX packets
(Socket 900F), SNMP Traps over IPX packets (Socket 9010) and
IPX diagnostic packets (Socket 456) are filtered.
Default:
Enabled
Options:
Enabled, Disabled
When the SNMP over IPX Filter is enabled, SNMP information
transported over IPX by the source or destination socket numbers 900F, 9010 and 456 are filtered and not transmitted over this
interface to any remote site.
When this filter is disabled, ISDN connections to remote sites
will be set up each time when those packets generated by the
SNMP applications are to be transferred.
Example: For the NetExplorer of NMS/ManageWise, the IPX
Diagnostic Packets send for the Workstation Discovery Process
would be filtered.
23. Check the SNMP Over IP Filter.
In conjunction with SNMP, the protocol IP can also be used to
transmit SNMP-related packets.
This parameter specifies whether SNMP over UDP packets (port
161) and SNMP Traps over UDP packets (port 162) are filtered.
Default:
Enabled
Options:
Enabled, Disabled
When the SNMP over IP Filter is enabled, SNMP information
transported over IP by the source or destination ports 161 and
162 are filtered and not transmitted over this interface to any
remote client.
When this filter is disabled, ISDN connections to remote sites
will be set up each time when those packets, generated by the
SNMP applications, are to be transferred.
Example: For the NetExplorer of NMS/ManageWise, the IP
Diagnostic Packets send for the Workstation Discovery Process
would be filtered.
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24. Check the IPX Message Filter.
When a problem occurs on a NetWare server (e.g. "Server out of
disk space") or when a client issues a message (e.g. "Send to all"),
the corresponding warning or message is sent to all clients that
are logged in to that server. Afterwards, so-called "IPX Broadcast
Message Waiting" packets are sent to these clients in 2 second
intervals, until this warning or message is confirmed by the
clients. This does not cause any problems within a LAN, but
when two LANs are connected over ISDN, the following situation may appear:
Clients log in to a server over ISDN and Watchdog Spoofing is
enabled on the local router. Watchdog packets that poll the status
of IPX clients are consequently confirmed on the router as long
as the clients connected over ISDN are registered to be logged in
to the server. If the user of such a client forgets to log out before
switching the PC off and leaving the office (a quite common
behaviour), the client is still registered to be logged in. Or, users
of clients connected over ISDN leave their desks for hours. In
both cases, IPX Broadcast Message Waiting packets cause the
ISDN line to stay up all the time because they are not confirmed
until the clients log in to the server the next day or the users
return to their desks.
Another method, entering "castoff", has been reported not to
work on Windows clients under certain conditions and has a
major disadvantage: no messages are sent to those clients at all.
Thus, the IPX Broadcast Message Waiting Filter enhances especially your LAN-LAN links in two ways:
Users at their clients will receive such messages/warnings. The
IPX Broadcast Message Filter starts counting the subsequent "IPX
Broadcast Message Waiting" packets issued over ISDN to clients
as soon as no data packets are concurrently transferred over such
an ISDN link and starts filtering after five of these packets have
passed (after ten seconds, if the default polling interval of 2
seconds is used). As soon as the Inactivity Timeout expires, the
ISDN link is cleared physically. If the ISDN line is set up again to
transmit data, this filter is reset and begins to count anew as
described above.
For Remote Node-LAN connections with NetWAYS/ISDN, the
situations described are very unlikely to cause such ISDN links
to stay up because of Disconnect Timeout and other mechanisms
Configuring ISDN Call Destinations
133
implemented for Remote Node-LAN links, however this filter
naturally applies for both LAN-LAN and Remote Node-LAN
links.
Default:
Enabled
Options:
Enabled, Disabled
The following example shows how the filter works:
When a NetWare server or a client issues a message or warning
(e.g. an "NLM" on the server such as ARCserve, or a user using
the "send" command on a client), this will be transported to the
addressed clients, also to those connected via ISDN. The IPX
Broadcast Message Filter starts counting the subsequent "IPX
Broadcast Message Waiting" packets issued over ISDN to clients
as soon as no data packets are concurrently transferred over such
an ISDN link and starts filtering after five of these packets have
passed (after ten seconds, if the default polling interval of 2
seconds is used) and disables the ISDN link as soon as the
Inactivity Timeout expires. If the ISDN line is set up again to
transmit data, this filter is reset and begins to count anew as
described above.
25. Check the NetBIOS Outbound Filter.
Windows-based systems frequently initiate NetBIOS broadcasts.
For the transmission of NetBIOS packets within IPX, IPX Packet
Type 20 is used.
On the network protocol layer, NetBIOS broadcasts can be
filtered by enabling the "Advanced Packet Type 20 Flooding"
parameter in the IPX expert configuration or via FILTCFG.NLM.
The NetBIOS Outbound Filter allows outbound filtering of IPX
Type 20 packets on the ISDN driver level to prevent them from
being transmitted to remote sites over ISDN.
Default:
Enabled
Options:
Enabled, Disabled
When the NetBIOS Outbound Filter is enabled, NetBIOS broadcasts transmitted over IPX Type 20 packets are filtered, and
therefore not transmitted over ISDN to remote sites.
If this filter is disabled, ISDN connections to remote sites are set
up by the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN each time
such a broadcast packet is to be transferred.
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26. Check the Timesync Filter.
In a NetWare 4 environment, NetWare Directory Services (NDS)
is distributed across the network. When users or objects are
added to the directory, they are added to the local copy of the
database and then propagated throughout the network to other
copies (replicas) of the database. If the same object is modified in
two different replicas, the order of the modification must be
preserved to correctly propagate the changes. One way to ensure
the correct ordering of directory events is to time stamp them.
Without a common time source, each of the NDS servers can
have a different reference time. Time synchronization solves this
problem by synchronizing the time among NDS servers in the
network.
On the network protocol level, you can use the TIMESYNC.NLM
to reduce the frequency in which Time synchronization packets
are sent. For more information, refer to the NetWare MultiProtocol
Router 3.1 Release Notes, pp. 48-50.
The Timesync Filter filters NCP requests type 114 that are used to
synchronize time between NDS servers on the ISDN driver level.
In this case, you have to use a different mechanism to synchronize NDS servers, for example by using external clock devices.
Default:
Enabled
Options:
Enabled, Disabled
When the Timesync Filter is enabled, NCP requests type 114 are
not sent over ISDN to other NDS servers in the WAN.
When you disable the filter, an ISDN connection is set up each
time if time synchronization packets are issued.
27. Check the NW4/NDS Filter.
In all versions of NetWare 4, the NDS synchronization logic
checks with each server in its replica list regularly to determine
whether any changes have occurred. There are different processes with different synchronization tasks. Examples are the
Heartbeat, Backlink and Schema process. Each synchronization
is initiated with a so-called Ping-for-NDS packet (NCP request
type 104).
Configuring ISDN Call Destinations
135
To reduce the NDS synchronization packets, two solutions are
provided:
One possibility is to use two NLMs (DSFILTER.NLM and
PINGFILT.NLM) delivered with the product. These filters must
be installed and configured on each NetWare 4 server in the
internetwork. For more information on how to configure and use
these filters, refer to the NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Release
Notes, pp. 51-55.
The second solution is to use the NW4/NDS Filter, which filters
Ping-for-NDS packets on the ISDN driver level to prevent them
from being sent over ISDN.
Default:
Enabled
Options:
Enabled, Disabled
When the NW4/NDS Filter is enabled, NCP requests type 104
packets are filtered and not sent over ISDN to each remote
NetWare 4 server in the NDS tree.
When you disable the NW4/NDS Filter, an ISDN connection is
set up to all remote LANs with NDS servers each time an NCP
request type 104 is issued.
28. Check the NW4/NDS Spoofing.
The NW4/NDS Spoofing acknowledges Ping-for-NDS packets
(NCP request type 104) locally and prevents them from being
sent over ISDN to all remote NetWare 4 servers in the NDS tree.
However, NDS synchronization is required in regular intervals.
This is why NDS Pass Through Times must be configured on the
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 to allow initiation of
synch processes by Ping-for-NDS packets.
Default:
Disabled
Options:
Disabled, Enabled, Time Restricted
When NW4/NDS Spoofing is enabled, the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN acknowledges Ping-for-NDS packets locally
and sends back error 663 (DS is locked).
To make sure that synchronization throughout the WAN is
effected in regular intervals, select Time Restricted and configure
NDS Pass Through Times and use the NDSSYNC.NLM. For
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NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 Installation and ISDN Configuration Guide
more information, refer to Step 29e below and to the Technical
Note.
When you disable NW4/NDS Spoofing, an ISDN connection is
set up to all remote LANs with NDS servers each time a Pingfor-NDS packet is issued.
29. Check the Time Restrictions. Press <Enter> on this
parameter to display the following window:
Figure 7-3:
Time Restrictions menu
29a. Call Status.
When you press <Enter> on Call Status, the following
window appears:
Figure 7-4:
Call Status Time Restrictions Configuration menu
In this window you can determine the days and times
during which the current call destination can be dialed and
calls from it are accepted. Out of these times no outgoing or
incoming connections to or from this call destination are
possible.
Configuring ISDN Call Destinations
137
When a connection to this call destination is active and the
Call Status changes to "Disabled", the connection is automatically terminated. No outgoing calls to this destination
are possible and incoming calls from it are rejected. A
configured backup call destination would then be activated.
As you can see, all the input fields are already filled in with
asterisks. This means the call destination can be used each
day of the week and every hour of the day.
To deny use at certain times, delete the corresponding
asterisks by pressing <Del> or the Space Bar. To restore the
asterisks, press <Ins> or *.
The key assignment is similar to that in the SYSCON utility
(NetWare 3.12) and NETADMIN/NWADMIN utilities
(NetWare 4.x).
To leave the menu and return to the Call Destination Time
Restrictions menu, press <Esc>.
29b. Inactivity Timeout.
Press <Enter> on Inactivity Timeout to display the following
menu:
Figure 7-5:
Inactivity Timeout Change menu
In this list you can determine days and times at which you
want the Inactivity Timeout to be changed automatically.
This is useful when you cannot use the Self-Learning
Timeout (for example Advice On Charge During Call not
activated) and want to configure times at which the Inactivity Timeout is changed to adapt it to the different day and
night tariffs of the ISDN network.
Initially, the list is empty.
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To enter a new time, press <Ins>. Enter the Day of Week, the
Time of Day and the new Inactivity Timeout value in the menu
and press <Esc>. The new time is now shown in the list.
29c. Outbound Call Processing.
When you press <Enter> on Outbound Call Processing, a
window similar to that for Call Status Time Restrictions is
displayed.
This menu lets you enable and disable Outbound Call
Processing at specified times. This can be used for security
purposes, to allow connections only at certain times (for
example to transfer e-mails only at the weekend) and to
save connection charges.
29d. COSO.
Press <Enter> on COSO to display a menu similar to that for
Inactivity Timeout (see above).
In this list you can determine days and times at which you
want COSO to be changed automatically. Initially, the list is
empty.
To enter a new time, press <Ins>. Enter the Day of Week, the
Time of Day and the new setting for COSO in the menu and
press <Esc>. The new time is now shown in the list.
29e. NDS Pass Through Times.
NDS databases must be updated in regular intervals. Thus,
if you NW4/NDS Spoofing to Time Restricted above, you
have to define days and times at which so-called Ping for
NDS packets are not spoofed in order to enable synchronization within the WAN.
To save money, you can use the NDS Pass Through Times to
allow updates in times where connections charges are low,
for example during the night.
When you press <Enter> on NDS Pass Through Times, the
following menu is displayed:
Configuring ISDN Call Destinations
139
Figure 7-6:
NDS Pass Through Times Configuration menu
As you can see, all the input fields are empty.
To allow transmission of Ping for NDS packets at certain
times, press <Ins> or *.
Press <Esc> until you return to the ISDN Call Destination
Configuration menu.
For more information on initiation of Ping-for-NDS packets,
refer to the Technical Note.
30. Press <Enter> on CLI List.
The CLI List is a database containing all CLI numbers of this
remote site for incoming calls. The CLI number is required
-
to relate an incoming call to a configured call destination (see
explanation at the beginning of this chapter).
-
to perform a security check if Call Acceptance is set to "Only
Registered Numbers: CLI" or "Only Registered Numbers: CLI
and Caller-Specified".
-
if you set COSO to "Local". In this case, the CLI number is
used to determine whether your router is allowed to assume
the charges for calls from this remote site.
30a. To enter the CLI number of a new remote site, press
<Ins>.
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30b. Enter the CLI number of the remote site.
Important
If the remote site calls you from a call number pool, you have to
register all remote CLI numbers in that pool in your CLI List for the
call destination.
30c. To return to the ISDN Call Destination Configuration,
press <Esc> and save your changes.
31. Check the Header Compression.
Header Compression is a set of standard compression options
intended to eliminate nonessential information from the network
protocol header and maximize the bandwidth available from
ISDN connections. IPX headers can maximally be compresses
from 36 to 2 bytes, and TCP/IP headers from 40 to 3 bytes.
According to the network protocol used, CIPX Header Compression (RFC 1553) or Van Jacobsen TCP/IP Header Compression
(RFC 1144) can be enabled.
Header compression can also be performed on the network
protocol level for IPX. It is configured in the Expert Binding
Options. However, header compression on the ISDN driver level
is more effective since compression is performed on the ISDNController and does not take memory from the server.
Note
Header Compression is negotiated during call set-up with a remote site.
If the remote site is not able to apply it, it is not used.
Default:
Enabled
Options:
Enabled, Disabled
If Header Compression is performed on the ISDN driver level,
header compression on the network protocol level is switched
off.
After header compression, data compression according to V.42bis
can be applied.
32. Check the Data Compression.
This parameter specifies whether the data shall be compressed
during transmission to increase transmission rate. Data compression is more effective than header compression and achieves a
compression rate of up to 8:1.
Configuring ISDN Call Destinations
141
Default:
V.42bis
Options:
No Compression, V.42bis
When data compression is performed on the ISDN-Controller,
the server memory is not burdened with this task. Per B channel,
128 bytes are downloaded on the ISDN-Controller.
33. Check Channel On Demand.
If a large amount of data packets is to be transferred, it may be
favorable to use more than one data channel to accelerate transmission. By bundling the data channels the bandwidth can be
increased considerably.
Channel On Demand allows flexible use of the available ISDN
data channels on one ISDN-Controller by automatically activating the required data channels if a large number of data packets
has to be transferred.
If you have more than one AVM ISDN-Controller installed and
configured on your router, refer to Step 36 below, "Multi-Controller Bundling".
Note
Important
When two or more channels are bundled on demand, the connection
charges are of course multiplied by the number of data channels used.
Please keep this in mind when configuring this parameter.
If you want to use Channel On Demand, the required data channels
must be available for this connection on the ISDN-Controller of both the
local and the remote site. For more information on this, refer to Chapter
14, section "Static Bundling and Channel On Demand" in this Guide.
Default:
Disabled
BRI:
Options:
Disabled, Enabled
PRI:
Options:
Disabled, 1 B Channel, 2 B Channels,
3 B Channels, ..., 15 B Channels
If Channel On Demand is disabled, only one data channel is
used for an ISDN connection, irrespective of the number of data
packets transferred. The other data channel(s) available on the
ISDN-Controller may be used separately by other ISDN Call
Destinations for the other interface(s).
If Channel On Demand is enabled on an AVM ISDN-Controller
for BRI, the second data channel is switched through automati-
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cally if the load exceeds the configured Channel Allocate Threshold (see Step 34a).
If you want to use Channel On Demand on an AVM ISDNController for PRI, specify the number of additional data channels to be switched through automatically if the load exceeds the
configured Channel Allocate Threshold (see Step 34a).
When the load falls below the configured Channel Release
Threshold (see Step 34b), the additional data channels are again
deactivated.
34. If you enabled Channel On Demand above, press <Enter> on
Channel On Demand Threshold.
The following menu is displayed:
Figure 7-7:
Channel On Demand Threshold Configuration menu
34a. Enter the Channel Allocate Threshold in per cent.
This parameter defines the load per data channel in per cent
at which the next channel is switched through for transmission.
Default: 90 %
Range:
0 - 100 % (0=disabled)
The basis for channel allocation is the net throughput rate
displayed in the ISDN Console.
Example: If you enter 90 %, an additional channel will be
switched through when the load reaches 90 % of the load
one channel can handle (64 Kbps) over the Load Duration
(see below).
34b.Enter the Channel Release Threshold in per cent.
Default: 5 %
Range:
0 - 100 % (0=disabled)
Configuring ISDN Call Destinations
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If you set a value for the Channel Release Threshold, the
additional channel(s) is (are) disconnected when the load is
below the threshold over the Load Duration (see below).
When the Channel Release Threshold is set to 0%, the
additional channel(s) is (are) only deactivated when the
Inactivity Timeout expires.
34c. Specify the Load Duration.
The Load Duration defines the time during which the load
must match the Channel Allocate Threshold or the Channel
Release Threshold before additional channels are switched
through or disconnected.
35. Check Static Bundling.
Static Bundling specifies whether a specified number of data
channels is automatically bundled on an ISDN-Controller each
time a physical connection is set up to the current ISDN Call
Destination, thus increasing the bandwidth to a multiple of 64
Kbps, irrespective of the actual data traffic.
If you have more than one AVM ISDN-Controller installed and
configured on your router, refer to Step 36 below, "Multi-Controller Bundling".
Note
When two or more data channels are bundled, the connection charges
are of course multiplied by the number of data channels used. Please
keep this in mind when configuring this parameter.
Important
If you want to use Static Bundling, the required data channels must be
available for this connection on the ISDN-Controller of both the local
and the remote site. For more information on this, refer to Chapter 14,
section "Static Bundling and Channel On Demand" in this Guide.
Default:
Disabled
BRI:
Options:
Disabled, Enabled
PRI:
Options:
Disabled, 1 B Channel, 2 B Channels,
3 B Channels, ..., 15 B Channels
If Static Bundling is disabled, only one data channel is used to
establish an ISDN connection. The other data channel(s) available on the ISDN-Controller may be used separately by other
ISDN Call Destinations for the other interfaces.
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If Static Bundling is enabled on an AVM ISDN-Controller for
BRI, the second data channel is automatically used to establish
the ISDN connection to the remote site, providing double bandwidth.
To use Static Bundling on an AVM ISDN-Controller for PRI,
specify the number of additional data channels to be used to
establish an ISDN connection to this remote site.
36. Check Multi-Controller Bundling.
Multi-Controller Bundling can be used to bundle data channels
over different ISDN-Controllers.
Default:
Disabled
Options:
Disabled, Primary Call Destination, Static Secondary
Call Destination, On Demand Secondary Call Destination
If you want to use Multi-Controller Bundling, you have to
configure more than one call destination for the same remote
site. The call destinations are identified by their identical Remote
System ID. When a connection is established to a remote site, the
router looks for Call Destinations with identical Remote System
IDs and Multi-Controller Bundling set to "Static Secondary Call
Destination" or "On Demand Secondary Call Destination". The
connection to the Primary Call Destination is established, and if
the remote site also supports multi-controller bundling,
-
all additional channels are switched through for Static Secondary Call Destinations
-
On-Demand Secondary Call Destinations are reserved for
channel allocation in case the Channel Allocate Threshold is
reached.
For detailed configuration information and for sample scenarios
in which Multi-Controller Bundling makes sense, refer to the
Technical Note on NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1.
37. If you are using PPP over ISDN, check PPP Multilink.
The PPP Multilink protocol (PPP MP) was developed by the
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as an extension to PPP.
PPP MP extends PPP so that it can split and combine packets
over multiple parallel links in order to create a higher aggregate
Configuring ISDN Call Destinations
145
data rate. It can be used to combine several ISDN B channels to
increase the effective wire speed of 64 Kbps.
Default:
Disabled
Options:
Disabled, Enabled
Disabled means that only one data channel is used to establish
an ISDN connection. The other data channel(s) available on the
ISDN-Controller may be used separately by another ISDN Call
Destination for the other interface.
Enabled means that your router will try to negotiate PPP
Multilink with the remote site during LCP negotiation. If the
remote site supports PPP MP too, additional channels can be
allocated through Channel On Demand or Static Bundling.
38. Decide whether you want to use a Specific Dial-Back
Number.
If configured, the Dial-Back Number will be used by a remote
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN to call your router back
after an Inacitvity Timeout or if the parameter "Security CallBack" is set to "Force Call-Back to Caller-Specified Number" (see
"Expert Configuration of ISDN Interface <Interface Name>").
The number for underlying physical call set-ups/dial-backs is
normally taken from the ISDN number field of a call destination.
In some cases, it is preferable to configure a Specific Dial-Back
Number: For example, if the Area Code differs for national and
international calls, or where the number in the ISDN Number
field is not the optimum number to dial, which might be the case
in frontier areas.
When a Dial-Back Number is configured, this number is transmitted to the remote site during initial call set-up, and is then
always used by the remote site for dialing back, i.e. for all subsequent underlying physical call set-ups.
For PPP over ISDN connections, the Dial-Back Number can be
used during LCP negotiation to request a call-back (RFC 1570,
callback option).
38a. Specify the Dial-Back Number.
Enter the Dial-Back Number to be used to call your router
back.
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39. If you have installed the separate AVM encryption module,
check the Encryption.
AVM´s implementation is software-based and performed on the
ISDN-Controller(s). It is a hybrid system and uses the recognized
procedures IDEA and RSA.
Encryption is not included as standard with the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1, but offered as a separate module.
For more information, please contact AVM.
Default:
Disabled
Options:
Enabled, Disabled
For more information on Encryption, refer to the Technical Note
on NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1.
40. Check Static Remote Node.
Here, you can define whether the NetWare MultiProtocol Router
for ISDN is allowed to initiate calls to a specific remote node in
order to transfer data such as e-mails.
Default:
Disabled
Options:
Disabled, Enabled
Disabled means that data for the specific remote node is only
transferred when the connection has been initiated by the remote
node.
Enabled means that the router itself will initiate a connection to
this remote node when data such as e-mails have to be transferred, irrespective of whether the remote node established an
initial connection. Currently, this is only possible with special
IPX applications or any IP-based application such as FTP demon.
In this case, you must always configure the Node Address of the
remote node for IPX or the IP address for TCP/IP (see below).
For PPP over ISDN, enabling this parameter defines that calls
from this remote site are always accepted as Remote Node-LAN.
In this case, the transmitted caller-specified number or the
delivered system ID must match the configured ISDN Number
or Remote System ID. It is not necessary to configure the Node
Address or the IP Address. If Static Remote Node is disabled,
calls are accepted as LAN-LAN.
Configuring ISDN Call Destinations
147
40a. If you want to use IPX, enter the Node Address of the
remote node.
40b. If you want to use TCP/IP, enter the IP Address of the
remote node.
41. Specify the Inbound Authentication.
Inbound Authentication lets you specify the inbound authentication protocol to use for incoming and outgoing connections.
Default:
None
Options:
None, PAP, CHAP
None means that no inbound authentication is performed for
incoming and outoing connections.
PAP means that inbound authentication is performed with PAP
for incoming and outgoing calls to this destination. The call is
identified by Local System ID, Remote System ID and Password.
The Password is not coded for transmission.
CHAP means that inbound authentication is performed with
PAP for incoming and outgoing calls to this destination. The call
is identified by Local System ID, Remote System ID and Password. CHAP is more secure than PAP, since the Password is
coded for transmission.
Warning
If you want to use Inbound Authentication, do not forget to enter a
Password (see below).
42. Specify a Password.
The Password is used for Inbound Authentication and for
Encryption.
Specify the Password for the current Call Destination.
43. Enter the Local System ID.
This field allows you to specify the name sent to the remote peer
during authentication of an outbound call to identify this system
when using this ISDN Call Destination.
The Local System ID can contain up to 47 alphanumeric characters.
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44. Specify a Remote System ID.
The Remote System ID specifies the name of the remote peer
associated with this ISDN Call Destination.
You must configure a Remote System ID
-
for on-demand TCP/IP connections,
-
to identify incoming calls from this remote site by its system
ID,
-
for inbound authentication,
-
if you want to use Multi-Controller Bundling (see the Technical Note on NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1).
To change the Remote System ID, press <Enter> on this field.
Select from the pop-up list displayed, or press <Ins> to create a
remote system ID.
45. Check the Retry Mode.
Retry Mode specifies the conditions under which a failed connection is retried automatically.
Default:
Never Retry
Options:
Never Retry, Retry Self-Correcting Failures, Retry All
Failures
It is recommended not to change the default "Never Retry" when
you are using standard circuit-switched lines. Otherwise, high
connection charges may occur when the router permanently tries
to set up a connection to a remote site is not active.
For connections with the Call Type set to Permanent (D64S, DS01
and DS02 connections, see Step 6 above), set the Retry Mode to
Retry All Failures.
Note
Note that even if the Retry Mode is activated, a configured backup
destination is switched through.
46. Check the Retry Limit Handling.
Retry Limit Handling specifies the action taken when the connection retry interval exceeds the configured limit. Permanent
call retries can continue indefinitely at the configured interval
limit, or retry attempts can be terminated and the connection
failed.
Configuring ISDN Call Destinations
149
Default:
Stop At Limit
Options:
Continuous At Limit, Stop At Limit
For connections with the Call Type set to Permanent (D64S, DS01
and DS02 connections, see Step 6 above), set this parameter to
Continuous At Limit.
47. Check the Retry Interval Limit.
Retry Interval Limit specifies the maximum delay interval (in
HH:MM:SS) between attempts to establish a connection. The
delay is set to about 8 seconds and increases exponentially.
48. Press <Esc> to return to the Internetworking Configuration
menu and save your changes when prompted.
Changing ISDN Call Destination Parameters
To change any parameter associated with an ISDN Call Destination,
complete the following steps:
1.
At the server prompt, type
LOAD INETCFG <Enter>
The Internetworking Configuration menu is displayed.
2.
From the Internetworking Configuration menu, select WAN
Call Directory, then press <Enter>.
A new window displays a list of the configured WAN Call
Destinations.
3.
Highlight the desired ISDN Call Destination in the list, then
press <Enter>.
A new window displays the ISDN Call Destination parameters
for the selected interface.
4.
Make new selections for the parameters that need to
change, then press <Esc>.
A new window prompts you to save the changes.
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Important
If you change the Call Type or Network Interface of a WAN Call Destination that is used in a bind, the bind is no longer valid. If this occurs, edit
the bind or delete it.
5.
Select Yes to save the changes, then press <Enter>.
The list of configured WAN Call Destinations is redisplayed.
6.
Press <Esc> to return to the Internetworking Configuration
menu.
Deleting an ISDN Call Destination
To delete an ISDN Call Destination, complete the following steps:
1.
At the server prompt, type
LOAD INETCFG <Enter>
The Internetworking Configuration menu is displayed.
2.
From the Internetworking Configuration menu, select WAN
Call Directory, then press <Enter>.
A new window displays a list of the configured WAN Call
Destinations.
3.
Highlight an ISDN Call Destination in the list, then press
<Delete>.
A message is displayed indicating that deleting this ISDN Call
Destination also deletes all binds that refer to this ISDN Call
Destination.
4.
Select Yes to delete the ISDN Call Destination and all binds
that refer to it, then press <Enter>.
5.
Press <Esc> to return to the Internetworking Configuration
menu.
Configuring ISDN Call Destinations
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chapter
8
Configuring Global Parameters
Global MPR for ISDN Configuration
From the Global MPR for ISDN Configuration menu, you can
-
view the Call Acceptance Database and insert new registered
numbers,
-
configure time-controlled loading of NLMs,
-
configure propagation of SNMP Traps,
-
define the currency symbol used in your country and the cost of
one charge unit, and
-
configure logging of ISDN line management messages and
accounting information and define the log file size.
Parameter path: load INETCFG > Network Interfaces > Global MPR for
ISDN Configuration.
The following menu appears:
Figure 8-1:
Global MPR for ISDN Configuration menu
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Completing the Call Acceptance Database
The Call Acceptance Database (SYS:ETC\ISDNCADB.CFG) contains
all remote sites and their numbers you want to allow access to your
router.
To perform this special ISDN security check, you have to set the
parameter "Call Acceptance" in the "Expert Configuration of ISDN
Interface <Name>" menu to "Only Registered Numbers" with the
desired option (see Chapter 6, "Configuring ISDN Interfaces").
To find out the CLI number and the caller specified number, have the
respective remote sites set up a connection to your router. The CLI
number, transmitted over the D channel, and the caller specified
number will be printed on the NetWare system console.
Perform the following steps to register authorized remote sites and
their numbers in the Call Acceptance Database:
Procedure
1.
From the Global MPR for ISDN Configuration menu, select
Call Acceptance Database and press <Enter>.
The Call Acceptance Database window appears. Initially, the
database is empty.
2.
To add entries, press <Ins> to display an empty Registered
Number mask.
3.
In the Registered Number field, enter the number of the
remote site you want to allow access.
4.
Select the Registered Number Type.
Options are "Caller-Specified Number" and "CLI Number". Select
the type of number you entered before.
5.
(Optional) Enter any comment (name or remark) that helps
you to identify the entry and to relate the number to the
corresponding remote site.
6.
Quit the mask with <Esc>. You are asked if you want to make
a second entry for the remote site.
When you set "Only Registered Numbers: CLI and Caller
Specified" for Call Acceptance, you have to make two entries for
this destination: one containing the CLI number and one
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containing the number transmitted over the ISDN B channel. In
this case, select Yes and enter the second number.
If not, select No. The new remote site appears in the Call
Acceptance Database menu. The entries are sorted automatically
in descending order.
7.
Repeat Steps 2 through 6 for each site you want to allow
access.
8.
When you are finished, press <Esc>, select Yes and press
<Enter> to return to the Global MPR for ISDN Configuration.
Automatically Loading NLMs at Specified Times
The option Time-Controlled NLM Loading of the MPR for ISDN Global
Configuration menu allows you to automatically load NLMs at specified times.
For example, you can load CICCON.NLM and CICCOFF.NLM at
specified times to automatically transfer data to a remote site, activate
and deactivate ARCServer or start an NDS synchronization at predefined times.
Press <Enter> on Time-Controlled NLM Loading to display the following menu:
Figure 8-2:
Time-Controlled Loading of NLMs Configuration
To enter an NLM in the list, press <Ins> to display an empty mask.
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Enter the Day of Week, the Time of Day and the Minute of Hour you
want to have the NLM loaded and specify the Command Line for the
NLM.
When you are finished, press <Esc> and save your changes. The new
entry is now included in the list.
To return to the MPR for ISDN Global Configuration, press <Esc>.
ISDN Trap Propagation
SNMP enables network management clients to exchange information
about the configuration and status of nodes on an internetwork. The
information available is defined by a set of managed objects referred
to as the Management Information Base (MIB).
To enable SNMP management on the NetWare MultiProtocol Router
for ISDN, you have to enable Trap propagation and configure SNMP
information. ISDN Trap Propagation is configured in the Global MPR
for ISDN Configuration. To configure SNMP information, refer to
section "Configuring SNMP Information" later in this Chapter.
The ISDN Trap Propagation command in the Global MPR for ISDN
Configuration lets you define whether ISDN Line Management Traps
and Traps reporting ISDN error causes 0x33 and 0x34 are sent to any
SNMP-based management console.
If you enable one of the parameters described below and the management
console is connected over ISDN, you have to disable the SNMP over IPX
Filter or SNMP over IP Filter, depending on which network protocol you want
to use for sending Traps. Otherwise, the Traps will be dropped at the ISDN
driver level.
Note
Press <Enter> on ISDN Trap Propagation in the Global MPR for ISDN
Configuration to display the following menu:
Figure 8-3:
ISDN Trap Propagation Configuration
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Procedure
1.
Check Send Line Management Traps.
This parameter defines whether ISDN Line Management Traps
are sent to any SNMP-based management console or not.
2.
Default:
Disabled
Options:
Disabled, Enabled
Check Send Error Cause #33 Traps.
Here you specify whether you want Traps reporting ISDN error
causes 0x33 to be sent to any management console.
3.
Default:
Enabled
Options:
Enabled, Disabled
Check Send Error Cause #34 Traps.
Define whether you want Traps reporting ISDN error messages
0x34 to be sent to any management console.
Default:
Enabled
Options:
Enabled, Disabled
Adjusting the Currency Display
The NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 provides a number
of statistics in its ISDN Console, among them information on connection charges. Besides, it allows you to configure budget values for
each call destination. In order that these values are displayed correctly, you have to adjust the currency display in the Global MPR for
ISDN Configuration.
Procedure
1.
Check the Currency Symbol.
Default:
DM
Enter the symbol for the currency used in your country.
2.
Enter a value for Charge Per Unit.
Default:
0.12
Enter the price of one charge unit in your country.
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3.
Decide whether you want to display the Currency Symbol
First.
Default:
Enabled
Options:
Enabled, Disabled
Enabled means that any connection charges are displayed in the
form DM <Amount>.
If this parameter is disabled, charges are displayed as
<Amount> DM.
Writing Daily Log Files
Procedure
1.
ISDN Line Management Daily Log.
The ISDN Line Management Daily Log keeps a record of all
actions that are performed on the router on a single day. The file
name is of the form isdn??.log, the question marks being replaced with the day of the month, e.g. isdn01.log for the first day
of the month, isdn02.log for the second, etc. With the beginning
of a new month, the files are subsequently written over. The log
files are by default stored in the SYS:ETC directory. All ISDN line
management messages are listed and described in Appendix A.
1a. Check the maximum file size for the ISDN Line Management Daily Log.
Specify the size of a single ISDN Line Management Daily
Log. Logging is stopped when the maximum size of a single
file is reached. A value of 0 means that the size is unlimited.
You should not set the file size to unlimited. If you are using an
AVM ISDN-Controller for PRI, the file can become very big in a
short time.
Note
2.
ISDN Accounting Daily Log.
The ISDN Accounting Log stores ISDN connection oriented
information provided via ISDN Console. The file name is of the
form isdn??.acc, the question marks being replaced with the day
of the month, e.g. isdn01.acc for the first day of the month,
isdn02.acc for the second, etc. It allows you to monitor all important details on all ISDN connection on a router from the first
logical set up to the final logical clear down. Each time an ISDN
connection is cleared logically (Disconnect Timeout expires or by
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pressing Delete in the Call Connection Manager for example),
the ISDN connection information is written to the ASCII-format
log files in a single line.
2a. Check the maximum file size for the ISDN Accounting
Daily Log.
Specify the size of a single ISDN Accounting Log File.
Logging is stopped when the maximum size of a single file
is reached. A value of 0 means that the size is unlimited.
You should not set the file size to unlimited. If you are using an
AVM ISDN-Controller for PRI, the file can become very big in a
short time.
Note
Configuring SNMP Information
Configuring SNMP Parameters
SNMP enables network management clients to exchange information
about the configuration and status of nodes on an internetwork. The
information available is defined by a set of managed objects referred
to as the Management Information Base (MIB).
To configure SNMP parameters for a specific node, complete the
following steps:
Procedure
1.
At the server prompt, type
LOAD INETCFG <Enter>
The Internetworking Configuration menu is displayed.
2.
From the Internetworking Configuration menu, select Manage Configuration, then press <Enter>.
The Manage Configuration menu is displayed.
3.
From the Manage Configuration menu, select Configure
SNMP Parameters, then press <Enter>.
The SNMP Parameters window is displayed.
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4.
From the SNMP Parameters window, select Monitor State,
then press <Enter>.
The following options allow you to indicate how the SNMP
agent handles SNMP read operations coming from outside this
node.
Table 15-1:
Monitor State Parameters
Option
Description
Any Community May
Read
Allows all read operations no matter what community name is provided in the
incoming read request.
Leave as Default
Setting
Avoids changing the Monitor Community name from its default (which is
usually public). The default Monitor Community can still be changed manu
lly through SNMP command-line options.
No Community May
Read
Disables all read operations no matter what community name is provided in
the incoming read request.
Specified Community
May Read
Allows only read operations that contain the name specified in the Monitor
Community field.
5.
Select one of the options described above, then press
<Enter>.
6.
If you selected Specified Community May Read, enter a
name in the Monitor Community field, then press <Enter>.
Enter the name of the community that is allowed to read
management information. SNMP management stations that
belong to this community can read the network management
database.
7.
Select Control State, then press <Enter>.
The following options allow you to indicate how the SNMP
agent handles SNMP write operations coming from outside this
node.
Table 15-2:
Control State Options
Option
Description
Any Community May
Write
Allows all set operations no matter what community name is provided in the
incoming read request.
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Leave as Default
Setting
Avoids changing the Control Community from its default, which is usually not
to allow any write requests. The default can be changed manually through
SNMP command-line options.
No Community May
Write
Disables all set operations no matter what community name is provided in
the incoming read request.
Specified Community
May Write
Allows only set operations that contain the name specified in the Control
Community field.
8.
Select one of the options described above, then press
<Enter>.
9.
If you selected Specified Community May Write, enter a
name in the Control Community field, then press <Enter>.
Enter the name of the community that is allowed to read and
write management information. SNMP management stations
that belong to this community can read or modify any value in
the network management database.
10. Select Trap State, then press <Enter>.
The following options allow you to indicate how the SNMP
agent handles SNMP trap operations coming from outside this
node.
Table 15-3:
Trap State Options
Option
Description
Do Not Send Traps
Disables all SNMP traps no matter what community name is provided in the
incoming trap request.
Leave as Default Setting Avoids changing the Trap Community from its default (which is usually
public). The default can still be changed manually through SNMP commandline options.
Send Traps With
Specified Community
Enter the community name to include in trap messages in the Trap Community field.
Configuration of the list of SNMP Managers is described in the next
section, "Configuring SNMP Manager Tables."
Important
Configuring Global Parameters
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11. Select one of the options described above, then press
<Enter>.
12. If you selected Send Traps With Specified Community , enter
a name in the Trap Community field, then press <Enter>.
Enter the community name to be included in trap messages.
13. Select Other SNMP Parameters, then press <Enter>.
Enter other SNMP command-line parameters in the window that
is displayed, then press <Enter>.
The parameters should be entered in the same format they
would appear when entered on the LOAD SNMP command line.
14. When you are finished, press <Esc>; if prompted, select Yes
to save the changes to the SNMP parameters, then press
<Enter>.
The Manage Configuration menu is displayed.
15. Select Configure SNMP Information, then press <Enter>.
The General SNMP Information For This Node window is
displayed.
16. Select Node Name for SNMP, then press <Enter>.
Enter the name SNMP reports to the management client for this
node, then press <Esc>.
By convention, this is the IP hostname for the node. If the node
does not have an IP hostname, it is recommended that you use
the NetWare® file server name for this node.
17. Select Hardware Description, then press <Enter>.
Enter the hardware description for this node, then press <Esc>.
The hardware description can include the CPU type, bus speed,
size of memory, size and type of disks, printers, tape drives, and
so on. This description, combined with the information about the
software taken from the system, makes up the SNMP system
description.
18. Select Physical Location, then press <Enter>.
Enter the location description for this node, then press <Esc>.
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19. Select Human Contact, then press <Enter>.
Enter the contact information for the persons responsible for this
node, then press <Esc>. The contact information should include
phone numbers and mailing addresses.
20. When you are finished, press <Esc>; if prompted, select Yes
to save the changes to the SNMP information, then press
<Enter>.
The Manage Configuration menu is displayed.
21. Press <Esc> to return to the Internetworking Configuration
menu.
Configuring SNMP Manager Tables
The list of SNMP Managers can be configured as follows:
For the IPX protocol, SNMP Managers cannot be configured from any
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 menu. Therefore, use
EDIT.NLM to edit the traptarg.cfg directly:
load edit sys:etc\traptarg.cfg
Add or delete SNMP Managers from the file and save your changes.
For TCP/IP, SNMP Managers can be configured directly from the
Internetworking Configuration menu:
Parameter path: Load INETCFG > Select Protocols > Select TCP/IP >
Select SNMP Manager Table.
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9
chapter
Configuring IPX
On-Demand IPX Calls with Static Routes and Services
An on-demand call is a point-to-point connection between two IPX
routers that becomes active only when one router must send user
data to the router at the other end.
No routing or service information crosses an on-demand call. Instead,
remote routes and services are configured on the local router as static
routes and services. In this way, the connection can remain inactive
until user data needs to cross it. Workstations needing to reach
remote destinations send packets to their local IPX router advertising
the routes, assuming the packets can reach their destination. The local
router stores the packets and tries to establish a connection to the
remote router. After the local router completes the call and negotiates
on-demand service, it forwards the stored packets to the remote
router, which then forwards them to their destination.
Because each router is configured with the routes and services that
are available at the opposite end of the connection, there is no need to
send routing or services updates or periodic routing/service information across the connection. Each router simply advertises the routes
and services locally as if they had just arrived over the connection.
NetWare workstations and servers on the local LAN remain unaware
that no active permanent connection exists. The locally configured
static routes contain all information necessary for a local system to
access any remote service.
To avoid activating potentially expensive connections, type 20 (NetBIOS)
packets are not forwarded over on-demand calls as NetWare serialization
packets.
Note
For design considerations for ISDN-WANs, refer to Chapter 4, "Basic
Design of ISDN-WANs and Configuration Overview" in this Guide.
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What You Need
Before configuring an on-demand IPX call, you need to have at least
the following:
-
the name and the IPX internal network number of the remote
router,
-
ISDN Number and Subaddress of the remote router
-
SNMP write access to the remote router
Procedure
You configure on-demand calls and set up static routes and services
with the following utilities:
-
INETCFG - The Internetworking Configuration utility. Use
INETCFG to set up WAN Call Destinations at each end of the
connection (see instructions below).
-
STATICON - The static route and service configuration utility.
STATICON uses the Simple Network Management Protocol
(SNMP) to discover which routes and services are available
through a remote router and add them to the static routing table
on a local router.
Before you use STATICON, you must do the following tasks from
INETCFG:
1.
Procedure
Configure an ISDN Call Destination entry.
Parameter path: Select WAN Call Directory > Press <Ins> >
Specify a name for the call destination > Select a Wide Area
Medium.
Detailed information on configuring ISDN Call Destinations is
given in Chapter 7.
1a. Set the parameter Call Type to On Demand.
1b. Press <Enter> on Spoofings/Filters and make sure that
the SNMP Over IPX Filter is disabled.
1c. Specify a Local System ID.
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1d. Specify the Remote System ID.
With the help of the Remote System ID, the IPX protocol
stack relates an incoming call to a specific call destination.
2.
Configure IPX.
Parameter path: Select Protocols > Select IPX.
2a. Set Packet Forwarding to Enabled.
3.
Bind IPX to an ISDN interface.
Parameter path: Select Bindings > Press <Ins> > Select IPX >
Select a configured ISDN interface or interface group.
3a. Press <Enter> on WAN Call Destinations, then press
<Ins>.
3b. Select a configured on-demand call destination from
the list.
3c. Set the Call Type to Static On Demand.
3d. Select Static Services.
A new screen displays any configured static services.
3e. Press <Ins>, then enter the following information:
Service Name - Name of the service to be accessed through
the on-demand call. This name, which is typically the server
name, is added to the local service and routing tables.
Service Address Network - Enter the internal network
number of the remote router.
3f. Press <Esc> to return to the Internetworking Configuration menu; save your changes when prompted.
4.
Configure SNMP write access to the remote router.
For STATICON to configure a remote router's routing and service
tables, it must support IPX SNMP and the IPX MIB variables and
have write access to the router.
Protocol path: Load INETCFG on the remote router > Select
Manage Configuration > Select Configure SNMP Parameters.
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4a. The Control State field should read Any Community May
Write or Specified Community May Write.
If it reads Specified Community May Write, note the name in
the Control Community field.
5.
Activate the configuration on the local and the remote site
with the Reinitialize System command.
6.
You then load STATICON and configure all static routes and
services on the routers at each end of the connection.
For information on configuring static routes and services with
STATICON, refer to the NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Configuration guide, pp. 118 to 128.
STATICON configures all routes and services automatically on
each router and allows you to try the configuration before saving
it to disk. The STATICON configuration becomes active immediately; you do not need to reinitialize or restart the router.
Manual IPX Connections via CALLMGR
The Call Connection Manager (CALLMGR.NLM) enables you to
initiate and terminate IPX connections over ISDN manually and to
monitor the status of an IPX connection.
Load CALLMGR by typing the following command at the server
prompt:
load callmgr <Enter>
What You Need
Before configuring call destinations to use with CALLMGR, decide
whether you want to use NLSP or RIP/SAP as a routing protocol.
AVM recommends that you use RIP/SAP for connections over ISDN.
For RIP/SAP connections over ISDN, the Periodic Update Interval for IPX
RIP and SAP is automatically set to 10000 when you reinitialize your system!
Note
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Procedure
You configure manual IPX connections as follows:
Procedure
1.
Configure an ISDN Call Destination entry.
Parameter path: Select WAN Call Directory > Press <Ins> >
Specify a name for the call destination > Select a Wide Area
Medium.
Detailed information on configuring ISDN Call Destinations is
given in Chapter 7.
1a. Set the Call Type to On Demand.
2.
Configure IPX.
Parameter path: Select Protocols > Select IPX.
2a. Set Packet Forwarding to Enabled.
3.
Bind IPX to an ISDN interface.
Parameter path: Select Bindings > Press <Ins> > Select IPX >
Select a configured ISDN interface or interface group > Select
Expert Bind Options.
3a. If you chose NLSP with RIP/SAP Compatibility as Routing Protocol, select NLSP Bind Options and set the
NLSP State to Off.
4.
Activate the configuration by using the Reinitialize System
command.
5.
Load the Call Connection Manager utility and control your
IPX connections manually.
Manual IPX Connections via Client Initiated Call Control
(CICC)
CICC is available for the following platforms:
♦ CICC for NetWare in the form of two NetWare Loadable
ModulesTM (NLMsTM ) is installed per default in the SYS:SYSTEM
directory.
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♦ CICC for DOS, Windows and OS/2 are contained in the directory
CICC on the software CD-ROM.
The CICC software allows control of IPX connections over ISDN
directly from an IPX client. It may be used as an alternative to Call
Manager under certain circumstances to manage the logical set-up
and clear-down of IPX connections. CICC can be integrated into
existing communication processes or applications by means of batch
routines. CICC may be used mainly in situations where a large
number of remote LANs have to be connected to the existing WAN
and where the connection does not have to be permanent, but is only
required for specific communication situations. Thus, CICC may be
integrated for example into an existing electronic mail application by
means of batch routines, so that electronic mail is automatically sent
over a single data channel to all remote sites that are not permanently
connected to the central WAN.
CICC may also be used "on demand" on any IPX client by the respective user to set up or clear down IPX connections or question the
status of an IPX connection.
Please note that this is not the main purpose of CICC and the CICC
software should not be offered to all users; it adds unnecessary
complexity for users and a network manager should carefully consider whom to allow the use of CICC.
CICC for NetWare
CICC for NetWare is realized in the form of two NetWare Loadable
ModulesTM (NLMsTM), CICCON.NLM and CICCOFF.NLM. They are
automatically copied to the SYS:SYSTEM directory during installation
of the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1.
To establish a connection to a remote site with CICCON.NLM, enter
the following command at the system console:
load CICCON -dDestination_Name
where Destination_Name is the Call Destination Name of the remote
site.
To set up a connection from a remote NetWare Protocol Router for
ISDN to a remote site, enter the following command at the system
console:
load CICCON -sServer_Name -dDestination_Name
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where Server_Name is the name of the NetWare MultiProtocol Router
for ISDN, and Destination_Name the Call Destination Name of the
remote site.
To clear an ISDN connection manually, enter
load CICCOFF -dDestination_Name
at the system console.
To clear an ISDN connection from a remote NetWare Protocol Router
for ISDN to a remote site manually, enter
load CICCOFF -sServer_Name -dDestination_Name
at the system console.
To automatically load CICCON and CICCOFF at specified times, use
the Time-Controlled NLM Loading command in the Global MPR for
ISDN Configuration menu. For more information, refer to Chapter 8,
"Configuring Global Parameters."
CICC for DOS
CICC for DOS consists of three components in the form of .EXE files.:
CICCON.EXE and CICCOFF.EXE - serve to set up and clear down
IPX connections. Thus they offer the same functions as "Insert" and
"Delete" provided within Call Connection Manager to set up or clear
down an IPX connection logically. There are two differences when
using CICCON/CICCOFF instead of Call Connection Manager. First,
batch routines for logical set up and clear down of IPX connections
can be written to automatically set up a logical IPX connection to a
remote site, perform a task (send electronic mail or update files), clear
down this connection and set up the next IPX connection to another
remote site to perform the same task at this site, etc. Second, RCONSOLE does not have to be loaded to get access to the Call Connection
Manager in order to establish or delete a logical IPX connection.
CICCSTAT.EXE - allows display of the status of logical IPX connections, thus reflecting the status information also provided by the Call
Connection Manager.
These components are started with additional arguments and allow
connection set-up and clear-down of all the "ISDN Call Destination
Configurations" that have been configured for IPX on the local router.
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Call Set-Up - CICCON
To establish an IPX connection over ISDN, enter the following command:
CICCON -d<RemoteServer> [-s<LocalServer>] [-v]
Example: CICCON -dAVMBERLIN -sFS4 establishes an ISDN connection to the ISDN Call Destination with the name "AVMBERLIN" over
the local server/router with the name "FS4".
Table 9-1:
Parameters for CICCON, CICCOFF and CICCSTAT
Parameter
Description
RemoteServer
"Call Destination Name" of the remote server/router that
the ISDN connection is to be established to. The name
should have been assigned in the ISDN Call Destination
Configuration (see Chapter 2). This connection should not
be logically active.
LocalServer
Name of the local server/router that will establish the
connection. The argument needs to be added only if the
server/ router is not the default server of the IPX client
using CICC.
-v
For the use of CICC within batch routines: suppresses
output of information printed on the client screen each time
when starting CICCON or CICCOFF.
Call Clear-Down - CICCOFF
To clear down an existing connection, enter the following command:
CICCOFF -d<RemoteServer> [-s<LocalServer>] [-v]
Example: CICCOFF -dAVMBERLIN -sFS4 clears an ISDN connection to the ISDN Call Destination with the name "AVMBERLIN" over
the local server/router with the name "FS4".
Display Status Information - CICCSTAT
To display status information, enter the following command:
CICCSTAT [-s<LocalServer]
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A list of all IPX connections currently logically active over ISDN is
returned.
Example: CICCSTAT -sFS4 lists all IPX connections that are currently established logically from or to the local server/router with the
name "FS4".
Returncodes via Errorlevel for Batch Routines
The CICC module has been developed mainly for the use in batch
routines. Information on the status of an action may be obtained by
the corresponding errorlevel. A returncode other than "0" (zero)
means that an error must have occurred.
Table 9-2:
CICC Returncodes
Returncode
Description
0
Action successful ./.
1
Error during set up / incorrect parameter. Local system
error.
2
IPX not found. Local system error
3
SPX not found. Local system error
4
No communication socket available. Local system error
5
No server found. Local system error.
6
Server/router does not respond / not found. Local system
error
7
10
Local server not found (Read PropertyValue) Local system
error.
No memory (client). System error.
20
Destination not known / found. Communication error.
21
Connection set-up to server/router not successful. Communication error.
22
Connection set-up to the remote server/router not successful. Communication error
23
No response from server/router (Invalid Target, Timeout).
Communication error
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CICC for Windows
The files CICCDLL.DLL and CICCWIN.EXE are needed to operate
CICC under Windows. Thus, copy them into your local MS Windows
directory. The files SAMPLE.C, CICCDLL.LIB and CICCDLL.H
provide support for programming applications for CICC under
Windows.
The program CICCWIN.EXE can be started with several command
line options. This is useful for integrating it into batch routines. The
following options can be used:
Table 9-3:
Command line options for CICCWIN.EXE
Option
Description
/S<server>
specifies the source server
/T<target>
specifies the target
/C
connects to the specified target
/D
disconnects from the target
/M
displays a diagnostic message (only in conjunction with /C
or /D)
Example:
CICCWIN.EXE /SFINANCE /TMUNICH /C
establishes a WAN connection from the FINANCE
server/router to the MUNICH router.
If you do not specify any parameter, the interactive mode is started.
When CICCWIN.EXE is used in batch mode, the icon appears on the
desktop to indicate that CICCWIN is active. The program terminates
with an exit code which indicates the status of the operation. The
values of the exit code are exactly the same as the returncodes of the
functions of the CICCDLL.DLL. See the file CICCDLL.H for a description.
CICC for OS/2
The files CICCDLL.DLL and CICCOS2.EXE are needed to operate
CICC under OS/2. Thus, create a new directory on your PC, e.g.
C:\CICCOS2 and copy these files into this directory. The files
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CICCDLL.LIB and CICCDLL.H provide support for programming
applications for CICC under OS/2.
CICCOS2.EXE can be operated in batch mode and interactive mode.
To start CICC in interactive mode, enter CICCOS2 without any
parameters.
In a dialog, you are prompted to enter the source server/router and
the target. A list box shows the current call status of the source server.
The following functions are provided:
-
The STATUS button updates the call status shown in the list box.
-
The CONNECT button tries to connect to the specified target.
-
The DISCONNECT button disconnects from the specified target.
-
The ABORT button aborts the current function.
The application writes the last server name used and all used target
names in a file named CICCOS2.INI.
To select one of the previously used target names, just pop up the
combo box. The targets used and the server name are shown.
You cannot delete any entry of the .INI file, but you can delete the
CICCOS2.INI file without loosing important configuration
information.
The exit code of the program has no meaning in interactive mode.
In batch mode, CICCOS2.EXE performs one CICC operation and then
terminates.
The following command line options can be used:
Table 9-4:
Command line options for CICCOS2.EXE
Option
Description
/S<server>
specifies the source server
/T<target>
specifies the target
/C
connects to the specified target
/D
/M
disconnects from the target
displays a diagnostic message (only in conjunction with /C
or /D)
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/F<filename>
Writes the strings “OK” or “ERROR” to a file, depending on
the success of the operation. This is useful for quick and
easy error detection in batch environments.
Table 9-5:
Exit codes (ERRORLEVEL) for CICCOS2.EXE
Code Description
-1
Fatal error during program initialization
0
No error
1
IPX/SPX fatal error
2
Server/router not found
3
No free local SPX socket
4
Call Manager on the router not found
5
Aborted by user (should never occur)
6
Call Manager operation timed out (failed)
7
Requested target not found
8
The CICCDLL is busy (should never occur)
What You Need
Before configuring call destinations to use with CICC, decide whether
you want to use NLSP or RIP/SAP as a routing protocol. AVM recommends that you use RIP/SAP for connections over ISDN.
For RIP/SAP connections over ISDN, the Periodic Update Interval for IPX
RIP and SAP is automatically set to 10000 when you reinitialize your system!
Note
Procedure
You configure manual IPX connections as follows:
Procedure
1.
Configure an ISDN Call Destination entry.
Parameter path: Select WAN Call Directory > Press <Ins> >
Specify a name for the call destination > Select a Wide Area
Medium.
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Detailed information on configuring ISDN Call Destinations is
given in Chapter 7.
1a. Set the parameter Call Type to On Demand.
2.
Configure IPX.
Parameter path: Select Protocols > Select IPX.
2a. Set Packet Forwarding to Enabled.
3.
Bind IPX to an ISDN interface.
Parameter path: Select Bindings > Press <Ins> > Select IPX >
Select a configured ISDN interface or interface group > Select
Expert Bind Options.
3a. If you chose NLSP with RIP/SAP Compatibility as Routing Protocol, select NLSP Bind Options and set the
NLSP State to Off.
4.
Activate the configuration with the Reinitialize System
command.
5.
Then use Client Initiated Call Control as described above to
set up and clear IPX connections manually from the NetWare
server console, or from any DOS, Windows or OS/2 client.
Automatic/Permanent IPX Connections
Permanent connections are used to connect LANs in a static way; i.e.
the interface of the ISDN-Controller is exclusively used for the permanent connection to the configured call destination. A permanent
connection to a remote LAN is always established, when
-
the router is started or reinitialized
-
the logical connection has been disconnected for whatever reason.
The underlying physical call set-up is controlled by the Inactivity
Timeout, i.e. the physical connection is cleared when no data traffic
has been detected for the specified period, whereas the logical connection is (theoretically) maintained forever. This is why the Disconnect Timeout has no meaning for permanent connections.
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What You Need
Before configuring permanent IPX connections decide whether you
want to use NLSP or RIP/SAP as a routing protocol. AVM recommends that you use RIP/SAP for connections over ISDN.
For RIP/SAP connections over ISDN, the Periodic Update Interval for IPX
RIP and SAP is automatically set to 10000 when you reinitialize your system!
Note
Procedure
Procedure
1.
Configure an ISDN Call Destination entry.
Parameter path: Select WAN Call Directory > Press <Ins> >
Specify a name for the call destination > Select a Wide Area
Medium.
Detailed information on configuring ISDN Call Destinations is
given in Chapter 7.
1a. Set the parameter Call Type to Permanent.
1b. Set the Retry Mode to Retry All Failures.
1c. Set the Retry Limit Handling to Continuous At Limit.
1d. Set the Retry Interval Limit to 8 seconds.
2.
Configure IPX.
Parameter path: Select Protocols > Select IPX.
2a. Set Packet Forwarding to Enabled.
3.
Bind IPX to an ISDN interface.
Parameter path: Select Bindings > Press <Ins> > Select IPX >
Select a configured ISDN interface or interface group.
3a. Press <Enter> on WAN Call Destinations, then press
<Ins>.
3b. Select a configured permanent call destination from the
list.
3c. Set the WAN Call Type to Automatic.
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3d. Set the WAN Call Status to Enabled.
3e. Leave the defaults in the Expert Options.
3f. Press <Esc> to return to the Binding IPX to a WAN
Interface menu.
3g. Select Expert Bind Options.
3h. If you chose NLSP with RIP/SAP Compatibility as Routing Protocol, select NLSP Bind Options and set the
NLSP State to Off.
4.
Press <Esc> until you return to the Internetworking Configuration menu and save your changes when prompted.
5.
Select the Reinitialize System command to bring configuration changes into effect and establish the permanent IPX
connection.
Configuring Routed On-Demand Calls
Unlike the "standard" on-demand call, which relies on statically
configured routes and services at each end of a point-to-point connection, a routed on-demand call runs a routing protocol while the link is
active. When the link goes down, the routers and services made
known by the routing protocol become unavailable. NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 enables you to configure routed ondemand calls for each WAN call destination.
If no data crossed the link after some period of time, a Data-Link
layer timer triggers the termination of the on-demand call. However,
the routing protocol running over a routed on-demand call resets this
timer each time it transmits a packet. This keeps the link continuously
active. To solve this problem, NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN
3.1 uses a similar timer that operates at the Network layer. This timer
is reset only when data packets - not protocol packets - cross the link.
In this way, the routing updates do not keep the link active when no
data is being transmitted.
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What You Need
Before you begin, you must have at least one on-demand WAN call
destination configured. Further, decide whether you want to use
NLSP or RIP/SAP as a routing protocol. AVM recommends that you
use RIP/SAP for connections over ISDN.
Note
For RIP/SAP connections over ISDN, the Periodic Update Interval for IPX
RIP and SAP is automatically set to 10000 when you reinitialize your system!
Procedure
To configure a routed on-demand call, complete the following steps:
Procedure
1.
Configure an ISDN Call Destination entry.
Parameter path: Select WAN Call Directory > Press <Ins> >
Specify a name for the call destination > Select a Wide Area
Medium.
Detailed information on configuring ISDN Call Destinations is
given in Chapter 7.
1a. Set the parameter Call Type to On Demand.
2.
Configure IPX.
Parameter path: Select Protocols > Select IPX.
2a. Set Packet Forwarding to Enabled.
3.
Bind IPX to an ISDN interface.
Parameter path: Select Bindings > Press <Ins> > Select IPX >
Select a configured ISDN interface or interface group.
3a. Press <Enter> on WAN Call Destinations, then press
<Ins>.
3b. Select a configured on-demand call destination from
the list.
3c. Set the WAN Call Type to Routed On Demand.
3d. Set the WAN Call Status to Enabled.
3e. Leave the defaults in Expert Options.
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3f. Select Expert Bind Options.
3g. If you chose NLSP with RIP/SAP Compatibility as Routing Protocol, select NLSP Bind Options and set the
NLSP State to Off.
4.
Press <Esc> until you return to the Internetworking Configuration menu and save your changes when prompted.
5.
Select the Reinitialize System command to bring configuration changes into effect.
Reinitialize System and IPX Configuration Changes
If you change configurations that involve IPXRTR.NLM, i.e. any IPX
routing protocol configurations such as from RIP/SAP to NLSP for
example, select the Reinitialize System command from the
Internetworking Configuration menu.
Reinitialize System automatically loads ISDNCHK.NLM to
-
execute the set force rip sap updates=on command, and
-
adjust the Update Interval for IPX RIP and IPX SAP to 10000.
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chapter
10 Configuring TCP/IP
On-Demand IP Connections with Static Routes
An on-demand call is a WAN connection between two routers that
becomes active only when one router must send data to the other.
Warning
On-demand calls are activated by routing protocol packets. Disable the
routing protocol on the WAN interface to avoid keeping the connection up
unnecessarily.
What You Need
You need the following information to configure on demand IP
connections with static routes: the IP network addresses you want to
route.
Procedure
To configure IP connections with static routes, perform the following
steps:
1.
Procedure
Configure an ISDN Call Destination entry.
Parameter path: Select WAN Call Directory > Press <Ins> >
Specify a name for the call destination > Select a Wide Area
Medium.
Detailed information on configuring ISDN Call Destinations is
given in Chapter 7.
1a. Set the parameter Call Type to On Demand.
1b. Specify a Local System ID.
1c. Specify the Remote System ID.
With the help of the Remote System ID, the TCP/IP protocol
stack relates an incoming call to a specific call destination.
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2.
Configure TCP/IP.
Protocol path: Select Protocols > Select TCP/IP.
2a. Set IP Packet Forwarding to Enabled ("Router").
3.
Bind IP to a WAN board.
Parameter path: Select Bindings > Press <Ins> > Select TCP/IP >
Select a configured WAN interface.
3a. For WAN Network Mode select Unnumbered Point-toPoint.
The WAN Network Mode governs how IP operates over the
connection.
3b. Select WAN Call Destinations, then press <Ins>.
The parameters in this menu apply only to this WAN call.
3c. Press <Enter> on WAN Call Destination and select a call
destination name from the list.
3d. Set the Type to Static On Demand.
3e. Press <Enter> on Static Routing Table, then press <Ins>.
3f. Configure the following static route parameters:
Route to Network or Host - Enter the destination at the
other end of the static route, which can be a single IP host or
an IP network (that is, a group of hosts).
IP Address of Network/Host - Enter the address of the
destination network or host. To select from a list of symbolic
network names and addresses, press <Ins>.
Subnetwork Mask - Enter the IP address of the subnet
mask. If the destination is an IP network, this is the subnet
mask of that network.
Metric for this route - Enter the number of hops to the
destination. This metric is directly proportional to the cost
of the route. Given two routes to the same destination, the
router chooses the lower-cost route.
Type of route - Specify whether the static route is Active or
Passive. If the static route is active and the router discovers a
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lower-cost dynamic route to the same destination, it uses
the lower-cost route instead of the active static route. If the
lower-cost route becomes unavailable, the router returns to
using the active static route. A passive static route is always
used, regardless of whether the router discovers a lowercost route to the same destination. If you want to use the
static route as a backup route, select Active.
3g. Press <Esc> to return to the Binding TCP/IP to a WAN
Interface menu.
3h. Press <Enter> on RIP Bind Options and set the Status
to Disabled.
3i. Press <Enter> on OSFP Bind Options and set the Status
to Disabled.
4.
Activate the configuration by selecting the Reinitialize
System command from the Internetworking Configuration
menu.
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11 Configuring AppleTalk
On-Demand AppleTalk Connections
You configure connections using AppleTalk as follows:
Procedure
1.
Configure an ISDN Call Destination entry.
Parameter path: Select WAN Call Directory > Press <Ins> >
Specify a name for the call destination > Select a Wide Area
Medium.
Detailed information on configuring ISDN Call Destinations is
given in Chapter 7.
1a. Set the parameter Call Type to On Demand.
1b. Enter your Local System ID.
1c. Enter the Remote System ID.
With the help of the Remote System ID, the AppleTalk
protocol stack relates an incoming call to a specific call
destination.
2.
Configure AppleTalk.
Parameter path: Select Protocols > Select AppleTalk..
2a. Set Internal Network to Enabled.
An internal network is a virtual network contained within
the AppleTalk module. It has no physical components and it
appears to the router as if it were one of a number of networks to which the router is connected. The internal network supports two nodes, the AppleTalk stack (node 1 on
the internal network) and the AppleTalk router (node 2 on
the internal network).
Packets must be routed from an external network interface
to the internal network. Because the internal network
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requires an address, it takes up a network number. If you
configure AppleTalk without configuring an internal network, to allow application support you must configure one
of the bound LAN interfaces.
2b. Select Network Number.
Assign a unique network number between 1 and 65279 to
your internal network.
2c. Select Network Zones List.
Enter the number of desired network zones. You can enter
up to 255 zone names. If your router uses transitional
routing, it is allowed to use only one zone name. Each zone
name can be up to 32 characters.
2d. Set Static Routes for On-Demand Calls to Enabled.
3.
Bind AppleTalk to a WAN interface.
Parameter path: Select Bindings > Press <Ins> > Select AppleTalk>
Select a configured ISDN interface.
3a. For WAN Network Mode, select Unnumbered Point to
Point.
The WAN network mode governs how AppleTalk operates
over a WAN connection.
3b. Select WAN Call Destinations, then press <Ins>.
The parameters in this menu apply only to this WAN call.
3c. Select a call destination from the list and press <Enter>.
3d. Set the WAN Call Type to On Demand.
3e. Select Static Routes, then press <Enter>.
3f. Press <Ins> to enter a static route.
The Static Routes for On-Demand Calls screen is displayed.
Configure the following static route parameters:
AppleTalk Network Type - Press <Enter>, select Extended
or NonExtended depending on the network type of the
destination network that you are configuring, then press
<Enter> again.
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Network Range/Number - Press <Enter>, specify the
network range for extended networks or a single network
number for nonextended networks, then press <Enter>
again.
Hops to Network - Press <Enter>, specify the number of
hops between this router and the destination network, then
press <Enter> again.
Each router the packet goes through is one hop.
Network Zone(s) List - Press <Enter>, then press <Ins>, add
a zone, then press <Enter> again. Repeat this procedure
until you have entered all the zones on the destination
network.
4.
Activate the configuration by selecting the Reinitialize
System command from the Internetworking Configuration
menu.
Configuring AppleTalk
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12 Configuring Source Route Bridge
The NetWare® MultiProtocol RouterTM for ISDN 3.1 product includes
source route bridging software that enables you to link token ring
networks over ISDN and create an extended network. This functionality is compatible with the source route bridging mechanism used by
IBM to handle the flow of data between token ring networks. Source
route bridging allows end stations to discover routes dynamically
and determine which one to use when sending data to any particular
destination.
Warning
You should use source route bridging only with leased lines such as D64S,
DS01 and DS02. With standard circuit-switched lines, a high number of
connection charges would accrue.
What You Need
You need the following to configure Source Route Bridge:
-
the ISDN Number and Subaddress of the remote router,
-
the local ring number and the remote ring number.
Procedure
To connect a bridge to another NetWare MultiProtocol Router for
ISDN bridge, each side of the WAN link must be configured to
operate as a half-bridge.
Complete the following steps:
Procedure
1.
Configure an ISDN Call Destination entry.
Parameter path: Select WAN Call Directory > Press <Ins> >
Specify a name for the call destination > Select a Wide Area
Medium.
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Detailed information on configuring ISDN Call Destinations is
given in Chapter 7.
1a. Set the parameter Call Type to Permanent.
1b. Set the Retry Mode to Retry All Failures.
1c. Set the Retry Limit Handling to Continuous At Limit.
1d. Set the Retry Interval Limit to 8 seconds.
2.
Configure Source Route Bridge.
Parameter path: Select Protocols > Select Source Route Bridge.
2a. Set the Bridge Status to Enabled.
2b. Set the Bridge Number.
Both half-bridges must have the same bridge number.
3.
Bind the Source Route Protocol to a WAN interface.
Parameter path: Select Bindings.
3a. Press <Ins>, then select Source Route Bridge from the
list of configured protocols.
3b. Select the interface to which you are binding the protocol.
3c. Enter the Ring Number of the remote bridge.
3d. Set Virtual WAN Ring to On.
3e. Select the WAN call destination that connects the
bridge to the other bridge.
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4.
Press <Esc> to return to the Internetworking Configuration
screen; save your changes when prompted.
5.
Select the Reinitialize System command to bring configuration changes into effect.
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13 Advanced Configuration
This chapter contains information on special configuration scenarios
such as semipermanent connections, backup calls and mobile-tomobile links.
This chapter contains the following sections:
-
"Special Connection Types" on page 193
-
"Configuring Backup Calls for LAN-LAN Connections" on page
197
Special Connection Types
Configuring 56-Kbps Connections
In some countries (e.g. in the USA), ISDN bandwidth is restricted to
56 Kbps (instead of 64 Kbps). To achieve connectivity, the 56 Kbps
option is included in the following NetWare MultiProtocol Router for
ISDN D channel drivers: DSS1, VN3, CT1, NI1, 5ESS and AUSTEL.
To establish a connection to a router in a country with ISDN bandwidth restricted to 56 Kbps, add a small `r` to the ISDN Number in
the ISDN Call Destination Configuration configuring this particular
call destination:
ISDN Number: 1234567r
Using En-Bloc Dialing
For certain international connections, a special character is needed to
indicate the end of the phone number. This will accelerate call set-up
considerably from within about 12 to 15 seconds to 1 to 2 seconds.
Thus, the Expert Configuration of ISDN Interface <Name> contains the
parameter "Dialing Suffix". The suffix you configure here is then
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added to the ISDN Number for international connections to mark the
end of the number to be dialed.
Ask your ISDN provider whether there is a dialing suffix for the
country you want to connect to.
For connections from Belgium to Germany, for example, the character
to enter is #.
DS01, DS02 and D64S Leased Line Connections
Configuration of the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 for
leased lines is as follows:
Procedure
1.
Select the appropriate D Channel Protocol when configuring
your ISDN-Controller(s) on each site.
This is either DS01, DS02 or D64S.
2.
Configure only one interface of your ISDN-Controller.
2a. Enter an ISDN Number at both sites.
Configuration of an ISDN Number is required because of
protocol dependencies on the network protocol layer.
Example:
Router A: ISDN Number: 10
Router B: ISDN Number: 20
2b. Leave the defaults in the Expert Configuration of ISDN
Interface <Name>.
2c. In the Default Call Destination Configuration of ISDN
Interface <Name>, set the Encapsulation Protocol to
either AVM Proprietary or PPP.
3.
Configure an ISDN Call Destination at each site.
3a. Set the Call Type to Permanent.
3b. Select an Encapsulation Protocol.
3c. Specify the ISDN Number of the respective remote site.
In our example, this would be:
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Call Destination of Router A: ISDN Number: 20
Call Destination of Router B: ISDN Number: 10
3d. Set the Retry Mode to Retry All Failures.
3e. Set the Retry Limit Handling to Continuous At Limit.
3f. Set the Retry Interval Limit to 8 seconds.
Using Hunt Groups
If you applied for Hunt Group Numbers, you receive a single number
for different physical Basic Rate Accesses. Use of Hunt Groups is
possible with all supported D channel protocols except for D64S,
DS01, DS02 and GSM.
♦ To use Hunt Group numbering, configure an Interface Group and
set the Origination Subaddress on all interfaces to the same value
or leave the Origination Subaddress field empty. As a result, the
system selects any available interface associated with the group
for in- and outbound connection attempts.
When you set the Origination Subaddress on all interfaces of an
ISDN-Controller to the same value, incoming calls directed to this
subaddress will be forwarded to any interface. When you leave
this field empty, incoming calls directed to any subaddress will be
accepted at this interface. For incoming calls, remote sites can be
given one ISDN Number and one Subaddress to call your router.
♦ For LAN-LAN connections, set the Disconnect Timeout to "Same
As Inactivity Timeout" to avoid situations like the following:
If Hunt Group numbering is used for LAN-LAN calls and the
Disconnect Timeout value is higher than the Inactivity Timeout,
i.e. the logical connection is not terminated as soon as the physical
connection goes down, the following happens: When the remote
site tries to set up the physical connection after an Inactivity
Timeout and all interfaces on ISDN-Controller 1, which handled
the initial connection, are busy at that moment, the call is rejected
by ISDN-Controller 2, the interfaces of which belong to the same
Interface Group. This is because all parameters negotiated during
initial call set-up and all pieces of information on the remote site
are stored in ISDN-Controller A´s memory in order to take the
load of the server memory. Therefore, ISDN-Controller 2 does not
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have this information and rejects the underlying call from the
remote site.
Configuring Semipermanent Connections
Semipermanent connections are possible with the D channel protocols 1TR6, 1TR6T1 and AUSTEL.
To use semipermanent connections with the D channel protocols
1TR6 or 1TR6T1, special .T4 files are required. For more information,
refer to the Technical Note on NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN
3.1. Configuration of semipermanent connections is as follows:
Add a small `s` to the ISDN Number. This will tell the ISDN-Controller, that this is not a circuit-switched connection and therefore treated
in a different way:
ISDN Number: 1234567s
Warning
If you do not add the “s” to the ISDN Number, this connection is treated as a
normal circuit-switched ISDN connection by the local exchange. This means
that you would be billed the normal connection charges for circuit-switched
lines in addition to the monthly fee for the “Vorbestellte Dauerwählverbindung”.
For configuring Semi Permanent Connections in Australia (D channel
protocol AUSTEL), note the following:
In Australia, configuration of “Semi Permanent Connections” within
the D channel protocol AUSTEL is done by using MSNs, not by
adding an “s” at the end of the call number. The service provider
assigns a specific MSN to your ISDN access if you apply for a “Semi
Permanent Connection” at your ISDN access. This MSN is defined
within the service provider´s own switches to be switched through as
“Semi Permanent Connections”. You can mix standard circuit
switched connections and “Semi Permanent Connections” by using
different MSNs.
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Configuring Backup Calls for LAN-LAN Connections
This section describes how to use the Internetworking Configuration
utility (INETCFG) to configure a backup call for a WAN connection.
A backup call enhances the reliability of your WAN. It ensures that
new connections are made successfully and that permanent connections are maintained even if your primary WAN call destination goes
down. As a result, you avoid unnecessary delays and maintain high
reliability over your WAN connection.
When you configure a backup call, you specify a backup WAN call
destination to be used in the event that the primary WAN call destination becomes unavailable. NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN
switches automatically to the backup WAN call destination if the
primary WAN call destination goes down. When the primary connection is restored, NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN switches to
the primary and terminates the backup.
You specify a backup WAN call destination by configuring two
existing WAN call destinations to have an association by which
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN recognizes one as the primary destination and the other as its backup.
Example:
You can use a secondary circuit-switched connection as a backup for a
leased line connection. As soon as the leased line connection is interrupted, the circuit-switched connection would be used.
Configuring a Backup Call Association
Before you begin, complete the following steps:
Configure two ISDN call destinations to the same destination so that
you can associate one as the backup for the other:
-
For both call destinations, set the Call Type to Permanent.
-
For the primary call destination, do not forget to change the Retry
Mode to Retry All Failures and adjust the Retry Limit Handling and
the Retry Interval.
To configure a backup call association, complete the following steps:
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Procedure
1.
Load INETCFG, then select Backup Call Associations.
The Backup Call Associations screen is displayed. It lists all currently configured backup call associations with the following
information:
Primary Call Destination - A WAN call destination name that
has been configured to be a primary call destination.
Backup Call Destination - A WAN call destination name that
has been configured to be a backup call destination to the primary call destination.
Status - Current status of the backup call associations.
This screen is empty if no backup call associations are configured.
2.
Press <Ins> to create a new backup call association.
The Backup Association Configuration screen is displayed. The
Primary Call Destination field is highlighted.
3.
Press <Enter> to display a list of configured WAN call destinations that are available to be primary call destinations.
A list of WAN call destinations is displayed. These are the
configured WAN call destinations that are available to define as
primary call destinations. Destinations that have already been
configured to be primary or backup call destinations are not
listed here.
4.
Select a primary call destination.
The Backup Association Configuration screen is displayed again.
The Primary Call Destination field is filled in, and the Backup Call
Destination field is highlighted.
5.
Press <Enter> to display a list of configured WAN call destinations that are available to be backup call destinations.
The list of WAN call destinations is displayed again. The destination you selected as a primary call destination is no longer
contained in this list.
6.
Select a backup call destination.
The Backup Association Configuration screen is displayed with the
Backup Call Destination field filled in.
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7.
Ensure that Association Status is set to Enabled.
To change the displayed status, select Status, select the desired
status from the pop-up display, then press <Enter>.
8.
Optionally, do the following to modify the connect and
disconnect timer values:
8a. Enter a new value, in seconds, in the Connect Delay
Timer field, then press <Enter>.
When the primary call destination failed, this value is the
number of seconds to delay before attempting to connect to
the backup call destination.
8b. Enter a new value, in seconds, in the Disconnect Delay
Timer field, then press <Enter>.
When the backup call destination is up, and the primary call
destination reconnects, this value is the number of seconds
to delay before disconnecting the backup call association.
9.
Press <Esc> to return to the Internetworking Configuration
screen; save your changes when prompted.
The backup call association you configured is listed in the
Configured Backup Call Associations screen.
10. To configure another interface, repeat Step 2 through Step 9.
11. If you want these changes to take effect immediately, select
Reinitialize System.
If you want to configure other parameters, do so now, then
reinitialize the system when you are finished.
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14 Configuration Interdependencies
Some parameters of the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN
interfere with other parameters and can, in rare cases, lead to critical
situations. To help you avoid such situations, the following lists
dependencies between parameters and describes their consequences.
Important
You should read through the following very carefully to avoid configuration
errors and high connection charges due to parameter inconsistencies!
Interdependencies with Call Processing
When Outbound Call Processing is disabled or COSO is set to "No
Dial-Out" for an ISDN interface, no outgoing calls, whether initial or
for underlying call set-ups after an inactivity timeout, are possible.
This has the following consequences:
-
The logical connection is terminated when the local router attempts to perform an underlying call set-up.
-
The Self-Learning Timeout makes no sense, since no outgoing calls
are allowed.
-
A Recall Request by a remote NetWAYS/ISDN client is denied.
-
Channel On Demand cannot be used on the respective ISDNController in the local router, since the interface cannot activate a
second data channel when needed.
Outbound Call Processing and Timeout Mechanisms
The following example shows what happens when Outbound Call
Processing is disabled on an interface of Router A and Inactivity
Timeout and Disconnect Timeout on Router B are not set to the same
value, i.e. the physical and logical connection are not terminated at
the same time:
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Situation
Router A:
Interface 1:
Outbound Call Processing:
Disabled
Router B:
Call destination
for Router A:
-
Inactivity Timeout ≠ Disconnect Timeout
Router B calls Router A.
Consequence
Router A is not able to perform outgoing calls, because Outbound Call Processing is disabled on the
interface-level. When the connection is idle for the period specified for Inactivity Timeout, it is disconnected physically, but not logically. The logical connection is only cleared when the Disconnect Timeout
expires. If, in the meantime, Router A has data packets to be transferred to Router B, it is unable to set
up the physical connection to Router B.
Important
When Outbound Call Processing is disabled on an interface, Inactivity
Timeout and Disconnect Timeout should be set to the same value to prevent
the router from trying to set up the physical connection after an inactivity
timeout.
Inbound Call Processing and Timeout Mechanisms
The following example shows what happens when Inbound Call
Processing is disabled on Router A, and Router B tries to set up the
physical connection after an Inactivity Timeout:
Situation
Router A:
Interface 1:
Inbound Call Processing:
Call destination
for Router B:
Inactivity Timeout ≠ Disconnect Timeout
-
Disabled
Router A calls Router B.
Consequence
When the Inactivity Timeout expires, the ISDN connection can be set up again from either site. If Router
B tries to set up the ISDN connection, Router A rejects the call since Inbound Call Processing is set to
Disabled.
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When Inbound Call Processing is enabled, Inactivity Timeout and Disconnect
Timeout should be set to the same value to prevent the remote site from
trying to set up the physical connection after an inactivity timeout.
Interdependencies with Timeout Mechanisms
Security Call-Back and Timeout Mechanisms
If Router B has to transfer data to Router A in regular intervals
throughout the day and the connection is terminated physically and
logically after a certain period of inactivity, it does not make sense to
configure Security Call-Back, since this would lead to additional
costs.
Situation
Router A:
Interface 1:
Security Call-Back:
Force Call-Back to Caller-Specified Number or
Force Call-Back to CLI Number
Router B:
Call destination
for Router A:
-
Inactivity Timeout = Disconnect Timeout
Router B calls Router A.
Consequence
When the connection has been idle for a specified period, it is disconnected physically and logically.
When Router B again sets up the physical and logical connection, Router A hangs up and calls back. In
this way, one charge unit is wasted each time by Router B. If the connection would only be terminated
physically after a certain time of inactivity, Router B would be able to set up the underlying physical connection without wasting a charge unit.
Inactivity Timeout and Disconnect Timeout Set to Different Values
The following example shows what happens when the physical ISDN
connection is disconnected by the Inactivity Timeout, and the logical
network connection is terminated later by the Disconnect Timeout:
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Situation
Router A:
Call destination
for Router B:
Inactivity Timeout = 19
Disconnect Timeout =30
Consequence
The physical connection is cleared after 19 seconds of inactivity on the link. All B channels are
disestablished. When the Disconnect Timeout expires 11 seconds later, one B channel is again switched
through, i.e. the physical connection is established for a short time to notify the remote site that the logical connection is now cleared. Thus, one charge unit is wasted.
Timeout Mechanisms and Spoofing/Filtering
Spoofing and filter mechanisms work only when there is a logical
network connection between two sites. For dynamic interface usage,
consider the following critical situation:
Situation
Router A:
Call destination
for Router B:
Inactivity Timeout = Disconnect Timeout
Router A and Router B:
Spoofing and filter mechanisms: Enabled
Consequence
Filter and spoofing mechanisms in NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN work only when a logical connection between two sites exists. When Inactivity Timeout and Disconnect Timeout are set to the same
value, both, the physical and the logical connection are cleared when the link has been idle for the specified period. Thus, spoofing and filtering is only active during this period. After that, spoofing and filtering
is terminated, i.e. Watchdog packets, SPX keep-alive-packets etc. are anew transmitted to the remote
site(s) and are not spoofed on the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN. For dynamic interface usage,
where the physical connection is always set up when data packets are to be transferred, this can lead to
a high number of call set-ups and, consequently, charge units.
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Unique MSN, EAZ or DDI Required for Each Interface
To ensure that certain NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.0
features work properly in an internetwork, unique MSNs, EAZs (BRI)
or DDIs (BRI, PRI) are required for each interface of an AVM ISDNController. Consider the following explanations:
Interface Status Time Restrictions
The Interface Status Time Restrictions should always be configured
equally on each interface of an ISDN-Controller if no MSNs, EAZs or
DDIs are used or if the interfaces listen to the same MSN, EAZ or
DDI. Otherwise, the following occurs:
Situation
Router A:
Interface 1:
Interface Status disabled due to Time Restrictions
Interface 2:
Interface Status enabled
Interface 1 and Interface 2 have no unique MSN, EAZ or DDI or listen to the same MSN, EAZ or DDI.
-
Router B calls Router A.
Consequence
Since no unique MSNs, EAZs or DDIs are configured for each of the interfaces, the ISDN-Controller cannot decide to which interface the incoming call is addressed and tries to pass it on to any interface. If the
call is addressed to interface 1, it will be rejected, because the Interface Status of interface 1 is disabled.
One charge is therefore wasted by Router B. The main purpose of the Interface Status Time Restrictions,
i.e. barring the router completely for incoming calls during certain periods, cannot be fulfilled.
Inbound Call Processing Set Unequally On One ISDN-Controller
Inbound Call Processing should always be configured equally on
each interface of an ISDN-Controller if no unique MSNs, EAZs or
DDIs are used of if the interfaces listen to the same MSN, EAZ or
DDI. Otherwise, the following occurs:
Situation
Router A:
Interface 1:
Inbound Call Processing:
Disabled
Interface 2:
Inbound Call Processing:
Enabled
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Interface 1 and Interface 2 have no MSN, EAZ or DDI or listen to the same MSN, EAZ or DDI.
Consequence
Since no unique MSNs, EAZs or DDIs are configured for each of the interfaces, the ISDN-Controller cannot decide to which interface the incoming call is addressed and tries to pass it on to any interface. If the
call is addressed to interface 1, it will be rejected, because incoming calls are not processed on interface
1. One charge unit is wasted by Router B.
ISDN Connection Monitor Thresholds Set Unequally On One ISDNController
ISDN Connection Monitor Thresholds should always be configured
equally on each interface of an ISDN-Controller if no unique MSNs,
EAZs or DDIs are used of if the interfaces listen to the same MSN,
EAZ or DDI. Otherwise, the following occurs:
Situation
Router A:
Interface 1:
Thresholds configured
Interface 2:
No Thresholds configured.
Interface 1 and Interface 2 have no unique MSNs, EAZs or DDIs or listen to the same MSN, EAZ or DDI.
-
Router B calls Router A when interface 1 is barred by the ISDN Connection Monitor.
Consequence
Since no unique MSNs, EAZs or DDIs are configured for each of the interfaces, the ISDN-Controller cannot decide to which interface the incoming call is addressed and tries to pass it on to any interface. If the
call is addressed to interface 1, it will be rejected, because interface 1 is barred by the ISDN Connection
Monitor. One charge unit is wasted by Router B. The main purpose of the ISDN Connection Monitor, i.e.
barring the router completely for incoming calls when one threshold is reached, cannot be fulfilled. A
solution for this is the configuration of an Interface Group. When a threshold is reached on one of the
interfaces belonging to an Interface Group, all interfaces of this group are barred for incoming and outgoing calls.
Using CLI Number Check
If you want to use CLI number check, make sure that a CLI number
check (Only Registered Numbers: CLI or Only Registered Numbers:
CLI and Caller-Specified) is performed on each interface of an ISDN-
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Controller, if no unique MSNs, EAZs or DDIs are used. Otherwise,
the following occurs:
Situation
Router A:
Interface 1:
Call Acceptance:
All Numbers
Interface 2:
Call Acceptance:
Only Registered Numbers: CLI or
Only Registered Numbers: CLI and Caller-Specified
-
Router B calls Router A.
Consequence
When Router B calls Router A, its call will always be accepted even if its CLI Number is not configured in
the Call Acceptance Database.
If the situation is the other way round, i.e. interface 1 is configured to
perform a CLI number check and interface to accept all numbers, a
call from router B will never be accepted when its CLI Number is not
configured in the Call Acceptance Database.
The Remote Site Is Not Available
Static Bundling and Channel On Demand
If you want to use Static Bundling or Channel On Demand for a
connection, the requested number of B channels must be available on
the remote site.
Situation
Router A:
Uses an AVM ISDN-Controller T1.
Call destination
for Router B:
Static Bundling enabled with more than 1 B channel.
Router B:
Uses an AVM ISDN-Controller B1.
-
Router A calls Router B.
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Consequence
Router A tries to establish the connection with more than 2 B channels. Router B can maximally offer 2 B
channels. The connection is established using the number of B channels router B can provide. However,
the ISDN-Controller T1 is constantly trying to set up the rest of the B channels. In countries, where the
attempt to set up a connection already costs a charge unit (as for example in Switzerland), this can lead
to high ISDN costs! Thus, be sure that the remote site is able to provide the number of B channels you
want to use at the time of the connection.
Operation of the Self-Learning Inactivity Timeout
The Self-Learning Timeout automatically adjusts the Inactivity
Timeout for outgoing connections to different charge intervals over
the day. To calculate the appropriate timeout value, the intervals
between two charging pulses sent by the PTT are measured.
To use the Self-Learning Timeout and adapt the Inactivity Timeout,
the following requirements must be met:
-
the Inactivity Timeout must not be disabled.
-
Advice On Charge During Call (AOCD) must be activated at your
ISDN access
-
the connection charges must be counted during the ISDN connection and not only at the end of the connection.
If there are changes within your Private Branch Exchange or the Local
Exchange, the charging pulse can be ´lost´. If this is the case, set the
Inactivity Timeout to "Time-Controlled". For more information, refer to
Chapter 7, "Configuring ISDN Call Destinations".
When the Self-Learning Timeout is enabled, the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN sets the Inactivity Timeout to one charge interval
minus two seconds. The calculated value is displayed on the system
console as follows:
Calculated self-learning timeout <x>
The Disconnect Timeout is only adjusted, when
-
Disconnect Timeout = Same As Inactivity Timeout
-
Inactivity Timeout is set to ´0´ (=disabled) and Disconnect Timeout
is set to any other value
In any other case, the Disconnect Timeout is not adjusted.
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Spoofing and Filtering on the ISDN Driver and Network
Protocol Level
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 provides a number of
filter and spoofing mechanisms on the network protocol and ISDNController level.
Filters and spoofings operating on the network protocol level are
configured via INETCFG.NLM and FILTCFG.NLM. For detailed
information on usage and configuration of these filters, refer to the
NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Configuration guide.
Filters and spoofings operating on the ISDN driver level are exclusively configured via "WAN Call Directory" in the INETCFG.NLM.
Configuration and usage are described in detail in Chapter 7, "Configuring ISDN Call Destinations".
The main difference between mechanisms on the ISDN driver and the
network protocol level is that the latter is always active even if there
is no active logical connection between two sites. Filters and spoofing
mechanisms on the ISDN driver level are terminated when the logical
connection is cleared.
A number of filter and spoofing mechanisms can be configured on the
network protocol and the ISDN driver level. Thus, if you want to
disable a special mechanism, make sure that it is disabled on both
levels.
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chapter
15 Configuring Remote Node Access
The NetWare® MultiProtocol RouterTM for ISDN allows standalone
PCs, laptops, notebooks or palmtops to dial into the LAN over
terrestrial ISDN or GSM-based cellular networks in order to become
remote nodes on the LAN. Remote nodes can use any servers, services and resources of the LAN - the same way locally connected PCs
use them. On the standalones, a remote node software and an ISDN
adapter is required.
In addition to providing the server component for remote node
access, NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 now also includes
a single-user license of AVM´s remote node product NetWAYS/
ISDN® in the latest version 3.0 for Windows 95 and Windows NT.
NetWAYS/ISDN, together with any of AVM´s ISDN-Controllers for
Basic Rate Interface or AVM´s Mobile ISDN-Controller M1 provides
full-featured remote node access to the LAN. It uses the protocols
IPX/SPX, Novell NetBIOS and/or TCP/IP. You can use NetWAYS/
ISDN v2.0, 2.1 as well as the latest version 3.0, which is included with
the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1, of NetWAYS/ISDN
to dial in to the LAN via NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1.
But besides NetWAYS/ISDN, you can use any remote node product
supporting IPX, TCP/IP or AppleTalk and the PPP over ISDN protocol for dial-up.
This chapter describes what has to be done on the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 in order to provide access for remote nodes
with NetWAYS/ISDN and any PPP over ISDN-compatible remote
node product. For information on the remote node site, refer to the
AVM NetWAYS/ISDN manual or the manual included in your
remote node product.
This chapter contains the following sections:
-
"Enabling ISDNWAYS" on page 212
-
"Configuring an Interface for Remote Node Access" on page 213
-
"Configuring Protocols" on page 214
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-
"Binding IPX to ISDNWAYS" on page 215
-
"Binding IP to ISDNWAYS" on page 216
-
"Configuring Global Remote Node Parameters" on page 217
-
"Access From Mobile NetWAYS/ISDN Clients" on page 222
The configuration for remote node access on the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN consists of the following steps:
♦ Enable ISDNWAYS
To allow remote access from remote nodes, you only have to load
ISDNWAYS once, irrespective of the number of ISDN-Controllers you
want to configure.
Important
♦
♦
♦
♦
Configure an interface to be used for remote node access
Configure protocols
Bind IPX and/or TCP/IP to ISDNWAYS
Configure Global Remote Node Parameters
Enabling ISDNWAYS
ISDNWAYS is the driver for remote node access to the NetWare
MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1.
Perform the following steps to enable the ISDNWAYS driver on the
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN:
Procedure
1.
Load INETCFG and select Boards.
2.
Press <Ins> to add a new board.
3.
Select ISDNWAYS from the list of available drivers.
4.
Specify a Board Name for ISDNWAYS.
5.
Press <Esc> twice and answer Yes to the prompt to save
your changes.
The NetWAYS/ISDN driver is now loaded each time the router is
started or reinitialized.
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Configuring an Interface for Remote Node Access
Procedure
1.
From the Internetworking Configuration menu, select Network Interfaces and press <Enter>.
2.
Select the interface on which you want to allow remote node
access from the list of network interfaces.
The ISDN Network Interface Configuration menu is displayed.
3.
Specify ISDN Network Interface Configuration parameters.
For more information and parameter descriptions, refer to
Chapter 6, section "ISDN Network Interface Configuration".
4.
Press <Enter> on Expert Configuration.
For more information and parameter descriptions, refer to
Chapter 6, section "Expert Configuration of ISDN Interface
<Name>".
4a. Set the Interface Usage to either Remote Node-LAN or
Both LAN-LAN and Remote Node-LAN.
"Remote Node-LAN" means that this interface can only be
used for connections to remote NetWAYS/ISDN and PPPcompatible clients.
"Both LAN-LAN and Remote Node-LAN" allows both types
of connections over this interface.
4b. Set the Remote Node Usage to either Exclusive Interface Reservation or On-Demand Interface Reservation.
"Exclusive Interface Reservation" means that an interface
and the underlying ISDN data channel will be reserved for a
connection from the first dial-in until the connection is
cleared logically. The logical connection between the remote
client and the interface will be maintained in case of an
Inactivity Timeout (physical connection down), and any
incoming call to the interface will be rejected during this
period. This guarantees that an ISDN data channel will be
physically available whenever data are to be transmitted
from or to the remote client, and is the recommended type
of remote node usage.
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"On Demand Interface Acquirement" means that an interface and the underlying ISDN data channel will not be
reserved for one connection, but will be released and become available for any other dial-in or dial-out operation as
soon as the underlying physical ISDN data channel between
the remote client and the interface is deactivated due to an
Inactivity Timeout. This type is more flexible, since it allows
more than one remote clients to share a single ISDN data
channel. It cannot be guaranteed, however, that an ISDN
data channel is available whenever data are to be transferred from or to the remote client, since the physical ISDN
data channel might be in use for another remote client
communicating with the LAN.
4c. Specify the other parameters as described in Chapter 6.
5.
Press <Esc> to return to the ISDN Network Interface Configuration menu.
6.
Select Default Interface Call Destination.
For more information, refer to Chapter 6, section "Default Call
Destination Configuration".
6a. For PPP remote nodes, set the PPP Destination Type to
Remote-Node.
The PPP Destination Type defines how PPP calls from
"unknown" sites are accepted.
Remote-Node means that parameters will be negotiated as
defined in RFC 1552 (IPXCP) or RFC 1332 (IPCP), depending on the network protocol. In addition, the call is visible in
the ISDN Console (Remote Nodes).
7.
Press <Esc> until you are at the Internetworking Configuration main menu and save your changes when prompted.
Configuring Protocols
Configure IPX and/or TCP/IP protocol parameters. For more information, refer to Chapters 9 and 10 of this Guide.
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For IPX, check the setting for "Get Nearest Server Requests" and
"Override Nearest Server".
Binding IPX to ISDNWAYS
Procedure
1.
From the Internetworking Configuration menu, select Bindings.
2.
Press <Ins> and select IPX from the list of configured protocols.
3.
Select your ISDNWAYS ´board´ from the list of configured
network interfaces.
The Binding IPX to a LAN Interface menu is displayed.
4.
Enter a valid IPX Network Number, then press <Enter>.
The IPX Network Number is the 4-byte network number assigned to the network to which the ISDNWAYS ´board´ is attached. The range is 00000001 through FFFFFFFE.
5.
Leave the default for Frame Type.
6.
Press <Enter> on Expert Bind Options.
7.
Select RIP Bind Options.
7a. Set the RIP State to Off.
Press <Esc> to return to the Binding IPX to a LAN Interface
menu.
8.
Select SAP Bind Options.
8a. Set the SAP State to Off.
8b. Set Get Nearest Server Requests Override to Accept to
allow access from remote nodes.
Press <Esc> to return to the Binding IPX to a LAN Interface
menu.
9.
Select NLSP Bind Options.
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9a. Set the NLSP State to Off.
Press <Esc> to return to the Binding IPX to a LAN Interface
menu.
10. Press <Esc> until you are again at the Internetworking
Configuration main menu and save your changes when
prompted.
Binding IP to ISDNWAYS
Procedure
1.
From the Internetworking Configuration menu, select Bindings.
2.
Press <Ins> and select TCP/IP from the list of configured
protocols.
3.
Select your ISDNWAYS ´board´ from the list of configured
network interfaces.
The Binding TCP/IP to a LAN Interface menu is displayed.
4.
Enter the IP address assigned to this interface, then press
<Enter>.
This is the node´s local IP address on the network connected to
this interface. The address must be entered as four decimal or
hexadecimal numbers separated by dots. Each IP address on an
IP internetwork must be unique and is usually assigned by the
network administrator.
5.
Enter the subnetwork mask of the network attached to this
interface in the Subnetwork Mask of Connected Network
field, then press <Enter>.
This setting must match the mask used by the other nodes on the
network. You can enter the subnetwork mask in decimal or
hexadecimal form.
If you do not specify the mask, the standard IP network mask is
used. You can use the default subnetwork mask if your network
is not subnetted. In the standard mask, each bit of the address
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network number is set to one and each bit of the address host
number is set to zero (FF.0.0.0).
6.
Select RIP Bind Options.
6a. Set the Status to Disabled.
6b. Leave the defaults for the other parameters.
Press <Esc> to return to the Binding TCP/IP to a LAN Interface menu.
7.
Select OSPF Bind Options.
7a. Set the Status to Disabled.
7b. Leave the defaults for the other parameters.
8.
Press <Esc> until you are again at the Internetworking
Configuration main menu and save your changes when
prompted.
Configuring Global Remote Node Parameters
Global parameters for remote nodes include the Maximum Number
of Remote Nodes and general parameters for IPX and TCP/IP. They
apply for all remote nodes dialing into the NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN.
The parameter path is as follows: load INETCFG > select Network
Interfaces > select Global Remote Node Configuration.
The following menu is displayed:
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Figure 15-1:
Global Remote Node Configuration Menu
Procedure
1.
Enter the Maximum Number of Remote Nodes.
This parameter defines the maximum number of remote nodes
that can be handled on the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for
ISDN.
Default:
256
Options:
0 - 2048
Specify the maximum number of remote nodes you want to
allow access to the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN.
Each active remote node requires 6 KB of RAM on the router PC.
Note
2.
Check the IPX Broadcast Filter.
This parameter specifies whether all IPX broadcasts not directed
to a specific remote client are filtered.
Default:
Enabled
Options:
Enabled, Disabled
When the IPX Broadcast Filter is enabled, all IPX broadcasts that
are not directed to a specific remote client, i.e. broadcasts with
the destination type FF.FF.FF.FF, are filtered.
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When it is disabled, such IPX broadcasts are duplicated for each
active remote client and sent over ISDN.
3.
Decide whether you want to use Dynamic IPX Address
Assignment.
Dynamic IPX Address Assignment defines whether or not a
remote node is assigned an available node address on call set-up.
Dynamic IPX Address Assignment can only be used if this
feature is supported by the remote node access software used on
the remote site. With AVM NetWAYS/ISDN 2.1 and the 16-bit
IPXODI protocol stack, this is possible. With NetWAYS/ISDN 3.0
and Windows 95, this cannot be used.
Default:
Disabled
Options:
Disabled, Enabled
If this parameter is disabled, the remote node will use the node
address configured in the remote node access software.
Enabled means that each time a logical connection between a
remote node and the router is established, the remote node is
assigned an available node address from the configured IPX
address range.
3a. Check the IPX Network Number.
This field is read-only. It shows the network number
ISDNWAYS is bound to (see above).
3b. Enter the Address Range Start.
Enter the starting address of the range for remote IPX
clients.
3c. Enter the Address Range End.
Enter the ending address of the range for remote IPX clients.
4.
Check the IP Broadcast Filter.
This parameter specifies whether all IP broadcasts not directed to
a specific remote client are filtered.
Default:
Enabled
Options:
Enabled, Disabled
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When the IP Broadcast Filter is enabled, all IP broadcasts that are
not directed to a specific remote client, i.e. broadcasts with the
destination type 255.255.255.255, are filtered.
When it is disabled, such IP broadcasts are duplicated for each
active remote client and sent over ISDN.
5.
Decide whether you want to use Dynamic IP Address Assignment.
Dynamic IP Address Assignment defines whether or not a
remote node is assigned an available node address on call set-up.
Dynamic IP Address Assignment can only be used if this feature
is supported by the remote node access software used on the
remote site. With AVM NetWAYS/ISDN 2.1 and the 16-bit
IPXODI protocol stack, this is done with the help of BootP and
the BootP Responder. With NetWAYS/ISDN 3.0 and Windows
95, this is done using a DHCP server.
Default:
Disabled
Options:
Disabled, Enabled
If this parameter is disabled, the remote node will use the IP
address configured in the remote node access software.
Enabled means that each time a logical connection between a
remote node and the router is established, the remote node is
assigned an available node address from the configured IP
address range. This is also possible with PPP remote nodes
(IPCP).
5a. Check the Local IP Address.
This field is read-only. It shows the IP address ISDNWAYS is
bound to (see above).
5b. Check the local Subnet Mask.
This field is read-only. It shows the Subnet Mask
ISDNWAYS is bound to (see above).
5c. Enter the Address Range Start.
Enter the starting address of the range for remote IP clients.
The client address range must be on the same network or
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subnetwork as the server address specified in the Local IP
Address field (see above).
5d. Enter the Address Range End.
Enter the ending address of the range for remote IP clients.
The client address range must be on the same network or
subnetwork as the server address specified in the Local IP
Address field (see above).
5e. 1st DNS Server IP Address
Enter the IP Address of the first DNS server that is accessed
during BootP or IPCP negotiation (RFC 1877).
5f. 2nd DNS Server IP Address
Enter the IP Address of the second DNS server that is
accessed during BootP or IPCP negotiation (RFC 1877).
5g. BootP Responder.
This parameter lets you define whether or not the NetWare
MultiProtocol Router for ISDN should answer BootP requests from remote nodes.
Default: Disabled
Options: Disabled, Enabled
When this parameter is disabled, the NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN does not answer BootP requests from
remote nodes.
When BootP Responder is enabled, the ISDN driver responds to BootP requests from remote nodes.
Do not use BootP Responder when DHCP server is loaded on the
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN.
Important
To bring the configuration changes into effect, use the Reinitialize
System command from the Internetworking Configuration menu.
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Access From Mobile NetWAYS/ISDN Clients
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 supports both, access
from NetWAYS/ISDN clients through cellular digital networks and
NetWAYS/ISDN clients through terrestrial ISDN lines, concurrently
on the same ISDN-Controller.
In order to set up calls, underlying call-backs as well as security callbacks, to remote NetWAYS/ISDN clients using Mobile ISDN-Controller M1 and cellular networks, NetWare MultiProtocol Router for
ISDN is able to interpret the dialing suffix “m” if delivered by the
NetWAYS/ISDN client.
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chapter
16 Utilities
This Chapter lists and describes the ISDN-specific utilities included in
the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1. For information on
other utilities, refer to the NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Configuration guide.
ISDN Budget Manager
The ISDN Budget Manager is integrated in ISDNCCA.NLM and
allows configuration of the maximum amount of money or the
maximum number of charge units you want to spend for a call
destination per month, week and day.
When one of the maximum values is reached, the connection to the
remote site is cleared and incoming and outgoing connections to this
call destination are no longer allowed.
ISDN Console (ISDNCON.NLM)
ISDN Console is a menu-assisted utility providing detailed information for the monitoring and controlling of ISDN connections as well
as of ISDN-Controllers and their interfaces.
ISDN Console is described in detail in Chapter 18, "Monitoring ISDN
Connections."
ISDN Connection Monitor
The ISDN Connection Monitor is integrated in ISDNCCA.NLM and
allows you to configure special interface-related thresholds on a 24 h
basis, such as the maximum physical up-time per interface, the
maximum outgoing calls per interface and the maximum charge units
per interface. Those values are configured via INETCFG.
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The ISDN Connection Monitor watches the interfaces of an ISDNController. As soon as the threshold value for an interface is reached,
an alert is generated 3 times in 1-minute intervals and printed on the
system console. After that, the respective interface is automatically
barred; i.e., all connections set up over this interface are cleared, no
outgoing calls can be established over it and incoming calls on the
ISDN-Controller are rejected if addressed to this interface until the
administrator removes this bar.
The ISDN Connection Monitor is described in detail in Chapter 18,
"Monitoring ISDN Connections."
ISDNU.NCF
The ISDNU.NCF file contains commands for unloading the ISDN
drivers of the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1.
ISDNSNMP.NLM
ISDNSNMP.NLM is the SNMP Agent to be used by AVM´s MPR for
ISDN Router Manager product or by any SNMP-based application.
ISDNSNMP.NLM initiates and responds to requests for management
information as described in the MPR4ISDN.MIB.
The load command for ISDNSNMP.NLM is included in the
autoexec.ncf file of the server, thus ensuring that it is automatically
loaded each time the server is started.
ISDN.CFG
ISDN.CFG is the configuration file for various NLMs and drivers
provided with the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1. It
contains sections for configuring the following:
Statistic Update Interval, ISDNCON.NLM, ISDNLOG.NLM,
ISDNSNMP.NLM, ISDNCMON.NLM, ISDN*.LAN, etc.
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ISDNCONV.NLM
ISDNCONV.NLM is a utility that converts existing NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 2.x and 3.0 databases to 3.1 databases.
ISDNCONV.NLM does the following:
-
Converts the ISDNCMON.CFG to the ISDN.CFG.
-
Generates load commands in the autoexec.ncf file to load SPX and
Packet Burst patches.
-
Removes old NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN files from
the SYS:SYSTEM directory, such as ISDN.LAN, VN3.T4, CT1.T4,
PPPDEBUG.NLM, etc.
-
Logs all changes in the SYS:ETC\ISDNCONV.LOG file.
There are some items which are not automatically chaged with the
ISDNCONV.NLM. For more information, refer to the Technical Note on
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1.
Note
ISDNCHK.NLM
The ISDNCHK.NLM is a tool to verify your configuration. It detects
inconsistencies in your router configuration and displays them on the
system console, together with the necessary tasks to perform.
ISDNCHK is loaded automatically each time you select the Reinitialize
System command from the Internetworking Configuration menu and
performs the set force rip sap updates=on command and
adjusts the Periodic Update Interval for IPX RIP and IPX SAP to
10000.
ISDNINFO.NLM
ISDNINFO.NLM is a support tool to gather relevant information in a
quick and convenient way. The gathered information is stored in the
ISDNINFO.DAT file which is automatically written to the SYS:ETC
directory.
Before calling AVM Technical Support, you should therefore run
ISDNINFO.NLM.
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Enter the following command at the system console of each router in
the WAN:
load isdninfo <Enter>
The ISDNINFO.DAT file gathers the following information:
-
The configuration of all interfaces loaded
-
All ISDN call destination configurations
-
The contents of the following files:
STARTUP.NCF
AUTOEXEC.NCF
ETC\INITSYS.NCF
ETC\NETINFO.CFG
-> all INETCFG commands
ETC\SNMP.CFG
-> SNMP information for this node
ETC\TRAPTARG.CFG
-> SNMP Manager Table (IPX, TCP/IP)
ETC\REMOTE.ID
-> contains all Remote System IDs
ETC\NLSP.CFG
-> IPX configuration information
ETC\IPWAN.CFG
->TCP/IP configuration information
ETC\TCPIP.CFG
-> "
ETC\ATTYPES.CFG
-> AppleTalk configuration information
ETC\ATWAN.CFG
-> "
ETC\ATZONES.CFG
-> "
ETC\AURP.CFG
-> "
ETC\BUILTINS.CFG
-> FILTCFG.NLM configuration
ETC\FILTERS.CFG
-> "
ETC\ISDN.CFG
-> ISDN configuration file
ETC\ISDNCRON.CFG
-> Time Restrictions configuration file
ETC\ISDNCADB.CFG
-> ISDN Call Acceptance Database
SYSTEM\INSTALL.LOG -> Installation log file
ETC\CONSOLE.LOG
ETC\ISDNCONV.LOG
-> ISDNCONV.NLM log file
ETC\NWPARAMS.LOG
SYSTEM\SETANDS.CP ->NetWare 4.1
SYSTEM\TIMESYNC.CFG -> "
SYSTEM\DSFILTER.DAT -> "
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To gather configuration information, you can also use the
TECHWALK.NLM. For more information, refer to the NetWare
MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Configuration guide.
NDS over ISDN Console (NDSCON.NLM)
The NDS over ISDN Console is realized in the form of a NetWare
Loadable ModuleTM (NLMTM) and monitors NDS traffic on ISDN
lines.
For more information on using the NDS over ISDN Console, refer to
Chapter 18, "Monitoring ISDN Connections."
Utilities
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chapter
17 Testing and Troubleshooting
This chapter describes possibilities to test your ISDN access and the
configuration of your router and discusses solutions for common
problems.
This chapter contains the following sections:
-
"Testing Possibilities" on page 229
-
"Troubleshooting Tips" on page 235
Testing Possibilities
The following sections provide a set of procedures for verifying the
correct operation of NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN. Once
you have correctly and completely installed and configured NetWare
MultiProtocol Router for ISDN, testing the router is relatively easy.
You can do the following to test your router:
♦ Establish an IPX connection to the NetWare MultiProtocol Router
for ISDN in the AVM Data Call Center to check your ISDN access
and your router configuration.
♦ Perform a TCP/IP loopback test to check your ISDN access and
your router configuration.
♦ Use ISDNCHK.NLM to verify correct configuration of the Periodic
Update Interval.
For more information on ISDNCHK.NLM, refer to Chapter 16 of
this Guide, "Utilities".
♦ Use IPXPING to test reachability of an IPX target node on your
internetwork.
♦ Use TPING/PING to test reachability of an IP target node on your
internetwork.
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Calling the AVM Data Call Center
The MPR for ISDN Server in the AVM Data Call Center (ADC) in
Berlin can be used as a test destination, for example if you configure
your first router and do not have an own remote site to connect to.
You may further dial-up the AVM Data Call Center from time to time
to check for any news and downloads, such as Release Notes on new
products or enhancements to existing products.
To access the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN in the AVM
Data Call Center, you will need the following connection parameters:
♦ Calling information:
ISDN Number: 03039984350 (when calling from somewhere in Germany)
Subaddress: 1
For calls from outside Germany, complete the Destination Address by
first entering your international dialing prefix and the country code
"49" for Germany, and then continue with "3039984350".
♦ Protocol specifics
Currently, only IPX/SPX is enabled on this router. The internal network numbers of the intranet are 39984xxx. Do not configure this
number on your router too if you want to connect to AVM’s ISDN
Service Router, since this number must be unique within a WAN. Further, make sure that it is not filtered.
Note
TCP/IP will be enabled in the future. Access information will then be given in
the Technical Note on NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1.
♦ Login information
Server: adc
User name: guest.avm
Password: no password required
Performing a TCP/IP Loopback Test
After configuring the router software, you can first run a loopback
test to check your ISDN access as well as the configuration of your
router. To perform such a loopback test you will configure your local
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router to call itself. For this test, an outgoing call can be initiated over
one interface of an ISDN-Controller to another interface of the same
ISDN-Controller.
In the following, configuration of a loopback test on an AVM ISDNController B1 is described. The outgoing call is initiated over interface
1 of the Controller and is received on interface 2. The interfaces are
called AVM-B1-1_1 (interface 1) and AVM-B1-1_2 (interface 2):
Procedure
1.
Configure an ISDN Call Destination.
Parameter path: Select WAN Call Directory > Press <Ins> >
Specify LOOP as a name for the call destination > Select a Wide
Area Medium.
Detailed information on configuring ISDN Call Destinations is
given in Chapter 7.
1a. As a Wide Area Medium, select ISDN-BRI.
1b. For Interface Name, select the first interface of your
ISDN-Controller.
In this example, it is AVM-B1-1_1.
1c. In the ISDN Number field, specify the number of the
ISDN access, the ISDN-Controller is connected to.
1d. Enter 2 in the Subaddress field.
1e. Enter LOOP for Local System ID and Remote System ID.
1f. Leave the default values in the other fields.
2.
Configure TCP/IP.
Parameter path: Select Protocols > Select TCP/IP.
2a. Leave the default values in the TCP/IP Protocol Configuration.
3.
Bind TCP/IP to the two ISDN interfaces.
Parameter path: Select Bindings > Press <Ins> > Select TCP/IP >
Select a configured ISDN interface.
3a. For each of the two interfaces, select Unnumbered
Point-to-Point as the WAN Network Mode.
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4.
Press <Esc> until you return to the Internetworking Configuration menu and save your changes.
5.
Select the Reinitialize System command from the Internetworking Configuration to bring the configuration changes
into effect.
6.
Load CALLMGR.NLM.
7.
Establish the loopback connection.
7a. Press <Ins> and select the LOOP entry from the list.
Press <Enter> to establish the connection.
The connection is displayed as follows:
Figure 17-1:
Loopback Test
For an AVM ISDN-Controller T1, loopback configuration is similar.
You have to select ISDN-PRI instead of ISDN-BRI as a wide area
medium, of course.
The IPXPING utility enables you to check connectivity to an IPX
server on your internetwork.
Using the IPXPING Utility
IPXPING determines the reachability of the IPX server or workstation
- the target node - to which it sends the request packet. After the node
receives the packet, it sends an IPXPING reply packet to the system
that sent the request packet.
This section describes the interface for IPXPING. IPXPING determines the reachability of an IPX "target" node on your internetwork,
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to which it sends a request packet. If the target node receives the
request packet, it sends back a reply packet.
To use IPXPING, type the following command at the server prompt:
LOAD IPXPING <Enter>
The system displays the New Target window:
Figure 17-2:
IPXPING New Target window
The IPXPING New Target window allows you to configure and
perform the PING function.
Table 17-1:
Fields in the IPXPING New Target window
Field
Description
Network
Lets you select a target IPX server by entering its IPX address.
Node
Lets you select a target IPX server by entering its node number. You must
enter both the IPX address and node number to select the server.
Seconds to pause
between pings
Lets you specify the number of seconds between each packet transmission.
To start sending request packets, press <Esc>. The sending node
continues to send request packets and collect response time statistics
until you press <Esc> again and exit IPXPING.
Request and reply packets use the same format; each packet contains
the standard IPX header.
To select additional IPX servers, press <Insert>. Enter the IPX address
of the server in the Address field. Press <Esc> to start sending packets.
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Using the TPING Utility
The TPING utility enables you to send an ICMP echo request packet
to an IP node on your internetwork.
TPING determines the reachability of an IP target node on your
internetwork, to which it sends a request packet. If the target node
receives the request packet, it sends back a reply packet.
To use TPING, type the following command at the server prompt and
press <Enter>:
LOAD TPING host [packet size [retry count]]
where,
Host is the symbolic hostname or IP address of a TCP/IP system on
the network.
Packet size is the size, in bytes, of the ICMP packet.
Retry count is the number of times you want to send an ICMP packet
to the host system until a reply is received.
TPING sends a maximum of five ICMP echo request packets to the
target node by default. If it receives a response, TPING stops sending
requests and displays a message indicating that the target node is
reachable. If it does not receive a response, TPING displays a message
indicating that the target node did not respond.
Using the PING Utility
The PING utility enables you to send an ICMP echo request packet to
an IP node on your internetwork.
This section describes the interface for PING. PING determines the
reachability of an IP target node on your internetwork, to which it
sends a request packet. If the target node receives the request packet,
it sends back a reply packet.
To start PING, type the following command at the server prompt:
LOAD PING <Enter>
The system displays the New Target window:
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Figure 17-3:
PING New Target window
The PING New Target window allows you to configure and perform
the PING function.
Table 17-2:
Fields in the PING New Target window
Field
Description
Host name
Lets you select a target IP node by entering its hostname or Internet address.
Seconds to pause
between pings
Lets you specify the number of seconds between each packet transmission.
IP packet size to
send in bytes
Lets you specify the size of the PING packet in bytes.
To start sending packets, press <Esc>. The sending node continues to
send request packets and collect response time statistics until you
press <Esc> again and exit PING.
To select additional IP nodes, press <Insert>. Enter the IP address of
the node in the Host Name field. Press <Esc> to start sending packets.
Troubleshooting Tips
This section is intended to give you hints and tips for solving common problems on your own. However, if you are not able to solve
your problem, refer to section “Before Calling Technical Support” at
the end of this Chapter for details on which pieces of information you
have to provide to technical support.
Please note that in this NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1
Installation and ISDN Configuration guide, only the ISDN-related
troubleshooting information is given. Further ISDN-related troubleshooting tips might be found in the Technical Note on NetWare
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MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1. If this does not help to solve your
problem, please refer to the NetWare MultiProtocol Router 3.1 Management and Troubleshooting guide for further troubleshooting information.
Important
To solve your problems arousing during operation of the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN, also have a look at the ISDN line management messages. They contain information that might help you to sort out the problem
quickly.
One frequent support issue is that customers so not configure ISDN
at all during their very first NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN
installation, and contact support personnel for help.
Please make sure you read through all the set-up and configuration
information provided in this Guide including configuration information for ISDN-Controllers, Interfaces and Call Destinations before you
consider to contact your support personnel.
Problems with Call-Setup over ISDN (ISDN Error Messages 34xx and 33xx)
ISDN Errors 33xx and 34xx
To locate the problem, check whether you can set up a connection to
the AVM Data Call Center with the routers at either side (see above
for access information).
If you installed your NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN and the
ISDN-Controllers within a Private Branch Exchange (PBX), make sure
you entered your "PBX Outside Line Access" in the "ISDN Network
Interface Configuration" and as the first digit(s) of the "ISDN
Number" of a remote site you want to call in the "ISDN Call Destination Configuration".
Use the CONNECT file transfer program coming with your AVM
ISDN-Controller(s) for BRI between both routers to verify that your
ISDN accesses are working properly for incoming and outgoing
connections. For information on how to use CONNECT, refer to your
controller manual.
You can also try to establish a connection between the CONNECT
program and a NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN. You will not
be able to transfer files, of course, but if the ISDN network returns the
message "Incompatible file transfer protocol", an ISDN connection
could be set up and your ISDN accesses are working properly. If you
do not get this message, use the CONNECT program on both sites
and try again.
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If you do not see an incoming call on the system console, perform a
packet trace on the D channel to analyze the problem. For more
information on packet trace, refer to Chapter 18, "Monitoring ISDN
Connections."
If none of the tests is successful, contact your local PTT and have
them check your ISDN accesses.
If this does not help either, refer to section "Before Calling Technical
Support" at the end of this Chapter.
Network Protocol Errors
Inconsistencies in the configuration of the protocol-specific parameters (Protocol Parameters and/or Protocol Bindings) may cause
problems in the logical, protocol-specific connection handling.
These causes do not exclude each other. For example, an IPX connection to a remote router could not be established because a) the call has
been initiated to a Destination Subaddress that is not configured at
the remote router, which causes a problem in the ISDN-specific
connection handling and b) there are no IPX static routes and services
configured on the local router, which causes a problem in the logical,
IPX-specific connection handling.
For more information, see "Problems with IPX" below.
Problems with IPX
1. A connection to a remote router using IPX cannot be established
or a server on a remote LAN B is at first reported in LAN A, but
"disappears" after a certain time.
The most likely cause for this problem is that an IPX network number
exists twice in the WAN. The assigned network numbers for IPX (file
servers, LAN adapters) must be unique in the entire WAN. When
interconnecting separate LANs (as well as when locally adding new
segments to a LAN) for the first time, IPX network address conflicts,
resulting from inconsistencies in the IPX number assignment, frequently occur.
Conflicts caused by inconsistencies in the IPX number assignments
will result in one of the following situations:
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237
-
An IPX-connection over ISDN cannot be established between two
networks although the ISDN-specific connection handling works
properly.
-
A server on a remote LAN B is at first reported in LAN A (e.g. by
SLIST), but “disappears” after a certain time.
-
A copy operation is successful from LAN A to LAN B, but not
from LAN B to LAN A. (This situation might also be caused by
incorrect packet size settings, see 3. below)
Solution:
Check IPX Network Numbers and , if you are dialing a NetWare
MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1, whether “set force rip/sap updates” is set to “on”.
The network numbers and internal network numbers assigned for
IPX must be unique throughout the WAN; i.e. you must not assign
the same address twice. This restriction often leads to one or more
address conflicts when individual LANs are first connected, or when
new segments are added to a LAN.
2. A copy operation is successful from LAN A to LAN B, but not
from LAN B to LAN A.
A collision problem might exist between the configured IPX network
numbers.
Solution:
Check the assignment of IPX network numbers configured for inconsistencies, all numbers must be unique in the whole WAN.
Suggestion
Novell has developed a special “Network Registry Program” to perform the
task of assigning IPX numbers. If you are interested in this program, contact
Novell at +1 408 321-1506 (phone) or +1 408 956-0463 (fax).
Problems with TCP/IP
If you are running FTP, you might see the following warning messages on the system console:
CANNOT START SYS:ETC\NET\NETWARE\SERVICES
NETDIR_GET BY NAME:N2A:SERVICE NAME NOT FOUND
CANNOT MAP TO TCP
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UDP:REMOTE TRANSPORT
-ORMODULE NISBIND.NLM IS BEING REFERENCED. YOU
MUST UNLOAD HOSTG.NLM BEFORE UNLOADING
NISBIND.NLM
ERROR UNLOADING. KILLED LOADED MODULE.
You might also see the following message on the product kernel
message screen:
COULD NOT START UDP SERVICE.
Miscellaneous Problems
Ignore these messages. FTP will function normally.
An ISDN connection is physically established although there are
no active workstation sessions with the remote servers/routers.
The causes for this may be very diverse. It may happen that routing
information is exchanged unnecessarily often or that an anti-virus
program automatically scans all servers in very short intervals.
Solution:
a. Check, if you set all filter and spoofing mechanisms and all timers
to appropriate values.
b. If you set appropriate values for the items mentioned above and
you still have a number of ISDN connections built up, use the
Packet Trace function of the ISDN Console or use SNMP to find
out which packets cause these frequent ISDN call set-ups.
Getting Information on Product Enhancements and Fixes
c. Perform a packet trace. For more information on packet trace, refer
to Chapter 18, "Monitoring ISDN Connections."
To stay informed about product enhancements and fixes, AVM
recommends to regularly dial up the AVM Data Call Center.
Testing and Troubleshooting
239
There, you will find information on new releases and patches for the
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN and other networking
Before Calling Technical Support
products by AVM. Maybe a solution to your problem already exists!
See section "Calling the AVM Data Call Center" above for numbers
and access information.
To solve your problem, the following information is required:
1. A detailed description of the problem and a sketch of your WAN
including the IPX and IP addresses of all components.
2. Your ISDN numbers and the D channel protocol used.
3. The error message displayed.
4. If you are not able to set up an ISDN connection, the results of the
tests with the CONNECT file transfer program.
5. The latest ISDNINFO.DAT file (SYS:ETC\).
To create ISDNINFO.DAT, enter
load isdninfo.nlm
at the server console.
6. If it is not included in the ISDNINFO.DAT, a copy of the
STARTUP.NCF file.
7. The ISDN line management daily log file that documents your
problem.
8. A hard copy of your SYS:SYSTEM directory.
This information is important and will help to solve your problem
more quickly.
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chapter
18 Monitoring ISDN Connections
You should read through this chapter very carefully, since it provides
important information on monitoring and controlling ISDN connections.
Monitoring ISDN connections is extremely important. It gives you an
impression of the number of ISDN connections established each day
and of the resulting connection charges. To keep connection charges
as low as possible, monitoring is indispensable for cost-effective use
of the NetWare®MultiProtocol RouterTM for ISDN 3.1.
The NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 provides the following monitoring features:
-
ISDN Console to display detailed online information on ISDN
connections and on ISDN-Controllers and their interfaces. In
addition, all ISDN line management messages and connection
information can be stored in log files and different trace options
can be defined and enabled.
-
ISDN Budget Manager to define the maximum amount of charges
allowed for an individual call destination per month, per week
and per day. When one of the maximum values is reached, the Call
Status of this call destination is disabled, i.e. no outgoing or
incoming connections are allowed to or from this destination.
-
ISDN Connection Monitor to limit the maximum physical up-time,
the maximum outgoing calls and the maximum charge units per
interface by defining individual thresholds for these values. When
a threshold is exceeded, the interface is barred for outgoing and
incoming calls.
-
NDS over ISDN Console to monitor NetWare 4.1 synchronization
traffic over ISDN.
This chapter contains the following sections:
-
"Online Information via ISDN Console (ISDNCON.NLM)" on
page 242
Monitoring ISDN Connections
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-
"Limiting ISDN Connections" on page 259
-
"NDS over ISDN Console - Monitoring NDS Traffic" on page 261
Online Information via ISDN Console (ISDNCON.NLM)
ISDN Console is a menu-assisted utility providing detailed information for the monitoring and controlling of ISDN connections as well
as of ISDN-Controllers and their interfaces.
ISDN Console offers:
-
Online information on all established ISDN connections at a
glance (daily, weekly and monthly statistics).
-
Detailed status information and statistics on all ISDN connections,
remote nodes, ISDN-Controllers and their interfaces, as well as on
all protocols.
-
"Packet Trace" options to extract packet specific information
(source, destination, etc.) during transmission:
-
Network Protocol Trace option (IPX, TCP/IP,...)
-
D Channel Protocol Trace option
-
PPP Protocol Trace option
It is strongly recommended that you use ISDN Console to monitor all
ISDN activities at regular, daily intervals and especially after having
installed new applications, such as antivirus programs, electronic
mail applications or management software, or after having reorganized the communication structure. Besides, use the log file option of
ISDN Console to automatically log and store all ISDN line management messages.
Loading ISDN Console
Load the ISDN Console by typing the following command at the
system console:
load ISDNCON <Return>
To have the ISDN Console loaded each time the server/router is reset,
use the User-specified proto option in INETCFG -> Protocols:
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Press <Ins> to display an empty "Protocol Command Configuration"
mask and enter ISDNCON in the first line. Press <Enter>, then <Esc>
and save your changes. ISDNCON will be loaded each time the
server/router is reset.
The ISDN Console main menu appears on the screen:
Figure 18-1:
ISDN Console, Available Actions
Note
Logging is always activated, even if ISDN Console is not loaded.
The function key assignment within ISDN Console is listed in Table
18-1:
Table 18-1:
ISDNCON function keys
Key
Description
Arrow keys
Move the highlight through menu items.
PgUp/PgDn, Arrow keys
Scroll through table entries.
Enter
Select the currently highlighted entry.
Del
Connections 1h and Connections 24h: Clear protocol connections from or to
one interface manually. You should mind, however, that, if the connections
are established automatically, the connection will always be set up again.
Del
Interface statistics: Reset Thresholds.
Del
Remote Nodes: Clear connection to the remote node manually.
Del
View File: Delete highlighted file.
F3
View File: Delete all files.
Tab
Connections 1h and Connections 24h: toggle between display of the call
destination name and the number of the remote site.
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Tab
Interface statistics: Activate Trace and display the Trace window.
Esc
Return to the previous menu level (from the start-up screen also quit ISDN
Console).
Statistics in ISDN Console
"Connections 1h" and "Connections 24h": Connection-Oriented Information
The submenus "Connections 1h" and "Connections 24h" display
status information on all ISDN connections logically established at a
given time. When you select "Connections 1h", the following menu
appears on your screen:
Figure 18-2:
Connections 1h
Table 18-2:
Information provided in "1-Hour Statistics" and "24-Hour Statistics"
Information
Description
Destination Address
Complete ISDN number to reach the remote LAN, consisting of the Destination Address and Destination Subaddress configured in the ISDN Call
Destination Configuration.
Physical Connection
Total physical connection time, as compared with the time indicated in
"Counting Since".
Calls
Total number of sent and received calls, as compared with the time indicated
in "Counting Since".
Counting Since
Current counting time, as compared with the time interval (1 hour or 24
hours).
Note
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"Counting Since" always shows the time that has passed between the last
reset (after each hour or each day, starting at 00.00 h PC time) and the
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current time, and does not depend on whether ISDN Console has already
been loaded or is loaded for the first time.
To view more details on a single ISDN connection, select it from this
menu by moving the Up and Down arrow keys and press RETURN.
The following menu will be displayed on the screen:
Figure 18-3:
ISDN Connection Information for ...
Table 18-3:
Information provided in "ISDN Connection Information for ..."
Information
Description
Current Logical Up-Time indicates the time during which the current logical connection has been
logically active since it has been set up for the first time.
Current Physical UpTime
indicates the time during which the current ISDN connection has been
physically active during the specified period (1h or 24h).
Current Physical
Down-Time
indicates the time during which the current ISDN connection has been
physically inactive during the specified period (1h or 24h).
Current B Channels
Used
is the total number of B channels currently used for the current connection
(0=no B channel active, either because no connection is active over this
interface or the Inactivity Timeout expired).
Current Charge Units
Count
is the approximate number of charge units for the current connection which
have accrued during the specified period (1h or 24h). If no values are shown
here, refer to the note on p. 225.
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Current Inactivity
Timeout Value (sec)
shows the Inactivity Timeout value (in seconds) configured in the ISDN Call
Destination Configuration for the current connection. If Self-Learning Timeout
is enabled, the adjusted Timeout value is displayed here.
Current Disconnect
Timeout Value (sec)
is the Disconnect Timeout value (in seconds) that has been configured in the
ISDN Call Destination Configuration for the current connection. If SelfLearning Timeout is enabled, the adjusted Timeout value is displayed here.
Current Incoming Calls
indicates the number of incoming calls during the specified period (1h or
24h).
Current Outgoing Calls
indicates the number of outgoing calls during the specified period (1h or
24h).
The detailed status and statistical information within the menu
"Interfaces" is ISDN-Controller- and interface-oriented. Most information is also accessible via SNMP and is defined in the
MPR4ISDN.MIB.
"Interfaces": ISDN-Controller and Interface-Oriented Information
When you select "Interfaces", the following menu appears on your
screen:
Figure 18-4:
ISDN Interfaces
Table 18-4:
Information in ISDN Interfaces
Information
Description
Interface
The name of the interface in the form of BoardName_n, where n is the
interface number.
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Status
Status of the network interface. (Down=interface disabled; Up=interface
enabled; Up 1 B Channel=physically active connection using 1 B channel; Up
2 B Channels=physically active connection using 2 B channels; Up
Connected=physical connection down after Inactivity Timeout).
Destination Address
If a connection to a remote site exists, its ISDN Number is displayed here.
Trace
Status of the trace option (Off=Trace enabled. On=Trace disabled.) Press
<Tab> to enable Trace, <Esc> or <Tab> again to disable Trace. Trace options
can be defined in the "Options" menu (see p. 258).
Select the interface you want to have more information on from this
list of available ISDN interfaces by pressing the Up and Down arrow
keys, then press <Enter>. The following menu appears on the screen:
Figure 18-5:
Interface Information:...
Press <PgDn> to view the next screens containing further details on
the ISDN connection.
The ISDN statistics and status information provided by the NetWare
MultiProtocol Router for ISDN via the ISDN Console menu "Interfaces" are divided into information related to the ISDN-Controllers,
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connection statistics and packets/bytes statistics, and will be described in the following table.
Table 18-5:
Information in ISDN Interface Information...
Information
Description
Total Packets Sent
is the total number of frames sent on this interface since it has been loaded.
This count includes LCP, NCP, network protocol data frames and call set-up
frames for each active network protocol.
Total Packets Received
is the total number of frames received on this interface since it has been
loaded. This count includes LCP, NCP, network protocol data frames, and call
setup frames for each active network protocol.
No ECB Available
Count
is the total number of times a receive ECB allocation failed for this interface
since it has been loaded. Each occurrence of this error results in a receive
frame being dropped. When this value increases rapidly, it is recommended
to set the "maximum packet receive buffers" in the AUTOEXEC.NCF file to a
higher value.
Send Packet Too Big
Count
is the total number of times a transmit frame request failed on this interface
since it has been loaded because the data size exceeded the Maximum
Transfer Unit (MTU) size previously negotiated by the Protocol LCP. The
default MTU value for the ISDN driver is 4530 bytes.
Send Packet Too
Small Count
is the total number of times a transmit frame was too small and was padded
for transmission.
Receive Packet
Overflow Cnt.
is the total number of packets dropped because a receive ECB allocation
failed for this interface since it has been loaded. When this value increases
rapidly, it is recommended to set the "maximum packet receive buffers" in the
AUTOEXEC.NCF file to a higher value.
Receive Packet Too
Big Cnt.
is the total number of times a receive frame was discarded on this interface
since it has been loaded because it exceeded the Maximum Transfer Unit
(MTU) size previously negotiated.
Receive Packet Too
Small Cnt.
is the total number of times a receive frame was discarded on this interface
since it has been loaded because the frame was not large enough to contain
a minimum ISDN frame format.
Send Packet Misc.
Errors
is the total number of times the Queue Limit was exceeded or packets were
sent for a destination that is no longer active. Set the Queue Limit to a higher
value (see "ISDN-Controller Expert Interface Configuration").
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Receive Packet Misc.
been
Errors
is the total number of all receive frame errors on this interface since it has
Adapter Reset Count
is the total number of times the ISDN-Controller was reset due to internal
failure since this interface was loaded.
Adapter Operating
Time Stamp
is the time stamp indicating the last time the operational status of the ISDNController changed (e.g. the interface was loaded or the ISDN-Controller was
reset).
Adapter Queue Depth
is the number of Transmit Packets that are queued at a given time for all
interfaces of this ISDN-Controller.
Total Interrupt Count
is the total number of interrupts generated by the ISDN-Controller since this
ISDN interface was loaded.
Total Watchdog Count
is the total number of watchdog packets generated by the ISDN-Controller
since this ISDN interface was loaded. A watchdog packet is generated every
10 seconds.
Curr. Communication
Status
is a bit-mask that displays the communication status. When value 1000 is
shown, a packet is being transmitted to the ISDN-Controller. When value 1 is
shown, the ISDN-Controller is waiting for a packet. When value 1001 is
displayed a packet is being transmitted to the ISDN-Controller and the driver
is waiting for a packet.
Maximum Memory
Available
is the total number of memory in bytes implemented on the ISDN-Controller.
Memory Currently
Available
is the current number of bytes that are currently not in use on the ISDNController.
Current Mem.
Allocated Count
is the number of Memory Blocks allocated on the ISDN-Controller.
Current MBUF
Allocated Count
is the number of Receive/Transmit Control Blocks allocated on the ISDNController.
Total Recv. Calls
Denied Cnt.
is the total number of incoming calls on this ISDN-Controller denied access
to the router.
Interface Status
shows the current status of the interface. Up means that the interface is
currently activated. Down means that the interface is disabled either because
loaded. Note that this count can exceed the number of receive frames
discarded because multiple errors can occur within a single receive frame.
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the ISDN Connection Monitor barred it, Time Restrictions do not allow usage
at this time or it was barred via any SNMP based application.
Outbound Call
Processing
shows the current setting for Outbound Call Processing on this ISDN interface.
Inbound Call
Processing
shows the current setting for Inbound Call Processing on this ISDN interface.
Origination Address
shows the complete address of this ISDN interface. The Origination Address
is made up of the ISDN Number, the PBX Extension and the Subaddress.
Call Acceptance
indicates the Call Acceptance status configured in the "Expert Configuration"
for this interface.
Interface Usage
the usage of the interface as configured in the "Expert Configuration".
"LAN-LAN" means that no connections to remote NetWAYS/ISDN and PPPcompatible nodes are allowed over this interface. "Remote Node-LAN"
means that this interface can only be used for connections to remote NetWAYS/ISDN and PPP-compatible nodes. "Both" allows both types of connections over this interface.
Total Queue Limit
Count
shows the value of the "Queue Limit" parameter that has been configured
for this interface in the ISDN Expert Port Configuration since this ISDN
interface was loaded (the default for this Queue Limit is 100).
Queue Depth Count
is the number of Transmit Packets that are queued on the ISDN-Controller at
a given time for this interface.
Total Send Packets
Dropped Count
is the total number of packets to be sent that were dropped because the
maximum Queue Limit was exceeded since this ISDN interface was loaded.
Total Receive Packets
Dropped Count
is the total number of packets to be received that were dropped because of
ECB allocation errors since this ISDN interface was loaded.
Total Send Calls
Failed Count
is the total number of calls and call retries (see parameter "Number of
Retries" configured for each interface in the "ISDN-Controller Expert Interface Configuration") without subsequent successful establishment of a
connection since this ISDN interface was loaded. Note that this number is a
subset of Total Outgoing Calls.
Total Physical
Connection Time Count
is the total amount of time in seconds during which the interface has been
physically in use since the ISDN interface was loaded. Note that at any given
time either the Total Physical Connection Time Count or the Total Inactivity
Time Count increases, depending on whether this ISDN line is physically in
use or not.
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Total Inactivity Time
Count
is the total amount of time the interface has been physically disconnected
since the ISDN interface was loaded. Note that at any given time either the
Total Physical Connection Time Count or the Total Inactivity Time Count
increases, depending on whether this ISDN line is physically in use or not.
Physical Up-Time
Threshold
shows the Maximum Physical Connection Time threshold as configured in
the ISDN-Controller Expert Interface Configuration. As soon as this threshold
is reached, the interface of the ISDN-Controller is barred.
Actual Physical
Up-Time
shows the actual physical connection time of the interface.
Outgoing Calls
Threshold
shows the Maximum Outgoing Calls threshold as configured in the ISDNController Expert Interface Configuration.
Actual Outgoing Calls
shows the actual outgoing calls over the interface.
Charging Threshold
shows the Maximum Charging threshold as configured in the ISDN-Controller Expert Interface Configuration.
Actual Charging
shows the actual charge units accrued for connections over the interface.
Current Active
is the name of the remote LAN that is connected to this interface.
ISDN Number
is the ISDN Number of the remote site that is connected to this interface.
Remote Client Node
Address
is the MAC Address used by the remote node.
Remote Client IP
Address
is the IP Node Address used by the remote node.
Current Charge Units
Count
is the approximate number of charge units for a specific ISDN link over this
interface (see "Current Active Call Destination"). If no values are shown here,
refer to the note following this table.
Current Inactivity
Timeout Value (sec)
shows the Inactivity Timeout value (in seconds) configured in the ISDN Call
Destination Configuration assigned for this connection. When Self-Learning
Timeout is enabled, the adjusted Inactivity Timeout value is displayed in this
place.
Current Disconnect
Timeout Value (sec)
is the Disconnect Timeout value (in seconds) that has been configured in the
ISDN Call Destination Configuration for this connection. When Self-Learning
Timeout is enabled, the adjusted Timeout value is displayed in this place.
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Current Running
Idle Timer (sec)
indicates the time the current connection has been inactive so far.
Current B-Channels
Used
is the total number of B channels currently used for the connection indicated
in the field "Current Active Connection" (0=no B channel active, either
because no connection is active over this interface or the Inactivity Timeout
expired).
Curent Packets Queued
is the number of packets currently queued for this interface.
Current Logical
Connection Time Count
indicates, how long (in seconds) the current connection already exists
logically since it has been set up for the first time.
Current Physical
Connection Time Count
indicates the time (in seconds) a connection is physically active between two
periods of physical inactivity for the current logical connection.
Current Inactivity
Time Count
indicates the time (in seconds) a connection is physically inactive between
two periods of physical activity for the current logical connection.
Current Filtered Packets is the total number of packets filtered on that interface.
Current Spoofed Packets is the total number of packets spoofed on that interface.
Current Dropped Packets is the total number of packets dropped on that interface because the Queue
Limit was exceeded.
Compression
shows the compression type negotiated with the remote site during initial call
set-up.
Spoofing
shows the spoofing mechanisms negotiated with the remote site during initial
call set-up.
Bundling
shows whether or not channel bundling was negotiated with the remote site
during initial call set-up. Disabled:no channel bundling negotiated; Enabled:
channel bundling negotiated.
Internal Diagnostic 1-4
These statistics represent ISDN internal statistics counts per ISDN-Controller. They are intended for use by technical support, and should be included
when reporting problems.
PPP Send MRU, MRRU
is the negotiated Maximum Receive Unit (MRU) and Maximum Receive
PPP Receive MRU, MRRU Reconstruct Unit (MRRU) for incoming/outgoing calls. The MRRU is a sign
that PPP Multilink is used.
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PPP Send Options
PPP Receive Options
shows the negotiated option for incoming/outgoing calls:
ACFC- address and control field compression enabled.
PFC - protocol and control field compression enabled.
MAGIC - magic number transmitted for the loopback detector.
PAP - password authentication protocol used.
CHAP - challenge handshake authentication protocol used.
CIPX - CIPX header compression enabled.
CIP - TCP/IP header compression enabled.
IPA - the remote site was assigned an IP address from the IP Address
Range.
EPD - End-of-point descriptor used.
SSN - Short sequence number used.
AUT - authentication was performed.
Compression Send
Reset Count
specifies how often the compression encoder has been reset. High values
indicate that the data to be transmitted could not be compressed very well.
Compression Receive
Reset Count
specifies how often the compression decoder has been reset. High values
indicate that the data transmitted could not be compressed very well.
Compression Receive
Error Count 1-2
specifies how often bad frames have been received.
Accounting Statistics:
Duration
is the total period during which the ISDN interface has been loaded so far for
the period stated (1 day, 7 days, 4 weeks).
Physical Up-Time
shows the physical up-time of the interface during the period stated (1 day, 7
days, 4 weeks). Note that here, all B channel up-times are added and
therefore the total physical up-time per day may exceed 24 h!
Incoming Calls
shows the incoming calls at the interface during the period stated (1 day, 7
days, 4 weeks).
Outgoing Calls
shows the outgoing calls at the interface during the period stated (1 day, 7
days, 4 weeks).
Chargings
shows the charge units accrued at the interface during the period stated (1
day, 7 days, 4 weeks).
Throughput rates for transmitted and received data:
Actual Data Rate
(Bits/sec)
is the actual data throughput rate per second over this interface.
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Net Data Rate (Bits/sec)
is the net usage of the ISDN channel related to this interface.
Packet Rate
(Packets/sec)
is the number of packets transferred per second over this interface.
Compression Factor
is the percentage to which the data could be compressed. A value of 30
indicates that the data packets could be compressed to 30 % of their original
size.
Packets/Bytes Statistics:
Packets Sent
is the total number of packets sent on this interface per protocol.
Packets Received
is the total number of packets received on this interface per protocol.
Bytes Sent
is the total number of bytes sent on this interface per protocol.
Bytes Received
is the total number of bytes received on this interface per protocol.
Active Protocols
lists the protocols that are currently active on this ISDN interface.
If no values are shown for "Total Charge Units Count" and "Current Charge
Units Count", please note that values in these parameters directly depend on
the type of information delivered by the ISDN network and on how this is
done; i.e. what kind of information services the PTTs provide.
Within the ETSI standards for Euro-ISDN, the NetWare MultiProtocol Router
for ISDN and the corresponding ISDN-Controllers support the "Advice On
Charge During Call" (AOCD) of the "Functional Interface" specification. If this
service is provided by a national PTT for an Euro-ISDN interface, charging
information will be provided within the ISDN statistics of the NetWare
MultiProtocol Router for ISDN in the form of Charge Units. In Germany, this
service is provided. If no values are shown for the two parameters, ask your
local telecommunications agency whether this option is available and
enabled for your ISDN access.
Note
"Remote Nodes": Remote Node-Oriented Information
The "Remote Node" menu displays status information on all ISDN
connections logically established to remote nodes at a given time.
When you select "Remote Node", the following menu appears on
your screen:
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Figure 18-6:
Remote Nodes
Table 18-6:
Information in Remote Nodes
Information
Description
Destination
The call destination name of the remote node.
Interface
(Static Node) means that the remote node was configured to be a static
remote node. If a connection exists to a remote node, the interface that
handles the connection is displayed.
Node Address
The Node Address of the remote node.
IP Address
The IP Address of the remote node.
Select the remote node you want to have more information on from
this list by pressing the Up and Down arrow keys, then press
<Enter>. The "Remote Node" menu appears on the screen:
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Figure 18-7:
Information in Remote Node
Table 18-7:
Information in Remote Node
Information
Description
Remote Node Type
The type of remote node. Static means that the remote node was configured
to be a static remote node. Dynamic means that this is no static remote
node.
Interface
The name of the interface in the form of Board Name_n, where n is the
interface number.
Call Destination
The call destination name of the remote node.
ISDN Number
The ISDN Number of the remote node.
Node Address
is the MAC Address used by the remote node.
IP Address
is the IP Node Address used by the remote node.
Server Recall
Displays whether Server Recall was negotiated. Enabled: Server Recall
negotiated; Disabled: no Server Recall negotiated.
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Compression
shows the compression type negotiated with the remote site during initial call
set-up.
Spoofing
shows the spoofing mechanisms negotiated with the remote site during initial
call set-up.
Total Charging
is the approximate number of charge units that have accrued on the router
for the current remote node.
Total Connection Time
is the total time during which connections to this remote node have been
physically up.
Total Incoming Calls
indicates the total number of incoming calls from this remote node.
Total Outgoing Calls
indicates the total number of outgoing calls to this remote node.
Total Kbytes Sent
is the total number of bytes sent to this remote node.
Total Kbytes Received
is the total number of bytes received from this remote node.
Total Packets Sent
is the total number of frames sent to this remote node. This ‘count includes
LCP, NCP, network protocol data frames and call set-up frames for each
active network protocol.
Total Packets Received
is the total number of frames received from this remote node. This ‘count
includes LCP, NCP, network protocol data frames and call set-up frames for
each active network protocol.
Total Spoofed Packets
is the total number of packets spoofed.
Total Filtered Packets
is the total number of packets filtered.
"Options": Enabling Traces
The "Options" menu provides parameters to configure the screen
update interval, to enable ISDN line management logging and to
specify trace options.
Press <Enter> on "Options" to display the following menu:
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Figure 18-8:
ISDN Console, Options menu
Table 18-8:
Configurable Parameters in the "Options" Menu
Parameter
Description
Screen Update Interval
specifies how often ISDN Console screens are updated.
Trace Level
lets you define the level of the trace. Network Protocol: all IPX, IP, AT, etc.
protocols are traced. ISDN D channel: traces ISDN D channel information.
PPP Protocol: traces information related to the PPP protocol.
Trace with Hex Dump
lets you enable Trace with Hex Dump.
Trace Dropped Packets
lets you exclude dropped packets from packet trace. Disabled: dropped
packets are not traced. Enabled: dropped packets are traced.
Trace Packet Slice
lets you specify the slice of the packet to be traced. If you want to trace the
packet headers only, specify 64 Bytes. 0 Bytes traces full packets. The
header sizes for the single protocols are as follows:
IPX: 30 Bytes
IP: 20 Bytes
SPX: 42 Bytes
UDP/IP: 28 Bytes
NCP: 36 Bytes
TCP/IP: 40 Bytes
SPX II: 44 Bytes
ARP/RARP: 28 Bytes
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"View File": Viewing Log Files and Trace Files
Selecting this item displays a list of ISDN Log and Trace Files. The
ISDN log files of the current day are marked with an asterisk (*).
Select the file you want to view from the list and press <Enter>.
Use the cursor keys and the <PgDn> and <PgUp> keys to scroll
through the files.
Use the <Del> key to delete the highlighted file.
Log, accounting and trace files can also be viewed with the help of
the ISDNVIEW.NLM. Specify the respective file you want to view
when loading ISDNVIEW.NLM:
load ISDNVIEW isdn01.log <RETURN>
Limiting ISDN Connections
Normally, the network administrator should monitor ISDN connections daily, using ISDN Console (see above) or an SNMP-based
management console such as AVM´s MPR for ISDN Router Manager,
to detect aberrant situations and to avoid unnecessary connection
charges by immediately sorting out the cause for such situations.
For situations where daily monitoring is not possible for whatever
reason, the NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1 provides two
useful mechanisms to limit connection charges: the ISDN Connection
Monitor, which was already introduced with version 3.0, and the new
ISDN Budget Manager.
ISDN Budget Manager
The ISDN Budget Manager allows configuration of the maximum
amount of money or the maximum number of charge units you want
to spend for a call destination per month, week and day.
When one of the maximum values is reached, the connection to the
remote site is cleared and incoming and outgoing connections to this
call destination are no longer allowed. To allow connections again,
either set the expired budget value to (None) or configure a higher
value. The current values are not reset when one of the maximum
values is reached!
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For information on how to configure the Budget, refer to Chapter 7,
"Configuring ISDN Call Destinations".
ISDN Connection Monitor
The ISDN Connection Monitor is activated automatically whenever
the router is started. It provides default values, but also allows you to
configure threshold values for the maximum physical up-time, the
maximum outgoing calls and the maximum charge units allowed on
each interface of an ISDN-Controller.
The default values are as follows:
Maximum Physical Up-Time:
40 min
Maximum Outgoing Calls:
200
Maximum Charge Units:
200
They were calculated according to the new tariffs of Deutsche
Telekom AG (as of January 1996):
Maximum amount of money allowed on
each interface per day:
DM 24
Meter clock pulse Fernzone/Region 20
between 9 a.m. and 12 a.m.:
appr. 12 sec
One charge unit costs:
DM 0.12
--> Maximum Charge Units = DM 24 : DM 0.12 = 200
--> Maximum Physical Up-Time = (DM 24 : DM 0.12) x 12 sec = 2400 sec =
40 min
As soon as the threshold value for an interface is reached, an alert is
generated 3 times in 1-minute intervals, printed on the system console and sent via Trap. After that, the respective interface is automatically barred; i.e., all connections set up over this interface are cleared,
no outgoing calls can be established over it and incoming calls on the
ISDN-Controller are rejected if addressed to this interface until the
administrator removes this bar. If the barred interface is a member of
an Interface Group, all other interfaces of this group are barred as
well to avoid that outgoing calls are simply performed over a different interface.
To remove a bar, do one of the following:
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-
Load the ISDN Console (ISDNCON.NLM), go to Interfaces and
press <Del> on the barred interface. The threshold value(s) will be
reset and the interface released.
OR
-
Reconfigure threshold values in the Expert Configuration of the
barred interface and enter "reinitialize system" at the system
console prompt to bring changes into effect.
Barring interfaces is or course a very drastic measure. Since all WAN
connections over such an interface are cut off and users cannot access
distant networks any more, problems with routine processes and
existing sessions could arise. Therefore, this should be the last measure you take, and the threshold values should be as high as your
situation allows.
Important
If you want to use the ISDN Connection Monitor, you should make sure that
it is used on all servers/routers in a WAN. If, for example, an interface of an
ISDN-Controller in a router is barred after a timeout expired, an incoming call
will be switched through to the ISDN-Controller by the local exchange and
will only be rejected by the barred interface itself.
Thus, if a remote router is configured to set up ISDN calls automatically, it
will perform endless attempts to set up a call to such a barred interface,
which will result in a high number of charge units within a very short time!
NDS over ISDN Console - Monitoring NDS Traffic
The NDS over ISDN Console monitors NDS traffic on ISDN lines.
NDS traffic can be divided in client-to-server traffic and server-toserver traffic. Client-to-server traffic is caused when a client performs
a login in the network or executes nwadmin. Server-to-server traffic is
caused by NDS updates and time synchronization.
The NDS over ISDN Console is realized in the form of a NetWare
Loadable ModuleTM (NLMTM). To load the NDS over ISDN Console,
enter the following command at the server console prompt:
load ndscon <Enter>
The following screen appears:
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Figure 18-9:
NDS over ISDN Console
The NDS over ISDN Console contains the following information:
The upper part displays the number NDS packets initiated by clients
and servers, the number of Time Synchronization packets, the
number of NDS packets spoofed and filtered and the number of Time
Synchronization packets filtered by the NetWare MultiProtocol
Router for ISDN:
Server initiated NDS - number of NDS packets sent/received by a
server.
Client initiated NDS - number of NDS packets sent/received by a
client.
Exchange Time - number of Time Synchronization packets sent/
received by a server.
NDS Spoofed - number of NDS packets spoofed.
NDS Filtered - number of NDS packets filtered.
Time Exchange Filtered - number of Time Synchronization packets
filtered.
Ping for NDS - number of Ping for NDS packets sent/received.
The middle part shows the amount of NDS traffic during the specified period.
The lower part lists the NDS traffic according to the NDS process that
initiates it.
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appendix
A
System and Error Messages
ISDN Error Messages
Error Causes Sent by the Local Exchange
0x3401
Invalid call reference [#3401]. Unexpected protocol element
processing on the D or B channel. Check if the correct D Channel protocol for your line is used.
0x3403
Bearer service not implemented [#3403]. The service is not
accepted by your local exchange. The service indicator has not
been set to the correct value or is not subscribed at the remote
site.
0x3407
Call identity does not exist [#3407]. Unexpected protocol element
processing on the D or B channel. Check if the correct D Channel protocol for your line is used.
0x3408
Call identity in use [#3408]. Unexpected protocol processing on
the D or B channel. Check if the correct D Channel Protocol for
your line is used.
0x340A
No channel available [#340A]. All channels of your ISDN access
are occupied by other users.
0x340F
Call clearing [#340F]. Your call was disconnected by the remote
site.
0x3410
Requested facility not implemented [#3410]. The facility requested is currently not implemented in ISDN.
0x3411
Requested facility not subscribed [#3411]. The facility requested
is currently not implemented in ISDN.
0x3420
Outgoing calls barred [#3420]. Your ISDN access is barred for
outgoing calls.
System and Error Messages
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0x3421
User access busy [#3421]. The local exchange is congested. The
accesses are busy.
0x3422
Negative CUG comparison [#3422]. Connection is not possible
because of non-membership in a closed user group.
0x3423
Non-existent CUG [#3423]. The specified closed user group does
not exist.
0x3425
Semi-permanent connection not possible [#3425]. The facility
requested is currently not available in ISDN.
0x3429
Temporary failure [#3429]. Temporary failure in ISDN.
0x3430
Reverse charging not allowed (ORG) [#3430]. Reverse charging
is not possible from this access.
0x3432
Reverse charging rejected [#3432]. Reverse charging was rejected by the remote site.
0x3435
Destination not obtainable [#3435]. Connection cannot be established because of incorrect number, service or service indicator.
0x3438
Number changed [#3438]. The number entered is no longer
correct.
0x3439
Remote user not ready [#3439]. The TE at the remote site is not
ready for use.
0x343A
No user responding [#343A]. The remote site has not confirmed
the incoming call or the call set-up was aborted.
0x343B
User busy [#343B]. The remote access is busy.
0x343D
Incoming calls barred [#343D]. The user called is barred for
incoming calls or the requested service is not subscribed at the
remote site.
0x343E
Call rejected [#343E]. The call was rejected by the remote site.
0x3458
Incompatible destination [#3458]. The dialed number does not
comply with international conventions.
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0x3459
Network congestion [#3459]. Congestion in ISDN. Try again.
0x345A
Remote user initiated [#345A]. Rejected or initiated by the remote user or the local exchange.
0x3460
Mandatory information elements missing [#3460]. The dialed
number does not comply with international conventions.
0x3464
Invalid information element contents [#3464]. The dialed number
does not comply with international conventions.
0x3470
Local procedure error [#3470]. Caused by a local error, e.g. a
timeout.
0x3471
Remote procedure error [#3471]. Caused by an error at the
remote site.
0x3472
Remote user suspended [#3472]. Initiated or rejected by the
remote user.
0x3473
Remote user ready again [#3473]. At the remote site, the connection is no longer in the state of "holding", "suspend" or "conference".
0x347F
D channel user info not implemented [#347F]. Protocol error
during call set-up or clear-down between controller and ISDN.
0x34xx
Unknown ISDN error message [#34xx]. The local exchange sent
an unknown error message. Please contact AVM technical support.
Error Messages Created by the ISDN-Controller
0x3202
The configured EAZ/MSN is already used by another application
[#3202].
Configure a different EAZ or MSN for the specified interface of the
NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN.
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0x8001
The configured MSN cannot be used [#8001].
The configured MSN cannot be adjusted in the controller software.
Use a different MSN.
0x3301
No connection to ISDN [#3301].
A connection could not be established from the terminal equipment to
the NT (Network Terminator) and/or the local switching station. The
call set-up failed at Layer 1 of the ISDN protocol: the necessary
physical signals could not be exchanged between the terminal equipment and the NT/local switching station. Possible causes include:
0x3302
-
cable not connected or incorrectly connected
-
cable connectors miswired or wrong sockets used
-
NT is not correctly activated or has a faulty connection to the
switching station
-
a defective TE elsewhere on the bus is blocking communication.
No connection to ISDN [#3302].
A connection could not be established from the terminal equipment to
the NT and/or the switching station. The call set-up failed at Layer 2
of the ISDN protocol: no messages could be exchanged between the
terminal equipment and the switching station. Possible causes include:
0x3303
-
the access to the switching station is not activated
-
an incorrect or unexpected D channel protocol is being used at this
access.
Error during call set-up to ISDN user [#3303].
A data connection could not be established from the terminal equipment to the remote station called. The call set-up failed on attempting
to establish the data communication channel (B channel). Possible
causes include:
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the B channel requested was not switched through by the switching station
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the necessary signals (flags) for call set-up were not present.
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0x3304
Error during call set-up to ISDN user [#3304].
A data connection could not be established from the terminal equipment to the remote station called. The call set-up failed on attempting
to establish the data communication channel (B channel). Possible
causes include:
0x3305
-
the B channel requested was not switched through by the switching station
-
the necessary signals (flags) for call set-up were not present.
Connection to ISDN aborted (D channel) [#3305].
An existing connection to the NT/switching station was terminated.
Possible causes include:
0x3306
-
an unstable ISDN connection to the NT, possibly caused by:
-
excessive cable length
-
incorrect cable routing
-
faulty wiring connections.
Connection to ISDN aborted (D channel) [#3306].
An existing connection or a call set-up in progress to the NT/switching station was terminated. Possible causes include:
0x3307
-
an unstable ISDN connection to the NT, possibly caused by:
-
excessive cable length
-
incorrect cable routing
-
faulty wiring connections
-
user termination of call set-up
-
malfunction of the NT/switching station.
Connection to ISDN aborted (D channel) [#3307].
An existing connection or a call set-up in progress to the NT/switching station was terminated. Possible causes include:
-
termination of call set-up by the user
-
malfunction of the NT/switching station
-
error in the Layer 2 protocol.
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0x3308
Connection to ISDN aborted (B channel) [#3308].
An existing connection to the remote station was terminated. Possible
causes include:
0x3309
-
an unstable ISDN connection to the NT, possibly caused by:
-
excessive cable length
-
incorrect cable routing
-
faulty wiring connections.
Connection to ISDN aborted (B channel) [#3309].
An existing connection or a call set-up in progress to the remote
station was terminated. Possible causes include:
0x330A
-
termination of call set-up by the user
-
the remote TE called does not conform to the protocol or service
definition.
Connection to ISDN aborted (B channel) [#330A].
An existing connection or a call set-up in progress to the remote
station was terminated. Possible causes include:
0x330B
-
user termination of call set-up
-
the remote TE called does not conform to the protocol or service
definition
-
the remote TE called uses an incompatible Layer 3 protocol.
Connection to ISDN aborted (B channel) [#330B].
An existing connection or a call set-up in progress was aborted and
had to be re-established. Data loss may have occurred. Possible
causes include:
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the remote TE called does not conform to the protocol or service
definition
-
an interrupted connection is being resumed (not currently implemented).
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0x330C
Re-establish connection, B channel layer 3 [#330C].
An existing connection or a call set-up in progress was aborted and
had to be re-established. Data loss may have occurred. Possible
causes include:
-
the remote TE called does not conform to the protocol or service
definition
-
an interrupted connection is being resumed (not currently implemented).
ISDN Line Management Messages
Messages Indicating Actions or Status Changes
All the following messages are displayed as follows:
<Date> <Time> <Board Name_Interface Number>:
<Message>
Example:
95/06/10 13:29:50 AVM-B1_1: Connection to 03046707219 subaddress
1 established (outgoing).
Incoming call from <Number>.
indicates that a call is coming in from the specified ISDN number.
Create connection to <Number>.
indicates that a connection to the specified ISDN number is initiated.
Connection to <Number> established (incoming).
indicates that an incoming call request has been accepted and a
physical ISDN connection has been established to the specified ISDN
number.
Connection to <Number> established (outgoing).
indicates that an outgoing call request has been accepted by the
remote site and a physical connection has been established to the
specified ISDN number.
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B channel up-time to <Number>: x y.
displays statistics information on the currently inactive B channel,
based on the duration and, for outgoing calls, the number of charge
units accrued for this connection. If AOCD (Advice On Charge
During Call) is not activated at the ISDN access, no charge units will
be displayed for outgoing calls.
Connection to <Number> down.
indicates that a physical ISDN connection to the specified ISDN
number has been disconnected. See also "ISDN Error Messages" in
this Chapter.
Inactivity timeout expired.
indicates that the Inactivity Timeout configured for the current ISDN
call destination elapsed and the ISDN connection was physically
deactivated.
Disconnect timeout expired.
indicates that the Disconnect Timeout configured for the current
ISDN call destination elapsed and the ISDN connection was cleared
physically and logically.
Messages Indicating Why an Incoming/Outgoing Call Was Rejected
All the following messages are displayed as follows:
<Date> <Time> <Board Name_Interface Number>:
<Message>
ISDN-9: Physical up-time threshold reached.
Warning issued by the ISDN Connection Monitor indicating that the
Physical Up-Time Threshold was reached.
ISDN-9: Outgoing calls threshold reached.
Warning issued by the ISDN Connection Monitor indicating that the
Outgoing Calls Threshold was reached.
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ISDN-9: Charging threshold reached.
Warning issued by the ISDN Connection Monitor indicating that the
Charging Threshold was reached.
ISDN-10: Interface barred - physical up-time threshold reached.
indicates that the specified interface is barred because the maximum
physical up-time threshold was exceeded. To enable the interface
again, unload ISDNCMON and load it again.
ISDN-10: Interface barred - outgoing calls threshold reached.
indicates that the specified interface is barred because the maximum
outgoing calls threshold was exceeded. To enable the interface again,
unload ISDNCMON and load it again.
ISDN-10: Interface barred - charging threshold reached.
indicates that the specified interface is barred because the maximum
charging threshold was exceeded. To enable the interface again,
unload ISDNCMON and load it again.
ISDN-13: Incoming call from <Number> not acceptable - all B channels are busy.
indicates that an incoming call cannot be accepted because all B
channels are already in use at your side at the specified time.
ISDN-16: Outgoing Call to <Number> failed - Interface barred for outgoing calls.
indicates that the interface cannot be used to perform outgoing calls,
because Outbound Call Processing is disabled on the interface, the
Interface Status is disabled or COSO is set to No Dial-Out for the call
destination.
ISDN-17: Outgoing call to <Number> subaddress <x> failed - All B channels are busy.
indicates that an outgoing call to the specified number cannot be
established because all B channels are already in use at your side.
ISDN-19: Outgoing call to <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because the local WAN
call destination version must match.
indicates that the ISDN Call Destination Configuration for this call
destination is incorrect. Check it or, if you are upgrading from NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN v2.x or 3.0, load
ISDNCONV.NLM to convert database entries to version 3.1.
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ISDN-20: Outgoing call to <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because the local interface is still in use to <Number> subaddress <x>.
indicates that this interface is already used for a different ISDN
connection. If both numbers displayed are equal, check the configuration of Local System ID and Remote System ID.
ISDN-21: Outgoing call to <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because the "Call Status"
is set to "Disabled".
indicates that you set the Call Status parameter in the "ISDN Call
Destination Configuration" to Disabled. Thus, outgoing calls to this
call destination are not allowed over the interface. If you want to
allow outgoing calls to this destination, you have to change the Call
Status and set it to Enabled.
ISDN-22: Outgoing call to <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because "Outbound Call
Processing" is set to "Disabled".
Since the interface cannot process outgoing calls, the call was rejected.
ISDN-23: Incoming call from <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because "Call Acceptance" is set to "Only Registered Numbers: CLI" or "...: CLI and Caller-Specified" and this
number (CLI) is not or not properly configured to be accepted.
indicates that the CLI number delivered over the D channel by the
remote site is not configured or not configured properly in the Call
Acceptance Database.
ISDN-24: Call to <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because the PPP LCP negotiation
failed.
indicates that the router was not able to negotiate the PPP LCP with a
remote site and therefore the call was rejected.
ISDN-25: Starvation timeout expired.
indicates that the remote peer of a connection is not answering.
ISDN-26: Calculated self-learning timeout <Period>.
shows the calculated selflearning timeout when
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been calculated for the first time.
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the meter clock pulse changed and a new selflearning timeout has
been calculated anew.
ISDN-27: Incoming call from <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because the "Call
Status" is set to "Disabled".
indicates that the Call Status of this call destination is disabled and no
outgoing and incoming calls are allowed to and from this remote site.
ISDN-28: Incoming call from <Number> rejected because the budget is reached.
indicates that one of the budget values configured for this call destination was reached and the call destination was barred for outgoing
and incoming calls. Either set the budget value to (None) or enter a
higher value.
ISDN-29: Outgoing call to <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because the budget is
reached.
indicates that one of the budget values configured for this call destination was reached and the call destination was barred for outgoing
and incoming calls. Either set the budget value to (None) or enter a
higher value.
ISDN-30: Call to <Number> cleared because the budget is reached.
indicates that one of the budget values configured for this call destination was reached and the call was therefore cleared. No outgoing or
incoming calls are allowed to or from this call destination. To use this
destination again, either set the budget value to (None) or enter a
higher value.
ISDN-31: COSO changed to "No Dial-Out".
indicates that COSO changed to No Dial-Out either because configured Time Restrictions came into effect or you set COSO to Remote
and the remote site did not reject your call on the D channel. As a
result, COSO changed to No Dial-Out.
ISDN-51: Outgoing call to <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because the local call
number components are not configured properly.
indicates that either no ISDN number or, if a PBX is used, no PBX
Extension has been configured. Enter the respective number in the
ISDN-Controller Interface Configuration.
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ISDN-52: Outgoing call to <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because the called subaddress <x> does not exist.
indicates that the Destination Subaddress you configured does not
exist at the remote site. Ask the network administrator of the remote
site which subaddress is assigned for your router to dial to and enter
that subaddress in your ISDN Call Destination entry.
ISDN-53: Outgoing call to <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because the called
subaddress <x> is configured for remote node access.
indicates that the interface you dialed at the remote router is configured for remote node access. When providing remote access for
stand-alone PCs besides routing between LANs, the interface/
interfaces configured for remote node access cannot be used concurrently to establish router connections. Ask the network administrator
of the remote site which Destination Subaddress is to be configured in
your ISDN Call Destination entry.
ISDN-54: Outgoing call to <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because the called
subaddress <x> is busy.
indicates that the addressed logical interface of the ISDN-Controller
on the remote site is in use, and therefore the call is rejected by the
ISDN-Controller.
ISDN-55: Outgoing call to <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because the remote router
did not set "Call Acceptance" to "All Numbers" and this number (Caller-Specified) is not
registered to be accepted.
indicates that the outgoing call has not passed the security mechanism of the remote router. Ask the network administrator of the
remote site for information on how to configure your ISDN Call
Destination entry properly to get access, since he has assigned an
interface for your router to dial to.
ISDN-56: Outgoing call to <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because the called address does not match the call number components at the remote site.
indicates that the number entered for Destination Address on your
local router is not configured properly to reach the remote router.
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ISDN-72: Outgoing call to <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because the interface is
barred via "Time Restrictions".
indicates that the configured Interface Status time restrictions for this
interface do not allow usage of the interface at that moment. The
interface is barred for incoming as well as outgoing calls.
ISDN-73: Outgoing call to <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because the selected
protocol is not configured at the remote site.
indicates that the selected network protocol is not configured at the
remote site. Contact the remote network administrator for information on which network protocols are configured for WAN connections
at the remote site.
ISDN-74: Call to <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because the PPP outbound authentication failed.
indicates that your router could not provide correct PPP outbound
authentication so that the call was rejected.
ISDN-101: Incoming call from <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because of incorrect
configured call number components at the remote site.
indicates that either no ISDN Number or, if a PBX is used, no PBX
Extension are configured at the remote site. The incoming call is
rejected, because your local router needs this information to properly
calculate the number to call the remote router back.
ISDN-102: Incoming call from <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because the called
subaddress <x> does not exist.
indicates that the subaddress entered for Destination Subaddress on
the remote router to call your local router does not exist on your local
router.
ISDN-103: Incoming call from <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because the called
subaddress <x> is configured for remot node access.
When the Interface Usage is set to "Remote Node-LAN" to provide
remote node acces from stand-alone PCs, the interface cannot be used
at the same time to establish router connections. You can provide
another interface for the remote site to dial to.
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ISDN-104: Incoming call from <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because the called
subaddress <x> is busy.
indicates that the addressed logical interface of the ISDN-Controller
at your side is already in use, and therefore the call is rejected.
ISDN-105: Incoming call from <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because "Call Acceptance" is not set to "All Numbers" and this number is not or not properly configured as a
destination to be accepted.
indicates that the incoming call has not passed the security mechanism of the router. If you want to allow this remote router access to
your network, you have to create an entry in the Call Acceptance
Database for that router. In doing so, you assign a specific interface of
an ISDN-Controller for that router to get access to your LAN.
If you have already created such an Call Acceptance Database entry,
make sure that the Destination Address and Subaddress entered there
are configured properly to call that remote router. Further, make sure
that the remote router's Destination Address and Subaddress in the
ISDN Call Destination entry is configured properly to reach the
interface you have assigned to this router.
ISDN-106: Incoming call from <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because the called
address <Number> does not match the local call number components.
indicates that the number entered for Destination Address on the
remote router is not configured properly to reach your local router.
Your router therefore is not able to generate the correct number to call
the remote router back, since it does not know where the incoming
call came from (PBX or not, location, country, etc.).
ISDN-107: Incoming call from <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because the called
subaddress <x> is not configured for remote node access.
indicates that a stand-alone PC tried to call an interface (a subaddress) that is not configured for remote node access.
You can configure that interface for remote node access as well as
provide another interface for this remote PC to get access if you want
to.
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ISDN-120: Incoming call from <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because of lost logical
connection or incorrect NetWAYS/ISDN driver at the remote site.
indicates that the Disconnect Timeout might have expired, that the
remote client rebooted the system or an incorrect NetWAYS/ISDN
driver is used at the remote site.
ISDN-122: Incoming call from <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because the interface
is barred via "Time Restrictions".
indicates that the configured Interface Status time restrictions for this
interface do not allow usage of the interface at that moment. The
interface is barred for incoming as well as outgoing calls.
ISDN-123: Incoming call from <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because the requested protocol is not configured to be accepted.
indicates that the network protocol requested by the remote site is not
configured for WAN connections in your router. Inform the remote
site on which network protocols are configured for WAN connections
at the your site.
ISDN-124: Call to <Number> subaddress <x> rejected because the PPP inbound authentication failed.
indicates that the remote router could not provide correct PPP
inbound authentication so that the call was rejected.
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appendix
B
AVM Data Call Center
Since March 1996, AVM has provided 30 additional ISDN and
Mobile ISDN dial-in points.
The dial-in points are configured for direct access from ISDNControllers, remote access with AVM NetWAYS/ISDN as well as
access with routers and via the Internet.
At the AVM Data Call Center, customers can obtain information
about AVM, download product enhancements and the latest drivers
for the AVM ISDN-Controllers.
MPR for ISDN Server
The MPR for ISDN Server in the AVM Data Call Center (ADC) in
Berlin can be used as a test destination, for example if you configure
your first router and do not have an own remote site to connect to.
You may further dial-up the AVM Data Call Center from time to
time to check for any news and downloads, such as Release Notes on
new products or enhancements to existing products.
To access the MPR for ISDN Server, you will need the following
connection parameters:
♦ Calling information:
ISDN Number: 03039984350 (when calling from somewhere in
Germany)
Subaddress: 1
For calls from outside Germany, complete the Destination Address
by first entering your international dialing prefix and the country
code "49" for Germany, and then continue with "3039984350".
♦ Protocol specifics
Currently, only IPX/SPX is enabled on this router. The internal
network numbers of the intranet are 39984xxx. Do not configure this
number on your router too if you want to connect to AVM’s ISDN
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Service Router, since this number must be unique within a WAN.
Further, make sure that it is not filtered.
TCP/IP will be enabled in the future. Access information will then be given in
the Technical Note on NetWare MultiProtocol Router for ISDN 3.1.
Note
♦ Login information
Server: adc
User name: guest.avm
Password: no password required
AVM ISDN Server: +49(0)30 399 84 300
You can access the AVM ISDN Server from any stand-alone PC with
the DOS based file transfer program “Connect”, with AVM´s IDtrans
or with AVM´s FRITZ!data software. You can also access the AVM
ISDN Server from within the LAN if you have NetWare Connect for
ISDN installed and run either of the above three file transfer applications on one of your LAN workstations.
AVM NetWAYS/ISDN Remote Access: +49 (0)30 399 84 360,
Subaddress 1
You can access the AVM NetWAYS/ISDN Remote Access server
from any stand-alone PC equipped with NetWAYS/ISDN and one of
AVM´s active or passive ISDN-Controllers for terestrial ISDN access.
AVM NetWAYS/Mobile ISDN Remote Access: +49 (0)30 399 84 370
You can access the AVM NetWAYS/Mobile ISDN Remote Access
server from any stand-alone PC equipped with NetWAYS/ISDN and
one of AVM´s Mobile ISDN-Controllers and a mobile telephone for
access via GSM-based digital cellular networks.
AVM in the Internet: http://www.avm.de
You can access information about AVM, about our products and
more also via the Internet.
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