Fireware AP Deployment Guide

Fireware
AP Deployment Guide
WatchGuard APs
Gateway Wireless Controller
Fireware OS v12.1
About This Guide
The WatchGuard Fireware APDeployment Guide is a guide for deployment of a WatchGuard AP with a Firebox. For the most recent
product documentation, see the Fireware Help on the WatchGuard website at https://www.watchguard.com/wgrdhelp/documentation/overview.
Information in this guide is subject to change without notice. Companies, names, and data used in examples herein are fictitious
unless otherwise noted. No part of this guide may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, for any purpose, without the express written permission of WatchGuard Technologies, Inc.
Guide revised: 12/18/2017
Copyright, Trademark, and Patent Information
Copyright © 1998–2017 WatchGuard Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved. All trademarks or trade names mentioned herein, if any,
are the property of their respective owners.
Complete copyright, trademark, patent, and licensing information can be found in the Copyright and Licensing Guide, available
online at https://www.watchguard.com/wgrd-help/documentation/overview.
About WatchGuard
WatchGuard® Technologies, Inc. is a global leader in network
security, providing best-in-class Unified Threat Management,
Next Generation Firewall, secure Wi-Fi, and network intelligence
products and services to more than 75,000 customers worldwide.
The company’s mission is to make enterprise-grade security
505 Fifth Avenue South
accessible to companies of all types and sizes through simplicity, Suite 500
making WatchGuard an ideal solution for Distributed Enterprises
Seattle, WA 98104
and SMBs. WatchGuard is headquartered in Seattle, Washington,
with offices throughout North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and
Latin America. To learn more, visit WatchGuard.com.
Address
Support
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for real-time information about the latest threats and how to cope
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Contents
Introduction
1
WatchGuard AP Management
2
WatchGuard APs Managed by a Gateway Wireless Controller
2
WatchGuard AP Requirements and Limitations
3
Requirements
3
Limitations
3
Features not Supported by AP120, AP320, AP322, and AP420 Devices
AP Deployment Steps
3
5
About Automatic Deployment
5
Benefits of VLANs for Your AP
5
Step 1 — Enable the Gateway Wireless Controller
6
Step 2 — Connect the AP
7
Option 1 — Connect the AP to a Firebox Interface
7
Option 2 — Connect the AP to a Switch
8
Step 3 — Configure SSIDs
9
Step 4 — Pair the AP
10
Step 5 — Configure the AP Settings
11
Step 6 — Check the AP Status
12
Plan your Wireless AP Deployment
13
Deployment Best Practices and Guidelines
14
Wireless Capacity and Airtime Demand Planning
15
Wireless Modes and Channels
16
Range
16
Channels
16
2.4GHz Band
16
5GHz Band
17
AP Deployment Guide
iii
About DFS Channels
17
AP Channel Selection
17
Use Wireless Deployment Maps to Find Channel Conflicts
18
Wireless Site Survey
19
Wireless Environmental Factors
21
Wireless Placement
22
View Wireless Deployment Maps
24
Wireless Deployment Maps Overview
24
Use Maps for AP Placement
25
See Wireless Channel Conflicts
26
Find Rogue Access Points
30
Monitor AP Status
33
Complete a Site Survey
35
Monitor Wireless Clients
37
About AP Activation
39
Reset a WatchGuard AP
41
Reset a WatchGuard AP from the Gateway Wireless Controller
41
Reset a WatchGuard AP with the Reset Button
42
Unpair a WatchGuard AP
42
Reset Automatically Deployed WatchGuard APs
42
Reset an WatchGuard AP from the Access Point Web UI
42
Additional Resources
AP Deployment Guide
45
iv
Introduction
You can use WatchGuard APs to add wireless access to your network. WatchGuard offers these wireless
security solutions for WatchGuard APs:
n
Basic Wi-Fi — Use the Gateway Wireless Controller on your Firebox to configure, manage, and monitor
WatchGuard APs directly from the Firebox.
n
Secure Wi-Fi — Use WatchGuard Wi-Fi Cloud for WatchGuard AP management, security, and
monitoring.
n
Total Wi-Fi — Use WatchGuard Wi-Fi Cloud for WatchGuard AP management, security, and
monitoring. Provides additional tools for guest user engagement, analytics, social media integration,
captive portals, and splash page design.
AP Deployment Guide
1
Introduction
WatchGuard AP Management
There are two ways you can manage a WatchGuard AP:
WatchGuard Firebox Gateway Wireless Controller
You can use Gateway Wireless Controller on your Firebox to configure, manage, and monitor
WatchGuard APs directly from the Firebox. You can connect multiple WatchGuard APs to the
trusted, optional, or custom networks of a Firebox, and manage them from the Gateway Wireless
Controller on the Firebox.
To configure WatchGuard APs from Gateway Wireless Controller, select Network > Gateway
Wireless Controller in Fireware Web UI or Policy Manager.
WatchGuard Wi-Fi Cloud
WatchGuard Wi-Fi Cloud is a powerful cloud-based enterprise wireless management solution for
WatchGuard AP configuration, security, and monitoring. WatchGuard Wi-Fi Cloud supports only
AP120, AP320, AP322, and AP420 devices. For more information on WatchGuard Wi-Fi Cloud, see
the WatchGuard web site.
WatchGuard APs Managed by a Gateway Wireless
Controller
WatchGuard APs enable you to add wireless access to the networks that are protected by your Firebox. To
add wireless access to your network, you can simply connect one or more WatchGuard APs to a trusted,
optional, or custom network on your Firebox. Then you use the Gateway Wireless Controller on the Firebox
to discover, configure, and manage the APs. The network security policies already configured on your
Firebox automatically apply to wireless users.
You can then configure the APs and SSIDs to meet the requirements of your wireless network.
n
To increase the wireless range of your network and support wireless roaming you can use the same
SSID on multiple APs.
n
To support different groups of wireless users, you can configure your APs to use more than one
wireless SSIDs.
n
You can optionally enable VLAN tagging in your SSIDs, and then use the VLANs in your policies to
create more specific rules for your wireless users, based on the SSID that they connect to.
The procedures in this document describe how to use Fireware Web UI to configure your
Firebox and APs. You could also use Policy Manager to complete these steps.
This document includes the information you must know for the initial deployment of a WatchGuard AP on
your network. For a more comprehensive reference to all AP functionality, see Fireware Help.
2
AP Deployment Guide
Introduction
WatchGuard AP Requirements and Limitations
Before you add a WatchGuard AP to your network, it is important to understand the requirements and
limitations of the AP.
Requirements
For an AP to be managed by Gateway Wireless Controller on a Firebox:
n
The WatchGuard AP must be managed by a WatchGuard Firebox that runs:
n
Fireware v11.7.2 or higher for AP100, AP102, and AP200
n
Fireware v11.10.5 or higher for AP300
n
Fireware v11.11.2 or higher for local management of AP120 and AP320
n
Fireware v11.12.2 or higher for local management of AP322
n
Fireware v11.12.4 or higher for local management of AP420
n
The Firebox must be configured in mixed routing or drop-in mode.
n
The AP must connect to a trusted, optional, or custom network.
n
The Firebox configuration must include a policy that allows NTP traffic from the AP to the Internet. The
AP uses an NTP server to set the correct local time.
n
The Firebox and APs on your network require access to WatchGuard servers (*.watchguard.com) on
port 443. This allows the Gateway Wireless Controller on the Firebox to register and activate APs, and
find new firmware updates. APs require access to WatchGuard servers to get country and regional
information.
Limitations
n
You cannot use a WSM Management Server to manage WatchGuard APs.
n
You cannot locate WatchGuard APs behind a NAT firewall.
n
The WatchGuard Gateway Wireless Controller is designed to manage multiple WatchGuard APs. If
you experience management performance issues as you add more APs to your network, you can use
another Gateway Wireless Controller on another Firebox to manage these APs.
n
We recommend you configure your AP to accept connections from a maximum of 20-40 wireless client
devices for each radio, based on the overall airtime demand of the client devices.
Features not Supported by AP120, AP320, AP322, and AP420 Devices
These features are not supported on AP120, AP320, AP322, and AP420 devices when they are managed
by the Gateway Wireless Controller:
n
LED controls
n
Client limits
n
External syslog support
n
Local Web UI access
n
AP420 third scanning radio
AP Deployment Guide
3
AP Deployment Guide
4
AP Deployment Steps
When you add one or more WatchGuard APs to your network, you can manage and configure the APs from
the Gateway Wireless Controller on your Firebox. You do not connect directly to the AP to configure it. The
Gateway Wireless Controller on your Firebox manages the AP for you.
To deploy any AP on your Firebox network you must:
1. Enable the Gateway Wireless Controller on your Firebox.
2. Connect the AP to your network.
3. Configure SSIDs.
4. Pair the AP with your Firebox.
5. Configure the AP settings.
6. Check AP status
You can optionally enable VLAN tagging in the SSIDs for your AP. If you enable VLAN tagging, you must
also configure the necessary VLANs on your Firebox.
This AP Deployment Guide describes the basic steps necessary to deploy an AP on your network. For a
more detailed description of the configuration settings, see the Fireware Help.
About Automatic Deployment
For wireless networks with a large number of WatchGuard APs to deploy that will be assigned the same
SSIDs and do not require unique configurations, you can enable automatic deployment on specific SSIDs.
Unpaired APs will be automatically deployed by the Gateway Wireless Controller and configured with the
specified SSID.
For more information on Automatic Deployment, see the Fireware Help.
Benefits of VLANs for Your AP
To deploy an AP on your network, you do not have to enable VLAN tagging. There are, however, several
reasons you might want to enable VLAN tagging:
You want to configure different firewall policies for SSIDs that connect to the same network
If you configure more than one SSID for your APs, and you want to set different firewall policies for
each SSID, you can enable VLAN tagging in the SSID and then use the VLAN ID associated with
each SSID in policies specific to each SSID.
For example, you could add a different HTTP policy for each SSID that specifies the
VLAN associated with that SSID. This enables you to specify which users can connect to each
SSID.
AP Deployment Guide
5
AP Deployment Steps
You want to separate the traffic on the same physical network to different logical networks.
If you have several APs connected to the same physical network, VLAN tagging gives you the ability
to separately examine traffic for wireless clients connected to each SSID.
For example, if you run a network analyzer, you can use the VLAN tags to see the traffic for the
VLAN ID associated with an SSID.
Or, you might want to set up all of your APs with one SSID for the trusted network, and a different
SSID for the optional network. You can set up a trusted VLAN and an optional VLAN to separate the
traffic for the trusted and optional wireless clients.
This topic provides a more detailed overview of the steps to deploy an AP without VLAN tagging. For more
information about VLANs and for configuration examples, see the Fireware Help.
Step 1 — Enable the Gateway Wireless Controller
Before your Firebox can discover and manage your APs, you must enable the Gateway Wireless Controller.
1. From Fireware Web UI, select Network > Gateway Wireless Controller.
2. Select the Enable the Gateway Wireless Controller check box.
The WatchGuard AP Passphrase dialog box appears.
3. In the WatchGuard AP Passphrase text box, type the passphrase that you want all your APs to use
after they are paired.
4. Click OK.
5. Save the Firebox configuration.
6
AP Deployment Guide
AP Deployment Steps
Step 2 — Connect the AP
Use one of these options to connect the AP to your trusted, optional, or custom network.
To allow the Gateway Wireless Controller to discover an AP on a custom zone network,
you must modify the WatchGuard Gateway Wireless Controller policy to allow traffic
from the custom zone.
By default, the AP automatically requests an IP address from a DHCP server on the local network. If the
network you connect your AP to does not use DHCP, you can use the web UI on the AP to manually assign
a static IP address to the AP before you connect it to your network.
Option 1 — Connect the AP to a Firebox Interface
If you have an unused interface on your Firebox, you can connect the AP directly to a trusted, optional, or
custom interface on your Firebox.
AP connected to the Firebox
To configure the Firebox interface:
1. From Fireware Web UI, select Network > Interfaces.
2. Configure the Firebox interface as trusted, optional, or custom, and enable DHCP on that interface.
3. Save the configuration.
4. Connect the AP to the interface you configured.
AP Deployment Guide
7
AP Deployment Steps
Option 2 — Connect the AP to a Switch
You can connect the AP to the switch on your trusted, optional, or a custom network. When you use this
option, you do not have to change the network settings on the Firebox interface.
AP connected to a switch
8
AP Deployment Guide
AP Deployment Steps
Step 3 — Configure SSIDs
When you configure the SSID that your wireless users connect to, you must select a wireless security
mode for the SSID. By default, the security mode for an SSID is set to WPA2 only.
To configure the SSIDs for your device:
1. From Fireware Web UI, select Network > Gateway Wireless Controller.
2. On the SSIDs tab, click Add.
The Add SSID dialog box appears.
3. In the Network Name (SSID) text box, type the SSID for the wireless network.
The SSID is the network name wireless clients see when they connect to the AP.
4. Select the Security tab.
5. From the Security Mode drop-down list, select the wireless security mode. The default is WPA2 only
(PSK).
6. Configure the security settings for the selected security mode.
7. Repeat these steps to create additional SSIDs.
AP Deployment Guide
9
AP Deployment Steps
Step 4 — Pair the AP
When you first connect the AP to your network, it is an unpaired Access Point.
To pair the AP to your Firebox:
1. From Fireware Web UI, select Network > Gateway Wireless Controller.
2. Select the Access Points tab.
3. To start a scan for the unpaired APs in your area, click Refresh.
4. From the Unpaired Access Points list, select the AP to pair.
5. Click Pair.
6. Click OK.
10
AP Deployment Guide
AP Deployment Steps
Step 5 — Configure the AP Settings
The Edit Access Point dialog box automatically opens after you pair the AP. Select the Radio Settings tab
to configure the radio settings to use for each radio on your AP.
n
On devices that have one radio, you can configure Radio 1 to use either the 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz band.
n
On devices with two single-band radios, Radio 1 always uses the 2.4 GHz band, and Radio 2 always
uses the 5 GHz band.
To configure radio settings:
1. From the Frequency Banddrop-down list, select a band: 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz.
2. From the Wireless Mode drop-down list, select the wireless mode to use for each radio. The available
modes depend on the radio band:
n
2.4 GHz band — 802.11 B, G, and N wireless modes
n
5 GHz band — 802.11 A, N, and N/AC wireless modes
5. (Optional) For each radio, select the Preferred Channel and Channel Width.
6. (Optional) For each radio, select the Rate and Transmit Power.
The rate limits the maximum data transfer rate per wireless client.
7. Save the configuration.
AP Deployment Guide
11
AP Deployment Steps
Step 6 — Check the AP Status
To see the status of your paired APs:
1. From Fireware Web UI, select Dashboard > Gateway Wireless Controller > Access Points.
2. Verify that the AP status is Online.
If your AP status is Not Trusted, you must make sure this AP is a known AP in your deployment before you
trust the device. For more information on the AP Trust Store, see the Fireware Help.
To trust an AP:
1. Select the AP.
2. Click Action.
3. Select Mark Trusted.
12
AP Deployment Guide
Plan your Wireless AP Deployment
Before you deploy WatchGuard APs on your network, you must research, design, and plan your wireless
network deployment to make sure it meets your requirements for coverage, capacity and airtime demand,
and security.
There are two primary considerations when you plan your wireless deployment:
Coverage planning
Traditional coverage planning examines your physical environment where the wireless network will
be deployed and the different factors that can affect your wireless signal power, range, and
attenuation.
Coverage planning provides:
o
Optimal frequency usage and location of access points
o
Determination of transmit power levels
o
Prevents channel interference
o
Examination of floor plans, physical obstructions, and building materials
Capacity planning
Previously, wireless deployment was focused primarily with coverage planning and making sure that
wireless networks were available and had strong signals in all physical areas of your environment.
With so many different types of wireless devices and applications now in use, airtime utilization and
demand from your clients is now the prime factor of wireless deployment planning. Simply having
access to a wireless network and a strong signal does mean the wireless network has the capacity
to process many connections consisting of email, web, audio, video, photos, games, and social
media from multiple wireless devices.
AP Deployment Guide
13
Plan your Wireless AP Deployment
Deployment Best Practices and Guidelines
We recommend that you review these sections for general wireless knowledge and guidelines for a
successful deployment.
14
n
Wireless Capacity and Airtime Demand — Determine the optimal number of clients per radio,
including idle and active clients, airtime demand for wireless application traffic, and plan for capacity
expansion.
n
Site Survey — Perform a wireless site survey to analyze your current environment and wireless
requirements.
n
Wireless Modes and Channels — Determine which wireless modes and channels you support for
your wireless clients.
n
Wireless Environment Factors — Identify environmental factors that can affect the range and
performance of wireless networks.
n
AP Placement — Determine the best location and placement of your WatchGuard APs.
n
Wireless Deployment Maps — Use the Wireless Deployment Maps feature on the Gateway Wireless
Controller to help deploy your WatchGuard APs, check signal strength, and resolve channel conflicts.
AP Deployment Guide
Plan your Wireless AP Deployment
Wireless Capacity and Airtime Demand Planning
As part of your wireless deployment planning, you must take capacity and airtime demand into
consideration and not just coverage planning. The airtime demand peak amount and type of traffic must be
factored in to your plan to understand traffic patterns for your wireless network and the coverage area it
serves.
For example, a deployment for a hotel and its conference rooms will have very different capacity and airtime
demand criteria than a general small office deployment, a retail department store, or a school. Each wireless
deployment is unique and requires both coverage and capacity planning.
Capacity and airtime demand analysis provides:
n
Optimal number of clients per access point radio, including idle and active
o You must factor in slow periods and worse-case scenarios for usage
n
Airtime demand and minimum data rates for different types of application traffic
o Include email, web, video, social media, streaming, and other applications.
o
n
Determine bandwidth throughout per application and connection, then determine aggregate
bandwidth required in the wireless network coverage area.
Considerations for growth
o Based on number of connected clients and application bandwidth usage
AP Deployment Guide
15
Plan your Wireless AP Deployment
Wireless Modes and Channels
WatchGuard APs support two different wireless bands: 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz. The band you select and the
country you specify determine which wireless modes are available.
n
2.4 GHz band — Supports 802.11b, 802.11g and 802.11n
n
5 GHz band — Supports 802.11a, 802.11n, and 802.11ac
These wireless standards are supported:
802.11ac
(for supported APs)
802.11n
802.11g
802.11b
802.11a
Frequency Band
5GHz
2.4GHz and 5GHz
2.4GHz
2.4GHz
5GHz
Data Rate
1300 - 1733 Mbps
450Mbps
54Mbps
11Mbps
54Mbps
Channel Width
20, 40, and 80MHz
20 and 40MHz
20MHz
20MHz
20MHz
For most environments, you must support legacy wireless devices that do not support newer standards.
Because of this, we recommend that you configure your WatchGuard AP to use mixed protocol modes.
If you choose a wireless mode that supports more than one 802.11 standard, the overall performance can be
impacted. This is in part because of backward compatibility requirements when devices that use slower
modes are connected. The slower devices often use more of the available throughput because it can take
much longer to send or receive the same amount of data to those devices.
Range
The 5GHz band is less congested and provides faster data rates than 2.4GHz, but it also has less range
than 2.4GHz.
n
2.4 GHz — 75 to 100ft
n
5 GHz — 25 to 35ft (at full speed)
Physical obstructions and wireless interference reduce your effective wireless range and data speeds.
Channels
A wireless channel is a specific division of frequencies in a specific wireless band.
2.4GHz Band
In the 2.4GHz band with a channel width of 20MHz, there are 14 defined channels spaced every 5MHz.
Channels 12 and 13 are available in countries outside of North America. Channel 14 is for Japan only and is
spaced at 12 MHz.
16
AP Deployment Guide
Plan your Wireless AP Deployment
One wireless channel can overlap the frequency of another wireless channel. When you design and deploy
wireless networks, you must consider which channels you use for your wireless network. For example, in
the 2.4 GHz band, adjacent channels such as channel 3 and 4 have frequencies that closely overlap, which
can cause interference. In the 2.4 GHz band, channels 1, 6, and 11 are the most commonly used channels.
They do not overlap each other because of the space between their frequencies. The 2.4GHz band is
crowded because many other devices that operate on this band (such as cordless phones, microwaves,
monitors, and wireless headsets) also use the same channels, and can cause wireless congestion.
When you deploy your APs, use different channels for each AP and place them so that different channels
are used in locations that do not overlap.
5GHz Band
In the 5GHz band, there are many possible channels. The full channel width is reserved and there is a very
large selection of channels that do not overlap.
Channel
Width
Valid Channel Numbers
20 MHz
36, 40, 44, 48, 52, 56, 60, 64, 100, 104, 108, 112, 116, 120, 124, 128, 132, 136, 140, 144,
149, 153, 161, 165, 169
40 MHz
38, 46, 54, 62, 102, 110, 118, 126, 134, 142, 151, 159
80 MHz
42, 58, 106, 122, 138, 155
160 MHz
50, 114
About DFS Channels
In some regions, DFS (Dynamic Frequency Selection) channels operate in the 5GHz band. Because DFS
channels are used with radar, transmissions from your AP stop if radar signals are detected on that channel.
Using DFS channels can be helpful with 802.11ac and an 80MHz channel width because of the extra
spectrum availability, but using these channels can result in your APs being slow to connect on the wireless
network.
AP Channel Selection
The WatchGuard AP is configured by default to select a wireless channel automatically. When you power
on the WatchGuard AP, it automatically scans the network and selects the wireless channel with the least
amount of interference.
The channels used by APs are automatically selected and allocated for optimal wireless channel selection
across your deployment. Channels are scanned during the Wireless Scan Interval . The default interval is
every 4 hours.
When the AP reboots, the new channel selection is applied.
You can also manually set your preferred channel.
AP Deployment Guide
17
Plan your Wireless AP Deployment
Use Wireless Deployment Maps to Find Channel Conflicts
You can use the Wireless Deployment Maps feature in the Gateway Wireless Controller in Fireware Web UI
to help you find wireless channel conflicts and optimize your wireless environment.
18
AP Deployment Guide
Plan your Wireless AP Deployment
Wireless Site Survey
Before you deploy a new WatchGuard AP, you can perform a wireless site survey to analyze your current
environment and existing wireless signals. The wireless site survey helps you to identify your specific
requirements for your wireless network, and any external factors that could affect your deployment.
Site survey results can help you determine this information:
n
Number of wireless clients that must be supported
n
Airtime utilization and demand of wireless clients and applications
n
Areas of coverage and number of APs required
n
Best physical placement of APs
n
Range from clients to each AP
n
Wireless signal strength and potential sources of wireless noise and interference
n
Environmental factors that affect wireless signals, such as building construction and materials
Typically, you begin a site survey with a physical walk-through of your environment. It is helpful to have a
floor plan of your facilities that shows your existing networking environment and a list of requirements for
your planned wireless networks. A visual inspection helps you to understand the areas of coverage
required, the physical limitations and barriers due to building construction, and potential sources of wireless
interference.
After you complete a physical inspection of your facilities, you must be able to visualize and understand
where the current wireless signals are located in your environment, and how they react to your physical
environment.
Many wireless site survey tools are available that enable you to map your environment and generate
wireless heat maps, which provide a visual representation of the wireless signals in your environment. The
heat map shows the strength and range of wireless access points, how their signals react to your physical
environment, and identifies any existing wireless interference.
AP Deployment Guide
19
Plan your Wireless AP Deployment
To determine what wireless signals and interference already exist in your environment, you can generate a
heat map to help you plan your deployment scenario. You can use one of the many available third-party
wireless site survey tools such as Ekahau HeatMapper. After you install your APs, you can make another
heat map of your environment to see if your current placement provides adequate coverage and signal
strength for your wireless network.
You can also use the Wireless Deployment Maps feature on the Gateway Wireless Controller to provide a
simulated physical view of your wireless network to help you place the APs in optimal locations for
maximum coverage, and to detect channel conflicts with other wireless devices in your area.
20
AP Deployment Guide
Plan your Wireless AP Deployment
Wireless Environmental Factors
There are several environmental factors that can affect the range and performance of wireless networks.
You must estimate the path loss and attenuation of your wireless signals as a result of these factors.
Walls and ceilings
Walls and ceilings between the AP and wireless clients can degrade signal strength. Wireless
signals can penetrate walls and other structures, but the rate of penetration is directly related to the
type of building materials, materials thickness, and the distance from the wireless antenna.
Building materials
Metal and aluminum doors, glass, concrete, metal studs, brick walls, glass, and other types of
building materials can have a significantly negative effect on the signal strength of wireless signals.
EMI (Electro-magnetic interference)
EMI from other electrical devices, such as microwaves, cordless phones, and wireless headsets,
can generate significant RF noise and degrade or disrupt wireless communications.
Distance
Wireless signals degrade quickly past their maximum range. You must plan your network carefully to
provide adequate wireless coverage over the range you require in your environment.
AP Deployment Guide
21
Plan your Wireless AP Deployment
Wireless Placement
For full wireless coverage and to make sure that all users in your environment receive a strong wireless
signal, consider these guidelines for the location and placement of your WatchGuard APs:
n
Place your APs in a central location away from any corners, walls, or other physical obstructions to
provide maximum signal coverage.
n
Place your APs in a high location to provide the overall best signal strength reception and performance
for your wireless network.
n
n
22
In general, one AP can cover up to approximately 2000 ft2 depending on the physical environment and
wireless interference.
Make sure you do not install an AP in close proximity to any electronic devices that can interfere with
the signal, such as televisions, microwave ovens, cordless phones, air conditioners, fans, or any other
type of equipment that can cause signal interference.
AP Deployment Guide
Plan your Wireless AP Deployment
n
When you install more than one AP, make sure to put enough space between them to provide
maximum coverage for your wireless network area of availability. For wireless coverage over many
floors, you can stagger the placement of devices to cover both vertical and horizontal space.
AP Deployment Guide
23
Plan your Wireless AP Deployment
View Wireless Deployment Maps
In Fireware Web UI, you can use the Maps tab on the Dashboard > Gateway Wireless Controller page
to help you visualize your wireless network, determine where to place your WatchGuard APs, check for
wireless conflicts so that you can optimize your wireless environment, and check for rogue access points.
Wireless Deployment Maps Overview
From the Maps page , you can:
n
View a 2D map of your wireless network.
n
See the radio frequency, channel, transmit power, and SSID used by each radio.
n
Check for wireless channel conflicts.
n
View external BSSIDs (Broadcast SSID)
n
Find rogue access points.
You can select two views:
24
n
Wireless Coverage Map — Shows the location of your APs in relation to one another, and shows the
connection quality and any channel conflicts between your APs.
n
Channel Conflict Map — Shows the location of your APs and any other wireless devices in the
vicinity, shows the channel and bandwidth details for each device, and shows any wireless channel
conflicts between devices.
AP Deployment Guide
Plan your Wireless AP Deployment
Use Maps for AP Placement
You can use the Wireless Coverage Map to provide a simulated physical view of your wireless network to
help you place the APs in optimal locations for maximum coverage. After the initial scan, the maps display
the relative location of each WatchGuard AP. Because the Wireless Coverage Map is a two-dimensional
representation of your environment, APs on different floors in your environment might appear to be
positioned closely on the map even though they are physically distant. What is most important is the
strength of the connections and links between the APs.
In an ideal deployment, your APs should be deployed at a relatively uniform distance to each other, with
solid or dashed green lines between the devices on the maps. The network should resemble a mesh pattern
where there are as many redundant links as possible between APs for uninterrupted roaming for wireless
clients.
For example, in this simple wireless network:
n
There are three WatchGuard APs managed by this Gateway Wireless Controller.
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The APs are well positioned for maximum coverage.
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Wireless users have no interruptions when they roam from one AP to another.
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The solid green lines indicate a strong wireless connection with no channel conflicts between these
APs.
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Plan your Wireless AP Deployment
See Wireless Channel Conflicts
Use the Channel Conflict Map to see all wireless devices in the vicinity, and show any channel conflict
between devices. This map includes all wireless devices, even those not managed by your Gateway
Wireless Controller.
The color of the AP indicates the severity of the channel conflict. In this example, the two AP100 devices
have moderate channel conflict, and the AP200 device has significant channel conflict. Other non-managed
devices are shown in grey. The links between the APs are green that indicates any wireless conflicts are
with external devices, not with other WatchGuard APs in your network.
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Plan your Wireless AP Deployment
To see more detailed information on connections to other wireless devices, including external devices that
are not other WatchGuard APs in your network, hover your mouse pointer over the AP200 device. The color
and line detail indicate the severity of the conflict and signal loss.
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Plan your Wireless AP Deployment
To see more detailed information about the AP and any channel conflicts, right-click an AP and select View
Details. The details includes a map and graph with channel conflict information on nearby devices.
To see only the devices that have channel conflicts with your AP, select the Show only conflicting
devices check box.
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Plan your Wireless AP Deployment
In the table, the Conflict column shows which devices have a channel conflict with the selected AP. You
can use this information to adjust your wireless radio configuration to find an appropriate wireless channel
with the least interference.
To update the configuration of the selected AP, click Configure this Access Point.
If your Preferred Channel selection is set to Auto, the AP selects an appropriate channel when it reboots.
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Plan your Wireless AP Deployment
Find Rogue Access Points
You can use the Wireless Deployment Maps to scan your network for all external wireless access points
that operate within range of your managed APs. Some of these external access points could be rogue
access points.
A rogue access point is any wireless access point within range of your network that is not recognized as a
paired access point or configured exception in your wireless deployment.
An unauthorized access point can be installed by a malicious user, but it could also be a device installed by
someone inside your organization without consent. These access points are security risks to your wireless
and wired networks if they do not have proper security features enabled.
The Gateway Wireless Controller scans the wireless network on all wireless modes and channels within
range for other wireless devices.
In the Wireless Deployment Maps, you can see all wireless devices and access points. This includes the
APs managed by your Gateway Wireless Controller in the Wireless Coverage Map, and all external SSIDs
and BSSIDs (Broadcast SSID — the MAC address is displayed if SSID broadcast is disabled) in the
Channel Conflict Map.
This map can help you find the relative location of any external device in relation to your other devices on the
network. You can also click any external device in the map and examine wireless details for that device.
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Plan your Wireless AP Deployment
Select the External BSSIDs tab to see all SSIDs broadcast by unknown APs (the MAC address is
displayed if SSID broadcast is disabled). Rogue access points (identified with a red dot) are those devices
that are not paired with your Gateway Wireless Controller, or do not appear in your rogue access point
exception list.
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Monitor AP Status
You can monitor, reboot, upgrade, and complete many other actions on WatchGuard APs managed by your
Firebox.
1. Select Dashboard > Gateway Wireless Controller.
The Gateway Wireless Controller page appears.
2. Select the Summary tab.
The Summary section shows a status summary for the AP and the available firmware version.
The Top Panel sections show real-time data about the traffic through the AP.
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Monitor AP Status
From the Access Points tab, you can:
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See the connection status and uptime of each AP.
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See the radio frequency and channel used by each radio.
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See the transmit power and secondary channel information.
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See the AP activation status.
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See the log messages for the selected AP.
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See network statistics for the selected AP.
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Flash the power LED on the AP for identification.
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Reboot APs.
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Upgrade the firmware on APs.
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Trust an AP.
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Reset APs to factory default settings.
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Perform a site survey from a selected AP to detect other wireless access points.
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Monitor AP Status
Complete a Site Survey
You can use your AP to complete a site survey to detect other wireless access points that operate in the
same area. When you complete a site survey, the radios in the AP scan the wireless channels to find other
wireless access points. The site survey can detect all local wireless access points. This includes other
WatchGuard APs and WatchGuard Firebox wireless devices. You must configure an AP radio with at least
one SSID before that radio can run a site survey scan.
When a site survey scan begins, the AP scans the airwaves within range for other radio broadcasts in the
same radio band, on all available wireless channels. The scan is not limited to the wireless mode and
channel settings configured in the radio settings of your device. Dual radio devices can use both radios to
scan on the 2.4GHz and 5GHz radio bands. A single radio device scans on either the 2.4GHz or 5GHz
band. The band used for the scan depends on which band the radio is configured to operate in.
The site survey does not interrupt wireless connectivity for connected wireless clients.
For each detected wireless access point, the site survey report includes this information:
BSSID
The Basic Service Set Identifier is the MAC address of the wireless access point.
SSID
This is the SSID for the access point. If an access point has more than one SSID, each SSID
appears as a separate item in the site survey.
Channel
This is the wireless channel that the wireless access point uses. If available, secondary channel
information also appears.
Signal Level
This is the signal strength of the wireless access point.
Type
This is the wireless standard the wireless access point supports.
Security
This is the type of wireless security used by the wireless access point.
Mode
This is the operating mode of the wireless device.
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Monitor Wireless Clients
You can see and monitor the wireless clients that are connected to your WatchGuard APs. You can also
disconnect a wireless client from an AP.
The hostname and IP address of wireless clients only appear if the client uses the
Firebox device as a DHCP server.
To see the connected wireless clients, from Fireware Web UI:
1. Select Dashboard > Gateway Wireless Controller.
The Gateway Wireless Controller page appears.
2. Select the Wireless Clients tab.
A list of connected wireless clients appears.
3. To see only wireless clients that are connected to a specific AP, from the Access Point drop-down
list, select an AP .
4. To see only wireless clients that are connected to a specific SSID, from the SSID drop-down list,
select an SSID.
5. To see only wireless clients from a specific manufacturer, from the Manufacturer drop-down list,
select the manufacturer.
6. To see statistics for a wireless client in FireWatch or Traffic Monitor, select an IP address.
7. To disconnect a wireless client, select the client and click Disconnect Client.
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About AP Activation
You must activate your AP with WatchGuard to enable your hardware replacement warranty, receive
technical support, and get access to the latest OS updates and product news.
After you pair a WatchGuard AP with a Firebox, the Firebox automatically connects to the WatchGuard
website and sends the information necessary to activate the AP on the same WatchGuard account where
the Firebox was activated.
The Firebox and APs on your network require access to WatchGuard servers
(*.watchguard.com) on port 443. This allows the Gateway Wireless Controller on the
Firebox to register and activate APs, and check for new firmware updates. APs require
access to WatchGuard servers to obtain country and regional information.
If automatic activation fails, the Firebox periodically tries to activate again. The activation status of your AP
does not affect the functionality of the AP.
If your AP has not been activated automatically and you want to activate it manually, you can activate the
AP in your WatchGuard account just as you would activate a Firebox or add-on feature.
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Reset a WatchGuard AP
You can use any of these methods to reset a WatchGuard AP to factory-default settings:
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Reset the AP from the Gateway Wireless Controller
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Press the reset button on the AP n
Unpair an AP
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Disable automatic deployment for automatically deployed APs
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Reset the AP from the access point's local web UI
When you reset an AP to factory default settings, you must discover and pair the AP again. For more
information, see WatchGuard AP Device Discovery and Pairing.
If you are unable to connect to a WatchGuard AP100, AP102, AP200, or AP300 after a
reset, the AP might be in Failsafe mode. For more information, see Recover an AP
device in failsafe mode.
Reset a WatchGuard AP from the Gateway Wireless
Controller
To reset the AP from the Gateway Wireless Controller, your Firebox must run Fireware v11.11.4 or higher.
To reset the AP, from Fireware Web UI:
1. Select Dashboard > Gateway Wireless Controller.
2. Select the Access Points tab.
3. Select an Access Point.
4. From the Actions drop-down list, select Reset to Factory Default.
To reset the AP, from Firebox System Manager:
1. Select the Gateway Wireless Controller tab.
2. Select the Access Points tab.
3. Select an Access Point.
4. From the Actions drop-down list, select Reset to Factory Default.
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Reset a WatchGuard AP
Reset a WatchGuard AP with the Reset Button
The reset procedure you can choose depends on the firmware version on your AP or your AP model.
To reset an AP100, AP102, AP200, or AP300 with firmware v1.2.9.2 or higher:
1. With the AP powered on, press and hold the reset button.
2. After 5 seconds, release the reset button.
If you press the reset button briefly and then release the button (less than 5 seconds), the AP reboots, but it is not reset to
factory-default settings.
To reset an AP100, AP102, AP200, or AP300 with firmware v1.2.9.1 or lower:
1. With the AP powered on, press and hold the reset button.
2. After 12 seconds, release the reset button.
To reset an AP120, AP320, or AP322:
1. Remove the power cable or Ethernet cable connected to PoE power.
2. Insert a pin or paperclip into the Reset button hole.
3. While you press and hold the reset button, plug the power cable in.
4. Continue pressing the reset button for at least 60 seconds until the Power, LAN, and 2.4 GHz
indicators are green.
To reset an AP420:
1. Insert a pin or paperclip into the Reset button hole.
2. Press and hold the reset button for at least 10 seconds until all LEDs go off to indicate that the AP
has rebooted.
Unpair a WatchGuard AP
When you unpair an AP from a Firebox, the AP restarts with factory-default settings.
For more information, see Unpair an AP Device.
Reset Automatically Deployed WatchGuard APs
Automatically deployed APs are reset to factory-default settings if you disable the Automatic Deployment
feature.
For more information, see About AP Device Automatic Deployment.
Reset an WatchGuard AP from the Access Point Web UI
(AP100, AP102, AP200, and AP300 only)
To reset an AP from the Access Point web UI:
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Reset a WatchGuard AP
1. Log in to the WatchGuard Access Point local web UI.
2. From the left navigation menu, select Status.
The Access Point Status page appears.
3. Click Reset to Factory Defaults.
For more information about how to use the WatchGuard Access Point local web UI, see Use the
WatchGuard Access Point Web UI.
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Additional Resources
This Fireware AP Deployment Guide provides information about initial setup of your WatchGuard APs.
For information about your AP hardware and physical installation, see the Quick Start Guide and Hardware
Guide for your specific device model.
For more detailed information about VLAN configuration, and AP configuration examples, see Fireware
Help.
You can see and download the most current documentation for your WatchGuard AP on the WatchGuard
website Documentation page at
https://www.watchguard.com/wgrd-help/documentation/overview.
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