A Framework Based Approach for the Development of Web

World of Computer Science and Information Technology Journal (WCSIT)
ISSN: 2221-0741
Vol. 1, No. 1, 1-4, Feb. 2011
A Framework Based Approach for the Development
of Web Based Applications
Rachit Mohan Garg, YaminiSood, Balaji Kottana, Pallavi Totlani
Department of Computer Science & Engineering,
Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan, H.P, India
{rachit.mohan.garg, eryaminisood, bala1205, pallavi.totlani}@gmail.com
Abstract— The sole goal of E-Governance is to allow interaction of government with their citizens in a comfortable & transparent
manner. Uniqueness of J2EE makes it a perfect technology for development of any online portal. These involve constancy, easy to
replant, construct speedily etc. In this paper we present a procedural approach to develop a web application using the J2EE Struts
Keywords- Web application; E-Governance; Struts; Frameworks; J2EE.
groups together information from various public services
departments that come under the preview of collector’s office
namely, schools, hospitals etc. Conventionally, the citizen has
to go to collector’s office in person to get issued certificates
like for community, birth, income and driving license etc. This
results in wastage of time. Here we provide the online
registration facility to apply for various documentation
certificates for the citizens so that the public in general has to
visit the collector’s office only once at the time of submitting
relevant documentary proofs or where physical presence is
This E-Governance portal has various functionalities. In
this section we discuss only login approach which is used by
Struts Framework. For this approach, following we require
some files namely
J2EE is the current field of research as it provides new
advancement to the field of web application development
framework. Various open source framework which are used for
web application development. With the development of
technology and communication technology, government wants
to modernize their working. E-Governance portal can be used
to provide services and important information to citizens
through internet, it changes the way of working of government
which are operated from traditional approaches to an advanced
and more efficient operations. The major advantages of
adapting E-Governance / E-Business portal to any government
are: removal of location and availability restrictions, reduction
of time and money spent, heightening customer services and
the provision of competitive advantages [1]-[2]. E-Governance
offers a new way forward, helping improve government
processes, connect citizens and build interactions with a civil
Currently, number of technologies has been developed for
constructing E-portal, like ASP.NET and J2EE (Java 2
Enterprise Edition). J2EE is independent of a platform, that’s
why more and more e-portal adopts this technology. There are
many Open Source Frameworks which are based on J2EE
technology such as Struts [3], webwork, jsf, echo, Spring [4],
real methods, keel, Hibernate [5] and so on. Each framework
has its own characteristics, therefore this paper present one web
application which is made by Struts Framework [3].
 Login,jsp
 Success.jsp
 Faliure.jsp
 Web.xml
 Struts-config.xml
 LoginAction.java
 LoginForm.java
A. Web.xml
For any web application we need to define web.xml file.
This file describe first page of that application. This
configuration should be done in this as shown fig 1.
This paper has taken an example of E-Governance [1]
named “Records Collection for India” portal based on above
framework. Records Collection for India (RCI) maintains and
WCSIT 1 (1), 1-4, Feb. 2011
Fig. 1 web.xml file.
B. Login.jsp
This page provide user interface for login page. In this
page Struts HTML Tags are used for developing user
interface. In our application, the login page has one text field
to retrieve user name and one password field to get password.
And form also contain one submit button, login action class is
called when this submit button is clicked. <html: errors /> tag
is used to display the error message to user. The login file of
our application is shown in fig 2.
Fig. 3 struts-config.xml.
Fig. 4 LoginForm.java file
E. ApplicationResource.properties
It contains all error messages which are used in our
application. The key “error.userName.required” is used in the
validate function to add an error message. By separating error
message we can make any change any time without making
any changes to the java files or jsp pages.
Fig. 2 Login.jsp
C. Struts-config.xml
After submitting the form of Login.jsp page, validate
method of LoginForm class is called. If there is any error, like
username is missing or password is missing, then control is
returned back to the input page where errors are displayed to
the user.
This complete operation is configured in the action tag of
struts-config file. In this web application, “/Login” is action,
the input page is “login.jsp” and the corresponding action class
is LoginAction.java. The validate method is described in the
LoginForm.java file.
Fig. 5 ApplicationResource.properties file
F. LoginAction.java
Business logic of web application is written within execute
method of LoginAction class. In this file we typecast the
ActionForm object to LoginForm, so that we can access the
form variables using the getter and setter methods. If the user
name and password is correct then we forward the user to the
success page else we forward to failure page.
D. LoginForm.java
This java file contains validate method; this method is used
for checking the entries of username and password of login.jsp
page. If there is any error then corresponding error message is
displayed to the user. The entire error messages are described
in ApplicationResource.properties file. Figure 4 presents the
snapshot of the coding written in the LoginForm.java.
WCSIT 1 (1), 1-4, Feb. 2011
Fig. 7 MVC architecture for the application
The following events happen when the Client browser
issues an HTTP request.
 The ActionServlet receives the request.
 The struts-config.xml file contains the details regarding the
 During the startup the ActionServelet reads the strutsconfig.xml file and creates a database of configuration
objects. Later while processing the request the
ActionServlet makes decision by refering to this object.
When the ActionServlet receives the request it does the
following tasks.
 Bundles all the request values into a JavaBean class which
extends Struts ActionForm class.
 Decides which action class to invoke to process the
 Validate the data entered by the user.
 The action class processes the request with the help of the
model component. The model interacts with the database
and process the request.
 After completing the request processing the Action class
returns an ActionForward to the controller.
 Based on the ActionForward the controller will invoke the
appropriate view.
 The HTTP response is rendered back to the user by the
view component.
G. Tools Used
For the implementation of the portal “Records Collection
for India” number of tools has been used. Some of the
prominent ones are Eclipse Java EE IDE for Web Developers
with Struts framework, Ms-Access, Tomcat Server. Eclipse
provides the framework for the rapid development of the web
application. Ms-Access is used as a backend database for
storing the information from the website. The choice of
database depended upon its free availability. Tomcat server is
used to run the web based application.
Fig. 6 LoginAction.java file
The procedure described in section 2 provides the
implementation of struts framework for the development of EGovernance portals. Here a partial implementation detail of
the portal “Records Collection for India” is provided. The
overall architecture of the web application is shown in figure
WCSIT 1 (1), 1-4, Feb. 2011
This paper uses “Records Collection for India” as example
for implementation using Struts Framework. This application
development process is based on J2EE three tier architecture.
In this architecture, the first tier contains the presentation
layer i.e. HTML and JSP files, the second tier contains the
business logic layer i.e. java files and the third tier contains the
data layer i.e. data base.
Yamini Sood
The author is pursuing her Post Graduation from Jaypee
University of Information Technology with Graph Mining as
her research field. She has completed her Engineering from
Shri Sai College of Engineering & Technology; Badhani,
Pathankot affiliated to Punjab Technical University in 2009.
Struts framework is a classical implementation of MVC
architecture. Hibernate is a powerful technology for persisting
data, and it enables Application to access data from any
database in a platform-independent manner. Spring is a
dependency injection framework that supports IOC. The beauty
of spring is that it can integrate well with most of the prevailing
popular technologies, thus integrate Struts, Spring and
Hibernate is a very perfect pattern.
Future work of this report is to develop an enterprise
application which is based on SSH (Struts, Spring and
Balaji Kottana
The author is pursuing his Post Graduation from Jaypee
University of Information Technology. He has completed his
Engineering from Maharaj Vijayaram Gajapathi Raj College
of Engineering, Chintalavalasa, Vizianagaram in 2007. He is
having an industrial experience of 2yrs. in Birlasoft as a
software engineer.
The authors would like to thank everyone, especially Ms.
Shipra Kapoor for always being there to provide a continuous
& energious support to them.
[1] Hendershot, R. (2007), “E-business Benefits: Learn about the advantages
of adopting an eBusiness solution for your small business”,
[2] E-business
http://onlinebusiness.volusion.com/articles/e-businessadvant ages/
[3] Accessed from: http://struts.apache.org/, Dated Feb 01 2011.
[4] Introduction
[5] HIBERNATE - Relational Persistence for Idiomatic Java, Accessed from:
http://www.Hibernate.org/hib_docs/ v3/reference/en/html/preface.html
Pallavi Totlani
The author is pursuing her Post Graduation from Jaypee
University of Information Technology. She has completed her
Engineering from Geetanjali Institute of Technical Studies;
Udaipur, Rajasthan affiliated to Mohan Lal Sukhadia
University in 2008. She also completed her MBA in Finance
& IT from Singhania University in 2010.
Rachit Mohan Garg
The author is pursuing his Post Graduation from Jaypee
University of Information Technology with Model Driven
Architecture as his research field. He has completed his
Engineering from Vishveshwarya Institute of Engineering &
Technology; Ghaziabad affiliated to Gautam Buddh Technical
University in 2008.