SEMESTER 2 Chapter 1 Planning and Cabling a Network V 4.0 1.1.1 What are the common components between a router and other computers? 22.214.171.124 What does a router connect? What does a router do with each packet it receives? What are the 2 types of connections to a router interface? What are the two primary functions of a router? What address does the router use to compare to the routing table? What two processes are used by a router to learn about remote networks and build their routing tables? What are the five components common to all routers? List the 5 different components stored in RAM. What happens to the information in RAM if the router looses power? What are the permanent storage areas in a router? What 3 things are stored in ROM? 126.96.36.199 1.1.2 188.8.131.52 1.1.3 What is stored in flash? What happens to flash memory when the power is lost? What is stored in NVRAM? What must you do to save changes you have made to a router? What is the most common method used for configuring a router? What is the first thing that happens as the router boots up? 135 points CPU RAM ROM Operating System Multiple networks It determines which interface to use and forwards the packet on towards its destination LAN Local Area Network WAN Wide Area Network Best Path Determination Forwarding packets toward their destination Destination IP addresss Static Routes Dynamic Routing Protocols Flash, ROM, CPU, RAM, Power Operating System, Running Configuration File, IP Routing Table, ARP Cache, Packet Buffer All information is lost ROM, Flash, and NVRAM The bootstrap instructions Basic diagnostic software Scaled-down version of IOS. Cisco IOS Nothing Startup configuration file Copy the running-config to the startup-config Command Line interface CLI The startup config is copied into RAM 1.1.4 184.108.40.206 1.1.5 220.127.116.11 What are the 4 phases of the bootup process? 1. Performing the POST 2. Loading the bootstrap program 3. Locating and loading the Cisco IOS software 4. Locating and loading the startup configuration file or entering setup mode What does POST test? The router hardware What is the main function of the Find and load the IOS bootstrap program? What are the 2 main places to Flash and TFTP server find the IOS? If a full IOS can not be loaded Loads a scaled down version of the IOS from what does the bootstrap loader ROM to RAM do? Where is the startup NVRAM configuration found? What are the main items stored interface addresses in the configuration file? routing information passwords any other configurations saved by the network administrator Where is the second place that TFTP server the router looks for the startup config if it is not located in NVRAM? If the router can not locate a Setup mode startup-config, what mode does it enter? What key command do you Ctrl-C press to exit setup mode if you accidentally entered it? What command can be used to Show version help verify and troubleshoot some of the basic hardware and software components of the router? What is the last line displayed Configuration register in the show version output? What is the default 0x2102 configuration register setting? What does that setting tell the attempt to load a Cisco IOS software image from router? flash memory and load the startup configuration file from NVRAM What are the two management Console and auxiliary ports? What is an interface? physical connector on the router whose main purpose is to receive and forward packets What must be configured for Each interface must be configured with an IP each interface? address and subnet mask of a different network What are the two major groups LAN interfaces - such as Ethernet and of router interfaces? 1.1.6 18.104.22.168 1.2.1 1.2.2 What OSI layer does a router operate at? What is the router interface that connects to a LAN called? What is the process that each router uses to determine where to send the packet? What are the four essential information elements to include in the topology diagram? What are the basic tasks to perform when configuring a router? What is the prompt for the user mode? What is the command to enter the privileged EXEC mode? What is the prompt for privileged EXEC mode? What is the command to enter the global configuration mode? What is the command to enter the hostname of a router? What happens to the prompt after you press enter? What is the command used to enter the password to enter the privileged EXEC mode? List the commands to set the password for the console port? List the commands to set the password for the Telnet lines? List the commands to enter the Banner Message of the Day (motd). FastEthernet WAN interfaces - such as serial, ISDN, and Frame Relay Layer 3 Default Gateway decapsulation, searching the routing table, and then re-encapsulation Device names Interfaces used in the design IP addresses and subnet masks Default gateway addresses for end devices, such as PCs Naming the router Setting passwords Configuring interfaces Configuring a banner Saving changes on a router Verifying basic configuration and router operations Router> Enable Router# Router#config t Router(config)#hostname R1 The prompt changes to the hostname R1(config) enable secret class R1(config)#line console 0 R1(config-line)#password cisco R1(config-line)#login R1(config)#line vty 0 4 R1(config-line)#password cisco R1(config-line)#login R1(config)#banner motd # Enter TEXT message. End with the character '#'. ****************************************** WARNING!! Unauthorized Access Prohibited!! ****************************************** # 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 1.3.1 188.8.131.52 What should the banner show? What is the command to enter the interface configuration mode? What is the command to set the IP address and subnet mask for an interface? What is the command to enter a description for the interface? What is the command to turn on an interface? What is the command to view the running-configuration file? What is the command to save the current config in NVRAM? What command will display the routing table? What command displays all of the interface configuration parameters and statistics? What command displays abbreviated interface configuration information, including IP address and interface status? Where is the routing table stored? What is a directly connected network? What is a remote network? What would a C in the first column of a routing table mean? What additional information is included when the destination is a remote network? What command reveals the configured or acquired default gateway, connected, loopback, multicast, and broadcast networks? How does a PC determine which network it belongs to? What command will activate a router interface? What routes does a router know before any static or dynamic routing is configured? Warning to unauthorized users R1(config)#interface Serial0/0 R1(config-if)#ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0 Router(config-if)#description Ciruit#VBN32696123 (help desk:1-800-555-1234) Router(config-if)#no shutdown R1#show running-config R1#copy running-config startup-config R1#show ip route R1#show interfaces R1#show ip interface brief RAM a network that is directly attached to one of the router interfaces a network that is not directly connected to the router Directly connected the routing metric and the administrative distance Route print uses the subnet mask No shut Directly connected networks 1.3.3 What denotes a static route in the routing table? What are the three items that must be included in a static route? When should static routes be used? 1.3.4 What are dynamic routing protocols used for? What are 2 of the activities that dynamic routing protocols perform? What is network discovery? What are some dynamic routing protocols? 1.3.5 1.4.2 What are the three routing principles? What is asymmetric routing? What does a router compare to select the best path to place in the routing table? What is a metric? What is the best path? The number of routers that a packet must travel through before reaching its destination is called? The data capacity of a link, sometimes referred to as the speed of the link? S Network address and subnet mask of the remote network IP address of the next hop router or the exit interface Network consists of only a few routers A network is connected to the Internet through a single ISP A large network is configured in a hub-andspoke topology share information about the reachability and status of remote networks Network discovery Updating and maintaining routing tables the ability of a routing protocol to share information about the networks that it knows about with other routers that are also using the same routing protocol RIP (Routing Information Protocol) IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) IS-IS (Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System) BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) 1. Every router makes its decision alone, based on the information it has in its own routing table. 2. The fact that one router has certain information in its routing table does not mean that other routers have the same information. 3. Routing information about a path from one network to another does not provide routing information about the reverse, or return, path. A packet can take different routes to and from Routing metric the quantitative value used to measure the distance to a given route The path with the lowest metric Hop count Bandwidth 1.4.3 1.4.4 1.4.5 184.108.40.206 1.5.2-4 What is it called when two paths to a destination have exactly the same metric? What is equal cost load balancing? What are the two functions of packet forwarding? What is the process used by a router to accept a packet on one interface and forward it out another interface called? What are the three major steps a router performs on a packet? What happens to the value of the TTL as a packet moves through a network? Which address does not change as the packet moves through the network? Which address changes as the packet moves through the network? How does a PC determine which network it belongs to? How does it determine if the destination is on the same network? Where does the PC send the packet if the destination is not on its own network? Where does the PC look for the default gateway MAC address? What does the PC do if the MAC address is not in the ARP table? Excellent description of how a packet travels from one pc to another. Make certain you understand the steps. Note any questions you have about the process. Equal cost metric When a router can use multiple interfaces to reach a single network address. Path determination function Switching function Switching 1. Decapsulates the Layer 3 packet by removing the Layer 2 frame header and trailer. 2. Examines the destination IP address of the IP packet to find the best path in the routing table. 3. Encapsulates Layer 3 packet into a new Layer 2 frame and forwards the frame out the exit interface. It is decremented each hop. Goes down IP address MAC address It ands its IP address and subnet mask After anding the packet it compares the network address to its own To the default gateway In its ARP table It sends an ARP request Extra: D * What are the primary functions of a route? (Can you list 3?) - read the section on “Router Paths and Packet Switching” * You need to know the components of route and its related functions: - RAM: What is stored in RAM? Can you list the names and its functions? - ROM: What is stored in ROM? Can you list the names and its functions? - FLASH: What is stored in FLASH? Can you list the names and its functions? - NVRAM: What is stored in NVRAM? Can you list the names and its functions? - POST: What is the purpose of POST? * What is the “running-config”” file and what is “startup-config”? What is the difference between these 2 files? * What is the purpose of “show running-config” command? * What is the purpose of “show startup-config” command? * How do you save the running-config file? What command can be used to save the file? * You need to know all the situations of router loading sequences and backup loading sequences (***). - Default complete (IOS and configuration file) loading sequence - Default and backup IOS loading sequence - Default and backup configuration file loading sequence - What happen when router cannot find the valid IOS file? - What happen when router cannot find the startup configuration file? * How many places that you can figure passwords on the router and what are those interfaces? - Do you know the commands needed to configure the console password? - Do you know the commands needed to configure the telnet password? - Do you know the commands needed to configure all 5 lines of telnet password? - Do you know the commands needed to configure the unsecure privileged password? - Do you know the commands needed to configure the secure privileged password? * What is the purpose of “service password-encryption” command? - What is the router output looks like before executing the command? - What is the router output looks like after executing the command? * In relations to the OSI layer model and encapsulation/decapsulation process, what happen to a packet that travels through a router and designated to another network? - What happen to the layer 2 information? - What happen to the layer 3 information? - Refers to the diagram shown below, what information (field) remain constant and does not get change during the transmission. - Refers to the diagram shown below, what information (field) does not remain constant and does get change all the time during the transmission. - Refers to the diagram shown below, you need to be able to identify all the information about: What is your source MAC address? What is your destination MAC address? What is your source IP address? What is your destination IP address? * From the figure shown below: - Which interface can be used for LAN connection? - Which interface can be used for WAN connection? - Which interface must be used for initial router configuration? - Which interface can be used when there is no network access is available? - What type of cable need to be used to inter-connect 2 routers together with their fastethernet ports? * What is the definition of the term “load balance”? - What type of routing protocols support load balancing? * What is the definition of the term “unequal cost load balance”? - What type of routing protocols support unequal cost load balancing? * Based on the following “show ip route” output, can you explain the following: - What is “C” stands for? What do you do to produce this “C” entry? - Do you have enough information to figure out how many interface do you have on the router? - What happen when the router received a packet with the destination IP address of 198.18.5.100? (drop or forward? If it forward, where does it forward to?) - What happen when the router received a packet with the destination IP address of 198.18.9.100? (drop or forward? If it forward, where does it forward to?) * You have configured the IP addresses on all the router interfaces, but it is still not working. Why? (see graphic listed below) * Please list 3 required commands needed to configure the S0 interface of Sydney router. So, the Sydney router can communicate with Melbourne router. * Analyze the following network, and choose the appropriate outgoing interface - What happen when RouterA want to send a packet to network 192.168.3.0/24 - What happen when RouterA want to send a packet to network 192.168.3.0/24 - What happen when RouterB want to send a packet to network 172.16.55.0/24 - What happen when RouterB want to send a packet to network 10.5.27.0/24 - What happen when RouterC want to send a packet to network 172.16.55.0/24 - What happen when RouterC want to send a packet to network 192.168.3.0/24 * Can you figure out what is wrong of the following figure?